WorldWideScience

Sample records for hebei province china

  1. R&D and economic growth in China on the basis of data envelopment analysis : evidence from Hebei province, PRC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, L.; Hu, B.; Yu, X.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to explore the research and development (R&D) structure and the effect which R&D may have on economic growth in Hebei Province, PRC. Through the comparison of R&D efficiency in Hebei and that of seven other regions (with top economic performance in China), it tries to find

  2. Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation of Rural Information Poverty in China - - Case Study of Hebei Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guizhen; Wang, Shuanjun; Li, Yaqing; Wang, Huijun

    Information poverty is a new form of poverty in information society. With the growing information-gap between urban and rural areas, information poverty is prevailing in the vast rural areas in China. It is largely restricted the new rural construction and the social harmonious development of villages and towns and must be resolved. The evaluation of rural information poverty is the premise to resolve it. In order to estimate the problem, index system of rural informatization evaluation of Hebei province was designed by means of Delphi. Then, according to the survey of farmers' information demand, AHP and FCE were used to estimate rural information poverty of Hebei province. The purpose of this study is to provide a new operational approach in evaluating or solving rural information poverty and constructing rural informatization in China.

  3. Survey of Veterinary Drug Residues in Raw Milk in Hebei Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Rong-Wei; Yu, Zhong-Na; Zhen, Tian-Yuan; Wang, Jun

    2017-10-17

    The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of veterinary drug residues in raw milk from Hebei, the second-largest dairy production province in the People's Republic of China. A total of 192 raw milk samples were collected from 64 milk stations in seven districts. Twenty-eight veterinary drug residues were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry based on a China National Standard. Raw milk samples with multiple residues of veterinary drugs were not found in the present study. Residues of four veterinary drugs, penicillin G, sulfacetamide, trimethoprim, and lincomycin, were detected in 12 (6.25%) raw milk samples, with detection ratios of 1.04, 0.52, 3.13, and 1.56%, respectively. All veterinary drug residues detected were under the maximum residue levels as regulated by China, the European Union, the United States, and the Codex Alimentarius Commission. In general, raw milk from Hebei province was considered relatively safe for human consumption because of the low prevalence of veterinary drug residues. However, stringent control measurements for veterinary drug residues in raw milk are required because some veterinary drugs were detected in milk from some areas of Hebei province.

  4. Ethyl carbamate levels in wine and spirits from markets in Hebei Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y P; Dong, B; Qin, Z S; Yang, N J; Lu, Y; Yang, L X; Chang, F Q; Wu, Y N

    2011-01-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC) in wine, grain spirits and wine sauce (145 samples) was analysed using solid-phase extraction and stable isotope dilution GC/MS. Samples were obtained from markets in eight areas (Shijiazhuang, Baoding, Handan, Qinhuangdao, Langfang, Zhangjiakou, Xingtai and Cangzhou) of Hebei Province, China. The method had a limit of detection of 2 µg kg⁻¹, with recoveries varying from 95.7 to 102% and RSD ranging 2.3-5.6%. The average concentrations of ethyl carbamate in wines, grain spirits and wine sauce were 14.7 (wines.

  5. Upper gastrointestinal cancer burden in Hebei Province, China: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dao-Juan; Liang, Di; Song, Guo-Hui; Li, Yong-Wei; Wen, Deng-Gui; Jin, Jing; He, Yu-Tong

    2017-04-14

    To investigate the incidence and mortality rates of upper gastrointestinal cancer (UGIC) in Hebei Province, China, and to identify high-risk populations to improve UGIC prevention and control. Data for UGIC patients were collected from 21 population-based cancer registries covering 15.25% of the population in Hebei Province. Mortality data were extracted from three national retrospective death surveys (1973-1975, 1990-1992 and 2004-2005). The data were stratified by 5-year age groups, gender and area (high-risk/non-high-risk areas) for analysis. The age-period-cohort and grey system model were used. The crude incidence rate of UGIC was 55.47/100000, and the adjusted rate (Segi's population) was 44.90/100000. Males in rural areas had the highest incidence rate (world age-standardized rate = 87.89/100000). The crude mortality rate of UGIC displayed a decreasing trend in Hebei Province from the 1970s to 2013, and the adjusted rate decreased by 43.81% from the 1970s (58.07/100000) to 2013 (32.63/100000). The mortality rate declined more significantly in the high-risk areas (57.26%) than in the non-high-risk areas (55.02%) from the 1970s to 2013. The median age at diagnosis of UGIC was 65.06 years in 2013. There was a notable delay in the median age at death from the 1970s (66.15 years) to 2013 (70.39 years), especially in the high-risk areas. In Cixian, the total trend of the cohort effect declined, and people aged 65-69 years were a population at relatively high risk for UGIC. We predicted that the crude mortality rates of UGIC in Cixian and Shexian would decrease to 98.80 and 133.99 per 100000 in 2018, respectively. UGIC was the major cause of cancer death in Hebei Province, and males in rural areas were a high-risk population. We should strengthen early detection and treatment of UGIC in this population.

  6. LC-MS/MS determination of acrylamide in instant noodles from supermarkets in the Hebei province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Xin; Zhang, Gui-Xiang; Yang, Li-Xue; He, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Acrylamide (AA) concentrations in instant noodles (90 samples, covering 10 different brands) from Hebei Province of China were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The instant noodles were sampled from the southern and northern areas of Hebei Province (Shijiazhuang and Tangshan, respectively). The average content of AA for all 10 instant noodle brands was 6-145 µg/kg. The average content of AA in fried instant noodles was 4.47 times of those in non-fried ones, indicating the influence of the frying process. The average content of AA in instant noodles from Shijiazhuang was 1.64 times that of the samples from Tangshan (56 µg/kg). Eighty-four percent of the instant noodle samples in Hebei were contaminated with AA, with an average content of 80 µg/kg. These observations will be helpful for evaluating individual exposure to AA from instant noodles in China.

  7. Embodied water analysis for Hebei Province, China by input-output modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siyuan; Han, Mengyao; Wu, Xudong; Wu, Xiaofang; Li, Zhi; Xia, Xiaohua; Ji, Xi

    2018-03-01

    With the accelerating coordinated development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, regional economic integration is recognized as a national strategy. As water scarcity places Hebei Province in a dilemma, it is of critical importance for Hebei Province to balance water resources as well as make full use of its unique advantages in the transition to sustainable development. To our knowledge, related embodied water accounting analysis has been conducted for Beijing and Tianjin, while similar works with the focus on Hebei are not found. In this paper, using the most complete and recent statistics available for Hebei Province, the embodied water use in Hebei Province is analyzed in detail. Based on input-output analysis, it presents a complete set of systems accounting framework for water resources. In addition, a database of embodied water intensity is proposed which is applicable to both intermediate inputs and final demand. The result suggests that the total amount of embodied water in final demand is 10.62 billion m3, of which the water embodied in urban household consumption accounts for more than half. As a net embodied water importer, the water embodied in the commodity trade in Hebei Province is 17.20 billion m3. The outcome of this work implies that it is particularly urgent to adjust industrial structure and trade policies for water conservation, to upgrade technology and to improve water utilization. As a result, to relieve water shortages in Hebei Province, it is of crucial importance to regulate the balance of water use within the province, thus balancing water distribution in the various industrial sectors.

  8. Potential of future seismogenesis in Hebei Province (NE China) due to stress interactions between strong earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakostas, Vassilios; Papadimitriou, Eleftheria; Jin, Xueshen; Liu, Zhihui; Paradisopoulou, Parthena; He, Zhang

    2013-10-01

    Northeast China, a densely populated area, is affected by intense seismic activity, which includes large events that caused extensive disaster and tremendous loss of life. For contributing to the continuous efforts for seismic hazard assessment, the earthquake potential from the active faults near the cities of Zhangjiakou and Langfang in Hebei Province is examined. We estimate the effect of the coseismic stress changes of strong (M ⩾ 5.0) earthquakes on the major regional active faults, and mapped Coulomb stress change onto these target faults. More importantly our calculations reveal that positive stress changes caused by the largest events of the 1976 Tangshan sequence make the Xiadian and part of Daxing fault, thus considered the most likely sites of the next strong earthquake in the study area. The accumulated static stress changes that reached a value of up to 0.4 bar onto these faults, were subsequently incorporated in earthquake probability estimates for the next 30 years.

  9. [Spatial and temporal evolution of the ecological environment and economy coordinated development in Hebei Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Wei; Ren, Liang; Wang, Shu Jia; Liu, Yu Feng

    2016-09-01

    Based on the constructed evaluation index system of ecological environment and economy coordinated development in Hebei Province, accompanied by introducing the Coupling Degree Mo-del, the paper estimated the ecological environment comprehensive index, the economic comprehensive index and the coupling degree of ecological environment and economy coordinated development of Hebei Province from 2000 to 2014 and 11 cities in 4 years (2000, 2006, 2010, 2014). The results showed that during the study period, the level of the coordinated development of the eco-logical environment and economy in Hebei Province had been increasing, from the brink of a recession to the well coordinated development, which had gone through 3 evident stages. The coordinating degree of ecological environment and economy of the 11 cities increased year by year, and pre-sented significant difference in spatial distribution. Through analyzing the spatial and temporal evolution mechanism of the ecological environment and economy coordinated development in Hebei Province, the policy, economy, industry and location were the key contributing factors, accordingly, suggestions on the further coordinated development of ecological environment and economy in Hebei Province were proposed.

  10. HIV-1 genetic diversity and its distribution characteristics among newly diagnosed HIV-1 individuals in Hebei province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinli; Zhao, Cuiying; Wang, Wei; Nie, Chenxi; Zhang, Yuqi; Zhao, Hongru; Chen, Suliang; Cui, Ze

    2016-01-01

    Since the first HIV-1 case in 1989, Hebei province has presented a clearly rising trend of HIV-1 prevalence, and HIV-1 genetic diversity has become the vital barrier to HIV prevention and control in this area. To obtain detailed information of HIV-1 spread in different populations and in different areas of Hebei, a cross-sectional HIV-1 molecular epidemiological investigation was performed across the province. Blood samples of 154 newly diagnosed HIV-1 individuals were collected from ten prefectures in Hebei using stratified sampling. Partial gag and env genes were amplified and sequenced. HIV-1 genotypes were identified by phylogenetic tree analyses. Among the 139 subjects genotyped, six HIV-1 subtypes were identified successfully, including subtype B (41.0 %), CRF01_AE (40.3 %), CRF07_BC (11.5 %), CRF08_BC (4.3 %), unique recombinant forms (URFs) (1.4 %) and subtype C (1.4 %). Subtype B was identified as the most frequent subtype. Two URF recombination patterns were the same as CRF01_AE/B. HIV-1 genotype distribution showed a significant statistical difference in different demographic characteristics, such as source (P  0.05). The differences in HIV-1 genotype distribution were closely associated with transmission routes. Particularly, all six subtype strains were found in heterosexuals, showing that HIV-1 has spread from the high-risk populations to the general populations in Hebei, China. In addition, CRF01_AE instead of subtype B has become the major strain of HIV-1 infection among homosexuals. Our study revealed HIV-1 evolution and genotype distribution by investigating newly diagnosed HIV-1 individuals in Hebei, China. This study provides important information to enhance the strategic plan for HIV prevention and control in China.

  11. HIV-1 molecular epidemiology among newly diagnosed HIV-1 individuals in Hebei, a low HIV prevalence province in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinli Lu

    Full Text Available New human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 diagnoses are increasing rapidly in Hebei. The aim of this study presents the most extensive HIV-1 molecular epidemiology investigation in Hebei province in China thus far. We have carried out the most extensive systematic cross-sectional study based on newly diagnosed HIV-1 positive individuals in 2013, and characterized the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 based on full length gag-partial pol gene sequences in the whole of Hebei. Nine HIV-1 genotypes based on full length gag-partial pol gene sequence were identified among 610 newly diagnosed naïve individuals. The four main genotypes were circulating recombinant form (CRF01_AE (53.4%, CRF07_BC (23.4%, subtype B (15.9%, and unique recombinant forms URFs (4.9%. Within 1 year, three new genotypes (subtype A1, CRF55_01B, CRF65_cpx, unknown before in Hebei, were first found among men who have sex with men (MSM. All nine genotypes were identified in the sexually contracted HIV-1 population. Among 30 URFs, six recombinant patterns were revealed, including CRF01_AE/BC (40.0%, CRF01_AE/B (23.3%, B/C (16.7%, CRF01_AE/C (13.3%, CRF01_AE/B/A2 (3.3% and CRF01_AE/BC/A2 (3.3%, plus two potential CRFs. This study elucidated the complicated characteristics of HIV-1 molecular epidemiology in a low HIV-1 prevalence northern province of China and revealed the high level of HIV-1 genetic diversity. All nine HIV-1 genotypes circulating in Hebei have spread out of their initial risk groups into the general population through sexual contact, especially through MSM. This highlights the urgency of HIV prevention and control in China.

  12. HIV-1 molecular epidemiology among newly diagnosed HIV-1 individuals in Hebei, a low HIV prevalence province in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinli; Kang, Xianjiang; Liu, Yongjian; Cui, Ze; Guo, Wei; Zhao, Cuiying; Li, Yan; Chen, Suliang; Li, Jingyun; Zhang, Yuqi; Zhao, Hongru

    2017-01-01

    New human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) diagnoses are increasing rapidly in Hebei. The aim of this study presents the most extensive HIV-1 molecular epidemiology investigation in Hebei province in China thus far. We have carried out the most extensive systematic cross-sectional study based on newly diagnosed HIV-1 positive individuals in 2013, and characterized the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 based on full length gag-partial pol gene sequences in the whole of Hebei. Nine HIV-1 genotypes based on full length gag-partial pol gene sequence were identified among 610 newly diagnosed naïve individuals. The four main genotypes were circulating recombinant form (CRF)01_AE (53.4%), CRF07_BC (23.4%), subtype B (15.9%), and unique recombinant forms URFs (4.9%). Within 1 year, three new genotypes (subtype A1, CRF55_01B, CRF65_cpx), unknown before in Hebei, were first found among men who have sex with men (MSM). All nine genotypes were identified in the sexually contracted HIV-1 population. Among 30 URFs, six recombinant patterns were revealed, including CRF01_AE/BC (40.0%), CRF01_AE/B (23.3%), B/C (16.7%), CRF01_AE/C (13.3%), CRF01_AE/B/A2 (3.3%) and CRF01_AE/BC/A2 (3.3%), plus two potential CRFs. This study elucidated the complicated characteristics of HIV-1 molecular epidemiology in a low HIV-1 prevalence northern province of China and revealed the high level of HIV-1 genetic diversity. All nine HIV-1 genotypes circulating in Hebei have spread out of their initial risk groups into the general population through sexual contact, especially through MSM. This highlights the urgency of HIV prevention and control in China.

  13. Gastric cancer burden of last 40 years in North China (Hebei Province): A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Di; Liang, Suoyuan; Jin, Jing; Li, Daojuan; Shi, Jin; He, Yutong

    2017-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in China. It is well known that Cixian in Hebei Province is one of the highest risk areas of GC in China and worldwide. This study aims to accurate assessment of GC burden and trend in high-risk area (Hebei Province) from 1973 to 2013. The authors analyzed GC data from 21 population-based cancer registries which represented 15.25% of the entire population of Hebei Province. The collected data were stratified by 5-year age groups, gender, and area. Mortality of GC was extracted from national death surveys from 1973 to 1975, 1990 to 1992, 2004 to 2005, and 2011 to 2013. Trend analysis (1988-2013) in a high-risk area (Cixian) used the Joinpoint Model. The age-period-cohort model was used to estimate the effects of age, period, and birth cohort in GC incidence in Cixian from 1988 to 2013. The crude incidence of GC in 2011 to 2013 was 40.37/100,000 (57.53/100,000 in males and 22.55/100,000 in females). The corresponding age-standardized rate by world age-standard population was 32.18/100,000 (48.87/100,000 in males and 17.53/100,000 in females), which was 2.66-fold (2.81-fold in male and 2.34-fold in female) higher than that in the world (12.1/100,000, 17.4/100,000 in males and 7.5/100,000 in females). Males in rural areas had the highest incidence, with an age-standardized rate of 70.51/100,000. Gastric cardia cancer was primary anatomical subsite which accounting for 59.59% in GC, followed by gastric corpus (13.92%), gastric antrum (11.43%), gastric fundus (4.99%), and overlapping lesion of gastric (4.17%). The age-standardized rate of mortality from GC displayed a significant downward trend (P = 0.019) in Hebei Province from the 1990s (31.44/100,000) to the 2010s (24.63/100,000). In Cixian, the incidence of GC rose from 1988 (38.25/100,000) to 2009 (65.11/100,000). Cixian, where population-based screening of upper gastrointestinal cancer was performed, experienced the increasing rate of GC from 2000

  14. Measurement of Farmland Ecosystem Services Evaluation in Beidaihe District, Hebei Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Xiao-dan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Farmland ecosystem is an important part of supporting and maintaining earth's life systems. It has the direct function value of providing agricultural product as well as the indirect function values of adjustment, support and culture. Chose the Beidaihe district in Hebei Province as the study region, the eco-system service functions were evaluated by ecological economics approach. The results showed that the indirect value was 1.09 times of the value direct in 2014. The farmland ecosystem not only had direct production function, but also had important ecological supporting functions. In the process of agricultural structure adjustment, the indirect functions should be given enough attention. The sort of values were production function > tourism function > carbon sequestration and oxygen release function > dispose of waste function > water conservation function > social security function > soil protection value > straw returning to field function > clean air function. In the process of accelerating the construction of modern agricultural park, vigorously developing ecological leisure agriculture, pushing forward the comprehensive utilization of crop straw, and actively developing ecological cycle of agriculture, the Beidaihe district should rationally adjust the use of farmland and focus on improving the values of indirect services to optimize service values. The study can be used as decision basis and scientific support for effective protection and sustainable utilization of farmland resources.

  15. Challenges to Early Childhood Education in Rural China: Lessons from the Hebei Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bi Ying; Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth; Leng Ieong, Sylvia Sao; Guo, Haiying

    2016-01-01

    This research study examined the challenges faced by early childhood education (ECE) in rural China based on a qualitative study of 217 kindergarten classrooms in a large agricultural, rural province. This study utilised onsite teacher surveys, interviews, and observational field notes. This investigation's findings revealed important information…

  16. Assessment of air quality management policies in China with integrated model framework: Case study for Hebei province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q.; Zhao, Q.; Zheng, B.; Hong, C.; Tong, D.; Yang, W.; He, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Chinese government has pledged to clean urban air within five years from 2013 to 2017, to promote annual average PM2.5 concentration decline by 25%, 20% and 15% in the North China Plain, Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta, respectively. The national targets are disaggregated into provinces, where region-specific action plan is designed and implemented by local government. It is particularly important to timely assess the effectiveness of local emission control measures and guarantee local efforts are in line with the national goal. We develop an integrated model framework for air quality management and policy evaluation, by integrating a dynamic high-resolution emission model, an emission scenarios analysis tool, and a 3-D air quality model. We then put the model system into pilot use in Hebei province for policy making to achieve the air quality target of 2017. We first integrate over 3000 point source facilities into this system to develop a high-resolution emission inventory. Upon the base emission dataset, the efforts to mitigate emissions with current and enacted measures are tracked and quantified to dynamic account of emission changes monthly. Strict policies are designed within the model framework through analyzing the potential to cut emissions for each point source. The finalized policy package can reduce emissions of major air pollutants by 20%-40%, respectively, leading to large decrease of ambient PM2.5 concentration.

  17. Assessment Analysis and Forecasting for Security Early Warning of Energy Consumption Carbon Emissions in Hebei Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Against the backdrop of increasingly serious global climate change and the development of the low-carbon economy, the coordination between energy consumption carbon emissions (ECCE and regional population, resources, environment, economy and society has become an important subject. In this paper, the research focuses on the security early warning of ECCE in Hebei Province, China. First, an assessment index system of the security early warning of ECCE is constructed based on the pressure-state-response (P-S-R model. Then, the variance method and linearity weighted method are used to calculate the security early warning index of ECCE. From the two dimensions of time series and spatial pattern, the security early warning conditions of ECCE are analyzed in depth. Finally, with the assessment analysis of the data from 2000 to 2014, the prediction of the security early warning of carbon emissions from 2015 to 2020 is given, using a back propagation neural network based on a kidney-inspired algorithm (KA-BPNN model. The results indicate that: (1 from 2000 to 2014, the security comprehensive index of ECCE demonstrates a fluctuating upward trend in general and the trend of the alarm level is “Severe warning”–“Moderate warning”–“Slight warning”; (2 there is a big spatial difference in the security of ECCE, with relatively high-security alarm level in the north while it is relatively low in the other areas; (3 the security index shows the trend of continuing improvement from 2015 to 2020, however the security level will remain in the state of “Semi-secure” for a long time and the corresponding alarm is still in the state of “Slight warning”, reflecting that the situation is still not optimistic.

  18. Contamination and health risks from heavy metals in cultivated soil in Zhangjiakou City of Hebei Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qian; Xue, Zhan-Jun; Wang, Fei; Sun, Zhi-Mei; Yang, Zhi-Xin; Liu, Shu-Qing

    2015-12-01

    A total of 79 topsoil samples (ranging from 0 to 20 cm in depth) were collected from a grape cultivation area of Zhangjiakou City, China. The total concentrations of As, Cd, Hg, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in soil samples were determined to evaluate pollution levels and associated health risks in each sample. Pollution levels were calculated using enrichment factors (EF) and geoaccumulation index (I geo). Health risks for adults and children were quantified using hazard indexes (HI) and aggregate carcinogenic risks (ACR). The mean concentrations of measured heavy metals Cd, Hg, and Cu, only in the grape cultivation soil samples, were higher than the background values of heavy metals in Hebei Province. According to principal component analysis (PCA), the anthropogenic activities related to agronomic and fossil fuel combustion practices attributed to higher accumulations of Cd, Hg, and Cu, which have slightly polluted about 10-40% of the sampled soils. However, the HI for all of the heavy metals were lower than 1 (within safe limits), and the ACR of As was in the 10(-6)-10(-4) range (a tolerable level). This suggests the absence of both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks for adults and children through oral ingestion and dermal absorption exposure pathways in the studied area. It should be also noted that the heightened vulnerability of children to health risks was accounted for higher HI and ACR values. Consequently, heavy metal concentrations (e.g., Cd, Hg, Cu) should be periodically monitored in these soils and improved soil management practices are required to minimize possible impacts on children's health.

  19. Estimation of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from biomass waste in China:A case study in Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Crop residue,animal manure and MSW are selected as representative biomass waste.Greenhouse gas emissions from treatment and disposal process of biomass waste in Hebei province are estimated for the period from 2002 to 2007,using the methodologies recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.Greenhouse gas emission was about 10 Mt CO2-equivalent annually.About 6% of greenhouse gas emission came from open burning of crop residue,74% from management system of animal manure,and 20% from MSW disposal.Among all the greenhouse gas sources,landfill is the most concentrated one,and has significant potential of emission reduction.

  20. The evolutionary characteristics and study of uranium mineralization conditions of early precambrian basement and old granitoids in Northern Hebei province of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Yuliang; Rong Jiashu; Lin Jinrong; Zheng Maogong; Wen Xiyuan

    1993-05-01

    Based on the systematic studies of petrology, geochemistry and isotope geochronology, the Early Precambrian metamorphic complex in Northern Hebei province of China can be divided into three different series, i.e. granulite series, khondalite series and amphibolitic-felsic rock series. The so called 'magmatic granitoids' in that area are actually some magmagranites with different ages and different geneses, and they are not formed by migmatization. Up to now, the discovered Huaian complex which was formed in 3.5 Ga ago is the oldest nuclear area in the northern margin of North-China Platform. The granulite series, khondalite series and amphibolitic-felsic rock series belong to Early Archaean (>3.0 +- 0.1 Ga), Middle Archaean (>2.7 +- 0.1 Ga) and Later Archaean (>2.4 +- 0.1 Ga) respectively. The geological time scale of the Early Precambrian for Northern Hebei Province has been built. According to the synthetic analyses of various factors there is no prospect of uranium mineralization in the ancient terrain. However, the Mesozoic volcanic basins covering over the Hercynian Period granites would be main goal for looking for large uranium deposits in north part in that area

  1. Concentrations of and health risks posed by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans around industrial sites in Hebei Province, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Ying; Liu, Wenbin; Hansen, Hans Chr. Bruun

    2016-01-01

    Sintering and steel production as the main emission sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) may affect environment and human health. The concentrations, profiles, and distributions of PCDD/Fs in soil samples from around four typical sintering and steel production...... plants in Hebei Province, China, were determined. Forty-six soil samples were collected at distances from 500 to 9000 m from industrial plant chimneys. The concentrations of total 17 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/F congeners in the soil samples from sites A, B, C, and D were in the range 11-130, 13-284, 2...... will be exposed to low amounts of PCDD/Fs in soil from around the industrial sites, and this exposure will pose potential health risks for the local population living at distances of less than 1000 m from nearest stack but will have no high health risks for people living further away. These results...

  2. Water quality assessment by pollution-index method in the coastal waters of Hebei Province in western Bohai Sea, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuguang; Lou, Sha; Kuang, Cuiping; Huang, Wenrui; Chen, Wujun; Zhang, Jianle; Zhong, Guihui

    2011-10-01

    Sources of pollution discharges and water quality samples at 27 stations in 2006 in the coastal waters of Hebei Province, western Bohai Sea, have been analyzed in this study. Pollutant loads from industrial sewages have shown stronger impact on the water environment than those from the general sewages. Analysis indicates that pollution of COD is mainly resulted from land-based point pollutant sources. For phosphate concentration, non-point source pollution from coastal ocean (fishing and harbor areas) plays an important role. To assess the water quality conditions, Organic Pollution Index and Eutrophication Index have been used to quantify the level of water pollution and eutrophication conditions. Results show that pollution was much heavier in the dry season than flood season in 2006. Based on COD and phosphate concentrations, results show that waters near Shahe River, Douhe River, Yanghe River, and Luanhe River were heavily polluted. Water quality in the Qinhuangdao area was better than those in the Tangshan and Cangzhou areas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Spatial distribution and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in coastal surface sediments in the Hebei Province offshore area, Bohai Sea, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xigui; Ye, Siyuan; Yuan, Hongming; Krauss, Ken W

    2018-06-01

    Seven hundred and nine surface sediment samples, along with deeper sediment samples, were collected from Hebei Province along the coastal section of the Bohai Sea, China, and analyzed for grain size, concentrations of organic carbon (Corg) and heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, As, and Hg). Results indicated that the average concentrations in the sediments were 16.1 mg/kg (Cu), 19.4 mg/kg (Pb), 50 mg/kg (Zn), 48.8 mg/kg (Cr), 0.1 mg/kg (Cd), 8.4 mg/kg (As), and 20.3 μg/kg (Hg). These concentrations generally met the China Marine Sediment Quality criteria. However, both pollution assessments indicated moderate to strong Cd and Hg contamination in the study area. The potential ecological risk index suggested that the combined ecological risk of the seven studied metals may be low, but that 24.5% of the sites, where sediments were finer and higher in Corg concentration, had high ecological risk in Hg and Cd pollution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Spatial distribution and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in coastal surface sediments in the Hebei Province offshore area, Bohai Sea, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xigui; Ye, Siyuan; Yuan, Hongming; Krauss, Ken W.

    2018-01-01

    Seven hundred and nine surface sediment samples, along with deeper sediment samples, were collected from Hebei Province along the coastal section of the Bohai Sea, China, and analyzed for grain size, concentrations of organic carbon (Corg) and heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, As, and Hg). Results indicated that the average concentrations in the sediments were 16.1 mg/kg (Cu), 19.4 mg/kg (Pb), 50 mg/kg (Zn), 48.8 mg/kg (Cr), 0.1 mg/kg (Cd), 8.4 mg/kg (As), and 20.3 μg/kg (Hg). These concentrations generally met the China Marine Sediment Quality criteria. However, both pollution assessments indicated moderate to strong Cd and Hg contamination in the study area. The potential ecological risk index suggested that the combined ecological risk of the seven studied metals may be low, but that 24.5% of the sites, where sediments were more finer and higher in Corg concentration, had high ecological risk in Hg and Cd pollution.

  5. The Low-Carbon Transition toward Sustainability of Regional Coal-Dominated Energy Consumption Structure: A Case of Hebei Province in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xunmin Ou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available CO2 emission resulted from fossil energy use is threatening human sustainability globally. This study focuses on the low-carbon transition of Hebei’s coal-dominated energy system by estimating its total end-use energy consumption, primary energy supply and resultant CO2 emission up to 2030, by employing an energy demand analysis model based on setting of the economic growth rate, industrial structure, industry/sector energy consumption intensity, energy supply structure, and CO2 emission factor. It is found that the total primary energy consumption in Hebei will be 471 and 431 million tons of coal equivalent (tce in 2030 in our two defined scenarios (conventional development scenario and coordinated development scenario, which are 1.40 and 1.28 times of the level in 2015, respectively. The resultant full-chain CO2 emission will be 1027 and 916 million tons in 2030 in the two scenarios, which are 1.24 and 1.10 times of the level in 2015, respectively. The full-chain CO2 emission will peak in about 2025. It is found that the coal-dominated situation of energy structure and CO2 emission increasing trend in Hebei can be changed in the future in the coordinated development scenario, in which Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area coordinated development strategy will be strengthened. The energy structure of Hebei can be optimised since the proportion of coal in total primary energy consumption can fall from around 80% in 2015 to below 30% in 2030 and the proportions of transferred electricity, natural gas, nuclear energy and renewable energy can increase rapidly. Some specific additional policy instruments are also suggested to support the low-carbon transition of energy system in Hebei under the framework of the coordinated development of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area, and with the support from the central government of China.

  6. Eutrophication study at the Panjiakou-Daheiting Reservoir system, northern Hebei Province, People's Republic of China: Chlorophyll-a model and sources of phosphorus and nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagalski, Joseph L.; Lin, Chao; Luo, Yang; Kang, Jie; Wang, Shaoming; Brown, Larry R.; Munn, Mark D.

    2007-01-01

    Concentrations, loads, and sources of nitrate and total phosphorus were investigated at the Panjiakou and Daheiting Reservoir system in northern Hebei Province, People's Republic of China. The Luan He River is the primary source of water to these reservoirs, and the upstream watershed has a mix of land uses including agriculture, forest, and one large urban center. The reservoirs have a primary use for storage of drinking water and partially supply Tianjin City with its annual needs. Secondary uses include flood control and aqua culture (fish cages). The response of the reservoir system from phosphorus input, with respect to chlorophyll-a production from algae, was fitted to a model of normalized phosphorus loading that regresses the average summer-time chlorophyll-a concentration to the average annual phosphorus concentration of the reservoir. Comparison of the normalized phosphorus loading and chlorophyll-a response of this system to other reservoirs throughout the world indicate a level of eutrophication that will require up to an approximate 5–10-fold decrease in annual phosphorus load to bring the system to a more acceptable level of algal productivity. Isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in dissolved nitrate were measured from the headwater streams and at various locations along the major rivers that provide the majority of water to these reservoirs. Those isotopic measurements indicate that the sources of nitrate change from natural background in the rivers to animal manure and septic waste upstream of the reservoir. Although the isotopic measurements suggest that animal and septic wastes are a primary source of nutrients, measurements of the molar ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus are more indicative of row-cropping practices. Options for reduction of nutrient loads include changing the management practices of the aqua culture, installation of new sewage treatment systems in the large urbanized area of the upper watershed, and agricultural management practices

  7. [Effects of rootstocks on the growth and berry quality of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine in Changli zone, Hebei Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min-min; Yuan, Jun-wei; Liu, Chang-jiang; Han, Bin; Huang, Jia-zhen; Guo, Zi-juan; Zhao, Sheng-iian

    2016-01-01

    Cabernet Sauvignon grafted onto seven rootstocks 188-08, 5BB, SO4, 3309C, 110R, 5C and 101-14M, with the own-rooted vines as control, were investigated to study the effects of different rootstocks on the growth, fruit quality and yield of Cabernet Sauvignon in Changli zone, Hebei Province, China. The results showed that Cabernet Sauvignon grafted on 5BB and 5C significantly increased the trunk diameter, and 5C significantly increased one-year-old shoot diameter. 188-08, 5BB and 5C as rootstock obviously improved berry soluble solid content, in addition 188- 08 and 5BB significantly increased berry reducing sugar content. The vines on 101-14M and 3309C significantly decreased berry titratable acid content. The rootstock 5C and 101-14M significantly raised grape skin phenol and anthocyanin contents, and rootstock 101-14M significantly increased tannin content in grape skin. Cabernet Sauvignon grafted onto 3309C, 110R, 5C and 101-14M obviously got higher yield per vine than own-rooted vines. Growing parameter, grape quality index and yield per vine grafted on seven rootstocks and own-rooted vine were synthetically evaluated by fuzzy evaluation method, and the synthetical effects of vine grafted on seven rootstocks were better than own-rooted vine, with the order of scores from high to low as 5C, 101-14M, 3309C, 5BB, 188-08, 110R and SO4 under Changli unique climate and environment conditions.

  8. Irrigation Water Availability and Winter Wheat Abandonment in the North China Plain (NCP: Findings from a Case Study in Cangxian County of Hebei Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The North China Plain (NCP is the major winter wheat producing area in China. Abandonment of this crop has, however, become more and more prevalent in this region since the late 1990s. Although the underlying causes of this phenomenon remain little understood, irrigation water availability (IWA has always been regarded as the key factor limiting winter wheat production on the NCP. The aim of this paper is to determine the role played by IWA in the abandonment of winter wheat, using evidence drawn from a case study in Cangxian County, Hebei Province. First-hand data were collected for this study from 350 households in 35 villages, using semistructured one-on-one questionnaires. Five types of irrigation water sources were defined and identified at the level of individual land plots: “ground and surface water”, “just groundwater”, “just rivers”, “just reservoirs”, and “no irrigation”. These levels correspond to a decreasing trend in the overall frequency of irrigation and thus provide a clear proxy indicator for IWA. The results from a series of multilevel multinomial models show that the higher the IWA, the less likely it is for a land plot to abandon winter wheat. Specifically, using “no irrigation” cases as a control group, the results show that land plots with more sources of irrigation water also tend to be characterized by greater IWA, including “ground and surface water” and “just groundwater”, and also have lower probabilities of abandoning winter wheat. In contrast, land plots with less IWA (less irrigation water sources, including “just reservoirs” and “just rivers”, are more likely to abandon winter wheat. The results also show that, in addition to IWA, soil quality and plot size at the plot level, as well as demographic characteristics, farm equipment, and land fragmentation at the household level and irrigation prices at the village level, all play additional significant roles in the cropping

  9. Fluid inclusion and noble gas studies of the Dongping gold deposit, Hebei Province, China: A mantle connection for mineralization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, J.; Li, Y.; Goldfarb, R.; He, Y.; Zaw, K.

