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Sample records for hebei spirit oil

  1. Community Adaptation to the Hebei-Spirit Oil Spill

    OpenAIRE

    So-Min Cheong

    2012-01-01

    The focus of the research is the significance of dependence for communities to survive and adapt in times of environmental disasters. It shifts the emphasis on self-reliant communities for survival and examines the types and effects of dependence and external linkages by analyzing the range of community responses that include initial responses, early social impact, compensation, and conflicts after the Hebei-Spirit oil spill in December 2007 in Korea. The findings reveal that dependence is ...

  2. Community Adaptation to the Hebei-Spirit Oil Spill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So-Min Cheong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the research is the significance of dependence for communities to survive and adapt in times of environmental disasters. It shifts the emphasis on self-reliant communities for survival and examines the types and effects of dependence and external linkages by analyzing the range of community responses that include initial responses, early social impact, compensation, and conflicts after the Hebei-Spirit oil spill in December 2007 in Korea. The findings reveal that dependence is necessary, and the effects of dependence can be both positive and negative depending on the relations between external entities and affected communities as well as the community capacity to absorb resources and information.

  3. Modeling Human Exposure Levels to Airborne Volatile Organic Compounds by the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jong Ho; Kwak, Byoung Kyu; Ha, Mina; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Yi, Jongheop

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The goal was to model and quantify the atmospheric concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as the result of the Hebei Spirit oil spill, and to predict whether the exposure levels were abnormally high or not. Methods We developed a model for calculating the airborne concentration of VOCs that are produced in an oil spill accident. The model was applied to a practical situation, namely the Hebei Spirit oil spill. The accuracy of the model was verified by comparing the res...

  4. Hebei Spirit Oil Spill Exposure and Subjective Symptoms in Residents Participating in Clean-Up Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Ha, Mina; Lee, Jong Seong; Kwon, Hojang; Ha, Eun-Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul; Choi, Yeyong; Jeong, Woo-Chul; Hur, Jongil; Lee, Seung-Min; Kim, Eun-Jung; Im, Hosub

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to examine the relationship between crude oil exposure and physical symptoms among residents participating in clean-up work associated with the Hebei Spirit oil spill, 2007 in Korea. Methods A total of 288 residents responded to a questionnaire regarding subjective physical symptoms, sociodemographic characteristics and clean-up activities that occurred between two and eight weeks after the accident. Additionally, the urine of 154 of the respondents was ana...

  5. Children's Mental Health in the Area Affected by the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill Accident

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Mina; Jeong, Woo-Chul; Lim, Myungho; Kwon, Hojang; Choi, Yeyong; Yoo, Seung-Jin; Noh, Su Ryun; Cheong, Hae-Kwan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Children are one of the most vulnerable populations to the impact of disasters. We aimed to examine children's mental health in the area affected by the Hebei Spirit oil spill accident on December 7, 2007. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted using the Korean versions of the Children's Depression Inventory and State Anxiety Inventory for Children on 1,362 children attending elementary schools in the affected area. The information on distances between the nea...

  6. Structure Changes of Macrobenthic Community on Rocky Shores After the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill

    OpenAIRE

    Yun-Hwan Jung; Heung-Sik Park; Kon-Tak Yoon; Hyung-Gon Lee; Chae-Woo Ma

    2013-01-01

    In Korea, more than 300 oil spill accidents occur every year. Despite the frequency, only a small pool of data is available on the initial effect of oil spill on macrobenthic fauna inhabiting rocky shores. The aim of this study was to analyze the variation of macrobenthic fauna composition and community structure on rocky shores, and understand the impact of oil on rocky shore organisms after the Hebei Spirit oil spill. Field surveys were carried out in five regions dose to the wreck site in ...

  7. Decalcification of benthic foraminifera due to "Hebei Spirit" oil spill, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeon Gyu; Kim, Shin; Jeong, Da Un; Lee, Jung Sick; Woo, Han Jun; Park, Min Woo; Kim, Byeong Hak; Son, Maeng Hyun; Choi, Yang Ho

    2014-10-15

    In order to determine the effects on foraminifera due to spilled crude oil in the "Herbei Spirit" incident, a study of benthic foraminiferal assemblages was carried out on sediment samples collected from the Sogeunri tidal flat, Taean Peninsula, Korea. Breakages of the chambers in the Ammonia beccarii and Elphidium subincertum species of the Sogeunri tidal flat with a low pH (6.98 on average) were marked. These chamber breakages occurred in 71.6% of A. beccarii and are thought to be caused by decalcification due to the fall in pH resulting from the "Hebei Spirit" oil spill. The factors that affect breakage of the chamber in benthic foraminifera under low pH condition may be not only deto decalcification but also to exposure duration of substrata in the tidal flat spilled crude oil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Modeling Human Exposure Levels to Airborne Volatile Organic Compounds by the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Ho; Kwak, Byoung Kyu; Ha, Mina; Cheong, Hae-Kwan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The goal was to model and quantify the atmospheric concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as the result of the Hebei Spirit oil spill, and to predict whether the exposure levels were abnormally high or not. Methods We developed a model for calculating the airborne concentration of VOCs that are produced in an oil spill accident. The model was applied to a practical situation, namely the Hebei Spirit oil spill. The accuracy of the model was verified by comparing the results with previous observation data. The concentrations were compared with the currently used air quality standards. Results Evaporation was found to be 10- to 1,000-fold higher than the emissions produced from a surrounding industrial complex. The modeled concentrations for benzene failed to meet current labor environmental standards, and the concentration of benzene, toluene, ortho- meta- para-xylene were higher than the values specified by air quality standards and guideline values on the ocean. The concentrations of total VOCs were much higher than indoor environmental criteria for the entire Taean area for a few days. Conclusions The extent of airborne exposure was clearly not the same as that for normal conditions. PMID:22468262

  9. Environmental Impacts and Recovery After the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, U H; Khim, J S; Kim, M; Jung, J-H; Shim, W J

    2017-07-01

    The Hebei Spirit oil spill (HSOS) on December 7, 2007 was the worst oil spill recorded in Korea, with the release of approximately 10,900 tons of crude oil and 375 km of coastline polluted along the west coast of Korea. Cleanup operation was conducted by official and contract responders as well as volunteers for massive oil containment and removal of heavy accumulations of stranded oil. Together with the oil cleanup, a long-term environmental impact assessment (EIA) of the HSOS was initiated based on the Marine Environmental Management Act, which covers oil contamination in a multimedia environment, toxic effects on organisms, and ecosystem injury. This review summarizes the long-term monitoring results of HSOS EIA focused on (1) pollution status of seawater, sediment, and bivalves, (2) ecotoxicological effects, and (3) ecosystem recovery. Overall, concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in the environment indicated that their concentrations were well down to at or near background or pre-spill contamination levels at most sites after 1 year. The potential toxic effects of residual oils in sediments have decreased to background levels in most coastal areas of Taean. The entire ecosystem in the most affected area of the Taean coasts appear to be considerably, but not fully, recovered at present, namely after 8 years of the HSOS. The presence of lingering oil and elevated contamination levels at several sites still require continuous long-term monitoring.

  10. The macrofaunal communities in the shallow subtidal areas for the first 3 years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jin-Young; Kim, Moonkoo; Lim, Hyun-Sig; Choi, Jin-Woo

    2014-05-15

    In order to detect the early impact of the Hebei Spirit oil spill on the shallow subtidal macrozoobenthic communities, macrobenthic fauna were collected seasonally for 3 years. The alkylated PAHs concentrations within sediments near Mallipo beach remained as high as 129 ng g(-)(1) DW one month after the oil spill, but the concentration decreased below the background level thereafter. The number of species and density decreased in 4 months compared to those before the oil spill. An opportunistic polychaete, Prionospio paradisea, occurred as a dominant species at subtidal area near Mallipo beach in 10 months after the oil spill. Any mass mortality of amphipods and any clear dominance of opportunistic species were not detected except for the stations near Mallipo and Hagampo beaches. The macrobenthic communities at the shallow subtidal stations seemed to have a relatively stable faunal composition, even not fully recovered, in 3 years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hebei Spirit Oil Spill Exposure and Subjective Symptoms in Residents Participating in Clean-Up Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Lee, Jong Seong; Kwon, Hojang; Ha, Eun-Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul; Choi, Yeyong; Jeong, Woo-Chul; Hur, Jongil; Lee, Seung-Min; Kim, Eun-Jung; Im, Hosub

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to examine the relationship between crude oil exposure and physical symptoms among residents participating in clean-up work associated with the Hebei Spirit oil spill, 2007 in Korea. Methods A total of 288 residents responded to a questionnaire regarding subjective physical symptoms, sociodemographic characteristics and clean-up activities that occurred between two and eight weeks after the accident. Additionally, the urine of 154 of the respondents was analyzed for metabolites of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals. To compare the urinary levels of exposure biomarkers, the urine of 39 inland residents who were not directly exposed to the oil spill were analyzed. Results Residents exposed to oil remnants through clean-up work showed associations between physical symptoms and the exposure levels defined in various ways, including days of work, degree of skin contamination, and levels of some urinary exposure biomarkers of VOCs, metabolites and metals, although no major abnormalities in urinary exposure biomarkers were observed. Conclusions This study provides evidence of a relationship between crude oil exposure and acute human health effects and suggests the need for follow-up to evaluate the exposure status and long-term health effects of clean-up participants. PMID:22125768

  12. Spatial variability of biochemical responses in resident fish after the M/V Hebei Spirit Oil Spill (Taean, Korea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jee-Hyun; Chae, Young Sun; Kim, Ha Na; Kim, Moonkoo; Yim, Un Hyuk; Ha, Sung Yong; Han, Gi Myung; An, Joon Geon; Kim, Eunsic; Shim, Won Joon

    2012-09-01

    This study describes the spatial variation and the duration of the impacts from the Hebei Spirit oil spill using specific biochemical indices in resident benthic fish. Enzymatic activities and biliary PAHs metabolites were higher at the site closer to the spill area in four months after spill incident. Regarding our results of detoxification response, markers of Phase I followed a similar trend in accordance with levels of biliary metabolites, while markers of phase II and GST appeared relatively unchanged.

  13. Children's Mental Health in the Area Affected by the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Woo-Chul; Lim, Myungho; Kwon, Hojang; Choi, Yeyong; Yoo, Seung-Jin; Noh, Su Ryun; Cheong, Hae-Kwan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Children are one of the most vulnerable populations to the impact of disasters. We aimed to examine children's mental health in the area affected by the Hebei Spirit oil spill accident on December 7, 2007. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted using the Korean versions of the Children's Depression Inventory and State Anxiety Inventory for Children on 1,362 children attending elementary schools in the affected area. The information on distances between the nearest contaminated coastline to the child's residential house or attending school were obtained using a web-based map by inputting two address points. The symptom risks of depression and state anxiety were estimated by multiple logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, gender, and other covariates. Results Children with the closest distance (in the fourth quartile) to the school from the contaminated coastline showed a significantly higher symptom risk of depression compared to those with the farthest distance (first quartile)(odds ratio, 2.73; 95% confidence interval, 1.40-5.33), while there was no significant association between anxiety symptoms and distance. Conclusions Children, a vulnerable population for mental health impact by the oil spill accident, should be included in mental health programs in the community along with their family as victims of the disaster. PMID:24010065

  14. Respiratory Effects of the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill on Children in Taean, Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Suk-Chul; Kim, Kyung-Mook; Lee, Kun-Song; Roh, Sangchul; Jeong, Woo-Chul; Kwak, Sahng-June; Lee, Ik-Jin; Choi, Young-Hyun; Noh, Su Ryeon; Hur, Jong-Il; Jee, Young-Koo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The oil spill from the Heibei Spirit in December 2007 contaminated the Yellow Coast of South Korea. We evaluated the respiratory effects of that spill on children who lived along the Yellow Coast. Methods Of 662 children living in the area exposed to the oil spill, 436 (65.9%) were enrolled as subjects. All subjects completed a modified International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire. A health examination, including a skin prick test, pulmonary function test, an...

  15. Analysis of the Contribution of Wind Drift Factor to Oil Slick Movement under Strong Tidal Condition: Hebei Spirit Oil Spill Case

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Tae-Ho; Yang, Chan-Su; Oh, Jeong-Hwan; Ouchi, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the wind drift factor under strong tidal conditions in the western coastal area of Korea on the movement of oil slicks caused by the Hebei Spirit oil spill accident in 2007. The movement of oil slicks was computed using a simple simulation model based on the empirical formula as a function of surface current, wind speed, and the wind drift factor. For the simulation, the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) model and Automatic Wea...

  16. Stable isotope analysis of a newly established macrofaunal food web 1.5 years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Eunah; Park, Hyun Je; Bergamino, Leandro; Choi, Kwang-Sik; Choy, Eun Jung; Yu, Ok Hwan; Lee, Tae Won; Park, Heung-Sik; Shim, Won Joon; Kang, Chang-Keun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We examined trophic structure in a newly established community after an oil spill. • This is the most extensive in situ isotopic analysis on an oiled benthic community. • Consumer-food source δ 13 C and δ 15 N rejected influx of petroleum into the community. • A novel circular statistics rejected trophic niche change of major feeding guilds. • Prevalence of omnivory and trophic plasticity may promote the recovery process. - Abstract: We examined trophic relationships in a newly established community 1.5 years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill on the west coast of Korea. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in consumers and their potential food sources were compared between the oil-spill site and reference site, located 13.5 km from the oil-spill spot. The isotopic mixing model and a novel circular statistics rejected the influx of petrogenic carbon into the community and identified spatial consistencies such as the high contributions of microphytobenthos, food-chain length, and the isotopic niche of each feeding guild between sites. We suggested that high level of trophic plasticity and the prevalence of omnivory of consumers may promote the robustness of food web against the oil contamination. Furthermore, we highlighted the need of holistic approaches including different functional groups to quantify changes in the food web structure and assess the influence of different perturbations including oil spill

  17. Respiratory Effects of the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill on Children in Taean, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Suk-Chul; Kim, Kyung-Mook; Lee, Kun-Song; Roh, Sangchul; Jeong, Woo-Chul; Kwak, Sahng-June; Lee, Ik-Jin; Choi, Young-Hyun; Noh, Su Ryeon; Hur, Jong-Il

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The oil spill from the Heibei Spirit in December 2007 contaminated the Yellow Coast of South Korea. We evaluated the respiratory effects of that spill on children who lived along the Yellow Coast. Methods Of 662 children living in the area exposed to the oil spill, 436 (65.9%) were enrolled as subjects. All subjects completed a modified International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire. A health examination, including a skin prick test, pulmonary function test, and methacholine bronchial provocation test (MBPT), was administered. The children were assigned to two groups: those who lived close to the oil spill area and those who lived far from the oil spill area. Results The children who lived close to the oil spill area showed a significantly lower forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), an increased prevalence of 'asthma ever' (based on a questionnaire), and 'airway hyperresponsiveness' (based on the MBPT) than those who lived far from the oil spill area (FEV1; P=0.011, prevalence of 'asthma ever' based on a questionnaire; P=0.005, prevalence of 'airway hyperresponsiveness' based on the MBPT; P=0.001). The onset of wheezing after the oil spill was significantly higher in children who lived close to the oil spill area than in those who lived far from the oil spill area among the 'wheeze ever' group (P=0.002). In a multiple logistic regression analysis, male sex, family history of asthma, and residence near the oil spill area were significant risk factors for asthma (sex [male/female]: odds ratio [OR], 2.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-4.91; family history of asthma [No/Yes]: OR, 3.77; 95% CI, 1.83-7.75; exposure group [low/high]; OR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.27-4.65). Conclusions This study suggests that exposure to an oil spill is a risk factor for asthma in children. PMID:24179682

  18. Long-term changes in rocky intertidal macrobenthos during the five years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill, Taean, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yun-Hwan; Park, Henug-Sik; Yoon, Kon-Tak; Kim, Hyung-June; Shim, Won-Joon

    2017-03-01

    The Hebei Spirit oil spill reached the west coast of Taean County, Korea, on December 7, 2007. At that time, this was the largest oil spill that had occurred in the country. The incident devastated local marine ecosystems. In this study, we examined changes in these ecosystems and the recovery pattern on impacted rocky shores. Macrobenthos monitoring of polluted and control sites was performed seasonally from January 2008 through October 2013. At polluted sites, ecological indices increased gradually from 2009, thereby providing evidence of recovery. However, the mean density of macrobenthos was still less than 50% of the level at the control site, indicating that the ecological status of the polluted sites has still not recovered to that which prevailed before the oil spill. Although densities of the most dominant species were higher in the control site than in polluted sites, the densities of Lottia spp. and Odostomia aomori were higher in polluted sites. These two taxa were found in lower numbers at the control site, where they were out-competed by Chthamalus challengeri. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordination divided the macrobenthic community structure into three clusters according to differences in the abundance of dominant species over the 6 years after the oil spill. An ANOSIM test detected significant differences between the polluted and control sites. Consistent long-term differences indicate that complete recovery had not occurred during the duration of our study.

  19. Acute Health Effects Among Military Personnel Participating in the Cleanup of the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill, 2007, in Taean County, Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Gwack, Jin; Lee, Ju Hyung; Kang, Young Ah; Chang, Kyu-jin; Lee, Moo Sik; Hong, Jee Young

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to investigate acute health effects and its related factors among military personnel participating in the cleanup of the 2007 Hebei Spirit oil spill accident in Taean county, Korea. Methods We collected data on acute symptoms during the cleanup and their predictors using a self-administered questionnaire to 2624 military personnel. Selfreported symptoms included six neurologic symptoms, five respiratory symptoms, two dermatologic symptoms, three ophthalmic ...

  20. Cancer Incidence Trend in the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill Area, from 1999 to 2014: An Ecological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Park, Myung-Sook; Ha, Mina; Hur, Jong-Il; Cheong, Hae-Kwan

    2018-05-17

    The Hebei Spirit oil spill (HSOS) occurred in the Republic of Korea on 7 December 2007. We aimed to describe the cancer incidence trend in Taean County before and after the oil spill. Five major cancers and leukemia were analyzed. Cancer incidence data were obtained from the Korean National Cancer Center. We compared the standardized incidence rates in Taean with those observed nationwide and selected three coastal areas. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to examine the trends in the average annual percent change and perform comparisons. The incidence rate of prostate cancer increased from 2007 to 2009 at an annual average of 39.3% (95% confidence interval (CI): -25.9, 161.8), 13.5% (95% CI: 11.7, 15.4), and 15.6% (95% CI: 11.9, 19.5), respectively, in Taean, nationwide, and in the coastal areas. The incidence of leukemia among women increased at an annual average of 9.5% (95% CI: -26.6, 63.4) in Taean and 0.6% (95% CI: 0.2, 0.9) nationwide; the rate decreased by 1.9% (95% CI: -12.8, 10.4) in the coastal areas. The trends between Taean County and the coastal areas differed only for prostate cancer ( p = 0.0004). The incidence of prostate cancer among Taean County residents has increased since the HSOS.

  1. Long-Term Monitoring of PAH Contamination in Sediment and Recovery After the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moonkoo; Jung, Jee-Hyun; Ha, Sung Yong; An, Joon Geon; Shim, Won Joon; Yim, Un Hyuk

    2017-07-01

    Approximately 10,900 t of crude oil was released 10 km off the west coast of Korea after the collision between the oil tanker Hebei Spirit and a barge carrying a crane in December 2007. To assess the areal extent and temporal trends of PAH contamination, 428 sediment samples were collected from December 2007 through May 2015 for PAH analysis. Sedimentary PAH concentrations measured immediately after the spill ranged from 3.2 to 71,200 ng g -1 , with a mean of 3800 ng g -1 . Increases in PAH concentrations were observed at stations 7-23, which were heavily oiled due to tidal currents and northwesterly wind that transported the spilled oil to these locations. Mean and maximum PAH concentrations decreased drastically from 3800 to 88.5 and 71,200 to 1700 ng g -1 , respectively, 4 months after the spill. PAH concentrations highly fluctuated until September 2008 and then decreased slowly to background levels. Reduction rate was much faster at the sandy beaches (k = 0.016) than in the muddy sites (k = 0.001). In muddy sediments, low attenuation due to low flushing rate in the mostly anaerobic sediment possibly contributed the persistence of PAHs. By May 2015 (~7.5 years after the spill), mean and maximum PAH concentrations decreased by 54 and 481 times, respectively, compared with the peak concentrations. The sedimentary PAH concentrations in the monitoring area have returned to regional background levels.

  2. Burden of disease attributable to the Hebei Spirit oil spill in Taean, Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young-Min; Park, Jae-Hyun; Choi, Kyusik; Noh, Su Ryeon; Choi, Young-Hyun; Cheong, Hae-Kwan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to assess the burden of disease (BOD) of the residents living in contaminated coastal area with oil spill and also analysed the BOD attributable to the oil spill by disease, age, sex and subregion. Design Health impact assessment by measuring years lived with disability (YLD) due to an oil spill. Setting A whole population of a community affected by an anthropogenic environmental disaster and secondary health outcome data. Participants Based on the health outcome survey in...

  3. Burden of disease attributable to the Hebei Spirit oil spill in Taean, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Min; Park, Jae-Hyun; Choi, Kyusik; Noh, Su Ryeon; Choi, Young-Hyun; Cheong, Hae-Kwan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to assess the burden of disease (BOD) of the residents living in contaminated coastal area with oil spill and also analysed the BOD attributable to the oil spill by disease, age, sex and subregion. Design Health impact assessment by measuring years lived with disability (YLD) due to an oil spill. Setting A whole population of a community affected by an anthropogenic environmental disaster and secondary health outcome data. Participants Based on the health outcome survey including 10 171 individuals (male 4354; female 5817), BOD of 66 473 populations (male 33 441; female 33 032) was measured. Interventions None. Observational study on the effect of a specific environmental health hazard. Primary and secondary outcome measures Using disability adjusted life year (DALY) method, BOD including physical and mental diseases was measured. For the BOD measurement, excess incidences of illnesses related to oil spill were estimated from the comparison of prevalence of the health outcomes between contaminated areas and reference area without contamination. Results YLD attributable to the oil spill were estimated to be 14 724 DALYs (male 7425 DALYs; female 7299 DALYs) for the year 2008. The YLD of mental diseases including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression for men were higher than that for women. The YLD for women was higher in asthma and allergies (rhinitis, dermatitis, conjunctivitis) than that for men. The effects of asthma and allergies were the greatest for people in their 40s, with the burden of mental illness being the greatest for those in their 20s. Proximity to the spill site was associated with increased BOD. Conclusions An oil spill near a coastline can cause substantial adverse health effects. As the health effects of hazardous pollutants from oil spills are long-lasting, close follow-up studies are required to identify chronic health effects. PMID:24056482

  4. Analysis of the Contribution of Wind Drift Factor to Oil Slick Movement under Strong Tidal Condition: Hebei Spirit Oil Spill Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Ho; Yang, Chan-Su; Oh, Jeong-Hwan; Ouchi, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the wind drift factor under strong tidal conditions in the western coastal area of Korea on the movement of oil slicks caused by the Hebei Spirit oil spill accident in 2007. The movement of oil slicks was computed using a simple simulation model based on the empirical formula as a function of surface current, wind speed, and the wind drift factor. For the simulation, the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) model and Automatic Weather System (AWS) were used to generate tidal and wind fields respectively. Simulation results were then compared with 5 sets of spaceborne optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. From the present study, it was found that highest matching rate between the simulation results and satellite imagery was obtained with different values of the wind drift factor, and to first order, this factor was linearly proportional to the wind speed. Based on the results, a new modified empirical formula was proposed for forecasting the movement of oil slicks on the coastal area. PMID:24498094

  5. Analysis of the contribution of wind drift factor to oil slick movement under strong tidal condition: Hebei Spirit oil spill case.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Ho Kim

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the wind drift factor under strong tidal conditions in the western coastal area of Korea on the movement of oil slicks caused by the Hebei Spirit oil spill accident in 2007. The movement of oil slicks was computed using a simple simulation model based on the empirical formula as a function of surface current, wind speed, and the wind drift factor. For the simulation, the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC model and Automatic Weather System (AWS were used to generate tidal and wind fields respectively. Simulation results were then compared with 5 sets of spaceborne optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR data. From the present study, it was found that highest matching rate between the simulation results and satellite imagery was obtained with different values of the wind drift factor, and to first order, this factor was linearly proportional to the wind speed. Based on the results, a new modified empirical formula was proposed for forecasting the movement of oil slicks on the coastal area.

  6. Detection of the Hebei Spirit oil spill on SAR imagery and its temporal evolution in a coastal region of the Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Sung; Park, Kyung-Ae; Li, Xiaofeng; Lee, Moonjin; Hong, Sungwook; Lyu, Sang Jin; Nam, Sooyong

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the evolution of a disastrous oil spill from a vessel collision, known as the Hebei Spirit accident, off the coast of Korea in the Yellow Sea on 6 December 2007, oil slicks were identified from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images using a neural network (NN) and an adaptive threshold method. The results from the two objective methods showed good agreement, enough for the estimation of the extent of oil patches and their trajectories, with the exception of negligible errors at the boundaries. Quantitative analyses showed that the detected oil slicks moved southward, corresponding to the prevailing wind and tidal currents, and gradually dissipated during the spill, except for an extraordinary rapid decrease in onshore regions at the initial stage. The initial dissipation of the spilt oil was induced by tidal mixing in the tidal front zone. The spatial and temporal variations of the oil slicks confirmed the influence of atmospheric and oceanic environmental factors. The overall horizontal migration of the oil spills detected from consecutive SAR images was mainly driven by Ekman drift during the winter monsoon rather than the tidal residual current.

  7. Hemocyte parameters of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas a year after the Hebei Spirit oil spill off the west coast of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaghy, Ludovic; Hong, Hyun-Ki; Lee, Hee-Jung; Jun, Je-Cheon; Park, Young-Je; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2010-12-01

    In marine bivalves, hemocytes support various physiological functions, including immune defense, nutrient transport, shell repair, and homeostatic maintenance. Although the effects of marine contaminants on the immunological functions of bivalves have been extensively investigated, the impacts of oil spills are not well understood. Therefore, we investigated hemocyte parameters in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas 13 months after the Hebei Spirit oil spill (December 2007) off the west coast of Korea. The parameters studied included hemocyte concentration and mortality, relative proportion of hemocyte populations, and immunological functions such as phagocytosis and oxidative activity using flow cytometry. These immune-related parameters in oysters damaged by the oil spill were also compared to control oysters that were collected from an area unaffected by the spill. The flow cytometry study indicated that granulocyte population, phagocytic capacity, and reactive oxygen species production in oysters exposed to crude oil 13 months prior were depressed compared to the unexposed control oysters. Our data suggest that immunocompetence in oysters affected by the oil spill had not fully recovered 1 year after the accident, although more detailed studies on the physiology and disease resistance should be performed.

  8. Characterization of endocrine disruption potentials of coastal sediments of Taean, Korea employing H295R and MVLN assays-Reconnaissance at 5years after Hebei Spirit oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoshan; Jung, Dawoon; Zhou, Kairu; Lee, Sangwoo; Noh, Kiwan; Khim, Jong Seong; Giesy, John P; Yim, Un Hyuk; Shim, Won Joon; Choi, Kyungho

    2018-02-01

    Endocrine disrupting potentials were assessed for sediment samples collected near Hebei Spirit oil spill (HSOS) site, between December 2007 and January 2012. For comparison, major crude oil (CO) of HSOS, or its weathered form were assessed. Both raw extracts (REs) and their fractionated samples were tested using H295R and MVLNluc bioassays. In H295R cells, REs of crude and weathered oil (WO), and nine of 14 sediments significantly increased E2 levels, which were correlated with the concentrations of PAHs. Steroidogenic disruption potentials of the sediments generally decreased over time. Among silica fractions of all REs, aromatic hydrocarbons (F2) and polar compounds (F3) caused greater E2 levels. While, in MVLN cell bioassay, only three of 14 sediment REs showed estrogen receptor binding potencies, and no temporal trend was observed. In conclusion, oil spill can cause endocrine disruption in the affected ecosystem through steroidogenic alteration for years, and such potencies attenuate over time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Acute Health Effects Among Military Personnel Participating in the Cleanup of the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill, 2007, in Taean County, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwack, Jin; Lee, Ju Hyung; Kang, Young Ah; Chang, Kyu-jin; Lee, Moo Sik; Hong, Jee Young

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to investigate acute health effects and its related factors among military personnel participating in the cleanup of the 2007 Hebei Spirit oil spill accident in Taean county, Korea. Methods We collected data on acute symptoms during the cleanup and their predictors using a self-administered questionnaire to 2624 military personnel. Selfreported symptoms included six neurologic symptoms, five respiratory symptoms, two dermatologic symptoms, three ophthalmic symptoms, and three general symptoms. Independent variables were demographic factors (gender, age, education level, and rank), health behavioral factors (smoking history and usage of the personal protective equipment such as masks and gloves), and occupational history such as where and for how long individuals participated in cleanup. Results The duration of work days was significantly associated with 17 acute symptoms except for itchiness and red skin.Working in Taean county also increased the risk of most acute symptoms except headache and back pain. In regard to personal protective equipment, wearing masks was mainly related to the development of respiratory symptoms such as sore throat and wearing other protective equipment was related to the development of sore throat, back pain, headache, and cough. Military personnel younger than 25 years reported 4.66 times more hot flushing and 5.39 times more itchiness than those older than 25 years. Conclusion It should be emphasized that for early-stage cleanup the number of workers should be minimized, sufficient personal protective equipment with approved quality for blocking noxious gas should be supplied, and systematic health care for the workers should be provided. Health effects could be diminished by providing adequate education regarding the appropriate use of protective equipment, especially to nonprofessionals such as residents and volunteers. To make disaster response expeditious, a national and regional preparedness

  10. Recovery of wild Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas in terms of reproduction and gametogenesis two-years after the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill Accident off the West Coast of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondol, Mostafizur Rahman; Keshavmurthy, Shashank; Lee, Hee-Jung; Hong, Hyun-Ki; Park, Heung-Sik; Park, Sang-Rul; Kang, Chang-Keun; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2015-12-01

    The Hebei Spirit oil spill in December 2007 at Taean off the west coast of Korea was the largest oil tanker accident in Korea. However, the impact of the spill on physiology of benthic animals remains largely unknown. Two-years after the accident, we compared reproductive effort and annual gametogenesis of the wild Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, residing at oil spill site with a control oyster population in Incheon Bay, North-West coast of Korea. Results showed that the oyster sampled from the oil spill site showed a significantly higher (279.0 mg standard animal-1, Pgametogenic pattern between the two populations, and most of the females of both populations spawned between August and September. During spawning season, egg mass of oysters determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) in the oil spill area was significantly higher (136.3 mg standard animal-1, P<0.05) than the control population (120.5 mg standard animal-1, P<0.05). The tissue protein level in the oysters at the contaminated area was significantly higher (102.6 mg standard animal-1, P<0.05) than the level measured from the control oysters (81.4 mg standard animal-1, P<0.05). The observed better biological performances of oysters at the contaminated site suggested their recovery of the physiological status to normal level after two years of the oil spill accident.

  11. A Retrospective Mid- and Long-term Follow-up Study on the Changes in Hematologic Parameters in the Highly Exposed Residents of the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill in Taean, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young-Hyun; Hong, Jee-Young; Lee, Moo-Sik

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to analyze changes in hematologic parameters in the residents of the areas highly contaminated by the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill in 2007 and those who participated in the clean-up activities. Methods According to demographic characteristics, health status and behavior, and level of exposure to oil, we compared the hematologic results in 2009 and 2012 among 701 residents. The hematologic parameters were composed of white blood cell (WBC) count, and levels of hemoglobin, hematocrit (Hct), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr), total cholesterol (T-chol), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and triglyceride (TG). Results Paired t-test revealed that the WBC count and levels of Hct, AST, ALT, glucose, and HbA1c significantly increased, whereas the BUN, Cr, HDL, and TG levels significantly decreased. Multiple linear regression modelling showed a relationship between the level of exposure to oil and temporal changes in Hct, glucose, HbA1c, and BUN levels. Conclusion Our results suggest a relationship between level of exposure to oil and changes in hematologic parameters over 3 years. Further studies should be conducted to determine the impact of oil spill on health such as the occurrence of diseases. PMID:29164048

  12. Effect-directed analysis and mixture effects of AhR-active PAHs in crude oil and coastal sediments contaminated by the Hebei Spirit oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Seongjin; Lee, Sangwoo; Choi, Kyungho; Kim, Gi Beum; Ha, Sung Yong; Kwon, Bong-Oh; Ryu, Jongseong; Yim, Un Hyuk; Shim, Won Joon; Jung, Jinho; Giesy, John P.; Khim, Jong Seong

    2015-01-01

    The major AhR-active PAHs were identified in crude oil and oil-contaminated sediments by use of effect-directed analysis. As part of the study, an enhanced potency balance analysis was conducted by establishing the novel relative potency values of (alkyl)-PAHs from the H4IIE-luc bioassay. Silica gel column fractionation of crude oil resulted in greater AhR-mediated potencies in fractions of aromatics (F2) and resins (F3), and such trend was also observed for field collected sediment samples. AhR-mediated potencies of six F2 sub-fractions from HPLC indicated that the majority of F2 responses were attributable to 3–4 ring aromatics. Target PAHs including C4-phenanthrene, C1-chrysene, and C3-chrysene in sediments explained ∼18% of the bioassay-derived TCDD-EQs, however, the unknown AhR agonists and potential mixture effects remain in question. Overall, the AhR-potency and antagonistic potential of residual oil in sediment tended to decrease over time, thus monitoring of weathering process would be key for the post management of oil-contaminated sites. - Highlights: • AhR-active PAHs in crude oil and sediments were newly determined using EDA. • Novel relative potency values of (alkyl)-PAHs for AhR activity were established. • Three to four ring PAHs were identified to be major AhR agonists in crude oil. • Parent and alkyl-PAHs explained ∼18% of the total AhR-mediated potencies of crude oil. • AhR-mediated potencies apparently decreased by the timely weathering processes. - “Major AhR agonists were identified three to four ring PAHs in crude oil and sediments determined by use of effect-directed analysis.”

  13. On-site monitoring of Hebei Spirit oil spill by fluorometric detection of oil residues in coastal waters off Taean, Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, M.; Yim, U.H.; Hong, S.H.; Jung, J.H.; Won, J.; An, J.; Choi, H.W.; Shim, W.J. [Korea Ocean Research and Development Inst., Geoje (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    This paper discussed activities conducted to monitor a crude oil spill that contaminated over 70 km of the western Korean coastline. Contamination levels and temporal variations of dissolved and dispersed oils in sea and pore water at 40 beaches were monitored using a portable fluorimeter for 10 months after the spill. More than 980 samples from the heavily-impacted Mallipo Beach area were analyzed. The analysis showed that oil concentrations in the sea water were as high as 16,600 {mu}g/L directly after the spill, and decreased to below the Korean marine water quality standard of 10 {mu}g/L at most sites 10 months after the spill. However, the oil content in pore water remained high, with levels of up to 2,320 {mu}g/L for the first few months following the spill. Higher oil contamination levels were observed at some sites for up to 10 months after the spill. Results of the study suggested that oil in pore water persisted in confined areas along the coastline. Results from the fluorescence detection technique were then compared with traditional gas chromatography (GC) techniques of total petroleum hydrocarbon analysis. It was concluded that fluorescence detection was capable of generating accurate results more quickly and cost-effectively than traditional GC techniques. 22 refs., 7 figs.

  14. Oceanographic Applications of ALOS PALSAR Imagery to the Coast of the Korea Peninsula- A Case Study of the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Duk-jin; Kang, Jinho; Kim, Younsoo; Lee, Hoonyol; Moon, Wooil M.

    2008-11-01

    On December 7th, 2007, the nation's largest maritime oil spill occurred on the west coast of the Korean peninsula. More than 10,000 tons of crude oil from an oil tanker leaked into the Yellow Sea and contaminated an ecologically pristine region as well as polluted the western coastline of the Korean peninsula. All SAR sensors then available including TerraSAR-X, ENVISAT ASAR, RADARSAT-1, ERS-2 SAR and ALOS PALSAR acquired imageries over the contaminated area from oil spill. Dark patches observed in SAR images, due to the presence of oil slicks, were extracted using adaptive thresholding methods. From multi-frequency SAR images, the damping ratios were calculated and analyzed with measured wind speed and radar frequency. With the multi-temporal SAR images, the movement of oil slicks was monitored and traced.

  15. Ethyl carbamate levels in wine and spirits from markets in Hebei Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y P; Dong, B; Qin, Z S; Yang, N J; Lu, Y; Yang, L X; Chang, F Q; Wu, Y N

    2011-01-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC) in wine, grain spirits and wine sauce (145 samples) was analysed using solid-phase extraction and stable isotope dilution GC/MS. Samples were obtained from markets in eight areas (Shijiazhuang, Baoding, Handan, Qinhuangdao, Langfang, Zhangjiakou, Xingtai and Cangzhou) of Hebei Province, China. The method had a limit of detection of 2 µg kg⁻¹, with recoveries varying from 95.7 to 102% and RSD ranging 2.3-5.6%. The average concentrations of ethyl carbamate in wines, grain spirits and wine sauce were 14.7 (wines.

  16. [Acute health effects of the Hebei oil spill on the residents of Taean, Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheol-Heon; Kang, Young-A; Chang, Kyu-Jin; Kim, Chang-Hoon; Hur, Jong-Il; Kim, Jae-Youn; Lee, Jong-Koo

    2010-03-01

    On December 7, 2007, the Hebei Spirit oil tanker spilled out 12,547 kl of crude oil on the Yellow Sea 10 km away from the cost of Taean Province, Korea. As the coastline has been contaminated, local residents have been exposed to crude oil. Because the residents were showing many symptoms, we investigated the acute health effects of this oil spill on them. We conducted a cross-sectional study consisting of the heavy and moderately oil soaked area in Taean and the lightly oil soaked area in Seocheon. Ten seashore villages were selected from each area, and 10 male and female adults were selected from each village. We interviewed the subjects using a structured questionnaire on the characteristics of residents, the cleanup activities, the perception of oil hazard, depression and anxiety, and the physical symptoms. The odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. The logistic regression model was adjusted for age, gender, education, smoking, the perception of oil hazard and anxiousness. The more highly contaminated the area, the more likely it was for residents to be engaged in cleanup activities and have a greater chance of exposure to oil. The indexes of anxiety and depression were higher in the heavy and moderately oil soaked areas. The increased risks of headache, nausea, dizziness, fatigue, tingling of limb, hot flushing, sore throat, cough, runny nose, shortness of breath, itchy skin, rash, and sore eyes were significant. The results suggest that exposure to crude oil is associated with various acute physical symptoms. Long-term investigation is required to monitor the residents' health.

  17. Oil spill response, prevention and impact: lesson from Tasman spirit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja, I.A.; Doggar, M.G.

    2005-01-01

    Nearly half of the world oil is transported is transported by sea. Due to high shipping density coastal water is at high risk. Oil spills in the coastal areas endanger public health, devastate natural resources, and disrupt local economy. The Pakistani coast was hit by the worst ever ecological disaster on 27th July 03, when The Greek vessel 'Tasman Spirit', carrying 67,000 tonnes of crude oil grounded at Karachi port. High concentration of oil vapours along the affected shoreline caused discomfort. The contamination and losses could further be limited by taking appropriate actions. There is a need bring in significant improvements in oil spill prevention and response planning. This paper described the risks associated with oils spill and contingency planning to meet this situation. (author)

  18. Health complaints among subjects involved in oil cleanup operations during oil spillage from a Greek tanker "Tasman Spirit".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Al-Drees, Abdul Majeed; Rasheed, Shahzad; Meo, Imran Mu; Al-Saadi, Muslim M; Ghani, Hamza A; Alkandari, Jasem Ramadan

    2009-01-01

    Oil spillage in the sea water is a disaster for marine life and humans in the vicinity. The study aimed at investigating health complaints among subjects involved in oil cleanup operations during a spillage from a Greek oil tanker "Tasman Spirit". The project was conducted under the supervision of the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study concerned the respiratory and general health complaints in 50 apparently healthy, non-smoking male workers exposed to crude oil during oil cleanup operations. The exposed group was matched with a similar number of male, non-smoking controls. The health complaints were evaluated based on a comprehensive interview. The subjects involved in oil cleanup operations had significantly higher rates of health complaints including cough (38%), runny nose (36%), eye irritation/redness (32%), sore throat (28%), headache (28%), nausea (24%) and general illness (18%), compared to their matched controls. Air pollution due to crude oil spillage into sea water may cause respiratory and general health complaints in workers involved in oil cleanup operations.

  19. Acute health effects of the Tasman Spirit oil spill on residents of Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najam-ul-Hassan

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background On July 27 2003, a ship carrying crude oil run aground near Karachi and after two weeks released 37,000 tons of its cargo into the sea. Oil on the coastal areas and fumes in air raised health concerns among people. We assessed the immediate health impact of oil spill from the tanker Tasman Spirit on residents of the affected coastline in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods We conducted a study consisting of an exposed group including adults living in houses on the affected shoreline and two control groups (A and B who lived at the distance of 2 km and 20 km away from the sea, respectively. We selected households through systematic sampling and interviewed an adult male and female in each household about symptoms relating to eyes, respiratory tract, skin and nervous system, smoking, allergies, beliefs about the effect on their health and anxiety about the health effects. We used logistic regression procedures to model each symptom as an outcome and the exposure status as an independent variable while adjusting for confounders. We also used linear regression procedure to assess the relationship exposure status with symptoms score; calculated by summation of all symptoms. Results Overall 400 subjects were interviewed (exposed, n = 216; group A, n = 83; and group B, n = 101. The exposed group reported a higher occurrence of one or more symptoms compared to either of the control groups (exposed, 96% vs. group A, 70%, group B 85%; P P Conclusion Results suggest that the occurrence of increased symptoms among the exposed group is more likely to be due to exposure to the crude oil spill.

  20. Petroleum hydrocarbon pollution after the tasman spirit oil spill of coastal/deep sea sediment along the clifton beach karachi, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munshi, A.B.; Ansari, F.A.; Siddiqi, H.A.; Zeeshan, M.

    2011-01-01

    An oil tanker,Tasman Spirit, carrying 67000 to nsc rude oil, got damaged near the Clifton Beach of Karachi, Pakistan and approx. 31,000 ton oil spilled into the sea. The distribution of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons was determined in deep sea and surface sediment collected at 12 stations along the Clifton beach of Karachi, following the oil spill. Sampling was performed during 2003-2006, starting just after the accident of the oil tanker. Concentrations of PAHs (sigma 16 parent components) and aliphatics were in the range of 0.09-560 macro g/kg dw and 0.12-685 macro g/kg dw, respectively, since the date of accident and after bio remedial measures. The highest concentrations were found within the radius of 50 km around the site, the area most heavily impacted by the spill, whereas at the stations, away from the ship, the concentrations were in the lower range without alkylated compounds Addition of increasing amounts of ship fuel oil (taken from a Pakistani ship) to a representatives sediment samples showed that measurable concentration of the Tasman Spirit oil was > 1 g/kg of sediment The toxicity of selected samples of surface sediment from the coastal area near oil spill showed higher PAH concentrations the average number of dead fauna was 90-95% within 3 days of oil spill which gradually decreased with the time. (author)

  1. External conditions I. In the processing of oil and gas in the spirit of MILJOESOK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helland, Bjoern

    1998-01-01

    MILJOESOK is a forum where Norwegian authorities and the oil industry cooperate to meet the environmental challenges. As discussed in this presentation, MILJOESOK is an initiative to ensure cost-effective solutions through cooperation. The external conditions for the oil industry are defined in MILJOESOK's target, white papers No. 29 and No. 58, and the Kyoto Protocol. The main challenge for the industry is to reduce the CO 2 emission from the existing offshore activities

  2. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, S

    1909-11-29

    Mineral, shale, and like oils are treated successively with sulfuric acid, milk of lime, and a mixture of calcium oxide, sodium chloride, and water, and finally a solution of naphthalene in toluene is added. The product is suitable for lighting, and for use as a motor fuel; for the latter purpose, it is mixed with a light spirit.

  3. The comparison of naturally weathered oil and artificially photo-degraded oil at the molecular level by a combination of SARA fractionation and FT-ICR MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, Ananna; Cho, Yunju; Yim, Un Hyuk; Shim, Won Joon; Kim, Young Hwan; Kim, Sunghwan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Weathered oils from the Hebei Spirit oil spill and photo degraded oils are compared. • We investigate changes of polar species at the molecular level by 15T FT-ICR MS. • Significant reduction of sulfur class compounds in saturates fraction is observed. • The relative abundance of protonated compounds (presumably basic nitrogen compounds) increase after degradation. • Changes of polar compounds occurred by natural and photo degradation are similar. -- Abstract: Two sets of oil samples, one obtained from different weathering stages of the M/V Hebei Spirit oil spill site and the other prepared by an in vitro photo-degradation experiment, were analyzed and compared at the molecular level by atmospheric pressure photo-ionization coupled with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). For a more detailed comparison at the molecular level, the oil samples were separated into saturate, aromatic, resin, and asphaltene (SARA) fractions before MS analysis. Gravimetric analysis of the SARA fractions revealed a decreased weight percentage of the aromatic fraction and an increased resin fraction in both sets of samples. Molecular-level investigations of the SARA fractions showed a significant reduction in the S 1 class in the saturate fraction and increase of S 1 O 1 class compounds with high DBE values in resin fraction. Levels of N 1 and N 1 O 1 class compounds resulting in protonated ions (presumably basic nitrogen compounds) increased after degradation compared to compounds generating molecular ions (presumably non-basic nitrogen compounds). This study revealed changes occurring in heteroatom polar species of crude oils such as sulfur and nitrogen containing compounds that have not been easily detected with conventional GC based techniques

  4. Improving a prediction system for oil spills in the Yellow Sea: effect of tides on subtidal flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Sin; Cho, Yang-Ki; Choi, Byoung-Ju; Jung, Kyung Tae; You, Sung Hyup

    2013-03-15

    A multi-nested prediction system for the Yellow Sea using drifter trajectory simulations was developed to predict the movements of an oil spill after the MV Hebei Spirit accident. The speeds of the oil spill trajectories predicted by the model without tidal forcing were substantially faster than the observations; however, predictions taking into account the tides, including both tidal cycle and subtidal periods, were satisfactorily improved. Subtidal flow in the simulation without tides was stronger than in that with tides because of reduced frictional effects. Friction induced by tidal stress decelerated the southward subtidal flows driven by northwesterly winter winds along the Korean coast of the Yellow Sea. These results strongly suggest that in order to produce accurate predictions of oil spill trajectories, simulations must include tidal effects, such as variations within a tidal cycle and advections over longer time scales in tide-dominated areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. eDNA-based bioassessment of coastal sediments impacted by an oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yuwei; Zhang, Xiaowei; Yang, Jianghua; Kim, Seonjin; Hong, Seongjin; Giesy, John P; Yim, Un Hyuk; Shim, Won Joon; Yu, Hongxia; Khim, Jong Seong

    2018-07-01

    Oil spills offshore can cause long-term ecological effects on coastal marine ecosystems. Despite their important ecological roles in the cycling of energy and nutrients in food webs, effects on bacteria, protists or arthropods are often neglected. Environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding was applied to characterize changes in the structure of micro- and macro-biota communities of surface sediments over a 7-year period since the occurrence of Hebei Spirit oil spill on December 7, 2007. Alterations in diversities and structures of micro- and macro-biota were observed in the contaminated area where concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were greater. Successions of bacterial, protists and metazoan communities revealed long-term ecological effects of residual oil. Residual oil dominated the largest cluster of the community-environment association network. Presence of bacterial families (Aerococcaceae and Carnobacteriaceae) and the protozoan family (Platyophryidae) might have conferred sensitivity of communities to oil pollution. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial families (Anaerolinaceae, Desulfobacteraceae, Helicobacteraceae and Piscirickettsiaceae) and algal family (Araphid pennate) were resistant to adverse effects of spilt oil. The protistan family (Subulatomonas) and arthropod families (Folsomia, Sarcophagidae Opomyzoidea, and Anomura) appeared to be positively associated with residual oil pollution. eDNA metabarcoding can provide a powerful tool for assessing effects of anthropogenic pollution, such as oil spills on sediment communities and its long-term trends in coastal marine environments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Scientific basis of environmental health contingency planning for a coastal oil spill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Min; Cheong, Hae Kwan; Kim, Jong Ho; Kim, Jong Hun; Ko, Kumsook; Ha, Mina

    2009-03-01

    This study presents a scientific basis for the establishment of an environmental health contingency plan for dealing with accidental coastal oil spills and suggests some strategies for use in an environmental health emergency. We reviewed the existing literature, and analyzed the various fundamental factors involved in response strategies for oil spill. Our analysis included data derived from Hebei Spirit oil spill and used air dispersion modeling. Spill amounts of more than 1,000 kl can affect the health of residents along the coast, especially those who belong to vulnerable groups. Almost 30% of South Korean population lives in the vicinity of the coast. The area that is at the highest risk for a spill and that has the greatest number of people at risk is the stretch of coastline from Busan to Tongyeong. The most prevalent types of oil spilt in Korean waters have been crude oil and bunker-C oil, both of which have relatively high specific gravity and contain volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and metals. In the case of a spill of more than 1,000 kl, it may be necessary to evacuate vulnerable and sensitive groups. The government should establish environmental health planning that considers the spill amount, the types of oil, and the distance between the spot of the accident and the coast, and should assemble a response team that includes environmental health specialists to prepare for the future oil spill.

  7. SPIRIT 2013 Statement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, An-Wen; Tetzlaff, Jennifer M; Altman, Douglas G

    2013-01-01

    The protocol of a clinical trial serves as the foundation for study planning, conduct, reporting, and appraisal. However, trial protocols and existing protocol guidelines vary greatly in content and quality. This article describes the systematic development and scope of SPIRIT (Standard Protocol...... Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials) 2013, a guideline for the minimum content of a clinical trial protocol.The 33-item SPIRIT checklist applies to protocols for all clinical trials and focuses on content rather than format. The checklist recommends a full description of what is planned......; it does not prescribe how to design or conduct a trial. By providing guidance for key content, the SPIRIT recommendations aim to facilitate the drafting of high-quality protocols. Adherence to SPIRIT would also enhance the transparency and completeness of trial protocols for the benefit of investigators...

  8. The spirit of Vienna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keblusek, E.

    1997-01-01

    Personal reflections of Mr. Emil Keblusek on the establishing the new mechanism of intensive pre-negotiations, personal explanations of intentions and expected results, what he called 'the spirit of Vienna', are described

  9. Structure-dependent degradation of polar compounds in weathered oils observed by atmospheric pressure photo-ionization hydrogen/deuterium exchange ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, Ananna; Kim, Donghwi [Kyungpook National University, Department of Chemistry, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Un Hyuk; Shim, Won Joon [Oil and POPs Research Group, Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, KIOST, Geoje 656-834 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sunghwan, E-mail: sunghwank@knu.ac.kr [Kyungpook National University, Department of Chemistry, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Green Nano Center, Department of Chemistry, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We examined source crude oil and weathered oils from M/V Hebei accident. • APPI hydrogen/deuterium exchange ultrahigh mass spectrometry was applied. • N{sub 1} class compounds with 2° and/or 3° amine decrease in larger scale than pyridines. • Preferential degradation of nitrogen-containing compounds was confirmed. • Significant increase in S{sub 1}O{sub 1} compounds was observed as the weathering proceeds. - Abstract: The resin fractions of fresh mixtures of three oils spilled during the M/V Hebei Spirit oil spill, as well as weathered oils collected at weathering stages II and IV from the oil spill site were analyzed and compared by atmospheric pressure photo-ionization hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX MS). The significantly decreased abundance of N{sup +}· and [N − H + D]{sup +} ions suggested that secondary and tertiary amine-containing compounds were preferentially degraded during the early stage of weathering. [N + H]{sup +} and [N + D]{sup +} ions previously attributed to pyridine-type compounds degraded more slowly than secondary and tertiary amine-containing compounds. The preferential degradation of nitrogen-containing compounds was confirmed by photo-degradation experiments using 15 standard compounds. In addition, significant increases of [S{sub 1}O{sub 1} + H]{sup +} and [S{sub 1}O{sub 1} + D]{sup +} ions with higher DBE values were observed from fresh oil mixtures as compared to stages II and IV samples, and that could be linked with the decrease of higher DBE compounds of the S{sub 1} class. This study presented convincing arguments and evidence demonstrating that secondary and tertiary amines were more vulnerable to photo-degradation than compounds containing pyridine, and hence, preferential degradation depending on chemical structures must be considered in the production of hazardous or toxic components.

  10. Structure-dependent degradation of polar compounds in weathered oils observed by atmospheric pressure photo-ionization hydrogen/deuterium exchange ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, Ananna; Kim, Donghwi; Yim, Un Hyuk; Shim, Won Joon; Kim, Sunghwan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We examined source crude oil and weathered oils from M/V Hebei accident. • APPI hydrogen/deuterium exchange ultrahigh mass spectrometry was applied. • N 1 class compounds with 2° and/or 3° amine decrease in larger scale than pyridines. • Preferential degradation of nitrogen-containing compounds was confirmed. • Significant increase in S 1 O 1 compounds was observed as the weathering proceeds. - Abstract: The resin fractions of fresh mixtures of three oils spilled during the M/V Hebei Spirit oil spill, as well as weathered oils collected at weathering stages II and IV from the oil spill site were analyzed and compared by atmospheric pressure photo-ionization hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX MS). The significantly decreased abundance of N + · and [N − H + D] + ions suggested that secondary and tertiary amine-containing compounds were preferentially degraded during the early stage of weathering. [N + H] + and [N + D] + ions previously attributed to pyridine-type compounds degraded more slowly than secondary and tertiary amine-containing compounds. The preferential degradation of nitrogen-containing compounds was confirmed by photo-degradation experiments using 15 standard compounds. In addition, significant increases of [S 1 O 1 + H] + and [S 1 O 1 + D] + ions with higher DBE values were observed from fresh oil mixtures as compared to stages II and IV samples, and that could be linked with the decrease of higher DBE compounds of the S 1 class. This study presented convincing arguments and evidence demonstrating that secondary and tertiary amines were more vulnerable to photo-degradation than compounds containing pyridine, and hence, preferential degradation depending on chemical structures must be considered in the production of hazardous or toxic components

  11. Discerning the Spirits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Else Marie Wiberg

    2007-01-01

    This response to Swedish scholar Jayne Svenungsson's keynote on the return of spirituality sets off by agreeing in general to her thesis that there is a return of spirituality - or rather a return of the Spirit. But whilst Svenungsson in her paper endeavours to see the return of spirituality....../the Spirit by way of postmodern philosophy and theology (for example Lévinas and Vattimo), this response discovers a number of traits in Svenungsson's paper that resembles those of radical orthodoxy, primarily Milbank. Thus, Svenungsson's opposition towards simplistic or reductive accounts of religion....../theology, and even more so her reconstruction of a rational yet metaphysical theology and the understanding of the church as the only locus of the Holy Spirit and the learning of the grammar of radical ethics are identical with Milbank's views. Since Svenungsson conclusively opts for a radical (and metaphysical...