    2003-01-01

    The Dongping gold deposit (>100 t Au) occurs about 200 km inboard of the northern margin of the North China craton. The deposit is mainly hosted by syenite of a middle Paleozoic alkalic intrusive complex that was emplaced into Late Archean basement rocks. Both groups of rocks are intruded by Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous crustal-melt granite dikes and stocks, some within a few kilometers of the deposit. The gold ores were deposited during this latter magmatic period at about 150 Ma, a time that was characterized by widespread regional north-south compression that formed the east-west-trending Yanshan deformational belt. The ores include both the telluride mineral-bearing, low sulfide quartz veins and the highly K-feldspar-altered syenite, with most of the resource concentrated in two orebodies (1 and 70). Fluid inclusion microthermometry indicates heterogeneous trapping of low-salinity (e.g., 5-7 wt % NaCl equiv) fluids that varied from a few to 60 mole percent nonaqueous volatile species. Laser Raman spectroscopy confirms that the vapor phase in these inclusions is dominated by CO2, but may be comprised of as much as 9 mole percent H2S and 20 mole percent N2; methane concentrations in the vapor phase are consistently interaction of ore fluids with surrounding crustal rocks, which may have contributed additional He to the fluids. A mantle source for at least some of the components of the gold-forming fluid is consistent with upwelling of hot asthenosphere and erosion of as much as 100 to 150 km of cool Archean lithosphere beneath the craton during this time. The Dongping deposit is located along the 100-km-wide north-south gravity lineament, which marks the western border of the thinned crust. As both regional metamorphism of Mesoproterozoic and younger cover rocks, and widespread granite magmatism, also occurred at ca. 150 Ma, it is unclear as to whether one or both of these also contributed fluid and/or metals to the hydrothermal system. Importantly, these

  10. [Prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Longyao County of Hebei Province:the China Nine-Province survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Jian-hua; Zhao, Jia-liang; Ellwein, Leon B; Li, Shan-yu; Han, Dong; Yan, Zhong-yang; Zhang, Hong-bin; Yang, Mei; Wang, Yu; Gao, Xue-cheng

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged ≥ 50 years in Longyao County, Hebei Province, China. It was a population-based cross-section study.Geographically defined cluster sampling was used in randomly selecting 5527 individuals aged ≥ 50 years in Longyao County. The survey was preceded by a pilot study where operational methods were refined and quality assurance evaluation was carried out. All participants were enumerated through village registers followed door-to-door visits.Eligible individuals were invited to receive visual acuity measurement and eye examination. Prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was calculated according to different age, gender or education. And the reasons of blindness were analyzed.Statistical analyses were performed using Stata/SE Statistical Software, release 9.0. Chi-square test was used to investigate the association of age, gender and education with presenting and best corrected visual acuity. Five thousands five hundreds and twenty-seven individuals were enumerated and 5051 persons were examined, the response rate was 91.39%. Based on the criteria of World Health Organization visual impairment classification in 1973, the prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as best corrected visual acuity was 1.05% (53/5051) and 3.46% (175/5051) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as presenting visual acuity was 1.48% (75/5051) and 7.94% (401/5051) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was higher in aged (trend χ(2) = 897.27, P = 0.000) , female (χ(2) = 30.32, P = 0.000), illiterate (trend χ(2) = 83.20, P = 0.000) persons. Cataract was still the first leading cause of blindness. Un-corrected refractive error also was the main cause of visual impairment. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe

  11. [Trend of cancer mortality in Hebei province, 1973-2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, D; Li, D J; Shi, J; Zhang, Y C; Guo, T T; He, Y T

    2018-01-10

    Objective: To analyze the data of malignant tumor mortality and change in disease burden in Hebei province from 1973 to 2013. Methods: Cancer mortality rate, age-standardized mortality rate and the years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs) were calculated by using the data from three rounds of all death causes survey and database of cancer registry in Hebei during 1973-2013. Results: From 1973 to 2013, a linear upward of malignant tumor mortality was observed, with a 51.57% increase. The mortality rate during 1973-1975 was 98.52/100 000 and it was 149.33/100 000 during 2011-2013. During 1973-1975, the YLLs was 17.0/1 000 in males and 12.8/1 000 in females. While during 2011-2013, the YLLs was 23.2/1 000 in males and 15.9/1 000 in females. During 1973-1975, esophagus cancer, stomach cancer and liver cancer were top three leading causes of deaths. During 2011-2013, lung cancer, stomach cancer and liver cancer were main leading causes of deaths. During the past 40 years, the deaths of esophagus cancer and cervix cancer decreased dramatically, but the deaths of lung cancer and breast cancer increased sharply. Conclusions: The disease burden caused by malignant tumor is becoming more serious in Hebei. It is necessary to strengthen the primary prevention and screening of malignant tumor.

  12. The Analysis of Development Condition of Taekwondo Dan System in Hebei Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Shen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article made use of the literature, questionnaire and mathematical statistics method for the Taekwondo practitioners and coaches in Hebei province to carry out investigation, analysis on the development situation of Dan system of Taekwondo, to influence and implement Dan system development of Taekwondo in Hebei province. The results showed, most road museums are organizing assessment of Dan System, but there is still half of the practitioners are willing to participate in grading system of examination and did not participate in. The results show that the development of grading system of Taekwondo in Hebei province, however, there are still some problems. The research of this paper provides a theoretical basis for the development of Hebei province, but also to contribute to the promotion of Taekwondo Dan made better development in Hebei province.

  13. Mobile LiDAR Measurement for Aerosol Investigation in South-Central Hebei, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    qin, kai; Wu, Lixin; Zheng, Yunhui; Wong Man, Sing; Wang, Runfeng; Hu, Mingyu; Lang, Hongmei; Wang, Luyao; Bai, Yang; Rao, Lanlan

    2016-04-01

    With the rapid industrialization and urbanization in China during the last decades, the increasing anthropogenic pollutant emissions have significantly caused serious air pollution problems which are adversely influencing public health. Hebei is one of the most air polluted provinces in China. In January 2013, an extremely severe and persistent haze episode with record-breaking PM2.5 outbreak affecting hundreds of millions of people occurred over eastern and northern China. During that haze episode, 7 of the top 10 most polluted cities in China were located in the Hebei Province according to the report of China's Ministry of Environmental Protection. To investigate and the spatial difference and to characterize the vertical distribution of aerosol in different regions of south-central Hebei, mobile measurements were carried out using a mini micro pulse LiDAR system (model: MiniMPL) in March 2014. The mobile LiDAR kit consisting of a MiniMPL, a vibration reduction mount, a power inverter, a Windows surface tablet and a GPS receiver were mounted in a car watching though the sunroof opening. For comparison, a fixed measurement using a traditional micro pulse LiDAR system (model: MPL-4B) was conducted simultaneously in Shijiazhuang, the capital of Hebei Province. The equipped car was driven from downtown Shijiazhuang by way of suburban and rural area to downtown Cangzhou, Handan, and Baoding respectively at almost stable speed around 100Km per hour along different routes which counted in total more than 1000Km. The results can be summarized as: 1) the spatial distribution of total aerosol optical depth along the measurement routes in south-central Hebei was controlled by local terrain and population in general, with high values in downtown and suburban in the plain areas, and low values in rural areas along Taihang mountain to the west and Yan mountain to the north; 2) obviously high AODs were obtained at roads crossing points, inside densely populated area and nearby

  14. Simulation of corn yields and parameters uncertainties analysis in Hebei and Sichuang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, A.; Xue, Y.; Hartman, M. D.; Chandran, A.; Qiu, B.; Liu, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Corn is one of most important agricultural production in China. Research on the impacts of climate change and human activities on corn yields is important in understanding and mitigating the negative effects of environmental factors on corn yields and maintaining the stable corn production. Using climatic data, including daily temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation from 1948 to 2010, soil properties, observed corn yields, and farmland management information, corn yields in Sichuang and Hebei Provinces of China in the past 63 years were simulated using the Daycent model, and the results was evaluated using Root mean square errors, bias, simulation efficiency, and standard deviation. The primary climatic factors influencing corn yields were examined, the uncertainties of climatic factors was analyzed, and the uncertainties of human activity parameters were also studied by changing fertilization levels and cultivated ways. The results showed that: (1) Daycent model is capable to simulate corn yields in Sichuang and Hebei provinces of China. Observed and simulated corn yields have the similar increasing trend with time. (2) The minimum daily temperature is the primary factor influencing corn yields in Sichuang. In Hebei Province, daily temperature, precipitation and wind speed significantly affect corn yields.(3) When the global warming trend of original data was removed, simulated corn yields were lower than before, decreased by about 687 kg/hm2 from 1992 to 2010; When the fertilization levels, cultivated ways were increased and decreased by 50% and 75%, respectively in the Schedule file in Daycent model, the simulated corn yields increased by 1206 kg/hm2 and 776 kg/hm2, respectively, with the enhancement of fertilization level and the improvement of cultivated way. This study provides a scientific base for selecting a suitable fertilization level and cultivated way in corn fields in China.

  15. Investigation of environmental natural penetrating radiation level in Hebei province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Deliang; Wang Shuming; Yang Huanfeng

    1990-01-01

    The methods and results of the investigation on natural penetrating radiation level in Hebei Province from 1985 to 1987 are presented. 285 25 x 25 km-netted measuring points were set unformly up all over the porvince, with 204 densely measuring points of different types added. The results show that: (1) The point-weighted, area-weighted and population-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate for field is 5.59, 5.51 and 5.31 x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 , respectively; (2) The point-weighted and population-weighted average value of the dose rate inside buildings from cosmic ray is 3.05 and 2.80 x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 , and outside buildings is 3.38 and 3.11 x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 , respectively; (3) The point-weighted and population-weighted average value of natural penetrating radiation dose rate inside buildings is 12.44 and 11.97 x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 , outside buildings is 8.97 and 8.42 x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 , respectively; (4) The annual effective dose equivalent from natural γ radiation, cosmic ray and natural penetrating radiation is 0.50, 0.25, and 0.75 mSv, respectively; and correspondingly, the annual collective effectiv dose equivalent is 2.7, 1.3 and 4.0 x 10 4 man·Sv, respectively

  16. Prevalence of multiple enteroviruses associated with hand, foot, and mouth disease in Shijiazhuang City, Hebei province, China: outbreaks of coxsackieviruses a10 and b3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huifang Tian

    Full Text Available Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD has been one of the most common infectious diseases in Shijiazhuang City, as is the situation in China overall. In the National HFMD surveillance system, the pathogen detection was focused on EV-A71 and CVA16, and therefore, information on the other EVs is very limited. In order to identify the circulating EV serotypes in the HFMD outbreaks in Shijiazhuang City during 2010-2012, 4045 patients presented with HFMD were recruited in the study, and clinical samples were investigated. Typing of EV serotypes was performed using the molecular typing methods, and phylogenetic analyses based on entire VP1 sequences of human enterovirus 71 (EV-A71, coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16, CVA10 and CVB3 was performed. The results revealed that EV-A71 and CVA16 were the 2 most important pathogens but the circulating trends of the 2 viruses showed a shift, the spread of EV-A71 became increasingly weak, whereas the spread of CVA16 became increasingly stronger. CVA10 and CVB3 were the third and fourth most prevalent pathogens, respectively. Co-infection of two viruses at the same time was not found in these samples. Based on entire VP1 region sequences, the phylogenetic analysis revealed that C4a subgenotype EV-A71, B1a and B1b subgenotype CVA16 continued to evolve. The CVA10 strains were assigned to 4 genotypes (A-D, whereas the CVB3 strains were assigned to 5 genotypes (A-E, with clear geographical and temporal-specific distributions. The Shijiazhuang CVA10 sequences belonged to 4 epidemic lineages within genotype C, whereas the Shijiazhuang CVB3 sequences belonged to 2 epidemic lineages within genotype E, which may have the same origins as the strains reported in other part of China. CVA10 and CVB3, 2 pathogens that were previously infrequently detected, were identified as pathogens causing the HFMD outbreaks. This study underscores the need for detailed laboratory-based surveillances of HFMD in mainland China.

  17. [Prevalence and associated factors of female urinary incontinence in Hebei province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y; Yan, L; Du, F D; Zheng, P T; Zhang, L; Jiang, L; Huang, X H

    2016-12-25

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence and associated factors of adult female urinary incontinence in Hebei province. Methods: Stratified and multistage sampling method was used, between January 2016 to May 2016, to investigate the target population in Hebei province. While, logistic regression was used to analyse datas. Results: A population-based survey was conducted in 2 450 women in Hebei province, there were 2 408 effective questionnaires after deleting 48 invalid questionnaires. According to the results, the average age of subjects was (56±15) years old, and the urinary incontinence prevalence of adult female in Hebei province was 27.70% (667/2 408). Stress urinary incontinence, urge urinary incontinence and mixed urinary incontinence were diagnosed as 23.13% (557/2 408), 1.58% (38/2 408) and 2.99% (72/2 408), respectively. There were only 2.85% (19/667) urinary incontinence patients seeking medical help. The results of logistic regression analysis showed that age, daily water intake, pulmonary diseases, urinary tract infection, hypertension, chronic low back pain, dysmenorrhea, vaginitis, abortion, mode of delivery, postpartum infection were statistically significant (all P ≤0.05). Among these factors, cesarean section was the protective factor for urinary incontinence ( OR= 0.365, 95 % CI: 0.195-0.685, P urinary incontinence in adult female in Hebei province is high, and there are few patients seeking medical help. It is a common disorder in women and is associated with many factors; among these factors, cesarean section is the protective factor for urinary incontinence.

  18. A comparison between antenatal care quality in public and private sector in rural Hebei, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Dai, Yaohua; Zhang, Yanfeng; Wu, Qiong; Rudan, Diana; Saftić, Vanja; van Velthoven, Michelle H M M T; Su, Jianqiang; Tan, Zangwen; Scherpbier, Robert W

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the quality of antenatal care (ANC) in Hebei Province and compare it between the public and private sector and within the public sector. We conducted a Maternal, Newborn and Child Health Household Survey in 2010 using a two-stage sampling procedure and included 1079 mothers. The quality of ANC was assessed on the basis of the number of ANC visits, the time of the first ANC visit, 16 different ANC procedures, owning a maternal health care booklet, and the type of service provider. Almost all women (98%) received ANC services at least once, 80% at least four times, and 54% at least five times. About half of the women (46%) visited ANC facility within their first trimester. Neither public nor private sector provided all 16 standardized services, but significantly more women in public sector received ANC procedures. Most women received ANC in county or higher-level hospitals (75%) and very few in township hospitals (8%). Significantly fewer women were weighed and tested for HIV/AIDS in township than in county or higher-level hospitals. The quality of ANC in Hebei was poorer than required by China's national and World Health Organization norms. Although the public sector performed better than the private sector, the utilization and quality of care of ANC services in this sector varied and women generally visited county or higher-level health facilities.

  19. A Waterborne Gastroenteritis Outbreak Caused by Norovirus GII.17 in a Hotel, Hebei, China, December 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Meng; Dong, Xiao-Gen; Jing, Yan-Yan; Wei, Xiu-Xia; Wang, Zhao-E; Feng, Hui-Ru; Yu, Hong; Li, Jin-Song; Li, Jie

    2016-09-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is responsible for an estimated 90 % of all epidemic nonbacterial outbreaks of gastroenteritis worldwide. Waterborne outbreaks of NoV are commonly reported. A novel GII.17 NoV strain emerged as a major cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks in China during the winter of 2014/2015. During this time, an outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred at a hotel in a ski park in Hebei Province, China. Epidemiological investigations indicated that one water well, which had only recently been in use, was the probable source. GII.17 NoV was detected by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction from samples taken from cases, from concentrated water samples from water well, and from the nearby sewage settling tank. Nucleotide sequences of NoV extracted from clinical and water specimens were genetically identical and had 99 % homology with Beijing/CHN/2015. All epidemiological data indicated that GII.17 NoV was responsible for this outbreak. This is the first reported laboratory-confirmed waterborne outbreak caused by GII.17 NoV genotype in China. Strengthening management of well drinking water and systematica monitoring of NoV is essential for preventing future outbreaks.

  20. Analysis of the economic impact of the national unified carbon trading market mechanism Hebei province, for example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuxing

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a grey prediction model is used to predict the carbon emission in Hebei province, and the impact analysis model based on TermCo2 is established. At the same time, we read a lot about CGE and study on how to build the scene, the selection of key parameters, and sensitivity analysis of application scenarios do industry for reference.

  1. [Dendrochronology of Chinese pine in Mulan-Weichang, Hebei Province: a primary study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ming-xing; He, Xing-yuan; Chen, Wei; Chen, Zhen-ju; Zhou, Chang-hong; Wu, Tao

    2008-11-01

    Dendroclimatic methods were used to investigate the relationships between the growth of Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.) and the climatic parameters in Mulan-Weichang of Hebei Province. The results showed that Chinese pine presented high sensitivity to climatic changes, and its earlywood width showed the highest sensitivity. There was a significant negative correlation between the tree-ring width chronology of Chinese pine and the air temperature in May-June. The precipitation and relative humidity in June had strong positive effects on the growth of earlywood, the precipitation from September to next September had significant positive effects on Chinese pine growth, and the relative humidity in winter more strongly affected the growth of latewood than of earlywood. There was a definite correlation between the tree-ring width chronology of Chinese pine and the large scale climate fluctuation. From 1951 to 2006, the increase of air temperature in study area was significant, and the sensitivity of Chinese pine to the variations of local temperature and precipitation decreased, presenting an inverse transforming trend with increasing temperature. Greater differences were observed between the reconstructed and observed data of mean temperature in May - June in a century scale, suggesting that the tree-ring growth of Chinese pine in study area had a greater fluctuation of sensitivity to the variation of climatic factors.

  2. Contamination of Phthalate Esters (PAEs in Typical Wastewater-Irrigated Agricultural Soils in Hebei, North China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zhang

    Full Text Available The Wangyang River (WYR basin is a typical wastewater irrigation area in Hebei Province, North China. This study investigated the concentration and distribution of six priority phthalate esters (PAEs in the agricultural soils in this area. Thirty-nine soil samples (0-20 cm were collected along the WYR to assess the PAE residues in soils. Results showed that PAEs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants in the topsoil obtained from the irrigation area. The concentrations of Σ6PAEs range from 0.191 μg g-1 dw to 0.457 μg g-1 dw with an average value of 0.294 μg g-1 dw. Di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP are the dominant PAE species in the agricultural soils. Among the DEHP concentrations, the highest DEHP concentration was found at the sites close to the villages; this result suggested that dense anthropogenic activities and random garbage disposal in the rural area are possible sources of PAEs. The PAE concentrations were weakly and positively correlated with soil organic carbon and soil enzyme activities; thus, these factors can affect the distribution of PAEs. This study further showed that only dimethyl phthalate (DMP concentrations exceeded the recommended allowable concentrations; no remediation measures are necessary to control the PAEs in the WYR area. However, the PAEs in the topsoil may pose a potential risk to the ecosystem and human health in this area. Therefore, the exacerbating PAE pollution should be addressed.

  3. Burden and correlates of non-communicable-diseases among rural residents: a cross-sectional study in Hebei, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junjun; Yu, Wenya; Zhou, Qiang; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Li, Yiqiu; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Lei; Mahapatra, Sanchita; Yan, Yuying; Tang, Weiming

    2015-06-20

    Burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is increasing rapidly in most of the developing countries including China, even in rural areas. Dearth of representative data called for an investigation to estimate the burden and identify the correlates of NCDs in rural China. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving a representative sample of 6003 consenting randomly selected rural residents aged 15 years or more, from 36 villages of Shijiazhuang in Hebei province of China between July 2010 and June 2011. Information on demographics and behavior were collected, body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure were measured and blood samples were tested to diagnose diabetes and hyperlipidemia. Majority participants were aged problems (12.1%) and gastrointestinal NCDs (7.8%) were identified among the participants, while proportion of subjects with one, two and three or more NCDs were 43%, 14.4% and 5.5% respectively. Higher odds of having more NCDs were associated with higher BMI (Kg/M(2)), family history of NCDs, daily and past history of smoking and drinking, passive smoking, lack of exercise, skipping breakfast and psychological disturbances. Despite limitations associated with cross-sectional design and self-reporting, observation in this large sample of rural residents could develop important insights regarding high burden of NCDs in this population. Based on the identified correlates, targeted intervention strategies seem to be required urgently to control NCDs in rural China.

  4. Identifying and assessing human activity impacts on groundwater quality through hydrogeochemical anomalies and NO3-, NH4+, and COD contamination: a case study of the Liujiang River Basin, Hebei Province, P.R. China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cong; He, Jiang-Tao; Wang, Man-Li; Zhang, Zhen-Guo; Wang, Lei

    2018-02-01

    In the face of rapid economic development and increasing human activity, the deterioration of groundwater quality has seriously affected the safety of the groundwater supply in eastern China. Identifying and assessing the impact of human activities is key to finding solutions to this problem. This study is an effort to scientifically and systematically identify and assess the influence of human activities on groundwater based on irregularities in hydrochemical properties and water contamination, which are considered to directly result from anthropogenic activity. The combination of the hydrochemical anomaly identification (HAI) and the contaminant identification (CI) was proposed to identify the influence of human activities on groundwater quality. And the degree of abnormality was quantified by the background threshold value. The principal component analysis (PCA) and land use map were used to verify the reliability of the identification result. The final result show that the strong influence areas mainly distributed in the south of the basin and the affected indicators contained the major elements and NO 3 - , NH 4 + , COD. Impacts from anthropogenic activities can be divided into two types: mine drainage that disrupts natural water-rock interaction processes, agricultural cultivation, and sewage emissions that contribute to nitrate pollution.

  5. A comparison between antenatal care quality in public and private sector in rural Hebei, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Dai, Yaohua; Zhang, Yanfeng; Wu, Qiong; Rudan, Diana; Saftić, Vanja; van Velthoven, Michelle H.M.M.T.; Su, Jianqiang; Tan, Zangwen; Scherpbier, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the quality of antenatal care (ANC) in Hebei Province and compare it between the public and private sector and within the public sector. Methods We conducted a Maternal, Newborn and Child Health Household Survey in 2010 using a two-stage sampling procedure and included 1079 mothers. The quality of ANC was assessed on the basis of the number of ANC visits, the time of the first ANC visit, 16 different ANC procedures, owning a maternal health care booklet, and the type of service provider. Results Almost all women (98%) received ANC services at least once, 80% at least four times, and 54% at least five times. About half of the women (46%) visited ANC facility within their first trimester. Neither public nor private sector provided all 16 standardized services, but significantly more women in public sector received ANC procedures. Most women received ANC in county or higher-level hospitals (75%) and very few in township hospitals (8%). Significantly fewer women were weighed and tested for HIV/AIDS in township than in county or higher-level hospitals. Conclusion The quality of ANC in Hebei was poorer than required by China’s national and World Health Organization norms. Although the public sector performed better than the private sector, the utilization and quality of care of ANC services in this sector varied and women generally visited county or higher-level health facilities. PMID:23630142

  6. Wind speed forecasting using FEEMD echo state networks with RELM in Hebei, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Wei; Liu, Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • FEEMD–RELM is proposed for wind speed forecasting. • Short-term and mid-term wind speed are forecasted by the proposed model. • PACF is introduced to select the input of RELM. • Three cases in Hebei province are applied in this paper. - Abstract: Reducing the dependence on fossil-fuel-based resources is becoming significant due to the detrimental effects on environment and global energy-dependent. Thus, increased attention has been paid to wind power, a type of clean and renewable energy. However, owing to the stochastic nature of wind speed, it is essential to build a wind speed forecasting model with high-precision for wind power utilization. Therefore, this paper proposes a hybrid model which combines fast ensemble empirical model decomposition (FEEMD) with regularized extreme learning machine (RELM). The original wind speed series are first decomposed into a limited number of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) and one residual series. Then RELM is built to forecast the sub-series. Partial auto correlation function (PACF) is applied to analyze the intrinsic relationships between the historical speeds so as to select the inputs of RELM. To verify the developed models, short-term wind speed data in July 2010 and monthly data from January 2000 to May 2010 in Hong songwa wind farm, Chengde city are used for model construction and testing. Two additional forecasting cases in Hebei province are also applied to prove the model’s validity. The simulation test results show that the built model is effective, efficient and practicable.

  7. Distribution and accumulation of endocrine-disrupting chemicals and pharmaceuticals in wastewater irrigated soils in Hebei, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Feng; Ying Guangguo; Kong Lingxiao; Wang Li; Zhao Jianliang; Zhou Lijun; Zhang Lijuan

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of 43 emerging contaminants including 9 endocrine-disrupting chemicals and 34 pharmaceuticals in three sites in Hebei Province, north China. Each site has a wastewater irrigated plot and a separate groundwater irrigated plot for comparison purpose. The results showed that the concentrations of the target compounds in the wastewater irrigated soils were in most cases higher than those in the groundwater irrigated soils. Among the 43 target compounds, nine compounds bisphenol-A, triclocarban, triclosan, 4-nonylphenol, salicylic acid, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, trimethoprim and primidone were detected at least once in the soils. Preliminary environmental risk assessment showed that triclocarban might pose high risks to terrestrial organisms while the other detected compounds posed minimal risks. Irrigation with wastewater could lead to presence or accumulation of some emerging contaminants to some extent in irrigated soils. - Highlights: → Some EDCs and PPCPs were detected in the wastewater irrigated soils. → Application of reclaimed water could lead to accumulation of some compounds. → Groundwater has been contaminated by some compounds. → Triclocarban posed high risks to soil organisms. - Application of reclaimed wastewater on agricultural land could lead to the presence or accumulation of wastewater-related contaminants in soils.

  8. Distribution and accumulation of endocrine-disrupting chemicals and pharmaceuticals in wastewater irrigated soils in Hebei, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Chen [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Ying Guangguo, E-mail: guangguo.ying@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Lingxiao, Kong [Institute of Plant Protection, Hebei Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Science, Baoding 07100 (China); Li, Wang; Jianliang, Zhao; Lijun, Zhou; Lijuan, Zhang [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2011-06-15

    This study investigated the occurrence of 43 emerging contaminants including 9 endocrine-disrupting chemicals and 34 pharmaceuticals in three sites in Hebei Province, north China. Each site has a wastewater irrigated plot and a separate groundwater irrigated plot for comparison purpose. The results showed that the concentrations of the target compounds in the wastewater irrigated soils were in most cases higher than those in the groundwater irrigated soils. Among the 43 target compounds, nine compounds bisphenol-A, triclocarban, triclosan, 4-nonylphenol, salicylic acid, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, trimethoprim and primidone were detected at least once in the soils. Preliminary environmental risk assessment showed that triclocarban might pose high risks to terrestrial organisms while the other detected compounds posed minimal risks. Irrigation with wastewater could lead to presence or accumulation of some emerging contaminants to some extent in irrigated soils. - Highlights: > Some EDCs and PPCPs were detected in the wastewater irrigated soils. > Application of reclaimed water could lead to accumulation of some compounds. > Groundwater has been contaminated by some compounds. > Triclocarban posed high risks to soil organisms. - Application of reclaimed wastewater on agricultural land could lead to the presence or accumulation of wastewater-related contaminants in soils.

  9. Solar PV Industry in Jiangsu Province [China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    Jiangsu Province is a leading province in China both in terms of Solar PV application as well as its implementation. The Netherlands Business Support Office in Nanjing reports on the photovoltaic solar cell industry in Jiangsu Province with details on opportunities for foreign investors; applications of solar energy in the province; Chinese government; relevant organizations; and key Chinese players in this sector.

  10. Mixing layer height on the North China Plain and meteorological evidence of serious air pollution in southern Hebei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaowan; Tang, Guiqian; Guo, Jianping; Hu, Bo; Song, Tao; Wang, Lili; Xin, Jinyuan; Gao, Wenkang; Münkel, Christoph; Schäfer, Klaus; Li, Xin; Wang, Yuesi

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the spatiotemporal variability of the mixing layer height (MLH) on the North China Plain (NCP), multi-site and long-term observations of the MLH with ceilometers at three inland stations (Beijing, BJ; Shijiazhuang, SJZ; Tianjin, TJ) and one coastal site (Qinhuangdao) were conducted from 16 October 2013 to 15 July 2015. The MLH of the inland stations in the NCP were highest in summer and lowest in winter, while the MLH on the coastal area of Bohai was lowest in summer and highest in spring. As a typical site in southern Hebei, the annual mean of the MLH at SJZ was 464 ± 183 m, which was 15.0 and 21.9 % lower than that at the BJ (594 ± 183 m) and TJ (546 ± 197 m) stations, respectively. Investigation of the shear term and buoyancy term in the NCP revealed that these two parameters in southern Hebei were 2.8 times lower and 1.5 times higher than that in northern NCP within 0-1200 m in winter, respectively, leading to a 1.9-fold higher frequency of the gradient Richardson number > 1 in southern Hebei compared to the northern NCP. Furthermore, combined with aerosol optical depth and PM2.5 observations, we found that the pollutant column concentration contrast (1.2 times) between these two areas was far less than the near-ground PM2.5 concentration contrast (1.5 times). Through analysis of the ventilation coefficient in the NCP, the near-ground heavy pollution in southern Hebei mainly resulted from the lower MLH and wind speed. Therefore, due to the importance of unfavorable weather conditions, heavily polluting enterprises should be relocated and strong emission reduction measures should be introduced to improve the air quality in southern Hebei.

  11. [Impacts of climate change on summer maize production and adaptive selection of varieties in Xingtai County, Hebei, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Fei; Chen, Xin-Ping; Cui, Zhen-Ling; Meng, Qing-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the impacts of climate change on agriculture production and the underlying mechanism in North China Plain is important to take effective adaptations for national food security. Using Hybrid-Maize model, this paper investigated the impacts of climate change on summer maize yield potential and famers' adaptation by changing varieties with longer growth periods from 1981 to 2010 in Xingtai County, Hebei Province. Results showed a significant warming trend with the average temperature increasing by 0.49 degrees C x 10 a(-1) since the 1980s. Both solar radiation and sunshine hours decreased significantly since the 1980s. The sunshine hours decreased by 0.56 h x d(-1) x 10 a(-1) and the solar radiation decreased by 265.1 MJ x m(-2) x 10 a(-1), while the precipitation kept constant with large variation among years since 1981. Yield potentials of both irrigated and rainfed maize were simulated to decrease by 0.63-0.64 Mg x hm(-2) x 10 a(-1) since 1981 if varieties were assumed fixed with the 1980s. This was mainly due to the decrease of solar radiation during the maize growth season and the shortened growth stage by warming, and around 60% of grain yield decrease was attributed to the decreased solar radiation. In practice, by changing varieties with longer growth periods, the growing degree days of varieties adopted by local farmers since the 2000s increased by 19% (280 degrees C) compared to the 1980s, and consequently the yield potential was simulated to increase by 34%-40% (2.73-3.40 Mg x hm(-2)) for both irrigated and rainfed maize.

  12. Spatial-temporal detection of risk factors for bacillary dysentery in Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengdong Xu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacillary dysentery is the third leading notifiable disease and remains a major public health concern in China. The Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei urban region is the biggest urban agglomeration in northern China, and it is one of the areas in the country that is most heavily infected with bacillary dysentery. The objective of the study was to analyze the spatial-temporal pattern and to determine any contributory risk factors on the bacillary dysentery. Methods Bacillary dysentery case data from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2012 in Beijing–Tianjin– Hebei were employed. GeoDetector method was used to determine the impact of potential risk factors, and to identify regions and seasons at high risk of the disease. Results There were 36,472 cases of bacillary dysentery in 2012 in the study region. The incidence of bacillary dysentery varies widely amongst different age groups; the higher incidence of bacillary dysentery mainly occurs in the population under the age of five. Bacillary dysentery presents apparent seasonal variance, with the highest incidence occurring from June to September. In terms of the potential meteorological risk factors, mean temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, mean wind speed and sunshine hours explain the time variant of bacillary dysentery at 83%, 31%, 25%, 17% and 13%, respectively. The interactive effect between temperature and humidity has an explanatory power of 87%, indicating that a hot and humid environment is more likely to lead to the occurrence of bacillary dysentery. Socio-economic factors affect the spatial distribution of bacillary dysentery. The top four factors are age group, per capita GDP, population density and rural population proportion, and their determinant powers are 61%, 27%, 25% and 21%, respectively. The interactive effect between age group and the other factors accounts for more than 60% of bacillary dysentery transmission. Conclusions Bacillary dysentery poses a

  13. Investigation of Health Conditions and Advice on Physical Exercise for College Students – Taking Hebei Province as an example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guokun Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As the colleges and universities are considered as the cradles for development of high-level talents, the physical fitness of college students is decisive to the future construction and development of our country. Meanwhile, the college physical education, as an important component in school education, undertakes the important responsibility of improving and enhancing the constitution and health level of college students. Taking Hebei Province as an example, this article investigates part of constitution data of college student, and makes vertical and horizontal analysis on situations of engagement in physical exercise for college students, by which it can be concluded that: Most of the students in college have had necessary physical exercise within teaching hours according to course arrangement, but some of them expect to simply take the credits and pass the exam; It is advised that the management intensity of constitution and health level for students shall be enhanced, and the sound long-effect mechanism of constitution monitoring shall also be established.

  14. Spatiotemporal Simulation of Tourist Town Growth Based on the Cellular Automata Model: The Case of Sanpo Town in Hebei Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatiotemporal simulation of tourist town growth is important for research on land use/cover change under the influence of urbanization. Many scholars have shown great interest in the unique pattern of driving urban development with tourism development. Based on the cellular automata (CA model, we simulated and predicted the spatiotemporal growth of Sanpo town in Hebei Province, using the tourism urbanization growth model. Results showed that (1 average annual growth rate of the entire region was 1.5 Ha2 per year from 2005 to 2010, 4 Ha2 per year from 2010 to 2015, and 2.5 Ha2 per year from 2015 to 2020; (2 urban growth rate increased yearly, with regional differences, and had a high degree of correlation with the Euclidean distance of town center, traffic route, attractions, and other factors; (3 Gougezhuang, an important village center in the west of the town, demonstrated traffic advantages and increased growth rate since 2010; (4 Magezhuang village has the largest population in the region, so economic advantages have driven the development of rural urbanization. It showed that CA had high reliability in simulating the spatiotemporal evolution of tourist town, which assists the study of spatiotemporal growth under urbanization and rational protection of tourism resources.

  15. [Water utilization characteristics of the degraded poplar shelterbelts in Zhangbei, Hebei, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huan; Cao, Jun; Wang, Hua Bing; Song, Bo; Jia, Guo Dong; Liu, Zi Qiang; Yu, Xin Xiao; Zeng, Jia

    2018-05-01

    In Zhangbei County, Hebei Province, poplar-dominated shelterbelts are degraded to different extents. Water availability is the main limiting factor for plant survival in arid areas. The purpose of this study was to reveal the relationship between water availability and poplar degradation. Based on the hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope techniques, we explored the water sources of Populus simonii under different degradation degrees by comparing the isotopic values of P. simonii xylem water with that in potential water source, and calculated the utilization ratio of each water source. The results showed that the water sources of poplar trees varied with degradation degree. The water sources of P. simonii gradually transferred from the deep layer to the surface layer with the increases of degradation. P. simonii with no degradation mainly absorbed soil water in the range of 320-400 cm, with the utilization rate being 25.1%. P. simonii with slight degradation mainly used soil water at depth of 120-180, 180-240 and 240-320 cm. The total utilization rate of three layers was close to 50.0%, with less utilization of water from other layers. The moderately degraded P. simonii mainly used soil water at depth of 20-40, 40-60 and 60-80 cm. The utilization rate of each layer was 17.5%-20.9%, and the contribution rate of soil water under 120 cm was less than 10.0%. The severely degraded P. simonii mainly used water from surface soil layer (0-20 cm), with the utilization rate being 30.4%, which was significantly higher than that of other water sources. The water sources of poplar shelter forests were gradually shallower during the process of degradation. However, the low soil water content in the shallow layer could not meet the normal water demand of poplar, which would accelerate the degradation and even decline of poplar.

  16. Water footprint of crop production for different crop structures in the Hebei southern plain, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yingmin; Shen, Yanjun; Yuan, Zaijian

    2017-06-01

    The North China Plain (NCP) has a serious shortage of freshwater resources, and crop production consumes approximately 75 % of the region's water. To estimate water consumption of different crops and crop structures in the NCP, the Hebei southern plain (HSP) was selected as a study area, as it is a typical region of groundwater overdraft in the NCP. In this study, the water footprint (WF) of crop production, comprised of green, blue and grey water footprints, and its annual variation were analyzed. The results demonstrated the following: (1) the WF from the production of main crops was 41.8 km3 in 2012. Winter wheat, summer maize and vegetables were the top water-consuming crops in the HSP. The water footprint intensity (WFI) of cotton was the largest, and for vegetables, it was the smallest; (2) the total WF, WFblue, WFgreen and WFgrey for 13 years (2000-2012) of crop production were 604.8, 288.5, 141.3 and 175.0 km3, respectively, with an annual downtrend from 2000 to 2012; (3) winter wheat, summer maize and vegetables consumed the most groundwater, and their blue water footprint (WFblue) accounted for 74.2 % of the total WFblue in the HSP; (4) the crop structure scenarios analysis indicated that, with approximately 20 % of arable land cultivated with winter wheat-summer maize in rotation, 38.99 % spring maize, 10 % vegetables and 10 % fruiters, a sustainable utilization of groundwater resources can be promoted, and a sufficient supply of food, including vegetables and fruits, can be ensured in the HSP.

  17. Heavy metal contamination and ecological risk of farmland soils adjoining steel plants in Tangshan, Hebei, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liyun; Yang, Maomao; Wang, Liping; Peng, Fei; Li, Yuan; Bai, Hao

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the heavy metal concentrations and ecological risks to farmland soils caused by atmospheric deposition adjoining five industrial steel districts in Tangshan, Hebei, China. A total of 39 topsoil samples from adjoining these plants were collected and analyzed for Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, and As. The geo-accumulation index (Igeo) and potential ecological risk index (PERI) were calculated to assess the heavy metal pollution level in soils. The results showed that the levels of Pb and As in farmland soils adjoining all steel plants were more than the background value, with the As content being excessively high. The Cr and Cu contents of some samples were over the background values, but the Zn content was not. In all the research areas, the largest Igeo value of the heavy metals was for As, followed by Pb, and the largest monomial PERI ([Formula: see text]) was As, which showed that the pollution of As in farmland soils was significant and had considerable ecological risk. Additionally, the heavy metal sequential extraction experiments showed that Pb and Cr, which exceeded the background value, were present in about 20% of the exchangeable and carbonate-bound fractions in the soils surrounding some steel plants. This would imply the risk of these heavy metals being absorbed and accumulated by the crops. Therefore, the local government needs to control the pollution of heavy metals in the farmland soils adjoining the steel plant as soon as possible, in order to avoid possible ecological and food safety risks.

  18. Water footprint of crop production for different crop structures in the Hebei southern plain, North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Chu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The North China Plain (NCP has a serious shortage of freshwater resources, and crop production consumes approximately 75 % of the region's water. To estimate water consumption of different crops and crop structures in the NCP, the Hebei southern plain (HSP was selected as a study area, as it is a typical region of groundwater overdraft in the NCP. In this study, the water footprint (WF of crop production, comprised of green, blue and grey water footprints, and its annual variation were analyzed. The results demonstrated the following: (1 the WF from the production of main crops was 41.8 km3 in 2012. Winter wheat, summer maize and vegetables were the top water-consuming crops in the HSP. The water footprint intensity (WFI of cotton was the largest, and for vegetables, it was the smallest; (2 the total WF, WFblue, WFgreen and WFgrey for 13 years (2000–2012 of crop production were 604.8, 288.5, 141.3 and 175.0 km3, respectively, with an annual downtrend from 2000 to 2012; (3 winter wheat, summer maize and vegetables consumed the most groundwater, and their blue water footprint (WFblue accounted for 74.2 % of the total WFblue in the HSP; (4 the crop structure scenarios analysis indicated that, with approximately 20 % of arable land cultivated with winter wheat–summer maize in rotation, 38.99 % spring maize, 10 % vegetables and 10 % fruiters, a sustainable utilization of groundwater resources can be promoted, and a sufficient supply of food, including vegetables and fruits, can be ensured in the HSP.

  19. Interprovincial transfer of embodied energy between the Jing-Jin-Ji area and other provinces in China: A quantification using interprovincial input-output model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiming; Wu, Sanmang; Lei, Yalin; Li, Shantong

    2017-04-15

    Commodity trade between regions implies a large amount of energy transfer. As an important economic growth pole of China, the Jing-Jin-Ji area (Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei) is also one of the areas with the largest energy consumption in China. Moreover, the primary energy consumer goods in this area are fossil fuels, such as coal. This has led to serious air pollution in the area. Therefore, the reduction of energy consumption under the premise of maintaining sustained economic growth is an important task of the Jing-Jin-Ji area. In this study, an interprovincial input-output model was applied to quantitatively estimate the embodied energy transfer between Jing-Jin-Ji area and other provinces in China. The results indicated that the Metal and nonmetal mineral processing industry and the Electrical, gas and water industry in the Jing-Jin-Ji area exported a large amount of embodied energy to the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta. However, the embodied energy export of the Jing-Jin-Ji area mainly exported by Hebei province. Beijing and Tianjin even have some net import of embodied energy. The embodied energy transfer between Tianjin, Hebei and other provinces was mainly driven by investment, while the main media of embodied energy transfer between Beijing and other provinces was consumption. Therefore, we suggest that the Jing-Jin-Ji area should further increase the degree of dependence on other provinces' energy-intensive products and reduce the export of energy-intensive products. In addition, there should be difference in the energy and industrial policies among Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei, and the problems of high energy consumption and high proportion of heavy industry in Hebei should be first resolved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Serological survey on Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women with history of adverse pregnancy in Bazhou area, Hebei Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming-Hui, Zhu; Li-Juan, Xu; Zhen-Wei, Xue

    2016-06-22

    To investigate the Toxoplasma gondii infection status in pregnant women with history of adverse pregnancy and risk factors in Bazhou area, Hebei Province. A total of 302 pregnant women with the history of adverse pregnancy were chosen as respondents (an experimental group) in the hospital from March 2012 to December 2015, and 197 pregnant women without the history of adverse pregnancy as a control group. TOX-IgG and TOX-IgM were detected by using ELISA in two groups. The risk factors of Toxoplasma infection were surveyed by questionnaires. The total positive rate of Toxoplasma antibodies was 28.15% (85/302) in the experimental group, which was significantly higher than that [9.64%(19/197)] in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant ( χ 2 = 24.76, P <0.05). The positive rates of TOX-IgM, TOX-IgG and TOX-IgM + TOX-IgG were 6.95% (21/302), 18.54% (56/302), and 2.65% (8/302) respectively in the experimental group, which were higher than 2.03% (4/197), 7.61% (15/197), and 0% (0/197) respectively in the control group ( χ 2 = 6.07, 11.67, 3.76, all P <0.05). The questionnaire survey showed that the proportions of keeping pets, cutting board regardless, liking to eat hot pot or barbecue, eating raw meat, often eating in the restaurant in the pregnant women with Toxoplasma infection were higher than those in the pregnant women without Toxoplasma infection, and the differences were statistically significant ( χ 2 = 22.57, 3.96, 5.87, 7.40, 4.86, all P <0.05), and therefore, the above unhealthy habits may be important risk factors. Toxoplasma infection could lead to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Therefore, the above-mentioned unhealthy habits should be avoided, especially during pregnancy period.

  1. Can MODIS AOD be employed to derive PM2.5 in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei over China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoyan

    2017-04-01

    The fine particular matter (PM) concentrations in China have increased considerably due to the rapid economic growth and urbanization in the last few decades, especially in the most populated and industrialized regions. The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei is one of the most polluted regions in China, so to monitor the PM2.5 concentrations over this region is quite critical for human health. By making use the new released hourly PM2.5 mass concentration from ground-based observations in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei over China, and the collocated MODIS level 2 AOD data from April 2014 to March 2015, we explored the relation between surface PM2.5 mass concentration and MODIS AOD and possibility to derive the surface PM2.5 from satellite retrieval in the region. Our study show that the relation strongly depend on the seasons due to distinct seasonal characteristics of PM2.5 and AOD, with a relatively better correlation in spring and summertime than autumn and wintertime. Our analysis give an evidence that worse relationship and/or smaller number of sample in wintertime is associated with the significantly high PM2.5 concentration and a lot of missing data occurring in MODIS AOD, implying that current MODIS AOD retrieval scheme does not work very well in highly polluted cases. The derived PM2.5 mass concentration from MODIS AOD in summertime can basically capture the major observed features of the time series and about 20% large bias of the derived values compared to the observation is expected to be reduced once longer time period data is available and used for analysis.

  2. [Correlative factors related to the density of Meriones unguiculatus in the Meriones unguiculatus plague foci of Hebei province, 2001-2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Y F; Kang, X P; Yan, D; Zhang, Y H; Liu, G; Kang, D M; Liu, H Z; Shi, X M; Li, Y G

    2016-08-10

    To explore the yearly, monthly and habitat-related distribution and their relations with Meriones unguiculatus density in the Hebei Meriones unguiculatus plague foci, from 2001 to 2013. Data related to Meriones unguiculatus was gathered through the monitoring programs set up at the national and provincial Meriones unguiculatus plague foci in Hebei province, from 2001 to 2013. According to the yearly density of Meriones unguiculatus, criteria set for the three groups under study, were as follows:'high-risk group'-when the rodent density was≥1.00 under rodents/hm(2),'warning group'-when the rodents/hm(2)>rodent density> 0.20,'standard group'-when rodents/hm(2) rodent density≤0.20 rodents/hm(2). Differences of habitats and monthly distribution among the three groups were compared, under the Kruskal-Wallis H rank sum test while their relations were under the multiple correspondence analysis. The Meriones unguiculatus densities were higher than 1.00 rodents/hm(2), far above the set national standards, in the monitoring area, between 2001 and 2005. From 2005, though the rodent densities began to decrease, however, figures from 2008 to 2013 were still among 0.20 to 1.00 rodents/hm(2). The distribution of habitats in the three groups showed that the Meriones unguiculatus densities were all different in habitats and the difference was statistically significant (Pplague increased in Hebei Meriones unguiculatus plague foci. Based on the distribution of Meriones unguiculatus, programs should be set to monitor the rodent in arable land and wasteland, in April and June, to reduce the prevalence of animals plague.

  3. Metallogenic epoch of the Jiapigou gold belt, Jilin Province, China

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Metallogenic epoch of the Jiapigou gold belt, Jilin Province, China: ... The Jiapigou gold belt is located on the northern margin of the North China Craton, and is one of the ... 29, Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083, People's Republic of China.

  4. Spatio-temporal changes in precipitation over Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Na; Yue, Tianxiang; Li, Han; Zhang, Lili; Yin, Xiaozhe; Liu, Yi

    2018-04-01

    Changes in precipitation have a large effect on human society and are of primary importance for many scientific fields such as hydrology, agriculture and eco-environmental sciences. The present study intended to investigate the spatio-temporal characteristics of precipitation in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region by using 316 meteorological stations during the period 1965-2014. Geographical Weighted Regression (GWR) method and High Accuracy Surface Modeling (HASM) method were applied to produce the precipitation patterns at different time scales. Mann-Kendall (MK) statistical test was applied to analyze the precipitation temporal variations. Results indicated that annual precipitation over the past 50 years appeared to be a non-periodic oscillation phenomenon; the number of wet years was approximately the same as that of dry years; significant positive trends were observed in spring during 1978-2014 and summer during 1996-2014; on the whole, precipitation in May, June, September, and December showed increasing trends at the 95% confidence level; and significant positive trends were also identified in July during 2000-2013 and August during 1997-2010, while slight decreasing trends were observed in February and November. Summer (June, July, and August) was the wettest season, accounting for 68.73% of annual totals in BTH. In general, northeastern BTH received the highest range of precipitation while northwestern area had the lowest. It was found that precipitation variation in this region had been closely linked to latitude, Digital Elevation Model (DEM), distance to the sea, and urbanization rate. In addition, land use played an important role in the decadal precipitation changes in BTH.

  5. Freshwater Ecosystem Service Flow Model To Evaluate Regional Water Security: A Case Study In Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D.; Li, S.

    2016-12-01

    Freshwater service, as the most important support ecosystem service, is essential to human survival and development. Many studies have evidenced the spatial differences in the supply and demand of ecosystem services and raised the concept of ecosystem service flow. However, rather few studies quantitatively characterize the freshwater service flow. This paper aims to quantify the effect of freshwater ecosystem service flow on downstream areas in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, China over 2000, 2005 and 2010. We computed the freshwater ecosystem service provision with InVEST model. We calculated freshwater ecosystem service consumption with water quota method. We simulated the freshwater ecosystem service flow using our simplified flow model and assessed the regional water security with the improved freshwater security index. The freshwater provision service mainly depends on climatic factors that cannot be influenced by management, while the freshwater consumption service is constrained by human activities. Furthermore, the decrease of water quota for agricultural, domestic and industrial water counteracts the impact of increasing freshwater demand. The analysis of freshwater ecosystem service flow reveals that the majority area of the BTH (69.2%) is affected by upstream freshwater. If freshwater ecosystem service flow is considered, the water safety areas of the whole BTH account for 66.9%, 66.1%, 71.3%, which increase 6.4%, 6.8% and 5.7% in 2000, 2005 and 2010, respectively. These results highlight the need to understand the teleconnections between distant freshwater ecosystem service provision and local freshwater ecosystem service use. This approach therefore helps managers choose specific management and investment strategies for critical upstream freshwater provisions across different regions.

  6. Migrant Rights in Fujian Province (China) | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Migrant Rights in Fujian Province (China). China has the largest internal migrant population in the world, and women account for nearly half of it. Fujian province has been a traditional source of large numbers of Chinese migrants to Southeast Asia and the United States. Now, with the burgeoning economies of southeast ...

  7. Petrogenesis of the middle Jurassic appinite and coeval granitoids in the Eastern Hebei area of North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wenbo; Jiang, Neng; Xu, Xiyang; Hu, Jun; Zong, Keqing

    2017-05-01

    An integrated study of zircon U-Pb ages and Hf-O isotopic compositions, whole rock elemental and Sr-Nd isotope geochemistry was conducted on three lithologically diverse middle Jurassic plutons from the Eastern Hebei area of the North China Craton (NCC), in order to reveal both their petrogenesis and possible tectonic affinity. The three plutons have consistent magmatic zircon U-Pb ages from 167 ± 1 Ma to 173 ± 1 Ma. The Nianziyu pluton has typical characteristics of appinite with low SiO2 (43.7-52.6%), high Ca, Mg, Fe and H2O contents. It possesses subduction-related trace element patterns, enriched Nd-Hf isotopic signatures as well as elevated zircon δ18O values (6.2-7.2‰), arguing for an enriched mantle source metasomatized by fluids related to subduction. The Shuihutong monzogranites have high silica (SiO2 = 75.4-75.9%) and alkali contents, low Ca contents and striking negative Ba, Sr and Eu anomalies. Samples from the pluton have more evolved Nd-Hf isotopic values and are considered to be most likely derived from anatexis of ancient lower continental crust. Hybridization between mantle- and ancient lower crust-derived magmas is proposed for the mafic microgranular enclave-bearing Baijiadian granitoids, which are characterized by variable εNd (t) and εHf(t) values. Integrated with the regional geologic history, we suggest that the formation of the three middle Jurassic plutons were related to the subduction of the Paleo-Pacific ocean plate beneath the NCC. Their petrogenetic differences reflect complex magmatic processes in subduction settings involving melting of multiple sources, possible partly facilitated by fluid metasomatism and water-rich magma injection, accompanied with various degrees of magma mixing. The appearance of middle Jurassic appinitic rocks leads us to propose that the NCC destruction and lithosphere thinning were facilitated and controlled by the weakening of the lithospheric mantle after hydration because of the subduction of the

  8. Rupture Speed and Dynamic Frictional Processes for the 1995 ML4.1 Shacheng, Hebei, China, Earthquake Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B.; Shi, B.

    2010-12-01

    An earthquake with ML4.1 occurred at Shacheng, Hebei, China, on July 20, 1995, followed by 28 aftershocks with 0.9≤ML≤4.0 (Chen et al, 2005). According to ZÚÑIGA (1993), for the 1995 ML4.1 Shacheng earthquake sequence, the main shock is corresponding to undershoot, while aftershocks should match overshoot. With the suggestion that the dynamic rupture processes of the overshoot aftershocks could be related to the crack (sub-fault) extension inside the main fault. After main shock, the local stresses concentration inside the fault may play a dominant role in sustain the crack extending. Therefore, the main energy dissipation mechanism should be the aftershocks fracturing process associated with the crack extending. We derived minimum radiation energy criterion (MREC) following variational principle (Kanamori and Rivera, 2004)(ES/M0')min≧[3M0/(ɛπμR3)](v/β)3, where ES and M0' are radiated energy and seismic moment gained from observation, μ is the modulus of fault rigidity, ɛ is the parameter of ɛ=M0'/M0,M0 is seismic moment and R is rupture size on the fault, v and β are rupture speed and S-wave speed. From II and III crack extending model, we attempt to reconcile a uniform expression for calculate seismic radiation efficiency ηG, which can be used to restrict the upper limit efficiency and avoid the non-physics phenomenon that radiation efficiency is larger than 1. In ML 4.1 Shacheng earthquake sequence, the rupture speed of the main shock was about 0.86 of S-wave speed β according to MREC, closing to the Rayleigh wave speed, while the rupture speeds of the remained 28 aftershocks ranged from 0.05β to 0.55β. The rupture speed was 0.9β, and most of the aftershocks are no more than 0.35β using II and III crack extending model. In addition, the seismic radiation efficiencies for this earthquake sequence were: for the most aftershocks, the radiation efficiencies were less than 10%, inferring a low seismic efficiency, whereas the radiation efficiency

  9. A new species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Californian rabbits in Hebei Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ping; Liu, Hongbin; Fang, Sufang; Gu, Xiaolong; Wang, Peng; Liu, Chunling; Tao, Geru; Liu, Xianyong; Suo, Xun

    2017-10-01

    Rabbit coccidiosis is caused by infection with one or usually several Eimeria species, parasitizing in hepatobiliary ducts or intestinal epithelium of rabbits. To date, 11 species of rabbit coccidia have been well documented. Here we report a new species of Eimeria from rabbits. Sporulated oocysts were ellipsoidal to slightly ovoidal, 37.4 (32.6-41.2) μm in length, 23.5 (20.9-25.5) μm in width, with a shape index (length/width) 1.6 (1.43-1.91) and smooth, bilayered, homogeneously thick wall. The micropyle was obvious and with an inner diameter of 6.2 (5.0-7.5) μm. Both oocyst residuum and polar granule were absent. Sporocysts were ellipsoidal to elongate, 17.2 (13.2-20.0) μm long and 8.4 (7.5-9.1) μm wide, with a shape index (length/width) of 2.1 (1.74-2.21) and the presence of Stieda body and sporocyst residuum. The prepatent period was 132h. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 18S rDNA sequence of the new species clustered together with the 11 rabbit Eimeria species into a clade. However, ITS-1 sequence of the new species shared low similarities (27.1%-30%) with those of 11 rabbit Eimeria species. As the data above supported the erection of a new species, we named it as Eimeria kongi n. sp., in honor of Fanyao Kong, a Chinese parasitologist. The finding of the new species has important implications for the diagnosis and prevention of rabbit coccidiosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Propensity Analysis on Consumption Expenditure of Rural Residents in Hebei Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Meng; Wang, Guirong; Wang, Huijun

    2009-01-01

    Consumption expenditure of rural residents can be divided into eight types of indices, such as food consumption expenditure, clothing consumption expenditure, household equipment and service consumption expenditure, health care consumption expenditure, transportation and communication consumption expenditure, cultural and educational entertainment and service consumption expenditure, housing consumption expenditure, and other goods and services consumption expenditure. Changes in structures o...

  11. Effect of Construction Land Expansion on Energy-Related Carbon Emissions: Empirical Analysis of China and Its Provinces from 2001 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuankai Deng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Construction land expansion significantly affects energy-related carbon emissions. This paper analyzed the effect of construction land expansion on energy-related carbon emissions in China and its provinces from 2001 to 2011 by using the logarithmic mean Divisia index method. We divided the study into two intervals (2001–2006 and 2006–2011 and categorized the 30 provinces of China into eight zones. Results indicated that construction land expansion exerted the second largest positive effect on carbon emission growth in China and in the 30 provinces from 2001 to 2011. The north, east, and south coastal regions as well as the middle Yellow River region, were the highly affected regions in the same period. Between the two study intervals, the effect of construction land expansion on carbon emissions decreased in China and in the coastal regions, but increased in inland regions. The Hebei, Shandong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong, Yunnan, Chongqing, Ningxia, and Xinjiang provinces, which are concentrated in the north, east, and south coastal regions, were selected for the reduction of carbon emissions by controlling construction land expansion.

  12. A high-resolution air pollutants emission inventory in 2013 for the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ji; Zheng, Bo; Li, Meng; Yu, Fang; Chen, Chuchu; Liu, Fei; Zhou, Xiafei; Yuan, Jing; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin

    2017-12-01

    We developed a high-resolution Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) regional air pollutants emission inventory for the year 2013. The inventory was established using a bottom-up approach based on facility-level activity data obtained from multiple data sources. The estimates from the BTH 2013 emission inventory show that the total emissions of SO2, NOX, PM2.5, PM10, CO, NMVOC, NH3, BC, and OC were 2,305, 2,686, 1,090, 1,494, 20,567, 2,207, 623, 160, and 254 Gg, respectively. The industry sector is the largest emissions source for SO2, NOX, PM2.5, PM10, CO, and NMVOC in the BTH region, contributing 72.6%, 43.7%, 59.6%, 64.7%, 60.3%, and 70.4% of the total emissions, respectively. Power plants contributed 11.8% and 23.3% of the total SO2 and NOX emissions, respectively. The transportation sector contributed 28.9% of the total NOX emissions. Emissions from the residential sector accounted for 31.3%, 21.5%, 46.6% and 71.7% of the total PM2.5, NMVOC, BC and OC emissions, respectively. In addition, more than 90% of the total NH3 emissions originate from the agriculture sector, with 44.2% from fertilizer use and 47.7% from livestock. The spatial distribution results illustrate that air pollutant emissions are mainly distributed over the eastern and southern BTH regions. Beijing, Tianjin, Shijiazhuang, Tangshan and Handan are the major contributors of air pollutants. The major NMVOC species in the BTH region are ethylene, acetylene, ethane and toluene. Ethylene is the biggest contributor in Tianjin and Hebei. The largest contributor in Beijing is toluene. There is relatively low uncertainty in SO2 and NOX emission estimates, medium uncertainty in PM2.5, PM10 and CO emission estimates, and high uncertainties in VOC, NH3, BC and OC emission estimates. The proposed policy recommendations, based on the BTH 2013 emission inventory, would be helpful to develop strategies for air pollution control.

  13. Chemical characterization and source identification of PM2.5 at multiple sites in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaojuan; Liu, Zirui; Liu, Jingyun; Hu, Bo; Wen, Tianxue; Tang, Guiqian; Zhang, Junke; Wu, Fangkun; Ji, Dongsheng; Wang, Lili; Wang, Yuesi

    2017-11-01

    aerosols. This study suggests that control strategies to mitigate haze pollution in the BTH region should focus on the reduction of gaseous precursor emissions from fossil fuel combustion (motor vehicle emissions in Beijing and coal combustion in Tianjin, Hebei, and nearby provinces).

  14. Chemical characterization and source identification of PM2.5 at multiple sites in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Huang

    2017-11-01

    contributions from secondary aerosols. This study suggests that control strategies to mitigate haze pollution in the BTH region should focus on the reduction of gaseous precursor emissions from fossil fuel combustion (motor vehicle emissions in Beijing and coal combustion in Tianjin, Hebei, and nearby provinces.

  15. Remediation of Legacy Arsenic Mining Areas in Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian H. von Lindern

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions. The success of the demonstration project was recognized and has provided direction and momentum for a wider effort by the Province to address mining pollution and water contamination challenges. It demonstrates the success of using known techniques for environmental remediation in the US, with local partners in China responding to their communities’ health and environmental problems.

  16. Analyzing the carbon mitigation potential of tradable green certificates based on a TGC-FFSRO model: A case study in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cong; Zhu, Ying; Zeng, Xueting; Huang, Guohe; Li, Yongping

    2018-07-15

    Contradictions of increasing carbon mitigation pressure and electricity demand have been aggravated significantly. A heavy emphasis is placed on analyzing the carbon mitigation potential of electric energy systems via tradable green certificates (TGC). This study proposes a tradable green certificate (TGC)-fractional fuzzy stochastic robust optimization (FFSRO) model through integrating fuzzy possibilistic, two-stage stochastic and stochastic robust programming techniques into a linear fractional programming framework. The framework can address uncertainties expressed as stochastic and fuzzy sets, and effectively deal with issues of multi-objective tradeoffs between the economy and environment. The proposed model is applied to the major economic center of China, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. The generated results of proposed model indicate that a TGC mechanism is a cost-effective pathway to cope with carbon reduction and support the sustainable development pathway of electric energy systems. In detail, it can: (i) effectively promote renewable power development and reduce fossil fuel use; (ii) lead to higher CO 2 mitigation potential than non-TGC mechanism; and (iii) greatly alleviate financial pressure on the government to provide renewable energy subsidies. The TGC-FFSRO model can provide a scientific basis for making related management decisions of electric energy systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Numerical study of the effects of local atmospheric circulations on a pollution event over Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yucong; Liu, Shuhua; Zheng, Yijia; Wang, Shu; Chen, Bicheng; Zheng, Hui; Zhao, Jingchuan

    2015-04-01

    Currently, the Chinese central government is considering plans to build a trilateral economic sphere in the Bohai Bay area, including Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei (BTH), where haze pollution frequently occurs. To achieve sustainable development, it is necessary to understand the physical mechanism of the haze pollution there. Therefore, the pollutant transport mechanisms of a haze event over the BTH region from 23 to 24 September 2011 were studied using the Weather Research and Forecasting model and the FLEXible-PARTicle dispersion model to understand the effects of the local atmospheric circulations and atmospheric boundary layer structure. Results suggested that the penetration by sea-breeze could strengthen the vertical dispersion by lifting up the planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) and carry the local pollutants to the downstream areas; in the early night, two elevated pollution layers (EPLs) may be generated over the mountain areas: the pollutants in the upper EPL at the altitude of 2-2.5 km were favored to disperse by long-range transport, while the lower EPL at the altitude of 1 km may serve as a reservoir, and the pollutants there could be transported downward and contribute to the surface air pollution. The intensity of the sea-land and mountain-valley breeze circulations played an important role in the vertical transport and distribution of pollutants. It was also found that the diurnal evolution of the PBLH is important for the vertical dispersion of the pollutants, which is strongly affected by the local atmospheric circulations and the distribution of urban areas. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. SHRIMP zircon dating and LA-ICPMS Hf analysis of early Precambrian rocks from drill holes into the basement beneath the Central Hebei Basin, North China Craton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusheng Wan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Central Hebei Basin (CHB is one of the largest sedimentary basins in the North China Craton, extending in a northeast–southwest direction with an area of >350 km2. We carried out SHRIMP zircon dating, Hf-in-zircon isotopic analysis and a whole-rock geochemical study on igneous and metasedimentary rocks recovered from drill holes that penetrated into the basement of the CHB. Two samples of gneissic granodiorite (XG1-1 and gneissic quartz diorite (J48-1 have magmatic ages of 2500 and 2496 Ma, respectively. Their zircons also record metamorphic ages of 2.41–2.51 and ∼2.5 Ga, respectively. Compared with the gneissic granodiorite, the gneissic quartz diorite has higher ΣREE contents and lower Eu/Eu* and (La/Ybn values. Two metasedimentary samples (MG1, H5 mainly contain ∼2.5 Ga detrital zircons as well as late Paleoproterozoic metamorphic grains. The zircons of different origins have εHf (2.5 Ga values and Hf crustal model ages ranging from 0 to 5 and 2.7 to 2.9 Ga, respectively. Therefore, ∼2.5 Ga magmatic and Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks and late Neoarchean to early Paleoproterozoic and late Paleoproterozoic tectono-thermal events have been identified in the basement beneath the CHB. Based on regional comparisons, we conclude that the early Precambrian basement beneath the CHB is part of the North China Craton.

  19. Source data supported high resolution carbon emissions inventory for urban areas of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region: Spatial patterns, decomposition and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Bofeng; Li, Wanxin; Dhakal, Shobhakar; Wang, Jianghao

    2018-01-15

    This paper developed internationally compatible methods for delineating boundaries of urban areas in China. By integrating emission source data with existing official statistics as well as using rescaling methodology of data mapping for 1 km grid, the authors constructed high resolution emission gridded data in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (Jing-Jin-Ji) region in China for 2012. Comparisons between urban and non-urban areas of carbon emissions from industry, agriculture, household and transport exhibited regional disparities as well as sectoral differences. Except for the Hebei province, per capita total direct carbon emissions from urban extents in Beijing and Tianjin were both lower than provincial averages, indicating the climate benefit of urbanization, comparable to results from developed countries. Urban extents in the Hebei province were mainly industrial centers while those in Beijing and Tianjin were more service oriented. Further decomposition analysis revealed population to be a common major driver for increased carbon emissions but climate implications of urban design, economic productivity of land use, and carbon intensity of GDP were both cluster- and sector-specific. This study disapproves the one-size-fits-all solution for carbon mitigation but calls for down-scaled analysis of carbon emissions and formulation of localized carbon reduction strategies in the Jing-Jin-Ji as well as other regions in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impacts of synoptic condition and planetary boundary layer structure on the trans-boundary aerosol transport from Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region to northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yucong; Guo, Jianping; Liu, Shuhua; Zhao, Chun; Li, Xiaolan; Zhang, Gen; Wei, Wei; Ma, Yanjun

    2018-05-01

    The northeastern China frequently experiences severe aerosol pollution in winter under unfavorable meteorological conditions. How and to what extent the meteorological factors affect the air quality there are not yet clearly understood. Thus, this study investigated the impacts of synoptic patterns on the aerosol transport and planetary boundary layer (PBL) structure in Shenyang from 1 to 3 December 2016, using surface observations, sounding measurements, satellite data, and three-dimensional simulations. Results showed that the aerosol pollution occurred in Shenyang was not only related to the local emissions, but also contributed by trans-boundary transport of aerosols from the Beiijng-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region. In the presence of the westerly and southwesterly synoptic winds, the aerosols emitted from BTH could be brought to Shenyang. From December 2 to 3, the aerosols emitted from BTH accounted for ∼20% of near-surface PM2.5 in Shenyang. In addition, the large-scale synoptic forcings could affect the vertical mixing of pollutants through modulating the PBL structure in Shenyang. The westerly and southwesterly synoptic winds not only brought the aerosols but also the warmer air masses from the southwest regions to Shenyang. The strong warm advections above PBL could enhance the already existing thermal inversion layers capping over PBL in Shenyang, leading to the suppressions of PBL. Both the trans-boundary transport of aerosols and the suppressions of PBL caused by the large-scale synoptic forcings should be partly responsible for the poor air quality in Shenyang, in addition to the high pollutant emissions. The present study revealed the physical mechanisms underlying the aerosol pollution in Shenyang, which has important implications for better forecasting and controlling the aerosols pollution.