  12. An Embarrassment of Spirits: Spirits, Hauntology and Democracy in Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bubandt, Nils Ole

    2014-01-01

    combined his vocational interest in spirits and anti-corruption and sent a thousand spirits to Jakarta to protect the supporters of the Indonesian president at an anti-corruption rally. The introduction of spirits into the increasingly ‘occult’ Indonesian politics of 2009 was as apt as it was embarrassing...

  13. Comparison of Patterns of Use of Unrecorded and Recorded Spirits: Survey of Adult Drinkers in Rural Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shiqing; Yin, Ping; Newman, Ian M; Qian, Ling; Shell, Duane F; Yuen, Lok-Wa

    2017-09-22

    About 70% of the beverage alcohol consumed in China annually is spirits. Recorded spirits make up most spirit consumption, but about 25% of total alcohol consumption (1.7 L pure alcohol per capita annually) is unrecorded spirits (bai jiu), either homemade or made in unregulated distilleries. In some parts of China, the consumption of unrecorded spirits is higher than average. This paper compares the patterns of use of unrecorded distilled spirits and recorded distilled spirits among rural residents in Central China. Interviews were conducted with 3298 individuals in 21 towns/villages in 10 counties in the Hubei, Anhui, and Hebei provinces in the People's Republic of China. Unrecorded bai jiu drinkers chose it because of its taste and its low price. It was consumed mostly by older men, mostly at home with family, more regularly and at higher alcohol by volume (ABV) compared to recorded alcohol. Recorded bai jiu drinkers were more likely to drink away from their homes, consumed more bai jiu at memorable drinking occasions, and reported feeling sick after drinking more often than unrecorded bai jiu drinkers. This comparison of patterns of use of unrecorded bai jiu and recorded bai jiu does not suggest that unrecorded bai jiu is more problematic for drinkers.

  14. Comparison of Patterns of Use of Unrecorded and Recorded Spirits: Survey of Adult Drinkers in Rural Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqing Wei

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available About 70% of the beverage alcohol consumed in China annually is spirits. Recorded spirits make up most spirit consumption, but about 25% of total alcohol consumption (1.7 L pure alcohol per capita annually is unrecorded spirits (bai jiu, either homemade or made in unregulated distilleries. In some parts of China, the consumption of unrecorded spirits is higher than average. This paper compares the patterns of use of unrecorded distilled spirits and recorded distilled spirits among rural residents in Central China. Interviews were conducted with 3298 individuals in 21 towns/villages in 10 counties in the Hubei, Anhui, and Hebei provinces in the People’s Republic of China. Unrecorded bai jiu drinkers chose it because of its taste and its low price. It was consumed mostly by older men, mostly at home with family, more regularly and at higher alcohol by volume (ABV compared to recorded alcohol. Recorded bai jiu drinkers were more likely to drink away from their homes, consumed more bai jiu at memorable drinking occasions, and reported feeling sick after drinking more often than unrecorded bai jiu drinkers. This comparison of patterns of use of unrecorded bai jiu and recorded bai jiu does not suggest that unrecorded bai jiu is more problematic for drinkers.

  15. Spirit Scans Winter Haven

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    At least three different kinds of rocks await scientific analysis at the place where NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit will likely spend several months of Martian winter. They are visible in this picture, which the panoramic camera on Spirit acquired during the rover's 809th sol, or Martian day, of exploring Mars (April 12, 2006). Paper-thin layers of light-toned, jagged-edged rocks protrude horizontally from beneath small sand drifts; a light gray rock with smooth, rounded edges sits atop the sand drifts; and several dark gray to black, angular rocks with vesicles (small holes) typical of hardened lava lie scattered across the sand. This view is an approximately true-color rendering that combines images taken through the panoramic camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters.

  16. Process for extracting oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1920-08-22

    A process is described for recovering bituminous material from oil shale, characterized in that the oil shale is extracted with wood spirits oil (byproduct of woodspirit rectification), if necessary in admixture with other solvents in the cold or the hot.

  17. Larvicidal effects of mineral turpentine, low aromatic white spirits, aqueous extracts of Cassia alata, and aqueous extracts, ethanolic extracts and essential oil of betel leaf (Piper betle) on Chrysomya megacephala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumarasinghe, Sujith Prasad W; Karunaweera, Nadira D; Ihalamulla, Ranjan L; Arambewela, Lakshmi S R; Dissanayake, Roshinie D S C T

    2002-12-01

    Many methods have been employed, with variable success, in the treatment of cutaneous myiasis caused by Chrysomya species. Experiment 1: to assess the larvicidal effect of mineral turpentine (MT) and the main ingredient of MT, low aromatic white spirits (LAWS), on Chrysomya megacephala larvae in vitro. Experiment 2: to assess the larvicidal effects of aqueous extracts of winged senna (Cassia alata), and aqueous extracts, ethanolic extracts and essential oil of betel leaf (Piper betle). In experiment 1, two samples of LAWS were obtained from two industrialists (samples 1 and 2). Adult flies of C. megacephala were bred in the insectory of the Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo. Petri dishes were prepared with pads of cotton wool. These cotton pads were soaked separately in MT, LAWS samples 1 and 2, and normal saline as a control. Ten larvae were placed in each Petri dish. The activity of the larvae was observed and recorded half-hourly. MT and the two samples of LAWS were analyzed by chromatography. In experiment 2, volatile essential oil of betel was prepared using a standard steam distillation process. An ethanolic extract of betel was obtained after boiling the crushed leaf with water, and mixing the stock with ethanol. Betel oil dilutions of 1-4% were prepared using 1% Tween 80 (v/v aq) as a solvent, with 0.05 g/100 mL sodium lauryl sulphate (as stabilizer) and 0.01 g/100 mL methyl paraben (as a preservative). Cotton wool swabs soaked in 1, 2, 3 and 4% essential oil of betel in 1% Tween 80 (v/v aq) prepared as above, 1, 2, 3 and 4% ethanolic extract of betel, 50 and 25% aqueous extract of C. alata, and 50 and 25% aqueous extract of betel were placed in separate Petri dishes. Ten larvae were placed in each Petri dish. 1% Tween 80 solvent with the stabilizer and the preservative, but without betel essential oil, was used as a negative control and MT was used as a positive control. Larval motility was assessed as before. MT and

  18. [Trend of cancer mortality in Hebei province, 1973-2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, D; Li, D J; Shi, J; Zhang, Y C; Guo, T T; He, Y T

    2018-01-10

    Objective: To analyze the data of malignant tumor mortality and change in disease burden in Hebei province from 1973 to 2013. Methods: Cancer mortality rate, age-standardized mortality rate and the years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs) were calculated by using the data from three rounds of all death causes survey and database of cancer registry in Hebei during 1973-2013. Results: From 1973 to 2013, a linear upward of malignant tumor mortality was observed, with a 51.57% increase. The mortality rate during 1973-1975 was 98.52/100 000 and it was 149.33/100 000 during 2011-2013. During 1973-1975, the YLLs was 17.0/1 000 in males and 12.8/1 000 in females. While during 2011-2013, the YLLs was 23.2/1 000 in males and 15.9/1 000 in females. During 1973-1975, esophagus cancer, stomach cancer and liver cancer were top three leading causes of deaths. During 2011-2013, lung cancer, stomach cancer and liver cancer were main leading causes of deaths. During the past 40 years, the deaths of esophagus cancer and cervix cancer decreased dramatically, but the deaths of lung cancer and breast cancer increased sharply. Conclusions: The disease burden caused by malignant tumor is becoming more serious in Hebei. It is necessary to strengthen the primary prevention and screening of malignant tumor.

  19. Spirit Feels Dust Gust

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    On sol 1149 (March 28, 2007) of its mission, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit caught a wind gust with its navigation camera. A series of navigation camera images were strung together to create this movie. The front of the gust is observable because it was strong enough to lift up dust. From assessing the trajectory of this gust, the atmospheric science team concludes that it is possible that it passed over the rover. There was, however, no noticeable increase in power associated with this gust. In the past, dust devils and gusts have wiped the solar panels of dust, making it easier for the solar panels to absorb sunlight.

  20. Spirit's West Valley Panorama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    NASA'S Mars Exploration Rover Spirit captured this westward view from atop a low plateau where Sprit spent the closing months of 2007. After several months near the base of the plateau called 'Home Plate' in the inner basin of the Columbia Hills range inside Gusev Crater, Spirit climbed onto the eastern edge of the plateau during the rover's 1,306th Martian day, or sol, (Sept. 5, 2007). It examined rocks and soils at several locations on the southern half of Home Plate during September and October. It was perched near the western edge of Home Plate when it used its panoramic camera (Pancam) to take the images used in this view on sols 1,366 through 1,369 (Nov. 6 through Nov. 9, 2007). With its daily solar-energy supply shrinking as Martian summer turned to fall, Spirit then drove to the northern edge of Home Plate for a favorable winter haven. The rover reached that northward-tilting site in December, in time for the fourth Earth-year anniversary of its landing on Mars. Spirit reached Mars on Jan. 4, 2004, Universal Time (Jan. 3, 2004, Pacific Standard Time). It landed at a site at about the center of the horizon in this image. This panorama covers a scene spanning left to right from southwest to northeast. The western edge of Home Plate is in the foreground, generally lighter in tone than the more distant parts of the scene. A rock-dotted hill in the middle distance across the left third of the image is 'Tsiolkovski Ridge,' about 30 meters or 100 feet from the edge of Home Plate and about that same distance across. A bump on the horizon above the left edge of Tsiolkovski Ridge is 'Grissom Hill,' about 8 kilometers or 5 miles away. At right, the highest point of the horizon is 'Husband Hill,' to the north and about 800 meters or half a mile away. This view combines separate images taken through Pancam filters centered on wavelengths of 753 nanometers, 535 nanometers and 432 nanometers to produce an approximately true-color panorama.

  1. Developing students’ entrepreneurial spirit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grădinaru, E.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains a research study about the necessity to develop the entrepreneurial spirit in universities and how students could be involved in such initiatives. A qualitative research based on three focus groups was conducted, having as main objective to identify students’ opinions regarding the initiative to develop an on-line magazine for students and young people. The results reveal that students prefer the online media to the traditional ones and the pilot numbers of the magazine received good appreciations. A business plan for the future development of the magazine is also presented.

  2. 27 CFR 27.40 - Distilled spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Distilled Spirits § 27.40 Distilled spirits. (a) A tax is imposed on all... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distilled spirits. 27.40...

  3. Spirit's Winter Work Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version This portion of an image acquired by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera shows the Spirit rover's winter campaign site. Spirit was parked on a slope tilted 11 degrees to the north to maximize sunlight during the southern winter season. 'Tyrone' is an area where the rover's wheels disturbed light-toned soils. Remote sensing and in-situ analyses found the light-toned soil at Tyrone to be sulfate rich and hydrated. The original picture is catalogued as PSP_001513_1655_red and was taken on Sept. 29, 2006. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project and built the spacecraft. The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment is operated by the University of Arizona, Tucson, and the instrument was built by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corp., Boulder, Colo.

  4. 27 CFR 19.98 - Conveyance of untaxpaid spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant. 19.98 Section 19.98 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... PLANTS Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on Plant Premises § 19.98 Conveyance of untaxpaid spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant. Untaxpaid spirits or...

  5. The Spirit of Logotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Costello

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to adduce the meaning of Viktor Frankl’s logotherapy and existential analysis—the spirit of logotherapy—in the two-fold sense of its core teachings, as well as its emphasis on the spiritual dimension of the human person. Firstly, I situate Frankl’s tri-dimensional ontology—his philosophical anthropology—within a Platonic perspective, asserting that it was Plato who first gave us a picture and model of mental health which he based on the harmony of the disparate parts of the personality—the aim to become One instead of Many, which finds a modern parallel in Viktor Frankl’s logotherapy, which likewise stresses the importance of inner wholeness (an anthropological oneness despite our ontological differences. Classical Greek philosophers all pointed to the Logos as source of order—to the horizon of meaning-potentials, so I visit the various understandings of this term from the pre-Socratics to Frankl, albeit briefly, to avoid semantic confusion in what is to follow. I then discuss in some detail the exact meaning that logos/spirit has in Frankl’s philosophical conceptualisations. Disorders of logos may be seen in various psychopathologies and pnemopathologies which I go on to consider, highlighting the differences between various terms that are commonly left unclarified. Next, I adumbrate the differences between psychotherapy and logotherapy, which ultimately revolves around the difference between instincts and spirit before demarcating the boundaries between religion (as salvation and logotherapy (as sanity. The question I pose next is: what exactly constitutes the spiritual in logotherapy, as in life? An example is given to concretise the conceptual considerations previously elucidated before drawing on another distinction, that between “ultimate meaning” and “the meaning of the moment”. The paper concludes with a brief excursus into the work of Ken Wilber by way of enabling us to appreciate and

  6. The Analysis of Development Condition of Taekwondo Dan System in Hebei Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Shen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article made use of the literature, questionnaire and mathematical statistics method for the Taekwondo practitioners and coaches in Hebei province to carry out investigation, analysis on the development situation of Dan system of Taekwondo, to influence and implement Dan system development of Taekwondo in Hebei province. The results showed, most road museums are organizing assessment of Dan System, but there is still half of the practitioners are willing to participate in grading system of examination and did not participate in. The results show that the development of grading system of Taekwondo in Hebei province, however, there are still some problems. The research of this paper provides a theoretical basis for the development of Hebei province, but also to contribute to the promotion of Taekwondo Dan made better development in Hebei province.

  7. Hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foorwood, G F; Taplay, J G

    1916-12-12

    Hydrocarbon oils are hydrogenated, cracked, or treated for the removal of sulfur by bringing their vapors mixed with steam at temperatures between 450 and 600/sup 0/C into contact with a form of carbon that is capable of decomposing steam with the production of nascent hydrogen at those temperatures. The forms of carbon used include lamp-black, soot, charcoals derived from wood, cellulose, and lignite, and carbons obtained by carbonizing oil residues and other organic bodies at temperatures below 600/sup 0/C. The process is applied to the treatment of coal oil, shale oil, petroleum, and lignite oil. In examples, kerosene is cracked at 570/sup 0/C, cracked spirit is hydrogenated at 500/sup 0/C, and shale spirit is desulfurized at 530/sup 0/C. The products are led to a condenser and thence to a scrubber, where they are washed with creosote oil. After desulfurization, the products are washed with dilute caustic soda to remove sulfurretted hydrogen.

  8. Realization of Best-in-Class Workflows Using Open Spirit Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauser, K.

    2002-01-01

    Open Spirit is the realization of a long sought after dream to create an open systems approach to G and G computing. The focus is on developing a plug-and-play, platform independent, vendor neutral application framework to enable workflow optimization for the oil and gas industry. Through Open Spirit, Oil and gas clients can either develop or purchase Open Spirit enabled applications and combine those applications together to optimize a particular workflow. Currently Open Spirit supports GeoQuest's Geo Frame and Landmark's Open Works project data stores. There are three primary benefits to using Open Spirit enabled applications. Users of Open Spirit enabled applications can access data from a variety of data sources without having to move or reformat the data. This reduces the time to get the information into the appropriate application and eliminates the need to have multiple copies of the same data, simplifying data management efforts. Second, Open Spirit bridges the gap between Unix and PC applications. Through Open Spirit, any applications developed for the NT platform can access information residing in a Unix project data store. Third, Open Spirit supports the concept of a virtual project set. A user can combine any number project data stores (GeoFrame, Open Works, Finder, RECALL and PDS/Tigress) and use the combined project sets as if they were a single project. The data is not moved, but instead accessed dynamically through Open Spirit from the appropriate native data store. Open Spirit allows interpreters to develop their own Best-in-Class workflow and to mix and match the applications they determine to be the best of their interpretation teams independent of vendor

  9. Library Spirit and Genius Loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlkild, Nan

    2009-01-01

    The architecture and design of Nyborg Public Library in the light of the concepts "Library Spirit" and "Genius Loci", related to contemporary social and cultural movements, the development of the early welfare state and the "Scandinavian Style".......The architecture and design of Nyborg Public Library in the light of the concepts "Library Spirit" and "Genius Loci", related to contemporary social and cultural movements, the development of the early welfare state and the "Scandinavian Style"....

  10. Spirit Hits a Home Run

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This week, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit arrived at 'Home Plate,' a feature that, when seen from orbit, looks like the home plate of a baseball diamond. Home Plate is a roughly circular feature about 80 meters (260 feet) in diameter that might be an old impact crater or volcanic feature. The Spirit team has been eager to get to Home Plate and has been enjoying distant views of the feature and a curious 'bathtub ring' of light-colored materials along its edges. The team has pushed the rover hard to get here before the deep Martian winter sets in. After scientists had identified Home Plate from orbit, they had many theories about what it could be and what they might see. But when Spirit's panoramic camera (Pancam) took this and other images, the science team was stunned. This Pancam image is of an outcrop nicknamed 'Barnhill' and surrounding rocks on the north side of Home Plate, showing the most spectacular layering that Spirit has seen. Pancam and microscopic imager views of the layers in the rocks reveal a range of grain sizes and textures that change from the lower to the upper part of the outcrop. This may help scientists figure out how the material was emplaced. Spirit is also conducting work with its arm instruments to figure out the chemistry and mineralogy of the rocks. Scientists have several hypotheses about what Home Plate could be, including features made by volcanoes and impact craters, and ways that water could have played a role. They are busy trying to figure out what the data from Spirit is really telling us. As Spirit works at Home Plate during February, the science team is choosing informal names for rocks from the great players and managers of the Negro Leagues of baseball. This outcrop, 'Barnhill,' is informally named for David Barnhill, the ace of the New York Cubans' pitching staff during the early 1940s. He compiled an 18-3 record in 1941 and defeated Satchel Paige in the 1942 East-West all-star game. Other rocks in the area are

  11. Embodied water analysis for Hebei Province, China by input-output modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siyuan; Han, Mengyao; Wu, Xudong; Wu, Xiaofang; Li, Zhi; Xia, Xiaohua; Ji, Xi

    2018-03-01

    With the accelerating coordinated development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, regional economic integration is recognized as a national strategy. As water scarcity places Hebei Province in a dilemma, it is of critical importance for Hebei Province to balance water resources as well as make full use of its unique advantages in the transition to sustainable development. To our knowledge, related embodied water accounting analysis has been conducted for Beijing and Tianjin, while similar works with the focus on Hebei are not found. In this paper, using the most complete and recent statistics available for Hebei Province, the embodied water use in Hebei Province is analyzed in detail. Based on input-output analysis, it presents a complete set of systems accounting framework for water resources. In addition, a database of embodied water intensity is proposed which is applicable to both intermediate inputs and final demand. The result suggests that the total amount of embodied water in final demand is 10.62 billion m3, of which the water embodied in urban household consumption accounts for more than half. As a net embodied water importer, the water embodied in the commodity trade in Hebei Province is 17.20 billion m3. The outcome of this work implies that it is particularly urgent to adjust industrial structure and trade policies for water conservation, to upgrade technology and to improve water utilization. As a result, to relieve water shortages in Hebei Province, it is of crucial importance to regulate the balance of water use within the province, thus balancing water distribution in the various industrial sectors.

  12. The Spirit of Public Service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassall Thomsen, Line Hassall; Willig, Ida

    on cultural production and news work. Through fieldwork and interviews with Danish and British reporters/editors from DR 1, TV 2, BBC 1 and ITV we identify three components of a strong public service spirit present in the journalist’s understanding of the self: mass audience orientation, democratic...... responsibility and unbiased reporting. These three components can be found in both British and Danish newsrooms suggesting a trans-national, institutional spirit of public service. At the same time, the three components are interpreted differently from newsroom to newsroom suggesting different practices...

  13. Integrating Principles Underlying Ancestral Spirits Belief in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , associated with ancestral spirits and its use as powerful therapeutic agent for influencing behavior or lifestyle changes. Explanatory models of attachment to ancestral spirits by living descendants are first discussed, followed by a discussion ...

  14. SPIRIT 2013 explanation and elaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, An-Wen; Tetzlaff, Jennifer M; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2013-01-01

    High quality protocols facilitate proper conduct, reporting, and external review of clinical trials. However, the completeness of trial protocols is often inadequate. To help improve the content and quality of protocols, an international group of stakeholders developed the SPIRIT 2013 Statement (...

  15. Spirit Boxes: Expressions of Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMuro, Ted

    1984-01-01

    After studying the culture and art of the ancient civilizations of South America, Mesopotamia, Greece, and Egypt, secondary level art students made spirit boxes as expressions of the various cultures. How to make the boxes and how to prepare the face molds are described. (RM)

  16. Spirit-ness at Work: Connections between Workplace Spirituality, Transformative Learning, and Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolliver, Derise E.

    2016-01-01

    The workplace is a place where we show up as human beings, subject to human experience. People are no longer willing to leave their spirit-ness at the door. In reality, spirit-ness shows up "without permission" as a revolutionary, powerful, and transformative way of being in a world that too often supports status quo activities that are…

  17. 27 CFR 24.234 - Other use of spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.234 Other use of spirits. The proprietor producing sparkling wine, artificially carbonated wine, formula wine, or essences for which spirits are required may use tax-free wine spirits or brandy. For nonbeverage wine, tax-free spirits other than wine spirits or...

  18. 27 CFR 19.41 - Claims on spirits, denatured spirits, articles, or wines lost or destroyed in bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., denatured spirits, articles, or wines lost or destroyed in bond. 19.41 Section 19.41 Alcohol, Tobacco... DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Taxes Claims § 19.41 Claims on spirits, denatured spirits, articles, or wines lost..., relating to the destruction or loss of spirits, denatured spirits, articles, or wines in bond, shall be...

  19. Impediment to Spirit Drive on Sol 1806

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The hazard avoidance camera on the front of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this image after a drive by Spirit on the 1,806th Martian day, or sol, (January 31, 2009) of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars. The wheel at the bottom right of the image is Spirit's right-front wheel. Because that wheel no longer turns, Spirit drives backwards dragging that wheel. The drive on Sol 1806 covered about 30 centimeters (1 foot). The rover team had planned a longer drive, but Spirit stopped short, apparently from the right front wheel encountering the partially buried rock visible next to that wheel. The hazard avoidance cameras on the front and back of the rover provide wide-angle views. The hill on the horizon in the right half of this image is Husband Hill. Spirit reached the summit of Husband Hill in 2005.

  20. [Spatial and temporal evolution of the ecological environment and economy coordinated development in Hebei Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Wei; Ren, Liang; Wang, Shu Jia; Liu, Yu Feng

    2016-09-01

    Based on the constructed evaluation index system of ecological environment and economy coordinated development in Hebei Province, accompanied by introducing the Coupling Degree Mo-del, the paper estimated the ecological environment comprehensive index, the economic comprehensive index and the coupling degree of ecological environment and economy coordinated development of Hebei Province from 2000 to 2014 and 11 cities in 4 years (2000, 2006, 2010, 2014). The results showed that during the study period, the level of the coordinated development of the eco-logical environment and economy in Hebei Province had been increasing, from the brink of a recession to the well coordinated development, which had gone through 3 evident stages. The coordinating degree of ecological environment and economy of the 11 cities increased year by year, and pre-sented significant difference in spatial distribution. Through analyzing the spatial and temporal evolution mechanism of the ecological environment and economy coordinated development in Hebei Province, the policy, economy, industry and location were the key contributing factors, accordingly, suggestions on the further coordinated development of ecological environment and economy in Hebei Province were proposed.

  1. THE WIFE-SPIRIT NAMBIQUARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Ribeiro F. M. Costa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to raise awareness, according to the mythic-religious belief of Kithãulhu, Halotesu, Sawentesu, Wakalitesu, Niyahlosu, Siwaihsu and Hinkatesu, indigenous groups Nambiquara the Cerrado, the existence of the spirit-wife, wanintakalosu, and its relationship with the shaman, wanintesu, and his wife, the woman-human txusu. In this analysis have been employed the technique and methodology of oral history, with data collected between 2004 and 2007 with Nambiquara Cerrado, located in the western state of Mato Grosso, bordering Bolivia. As a wife-spirit, oral sources reveal its importance in society Nambiquara, as it is responsible for the success of the actions of your spouse’s human, shaman, and the intermediation of the secular world with the supernatural

  2. R&D and economic growth in China on the basis of data envelopment analysis : evidence from Hebei province, PRC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, L.; Hu, B.; Yu, X.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to explore the research and development (R&D) structure and the effect which R&D may have on economic growth in Hebei Province, PRC. Through the comparison of R&D efficiency in Hebei and that of seven other regions (with top economic performance in China), it tries to find

  3. Investigation of environmental natural penetrating radiation level in Hebei province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Deliang; Wang Shuming; Yang Huanfeng

    1990-01-01

    The methods and results of the investigation on natural penetrating radiation level in Hebei Province from 1985 to 1987 are presented. 285 25 x 25 km-netted measuring points were set unformly up all over the porvince, with 204 densely measuring points of different types added. The results show that: (1) The point-weighted, area-weighted and population-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate for field is 5.59, 5.51 and 5.31 x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 , respectively; (2) The point-weighted and population-weighted average value of the dose rate inside buildings from cosmic ray is 3.05 and 2.80 x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 , and outside buildings is 3.38 and 3.11 x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 , respectively; (3) The point-weighted and population-weighted average value of natural penetrating radiation dose rate inside buildings is 12.44 and 11.97 x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 , outside buildings is 8.97 and 8.42 x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 , respectively; (4) The annual effective dose equivalent from natural γ radiation, cosmic ray and natural penetrating radiation is 0.50, 0.25, and 0.75 mSv, respectively; and correspondingly, the annual collective effectiv dose equivalent is 2.7, 1.3 and 4.0 x 10 4 man·Sv, respectively

  4. A reproductive health survey of rural women in Hebei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J

    1998-12-01

    This article presents the findings of a 1995 family planning survey conducted among 657 women aged 18-49 years in rural areas of Tangshan City, Zhoushou City, and Xingtai City in Hebei province, Northern China. 620 were married, 37 were single, and 6 were widowed. 85.8% of married rural women used a contraceptive method (female sterilization or IUD). There were 1219 pregnancies, 230 abortions, 31 miscarriages, and 3 stillbirths. 68.1% received prenatal check-ups at hospitals and health centers. 47.4% received prenatal care during the first trimester of pregnancy. 76.1% received check-ups at township health centers. Women were aware of the need for sound personal hygiene, sanitary napkins, and avoidance of heavy manual work during menstruation. 45.1% had less than 5 years of education; 51.8% had 6-10 years of education; and 3.1% had over 10 years of education. About 54% delivered at home. Home deliveries were due to lack of transportation, high expenses, and other reasons. Deliveries were attended by a doctor or midwife. Postpartum home visits were not assured. 32.4% had routine gynecological check-ups. 48.1% had never received gynecological services. 51.6% of married women had 2 children; 16.9% had more. The author recommended improved socioeconomic and cultural conditions, a women-centered reproductive health security system integrated with education, and legislative change. Reproductive health education should be integrated into family planning programs and include health awareness and more education. Men should participate in programs and share more responsibility for reproduction. Services should improve in quality.

  5. 27 CFR 24.235 - Taxpayment or destruction of spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of spirits. 24.235 Section 24.235 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.235 Taxpayment or destruction of spirits. (a) Taxpayment of spirits. The proprietor who wants to taxpay spirits shall follow the prepayment...

  6. 27 CFR 24.226 - Receipt or transfer of spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.226 Receipt or transfer of spirits. When spirits are received at the bonded wine premises, the proprietor shall determine that the spirits are the... transferred to a distilled spirits plant or to bonded wine premises, the proprietor shall use the transfer...

  7. 27 CFR 24.232 - Gauge of spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.232 Gauge of spirits. (a) If the spirits to be used are in a spirits storage tank on bonded wine premises, or are received immediately prior to use from a distilled spirits plant not adjacent or contiguous to bonded wine premises, the proprietor shall determine...

  8. 27 CFR 19.701 - Spirits withdrawn from bonded premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... withdraw spirits without payment of tax, or wine spirits or brandy free of tax, to the proprietor's... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spirits withdrawn from... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Samples of Spirits § 19.701...

  9. 27 CFR 24.228 - Transfer of spirits by pipeline to a spirits storage tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.228 Transfer of... bonded wine premises and store the spirits prior to use, there will be provided a suitable tank for... spirits plant, will be gauged by weight or volume on bonded wine premises. (Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85-859, 72...

  10. Economic transformation in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region : Is it undergoing the Environmental Kuznets Curve?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiong, Lichun; Yu, Chang; de Jong, W.M.; Wang, Fengting; Cheng, Baodong

    2017-01-01

    The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region Integration Plan is one of the most important national strategies in China promoting regional economic development. The environmental problems in this region, however, especially air pollution and contaminated groundwater, have enormous influence on the people's

  11. Economic transformation in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region: Is it undergoing the Environmental Kuznets Curve?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiong, L. (Lichun); Yu, C. (Chang); M. de Jong (Martin); Wang, F. (Fengting); Cheng, B. (Baodong)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region Integration Plan is one of the most important national strategies in China promoting regional economic development. The environmental problems in this region, however, especially air pollution and contaminated groundwater, have enormous influence on the

  12. [Prevalence and associated factors of female urinary incontinence in Hebei province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y; Yan, L; Du, F D; Zheng, P T; Zhang, L; Jiang, L; Huang, X H

    2016-12-25

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence and associated factors of adult female urinary incontinence in Hebei province. Methods: Stratified and multistage sampling method was used, between January 2016 to May 2016, to investigate the target population in Hebei province. While, logistic regression was used to analyse datas. Results: A population-based survey was conducted in 2 450 women in Hebei province, there were 2 408 effective questionnaires after deleting 48 invalid questionnaires. According to the results, the average age of subjects was (56±15) years old, and the urinary incontinence prevalence of adult female in Hebei province was 27.70% (667/2 408). Stress urinary incontinence, urge urinary incontinence and mixed urinary incontinence were diagnosed as 23.13% (557/2 408), 1.58% (38/2 408) and 2.99% (72/2 408), respectively. There were only 2.85% (19/667) urinary incontinence patients seeking medical help. The results of logistic regression analysis showed that age, daily water intake, pulmonary diseases, urinary tract infection, hypertension, chronic low back pain, dysmenorrhea, vaginitis, abortion, mode of delivery, postpartum infection were statistically significant (all P ≤0.05). Among these factors, cesarean section was the protective factor for urinary incontinence ( OR= 0.365, 95 % CI: 0.195-0.685, P urinary incontinence in adult female in Hebei province is high, and there are few patients seeking medical help. It is a common disorder in women and is associated with many factors; among these factors, cesarean section is the protective factor for urinary incontinence.

  13. Renewing the Spirit of the Liberal Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noddings, Nel

    2013-01-01

    The spirit of the liberal arts has been undermined by overspecialization, and it has been further damaged by the increase in emphasis on the economic purpose of education. The spirit might be renewed by using the aims of the liberal arts to develop every course we teach.

  14. the holy spirit's indwelling in the church

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Spirit as a voice who lures all creatures to the future, to new opportunities and to new perspectives ... Dogmatics, also refer to a broader working of the Spirit, they are much more critical than the ..... to fall into sin, I will never eat meat again!

  15. Purifying and regenerating hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-11-19

    Hydrocarbons are freed from sulfur-containing compounds, colloidal asphaltic bodies and unstable unsaturated substances by treatment with a small amount of dilute sulfuric acid and a salt of a trivalent cation, such as ferric chloride or sulfate. Hydrocarbons specified are petroleum, crude benzol, low temperature tars, shale oil or vapor-phase cracked spirit. Motor spirit or lubricating oil distillates are refined and finally distilled. The acid reagent may be regenerated by filtering through sand or asbestos. Used lubricating oils may be treated similarly and after removal of refining agent, the oil is heated with an adsorbent and decolorizing material and then filtered.

  16. 27 CFR 19.32 - Assessment of tax on spirits, denatured spirits, or wines in bond which are lost, destroyed or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits, denatured spirits, or wines in bond which are lost, destroyed or removed without authorization... spirits, denatured spirits, or wines in bond which are lost, destroyed or removed without authorization. When spirits, denatured spirits, or wines in bond are lost or destroyed (except spirits, denatured...

  17. E and P integration via the OpenSpirit framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennis, S.

    1998-01-01

    The concept of inter-operability among a consortium of oil companies and E and P applications vendors was discussed. This paper describes the business problem including cost, cycle-time and efficiency and presents a solution. Benefits for applications developers will be single development environment for cross platform deployment; focus on value-added functionality instead of infrastructure; transparent access to widely-used data-stores; higher productivity and faster turnaround time to market. Application end-users will also benefit through elimination of the need to reformat due to cross platform and multi-vendor data access; utilization of Web browsers; integration with MS Office applications leveraging desk-top tools; lower purchase and integration cost of new applications. Strategic issues for application developers, and for oil companies, and competitive advantages of the E an P industry adopting OpenSpirit as the standard business object framework were also reviewed

  18. Spirit Beside 'Home Plate,' Sol 1809

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images assembled into this 120-degree view southward after a short drive during the 1,809th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars (February 3, 2009). Spirit had driven about 2.6 meters (8.5 feet) that sol, continuing a clockwise route around a low plateau called 'Home Plate.' In this image, the rocks visible above the rovers' solar panels are on the slope at the northern edge of Home Plate. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  19. Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation of Rural Information Poverty in China - - Case Study of Hebei Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guizhen; Wang, Shuanjun; Li, Yaqing; Wang, Huijun

    Information poverty is a new form of poverty in information society. With the growing information-gap between urban and rural areas, information poverty is prevailing in the vast rural areas in China. It is largely restricted the new rural construction and the social harmonious development of villages and towns and must be resolved. The evaluation of rural information poverty is the premise to resolve it. In order to estimate the problem, index system of rural informatization evaluation of Hebei province was designed by means of Delphi. Then, according to the survey of farmers' information demand, AHP and FCE were used to estimate rural information poverty of Hebei province. The purpose of this study is to provide a new operational approach in evaluating or solving rural information poverty and constructing rural informatization in China.

  20. 27 CFR 19.998 - Transfer in bond of spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transfer in bond of spirits. 19.998 Section 19.998 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... spirits plants. Spirits (not including spirits produced from petroleum, natural gas, or coal) may be...

  1. 27 CFR 24.236 - Losses of spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Losses of spirits. 24.236... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.236 Losses of spirits. Losses by theft or any other cause... the losses are discovered. A physical inventory of the spirits storage tanks will be taken at the...

  2. 27 CFR 19.99 - Spirits in customs custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spirits in customs custody. 19.99 Section 19.99 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on Plant Premises § 19.99 Spirits in customs custody. Spirits in customs...

  3. 27 CFR 24.233 - Addition of spirits to wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... wine. 24.233 Section 24.233 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.233 Addition of spirits to wine. (a) Prior to the addition of spirits. Wine will be placed in tanks approved for the addition of spirits. The...

  4. Reinvigorating the Entrepreneurial Spirit of NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepollina, Frank

    2015-01-01

    This talk gives a rundown of a career in servicing and looks to the future of servicing and scientific missions working together. The talk attempts to reinvigorate the old NASA entrepreneurial spirit.

  5. Scientific spirit in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Samacá Bohórquez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Play and fun are key elements in the pedagogical work with five-year school children, since the teacher is required to carry out a hermeneutical and phenomenological exercise coming from the interaction among the different languages used by children to communicate their thoughts, emotions and ideas. In order to reflect about the scientific spirit in early childhood, it is necessary firstly to think about how its logic develops and operates and about the need to recognize in the sociocultural environment the possibilities to stimulate talents or the limitations demarcating their development, secondly, teaching practice must be thought in order to establish dialogue forums with students to know their needs and interests and guide their searches. To meet other is possible for children to the extent that the dialogical principle of knowledge interaction is recognized and the discovery of tensions and meeting points around the educational praxis, as an approach to infant’s rationality and his/her ways of learning, towards the social construction of boy and girl gender identity in our society.

  6. [Beer, wine, spirits and mortality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grønbaek, M N; Sørensen, T I; Johansen, D; Becker, U; Gottschau, A; Schnohr, P; Hein, H O; Jensen, G

    2001-05-23

    A population based cohort study investigates the association between alcohol intake and mortality from all causes, coronary heart disease and cancer. The design is prospective with baseline assessment of intake of beer, wine and spirits, smoking habits, educational level, physical activity, and body mass index and a total of 257,859 person-years follow-up on mortality. A total of 4,833 participants died, of these 1,075 from coronary heart disease and 1,552 of cancer. Compared with non-drinkers, light drinkers who avoided wine, had a relative risk of death from all causes of 0.90 (0.82-0.99) and those who drank wine had a relative risk of 0.66 (0.55-0.77). Heavy drinkers who avoided wine were at higher risk of death from all causes than were heavy drinkers who included wine in their alcohol intake. Wine drinkers had significantly lower mortality from both coronary heart disease and cancer than did non-wine drinkers (p = 0.007 and p = 0.004, respectively). In conclusion, wine intake may have a beneficial effect on all cause mortality that is additive to that of alcohol. This effect may be attributable to a reduction in death from both coronary heart disease and cancer.

  7. Animal Spirits in America, April 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Middleton, Elliott

    2009-01-01

    Adaptation level and animal spirits (Middleton 1996) presented a psychophysical theory of confidence levels based on the oldest and probably most widely observed law in psychology, the sensitivity to adaptation level. For Americans, whose attachments to employment and livelihood are often tenuous in a country without a European-style social safety net, it is the sensitivity to the unemployment rate that drives confidence levels. In Animal spirits and recession forecasting (Middleton 2001; see...

  8. Diatomite releases silica during spirit filtration

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Benítez, Juan; Gil Montero, María Luisa Almoraima; De la Rosa Fox, Nicolas; Alguacil, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether diatomite is an inert filter aid during spirit filtration. Surely, any compound with a negative effect on the spirit composition or the consumer’s health could be dissolved. In this study different diatomites were treated with 36% vol. ethanol/water mixtures and the amounts and structures of the extracted compounds were determined. Furthermore, Brandy de Jerez was diatomite- and membrane-filtered at different temperatures and the silicon cont...

  9. Economic Transformation in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region: Is It Undergoing the Environmental Kuznets Curve?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lichun Xiong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region Integration Plan is one of the most important national strategies in China promoting regional economic development. The environmental problems in this region, however, especially air pollution and contaminated groundwater, have enormous influence on the people’s health while also causing economic loss. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the pattern of its environmental and economic development. Panel data in the period 2004–2014 are used to establish an advanced model of the Environmental Kuznets Curve. The results indicate that the economic growth and environmental pollution of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region do not completely meet the Environment Kuznets Curve assumptions. The discharge volume of industrial wastewater and economic growth reflect a wave-type relation. The sulfur dioxide discharge volume and economic growth reflect a U-shaped relation; the generated volume of industrial solid wastes and economic growth reflect a reversed N-shaped relation, which is in accordance with the Environmental Kuznets Curve characteristics at the second inflection point. The variables added value of the secondary industry, population size and raw coal consumption volume have a significant positive influence on the discharge of various environmental pollutants in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. The analysis provides policy recommendations for the government to develop regional economic and environmental protection policies.

  10. Survey of Veterinary Drug Residues in Raw Milk in Hebei Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Rong-Wei; Yu, Zhong-Na; Zhen, Tian-Yuan; Wang, Jun

    2017-10-17

    The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of veterinary drug residues in raw milk from Hebei, the second-largest dairy production province in the People's Republic of China. A total of 192 raw milk samples were collected from 64 milk stations in seven districts. Twenty-eight veterinary drug residues were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry based on a China National Standard. Raw milk samples with multiple residues of veterinary drugs were not found in the present study. Residues of four veterinary drugs, penicillin G, sulfacetamide, trimethoprim, and lincomycin, were detected in 12 (6.25%) raw milk samples, with detection ratios of 1.04, 0.52, 3.13, and 1.56%, respectively. All veterinary drug residues detected were under the maximum residue levels as regulated by China, the European Union, the United States, and the Codex Alimentarius Commission. In general, raw milk from Hebei province was considered relatively safe for human consumption because of the low prevalence of veterinary drug residues. However, stringent control measurements for veterinary drug residues in raw milk are required because some veterinary drugs were detected in milk from some areas of Hebei province.

  11. Methylated spirit burns: an ongoing problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansbeken, J R H; Vloemans, A F P M; Tempelman, F R H; Breederveld, R S

    2012-09-01

    Despite many educational campaigns we still see burns caused by methylated spirit every year. We undertook a retrospective study to analyse the impact of this problem. We retrospectively collected data of all patients with burns caused by methylated spirit over twelve years from 1996 to 2008. Our main endpoints were: incidence, age, mechanism of injury, total body surface area (TBSA) burned, burn depth, need for surgery and length of hospital stay. Ninety-seven patients with methylated spirit burns were included. During the study period there was no decrease in the number of patients annually admitted to the burn unit with methylated spirit burns. 28% of the patients (n=27) were younger than eighteen years old, 15% (n=15) were ten years old or younger. The most common cause of burns was carelessness in activities involving barbecues, campfires and fondues. Mean TBSA burned was 16% (SD 12.4). 70% (n=68) had full thickness burns. 66% (n=64) needed grafting. Mean length of hospital stay was 23 days (SD 24.7). The use of methylated spirit is an ongoing problem, which continues to cause severe burns in adults and children. Therefore methylated spirit should be banned in households. We suggest sale only in specialised shops, clear labelling and mandatory warnings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  12. Mobile LiDAR Measurement for Aerosol Investigation in South-Central Hebei, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    qin, kai; Wu, Lixin; Zheng, Yunhui; Wong Man, Sing; Wang, Runfeng; Hu, Mingyu; Lang, Hongmei; Wang, Luyao; Bai, Yang; Rao, Lanlan

    2016-04-01

    With the rapid industrialization and urbanization in China during the last decades, the increasing anthropogenic pollutant emissions have significantly caused serious air pollution problems which are adversely influencing public health. Hebei is one of the most air polluted provinces in China. In January 2013, an extremely severe and persistent haze episode with record-breaking PM2.5 outbreak affecting hundreds of millions of people occurred over eastern and northern China. During that haze episode, 7 of the top 10 most polluted cities in China were located in the Hebei Province according to the report of China's Ministry of Environmental Protection. To investigate and the spatial difference and to characterize the vertical distribution of aerosol in different regions of south-central Hebei, mobile measurements were carried out using a mini micro pulse LiDAR system (model: MiniMPL) in March 2014. The mobile LiDAR kit consisting of a MiniMPL, a vibration reduction mount, a power inverter, a Windows surface tablet and a GPS receiver were mounted in a car watching though the sunroof opening. For comparison, a fixed measurement using a traditional micro pulse LiDAR system (model: MPL-4B) was conducted simultaneously in Shijiazhuang, the capital of Hebei Province. The equipped car was driven from downtown Shijiazhuang by way of suburban and rural area to downtown Cangzhou, Handan, and Baoding respectively at almost stable speed around 100Km per hour along different routes which counted in total more than 1000Km. The results can be summarized as: 1) the spatial distribution of total aerosol optical depth along the measurement routes in south-central Hebei was controlled by local terrain and population in general, with high values in downtown and suburban in the plain areas, and low values in rural areas along Taihang mountain to the west and Yan mountain to the north; 2) obviously high AODs were obtained at roads crossing points, inside densely populated area and nearby

  13. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobbett, G T.B.

    1907-07-08

    Crude petroleum having a density of 850 to 900 is purified with sulfuric acid, decanted, mixed with benzine or petrol, and again treated with sulfuric acid and decanted. The remaining acid and coloring-matter are removed by washing with water, or treating with oxalic acid, zinc carbonate, lead carbonate, calcium carbonate, or oxide of zinc. The product is used as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. Specifications No. 28,104, A.D. 1906, and No. 12,606, A.D. 1907, are referred to. According to the Provisional Specification, the process is applicable to shale or schist oil.

  14. Spirit Near 'Stapledon' on Sol 1802

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera for the images assembled into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,802nd Martian day, or sol, (January 26, 2009) of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars. South is at the center; north is at both ends. Spirit had driven down off the low plateau called 'Home Plate' on Sol 1782 (January 6, 2009) after spending 12 months on a north-facing slope on the northern edge of Home Plate. The position on the slope (at about the 9-o'clock position in this view) tilted Spirit's solar panels toward the sun, enabling the rover to generate enough electricity to survive its third Martian winter. Tracks at about the 11-o'clock position of this panorama can be seen leading back to that 'Winter Haven 3' site from the Sol 1802 position about 10 meters (33 feet) away. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about one meter (40 inches). Where the receding tracks bend to the left, a circular pattern resulted from Spirit turning in place at a soil target informally named 'Stapledon' after William Olaf Stapledon, a British philosopher and science-fiction author who lived from 1886 to 1950. Scientists on the rover team suspected that the soil in that area might have a high concentration of silica, resembling a high-silica soil patch discovered east of Home Plate in 2007. Bright material visible in the track furthest to the right was examined with Spirit's alpha partical X-ray spectrometer and found, indeed, to be rich in silica. The team laid plans to drive Spirit from this Sol 1802 location back up onto Home Plate, then southward for the rover's summer field season. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  15. Spirit Near 'Stapledon' on Sol 1802 (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera for the images assembled into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,802nd Martian day, or sol, (January 26, 2009) of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars. North is at the top. This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction. Spirit had driven down off the low plateau called 'Home Plate' on Sol 1782 (January 6, 2009) after spending 12 months on a north-facing slope on the northern edge of Home Plate. The position on the slope (at about the 9-o'clock position in this view) tilted Spirit's solar panels toward the sun, enabling the rover to generate enough electricity to survive its third Martian winter. Tracks at about the 11-o'clock position of this panorama can be seen leading back to that 'Winter Haven 3' site from the Sol 1802 position about 10 meters (33 feet) away. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about one meter (40 inches). Where the receding tracks bend to the left, a circular pattern resulted from Spirit turning in place at a soil target informally named 'Stapledon' after William Olaf Stapledon, a British philosopher and science-fiction author who lived from 1886 to 1950. Scientists on the rover team suspected that the soil in that area might have a high concentration of silica, resembling a high-silica soil patch discovered east of Home Plate in 2007. Bright material visible in the track furthest to the right was examined with Spirit's alpha partical X-ray spectrometer and found, indeed, to be rich in silica. The team laid plans to drive Spirit from this Sol 1802 location back up onto Home Plate, then southward for the rover's summer field season.

  16. Spirit Near 'Stapledon' on Sol 1802 (Polar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera for the images assembled into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,802nd Martian day, or sol, (January 26, 2009) of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars. North is at the top. This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction. Spirit had driven down off the low plateau called 'Home Plate' on Sol 1782 (January 6, 2009) after spending 12 months on a north-facing slope on the northern edge of Home Plate. The position on the slope (at about the 9-o'clock position in this view) tilted Spirit's solar panels toward the sun, enabling the rover to generate enough electricity to survive its third Martian winter. Tracks at about the 11-o'clock position of this panorama can be seen leading back to that 'Winter Haven 3' site from the Sol 1802 position about 10 meters (33 feet) away. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about one meter (40 inches). Where the receding tracks bend to the left, a circular pattern resulted from Spirit turning in place at a soil target informally named 'Stapledon' after William Olaf Stapledon, a British philosopher and science-fiction author who lived from 1886 to 1950. Scientists on the rover team suspected that the soil in that area might have a high concentration of silica, resembling a high-silica soil patch discovered east of Home Plate in 2007. Bright material visible in the track furthest to the right was examined with Spirit's alpha partical X-ray spectrometer and found, indeed, to be rich in silica. The team laid plans to drive Spirit from this Sol 1802 location back up onto Home Plate, then southward for the rover's summer field season.

  17. BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES OF SPIRIT PRODUCTION WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kayshev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A content of biologically active compounds (BAC with signified pharmacological activity in distillers grains was proved. It is prospective for applications of these grains as a raw material resource of pharmaceuticals. A composition of BAC distillers grains received from wheat, corn, barley, millet at different spirit enterprises which use hydro fermentative grain processing. Considering polydispersity of distillers grains they were separated on solid and liquid phases preliminary. Physical and chemical characteristics of distillers grains' liquid base were identified. Elementary composition of distillers grains is signified by active accumulation of biogenic elements (phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium, sodium, iron and low content of heavy metals. The solid phase of distillers grains accumulates carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen in high concentration. The liquid phase of distillers grains contains: proteins and amino acids (20-46%, reducing sugars (5,6%-17,5%, galacturonides (0,8-1,4%, ascorbic acid (6,2-11,4 mg%. The solid base of distillers grains contains: galacturonides (3,4-5,3%, fatty oil (8,4-11,1% with predomination of essential fatty acids, proteins and amino acids (2,1-2,5%, flavonoids (0,4-0,9%, tocopherols (3,4-7,7 mg%. A method of complex processing of distillers grains based on application of membrane filtering of liquid phase and liquid extraction by inorganic and organic solvents of solid phase, which allows almost full extraction of the sum of biologically active compounds (BAC from liquid phase (Biobardin BM and solid phase (Biobardin UL. Biobardin BM comprises the following elements: proteins and amino acids (41-69%, reducing sugars (3,5-15,6%, fatty oil (0,2-0,3%, flavonoids (0,2-0,7%, ascorbic acid (17-37 mg%. Biobardin UL includes: oligouronids (16,4-19,5%, proteins and amino acids (11-21%, fatty oil (3,2-4,9% which includes essential acids; flavonoids (0,6-1,5%, tocopherols (6,6-10,2 mg%, carotinoids (0,13-0,21 mg

  18. [Contraindications of spirit (shen) in acupuncture and moxibustion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zheng-Han; Yan, Ji-Lan; Wang, Shu-Bin; Zu, Na

    2014-07-01

    ABSTRACT The taboos of man-spirit (RenShen) and bottom-spirit (KaoShen) are two kinds of time-related contraindications that are more commonly seen in the literature of acupuncture and moxibustion. The meaning of man-spirit is often extended to qi-blood or mind, or else directly equals to heaven-spirit (TianShen). It is highly possible that the bottom-spirit is subordinate to man-spirit, and both Taoist philosophy and the SanCai theory declare the importance of bottom in human body. The violation of contraindications could lead to diseases in the neighborhood where man-spirit travels. However, the results are generally recorded as ulcer, lingering disease and death in most medical texts. From Ming dynasty, more and more doctors have expressed disapproval of man-spirit and bottom-spirit.

  19. Spirit Begins Drive Around Home Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The hazard avoidance camera on the front of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this image after a drive by Spirit on the 1,829th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars (Feb. 24, 2009). On Sol 1829, Spirit drove 6.29 meters (21 feet) northwestward, away from the northern edge of the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' The track dug by the dragged right-front wheel as the rover drove backward is visible in this image, receding toward the southeast. Rock layers of the northern slope of Home Plate are visible in the upper right portion of the image. In sols prior to 1829, the rover team had been trying to maneuver Spirit to climb onto the northern edge of Home Plate, ready to drive southward across the top of the plateau toward science destinations south of Home Plate. The Sol 1829 drive was the first move of a revised strategy to circle at least partway around Home Plate on the trek toward the sites south of the plateau.

  20. Spirit drinks: a source of dietary polyphenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Posavec

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a long tradition in the production of spirit drinks and using them in the human diet, especially in the Southeast European and Mediterranean regions. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether and which spirits can serve, and to what extent, as a source of biologically active compounds in the human diet. Polyphenolic compounds are biologically active compounds of fruits, vegetables and derived beverages, which have been implicated in their antioxidant activity. Therefore, the total polyphenol content (TPC and antioxidative properties of 46 spirit drinks and liqueurs produced in Croatia were examined. The total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity were estimated using spectrophotometric methods (Folin-Ciocalteu, DPPH and FRAP, while certain phenols were detected by the HPLC. It was established that spirit drinks aged in wooden casks, such as wine or plum brandy, contain polyphenols ranging from 40-90 mg GAE/L (gallic acid equivalents, whereas walnut or sour cherry liquors contain much more polyphenols ranging from 680-3360 mg GAE/L. The antioxidant activity of analyzed spirit drinks was in correlation with TPC. Walnut and sour cherry liqueur samples had very high antioxidant activity, within the range of those obtained with 1.26 mM Trolox-DPPH assay and 9.5 mM Trolox-FRAP assay.

  1. Acute hydrocarbon pneumonia after white spirit aspiration: sequential HRCT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facon, David; Coumbaras, Jean; Bigot, Emmanuelle; Bahlouli, Fouad; Bellin, Marie-France [Universite Paris 11, Department of Radiology, Hopital Paul-Brousse, AP-HP, Villejuif Cedex (France); Boissonnas, Alain [Universite Paris 11, Department of Internal Medicine, Hopital Paul-Brousse, AP-HP, Villejuif Cedex (France)

    2005-01-01

    Hydrocarbon pneumonia is a very uncommon condition resulting from aspiration of mineral oil into the lung. We report the first description of early and sequential high-resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) findings of hydrocarbon pneumonia following attempted suicide by white spirit aspiration. Initial HRCT showed patchy opacities of coalescing masses with well-defined walls. They were visible in the middle lobe, lingula and lower lobes. Follow-up CT showed regression of the alveolar opacities, the presence of pneumatoceles and right asymptomatic pneumothorax. After 23 months of follow-up, the patient remained asymptomatic, and the follow-up CT scan was considered normal. The radiological features and a review of the relevant literature are briefly discussed. (orig.)

  2. View Ahead After Spirit's Sol 1861 Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 210-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,861st to 1,863rd Martian days, or sols, of Spirit's surface mission (March 28 to 30, 2009). The center of the scene is toward the south-southwest. East is on the left. West-northwest is on the right. The rover had driven 22.7 meters (74 feet) southwestward on Sol 1861 before beginning to take the frames in this view. The drive brought Spirit past the northwestern corner of Home Plate. In this view, the western edge of Home Plate is on the portion of the horizon farthest to the left. A mound in middle distance near the center of the view is called 'Tsiolkovsky' and is about 40 meters (about 130 feet) from the rover's position. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  3. The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisawitz, David T.

    2014-01-01

    The far-infrared astrophysics community is eager to follow up Spitzer and Herschel observations with sensitive, high-resolution imaging and spectroscopy, for such measurements are needed to understand merger-driven star formation and chemical enrichment in galaxies, star and planetary system formation, and the development and prevalence of water-bearing planets. The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) is a wide field-of-view space-based spatio-spectral interferometer designed to operate in the 25 to 400 micron wavelength range. This talk will summarize the SPIRIT mission concept, with a focus on the science that motivates it and the technology that enables it. Without mentioning SPIRIT by name, the astrophysics community through the NASA Astrophysics Roadmap Committee recently recommended this mission as the first in a series of space-based interferometers. Data from a laboratory testbed interferometer will be used to illustrate how the spatio-spectral interferometry technique works.

  4. Empirical Study on Total Factor Productive Energy Efficiency in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region-Analysis based on Malmquist Index and Window Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiang; Ding, Shuai; An, Jingwen

    2017-12-01

    This paper studies the energy efficiency of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and to finds out the trend of energy efficiency in order to improve the economic development quality of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. Based on Malmquist index and window analysis model, this paper estimates the total factor energy efficiency in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region empirically by using panel data in this region from 1991 to 2014, and provides the corresponding political recommendations. The empirical result shows that, the total factor energy efficiency in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region increased from 1991 to 2014, mainly relies on advances in energy technology or innovation, and obvious regional differences in energy efficiency to exist. Throughout the window period of 24 years, the regional differences of energy efficiency in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region shrank. There has been significant convergent trend in energy efficiency after 2000, mainly depends on the diffusion and spillover of energy technologies.

  5. LC-MS/MS determination of acrylamide in instant noodles from supermarkets in the Hebei province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Xin; Zhang, Gui-Xiang; Yang, Li-Xue; He, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Acrylamide (AA) concentrations in instant noodles (90 samples, covering 10 different brands) from Hebei Province of China were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The instant noodles were sampled from the southern and northern areas of Hebei Province (Shijiazhuang and Tangshan, respectively). The average content of AA for all 10 instant noodle brands was 6-145 µg/kg. The average content of AA in fried instant noodles was 4.47 times of those in non-fried ones, indicating the influence of the frying process. The average content of AA in instant noodles from Shijiazhuang was 1.64 times that of the samples from Tangshan (56 µg/kg). Eighty-four percent of the instant noodle samples in Hebei were contaminated with AA, with an average content of 80 µg/kg. These observations will be helpful for evaluating individual exposure to AA from instant noodles in China.

  6. Life and death in Kardecist Spiritism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Laura Viveiros de Castro Cavalcanti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses from an anthropological perspective how Brazilian Spiritism resignifies the current notions of life and death, comparing the notion of reincarnation with the Christian and Catholic notion of purgatory. The search for understanding of the processes of identity construction in this religious system leads to the examination of the notions of reincarnation, karma, evolution, mediumship and probation, which are central to Kardecian cosmology. With this active set of notions, Spiritism proposes a rich set of perspectives about the self, and simultaneously graduates and softens the otherness of death.

  7. Simulation of corn yields and parameters uncertainties analysis in Hebei and Sichuang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, A.; Xue, Y.; Hartman, M. D.; Chandran, A.; Qiu, B.; Liu, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Corn is one of most important agricultural production in China. Research on the impacts of climate change and human activities on corn yields is important in understanding and mitigating the negative effects of environmental factors on corn yields and maintaining the stable corn production. Using climatic data, including daily temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation from 1948 to 2010, soil properties, observed corn yields, and farmland management information, corn yields in Sichuang and Hebei Provinces of China in the past 63 years were simulated using the Daycent model, and the results was evaluated using Root mean square errors, bias, simulation efficiency, and standard deviation. The primary climatic factors influencing corn yields were examined, the uncertainties of climatic factors was analyzed, and the uncertainties of human activity parameters were also studied by changing fertilization levels and cultivated ways. The results showed that: (1) Daycent model is capable to simulate corn yields in Sichuang and Hebei provinces of China. Observed and simulated corn yields have the similar increasing trend with time. (2) The minimum daily temperature is the primary factor influencing corn yields in Sichuang. In Hebei Province, daily temperature, precipitation and wind speed significantly affect corn yields.(3) When the global warming trend of original data was removed, simulated corn yields were lower than before, decreased by about 687 kg/hm2 from 1992 to 2010; When the fertilization levels, cultivated ways were increased and decreased by 50% and 75%, respectively in the Schedule file in Daycent model, the simulated corn yields increased by 1206 kg/hm2 and 776 kg/hm2, respectively, with the enhancement of fertilization level and the improvement of cultivated way. This study provides a scientific base for selecting a suitable fertilization level and cultivated way in corn fields in China.

  8. Upper gastrointestinal cancer burden in Hebei Province, China: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dao-Juan; Liang, Di; Song, Guo-Hui; Li, Yong-Wei; Wen, Deng-Gui; Jin, Jing; He, Yu-Tong

    2017-04-14

    To investigate the incidence and mortality rates of upper gastrointestinal cancer (UGIC) in Hebei Province, China, and to identify high-risk populations to improve UGIC prevention and control. Data for UGIC patients were collected from 21 population-based cancer registries covering 15.25% of the population in Hebei Province. Mortality data were extracted from three national retrospective death surveys (1973-1975, 1990-1992 and 2004-2005). The data were stratified by 5-year age groups, gender and area (high-risk/non-high-risk areas) for analysis. The age-period-cohort and grey system model were used. The crude incidence rate of UGIC was 55.47/100000, and the adjusted rate (Segi's population) was 44.90/100000. Males in rural areas had the highest incidence rate (world age-standardized rate = 87.89/100000). The crude mortality rate of UGIC displayed a decreasing trend in Hebei Province from the 1970s to 2013, and the adjusted rate decreased by 43.81% from the 1970s (58.07/100000) to 2013 (32.63/100000). The mortality rate declined more significantly in the high-risk areas (57.26%) than in the non-high-risk areas (55.02%) from the 1970s to 2013. The median age at diagnosis of UGIC was 65.06 years in 2013. There was a notable delay in the median age at death from the 1970s (66.15 years) to 2013 (70.39 years), especially in the high-risk areas. In Cixian, the total trend of the cohort effect declined, and people aged 65-69 years were a population at relatively high risk for UGIC. We predicted that the crude mortality rates of UGIC in Cixian and Shexian would decrease to 98.80 and 133.99 per 100000 in 2018, respectively. UGIC was the major cause of cancer death in Hebei Province, and males in rural areas were a high-risk population. We should strengthen early detection and treatment of UGIC in this population.

  9. Physics issues of a proposed program, SPIRIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Hantao; Yamada, Masaaki

    2000-01-01

    Physics issues of the proposed program, SPIRIT (Self-organized Plasma with Induction, Reconnection, and Induction Techniques) are discussed. The main purpose of this program is to explore the physics of global stability and sustainment of compact toroids, including FRC (field reversed configuration) as well as low-aspect-ratio RFP (reversed field pinch), spheromak and spherical torus. (author)

  10. Europe's crisis : unification without a unifying spirit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Margriet Krijtenburg

    2011-01-01

    What is happening to the EU? Following Schuman’s line of thought we can see that the crisis is linked with the lack of a European spirit among member states, together with the lack of a moral order as the guiding principle for European policies – including in the field of finance. It is the speed of

  11. Legacy Panorama on Spirit's Way to 'Bonneville'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Legacy Panorama on Spirit's Way to 'Bonneville' (QTVR) This view captured by the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit nearly a year ago is called Spirit's 'Legacy' panorama. It combines many frames acquired during Spirit's 59th through 61st martian days, or sols (March 3 to 5, 2004) from a position about halfway between the landing site and the rim of 'Bonneville Crater.' The location is within the transition from the relatively smooth plains to the more rocky and rugged blanket of material ejected from Bonneville by the force of the impact that dug the crater. The panorama spans 360 degrees and consists of images obtained in 78 individual pointings. The camera took images though 5 different filter at each pointing. This mosaic is an approximately true-color rendering generated using the images acquired through filters centered at wavelengths of 750, 530, and 480 nanometers. The Columbia Memorial Station lander can be seen about 200 meters (about 650 feet) in the distance by following the rover tracks back toward right of center in the mosaic and zooming in.

  12. 27 CFR 24.316 - Spirits record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., stores, or uses spirits shall maintain a record of receipt and use. The record will show the date of... the Office of Management and Budget under control numbers 1512-0216 and 1512-0298) [T.D. ATF-299, 55...

  13. Klubi "Spirit" = Club Spirit / Hanno Soans ; tõlk. Liisi Ojamaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soans, Hanno, 1974-

    2000-01-01

    Eesti klubikultuurist 1990-ndatel. Klubi "Spirit" kujundusest. Sisearhitektid Tarmo Piirmets, Martti Siimann. Arhitekt Jüri Irik Arhitektuuribüroost Ehala & Irik. Projekt ja klubi valmis 2000. Flaierid kujundas Aadam Kaarma. 10 ill. Vaated, korruste plaanid

  14. Spirit Near 'Stapledon' on Sol 1802 (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11781 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11781 NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera for the images assembled into this stereo, full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,802nd Martian day, or sol, (January 26, 2009) of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars. South is at the center; north is at both ends. This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. Spirit had driven down off the low plateau called 'Home Plate' on Sol 1782 (January 6, 2009) after spending 12 months on a north-facing slope on the northern edge of Home Plate. The position on the slope (at about the 9-o'clock position in this view) tilted Spirit's solar panels toward the sun, enabling the rover to generate enough electricity to survive its third Martian winter. Tracks at about the 11-o'clock position of this panorama can be seen leading back to that 'Winter Haven 3' site from the Sol 1802 position about 10 meters (33 feet) away. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about one meter (40 inches). Where the receding tracks bend to the left, a circular pattern resulted from Spirit turning in place at a soil target informally named 'Stapledon' after William Olaf Stapledon, a British philosopher and science-fiction author who lived from 1886 to 1950. Scientists on the rover team suspected that the soil in that area might have a high concentration of silica, resembling a high-silica soil patch discovered east of Home Plate in 2007. Bright material visible in the track furthest to the right was examined with Spirit's alpha partical X-ray spectrometer and found, indeed, to be rich in silica. The team laid plans to drive Spirit from this Sol 1802 location back up

  15. 27 CFR 19.65 - Experimental distilled spirits plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plants. 19.65 Section 19.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Activities Not Subject to This Part § 19.65 Experimental distilled spirits plants. The...

  16. Application of FTIR-ATR Spectroscopy for the quality control of wine spirits, brandies and grape marc spirits

    OpenAIRE

    Anjos, O.; Caldeira, I.

    2013-01-01

    This study attempted to apply a rapid method for the determination of methanol, acetaldehyde and ethyl acetate in wine spirits, brandies and grape marc spirits, using Fourier Transform Infrared – Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) Spectroscopy.

  17. Spirit View of 'Wishstone' (False Color)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Scientists working with NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit decided to examine this rock, dubbed 'Wishstone,' based on data from the miniature thermal emission spectrometer. That instrument's data indicated that the mineralogy of the rocks in this area is different from that of rocks encountered either on the plains of Gusev Crater or in bedrock outcrops examined so far in the 'Columbia Hills' inside the crater. Spirit used its rock abrasion tool first to scour a patch of the rock's surface with a wire brush, then to grind away the surface to reveal interior material. Placement of the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer on the exposed circle of interior material revealed that the rock is rich in phosphorus. Spirit used its panoramic camera during the rover's 342nd martian day, or sol, (Dec. 18, 2004) to take the three individual images that were combined to produce this false-color view emphasizing the freshly ground dust around the hole cut by the rock abrasion tool. Unusually Rich in Phosophorus The graph in figure 1 compares the elemental makeup of a rock dubbed 'Wishstone' with the average composition of rocks that Spirit examined on the western spur of the 'Columbia Hills.' Wishstone lies farther into the hills than that spur. It is richer in phosphorus than any other Mars rock ever examined. Scientists plan to examine other rocks near Wishstone to help explain the significance of the high phosphorus concentration. The vertical scale is the ratio of the concentration of an element in the hills rocks to the concentration of the same element in a typical volcanic rock from the plains that Spirit crossed to reach the hills.

  18. A comparison between antenatal care quality in public and private sector in rural Hebei, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Dai, Yaohua; Zhang, Yanfeng; Wu, Qiong; Rudan, Diana; Saftić, Vanja; van Velthoven, Michelle H M M T; Su, Jianqiang; Tan, Zangwen; Scherpbier, Robert W

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the quality of antenatal care (ANC) in Hebei Province and compare it between the public and private sector and within the public sector. We conducted a Maternal, Newborn and Child Health Household Survey in 2010 using a two-stage sampling procedure and included 1079 mothers. The quality of ANC was assessed on the basis of the number of ANC visits, the time of the first ANC visit, 16 different ANC procedures, owning a maternal health care booklet, and the type of service provider. Almost all women (98%) received ANC services at least once, 80% at least four times, and 54% at least five times. About half of the women (46%) visited ANC facility within their first trimester. Neither public nor private sector provided all 16 standardized services, but significantly more women in public sector received ANC procedures. Most women received ANC in county or higher-level hospitals (75%) and very few in township hospitals (8%). Significantly fewer women were weighed and tested for HIV/AIDS in township than in county or higher-level hospitals. The quality of ANC in Hebei was poorer than required by China's national and World Health Organization norms. Although the public sector performed better than the private sector, the utilization and quality of care of ANC services in this sector varied and women generally visited county or higher-level health facilities.

  19. A comparison between antenatal care quality in public and private sector in rural Hebei, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Dai, Yaohua; Zhang, Yanfeng; Wu, Qiong; Rudan, Diana; Saftić, Vanja; van Velthoven, Michelle H.M.M.T.; Su, Jianqiang; Tan, Zangwen; Scherpbier, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the quality of antenatal care (ANC) in Hebei Province and compare it between the public and private sector and within the public sector. Methods We conducted a Maternal, Newborn and Child Health Household Survey in 2010 using a two-stage sampling procedure and included 1079 mothers. The quality of ANC was assessed on the basis of the number of ANC visits, the time of the first ANC visit, 16 different ANC procedures, owning a maternal health care booklet, and the type of service provider. Results Almost all women (98%) received ANC services at least once, 80% at least four times, and 54% at least five times. About half of the women (46%) visited ANC facility within their first trimester. Neither public nor private sector provided all 16 standardized services, but significantly more women in public sector received ANC procedures. Most women received ANC in county or higher-level hospitals (75%) and very few in township hospitals (8%). Significantly fewer women were weighed and tested for HIV/AIDS in township than in county or higher-level hospitals. Conclusion The quality of ANC in Hebei was poorer than required by China’s national and World Health Organization norms. Although the public sector performed better than the private sector, the utilization and quality of care of ANC services in this sector varied and women generally visited county or higher-level health facilities. PMID:23630142

  20. 27 CFR 24.227 - Transfer of spirits by pipeline for immediate use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.227 Transfer of spirits... wine in a spirits addition tank and has determined the quantity of spirits to be added, the spirits may... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transfer of spirits by...

  1. Effect of spirit irradiation with 60Co gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwardys, S.

    1975-01-01

    A few sorts of spirit were irradiated with a dose of 1 or 5 Mrad of 60 Co gamma-rays. Then the chemical composition of spirits was investigated. It was found that as a result of irradiation the content of acids, esters, acetal aldehydes and methanol increases, while the strength of higher alcohols decreases slightly. The changes of compounds content in particular spirits are dependent on radiation doses and chemical composition before irradiation. It was also discovered that spirit irradiation causes decrease or even disappearance of characteristic - for given spirits - maxima of UV absorption. (Z.M.)

  2. Analysis of the economic impact of the national unified carbon trading market mechanism Hebei province, for example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuxing

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a grey prediction model is used to predict the carbon emission in Hebei province, and the impact analysis model based on TermCo2 is established. At the same time, we read a lot about CGE and study on how to build the scene, the selection of key parameters, and sensitivity analysis of application scenarios do industry for reference.

  3. HIV-1 genetic diversity and its distribution characteristics among newly diagnosed HIV-1 individuals in Hebei province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinli; Zhao, Cuiying; Wang, Wei; Nie, Chenxi; Zhang, Yuqi; Zhao, Hongru; Chen, Suliang; Cui, Ze

    2016-01-01

    Since the first HIV-1 case in 1989, Hebei province has presented a clearly rising trend of HIV-1 prevalence, and HIV-1 genetic diversity has become the vital barrier to HIV prevention and control in this area. To obtain detailed information of HIV-1 spread in different populations and in different areas of Hebei, a cross-sectional HIV-1 molecular epidemiological investigation was performed across the province. Blood samples of 154 newly diagnosed HIV-1 individuals were collected from ten prefectures in Hebei using stratified sampling. Partial gag and env genes were amplified and sequenced. HIV-1 genotypes were identified by phylogenetic tree analyses. Among the 139 subjects genotyped, six HIV-1 subtypes were identified successfully, including subtype B (41.0 %), CRF01_AE (40.3 %), CRF07_BC (11.5 %), CRF08_BC (4.3 %), unique recombinant forms (URFs) (1.4 %) and subtype C (1.4 %). Subtype B was identified as the most frequent subtype. Two URF recombination patterns were the same as CRF01_AE/B. HIV-1 genotype distribution showed a significant statistical difference in different demographic characteristics, such as source (P  0.05). The differences in HIV-1 genotype distribution were closely associated with transmission routes. Particularly, all six subtype strains were found in heterosexuals, showing that HIV-1 has spread from the high-risk populations to the general populations in Hebei, China. In addition, CRF01_AE instead of subtype B has become the major strain of HIV-1 infection among homosexuals. Our study revealed HIV-1 evolution and genotype distribution by investigating newly diagnosed HIV-1 individuals in Hebei, China. This study provides important information to enhance the strategic plan for HIV prevention and control in China.

  4. HIV-1 molecular epidemiology among newly diagnosed HIV-1 individuals in Hebei, a low HIV prevalence province in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinli Lu

    Full Text Available New human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 diagnoses are increasing rapidly in Hebei. The aim of this study presents the most extensive HIV-1 molecular epidemiology investigation in Hebei province in China thus far. We have carried out the most extensive systematic cross-sectional study based on newly diagnosed HIV-1 positive individuals in 2013, and characterized the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 based on full length gag-partial pol gene sequences in the whole of Hebei. Nine HIV-1 genotypes based on full length gag-partial pol gene sequence were identified among 610 newly diagnosed naïve individuals. The four main genotypes were circulating recombinant form (CRF01_AE (53.4%, CRF07_BC (23.4%, subtype B (15.9%, and unique recombinant forms URFs (4.9%. Within 1 year, three new genotypes (subtype A1, CRF55_01B, CRF65_cpx, unknown before in Hebei, were first found among men who have sex with men (MSM. All nine genotypes were identified in the sexually contracted HIV-1 population. Among 30 URFs, six recombinant patterns were revealed, including CRF01_AE/BC (40.0%, CRF01_AE/B (23.3%, B/C (16.7%, CRF01_AE/C (13.3%, CRF01_AE/B/A2 (3.3% and CRF01_AE/BC/A2 (3.3%, plus two potential CRFs. This study elucidated the complicated characteristics of HIV-1 molecular epidemiology in a low HIV-1 prevalence northern province of China and revealed the high level of HIV-1 genetic diversity. All nine HIV-1 genotypes circulating in Hebei have spread out of their initial risk groups into the general population through sexual contact, especially through MSM. This highlights the urgency of HIV prevention and control in China.

  5. Mixing layer height on the North China Plain and meteorological evidence of serious air pollution in southern Hebei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaowan; Tang, Guiqian; Guo, Jianping; Hu, Bo; Song, Tao; Wang, Lili; Xin, Jinyuan; Gao, Wenkang; Münkel, Christoph; Schäfer, Klaus; Li, Xin; Wang, Yuesi

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the spatiotemporal variability of the mixing layer height (MLH) on the North China Plain (NCP), multi-site and long-term observations of the MLH with ceilometers at three inland stations (Beijing, BJ; Shijiazhuang, SJZ; Tianjin, TJ) and one coastal site (Qinhuangdao) were conducted from 16 October 2013 to 15 July 2015. The MLH of the inland stations in the NCP were highest in summer and lowest in winter, while the MLH on the coastal area of Bohai was lowest in summer and highest in spring. As a typical site in southern Hebei, the annual mean of the MLH at SJZ was 464 ± 183 m, which was 15.0 and 21.9 % lower than that at the BJ (594 ± 183 m) and TJ (546 ± 197 m) stations, respectively. Investigation of the shear term and buoyancy term in the NCP revealed that these two parameters in southern Hebei were 2.8 times lower and 1.5 times higher than that in northern NCP within 0-1200 m in winter, respectively, leading to a 1.9-fold higher frequency of the gradient Richardson number > 1 in southern Hebei compared to the northern NCP. Furthermore, combined with aerosol optical depth and PM2.5 observations, we found that the pollutant column concentration contrast (1.2 times) between these two areas was far less than the near-ground PM2.5 concentration contrast (1.5 times). Through analysis of the ventilation coefficient in the NCP, the near-ground heavy pollution in southern Hebei mainly resulted from the lower MLH and wind speed. Therefore, due to the importance of unfavorable weather conditions, heavily polluting enterprises should be relocated and strong emission reduction measures should be introduced to improve the air quality in southern Hebei.

  6. HIV-1 molecular epidemiology among newly diagnosed HIV-1 individuals in Hebei, a low HIV prevalence province in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinli; Kang, Xianjiang; Liu, Yongjian; Cui, Ze; Guo, Wei; Zhao, Cuiying; Li, Yan; Chen, Suliang; Li, Jingyun; Zhang, Yuqi; Zhao, Hongru

    2017-01-01

    New human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) diagnoses are increasing rapidly in Hebei. The aim of this study presents the most extensive HIV-1 molecular epidemiology investigation in Hebei province in China thus far. We have carried out the most extensive systematic cross-sectional study based on newly diagnosed HIV-1 positive individuals in 2013, and characterized the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 based on full length gag-partial pol gene sequences in the whole of Hebei. Nine HIV-1 genotypes based on full length gag-partial pol gene sequence were identified among 610 newly diagnosed naïve individuals. The four main genotypes were circulating recombinant form (CRF)01_AE (53.4%), CRF07_BC (23.4%), subtype B (15.9%), and unique recombinant forms URFs (4.9%). Within 1 year, three new genotypes (subtype A1, CRF55_01B, CRF65_cpx), unknown before in Hebei, were first found among men who have sex with men (MSM). All nine genotypes were identified in the sexually contracted HIV-1 population. Among 30 URFs, six recombinant patterns were revealed, including CRF01_AE/BC (40.0%), CRF01_AE/B (23.3%), B/C (16.7%), CRF01_AE/C (13.3%), CRF01_AE/B/A2 (3.3%) and CRF01_AE/BC/A2 (3.3%), plus two potential CRFs. This study elucidated the complicated characteristics of HIV-1 molecular epidemiology in a low HIV-1 prevalence northern province of China and revealed the high level of HIV-1 genetic diversity. All nine HIV-1 genotypes circulating in Hebei have spread out of their initial risk groups into the general population through sexual contact, especially through MSM. This highlights the urgency of HIV prevention and control in China.

  7. The SPIRIT Telescope Initiative: six years on

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckas, Paul

    2017-06-01

    Now in its sixth year of operation, the SPIRIT initiative remains unique in Australia, as a robust web-enabled robotic telescope initiative funded for education and outreach. With multiple modes of operation catering for a variety of usage scenarios and a fully supported education program, SPIRIT provides free access to contemporary astronomical tools for students and educators in Western Australia and beyond. The technical solution itself provides an excellent model for low cost robotic telescope installations, and the education program has evolved over time to include a broad range of student experiences-from engagement activities to authentic science. This paper details the robotic telescope solution, student interface and educational philosophy, summarises achievements and lessons learned and examines the possibilities for future enhancement including spectroscopy.

  8. Choosing a public-spirited leader

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Tyran, Jean-robert

    2017-01-01

    In this experiment, voters select a leader who can either act in the public interest, i.e. make efficient and equitable policy choices, or act in a corrupt way, i.e. use public funds for private gain. Voters can observe candidates⿿ pro-social behavior and their score in a cognitive ability test...... prior to the election, and this fact is known to candidates. Therefore, self-interested candidates have incentives to act in a pro-social manner, i.e. to pretend to be public-spirited leaders. We find that both truly pro-social and egoistic leaders co-exist, but that political selection is ineffective...... in choosing public-spirited leaders. The main reason is that egoistic candidates strategically pretend to be pro-social to increase their chances of winning the election....

  9. Monod and the spirit of molecular biology

    OpenAIRE

    Morange , Michel

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The founders of molecular biology shared views on the place of biology within science, as well as on the relations of molecular biology to Darwinism. Jacques Monod was no exception, but the study of his writings is particularly interesting because he expressed his point of view very clearly and pushed the implications of some of his choices further than most of his contemporaries. The spirit of molecular biology is no longer the same as in the 1960s but, interestingly,...

  10. Swedish Listed Family Firms and Entrepreneurial Spirit

    OpenAIRE

    Bjuggren, Per-Olof; Palmberg, Johanna

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the entrepreneurial spirit in Swedish listed family firms. We associate family firms with entrepreneurship in the sense that there is an identifiable person that takes the uninsurable risk in the sense of Knight. This paper analysis two questions: Do entrepreneurial family firms have a higher rate of growth and do they invest in a more profit maximizing fashion than other listed firms? The analysis shows that entrepreneurial family firms in general are smaller in terms...

  11. Spirit of place: Bridging the 'epistemological gap'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Nickola B. N.

    My work explores the psychological gap between humans and nature. Also how humanity is a parcel of nature and that the philosophy of spirit of place can create oneness through imagery, describing the landscape while also encompassing the 'larger frame' within the aesthetic. These transcendental moments connect with not only the landscape but to earth as a spiritual entity. My work is a response to the landscape and these moments.

  12. Whirlwind Drama During Spirit's 496th Sol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This movie clip shows a dust devil growing in size and blowing across the plain inside Mars' Gusev Crater. The clip consists of frames taken by the navigation camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit during the morning of the rover's 496th martian day, or sol (May 26, 2005). Contrast has been enhanced for anything in the images that changes from frame to frame, that is, for the dust moved by wind.

  13. Spirit Beside 'Home Plate,' Sol 1809 (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11803 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11803 NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images assembled into this stereo, 120-degree view southward after a short drive during the 1,809th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars (February 3, 2009). By combining images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera, the view appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. Spirit had driven about 2.6 meters (8.5 feet) that sol, continuing a clockwise route around a low plateau called 'Home Plate.' In this image, the rocks visible above the rovers' solar panels are on the slope at the northern edge of Home Plate. This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  14. Confucianism Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Usman

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article tries to explore the fundamental values of Confucianism ethics and its influence to the emergence of Capitalism. By using Weber's thesis on the relationship between Protestant ethics and the spirit of capitalism, this paper concludes that the three important values of Confucianism Ethics (ren: benevolence, humaneness, li: rightness, righteousness, and fittingness, and yi: rules of proper conduct, ritual, and rites are proposing people on how to become good human beings. If the Confucian follows these ethics properly, he/she will get the successful life. Although it is not guaranteed but the Confucianism ethics are still relevant to be practiced in contemporary situation. Some research findings recently showed that Confucianism ethics have really influence people to fulfill the "calling" (Weber's term and it has also power to increase the spirit of capitalism. The rise of Japan, China, and the four little dragons (including South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore is related to the development of Confucianism, and it directly brings down Weber's view point, which taught that Confucianism did not have the spirit of capitalism.

  15. Potential of future seismogenesis in Hebei Province (NE China) due to stress interactions between strong earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakostas, Vassilios; Papadimitriou, Eleftheria; Jin, Xueshen; Liu, Zhihui; Paradisopoulou, Parthena; He, Zhang

    2013-10-01

    Northeast China, a densely populated area, is affected by intense seismic activity, which includes large events that caused extensive disaster and tremendous loss of life. For contributing to the continuous efforts for seismic hazard assessment, the earthquake potential from the active faults near the cities of Zhangjiakou and Langfang in Hebei Province is examined. We estimate the effect of the coseismic stress changes of strong (M ⩾ 5.0) earthquakes on the major regional active faults, and mapped Coulomb stress change onto these target faults. More importantly our calculations reveal that positive stress changes caused by the largest events of the 1976 Tangshan sequence make the Xiadian and part of Daxing fault, thus considered the most likely sites of the next strong earthquake in the study area. The accumulated static stress changes that reached a value of up to 0.4 bar onto these faults, were subsequently incorporated in earthquake probability estimates for the next 30 years.

  16. Study on remote sensing geologic information of uranium metallogeny in western Liaoning-northern Hebei region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Baoshan

    1998-01-01

    Based on the study on geologic metallogenic environment, temporal and spatial distribution and deposit features of uranium deposits in western Liaoning-northern Hebei region, summarizing mainly remote sensing information and synthesizing geologic, geophysical and geochemical as well as hydrological data, the author has implemented all-region joint-quadrangle analysis, composite mapping and applications, set up interpretation criteria for circular and arcuate structures of different lithological areas, and then expounded their geologic meaning. Volcanic apparatuses, small close sedimentary basins and magmatic rockbodies closely associated with uranium mineralizations, especially the altitude and types of ore-controlling structures and mineralized alteration zones have been interpreted. 'Heat halo spot' has also been interpreted on the satellite image and its geologic meaning and relation to uranium metallization have been discussed. Finally, remote sensing geologic prospecting model and comprehensive prediction model have been established

  17. Emphasizing humanities in medical education: Promoting the integration of medical scientific spirit and medical humanistic spirit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peipei; Tang, Wei

    2017-05-23

    In the era of the biological-psychological-social medicine model, an ideal of modern medicine is to enhance the humanities in medical education, to foster medical talents with humanistic spirit, and to promote the integration of scientific spirit and humanistic spirit in medicine. Throughout the United States (US), United Kingdom (UK), other Western countries, and some Asian countries like Japan, many medical universities have already integrated the learning of medical humanities in their curricula and recognized their value. While in China, although medical education reform over the past decade has emphasized the topic of medical humanities to increase the professionalism of future physicians, the integration of medical humanity courses in medical universities has lagged behind the pace in Western countries. In addition, current courses in medical humanities were arbitrarily established due to a lack of organizational independence. For various reasons like a shortage of instructors, medical universities have failed to pay sufficient attention to medical humanities education given the urgent needs of society. The medical problems in contemporary Chinese society are not solely the purview of biomedical technology; what matters more is enhancing the humanities in medical education and fostering medical talents with humanistic spirit. Emphasizing the humanities in medical education and promoting the integration of medical scientific spirit and medical humanistic spirit have become one of the most pressing issues China must address. Greater attention should be paid to reasonable integration of humanities into the medical curriculum, creation of medical courses related to humanities and optimization of the curriculum, and actively allocating abundant teaching resources and exploring better methods of instruction.

  18. Wind speed forecasting using FEEMD echo state networks with RELM in Hebei, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Wei; Liu, Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • FEEMD–RELM is proposed for wind speed forecasting. • Short-term and mid-term wind speed are forecasted by the proposed model. • PACF is introduced to select the input of RELM. • Three cases in Hebei province are applied in this paper. - Abstract: Reducing the dependence on fossil-fuel-based resources is becoming significant due to the detrimental effects on environment and global energy-dependent. Thus, increased attention has been paid to wind power, a type of clean and renewable energy. However, owing to the stochastic nature of wind speed, it is essential to build a wind speed forecasting model with high-precision for wind power utilization. Therefore, this paper proposes a hybrid model which combines fast ensemble empirical model decomposition (FEEMD) with regularized extreme learning machine (RELM). The original wind speed series are first decomposed into a limited number of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) and one residual series. Then RELM is built to forecast the sub-series. Partial auto correlation function (PACF) is applied to analyze the intrinsic relationships between the historical speeds so as to select the inputs of RELM. To verify the developed models, short-term wind speed data in July 2010 and monthly data from January 2000 to May 2010 in Hong songwa wind farm, Chengde city are used for model construction and testing. Two additional forecasting cases in Hebei province are also applied to prove the model’s validity. The simulation test results show that the built model is effective, efficient and practicable.

  19. Methylated spirit burns following traditional hair dressing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Afieharo I; Iyun, Ayodele O

    2018-02-01

    Methylated spirit burns have been reported following domestic uses such as igniting fondues. It has also been used as an accelerant for self-immolation. We report the first documented case of severe methylated spirit burns sustained during traditional hair dressing. Increased awareness on the dangers of methylated spirit as well as making it less readily available for domestic use is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  20. Wine, Spirits and the Lung: Good, Bad or Indifferent?

    OpenAIRE

    Kamholz, Stephan L

    2006-01-01

    The putative cardiovascular risks and benefits of the ingestion of wine and alcohol-containing spirits have been well publicized; however, less attention has been focused upon the health effects of wine and spirits consumption on the respiratory system. This paper will highlight epidemiologic, clinical and experimental data on the effects of wine and distilled spirits [and the chemical components thereof] on lung function, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease progression, lung cancer risk, r...

  1. Beer, wine, spirits and subjective health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grønbaek, M; Mortensen, E L; Mygind, K; Andersen, A T; Becker, U; Gluud, C; Sørensen, T I

    1999-11-01

    To examine the association between intake of different types of alcoholic beverages and self reported subjective health. Cross sectional health survey with assessment of intake of beer, wine and spirits (at last non-weekend day), smoking habits, social networks, physical activity, body mass index, educational level, presence of chronic disease, and self reported health. WHO Copenhagen Healthy City Survey, Denmark. 4113 men and 7926 women aged 18 to 100 years. Of the 12,039 subjects, 8680 reported their health as optimal, and 3359 reported a suboptimal health. After controlling for the covariates, the relation between total alcohol intake and the proportion reporting suboptimal health was J shaped. Heavy drinkers of any of the three types of alcoholic beverages had a higher prevalence of suboptimal health than non-drinkers. However, only light (1-2 glasses of wine yesterday) and moderate (3-5) wine drinkers had significantly lower odds ratios for suboptimal health--0.72 (95% confidence limits; 0.56 to 0.92) and 0.65 (0.49 to 0.87), respectively--when compared with non-wine drinkers. Moderate beer or spirits drinkers did not differ significantly from non-drinkers of these beverages with regard to prevalence of suboptimal health. Consistently, beer preference drinkers had an odds ratio of 1.50 (1.25 to 1.80) for suboptimal health compared with wine preference drinkers. A light to moderate wine intake is related to good self perceived health, whereas this is not the case for beer and spirits. The causal relations creating this association are unknown and should be considered when interpreting the relation between different types of alcoholic beverages and subsequent morbidity and mortality.

  2. Sexuality and spirit in Kierkegaard's thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holly, M G

    1984-06-01

    The following article shows a sensible and responsible interpretation of Kierkegaard's theory of sexuality in relation to the longest-range development of self, where self from this perspective will be called spirit. Since, for Kierkegaard, this longest-range development involved immortality and was construed by him from a religious perspective, the topics under consideration will necessarily have some relevance to the philosophy of religion. Mental health issues will figure prominently, too. In the process of working this out, I have found some startling and significant adumbrations of some of Freud's work.

  3. AHP 21: Review: Spirits of the Place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B. Noseworthy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available John Holt draws deeply upon more than twenty years of scholarship on the Theravadin world in Spirits of the Place, a work that analyzes the historical role of Buddhism in Laos. This work will appeal to scholars in such diverse fields as history, anthropology, sociology, religious studies, US foreign policy, and area studies. In this study Holt turns his focus to the Lao ethnic majority of Laos and the Lao ethnic minority of Isan Province, Thailand,1 in five chapters that compellingly combine historiographic and anthropological analysis, including what (MacDaniel 2010:120 has referred to as "the best Literature review of scholarship on Lao religion to date…" ...

  4. Monod and the spirit of molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morange, Michel

    2015-06-01

    The founders of molecular biology shared views on the place of biology within science, as well as on the relations of molecular biology to Darwinism. Jacques Monod was no exception, but the study of his writings is particularly interesting because he expressed his point of view very clearly and pushed the implications of some of his choices further than most of his contemporaries. The spirit of molecular biology is no longer the same as in the 1960s but, interestingly, Monod anticipated some recent evolutions of this discipline. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Animal spirits, competitive markets, and endogenous growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Kenji

    2013-10-01

    This paper uses a simple model with an endogenous discount rate and linear technology to investigate whether a competitive equilibrium has a higher balanced growth path (BGP) than the social planning solution and whether the BGP is determinate or indeterminate. The implications are as follows. To start with, people with an instinct to compare themselves with others possess an endogenous discount rate. In turn, this instinct affects the economic growth rate in a competitive market economy. The competitive market economy also sometimes achieves higher economic growth than a social planning economy. However, the outcomes of market economy occasionally fluctuate because of the presence of the self-fulfilling prophecy or animal spirits.

  6. 27 CFR 19.349 - Mingled spirits or wines held in tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mingled spirits or wines... of Spirits § 19.349 Mingled spirits or wines held in tanks. When spirits of less than 190 degrees of proof or wines are mingled in a tank, the proprietor shall gauge the spirits or wines in the tank and...

  7. 'Do not quench the Spirit!' The discourse of the Holy Spirit in earliest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Trinitarian discourse of the 4th and 5th centuries grew out of earlier developments, whilst at the same time reflecting a renewal over against the language of the earliest Christian sources. This article reflects on the way in which early Christianity thought about the Holy Spirit and developed a new discourse on the basis ...

  8. Finding the Spirit Within: A Critical Analysis of Film Techniques in "Spirited Away"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Damon

    2010-01-01

    In 2008 the New South Wales Board of Studies included Hayao Miyazaki's film "Spirited Away" as the prescribed text for the Higher School Certificate Japanese Extension course. A study of the film in this context requires students to engage with the text in three distinct ways: through language, cultural symbolism and relevance, and…

  9. [Correlation between spirit-qi acupuncture and lifting-thrusting twirling method for spirit in Huangdi Neijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Qin, Yuge; Qin, Yuheng; Li, Li; Li, Mei

    2016-03-01

    By analyzing the articles in Huangdi Neijing (Inner Canon of Yellow Emperor), combined with the verification of consciousness in vitro in clinic and modern science, it is found Huangdi Neijing has made special requirements of treating spirit for physicians using spirit-qi acupuncture. The physicians consciously use different methods to motivate the spirit of physician and patients, especially patients, to transform it to the physiological effect of patients, which could minimize the psychological factors that make negative influence on treatment; also the psychotherapy is considered as the most important principle of treating spirit. The reinforcing and reducing methods in later generations, mainly lifting-thrusting twirling method, unintentionally lead patients into a basic or strong status of treating spirit or keeping spirit during the process of achieving stimulation and needle sensation. To partially perform the special role of treating spirit for physicians in Huangdi Neijing on patients could cause the chages including patient-based using spirit to move qi. It not only inspires the body's natural resistance to disease and self-healing, but also motivates the self-protection mechanism of keeping spirit.

  10. Diatomite releases silica during spirit filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, J; Gil, M L A; de la Rosa-Fox, N; Alguacil, M

    2014-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether diatomite is an inert filter aid during spirit filtration. Surely, any compound with a negative effect on the spirit composition or the consumer's health could be dissolved. In this study different diatomites were treated with 36% vol. ethanol/water mixtures and the amounts and structures of the extracted compounds were determined. Furthermore, Brandy de Jerez was diatomite- and membrane-filtered at different temperatures and the silicon content was analysed. It was found that up to 0.36% by weight of diatomite dissolved in the aqueous ethanol and amorphous silica, in the form of hollow spherical microparticles, was the most abundant component. Silicon concentrations in Brandy de Jerez increased by up to 163.0% after contact with diatomite and these changes were more marked for calcined diatomite. In contrast, reductions of more than 30% in silicon concentrations were achieved after membrane filtration at low temperatures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A NOESY-HSQC simulation program, SPIRIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Leiming; Dyson, H. Jane; Wright, Peter E.

    1998-01-01

    A program SPIRIT (Simulation Program considering Incomplete Recovery of z magnetization and INEPT Transfer efficiency) has been developed to simulate three-dimensional NOESY-HSQC spectra. This program takes into account (1) different transfer efficiency during INEPT and reverse INEPT durations due to differential relaxation rates and 1 J coupling constants; (2) the different effect of the sensitivity-enhancement scheme on CH, CH 2 and CH 3 systems; and (3) incomplete recovery of longitudinal magnetization between scans. The simulation program incorporates anisotropic tumbling mode for symmetric tops, and allows for differential external relaxation rates for protons. Some well-defined internal motions, such as the fast rotation of methyl groups, are taken into account. The simulation program also allows for input of multiple conformations and their relative populations to calculate the average relaxation matrix to account for slow internal motions. With the SPIRIT program, the sensitivity-enhanced NOESY-HSQC experiment can be used directly in the evaluation of the accuracy of structures, which can potentially be improved by direct refinement against the primary data. Abbreviations: NOESY, nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy; HSQC, heteronuclear single quantum correlation; INEPT, insensitive nuclei enhanced by polarization transfer

  12. Research on the neutron flux, secular equilibrium of chlorine-36 and groundwater age of the deep quaternary sediments, Hebei plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Yuean; He Ming; Jiang Songsheng; Wu Shaoyong; Jiang Shan

    2001-01-01

    For the study of the neutron flux, secular equilibrium of chlorine-36 in the deep quaternary sediments of Hebei plain, the main chemical composition of water sand and confining bed was determined by neutron activation analysis. The mean neutron flux is 2.79 x 10 -5 cm -2 s -1 which was calculated by the chemical composition of the strata. The mean 36 Cl/Cl ratio in secular equilibrium is 1.27 x 10 -14 in the deep quaternary sediments, Hebei Plain. For the study of the groundwater age of the deep Quaternary sediments of Hebei Plain, the 36 Cl/Cl ratio of groundwater samples were determined by tandem accelerator mass spectrometry. The mixed groundwater 36 Cl/Cl ratio of the second and the third aquifer of Quaternary sediments in Baoding district is 247 x 10 -15 , that of the fourth aquifer in Baoding city is 224 x 10 -15 and the third aquifer in Cangzhou district is 40.5 x 10 -15 . The groundwater age of Baoding district was young and that of the third aquifer in Cangzhou was 229.2 ka

  13. 27 CFR 19.67 - Spirits produced in industrial processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... industrial processes. 19.67 Section 19.67 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Activities Not Subject to This Part § 19.67 Spirits produced in industrial processes...

  14. 27 CFR 20.104 - Residual alcohol in spirit vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Residual alcohol in spirit vinegar. 20.104 Section 20.104 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Statements of Process Approval Policies § 20.104 Residual alcohol in spirit vinegar. Commercial strength (40...

  15. Nourishing the Learning Spirit: Living Our Way to New Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battiste, Marie

    2010-01-01

    Learning, as Aboriginal people have come to know it, is holistic, lifelong, purposeful, experiential, communal, spiritual, and learned within a language and a culture. What guides their learning (beyond family, community, and Elders) is spirit, their own learning spirits who travel with them and guide them along their earth walk, offering them…

  16. 27 CFR 19.464 - Denatured spirits inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of Articles Inventories § 19.464 Denatured spirits inventories. Each proprietor shall take a physical inventory of all denatured spirits in the processing account at the close of each calendar quarter and at... inventories. 19.464 Section 19.464 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE...

  17. 27 CFR 19.830 - Application of distilled spirits tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application of distilled spirits tax. 19.830 Section 19.830 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the...

  18. Spatial-temporal detection of risk factors for bacillary dysentery in Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengdong Xu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacillary dysentery is the third leading notifiable disease and remains a major public health concern in China. The Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei urban region is the biggest urban agglomeration in northern China, and it is one of the areas in the country that is most heavily infected with bacillary dysentery. The objective of the study was to analyze the spatial-temporal pattern and to determine any contributory risk factors on the bacillary dysentery. Methods Bacillary dysentery case data from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2012 in Beijing–Tianjin– Hebei were employed. GeoDetector method was used to determine the impact of potential risk factors, and to identify regions and seasons at high risk of the disease. Results There were 36,472 cases of bacillary dysentery in 2012 in the study region. The incidence of bacillary dysentery varies widely amongst different age groups; the higher incidence of bacillary dysentery mainly occurs in the population under the age of five. Bacillary dysentery presents apparent seasonal variance, with the highest incidence occurring from June to September. In terms of the potential meteorological risk factors, mean temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, mean wind speed and sunshine hours explain the time variant of bacillary dysentery at 83%, 31%, 25%, 17% and 13%, respectively. The interactive effect between temperature and humidity has an explanatory power of 87%, indicating that a hot and humid environment is more likely to lead to the occurrence of bacillary dysentery. Socio-economic factors affect the spatial distribution of bacillary dysentery. The top four factors are age group, per capita GDP, population density and rural population proportion, and their determinant powers are 61%, 27%, 25% and 21%, respectively. The interactive effect between age group and the other factors accounts for more than 60% of bacillary dysentery transmission. Conclusions Bacillary dysentery poses a

  19. Solidarity and Community Spirit during Evil Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMONA-GRAZIA DIMA,

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The article aims both at identifying the various facets under which human solidarity manifested itself during the War of ethnic cleansing in Bosnia-Herzegovina (1992-1995 and at highlighting the growing awareness of the community spirit in the same period of time, resulting in a part of the population being saved and in many spiritual and material values being preserved. The analysis is based on genuine interviews given by subjects involved in the events, all of which being collected in the volume Good People in an Evil Time by Dr. Svetlana Broz, a journalist, social activist and cardiologist (now president of the Bosnia-Herzegovina branch of GARIWO International. This book has been a best seller, and has been translated in many languages and presented over many tours in about 50 universities in the USA.

  20. [Dendrochronology of Chinese pine in Mulan-Weichang, Hebei Province: a primary study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ming-xing; He, Xing-yuan; Chen, Wei; Chen, Zhen-ju; Zhou, Chang-hong; Wu, Tao

    2008-11-01

    Dendroclimatic methods were used to investigate the relationships between the growth of Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.) and the climatic parameters in Mulan-Weichang of Hebei Province. The results showed that Chinese pine presented high sensitivity to climatic changes, and its earlywood width showed the highest sensitivity. There was a significant negative correlation between the tree-ring width chronology of Chinese pine and the air temperature in May-June. The precipitation and relative humidity in June had strong positive effects on the growth of earlywood, the precipitation from September to next September had significant positive effects on Chinese pine growth, and the relative humidity in winter more strongly affected the growth of latewood than of earlywood. There was a definite correlation between the tree-ring width chronology of Chinese pine and the large scale climate fluctuation. From 1951 to 2006, the increase of air temperature in study area was significant, and the sensitivity of Chinese pine to the variations of local temperature and precipitation decreased, presenting an inverse transforming trend with increasing temperature. Greater differences were observed between the reconstructed and observed data of mean temperature in May - June in a century scale, suggesting that the tree-ring growth of Chinese pine in study area had a greater fluctuation of sensitivity to the variation of climatic factors.

  1. A Waterborne Gastroenteritis Outbreak Caused by Norovirus GII.17 in a Hotel, Hebei, China, December 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Meng; Dong, Xiao-Gen; Jing, Yan-Yan; Wei, Xiu-Xia; Wang, Zhao-E; Feng, Hui-Ru; Yu, Hong; Li, Jin-Song; Li, Jie

    2016-09-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is responsible for an estimated 90 % of all epidemic nonbacterial outbreaks of gastroenteritis worldwide. Waterborne outbreaks of NoV are commonly reported. A novel GII.17 NoV strain emerged as a major cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks in China during the winter of 2014/2015. During this time, an outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred at a hotel in a ski park in Hebei Province, China. Epidemiological investigations indicated that one water well, which had only recently been in use, was the probable source. GII.17 NoV was detected by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction from samples taken from cases, from concentrated water samples from water well, and from the nearby sewage settling tank. Nucleotide sequences of NoV extracted from clinical and water specimens were genetically identical and had 99 % homology with Beijing/CHN/2015. All epidemiological data indicated that GII.17 NoV was responsible for this outbreak. This is the first reported laboratory-confirmed waterborne outbreak caused by GII.17 NoV genotype in China. Strengthening management of well drinking water and systematica monitoring of NoV is essential for preventing future outbreaks.

  2. Measurement of Farmland Ecosystem Services Evaluation in Beidaihe District, Hebei Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Xiao-dan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Farmland ecosystem is an important part of supporting and maintaining earth's life systems. It has the direct function value of providing agricultural product as well as the indirect function values of adjustment, support and culture. Chose the Beidaihe district in Hebei Province as the study region, the eco-system service functions were evaluated by ecological economics approach. The results showed that the indirect value was 1.09 times of the value direct in 2014. The farmland ecosystem not only had direct production function, but also had important ecological supporting functions. In the process of agricultural structure adjustment, the indirect functions should be given enough attention. The sort of values were production function > tourism function > carbon sequestration and oxygen release function > dispose of waste function > water conservation function > social security function > soil protection value > straw returning to field function > clean air function. In the process of accelerating the construction of modern agricultural park, vigorously developing ecological leisure agriculture, pushing forward the comprehensive utilization of crop straw, and actively developing ecological cycle of agriculture, the Beidaihe district should rationally adjust the use of farmland and focus on improving the values of indirect services to optimize service values. The study can be used as decision basis and scientific support for effective protection and sustainable utilization of farmland resources.

  3. Atmospheric Environment Vulnerability Cause Analysis for the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Metropolitan Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Shen, Jing; Li, Yu

    2018-01-13

    Assessing and quantifying atmospheric vulnerability is a key issue in urban environmental protection and management. This paper integrated the Analytical hierarchy process (AHP), fuzzy synthesis evaluation and Geographic Information System (GIS) spatial analysis into an Exposure-Sensitivity-Adaptive capacity (ESA) framework to quantitatively assess atmospheric environment vulnerability in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region with spatial and temporal comparisons. The elaboration of the relationships between atmospheric environment vulnerability and indices of exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity supports enable analysis of the atmospheric environment vulnerability. Our findings indicate that the atmospheric environment vulnerability of 13 cities in the BTH region exhibits obvious spatial heterogeneity, which is caused by regional diversity in exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity indices. The results of atmospheric environment vulnerability assessment and the cause analysis can provide guidance to pick out key control regions and recognize vulnerable indicators for study sites. The framework developed in this paper can also be replicated at different spatial and temporal scales using context-specific datasets to support environmental management.

  4. Gamma radiation use on the aging of sugar cane spirit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walder, Julio M. M.; Spoto, Marta H. F.; Novaes, Fernando V.; Alcarde, Andre R.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this work was to verify the influence of gamma radiation on the aging of sugarcane spirit. Samples of sugarcane spirit (cachaca ) were irradiated in a Gammabeam Cobalt-60 source with doses between 0 (control) and 300 Gy, with 50 Gy increasing. The irradiated samples were offered to 5 expert judges for sensorial tests using the comparison: irradiated versus control. The chemical volatile components of the irradiated spirit were determined using a gas chromatograph. Sensorial tests elected the dose of 150 Gy as the best for sugarcane spirit irradiation based on its flavour and bouquet. These sensorial characteristics were due to the chemical changes observed in esters, aldehydes and higher alcohol's concentrations. The samples irradiated with 250 and 300 Gy developed a bitter taste and an 'oxidized' flavour. A second experiment was carried out using single and twice-distilled sugarcane spirit, normal aged in oak barrels or not, or added with oak extract. Samples were irradiated with the dose of 150 Gy and scored by the same sensorial analysis methodology. All irradiated samples had their flavour improved. The irradiation of the non-maturated twice-distilled sugarcane spirit produced a flavour compared to spirits maturated during one year of normal aging. (author)

  5. A first formal approach to animal spirits beyond uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerasimos T. Soldatos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Standard Macroeconomics treats animal spirits as a source of uncertainty disturbing otherwise rational expectations. But, Keynesian animal spirits ensue from suboptimal emotional responses to socioeconomic status change beyond matters of uncertainty. This paper identifies such spirits with the disturbance from the optimal decision-making implied by an emotional well-being utility function. The introduction of a policy-maker, holding its own view of private welfare in a society of emotional individuals, generates by itself, i.e. in the absence of animal spirits, uniform business fluctuations. This is the result of the income redistribution needed to reconcile the policy-maker’s with the emotional individual’s view of private welfare. Consequently, if animal-spirits induced fluctuations are already present when a policy-maker is introduced in the economy, the aim of policy intervention should be the design of that income redistribution that would not aggravate the business cycle but that would end up in uniform only cycles, with the aid perhaps of discretionary interest rate policy. Nevertheless, if animal spirits do not exist when the policy-maker enters the system, the income-redistribution induced cycles may incite such spirits by themselves in which case the cycles will not be of the uniform type. All comes down to “income and emotion”, to an ageless and ecumenical fact of life, complicated purposefully or not by authority.

  6. The Spirit of Western Business Ethics and Its Revelation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi wei

    2008-01-01

    The development of socialist market economy needs the power support provided by western business ethics. To build the culture ofmodern business ethics in our country, we need absorb the useful spirit of business ethics from western business culture and use for reference. Basedon the analysis of the main spirit of Western business ethics, this paper puts forward that we must stress the role of business, establish an appropriateattitude towards profits, and mold a 'rational spirit of modem business in the process of building modem business culture in our country.

  7. The Low-Carbon Transition toward Sustainability of Regional Coal-Dominated Energy Consumption Structure: A Case of Hebei Province in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xunmin Ou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available CO2 emission resulted from fossil energy use is threatening human sustainability globally. This study focuses on the low-carbon transition of Hebei’s coal-dominated energy system by estimating its total end-use energy consumption, primary energy supply and resultant CO2 emission up to 2030, by employing an energy demand analysis model based on setting of the economic growth rate, industrial structure, industry/sector energy consumption intensity, energy supply structure, and CO2 emission factor. It is found that the total primary energy consumption in Hebei will be 471 and 431 million tons of coal equivalent (tce in 2030 in our two defined scenarios (conventional development scenario and coordinated development scenario, which are 1.40 and 1.28 times of the level in 2015, respectively. The resultant full-chain CO2 emission will be 1027 and 916 million tons in 2030 in the two scenarios, which are 1.24 and 1.10 times of the level in 2015, respectively. The full-chain CO2 emission will peak in about 2025. It is found that the coal-dominated situation of energy structure and CO2 emission increasing trend in Hebei can be changed in the future in the coordinated development scenario, in which Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area coordinated development strategy will be strengthened. The energy structure of Hebei can be optimised since the proportion of coal in total primary energy consumption can fall from around 80% in 2015 to below 30% in 2030 and the proportions of transferred electricity, natural gas, nuclear energy and renewable energy can increase rapidly. Some specific additional policy instruments are also suggested to support the low-carbon transition of energy system in Hebei under the framework of the coordinated development of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area, and with the support from the central government of China.