  1. Modelling the response of shallow groundwater levels to combined climate and water-diversion scenarios in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Plain, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Ye, Si-Yuan; Wei, Ai-Hua; Zhou, Peng-Peng; Wang, Li-Heng

    2017-09-01

    A three-dimensional groundwater flow model was implemented to quantify the temporal variation of shallow groundwater levels in response to combined climate and water-diversion scenarios over the next 40 years (2011-2050) in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (Jing-Jin-Ji) Plain, China. Groundwater plays a key role in the water supply, but the Jing-Jin-Ji Plain is facing a water crisis. Groundwater levels have declined continuously over the last five decades (1961-2010) due to extensive pumping and climate change, which has resulted in decreased recharge. The implementation of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP) will provide an opportunity to restore the groundwater resources. The response of groundwater levels to combined climate and water-diversion scenarios has been quantified using a groundwater flow model. The impacts of climate change were based on the World Climate Research Programme's (WCRP's) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3) multi-model dataset for future high (A2), medium (A1B), and low (B1) greenhouse gas scenarios; precipitation data from CMIP3 were applied in the model. The results show that climate change will slow the rate of decrease of the shallow groundwater levels under three climate-change scenarios over the next 40 years compared to the baseline scenario; however, the shallow groundwater levels will rise significantly (maximum of 6.71 m) when considering scenarios that combine climate change and restrictions on groundwater exploitation. Restrictions on groundwater exploitation for water resource management are imperative to control the decline of levels in the Jing-Jin-Ji area.

  2. Characteristics of concentrations and chemical compositions for PM2.5 in the region of Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Zhao

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the temporal and spatial variations of PM2.5 and its chemical compositions in the region of Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei (BTH, PM2.5 samples were collected at four urban sites in Beijing (BJ, Tianjin (TJ, Shijiazhuang (SJZ, and Chengde (CD, and also one site at Shangdianzi (SDZ regional background station over four seasons from 2009 to 2010. The samples were weighted for mass concentrations and analyzed in the laboratory for chemical profiles of 19 elements (Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn, eight water-soluble inorganic ions (Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl−, NO3−, and SO42−, and carbon fractions (OC and EC. The concentrations of PM2.5 and its major chemical species were season dependent and showed spatially similar characteristics in the plain area of BTH. The average annual concentrations of PM2.5 were 71.8–191.2 μg m−3 at the five sites, with more than 90% of sampling days exceeding 50 μg m−3 at BJ, TJ, and SJZ. PM2.5 pollution was most serious at SJZ, and the annual concentrations of PM2.5, secondary inorganic ions, OC, EC, and most crustal elements were all highest. Due to stronger photochemical oxidation, the sum of concentrations of secondary inorganic ions (NH4+, NO3−, and SO42− was highest in the summer at SDZ, BJ, TJ, and CD. Analysis of electric charges of water-soluble inorganic ions indicated the existence of nitric acid or hydrochloric acid in PM2.5. For all five sites, the concentrations of OC, EC and also secondary organic carbon (SOC in the spring and summer were lower than those in the autumn and winter. SOC had more percentages of increase than primary organic carbon (POC during the winter. The sums of crustal elements (Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Ti, Ba, and Sr were higher in the spring and autumn owing to more days with blowing or floating dust. The concentrations of heavy metals were at higher levels in the BTH area by comparison with other studies. In

  3. Reducing residential solid fuel combustion through electrified space heating leads to substantial air quality, health and climate benefits in China's Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J.; Mauzerall, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    During periods of high pollution in winter, household space heating can contribute more than half of PM2.5 concentrations in China's Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region. The majority of rural households and some urban households in the region still heat with small stoves and solid fuels such as raw coal, coal briquettes and biomass. Thus, reducing emissions from residential space heating has become a top priority of the Chinese government's air pollution mitigation plan. Electrified space heating is a promising alternative to solid fuel. However, there is little analysis of the air quality and climate implications of choosing various electrified heating devices and utilizing different electricity sources. Here we conduct an integrated assessment of the air quality, human health and climate implications of various electrified heating scenarios in the BTH region using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry. We use the Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China for the year 2012 as our base case and design two electrification scenarios in which either direct resistance heaters or air source heat pumps are installed to replace all household heating stoves. We initially assume all electrified heating devices use electricity from supercritical coal-fired power plants. We find that installing air source heat pumps reduces CO2 emissions and premature deaths due to PM2.5 pollution more than resistance heaters, relative to the base case. The increased health and climate benefits of heat pumps occur because they have a higher heat conversion efficiency and thus require less electricity for space heating than resistance heaters. We also find that with the same heat pump installation, a hybrid electricity source (40% of the electricity generated from renewable sources and the rest from coal) further reduces both CO2 emissions and premature deaths than using electricity only from coal. Our study demonstrates the air pollution and CO2 mitigation potential and

  4. Radon concentrations in well water in Sichuan Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yibin; Wu Qun; Zhang Bo; Chen Daifu

    1998-01-01

    There are 110 million people in Sichuan Province, China. Although most of the people in cities of Sichuan use river water, which contains low levels of radon, as potable water, people in countryside and in some communities of big cities still use well water as domestic consumption. This paper reports the radon concentrations in well water investigated in four cities, i.e. Chengdu, Chongqing, Leshan and Leijiang in Sichuan Province. Of the 80 wells investigated, the radon concentrations range from 3.5 to 181.6 KBqm -3 . Of the four cities, Chongqing has the highest well water radon concentration with the average 49.6 ± 54.1 KBqm -3 and the greatest variation. The investigation in four cities showed that the radon concentrations in well water are much higher than that in tap-water. In Chongqing where there are complex geological structures, mainly granite stratum, for example, the average radon concentration in well water is 112 times higher than that in the tap-water, and even much higher than that in river water in Yangtse River, Jialing River, Jinsha River and Mingjiang River. The population in four cities is about one sixth of the total population in Sichuan Province. Because of the common use of well water and the high radon concentrations in well water in Sichuan Province, the health effect of radon in well water to the public should be stressed. (author)

  5. Evaluation of health care system reform in Hubei Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Shuping; Wang, Zhenkun; Yu, Chuanhua

    2014-02-21

    This study established a set of indicators for and evaluated the effects of health care system reform in Hubei Province (China) from 2009 to 2011 with the purpose of providing guidance to policy-makers regarding health care system reform. The resulting indicators are based on the "Result Chain" logic model and include the following four domains: Inputs and Processes, Outputs, Outcomes and Impact. Health care system reform was evaluated using the weighted TOPSIS and weighted Rank Sum Ratio methods. Ultimately, the study established a set of indicators including four grade-1 indicators, 16 grade-2 indicators and 76 grade-3 indicators. The effects of the reforms increased year by year from 2009 to 2011 in Hubei Province. The health status of urban and rural populations and the accessibility, equity and quality of health services in Hubei Province were improved after the reforms. This sub-national case can be considered an example of a useful approach to the evaluation of the effects of health care system reform, one that could potentially be applied in other provinces or nationally.

  6. Genotyping Cryptosporidium andersoni in cattle in Shaanxi Province, Northwestern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Hui Zhao

    Full Text Available The present study examined the prevalence and genotypes of Cryptosporidium andersoni in cattle in Shaanxi province, China. A total of 2071 fecal samples (847 from Qinchuan cattle and 1224 from dairy cattle were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts, and 70 samples (3.4% were C. andersoni-positive and those positive samples were identified by PCR amplification of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA and the Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP genes. C. andersoni was the only species found in the examined cattle in this province. Fifty-seven C. andersoni isolates were characterized into 5 MLST subtypes using multilocus sequence typing analysis, including a new subtype in the native beef breed Qinchuan cattle. All of these C. andersoni isolates presented a clonal genetic structure. These findings provide new insights into the genetic structure of C. andersoni isolates in Shaanxi province and basic data of Cryptosporidium prevalence status, which in turn have implications for controlling cryptosporidiosis in this province.

  7. [Status quo of lifestyle among women of five occupations in six provinces of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Jing; Li, Ying-hua; Yang, Chong; Nie, Xue-qiong; Tao, Mao-xuan

    2012-10-01

    To learn the status quo of lifestyle among women of five occupations in six provinces of China. A questionnaire was administered among 7416 women from five occupations (civil servants, teachers of elementary and high schools, technical staff, enterprise managers and physical laborers) in Beijing, Hebei, Jilin, Hubei, Ningxia and Gansu of China. The sample was selected by multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling method from December 2009 to June 2010. The questionnaire information included demographic characteristics, diet, sleep habit, smoking, physical exercise. The χ(2) test was used to analyze the different in life style of different occupations. There were 7416 valid questionnaires received, and the valid rate of the questionnaires was 97.58% (7416/7682). About 38.00% (2818/7416) respondents preferred to bland diet and 28.44% (2109/7416) preferred to salty and oily food and 33.56% (2489/7416) had no preference. The proportion of sleep time between seven and eight hours per day was highest (accounting for 56.23%, 4154/7416), 25.27% (1867/7416) with sleep time less than seven hours. Among the population who had the sleep time less seven hours, teacher that had the highest rate accounted for 33.19% (531/1607) and technical staff had the lowest rate accounted for 21.05% (301/1401) (P accounting for 93.10% (6869/7416). 22.73% (1671/7416) respondents passively smoked. The proportion of always passive smoking was highest among civil servants and lowest among teachers, accounting for 26.60% (404/1531) and 18.71% (298/1607), respectively. The proportion of having no physical exercises was highest, accounting for 62.87% (4637/7416). The proportion of having three times physical exercises per week was 12.68% (935/7416). The proportion of having no physical exercises among physical laborers (66.42%, 912/1386), enterprise managers (66.64%, 987/1491) and teachers (62.40%, 999/1607) were higher than others and the proportion of having physical exercises per week among

  8. HIV/AIDS knowledge in detention in Hunan province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injection drug use (IDU is one of the major modes of HIV transmission in China. Drug use is illegal in China, all identified drug users are registered by Public Security Bureau, and most were sent to detention; most detainees engaged in high risk behaviours. In order to well understand the HIV/AIDS knowledge among detainees, a survey was conducted in different detention settings in Hunan province in 2008 to assess knowledge and attitudes about HIV among detainees and to provide useful information for HIV prevention and intervention strategies in detention centers. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 10 detentions in Hunan province, China, and demographic information along with knowledge and attitude of HIV/AIDS was collected through standardized interviews. Descriptive statistics were used to describe HIV knowledge, attitudes, and education services among detainees. Results There were 956 detainees interviewed from 10 detention centers. The male to female ratio was 2.24:1. The majority detainees received nine years of compulsory education, accounting for 51.5%. There were nine questions to assess HIV/AIDS knowledge of detainees, and 35.7% of those surveyed answered all nine questions correctly. There were 92.3% (882/956 who consented to be informed about the HIV antibody test results when tested, and 81% (774/956 elected that their family members were also informed. All detention centers had an organized HIV/AIDS education program. Conclusion This study gives us an overview about HIV/AIDS knowledge in detention in Hunan province, and all detention sites in the study provided HIV/AIDS intervention services among detainees that focused on HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitude, and health behaviors.

  9. Organochlorine concentrations in breast milk and risk assessment in the urban and rural areas of Northern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, J.H.; Sun, S.U. [Jichi Medical School, Tochigi (Japan). Dept. of Environmental Medicine, Center for Community Medicine]|[CREST-JST, Kawaguchi, Saitama (Japan); Koga, M. [Prefectural Univ. of Kumamoto (Japan). Fac. of Environmental and Symbiotic Sciences] (and others)

    2004-09-15

    In China, during the past 40 years, organochlorine pesticides (OPs) with impurity were produced and used in a large quantity. However, little is known on the OPs contamination status of the residents in mainland of China. To elucidate body burden of organochlorine compounds and factors associated with organochlorine levels of the residents in North China, we performed life style questionnaire and collected breast milk specimens at Shijiazhuang urban and Tangshan rural area, Hebei Province, North China.

  10. New studies on mustard gold from the Dongping Mines, Hebei Province, China: The tellurian, plumbian, manganoan and mixed varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jiuling; Makovicky, Emil

    2001-01-01

    geologi, Dongping gold tellurite deposit, mustard gold, calaverite, Fe-Pb-Te minerals, alteration, tellurium, filling in micro-porous, composite varieties, particles of gold......geologi, Dongping gold tellurite deposit, mustard gold, calaverite, Fe-Pb-Te minerals, alteration, tellurium, filling in micro-porous, composite varieties, particles of gold...

  11. Protoliths of enigmatic Archaean gneisses established from zircon inclusion studies: Case study of the Caozhuang quartzite, E. Hebei, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen P. Nutman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A diverse suite of Archaean gneisses at Huangbaiyu village in the North China Craton, includes rare fuchsite-bearing (Cr-muscovite siliceous rocks – known as the Caozhuang quartzite. The Caozhuang quartzite is strongly deformed and locally mylonitic, with silica penetration and pegmatite veining common. It contains abundant 3880–3600 Ma and some Palaeoarchaean zircons. Because of its siliceous nature, the presence of fuchsite and its complex zircon age distribution, it has until now been accepted as a (mature quartzite. However, the Caozhuang quartzite sample studied here is feldspathic. The shape and cathodoluminescence petrography of the Caozhuang quartzite zircons show they resemble those found in immature detrital sedimentary rocks of local provenance or in Eoarchaean polyphase orthogneisses, and not those in mature quartzites. The Caozhuang quartzite intra-zircon mineral inclusions are dominated by quartz, with lesser biotite, apatite (7% and alkali-feldspar, and most inclusions are morphologically simple. A Neoarchaean orthogneiss from near Huangbaiyu displays morphologically simple inclusions with much more apatite (73%, as is typical for fresh calc-alkaline granitoids elsewhere. Zircons were also examined from a mature conglomerate quartzite clast and an immature feldspathic sandstone of the overlying weakly metamorphosed Mesoproterozoic Changcheng System. These zircons have oscillatory zoning, showing they were sourced from igneous rocks. The quartzite clast zircons contain only rare apatite inclusions (<1%, with domains with apatite habit now occupied by intergrowths of muscovite + quartz ± Fe-oxides ± baddeleyite. We interpret that these were once voids after apatite inclusions that had dissolved during Mesoproterozoic weathering, which were then filled with clays ± silica and then weakly metamorphosed. Zircons in the immature feldspathic sandstone show a greater amount of preserved apatite (11%, but with petrographic

  12. Research on the Sustainable Development of an Economic-Energy-Environment (3E System Based on System Dynamics (SD: A Case Study of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zuo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable development of an economic-energy-environment (3E system has received increasing attention by the government because it both determines national development and individuals’ health at the macro and micro level. In this paper, we synthetically consider various important factors based on analysis of the existing literature and use system dynamics (SD to establish models of sustainable development of a 3E system. The model not only clearly shows the complex logical relationship between the factors but also reveals the process of the 3E system. In addition, the paper provides a case study of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region in China by using a scenario analysis method. The models proposed in this paper can facilitate an understanding of the sustainable development pattern of a 3E coordination system and help to provide references for policy-making institutions. The results show that the long-term development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region’s 3E system is not sustainable, but it can be changed through the adjustment of the energy structure and an increase in investment in environmental protection, which can improve the environmental quality and ensure continuous growth rather than excessive growth of energy consumption and the gross domestic product (GDP.

  13. Application of Telemedicine in Gansu Province of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hui; Wang, Hongjing

    2016-01-01

    Telemedicine has become an increasingly popular option for long-distance health care and continuing education. As information and communication technology is underdeveloped in China, telemedicine develops slowly. At present, telemedicine consultation centers are situated mainly in developed cities, such as Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou. In many less developed regions, such as northwest China, the conditions or related facilities are not available for the application of a better medical service. Accordingly, the aim of this paper was to introduce the construction and application of a telemedicine consultation center in Gansu Province in the northwest of China. In addition, the function of Gansu Provincial Telemedicine Consultation Center on emergency public events was introduced. As a whole, there was a great demand for telemedicine service in the local medical institutions. In the telemedicine consultation center, the telemedicine equipments and regulations were needed to be improved. The function of telemedicine service was not fully used, there was a large space to be applied and the publicity of telemedicine service was important. What is important was that telemedicine played a significance role in promoting the medical policy reform, improving the medical environment and launching the remote rescue in the emergency public events. This paper emphasizes the health care challenges of poor regions, and indicates how to share the high-quality medical service of provincial hospitals effectively and how to help residents in resource-poor environments. PMID:27332894

  14. Architecture design of the national plant treasure management information system based on GIS: a case study of Gugong Date Garden in Hebei province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shaoling; Li, Renjie; Shen, Dongdong; Tong, Chunyan; Fu, Xueqing

    2007-06-01

    "Gugong Date Garden", lies in Juguan Village, Qijiawu County, Huanghua City, China. It is the largest forest of winter date in this world, which is the longest in history, largest in area and best in quality and it is also included in the first group of national main protected units of botanic cultural relics. However, it is lacking of uniform management platform and modes. According to the specific characteristics of botanic cultural relics preservation, the author sets up the "Plant Treasure Management Information System" for "Gugong Date Garden", based on the Geographic information system (GIS), Internet, database and virtual reality technologies, along with the idea of modern customer management systems. This system is designed for five types of users, named system administrators, cultural relic supervisors, researchers, farmers and tourists, with the aim of realizing integrated managements of ancient trees' protection, scientific researches, tourism and explorations altogether, so as to make better management, protection, and utilizations.

  15. Lyssavirus surveillance in bats of southern China's Guangxi Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhuan-Ling; Wang, Wen; Yin, Wei-Li; Tang, Hai-Bo; Pan, Yan; Liang, Xiang; Liu, Qi; Xiong, Yi; Minamoto, Nobuyuki; Luo, Ting Rong

    2013-04-01

    Although rabies virus is widely distributed in the world, and has been the subject of extensive investigations with the objective of its ultimate prevention, control, and management, there is much less knowledge of the characteristics, distribution, and infectivity of other lyssaviruses. Since bats are known animal vectors for all but one of the known lyssavirus genotypes, we have performed an extensive survey of bats in the Guangxi Province to provide information on lyssavirus distribution in southern China. The lyssavirus nucleoprotein gene was detected in brains of 2.86 % of 2,969 bats. Nucleotide sequence homologies among isolates were 86.9-99.6 %, but only 70.0-85.0 % for lyssaviruses in GenBank. These infected bats were detected from a wide area, essentially forming a band running from the south-west to the north-east of Guangxi, and it appears that infection by new lyssaviruses is widespread in this region.

  16. Profiling elements in Puerh tea from Yunnan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianyang; Ma, Guicen; Chen, Liyan; Liu, Ting; Liu, Xin; Lu, Chengyin

    2017-09-01

    Puerh tea, as the most representative Chinese dark tea, has attracted global interest in recent years. Profiling the levels of metal elements in Puerh tea is very important since its presence is related to human health. In this study, 41 elements in 98 Puerh tea samples from Yunnan province, China including Puerh raw tea and Puerh ripe tea were evaluated by microwave digestion combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry . The content of toxic elements, essential elements and rare earth elements of Puerh tea from different regions was discussed in detail. The concentrations of Ba, Cr, As, Pb, Bi, Fe, Zn, V, Mn, Be, Ag and Tl showed significant differences (p tea from different regions. This study provided a comprehensive database for Puerh tea quality control and intake risk assessment.

  17. Crust structure beneath Jilin Province and Liaoning Province in China based on seismic ambient noise tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Guanghua; Feng, Jikun; Lin, Jun

    2016-11-01

    We imaged the crust structure beneath Jilin Province and Liaoning Province in China with fundamental mode Rayleigh waves recorded by 60 broadband stations deployed in the region. Surface-wave empirical Green's functions were retrieved from cross-correlations of inter-station data and phase velocity dispersions were measured using a frequency-time analysis method. Dispersion measurements were then utilized to construct 2D phase velocity maps for periods between 5 and 35 s. Subsequently, the phase-dispersion curves extracted from each cell of the 2D phase velocity maps were inverted to determine the 3D shear wave velocity structures of the crust. The phase velocity maps at different periods reflected the average velocity structures corresponding to different depth ranges. The maps in short periods, in particular, were in excellent agreement with known geological features of the surface. In addition to imaging shear wave velocity structures of the volcanoes, we show that obvious low-velocity anomalies imaged in the Changbaishan-Tianchi Volcano, the Longgang-Jinlongdingzi Volcano, and the system of the Dunmi Fault crossing the Jingbohu Volcano, all of which may be due to geothermal anomalies.

  18. Environmental consequences of rapid urbanization in zhejiang province, East china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuchao; Yue, Wenze; Xu, Honghui; Wu, Jingsheng; He, Yue

    2014-07-11

    Since reforms carried out in the late 1970s, China has experienced unprecedented rates of urban growth. Remote sensing data and surface observational data are used to investigate the urbanization process and related environmental consequences, focusing on extreme heat events and air pollution, in Zhejiang Province (ZJP, East China). Examination of satellite-measured nighttime light data indicates rapid urbanization in ZJP during the past decade, initially forming three urban clusters. With rapid urban sprawl, a significant Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect has emerged. During extreme heat events in summer, the UHI effect significantly exacerbates nocturnal heat stress in highly urbanized areas. Taking a long-term view, urbanization also causes additional hot days and hot degree days in urban areas. Urbanization also imposes a heavy burden on local and regional air quality in ZJP. Degraded visibility and an increase in haze days are observed at most meteorological stations, especially in the three urban clusters. The results show that urbanization has led to serious environmental problems in ZJP, not only on the city scale, but also on the regional scale. Maintaining a balance between the continuing process of urbanization and environmental sustainability is a major issue facing the local government.

  19. Environmental Consequences of Rapid Urbanization in Zhejiang Province, East China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuchao Yang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since reforms carried out in the late 1970s, China has experienced unprecedented rates of urban growth. Remote sensing data and surface observational data are used to investigate the urbanization process and related environmental consequences, focusing on extreme heat events and air pollution, in Zhejiang Province (ZJP, East China. Examination of satellite-measured nighttime light data indicates rapid urbanization in ZJP during the past decade, initially forming three urban clusters. With rapid urban sprawl, a significant Urban Heat Island (UHI effect has emerged. During extreme heat events in summer, the UHI effect significantly exacerbates nocturnal heat stress in highly urbanized areas. Taking a long-term view, urbanization also causes additional hot days and hot degree days in urban areas. Urbanization also imposes a heavy burden on local and regional air quality in ZJP. Degraded visibility and an increase in haze days are observed at most meteorological stations, especially in the three urban clusters. The results show that urbanization has led to serious environmental problems in ZJP, not only on the city scale, but also on the regional scale. Maintaining a balance between the continuing process of urbanization and environmental sustainability is a major issue facing the local government.

  20. Gendered Responses to Drought in Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufang Su

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Vulnerability to and perceptions of climate change may be significantly affected by gender. However, in China, gender is rarely addressed in climate adaption or resource management strategies. This paper demonstrates the relevance of gender in responses to climate change in the mountainous province of Yunnan in southwest China. Based on surveys undertaken during a record-breaking drought, the paper explores how women and men in a village in Baoshan Prefecture differ in their perceptions of and responses to drought, and how the changing roles of women and men in the home and the community are influencing water management at the village level. Our results show that despite the increasingly active role of women in managing water during the drought, they are excluded from community-level decision-making about water. The paper argues that given the importance of gender differences in perceptions of and responses to drought, the lack of a gender perspective in Chinese policy may undermine efforts to support local resource management and climate adaptation.

  1. [Concentrations and Component Profiles PAHs in Surface Soils and Wheat Grains from the Cornfields Close to the Steel Smelting Industry in Handan, Hebei Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Wang, Yi-long; Liu, Wei-jian; Chen, Yuan-chen; Fu, Xiao-fang; Tao, Shu; Liu, Wen-xin

    2016-02-15

    In this study, paired surface soil and mature wheat grain samples were collected in the cornfields near the large Handan Steel Manufacturer; and the total concentrations and compositional profiles of the parent PAHs were measured, then the spatial distribution characteristics and correlation with total organic carbon fractions in soil were determined. Accordingly, a preliminary source identification was performed, and the association between PAHs in surface soil and wheat grain was briefly discussed. The median concentration of total PAHs in surface soils from the cornfields of Handan was 398.9 ng x g(-1) (ranged from 123.4 ng x g(-1) to 1626.4 ng x g(-1), where around 18% and 10% of all the studied soil samples were over the corresponding quality criteria for total PAHs and B [a] P in soils, respectively. The MMW and HMW species were the main components in the compositional profiles of surface soils. Based on the specific isomeric ratios of PAHs species, coal/biomass combustion and transportation fuel (tail gas) were the dominant mixed sources for the local PAHs emission. The fractions of surface soil TOC had significant positive correlations with the total PAHs and also with the individual components with different rings. In addition, the median concentration of total PAHs in wheat grains collected in the cornfields near the Handan Steel Manufacture was 27.0 ng x g(-1) (ranged from 19.0-34.0 ng x g(-1)). The levels in wheat grains were not high, and lower than the related hygienic standards of food proposed by EU and China. The LMW and MMW PAHs with 2 to 4 rings occupied a larger proportion, more than 84% of the total PAHs, which was largely different from the component profiles in surface soils. This situation suggested that the local sources of PAHs in wheat grains may originate not only from surface soil via root absorption and internal transportation, but also from ambient air through dry and wet deposition on the leaf surface (stoma).

  2. Two new species of Indonemoura (Plecoptera: Nemouridae) from Yunnan Province of southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weihai; Wu, Limin; Yang, Ding

    2017-02-09

    Two new species of the nemourid genus Indonemoura are described, Indonemoura curvispina sp. nov. and I. spirocornua sp. nov., from the Gaoligong Mountains of Yunnan Province of southwestern China. The taxonomic relationships with related species are discussed.

  3. The first human infection with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus in Shaanxi Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wei

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: SFTSV readily infects humans with outdoor exposure. The results of the serological study indicate that the virus circulates widely in Shaanxi Province. SFTSV represents a public health threat in China.

  4. Natural incidence of Fusarium species and fumonisins B1 and B2 associated with maize kernels from nine provinces in China in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Meng; Li, Renjie; Guo, Congcong; Pang, Minhao; Liu, Yingchao; Dong, Jingao

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium species, which can produce mycotoxins, are the predominant pathogens causing maize ear rot, a disease that results in severe economic losses and serves as a potential health risk for humans and animals. A survey was conducted in 2012 to investigate the contamination of maize by Fusarium species and fumonisins B1 and B2. A total of 250 maize samples were randomly collected from nine provinces (Hebei, Shanxi, Inner Mongolia, Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou, Heilongjiang, Liaoning and Ningxia) in China. Fusarium species were isolated and identified using morphological (electron microscope) and molecular methods (polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing). Fumonisins B1 and B2 were analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) with OPA (2-Mercaptoethanol, o-phthaldialdehyde) post-column derivatisation. A total of 2321 Fusarium isolates (20.7%) were obtained from all the samples. These isolates included nine Fusarium species, namely, F. graminearum, F. verticillioides, F. subglutinans, F. proliferatum, F. temperatum, F. oxysporum, F. equiseti, F. meridionale and F. chlamydosporum. The incidence of occurrence of Fusarium species in Guizhou was the highest, while in Inner Mongolia it was the lowest. F. verticillioides was the dominant species of maize ear rot in Liaoning, Sichuan, Hebei and Ningxia. F. graminearum was the dominant species in Yunnan, Guizhou and Shanxi. F. subglutinans was the dominant species in Heilongjiang. F. verticillioides and F. graminearum percentages were the same in Inner Mongolia. The incidence of fumonisins in Liaoning was high (up to 81.0%) and in Heilongjiang low (up to 10.3%). Except Shanxi, more than 50% of maize samples from other provinces were contaminated with fumonisins, with concentrations less than 500 ng g(-1). About 33% of maize samples from Yunnan were contaminated with high levels of fumonisins, and average of fumonisin levels were 5191 ng g(-1). Fusarium species causing maize

  5. Occurrence of cavernicolous ground beetles in Anhui Province, eastern China (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jie; Li, Wenbo; Tian, Mingyi

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of anophthalmic ground beetles belonging to the subfamily Trechinae are described: Cimmeritodes (Zhecimmerites) parvus Tian & Li, sp. n. and Wanoblemus wui Tian & Fang, gen. n., sp. n. Both were discovered in the limestone caves of Anhui Province in eastern China. Cimmeritodes (Zhecimmerites) parvus was found in caves Ziwei Dong, Xianren Dong and Qingtai Dong, whereas Wanoblemus wui was discovered in cave Baiyun Dong. This is the first record of cavernicolous ground beetles in Anhui Province, eastern China.

  6. Occurrence of cavernicolous ground beetles in Anhui Province, eastern China (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Fang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of anophthalmic ground beetles belonging to the subfamily Trechinae are described: Cimmeritodes (Zhecimmerites parvus Tian & Li, sp. n. and Wanoblemus wui Tian & Fang, gen. n., sp. n. Both were discovered in the limestone caves of Anhui Province in eastern China. C. (Z. parvus was found in caves Ziwei Dong, Xianren Dong and Qingtai Dong, whereas W. wui was discovered in cave Baiyun Dong. This is the first record of cavernicolous ground beetles in Anhui Province, eastern China.

  7. Malnutrition in China's Rural Boarding Schools: The Case of Primary Schools in Shaanxi Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Renfu; Shi, Yaojiang; Zhang, Linxiu; Liu, Chengfang; Rozelle, Scott; Sharbono, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to document the nature of boarding schools and empirically analyse the difference in nutrition intake and malnutrition status between boarding and non-boarding students in western rural China. By using two data sets on boarding schools and boarding students in Shaanxi Province, a representative province in western…

  8. Sandwich mapping of schistosomiasis risk in Anhui Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yi; Bergquist, Robert; Lynn, Henry; Gao, Fenghua; Wang, Qizhi; Zhang, Shiqing; Li, Rui; Sun, Liqian; Xia, Congcong; Xiong, Chenglong; Zhang, Zhijie; Jiang, Qingwu

    2015-06-03

    Schistosomiasis mapping using data obtained from parasitological surveys is frequently used in planning and evaluation of disease control strategies. The available geostatistical approaches are, however, subject to the assumption of stationarity, a stochastic process whose joint probability distribution does not change when shifted in time. As this is impractical for large areas, we introduce here the sandwich method, the basic idea of which is to divide the study area (with its attributes) into homogeneous subareas and estimate the values for the reporting units using spatial stratified sampling. The sandwich method was applied to map the county-level prevalence of schistosomiasis japonica in Anhui Province, China based on parasitological data collected from sample villages and land use data. We first mapped the county-level prevalence using the sandwich method, then compared our findings with block Kriging. The sandwich estimates ranged from 0.17 to 0.21% with a lower level of uncertainty, while the Kriging estimates varied from 0 to 0.97% with a higher level of uncertainty, indicating that the former is more smoothed and stable compared to latter. Aside from various forms of reporting units, the sandwich method has the particular merit of simple model assumption coupled with full utilization of sample data. It performs well when a disease presents stratified heterogeneity over space.

  9. Sandwich mapping of schistosomiasis risk in Anhui Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Hu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis mapping using data obtained from parasitological surveys is frequently used in planning and evaluation of disease control strategies. The available geostatistical approaches are, however, subject to the assumption of stationarity, a stochastic process whose joint probability distribution does not change when shifted in time. As this is impractical for large areas, we introduce here the sandwich method, the basic idea of which is to divide the study area (with its attributes into homogeneous subareas and estimate the values for the reporting units using spatial stratified sampling. The sandwich method was applied to map the county-level prevalence of schistosomiasis japonica in Anhui Province, China based on parasitological data collected from sample villages and land use data. We first mapped the county-level prevalence using the sandwich method, then compared our findings with block Kriging. The sandwich estimates ranged from 0.17 to 0.21% with a lower level of uncertainty, while the Kriging estimates varied from 0 to 0.97% with a higher level of uncertainty, indicating that the former is more smoothed and stable compared to latter. Aside from various forms of reporting units, the sandwich method has the particular merit of simple model assumption coupled with full utilization of sample data. It performs well when a disease presents stratified heterogeneity over space.

  10. Newborn screening for congenital hypothyroidism in Henan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, De-Hua; Shen, Yong; Gong, Jiao-Mei; Meng, Yun; Su, Li; Zhang, Xia

    2016-01-15

    Congenital hypothyroidism is the most common congenital endocrine disorder. The study aimed to determine the congenital hypothyroidism incidence by newborn screening programs in Henan Province, China. The screening programs for congenital hypothyroidism are based on the measurement of TSH in dried blood spots. The TSH concentration was measured in the dry blood spot specimen using a DELFIA fluoroimmunoassay. The TSH cutoff concentration was 8mU/l. The total coverage and the incidence of congenital hypothyroidism were 24.85% (5,142,148/20,694,441) and 0.37‰ (1992/5,142,148), respectively. The coverage and the incidence of CH were only 0.58% (4526/784,580) and 0.22‰ (1/4526) in 1997, respectively. However, the coverage and the incidence of CH were increased to 74.67% (1,203,278/1,611,582) and 0.32‰ (389/1,203,278). There were no significant differences in the number of congenital hypothyroidism between males and females (P>0.05). The number of congenital hypothyroidism was increased year after year. The newborn screening program for CH is successful and quite effective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The economic support index evaluation study on the pig breeding scale of the six provinces in central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Bi-Bin; Le, Xi-lin; Yuan, Gang; Ji, Xue-Qiang

    2017-11-01

    Shanxi province, Anhui province, Jiangxi province, Henan province, Hubei province and Hunan province are located in the central part of China. They are playing an essential role in China’s economic and social development. In this article, we use analytic hierarchy process(AHP), on the basis of the statistical yearbook data of 2016, conduct an appraisal research about the economic support index of the pig breeding scale in the six provinces of central China. The evaluation shows that Hubei tops all of the provinces on the economic support index, followed by Hunan, Anhui, Henan, Jiangxi. The lowest index is in Shanxi province. It indicates the economic conditions in Hubei province is the most capable for it to support the pig breeding scale, Shanxi province is the opposite.

  12. Political rotations and cross-province acquisitions in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muratova, Yulia; Arnoldi, Jakob; Chen, Xin

    2018-01-01

    The underdeveloped institutional framework and trade barriers between China’s provinces make cross-province acquisitions challenging. We explore how Chinese firms can mitigate this problem. Drawing on social network theory we propose that cross-province rotation of political leaders—a key element...... of the promotion system of political cadres in China—is a mechanism enabling growth through cross-province acquisitions. We conceptualize rotated leaders as brokers between two geographically dispersed networks. We contribute to the literature on the characteristics of Chinese social networks, the effect...... of political connections on firm strategy, and the impact of political rotations on firm growth in China’s provinces....

  13. Spatiotemporal urban land use changes in the Changzhutan Region of Hunan Province in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Changzhutan region in the north-central part of Hunan Province in China has experienced a rapid urbanization in the past few decades that has led to substantial changes in its environment. In 2007, the National Development and Reform Commission of China designated the metropolitan district of Ch...

  14. Selected non-timber forest products with medicinal applications from Jilin Province in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao Ge Huang; Branka Barl; Gerald. Ivanochko

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides a brief account of the distribution, production, and use of some non-timber forest products such as medicinal plants, medicinal and nutraceutical mushrooms, pharmaceutical insects, and "wild" vegetables in Jilin Province, China. All materials featured in this paper are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) inside and outside of China...

  15. A regional high-resolution emission inventory of primary air pollutants in 2012 for Beijing and the surrounding five provinces of North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huanjia; Wu, Bobo; Liu, Shuhan; Shao, Panyang; Liu, Xiangyang; Zhu, Chuanyong; Wang, Yong; Wu, Yiming; Xue, Yifeng; Gao, Jiajia; Hao, Yan; Tian, Hezhong

    2018-05-01

    A high resolution regional emission inventory of typical primary air pollutants (PAPs) for the year 2012 in Beijing and the surrounding five provinces (BSFP) of North China is developed. It is compiled with the combination of bottom-up and top-down methods, based on city-level collected activity data and the latest updated specific emission factors for different sources. The considered sources are classified into 12 major categories and totally 36 subcategories with respect to their multi-dimensional characteristics, such as economic sector, combustion facility or industrial process, installed air pollution control devices, etc. Power plant sector is the dominant contributor of NOX emissions with an average contribution of 34.1%, while VOCs emissions are largely emitted from industrial process sources (33.9%). Whereas, other stationary combustion sources represent major sources of primary PM2.5, PM10 and BC emissions, accounting for 22.7%, 30.0% and 33.9% of the total emissions, respectively. Hebei province contributes over 34% of the regional total CO emissions because of huge volume of iron and steel production. By comparison, Shandong province ranks as the biggest contributor for NOX, PM10, PM2.5, SO2, VOCs and OC. Further, the BSFP regional total emissions are spatially distributed into grid cells with a high resolution of 9 km × 9 km using GIS tools and surrogate indexes, such regional population, gross domestic product (GDP) and the types of arable soils. The highest emission intensities are mainly located in Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan area, Jinan-Laiwu-Zibo area and several other cities such as Shijiazhuang, Handan, and Zhengzhou. Furthermore, in order to establish a simple method to estimate and forecast PAPs emissions with macroscopic provincial-level statistical parameters in China, multi-parameter regression equations are firstly developed to estimate emissions outside the BSFP region with routine statistics (e.g. population, total final coal consumption

  16. Spatial-temporal Variations and Source Apportionment of typical Heavy Metals in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region of China Based on Localized Air Pollutants Emission Inventory and WRF-CMAQ modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, H.; Liu, S.; Zhu, C.; Liu, H.; Wu, B.

    2017-12-01

    Abstract: Anthropogenic atmospheric emissions of air pollutants have caused worldwide concerns due to their adverse effects on human health and the ecosystem. By determining the best available emission factors for varied source categories, we established the comprehensive atmospheric emission inventories of hazardous air pollutants including 12 typical toxic heavy metals (Hg, As, Se, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Sb, Mn, Co, Cu, and Zn) from primary anthropogenic activities in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region of China for the period of 2012 for the first time. The annual emissions of these pollutants were allocated at a high spatial resolution of 9km × 9km grid with ArcGIS methodology and surrogate indexes, such as regional population and gross domestic product (GDP). Notably, the total heavy metal emissions from this region represented about 10.9% of the Chinese national total emissions. The areas with high emissions of heavy metals were mainly concentrated in Tangshan, Shijiazhuang, Handan and Tianjin. Further, WRF-CMAQ modeling system were applied to simulate the regional concentration of heavy metals to explore their spatial-temporal variations, and the source apportionment of these heavy metals in BTH region was performed using the Brute-Force method. Finally, integrated countermeasures were proposed to minimize the final air pollutants discharge on account of the current and future demand of energy-saving and pollution reduction in China. Keywords: heavy metals; particulate matter; emission inventory; CMAQ model; source apportionment Acknowledgment. This work was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21377012 and 21177012) and the Trail Special Program of Research on the Cause and Control Technology of Air Pollution under the National Key Research and Development Plan of China (2016YFC0201501).

  17. Tourism environmental carrying capacity of Hebei province based on Theil coefficient and improved ecological footprint method%基于锡尔系数及改进生态足迹的河北省旅游环境承载力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚英敏; 李素喜; 刘金平

    2014-01-01

    基于锡尔系数与改进后的生态足迹方法,分析了河北省旅游环境承载力。结果表明:从2001年到2012年,河北省旅游生态足迹与旅游生态承载力均呈现下降趋势,且总体表现出生态赤字状态,河北省旅游发展处于不可持续状态;空间上,在11个地级市中,秦皇岛的人均旅游生态足迹与人均旅游生态赤字均最高,沧州市最低;而张家口人均旅游生态承载力最高,唐山最低,从环渤海、环京津与环省会旅游圈来看,3个旅游圈之间的旅游环境承载力差异较小,但各旅游圈内各市的差异较大,其中以环渤海旅游圈内的差异最大;为了促进河北省旅游发展的可持续性,发展生态旅游、降低旅游生态赤字势在必行。%Based on Theil coefficient and the improved ecological footprint method,the tourism environmental carrying capacity of Hebei province is analyzed.The results showed that,the tourism ecological footprint per person(efT )and tourism ecological carrying capacity per person (ecT)in Hebei province showed a downward trend from 2001 to 2012,and the tourism develop-ment is in an unsustainable state because the tourism ecological deficit per person(ted)is positive in Hebei province.Spatially speaking,the efT and ted of Qinhuangdao are the highest in 11 cit-ies,and those of Cangzhou are lowest.While the tec of Zhangjiakou is highest and Tangshan is lowest.Between the 3 tourism circles,the difference of tourism environmental carrying capacity is small,but it is large in the circle.In order to promote the sustainable development of tourism, promotion of ecological tourism and reduction of tourism ecological deficit are imperative.

  18. Temporal-spatial characteristics and source apportionment of PM2.5 as well as its associated chemical species in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jiajia; Wang, Kun; Wang, Yong; Liu, Shuhan; Zhu, Chuanyong; Hao, Jiming; Liu, Huanjia; Hua, Shenbing; Tian, Hezhong

    2018-02-01

    PM 2.5 and its major chemical compositions were sampled and analyzed in January, April, July and October of 2014 at Beijing (BJ), Tianjin (TJ), Langfang (LF) and Baoding (BD) in order to probe the temporal and spatial characteristics as well as source apportionment of PM 2.5 in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region. The results showed that PM 2.5 pollution was severe in the BTH region. The average annual concentrations of PM 2.5 at four sampling sites were in the range of 126-180 μg/m 3 , with more than 95% of sampling days exceeding 35 μg/m 3 , the limit ceiling of average annual concentration of PM 2.5 regulated in the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standards (GB3095-2012). Additionally, concentrations of PM 2.5 and its major chemical species were seasonally dependent and demonstrated spatially similar variation characteristics in the BTH region. Concentration of toxic heavy metals, such as As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and Zn, were higher in winter and autumn. Secondary inorganic ions (SO 4 2- , NO 3 - , and NH 4 + ) were the three-major water-soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs) of PM 2.5 and their mass ratios to PM 2.5 were higher in summer and autumn. The organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) concentrations were lower in spring and summer than in autumn and winter. Five factors were selected in Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model analysis, and the results showed that PM 2.5 pollution was dominated by vehicle emissions in Beijing, combustion emissions including coal burning and biomass combustion in Langfang and Baoding, and soil and construction dust emissions in Tianjin, respectively. The air mass that were derived from the south and southeast local areas around BTH regions reflected the features of short-distant and small-scale air transport. Shandong, Henan, and Hebei were identified the major potential sources-areas of secondary aerosol emissions to PM 2.5 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cryptic Species Identification and Composition of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Complex in Henan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian; Wang, Lun-Ji; Dong, Jun-Feng; Song, Yue-Qin; Sun, Hui-Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a cryptic species complex, causing significant crop losses in China during the last decade. Although knowledge of cryptic species composition and dynamics within B. tabaci complex is critical for developing sustainable pest management strategies, limited information is available on this pest in the Henan province of China. A systematic survey of the cryptic species composition and distribution of B. tabaci complex in different locations of Henan province was conducted in 2012. The results of RAPD-PCR and the gene for the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit-1 (mtCOI) based phylogenetic relationships established using Bayesian method indicated there were four known cryptic species MEAM1, MED, Asia II 3, Asia II 9 and a new cryptic species named China 6 in Henan province. In the survey, the invasive cryptic species MED and MEAM1 were found to be predominant with wide spread distribution across the surveyed regions. On the contrary, the indigenous B. tabaci cryptic species including Asia II 3, Asia II 9 and China 6 remained with low prevalence in some surveyed regions. Cryptic species MEAM1 and MED have not completely displaced the native B. tabaci in Henan province. This current study for the first time unifies our knowledge of the diversity and distribution of B. tabaci across Henan province of China. PMID:28973577

  20. Cryptic Species Identification and Composition of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Complex in Henan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiu, Min; Hu, Jian; Wang, Lun-Ji; Dong, Jun-Feng; Song, Yue-Qin; Sun, Hui-Zhong

    2017-05-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a cryptic species complex, causing significant crop losses in China during the last decade. Although knowledge of cryptic species composition and dynamics within B. tabaci complex is critical for developing sustainable pest management strategies, limited information is available on this pest in the Henan province of China. A systematic survey of the cryptic species composition and distribution of B. tabaci complex in different locations of Henan province was conducted in 2012. The results of RAPD-PCR and the gene for the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit-1 (mtCOI) based phylogenetic relationships established using Bayesian method indicated there were four known cryptic species MEAM1, MED, Asia II 3, Asia II 9 and a new cryptic species named China 6 in Henan province. In the survey, the invasive cryptic species MED and MEAM1 were found to be predominant with wide spread distribution across the surveyed regions. On the contrary, the indigenous B. tabaci cryptic species including Asia II 3, Asia II 9 and China 6 remained with low prevalence in some surveyed regions. Cryptic species MEAM1 and MED have not completely displaced the native B. tabaci in Henan province. This current study for the first time unifies our knowledge of the diversity and distribution of B. tabaci across Henan province of China. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  1. Correlation of VCAM-1 expression in serum, cord blood, and placental tissue with gestational hypertension associated with fetal growth restriction in women from Xingtai Hebei, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H G; Guo, W; Gu, H F; Chen, S B; Wang, J Q; Qiao, Z X; Ma, H S; Geng, S X

    2016-08-26

    The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of vascular adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 in the maternal serum, cord blood, and placental tissue of pregnant women from Xingtai, Hebei, with gestational hypertension (GH) combined with fetal growth restriction (FGR). A total of 108 patients with GH combined with FGR (GH-FGR), 60 patients with GH alone (GH), and 50 healthy pregnant women (control) were recruited to this study. VCAM- 1 expression was detected in the maternal serum and cord blood by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and in the placental tissue by immunohistochemistry. VCAM-1 expression was significantly higher in the maternal serum of patients with GH-FGR (164.38 ± 60.35) and GH alone (103.85 ± 54.47) than in the serum of the control population (46.70 ± 21.79; P 0.05). Moreover, the VCAM-1 expression rates were significantly higher and lower in the vascular endothelial and trophoblastic cells of the placenta of patients with GH-FGR (74.71 and 56.1%) and GH (72.98 and 55.36%), respectively, compared to those in the control subjects (46.48 and 95.11%). Therefore, we concluded that VCAM- 1 plays an important role in the development and generation of GH. Additionally, the low VCAM-1 expression in the trophoblastic cell could be correlated to the pathogenesis and progression of GH.

  2. Spatial Heterogeneity of Typical Ecosystem Services and Their Relationships in Different Ecological–Functional Zones in Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Xie

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing changes in ecosystem services (ES and their relationships is the basis of achieving sustainable regional development. Regional collaborative development has become the core strategy of the development of the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei (BTH region. However, sub regions have different ecological changes and relationships. Here, we quantify and map ES, including water yield, sediment retention, carbon sequestration and grain productive capacity in 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015, using several biophysical models and explore the relationships of spatial correction, trade-offs and synergies among multiple ES in different spatial scales. Results across the four years show that the quality and variation tendency of ES from each region are spatially heterogeneous. The relationship between ES that are not significant in the entire region shows different correlations in individual ecological–functional zones. From the perspective of regional disparity, the effect of land use factor and correlative mechanisms among ES are analyzed. To observe the spatiotemporal variations and relationships of ES in individual regions, land use management policies are proposed on the basis of the results of the relationships among ES.

  3. A Novel Workflow for Geothermal Prospectively Mapping Weights-of-Evidence in Liaoning Province, Northeast China

    OpenAIRE

    Xuejia Sang; Linfu Xue; Jiwen Liu; Liang Zhan

    2017-01-01

    Geological faults are highly developed in the eastern Liaoning Province in China, where Mesozoic granitic intrusions and Archean and Paleoproterozoic metamorphic rocks are widely distributed. Although the heat flow value in eastern Liaoning Province is generally low, the hot springs are very developed. It is obvious that the faults have significant control over the distribution of hot springs, and traditional methods of spatial data analysis such as WofE (weight of evidence) usually do not ta...

  4. Discussion about Urban Combat of Hebei Central Army of the Communist Party of China during Anti-Japanese War Counterattack%抗日反攻阶段中共冀中部队城市作战述论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭永学; 王晓书

    2016-01-01

    What's the urban combat features of Hebei Central Army of the Communist Party of China during anti‐Japanese War?This paper shows that it appeared imbalance state from the distribution of time of the battle;the macro large‐scale urban combat and micro small‐scale battle coexisted by studying the scale of operation;the actual fighting success declination of Japanese puppet increased the success rate of CPC army by studying the middle and small scale urban combat ;the paper show s that CPC army was still using some old traditional tactics but with development from the actual combat .From the urban combat during counterattack ,CPC got command of the counties of Hebei central region ,obtained favorable strategic situation ,reduced the military pressure when fight against Kuomintang military later .In the meanwhile ,it also gained practical experience about regular warfare ,positional warfare and tough fight .%中共冀中部队城市作战的特点,从作战的时间分布上看,呈不均衡状态;从作战规模上看,宏观的大规模城市作战与微观的中小规模战役战斗并存;从进攻对象看,日伪军实际战斗力的下降增大了中共军队夺取中小攻城作战的成功几率;从战法上看,仍沿续使用着过去的一些传统战法,并在实战中取得一定的发展。反攻阶段城市作战,使中共控制了冀中地区县城,取得了较为有利的战略态势,减少了后来与国民党军作战时的军事压力,同时也获得了正规战、阵地战、攻坚战的实战经验。

  5. Surveillance of Water Quality in the Songhuajiang River System in Heilongjiang Province - Pre-feasibility study - 1995. Travel report from Heilongjiang Province, China, Oct./Nov

    OpenAIRE

    Wathne, B.

    1996-01-01

    A request for co-operation on a system for water quality surveillance of Songhuajiang River System in Heilongjiang Province, China, was received by NIVA from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the Heilongjiang Province. Funds were made available from NORAD, to initiate a co-operative work with the EPA. T. Skancke, NORGIT Centre, and B. M. Wathne, NIVA, travelled to Harbin, capital of Heilongjiang Province, to make a pre-feasibility study and project plans for further co-operation. T...

  6. Improving Satellite-Driven PM2.5 Models with VIIRS Nighttime Light Data in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiya Zhang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have estimated ground-level concentrations of particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5 using satellite-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD in conjunction with meteorological and land use variables. However, the impacts of urbanization on air pollution for predicting PM2.5 are seldom considered. Nighttime light (NTL data, acquired with the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP satellite, could be useful for predictions because they have been shown to be good indicators of the urbanization and human activity that can affect PM2.5 concentrations. This study investigated the potential of incorporating VIIRS NTL data in statistical models for PM2.5 concentration predictions. We developed a mixed-effects model to derive daily estimations of surface PM2.5 levels in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region using 3 km resolution satellite AOD and VIIRS NTL data. The results showed the addition of NTL information could improve the performance of the PM2.5 prediction model. The NTL data revealed additional details for predication results in areas with low PM2.5 concentrations and greater apparent seasonal variation due to the seasonal variability of human activity. Comparison showed prediction accuracy was improved more substantially for the model using NTL directly than for the model using the vegetation-adjusted NTL urban index that included NTL. Our findings indicate that VIIRS NTL data have potential for predicting PM2.5 and that they could constitute a useful supplemental data source for estimating ground-level PM2.5 distributions.

  7. A comprehensive ammonia emission inventory with high-resolution and its evaluation in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Shuiyuan Cheng; Lang, Jianlei; Chen, Dongsheng; Zhao, Beibei; Liu, Chao; Xu, Ran; Li, Tingting

    2015-04-01

    A comprehensive ammonia (NH3) emission inventory for the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region was developed based on the updated source-specific emission factors (EFs) and the county-level activity data obtained from a full-coverage investigation launched in the BTH region for the first time. The NH3 emission inventory within 1 km × 1 km grid was generated using source-based spatial surrogates with geographical information system (GIS) technology. The total NH3 emission was 1573.7 Gg for the year 2010. The contributions from livestock, farmland, human, biomass burning, chemical industry, fuel combustion, waste disposal and on-road mobile source were approximately 56.6%, 28.6%, 7.2%, 3.4%, 1.1%, 1.3%, 1.0% and 0.8%, respectively. Among different cities, Shijiazhang, Handan, Xingtai, Tangshan and Cangzhou had higher NH3 emissions. Statistical analysis aiming at county-level emission of 180 counties in BTH indicated that the NH3 emission in most of the counties were less than 16 Gg. The maximum value of the county level emission was approximately 25.5 Gg. Higher NH3 emission was concentrated in the areas with more rural and agricultural activity. Monthly, higher NH3 emission occurred during the period from April to September, which could be attributed to the temperature and timing of planting practice. The validity of the estimated emissions were further evaluated from multiple perspectives covering (1) uncertainty analysis based on Monte Carlo simulation, (2) comparison with other studies, (3) quantitative analysis of improvement in spatial resolution of activity data, and (4) verification based on a comparison of the simulated and observed surface concentrations of ammonium. The detailed and validated ammonia emission inventory could provide valuable information for understanding air pollution formation mechanisms and help guide decision-making with respect to control strategies.

  8. A reproductive health survey of rural women in Hebei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J

    1998-12-01

    This article presents the findings of a 1995 family planning survey conducted among 657 women aged 18-49 years in rural areas of Tangshan City, Zhoushou City, and Xingtai City in Hebei province, Northern China. 620 were married, 37 were single, and 6 were widowed. 85.8% of married rural women used a contraceptive method (female sterilization or IUD). There were 1219 pregnancies, 230 abortions, 31 miscarriages, and 3 stillbirths. 68.1% received prenatal check-ups at hospitals and health centers. 47.4% received prenatal care during the first trimester of pregnancy. 76.1% received check-ups at township health centers. Women were aware of the need for sound personal hygiene, sanitary napkins, and avoidance of heavy manual work during menstruation. 45.1% had less than 5 years of education; 51.8% had 6-10 years of education; and 3.1% had over 10 years of education. About 54% delivered at home. Home deliveries were due to lack of transportation, high expenses, and other reasons. Deliveries were attended by a doctor or midwife. Postpartum home visits were not assured. 32.4% had routine gynecological check-ups. 48.1% had never received gynecological services. 51.6% of married women had 2 children; 16.9% had more. The author recommended improved socioeconomic and cultural conditions, a women-centered reproductive health security system integrated with education, and legislative change. Reproductive health education should be integrated into family planning programs and include health awareness and more education. Men should participate in programs and share more responsibility for reproduction. Services should improve in quality.

  9. New species and new records of Amphinemurinae (Plecoptera: Nemouridae) from Shaanxi Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weihai; Dong, Wenbin; Yang, Ding

    2018-03-27

    Three new species of the Amphinemurinae genus Amphinemura, A. dicroidea sp. nov., A. longihamita sp. nov. and A. microhamita sp. nov., are described from China. These new species are compared with related taxa. Amphinemura multispina (Wu) and Sphaeronemoura grandicauda (Wu) (also belonging to the Amphinemurinae) are recorded from Shaanxi Province, northwestern China for the first time. The adult male of A. multispina is redescribed and the adult female of S. grandicauda is also described based on new material.

  10. A NEW RHEOCRICOTOPUS THIENEMANN & HARNISCHIA (DIPTERA: CHIRONOMIDAE) FROM TAIWAN PROVINCE, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-huaWang; Chun-caiYan; Can-jenMaa

    2004-01-01

    Rheocricotopus (Psilocricotopus) taiwanensis sp. n. from Taiwan, China, is described as male imagines. The species is allied to R. (P.) chalybeatus (Edwards) but it is easily separated from the latter in lacking setae in all reins, much lower AR and more pronounced crista dorsalis in gonostylus. The genus is new to Taiwan Province, China. The specimen is deposited at the Department of Biology, Nankai University, Tianjin.

  11. [Risk Factors of Lung Cancer in Xuanwei, Yunnan Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liqun; Wan, Xia; Chen, Gongbo; Ma, Xiangyun; Ning, Bofu; Yang, Gonghuan

    2017-08-20

    Since 1970s, Xuanwei in Yunnan province has been one of the towns with highest lung cancer mortality in China. Moreover, the characters of high female lung cancer mortality and sub-regional clustering high lung cancer mortality have not changed. In this study, we further described the exposure situation of risk factors of lung cancer in Xuanwei nowadays, in order to explore the trend of the distribution of lung cancer there. Firstly we divided the 26 towns of Xuanwei city to high-, median- and low- lung cancer areas by the lung cancer mortality in 2010-2012. We chose 2 towns within each area according to topography and orientation, and randomly picked 4 villages in each town to be our study area. We did a questionnaire about lung cancer related risk factors upon the sample population in the study area. We calculated the exposure percentages of each risk factor, in whole sample population and subgroups, for nowadays and for 10 years ago (only living environmental risk factors), and compared them between areas or time points using standardized rates and the statistical test of standardized rate comparison, or chi-square test. 65%-80% male in the study area has a history of smoking; 60%-90% non-smoker has been exposed to second hand smoke. These situations are worse in high and median lung cancer areas. 50% male in median lung cancer area have coal mining work experience, which is 2 times of the percentages in the other two areas; while 15%-25% people in high lung cancer area have other occupational exposure history to particulate air pollution, which is 3-5 times of the percentages in the other two areas. From ten years ago until nowadays, 80% families in median lung cancer area use 2 tons or more smoky coal per year; more than 90% families burn coal for household heating; more than 60% families suffer from smog in the kitchen during cook; 60% families most frequently use stove in the ground with chimney. Only 20% families in high lung cancer area now use 2 tons or

  12. Risk Factors of Lung Cancer in Xuanwei, Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqun LIU

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Since 1970s, Xuanwei in Yunnan province has been one of the towns with highest lung cancer mortality in China. Moreover, the characters of high female lung cancer mortality and sub-regional clustering high lung cancer mortality have not changed. In this study, we further described the exposure situation of risk factors of lung cancer in Xuanwei nowadays, in order to explore the trend of the distribution of lung cancer there. Methods Firstly we divided the 26 towns of Xuanwei city to high-, median- and low- lung cancer areas by the lung cancer mortality in 2010-2012. We chose 2 towns within each area according to topography and orientation, and randomly picked 4 villages in each town to be our study area. We did a questionnaire about lung cancer related risk factors upon the sample population in the study area. We calculated the exposure percentages of each risk factor, in whole sample population and subgroups, for nowadays and for 10 years ago (only living environmental risk factors, and compared them between areas or time points using standardized rates and the statistical test of standardized rate comparison, or chi-square test. Results 65%-80% male in the study area has a history of smoking; 60%-90% non-smoker has been exposed to second hand smoke. These situations are worse in high and median lung cancer areas. 50% male in median lung cancer area have coal mining work experience, which is 2 times of the percentages in the other two areas; while 15%-25% people in high lung cancer area have other occupational exposure history to particulate air pollution, which is 3-5 times of the percentages in the other two areas. From ten years ago until nowadays, 80% families in median lung cancer area use 2 tons or more smoky coal per year; more than 90% families burn coal for household heating; more than 60% families suffer from smog in the kitchen during cook; 60% families most frequently use stove in the ground with chimney

  13. Can Energy Structure Optimization, Industrial Structure Changes, Technological Improvements, and Central and Local Governance Effectively Reduce Atmospheric Pollution in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei Area in China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxuan Cheng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region has been achieved by consuming large amounts of fossil fuels. This produces a large number of pollutants, which damage the physical and mental health of residents, and prevent sustainable economic development. The most urgent task at present is improving the quality of the environment. This paper takes carbon emission as a pollution index, and adopts an extended stochastic impacts by regression on population, affluence, and technology (STIRPAT model in order to study the impact of the optimization of industry structure (in particular the reduction of the proportion of energy-intensive secondary industry, the optimization of the energy structure, and technological improvements on the atmospheric environmental quality. We obtain some important and enlightening discoveries. First of all, the rapid economic growth that has been based on magnanimous fossil fuel consumption is still the main reason for the deterioration of the atmospheric environment. This means that the main driving force of economic growth still comes from high pollution industries, despite a strategy for the transformation of the pattern of economic growth having been proposed for many years. Second, the optimization of the industrial structure has not played a significant role in promoting the reduction of carbon emissions. Through further research, we believe that this may be due to the low-quality development of the third industry. In other words, the traditional service industry related to high energy consumption accounts for a large proportion in regional total output, while the high-end service industry related to small pollution accounts for a relatively small proportion. Third, reducing the consumption of coal and improving the technological level can effectively curb the deterioration of the environmental quality. In addition, we find that transboundary pollution is an important factor affecting the environment in

  14. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of six geologic provinces of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Ronald R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of undiscovered conventional petroleum resources in six geologic provinces of China at 14.9 billion barrels of oil, 87.6 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1.4 billion barrels of natural-gas liquids.

  15. Two new species of Kamimuria (Plecoptera: Perlidae) from Shaanxi Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weihai; Mo, Raorao

    2018-02-15

    Two new species of the perlid genus Kamimuria Klapálek, K. shaanxinensis sp. nov. and K. yangxiana sp. nov. from Shaanxi Province of northwestern China are described in this paper. The similar characteristics of the new species and related taxa are discussed.

  16. Two new species of Willowsia (Collembola: Entomobryidae from Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Chai

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe two new species of Willowsia: W. baoshanensis sp. nov. and W. zhaotongensis sp. nov. This is the first report of Willowsia from Yunnan Province, China. W. baoshanensis sp. nov. is mainly characterized by its chaetotaxy, W. zhaotongensis sp. nov. by its color pattern and chaetotaxy.

  17. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Bohaiwan Basin Province, China, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Woodall, Cheryl A.; Finn, Thomas M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Le, Phuong A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Potter, Christopher J.

    2018-02-07

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous resources of 2.0 billion barrels of oil and 20.3 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Bohaiwan Basin Province, China.

  18. Diversity of Penicillium species isolated from heavy metal polluted soil in Guizhou Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qing-Xin, Zhou; Houbraken, J.; Li, Qi-Rui; Hyde, K.D.; McKenzie, E.H.C.; Wang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Seven Penicillium strains were isolated from soil samples polluted by heavy metals in different zones of Guizhou Province, China. Phenotypic identification proved to be difficult and this data was therefore supplemented with ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region and partial β-tubulin

  19. Local Sustainable Energy Assessment Report of the Guandong Province in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jan; Lund, Søren

    The publication reports a sustainable energy assessment at the local project site of the HighARCS project in Shaoguan, Guangdong Province, China. The assessment has been made as a contribution to the elaboration of biodiversity conservation and livelihoods improvement action plans. It proposes...

  20. Zinc intake and dietary pattern in Jiangsu Province, China: consequences of nutrition transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Jiangsu Province is an economically booming area in East China, where soil zinc concentrations are low. Nutrition transition to a dietary pattern with more animal source foods may have improved zinc intake in this area. However, such a transition may also have

  1. Prevalence and characterization of human Shigella infections in Henan Province, China, in 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, S.; Xu, B.; Huang, L.

    2011-01-01

    In 2006, 3531 fecal samples were collected from patients with diarrhea in Henan Province, China. A total of 467 (13.2%) Shigella strains were isolated and serotyped. Seventy-one Shigella flexneri strains were characterized by MIC determination, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and detection...

  2. Rediscovery of the sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) in Yingjiang County,Yunnan Province,China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Zheng, Xi; Jiang, Xue-Long; Chan, Bosco Pui Lok

    2017-07-18

    The sun bear, Helarctos malayanus (Raffles, 1821), is a forest-dependent bear species distributed in tropical Southeast Asia. The species was previously reported from scattered localities in southwestern China, which is at the northeastern edge of its global range. Due to the scarcity of reliable recent records, some authorities cast doubt on the continued existence of sun bear in China. Here we present the rediscovery of this species in Yingjiang County, western Yunnan Province, China, near the international border with Myanmar's Kachin State.

  3. A joint prevention and control mechanism for air pollution in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region in china based on long-term and massive data mining of pollutant concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbo; Zhao, Laijun

    2018-02-01

    China's Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region suffers from the country's worst air pollution. The problem has caused widespread concern both at home and abroad. Based on long-term and massive data mining of PM2.5 and PM10 concentration, we found that these pollutants showed similar variations in four seasons, but the most severe pollution was in winter. Through cluster analysis of the winter daily average concentration (DAC) of the two pollutants, we defined regions with similar variations in pollutant concentrations in winter. For the most polluted cities in BTH, the relationship between correlation coefficients for winter DAC and the distance between cities revealed that PM2.5 has regional, large-scale characteristics, with concentrated outbreaks, whereas PM10 has local, small-scale characteristics, with outbreaks at multiple locations. By selecting the key cities with the strongest linear relationship between the pollutant's DAC of each city and the daily individual air quality index values of the BTH region and through cluster analysis on the correlations between the pollutant DACs of the key cities, we defined regional divisions suitable for Joint Prevention and Control of Atmospheric Pollution (JPCAP) program to control PM2.5 and PM10. Comprehensively considering the degree of influence of regional atmospheric pollution control (RAPC) on air quality in BTH, as well as the elasticity and urgency of RAPC, we defined the control grades of the JPCAP regions. We found both the regions and corresponding control grades were consistent for PM2.5 and PM10. The thinking and methods of atmospheric pollution control we proposed will have broad significance for implementation of RAPC in other regions around the world.

  4. NPP estimation and seasonal change research of Gansu province in northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tao; Wang, Dawei; Hao, Xiaocui; Jiang, Youyan

    2018-03-01

    Based on GIS and remote sensing technology, this paper estimates the NPP of the 2015 year-round and every season of Gansu province in northwest China by using the CASA(Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) light energy utilization model. The result shows that the total annual NPP of Gansu province gradually decline from southeast to northwest in the space, which is in accordance with the water and heat condition in Gansu province. The results show that the summer NPP in Gansu Province is the maximum in each season. The maximum value of summer NPP in Gansu Province reached 695 (gCm-2•season-1), and the maximum value was 473 in spring, and 288 in the autumn, and the NPP in the winter in Gansu province were under 60. The fluctuation range of NPP value is large, this is due to the diversity of ecosystem types in Gansu province, including desert, grassland, farmland and forest, among them, the grassland area is the largest, and the grassland type is very diverse, the grassland coverage is obviously different, especially the low coverage grassland growth is affected by precipitation and temperature and other meteorological factors obviously.

  5. Regional allocation of CO2 emissions allowance over provinces in China by 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ke; Zhang, Xian; Wei, Yi-Ming; Yu, Shiwei

    2013-01-01

    The mitigation efforts of China are increasingly important for meeting global climate target since the rapid economic growth of China has led to an increasing share in the world's total CO 2 emissions. This paper sets out to explore the approach for realizing China's national mitigation targets submitted to the UNFCCC as part of the Copenhagen Accord; that is, to reduce the intensity of CO 2 emissions per unit of GDP by 40–45% by 2020, as well as reducing the energy intensity and increasing the share of non-fossil fuel consumption, through regional allocation of emission allowance over China's provinces. Since the realization of China's mitigation target essentially represents a total amount emission allowance allocation problem, an improved zero sum gains data envelopment analysis optimization model, which could deal with the constant total amount resources allocation, is proposed in this study. By utilizing this model and based on several scenarios of China's economic growth, CO 2 emissions, and energy consumption, a new efficient emission allowance allocation scheme on provincial level for China by 2020 is proposed. The allocation results indicate that different provinces have to shoulder different mitigation burdens in terms of emission intensity reduction, energy intensity reduction, and share of non-fossil fuels increase. - Highlights: ► We explore the approach to realize national CO 2 emissions reduction target of China by 2020. ► The CO 2 emissions allowance is allocated over China's 30 administrative regions. ► Several scenarios of China's regional economy, emission, energy consumption are given. ► The zero sum gains data envelopment analysis model is applied in emission allowance allocation. ► An efficient emission allowance allocation scheme on provincial level is proposed

  6. Occurrence of canine parvovirus in dogs from Henan province of China in 2009-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhanqin; Liu, Huisheng; Ding, Ke; Peng, Chunping; Xue, Qiao; Yu, Zuhua; Xue, Yun

    2016-07-04

    There is no information concerning the genotype of Canine parvovirus (CPV) currently circulating in Henan province, China. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to provide insights into the epidemiology and molecular characterization of CPV circulating in Henan province from 2009 to 2014. Nineteen thousand nine hundred seven dogs from pet hospitals in the cities of Luoyang, Anyang, Jiaozuo, Sanmenxia, Xinxiang, Zhengzhou in Henan province between 2009 and 2014 were investigated. Over the 6-year period, 1169 CPV-positive cases were identified and the morbidity of CPV infection ranged from 4.16 to 8.06 %, although morbidity was not significant (P > 0.05) between 2009 and 2014. Factors associated with morbidity included sampling season, dog age, breed, vaccination status, and sex. CPV co-infection with coccidium (10.00 %), canine distemper virus (4.79 %), hookworm (2.40 %), canine coronavirus (1.11 %), roundworm (1.03 %), tapeworm (0.17 %) and Babesia spp. (0.09 %) were observed. The new CPV-2a variant was more prevalent than the new CPV-2b variant in Henan province. CPV 2c was not observed in this study. The epidemiology of CPV infection and identification of the circulating genotypes in Henan province, China from 2009 to 2014 determined that the new CPV-2a variant was more prevalent.