  8. Ecological Security Assessment of Hebei by PSR Model%基于PSR模型的河北省生态安全评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨红倩

    2017-01-01

    着眼于河北省粗放型经济发展模式与日益恶劣的生态环境之间的矛盾,基于"压力-状态-响应"(PSR)模型,选取人口、环境、资源、社会经济等方面30个指标,构建河北省生态安全评价指标体系,利用熵值法从时间尺度上对河北省生态安全状况进行综合评价与分析.结果表明:2005-2014年间,河北省生态安全综合评价指数整体呈现上升趋势,说明河北省的生态安全状况有所好转.最后提出加强河北省生态安全建设的对策思路,为建设成为生态强省提供依据.%Focus on extensive economic development mode in Hebei Province and the contradiction between the increasingly severe ecological environment, based on the "pressure-state-response"(PSR)and the stress-state-response(PSR)model, this paper selects 30 indicators of population, environment, resources, socio-economy to construct the ecological security evaluation index system of Hebei Province, which used to evaluate and analyze the ecological security situation of Hebei Province from the time scale by entropy method.The results showed that the overall ecological security index of Hebei Province showed an upward trend in 2005-2014, which indicated that the ecological security situation of Hebei Province had improved.Finally, the countermeasures to strengthen the ecological security construction in Hebei Province are put forward, which will provide the basis for building a strong ecological province.

  9. 27 CFR 27.75 - Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. 27.75 Section 27.75 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Exemptions § 27.75 Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer in containers...

  10. 27 CFR 19.372 - Receipt of spirits, wines and alcoholic flavoring materials for processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Receipt of spirits, wines... Spirits, Wines and Alcoholic Flavoring Materials § 19.372 Receipt of spirits, wines and alcoholic.... 5215; or (4) Alcoholic flavoring materials. (b) Spirits and wines received in bulk containers or...

  11. 27 CFR 19.342 - Receipt and storage of bulk spirits and wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bulk spirits and wines. 19.342 Section 19.342 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Receipt and storage of bulk spirits and wines. (a) Deposit. All spirits entered for deposit in the storage... spirits or wines are being deposited in a partially filled tank in storage on bonded premises...

  12. 27 CFR 19.97 - Taxpaid spirits or wines on bonded premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxpaid spirits or wines... Miscellaneous Provisions Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on Plant Premises § 19.97 Taxpaid spirits or wines on bonded premises. Spirits or wines on which the tax has been paid or determined may be conveyed within a...

  13. 27 CFR 24.231 - Receipt of spirits in sealed bulk containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.231 Receipt of spirits in sealed bulk containers. The proprietor shall examine sealed bulk containers (packages) of spirits... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Receipt of spirits in...

  14. 27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.237 Spirits added to juice or... fruit juice to which spirits have been added will be included in the appropriate tax class of any wine inventory and will be properly identified. Juice or concentrated juice to which wine spirits are added will...

  15. Toxicity of crude oil products and detergent on serum alkaline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The comparative effect of exposing Clarias gariepinus juveniles (100.20 + 0.8g) to diferent concentrations of crude oil products and detergent were studied. Bonny Light Crude oil (BLCO), Premium motor spirit (PMS), Dual purpose kerosene (DPK) and Ariel Enzymax Detergent (AED) were respectively applied at three ...

  16. [Evolution of Dissolved Organic Matter Properties in a Constructed Wetland of Xiao River, Hebei].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li-na; Zhang, Hui; Tan, Wen-bing; Yu, Min-da; Huang, Zhi-gang; Gao, Ru-tai; Xi, Bei-dou; He, Xiao-song

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of water DOC and COD, and the source, chemical structure, humification degree and redox of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in a constructed wetland of Xiao River, Hebei, was investigated by 3D excitation--emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy coupled with ultraviolet spectroscopy and chemical reduction, in order to explore the geochemical processes and environmental effects of DOM. Although DOC contributes at least 60% to COD, its decrease in the constructed wetland is mainly caused by the more extensive degradation of elements N, H, S, and P than C in DOM, and 65% is contributed from the former. DOM is mainly consisted of microbial products based on proxies f470/520 and BIX, indicating that DOM in water is apparently affected by microbial degradation. The result based on PARAFAC model shows that DOM in the constructed wetland contains protein-like and humus-like components, and Fulvic- and humic-like components are relatively easier to degrade than protein-like components. Fulvic- and humic-like components undergo similar decomposition in the constructed wetland. A common source of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) exists; both CDOM and FDOM are mainly composed of a humus-like material and do not exhibit selective degradation in the constructed wetland. The proxies E2 /E3, A240-400, r(A, C) and HIX in water have no changes after flowing into the constructed wetland, implying that the humification degree of DOM in water is hardly affected by wet constructed wetland. However, the constructed wetland environment is not only beneficial in forming the reduced state of DOM, but also facilitates the reduction of ferric. It can also improve the capability of DOM to function as an electron shuttle. This result may be related to the condition that the aromatic carbon of DOM can be stabilized well in the constructed wetland.

  17. Assessment of inter-city transport of particulate matter in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xing; Wang, Shuxiao; Zhao, Bin; Cai, Siyi; Hao, Jiming

    2018-04-01

    The regional transport of particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) plays an important role in the air pollution of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region in China. However, previous studies on regional transport of PM2.5 mainly aim at province level, which is insufficient for the development of an optimal joint PM2.5 control strategy. In this study, we calculate PM2.5 inflows and outflows through the administrative boundaries of three major cities in the BTH region, i.e., Beijing, Tianjin and Shijiazhuang, using the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting model)-CMAQ (Community Multiscale Air Quality) modeling system. The monthly average inflow fluxes indicate the major directions of PM2.5 transport. For Beijing, the PM2.5 inflow fluxes from Zhangjiakou (in the northwest) and Baoding (in the southwest) constitute 57 % of the total in winter, and Langfang (in the southeast) and Baoding constitute 73 % in summer. Based on the net PM2.5 fluxes and their vertical distributions, we find there are three major transport pathways in the BTH region: the northwest-southeast pathway in winter (at all levels below 1000 m), the northwest-southeast pathway in summer (at all levels below 1000 m), and the southwest-northeast pathway in both winter and in summer (mainly at 300-1000 m). In winter, even if surface wind speeds are low, the transport at above 300 m can still be strong. Among the three pathways, the southwest-northeast happens along with PM2.5 concentrations 30 and 55 % higher than the monthly average in winter and summer, respectively. Analysis of two heavy pollution episodes in January and July in Beijing show a much (8-16 times) stronger transport than the monthly average, emphasizing the joint air pollution control of the cities located on the transport pathways, especially during heavy pollution episodes.

  18. [Water utilization characteristics of the degraded poplar shelterbelts in Zhangbei, Hebei, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huan; Cao, Jun; Wang, Hua Bing; Song, Bo; Jia, Guo Dong; Liu, Zi Qiang; Yu, Xin Xiao; Zeng, Jia

    2018-05-01

    In Zhangbei County, Hebei Province, poplar-dominated shelterbelts are degraded to different extents. Water availability is the main limiting factor for plant survival in arid areas. The purpose of this study was to reveal the relationship between water availability and poplar degradation. Based on the hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope techniques, we explored the water sources of Populus simonii under different degradation degrees by comparing the isotopic values of P. simonii xylem water with that in potential water source, and calculated the utilization ratio of each water source. The results showed that the water sources of poplar trees varied with degradation degree. The water sources of P. simonii gradually transferred from the deep layer to the surface layer with the increases of degradation. P. simonii with no degradation mainly absorbed soil water in the range of 320-400 cm, with the utilization rate being 25.1%. P. simonii with slight degradation mainly used soil water at depth of 120-180, 180-240 and 240-320 cm. The total utilization rate of three layers was close to 50.0%, with less utilization of water from other layers. The moderately degraded P. simonii mainly used soil water at depth of 20-40, 40-60 and 60-80 cm. The utilization rate of each layer was 17.5%-20.9%, and the contribution rate of soil water under 120 cm was less than 10.0%. The severely degraded P. simonii mainly used water from surface soil layer (0-20 cm), with the utilization rate being 30.4%, which was significantly higher than that of other water sources. The water sources of poplar shelter forests were gradually shallower during the process of degradation. However, the low soil water content in the shallow layer could not meet the normal water demand of poplar, which would accelerate the degradation and even decline of poplar.

  19. Water footprint of crop production for different crop structures in the Hebei southern plain, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yingmin; Shen, Yanjun; Yuan, Zaijian

    2017-06-01

    The North China Plain (NCP) has a serious shortage of freshwater resources, and crop production consumes approximately 75 % of the region's water. To estimate water consumption of different crops and crop structures in the NCP, the Hebei southern plain (HSP) was selected as a study area, as it is a typical region of groundwater overdraft in the NCP. In this study, the water footprint (WF) of crop production, comprised of green, blue and grey water footprints, and its annual variation were analyzed. The results demonstrated the following: (1) the WF from the production of main crops was 41.8 km3 in 2012. Winter wheat, summer maize and vegetables were the top water-consuming crops in the HSP. The water footprint intensity (WFI) of cotton was the largest, and for vegetables, it was the smallest; (2) the total WF, WFblue, WFgreen and WFgrey for 13 years (2000-2012) of crop production were 604.8, 288.5, 141.3 and 175.0 km3, respectively, with an annual downtrend from 2000 to 2012; (3) winter wheat, summer maize and vegetables consumed the most groundwater, and their blue water footprint (WFblue) accounted for 74.2 % of the total WFblue in the HSP; (4) the crop structure scenarios analysis indicated that, with approximately 20 % of arable land cultivated with winter wheat-summer maize in rotation, 38.99 % spring maize, 10 % vegetables and 10 % fruiters, a sustainable utilization of groundwater resources can be promoted, and a sufficient supply of food, including vegetables and fruits, can be ensured in the HSP.

  20. Heavy metal contamination and ecological risk of farmland soils adjoining steel plants in Tangshan, Hebei, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liyun; Yang, Maomao; Wang, Liping; Peng, Fei; Li, Yuan; Bai, Hao

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the heavy metal concentrations and ecological risks to farmland soils caused by atmospheric deposition adjoining five industrial steel districts in Tangshan, Hebei, China. A total of 39 topsoil samples from adjoining these plants were collected and analyzed for Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, and As. The geo-accumulation index (Igeo) and potential ecological risk index (PERI) were calculated to assess the heavy metal pollution level in soils. The results showed that the levels of Pb and As in farmland soils adjoining all steel plants were more than the background value, with the As content being excessively high. The Cr and Cu contents of some samples were over the background values, but the Zn content was not. In all the research areas, the largest Igeo value of the heavy metals was for As, followed by Pb, and the largest monomial PERI ([Formula: see text]) was As, which showed that the pollution of As in farmland soils was significant and had considerable ecological risk. Additionally, the heavy metal sequential extraction experiments showed that Pb and Cr, which exceeded the background value, were present in about 20% of the exchangeable and carbonate-bound fractions in the soils surrounding some steel plants. This would imply the risk of these heavy metals being absorbed and accumulated by the crops. Therefore, the local government needs to control the pollution of heavy metals in the farmland soils adjoining the steel plant as soon as possible, in order to avoid possible ecological and food safety risks.

  1. Spatio-temporal changes in precipitation over Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Na; Yue, Tianxiang; Li, Han; Zhang, Lili; Yin, Xiaozhe; Liu, Yi

    2018-04-01

    Changes in precipitation have a large effect on human society and are of primary importance for many scientific fields such as hydrology, agriculture and eco-environmental sciences. The present study intended to investigate the spatio-temporal characteristics of precipitation in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region by using 316 meteorological stations during the period 1965-2014. Geographical Weighted Regression (GWR) method and High Accuracy Surface Modeling (HASM) method were applied to produce the precipitation patterns at different time scales. Mann-Kendall (MK) statistical test was applied to analyze the precipitation temporal variations. Results indicated that annual precipitation over the past 50 years appeared to be a non-periodic oscillation phenomenon; the number of wet years was approximately the same as that of dry years; significant positive trends were observed in spring during 1978-2014 and summer during 1996-2014; on the whole, precipitation in May, June, September, and December showed increasing trends at the 95% confidence level; and significant positive trends were also identified in July during 2000-2013 and August during 1997-2010, while slight decreasing trends were observed in February and November. Summer (June, July, and August) was the wettest season, accounting for 68.73% of annual totals in BTH. In general, northeastern BTH received the highest range of precipitation while northwestern area had the lowest. It was found that precipitation variation in this region had been closely linked to latitude, Digital Elevation Model (DEM), distance to the sea, and urbanization rate. In addition, land use played an important role in the decadal precipitation changes in BTH.

  2. Water footprint of crop production for different crop structures in the Hebei southern plain, North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Chu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The North China Plain (NCP has a serious shortage of freshwater resources, and crop production consumes approximately 75 % of the region's water. To estimate water consumption of different crops and crop structures in the NCP, the Hebei southern plain (HSP was selected as a study area, as it is a typical region of groundwater overdraft in the NCP. In this study, the water footprint (WF of crop production, comprised of green, blue and grey water footprints, and its annual variation were analyzed. The results demonstrated the following: (1 the WF from the production of main crops was 41.8 km3 in 2012. Winter wheat, summer maize and vegetables were the top water-consuming crops in the HSP. The water footprint intensity (WFI of cotton was the largest, and for vegetables, it was the smallest; (2 the total WF, WFblue, WFgreen and WFgrey for 13 years (2000–2012 of crop production were 604.8, 288.5, 141.3 and 175.0 km3, respectively, with an annual downtrend from 2000 to 2012; (3 winter wheat, summer maize and vegetables consumed the most groundwater, and their blue water footprint (WFblue accounted for 74.2 % of the total WFblue in the HSP; (4 the crop structure scenarios analysis indicated that, with approximately 20 % of arable land cultivated with winter wheat–summer maize in rotation, 38.99 % spring maize, 10 % vegetables and 10 % fruiters, a sustainable utilization of groundwater resources can be promoted, and a sufficient supply of food, including vegetables and fruits, can be ensured in the HSP.

  3. Contamination of Phthalate Esters (PAEs in Typical Wastewater-Irrigated Agricultural Soils in Hebei, North China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zhang

    Full Text Available The Wangyang River (WYR basin is a typical wastewater irrigation area in Hebei Province, North China. This study investigated the concentration and distribution of six priority phthalate esters (PAEs in the agricultural soils in this area. Thirty-nine soil samples (0-20 cm were collected along the WYR to assess the PAE residues in soils. Results showed that PAEs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants in the topsoil obtained from the irrigation area. The concentrations of Σ6PAEs range from 0.191 μg g-1 dw to 0.457 μg g-1 dw with an average value of 0.294 μg g-1 dw. Di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP are the dominant PAE species in the agricultural soils. Among the DEHP concentrations, the highest DEHP concentration was found at the sites close to the villages; this result suggested that dense anthropogenic activities and random garbage disposal in the rural area are possible sources of PAEs. The PAE concentrations were weakly and positively correlated with soil organic carbon and soil enzyme activities; thus, these factors can affect the distribution of PAEs. This study further showed that only dimethyl phthalate (DMP concentrations exceeded the recommended allowable concentrations; no remediation measures are necessary to control the PAEs in the WYR area. However, the PAEs in the topsoil may pose a potential risk to the ecosystem and human health in this area. Therefore, the exacerbating PAE pollution should be addressed.

  4. SPIRIT 2013 Statement: defining standard protocol items for clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, An-Wen; Tetzlaff, Jennifer M; Altman, Douglas G; Laupacis, Andreas; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Krle A-Jerić, Karmela; Hrobjartsson, Asbjørn; Mann, Howard; Dickersin, Kay; Berlin, Jesse A; Dore, Caroline J; Parulekar, Wendy R; Summerskill, William S M; Groves, Trish; Schulz, Kenneth F; Sox, Harold C; Rockhold, Frank W; Rennie, Drummond; Moher, David

    2015-12-01

    The protocol of a clinical trial serves as the foundation for study planning, conduct, reporting, and appraisal. However, trial protocols and existing protocol guidelines vary greatly in content and quality. This article describes the systematic development and scope of SPIRIT (Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials) 2013, a guideline for the minimum content of a clinical trial protocol. The 33-item SPIRIT checklist applies to protocols for all clinical trials and focuses on content rather than format. The checklist recommends a full description of what is planned; it does not prescribe how to design or conduct a trial. By providing guidance for key content, the SPIRIT recommendations aim to facilitate the drafting of high-quality protocols. Adherence to SPIRIT would also enhance the transparency and completeness of trial protocols for the benefit of investigators, trial participants, patients, sponsors, funders, research ethics committees or institutional review boards, peer reviewers, journals, trial registries, policymakers, regulators, and other key stakeholders.

  5. African Gifts of the Spirit: Pentecostalism & the Rise of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Gifts of the Spirit: Pentecostalism & the Rise of a Zimbabwean Transnational Religious Movement by David Maxwell (Ohio: Ohio University Press, 2006) – XI + 250 pp., ISBN 13:978-0-8124-1738-6, Paperback.

  6. 27 CFR 30.1 - Gauging of distilled spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... correcting hydrometer indications at temperatures between 0 and 100 degrees Fahrenheit to true proof. If distilled spirits contain dissolved solids, temperature correction of the hydrometer reading by the use of...

  7. 27 CFR 28.280 - Distilled spirits and wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... departure of the aircraft, and the brand, kind, and quantity of distilled spirits or wines. Where the... shall be retained by the airline. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number...

  8. Estimation of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from biomass waste in China:A case study in Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Crop residue,animal manure and MSW are selected as representative biomass waste.Greenhouse gas emissions from treatment and disposal process of biomass waste in Hebei province are estimated for the period from 2002 to 2007,using the methodologies recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.Greenhouse gas emission was about 10 Mt CO2-equivalent annually.About 6% of greenhouse gas emission came from open burning of crop residue,74% from management system of animal manure,and 20% from MSW disposal.Among all the greenhouse gas sources,landfill is the most concentrated one,and has significant potential of emission reduction.

  9. Ground Subsidence over Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region during Three Periods of 1992 to 2014 Monitored by Interferometric SAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Yonghong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region suffers the most serious ground subsidence in China, which has caused huge economic losses every year. Therefore, ground subsidence was listed as an important mission in the project of geographic conditions monitoring over Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei launched by the National Administration of Surveying, Mapping and Geoinformation in 2013. In this paper, we propose a methodology of ground subsidence monitoring over wide area, which is entitled "multiple master-image coherent target small-baseline interferometric SAR (MCTSB-InSAR". MCTSB-InSAR is an improved time series InSAR technique with some unique features. SAR datasets used for ground subsidence monitoring over the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region include ERS-1/2 SAR images acquired between 1992 to 2000, ENVISAT ASAR images acquired between 2003 to 2010 and RADARSAT-2 images acquired between 2012 to 2014. This research represents a first ever effort on mapping ground subsidence over Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and over such as a long time span in China. In comparison with more than 120 leveling measurements collected in Beijing and Tianjin, the derived subsidence velocity has the accuracy of 8.7mm/year (1992—2000, 4.7mm/year (2003—2010, and 5.4mm/year (2012—2014 respectively. The spatial-temporal characteristics of the development of ground subsidence in Beijing and Tianjin are analyzed. In general, ground subsidence in Beijing kept continuously expanding in the period of 1992 to 2014. While, ground subsidence in Tianjin had already been serious in 1990s, had dramatically expanded during 2000s, and started to alleviate in recent years. The monitoring result is of high significance for prevention and mitigation of ground subsidence disaster, for making development plan, for efficient and effective utilization of water resource, and for adjustment of economic framework of this region. The result also indicates the effectiveness and reliability of the MCTSB

  10. Professor Witold Nowicki - a greatly spirited pathologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wincewicz, A; Szepietowska, A; Sulkowski, S

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a complete overview of the scientific, professional and social activity of a great Polish pathologist, Witold Nowicki (1878-1941), from mainly Polish-written, original sources with a major impact on mostly his own publications. The biographical commemoration of this eminent professor is not only due to the fact that he provided a profound microscopic characterization of pneumatosis cystoides in 1909 and 1924. Nowicki greatly influenced the development of anatomical pathology in Poland, having authored over 82 publications, with special reference to tuberculosis, lung cancer, sarcomatous carcinomas, scleroma and others. However, the first of all his merits for the readership of Polish pathologists was his textbook titled Anatomical Pathology, which was a basic pathology manual in pre-war Poland. Witold Nowicki - as the head of the academic pathological anatomy department and former dean of the medical faculty - was shot with other professors by Nazi Germans in the Wuleckie hills in Lvov during World War Two. Professor Nowicki was described as being "small in size but great in spirit" by one of his associates, and remains an outstanding example of a meticulous pathologist, a patient tutor and a great social activist to follow.

  11. SPIRITS: Uncovering Unusual Infrared Transients with Spitzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Jencson, Jacob E.; Tinyanont, Samaporn; Cao, Yi; Cook, David; Bally, John; Masci, Frank; Armus, Lee; Cody, Ann Marie; Bond, Howard E.; Contreras, Carlos; Dykhoff, Devin A.; Amodeo, Samuel; Carlon, Robert L.; Cass, Alexander C.; Corgan, David T.; Faella, Joseph; Boyer, Martha; Cantiello, Matteo; Fox, Ori D.

    2017-01-01

    We present an ongoing, five-year systematic search for extragalactic infrared transients, dubbed SPIRITS—SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey. In the first year, using Spitzer /IRAC, we searched 190 nearby galaxies with cadence baselines of one month and six months. We discovered over 1958 variables and 43 transients. Here, we describe the survey design and highlight 14 unusual infrared transients with no optical counterparts to deep limits, which we refer to as SPRITEs (eSPecially Red Intermediate-luminosity Transient Events). SPRITEs are in the infrared luminosity gap between novae and supernovae, with [4.5] absolute magnitudes between −11 and −14 (Vega-mag) and [3.6]–[4.5] colors between 0.3 mag and 1.6 mag. The photometric evolution of SPRITEs is diverse, ranging from <0.1 mag yr −1 to >7 mag yr −1 . SPRITEs occur in star-forming galaxies. We present an in-depth study of one of them, SPIRITS 14ajc in Messier 83, which shows shock-excited molecular hydrogen emission. This shock may have been triggered by the dynamic decay of a non-hierarchical system of massive stars that led to either the formation of a binary or a protostellar merger.

  12. Number theory in the spirit of Ramanujan

    CERN Document Server

    Berndt, Bruce C

    2006-01-01

    Ramanujan is recognized as one of the great number theorists of the twentieth century. Here now is the first book to provide an introduction to his work in number theory. Most of Ramanujan's work in number theory arose out of q-series and theta functions. This book provides an introduction to these two important subjects and to some of the topics in number theory that are inextricably intertwined with them, including the theory of partitions, sums of squares and triangular numbers, and the Ramanujan tau function. The majority of the results discussed here are originally due to Ramanujan or were rediscovered by him. Ramanujan did not leave us proofs of the thousands of theorems he recorded in his notebooks, and so it cannot be claimed that many of the proofs given in this book are those found by Ramanujan. However, they are all in the spirit of his mathematics. The subjects examined in this book have a rich history dating back to Euler and Jacobi, and they continue to be focal points of contemporary mathematic...

  13. SPIRITS: Uncovering Unusual Infrared Transients with Spitzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Jencson, Jacob E.; Tinyanont, Samaporn; Cao, Yi; Cook, David [Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bally, John [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Masci, Frank; Armus, Lee [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cody, Ann Marie [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Bond, Howard E. [Dept. of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Contreras, Carlos [Las Campanas Observatory, Carnegie Observatories, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile); Dykhoff, Devin A.; Amodeo, Samuel; Carlon, Robert L.; Cass, Alexander C.; Corgan, David T.; Faella, Joseph [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street, S. E., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Boyer, Martha [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, MC 665, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Cantiello, Matteo [Center for Computational Astrophysics, Flatiron Institute, 162 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010 (United States); Fox, Ori D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2017-04-20

    We present an ongoing, five-year systematic search for extragalactic infrared transients, dubbed SPIRITS—SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey. In the first year, using Spitzer /IRAC, we searched 190 nearby galaxies with cadence baselines of one month and six months. We discovered over 1958 variables and 43 transients. Here, we describe the survey design and highlight 14 unusual infrared transients with no optical counterparts to deep limits, which we refer to as SPRITEs (eSPecially Red Intermediate-luminosity Transient Events). SPRITEs are in the infrared luminosity gap between novae and supernovae, with [4.5] absolute magnitudes between −11 and −14 (Vega-mag) and [3.6]–[4.5] colors between 0.3 mag and 1.6 mag. The photometric evolution of SPRITEs is diverse, ranging from <0.1 mag yr{sup −1} to >7 mag yr{sup −1}. SPRITEs occur in star-forming galaxies. We present an in-depth study of one of them, SPIRITS 14ajc in Messier 83, which shows shock-excited molecular hydrogen emission. This shock may have been triggered by the dynamic decay of a non-hierarchical system of massive stars that led to either the formation of a binary or a protostellar merger.

  14. Alcohol consumption and Tax Differentials Between Beer, Wine and Spirits

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer

    1989-01-01

    Several public health interest groups in the United States have recently called for equalization of the federal tax on a unit of alcohol in beer, in wine and in spirits. This paper provides some new empirical evidence of what effect alcohol tax differentials have on total alcohol consumption. The data indicate that the greatest decrease in alcohol consumption results from an increase in spirits taxes, followed by beer taxes and then wine taxes. This suggests that the existing generally accept...

  15. Spirit-guided care: Christian nursing for the whole person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Lyn S; Walker, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare today is challenged to provide care that goes beyond the medical model of meeting physical needs. Despite a strong historical foundation in spiritual whole person care, nurses struggle with holistic caring. We propose that for the Christian nurse, holistic nursing can be described as Spirit-guided care--removing oneself as the moiatiating force and allowing Christ, in the furm of the Holy Spirit, to flow through and guide the nurse in care of patients and families.

  16. Comparison of Patterns of Use of Unrecorded and Recorded Spirits: Survey of Adult Drinkers in Rural Central China

    OpenAIRE

    Shiqing Wei; Ping Yin; Ian M. Newman; Ling Qian; Duane F. Shell; Lok-wa Yuen

    2017-01-01

    About 70% of the beverage alcohol consumed in China annually is spirits. Recorded spirits make up most spirit consumption, but about 25% of total alcohol consumption (1.7 L pure alcohol per capita annually) is unrecorded spirits (bai jiu), either homemade or made in unregulated distilleries. In some parts of China, the consumption of unrecorded spirits is higher than average. This paper compares the patterns of use of unrecorded distilled spirits and recorded distilled spirits among rural res...

  17. Hegelian Phenomenology of Spirit and Boxing Fight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosiewicz Jerzy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the presented text the author points out to anthropological as well as axiological foundations of the boxing fight from the viewpoint of Hegel’s philosophy. In the genial idealist’s views it is possible to perceive the appreciation of the body, which constitutes a necessary basis for the man’s physical activity, for his work oriented towards the self-transformation and the transformation of the external world, as well as for rivalry and the hand-to-hand fight. While focusing our attention on the issue of rivalry and on the situation of the fight - and regarding it from the viewpoint of the master - slave theory (included in the phenomenology of spirit, it is possible to proclaim that even a conventionalised boxing fight - that is, restricted by cultural and sports rules of the game - has features of the fight to the death between two Hegelian forms of selfknowledge striving for self-affirmation and self-realisation. In the boxing fight, similarly as in the above mentioned Hegelian theory, a problem of work and of the development of the human individual (that is, of the subject, self-knowledge, the participant of the fight appears. There appears also a prospect of death as a possible end of merciless rivalry. The fight revalues the human way in an important way, whereas the prospect for death, the awareness of its proximity, the feeling that its close and possible, saturates the life with additional values. It places the boxer, just like every subject fighting in a similar or a different way, on the path towards absolute abstraction - that is, it brings him closer to his self-fulfilment in the Absolute, to the absolute synthesis. The Hegelian viewpoint enables also to appreciate the boxing fight as a manifestation of low culture (being in contrast with high culture, to turn attention to the relations which - according to Hegel - take place between the Absolute and the man, as well as to show which place is occupied by the subject both in

  18. Embodiment of the Spirit: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Grimell

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Adopting a longitudinal approach to exploring the psychology of the transition from military to civilian life, one case study is presented that adds a spiritual perspective to the transition process. This case study serves as an example representative from a group of participants who have been followed through a research project on identity reconstruction during the transition to civilian life. This individual, not unlike many others within the group, undergoes an unexpected progression of the military I-position of the self throughout the process of becoming a civilian. This study utilizes a dialogical approach to the identity work to further the understanding of longitudinal adjustments to the self. An analysis of the narrative developments and interactions among pre-existing and new I-positions of the self over time has been made based upon three annually conducted interviews spanning from 2014 to 2016. The results lead to the suggestion that if a military I-position of the self grows more salient and voiced throughout the process of transitioning into civilian life, then this vocalization may be related to the spirit of a person embodied in a specific I-position of the self. Such growth of a military I-position after leaving active service may gravitate around a deep sense of “who I am” with a profound sense of meaning attached to this position. Instead of perceiving as an unwanted development the growth of a military sense of “who I am,” one should acknowledge it as a deeper dimension of self and life. It is important to find an outlet for such a progression of the self so as to sustain balance and dialogue. Future research is encouraged to further examine these qualitative findings.

  19. Gastric cancer burden of last 40 years in North China (Hebei Province): A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Di; Liang, Suoyuan; Jin, Jing; Li, Daojuan; Shi, Jin; He, Yutong

    2017-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in China. It is well known that Cixian in Hebei Province is one of the highest risk areas of GC in China and worldwide. This study aims to accurate assessment of GC burden and trend in high-risk area (Hebei Province) from 1973 to 2013. The authors analyzed GC data from 21 population-based cancer registries which represented 15.25% of the entire population of Hebei Province. The collected data were stratified by 5-year age groups, gender, and area. Mortality of GC was extracted from national death surveys from 1973 to 1975, 1990 to 1992, 2004 to 2005, and 2011 to 2013. Trend analysis (1988-2013) in a high-risk area (Cixian) used the Joinpoint Model. The age-period-cohort model was used to estimate the effects of age, period, and birth cohort in GC incidence in Cixian from 1988 to 2013. The crude incidence of GC in 2011 to 2013 was 40.37/100,000 (57.53/100,000 in males and 22.55/100,000 in females). The corresponding age-standardized rate by world age-standard population was 32.18/100,000 (48.87/100,000 in males and 17.53/100,000 in females), which was 2.66-fold (2.81-fold in male and 2.34-fold in female) higher than that in the world (12.1/100,000, 17.4/100,000 in males and 7.5/100,000 in females). Males in rural areas had the highest incidence, with an age-standardized rate of 70.51/100,000. Gastric cardia cancer was primary anatomical subsite which accounting for 59.59% in GC, followed by gastric corpus (13.92%), gastric antrum (11.43%), gastric fundus (4.99%), and overlapping lesion of gastric (4.17%). The age-standardized rate of mortality from GC displayed a significant downward trend (P = 0.019) in Hebei Province from the 1990s (31.44/100,000) to the 2010s (24.63/100,000). In Cixian, the incidence of GC rose from 1988 (38.25/100,000) to 2009 (65.11/100,000). Cixian, where population-based screening of upper gastrointestinal cancer was performed, experienced the increasing rate of GC from 2000

  20. Assessment of inter-city transport of particulate matter in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Chang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The regional transport of particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5 plays an important role in the air pollution of the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei (BTH region in China. However, previous studies on regional transport of PM2.5 mainly aim at province level, which is insufficient for the development of an optimal joint PM2.5 control strategy. In this study, we calculate PM2.5 inflows and outflows through the administrative boundaries of three major cities in the BTH region, i.e., Beijing, Tianjin and Shijiazhuang, using the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting model-CMAQ (Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system. The monthly average inflow fluxes indicate the major directions of PM2.5 transport. For Beijing, the PM2.5 inflow fluxes from Zhangjiakou (in the northwest and Baoding (in the southwest constitute 57 % of the total in winter, and Langfang (in the southeast and Baoding constitute 73 % in summer. Based on the net PM2.5 fluxes and their vertical distributions, we find there are three major transport pathways in the BTH region: the northwest–southeast pathway in winter (at all levels below 1000 m, the northwest–southeast pathway in summer (at all levels below 1000 m, and the southwest–northeast pathway in both winter and in summer (mainly at 300–1000 m. In winter, even if surface wind speeds are low, the transport at above 300 m can still be strong. Among the three pathways, the southwest–northeast happens along with PM2.5 concentrations 30 and 55 % higher than the monthly average in winter and summer, respectively. Analysis of two heavy pollution episodes in January and July in Beijing show a much (8–16 times stronger transport than the monthly average, emphasizing the joint air pollution control of the cities located on the transport pathways, especially during heavy pollution episodes.

  1. New Record Five-Wheel Drive, Spirit's Sol 1856

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images that have been combined into this stereo, 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,856th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's surface mission (March 23, 2009). The center of the view is toward the west-southwest. The rover had driven 25.82 meters (84.7 feet) west-northwestward earlier on Sol 1856. This is the longest drive on Mars so far by a rover using only five wheels. Spirit lost the use of its right-front wheel in March 2006. Before Sol 1856, the farthest Spirit had covered in a single sol's five-wheel drive was 24.83 meters (81.5 feet), on Sol 1363 (Nov. 3, 2007). The Sol 1856 drive made progress on a route planned for taking Spirit around the western side of the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' A portion of the northwestern edge of Home Plate is prominent in the left quarter of this image, toward the south. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  2. Bright Soil Churned by Spirit's Sol 1861 Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit drove 22.7 meters (74 feet) toward the southwest on the 1,861st Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's mission on Mars (March 28, 2009). After the drive, the rover took this image with its front hazard-avoidance camera, looking back at the tracks from the drive. As usual since losing the use of its right-front wheel in 2006, Spirit drove backwards. The immobile right-front wheel churned up a long stripe of bright soil during this drive. Where Spirit has found such bright soil in the past, subsequent analysis of the composition found concentrations of sulfur or silica that testified to past action of water at the site. When members of the rover team saw the large quantity of bright soil exposed by the Sol 1861 drive, they quickly laid plans to investigate the composition with Spirit's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer. The Sol 1861 drive took the rover past the northwest corner of the low plateau called 'Home Plate,' making progress on a route around the western side of Home Plate. The edge of Home Plate forms the horizon on the right side of this image. Husband Hill is on the horizon on the left side. For scale, the parallel rover wheel tracks are about 1 meter (40 inches) apart. The rover's hazard-avoidance cameras take 'fisheye' wide-angle images.

  3. Dust Devil in Spirit's View Ahead on Sol 1854

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images that have been combined into this stereo, 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,854th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's surface mission (March 21, 2009). The rover had driven 13.79 meters (45 feet) westward earlier on Sol 1854. West is at the center, where a dust devil is visible in the distance. North on the right, where Husband Hill dominates the horizon; Spirit was on top of Husband Hill in September and October 2005. South is on the left, where lighter-toned rock lines the edge of the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  4. The spirit of hypnosis: doing hypnosis versus being hypnotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapko, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    The spirit of hypnosis is reflected in the belief that people are more resourceful than they realize and through hypnosis can create meaningful possibilities. Thus, it is puzzling why hypnosis isn't better regarded. Do we present as too internally conflicted to inspire others' confidence? Do we overstate the dangers of hypnosis and scare people away? Do we define hypnosis as such a unique approach that others don't see its relevance for their work? Self-exploration is important if we want to ensure we are not unwittingly adding to our image problems as a field. Beyond these considerations, the novel and spirited application of hypnosis in the context of captive elephant breeding is discussed, as is a personal acknowledgment of some of the pioneers who manifested the spirit of hypnosis.

  5. SPIRITS: SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasliwal, Mansi; Jencson, Jacob; Lau, Ryan; Masci, Frank; Helou, George; Williams, Robert; Bally, John; Bond, Howard; Whitelock, Patricia; Cody, Ann Marie; Gehrz, Robert; Tinyanont, Samaporn; Smith, Nathan; Surace, Jason; Armus, Lee; Cantiello, Matteo; Langer, Norbert; Levesque, Emily; Mohamed, Shazrene; Ofek, Eran; Parthasarathy, Mudumba; van Dyk, Schuyler; Boyer, Martha; Phillips, Mark; Hsiao, Eric; Morrell, Nidia; Perley, Dan; Gonzalez, Consuelo; Contreras, Carlos; Jones, Olivia; Ressler, Michael; Adams, Scott; Moore, Anna; Cook, David; Fox, Ori; Johansson, Joel; Khan, Rubab; Monson, Andrew; Hankins, Matthew; Goldman, Steven; Jacob, Jencson

    2018-05-01

    Spitzer is pioneering a systematic exploration of the dynamic infrared sky. Our SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey (SPIRITS) has already discovered 78 explosive transients and 2457 eruptive variables. Of these 78 infrared transients, 60 are so red that they are devoid of optical counterparts and we call them SPRITEs (eSPecially Red Intermediate-luminosity Transient Events). The nature of SPRITEs is unknown and progress on deciphering the explosion physics depends on mid-IR spectroscopy. Multiple physical origins have been proposed including stellar merger, birth of a massive binary, electron capture supernova and stellar black hole formation. Hence, we propose a modest continuation of SPIRITS, focusing on discovering and monitoring SPRITEs, in preparation for follow-up with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). As the SPRITEs evolve and cool, the bulk of the emission shifts to longer wavelengths. MIRI aboard JWST will be the only available platform in the near future capable of characterizing SPRITEs out to 28 um. Specifically, the low resolution spectrometer would determine dust mass, grain chemistry, ice abundance and energetics to disentangle the proposed origins. The re-focused SPIRITS program consists of continued Spitzer monitoring of those 106 luminous galaxies that are known SPRITE hosts or are most likely to host new SPRITEs. Scaling from the SPIRITS discovery rate, we estimate finding 10 new SPRITEs and 2-3 new supernovae in Cycle 14. The SPIRITS team remains committed to extensive ground-based follow-up. The Spitzer observations proposed here are essential for determining the final fates of active SPRITEs as well as bridging the time lag between the current SPIRITS survey and JWST launch.

  6. Analytical color analysis of irradiated sugar cane spirit with grapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, Juliana A.; Delabio, Aline S.; Harder, Marcia N.C.; Moraes, Liz M.B.; Silva, Lucia C.A.; Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to irradiate a Sugar Cane Spirit with grapes by gamma radiation (Co60) aiming the color alteration like an aging parameter. The Sugar Cane Spirit is a distilled beverage and in order that bouquet and flavor are enhanced, usually the Sugar Cane Spirit goes through a process of maturation in wooden barrels or in bottles with the presence of wood chips, which alters their appearance. However, is possible to get this same result with the use of gamma radiation from Co60 and there is a possibility of indicative the premature aging by the Sugar Cane Spirit color change, through the extraction of grape phenolic compounds. The Sugar Cane Spirit samples were prepared with grapes type Crimson in polypropylene bottles. The samples was irradiated at doses of 0 (control); 0.3KGy; 2kGy and 6kGy, subsequently were performed the colorimetric analyzes in periods of 5; 10; 20 and 50 days after the irradiation treatment. There was no significant statistical difference for the parameters L; a; b; Chrome and Hue-Angle, at 5; 10 and 20 days. On the 50th day only the parameter a shows significant statistical difference at the dose of 0.3kGy, that was higher than 2kGy and 6kGy doses, but not differ the between the control sample. So by the showed results was concluded that the irradiation at doses of 0.3Gy, 2kGy and 6kGy, do not change the color of the Sugar Cane Spirit. (author)

  7. Analytical color analysis of irradiated sugar cane spirit with grapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Juliana A.; Delabio, Aline S., E-mail: jujuba_angelo@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: aline_sd_timao@hotmail.com [Faculdade de Tecnologia em Piracicaba (FATEP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Harder, Marcia N.C.; Moraes, Liz M.B.; Silva, Lucia C.A.; Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: mnharder@terra.com.br, E-mail: lizmarybueno@gmail.com, E-mail: lcasilva@cena.usp.br, E-mail: paula.arthur@hotmail.com, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this work was to irradiate a Sugar Cane Spirit with grapes by gamma radiation (Co60) aiming the color alteration like an aging parameter. The Sugar Cane Spirit is a distilled beverage and in order that bouquet and flavor are enhanced, usually the Sugar Cane Spirit goes through a process of maturation in wooden barrels or in bottles with the presence of wood chips, which alters their appearance. However, is possible to get this same result with the use of gamma radiation from Co60 and there is a possibility of indicative the premature aging by the Sugar Cane Spirit color change, through the extraction of grape phenolic compounds. The Sugar Cane Spirit samples were prepared with grapes type Crimson in polypropylene bottles. The samples was irradiated at doses of 0 (control); 0.3KGy; 2kGy and 6kGy, subsequently were performed the colorimetric analyzes in periods of 5; 10; 20 and 50 days after the irradiation treatment. There was no significant statistical difference for the parameters L; a; b; Chrome and Hue-Angle, at 5; 10 and 20 days. On the 50th day only the parameter a shows significant statistical difference at the dose of 0.3kGy, that was higher than 2kGy and 6kGy doses, but not differ the between the control sample. So by the showed results was concluded that the irradiation at doses of 0.3Gy, 2kGy and 6kGy, do not change the color of the Sugar Cane Spirit. (author)

  8. On Li Zhi's Theory of Growing up in Spirit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Junjiang

    2006-01-01

    The theory of growing up in spirit is the core of Li Zhi's thought.The theory attempts to get rid of the limit of the rigid ethical doctrine of Confucianismand to encourage growth in a helpful person for the benefit of the country,which demands both a free environment of society and enough courage and insight of the individual.At the same time,the criterion of growing up in spirit indicates the limitation of Li Zhi's thought.His free exploration,however,provides various revelations for us.

  9. [Characteristics of Winter Atmospheric Mixing Layer Height in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region and Their Relationship with the Atmospheric Pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Tang, Gui-qian; Huang, Jun; Liu, Zi-rui; An, Jun-lin; Wang, Yue-si

    2015-06-01

    Atmospheric mixing layer height (MLH) is one of the main factors affecting the atmospheric diffusion and plays an important role in air quality assessment and distribution of the pollutants. Based on the ceilometers data, this paper has made synchronous observation on MLH in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region (Beijing, Tianjin, Shijiazhuang and Qinhuangdao) in heavy polluted February 2014 and analyzed the respective overall change and its regional features. Results show that in February 2014,the average of mixing layer height in Qinhuangdao is the highest, up to 865 +/- 268 m, and in Shijiazhuang is the lowest (568 +/- 207 m), Beijing's and Tianjin's are in between, 818 +/- 319 m and 834 +/- 334 m respectively; Combined with the meteorological data, we find that radiation and wind speed are main factors of the mixing layer height; The relationship between the particle concentration and mixing layer height in four sites suggests that mixing layer is less than 800 m, concentration of fine particulate matter in four sites will exceed the national standard (GB 3095-2012, 75 microg x m(-3)). During the period of observation, the proportion of days that mixing layer is less than 800 m in Beijing, Tianjin, Shijiazhuang and Qinhuangdao are 50%, 43%, 80% and 50% respectively. Shijiazhuang though nearly formation contaminant concentration is high, within the atmospheric mixed layer pollutant load is not high. Unfavorable atmospheric diffusion conditions are the main causes of heavy pollution in Shijiazhuang for a long time. The results of the study are of great significance for cognitive Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area pollution distribution, and can provide a scientific reference for reasonable distribution of regional pollution sources.

  10. Can MODIS AOD be employed to derive PM2.5 in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei over China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoyan

    2017-04-01

    The fine particular matter (PM) concentrations in China have increased considerably due to the rapid economic growth and urbanization in the last few decades, especially in the most populated and industrialized regions. The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei is one of the most polluted regions in China, so to monitor the PM2.5 concentrations over this region is quite critical for human health. By making use the new released hourly PM2.5 mass concentration from ground-based observations in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei over China, and the collocated MODIS level 2 AOD data from April 2014 to March 2015, we explored the relation between surface PM2.5 mass concentration and MODIS AOD and possibility to derive the surface PM2.5 from satellite retrieval in the region. Our study show that the relation strongly depend on the seasons due to distinct seasonal characteristics of PM2.5 and AOD, with a relatively better correlation in spring and summertime than autumn and wintertime. Our analysis give an evidence that worse relationship and/or smaller number of sample in wintertime is associated with the significantly high PM2.5 concentration and a lot of missing data occurring in MODIS AOD, implying that current MODIS AOD retrieval scheme does not work very well in highly polluted cases. The derived PM2.5 mass concentration from MODIS AOD in summertime can basically capture the major observed features of the time series and about 20% large bias of the derived values compared to the observation is expected to be reduced once longer time period data is available and used for analysis.

  11. 27 CFR 27.61 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... BEER General Requirements Closures for Containers of Distilled Spirits § 27.61 Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. No person shall transport, buy, possess, or sell, or transfer any imported...

  12. Spirit's View Beside 'Home Plate' on Sol 1823

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images that have been combined into this 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,823rd Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's surface mission (Feb. 17, 2009). The center of the view is toward the south-southwest. The rover had driven 7 meters (23 feet) eastward earlier on Sol 1823, part of maneuvering to get Spirit into a favorable position for climbing onto the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' However, after two driving attempts with negligible progress during the following three sols, the rover team changed its strategy for getting to destinations south of Home Plate. The team decided to drive Spirit at least partway around Home Plate, instead of ascending the northern edge and taking a shorter route across the top of the plateau. Layered rocks forming part of the northern edge of Home Plate can be seen near the center of the image. Rover wheel tracks are visible at the lower edge. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  13. Wine, spirits and the lung: good, bad or indifferent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamholz, Stephan L

    2006-01-01

    The putative cardiovascular risks and benefits of the ingestion of wine and alcohol-containing spirits have been well publicized; however, less attention has been focused upon the health effects of wine and spirits consumption on the respiratory system. This paper will highlight epidemiologic, clinical and experimental data on the effects of wine and distilled spirits [and the chemical components thereof] on lung function, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease progression, lung cancer risk, risk of developing acute respiratory distress syndrome, high altitude pulmonary edema and wine [sulfite] associated asthma. Several studies have demonstrated a positive [beneficial] effect of light-to-moderate wine consumption on pulmonary function, while chronic ingestion of distilled spirits may have either no effect, or a negative effect. Studies in Scandinavia, Europe and South America have suggested a possible protective effect of wine ingestion against lung cancer, especially adenocarcinoma. Resveratrol [3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene] a polyphenolic compound found in red wine, has anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and estrogen agonist effects and may be responsible for some of the health benefits of wine. The spectrum of potentially beneficial clinical effects of resveratrol and other wine-derived compounds is discussed.

  14. Body-Mind-Spirit Practice for Healthy Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Kyoung Othelia; Yoon, Hyunsook; Lee, Jungui; Yoon, Jiyoung; Chang, Eunjin

    2012-01-01

    This community-based, health promotion intervention for seniors provided a comprehensive review of the effect of body-mind-spirit (BMS) interventions on health behaviors. The 12-week curriculum offered sessions on exercise, nutrition, sexuality, leisure, stress management, cognitive behavioral therapy, forgiveness, and happiness. Gerontological…

  15. Herzog's Rebellious Spirit and Dream Passion in Stroszek

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程露

    2017-01-01

    Werner Herzog is a rebellious artist and lonely dreamer.Throughout his whole career, Herzog enthusiastically and persis-tently pursues cinematic dream, courting disasters and overcoming the seemingly insurmountable. This paper argues that Stroszek reflects Herzog's rebellious spirit and dream passion in its combination of the documentary with fiction, ecstatic truth and heroic characters.

  16. The New Spirit of Capitalism in European Liberal Arts Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, Jakob; Meckel, Thomas; Pätz, Farina

    2018-01-01

    The following paper suggests a connection between recent developments in the justification of the capitalist system and contemporary European Liberal Arts programs. By looking at Luc Boltanski's and Eve Chiapello's study on "The New Spirit Of Capitalism" and Gilles Deleuze's term of "societies of control" we highlight a pivot…

  17. The Spirit of Adventure and the Art of Creation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 7. The Spirit of Adventure and the Art of Creation: Camphor to Vitamin B12. Setty Mallikarjuna Babu Subramania Ranganathan. General Article Volume 19 Issue 7 July 2014 pp 593-623 ... Keywords. Camphor; vitamin B12; art of creation.

  18. 27 CFR 19.583 - Spirits for industrial use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spirits for industrial use. 19.583 Section 19.583 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... container is not exposed; (2) Required marks are applied to an exterior surface of the case; (3) The case is...

  19. Themes in Spirit Possession in Ugandan Christianity | James ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . This paper discerns a number of common themes that run through many of these experiences. In particular, sex as a motif for deviance and evil is noted as a common feature of many of the possession stories and all contact with spirits is seen ...

  20. Building Team Spirit in Organization Management Through a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Building Team Spirit in Organization Management Through a System Approach. ... able to function and attain a dynamic equilibrium for desired level of maximum productivity. It thus helps the manager to pull the various components of the organization together with the awareness, desire and commitment for a common goal.

  1. Chinchirisi: The Phenomenon of "Spirit Children" Among the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... what others say or do, 'it is in our blood', they say. This raises concerns. In what ways and to what extent is this religio-cultural phenomenon a challenge to euthanasia, human rights and rural development in the contemporary society? This paper examines the phenomenon of 'spirit children' from an insider perspective.

  2. What is the Spirit of the English Grammar Teaching?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haijiang Zhao

    2016-01-01

    In China,English is a foreign language,not a second language.Chinese students can't learn English well without learning its gram?mar first.As for English teachers,the most important is to help the students to grasp the spirit of English grammar learning.

  3. Discursive investigation into John's internalised spirit identity and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    What does it mean to live in a society where everything good is located within one ethnicity, and geography? In reading the gospel of John, one gets the impression that faithful disciples, the Holy Spirit and morality are exclusively located within the Johannine community and can only permeate to the outside through the ...

  4. Divine empowerment: The Holy Spirit and church revitalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. DeVries

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available How do principles of church revitalisation correlate with the divine work of the Holy Spirit? This article argues that the Spirit is the primary agent of church revitalisation, and churchleaders should cooperate with the Spirit as he works for revitalisation. Thus the Spirit empowers church leaders who are used by him to revive, renew, and revitalise a church community. After briefly defining the Spirit’s empowerment with biblical examples, this article examines the underlying principles of empowerment for church leaders, followed by briefly considering methodology for church revitalisation. The author concludes by suggesting several signs of biblical empowerment in a local church community. Goddelike bemagtiging: Die Heilige Gees en kerkherstel. Watter plek beklee die goddelike werking van die Heilige Gees in die beginsels van kerkherstel? Hierdie artikel poneer dat die Heilige Gees die primêre agent is om nuwe lewe in die kerk te bring en kerkleiers behoort onder leiding van die Heilige Gees hulle hiervoor te beywer. Die Heilige Gees bemagtig dus die kerkleiers wat Hy gebruik om ’n kerklike gemeenskap te laat herleef, te vernuwe en hulle te besiel met lewenskragtigheid. Die Gees se bemagtiging word kortliks aan die hand van bybelse voorbeelde gedefineer, waarna die grondliggende beginsels vir die bemagtiging van die kerkleiers ondersoek word. Daarna word die metodologie om nuwe lewenskrag in die kerk te bring kortliks oorweeg. Die outeur sluit af deur verskeie tekens uit te lig wat op skriftuurlike bemagtiging van die Heilige Gees in die plaaslike kerkgemeenskap dui.

  5. 27 CFR 19.597 - Kind of spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Kind of spirits. 19.597 Section 19.597 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... more than 160 degrees of proof, which lack the taste, aroma, and other characteristics generally...

  6. Between Body and Spirit: The Liminality of Pedagogical Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the pedagogical, transformative aspects of education as a relation, viewing such transformation as occurring in the liminal space between body and spirit. In order to explore this liminal space more thoroughly, the article first outlines a case for why liminality is of educational and not only of pedagogical concern, building…

  7. 27 CFR 26.40 - Marking containers of distilled spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits. The distiller, rectifier, or bottler shall serially number each case, barrel, cask, or similar... the container, the distiller, rectifier, or bottler shall plainly print, stamp, or stencil with... barrel, cask or similar container or on one side of each case, as follows: (a) The name of the distiller...

  8. “BOND OF LOVE”: THE ACTION OF THE SPIRIT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Prof. David T .... usage of the words commonly translated “spirit” and observes that the. Greek pneuma had ... of ruach (Heron 1983:4), must be essentially relational, as it is physically generated from ..... God's empowering presence: the Holy Spirit in the letters of Paul. Peabody, Mass: ...

  9. Spiritual Leadership: How Does the Spirit Move You?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-05

    our state of hunger . An Egyptian found in a field was taken before King David, who instructed that he be fed before questioning so that his spirit would...personality. A professor of neuropsychology at the 86 James MacGregor Burns, Leadership New York: Harper Colophon Books, Harper and Row Publishers

  10. Dynamics of the spirit possession phenomenon in Eastern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja-Liisa Swantz

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available The discussion on the spirit possession phenomenon is related in this study to the more general question of the role of religious institutions as part in the development process of a people living in a limited geographical area of a wider national society. It is assumed that religion, like culture in general, has its specific institutional forms as result of the historical development of a society, but at the same time religion is a force shaping that history. People's cultural resources influence their social and economic development and form a potential creative element in it'. Some of the questions to be asked are: "How are specific religious practices related to the dynamics of change in the societies in question? What is the social and religious context in which the spirit possession phenomenon occurs in them? What social and economic relations get their expression in them? To what extent is spirit possession in this case a means of exerting values and creatively overcoming a crisis or conflict which the changing social and economic relations impose on the people? The established spirit possession cults are here seen as the institutional forms of religious experience. At the same time it becomes evident that there is institutionalization in process as well as deinstitutionalization of spirit possession where it occurs outside established institutional forms. Institution is taken as a socially shared form of behaviour the significance of which is commonly recognized by those who share it. By the term spirit possession cult is meant a ritual form of spirit possession of a group which is loosely organized and without strict membership. The context of the study is four ethnic groups in Eastern Tanzania, near the coast of the Indian Ocean. The general theme of the project is The Role of Culture in the Restructuring of Tanzanian Rural Areas. The restructuring refers to a villagisation programme carried out in the whole country. People are being

  11. 27 CFR 28.301 - Loss of distilled spirits in transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Loss of distilled spirits in transit. 28.301 Section 28.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND....301 Loss of distilled spirits in transit. The tax on distilled spirits withdrawn without payment of...

  12. 77 FR 8895 - Jimbilnan, Pinto Valley, Black Canyon, Eldorado, Ireteba Peaks, Nellis Wash, Spirit Mountain, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ..., Pinto Valley, Black Canyon, Eldorado, Ireteba Peaks, Nellis Wash, Spirit Mountain, and Bridge Canyon..., Eldorado, Ireteba Peaks, Nellis Wash, Spirit Mountain, and Bridge Canyon Wilderness Areas, Lake Mead... wilderness character; providing for reasonable use of Spirit Mountain and adjacent areas in a manner meeting...