  7. Metallogenic epoch of the Jiapigou gold belt, Jilin Province, China ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    29, Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083, People's Republic of China. 2Beijing Research .... terrane, which is separated from the central Asian orogenic belt .... Stage I formed the main body of quartz veins ...... size (20–25 μm) fluid inclusions can be observed, although most ..... Canada and Western Australia (Goldfarb et al. 2001 ...

  8. China’s Space Program: A New Tool for PRC Soft Power in International Relations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    permanent presence in space. Luan Enjie, director of Chinese counterpart to NASA , the China National Space Administration (CNSA), said, “Exploring...manned space launches have been by ardently watched live by junior astronomic buffs that make the long trek to the launch site in Hebei province to see...the Chinese National Space Administration (CNSA, similar to NASA ) partnered with ESA to collaborate on a joint mission to study the Earth’s

  9. Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Zheng; Dehua, Liu; Hua, Niu; Yue, Feng; Yunmin, Xu; Jianhua, Li; Xueshan, Xia

    2016-11-22

    Among 144 carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae strains isolated from 4 hospitals in Yunnan province, 113 were identified as carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE). Bla KPC-2 (99/113, 87.6%) was the most common carbapenemase gene and Klebsiella pneumoniae (100/113, 88.5%) was the most common species. Bla NDM-1 (11/113, 9.7%), bla IMP-4 (10/113, 8.8%), and bla IMP-1 (1/113, 0.9%) genes were also detected. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes were common in CPE, and the SHV- and CTX-M-types were predominant.

  10. Paleomagnetic study of Shanwang formation, Shandong Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Huangfeng; Shi Nin

    1989-01-01

    The measured direction of the stable remanence of Shanwang Formation, Shandong Province, is D = 355.8 deg., I = 47.1 deg. According to the axial geocentre dipole model, the paleolatitude there during Miocene was 28.3 deg. N. The corrected value based on far-sided effect is 32.4 deg. N. The uncorrected and corrected pole positions were (81.0 deg. N, 323.1 deg. E) and (84.6 deg. N, 339.7 deg. E) separately. Comparing them with paleo-flora shows that the corrected value of paleolatitude is probably reasonable. (author). 14 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  11. Poverty and malaria in the Yunnan province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Bi, Yan; Tong, Shilu

    2014-01-01

    Poverty and malaria appear to have an intertwined link. This paper aims to define the relationship between poverty and malaria in Yunnan, China, and to make recommendations for future research in this important area. Data on malaria prevalence and the population’s income in each county between 2005 and 2010 were obtained from the Yunnan Center for Disease Control and Prevention and the Yunnan Bureau of Statistics, respectively. Geographic mapping shows an apparent spatial convergence of pover...

  12. Levels, profiles and risk assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in breast milk from North China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, J.H.; Sun, S.J.; Horiguchi, H.; Kayama, F. [Dept. of Environ. Medicine, Jichi Medical School, Kawachi-gun (Japan)]|[CREST-JST, Kawaguchi, Saitama (Japan); Nakamura, M. [Hiyoshi Corp., Omihachiman, Shiga (Japan); Li Li; Ge Jun [Hospital of gynaecology and maternity of Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province (China); Ma Yu-Xia [Dept. of Hygienic Food, Collection of Public Health, Hebei Medical Univ. (China); Hou Xiu-Jun [The Second Hospital of Luanxian, Hebei Province (China); Clark, G. [Xenobiotic Detection System International Inc., Durham, NC (United States)

    2004-09-15

    China have produced and used organochlorine pesticides with low purity in a large quantity. However, there is little information on the environmental levels of organohalogens contamination as well as body burden of these chemicals, especially in Mainland China. After recent rapid growth of economy in China, health effects of persistent organohalogens are of growing concern. To assess mother's body burden and perinatal exposure of dioxins and pesticides, we collected breast milk specimens from Shijiazhuang urban and Tangshan rural area, Hebei Province, North China, and measured dioxins by DIPS-CALUX{sup circledR} bioassay (Dioxin and PCB specific Chemical-Activated LUciferase gene eXpression cell bioassay system).

  13. HLA alleles and haplotypes distribution in Dai population in Yunnan province, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, L; Yao, Y F; Shi, L; Matsushita, M; Yu, L; Lin, Q K; Tao, Y F; Oka, T; Chu, J Y; Tokunaga, K

    2010-02-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) analysis would be a useful tool to trace the origin of modern humans. In this study, we provided the first four digital HLA-A, -B, -C and -DRB1 allele and haplotype data in the Dai ethnic population, which is a unique and representative Kam-Tai-speaking ethnic minority living in the Yunnan province of Southwestern China. Our results showed that the Dai population has unique HLA characteristic that are most closely related to the Southeastern Asia group and similar to the Kam-Tai speaking populations in China and Thailand.

  14. Molecular identification and seasonal infections of species of Fasciola in ruminants from two provinces in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, W; Liu, J-M; Lu, K; Li, H; Duan, M-M; Feng, J-T; Hong, Y; Liu, Y-P; Zhou, Y; Tong, L-B; Lu, J; Zhu, C-G; Jin, Y-M; Cheng, G-F; Lin, J-J

    2016-05-01

    We determined the prevalence and seasonality of infections by Fasciola of goats and bovine species (cattle and water buffalo) in Hubei and Anhui provinces of China. Faecal samples were collected at 2- to 3-month intervals from 200 goats in Hubei province and from 152 bovine species in Anhui province. All faecal samples were examined for the presence of parasites. We determined the nucleotide sequences of the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of 39 Fasciola worms from Anhui province. The prevalence of Fasciola infection in goats ranged between 3.5 and 37.0%, with mean eggs per gram (EPG) ranging between 29.0 and 166.0. Prevalence and EPG exhibited downward trends over time with significant differences. The prevalence of Fasciola infection in cattle ranged between 13.3 and 46.2% (mean EPG, 36.4-100.0), and that of water buffalo ranged between 10.3 and 35.4% (mean EPG, 25.0-89.6), with a higher prevalence of infection and EPG from June to October compared with December to March. Analysis of ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequences revealed that F. hepatica and F. gigantica were present in all bovine species of Anhui province and that F. gigantica mainly infected water buffalo. This is the first demonstration of Fasciola infection in Hubei province and detection of F. hepatica and F. gigantica in Anhui province. The present study of Hubei province shows that mass treatment of livestock with closantel sodium injections in April and August/September controlled Fasciola infection effectively.

  15. Prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs in Henan province, central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shuai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The heartworm Dirofilaria immitis is the causative agent of cardiopulmonary dirofilariosis in dogs and cats, and also infects humans. However, there has been no study on dirofilariasis in dogs in central China. From March 2015 to February 2016, sera from 1176 randomly selected household dogs from Henan province, central China were examined for D. immitis antigen using the Canine Heartworm Antigen Test Kit. The overall seroprevalence of D. immitis in dogs in Henan province was 13% (155/1176. The prevalence was significantly higher in older dogs and dogs kept outdoors, compared to the younger ones and those sheltered indoors. No significant difference of prevalence was observed between sexes. The results suggest that the risk of exposure to D. immitis in dogs is high in Henan, and prophylaxis against the parasite is advisable to decrease the incidence of canine dirofilariosis in this region.

  16. Economic transformation in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region : Is it undergoing the Environmental Kuznets Curve?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiong, Lichun; Yu, Chang; de Jong, W.M.; Wang, Fengting; Cheng, Baodong

    2017-01-01

    The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region Integration Plan is one of the most important national strategies in China promoting regional economic development. The environmental problems in this region, however, especially air pollution and contaminated groundwater, have enormous influence on the people's

  17. Economic transformation in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region: Is it undergoing the Environmental Kuznets Curve?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiong, L. (Lichun); Yu, C. (Chang); M. de Jong (Martin); Wang, F. (Fengting); Cheng, B. (Baodong)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region Integration Plan is one of the most important national strategies in China promoting regional economic development. The environmental problems in this region, however, especially air pollution and contaminated groundwater, have enormous influence on the

  18. Genetic Diversity of Wild Rice Species in Yunnan Province of China

    OpenAIRE

    Zai-quan CHENG; Fu-you YING; Ding-qing LI; Teng-qiong YU; Jian FU; Hui-jun YAN; Qiao-fang ZHONG; Dun-yu ZHANG; Wei-jiao LI; Xing-qi HUANG

    2012-01-01

    Yunnan Province of China is one of the important centers for origin and evolution of cultivated rice worldwide. Wild rice is the ancestor of the cultivated rice. Many elite traits of wild rice have widened the genetic basis in cultivated rice. However, many populations of wild rice species have disappeared in the past few years. Therefore, the current status of wild rice resources should be updated and the genetic diversity of wild rice species should be examined for further germplasm preserv...

  19. Evaluation of health resource utilization efficiency in community health centers of Jiangsu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xinglong; Zhou, Lulin; Antwi, Henry Asante; Chen, Xi

    2018-02-20

    While the demand for health services keep escalating at the grass roots or rural areas of China, a substantial portion of healthcare resources remain stagnant in the more developed cities and this has entrenched health inequity in many parts of China. At its conception, China's Deepen Medical Reform started in 2012 was intended to flush out possible disparities and promote a more equitable and efficient distribution of healthcare resources. Nearly half a decade of this reform, there are uncertainties as to whether the attainment of the objectives of the reform is in sight. Using a hybrid of panel data analysis and an augmented data envelopment analysis (DEA), we model human resources, material, finance to determine their technical and scale efficiency to comprehensively evaluate the transverse and longitudinal allocation efficiency of community health resources in Jiangsu Province. We observed that the Deepen Medical Reform in China has led to an increase concern to ensure efficient allocation of community health resources by health policy makers in the province. This has led to greater efficiency in health resource allocation in Jiangsu in general but serious regional or municipal disparities still exist. Using the DEA model, we note that the output from the Community Health Centers does not commensurate with the substantial resources (human resources, materials, and financial) invested in them. We further observe that the case is worst in less-developed Northern parts of Jiangsu Province. The government of Jiangsu Province could improve the efficiency of health resource allocation by improving the community health service system, rationalizing the allocation of health personnel, optimizing the allocation of material resources, and enhancing the level of health of financial resource allocation.

  20. Description of Neoperla yingshana sp. nov. (Plecoptera: Perlidae) from Hubei Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Teng; DU, Yu-Zhou

    2017-12-05

    A new species of the genus Neoperla (Plecoptera, Perlidae), N. yingshana Chen & Du sp. nov. from the Wujiashan National Forest Park, Hubei Province of central China is described, illustrated and compared with similar taxa. The new species is characterized by the aedeagal tube long with an upcurved, finger-like spinulose lobe subapically, and by the aedeagal sac plump, gradually tapering to a blunt tip with dense spinules on ventral surface and granules surrounding sac apex.

  1. A review of the microbiology of the Rehai geothermal field in Tengchong, Yunnan Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Hedlund, Brian P.; Cole, Jessica K.; Williams, Amanda J.; Hou, Weiguo; Zhou, Enmin; Li, Wenjun; Dong, Hailiang

    2012-01-01

    The Rehai Geothermal Field, located in Tengchong County, in central-western Yunnan Province, is the largest and most intensively studied geothermal field in China. A wide physicochemical diversity of springs (ambient to ∼97 °C; pH from ≤1.8 to ≥9.3) provides a multitude of niches for extremophilic microorganisms. A variety of studies have focused on the cultivation, identification, basic physiology, taxonomy, and biotechnological potential of thermophilic microorganisms from Rehai. Thermophil...

  2. Epidemiological Study and Control Trial of Taeniid Cestode Infection in Farm Dogs in Qinghai Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    GUO, Zhihong; LI, Wei; PENG, Mao; DUO, Hong; SHEN, Xiuying; FU, Yong; IRIE, Takao; GAN, Tiantian; KIRINO, Yumi; NASU, Tetsuo; HORII, Yoichiro; NONAKA, Nariaki

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT An epidemiological study and control trial were conducted to assess taeniid infection in farm dogs in Qinghai Province, China. To improve egg detection by fecal examination, a deworming step with praziquantel was incorporated into the sampling methodology. As a result, a marked increase in the number of egg-positive samples was observed in samples collected at 24 hr after deworming. Then, the fecal examination and barcoding of egg DNA were performed to assess the prevalence of taenii...

  3. Changes in Attitudes, Knowledge and Behavior Associated with Implementing a Comprehensive School Health Program in a Province of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldinger, Carmen; Zhang, Xin-Wei; Liu, Li-Qun; Pan, Xue-Dong; Yu, Sen-Hai; Jones, Jack; Kass, Jared

    2008-01-01

    After successful pilot projects, Zhejiang Province, China, decided to systematically scale-up health promoting schools (HPS) over the entire province of 47 million. This study describes the interventions and self-reported changes in attitudes, knowledge and behavior during the first phase of scaling-up. Group interviews were conducted with a…

  4. The development and practices of Strategic Environmental Assessment in Shandong Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shujun; Liu Jian; Ren Lijun; Zhang Kai; Wang Renqing

    2009-01-01

    Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), a newly-developed decision-making support tool, has been used in many developed and developing countries for predicting and evaluating potential environmental impact of policies, plans, and programs (PPPs), as well as for providing alternatives to avoid, mitigate, or compensate for these impacts. Unfortunately, due to the complexity and flexibility of SEA, to date there has been no consensus on a system which could be suitable for the contexts of different regions or countries. Different requirements and practices are observed in the different typical stages of SEA. Controversial areas include the appropriate indicators to apply in the early baseline setting stage, suitable methodologies for the impact assessment, and appropriate procedures for the SEA process. Given this, it is important to review and refine the SEA system specific to the context but informed by internationally agreed norms. As an illustration, this study reviews and proposes steps to refine the SEA system in Shandong Province, an economically powerful province of China, aiming to achieve sustainable development. Supported by the Environmental Impact Assessment Law of the People's Republic of China, Shandong Province employed SEA to reform the traditionally economy-oriented decision-making and incorporate consideration of environmental consequences into government deliberation on proposed PPPs. This paper illustrates the developmental process, procedures, and legal support for SEA in Shandong Province. By analyzing five SEA cases carried out by Shandong Province Environment Protection Bureau (SEPB) and Shandong University, problems in the SEA system were identified, and recommendations were made for improving the SEA system not only in Shandong Province but also other similar regions or countries.

  5. Evaluation of possible host rocks for China's high level radioactive waste repository and the progress in site characterization at the Beishan potential site in NW China's Gansu province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ju; Jin Yuanxin; Chen Zhangru; Chen Weiming; Wang Wenguang

    2000-01-01

    Evaluation of possible host rocks for China's high level radioactive waste repository is summarized in this paper. The distribution and characteristics of granite, tuff, clay stone, salt and loess in China are described, while maps showing the distribution of host rocks are presented. Because of the wide distribution, large scale, good heat conductivity and suitable mechanical properties, granite is considered as the most potential host rock. Some granite bodies distributed in NW China, SW China, South China and Inner Mongolia have been selected as potential areas. Detailed site characterization at Beishan area, Gansu Province NW China is in progress

  6. 权益资本与技术创新相关性评价——基于河北省中小企业的实证分析%Empirical Analysis on Correlation of Equity Finance and Technology Innovation ——Based on Small and Medium-sized Enterprises in Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏伟; 朱梦蝶

    2012-01-01

    The paper analyzes the correlation of the equity finance and technology innovation from the influence of financing structure to technology innovation. The authors use the small and medium - sized enterprises data of Hebei province and make an empirically study . The result shows that a higher equity ratio is conductive to a higher R&D intensity . Equity may be more important for young companies which have to rely on original equity investment of their owners since they have not yet accumulated retained earnings and can rely less on bank financing.%从财务结构对技术创新活动的影响角度分析权益资本与技术创新相关性,使用河北省中小企业的数据实证分析,结果表明进行创新的企业的权益比率与技术创新力度之间存在正相关关系,而且这种影响对于经营年限较短企业更为明显,因为它们没有累积留存收益,也不能依靠银行融资,而只能依靠所有者投入的原始资本.

  7. Human Cases of Fascioliasis in Fujian Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Lin; Cai, Yu-Chun; Lu, Yan; Chen, Jia-Xu; Chen, Shao-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Fascioliasis is a foodborne zoonotic parasitic disease. We report 4 cases occurring in the same family, in whom diagnosis of acute fascioliasis was established after series of tests. One case was hospitalized with fever, eosinophilia, and hepatic lesions. MRI showed hypodense changes in both liver lobes. The remaining 3 cases presented with the symptom of stomachache only. Stool analysis was positive for Fasciola eggs in 2 adult patients. The immunological test and molecular identification of eggs were confirmed at the National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, China. The results of serological detection were positive in all the 4 patients. DNA sequencing of PCR products of the eggs demonstrated 100% homology with ITS and cox1 of Fasciola hepatica. The conditions of the patients were not improved by broad-spectrum anti-parasitic drugs until administration of triclabendazole. PMID:28285507

  8. Human Cases of Fascioliasis in Fujian Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Lin; Cai, Yu-Chun; Lu, Yan; Chen, Jia-Xu; Chen, Shao-Hong

    2017-02-01

    Fascioliasis is a foodborne zoonotic parasitic disease. We report 4 cases occurring in the same family, in whom diagnosis of acute fascioliasis was established after series of tests. One case was hospitalized with fever, eosinophilia, and hepatic lesions. MRI showed hypodense changes in both liver lobes. The remaining 3 cases presented with the symptom of stomachache only. Stool analysis was positive for Fasciola eggs in 2 adult patients. The immunological test and molecular identification of eggs were confirmed at the National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, China. The results of serological detection were positive in all the 4 patients. DNA sequencing of PCR products of the eggs demonstrated 100% homology with ITS and cox1 of Fasciola hepatica . The conditions of the patients were not improved by broad-spectrum anti-parasitic drugs until administration of triclabendazole.

  9. Trade-Induced Atmospheric Mercury Deposition over China and Implications for Demand-Side Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Meng, Jing; Liang, Sai; Zhang, Haoran; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Maodian; Tong, Yindong; Wang, Huanhuan; Wang, Wei; Wang, Xuejun; Shu, Jiong

    2018-02-20

    Mercury (Hg) is of global concern because of its adverse effects on humans and the environment. In addition to long-range atmospheric transport, Hg emissions can be geographically relocated through economic trade. Here, we investigate the effect of China's interregional trade on atmospheric Hg deposition over China, using an atmospheric transport model and multiregional input-output analysis. In general, total atmospheric Hg deposition over China is 408.8 Mg yr -1 , and 32% of this is embodied in China's interregional trade, with the hotspots occurring over Gansu, Henan, Hebei, and Yunnan provinces. Interprovincial trade considerably redistributes atmospheric Hg deposition over China, with a range in deposition flux from -104% to +28%. Developed regions, such as the Yangtze River Delta (Shanghai, Jiangsu, and Zhejiang) and Guangdong, avoid Hg deposition over their geographical boundaries, instead causing additional Hg deposition over developing provinces. Bilateral interaction among provinces is strong over some regions, suggesting a need for joint mitigation, such as the Jing-Jin-Ji region (Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei) and the Yangtze River Delta. Transferring advanced technology from developed regions to their developing trade partners would be an effective measure to mitigate China's Hg pollution. Our findings are relevant to interprovincial efforts to reduce trans-boundary Hg pollution in China.

  10. Predicting the risk of arsenic contaminated groundwater in Shanxi Province, Northern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qiang; Rodríguez-Lado, Luis; Johnson, C. Annette; Xue, Hanbin; Shi Jianbo; Zheng Quanmei; Sun Guifan

    2012-01-01

    Shanxi Province is one of the regions in northern China where endemic arsenicosis occurs. In this study, stepwise logistic regression was applied to analyze the statistical relationships of a dataset of arsenic (As) concentrations in groundwaters with some environmental explanatory parameters. Finally, a 2D spatial model showing the potential As-affected areas in this province was created. We identified topography, gravity, hydrologic parameters and remote sensing information as explanatory variables with high potential to predict high As risk areas. The model identifies correctly the already known endemic areas of arsenism. We estimate that the area at risk exceeding 10 μg L −1 As occupies approximately 8100 km 2 in 30 counties in the province. - Highlights: ► We develop a statistical model to predict arsenic affected areas of Shanxi Province. ► Holocene sediments, TWI, Rivdist, Gravity, remote sensing images are key predictors. ► Area of 8112 km 2 and more than 30 counties are estimated at risk of arsenic hazard. ► Logistic regression model could be widely used to predict other emerging regions. - Explanatory variables from topography, hydrology, gravity, and remote sensing information are benefit to model As risk in groundwater of Shanxi Province.

  11. Indicators for Environment Health Risk Assessment in the Jiangsu Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shujie; Wei, Zhengzheng; Liu, Wenliang; Yao, Ling; Suo, Wenyu; Xing, Jingjing; Huang, Bingzhao; Jin, Di; Wang, Jiansheng

    2015-09-07

    According to the framework of "Pressure-State-Response", this study established an indicator system which can reflect comprehensive risk of environment and health for an area at large scale. This indicator system includes 17 specific indicators covering social and economic development, pollution emission intensity, air pollution exposure, population vulnerability, living standards, medical and public health, culture and education. A corresponding weight was given to each indicator through Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Comprehensive risk assessment of the environment and health of 58 counties was conducted in the Jiangsu province, China, and the assessment result was divided into four types according to risk level. Higher-risk counties are all located in the economically developed southern region of Jiangsu province and relatively high-risk counties are located along the Yangtze River and Xuzhou County and its surrounding areas. The spatial distribution of relatively low-risk counties is dispersive, and lower-risk counties mainly located in the middle region where the economy is somewhat weaker in the province. The assessment results provide reasonable and scientific basis for Jiangsu province Government in formulating environment and health policy. Moreover, it also provides a method reference for the comprehensive risk assessment of environment and health within a large area (provinces, regions and countries).

  12. Assessing Light Pollution in China Based on Nighttime Light Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jiang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization and economic development inevitably lead to light pollution, which has become a universal environmental issue. In order to reveal the spatiotemporal patterns and evolvement rules of light pollution in China, images from 1992 to 2012 were selected from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS and systematically corrected to ensure consistency. Furthermore, we employed a linear regression trend method and nighttime light index method to demonstrate China’s light pollution characteristics across national, regional, and provincial scales, respectively. We found that: (1 China’s light pollution expanded significantly in provincial capital cities over the past 21 years and hot-spots of light pollution were located in the eastern coastal region. The Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta, and Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei regions have formed light pollution stretch areas; (2 China’s light pollution was mainly focused in areas of north China (NC and east China (EC, which, together, accounted for over 50% of the light pollution for the whole country. The fastest growth of light pollution was observed in northwest China (NWC, followed by southwest China (SWC. The growth rates of east China (EC, central China (CC, and northeast China (NEC were stable, while those of north China (NC and south China (SC declined; (3 Light pollution at the provincial scale was mainly located in the Shandong, Guangdong, and Hebei provinces, whereas the fastest growth of light pollution was in Tibet and Hainan. However, light pollution levels in the developed provinces (Hong Kong, Macao, Shanghai, and Tianjin were higher than those of the undeveloped provinces. Similarly, the light pollution heterogeneities of Taiwan, Beijing, and Shanghai were higher than those of undeveloped western provinces.

  13. Geotourism Aspects of the Lufeng Dinosaur National Geopark in Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daněk Tomáš

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Lufeng Dinosaur National Geopark in Yunnan province, China, is important part of geoheritage with a great scientific and aesthetic value. The area has been under scientific research since 1938 when the first dinosaur fossils were discovered here by geologist Bian Meinian and technician Wang Cunyi. Professor Yang announced the discovery of new early Jurassic herbivore prosauropod by Lufeng in 1941, which he gave the name Lufengosaurus huenei. In 2004, the area was listed as the China`s National Geopark. It was opened for visitors in 2008. Besides the high scientific value, the geopark is also an important resource for science based and educational tourism. This paper briefly introduces the history of scientific research, the basic geology of the site and the most important fossils discovered here. The main characteristics, geodiversity, and geotourism of fossil geoheritage in the area are discussed here.

  14. Quantifying potential yield and water-limited yield of summer maize in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mingnuo; Liu, Chaoshun; Chen, Maosi

    2017-09-01

    The North China Plain is a major food producing region in China, and climate change could pose a threat to food production in the region. Based on China Meteorological Forcing Dataset, simulating the growth of summer maize in North China Plain from 1979 to 2015 with the regional implementation of crop growth model WOFOST. The results showed that the model can reflect the potential yield and water-limited yield of Summer Maize in North China Plain through the calibration and validation of WOFOST model. After the regional implementation of model, combined with the reanalysis data, the model can better reproduce the regional history of summer maize yield in the North China Plain. The yield gap in Southeastern Beijing, southern Tianjin, southern Hebei province, Northwestern Shandong province is significant, these means the water condition is the main factor to summer maize yield in these regions.

  15. First report of Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in peafowls in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yi-Ming; Dai, Fei-Yan; Huang, Si-Yang; Deng, Zu-Hong; Duan, Gang; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Yang, Jian-Fa; Weng, Ya-Biao; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Zou, Feng-Cai

    2012-09-19

    Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite infecting almost all warm-blooded animals, including birds, with a worldwide distribution. Surveys of T. gondii infection in wild birds have been reported extensively in the world, but little is known of T. gondii infection in peafowls worldwide. This study was performed to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in peafowls in Yunnan Province, southwestern China. Sera from 277 peafowls, including 272 blue peafowls (Pavo cristatus) and 5 green peafowls (Pavo muticus) originated from two geographic areas in Yunnan Province were assayed for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Specific T. gondii antibodies were detected in 35 of 277 (12.64%) peafowls (MAT titer ≥ 1:5). Seropositive birds were found in both species, 33 in 272 blue peafowls and 2 in 5 green peafowls. There was no significant difference in T. gondii seroprevalence between the adolescent birds (6.74%) and the adult birds (6.67%) (P > 0.05). The geographical origins of peafowls was found to be highly associated with T. gondii infection in the present study, a statistically significant difference in T. gondii seropositivity was observed between peafowls from Kunming (31.08%) and those from Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture (5.91%) (OR = 10.956, 95% CI = 1.632-73.545, P = 0.014). Statistical analyses showed that there were no significant interactions between ages and geographical origins of peafowls (P > 0.05). The results of the present survey indicated that infection of peafowls with T. gondii is widespread in Yunnan Province, which has significant public health concerns and implications for prevention and control of toxoplamosis in this province. To our knowledge, this is the first seroprevalence report of T. gondii infection in China's southwestern Yunnan Province.

  16. A Novel Workflow for Geothermal Prospectively Mapping Weights-of-Evidence in Liaoning Province, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejia Sang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Geological faults are highly developed in the eastern Liaoning Province in China, where Mesozoic granitic intrusions and Archean and Paleoproterozoic metamorphic rocks are widely distributed. Although the heat flow value in eastern Liaoning Province is generally low, the hot springs are very developed. It is obvious that the faults have significant control over the distribution of hot springs, and traditional methods of spatial data analysis such as WofE (weight of evidence usually do not take into account the direction of the distribution of geothermal resources in the geothermal forecast process, which seriously affects the accuracy of the prediction results. To overcome the deficiency of the traditional evidence weight method, wherein it does not take the direction of evidence factor into account, this study put forward a combination of the Fry and WofE methods, Fry-WofE, based on geological observation, gravity, remote sensing, and DEM (digital elevation model multivariate data. This study takes eastern Liaoning Province in China as an example, and the geothermal prospect was predicted respectively by the Fry-WofE and WofE methods from the statistical data on the spatial distribution of the exposed space of geothermal anomalies the surface. The result shows that the Fry-WofE method can achieve better prediction results when comparing the accuracy of these two methods. Based on the results of Fry-WofE prediction and water system extraction, 13 favorable geothermal prospect areas are delineated in eastern Liaoning Province. The Fry-WofE method is effective in study areas where the geothermal distribution area is obviously controlled by the fault. We provide not only a new method for solving the similar issue of geothermal exploration, but also a new insight into the distribution of geothermal resources in Liaoning Province.

  17. Spillover of Newcastle disease viruses from poultry to wild birds in Guangdong province, southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Bin; Han, Lujie; Gao, Pei; You, Renrong; Wang, Fumin; Xiao, Jiajie; Liao, Ming; Kang, Yinfeng; Ren, Tao

    2017-11-01

    Despite intensive vaccination programs in many countries, including China, Newcastle disease has been reported sporadically and is still a significant threat to the poultry industry in China. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is infectious for at least 250 bird species, but the role of wild birds in virus epidemiology remains largely unknown. Fourteen NDV isolates were obtained from 2040 samples collected from wild birds or the environment in Guangdong province, southern China, from 2013 to 2015. The isolation rate was the highest in the period of wintering and lowest during the periods of spring migration, nesting, and postnesting. A maximum clade credibility phylogenetic analysis revealed that at least four genotypes circulate in southern China: three class II genotypes (II, VI, and IX) and one class I (1b). We also demonstrated that most isolates from wild birds were highly similar to isolates from poultry, and two isolates were linked to viruses from wild birds in northern China. These data suggested that wild birds could disseminate NDV and poultry-derived viruses may spillover to wild birds. Accordingly, vaccine development and poultry management strategies should be considered to prevent future NDV outbreaks, particularly given the strength of the poultry industry in developing countries, such as China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A Community Livelihood Approach to Agricultural Heritage System Conservation and Tourism Development: Xuanhua Grape Garden Urban Agricultural Heritage Site, Hebei Province of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingming Su

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The designation, conservation and tourism development of agricultural heritage systems, which are embedded with intricate human–nature relations, could significantly influence community livelihoods. Therefore, a livelihood approach is critical for agricultural heritage conservation and the sustainability of the hosting community. Taking Guanhou Village, Xuanhua Grape Garden Urban Agricultural Heritage Site as an example, this study examines impacts of heritage conservation and tourism on the community livelihood system and its implications for community livelihood sustainability. A sustainable livelihood framework is adopted to guide the analysis. Face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted with management officials, village leaders and village residents. The research identified the importance of Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS designation on raising government support and public awareness on conservation. Tourism emerges as an alternative livelihood to some residents which exerts positive economic influence. However, tourism participation is currently at a low level which restricted the distribution of benefits. The sustainability of local rural livelihood is at risk due to the rapid urbanization, the decline of human resources and the insufficient integration of traditional agriculture with tourism. Practical implications were discussed to enhance local participation and tourism contribution to GIAHS conservation.

  19. Resident's Floor Level Preference in High-Rise Residential Buildings in China: A Case Study of Shijiazhuang City,Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Pingjun; Wang Ying; Pang Ruiqiu; Song Xinyan

    2016-01-01

    With the constant advance of global urbanization and aggravation of urban construction land scarcity,high-rise residential buildings have become one of the main carriers of urban residential function on account of both land saving and large housing requirement.However,relevant studies on consumers' floor selection preference in high-rise residential buildings,regarding what inherent and regular features and causes it has,are still insufficient,despite that related issues have important practical significance for real estate developers and designers' decision making in terms of dwelling size ratio,floor area,indoor layout,and so on.This study,based on systematic examination of existing domestic and international researches,seeks to make empirical tests and generalization on the above issues from the aspect of"utility function" (safety,comfortableness,accessibility and economic efficiency) of the living environment that impacted by different floor levels,and floor selection features regarding consumers' social and family structure attributes,as well as the intrinsic correlation between them.The results show the existence of floor level preference in high-rise residential buildings.Its essence is a personalized characterization of consumers' social and family structures' attributes in selecting the "utility function" of the living environment,as the preference value differs under various attributes including gender,age,income,family members and others.

  20. Resident’s Floor Level Preference in High-Rise Residential Buildings in China:A Case Study of Shijiazhuang City,Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun; Pingjun; Wang; Ying; Pang; Ruiqiu; Song; Xinyan

    2016-01-01

    With the constant advance of global urbanization and aggravation of urban construction land scarcity,high-rise residential buildings have become one of the main carriers of urban residential function on account of both land saving and large housing requirement.However,relevant studies on consumers’ floor selection preference in high-rise residential buildings,regarding what inherent and regular features and causes it has,are still insufficient,despite that related issues have important practical significance for real estate developers and designers’ decision making in terms of dwelling size ratio,floor area,indoor layout,and so on.This study,based on systematic examination of existing domestic and international researches,seeks to make empirical tests and generalization on the above issues from the aspect of "utility function"(safety,comfortableness,accessibility and economic efficiency) of the living environment that impacted by different floor levels,and floor selection features regarding consumers’ social and family structure attributes,as well as the intrinsic correlation between them.The results show the existence of floor level preference in high-rise residential buildings.Its essence is a personalized characterization of consumers’ social and family structures’ attributes in selecting the "utility function" of the living environment,as the preference value differs under various attributes including gender,age,income,family members and others.

  1. Incidence and mortality of gastric cancer in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, L

    2006-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most frequent cancers in the world; almost two-thirds of gastric cancer cases and deaths occur in less developed regions. In China, based on two national mortality surveys conducted in 1970s and 1990s, there is an obvious clustering of geographical distribution of gastric cancer in the country, with the high mortality being mostly located in rural areas, especially in Gansu, Henan, Hebei, Shanxi and Shaanxi Provinces in the middle-western part of China. Despite a ...