  13. 27 CFR 19.373 - Use of spirits, wines and alcoholic flavoring materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of spirits, wines and... Operations Other Than Denaturation and Manufacture of Articles Receipt and Use of Spirits, Wines and Alcoholic Flavoring Materials § 19.373 Use of spirits, wines and alcoholic flavoring materials. A proprietor...

  14. 27 CFR 28.281 - Certificate of use for distilled spirits and wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... distilled spirits and wines. 28.281 Section 28.281 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Ports of Export Lading for Use on Aircraft § 28.281 Certificate of use for distilled spirits and wines. When all of the distilled spirits or wines represented by a single application, notice, or claim, TTB...

  15. 27 CFR 24.65 - Claims for wine or spirits lost or destroyed in bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Claims for wine or spirits... Provisions Claims § 24.65 Claims for wine or spirits lost or destroyed in bond. (a) Claim for remission of... 27 CFR part 70, subpart F. A claim filed under this paragraph with respect to spirits, wine, or...

  16. 19 CFR 11.6 - Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Packing and Stamping § 11.6 Distilled spirits, wines... conveying imported distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors, in accordance with 19 U.S.C. 467. (b) Marks...

  17. 27 CFR 19.686 - Return of spirits withdrawn without payment of tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... withdrawn for use in wine production. Wine spirits withdrawn under § 19.532 for use in wine production, and... proprietor shall obtain approval, as provided in § 19.506. The wine spirits shall be removed from the winery... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Return of spirits...

  18. 27 CFR 19.396 - Spirits removed for shipment to Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spirits removed for shipment to Puerto Rico. 19.396 Section 19.396 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... § 19.396 Spirits removed for shipment to Puerto Rico. Spirits removed for shipment to Puerto Rico with...

  19. 27 CFR 26.230 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. 26.230 Section 26.230 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... distilled spirits to bear closures. Containers of 1 gallon (3.785 liters) or less of distilled spirits, upon...

  20. “Bond of love”: The action of the spirit | Williams | Acta Theologica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ancient idea, seen especially in Augustine, is that the main activity of the Spirit is that of providing relationship, as the “bond of love”; this provides a key concept which undergirds the work of the Spirit in creation, redemption, sanctification and empowering. It is hoped that increased understanding of the work of the Spirit ...

  1. 27 CFR 1.83 - Acquiring or receiving distilled spirits in bulk for addition to wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... distilled spirits in bulk for addition to wine. 1.83 Section 1.83 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms... UNDER THE FEDERAL ALCOHOL ADMINISTRATION ACT, NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK... Bottling § 1.83 Acquiring or receiving distilled spirits in bulk for addition to wine. Persons holding...

  2. 27 CFR 19.204 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises. 19.204 Section 19.204 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... distilled spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises. (a) General. A proprietor of a distilled spirits plant operating a contiguous taxpaid wine bottling house desiring to alternate the use of each...

  3. 27 CFR 24.91 - Conveyance of untaxpaid wine or spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... wine or spirits. 24.91 Section 24.91 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Conveyance of Wine Or Spirits on Wine Premises § 24.91 Conveyance of untaxpaid wine or spirits. Untaxpaid...

  4. 27 CFR 19.203 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and bonded wine cellar premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plant and bonded wine cellar premises. 19.203 Section 19.203 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... spirits plant and bonded wine cellar premises. (a) General. A proprietor of a distilled spirits plant operating a contiguous bonded wine cellar desiring to alternate the use of each premises by extension and...

  5. 27 CFR 19.532 - Withdrawals of spirits for use in wine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... use in wine production. 19.532 Section 19.532 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Withdrawals Withdrawal of Spirits Without Payment of Tax § 19.532 Withdrawals of spirits for use in wine production. Wine spirits may be withdrawn to a bonded wine cellar without payment of tax for use in wine...

  6. 27 CFR 19.241 - Operations bond-distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19.241 Section 19.241 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... wine cellar. (a) General. A wine cellar under the provisions of 27 CFR part 24 shall be treated as... subpart G for the production of distilled spirits; and (2) Such wine cellar and distilled spirits plant...

  7. 27 CFR 28.40 - Evidence of exportation: distilled spirits and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...: distilled spirits and wine. 28.40 Section 28.40 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... Provisions Evidence of Exportation and Use § 28.40 Evidence of exportation: distilled spirits and wine. The exportation of any shipment of distilled spirits or wine may be evidenced by: (a) A copy of the export bill of...

  8. New Record Five-Wheel Drive, Spirit's Sol 1856 (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11962 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11962 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images that have been combined into this stereo, 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,856th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's surface mission (March 23, 2009). The center of the view is toward the west-southwest. This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. The rover had driven 25.82 meters (84.7 feet) west-northwestward earlier on Sol 1856. This is the longest drive on Mars so far by a rover using only five wheels. Spirit lost the use of its right-front wheel in March 2006. Before Sol 1856, the farthest Spirit had covered in a single sol's five-wheel drive was 24.83 meters (81.5 feet), on Sol 1363 (Nov. 3, 2007). The Sol 1856 drive made progress on a route planned for taking Spirit around the western side of the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' A portion of the northwestern edge of Home Plate is prominent in the left quarter of this image, toward the south. This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  9. 'McMurdo' Panorama from Spirit's 'Winter Haven'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This 360-degree view, called the 'McMurdo' panorama, comes from the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit. From April through October 2006, Spirit has stayed on a small hill known as 'Low Ridge.' There, the rover's solar panels are tilted toward the sun to maintain enough solar power for Spirit to keep making scientific observations throughout the winter on southern Mars. This view of the surroundings from Spirit's 'Winter Haven' is presented in approximately true color. Oct. 26, 2006, marks Spirit's 1,000th sol of what was planned as a 90-sol mission. (A sol is a Martian day, which lasts 24 hours, 39 minutes, 35 seconds). The rover has lived through the most challenging part of its second Martian winter. Its solar power levels are rising again. Spring in the southern hemisphere of Mars will begin in early 2007. Before that, the rover team hopes to start driving Spirit again toward scientifically interesting places in the 'Inner Basin' and 'Columbia Hills' inside Gusev crater. The McMurdo panorama is providing team members with key pieces of scientific and topographic information for choosing where to continue Spirit's exploration adventure. The Pancam began shooting component images of this panorama during Spirit's sol 814 (April 18, 2006) and completed the part shown here on sol 932 (Aug. 17, 2006). The panorama was acquired using all 13 of the Pancam's color filters, using lossless compression for the red and blue stereo filters, and only modest levels of compression on the remaining filters. The overall panorama consists of 1,449 Pancam images and represents a raw data volume of nearly 500 megabytes. It is thus the largest, highest-fidelity view of Mars acquired from either rover. Additional photo coverage of the parts of the rover deck not shown here was completed on sol 980 (Oct. 5 , 2006). The team is completing the processing and mosaicking of those final pieces of the panorama, and that image will be released on the Web shortly

  10. 'McMurdo' Panorama from Spirit's 'Winter Haven' (Color Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a stereo pair for PIA01905 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a stereo pair for PIA01905 This 360-degree view, called the 'McMurdo' panorama, comes from the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit. From April through October 2006, Spirit has stayed on a small hill known as 'Low Ridge.' There, the rover's solar panels are tilted toward the sun to maintain enough solar power for Spirit to keep making scientific observations throughout the winter on southern Mars. This view of the surroundings from Spirit's 'Winter Haven' is presented as a stereo anaglyph to show the scene three-dimensionally when viewed through red-blue glasses (with the red lens on the left). Oct. 26, 2006, marks Spirit's 1,000th sol of what was planned as a 90-sol mission. (A sol is a Martian day, which lasts 24 hours, 39 minutes, 35 seconds). The rover has lived through the most challenging part of its second Martian winter. Its solar power levels are rising again. Spring in the southern hemisphere of Mars will begin in early 2007. Before that, the rover team hopes to start driving Spirit again toward scientifically interesting places in the 'Inner Basin' and 'Columbia Hills' inside Gusev crater. The McMurdo panorama is providing team members with key pieces of scientific and topographic information for choosing where to continue Spirit's exploration adventure. The Pancam began shooting component images of this panorama during Spirit's sol 814 (April 18, 2006) and completed the part shown here on sol 932 (Aug. 17, 2006). The panorama was acquired using all 13 of the Pancam's color filters, using lossless compression for the red and blue stereo filters, and only modest levels of compression on the remaining filters. The overall panorama consists of 1,449 Pancam images and represents a raw data volume of nearly 500 megabytes. It is thus the largest, highest-fidelity view of Mars

  11. 'McMurdo' Panorama from Spirit's 'Winter Haven' (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This 360-degree view, called the 'McMurdo' panorama, comes from the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit. From April through October 2006, Spirit has stayed on a small hill known as 'Low Ridge.' There, the rover's solar panels are tilted toward the sun to maintain enough solar power for Spirit to keep making scientific observations throughout the winter on southern Mars. This view of the surroundings from Spirit's 'Winter Haven' is presented as a stereo anaglyph to show the scene three-dimensionally when viewed through red-blue glasses (with the red lens on the left). Oct. 26, 2006, marks Spirit's 1,000th sol of what was planned as a 90-sol mission. (A sol is a Martian day, which lasts 24 hours, 39 minutes, 35 seconds). The rover has lived through the most challenging part of its second Martian winter. Its solar power levels are rising again. Spring in the southern hemisphere of Mars will begin in early 2007. Before that, the rover team hopes to start driving Spirit again toward scientifically interesting places in the 'Inner Basin' and 'Columbia Hills' inside Gusev crater. The McMurdo panorama is providing team members with key pieces of scientific and topographic information for choosing where to continue Spirit's exploration adventure. The Pancam began shooting component images of this panorama during Spirit's sol 814 (April 18, 2006) and completed the part shown here on sol 932 (Aug. 17, 2006). The panorama was acquired using all 13 of the Pancam's color filters, using lossless compression for the red and blue stereo filters, and only modest levels of compression on the remaining filters. The overall panorama consists of 1,449 Pancam images and represents a raw data volume of nearly 500 megabytes. It is thus the largest, highest-fidelity view of Mars acquired from either rover. Additional photo coverage of the parts of the rover deck not shown here was completed on sol 980 (Oct. 5 , 2006). The team is completing the processing and

  12. 'McMurdo' Panorama from Spirit's 'Winter Haven' (False Color)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This 360-degree view, called the 'McMurdo' panorama, comes from the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit. From April through October 2006, Spirit has stayed on a small hill known as 'Low Ridge.' There, the rover's solar panels are tilted toward the sun to maintain enough solar power for Spirit to keep making scientific observations throughout the winter on southern Mars. This view of the surroundings from Spirit's 'Winter Haven' is presented in exaggerated color to enhance color differences among rocks, soils and sand. Oct. 26, 2006, marks Spirit's 1,000th sol of what was planned as a 90-sol mission. (A sol is a Martian day, which lasts 24 hours, 39 minutes, 35 seconds). The rover has lived through the most challenging part of its second Martian winter. Its solar power levels are rising again. Spring in the southern hemisphere of Mars will begin in early 2007. Before that, the rover team hopes to start driving Spirit again toward scientifically interesting places in the 'Inner Basin' and 'Columbia Hills' inside Gusev crater. The McMurdo panorama is providing team members with key pieces of scientific and topographic information for choosing where to continue Spirit's exploration adventure. The Pancam began shooting component images of this panorama during Spirit's sol 814 (April 18, 2006) and completed the part shown here on sol 932 (Aug. 17, 2006). The panorama was acquired using all 13 of the Pancam's color filters, using lossless compression for the red and blue stereo filters, and only modest levels of compression on the remaining filters. The overall panorama consists of 1,449 Pancam images and represents a raw data volume of nearly 500 megabytes. It is thus the largest, highest-fidelity view of Mars acquired from either rover. Additional photo coverage of the parts of the rover deck not shown here was completed on sol 980 (Oct. 5 , 2006). The team is completing the processing and mosaicking of those final pieces of the panorama

  13. Source data supported high resolution carbon emissions inventory for urban areas of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region: Spatial patterns, decomposition and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Bofeng; Li, Wanxin; Dhakal, Shobhakar; Wang, Jianghao

    2018-01-15

    This paper developed internationally compatible methods for delineating boundaries of urban areas in China. By integrating emission source data with existing official statistics as well as using rescaling methodology of data mapping for 1 km grid, the authors constructed high resolution emission gridded data in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (Jing-Jin-Ji) region in China for 2012. Comparisons between urban and non-urban areas of carbon emissions from industry, agriculture, household and transport exhibited regional disparities as well as sectoral differences. Except for the Hebei province, per capita total direct carbon emissions from urban extents in Beijing and Tianjin were both lower than provincial averages, indicating the climate benefit of urbanization, comparable to results from developed countries. Urban extents in the Hebei province were mainly industrial centers while those in Beijing and Tianjin were more service oriented. Further decomposition analysis revealed population to be a common major driver for increased carbon emissions but climate implications of urban design, economic productivity of land use, and carbon intensity of GDP were both cluster- and sector-specific. This study disapproves the one-size-fits-all solution for carbon mitigation but calls for down-scaled analysis of carbon emissions and formulation of localized carbon reduction strategies in the Jing-Jin-Ji as well as other regions in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Stent thrombosis: insights on outcomes, predictors and impact of dual antiplatelet therapy interruption from the SPIRIT II, SPIRIT III, SPIRIT IV and COMPARE trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedhi, Elvin; Stone, Gregg W; Kereiakes, Dean J; Serruys, Patrick W; Parise, Helen; Fahy, Martin; Simonton, Charles A; Sudhir, Krishnankutty; Sood, Poornima; Smits, Pieter C

    2012-09-01

    Recent studies have suggested that EES may reduce ST compared to PES, but no individual trial has been adequately powered for this endpoint. The incidence of stent thrombosis, as well as the impact of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) discontinuation during the first two years following everolimus-eluting stent (EES) and paclitaxel-eluting stent (PES) deployment were therefore analysed from a pooled, patient-level database derived from four randomised clinical trials. Data from the SPIRIT II, SPIRIT III, SPIRIT IV and COMPARE trials (n=6,789 patients) were analysed. Two-year ST rates were determined using time-to-event methods and compared with the log-rank test. ST rates were also determined after DAPT discontinuation. EES compared to PES significantly reduced the two-year rates of ST (0.7% versus 2.3%, p=0.0001), including the interval rates of ST up to 30 days (0.2% versus 1.0%, p<0.0001), between 31 days and one year (0.2% versus 0.6%, p=0.02), and after one year (0.3% versus 0.8%, p=0.001). EES also reduced the two-year composite rate of cardiac death or MI (4.0% versus 6.6%, p=0.0001). Increased rates of ST after DAPT discontinuation beyond six months were observed in the PES cohort, but not in the EES cohort. In this large pooled analysis from four randomised trials, treatment with EES compared to PES significantly reduced the rates of ST through two years of follow-up, with a concomitant reduction in cardiac death or MI. DAPT discontinuation beyond six months may be safe with EES.

  15. Time for a Change; Spirit's View on Sol 1843

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images that have been combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,843rd Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's surface mission (March 10, 2009). South is in the middle. North is at both ends. The rover had driven 36 centimeters downhill earlier on Sol 1854, but had not been able to get free of ruts in soft material that had become an obstacle to getting around the northeastern corner of the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' The Sol 1854 drive, following two others in the preceding four sols that also achieved little progress in the soft ground, prompted the rover team to switch to a plan of getting around Home Plate counterclockwise, instead of clockwise. The drive direction in subsequent sols was westward past the northern edge of Home Plate. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  16. Project-Based Organizations and the New Spirit of Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    Luc Boltanski and Eve Chiapello’s analysis of recent changes in capitalism – Le nouvel esprit du capitalisme - is an important contribution to the sociological analysis of capitalism. The aim of this paper is to present their main argument. It is argued that a particular important aspect...... of their analysis is the ideal-typical model of the new spirit of capitalism, the ideological underpinning of project-based organizations in ‘The Project World’. It is argued that the ideal-typical model of the Project World is the most elaborated description of the ‘cultural code’ of the emergent form...... of capitalist organizations. Last, it is discussed how we may obtain empirical evidence to test the hypothesis of a major change in capitalist organizational forms as well as in the recent spirit of capitalism....

  17. Spirit of place of Merdeka corridor in Selatpanjang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldy, Pedia; Dharma, S. Mira

    2018-03-01

    Historical city area was developing by an accumulation of developmental stages which influenced by various factors. The factors are political, economic, social, cultural, and modernization. The research will discuss the spirit of place of Merdeka corridor in Selatpanjang city, Meranti Islands. The purpose is to identify the spirit of place of Merdeka corridor and to find out the tourism concept by characters that support urban tourism in Selatpanjang city. The research method used is qualitative research method with the rationalistic paradigm. Based on cultural history, physical building, and spatial pattern, Merdeka corridor has unique characteristic, and it persists if compared by another in Selatpanjang city. However, damage of corridor, physical changes, and functions can slowly happen due to modernization and cannot avoid.

  18. Explanatory IRT Analysis Using the SPIRIT Macro in SPSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DiTrapani, Jack

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Item Response Theory (IRT is a modeling framework that can be applied to a large variety of research questions spanning several disciplines. To make IRT models more accessible for the general researcher, a free tool has been created that can easily conduct one-parameter logistic IRT (1PL analyses using the convenient point-and-click interface in SPSS without any required downloads or add-ons. This tool, the SPIRIT macro, can fit 1PL models with person and item covariates, DIF analyses, multidimensional models, multigroup models, rating scale models, and several other variations. Example explanatory models are presented with an applied dataset containing responses to an ADHD rating scale. Illustrations of how to fit basic 1PL models as well as two more complicated analyses using SPIRIT are given.

  19. Economic Crises and the Complexity of Animal Spirits Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigore PIROŞCĂ

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The rationale of this research goes into the origins of the economic crises from a different way of economic thinking, hence the professional interest on bringing again into the light the concept of animal spirits, used for the first time from classic liberals like David Hume, developed by doctrine founder John Maynard Keynes, and captured as groundbreaking economic crisis hypothesis in Nobel Prize laureates’ books like George Akerlof. A familiar account of the last financial crisis underlines the collapse of confidence and evaporation of trust which leaded to failure of corporate governance and easy money policy. Nor were these problems of recent origin; they were rooted in deep structural changes in the economy that date back many years. Financial innovations overheated the world economy and gained steam because of irrational exuberance over a risk free better future. Considering the evidence analyzed in this paper work, this approach of economic crisis through animal spirits puts forward new highlights of economic thought.

  20. The Emancipation of the Preface in the "Phenomenology of Spirit"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Parcero Oubiña

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In his work Prefaces, Kierkegaard’s pseudonym Nicolaus Notabene refers satirically to the preface of Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit, claiming the value of a preface beyond its connection with the book, against the hegelian objections to prefaces. The present paper aims to compare both works in order to reconsider the relation between them, proposing and alternative interpretation according to which Kierkegaard’s book, beyond its ironical nature, can be regarded as an explicit statement of the inherent meaning to Hegel’s critique of prefaces carried out in the very preface to the Phenomenology of Spirit. Thus Notabene’s satire will help to identify the hegelian preface as an “emancipated preface”, just as Kierkegaard’s heteronym describes them, as texts whose real meaning would consist in its ability to operate exclusively as a disposition [Stemning / Stimmung] towards the work that they precede.

  1. The SPIRIT Telescope Initiative: Six Years On (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckas, P.

    2017-12-01

    (Abstract only) Now in its sixth year of operation, the SPIRIT initiative remains unique in Australia, as a robust web-enabled robotic telescope initiative funded for education and outreach. With multiple modes of operation catering for a variety of usage scenarios and a fully supported education program, SPIRIT provides free access to contemporary astronomical tools for students and educators in Western Australia and beyond. The technical solution itself provides an excellent model for low cost robotic telescope installations, and the education program has evolved over time to include a broad range of student experiences - from engagement activities to authentic science. This paper details the robotic telescope solution, student interface, and educational philosophy, summarizes achievements and lessons learned, and examines the possibilities for future enhancement including spectroscopy.

  2. Forma dat esse: a Christian ontology of human spirit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Martínez Porcell

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Forma dat esse was initially high fertility existential anthropology. Christian philosophy inherited although explanations hylemorphic with explaining human nature knew register the being and doing of the person inside the ontology of created spirits. The presence of human corporeality was a spirit that existed in the boundary and the horizon of eternity. The plasticity of human tendencies was a sign of his intelligence and it should be defined by their spirituality. The word was being-communication and love was the most important act of his life fertility. No wonder that we offer existential self as memory itself and the presence of the soul from the patenting of his spiritual being.

  3. Medical Eschatologies: The Christian Spirit of Hospital Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Jean M

    2016-01-01

    If much has been written of the forms of bodiliness reinforced by hospitals, less attention has been paid to the medicalization of the soul. The medical management of death institutionalizes divisions between body and soul, and matter and spirit, infusing end-of-life care with latent Christian theological presumptions. The invisibility of these presumptions is partly sustained by projecting religiosity on those who endorse other cosmologies, while retaining for medicine a mask of secular science. Stories of conflict with non-Christian patients force these presumptions into visibility, suggesting alternative ethics of care and mourning rooted in other understandings. In this article, I explore one such story. Considering the story as an allegory for how matter and spirit figure in contemporary postmortem disciplines, I suggest that it exposes both the operation of a taboo against mixing material and spiritual agendas, and an assumption that appropriate mourning is oriented toward symbolic homage, rather than concern for the material welfare of the dead.

  4. Construction Land Expansion and Transfer of Gravity Center from 1984 to 2016 : A study on Beijing - Tianjin - Hebei Urban Agglomeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jinxia; Jiang, Weiguo

    2017-04-01

    With the economic development and technological innovation, urban planning and construction has already broken through the shackles of the natural conditions such as topography and geomorphology, and the social factors such as politics and location have been affected by the urbanization process in the process of urbanization. At the same time, the synergies between urban development and local economy, national policy, industrial distribution and so on are also paid more attention. As the third pole of Chinese economy after the Pearl River Delta and the Yangtze River Delta, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Metropolis Circle has attracted extensive attention on experts and scholars in its urban development and location. In recent years, studies on urban development have not only analyzed the spatial characteristics of urban or urban agglomerations, but also discussed the relationship between urban development and certain elements or phenomena. This paper presents a multi-threshold and multi-feature extraction method for building land using the optical characteristics of different landforms, based on Landsat remote sensing images from 1984 to 2016. The method selected Automated Water Extraction Index (AWEI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Soil Extraction Index (SOEI) and Normalized Difference Built-up Index (BUEI) to extract the construction land. It is an example study area of Beijing to extract the construction land in 30 years and to do a examine research. Using the ArcGIS software to calculate, we can get the coordinates of the city center of gravity in Beijing in various years. It can be seen that the center of gravity of built-up area and the movement of the center of gravity in Beijing. The results showed that the construction land in Beijing has an increasing tendency in recent 30 years. The main characteristic of expansion is the way of high-speed outward development. From 1984 to 1999, the center of gravity of the city shifted to the northeast, and

  5. A high-resolution air pollutants emission inventory in 2013 for the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ji; Zheng, Bo; Li, Meng; Yu, Fang; Chen, Chuchu; Liu, Fei; Zhou, Xiafei; Yuan, Jing; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin

    2017-12-01

    We developed a high-resolution Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) regional air pollutants emission inventory for the year 2013. The inventory was established using a bottom-up approach based on facility-level activity data obtained from multiple data sources. The estimates from the BTH 2013 emission inventory show that the total emissions of SO2, NOX, PM2.5, PM10, CO, NMVOC, NH3, BC, and OC were 2,305, 2,686, 1,090, 1,494, 20,567, 2,207, 623, 160, and 254 Gg, respectively. The industry sector is the largest emissions source for SO2, NOX, PM2.5, PM10, CO, and NMVOC in the BTH region, contributing 72.6%, 43.7%, 59.6%, 64.7%, 60.3%, and 70.4% of the total emissions, respectively. Power plants contributed 11.8% and 23.3% of the total SO2 and NOX emissions, respectively. The transportation sector contributed 28.9% of the total NOX emissions. Emissions from the residential sector accounted for 31.3%, 21.5%, 46.6% and 71.7% of the total PM2.5, NMVOC, BC and OC emissions, respectively. In addition, more than 90% of the total NH3 emissions originate from the agriculture sector, with 44.2% from fertilizer use and 47.7% from livestock. The spatial distribution results illustrate that air pollutant emissions are mainly distributed over the eastern and southern BTH regions. Beijing, Tianjin, Shijiazhuang, Tangshan and Handan are the major contributors of air pollutants. The major NMVOC species in the BTH region are ethylene, acetylene, ethane and toluene. Ethylene is the biggest contributor in Tianjin and Hebei. The largest contributor in Beijing is toluene. There is relatively low uncertainty in SO2 and NOX emission estimates, medium uncertainty in PM2.5, PM10 and CO emission estimates, and high uncertainties in VOC, NH3, BC and OC emission estimates. The proposed policy recommendations, based on the BTH 2013 emission inventory, would be helpful to develop strategies for air pollution control.

  6. Spirit's View Beside 'Home Plate' on Sol 1823 (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11971 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11971 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images that have been combined into this stereo, 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,823rd Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's surface mission (Feb. 17, 2009). This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. The center of the view is toward the south-southwest. The rover had driven 7 meters (23 feet) eastward earlier on Sol 1823, part of maneuvering to get Spirit into a favorable position for climbing onto the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' However, after two driving attempts with negligible progress during the following three sols, the rover team changed its strategy for getting to destinations south of Home Plate. The team decided to drive Spirit at least partway around Home Plate, instead of ascending the northern edge and taking a shorter route across the top of the plateau. Layered rocks forming part of the northern edge of Home Plate can be seen near the center of the image. Rover wheel tracks are visible at the lower edge. This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  7. [Wellbeing, team spirit and a fun run for women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gougeon, Brigitte

    2017-12-01

    The fun run La Parisienne, has been bringing together in Paris every September for the last 21 years, thousands of women running alongside each other to say no to breast cancer. Many caregivers also take part, in teams or with friends, like at the Odysséa fun run in which families can also participate. Charity sports events for the benefit of research which promote femininity, team spirit, sharing and wellbeing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Mothers and Spirits: Religious Identity, Alcohol, and Death

    OpenAIRE

    Candi K. Cann

    2016-01-01

    Mothers and Spirits examines the intersection of women, alcohol, and death through a comparative analysis. Offering a brief history of the study of drinking, followed by a short analysis of drinking in European and Chinese cultures, Cann examines two religious texts central to the roles of women and alcohol in Chinese religious thought and Christianity. Finally, Cann utilizes the historical and textual background to contextualize her ethnographic study of women, alcohol, and death in Mexican ...

  9. The Spirit of Capitalism and Stock-Market Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Gurdip S. Bakshi; Zhiwu Chen

    1996-01-01

    In existing theory, wealth is no more valuable than its implied consumption rewards. In reality, investors acquire wealth not just for its implied consumption but for the resulting social status. Max M. Weber (1958) refers to this desire for wealth as the spirit of capitalism. The authors examine, both analytically and empirically, implications of Weber's hypothesis for consumption, savings, and stock prices. When investors care about relative social status, propensity to consume and risk-tak...

  10. SCHIZOPHRENIA - THE SPIRIT POSSESSED 23 YEAR OLD MALE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    taken hold of him and withdrawn his mind that he had become forgetful, and that he could not take his examinations. He was behaving “abnormally”, roaming around the streets of the village but was unable to control it. “It was the spirits that was making me do it, and could even put thoughts into my mind, which are foreign to ...

  11. Puumeelsuse ülistus - Spirit of Nature / Agneta Land

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Land, Agneta

    2008-01-01

    Rahvusvaheline puitarhitektuuri näitus 11.09.- 31.10.2008 Lahtis (Soome) Pro Puu galeriis. Eksponeeritakse Renzo Piano (Itaalia), Kengo Kuma (Jaapan), Richard Leplastrier'i (Austraalia), Peter Zumthor'i (Šveits) ja Jose Cruz Ovalle (Tšiili) loomingut. 2008. aastal pälvis Spirit of Nature auhinna tšiili arhitekt Jose Cruz Ovalle (sünd. 1948). Tema eluloolisi andmeid, looming, portreefoto

  12. Dust Devil in Spirit's View Ahead on Sol 1854 (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11960 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11960 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images that have been combined into this stereo, 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,854th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's surface mission (March 21, 2009). This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. The rover had driven 13.79 meters (45 feet) westward earlier on Sol 1854. West is at the center, where a dust devil is visible in the distance. North on the right, where Husband Hill dominates the horizon; Spirit was on top of Husband Hill in September and October 2005. South is on the left, where lighter-toned rock lines the edge of the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  13. View Ahead After Spirit's Sol 1861 Drive (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11977 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11977 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this stereo, 210-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,861st to 1,863rd Martian days, or sols, of Spirit's surface mission (March 28 to 30, 2009). This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. The center of the scene is toward the south-southwest. East is on the left. West-northwest is on the right. The rover had driven 22.7 meters (74 feet) southwestward on Sol 1861 before beginning to take the frames in this view. The drive brought Spirit past the northwestern corner of Home Plate. In this view, the western edge of Home Plate is on the portion of the horizon farthest to the left. A mound in middle distance near the center of the view is called 'Tsiolkovsky' and is about 40 meters (about 130 feet) from the rover's position. This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  14. Mars Exploration Rover Spirit End of Mission Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callas, John L.

    2015-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit landed in Gusev crater on Mars on January 4, 2004, for a prime mission designed to last three months (90 sols). After more than six years operating on the surface of Mars, the last communication received from Spirit occurred on Sol 2210 (March 22, 2010). Following the loss of signal, the Mars Exploration Rover Project radiated over 1400 commands to Mars in an attempt to elicit a response from the rover. Attempts were made utilizing Deep Space Network X-Band and UHF relay via both Mars Odyssey and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Search and recovery efforts concluded on July 13, 2011. It is the MER project's assessment that Spirit succumbed to the extreme environmental conditions experienced during its fourth winter on Mars. Focusing on the time period from the end of the third Martian winter through the fourth winter and end of recovery activities, this report describes possible explanations for the loss of the vehicle and the extent of recovery efforts that were performed. It offers lessons learned and provides an overall mission summary.

  15. Evolution of Volatile Compounds during the Distillation of Cognac Spirit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Pierre; Athès, Violaine; Decloux, Martine Esteban; Ferrari, Gérald; Snakkers, Guillaume; Raguenaud, Patrick; Giampaoli, Pierre

    2017-09-06

    Cognac wine spirit has a complex composition in volatile compounds which contributes to its organoleptic profile. This work focused on the batch distillation process and, in particular, on volatile compounds specifically produced by chemical reactions during the distillation of Cognac wine spirit, traditionally conducted in two steps with charentais pot stills. The aim of this study was to characterize these volatile compounds formed during distillation. Sampling has been performed on the distillates and inside the boiler during a typical Cognac distillation. The analysis of these samples allowed us to perform a mass balance and to point out several types of volatile compounds whose quantities strongly increased during the distillation process. These compounds were distinguished by their chemical family. It has been found that the first distillation step was decisive for the formation of volatile compounds. Moreover, 2 esters, 3 aldehydes, 12 norisoprenoids, and 3 terpenes were shown to be generated during the process. These results suggest that some volatile compounds found in Cognac spirit are formed during distillation due to chemical reactions induced by high temperature. These findings give important indications to professional distillers in order to enhance the product's quality.

  16. Brazilian organic sugarcane spirits: Physicochemical and chromatographic profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Cimino Duarte

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT There has been a growing demand for products from organic agriculture for the food market. Brazil leads the production of sugarcane spirits and produces about 1.6 billion liters/year. New technologies have been sought throughout the supply chain to improve production, and organic raw material has been used in the production of sugar cane for the production of beverages. This study aimed to define the physicochemical and chromatographic profiles of eleven organic sugarcane spirits samples from various Brazilian states. The secondary components and contaminants were identified and quantified through physicochemical analyses, HPLC and gas chromatography (GC. A significant percentage of the organic sugarcane spirits samples contained concentrations of components that were above the limits required by the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Provisioning (MAPA, specifically the esters (18.20%, copper and dry extract (9.10%. This contamination is caused by bad conditions employed during the production process, which are not in compliance with the good manufacturing practices determined and legislated by Brazilian law.

  17. Framing the policy debate over spirits excise tax in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatonski, Mateusz; Hawkins, Benjamin; McKee, Martin

    2018-06-01

    Industry lobbying remains an obstacle to effective health-oriented alcohol policy. In 2013, an increase in excise tax on spirits was announced by the Polish government. This article presents a qualitative analysis of the public debate that ensued on the potential economic, health and social effects of the policy. It focuses on how competing groups, including industry actors, framed their position and sought to dominate the debate. Online archives of five Polish national newspapers, two spirits trade associations, and parliamentary and ministerial archives were searched. A thematic content analysis of the identified sources was conducted. The overall findings were compared with existing research on the framing of the Minimum Unit Pricing (MUP) debate in the UK. A total of 155 sources were analysed. Two main frames were identified: health, and economic. The spirits industry successfully promoted the economic frame in their own publications and in the media. The debate was dominated by arguments about potential growth of the grey market and losses in tax revenue that might result from the excise tax increase. The framing of the debate in Poland differed from the framing of the MUP debate in the United Kingdom. The Polish public health community was unsuccessful in making health considerations a significant element of the alcohol policy debate. The strategies pursued by UK health advocates offer lessons for how to make a more substantial impact on media coverage and promote health-oriented legislation.

  18. The case of the team-spirit tailspin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, R D

    1991-01-01

    Richard Johnson, newly appointed president of Century Airlines, knew the company's survival depended on customer service, which in turn depended on motivated employees. So he created the Century Spirit program to build team spirit by encouraging employee participation, individual initiative, and open communication. Among the program's early successes was a newspaper started by a group of flight attendants. The Plane Truth published information about benefits and work conditions as well as feature stories and humorous articles. It quickly became popular not only with flight attendants but also with pilots, machinists, and baggage handlers. As time went on, though, the Plane Truth began to run articles critical of the company. When management cut back workers' hours, the newspaper questioned what sacrifices the executives were making. When technical services released figures showing long turnaround times, the paper questioned the machinists' work ethic. Worried that customers might see the newspaper, Richard Johnson wanted to cancel it. The president of the flight attendants union also wanted to see it go because it was stirring up trouble with the machinists. Joan Raffin, Century's human resources director, was asked to stop the publication. But she hesitated. She knew that employee morale was on the brink, but she didn't know whether the newspaper was venting workers' frustrations and reinforcing team spirit or stirring up old animosities and bringing the whole company down. Was it creating more tension than unity or vice versa? Experts on organizational change, motivation, and management analyze the situation and make recommendations for what Joan Raffin should do.

  19. Record prices [crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2006-01-01

    Crude oil prices climbed to new record levels on fears of a future loss of supplies from Iran as Washington stepped up its efforts to persuade Tehran to abandon its programme to produce nuclear fuel. IPE's December Brent contract set a new record for the exchange by trading at $75.80/bbl on 21st April. On the same day October WTI reached an all-time high of $77.30/bbl on Nymex. US product prices gained as refiners struggled to produce sufficient middle distillate. Alarmed by the rising retail price of gasoline, the US Senate debated a reduction in the already low US tax rate on motor spirit. The House of Representatives passed a measure to prohibit overcharging for petrol, diesel and heating oil, but Democrats rejected a Republican proposal to speed-up the process for approving new refineries. President George W Bush announced a temporary easing of new gasoline and diesel specifications (see 'Focus', March 2006) to allow more fuel to be produced. He also agreed to delay the repayment of some 2.1 mn bbl of crude oil lent to companies after last year's hurricanes from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. California announced an inquiry into alleged overcharging for fuel by oil companies operating in the state. (author)

  20. SPIRITS 15c and SPIRITS 14buu: Two Obscured Supernovae in the Nearby Star-forming Galaxy IC 2163

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jencson, Jacob E.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Cao, Yi; Johansson, Joel; Contreras, Carlos; Castellón, Sergio; Morrell, Nidia; Phillips, Mark; Bond, Howard E.; Monson, Andrew J.; Masci, Frank J.; Helou, George; Cody, Ann Marie; Andrews, Jennifer E.; Bally, John; Green, Wayne; Fox, Ori D.; Gburek, Timothy; Gehrz, Robert D.; Hsiao, Eric

    2017-01-01

    SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey—SPIRITS—is an ongoing survey of nearby galaxies searching for infrared (IR) transients with Spitzer /IRAC. We present the discovery and follow-up observations of one of our most luminous ( M [4.5] = −17.1 ± 0.4 mag, Vega) and reddest ([3.6] − [4.5] = 3.0 ± 0.2 mag) transients, SPIRITS 15c. The transient was detected in a dusty spiral arm of IC 2163 ( D ≈ 35.5 Mpc). Pre-discovery ground-based imaging revealed an associated, shorter-duration transient in the optical and near-IR (NIR). NIR spectroscopy showed a broad (≈8400 km s −1 ), double-peaked emission line of He i at 1.083 μ m, indicating an explosive origin. The NIR spectrum of SPIRITS 15c is similar to that of the Type IIb SN 2011dh at a phase of ≈200 days. Assuming an A V = 2.2 mag of extinction in SPIRITS 15c provides a good match between their optical light curves. The NIR light curves, however, show some minor discrepancies when compared with SN 2011dh, and the extreme [3.6]–[4.5] color has not been previously observed for any SN IIb. Another luminous ( M 4.5 = −16.1 ± 0.4 mag) event, SPIRITS 14buu, was serendipitously discovered in the same galaxy. The source displays an optical plateau lasting ≳80 days, and we suggest a scenario similar to the low-luminosity Type IIP SN 2005cs obscured by A V ≈ 1.5 mag. Other classes of IR-luminous transients can likely be ruled out in both cases. If both events are indeed SNe, this may suggest that ≳18% of nearby core-collapse SNe are missed by currently operating optical surveys.

  1. SPIRITS 15c and SPIRITS 14buu: Two Obscured Supernovae in the Nearby Star-forming Galaxy IC 2163

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jencson, Jacob E.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Cao, Yi [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Johansson, Joel [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel); Contreras, Carlos; Castellón, Sergio; Morrell, Nidia; Phillips, Mark [Las Campanas Observatory, Carnegie Observatories, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile); Bond, Howard E.; Monson, Andrew J. [Dept. of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Masci, Frank J.; Helou, George [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cody, Ann Marie [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Andrews, Jennifer E. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Bally, John; Green, Wayne [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Fox, Ori D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gburek, Timothy; Gehrz, Robert D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street, S. E., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Hsiao, Eric, E-mail: jj@astro.caltech.edu [Department of Physics, Florida State University, 77 Chieftain Way, Tallahassee, FL, 32306 (United States); and others

    2017-03-10

    SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey—SPIRITS—is an ongoing survey of nearby galaxies searching for infrared (IR) transients with Spitzer /IRAC. We present the discovery and follow-up observations of one of our most luminous ( M {sub [4.5]} = −17.1 ± 0.4 mag, Vega) and reddest ([3.6] − [4.5] = 3.0 ± 0.2 mag) transients, SPIRITS 15c. The transient was detected in a dusty spiral arm of IC 2163 ( D ≈ 35.5 Mpc). Pre-discovery ground-based imaging revealed an associated, shorter-duration transient in the optical and near-IR (NIR). NIR spectroscopy showed a broad (≈8400 km s{sup −1}), double-peaked emission line of He i at 1.083 μ m, indicating an explosive origin. The NIR spectrum of SPIRITS 15c is similar to that of the Type IIb SN 2011dh at a phase of ≈200 days. Assuming an A {sub V} = 2.2 mag of extinction in SPIRITS 15c provides a good match between their optical light curves. The NIR light curves, however, show some minor discrepancies when compared with SN 2011dh, and the extreme [3.6]–[4.5] color has not been previously observed for any SN IIb. Another luminous ( M {sub 4.5} = −16.1 ± 0.4 mag) event, SPIRITS 14buu, was serendipitously discovered in the same galaxy. The source displays an optical plateau lasting ≳80 days, and we suggest a scenario similar to the low-luminosity Type IIP SN 2005cs obscured by A{sub V} ≈ 1.5 mag. Other classes of IR-luminous transients can likely be ruled out in both cases. If both events are indeed SNe, this may suggest that ≳18% of nearby core-collapse SNe are missed by currently operating optical surveys.

  2. High Ethanol Contents of Spirit Drinks in Kibera Slums, Kenya: Implications for Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex O. Okaru

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cheap licit and artisanal illicit spirit drinks have been associated with numerous outbreaks of alcohol poisoning especially with methanol. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of cheap spirit drinks in Kibera slums in Nairobi County, Kenya. The samples consisted of cheap licit spirits (n = 11 and the artisanal spirit drink, ‘chang’aa’, (n = 28. The parameters of alcoholic strength and volatile composition were used as indicators of quality and were determined using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS respectively. The ranges for alcoholic strength were 42.8–85.8% vol and 28.3–56.7% vol for chang’aa and licit spirit drinks respectively, while the pH ranges were 3.3–4.2 and 4.4–4.8 for chang’aa and licit spirit drinks respectively. The majority of volatiles were found in artisanal spirits and they included higher alcohols, ethyl esters and carbonyl compounds. The alcoholic strength of all the artisanal spirits (100% and 91% of the licit spirits was above the 40% vol of standard spirits such as vodka. The high ethanol content of the alcohol products was the only element of public health significance in this study.

  3. High Ethanol Contents of Spirit Drinks in Kibera Slums, Kenya: Implications for Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okaru, Alex O; Abuga, Kennedy O; Kibwage, Isaac O; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2017-10-17

    Cheap licit and artisanal illicit spirit drinks have been associated with numerous outbreaks of alcohol poisoning especially with methanol. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of cheap spirit drinks in Kibera slums in Nairobi County, Kenya. The samples consisted of cheap licit spirits ( n = 11) and the artisanal spirit drink, ' chang'aa' , ( n = 28). The parameters of alcoholic strength and volatile composition were used as indicators of quality and were determined using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) respectively. The ranges for alcoholic strength were 42.8-85.8% vol and 28.3-56.7% vol for chang'aa and licit spirit drinks respectively, while the pH ranges were 3.3-4.2 and 4.4-4.8 for chang'aa and licit spirit drinks respectively. The majority of volatiles were found in artisanal spirits and they included higher alcohols, ethyl esters and carbonyl compounds. The alcoholic strength of all the artisanal spirits (100%) and 91% of the licit spirits was above the 40% vol of standard spirits such as vodka. The high ethanol content of the alcohol products was the only element of public health significance in this study.

  4. Burden and correlates of non-communicable-diseases among rural residents: a cross-sectional study in Hebei, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junjun; Yu, Wenya; Zhou, Qiang; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Li, Yiqiu; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Lei; Mahapatra, Sanchita; Yan, Yuying; Tang, Weiming

    2015-06-20

    Burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is increasing rapidly in most of the developing countries including China, even in rural areas. Dearth of representative data called for an investigation to estimate the burden and identify the correlates of NCDs in rural China. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving a representative sample of 6003 consenting randomly selected rural residents aged 15 years or more, from 36 villages of Shijiazhuang in Hebei province of China between July 2010 and June 2011. Information on demographics and behavior were collected, body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure were measured and blood samples were tested to diagnose diabetes and hyperlipidemia. Majority participants were aged problems (12.1%) and gastrointestinal NCDs (7.8%) were identified among the participants, while proportion of subjects with one, two and three or more NCDs were 43%, 14.4% and 5.5% respectively. Higher odds of having more NCDs were associated with higher BMI (Kg/M(2)), family history of NCDs, daily and past history of smoking and drinking, passive smoking, lack of exercise, skipping breakfast and psychological disturbances. Despite limitations associated with cross-sectional design and self-reporting, observation in this large sample of rural residents could develop important insights regarding high burden of NCDs in this population. Based on the identified correlates, targeted intervention strategies seem to be required urgently to control NCDs in rural China.

  5. Co-Mitigation of Ozone and PM2.5 Pollution over the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Xiang, S.; Yi, K.; Tao, W.

    2017-12-01

    With the rapid industrialization and urbanization, emissions of air pollutants in China were increasing rapidly during the past few decades, causing severe particulate matter and ozone pollution in many megacities. Facing these knotty environmental problems, China has released a series of pollution control policies to mitigate air pollution emissions and optimize energy supplement structure. Consequently, fine particulate matters (PM2.5) decrease recently. However, the concentrations of ambient ozone have been increasing, especially during summer time and over megacities. In this study, we focus on the opposite trends of ozone and PM2.5 over the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF/Chem) to simulate and analyze the best emission reduction strategies, and adopt the Empirical Kinetics Modeling Approach (EKMA) to depict the influences of mitigating NOx and VOCs. We also incorporate the abatement costs for NOx and VOCs in our analysis to explore the most cost-effective mitigation strategies for both ozone and PM2.5.

  6. Water quality assessment by pollution-index method in the coastal waters of Hebei Province in western Bohai Sea, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuguang; Lou, Sha; Kuang, Cuiping; Huang, Wenrui; Chen, Wujun; Zhang, Jianle; Zhong, Guihui

    2011-10-01

    Sources of pollution discharges and water quality samples at 27 stations in 2006 in the coastal waters of Hebei Province, western Bohai Sea, have been analyzed in this study. Pollutant loads from industrial sewages have shown stronger impact on the water environment than those from the general sewages. Analysis indicates that pollution of COD is mainly resulted from land-based point pollutant sources. For phosphate concentration, non-point source pollution from coastal ocean (fishing and harbor areas) plays an important role. To assess the water quality conditions, Organic Pollution Index and Eutrophication Index have been used to quantify the level of water pollution and eutrophication conditions. Results show that pollution was much heavier in the dry season than flood season in 2006. Based on COD and phosphate concentrations, results show that waters near Shahe River, Douhe River, Yanghe River, and Luanhe River were heavily polluted. Water quality in the Qinhuangdao area was better than those in the Tangshan and Cangzhou areas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Impact of Precipitation Deficit and Urbanization on Variations in Water Storage in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Urban Agglomeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Depletion of water resources has threatened water security in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration, China. However, the relative importance of precipitation and urbanization to water storage change has not been sufficiently studied. In this study, both terrestrial water storage (TWS and groundwater storage (GWS change in Jing-Jin-Ji from 1979 to the 2010s were investigated, based on the global land data assimilation system (GLDAS and the EartH2Observe (E2O outputs, and we used a night light index as an index of urbanization. The results showed that TWS anomaly varied in three stages: significant increase from 1981 to 1996, rapid decrease from 1996 to 2002 and increase from 2002 to the 2010s. Simultaneously, GWS has decreased with about 41.5 cm (500% of GWS in 1979. Both urbanization and precipitation change influenced urban water resource variability. Urbanization was a relatively important factor to the depletion of TWS (explains 83% and GWS (explains 94% since the 1980s and the precipitation deficit explains 72% and 64% of TWS and GWS variabilities. It indicates that urbanization coupled with precipitation deficit has been a more important factor that impacted depletion of both TWS and GWS than climate change only, in the Jing-Jin-Ji region. Moreover, we suggested that the cumulative effect should be considered when discussing the relationship between influence factors and water storage change.

  8. Assessment of air quality management policies in China with integrated model framework: Case study for Hebei province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q.; Zhao, Q.; Zheng, B.; Hong, C.; Tong, D.; Yang, W.; He, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Chinese government has pledged to clean urban air within five years from 2013 to 2017, to promote annual average PM2.5 concentration decline by 25%, 20% and 15% in the North China Plain, Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta, respectively. The national targets are disaggregated into provinces, where region-specific action plan is designed and implemented by local government. It is particularly important to timely assess the effectiveness of local emission control measures and guarantee local efforts are in line with the national goal. We develop an integrated model framework for air quality management and policy evaluation, by integrating a dynamic high-resolution emission model, an emission scenarios analysis tool, and a 3-D air quality model. We then put the model system into pilot use in Hebei province for policy making to achieve the air quality target of 2017. We first integrate over 3000 point source facilities into this system to develop a high-resolution emission inventory. Upon the base emission dataset, the efforts to mitigate emissions with current and enacted measures are tracked and quantified to dynamic account of emission changes monthly. Strict policies are designed within the model framework through analyzing the potential to cut emissions for each point source. The finalized policy package can reduce emissions of major air pollutants by 20%-40%, respectively, leading to large decrease of ambient PM2.5 concentration.

  9. Influences of meteorological conditions on interannual variations of particulate matter pollution during winter in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jianjun; Gong, Sunling; Liu, Hongli; An, Xingqin; Yu, Ye; Zhao, Suping; Wu, Lin; Song, Congbo; Zhou, Chunhong; Wang, Jie; Yin, Chengmei; Yu, Lijuan

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the interannual variations of particulate matter (PM) pollution in winter, this paper examines the pollution characteristics of PM with aerodynamic diameters of less than 2.5 and 10 μm (i.e., PM2.5 and PM10), and their relationship to meteorological conditions over the Beijing municipality, Tianjin municipality, and Hebei Province—an area called Jing-Jin-Ji (JJJ, hereinafter)—in December 2013-16. The meteorological conditions during this period are also analyzed. The regional average concentrations of PM2.5 (PM10) over the JJJ area during this period were 148.6 (236.4), 100.1 (166.4), 140.5 (204.5), and 141.7 (203.1) μg m-3, respectively. The high occurrence frequencies of cold air outbreaks, a strong Siberian high, high wind speeds and boundary layer height, and low temperature and relative humidity, were direct meteorological causes of the low PM concentration in December 2014. A combined analysis of PM pollution and meteorological conditions implied that control measures have resulted in an effective improvement in air quality. Using the same emissions inventory in December 2013-16, a modeling analysis showed emissions of PM2.5 to decrease by 12.7%, 8.6%, and 8.3% in December 2014, 2015, and 2016, respectively, each compared with the previous year, over the JJJ area.

  10. Distribution and accumulation of endocrine-disrupting chemicals and pharmaceuticals in wastewater irrigated soils in Hebei, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Feng; Ying Guangguo; Kong Lingxiao; Wang Li; Zhao Jianliang; Zhou Lijun; Zhang Lijuan

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of 43 emerging contaminants including 9 endocrine-disrupting chemicals and 34 pharmaceuticals in three sites in Hebei Province, north China. Each site has a wastewater irrigated plot and a separate groundwater irrigated plot for comparison purpose. The results showed that the concentrations of the target compounds in the wastewater irrigated soils were in most cases higher than those in the groundwater irrigated soils. Among the 43 target compounds, nine compounds bisphenol-A, triclocarban, triclosan, 4-nonylphenol, salicylic acid, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, trimethoprim and primidone were detected at least once in the soils. Preliminary environmental risk assessment showed that triclocarban might pose high risks to terrestrial organisms while the other detected compounds posed minimal risks. Irrigation with wastewater could lead to presence or accumulation of some emerging contaminants to some extent in irrigated soils. - Highlights: → Some EDCs and PPCPs were detected in the wastewater irrigated soils. → Application of reclaimed water could lead to accumulation of some compounds. → Groundwater has been contaminated by some compounds. → Triclocarban posed high risks to soil organisms. - Application of reclaimed wastewater on agricultural land could lead to the presence or accumulation of wastewater-related contaminants in soils.

  11. Distribution and accumulation of endocrine-disrupting chemicals and pharmaceuticals in wastewater irrigated soils in Hebei, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Chen [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Ying Guangguo, E-mail: guangguo.ying@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Lingxiao, Kong [Institute of Plant Protection, Hebei Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Science, Baoding 07100 (China); Li, Wang; Jianliang, Zhao; Lijun, Zhou; Lijuan, Zhang [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2011-06-15

    This study investigated the occurrence of 43 emerging contaminants including 9 endocrine-disrupting chemicals and 34 pharmaceuticals in three sites in Hebei Province, north China. Each site has a wastewater irrigated plot and a separate groundwater irrigated plot for comparison purpose. The results showed that the concentrations of the target compounds in the wastewater irrigated soils were in most cases higher than those in the groundwater irrigated soils. Among the 43 target compounds, nine compounds bisphenol-A, triclocarban, triclosan, 4-nonylphenol, salicylic acid, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, trimethoprim and primidone were detected at least once in the soils. Preliminary environmental risk assessment showed that triclocarban might pose high risks to terrestrial organisms while the other detected compounds posed minimal risks. Irrigation with wastewater could lead to presence or accumulation of some emerging contaminants to some extent in irrigated soils. - Highlights: > Some EDCs and PPCPs were detected in the wastewater irrigated soils. > Application of reclaimed water could lead to accumulation of some compounds. > Groundwater has been contaminated by some compounds. > Triclocarban posed high risks to soil organisms. - Application of reclaimed wastewater on agricultural land could lead to the presence or accumulation of wastewater-related contaminants in soils.

  12. Investigation of Health Conditions and Advice on Physical Exercise for College Students – Taking Hebei Province as an example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guokun Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As the colleges and universities are considered as the cradles for development of high-level talents, the physical fitness of college students is decisive to the future construction and development of our country. Meanwhile, the college physical education, as an important component in school education, undertakes the important responsibility of improving and enhancing the constitution and health level of college students. Taking Hebei Province as an example, this article investigates part of constitution data of college student, and makes vertical and horizontal analysis on situations of engagement in physical exercise for college students, by which it can be concluded that: Most of the students in college have had necessary physical exercise within teaching hours according to course arrangement, but some of them expect to simply take the credits and pass the exam; It is advised that the management intensity of constitution and health level for students shall be enhanced, and the sound long-effect mechanism of constitution monitoring shall also be established.

  13. Spatiotemporal Simulation of Tourist Town Growth Based on the Cellular Automata Model: The Case of Sanpo Town in Hebei Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatiotemporal simulation of tourist town growth is important for research on land use/cover change under the influence of urbanization. Many scholars have shown great interest in the unique pattern of driving urban development with tourism development. Based on the cellular automata (CA model, we simulated and predicted the spatiotemporal growth of Sanpo town in Hebei Province, using the tourism urbanization growth model. Results showed that (1 average annual growth rate of the entire region was 1.5 Ha2 per year from 2005 to 2010, 4 Ha2 per year from 2010 to 2015, and 2.5 Ha2 per year from 2015 to 2020; (2 urban growth rate increased yearly, with regional differences, and had a high degree of correlation with the Euclidean distance of town center, traffic route, attractions, and other factors; (3 Gougezhuang, an important village center in the west of the town, demonstrated traffic advantages and increased growth rate since 2010; (4 Magezhuang village has the largest population in the region, so economic advantages have driven the development of rural urbanization. It showed that CA had high reliability in simulating the spatiotemporal evolution of tourist town, which assists the study of spatiotemporal growth under urbanization and rational protection of tourism resources.