  2. Revisiting platinum group elements of Late Permian coals from western Guizhou Province, SW China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Liang [State Key Lab of Ore Deposit Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang, 550002 (China); Gao, Jianfeng [Department of Earth Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2008-08-05

    Twenty five coal samples from the Late Permian coal-bearing strata in Weining, Nayong, and Zhijin, western Guizhou Province, SW, China, were analyzed for platinum group elements (PGEs). The coal ashes were digested by the Carius tube technique and accurately measured by isotope dilution-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS) for all PGEs. The results are much lower than the previous reported values. Our study suggested that the previously reported PGE values are incorrect and may due to the polyatomic interferences in ICP-MS measurements. In our study, samples from the Weining coalfield have the lowest PGE contents (from 0.019 Ir to 0.42 ng/g Pd), which represent the PGE background value in coal in western Guizhou province. Some of the coals have Pt and Pd contents about 20-times higher than the background value, indicating PGEs are concentrated. We also reported new and reliable PGE data and background value of coal in western Guizhou province, SW, China, and suggested to rework the PGE background values of Chinese coals. (author)

  3. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Chlamydia abortus Infection in Goats in Hunan Province, Subtropical China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shi-Feng; Li, Fen; Zheng, Wen-Bin; Liu, Guo-Hua

    2018-01-23

    Chlamydia abortus is an obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacteria, which can infect animals and human, including goats. However, little information on C. abortus infection is available in goats in Hunan province, subtropical China. To investigate the seroprevalence and risk factors of C. abortus infection in goats in Hunan province, China, a total of 911 goat blood samples were collected randomly from 14 herds having number of goats ranging from 1000 to 3000 from March 2014 to December 2015. Seropositive animals were found in 11 out of 14 (78.57%) goat herds with seroprevalence ranging from 0.00% to 29.94% in individual herds. Overall, the seroprevalence of C. abortus infection was different among regions (southern Hunan: 1.78%; northeast Hunan: 5.47%; and west Hunan: 15.29%), gender (male: 4.58% and female: 9.10%), seasons (spring: 5.97%; summer: 2.61%; autumn: 16.88%; and winter: 10.94%), and ages (year ≤1: 2.39%; 1 3: 17.57%). Risk factors for C. abortus infection were associated with region, season, and age in this study. To our knowledge, this is the first document to demonstrate the existence of C. abortus infection in goats, and the seroprevalence was 8.45% out of 911 goats in Hunan province.

  4. A ten years (2000–2009 surveillance of resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Zhejiang Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Zhang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In Zhejiang Province, there are several highly developed cities near the coast and several relatively under-developed mountain areas. Analysis of the composition of bacteria isolated from patients as well as their antibiotic resistance profile from various areas of this province, and tracing of such data year-by-year, will help to delineate the bacterial resistance profile of these areas and to understand how the stage of socio-economical development impacts on the composition of clinical micro-flora and their resistance profile. Methods: In order to investigate variation in resistance rates and isolation rates of Enterobacteriaceae, from 2000 to 2009 in Zhejiang Province, China, Enterobacteriaceae isolated from 15 hospitals located in different regions of the province were surveyed. Results: The total numbers of the Enterobacteriaceae isolated increased more than 20-fold from 2000 to 2009. Among the Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the dominant isolates. The percentage of E. coli and K. pneumoniae that produced detectable extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs increased from 2000 to 2007, and then declined slightly in 2008 and 2009. The percentages of K. pneumoniae and E. coli that were resistant to ceftazidime increased sharply from 2000 to 2009. There were remarkable increases in the carbapenem resistant rates during the decade, but they were much higher for the isolates from the developed cities than from the rural areas. In 2002, carbapenem-resistant E. coli was first found in Hangzhou, one of the highly developed cities in Zhejiang Province. By 2009, carbapenem-resistant bacteria were found for all species of Enterobacteriaceae surveyed in almost all areas of the province, although they were more frequently identified in developed areas than in rural areas. Conclusion: Much restrictive actions have to be taken in terms of rational use of antibiotics and nosocomial control to prevent the further

  5. Spatiotemporal analysis of indigenous and imported dengue fever cases in Guangdong province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhongjie

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue fever has been a major public health concern in China since it re-emerged in Guangdong province in 1978. This study aimed to explore spatiotemporal characteristics of dengue fever cases for both indigenous and imported cases during recent years in Guangdong province, so as to identify high-risk areas of the province and thereby help plan resource allocation for dengue interventions. Methods Notifiable cases of dengue fever were collected from all 123 counties of Guangdong province from 2005 to 2010. Descriptive temporal and spatial analysis were conducted, including plotting of seasonal distribution of cases, and creating choropleth maps of cumulative incidence by county. The space-time scan statistic was used to determine space-time clusters of dengue fever cases at the county level, and a geographical information system was used to visualize the location of the clusters. Analysis were stratified by imported and indigenous origin. Results 1658 dengue fever cases were recorded in Guangdong province during the study period, including 94 imported cases and 1564 indigenous cases. Both imported and indigenous cases occurred more frequently in autumn. The areas affected by the indigenous and imported cases presented a geographically expanding trend over the study period. The results showed that the most likely cluster of imported cases (relative risk = 7.52, p  Conclusions This study demonstrated that the geographic range of imported and indigenous dengue fever cases has expanded over recent years, and cases were significantly clustered in two heavily urbanised areas of Guangdong province. This provides the foundation for further investigation of risk factors and interventions in these high-risk areas.

  6. Advances of mutation breeding in Heilongjiang Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Guangzu

    1989-01-01

    more tolerance to salt. (f) dwarf type - The maize mutant 7147 has a short culm of only 150 cm. (g) productive plant architecture - The mutants of maize 8005 and 8007 possess upward leaves and no ligula. 3. Irradiation is also used in connection with distant hybridization. Seeds from off-springs of crossing triticale with common wheat were treated with 60 Co-γ rays or neutrons. By means of induced translocation, some chromosome fragments or genes from genome of rye were introduced into the ABD genome of wheat. Translocation lines with good economic value were selected, such as Harshi 82-14, Harshi 82-1-1, Harshi 82-2-23-1 and Longfu 82nen389. These lines possess long spikes, multiple spikelets, drought tolerance, stem rust and leaf rust resistance, mildew resistance and high yield. Two of them already joined regional tests in Heilongjiang province. Also, the substitution line Longfu 92027 was selected which possesses good disease resistance and productive traits. (author)

  7. Advances of mutation breeding in Heilongjiang Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guangzu, Sun [Institute for Application of Atomic Energy, Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin (China)

    1989-01-01

    {gamma}-67-681 possesses more tolerance to salt. (f) dwarf type - The maize mutant 7147 has a short culm of only 150 cm. (g) productive plant architecture - The mutants of maize 8005 and 8007 possess upward leaves and no ligula. 3. Irradiation is also used in connection with distant hybridization. Seeds from off-springs of crossing triticale with common wheat were treated with {sup 60}Co-{gamma} rays or neutrons. By means of induced translocation, some chromosome fragments or genes from genome of rye were introduced into the ABD genome of wheat. Translocation lines with good economic value were selected, such as Harshi 82-14, Harshi 82-1-1, Harshi 82-2-23-1 and Longfu 82nen389. These lines possess long spikes, multiple spikelets, drought tolerance, stem rust and leaf rust resistance, mildew resistance and high yield. Two of them already joined regional tests in Heilongjiang province. (author) (abstract truncated)

  8. Variations of annual and seasonal runoff in Guangdong Province, south China: spatiotemporal patterns and possible causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Xiao, Mingzhong; Singh, Vijay P.; Xu, Chong-Yu; Li, Jianfeng

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we thoroughly analyzed spatial and temporal distributions of runoff and their relation with precipitation changes based on monthly runoff dataset at 25 hydrological stations and monthly precipitation at 127 stations in Guangdong Province, south China. Trends of the runoff and precipitation are detected using Mann-Kendall trend test technique. Correlations between runoff and precipitation are tested using Spearman's and Pearson's correlation coefficients. The results indicate that: (1) annual maximum monthly runoff is mainly in decreasing tendency and significant increasing annual minimum monthly runoff is observed in the northern and eastern Guangdong Province. In addition, annual mean runoff is observed to be increasing at the stations located in the West and North Rivers and the coastal region; (2) analysis of seasonal runoff variations indicates increasing runoff in spring, autumn and winter. Wherein, significant increase of runoff is found at 8 stations and only 3 stations are dominated by decreasing runoff in winter; (3) runoff changes of the Guangdong Province are mainly the results of precipitation changes. The Guangdong Province is wetter in winter, spring and autumn. Summer is coming to be drier as reflected by decreasing runoff in the season; (4) both precipitation change and water reservoirs also play important roles in the increasing of annual minimum monthly streamflow. Seasonal shifts of runoff variations may pose new challenges for the water resources management under the influences of climate changes and intensifying human activities.

  9. An exploratory survey of money boys and HIV transmission risk in Jilin Province, PR China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Zixuan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This report represents the first exploratory study of Chinese men who provide commercial sex services to other men ("money boys" in Jilin Province, People's Republic of China, through a convenience sample drawn from Changchun and Jilin City. A total of 86 active money boy participants (Changchun, n = 49; Jilin City, n = 37 were surveyed concerning background and demographics, basic HIV transmission knowledge, and sexual practices. The survey indicated that while Jilin Province money boy behavior matches other studies concerning propensity to high risk behavior and significant bridging potential, the Jilin money boys, unlike previous studies, exhibited a high level of basic HIV/AIDS transmission knowledge. In spite of this level of knowledge, none of the participants reported always using a condom in their sexual activities. They also exhibited a high level of awareness of voluntary counseling and testing available in the province, yet relatively few had availed themselves of these services. These preliminary findings will be used as a baseline and springboard for continuing study in the Jilin Province money boy community. Even now, however, it is becoming clear that the dynamics of male commercial sex work may vary greatly depending upon local influences, and will necessitate that future interventions are highly tailored to area-specific circumstances.

  10. First insight into the genotypic diversity of clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Gansu Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Investigations of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genetic diversity in China have indicated a significant regional distribution. The aim of this study was to characterize the genotypes of clinical M. tuberculosis isolates obtained from Gansu, which has a special geographic location in China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 467 clinical M. tuberculosis strains isolated in Gansu Province were genotyped by 15-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR and spoligotyping. The results showed that 445 isolates belonged to six known spoligotype lineages, whereas 22 isolates were unknown. The Beijing genotype was the most prevalent (87.58%, n = 409, while the shared type 1 was the dominant genotype (80.94%, n = 378. The second most common lineage was the T lineage, with 25 isolates (5.35%, followed by the H lineage with 5 isolates (1.07%, the MANU family (0.64%, 3 isolates, the U family (0.43%, 2 isolates and the CAS lineage with 1 isolate (0.21%. By using the VNTR15China method, we observed 15 groups and 228 genotypes among the 467 isolates. We found no association between the five larger groups (including the Beijing genotype and sex, age, or treatment status, and there was no noticeable difference in the group analysis in different areas. In the present study, seven of the 15 MIRU-VNTR loci were highly or moderately discriminative according to their Hunter-Gaston discriminatory index. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The Beijing genotype is the predominant genotype in Gansu province. We confirm that VNTR15China is suitable for typing Beijing strains in China and that it has a better discriminatory power than spoligotyping. Therefore, the use of both methods is the most suitable for genotyping analysis of M. tuberculosis.

  11. Prevalence of Breastfeeding: Findings from the First Health Service Household Interview in Hunan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Qin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the development of economy and urbanization, methods of child-feeding have significantly changed in China over the past three decades. However, little is known about breastfeeding in China since 2009. This study aims to update information on the prevalence of breastfeeding in China. Methods: Data were obtained from the first Health Service Household Interview Survey of Hunan Province, China. Of 24,282 respondents, 1659 were aged five years or younger. We ran multivariable logistic regression to examine the impact of urban/rural setting, gender, age and household income per capita on the use of breastfeeding. Results: A total of 79.4% of children aged 5 years or younger had been breastfed at some point and 44.9% been breastfed exclusively in the first 6 months of life. After controlling for setting urban/rural setting, gender and child age, children from households with average family income were more likely to be breastfed than those from households with the lowest family income (adjusted odds ratio: 2.28. Children from households with higher and the highest family income were less likely to be exclusively breastfed in the first 6 months of life compared to those from households with the lowest family income (adjusted odds ratio: 0.51 and 0.68, respectively. Conclusions: It is encouraging that the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding for infants in the first 6 months of life in Hunan Province, China is approaching the goal of 50% proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO. Nevertheless, more efforts are needed to further promote exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months after birth.

  12. Medicine prices, availability, and affordability in the Shaanxi Province in China: implications for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Minghuan; Zhou, Zhongliang; Wu, Lina; Shen, Qian; Lv, Bing; Wang, Xiao; Yang, Shimin; Fang, Yu

    2015-02-01

    In 2009, China implemented the National Essential Medicines System (NEMS) to improve access to high-quality low-cost essential medicines. To measure the prices, availability and affordability of medicines in China following the implementation of the NEMS. 120 public hospitals and 120 private pharmacies in ten cities in Shaanxi Province, Western China. The standardized methodology developed by the World Health Organization and Health Action International was used to collect data on prices and availability of 49 medicines. Median price ratio; availability as a percentage; cost of course of treatment in days' wages of the lowest-paid government workers. In the public hospitals, originator brands (OBs) were procured at 8.89 times the international reference price, more than seven times higher than the lowest-priced generics (LPGs). Patients paid 11.83 and 1.69 times the international reference prices for OBs and generics respectively. A similar result was observed in the private pharmacies. The mean availabilities of OBs and LPGs were 7.1 and 20.0 % in the public hospitals, and 12.6 and 29.2 % in the private pharmacies. Treatment with OBs is therefore largely unaffordable, but the affordability of the LPGs is generally good. High prices and low availability of survey medicines were observed. The affordability of generics, but not OBs, is reasonable. Effective measures should be taken to reduce medicine prices and improve availability and affordability in Shaanxi Province.

  13. Prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of diabetes mellitus in rural China: results from Shandong Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, F; Qian, D; Chen, J; Hu, D; Hou, M; Chen, S; Wang, P

    2016-04-01

    To estimate the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of diabetes in rural areas in Shandong Province, China. The Luxemburg-WHO-Shandong Project on Rural Health Personnel Training and Chronic Disease Control, a cross-sectional study, examined 16 375 rural residents aged 25 years and over using multistage cluster sampling in April 2007. An overnight fasting blood specimen was collected to measure plasma glucose and a 2-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was conducted among people with a fasting blood glucose of ≥ 6.1 mmol/l. Information on the history of diabetes and hypoglycaemic medication was obtained using a standard questionnaire. Diabetes and prediabetes were defined according to the 1999 World Health Organization diagnostic criteria. Overall, the prevalence rates for diabetes, prediabetes and previously diagnosed diabetes in the rural population were estimated to be 3.5%, 6.0% and 1.2%, respectively. Among those with diabetes, only 34.8% were aware of their condition, 30.6% were currently undergoing medication treatment, and 11.5% achieved glycaemic control. These results indicate that diabetes has become a public health problem in poor rural areas of China and the rates of awareness, treatment and control of diabetes were relatively low. There is an urgent need for strategies aimed at the prevention and treatment of diabetes in the rural population in Shandong Province, China. © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  14. Current status of contraceptive use among rural married women in Anhui Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X-J; Wang, G-Y; Shen, Q; Yu, Y-L; Sun, Y-H; Yu, G-B; Zhao, D; Ye, D-Q

    2009-11-01

    This study aims to explore the current status of married women in regard of their use of contraceptive methods (permanent methods versus non-permanent methods) and to find out factors that affect the use of contraceptive methods in rural areas of Anhui Province of China. Survey. Anhui, China. A total of 53,652 married women aged 18-49 years. A multistage probability sampling method was used to identify a representative sample of 53,652 married women aged 18-49 years. All women were asked to provide detailed information by completing detailed questionnaires. Contraceptive prevalence and influence factors. The total birth control rate of the sample was 95.2%. Samples choosing the permanent and nonpermanent contraceptive methods have taken up 46.7 and 48.5% respectively. Female sterilisation was the first choice with a usage rate of 43.6%, followed by intrauterine device (IUD), which was used by 41.1% of samples. Single-variable analysis showed that the choice of contraceptive methods was associated with age, education level, parity, frequency of sex intercourses in a month, contraceptive knowledge, RTI symptom and the gender of the last child of rural married women. A significant increase in contraceptive use of rural married women in Anhui Province of China. Female sterilisation and IUD still play the dominant role. Effective family planning methods should be advocated through adequate counselling on the correct use and proper management, with consideration of the background of custom and belief.

  15. Seroprevalence of Dirofilaria immitis in Cats from Liaoning Province, Northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Honglie; Cao, Lili; Ren, Wenzhi; Wang, Dansheng; Ding, He; You, Juan; Yao, Xinhua; Dong, Hang; Guo, Yanbing; Yuan, Shuxian; Zhang, Xichen; Gong, Pengtao

    2017-12-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the seroprevalence and risk factors for Dirofilaria immitis infection in cats from Liaoning province, northeastern China. From October 2014 to September 2016, sera of 651 cats, including 364 domestic cats and 287 feral cats (332 females and 319 males) were assessed. They were tested for the presence of D. immitis antigen using SNAP Heartworm RT test kit. In this population, the average prevalence was 4.5%. Age and rearing conditions (feral or domestic) were found to be associated with the prevalence of D. immitis. The prevalence was significantly higher in feral cats compared with domestic cats (8.4% vs 1.4%, P0.05), but older cats (≥3 years old) showed a statistically higher prevalence compared with younger cats (cats (2.4% vs 0.51%, P>0.05), all these results suggest that outdoor exposure time may be one of the most important factors for D. immitis prevalence in cats. Results reveal that D. immitis are prevalence in domestic and feral cats in northeastern China, which indicates that appropriate preventive measures should be taken to decrease the incidence of feline heartworm disease in Liaoning province, northeastern China.

  16. Prevalence of antibodies to Chlamydiaceae in pet dogs in Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of chlamydiosis in pet dogs was surveyed in Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, China. A total of 442 serum samples were collected from three districts of Shenzhen, namely the Futian, Nanshan, and Luohu Districts, and assayed for Chlamydiaceae antibodies by indirect haemagglutination assay. The results showed that the mean positive rate was 6.11%, and the positive rate for the Futian District was the highest (9.52%, followed by the Nanshan District (7.08%, and the Luohu District (4.02%. The positive rate for male dogs was 6.08%, and for female dogs 6.16%. Out of all the 38 breeds of dogs examined, 14 breeds were positive. The positive rate for the Cocker Spaniel dog was the highest (14.2%, followed by the Pekinese dog (10.71%, and the Border Collie dog (10.34%. This is the first time that the seroprevalence of Chlamydiaceae infection in pet dogs in Shenzhen, Guangdong province, China was reported, and the results indicated that pet dogs may be an important source for human infection by Chlamydiaceae in Shenzhen and other areas of China.

  17. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in zoo and domestic animals in Jiangxi Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Houqiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that infects a wide range of warm-blooded animals throughout the world. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii were determined using a commercial indirect hemagglutination (IHA test in wild animals in a zoo. Three of 11 giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis (27%, 1 of 5 wolves (Canis lupus laniger (20%, 1 of 6 hippopotamuses (Hippopotamus amphibious (17%, and 2 of 9 tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus (22% were found to be positive. No antibodies were detected in leopards (Panthera pardus, wild geese (Anser cygnoides, and Eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus. Domestic species from 13 counties of Jiangxi Province, China were also investigated by an indirect hemagglutination (IHA test. Thirty-five of 340 goats (10%, 94 of 560 water buffaloes (17%, and 4 of 35 cattle (11% were found to be seropositive. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in animals kept in zoos and domestic animals in this province.

  18. Evaluation of the mass measles vaccination campaign in Guangdong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhi Qiang; Chen, Wei Shi; He, Qun; Peng, Guo Wen; Wu, Cheng Gang; Xu, Ning; Zhao, Zhan Jie; Shu, Jun; Tan, Qiu; Zheng, Hui Zhen; Lin, Li Feng; Deng, Hui Hong; Lin, Jin Yan; Zhang, Yong Hui

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the mass measles vaccination campaign of 2009 in Guangdong Province, China. Data on the campaign implementation, measles surveillance, and serological surveillance were reviewed and analyzed by statistical methods. Rapid coverage surveys showed that 98.09% of children were vaccinated during the campaign. The coverage of migrant children increased significantly from 67.10% to 97.32% (pvaccinated during the campaign. Flyers, notices of information from doctors, and television programs were the best methods to inform parents of the campaign. Awareness of the campaign by residents increased significantly from 91.86% to 97.10% (pvaccination campaign approach for controlling measles in a developing region like Guangdong Province with a vast migrant population has proved effective. Comprehensive mobilization, communication with the mass media, and support from government departments were critical to the success of the campaign. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Aluminium in food and daily dietary intake assessment from 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hexiang; Tang, Jun; Huang, Lichun; Shen, Xianghong; Zhang, Ronghua; Chen, Jiang

    2016-06-01

    Aluminium was measured in 2580 samples of 15 food groups and dietary exposure was estimated. Samples were purchased and analysed during 2010 to 2014. High aluminium levels were found in jellyfish (mean 4862 mg/kg), laver (mean 455.2 mg/kg) and fried twisted cruller (mean 392.4 mg/kg). Dietary exposure to aluminium was estimated for Zhejiang residents. The average dietary exposure to aluminium via 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province was 1.15 mg/kg bw/week, which is below the provisional tolerable weekly intake of 2 mg/kg bw /week. Jellyfish is the main Al contributor, providing 37.6% of the daily intake via these 15 food groups. This study provided new information on aluminium levels and assessment of aluminium (Al) dietary exposure in Zhejiang Province of China.

  20. Economic development and conservation of biological and cultural diversity in Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stendell, R.C.; Johnson, Richard L.; Mosesso, J.P.; Zhang, X.

    2001-01-01

    Chinese and American scientists are co-operating to develop concepts, strategies, agreements, and proposals in support of an economic development and sustainable ecosystems project in Yunnan Province, People's Republic of China. Yunnan's Provincial Government has initiated a major programme to develop and further utilise its biological resources to help improve economic conditions for its citizens. They are co-operating with the US Geological Survey (USGS) on evaluation and management of biological resources so economic development will be compatible with sustainable ecological systems. Scientists from the USGS and co-operating universities will provide expertise on synthesising biological data, conducting a Gap Analysis for the Province, evaluating innovative economic opportunities, and designing an effective education, training, and outreach programme.

  1. Spatiotemporal trends and climatic factors of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome epidemic in Shandong Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Qun Fang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS is a rodent-borne disease caused by Hantaviruses. It is endemic in all 31 provinces, autonomous regions, and metropolitan areas in mainland China where human cases account for 90% of the total global cases. Shandong Province is among the most serious endemic areas. HFRS cases in Shandong Province were first reported in Yutai County in 1968. Since then, the disease has spread across the province, and as of 2005, all 111 counties were reported to have local human infections. However, causes underlying such rapid spread and wide distribution remain less well understood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Here we report a spatiotemporal analysis of human HFRS cases in Shandong using data spanning 1973 to 2005. Seasonal incidence maps and velocity vector maps were produced to analyze the spread of HFRS over time in Shandong Province, and a panel data analysis was conducted to explore the association between HFRS incidence and climatic factors. Results show a rapid spread of HFRS from its epicenter in Rizhao, Linyi, Weifang Regions in southern Shandong to north, east, and west parts of the province. Based on seasonal shifts of epidemics, three epidemic phases were identified over the 33-year period. The first phase occurred between 1973 and 1982 during which the foci of HFRS was located in the south Shandong and the epidemic peak occurred in the fall and winter, presenting a seasonal characteristic of Hantaan virus (HTNV transmission. The second phase between 1983 and 1985 was characterized by northward and westward spread of HFRS foci, and increases in incidence of HFRS in both fall-winter and spring seasons. The human infections in the spring reflected a characteristic pattern of Seoul virus (SEOV transmission. The third phase between 1986 and 2005 was characterized by the northeast spread of the HFRS foci until it covered all counties, and the HFRS incidence in the fall-winter season decreased while it

  2. Impact evaluation of HIV/AIDS education in rural Henan province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Ben-Yan; Xiang, Yuan-Xi; Zhao, Rui; Feng, Zhan-Chun; Liang, Shu-Ying; Wang, Yu-Ming

    2013-12-01

    Nowadays, there is a trend of HIV prevalence transmitting from high-risk group to average-risk group in China. Rural China is the weak link of HIV prevention, and rural areas of Henan province which is one of the most high-risk regions in China have more than 60% of the AIDS patients in the province. Thus, improving the HIV awareness and implementing health education become the top-priority of HIV/AIDS control and prevention. A multistage sampling was designed to draw 1129 people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs) and 1168 non-PLWHAs in 4 prevalence counties of Henan province. A health promoting and social-psychological support model was constructed to improve the health knowledge of participants. Chi-square tests and unconditional logistic regression were performed to determine the intervention effect and influencing factors. All groups had misunderstandings towards the basic medical knowledge and the AIDS transmission mode. Before the intervention, 59.3% of the HIV/AIDS patients and 74.6% of the healthy people had negative attitudes towards the disease. There was statistically significant difference in the improvement of knowledge, attitude and action with regards to HIV prevention before and after intervention (Peducation level (OR=1.910) were found to have better HIV/AIDS health knowledge, whereas older PLWHAs (OR=0.961) were less likely to have better HIV/AIDS health knowledge. However, the intervention effect was associated with the expertise of doctors and supervisors, the content and methods of education, and participants' education level. It was concluded that health education of HIV/AIDS which positively influences the awareness and attitude of HIV prevention is popular in rural areas, therefore, a systematic and long-term program of HIV control and prevention is urgently needed in rural areas.

  3. Outpatient prescription practices in rural township health centers in Sichuan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Qian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sichuan Province is an agricultural and economically developing province in western China. To understand practices of prescribing medications for outpatients in rural township health centers is important for the development of the rural medical and health services in this province and western China. Methods This is an observational study based on data from the 4th National Health Services Survey of China. A total of 3,059 prescriptions from 30 township health centers in Sichuan Province were collected and analyzed. Seven indicators were employed in the analyses to characterize the prescription practices. They are disease distribution, average cost per encounter, number of medications per encounter, percentage of encounters with antibiotics, percentage of encounters with glucocorticoids, percentage of encounters with combined glucocorticoids and antibiotics, and percentage of encounters with injections. Results The average medication cost per encounter was 16.30 Yuan ($2.59. About 60% of the prescriptions contained Chinese patent medicine (CPM, and almost all prescriptions (98.07% contained western medicine. 85.18% of the prescriptions contained antibiotics, of which, 24.98% contained two or more types of antibiotics; the percentage of prescriptions with glucocorticoids was 19.99%; the percentage of prescriptions with both glucocorticoids and antibiotics was 16.67%; 51.40% of the prescriptions included injections, of which, 39.90% included two or more injections. Conclusions The findings from this study demonstrated irrational medication uses of antibiotics, glucocorticoids and injections prescribed for outpatients in the rural township health centers in Sichuan Province. The reasons for irrational medication uses are not only solely due to the pursuit of maximizing benefits in the township health centers, but also more likely attributable to the lack of medical knowledge of rational medication uses among rural doctors and the

  4. A new species of the genus Triplophysa (Cypriniformes: Nemacheilidae, Triplophysa daochengensis, from Sichuan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Yi WU

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Triplophysa daochengensis sp. nov. is described from the Daocheng River, a northern tributary of the Jinsha River in Sichuan Province, China. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners by the following characters: body smooth and scales absent; lateral line complete; caudal peduncle compressed, depth unchanging; head length equal to caudal-peduncle length; lower jaw shovel-shaped; dorsal-fin origin anterior to pelvic-fin origin and closer to the tip of the snout than to the caudal-fin base, last unbranched ray hard; pelvic-fin tip not reaching anus; posterior chamber of gas bladder absent; intestine of spiral type with three winding coils.

  5. Industrial occupational exposure in the Taiwan province of the Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, P.-S.; Li, S.-Y.

    1982-01-01

    This paper contains a summary of occupational radiation exposure for industry in the Taiwan Province of the Republic of China over the past two decades. Also included is a survey of radiation sources, radiation workers by age and sex, the category of industry, the accumulated dose equivalent range, and the average dose equivalent. A radiation safety training program was developed to educate radiation workers in the effects of radiation and to prepare them to take a licensing examination. The licensing examination and the status of licensees are also discussed. (author)

  6. Molecular Characterization and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Salmonella Isolates from Infections in Humans in Henan Province, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, S.L.; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Xie, Z.Q.

    2009-01-01

    We characterized 208 human Salmonella isolates from 2006 to 2007 and 27 human Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates from 1987 to 1993 from Henan Province, China, by serotyping, by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and, for the most common serovars, by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis...... (PFGE). The most common serovars among the 2006-2007 isolates were S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (27%), S. enterica serovar Enteritidis (17%), S. enterica serovar Derby (10%), S. enterica serovar Indiana (6%), and S. enterica serovar Litchfield (6%). A high percentage of the isolates were multiple-drug...

  7. Impact of One-Year Methadone Maintenance Treatment in Heroin Users in Jiangsu Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohong Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context Although the effectiveness of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT is well-established in many countries, it is a relatively new therapy for heroin users in China. Jiangsu Province, a relatively wealthy province, set up 4 MMT clinics in February 2006. No previous studies have evaluated the impact of MMT in a wealthy Chinese province. Objective The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of a 1-year MMT among heroin users in Jiangsu Province. We investigated the impact of the treatment by examining the following outcomes: 1 reduction of heroin use, 2 increase of appropriate sexual intercourse, 3 reduction of antisocial behavior, 4 increase of better social and family relationships, and 5 HIV prevalence among heroin users in MMT clinics. Design and Setting Repeated cross-sectional surveys were conducted before and after heroin users in Jiangsu Province received at least 1-year of treatment in the MMT clinics. A questionnaire survey was implemented for those who agreed to participate from March to April 2006, before the initiation of MMT (N = 554. The second survey was from August to September 2007 and was administered to those who received MMT for more than 1 year (N = 804. One hundred and ninety-six patients who were investigated in both surveys were included in a longitudinal study to evaluate the factors attributable to behavior change. Results MMT helped in reducing the percentage of heroin injection and also improved social and familial relationships. Antisocial behavior, including theft, prostitution, and dealing in heroin, decreased after 1-year treatment in the MMT clinics. However, the percentage of patients using condoms was not statistically significant. No case was found to be HIV-positive among those who received more than 1 year MMT. In the longitudinal study of 196 patients who participated in both surveys, no specific demographic variables were found to be associated with heroin use, anti-social behaviors after 1-year

  8. Analysis of Climate Change Effect on Camellia Oil Content in Fujian Province of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU Hui-kang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fujian Province is one of the main camellia oleifera production areas in China. Camellia oleifera is also an important characteristic varieties of woody oil, which can produce the high quality seed oil. By using of 0.5°(E×0.5°(Nlattice data of China ground temperature and precipitation from 1961 to 2010 which came from National Meteorological Information Center in 2013, this paper extracted the corre-sponding decadal climate data of Fujian Province to carry on statistical and variation analysis, applied climate models of the integrated assess-ment for camellia oil content by using of ArcGIS geographic information technology and probability statistics method to regionalize the oil content of camellia oleifera temporal and spatial distribution from 1961s to 2010s in Fujian Province, analyzed the variation relationship be-tween the oil content and climate essential factor of the monthly decadal mean temperature and precipitation in September at the stage of the key growth period of camellia oil fat accumulation and transformation, evaluated the regional characteristics of camellia oil content variation affected by climate factors in Fujian Province from 1961s to 2010s. The results showed that the decadal mean precipitation in September had a positive significant correlation with oil content change and played a major role of camellia oleifera production in Fujian Province; the signif-icant characteristics of that oil content level in high or low followed the decadal alternate change. There were obviously different oil content level between high oil decadal(1960s, 1980s, 2000sand low oil decadal(1970s, 1990s, and its significant variation period was 20 years. The decadal difference was not significant in temperature coefficient of variation (CvT, which affected the oil content was not obvious either. But there had significant change between precipitation coefficient of variation(CvRand oil content coefficient of variation(Cvf, and their

  9. First report of Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in peafowls in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Yi-Ming

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite infecting almost all warm-blooded animals, including birds, with a worldwide distribution. Surveys of T. gondii infection in wild birds have been reported extensively in the world, but little is known of T. gondii infection in peafowls worldwide. This study was performed to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in peafowls in Yunnan Province, southwestern China. Methods Sera from 277 peafowls, including 272 blue peafowls (Pavo cristatus and 5 green peafowls (Pavo muticus originated from two geographic areas in Yunnan Province were assayed for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (MAT. Results Specific T. gondii antibodies were detected in 35 of 277 (12.64% peafowls (MAT titer ≥ 1:5. Seropositive birds were found in both species, 33 in 272 blue peafowls and 2 in 5 green peafowls. There was no significant difference in T. gondii seroprevalence between the adolescent birds (6.74% and the adult birds (6.67% (P > 0.05. The geographical origins of peafowls was found to be highly associated with T. gondii infection in the present study, a statistically significant difference in T. gondii seropositivity was observed between peafowls from Kunming (31.08% and those from Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture (5.91% (OR = 10.956, 95% CI = 1.632-73.545, P = 0.014. Statistical analyses showed that there were no significant interactions between ages and geographical origins of peafowls (P > 0.05. Conclusions The results of the present survey indicated that infection of peafowls with T. gondii is widespread in Yunnan Province, which has significant public health concerns and implications for prevention and control of toxoplamosis in this province. To our knowledge, this is the first seroprevalence report of T. gondii infection in China’s southwestern Yunnan Province.

  10. Slope Controls Grain Yield and Climatic Yield in Mountainous Yunnan province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, X.; Rong, L.; Gu, Z.; Feng, D.

    2017-12-01

    Mountainous regions are increasingly vulnerable to food insecurity because of limited arable land, growing population pressure, and climate change. Development of sustainable mountain agriculture will require an increased understanding of the effects of environmental factors on grain and climatic yields. The objective of this study was to explore the relationships between actual grain yield, climatic yield, and environmental factors in a mountainous region in China. We collected data on the average grain yield per unit area in 119 counties in Yunnan province from 1985 to 2012, and chose 17 environmental factors for the same period. Our results showed that actual grain yield ranged from 1.43 to 6.92 t·ha-1, and the climatic yield ranged from -0.15 to -0.01 t·ha-1. Lower climatic yield but higher grain yield was generally found in central areas and at lower slopes and elevations in the western and southwestern counties of Yunnan province. Higher climatic yield but lower grain yield were found in northwestern parts of Yunnan province on steep slopes. Annual precipation and temperature had a weak influence on the climatic yield. Slope explained 44.62 and 26.29% of the variation in grain yield and climatic yield. The effects of topography on grain and climatic yields were greater than climatic factors. Slope was the most important environmental variable for the variability in climatic and grain yields in the mountainous Yunnan province due to the highly heterogeneous topographic conditions. Conversion of slopes to terraces in areas with higher climatic yields is an effective way to maintain grain production in response to climate variability. Additionally, soil amendments and soil and water conservation measures should be considered to maintain soil fertility and aid in sustainable development in central areas, and in counties at lower slopes and elevations in western and southwestern Yunnan province.