  14. Spirits Trade After Reform in 1863: To the Issue of Efficiency of State Regulation of Spirits Turnover in Terms of Free Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Ye. Goryushkina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On the grounds of published and non-published archive materials the article estimates efficiency of state regulation of spirits turnover in terms of excise taxation period. It also states types of spirits trade, types of public houses, groups of people that have obtained the right for wholesale, retail and that of small amount tradeoff spirits. License gaining procedures are widely described as well. The author pays significant attention to the areas in cities and countryside, where the public houses should not have been opened as well as the individuals who were admitted to spirits trade; also he states events which influenced the sale of spirits. The requirements to interior of public houses, working hours, quality and volumes of trade are also specified. It is pointed out that the officials of excise tax board were to control the regulations of spirit trade, their authority extended to public houses control in 1885. The author comes to the conclusion that regulatory means of excise tax was efficient and by increasing and decreasing of license cost, complication and simplification of new public houses opening all together allowed to regulate the turnover of spirits in terms of free trade thus influencing the number, types, density, range and quality of spirits. However, there was distinct ambiguity in Ministry of Finance policy during the stated excise taxation period. On the one hand it limited free sale of spirits, eradicating public houses which were considered detrimental. On the other hand, the Ministry was set not to notice abuse in trade which gave the opportunity to gain greater benefits at public cost from spirits sales.

  15. Neurological effects of white spirit: Contribution of animal studies during a 30-year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Damgård; Lund, Søren Peter; Ladefoged, Ole

    2006-01-01

    Numerous studies have suggested that long-term occupational exposure to white spirit may cause chronic toxic encephalopathy (WHO 1996). This review summarizes the chronic nervous system effects of white spirit in animal studies during a 30-year period. First, routine histopathology was consistently...... unable to reveal adverse peripheral or central nervous system effects after inhalation of white spirit. Second, neurobehavioural studies in animals showed no adverse effect after inhalation of white spirit with a high content of aromatics in contrast to what was found with products with a low content....... Third, white spirit with a high content of aromatics induced adverse neurochemical changes at inhalation of 400 ppm and possibly already at 100 ppm. In the studied parameters, white spirit with a low content of aromatics showed no clear adverse neurochemical effects at inhalation of 400 ppm...

  16. Self-sacrificial behavior and its explanation in terms of Max Scheler's concept of spirit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyushin, Alexey

    2014-12-01

    One of the key concepts of the German philosopher Max Scheler (1874-1928) is his concept of spirit. He understands spirit as one of several naturally functioning human mental agencies, such as consciousness, will, memory, etc. That is, he treats the mental agency of spirit in a scientific way and avoids any esoteric or religious connotations that this peculiar term may involve. The nature of human spirit, according to Scheler, is the ability to withstand and deliberately redirect biological imperatives and instinctive drives, up to the point of purposefully throwing away one's own life. The presence of spirit constitutes the essence of the human being that differentiates him qualitatively from all animals. In this article, I argue that it is human spirit that plays the determinative role in causing heroic and self-sacrificial behavior. I also argue that the individual human spirit experiences its inherent development, thus having several rather dissimilar stages and manifestations. I discuss the meaning that the term 'spirit' has in the English and the American philosophical and psychological traditions and the meaning of the corresponding term 'der Geist' in the German traditions. The specific English-language understanding of the term 'spirit', compared to its German counterpart 'der Geist', namely, less scientific and more religious and esoteric and metaphorical for the former, makes it alien and almost unusable in the English and American traditions. The linguistic difference leads to the misunderstanding of some very important ideas brought by the concept of spirit as introduced by Scheler. My purpose is to overcome this discrepancy and omission and to introduce the notion and the concept of spirit, in their scientific understanding, into the arsenal of modern English-language cognitive science, psychology, and philosophy in order to provide for the full explanatory force of the hitherto neglected concept of spirit.

  17. Mortality associated with moderate intakes of wine, beer, or spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grønbaek, M.; Deis, A.; Sørensen, T. I.; Becker, U.; Schnohr, P.; Jensen, G.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the association between intake of different types of alcoholic drinks and mortality. DESIGN--Prospective population study with baseline assessment of alcohol intake, smoking habit, income, education, and body mass index, and 10-12 years' follow up of mortality. SETTING--Copenhagen city heart study, Denmark. SUBJECTS--6051 men and 7234 women aged 30-70 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Number and time of cause-specific deaths from 1976 to 1988. RESULTS--The risk of dying steadily decreased with an increasing intake of wine--from a relative risk of 1.00 for the subjects who never drank wine to 0.51 (95% confidence interval 0.32 to 0.81) for those who drank three to five glasses a day. Intake of neither beer nor spirits, however, was associated with reduced risk. For spirits intake the relative risk of dying increased from 1.00 for those who never drank to 1.34 (1.05 to 1.71) for those with an intake of three to five drinks a day. The effects of the three types of alcoholic drinks seemed to be independent of each other, and no significant interactions existed with sex, age, education, income, smoking, or body mass index. Wine drinking showed the same relation to risk of death from cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease as to risk of death from all causes. CONCLUSION--Low to moderate intake of wine is associated with lower mortality from cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease and other causes. Similar intake of spirits implied an increased risk, while beer drinking did not affect mortality. PMID:7767150

  18. Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, ... blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the ...

  19. Diesel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil ... Diesel oil ... Diesel oil poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of ... most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to inhaling the fumes. NERVOUS ...

  20. Radial k-t SPIRiT: autocalibrated parallel imaging for generalized phase-contrast MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santelli, Claudio; Schaeffter, Tobias; Kozerke, Sebastian

    2014-11-01

    To extend SPIRiT to additionally exploit temporal correlations for highly accelerated generalized phase-contrast MRI and to compare the performance of the proposed radial k-t SPIRiT method relative to frame-by-frame SPIRiT and radial k-t GRAPPA reconstruction for velocity and turbulence mapping in the aortic arch. Free-breathing navigator-gated two-dimensional radial cine imaging with three-directional multi-point velocity encoding was implemented and fully sampled data were obtained in the aortic arch of healthy volunteers. Velocities were encoded with three different first gradient moments per axis to permit quantification of mean velocity and turbulent kinetic energy. Velocity and turbulent kinetic energy maps from up to 14-fold undersampled data were compared for k-t SPIRiT, frame-by-frame SPIRiT, and k-t GRAPPA relative to the fully sampled reference. Using k-t SPIRiT, improvements in magnitude and velocity reconstruction accuracy were found. Temporally resolved magnitude profiles revealed a reduction in spatial blurring with k-t SPIRiT compared with frame-by-frame SPIRiT and k-t GRAPPA for all velocity encodings, leading to improved estimates of turbulent kinetic energy. k-t SPIRiT offers improved reconstruction accuracy at high radial undersampling factors and hence facilitates the use of generalized phase-contrast MRI for routine use. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Using panel data to determine the effect of advertising on brand-level distilled spirits sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gius, M P

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to determine the effect that brand-level advertising has on brand-level spirits demand. Using a panel data set consisting of 16 brands and 14 years of data, a fixed effects model of brand-level spirits demand was estimated. It was found that own-brand advertising, income, rival-brand price, a time trend and brand loyalty all have a significant effect on brand-level spirits demand. These results indicate that brand-level spirits advertising results only in brand switching and does not increase the overall size of the market.

  2. Managerial Spirit from de Social Representations: Venezuelan case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Borjas de Xena

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This research seeks to characterize the central and peripheral structures of the Social Representations (SR on Entrepreneurial Spirit (ES. The SR are ways of social thinking that include information, beliefs, attitudes, practices and experiences. This type of research is complementary. The methodology called for the analysis of content found in secondary literature and in depth interviews. The corpus includes 65 articles in the 2006-2009 period. The results showed that the anchorage of the SR in the Venezuelan context could be characterized as “highly” entrepreneur

  3. Green waste from spirit; Gruener Abfall zu Sprit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heida, Lydia

    2013-05-15

    Bio MCN (Almere, The Netherlands) has built the largest factory of the world for the production of bio-methanol. This factory produces 250 million liter methanol annually from natural gas, green gas (from the fermentation of sugar beet residues) and crude glycerol. Crude glycerol arises from the biodiesel production. As part of the Wood Spirit Project, Bio MCN constructs an additional plant that converts 750,000 tons of wood waste to 250 million liters of methanol. The waste wood is chipped and converted to biochar by means of torrefaction. Biochar is pulverized and converted to synthesis gas. This synthesis gas is converted to methanol by means of a chemical catalyst.

  4. Zen leadership: balancing energy for mind, body, and spirit harmony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, J W

    2000-01-01

    This article explores leadership characteristics and practices that assist us both professionally and personally to be authentic and integrated in mind, body, and spirit for harmony. The transformational leadership characteristics--courage; belief in people; value driven; a life-long learner and teacher; a complexity, ambiguity, and uncertainty expert; and a visionary leader--all deal with the leader's ability to develop relationships through teamwork, collaboration, networking, mentoring, and establishing boundaries. The author realized the importance of reflection to maintaining a healthy relationship not only with others but also with self.

  5. Body, spirit and gender in Maria Komornicka’s poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Lisowska

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns three significant concepts in Maria Komornicka’s writings: body, spirit and gender. The first two are closely related to each other, thus initial paragraphs are devoted to them both. On the basis of these reflections, I draw some conclusion about the image of gender created by the poet. The notion of gender is analysed in terms of Young Poland discourse of gender and from the perspective of modern methodologies: feminist criticism as well as gender and queer studies. This paper aims at encouraging the reader to reinterpret M. Komornicka’s output with contemporary awareness.

  6. Mothers and Spirits: Religious Identity, Alcohol, and Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candi K. Cann

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mothers and Spirits examines the intersection of women, alcohol, and death through a comparative analysis. Offering a brief history of the study of drinking, followed by a short analysis of drinking in European and Chinese cultures, Cann examines two religious texts central to the roles of women and alcohol in Chinese religious thought and Christianity. Finally, Cann utilizes the historical and textual background to contextualize her ethnographic study of women, alcohol, and death in Mexican Catholicism, Chinese religions, and American Southern Baptist Christianity. Cann argues that both alcohol and temperance are used as a way to forge, cement, and create gender identity, constructing alternate discourses of power and inclusivity.

  7. Oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsouros, M.H.

    1992-01-01

    The world annually transports 1.7 billion tons of oil by sea, and oil spills, often highly concentrated discharges, are increasing from a variety of sources. The author discusses sources of oils spills: natural; marine transportation; offshore oil production; atmospheric sources; municipal industrial wastes and runoff. Other topics include: the fate of the spilled oil; the effects of the oil; the response to oil spills; and prevention of oil spills. 30 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  8. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... up. How Oil Harms Animals and Plants in Marine Environments In general, oil spills can affect animals and plants in two ways: from the oil ... up. How Oil Harms Animals and Plants in Marine Environments In general, oil spills can affect animals and plants in two ways: from the oil ...

  9. [Correlative factors related to the density of Meriones unguiculatus in the Meriones unguiculatus plague foci of Hebei province, 2001-2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Y F; Kang, X P; Yan, D; Zhang, Y H; Liu, G; Kang, D M; Liu, H Z; Shi, X M; Li, Y G

    2016-08-10

    To explore the yearly, monthly and habitat-related distribution and their relations with Meriones unguiculatus density in the Hebei Meriones unguiculatus plague foci, from 2001 to 2013. Data related to Meriones unguiculatus was gathered through the monitoring programs set up at the national and provincial Meriones unguiculatus plague foci in Hebei province, from 2001 to 2013. According to the yearly density of Meriones unguiculatus, criteria set for the three groups under study, were as follows:'high-risk group'-when the rodent density was≥1.00 under rodents/hm(2),'warning group'-when the rodents/hm(2)>rodent density> 0.20,'standard group'-when rodents/hm(2) rodent density≤0.20 rodents/hm(2). Differences of habitats and monthly distribution among the three groups were compared, under the Kruskal-Wallis H rank sum test while their relations were under the multiple correspondence analysis. The Meriones unguiculatus densities were higher than 1.00 rodents/hm(2), far above the set national standards, in the monitoring area, between 2001 and 2005. From 2005, though the rodent densities began to decrease, however, figures from 2008 to 2013 were still among 0.20 to 1.00 rodents/hm(2). The distribution of habitats in the three groups showed that the Meriones unguiculatus densities were all different in habitats and the difference was statistically significant (Pplague increased in Hebei Meriones unguiculatus plague foci. Based on the distribution of Meriones unguiculatus, programs should be set to monitor the rodent in arable land and wasteland, in April and June, to reduce the prevalence of animals plague.

  10. Numerical study of the effects of local atmospheric circulations on a pollution event over Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yucong; Liu, Shuhua; Zheng, Yijia; Wang, Shu; Chen, Bicheng; Zheng, Hui; Zhao, Jingchuan

    2015-04-01

    Currently, the Chinese central government is considering plans to build a trilateral economic sphere in the Bohai Bay area, including Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei (BTH), where haze pollution frequently occurs. To achieve sustainable development, it is necessary to understand the physical mechanism of the haze pollution there. Therefore, the pollutant transport mechanisms of a haze event over the BTH region from 23 to 24 September 2011 were studied using the Weather Research and Forecasting model and the FLEXible-PARTicle dispersion model to understand the effects of the local atmospheric circulations and atmospheric boundary layer structure. Results suggested that the penetration by sea-breeze could strengthen the vertical dispersion by lifting up the planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) and carry the local pollutants to the downstream areas; in the early night, two elevated pollution layers (EPLs) may be generated over the mountain areas: the pollutants in the upper EPL at the altitude of 2-2.5 km were favored to disperse by long-range transport, while the lower EPL at the altitude of 1 km may serve as a reservoir, and the pollutants there could be transported downward and contribute to the surface air pollution. The intensity of the sea-land and mountain-valley breeze circulations played an important role in the vertical transport and distribution of pollutants. It was also found that the diurnal evolution of the PBLH is important for the vertical dispersion of the pollutants, which is strongly affected by the local atmospheric circulations and the distribution of urban areas. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Freshwater Ecosystem Service Flow Model To Evaluate Regional Water Security: A Case Study In Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D.; Li, S.

    2016-12-01

    Freshwater service, as the most important support ecosystem service, is essential to human survival and development. Many studies have evidenced the spatial differences in the supply and demand of ecosystem services and raised the concept of ecosystem service flow. However, rather few studies quantitatively characterize the freshwater service flow. This paper aims to quantify the effect of freshwater ecosystem service flow on downstream areas in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, China over 2000, 2005 and 2010. We computed the freshwater ecosystem service provision with InVEST model. We calculated freshwater ecosystem service consumption with water quota method. We simulated the freshwater ecosystem service flow using our simplified flow model and assessed the regional water security with the improved freshwater security index. The freshwater provision service mainly depends on climatic factors that cannot be influenced by management, while the freshwater consumption service is constrained by human activities. Furthermore, the decrease of water quota for agricultural, domestic and industrial water counteracts the impact of increasing freshwater demand. The analysis of freshwater ecosystem service flow reveals that the majority area of the BTH (69.2%) is affected by upstream freshwater. If freshwater ecosystem service flow is considered, the water safety areas of the whole BTH account for 66.9%, 66.1%, 71.3%, which increase 6.4%, 6.8% and 5.7% in 2000, 2005 and 2010, respectively. These results highlight the need to understand the teleconnections between distant freshwater ecosystem service provision and local freshwater ecosystem service use. This approach therefore helps managers choose specific management and investment strategies for critical upstream freshwater provisions across different regions.

  12. Taking Action on Air Pollution Control in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) Region: Progress, Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Zhang, Fengying; Pilot, Eva; Yu, Jie; Holdaway, Jennifer; Yang, Linsheng; Li, Yonghua; Wang, Wuyi; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Krafft, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Due to rapid urbanization, industrialization and motorization, a large number of Chinese cities are affected by heavy air pollution. In order to explore progress, remaining challenges, and sustainability of air pollution control in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region after 2013, a mixed method analysis was undertaken. The quantitative analysis comprised an overview of air quality management in the BTH region. Semi-structured expert interviews were conducted with 12 stakeholders from various levels of government and research institutions who played substantial roles either in decision-making or in research and advising on air pollution control in the BTH region. The results indicated that with the stringent air pollution control policies, the air quality in BTH meets the targets of the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan. However, improvements vary across the region and for different pollutants. Although implementation has been decisive and was at least in parts effectively enforced, significant challenges remained with regard to industrial and traffic emission control, and national air quality limits continued to be significantly exceeded and competing development interests remained mainly unsolved. There were also concerns about the sustainability of the current air pollution control measures especially for industries due to the top-down enforcement, and the associated large burden of social cost including unemployment and social inequity resulting industrial restructuring. Better mechanisms for ensuring cross-sectoral coordination and for improved central-local government communication were suggested. Further suggestions were provided to improve the conceptual design and effective implementation of respective air pollution control strategies in BTH. Our study highlights some of the major hurdles that need to be addressed to succeed with a comprehensive air pollution control management for the Chinese mega-urban agglomerations. PMID:29425189

  13. [Impacts of climate change on summer maize production and adaptive selection of varieties in Xingtai County, Hebei, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Fei; Chen, Xin-Ping; Cui, Zhen-Ling; Meng, Qing-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the impacts of climate change on agriculture production and the underlying mechanism in North China Plain is important to take effective adaptations for national food security. Using Hybrid-Maize model, this paper investigated the impacts of climate change on summer maize yield potential and famers' adaptation by changing varieties with longer growth periods from 1981 to 2010 in Xingtai County, Hebei Province. Results showed a significant warming trend with the average temperature increasing by 0.49 degrees C x 10 a(-1) since the 1980s. Both solar radiation and sunshine hours decreased significantly since the 1980s. The sunshine hours decreased by 0.56 h x d(-1) x 10 a(-1) and the solar radiation decreased by 265.1 MJ x m(-2) x 10 a(-1), while the precipitation kept constant with large variation among years since 1981. Yield potentials of both irrigated and rainfed maize were simulated to decrease by 0.63-0.64 Mg x hm(-2) x 10 a(-1) since 1981 if varieties were assumed fixed with the 1980s. This was mainly due to the decrease of solar radiation during the maize growth season and the shortened growth stage by warming, and around 60% of grain yield decrease was attributed to the decreased solar radiation. In practice, by changing varieties with longer growth periods, the growing degree days of varieties adopted by local farmers since the 2000s increased by 19% (280 degrees C) compared to the 1980s, and consequently the yield potential was simulated to increase by 34%-40% (2.73-3.40 Mg x hm(-2)) for both irrigated and rainfed maize.

  14. Assessment Analysis and Forecasting for Security Early Warning of Energy Consumption Carbon Emissions in Hebei Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Against the backdrop of increasingly serious global climate change and the development of the low-carbon economy, the coordination between energy consumption carbon emissions (ECCE and regional population, resources, environment, economy and society has become an important subject. In this paper, the research focuses on the security early warning of ECCE in Hebei Province, China. First, an assessment index system of the security early warning of ECCE is constructed based on the pressure-state-response (P-S-R model. Then, the variance method and linearity weighted method are used to calculate the security early warning index of ECCE. From the two dimensions of time series and spatial pattern, the security early warning conditions of ECCE are analyzed in depth. Finally, with the assessment analysis of the data from 2000 to 2014, the prediction of the security early warning of carbon emissions from 2015 to 2020 is given, using a back propagation neural network based on a kidney-inspired algorithm (KA-BPNN model. The results indicate that: (1 from 2000 to 2014, the security comprehensive index of ECCE demonstrates a fluctuating upward trend in general and the trend of the alarm level is “Severe warning”–“Moderate warning”–“Slight warning”; (2 there is a big spatial difference in the security of ECCE, with relatively high-security alarm level in the north while it is relatively low in the other areas; (3 the security index shows the trend of continuing improvement from 2015 to 2020, however the security level will remain in the state of “Semi-secure” for a long time and the corresponding alarm is still in the state of “Slight warning”, reflecting that the situation is still not optimistic.

  15. Contamination and health risks from heavy metals in cultivated soil in Zhangjiakou City of Hebei Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qian; Xue, Zhan-Jun; Wang, Fei; Sun, Zhi-Mei; Yang, Zhi-Xin; Liu, Shu-Qing

    2015-12-01

    A total of 79 topsoil samples (ranging from 0 to 20 cm in depth) were collected from a grape cultivation area of Zhangjiakou City, China. The total concentrations of As, Cd, Hg, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in soil samples were determined to evaluate pollution levels and associated health risks in each sample. Pollution levels were calculated using enrichment factors (EF) and geoaccumulation index (I geo). Health risks for adults and children were quantified using hazard indexes (HI) and aggregate carcinogenic risks (ACR). The mean concentrations of measured heavy metals Cd, Hg, and Cu, only in the grape cultivation soil samples, were higher than the background values of heavy metals in Hebei Province. According to principal component analysis (PCA), the anthropogenic activities related to agronomic and fossil fuel combustion practices attributed to higher accumulations of Cd, Hg, and Cu, which have slightly polluted about 10-40% of the sampled soils. However, the HI for all of the heavy metals were lower than 1 (within safe limits), and the ACR of As was in the 10(-6)-10(-4) range (a tolerable level). This suggests the absence of both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks for adults and children through oral ingestion and dermal absorption exposure pathways in the studied area. It should be also noted that the heightened vulnerability of children to health risks was accounted for higher HI and ACR values. Consequently, heavy metal concentrations (e.g., Cd, Hg, Cu) should be periodically monitored in these soils and improved soil management practices are required to minimize possible impacts on children's health.

  16. ESTIMATING PM2.5 IN THE BEIJING-TIANJIN-HEBEI REGION USING MODIS AOD PRODUCTS FROM 2014 TO 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fine particulate matter with a diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5 has harmful impacts on regional climate, economic development and public health. The high PM2.5 concentrations in China’s urban areas are mainly caused by the combustion of coal and gasoline, industrial pollution and unknown/uncertain sources. The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH region with a land area of 218,000 km2, which contains 13 cities, is the biggest urbanized region in northern China. The huge population (110 million, 8% of the China’s population, local heavy industries and vehicle emissions have resulted in severe air pollution. Traditional models have used 10 km Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD products and proved the statistical relationship between AOD and PM2.5. In 2014, the 3 km MODIS AOD product was released which made PM2.5 estimations with a higher resolution became possible. This study presents an estimation on PM2.5 distributions in the BTH region from September 2014 to August 2015 by combining the MODIS satellite data, ground measurements of PM2.5, meteorological parameters and social-economic factors based on the geographically weighted regression model. The results demonstrated that the 10 km AOD product provided results with a slightly higher accuracy although the 3 km AOD product could provide more information about the spatial variations of PM2.5 estimations. Additionally, compared with the global regression, the geographically weighed model was able to improve the estimation results.

  17. Taking Action on Air Pollution Control in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) Region: Progress, Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Zhang, Fengying; Pilot, Eva; Yu, Jie; Nie, Chengjing; Holdaway, Jennifer; Yang, Linsheng; Li, Yonghua; Wang, Wuyi; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Krafft, Thomas

    2018-02-09

    Due to rapid urbanization, industrialization and motorization, a large number of Chinese cities are affected by heavy air pollution. In order to explore progress, remaining challenges, and sustainability of air pollution control in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region after 2013, a mixed method analysis was undertaken. The quantitative analysis comprised an overview of air quality management in the BTH region. Semi-structured expert interviews were conducted with 12 stakeholders from various levels of government and research institutions who played substantial roles either in decision-making or in research and advising on air pollution control in the BTH region. The results indicated that with the stringent air pollution control policies, the air quality in BTH meets the targets of the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan. However, improvements vary across the region and for different pollutants. Although implementation has been decisive and was at least in parts effectively enforced, significant challenges remained with regard to industrial and traffic emission control, and national air quality limits continued to be significantly exceeded and competing development interests remained mainly unsolved. There were also concerns about the sustainability of the current air pollution control measures especially for industries due to the top-down enforcement, and the associated large burden of social cost including unemployment and social inequity resulting industrial restructuring. Better mechanisms for ensuring cross-sectoral coordination and for improved central-local government communication were suggested. Further suggestions were provided to improve the conceptual design and effective implementation of respective air pollution control strategies in BTH. Our study highlights some of the major hurdles that need to be addressed to succeed with a comprehensive air pollution control management for the Chinese mega-urban agglomerations.

  18. Taking Action on Air Pollution Control in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH Region: Progress, Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to rapid urbanization, industrialization and motorization, a large number of Chinese cities are affected by heavy air pollution. In order to explore progress, remaining challenges, and sustainability of air pollution control in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH region after 2013, a mixed method analysis was undertaken. The quantitative analysis comprised an overview of air quality management in the BTH region. Semi-structured expert interviews were conducted with 12 stakeholders from various levels of government and research institutions who played substantial roles either in decision-making or in research and advising on air pollution control in the BTH region. The results indicated that with the stringent air pollution control policies, the air quality in BTH meets the targets of the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan. However, improvements vary across the region and for different pollutants. Although implementation has been decisive and was at least in parts effectively enforced, significant challenges remained with regard to industrial and traffic emission control, and national air quality limits continued to be significantly exceeded and competing development interests remained mainly unsolved. There were also concerns about the sustainability of the current air pollution control measures especially for industries due to the top-down enforcement, and the associated large burden of social cost including unemployment and social inequity resulting industrial restructuring. Better mechanisms for ensuring cross-sectoral coordination and for improved central-local government communication were suggested. Further suggestions were provided to improve the conceptual design and effective implementation of respective air pollution control strategies in BTH. Our study highlights some of the major hurdles that need to be addressed to succeed with a comprehensive air pollution control management for the Chinese mega-urban agglomerations.

  19. Time for a Change; Spirit's View on Sol 1843 (Polar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images that have been combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,843rd Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's surface mission (March 10, 2009). South is in the middle. North is at both ends. This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. The rover had driven 36 centimeters downhill earlier on Sol 1854, but had not been able to get free of ruts in soft material that had become an obstacle to getting around the northeastern corner of the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' The Sol 1854 drive, following two others in the preceding four sols that also achieved little progress in the soft ground, prompted the rover team to switch to a plan of getting around Home Plate counterclockwise, instead of clockwise. The drive direction in subsequent sols was westward past the northern edge of Home Plate.

  20. Time for a Change; Spirit's View on Sol 1843 (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images that have been combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,843rd Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's surface mission (March 10, 2009). South is in the middle. North is at both ends. This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. The rover had driven 36 centimeters downhill earlier on Sol 1854, but had not been able to get free of ruts in soft material that had become an obstacle to getting around the northeastern corner of the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' The Sol 1854 drive, following two others in the preceding four sols that also achieved little progress in the soft ground, prompted the rover team to switch to a plan of getting around Home Plate counterclockwise, instead of clockwise. The drive direction in subsequent sols was westward past the northern edge of Home Plate.

  1. Time for a Change; Spirit's View on Sol 1843 (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11973 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11973 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images that have been combined into this stereo, full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,843rd Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's surface mission (March 10, 2009). South is in the middle. North is at both ends. This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. The rover had driven 36 centimeters downhill earlier on Sol 1854, but had not been able to get free of ruts in soft material that had become an obstacle to getting around the northeastern corner of the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' The Sol 1854 drive, following two others in the preceding four sols that also achieved little progress in the soft ground, prompted the rover team to switch to a plan of getting around Home Plate counterclockwise, instead of clockwise. The drive direction in subsequent sols was westward past the northern edge of Home Plate. This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  2. Scientific Results of the Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerdt, W. B.

    2006-08-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover project launched two robotic geologists, Spirit and Opportunity, toward Mars in June and July of 2003, reaching Mars the following January. The science objectives for this mission are focused on delineating the geologic history for two locations on Mars, with an emphasis on the history of water. Although they were designed for a 90-day mission, both rovers have lasted more than two years on the surface and each has covered more than four miles while investigating Martian geology. Spirit was targeted to Gusev Crater, a 300-km diameter impact basin that was suspected to be the site of an ancient lake. Initial investigations of the plains in the vicinity of the landing site found no evidence of such a lake, but were instead consistent with unaltered (by water) basaltic plains. But after a 3-km trek to an adjacent range of hills it found a quite different situation, with abundant chemical and morphological evidence for a complex geological history. Opportunity has been exploring Meridiani Planum, which was known from orbital data to contain the mineral hematite, which generally forms in the presence of water. The rocks exposed in Meridiani are highly chemically altered, and appear to have been exposed to significant amounts of water. By descending into the 130-m diameter Endurance Crater, Opportunity was able to analyze a 10-m vertical section of this rock unit, which showed significant gradations in chemistry and morphology.

  3. Martian Surface Mineralogy from Rovers with Spirit, Opportunity, and Curiosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Richard V.

    2016-01-01

    Beginning in 2004, NASA has landed three well-instrumented rovers on the equatorial martian surface. The Spirit rover landed in Gusev crater in early January, 2004, and the Opportunity rover landed on the opposite side of Mars at Meridian Planum 21 days later. The Curiosity rover landed in Gale crater to the west of Gusev crater in August, 2012. Both Opportunity and Curiosity are currently operational. The twin rovers Spirit and Opportunity carried Mossbauer spectrometers to determine the oxidation state of iron and its mineralogical composition. The Curiosity rover has an X-ray diffraction instrument for identification and quantification of crystalline materials including clay minerals. Instrument suites on all three rovers are capable of distinguishing primary rock-forming minerals like olivine, pyroxene and magnetite and products of aqueous alteration in including amorphous iron oxides, hematite, goethite, sulfates, and clay minerals. The oxidation state of iron ranges from that typical for unweathered rocks and soils to nearly completely oxidized (weathered) rocks and soils as products of aqueous and acid-sulfate alteration. The in situ rover mineralogy also serves as ground-truth for orbital observations, and orbital mineralogical inferences are used for evaluating and planning rover exploration.

  4. Classification of plum spirit drinks by synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sádecká, J; Jakubíková, M; Májek, P; Kleinová, A

    2016-04-01

    Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy was used in combination with principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) for the differentiation of plum spirits according to their geographical origin. A total of 14 Czech, 12 Hungarian and 18 Slovak plum spirit samples were used. The samples were divided in two categories: colorless (22 samples) and colored (22 samples). Synchronous fluorescence spectra (SFS) obtained at a wavelength difference of 60 nm provided the best results. Considering the PCA-LDA applied to the SFS of all samples, Czech, Hungarian and Slovak colorless samples were properly classified in both the calibration and prediction sets. 100% of correct classification was also obtained for Czech and Hungarian colored samples. However, one group of Slovak colored samples was classified as belonging to the Hungarian group in the calibration set. Thus, the total correct classifications obtained were 94% and 100% for the calibration and prediction steps, respectively. The results were compared with those obtained using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Applying PCA-LDA to NIR spectra (5500-6000 cm(-1)), the total correct classifications were 91% and 92% for the calibration and prediction steps, respectively, which were slightly lower than those obtained using SFS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The effects of in vitro exposure to white spirit on [Ca2+] in synaptosomes from rats exposed prenatally to white spirit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edelfors, S.; Hass, Ulla; Ravn-Jonsen, A.

    1999-01-01

    Female rats were exposed to white spirit (400 and 800 ppm for 6 hr/day) at day 7-20 during pregnancy. Thirty-five days after birth all female offspring were sacrificed, the brains removed, and the synaptosomal fractions prepared for in vitro studies. The cytosolic calcium concentration was measured...... using the FURA-2 technique. The results show that cytosolic calcium was increased in synaptosomes from rats exposed to white spirit prenatally compared to synaptosomes from unexposed rats. When synaptosomes were exposed to white spirit in vitro, the cytosolic calcium concentration changes were identical...... in all groups of rats. The membrane leakage measured as FURA-2 leakage from the synaptosomes identical in all three groups of animals. The results suggest that prenatal exposure to white spirit induces long-lasting and possibly irreversible changes in calcium homeostasis in the rat nervous system....

  6. 27 CFR 27.1 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., wines, and beer. 27.1 Section 27.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Scope of Regulations § 27.1 Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer. This part, “Importation of...

  7. 27 CFR 27.48 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., wines, and beer. 27.48 Section 27.48 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Collection of Internal Revenue Taxes § 27.48 Imported...

  8. Dearomatized white spirit inhalation exposure causes long-lasting neurophysiological changes in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, S. P.; Simonsen, L.; Hass, Ulla

    1996-01-01

    Dearomatized white spirit inhalation exposure causes long-lasting neurophysioloical changes in rats. NEUROTOXICOL TERATOL 18(1), 67-76, 1996. -Exposure for 6 h per day, 5 days per week, during a period of 6 months to the organic solvent dearomatized white spirit (0, 400, and 800 ppm) was studied ...

  9. 78 FR 13752 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SPIRIT; Invitation for Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration [Docket No. MARAD-2013 0013] Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SPIRIT; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY: Maritime... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: As described by the applicant the intended service of the vessel SPIRIT is: Intended...

  10. 77 FR 26818 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel FREE SPIRIT; Invitation for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration [Docket No. MARAD-2012-0058] Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel FREE SPIRIT; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY... SPIRIT is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Day/overnight passenger passage. Depart and return same...

  11. Research on Key Technology in Remote Education System of Spirit Diagnosing by Eye in TCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Feng; Li, Shaozi; Dai, Ying; Zhou, Changle; Lin, Ying

    2011-01-01

    Spirit diagnosing is an important theory in TCM (Traditional Chinese Medicine), by which a TCM doctor can diagnose a patient's body state. But this theory is complicated and difficult to master simply learned from books. To further the theory and skill of spirit diagnosing, in this paper, the authors propose a remote education system that can…

  12. 77 FR 22631 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SPIRIT; Invitation for Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration [Docket No. MARAD 2012 0049] Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SPIRIT; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY: Maritime... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: As described by the applicant the intended service of the vessel SPIRIT is: Intended...

  13. 27 CFR 26.135 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. 26.135 Section 26.135 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... to bear closures. Containers of 1 gallon (3.785 liters) or less of distilled spirits, upon which all...

  14. Pre-discovery detections and progenitor candidate for SPIRITS17pc in NGC 4388

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jencson, J. E.; Bond, H. E.; Adams, S. M.; Kasliwal, M. M.

    2018-04-01

    We report detections of pre-discovery outbursts of SPIRITS17pc, discovered as part of the ongoing Spitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey (SPIRITS) using the 3.6 and 4.5 micron imaging channels ([3.6] and [4.5]) of the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope (ATel #11575).

  15. Pre-discovery detections and progenitor candidate for SPIRITS17qm in NGC 1365

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jencson, J. E.; Bond, H. E.; Adams, S. M.; Kasliwal, M. M.

    2018-04-01

    We report the detection of a pre-discovery outburst of SPIRITS17qm, discovered as part of the ongoing Spitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey (SPIRITS) using the 3.6 and 4.5 micron imaging channels ([3.6] and [4.5]) of the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope (ATel #11575).

  16. Radiation: Time, Space and Spirit--Keys to Scientific Literacy Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonebarger, Bill

    This discussion of radiation considers the spectrum of electromagnetic energy including light, x-rays, radioactivity, and other waves. Radiation is considered from three aspects; time, space, and spirit. Time refers to a sense of history; space refers to geography; and spirit refers to life and thought. Several chapters on the history and concepts…

  17. The Gene: Time, Space and Spirit--Keys to Scientific Literacy Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonebarger, Bill

    It has only been since the late nineteenth century that people have understood the mechanics of heredity and the discoveries of genes and DNA are even more recent. This booklet considers three aspects of genetics; time, space, and spirit. Time refers to a sense of history; space refers to geography; and spirit refers to life and thought. Several…

  18. a comparative discourse on yorùbá concept of spirit- husband and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    for in-depth interviews for women believed to be victims of spirit husband as well as. Muslim and Yorùbá .... disturbance and havoc is dependent however on the level of covenant between the woman and the spirit ... performance. The essay ...

  19. 27 CFR 19.596 - Marks on packages of spirits filled on bonded premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits or, in the case of distillates removed under § 19.322, the kind of distillates such as “Grape distillate”, “Peach distillate”, etc.; (4) The package identification number; (5) “BSA” or “OC” when spirits...

  20. The Expanding Universe: Time, Space and Spirit--Keys to Scientific Literacy Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonebarger, Bill

    Nearly every culture has made important discoveries about the universe. Most cultures have searched for a better understanding of the cosmos and how the earth and human life relate. The discussion in this booklet considers time, space, and spirit. Time refers to a sense of history; space refers to geography; and spirit refers to life and thought.…

  1. PSALM 51: “TAKE NOT YOUR HOLY SPIRIT AWAY FROM ME”

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Such ana lysis reveals that the Spirit of ... the final position accentuates the comprehensiveness of the psalmist's plea: “Cleanse me from all ... part (verses 12-14) in terms of similar statements concerning heart and spirit. hrbvn jwr (verse 19) ...

  2. 7 CFR 160.94 - Spirits of turpentine for medicinal use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spirits of turpentine for medicinal use. 160.94 Section 160.94 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... for medicinal use. Spirits of turpentine so packed, described, labeled, or sold as to indicate that it...

  3. 27 CFR 28.28 - Withdrawal of wine and distilled spirits from customs bonded warehouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of wine and... Miscellaneous Provisions Customs Bonded Warehouses § 28.28 Withdrawal of wine and distilled spirits from customs bonded warehouses. Wine and bottled distilled spirits entered into customs bonded warehouses as provided...

  4. [Theory analysis and clinical application of spirit-regulating and pain-relieving acupuncture method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Tang, Lewei; Du, Huaibin; Zheng, Hui; Liang, Fanrong

    2015-04-01

    The theoretical foundation and scientific connotation of spirit-regulating and pain-relieving acupuncture method as well as its clinical application for pain are discussed. During spirit regulation, attention should be paid on regulating heart and brain, while acupoints should be selected mainly from the Heart Meridian, Pericardium Meridian and Governor Vessel. It has significant efficacy for refractory pain in clinical treatment. Spirit-regulating and pain-relieving acupuncture method is development of acupuncture treating spirit, and it is an important method for pain in clinic. Improvement on sensitization of pain center and brain function is considered as one of the mechanisms in spirit-regulating and pain-relieving acupuncture method.

  5. Effect of gamma-radiation on sugar cane spirit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Maria Djiliah Camargo Alvarenga de

    2000-01-01

    Irradiation has appeared as an alternative technique in food preservation. Besides cold decontamination irradiation can increase the quality of the food through the improvement of technological properties. For alcoholic beverages ionizing radiation has been applied to wines, whiskeys and beers in countries such as Thailand and China. In those cases, the purpose of the technique was to accelerate aging, to improve the sensory characteristics and as sterilization treatment. The aim of this work was to study the effect of gamma radiation on the quality of sugar cane spirit by gas chromatography analysis of volatile compounds and sensory analysis. The sugar cane spirit newly distilled samples and commercial samples from different states (SP, CE and RJ) were irradiated either in glass or oak cask (Quercus alba sp) in a 60 Co Gammacell 220 at dose rate of 7.7 kGy/h and total doses of 0; 0.1; 2; 5 and 10 kGy. The analytical determination of esters, acetaldehyde and higher alcohols were performed in a gas chromatograph with flame ionization detector employing a Megabore CG-745 column. The alcoholic graduation was measured in a Gay-Lussac alcohometer and the pH was determined using an Analyser 300 pHmeter. The color change was measured by the absorbance at 420 nm in a Shimadzu UV 1601 spectrophotometer. The acceptance tests related to odor, taste, global impression and color were analyzed using Tukey average tests (p ≤0,05), ANOVA and histograms of panelists' scores frequency. A correlation between acetaldeyde, esters, higher alcohols levels and radiation dose was found in the sugar cane spirit newly distilled samples irradiated in oak cask and commercial samples. An increase in methanol concentration was verified, although remaining enough below the permissible limit accepted by the Brazilian Legislation. A decrease in the alcoholic graduation and pH in the irradiated samples was observed. A slight discoloration in the irradiated samples was verified. According to ANOVA

  6. The evolutionary characteristics and study of uranium mineralization conditions of early precambrian basement and old granitoids in Northern Hebei province of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Yuliang; Rong Jiashu; Lin Jinrong; Zheng Maogong; Wen Xiyuan

    1993-05-01

    Based on the systematic studies of petrology, geochemistry and isotope geochronology, the Early Precambrian metamorphic complex in Northern Hebei province of China can be divided into three different series, i.e. granulite series, khondalite series and amphibolitic-felsic rock series. The so called 'magmatic granitoids' in that area are actually some magmagranites with different ages and different geneses, and they are not formed by migmatization. Up to now, the discovered Huaian complex which was formed in 3.5 Ga ago is the oldest nuclear area in the northern margin of North-China Platform. The granulite series, khondalite series and amphibolitic-felsic rock series belong to Early Archaean (>3.0 +- 0.1 Ga), Middle Archaean (>2.7 +- 0.1 Ga) and Later Archaean (>2.4 +- 0.1 Ga) respectively. The geological time scale of the Early Precambrian for Northern Hebei Province has been built. According to the synthetic analyses of various factors there is no prospect of uranium mineralization in the ancient terrain. However, the Mesozoic volcanic basins covering over the Hercynian Period granites would be main goal for looking for large uranium deposits in north part in that area

  7. Basaltic rocks analyzed by the Spirit rover in Gusev crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSween, H.Y.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bell, J.F.; Blaney, D.; Cabrol, N.A.; Christensen, P.R.; Clark, B. C.; Crisp, J.A.; Crumpler, L.S.; Des Marias, D.J.; Farmer, J.D.; Gellert, Ralf; Ghosh, A.; Gorevan, S.; Graff, T.; Grant, J.; Haskin, L.A.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Johnson, J. R.; Jolliff, B.L.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Knudson, A.T.; McLennan, S.; Milam, K.A.; Moersch, J.E.; Morris, R.V.; Rieder, R.; Ruff, S.W.; De Souza, P.A.; Squyres, S. W.; Wanke, H.; Wang, A.; Wyatt, M.B.; Yen, A.; Zipfel, J.

    2004-01-01

    The Spirit landing site in Gusev Crater on Mars contains dark, fine-grained, vesicular rocks interpreted as lavas. Pancam and Mini-Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES) spectra suggest that all of these rocks are similar but have variable coatings and dust mantles. Magnified images of brushed and abraded rock surfaces show alteration rinds and veins. Rock interiors contain ???25% megacrysts. Chemical analyses of rocks by the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer are consistent with picritic basalts, containing normative olivine, pyroxenes, plagioclase, and accessory FeTi oxides. Mo??ssbauer, Pancam, and Mini-TES spectra confirm the presence of olivine, magnetite, and probably pyroxene. These basalts extend the known range of rock compositions composing the martian crust.

  8. Democracy, Corruption and the Politics of Spirits in Contemporary Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bubandt, Nils Ole

    Indonesia has been an electoral democracy for more than a decade, and yet the political landscape of the world’s third-largest democracy is as complex and enigmatic as ever. Indonesia is simultaneous a country that has achieved a successful transition to democracy and a flawed, illiberal......, and predatory democracy. This book provides a portrait of Indonesia’s contradictory democracy through a series of biographical accounts of political entrepreneurs, from the political ‘periphery’ of North Maluku and the ‘political centre’ of East Java respectively. Each biographical account is focused on one...... contentious area of democracy in Indonesia – elections, corruption, decentralization, and regional representation. The chapters explore the intimate ways in which the political world and the spirit world are entangled. The core argument of the book is that Indonesia’s seemingly peculiar problems...

  9. The Spirit counts - People at and around CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    After a few biographical remarks I shall concentrate on human aspects which are not covered by official documents, but which are as important to the success of CERN as scientific and technical competence. The approval of LEP, general problems of the project management and the approval of the LEP experiments under conditions never encountered before at CERN will be covered. The special spirit created at CERN based on the competence and solidarity of the CERN staff and its users made it possible to find new ways of successful international collaboration combining competition with cooperation. Career Summary Physics diploma and doctorate from Hamburg University, now Prof. emer.; research assistant at Stockholm Technical University (with Lise Meitner); Cavendish Laboratory UK (with O.R.Frisch); Cornell University (with R.R. Wilson); research in optics, nuclear and elementary particle physics. various professorships in Germany and director of university institutes; Director of DESY, Hamburg, 1973-1980...

  10. Earth in the balance - ecology and the human spirit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gore, A.

    1992-01-01

    This book by Senator Albert Gore presents a global prospective on the environmental crisis facing the Earth. The chapters are framed in the twin ideas of the threat posed by human civilization to the global environment and the threat to human civilization posed by changes in the global environment. Gore first looks at evidence of risk in the environment: historical aspects of climate and civilization; ozone layer; water; land use; food supply; waste disposal. In Part II different aspects of our current approaches to the environment are described: politics; economics; technology; social problems; environmentalism of the human spirit. Finally in Part III, Gore presents his approach to the global environmental crisis, first presenting a section about a global sense of responsibility and purpose and then describing his ideas for A Global Marshal Plan. 169 refs., 4 figs

  11. Health Care Providers' Spirit at Work Within a Restructured Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Joan I J; Brooks, Denise; Urban, Ann-Marie

    2018-01-01

    Spirit at work (SAW) research emerged as a response to care provider determination to maintain a healthy and productive health care work environment, despite restructuring. The aim of this descriptive mixed-methods research is to present the care provider's perceptions of SAW. SAW is a holistic measure of care provider workplace outcomes, defined as the unique experience of individuals who are passionate about and energized by their work. A mixed group of licensed and unlicensed care providers in a continuing care workplace were surveyed. Eighteen Likert-type scale survey questions were further informed by two open-ended questions. Results indicated that unlicensed continuing care providers' perceptions of SAW are lower than licensed care providers. Responses suggest that open discussion between managers and team members, combined with structured workplace interventions, will lead to enhanced SAW and improved patient care. Further research on SAW within the continuing care workplace is required.

  12. Mental illness complicated by the santeria belief in spirit possession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, L; Jeffrey, W D

    1988-11-01

    Santeria, a religious system that blends African and Catholic beliefs, is practiced by many Cuban Americans. One aspect of this system is the belief in spirit possession. Basic santeria beliefs and rituals, including the fiesta santera (a gathering at which some participants may become possessed), are briefly described, and four cases in which the patients' belief in possession played a role in their mental illness are presented. The belief in possession can complicate the diagnosis and treatment of mental illness, but it should not be considered a culture-bound syndrome. Rather, it may be a nonspecific symptom of a variety of mental illnesses and should be evaluated in the context of the patient's overall belief system and ability to carry out usual activities.

  13. Evidence of a Christmas spirit network in the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anders; Lindberg, Ulrich; Arngrim, Nanna

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To detect and localise the Christmas spirit in the human brain. DESIGN: Single blinded, cross cultural group study with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). SETTING: Functional imaging unit and department of clinical physiology, nuclear medicine and PET in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS......: 10 healthy people from the Copenhagen area who routinely celebrate Christmas and 10 healthy people living in the same area who have no Christmas traditions. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Brain activation unique to the group with Christmas traditions during visual stimulation with images with a Christmas......, differences between the two groups were calculated to determine Christmas specific brain activation. RESULTS: Significant clusters of increased BOLD activation in the sensory motor cortex, the premotor and primary motor cortex, and the parietal lobule (inferior and superior) were found in scans of people who...

  14. Petrogenesis of the middle Jurassic appinite and coeval granitoids in the Eastern Hebei area of North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wenbo; Jiang, Neng; Xu, Xiyang; Hu, Jun; Zong, Keqing

    2017-05-01

    An integrated study of zircon U-Pb ages and Hf-O isotopic compositions, whole rock elemental and Sr-Nd isotope geochemistry was conducted on three lithologically diverse middle Jurassic plutons from the Eastern Hebei area of the North China Craton (NCC), in order to reveal both their petrogenesis and possible tectonic affinity. The three plutons have consistent magmatic zircon U-Pb ages from 167 ± 1 Ma to 173 ± 1 Ma. The Nianziyu pluton has typical characteristics of appinite with low SiO2 (43.7-52.6%), high Ca, Mg, Fe and H2O contents. It possesses subduction-related trace element patterns, enriched Nd-Hf isotopic signatures as well as elevated zircon δ18O values (6.2-7.2‰), arguing for an enriched mantle source metasomatized by fluids related to subduction. The Shuihutong monzogranites have high silica (SiO2 = 75.4-75.9%) and alkali contents, low Ca contents and striking negative Ba, Sr and Eu anomalies. Samples from the pluton have more evolved Nd-Hf isotopic values and are considered to be most likely derived from anatexis of ancient lower continental crust. Hybridization between mantle- and ancient lower crust-derived magmas is proposed for the mafic microgranular enclave-bearing Baijiadian granitoids, which are characterized by variable εNd (t) and εHf(t) values. Integrated with the regional geologic history, we suggest that the formation of the three middle Jurassic plutons were related to the subduction of the Paleo-Pacific ocean plate beneath the NCC. Their petrogenetic differences reflect complex magmatic processes in subduction settings involving melting of multiple sources, possible partly facilitated by fluid metasomatism and water-rich magma injection, accompanied with various degrees of magma mixing. The appearance of middle Jurassic appinitic rocks leads us to propose that the NCC destruction and lithosphere thinning were facilitated and controlled by the weakening of the lithospheric mantle after hydration because of the subduction of the

  15. [Serological survey on Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women with history of adverse pregnancy in Bazhou area, Hebei Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming-Hui, Zhu; Li-Juan, Xu; Zhen-Wei, Xue

    2016-06-22

    To investigate the Toxoplasma gondii infection status in pregnant women with history of adverse pregnancy and risk factors in Bazhou area, Hebei Province. A total of 302 pregnant women with the history of adverse pregnancy were chosen as respondents (an experimental group) in the hospital from March 2012 to December 2015, and 197 pregnant women without the history of adverse pregnancy as a control group. TOX-IgG and TOX-IgM were detected by using ELISA in two groups. The risk factors of Toxoplasma infection were surveyed by questionnaires. The total positive rate of Toxoplasma antibodies was 28.15% (85/302) in the experimental group, which was significantly higher than that [9.64%(19/197)] in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant ( χ 2 = 24.76, P <0.05). The positive rates of TOX-IgM, TOX-IgG and TOX-IgM + TOX-IgG were 6.95% (21/302), 18.54% (56/302), and 2.65% (8/302) respectively in the experimental group, which were higher than 2.03% (4/197), 7.61% (15/197), and 0% (0/197) respectively in the control group ( χ 2 = 6.07, 11.67, 3.76, all P <0.05). The questionnaire survey showed that the proportions of keeping pets, cutting board regardless, liking to eat hot pot or barbecue, eating raw meat, often eating in the restaurant in the pregnant women with Toxoplasma infection were higher than those in the pregnant women without Toxoplasma infection, and the differences were statistically significant ( χ 2 = 22.57, 3.96, 5.87, 7.40, 4.86, all P <0.05), and therefore, the above unhealthy habits may be important risk factors. Toxoplasma infection could lead to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Therefore, the above-mentioned unhealthy habits should be avoided, especially during pregnancy period.

  16. Rupture Speed and Dynamic Frictional Processes for the 1995 ML4.1 Shacheng, Hebei, China, Earthquake Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B.; Shi, B.

    2010-12-01

    An earthquake with ML4.1 occurred at Shacheng, Hebei, China, on July 20, 1995, followed by 28 aftershocks with 0.9≤ML≤4.0 (Chen et al, 2005). According to ZÚÑIGA (1993), for the 1995 ML4.1 Shacheng earthquake sequence, the main shock is corresponding to undershoot, while aftershocks should match overshoot. With the suggestion that the dynamic rupture processes of the overshoot aftershocks could be related to the crack (sub-fault) extension inside the main fault. After main shock, the local stresses concentration inside the fault may play a dominant role in sustain the crack extending. Therefore, the main energy dissipation mechanism should be the aftershocks fracturing process associated with the crack extending. We derived minimum radiation energy criterion (MREC) following variational principle (Kanamori and Rivera, 2004)(ES/M0')min≧[3M0/(ɛπμR3)](v/β)3, where ES and M0' are radiated energy and seismic moment gained from observation, μ is the modulus of fault rigidity, ɛ is the parameter of ɛ=M0'/M0,M0 is seismic moment and R is rupture size on the fault, v and β are rupture speed and S-wave speed. From II and III crack extending model, we attempt to reconcile a uniform expression for calculate seismic radiation efficiency ηG, which can be used to restrict the upper limit efficiency and avoid the non-physics phenomenon that radiation efficiency is larger than 1. In ML 4.1 Shacheng earthquake sequence, the rupture speed of the main shock was about 0.86 of S-wave speed β according to MREC, closing to the Rayleigh wave speed, while the rupture speeds of the remained 28 aftershocks ranged from 0.05β to 0.55β. The rupture speed was 0.9β, and most of the aftershocks are no more than 0.35β using II and III crack extending model. In addition, the seismic radiation efficiencies for this earthquake sequence were: for the most aftershocks, the radiation efficiencies were less than 10%, inferring a low seismic efficiency, whereas the radiation efficiency

  17. 41 CFR 102-41.205 - Do we report all forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal? 102-41.205 Section 102-41.205 Public..., and Beer § 102-41.205 Do we report all forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal? (a) Yes, except do not report distilled spirits, wine, and beer not fit for human consumption or for...

  18. A Content Analysis on the Recognition of the Educational Ministry of the Holy Spirit in Christian Education Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Larry A., II

    2013-01-01

    The ultimate goal of Christian education is spiritual formation, which requires transforming the minds of believers. However, since man's mind is impacted by sin, the work of the Holy Spirit is necessary to transform those minds. Since the Holy Spirit and Christian educators are striving for the same goal, one can state that the Holy Spirit has an…

  19. 27 CFR 19.742 - Tank record of wine or spirits of less than 190 degrees of proof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Records and Reports Storage Account § 19.742 Tank record of wine or spirits of less than 190 degrees of... wine or spirits of less than 190 degrees of proof to show deposits into, withdrawals from, and the...; (3) Identification of the tank; (4) Kind of wine or spirits; (5) Number and average proof gallon...

  20. 75 FR 81949 - Disclosure of Cochineal Extract and Carmine in the Labeling of Wines, Distilled Spirits, and Malt...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... Extract and Carmine in the Labeling of Wines, Distilled Spirits, and Malt Beverages; Comment Period... Extract and Carmine in the Labeling of Wines, Distilled Spirits, and Malt Beverages, a notice of proposed... attorney Lynne J. Omlie on behalf of the Distilled Spirits Council of the United States, Inc. (DISCUS), a...

  1. 27 CFR 31.45 - Sales of alcoholic compounds, preparations, or mixtures containing distilled spirits, wines, or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... compounds, preparations, or mixtures containing distilled spirits, wines, or beer. 31.45 Section 31.45... spirits, wines, or beer. (a) General. Compliance with the provisions of this part is required with respect... distilled spirits, wines, or beer, unless those compounds, preparations, or mixtures are unfit for use for...

  2. 27 CFR 28.41 - Evidence of lading for use on vessels or aircraft: distilled spirits and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of lading for use on vessels or aircraft: distilled spirits and wine. 28.41 Section 28.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... vessels or aircraft: distilled spirits and wine. The lading of distilled spirits or wine for use on...

  3. 27 CFR 19.58 - Use of taxpaid distilled spirits to manufacture products unfit for beverage use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits to manufacture products unfit for beverage use. 19.58 Section 19.58 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... taxpaid distilled spirits to manufacture products unfit for beverage use. (a) General. Apothecaries... distilled spirits contained therein: (1) Medicines, medicinal preparations, food products, flavors...

  4. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil ...

  5. Fiery Spirits in the context of institutional entrepreneurship in Swedish healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Nomie; Ujvari, Sandor

    2015-01-01

    Clinical governance and leadership concepts can lead to more or less successful implementations of new clinical practice. The purpose of this paper is to examine how Fiery Spirits, as institutional entrepreneurs can, working in a team, implement sustained change in hospital clinical practice. This paper describes two case studies, conducted at two Swedish hospitals over a period of two years, in which changes in clinical practice were implemented. In both cases, key-actors, termed Fiery Spirits, played critical roles in these changes. The authors use a qualitative approach and take an intra-organizational perspective with semi-structured in-depth interviews and document analysis. The new clinical practices were successfully implemented with a considerable influence of the Fiery Spirits who played a pivotal role in the change efforts. The Fiery Spirits persuasively, based on their structural and normative legitimacy and the adoption of learning processes, advocated, and supported change. Fiery Spirits, given flexibility and opportunity, can be powerful forces for change outside the trajectory of management-inspired and management-directed change. Team members, when inspired and encouraged by Fiery Spirits, are less resistant to change and more willing to test new clinical practices. The paper complements literature on how the Fiery Spirit concept aligns with concepts of clinical governance and leadership and how change can be achieved. Additionally, the findings show the effects of legitimacy and learning processes on change in clinical practice.

  6. Chemical profile of sugarcane spirits produced by double distillation methodologies in rectifying still

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Ricardo Alcarde

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the chemical profile of sugarcane spirits produced by different double distillation methodologies in rectifying still. Fermented sugarcane juice was distilled in rectifying still according to three double distillation methodologies: the methodology used for cognac production; the methodology used for whisky production; and the 10-80-10 percentage composition methodology, referring to the volumes of head, heart and tail of the distillate fractions from the second distillation. For comparison purposes, a simple distilled spirit was also produced. The distillates were analyzed for concentrations of ethanol, copper, volatile acidity, furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural, aldehydes, esters, methanol and higher alcohols. The spirits were also evaluated on the sensory attributes of aroma, taste and preference. Compared to simple distillation, double distillation improved the chemical quality of the spirits, since it has reduced the concentrations of acids, aldehydes, esters, methanol, higher alcohols and, consequently, their coefficient of congeners. Regardless of the methodology employed, the double distillation improved the sensory quality of the spirits since they obtained higher sensory acceptance in relation to spirits produced by simple distillation. Among double distilled spirits, the one produced according to whisky methodology obtained the best scores from appraisers on the aroma and flavor parameters and it was also the most preferred.

  7. SPIRIT trial: A phase III pragmatic trial of an advance care planning intervention in ESRD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mi-Kyung; Unruh, Mark L; Manatunga, Amita; Plantinga, Laura C; Lea, Janice; Jhamb, Manisha; Kshirsagar, Abhijit V; Ward, Sandra E

    2018-01-01

    Advance care planning (ACP) is a central tenet of dialysis care, but the vast majority of dialysis patients report never engaging in ACP discussions with their care providers. Over the last decade, we have developed and iteratively tested SPIRIT (Sharing Patient's Illness Representation to Increase Trust), a theory-based, patient- and family-centered advance care planning intervention. SPIRIT is a six-step, two-session, face-to-face intervention to promote cognitive and emotional preparation for end-of-life decision making for patients with ESRD and their surrogates. In these explanatory trials, SPIRIT was delivered by trained research nurses. Findings consistently revealed that patients and surrogates in SPIRIT showed significant improvement in preparedness for end-of-life decision making, and surrogates in SPIRIT reported significantly improved post-bereavement psychological outcomes after the patient's death compared to a no treatment comparison condition. As a critical next step, we are conducting an effectiveness-implementation study. This study is a multicenter, clinic-level cluster randomized pragmatic trial to evaluate the effectiveness of SPIRIT delivered by dialysis care providers as part of routine care in free-standing outpatient dialysis clinics, compared to usual care plus delayed SPIRIT implementation. Simultaneously, we will evaluate the implementation of SPIRIT, including sustainability. We will recruit 400 dyads of patients at high risk of death in the next year and their surrogates from 30 dialysis clinics in four states. This trial of SPIRIT will generate novel, meaningful insights about improving ACP in dialysis care. ClinicalTrials.govNCT03138564, registered 05/01/2017. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pathological spirit possession as a cultural interpretation of trauma-related symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Tobias; Barnewitz, Eva; Stenmark, Hakon; Iversen, Valentina

    2016-07-01

    Spirit possession is a phenomenon frequently occurring in war-torn countries. It has been shown to be an idiom of distress entailing dissociative symptoms. However, its association with trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders remains unclear. This study aimed to explore subjective disease models and the relationship between pathological spirit possession and trauma-related disorders in the Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. Seventy-three (formerly) possessed persons (74% female, mean age = 34 years), referred by traditional and spiritual healers, were interviewed about their experiences of pathological spirit possession, trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depressive symptoms, shame and guilt, psychotic symptoms, somatic complaints, and the impairment of psychosocial functioning. The most common disease model for pathological spirit possession was another person having sent the spirit, mostly a family member or a neighbor, out of jealousy or conflict over resources. Significant correlations were found between spirit possession over lifetime and PTSD symptom severity, feelings of shame and guilt, depressive symptoms, somatic complaints, and psychotic symptoms. Spirit possession during the preceding 4 weeks was associated with PTSD symptom severity, impairment of psychosocial functioning, and psychotic symptom severity. The results of this study indicate that pathological spirit possession is a broad explanatory framework for various subjectively unexplainable mental and physical health problems, including but not limited to trauma-related disorders. Understanding pathological spirit possession as a subjective disease model for various mental and physical health problems may help researchers and clinicians to develop culturally sensitive treatment approaches for affected individuals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Securing the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants against Oil Spill Accidents at Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun, Seung Gyu; Choi, Ho Seon; Kim, Sang Yun

    2008-01-01

    As of 2008, 20 nuclear power plants are under operation and six plants are under construction in Korea. NPPs account for approximately 38% of Korea's electric power production; however, it is expected that the share of power produced by NPPs will be further increased to reduce the level of CO 2 emissions, taking into account the concern over global warming. All of NPPs in Korea are located on the coast to facilitate the supply of cooling water sources. Thus, tar and other floating matters from vessels following oil spill accidents at sea may affect intake systems, and consequently interrupt the supply of cooling water. This study will review cases of response measures taken by NPPs against large-scale crude oil spill accidents that had occurred off the coast of Korea, including such accidents as the Sea Prince (July 23, 1995) and the Hebei Sprit(December 7, 2007), and relevant regulatory requirements at home and abroad

  10. Spirit Piagam Jakarta Dalam Undang-Undang Dasar 1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujar Ibnu Syarif

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In the second trial BPUPKI, both nationalist and Islamic groups consensual that the future of Indonesia's independence will be based on the principle "godhood by running Shari'ah obligation for adherents". The consensus seems to be built on the foundation is not solid. Therefore it is not surprising that one day after the proclamation of independence, the agreement re-questioned. That same day, PPKI held a hearing to review the deal. As a result, the clause contained in the Preamble of the 1945 Constitution was changed to "Based on Belief in God Almighty". After the issuance of a Presidential Decree, began the debate about the existence of the spirit of the Jakarta Charter in 1945 which is applicable in the context of Indonesian politics in this contemporary age.  Abstrak: Spirit Piagam Jakarta dalam Undang-Undang Dasar 1945 Pasca Lahirnya Dekrit Presiden 5 Juli 1959. Pada sidang kedua Badan Penyelidik Usaha-Usaha Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia (BPUPKI / Dokuritsu Zyunbi Tyosakai yang berlangsung sejak tanggal 10 hingga 16 Juli 1945, baik golongan nasionalis maupun golongan Islam berkonsensus bahwa masa depan Indonesia merdeka akan didasarkan pada sila "Ketuhanan dengan kewajiban menjalankan syari'at Islam bagi pemeluk-pemeluknya".  Penting dicatat, konsensus tersebut agaknya dibangun di atas landasan yang tidak kokoh. Karena itu, tidak aneh bila satu hari setelah proklamasi Kemerdekaan RI, tepatnya tanggal 18 Agustus 1945, kesepakatan tersebut kembali dipersoalkan. Pada hari itu juga, Panitia Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia (PPKI yang dibentuk tanggal 7 Agustus 1945 dan diketuai oleh Soekarno, menyelenggarakan sidang untuk meninjau kembali kesepakatan tersebut. Dalam sidang tersebut, anak kalimat  yang terdapat dalam Pembukaan UUD 1945 (Piagam Jakarta, yakni: "Berdasarkan kepada Ketuhanan, dengan kewajiban menjalankan syari'at Islam bagi pemeluk-pemeluknya" diubah menjadi "Berdasar atas Ketuhanan Yang Maha Esa".  Setelah

  11. Characteristics of concentrations and chemical compositions for PM2.5 in the region of Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Zhao

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the temporal and spatial variations of PM2.5 and its chemical compositions in the region of Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei (BTH, PM2.5 samples were collected at four urban sites in Beijing (BJ, Tianjin (TJ, Shijiazhuang (SJZ, and Chengde (CD, and also one site at Shangdianzi (SDZ regional background station over four seasons from 2009 to 2010. The samples were weighted for mass concentrations and analyzed in the laboratory for chemical profiles of 19 elements (Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn, eight water-soluble inorganic ions (Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl−, NO3−, and SO42−, and carbon fractions (OC and EC. The concentrations of PM2.5 and its major chemical species were season dependent and showed spatially similar characteristics in the plain area of BTH. The average annual concentrations of PM2.5 were 71.8–191.2 μg m−3 at the five sites, with more than 90% of sampling days exceeding 50 μg m−3 at BJ, TJ, and SJZ. PM2.5 pollution was most serious at SJZ, and the annual concentrations of PM2.5, secondary inorganic ions, OC, EC, and most crustal elements were all highest. Due to stronger photochemical oxidation, the sum of concentrations of secondary inorganic ions (NH4+, NO3−, and SO42− was highest in the summer at SDZ, BJ, TJ, and CD. Analysis of electric charges of water-soluble inorganic ions indicated the existence of nitric acid or hydrochloric acid in PM2.5. For all five sites, the concentrations of OC, EC and also secondary organic carbon (SOC in the spring and summer were lower than those in the autumn and winter. SOC had more percentages of increase than primary organic carbon (POC during the winter. The sums of crustal elements (Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Ti, Ba, and Sr were higher in the spring and autumn owing to more days with blowing or floating dust. The concentrations of heavy metals were at higher levels in the BTH area by comparison with other studies. In

  12. The Effects of Anthropogenic Heat Release on Urban Meteorology and Implication for Haze Pollution in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiting Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of anthropogenic heat release (AHR on meteorological variables and atmospheric diffusion capability and implication for haze pollution in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region in January 2013 were investigated by using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model with an urban canopy model (UCM and an AHR scheme. The comparison with observation demonstrated the WRF/UCM model taking AHR into account apparently improved meteorological prediction, especially for surface air temperature at 2 m (T2. The model also exhibited a better performance for planetary boundary layer (PBL height. This study revealed that AHR from cities exerted a significant impact on meteorology by generally increasing surface air temperature and wind speed, decreasing relative humidity, and elevating PBL height and near surface turbulent kinetic energy (TKE, which could consequently reduce surface pollutant concentration and mitigate haze pollution by enhancing atmospheric instability and turbulent mixing and reducing aerosol hygroscopic growth.

  13. Concentrations of and health risks posed by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans around industrial sites in Hebei Province, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Ying; Liu, Wenbin; Hansen, Hans Chr. Bruun

    2016-01-01

    Sintering and steel production as the main emission sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) may affect environment and human health. The concentrations, profiles, and distributions of PCDD/Fs in soil samples from around four typical sintering and steel production...... plants in Hebei Province, China, were determined. Forty-six soil samples were collected at distances from 500 to 9000 m from industrial plant chimneys. The concentrations of total 17 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/F congeners in the soil samples from sites A, B, C, and D were in the range 11-130, 13-284, 2...... will be exposed to low amounts of PCDD/Fs in soil from around the industrial sites, and this exposure will pose potential health risks for the local population living at distances of less than 1000 m from nearest stack but will have no high health risks for people living further away. These results...

  14. The Paradox of Discrimination, the "Aloha Spirit," and Symptoms of Depression in Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossakowski, Krysia N; Wongkaren, Turro S

    2016-01-01

    It remains to be determined whether the "aloha spirit" is a cultural resource that influences psychological well-being in Hawai'i. Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate whether the aloha spirit is associated with levels of psychological distress and the risk of depression, while taking into account various risk factors. Data for this study were drawn from an anonymous survey of undergraduate students (N = 1,028) at the University of Hawai'i. Regression results revealed that having learned the aloha spirit was associated with significantly lower levels (b = -1.76; P spirit in Hawai'i by documenting their distinct relationships with mental health. Overall, this study contributes to medical and public health research on mental health disparities during the transition to adulthood by delving into the social context of daily life in the understudied, multicultural location of Hawai'i.

  15. NPDES Draft Permit for Spirit Lake Water Treatment Facility in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under NPDES draft permit ND-0031101, Spirit Lake Water Resource Management is authorized to discharge to an unnamed intermittent tributary to Devils Lake which is tributary to Sheyenne River in North Dakota.

  16. Reflection on the Role of the Spirit in Finding Meaning and Healing as Clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Carolyn

    2018-01-01

    Reflections on the Role of the Spirit in Finding Meaning and Healing as Clinicians is based on a presentation for the George Washington Spirituality and Health Summer Institute on July 13, 2017. The presentation invited health care professionals to explore contemplative practices as ways to invite the Spirit to strengthening their resilience in caring for themselves and others. As clinicians, there is often a longing to be grounded in a regular contemplative practice centering one's inner life and to acknowledge the creative energy of the Spirit in relationships. This reflection draws on resilience research that finds that contemplative practices such as deep breathing, meditation, reflective writing, and peer or community support enhance ways of meaning making and healing. Contemplative practices are provided, which can connect clinicians to the Spirit with the purpose of leading to increased meaning and healing in self and relationships. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of consumption of red wine, spirits, and beer on serum homocysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Gaag, M S; Ubbink, J B; Sillanaukee, P; Nikkari, S; Hendriks, H F

    2000-04-29

    Serum homocysteine increases after moderate consumption of red wine and spirits, not after moderate consumption of beer. Vitamin B6 in beer seems to prevent the alcohol-induced rise in serum homocysteine.

  18. 78 FR 38628 - Reclassification of Specially Denatured Spirits and Completely Denatured Alcohol Formulas and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... this proposed rulemaking: Rum is any spirit produced from sugar cane products and distilled at less...--with ethanol in the resulting formulations. Thus, it would be more difficult to separate the ethanol...

  19. Wandering ethos and romantic spirit: Reflections following the trail of Max Weber's sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremić-Molnar Dragana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available First part of the article is devoted to the main categories of Max Weber's historicist sociology: ethos and spirit. The authors are examining his concepts of capitalist spirit and protestant spirit and, relaying especially on Weber's unfinished treatise on music, contemplating the missing concept of romantic spirit, which could be tied with wandering ethos. In the second part of article, they are separating the phenomena of wandering (moving without purpose or goal from travelling (moving towards the determined end and analysing the possibilities of re-constructing the wandering ethos in context of emerging early Romanticism. In the end they are dealing with the main change the wandering underwent in 18th Century and early 19th Century: from despised activity practiced by social outcasts only (with few exceptions such as journeymen and merchants to the tool of regeneration.

  20. Care of the spirit that transcends religious, ideological and philosophical boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegarty Meg

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Spirit and spirituality are human universals, which are understood, expressed and lived out in different ways. Care of the spirit is an integral component of holistic palliative care, respecting the individual spirituality and experience of the person for whom we care. Whatever be the religious, ideological or philosophical background of the patient and the clinician/carer, certain skills, knowledge and attitudes are essential in providing effective care of the spirit. Rather than using a single perspective, such as either a secular or a religious approach, to meet the needs of all in a pluralistic setting, effective, patient-centered spiritual care draws on the (often shared wisdoms of the great spiritual and philosophical traditions and of the evolving understandings of these, science and art. Carers need both an awareness of their own spirituality and spiritual practice and an ability to ′bracket′ this in focusing on the needs and care of the patient′s spirit.

  1. 27 CFR 28.310 - Loss of specially denatured spirits in transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits withdrawn free of tax under this part during transportation from the bonded premises of the.... Redesignated at 40 FR 16835, Apr. 15, 1975, and amended by T.D. TTB-8, 69 FR 3834, Jan. 27, 2004] Wine ...

  2. Administrator of 9/11 victim compensation fund to administer Hokie Spirit Memorial Fund distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Hincker, Lawrence

    2007-01-01

    Virginia Tech President Charles Steger has asked Kenneth R. Feinberg, who served as "Special Master of the federal September 11th Victim Compensation Fund of 2001," to administer distributions of the university Hokie Spirit Memorial Fund (HSMF).

  3. Belief in the Spirits of the Dead in Africa: A Philosophical Interpretation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reginald M. J. Oduor

    that the emphasis moved from knowledge to behavior, that is, from theory to practice. ... Writing on the Mende, Little (1976) observes that the ontology is that of spirits. At .... Matter is anything which has extension, that is, it occupies space.

  4. Influence of beer, wine and spirits consumption on craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillemacher, Thomas; Bayerlein, Kristina; Reulbach, Udo; Sperling, Wolfgang; Wilhelm, Julia; Mugele, Brigitte; Kraus, Thomas; Bönsch, Dominikus; Kornhuber, Johannes; Bleich, Stefan

    2005-06-01

    The importance of craving in alcoholism and the efficacy of treatment has been the subject of various studies. This study focuses on the consumption of different alcoholic beverages and their effect on craving, which has not yet been investigated. Therefore we assessed 197 inpatients using the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) on the day of admission and after 1 week, distinguishing between the total score, the obsessive and the compulsive subscale. Socio-demographic data and the type of alcoholic beverage were recorded. Analysing data, the amount of beer consumption showed a significant influence on craving in male but not in female patients. These results were significant for the total score and both subscales of the OCDS (OCDS total score; day 0: Spearman's rho = 0.31; p = 0.001; logistic regression, dependent variable dichotomized OCDS total score day 0: OR = 1.18; 95% CI = 1.04 - 1.34; p = 0.011). On the other hand we, did not find any significant results for the amount of other beverages such as wine and spirits. Receiver operating curves analysis showed that beer consumption significantly predicts craving [area under the curve (AUC) = 0.66; p = 0.002]. We conclude that higher beer consumption is associated with higher withdrawal craving, at least in male patients. In addition, it is an important predictor for both obsessive and compulsive craving. Further studies are needed to clarify the pathophysiological basis of this finding.

  5. PENN neurodegenerative disease research - in the spirit of Benjamin Franklin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojanowski, John Q

    2008-01-01

    Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) was entrepreneur, statesman, supporter of the public good as well as inventor, and his most significant invention was the University of Pennsylvania (PENN). Franklin outlined his plans for a college providing practical and classical instruction to prepare youth for real-world pursuits in his 'Proposals Relating to the Education of Youth in Pensilvania' (1749), and Franklin's spirit of learning to serve society guides PENN to the present day. This is evidenced by the series of articles in this special issue of Neurosignals, describing research conducted by seasoned and newly recruited PENN faculty, addressing consequences of the longevity revolution which defines our epoch at the dawn of this millennium. While aging affects all organ systems, the nervous system is most critical to successful aging. Thus, the articles in this special issue of Neurosignals focus on research at PENN that is designed to prevent or ameliorate aging-related neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. This research could enhance our chances of aging successfully in the continuing longevity revolution, and the essay here provides context and background on this research.

  6. Radioactive levels and doses of 3H and 14C in white spirits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, G.

    1992-01-01

    'Full Text:' White (and yeast) spirits is a general name for strong alcoholic beverages in China. The paper reports levels and doses of 3 H and 14 C in 65 spirits samples between 1986 and 1987. Experiments were made by measuring end analyzing each sample, using a low background liquid scintillation spectrometer. Radioactive levels of 65 spirits samples are as follows: Variant range of 3 H activity is 98.2 - 170.6Bq.dm -3 and its average is 149.2 ± 17.3Bq.dm -3 ; Variant range of 14 C activity is 38.8-80.2Bq.dm -3 and its average is 57.4±8.2Bq.dm -3 . If the man drinks 200cm 3 of spirits daily, the annual dose equivalents will be 0.19uSv of 3 H and 2.5uSv of 14 C . In ordinary strong alcoholic beverages that contain 57-60% alcohol, the mean 3 H and 14 C activities are 153.8Bq.dm -3 and 60.3Bq.dm -3 , respectively, but in spirits of lower alcoholic content (38-40%), the mean 3H activity is 114.6Bq.dm -3 , that is 25.5% less than ordinary spirits, and the mean 14 C activity is 46.1Bq.dm -3 , that is 23.5% less than ordinary spirits. We compared the 3 H and 14 C contents of five kinds of staple grains from both Sichuan and Guangdong provinces. We learned that the level of activity in spirits is ten times higher than in grains and water, and the level of 14 C activity in spirits is equivalent to that in grains. White spirits has fully concentrated 3 H and 14 C from both grain and water, and activities increase with increasing alcoholic content. 3 H in spirits probably is averaged from both water and grain, and 14 C is averaged mostly from grain. (author)

  7. [Spatial temporal differentiation of product-based and consumption-based CO2 emissions and balance in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region: an economic input- output analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Chen, Cao-cao; Pan, Tao; Liu, Chun-lan; Chen, Long; Sun, Li

    2014-09-01

    Distinguishing product-based and consumption-based CO2 emissions in the open economic region is the basis for differentiating the emission responsibility, which is attracting increasing attention of decision-makers'attention. The spatial and temporal characteristics of product-based and consumption-based CO2 emissions, as well as carbon balance, in 1997, 2002 and 2007 of JING- JIN-JI region were analyzed by the Economic Input-Output-Life Cycle Assessment model. The results revealed that both the product- based and consumption-based CO2 emissions in the region have been increased by about 4% annually. The percentage of CO2 emissions embodied in trade was 30% -83% , to which the domestic trading added the most. The territorial and consumption-based CO2 emissions in Hebei province were the predominant emission in JING-JIN-JI region, and the increasing speed and emission intensity were stronger than those of Beijing and Tianjin. JING-JIN-JI region was a net inflow region of CO2 emissions, and parts of the emission responsibility were transferred. Beijing and Tianjin were the net importers of CO2 emissions, and Hebei was a net outflow area of CO2 emissions. The key CO2 emission departments in the region were concentrated, and the similarity was great. The inter-regional mechanisms could be set up for joint prevention and control work. - Production and distribution of electricity, gas and water and smelting and pressing of metals had the highest reliability on CO2 emissions, and took on the responsibility of other departments. The EIO-LCA model could be used to analyze the product-based and consumption-based CO2 emissions, which is helpful for the delicate management of regional CO2 emissions reduction and policies making, and stimulating the reduction cooperation at regional scale.

  8. Pancam and microscopic imager observations of dust on the Spirit Rovers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaughan....[], Alicia F.; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Walter, Goetz

    2010-01-01

    This work describes dust deposits on the Spirit Rover over 2000 sols through examination of Pancam and Microscopic Imager observations of specific locations on the rover body, including portions of the solar array, Pancam and Mini-TES calibration targets, and the magnets. This data set reveals...... the three "cleaning events" experienced by Spirit to date, the spectral properties of dust, and the tendency of dust particles to form aggregates 100 um and larger...

  9. Oil risk in oil stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Wang, L

    2008-01-01

    We assess the oil price sensitivities and oil risk premiums of NYSE listed oil & gas firms' returns by using a two-step regression analysis under two different arbitrage pricing models. Thus, we apply the Fama and French (1992) factor returns in a study of oil stocks. In all, we find that the return

  10. [Discussion on professor SHAO Jing-Ming's academic opinion of focusing spirit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qiao-Lin; Gao, Xi-Yan; Shao, Su-Ju; Shao, Su-Xia; Hu, Bin

    2014-06-01

    During professor SHAO Jing-ming's academic research and medical practice, his academic opinion of focusing spirit is gradually developed. In terms of nurturing the spirit, attention should be paid on persistence as well as everyday health maintenance and exercise to nurture the spirit of physician. In terms of clinical diagnosis and treatment, patients' psychology, employment and life status should be observed and experienced, which could bring more methods to take essential care of patients' spirit. The treatment should work with psychological counseling, advocating that based on patients' qi and spirit, various forms of treatment methods should be properly used, such as acupuncture or moxibustion or combination of acupuncture and medicine, along with simple acupoint selection and harmony medication. Before clinical treatment of acupuncture, calming the mind is critically emphasized to make a clear diagnosis. During the acupuncture, calming and focusing the mind is necessary as well as emphasizing the details, so acupuncture could be integrated with Chi Gong to create a new warming-sensation technique. In a word, the academic opinion of focusing spirit is shedding an inspiring light upon further study.

  11. SPIRIT 2013 explanation and elaboration: guidance for protocols of clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, An-Wen; Tetzlaff, Jennifer M; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Altman, Douglas G; Mann, Howard; Berlin, Jesse A; Dickersin, Kay; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn; Schulz, Kenneth F; Parulekar, Wendy R; Krleza-Jeric, Karmela; Laupacis, Andreas; Moher, David

    2013-01-08

    High quality protocols facilitate proper conduct, reporting, and external review of clinical trials. However, the completeness of trial protocols is often inadequate. To help improve the content and quality of protocols, an international group of stakeholders developed the SPIRIT 2013 Statement (Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials). The SPIRIT Statement provides guidance in the form of a checklist of recommended items to include in a clinical trial protocol. This SPIRIT 2013 Explanation and Elaboration paper provides important information to promote full understanding of the checklist recommendations. For each checklist item, we provide a rationale and detailed description; a model example from an actual protocol; and relevant references supporting its importance. We strongly recommend that this explanatory paper be used in conjunction with the SPIRIT Statement. A website of resources is also available (www.spirit-statement.org). The SPIRIT 2013 Explanation and Elaboration paper, together with the Statement, should help with the drafting of trial protocols. Complete documentation of key trial elements can facilitate transparency and protocol review for the benefit of all stakeholders.

  12. Unravelling the spirits' message: a study of help-seeking steps and explanatory models among patients suffering from spirit possession in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duijl, M.; Kleijn, W.; de Jong, J.

    2014-01-01

    As in many cultures, also in Uganda spirit possession is a common idiom of distress associated with traumatic experiences. In the DSM-IV and -5, possession trance disorders can be classified as dissociative disorders. Dissociation in Western countries is associated with complicated, time-consuming

  13. Lavender oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender oil is an oil made from the flowers of lavender plants. Lavender poisoning can occur when ... further instructions. This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United ...

  14. Petroleum Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Different types of crude oil and refined product, of all different chemical compositions, have distinct physical properties. These properties affect the way oil spreads and breaks down, its hazard to marine and human life, and the likelihood of threat.

  15. Unravelling the spirits' message: a study of help-seeking steps and explanatory models among patients suffering from spirit possession in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duijl, Marjolein; Kleijn, Wim; de Jong, Joop

    2014-01-01

    As in many cultures, also in Uganda spirit possession is a common idiom of distress associated with traumatic experiences. In the DSM-IV and -5, possession trance disorders can be classified as dissociative disorders. Dissociation in Western countries is associated with complicated, time-consuming and costly therapies. Patients with spirit possession in SW Uganda, however, often report partial or full recovery after treatment by traditional healers. The aim of this study is to explore how the development of symptoms concomitant help-seeking steps, and explanatory models (EM) eventually contributed to healing of patients with spirit possession in SW Uganda. Illness narratives of 119 patients with spirit possession referred by traditional healers were analysed using a mixed-method approach. Treatments of two-thirds of the patients were unsuccessful when first seeking help in the medical sector. Their initially physical symptoms subsequently developed into dissociative possession symptoms. After an average of two help-seeking steps, patients reached a healing place where 99% of them found satisfactory EM and effective healing. During healing sessions, possessing agents were summoned to identify themselves and underlying problems were addressed. Often-mentioned explanations were the following: neglect of rituals and of responsibilities towards relatives and inheritance, the call to become a healer, witchcraft, grief, and land conflicts. The results demonstrate that traditional healing processes of spirit possession can play a role in restoring connections with the supra-, inter-, intra-, and extra-human worlds. It does not always seem necessary to address individual traumatic experiences per se, which is in line with other research in this field. The study leads to additional perspectives on treatment of trauma-related dissociation in Western countries and on developing effective mental health services in low -and middle-income countries.

  16. Improving the accuracy of acetabular cup implantation using a bulls-eye spirit level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Duncan; Gupta, Sanjay; Ohly, Nicholas E; Patil, Sanjeev; Meek, R; Mohammed, Aslam

    2011-01-01

    Acetabular introducers have a built-in inclination of 45 degrees to the handle shaft. With patients in the lateral position, surgeons aim to align the introducer shaft vertical to the floor to implant the acetabulum at 45 degrees. We aimed to determine if a bulls-eye spirit level attached to an introducer improved the accuracy of implantation. A small circular bulls-eye spirit level was attached to the handle of an acetabular introducer. A saw bone hemipelvis was fixed to a horizontal, flat surface. A cement substitute was placed in the acetabulum and subjects were asked to implant a polyethylene cup, aiming to obtain an angle of inclination of 45 degrees. Two attempts were made with the spirit level masked and two with it unmasked. The distance of the air bubble from the spirit level's center was recorded by a single assessor. The angle of inclination of the acetabular component was then calculated. Subjects included both orthopedic consultants and trainees. Twenty-five subjects completed the study. Accuracy of acetabular implantation when using the unmasked spirit level improved significantly in all grades of surgeon. With the spirit level masked, 12 out of 50 attempts were accurate at 45 degrees inclination; 11 out of 50 attempts were "open," with greater than 45 degrees of inclination, and 27 were "closed," with less than 45 degrees. With the spirit level visible, all subjects achieved an inclination angle of exactly 45 degrees. A simple device attached to the handle of an acetabular introducer can significantly improve the accuracy of implantation of a cemented cup into a saw bone pelvis in the lateral position.

  17. Mupasi as cosmic s(Spirit: The universe as a community of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzipa M.B. Nalwamba

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mupasi recalls the belief that humans form part of the community of life within the realm of the cosmic spirit. The assertion seems like a truism that requires no further enunciation. However, belief in the Creator-Spirit, a pneuma-theological understanding of creation, is relatively young in the Christian tradition. In Colossians 1:15-20, Christ is presented as instrumental to creation. Christian tradition therefore tends to present creation in Christological terms. The foundational belief in Spirit-Creator-God has not historically undergirded Christian belief about creation. The Christian faith could therefore benefit from ‘companion’ views of creation in terms of the cosmic spirit. Mupasi is understood as cosmic spirit, the axis of the universe apprehended as an organic whole. The web of life was brought into being, is sustained by, and inhabited by Mupasi. This retrieval has continuities and discontinuities with Christian belief as Spirit-Creator-God. It is presented here as a notion that calls the Christian faith back to its originating intuitions about creation. Mupasi is appropriated within a pneuma-theological framework that addressed a pressing issue of our time, the global ecological crisis. Mupasi presents an ecological critique that is meaningful for a renewed appreciation of community beyond an anthropocentric focus. The cosmic relatedness brings a renewed vision of the universe as a cosmic community of the s(Spirit. The cultural and intellectual milieu of Mupasi is undergirded by a relational conception of reality. It provides a critical lens with implications for ecclesiology that challenges the church’s self-understanding and ways of being.

  18. One Step Back? Reassessing an Ideal Security State for Northeast Asia 2025

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    presented jointly by Malaysia and Vietnam. • The role of regional organizations (NOWPAP, COBSEA, PEMSEA) in addressing environmental problems in shared...drowned. After the Hebei Spirit collided with a Samsung crane barge in December 2007, 11,000 tons of oil leaked into the sea and onto the Korean...tribunals or binding arbitration to solve their problems, and prefer direct negotiation, but Malaysia and Singapore as well as Malaysia and Indonesia have

  19. Oil biodegradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Eenennaam, van Justine S.; Murk, Tinka; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.

    2017-01-01

    During the Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill, interactions between oil, clay particles and marine snow lead to the formation of aggregates. Interactions between these components play an important, but yet not well understood, role in biodegradation of oil in the ocean water. The aim of this study

  20. Ingestion of white spirit resulting in perineal skin burns: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhoucke, Joke; Buylaert, Walter; Colpaert, Kirsten; De Paepe, Peter

    2017-10-01

    In the literature, possible systemic effects on health of inhalation or ingestion of white spirit are well described. Only a few case reports discuss the toxic skin effects that can occur following massive ingestion. Ingestion of large amounts of white spirit produces a watery diarrhoea with a high concentration of white spirit, resulting in perineal skin burns when there is prolonged contact. We describe a patient who developed partial thickness perineal skin burns after ingestion of white spirit and review the literature. The present data indicate that conservative therapy of the skin burns is recommended.

  1. Use of imagery and text that could convey reduced harm in American Spirit advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Meghan Bridgid; Pierce, John P; Weiger, Caitlin; Cunningham, Mary C; Sargent, James D

    2017-03-01

    In 2015, the US Food and Drug Administration issued warning letters to three tobacco companies regarding use of the terms 'natural' and/or 'additive-free' to describe their products, as these terms inaccurately convey reduced harm. Yet, tobacco companies engage in a variety of alternate techniques to attempt to convey the same 'natural' (and thus reduced harm) message. It is critical to monitor these practices to inform regulatory action. To describe the marketing techniques used in Natural American Spirit (American Spirit) ads that could convey a natural and less harmful product image. Trained coders content analysed 142 American Spirit ads from 2012 to 2016. In addition to use of the terms 'natural' and 'additive-free', American Spirit ads engage in a variety of other linguistic and iconic techniques that could convey reduced harm, such as references to small, local or organic farming, eco-friendly practices, and plant, farming and other nature-related imagery. American Spirit ads use a wide range of marketing techniques to convey a natural product image, which could subsequently communicate reduced harm. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Improved l1-SPIRiT using 3D walsh transform-based sparsity basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhen; Liu, Feng; Jiang, Mingfeng; Crozier, Stuart; Guo, He; Wang, Yuxin

    2014-09-01

    l1-SPIRiT is a fast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method which combines parallel imaging (PI) with compressed sensing (CS) by performing a joint l1-norm and l2-norm optimization procedure. The original l1-SPIRiT method uses two-dimensional (2D) Wavelet transform to exploit the intra-coil data redundancies and a joint sparsity model to exploit the inter-coil data redundancies. In this work, we propose to stack all the coil images into a three-dimensional (3D) matrix, and then a novel 3D Walsh transform-based sparsity basis is applied to simultaneously reduce the intra-coil and inter-coil data redundancies. Both the 2D Wavelet transform-based and the proposed 3D Walsh transform-based sparsity bases were investigated in the l1-SPIRiT method. The experimental results show that the proposed 3D Walsh transform-based l1-SPIRiT method outperformed the original l1-SPIRiT in terms of image quality and computational efficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. New pattern recognition system in the e-nose for Chinese spirit identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Hui; Li Qiang; Gu Yu

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new pattern recognition system for Chinese spirit identification by using the polymer quartz piezoelectric crystal sensor based e-nose. The sensors are designed based on quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) principle, and they could capture different vibration frequency signal values for Chinese spirit identification. For each sensor in an 8-channel sensor array, seven characteristic values of the original vibration frequency signal values, i.e., average value (A), root-mean-square value (RMS), shape factor value (S f ), crest factor value (C f ), impulse factor value (I f ), clearance factor value (CL f ), kurtosis factor value (K v ) are first extracted. Then the dimension of the characteristic values is reduced by the principle components analysis (PCA) method. Finally the back propagation (BP) neutral network algorithm is used to recognize Chinese spirits. The experimental results show that the recognition rate of six kinds of Chinese spirits is 93.33% and our proposed new pattern recognition system can identify Chinese spirits effectively. (paper)

  4. The contribution of urbanization to recent extreme heat events and white roof mitigation strategy in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingna

    2015-04-01

    The UHI effect can aggravate summertime heat waves and strongly influence human comfort and health, leading to greater mortality in metropolitan areas. Many geo-engineering technological strategies have been proposed to mitigate climate warming, and for the UHI, increasing the albedo of artificial urban surfaces (rooftops or pavements) has been considered a lucrative and effective way to cool cities. The objective of this work is to quantify the contribution of urbanization to recent extreme heat events of the early 21st century in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan area, using the mesoscale WRF model coupled with a single urban canopy model and actual urban land cover datasets. This work also investigates a simulation of the regional effects of white roof technology by increasing the albedo of urban areas in the urban canopy model to mitigate the urban heat island, especially in extreme heat waves. The results show that urban land use characteristics that have evolved over the past ~20 years in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan area have had a significant impact on the extreme temperatures occurring during extreme heat events. Simulations show that new urban development has caused an intensification and expansion of the areas experiencing extreme heat waves with an average increase in temperature of approximately 0.60°C. This change is most obvious at night with an increase up to 0.95°C, for which the total contribution of anthropogenic heat is 34%. We also simulate the effects of geo-engineering strategies increasing the albedo of urban roofs. White roofs reflect a large fraction of incoming sunlight in the daytime, which reduced the net radiation so that the roof surface keep at a lower temperature than regular solar-absorptive roofs. Urban net radiation decreases by approximately 200 W m-2 at local noon because of high solar reflectance of white roofs, which cools the daytime urban temperature afer sunrise, with the largest decrease of almost -0.80

  5. Chemical characterization and source identification of PM2.5 at multiple sites in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaojuan; Liu, Zirui; Liu, Jingyun; Hu, Bo; Wen, Tianxue; Tang, Guiqian; Zhang, Junke; Wu, Fangkun; Ji, Dongsheng; Wang, Lili; Wang, Yuesi

    2017-11-01

    The simultaneous observation and analysis of atmospheric fine particles (PM2.5) on a regional scale is an important approach to develop control strategies for haze pollution. In this study, samples of filtered PM2.5 were collected simultaneously at three urban sites (Beijing, Tianjin, and Shijiazhuang) and at a regional background site (Xinglong) in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region from June 2014 to April 2015. The PM2.5 at the four sites was mainly comprised of organic matter, secondary inorganic ions, and mineral dust. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) demonstrated that, on an annual basis, secondary inorganic aerosol was the largest PM2.5 source in this region, accounting for 29.2-40.5 % of the PM2.5 mass at the urban sites; the second-largest PM2.5 source was motor vehicle exhaust, particularly in Beijing (24.9 %), whereas coal combustion was also a large source in Tianjin (12.4 %) and Shijiazhuang (15.5 %), with particular dominance in winter. Secondary inorganic aerosol plays a vital role in the haze process, with the exception of the spring haze in Shijiazhuang and Tianjin, for which the dust source was crucial. In addition to secondary transformations, local direct emissions (coal combustion and motor vehicle exhaust) significantly contribute to the winter haze at the urban sites. Moreover, with the aggravation of haze pollution, the OC / EC mass ratio of PM2.5 decreased considerably and the nitrate-rich secondary aerosol increased during all four seasons in Beijing, both of which indicate that local motor vehicle emissions significantly contribute to the severe haze episodes in Beijing. To assess the impacts of regional transport on haze pollution, the PMF results were further processed with backward-trajectory cluster analysis, revealing that haze pollution usually occurred when air masses originating from polluted industrial regions in the south prevailed and is characterized by high PM2.5 loadings with considerable contributions from secondary

  6. Temporal-spatial characteristics and source apportionment of PM2.5 as well as its associated chemical species in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jiajia; Wang, Kun; Wang, Yong; Liu, Shuhan; Zhu, Chuanyong; Hao, Jiming; Liu, Huanjia; Hua, Shenbing; Tian, Hezhong

    2018-02-01

    PM 2.5 and its major chemical compositions were sampled and analyzed in January, April, July and October of 2014 at Beijing (BJ), Tianjin (TJ), Langfang (LF) and Baoding (BD) in order to probe the temporal and spatial characteristics as well as source apportionment of PM 2.5 in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region. The results showed that PM 2.5 pollution was severe in the BTH region. The average annual concentrations of PM 2.5 at four sampling sites were in the range of 126-180 μg/m 3 , with more than 95% of sampling days exceeding 35 μg/m 3 , the limit ceiling of average annual concentration of PM 2.5 regulated in the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standards (GB3095-2012). Additionally, concentrations of PM 2.5 and its major chemical species were seasonally dependent and demonstrated spatially similar variation characteristics in the BTH region. Concentration of toxic heavy metals, such as As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and Zn, were higher in winter and autumn. Secondary inorganic ions (SO 4 2- , NO 3 - , and NH 4 + ) were the three-major water-soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs) of PM 2.5 and their mass ratios to PM 2.5 were higher in summer and autumn. The organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) concentrations were lower in spring and summer than in autumn and winter. Five factors were selected in Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model analysis, and the results showed that PM 2.5 pollution was dominated by vehicle emissions in Beijing, combustion emissions including coal burning and biomass combustion in Langfang and Baoding, and soil and construction dust emissions in Tianjin, respectively. The air mass that were derived from the south and southeast local areas around BTH regions reflected the features of short-distant and small-scale air transport. Shandong, Henan, and Hebei were identified the major potential sources-areas of secondary aerosol emissions to PM 2.5 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Chemical characterization and source identification of PM2.5 at multiple sites in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Huang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The simultaneous observation and analysis of atmospheric fine particles (PM2.5 on a regional scale is an important approach to develop control strategies for haze pollution. In this study, samples of filtered PM2.5 were collected simultaneously at three urban sites (Beijing, Tianjin, and Shijiazhuang and at a regional background site (Xinglong in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei (BTH region from June 2014 to April 2015. The PM2.5 at the four sites was mainly comprised of organic matter, secondary inorganic ions, and mineral dust. Positive matrix factorization (PMF demonstrated that, on an annual basis, secondary inorganic aerosol was the largest PM2.5 source in this region, accounting for 29.2–40.5 % of the PM2.5 mass at the urban sites; the second-largest PM2.5 source was motor vehicle exhaust, particularly in Beijing (24.9 %, whereas coal combustion was also a large source in Tianjin (12.4 % and Shijiazhuang (15.5 %, with particular dominance in winter. Secondary inorganic aerosol plays a vital role in the haze process, with the exception of the spring haze in Shijiazhuang and Tianjin, for which the dust source was crucial. In addition to secondary transformations, local direct emissions (coal combustion and motor vehicle exhaust significantly contribute to the winter haze at the urban sites. Moreover, with the aggravation of haze pollution, the OC ∕ EC mass ratio of PM2.5 decreased considerably and the nitrate-rich secondary aerosol increased during all four seasons in Beijing, both of which indicate that local motor vehicle emissions significantly contribute to the severe haze episodes in Beijing. To assess the impacts of regional transport on haze pollution, the PMF results were further processed with backward-trajectory cluster analysis, revealing that haze pollution usually occurred when air masses originating from polluted industrial regions in the south prevailed and is characterized by high PM2.5 loadings with considerable

  8. Explanation of Relationships between Biographical Characteristics and Entrepreneurship Spirit of Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassanali Aghajani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Three major causes of the importance of entrepreneurship are making wealth, developing technology and creating productive employment. It is generally believed that a revolution is needed for entrepreneurship to take place in societies nowadays. Thus, the present study aims at investigation of the biographical characteristics and explanation of its relation to entrepreneurial spirit at Mazandaran university students. The data collection instrument was a related questionnaire with the reliability level of 0.90, and the collected data related to the examined variables were analyzed by using T-Student and ANOVA Tests. The results explained and determined that, except age, other biographical characteristics including gender, marital status, employment, birth arrangement, parents‟ education level, did not have any meaningful relationship with the entrepreneurial spirit. Finally, it is the presented summary of implications for managers such as suggestions on how the managers and authorities can improve the entrepreneurial spirit among students, as well as directions for further researches.

  9. The "Network Ethic" and the New Spirit of Capitalism in French Sociology of Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    2005-01-01

    forms of organisation have received less attention. In this paper I discuss a recent French contribution to the analysis of the cultural aspects of networks: Boltanski & Chiapello’s book Le nouvel esprit du capitalisme (Boltanski and Chiapello 1999). The contribution is important for recent discussions...... of a network perspective on organisations in several ways. First, drawing on Weber’s earlier discussion of the rise of the capitalist spirit, Boltanski and Chiapello proposes an interesting theoretical model of the change of capitalism relating two different types of cultural elements: the ‘spirit...... of capitalism’ and criticism of capitalism to processes of change in the form of capitalism. Second, Boltanski and Chiapello directs a critical perspective on the emergent model of ‘network capitalism’ and its accompanying spirit applying the theoretical framework of ‘worlds of justification’ developed earlier...

  10. LVAD patients' and surrogates' perspectives on SPIRIT-HF: An advance care planning discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Maureen; Song, Mi-Kyung; Devane-Johnson, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    To describe LVAD patients' and surrogates' experiences with, and perspectives on SPIRIT-HF, an advance care planning (ACP) intervention. ACP is important for patients with LVAD, yet little is known about their experiences or those of their surrogates who have participated in ACP discussions. We used qualitative content analysis techniques to conduct a secondary analysis of 28 interviews with patients with LVAD (n = 14) and their surrogates (n = 14) who had participated in an RCT pilot study of SPIRIT-HF. Main themes from the data include: 1) sharing their HF stories was very beneficial; 2) participating in SPIRIT-HF led to greater peace of mind for patients and surrogates; 3) "one size does not fit all" when it comes to timing of ACP discussions. An understanding patient and surrogate perspectives may inform clinicians' approach to ACP discussions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification and dosage by HRGC of minor alcohol and esters in Brazilian sugar-cane spirit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boscolo, Mauricio; Bezerra, Cicero W.B.; Cardoso, Daniel R.; Lima Neto, Benedito S.; Franco, Douglas W.

    2000-01-01

    The presence of 51 volatile compounds, among alcohols and esters in Brazilian sugar-cane spirit (cachaca), were investigated by high-resolution gas chromatography (HRGC). The following alcohols and esters were identified and quantified: methanol, 1,4-butanodiol, 2-phenylethyl alcohol, amyl alcohol, cetyl alcohol, cynamic alcohol, n-decanol, geraniol, isoamyl alcohol, isobutanol, menthol, n-butanol, n-dodecanol, n-propanol, n-tetradecanol, amyl propionate, ethyl acetate, ethyl benzoate, ethyl heptanoate, isoamyl valerate, methyl propionate, propyl butyrate. The average higher alcohols content (262 mg/100 mL in anhydrous alcohol a.a) and total esters content (24 mg/100 mL a.a) in cachacas, are smaller than in other spirits. The average methanol content in cachacas (6 mg/100 mL a.a) is the same as in rum, but smaller than in wine spirit. No qualitative differences of chemical profile among cachacas have been observed. (author)

  12. Detecting Two-Spirit erotics: The fiction of Carole laFavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatonetti, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the life and novels of Carole laFavor, arguing for her importance to and influence in Two-Spirit studies. Along with being a writer, laFavor was a powerful voice for social justice and Indigenous health sovereignty in Minnesota and the nation. Her two novels, Along the Journey River and Evil Dead Center, which both focus on Anishinaabe lesbian detective protagonist Renee LaRoche, are the first lesbian detective fiction published by a Native author. Renee's embrace of a specifically Two-Spirit erotics anchors her to family and brings her tribal community a powerful healing when she employs her skills to protect her people from instances of racism, abuse, and injustice. This article, then, reads these novels as the first of an emerging genre of texts that claim an overtly Two-Spirit erotic as well as vital precursors to the present embrace of sovereign erotics in Indigenous studies.

  13. Mermaids and Spirit Spouses: Rituals as Technologies of Gender in Transnational African Pentecostal Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne Rey

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to approach the construction of gender in transnational spacesby focusing on the ritual practice of African Pentecostal migrants in Europeand in Africa. One dimension of African Pentecostalism is its insistence on thepractice of exorcism called ‘deliverance’ where malevolent spirits are expelledfrom one’s body. Within the Pentecostal demonology, several categories ofspirits carry implications for how gender is constructed. This article will analyseeffects of the appearance of these spirits on the construction of genderamong Ghanaian and Congolese Pentecostal churches in Geneva and in Accra.It will show that variations in the appearance of spirits within rituals can beinterpreted as a negotiation of gender roles in a migratory context. Shifts inPentecostal demonology can therefore be interpreted as a response to thereconfiguration of gender roles associated with the broader gender contextand work opportunities in Europe.

  14. Identification and dosage by HRGC of minor alcohol and esters in Brazilian sugar-cane spirit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boscolo, Mauricio; Bezerra, Cicero W.B.; Cardoso, Daniel R.; Lima Neto, Benedito S.; Franco, Douglas W. [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2000-02-01

    The presence of 51 volatile compounds, among alcohols and esters in Brazilian sugar-cane spirit (cachaca), were investigated by high-resolution gas chromatography (HRGC). The following alcohols and esters were identified and quantified: methanol, 1,4-butanodiol, 2-phenylethyl alcohol, amyl alcohol, cetyl alcohol, cynamic alcohol, n-decanol, geraniol, isoamyl alcohol, isobutanol, menthol, n-butanol, n-dodecanol, n-propanol, n-tetradecanol, amyl propionate, ethyl acetate, ethyl benzoate, ethyl heptanoate, isoamyl valerate, methyl propionate, propyl butyrate. The average higher alcohols content (262 mg/100 mL in anhydrous alcohol a.a) and total esters content (24 mg/100 mL a.a) in cachacas, are smaller than in other spirits. The average methanol content in cachacas (6 mg/100 mL a.a) is the same as in rum, but smaller than in wine spirit. No qualitative differences of chemical profile among cachacas have been observed. (author)

  15. Validity of self-reported intakes of wine, beer and spirits in population studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grønbaek, M; Heitmann, B L

    1996-07-01

    To compare data on intake of wine, beer and spirits from a frequency questionnaire with intake of each type of alcoholic beverage estimated from a dietary interview. Cross-sectional study. The Danish MONICA study. A randomly selected sub-sample of 244 women and 249 men aged 35-65 y. Differences in intake of beer, wine and spirits as reported by the frequency questionnaire and the diet history interview. There was an overall agreement between the two methods, with very little or no systematic variation for all three alcoholic beverages. Compared to a more time consuming and thorough dietary interview, the traditional frequency questionnaires seem to sufficiently capture intakes of different types of alcohol. Bias in alcohol reporting by the frequency questionnaire does not seem responsible for the recently found decreased mortality among subjects with a daily intake of wine, nor the increased mortality from spirits drinking.

  16. Congeners in sugar cane spirits aged in casks of different woods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoletto, Aline M; Alcarde, André R

    2013-08-15

    The profile of volatile compounds and aging markers in sugar cane spirits aged for 36 months in casks made of 10 types of wood were studied. The ethanol content, volatile acidity, aldehydes, esters, higher alcohols, and methanol were determined. In addition, gallic, vanilic and syringic acids, siringaldehyde, coniferaldehyde, sinapaldehyde, vanillin, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural were identified and quantified. The profile of volatile compounds characterised aging in each type of wood. The beverage aged in oak cask achieved the highest contents of maturation-related congeners. The Brazilian woods, similar to oak, were jequitibá rosa and cerejeira, which presented the highest contents of some maturation-related compounds, such as vanillin, vanilic acid, syringaldehyde and sinapaldehyde. Although oak wood conferred more chemical complexity to the beverage, Brazilian woods, singly or complementarily, present potential for spirit characterisation and for improving the quality of sugar cane spirits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. WCB - the little oil patch that could

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, R. G.

    1999-01-01

    The globally dominant position of the Western Canadian Basin (WCB) in innovative exploitation technology (horizontal wells) and the major role it plays in related technical pursuits (underbalanced drilling, extended reach drilling, coiled tubing and multi-branch technology) are discussed. This enviable position has been gained despite the fact that in comparison to the world's major producing areas, the WCB is a region of relatively thin, varied, depleted reservoirs of limited reserves and meagre profit margins. Yet in this marginal setting, oil production increased over 90 per cent in the last decade, in large part due to the exponential growth of horizontal well applications. It is argued that Canada's leadership in exploitation technology is not simply a result of the thin, depleted reservoirs, but is promoted by a combination of many factors, foremost among them being a collective spirit of co-operation and innovation among the oil companies. The variance in reservoir setting, the corporate culture, the entrepreneurial spirit, a competitive service market, extremes of environment, a stable political and economic framework close to the largest diversified markets (i.e. the USA) also have played important contributory roles. 3 refs., 1 tab

  18. The Spirit of The Age and the Fate of Philosophical Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toula Nicolacopoulos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on Hegelrsquo;s claim that lsquo;it belongs to the weakness of our time not to be able to bear the greatness, the immensity of the claims made by the human spirit, to feel crushed before them, and to flee from them faint-heartedrsquo;, this essay explores the possibility of a renewed encounter with Hegelrsquo;s thought. Arguing that it is not the acceptance or rejection of the lessons of Hegelrsquo;s thought that is important, but rather that ever since Hegel, philosophers are challenged to experience philosophy as such as the happening of the spirit of the age. It further asks the question how is it that the spirit of the age might emerge in an otherwise spiritless age? From this perspective the question for us is whether philosophizing today has the power to generate a level of intensity, not so much for the spirit of our own age to emerge clearly and distinctively, but for the spirit of the age to emerge at all. Perhaps, instead, the real issue for those of us who come after Hegel is whether we are strong enough to intensify and withstand the intensity that Hegelrsquo;s thinking has already released. From this perspective to encounter the spirit of the age can be neither to look for it in the developments of the twenty-first century world nor to produce a radically new philosophy. The essay suggests that the fate of those of us who follow the arriving of Hegel, the revolutionary thinker, is to face the challenge of dwelling in his arriving.

  19. Consumption dynamics of the adult piscivorous fish community in Spirit Lake, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, H.; Pierce, C.L.; Larscheid, J.G.

    2004-01-01

    At Spirit Lake, one of Iowa's most important fisheries, walleye Sander vitreus (formerly Stizostedion vitreum) is one of the most popular species with anglers. Despite a century of walleye stocking and management in Spirit Lake, walleye growth rate, size structure, and angler harvest continue to decline. Our purpose was to determine the magnitude and dynamics of walleye population consumption relative to those of other piscivorous species in Spirit Lake, which would allow managers to judge the feasibility of increasing the abundance, growth rate, and size structure of the walleye population. We quantified food consumption by the adult piscivorous fish community in Spirit Lake over a 3-year period. Data on population dynamics, diet, energy density, and water temperature from 1995 to 1997 were used in bioenergetics models to estimate total consumption by walleye, yellow perch Perca flavescens, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus, and northern pike Esox lucius. Estimated annual consumption by the piscivorous community varied roughly fourfold, ranging from 154,752 kg in 1995 to 662,776 kg in 1997. Walleyes dominated total consumption, accounting for 68, 73, and 90% (1995-1997, respectively) of total food consumption. Walleyes were also the dominant consumers of fish, accounting for 76, 86, and 97% of piscivorous consumption; yellow perch followed, accounting for 16% of piscivorous consumption in 1995 and 12% in 1996. Yellow perch were the predominant fish prey species in all 3 years, accounting for 68, 52, and 36% of the total prey consumed. Natural reproduction is weak, so high walleye densities are maintained by intensive stocking. Walleye stocking drives piscivorous consumption in Spirit Lake, and yearly variation in the cannibalism of stocked walleye fry may be an important determinant of walleye year-class strength and angler success. Reducing walleye stocking intensity, varying stocking

  20. SPIRIT, Plot of Geometry and Results of 2-D Finite Elements Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, P.

    1977-01-01

    1 - Nature of the physical problem solved: SPIRIT plots the geometry and the results from a 2-D finite elements calculation. 2 - Method of solution: SPIRIT uses the Benson-Lehner graph plotter. The programme will draw each separate element of the mesh according to the description supplied and a complete picture of the mesh is therefore built up. The program can also construct an isothermal distribution using straight lines. Each line is constructed considering each element in isolation. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The program deals only with bodies entirely contained in the first quadrant and the x-coordinates should be less than 20.0

  1. Determination of Ca, Cu, Fe and Pb in sugarcane raw spirits by atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzo, Magdalena; Reyes, Arlyn; Blanco, Idania; Vasallo, Maria C

    2010-01-01

    The determination of Ca, Cu, Fe and Pb in sugarcane raw spirits by atomic absorption spectrophotometry was carried out. For 20 μL injected sample, calibration within the 0,5-25,0 mg. L -1 Ca; 0,25-5,0 mg. L -1 Cu, Pb and Cu intervals were established using the ratios Cu, Ca, Fe and Pb absorbance versus analyte concentration, respectively. Typical linear correlations of r = 0,999 were obtained. The proposed method was applied for the direct determination of Ca, Cu, Fe and Pb in sugar cane spirits, and in samples. The results obtained were in accordance to those obtained at 95% confidence level

  2. Chronic consumption of distilled sugarcane spirit induces anxiolytic-like effects in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, Maria Clecia P; Nunes, Fabíola C; Salvadori, Mirian G S Stiebbe; Carvalho, Cleyton Charles D; Morais, Liana Clebia S L; Braga, Valdir A

    2011-01-01

    Chronic ethanol consumption is a major public health problem throughout the world. We investigated the anxiolytic-like effects and the possible ever injury induced by the chronic consumption of ethanol or sugarcane spirit in mice. Adult mice were exposed to a two-bottle free-choice paradigm for 6 weeks. The mice in Group A (n = 16) had access to sugarcane spirit + distilled water, the mice in Group B (n = 15) had access to ethanol + distilled water, and the mice in Group C (control, n = 14) had access to distilled water + distilled water. The ethanol content in the beverages offered to Groups A and B was 2% for the first week, 5% for the second week and 10% for the remaining four weeks. At the end of the experimental period, the mice were evaluated using the elevated-plus maze and the hole-board test to assess their anxiety-related behaviors. We also determined the serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels. In the elevated-plus maze, the time spent in the open arms was increased in the mice exposed to chronic ethanol (32 ± 8 vs. 7 ± 2 s, n = 9) or sugarcane spirit (36 ± 9 vs. 7 ± 2 s, n = 9) compared to the controls. In the hole-board test, the mice exposed to ethanol or sugarcane spirit displayed increases in their head-dipping frequency (16 ± 1 for the control group, 27 ± 2 for the ethanol group, and 31 ± 3 for the sugarcane-spirit group; n = 9 for each group). In addition, the mice exposed to sugarcane spirit displayed an increase in the aspartate aminotransferase / alanine aminotransferase ratio compared to the ethanol group (1.29 ± 0.17 for the control group and 2.67 ± 0.17 for the sugarcane spirit group; n = 8 for each group). The chronic consumption of sugarcane-spirit produces liver injury and anxiolytic-like effects and the possible liver injury in mice.

  3. Chronic consumption of distilled sugarcane spirit induces anxiolytic-like effects in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Clecia P. Sena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Chronic ethanol consumption is a major public health problem throughout the world. We investigated the anxiolytic-like effects and the possible ever injury induced by the chronic consumption of ethanol or sugarcane spirit in mice. METHOD: Adult mice were exposed to a two-bottle free-choice paradigm for 6 weeks. The mice in Group A (n = 16 had access to sugarcane spirit + distilled water, the mice in Group B (n = 15 had access to ethanol + distilled water, and the mice in Group C (control, n = 14 had access to distilled water + distilled water. The ethanol content in the beverages offered to Groups A and B was 2% for the first week, 5% for the second week and 10% for the remaining four weeks. At the end of the experimental period, the mice were evaluated using the elevated-plus maze and the hole-board test to assess their anxiety-related behaviors. We also determined the serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels. RESULTS: In the elevated-plus maze, the time spent in the open arms was increased in the mice exposed to chronic ethanol (32 + 8 vs. 7 + 2 s, n = 9 or sugarcane spirit (36 + 9 vs. 7 + 2 s, n = 9 compared to the controls. In the hole-board test, the mice exposed to ethanol or sugarcane spirit displayed increases in their head-dipping frequency (16 + 1 for the control group, 27 + 2 for the ethanol group, and 31 + 3 for the sugarcane-spirit group; n = 9 for each group. In addition, the mice exposed to sugarcane spirit displayed an increase in the aspartate aminotransferase / alanine aminotransferase ratio compared to the ethanol group (1.29 + 0.17 for the control group and 2.67 + 0.17 for the sugarcane spirit group; n = 8 for each group. CONCLUSION: The chronic consumption of sugarcane-spirit produces liver injury and anxiolytic-like effects and the possible liver injury in mice.

  4. The Gotong Royong Run: An Educational Game to Build the Spirit of Togetherness among Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulyadi Guntur Waseso

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The spirit of togetherness and cooperation seems to be declining among some of Indonesian communities. The Independence Day celebration can be used as a momentum to strengthen the spirit through various competitions for children. Traditional games which are commonly played for competitions can potentially be developed into educational games. The Gotong Royong Run presented here has been developed and modified from a traditional game called Lari Me-mindahkan Bendera (Flag-moving Race. The game is intended for pre-school and elementary school children to train skills of working cooperatively

  5. An everolimus-eluting stent versus a paclitaxel-eluting stent in small vessel coronary artery disease: a pooled analysis from the SPIRIT II and SPIRIT III trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartorelli, Antonio L; Serruys, Patrick W; Miquel-Hébert, Karine; Yu, Shui; Pierson, Wes; Stone, Gregg W

    2010-07-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the XIENCE V everolimus-eluting stent compared to the TAXUS paclitaxel-eluting stent in small vessels. The XIENCE V everolimus-eluting stent (EES) has been shown to improve angiographic and clinical outcomes after percutaneous myocardial revascularization, but its performance in small coronary arteries has not been investigated. In this pooled analysis, we studied a cohort of 541 patients with small coronary vessels (reference diameter SPIRIT II and SPIRIT III studies. TAXUS Express (73% of lesions) and TAXUS Liberté (27% of lesions) paclitaxel-eluting stents (PES) were used as controls in SPIRIT II. In SPIRIT III, Taxus Express(2) PES was the control. Mean angiographic in-stent and in-segment late loss was significantly less in the EES group compared with the PES group, (0.15 +/- 0.37 mm vs. 0.30 +/- 0.44 mm; P = 0.011 for in-stent; 0.10 +/- 0.38 mm vs. 0.21 +/- 0.34 mm; P = 0.034 for in-segment). EES also resulted in a significant reduction in composite major adverse cardiac events at 1 year (19/366 [5.2%] vs. 17/159 [10.7%]; P = 0.037), due to fewer non-Q-wave myocardial infarctions and target lesion revascularizations. At 1 year, the rate of non-Q-wave myocardial infarction was significantly lower in the EES group compared with that of the PES group (6/366 [1.6%] vs. 8/159 [5.0%]; P = 0.037). In patients with small vessel coronary arteries, the XIENCE V EES was superior to the TAXUS PES. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Oil crises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linderoth, H.

    1992-01-01

    The author's aim was to give very precise information on the many causes and effects of the oil crises that have occurred since 1900, and at the same time offer the reader the possibility to build up a basic knowledge of the oil industry and market, as he feels that the public is often subjected to misleading information. Political and economical aspects are elaborated. First-hand sources such as statistics and investigations have been used as far as possible to give information on the oil market. An oil crisis is defined by the author as a significant change in the price of oil compared to prices of other goods. Changes can be in the form of either rising or falling prices. A special chapter concentrates on Denmark in relation to the oil crises. (AB) (165 refs.)

  7. Four Paths to Spirit at Work: Journeys of Personal Meaning, Fulfillment, Well-Being, and Transcendence through Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinjerski, Val; Skrypnek, Berna J.

    2008-01-01

    Spirit at work involves profound feelings of well-being, a belief that one's work makes a contribution, a sense of connection to others and common purpose, an awareness of a connection to something larger than self, and a sense of perfection and transcendence. This exploratory qualitative study revealed 4 paths leading to spirit at work: the…

  8. Word and Spirit in Melanchthon’s Loci Communes : Searching for the Relationship between the External and the Internal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Belt, Hendrik; Beck, Andreas J.

    2016-01-01

    During the reformation the relationship between the Bible and the Spirit was an important issue. The theology of early Protestantism focused on the word of God, but also acknowledged the necessity of the work of the Spirit. The word that was outwardly proclaimed as law and gospel was believed to be

  9. Children enacting idioms of witchcraft and spirit possession as a response to trauma: therapeutically beneficial, and for whom?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reis, R.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines children’s enactment of spirit possession idioms and witchcraft in Africa including the meanings such idioms provide and the local healing resources they mobilize. Idioms of haunting spirits in Northern Uganda and witch-children elsewhere in Africa can be interpreted as

  10. 27 CFR 19.343 - Addition of oak chips to spirits and addition of caramel to brandy and rum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits and addition of caramel to brandy and rum. 19.343 Section 19.343 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... PLANTS Storage § 19.343 Addition of oak chips to spirits and addition of caramel to brandy and rum. Oak... records. Caramel possessing no material sweetening properties may be added to rum or brandy in packages or...

  11. 27 CFR 19.318 - Addition of caramel to rum or brandy and addition of oak chips to spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... or brandy and addition of oak chips to spirits. 19.318 Section 19.318 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... PLANTS Production § 19.318 Addition of caramel to rum or brandy and addition of oak chips to spirits. Caramel possessing no material sweetening properties may be added to rum or brandy on bonded premises...

  12. 27 CFR 19.401 - Inventories of wines and bulk spirits (except in packages) in processing account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventories of wines and... DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Processing Operations Other Than Denaturation and Manufacture of Articles Inventories § 19.401 Inventories of wines and bulk spirits (except in packages) in processing account. Each...

  13. 27 CFR 19.534 - Withdrawals of spirits for use in production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... use in production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products. 19.534 Section 19.534 Alcohol... Withdrawals of spirits for use in production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products. Spirits... bonded wine cellar for use in the production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products. (Sec. 455...

  14. 75 FR 26793 - Beam Global Spirits & Wine, Including On-Site Leased Workers from Adecco, St. Elizabeth Business...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... & Wine, Including On-Site Leased Workers from Adecco, St. Elizabeth Business Health, Guardsmark, and Lab... 26, 2010, applicable to workers of Beam Global Spirits & Wine, including on-site leased workers from... on-site at the Cincinnati, Ohio location of Beam Global Spirits & Wine. The Department has determined...

  15. Analyzing the carbon mitigation potential of tradable green certificates based on a TGC-FFSRO model: A case study in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cong; Zhu, Ying; Zeng, Xueting; Huang, Guohe; Li, Yongping

    2018-07-15

    Contradictions of increasing carbon mitigation pressure and electricity demand have been aggravated significantly. A heavy emphasis is placed on analyzing the carbon mitigation potential of electric energy systems via tradable green certificates (TGC). This study proposes a tradable green certificate (TGC)-fractional fuzzy stochastic robust optimization (FFSRO) model through integrating fuzzy possibilistic, two-stage stochastic and stochastic robust programming techniques into a linear fractional programming framework. The framework can address uncertainties expressed as stochastic and fuzzy sets, and effectively deal with issues of multi-objective tradeoffs between the economy and environment. The proposed model is applied to the major economic center of China, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. The generated results of proposed model indicate that a TGC mechanism is a cost-effective pathway to cope with carbon reduction and support the sustainable development pathway of electric energy systems. In detail, it can: (i) effectively promote renewable power development and reduce fossil fuel use; (ii) lead to higher CO 2 mitigation potential than non-TGC mechanism; and (iii) greatly alleviate financial pressure on the government to provide renewable energy subsidies. The TGC-FFSRO model can provide a scientific basis for making related management decisions of electric energy systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The application study on the prospecting for gold by car-borne gamma-ray spectrometric method in northern Hebei and other areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhongxiang; Liu Tengyao; Zhang Peng; Lu Shili; Zhai Yugui; Ma Yanfang

    1995-01-01

    The prospecting method for gold by car-borne gamma-ray spectrometric survey is a new geophysical and geochemical technique in the search for concealed gold deposits which can be used to effectively predict the regional gold metallogenetic potential area. The method of car-borne gamma-ray spectrometric survey was adopted and 63416 data at gamma-ray spectrometric measuring sites from rock masses (or strata) in northern Hebei and other areas (49100 km 2 ) are obtained. On the basis of the size of geological bodies, the sliding filtering technique was applied to process the gamma-ray spectrometric data from regional geological bodies and maps showing the parameter distribution characteristics were plotted (11 sheets). In accordance with the thorough on the distribution characteristics of gamma-ray spectrometric parameters that reflect the regional geological environment of gold metallogenesis, a set of gamma-ray spectrometric combination parameters in correlation with regional gold metallogenesis has been established and the characteristic information of gamma-ray spectrometric parameters has been extracted. Combined with geological information, the gold metallogenetic geological environment in the working area was studied, and two potential areas were predicted. After verification, gold mineralization was encountered in some areas. The study results show that the car-borne gamma-ray spectrometric method used for regional gold prospecting is a rapid, economical and effective one

  17. [Characteristics of atmospheric NO2 in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and the Yangtze River Delta analyzed by satellite and ground observations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Li, Ling-Jun; Liu, Yang

    2012-11-01

    The interannual variability of NO2 levels in two major Chinese economic regions, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) economic circle and the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), were studied using multiple years of OMI-retrieved NO2 columns and ground measurements. The NO2 columns were comparable in the two regions, which were - 50% higher than the BTH and YRD regional background and two times higher than the Asia-Europe continental background. Satellite data showed that the high NO2 regions scattered around Beijing and Shanghai in summer, and the coverage of high NO2 regions increased in spring and merged in winter, affecting the entire eastern China. Ground level NO2 concentrations in the urban centers of Beijing and Shanghai were also comparable, which were - 10 times greater than the regional background and 1 000 times higher than the Asia-Europe continental background. As industries gradually migrated out of the urban centers, the NO2 concentrations in Beijing and Shanghai decreased, but the regional background NO2 concentration in BTH and YRD increased. It reflected in part the impact of NO2 emission reductions related to fossil fuel combustion as a result of air quality control measures in BTH and YRD. NO2 levels during the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games and the Shanghai World Expo 2010 decreased temporarily, but bounced back quickly afterwards, indicating that sustainable air quality improvement can only be achieved through long-term regional efforts.

  18. Spatial distribution and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in coastal surface sediments in the Hebei Province offshore area, Bohai Sea, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xigui; Ye, Siyuan; Yuan, Hongming; Krauss, Ken W

    2018-06-01

    Seven hundred and nine surface sediment samples, along with deeper sediment samples, were collected from Hebei Province along the coastal section of the Bohai Sea, China, and analyzed for grain size, concentrations of organic carbon (Corg) and heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, As, and Hg). Results indicated that the average concentrations in the sediments were 16.1 mg/kg (Cu), 19.4 mg/kg (Pb), 50 mg/kg (Zn), 48.8 mg/kg (Cr), 0.1 mg/kg (Cd), 8.4 mg/kg (As), and 20.3 μg/kg (Hg). These concentrations generally met the China Marine Sediment Quality criteria. However, both pollution assessments indicated moderate to strong Cd and Hg contamination in the study area. The potential ecological risk index suggested that the combined ecological risk of the seven studied metals may be low, but that 24.5% of the sites, where sediments were finer and higher in Corg concentration, had high ecological risk in Hg and Cd pollution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Correlation of VCAM-1 expression in serum, cord blood, and placental tissue with gestational hypertension associated with fetal growth restriction in women from Xingtai Hebei, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H G; Guo, W; Gu, H F; Chen, S B; Wang, J Q; Qiao, Z X; Ma, H S; Geng, S X

    2016-08-26

    The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of vascular adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 in the maternal serum, cord blood, and placental tissue of pregnant women from Xingtai, Hebei, with gestational hypertension (GH) combined with fetal growth restriction (FGR). A total of 108 patients with GH combined with FGR (GH-FGR), 60 patients with GH alone (GH), and 50 healthy pregnant women (control) were recruited to this study. VCAM- 1 expression was detected in the maternal serum and cord blood by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and in the placental tissue by immunohistochemistry. VCAM-1 expression was significantly higher in the maternal serum of patients with GH-FGR (164.38 ± 60.35) and GH alone (103.85 ± 54.47) than in the serum of the control population (46.70 ± 21.79; P 0.05). Moreover, the VCAM-1 expression rates were significantly higher and lower in the vascular endothelial and trophoblastic cells of the placenta of patients with GH-FGR (74.71 and 56.1%) and GH (72.98 and 55.36%), respectively, compared to those in the control subjects (46.48 and 95.11%). Therefore, we concluded that VCAM- 1 plays an important role in the development and generation of GH. Additionally, the low VCAM-1 expression in the trophoblastic cell could be correlated to the pathogenesis and progression of GH.

  20. Spatial Heterogeneity of Typical Ecosystem Services and Their Relationships in Different Ecological–Functional Zones in Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Xie

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing changes in ecosystem services (ES and their relationships is the basis of achieving sustainable regional development. Regional collaborative development has become the core strategy of the development of the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei (BTH region. However, sub regions have different ecological changes and relationships. Here, we quantify and map ES, including water yield, sediment retention, carbon sequestration and grain productive capacity in 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015, using several biophysical models and explore the relationships of spatial correction, trade-offs and synergies among multiple ES in different spatial scales. Results across the four years show that the quality and variation tendency of ES from each region are spatially heterogeneous. The relationship between ES that are not significant in the entire region shows different correlations in individual ecological–functional zones. From the perspective of regional disparity, the effect of land use factor and correlative mechanisms among ES are analyzed. To observe the spatiotemporal variations and relationships of ES in individual regions, land use management policies are proposed on the basis of the results of the relationships among ES.

  1. Spatial distribution and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in coastal surface sediments in the Hebei Province offshore area, Bohai Sea, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xigui; Ye, Siyuan; Yuan, Hongming; Krauss, Ken W.

    2018-01-01

    Seven hundred and nine surface sediment samples, along with deeper sediment samples, were collected from Hebei Province along the coastal section of the Bohai Sea, China, and analyzed for grain size, concentrations of organic carbon (Corg) and heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, As, and Hg). Results indicated that the average concentrations in the sediments were 16.1 mg/kg (Cu), 19.4 mg/kg (Pb), 50 mg/kg (Zn), 48.8 mg/kg (Cr), 0.1 mg/kg (Cd), 8.4 mg/kg (As), and 20.3 μg/kg (Hg). These concentrations generally met the China Marine Sediment Quality criteria. However, both pollution assessments indicated moderate to strong Cd and Hg contamination in the study area. The potential ecological risk index suggested that the combined ecological risk of the seven studied metals may be low, but that 24.5% of the sites, where sediments were more finer and higher in Corg concentration, had high ecological risk in Hg and Cd pollution.

  2. Oil pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankabady, Samir.

    1994-08-01

    Oil enters the marine environment when it is discharged, or has escaped, during transport, drilling, shipping, accidents, dumping and offshore operations. This book serves as a reference both on the various complex international operational and legal matters of oil pollution using examples such as the Exxon Valdez, the Braer and Lord Donaldson's report. The chapters include the development of international rules on the marine environment, the prevention of marine pollution from shipping activities, liability for oil pollution damage, the conflict of the 1990 Oil Pollution Act and the 1992 protocols and finally the cooperation and response to pollution incidents. (UK)

  3. Chemometric characterization of alembic and industrial sugar cane spirits from cape verde and ceará, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Regina F R; Vidal, Carla B; de Lima, Ari C A; Melo, Diego Q; Dantas, Allan N S; Lopes, Gisele S; do Nascimento, Ronaldo F; Gomes, Clerton L; da Silva, Maria Nataniela

    2012-01-01

    Sugar cane spirits are some of the most popular alcoholic beverages consumed in Cape Verde. The sugar cane spirit industry in Cape Verde is based mainly on archaic practices that operate without supervision and without efficient control of the production process. The objective of this work was to evaluate samples of industrial and alembic sugar cane spirits from Cape Verde and Ceará, Brazil using principal component analysis. Thirty-two samples of spirits were analyzed, twenty from regions of the islands of Cape Verde and twelve from Ceará, Brazil. Of the samples obtained from Ceará, Brazil seven are alembic and five are industrial spirits. The components analyzed in these studies included the following: volatile organic compounds (n-propanol, isobutanol, isoamylic, higher alcohols, alcoholic grade, acetaldehyde, acetic acid, acetate); copper; and sulfates.

  4. Distinguishing spirituality from other constructs: not a matter of well-being but of belief in supernatural spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Marjaana; Blomqvist, Sandra; Takada, Mikito

    2012-02-01

    We developed a new Spirituality Scale and tested the argument that the defining attribute of spirituality is belief in supernatural spirits. Study 1 (N = 1931) showed that religiosity and beliefs pertinent to supernatural spirits predicted most of the variation in spirituality. Study 2 (N = 848) showed that the stronger belief in supernatural spirits, the more the person experienced subjective spirituality; that belief in supernatural spirits had higher predictive value of spirituality than religiosity, paranormal beliefs, or values; and that most of the relationship between religiosity and spirituality could be explained through belief in supernatural spirits. Study 3 (N = 972) showed that mental or physical health, social relationships, or satisfaction in marriage or work were not associated with spirituality. In turn, finding life purposeful and inner peace in dealing with spiritual experiences correlated with spirituality. The results highlight the importance of differentiating spirituality from other psychological constructs.

  5. Chemometric Characterization of Alembic and Industrial Sugar Cane Spirits from Cape Verde and Ceará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina F. R. Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar cane spirits are some of the most popular alcoholic beverages consumed in Cape Verde. The sugar cane spirit industry in Cape Verde is based mainly on archaic practices that operate without supervision and without efficient control of the production process. The objective of this work was to evaluate samples of industrial and alembic sugar cane spirits from Cape Verde and Ceará, Brazil using principal component analysis. Thirty-two samples of spirits were analyzed, twenty from regions of the islands of Cape Verde and twelve from Ceará, Brazil. Of the samples obtained from Ceará, Brazil seven are alembic and five are industrial spirits. The components analyzed in these studies included the following: volatile organic compounds (n-propanol, isobutanol, isoamylic, higher alcohols, alcoholic grade, acetaldehyde, acetic acid, acetate; copper; and sulfates.

  6. Contacting the Spirits of the Dead: Paranormal Belief and the Teenage Worldview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Leslie J.; Williams, Emyr

    2009-01-01

    A number of previous studies have examined both the overall level of belief expressed by young people in the paranormal and the major demographic predictors of such belief. Building on this research tradition, the present study examines how one specific paranormal belief concerning contact with the spirits of the dead integrates with the wider…

  7. Spirits of the Air: Birds and American Indians in the South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Anderson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Review of Spirits of the Air: Birds and American Indians in the South. Shepard Krech III. 2009. University of Georgia Press, Athens. Pp. 245, copiously illustrated. $44.95 (hardbound. ISBN-13 978-0-8203-2815-7.

  8. Effects of white spirits on rat brain 5-HT receptor functions and synaptic remodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lam, Henrik Rye; Plenge, P.; Jørgensen, O.S.

    2001-01-01

    Previously, inhalation exposure to different types of white spirit (i.e. complex mixtures of aliphatic, aromatic, alkyl aromatic, and naphthenic hydrocarbons) has been shown to induce neurochemical effects in rat brains. Especially, the serotonergic system was involved at the global, regional, an...

  9. Recent SPIRITS discoveries of Infrared Transients and Variables with Spitzer/IRAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jencson, J. E.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Adams, S.; Cook, D.; Tinyanont, S.; Kwan, S.; Prince, T.; Lau, R. M.; Perley, D.; Masci, F.; Helou, G.; Armus, L.; Surace, J.; Dyk, S. D. Van; Cody, A.; Boyer, M. L.; Bond, H. E.; Monson, A.; Bally, J.; Khan, R.; Levesque, E.; Fox, O.; Williams, R.; Whitelock, P. A.; Mohamed, S.; Gehrz, R. D.; Amodeo, S.; Shenoy, D.; Carlon, R.; Cass, A.; Corgan, D.; Dykhoff, D.; Faella, J.; Gburek, T.; Smith, N.; Cantiello, M.; Langer, N.; Ofek, E.; Johansson, J.; Parthasarathy, M.; Hsiao, E.; Phillips, M.; Morrell, N.; Gonzalez, C.; Contreras, C.

    2018-04-01

    We report the discoveries of mid-infrared transients/strong variables found in the course of the Spitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey (SPIRITS) using Spitzer Early Release Data (ATel #6644, #7929, #8688, #8940, #9434, #10171, #10172, #10488, #10903).

  10. Educating "Homo Oeconomicus? The Disadvantages of a Commercial Spirit" for the Realization of "Democracy and Education"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Barbara S.

    2016-01-01

    At present, the structures, practice, and discourse of schooling are anchored to a "commercial spirit" that understands students, educators, and parents as economic operators trading competitively in human capital and to a discourse of failure that is disabling those who seek to understand and enact John Dewey's notion of education as…

  11. Spirit at work and hope among the ruins: registered nurses' covenant of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Joan I J; Gregory, David M

    2015-09-01

    To explore registered nurses' (RNs) perspectives about the health care system, management/leadership, patients and spirit at work (SAW). Researchers investigating RNs experiences of reduced job satisfaction and diminishing organisational commitment are looking carefully at spirit at work as a means to foster healthier workplaces. A descriptive, cross-sectional mixed methods design was used to measure and explore the relationships between spirit at work, job satisfaction and organisational commitment. A 2012 postal survey sent by the provincial licensing body to a random sample of 217 surgical and 158 home care registered nurses' in western Canada returned 179 surveys. Seventy-five respondents answered the open-ended survey question. Their responses warrant further content analysis and serve as the foundation of this article. Participants noted that organisational structures and policies, combined with unsupportive leadership, were associated with a reduced sense of community, lack of trust and diminished accountability. Spirit at work was described as sustaining registered nurses' and providing them with hope as they fulfilled their covenant of care with patients. Leadership attention to the advancement of SAW may support the covenant of care between the registered nurses and patient while fostering healthier workplaces. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Gender Variance and Sexual Orientation Among Male Spirit Mediums in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Eli; Allen, Mariette Pathy; Ford, Jessie V

    2018-05-01

    This article describes the gender identity, gender expression, and sexual orientation of male spirit mediums in Myanmar. Our analysis is based on ethnographic work, field observation, and 10 semi-structured interviews. These observations were conducted from 2010 to 2015, mostly in Mandalay, with some fieldwork in Yangon and Bagan. The focus of this investigation was specifically on achout (gender variant individuals) who were spirit mediums (nat kadaw). Semi-structured interviews explored the ways that participants understood their gender identity, gender expression, and sexuality in relation to their work as spirit mediums and broader social life. Myanmar remains quite a homophobic and transphobic culture but is undergoing rapid economic and social change. Therefore, it provides an interesting context to study how safe spaces are produced for sexual/gender minorities amidst broader social change. We find that, through the animistic belief structure, there is a growing space for gender nonconforming people, gender variant, and same-sex-oriented individuals (achout) to neutralize their stigmatized status and attain a level of respect and economic advantage. Their ability to become nat kadaw (mediums of spirits) mitigates or trumps their stigmatized status.

  13. Indigenous Knowledge in Post-Secondary Educators' Practices: Nourishing the Learning Spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuik, Jonathan; Gillies, Carmen L.

    2012-01-01

    From 2006 to 2009, Indigenous Elders and scholars shared their insights in the Comprehending and Nourishing the Learning Spirit Animation Theme Bundle of the Aboriginal Learning Knowledge Centre (ABLKC). The ABLKC was an applied research, knowledge exchange, and monitoring program with a mandate to advance Aboriginal education in Canada. One of…

  14. Traumatic Experience and Somatoform Dissociation Among Spirit Possession Practitioners in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffler, Yvonne; Cardeña, Etzel; Reijman, Sophie; Haluza, Daniela

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies in African contexts have revealed a strong association between spirit possession and severe trauma, with inclusion into a possession cult serving at times a therapeutic function. Research on spirit possession in the Dominican Republic has so far not included quantitative studies of trauma and dissociation. This study evaluated demographic variables, somatoform dissociative symptoms, and potentially traumatizing events in the Dominican Republic with a group of Vodou practitioners that either do or do not experience spirit possession. Inter-group comparisons revealed that in contrast to non-possessed participants (n = 38), those experiencing spirit possession (n = 47) reported greater somatoform dissociation, more problems with sleep, and previous exposure to mortal danger such as assaults, accidents, or diseases. The two groups did not differ significantly in other types of trauma. The best predictor variable for group classification was somatoform dissociation, although those items could also reflect the experience of followers during a possession episode. A factor analysis across variables resulted in three factors: having to take responsibility early on in life and taking on a professional spiritual role; traumatic events and pain; and distress/dissociation. In comparison with the non-possessed individuals, the possessed ones did not seem to overall have a remarkably more severe story of trauma and seemed to derive economic gains from possession practice.

  15. Intake of wine, beer and spirits and waiting time to pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhl, Mette; Olsen, Jørn; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Grønbaek, Morten

    2003-09-01

    A high intake of alcohol may prolong waiting time to pregnancy, whereas a moderate intake may have no or perhaps even a positive effect on fecundity. In previous studies on fecundity, different types of beverages have not been taken into consideration, although moderate wine drinkers appear to have fewer strokes, lung and digestive tract cancers, and overall mortality than both abstainers and moderate drinkers of beer or spirits. We examined the association between different types of alcoholic beverages and waiting time to pregnancy. Self-reported data were used for 29,844 pregnant women, recruited to the Danish National Birth Cohort in 1997-2000. Main outcome measures were odds ratios for a prolonged waiting time to pregnancy according to consumption of wine, beer and spirits. All levels of wine intake compared with non-wine drinking or with consumption of beer or spirits had subfecundity odds ratios between 0.7 and 0.9. No association was seen regarding beer drinking, while the association with spirits was J-shaped. Our findings suggest that wine drinkers have slightly shorter waiting times to pregnancy than both non-wine drinkers and consumers of other alcoholic beverages. Whether this is an effect of wine itself or the characteristics of the wine drinker is not known.

  16. Effect of consumption of red wine, spirits and beer on serum homocysteine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, M.S. van der; Ubbink, J.B.; Sillanaukee, P.; Nikkari, S.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2000-01-01

    Serum homocysteine increases after moderate consumption of red wine and spirits, but not after moderate consumption of beer. Vitamin B6 in beer seems to prevent the alcohol-induced rise in serum homocysteine. Chemicals/CAS: Homocysteine, 454-28-4; Pyridoxine, 65-23-6

  17. [Predictors of fighting spirit or helplessness/hopelessness in people with cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Pok-Ja; Lee, Yeon-Joo

    2008-04-01

    This study was done to identify predictors of the fighting spirit or helplessness/hopelessness in the patients' mental adjustment to cancer. Cancer patients' characteristics like performance status, metastasis and duration of diagnosis with demographic factors, spiritual support and social support were used as predictors of a fighting spirit or helplessness/hopelessness. A total of 124 ambulatory cancer patients completed the Mental Adjustment to Cancer (MAC) scale and responded in a structured instrument about their characteristics, spiritual and social support. The results of multiple regression analysis revealed that confidence in the supporter (R(2)=.114, p=.000), duration of cancer diagnosis (R(2)=.041, p=.000) and faith (R(2)=.030, p=.000) were predictive of a fighting spirit (R(2)=.185, p=.000); whereas, education (R(2)=.074, p=.001), performance status (R(2)=.055, p=.000), satisfaction with social support (R(2)=.046, p=.000), and metastasis (R(2)=.037, p=.000) were predictive of helplessness/hopelessness (R(2)=.202, p=.000). Social support, spiritual support and disease related factors like metastasis, performance status, and duration of cancer diagnosis need to be considered in a psychosocial nursing intervention for a fighting spirit or helplessness/hopelessness.

  18. Cooperative Policies and African International Students: Do Policy Spirits Match Experiences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Carlton E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the policy implications of experiences of African international students (AIS) studying at post-apartheid South Africa universities. It argues that given the spirit and tone of continental, regional, and domestic policies to which South Africa has committed that at the very least there is an implicit expectation of…

  19. Physical chemical evaluation of sugarcane spirit with Anatto subjected to gamma irradiation for aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perina, Vanessa C.S.; Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lucia A.C.S.; Harder, Marcia N.C.; Pires, Juliana A.; Scanholato, Mariana; Santos, Mariana R.; Bortoleto, Gisele G.

    2011-01-01

    The sugarcane spirit beverage has economic and cultural importance in Brazil, and is produced by distilling the fermented sugarcane juice. The aging process, generally done in oak barrels, consists of chemical reactions which occur slowly and continuously, leading to richer and more complex flavours. Annatto, a native fruit from tropical America is used in the production of natural dyes, in the replacement for artificial colorants, especially by the food industry. Also, the beverage industry uses it to make products resembling the natural aged ones. Nowadays, modern methods use irradiation to accelerate the aging process. There are many reasons to use it in sugarcane spirit production: sterilizing the wort, changing sensory characteristics of sugarcane liquor and aging speedup. For this study, samples of sugarcane spirit were obtained at FATEC Piracicaba and annatto was added at a ratio of 3%, when using annatto seeds, and 0.25%, when using annatto extract. The samples, except the controls, were directly irradiated in polyethylene containers with doses of 200 Gy and 300 Gy at a rate of 0.406 Gy/h. The evaluation parameters were soluble solids, pH, acidity and ashes content. For statistical purposes, the Tukey test was used with a 5% significance level. From the obtained results, the gamma radiation ages the sugarcane spirit and parameters as soluble solids and acidity can be used for aging determination. Annatto addition is allowed in the process. (author)

  20. 27 CFR 20.178 - Marks and brands on containers of specially denatured spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marks and brands on... Dealers § 20.178 Marks and brands on containers of specially denatured spirits. (a) Required marks. Each... officer, or (2) Consist of a brand name, or consist of caution notices, or consist of other material...

  1. Johannine metaphors/symbols linked to the paraclete-spirit and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Johannine author uses metaphors and symbols to enable the primary and secondary readers to come to a better understanding of the Paraclete-Spirit. The study of particular Johannine metaphors is valuable in understanding the message and theology of John. The use of the dove, water and wind metaphors in the ...

  2. The national spirit reflection in the memory of language and culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanov A.S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available this research focuses on a dialectic interrelation between language and culture perceived as existential manifestations of the national spirit. Identity of the national linguistic world perception is defined by its social-historic development, geographic and climatic conditions of living and distinctiveness of the national linguo-cultural heritage.

  3. [The Application of Body-Mind-Spirit Integrated Psychotherapy in Nursing Practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Fei-Hsiu

    2017-06-01

    Body-mind-spirit integrated psychotherapy reflects the core value of nursing by emphasizing the inseparable concept of body, mind, and spirit and caring for the holistic needs of the patient. Body-mind-spirit integrated psychotherapy was developed based on Western psychotherapy (positive psychology and forgiveness therapy), traditional Chinese medicine, and the Eastern philosophies of Buddhism, Taoism, and Confucianism. The present paper describes the holistic concepts that underpin this therapeutic approach. Physical health is sustained through proper nutrition, physical relaxation, and harmonized breathing; psychological well-being helps maintain inner peace and harmony in interpersonal relationships; and spiritual well-being helps develop an optimistic and meaningful life. We report on several cases in which body-mind-spirit integrated psychotherapy was applied to the care of clients with depressive disorders and of breast cancer survivors and their partners as well as the related efficacy of this intervention in these cases. Finally, we discuss the potential for culturally-enriched psychotherapy to help clients transform illness suffering into life-growth experiences.

  4. the relation between freedom, love, spirit and flesh in galatians 5:13

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spirit” and “flesh” are ... As far as the structure of 5:13-6:10 is concerned, 5:13 contributes to the resumption ... opens the ensuing admonitory section, including several appeals to a life by the Spirit. ..... Love cannot grow in such an environment and.

  5. Distribution of dearomatised white spirit in brain, blood, and fat tissue after repeated exposure of rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lof, A.; Lam, Henrik Rye; Gullstrand, E.

    1999-01-01

    Petroleum products with low content of aromatics have been increasingly used during the past years. This study investigates tissue disposition of dearomatised white spirit. In addition, brain neurotransmitter concentrations were measured. Male rats were exposed by inhalation to 0, 400 (2.29 mg....../l), or 800 p.p.m. (4.58 mg/l) of dearomatised white spirit, 6 hr/day, 5 days/week up to 3 weeks. Five rats from each group were sacrificed immediately after the exposure for 1, 2, or 3 weeks and 2, 4, 6, or 24 hr after the end of 3 weeks' exposure. After 3 weeks of exposure the concentration of total white...... spirit was 1.5 and 5.6 mg/kg in blood; 7.1 and 17.1 mg/kg in brain; 432 and 1452 mg/kg in fat tissue at the exposure levels of 400 and 800 p.p.m., respectively. The concentrations of n-nonane, n-decane, n-undecane, and total white spirit in blood and brain were not affected by the duration of exposure...

  6. 27 CFR 19.402 - Inventories of bottled and packaged spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventories of bottled and... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Processing Operations Other Than Denaturation and Manufacture of Articles Inventories § 19.402 Inventories of bottled and packaged...

  7. 27 CFR 5.47 - Standards of fill (distilled spirits bottled before January 1, 1980).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Standards of fill (distilled spirits bottled before January 1, 1980). 5.47 Section 5.47 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF...

  8. 76 FR 75836 - Revisions to Distilled Spirits Plant Operations Reports and Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ..., contains excise tax and related provisions concerning distilled spirits, wines, and beer used for beverage... redistillation, receipts of wine, and receipts of flavors. Parts VII-X correspond to various sections of the..., maintenance, and purchase of services to provide information. Drafting Information Rita D. Butler of the...

  9. seed oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wara

    Neem seed oil from the neem tree (Azadiracta indica) finds wide usage one of which is its utilization for cosmetics particularly .... obtained which is higher than that of olive oil 17. mgKOH/g (Davine ... The skin tolerance of shea fat employed as ...

  10. Quando Existir é Resistir: Two-spirit como crítica colonial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estevão Rafael Fernandes

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Buscando recuperar o aspecto de crítica colonial do movimento two-spirit norte-americano, este artigo pretende ampliar o campo de possibilidades nos estudos das sexualidades indígenas, propondo um passo além para os estudos de gênero (bem como dos estudos coloniais. Neste sentido, situaremos o surgimento das organizações two-spirit nos Estados Unidos, desde sua gênese, de modo a mais bem compreender suas contribuições epistemológicas. A partir dessas potencialidades, buscaremos problematizar questões e desafios para o estudo das sexualidades indígenas queer no Brasil. Palavras-Chave: Sexualidades indígenas, Two-Spirit, Teoria Queer, Colonialismo   When to exist is to resist: Two-spirit as colonial critique Abstract By analyzing the two-spirit movement from its contributions to colonial critics, this article aims to expand the field of possibilities on the studies of indigenous sexualities, suggesting a step further to gender studies (as well as colonial studies. In this sense, one will place the emergence of two-spirit organizations in the United States, from its genesis in order to better understand its epistemological contributions. From these potentials, one seek to discuss issues and challenges for the studies of queer sexualities indigenous in Brazil. Keywords: Native Sexualities, Two-Spirit, Queer Theory, Colonialism   Cuando existir es resistir: Dos espíritus como crítica colonial Resumen Al analizar el movimiento de los dos espíritus desde sus aportes a las críticas coloniales, este artículo pretende ampliar el campo de posibilidades sobre los estudios de las sexualidades indígenas, sugiriendo un paso más allá de los estudios de género. En este sentido, se pondrá en el surgimiento de las organizaciones de dos espíritus en los Estados Unidos, desde su génesis para comprender mejor sus contribuciones epistemológicas. Palabras clave: Sexualidades nativas, Dos Espíritus, Teoría Queer, Colonialismo

  11. Oils; gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, D T

    1922-09-18

    Oils and gas are obtained from shale or oil-bearing sand by immersing the shale in and passing it through a bath of liquid oil, cracking the oil-soaked shale, and condensing the vapor and using the condensate to replenish the bath, preferably by passing the gases and vapors direct into the oil-bath container. Shale is fed continuously from a hopper to a bath of oil in an inclined chamber, is carried to the outlet by a conveyer, and through cracking tubes to an outlet pipe by conveyers. The gases and vapors escape by the pipe, a part condensing in the chamber and a run-back pipe and replenishing the bath, and the remainder passing through a condensing tower and condenser connected to reservoirs; the gas is further passed through a scrubber and a pipe to the burner of the retort. The oil condensed in the chamber overflows to the reservoir through a pipe provided with an open pipe to prevent siphoning. The conveyers and a valve on the pipe are operated by gearing. The operation may be conducted at reduced, normal, or increased pressure, e.g., 70 lbs. The temperature of the retort should be about 900 to 1400/sup 0/F, that of the inside of the tubes about 550 to 700/sup 0/F, and that of the chamber about 300/sup 0/F. The chamber and pipe may be insulated or artificially cooled.

  12. Oil refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer, S.; Winter, B.

    2001-01-01

    In refineries in particular attention is paid to the minimization of the generation of waste. Therefor catalysts in many processes are regenerated, absorbents are recycled and oily by-products are re-refined or used as fuels. This study discusses the origin and utilization of by-products from the oil industry. The processing of crude oils causes by-products and waste resulting from the crude oil itself or from cleaning measures for water pre-treatment, effluent treatment and flue gas treatment. (author)

  13. Eutrophication study at the Panjiakou-Daheiting Reservoir system, northern Hebei Province, People's Republic of China: Chlorophyll-a model and sources of phosphorus and nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagalski, Joseph L.; Lin, Chao; Luo, Yang; Kang, Jie; Wang, Shaoming; Brown, Larry R.; Munn, Mark D.

    2007-01-01

    Concentrations, loads, and sources of nitrate and total phosphorus were investigated at the Panjiakou and Daheiting Reservoir system in northern Hebei Province, People's Republic of China. The Luan He River is the primary source of water to these reservoirs, and the upstream watershed has a mix of land uses including agriculture, forest, and one large urban center. The reservoirs have a primary use for storage of drinking water and partially supply Tianjin City with its annual needs. Secondary uses include flood control and aqua culture (fish cages). The response of the reservoir system from phosphorus input, with respect to chlorophyll-a production from algae, was fitted to a model of normalized phosphorus loading that regresses the average summer-time chlorophyll-a concentration to the average annual phosphorus concentration of the reservoir. Comparison of the normalized phosphorus loading and chlorophyll-a response of this system to other reservoirs throughout the world indicate a level of eutrophication that will require up to an approximate 5–10-fold decrease in annual phosphorus load to bring the system to a more acceptable level of algal productivity. Isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in dissolved nitrate were measured from the headwater streams and at various locations along the major rivers that provide the majority of water to these reservoirs. Those isotopic measurements indicate that the sources of nitrate change from natural background in the rivers to animal manure and septic waste upstream of the reservoir. Although the isotopic measurements suggest that animal and septic wastes are a primary source of nutrients, measurements of the molar ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus are more indicative of row-cropping practices. Options for reduction of nutrient loads include changing the management practices of the aqua culture, installation of new sewage treatment systems in the large urbanized area of the upper watershed, and agricultural management practices

  14. [Effects of rootstocks on the growth and berry quality of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine in Changli zone, Hebei Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min-min; Yuan, Jun-wei; Liu, Chang-jiang; Han, Bin; Huang, Jia-zhen; Guo, Zi-juan; Zhao, Sheng-iian

    2016-01-01

    Cabernet Sauvignon grafted onto seven rootstocks 188-08, 5BB, SO4, 3309C, 110R, 5C and 101-14M, with the own-rooted vines as control, were investigated to study the effects of different rootstocks on the growth, fruit quality and yield of Cabernet Sauvignon in Changli zone, Hebei Province, China. The results showed that Cabernet Sauvignon grafted on 5BB and 5C significantly increased the trunk diameter, and 5C significantly increased one-year-old shoot diameter. 188-08, 5BB and 5C as rootstock obviously improved berry soluble solid content, in addition 188- 08 and 5BB significantly increased berry reducing sugar content. The vines on 101-14M and 3309C significantly decreased berry titratable acid content. The rootstock 5C and 101-14M significantly raised grape skin phenol and anthocyanin contents, and rootstock 101-14M significantly increased tannin content in grape skin. Cabernet Sauvignon grafted onto 3309C, 110R, 5C and 101-14M obviously got higher yield per vine than own-rooted vines. Growing parameter, grape quality index and yield per vine grafted on seven rootstocks and own-rooted vine were synthetically evaluated by fuzzy evaluation method, and the synthetical effects of vine grafted on seven rootstocks were better than own-rooted vine, with the order of scores from high to low as 5C, 101-14M, 3309C, 5BB, 188-08, 110R and SO4 under Changli unique climate and environment conditions.

  15. Impacts of synoptic condition and planetary boundary layer structure on the trans-boundary aerosol transport from Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region to northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yucong; Guo, Jianping; Liu, Shuhua; Zhao, Chun; Li, Xiaolan; Zhang, Gen; Wei, Wei; Ma, Yanjun

    2018-05-01

    The northeastern China frequently experiences severe aerosol pollution in winter under unfavorable meteorological conditions. How and to what extent the meteorological factors affect the air quality there are not yet clearly understood. Thus, this study investigated the impacts of synoptic patterns on the aerosol transport and planetary boundary layer (PBL) structure in Shenyang from 1 to 3 December 2016, using surface observations, sounding measurements, satellite data, and three-dimensional simulations. Results showed that the aerosol pollution occurred in Shenyang was not only related to the local emissions, but also contributed by trans-boundary transport of aerosols from the Beiijng-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region. In the presence of the westerly and southwesterly synoptic winds, the aerosols emitted from BTH could be brought to Shenyang. From December 2 to 3, the aerosols emitted from BTH accounted for ∼20% of near-surface PM2.5 in Shenyang. In addition, the large-scale synoptic forcings could affect the vertical mixing of pollutants through modulating the PBL structure in Shenyang. The westerly and southwesterly synoptic winds not only brought the aerosols but also the warmer air masses from the southwest regions to Shenyang. The strong warm advections above PBL could enhance the already existing thermal inversion layers capping over PBL in Shenyang, leading to the suppressions of PBL. Both the trans-boundary transport of aerosols and the suppressions of PBL caused by the large-scale synoptic forcings should be partly responsible for the poor air quality in Shenyang, in addition to the high pollutant emissions. The present study revealed the physical mechanisms underlying the aerosol pollution in Shenyang, which has important implications for better forecasting and controlling the aerosols pollution.

  16. SHRIMP zircon dating and LA-ICPMS Hf analysis of early Precambrian rocks from drill holes into the basement beneath the Central Hebei Basin, North China Craton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusheng Wan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Central Hebei Basin (CHB is one of the largest sedimentary basins in the North China Craton, extending in a northeast–southwest direction with an area of >350 km2. We carried out SHRIMP zircon dating, Hf-in-zircon isotopic analysis and a whole-rock geochemical study on igneous and metasedimentary rocks recovered from drill holes that penetrated into the basement of the CHB. Two samples of gneissic granodiorite (XG1-1 and gneissic quartz diorite (J48-1 have magmatic ages of 2500 and 2496 Ma, respectively. Their zircons also record metamorphic ages of 2.41–2.51 and ∼2.5 Ga, respectively. Compared with the gneissic granodiorite, the gneissic quartz diorite has higher ΣREE contents and lower Eu/Eu* and (La/Ybn values. Two metasedimentary samples (MG1, H5 mainly contain ∼2.5 Ga detrital zircons as well as late Paleoproterozoic metamorphic grains. The zircons of different origins have εHf (2.5 Ga values and Hf crustal model ages ranging from 0 to 5 and 2.7 to 2.9 Ga, respectively. Therefore, ∼2.5 Ga magmatic and Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks and late Neoarchean to early Paleoproterozoic and late Paleoproterozoic tectono-thermal events have been identified in the basement beneath the CHB. Based on regional comparisons, we conclude that the early Precambrian basement beneath the CHB is part of the North China Craton.

  17. Improving Satellite-Driven PM2.5 Models with VIIRS Nighttime Light Data in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiya Zhang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have estimated ground-level concentrations of particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5 using satellite-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD in conjunction with meteorological and land use variables. However, the impacts of urbanization on air pollution for predicting PM2.5 are seldom considered. Nighttime light (NTL data, acquired with the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP satellite, could be useful for predictions because they have been shown to be good indicators of the urbanization and human activity that can affect PM2.5 concentrations. This study investigated the potential of incorporating VIIRS NTL data in statistical models for PM2.5 concentration predictions. We developed a mixed-effects model to derive daily estimations of surface PM2.5 levels in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region using 3 km resolution satellite AOD and VIIRS NTL data. The results showed the addition of NTL information could improve the performance of the PM2.5 prediction model. The NTL data revealed additional details for predication results in areas with low PM2.5 concentrations and greater apparent seasonal variation due to the seasonal variability of human activity. Comparison showed prediction accuracy was improved more substantially for the model using NTL directly than for the model using the vegetation-adjusted NTL urban index that included NTL. Our findings indicate that VIIRS NTL data have potential for predicting PM2.5 and that they could constitute a useful supplemental data source for estimating ground-level PM2.5 distributions.

  18. Modelling the response of shallow groundwater levels to combined climate and water-diversion scenarios in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Plain, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Ye, Si-Yuan; Wei, Ai-Hua; Zhou, Peng-Peng; Wang, Li-Heng

    2017-09-01

    A three-dimensional groundwater flow model was implemented to quantify the temporal variation of shallow groundwater levels in response to combined climate and water-diversion scenarios over the next 40 years (2011-2050) in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (Jing-Jin-Ji) Plain, China. Groundwater plays a key role in the water supply, but the Jing-Jin-Ji Plain is facing a water crisis. Groundwater levels have declined continuously over the last five decades (1961-2010) due to extensive pumping and climate change, which has resulted in decreased recharge. The implementation of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP) will provide an opportunity to restore the groundwater resources. The response of groundwater levels to combined climate and water-diversion scenarios has been quantified using a groundwater flow model. The impacts of climate change were based on the World Climate Research Programme's (WCRP's) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3) multi-model dataset for future high (A2), medium (A1B), and low (B1) greenhouse gas scenarios; precipitation data from CMIP3 were applied in the model. The results show that climate change will slow the rate of decrease of the shallow groundwater levels under three climate-change scenarios over the next 40 years compared to the baseline scenario; however, the shallow groundwater levels will rise significantly (maximum of 6.71 m) when considering scenarios that combine climate change and restrictions on groundwater exploitation. Restrictions on groundwater exploitation for water resource management are imperative to control the decline of levels in the Jing-Jin-Ji area.

  19. A comprehensive ammonia emission inventory with high-resolution and its evaluation in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Shuiyuan Cheng; Lang, Jianlei; Chen, Dongsheng; Zhao, Beibei; Liu, Chao; Xu, Ran; Li, Tingting

    2015-04-01

    A comprehensive ammonia (NH3) emission inventory for the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region was developed based on the updated source-specific emission factors (EFs) and the county-level activity data obtained from a full-coverage investigation launched in the BTH region for the first time. The NH3 emission inventory within 1 km × 1 km grid was generated using source-based spatial surrogates with geographical information system (GIS) technology. The total NH3 emission was 1573.7 Gg for the year 2010. The contributions from livestock, farmland, human, biomass burning, chemical industry, fuel combustion, waste disposal and on-road mobile source were approximately 56.6%, 28.6%, 7.2%, 3.4%, 1.1%, 1.3%, 1.0% and 0.8%, respectively. Among different cities, Shijiazhang, Handan, Xingtai, Tangshan and Cangzhou had higher NH3 emissions. Statistical analysis aiming at county-level emission of 180 counties in BTH indicated that the NH3 emission in most of the counties were less than 16 Gg. The maximum value of the county level emission was approximately 25.5 Gg. Higher NH3 emission was concentrated in the areas with more rural and agricultural activity. Monthly, higher NH3 emission occurred during the period from April to September, which could be attributed to the temperature and timing of planting practice. The validity of the estimated emissions were further evaluated from multiple perspectives covering (1) uncertainty analysis based on Monte Carlo simulation, (2) comparison with other studies, (3) quantitative analysis of improvement in spatial resolution of activity data, and (4) verification based on a comparison of the simulated and observed surface concentrations of ammonium. The detailed and validated ammonia emission inventory could provide valuable information for understanding air pollution formation mechanisms and help guide decision-making with respect to control strategies.

  20. Application of the new pattern recognition system in the new e-nose to detecting Chinese spirits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Yu; Li Qiang

    2014-01-01

    We present a new pattern recognition system based on moving average and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), which can be used to process the original signal of the new polymer quartz piezoelectric crystal air-sensitive sensor system we designed, called the new e-nose. Using the new e-nose, we obtain the template datum of Chinese spirits via a new pattern recognition system. To verify the effectiveness of the new pattern recognition system, we select three kinds of Chinese spirits to test, our results confirm that the new pattern recognition system can perfectly identify and distinguish between the Chinese spirits. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)