  11. Under 5 mortality rate and its contributors in Zhejiang Province of China from 2000 to 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xin-Wen; Yang, Ru-Lai

    2013-01-01

    Objective By analyzing the under 5 mortality rate (U5MR) and its contributors in Zhejiang Province of China from 2000 to 2009, we tried to understand the trend of U5MR change in Zhejiang Province and thus propose strategies to reduce child mortality. Methods Thirty cities/counties/districts from Zhejiang Province were selected using stratified cluster sampling approach. Children under five years in these areas were enrolled as the subjects. The U5MR and its contributors were analyzed in terms of age, migration status of mothers, and other indicators using classic descriptive methods and Chi square test. Results The U5MR in Zhejiang Province showed a declining trend from 14.83‰ in 2000 to 9.49‰ in 2009. In 2009, the U5MR was significantly higher in the rural areas than in the urban areas (9.14‰ vs.6.50‰, Pbirth/low birth weight was the leading cause of U5MR in 2009. More specifically, preterm birth/low birth weight, congenital heart disease, and birth asphyxia were the top three causes of deaths among infants (falls were the leading causes of deaths among children (1-4 years). Conclusion The U5MR in Zhejiang Province in 2009 differed between urban areas and rural areas and between floating populations and local residents. The main causes of death differ between infants and young children. Prevention of preterm birth/low birth weight and congenital anomalies will reduce infant death, while the main intervention for young children is to avoid accidental injuries. PMID:26835282

  12. Impact of Manufacturing Transfer on SO2 Emissions in Jiangsu Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Peng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of manufacturing transfer in Jiangsu province, China, on the spatial-temporal variations of SO2 emissions is investigated using estimated sector-specific SO2 emissions, and emissions in the different transfer-in and transfer-out regions were quantified during 2000–2011. Our results show that SO2 emissions had undergone three phases: an increase in the period of 2000–2005, a rapid decline in 2005–2008 and a slow decline in 2008–2011. Emissions from the south dominated the total emissions in the province. Cleaner production generally contributed to the reduced emissions, but rather, at the industrial scale. Pollution abatement was occasional and industrial structure was negligible in some years. The three phases also coincided with the three periods of the manufacturing transfer: transferred to the south from outside the province during 2000–2005, to the central from the south within the province during 2005–2008 and to the north from the south or partly from the inner central within the province during 2008–2011. With the manufacturing transfer, SO2 emission magnitudes and distributions were also changed. In the south, −12.36 and −5.62 Mt of SO2 emissions were transferred out during 2005–2008 and 2008–2011, respectively. Forty-three-point-four percent and 56.4% of the SO2 emissions in the south were transferred to the central and north during 2005–2008, respectively. The north region received 77.7% and 22.1% of SO2 emissions from the south and the central region during 2008–2011, respectively. The paper reveals that structure adjustments should be executed in a timely manner in the manufacturing transfer-in process so that the transfer-in regions can benefit from the economic boom without bearing a deteriorated environment.

  13. First survey of parasitic helminths of goats along the Han River in Hubei Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Gasser, Robin B; Fang, Rui; Zeng, Jinrong; Zhu, Kaixiang; Qi, Mingwei; Zhang, Zongze; Tan, Li; Lei, Weiqiang; Zhou, Yanqin; Zhao, Junlong; Hu, Min

    2016-09-01

    Diseases caused by parasitic helminths cause considerable production and economic losses in livestock worldwide. Understanding the epidemiology of these parasites has important implications for controlling them. The main purpose of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of key parasitic helminths in goats along the Han River in Zhanggang, Hubei Province (from January to December 2014). We used faecal flotation and sedimentation techniques as well as PCR-based DNA sequencing to detect and identify helminths. Results showed that the prevalence of helminths was high throughout the year, particularly for gastrointestinal nematodes. These first findings provide useful baseline information for goat helminths in Zhanggang, and a starting point for the implementation of control programs. With an increased expansion of the goat industry in China, the findings also emphasise the need to undertake prevalence surveys in other regions of China where extensive farming practices are used.

  14. Upper lower Cambrian (provisional Cambrian Series 2 trilobites from northwestern Gansu Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Bergström†

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Upper lower Cambrian (provisional Cambrian Series 2 trilobites are described from three sections through the Shuangyingshan Formation in the Beishan area, northwestern Gansu Province, China. The trilobite fauna is dominated by eodiscoid and corynexochid trilobites, together representing at least ten genera: Serrodiscus, Tannudiscus, Calodiscus, Pagetides, Kootenia, Edelsteinaspis, Ptarmiganoides?, Politinella, Dinesus and Subeia. Eleven species are described, of which seven are identified with previously described taxa and four described under open nomenclature. The composition of the fauna suggests biogeographic affinity with Siberian rather than Gondwanan trilobite faunas, and the Cambrian Series 2 faunas described herein and from elsewhere in northwestern China seem to be indicative of the marginal areas of the Siberian palaeocontinent. This suggests that the Middle Tianshan–Beishan Terrane may have been located fairly close to Siberia during middle–late Cambrian Epoch 2.

  15. Ecological Security Assessment of Hebei by PSR Model%基于PSR模型的河北省生态安全评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨红倩

    2017-01-01

    着眼于河北省粗放型经济发展模式与日益恶劣的生态环境之间的矛盾,基于"压力-状态-响应"(PSR)模型,选取人口、环境、资源、社会经济等方面30个指标,构建河北省生态安全评价指标体系,利用熵值法从时间尺度上对河北省生态安全状况进行综合评价与分析.结果表明:2005-2014年间,河北省生态安全综合评价指数整体呈现上升趋势,说明河北省的生态安全状况有所好转.最后提出加强河北省生态安全建设的对策思路,为建设成为生态强省提供依据.%Focus on extensive economic development mode in Hebei Province and the contradiction between the increasingly severe ecological environment, based on the "pressure-state-response"(PSR)and the stress-state-response(PSR)model, this paper selects 30 indicators of population, environment, resources, socio-economy to construct the ecological security evaluation index system of Hebei Province, which used to evaluate and analyze the ecological security situation of Hebei Province from the time scale by entropy method.The results showed that the overall ecological security index of Hebei Province showed an upward trend in 2005-2014, which indicated that the ecological security situation of Hebei Province had improved.Finally, the countermeasures to strengthen the ecological security construction in Hebei Province are put forward, which will provide the basis for building a strong ecological province.

  16. Taxonomic notes on Neoperla (Plecoptera: Perlidae) from Sichuan Province of China with the description of two new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weihai; Wang, Ying; Wang, Rongfeng

    2017-01-17

    Species of the perlid genus Neoperla from Sichuan Province, China are reviewed. Two new species are described, Neoperla caii Li & Wang, sp. nov. and N. emeishana Li & Wang, sp. nov. The new species are compared with related congeners. Available types of several known Neoperla species from Sichuan Province were studied and complementary descriptions or brief taxonomic comments are presented for N. bilineata Wu & Claassen, N. chui Wu & Claassen, N. microtumida Wu & Claassen, N. quadrata Wu & Claassen and N. truncata Wu.

  17. Household photovoltaic market in Xining, Qingha province, China: the role of local PV business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, S.; Boardman, B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper assesses the present and future market for household photovoltaic (PV) systems in rural Northwest China, especially from the PV commerce at Xining, Qinghai Province. This unsubsidised free market is now met by the emerging PV industry in China, which includes cell and module manufacturers, and PV system distributors and assemblers. For widespread deployment of such a renewable energy technology, the development of a local free market seems more successful than donor- or 'government subsidy'-driven programmes. Presently, there is a thriving infant PV industry in Northwest China, mostly centred in Xining. Xining-based PV sales companies have extensive networks for selling, marketing and servicing household PV systems for rural farmers and nomads. Small systems are now ordinary items on sale in local shops. Based on interviews and fieldwork observations with seven major PV sales companies in Xining, the household PV market is assessed from the present business operations of these companies. Detail of primary sources is given with the aim of archiving seminal progress in the history of photovoltaic power. The results suggest that although the household PV market will continue to grow, current government and international sponsored PV programmes can create both opportunities and barriers for the infant PV market an industry in China. (author)

  18. Equity and the utilization of health services: report of an eight-province survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, G; Akin, J; Zhiming, L; Jin, S; Ma, H; Ge, K

    1994-09-01

    This paper investigates equity with respect to one component of welfare in China--the provision and use of health services. Based upon a large-scale survey of almost 16,000 individuals in eight provinces in China, we examine a sub-sample of working-age adults who have identified themselves as injured or ill during the four weeks prior to being interviewed. We found that, beyond the level of severity of the reported condition, very few individual-level factors are related to the use of services when ill or injured. Only gender (female) and employment in state-run enterprises are associated with higher patterns of use. These results suggest that China has achieved a very wide distribution of clinics and other services at the local level, and that they are widely used by those who identify need for them. It is rare to be over half an hour away by bike from some form of care and the majority of care appears to be reasonably inexpensive. This broad availability of services contrasts with recent reports from China stressing declining accessibility, and paints a picture of relatively equal access to health care.

  19. Assessment of tsunami hazard for coastal areas of Shandong Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xingru; Yin, Baoshu

    2017-04-01

    Shandong province is located on the east coast of China and has a coastline of about 3100 km. There are only a few tsunami events recorded in the history of Shandong Province, but the tsunami hazard assessment is still necessary as the rapid economic development and increasing population of this area. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential danger posed by tsunamis for Shandong Province. The numerical simulation method was adopted to assess the tsunami hazard for coastal areas of Shandong Province. The Cornell multi-grid coupled tsunami numerical model (COMCOT) was used and its efficacy was verified by comparison with three historical tsunami events. The simulated maximum tsunami wave height agreed well with the observational data. Based on previous studies and statistical analyses, multiple earthquake scenarios in eight seismic zones were designed, the magnitudes of which were set as the potential maximum values. Then, the tsunamis they induced were simulated using the COMCOT model to investigate their impact on the coastal areas of Shandong Province. The numerical results showed that the maximum tsunami wave height, which was caused by the earthquake scenario located in the sea area of the Mariana Islands, could reach up to 1.39 m off the eastern coast of Weihai city. The tsunamis from the seismic zones of the Bohai Sea, Okinawa Trough, and Manila Trench could also reach heights of >1 m in some areas, meaning that earthquakes in these zones should not be ignored. The inundation hazard was distributed primarily in some northern coastal areas near Yantai and southeastern coastal areas of Shandong Peninsula. When considering both the magnitude and arrival time of tsunamis, it is suggested that greater attention be paid to earthquakes that occur in the Bohai Sea. In conclusion, the tsunami hazard facing the coastal area of Shandong Province is not very serious; however, disasters could occur if such events coincided with spring tides or other

  20. Study on embodied CO2 transfer between the Jing-Jin-Ji region and other regions in China: a quantification using an interregional input-output model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mengmeng; Wu, Sanmang; Lei, Yalin; Li, Shantong

    2018-03-08

    Jing-Jin-Ji region (i.e., Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei) is China's key development region, but it is also the leading and most serious air pollution region in China. High fossil fuel consumption is the major source of both carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions and air pollutants. Therefore, it is important to reveal the source of CO 2 emissions to control the air pollution in the Jing-Jin-Ji region. In this study, an interregional input-output model was applied to quantitatively estimate the embodied CO 2 transfer between Jing-Jin-Ji region and other region in China using China's interregional input-output data in 2010. The results indicated that there was a significant difference in the production-based CO 2 emissions in China, and furthermore, the Jing-Jin-Ji region and its surrounding regions were the main regions of the production-based CO 2 emissions in China. Hebei Province exported a large amount of embodied CO 2 to meet the investment, consumption, and export demands of Beijing and Tianjin. The Jing-Jin-Ji regions exported a great deal of embodied CO 2 to the coastal provinces of southeast China and imported it from neighboring provinces.

  1. A meta-analysis of coastal wetland ecosystem services in Liaoning Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baodi; Cui, Lijuan; Li, Wei; Kang, Xiaoming; Pan, Xu; Lei, Yinru

    2018-01-01

    Wetlands are impacted by economic and political initiatives, and their ecosystem services are attracting increasing public attention. It is crucial that management decisions for wetland ecosystem services quantify the economic value of the ecosystem services. In this paper, we aimed to estimate a monetary value for coastal wetland ecosystem services in Liaoning Province, China. We selected 433 observations from 85 previous coastal wetland economic evaluations (mostly in China) including detailed spatial and economic characteristics in each wetland, then used a meta-analysis scale transfer method to calculate the total value of coastal wetland ecosystem services in Liaoning Province. Our results demonstrated that, on average, the ecosystem services provided by seven different coastal wetland types were worth US40,648 per ha per year, and the total value was 28,990,439,041 in 2013. Shallow marine waters accounted for the largest proportion (83.97%). Variables with a significant positive effect on the ecosystem service values included GDP per capita, population density, distance from the wetland to the city center and the year of evaluation, while wetland size and latitude had negative relationships.

  2. [Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons monohydroxy metabolites level in urine of general population in eight provinces of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chuanfeng; Zhang, Jing; Ding, Chunguang; Liu, Cuilan; Wang, Gang; Song, Xinkui; Huang, Hanlin; Zhu, Baoli; Shao, Hua; Zhao, Chunxiang; Han, Changcheng; Peng, Shanzhuo; Jiang, Xianlong; Yu, Shanfa; Ji, Hongrong; Zhang, Xiaoxi; Sun, Ran; Zheng, Yuxin; Yan, Huifang

    2014-02-01

    To assess the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons monohydroxy metabolites in urine of general population in China among 8 provinces, provide the baseline of the metabolites in the general population. From 2009 to 2010, 18 120 subjects of general population aged 6-60 years old were recruited from 24 areas among 8 provinces in east, west and central areas of China mainland by cluster random sampling. The information of the living environment and health condition were collected by questionnaire and spot urine samples were collected, 4 680 urine samples were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, and monohydroxy metabolites distribution in urine among groups of gender and ages were analysed. Geometric means (GM) of 2-naphthol, 1-naphthol, 3-phenanthrol and 1-hydroxypyrene concentration in urine (95%CI) were 1.85 (1.75-1.95), 1.55 (1.50-1.61), 0.57 (0.54-0.59) and 0.82 (0.78-0.85) µg/L, respectively;and median are 2.44, population were significantly different (P population aged 6-12, 13-16, 17-20, 21-30, 31-45 and 46-60 years old were 1.60, 1.56, 1.69, 2.23, 1.91 and 1.86 µg/L (χ(2) = 17.90, P population were different, it provided a basic data for the further study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons biomonitoring in the population.

  3. Isolation and characterization of a novel arenavirus harbored by Rodents and Shrews in Zhejiang province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Kun [State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Department of Zoonoses, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changping, Beijing (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Hangzhou (China); Lin, Xian-Dan [Wenzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Wang, Wen [State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Department of Zoonoses, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changping, Beijing (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Hangzhou (China); Shi, Mang [State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Department of Zoonoses, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changping, Beijing (China); Wencheng Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Guo, Wen-Ping [State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Department of Zoonoses, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changping, Beijing (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Hangzhou (China); Zhang, Xiao-He [Wenzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Xing, Jian-Guang [Wencheng Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); and others

    2015-02-15

    To determine the biodiversity of arenaviruses in China, we captured and screened rodents and shrews in Wenzhou city, Zhejiang province, a locality where hemorrhagic fever diseases are endemic in humans. Accordingly, arenaviruses were detected in 42 of 351 rodents from eight species, and in 12 of 272 Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus), by RT-PCR targeting the L segment. From these, a single arenavirus was successfully isolated in cell culture. The virion particles exhibited a typical arenavirus morphology under transmission electron microscopy. Comparison of the S and L segment sequences revealed high levels of nucleotide (>32.2% and >39.6%) and amino acid (>28.8% and >43.8%) sequence differences from known arenaviruses, suggesting that it represents a novel arenavirus, which we designated Wenzhou virus (WENV). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all WENV strains harbored by both rodents and Asian house shrews formed a distinct lineage most closely related to Old World arenaviruses. - Highlights: • A novel arenavirus (Wenzhou virus) was identified in Zhejiang province, China. • The virus is highly circulating in five species of rats and one species of shrews • More efforts are needed to infer whether it is pathogenic to humans or not.

  4. Temporal-spatial variation and the influence factors of precipitation in Sichuan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Precipitation is a key factor in the water cycle.At the same time,precipitation is the focus of study in meteorology and climatology,ecological environmental assessment,non-point source pollution and so on.Understanding the temporal-spatial variation and the corresponding factors of precipitation has become the object of hydrology and environmentology.Based on the annual precipitation data,we analyzed the spatial distribution of precipitation in Sichuan Province in China as well as the temporal-spatial variation and the corresponding influence factors involved.The results show that the amount of precipitation was abundant,but the spatial distribution was not consistent with it and the amount of precipitation gradually declined from the south-east to the north-west in Sichuan Province,China.Moreover,the spatial distribution was different throughout the years.The result of correlation analysis indicated that elevation,temperature and air pressure were three key factors affecting the amount and distribution of precipitation,and the correlation coefficients were -0.56,0.38 and 0.45 respectively.Notably,the relationship between the slope of topography and precipitation were significantly negative and the average correlation coefficient was -0.28.

  5. Genetic diversity of Trichomonas vaginalis clinical isolates from Henan province in central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Meng; Liu, Hui Li

    2015-07-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellated protozoan parasite that infects the human urogenital tract, causing the most common non-viral, sexually transmitted disease worldwide. In this study, genetic variants of T. vaginalis were identified in Henan Province, China. Fragments of the small subunit of nuclear ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) were amplified from 32 T. vaginalis isolates obtained from seven regions of Henan Province. Overall, 18 haplotypes were determined from the 18S rRNA sequences. Each sampled population and the total population displayed high haplotype diversity (Hd), accompanied by very low nucleotide diversity (Pi). In these molecular genetic variants, 91.58% genetic variation was derived from intra-regions. Phylogenetic analysis revealed no correlation between phylogeny and geographic distribution. Demographic analysis supported population expansion of T. vaginalis isolates from central China. Our findings showing moderate-to-high genetic variations in the 32 isolates of T. vaginalis provide useful knowledge for monitoring changes in parasite populations for the development of future control strategies.

  6. Wide Distribution and Genetic Diversity of Babesia microti in Small Mammals from Yunnan Province, Southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zi-Hou; Huang, Tao-Hua; Jiang, Bao-Gui; Jia, Na; Liu, Zheng-Xiang; Shao, Zong-Ti; Jiang, Rui-Ruo; Liu, Hong-Bo; Wei, Ran; Li, Yu-Qiong; Yao, Hong-Wu; von Fricken, Michael E; Jiang, Jia-Fu; Du, Chun-Hong; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2017-10-01

    Babesia, usually found in wild and domestic mammals worldwide, have recently been responsible for emerging malaria-like zoonosis in infected patients. Human B. microti infection has been identified in China, primarily in the Southwest along the Myanmar border but little direct surveillance of B. microti infection in rodents has been carried out here (Yunnan province). In this region, a diverse topographic range combined with tropical moisture sustains a high biodiversity of small mammals, which might play important role on Babesia transmission. Small mammals were captured in 141 sample locations from 18 counties located Yunnan Province, and screened for B. microti-like parasites infection by a nested PCR to target 18S rRNA gene of Babesia, plus directly sequencing for positive samples. Univariate and multivariate forward stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to access the association between infections and some related risk factors. Infection with Babesia microti was confirmed in 2.4% (53/ 2204) of small mammals. Significant differences in prevalence rates of B. microti were observed based on variations in forest, agricultural, and residential landscapes. Furthermore, adult small mammals had higher prevalence rates than younger, pubertal mammals. The near full-length 18S rRNA gene revealed that there were two types of B. microti, Kobe and Otsu, which demonstrate the genetic diversity and regional distribution. There exists a wide distribution and genetic diversity of endemic B. microti in Southwestern China, warranting further investigations and monitoring of clinical disease in individuals presenting with Babesia like symptoms in these areas.

  7. Isolation and characterization of a novel arenavirus harbored by Rodents and Shrews in Zhejiang province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Kun; Lin, Xian-Dan; Wang, Wen; Shi, Mang; Guo, Wen-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-He; Xing, Jian-Guang

    2015-01-01

    To determine the biodiversity of arenaviruses in China, we captured and screened rodents and shrews in Wenzhou city, Zhejiang province, a locality where hemorrhagic fever diseases are endemic in humans. Accordingly, arenaviruses were detected in 42 of 351 rodents from eight species, and in 12 of 272 Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus), by RT-PCR targeting the L segment. From these, a single arenavirus was successfully isolated in cell culture. The virion particles exhibited a typical arenavirus morphology under transmission electron microscopy. Comparison of the S and L segment sequences revealed high levels of nucleotide (>32.2% and >39.6%) and amino acid (>28.8% and >43.8%) sequence differences from known arenaviruses, suggesting that it represents a novel arenavirus, which we designated Wenzhou virus (WENV). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all WENV strains harbored by both rodents and Asian house shrews formed a distinct lineage most closely related to Old World arenaviruses. - Highlights: • A novel arenavirus (Wenzhou virus) was identified in Zhejiang province, China. • The virus is highly circulating in five species of rats and one species of shrews • More efforts are needed to infer whether it is pathogenic to humans or not

  8. Host preferences and feeding patterns of Anopheles sinensis Wiedemann in three sites of Shandong province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chongxing; Shi, Guihong; Cheng, Peng; Liu, Lijuan; Gong, Maoqing

    2017-01-01

    Anopheles sinensis Wiedemann is a major vector of malaria and is among the dominant species in Shandong province of China. Knowledge of the blood-feeding patterns of mosquitoes is crucial for elimination of malaria vectors. However, little information is available on the blood-feeding behaviour of An. sinensis mosquitoes in Shandong province. This study was carried out to compare the blood-feeding behaviour of An. sinensis in malaria-endemic areas of Shandong province China. Adult Anopheles mosquitoes were collected from three malaria-endemic areas (Jimo, Yinan and Shanxian), during the peak months of mosquito population (August and September) from 2014 to 2015. Indoor-resting mosquitoes and outdoor-resting blood-fed females were sampled in the morning hours (0600 to 0900 hrs) from 10 randomly selected houses using pyrethrum spray catch method, and sweeping with an insect net. ELISA was used for the identification of blood meal. The blood meal of each mosquito was tested against antisera specific to human, pig, dog, cow, goat, horse (mule) and fowl. At all indoor study locations of Jimo, Yinan and Shanxian, 59.4, 68.1 and 98.8% blood-engorged female An. sinensis collected from cattle sheds fed almost exclusively on bovines, respectively. For outdoor locations, at Jimo site, 27.27 and 49.55% An. sinensis fed on cattle and pigs; at Yinan, 30.42% fed on cattle and 36.88% fed both on cattle and goats, while no pig antibodies were detected. At Shanxian, percent of An. sinensis that fed on cattle, pigs and cattle-goat was 20.72, 27.62 and 21.78%, respectively. The analysis of An. sinensis blood meals in all the three studied areas from human houses, cattle sheds, pig sheds and mixed dwellings revealed that An. sinensis prefers cattle hosts, and can feed on other available animal hosts if the cattle hosts are absent, and the mosquitoes readily feed on humans when domestic animals (cattle and pigs) are not nearby for feeding. The analysis of blood meal revealed that An

  9. Spatiotemporal analysis the precipitation extremes affecting rice yield in Jiangsu province, southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Islam, A. R. M. Towfiqul; Zhang, Fangmin; Hu, Zhenghua

    2017-10-01

    With the increasing risk of meteorological disasters, it is of great importance to analyze the spatiotemporal changes of precipitation extremes and its possible impact on rice productivity, especially in Jiangsu province, southeast China. In this study, we explored the relationships between rice yield and extreme precipitation indices using Mann-Kendall trend test, Pettitt's test, and K-means clustering methods. This study used 10 extreme precipitation indices of the rice growing season (May to October) based on the daily precipitation records and rice yield data at 52 meteorological stations during 1961-2012 in Jiangsu province. The main findings were as follows: (1) correlation results indicated that precipitation extremes occurred in the months of July, August, and October, which had noticeable adverse effects on rice yield; (2) the maximum 7-day precipitation of July and the number of rainy days of August and October should be considered as three key indicators for the precipitation-induced rice meteorological disasters; and (3) most of the stations showed an increasing trends for the maximum 7-day precipitation of July and the number of rainy days of August, while the number of rainy days of October in all the stations demonstrated a decreasing trend. Moreover, Jiangsu province could be divided into two major sub-regions such as north and south areas with different temporal variations in the three key indicators.

  10. Situation of Diabetes and Related Disease Surveillance in Rural Areas of Jilin Province, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have investigated the prevalence and awareness of diabetes mellitus (DM in China, but little is known about the situation of DM in the northeastern rural areas. Our present study investigated the prevalence, awareness and associated characteristics of DM in rural areas of Jilin Province, aiming to suggest more efforts for the prevention and control of DM. Methods: A multistage stratified random cluster sampling design was used in this cross-sectional study which took place in 2012. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews and physical examinations. Rao-Scott Chi-square test, t test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used. Results: The estimated prevalence of DM in rural areas of Jilin province was 7.2%. DM was positively associated with age, Body mass index (BMI, hypotension, dyslipidemia and was high in participants with a family history of diabetes and those who exercise frequently, but low for high education level and married participants. 69.0% participants with DM were aware of their diabetes status, 88.2% of whom received treatment and 34.4% of whom had received treatment controlled their DM status. Conclusions: We observed a high prevalence and low awareness status of DM among the rural residents in Jilin Province, but the rate of effective control in those who have received treatment was considerable. The low rate of disease surveillance should draw health authority’s attention.

  11. [Analysis of grey correlation between energy consumption and economic growth in Liaoning Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Xi, Feng Ming; Wang, Jiao Yue

    2016-03-01

    The contradiction between energy consumption and economic growth is increasingly prominent in China. Liaoning Province as one of Chinese heavy industrial bases, consumes a large amount of energy. Its economic development has a strong dependence on energy consumption, but the energy in short supply become more apparent. In order to further understand the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth and put forward scientific suggestions on low carbon development, we used the grey correlation analysis method to separately examine the relevance of economic growth with energy consumption industries and energy consumption varieties through analy sis of energy consumption and economic growth data in Liaoning Province from 2000 to 2012. The results showed that the wholesale and retail sector and hotel and restaurant sector were in the minimum energy consumption in all kinds of sectors, but they presented the closest connection with the economic growth. Although industry energy consumption was the maximum, the degree of connection between industry energy consumption and economic growth was weak. In all types of energy consumption, oil and hydro-power consumption had a significant connection with economic growth. However, the degree of connection of coal consumption with economic growth was not significant, which meant that coal utilization efficiency was low. In order to achieve low carbon and sustainable development, Liaoning Province should transform the economic growth mode, adjust industry structure, optimize energy structure, and improve energy utilization efficiency, especially promote producer services and develop clean and renewable energy.

  12. Changing Epidemiological Characteristics of Hepatitis A in Zhejiang Province, China: Increased Susceptibility in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhifang; Chen, Yaping; Xie, Shuyun; Lv, Huakun

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis A is a common acute hepatitis caused by hepatitis A virus (HAV). Annually, it affects 1.4 million people worldwide. Between 1991 and 1994, HAV infections were highly endemic in Zhejiang Province (China), with 78,720 reported HAV infections per year. Hepatitis A vaccine came on the market in 1995 and was implemented for voluntary immunization. Since 2008, hepatitis A vaccine has been integrated into the national childhood routine immunization program. To understand the current epidemiological profile of hepatitis A in Zhejiang Province since hepatitis A vaccine has been available for nearly two decades. This study used the 2005-2014 National Notifiable Diseases Reporting System data to evaluate the incidence rate of notified hepatitis A cases in Zhejiang Province. The overall trend of incidence rate of notified hepatitis A cases significantly decreased from 2005 to 2014 (Pstrategy with hepatitis A vaccine seemed to be effective in decreasing notified hepatitis A incidence rate in individuals aged ≤19 years. Those aged ≥20 years were observed to be the most susceptible population. The vast majority of hepatitis A cases were notified among Laborers. Therefore, we strongly suggest that future preventive and control measures should focus more on adults, particularly Laborers, in addition to the current childhood hepatitis A vaccination programme.

  13. [Species composition and geographical distribution of threatened fishes in Yunnan Province of Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Zhong, Jin-Xin

    2013-05-01

    Based on the related published papers, and by using Geographic Information System (ArcGIS 9.3), this paper analyzed the species composition and geographical distribution of threatened fishes in Yunnan Province of Southwest China. There were 83 threatened species living in the Province, belonging to 5 orders, 13 families, and 47 genera. Cypriniformes was absolutely dominant, with 64 species, followed by Siluriformes, with 16 species. Cyprinidae fishes had 51 species, accounting for 79.7% of Cypriniformes. The most species of Cyprinid fishes were of Barbinae (14 species), Cyprininae (10 species), and Cultrinae (10 species). The threatened fishes could be divided into two zoogeographical regions, i. e., Tibetan Plateau region and Oriental region, and their species composition and geographical distribution were resulted from the historical evolution adapted to the related environments. Whatever in rivers and in lakes, the Cyprinid fishes were both absolutely dominant, occupying 36.1% and 31.3% of the total, respectively. The Cyprinid fishes in rivers were mostly of endangered species, while those in lakes were mostly of vulnerable species. The factors affecting the threatened fishes in the Province were discussed from the two aspects of geodynamic evolution and present situation.

  14. Spatiotemporal analysis the precipitation extremes affecting rice yield in Jiangsu province, southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Islam, A R M Towfiqul; Zhang, Fangmin; Hu, Zhenghua

    2017-10-01

    With the increasing risk of meteorological disasters, it is of great importance to analyze the spatiotemporal changes of precipitation extremes and its possible impact on rice productivity, especially in Jiangsu province, southeast China. In this study, we explored the relationships between rice yield and extreme precipitation indices using Mann-Kendall trend test, Pettitt's test, and K-means clustering methods. This study used 10 extreme precipitation indices of the rice growing season (May to October) based on the daily precipitation records and rice yield data at 52 meteorological stations during 1961-2012 in Jiangsu province. The main findings were as follows: (1) correlation results indicated that precipitation extremes occurred in the months of July, August, and October, which had noticeable adverse effects on rice yield; (2) the maximum 7-day precipitation of July and the number of rainy days of August and October should be considered as three key indicators for the precipitation-induced rice meteorological disasters; and (3) most of the stations showed an increasing trends for the maximum 7-day precipitation of July and the number of rainy days of August, while the number of rainy days of October in all the stations demonstrated a decreasing trend. Moreover, Jiangsu province could be divided into two major sub-regions such as north and south areas with different temporal variations in the three key indicators.

  15. Changing Epidemiological Characteristics of Hepatitis A in Zhejiang Province, China: Increased Susceptibility in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhifang; Chen, Yaping; Xie, Shuyun; Lv, Huakun

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis A is a common acute hepatitis caused by hepatitis A virus (HAV). Annually, it affects 1.4 million people worldwide. Between 1991 and 1994, HAV infections were highly endemic in Zhejiang Province (China), with 78,720 reported HAV infections per year. Hepatitis A vaccine came on the market in 1995 and was implemented for voluntary immunization. Since 2008, hepatitis A vaccine has been integrated into the national childhood routine immunization program. Objective To understand the current epidemiological profile of hepatitis A in Zhejiang Province since hepatitis A vaccine has been available for nearly two decades. Methods This study used the 2005–2014 National Notifiable Diseases Reporting System data to evaluate the incidence rate of notified hepatitis A cases in Zhejiang Province. Results The overall trend of incidence rate of notified hepatitis A cases significantly decreased from 2005 to 2014 (Phepatitis A vaccine seemed to be effective in decreasing notified hepatitis A incidence rate in individuals aged ≤19 years. Those aged ≥20 years were observed to be the most susceptible population. The vast majority of hepatitis A cases were notified among Laborers. Therefore, we strongly suggest that future preventive and control measures should focus more on adults, particularly Laborers, in addition to the current childhood hepatitis A vaccination programme. PMID:27093614

  16. Spatiotemporal Risk of Bacillary Dysentery and Sensitivity to Meteorological Factors in Hunan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengdong Xu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacillary dysentery remains a public health concern in the world. Hunan Province is one of the provinces having the highest risk of bacillary dysentery in China, however, the spatial-temporal distribution, variation of bacillary dysentery and sensitivity to meteorological factors in there are unclear. In this paper, a Bayesian space-time hierarchical model (BSTHM was used to detect space-time variation, and effects of meteorological factors between 2010 and 2015. The risk of bacillary dysentery showed apparent spatial-temporal heterogeneity. The highest risk occurred in the summer season. Economically undeveloped mountainous areas in the west and south of the province had the highest incidence rates. Twenty three (18.9% and 20 (16.4% counties were identified as hot and cold spots, respectively. Among the hotspots, 11 counties (47.8% exhibited a rapidly decreasing trend, suggesting they may become low-risk areas in the future. Of the cold spot counties, six (30% showed a slowly decreasing trend, and may have a higher risk in the future. Among meteorological factors, air temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed all played a significant role in the spatial-temporal distribution of bacillary dysentery risk. These findings can contribute to the implementation of an early warning system for controlling and preventing bacillary dysentery.

  17. Seroprevalence of Enterovirus A71 and Coxsackievirus A16 in Healthy People in Shandong Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Xing Wang

    Full Text Available Hand, foot, and mouth disease has become very common in mainland of China in recent years, and enterovirus A71 and coxsackievirus A16 are its major etiologic factors. Here we investigated the seroprevalence of enterovirus A71 and coxsackievirus A16 based on a large group of healthy individuals in Shandong province, China.A total of 1378 healthy individuals were tested for serum neutralizing antibodies against enterovirus A71 and coxsackievirus A16 using a micro neutralization test.The overall seroprevalence of enterovirus A71 neutralizing antibodies was 74.75%. It increased significantly from 48.84% in children aged 0-1 years old to 88.64% in those aged 20-29 years (p 40 years old with a significant gender-specific difference (p 40 years without a gender-specific difference. Nearly 50% of the children <1 year were susceptible to enterovirus A71 infection versus 40% to coxsackievirus A16 infection. Sample collection time and place also played a role in the enterovirus A71 and coxsackievirus A16 positive rates. The overall rates in January were significantly lower than those in April and August (p < 0.01; enterovirus A71 positive rates in Jinan city (capital city of Shandong province were lower than those in Jining city and Zibo city (p < 0.05; and oxsackievirus A16 positive rates in Jining city were significantly higher than those in Jinan city and Zibo city (p < 0.01.There were significant differences among age groups, locations, and time points in the seroprevalence rates of enterovirus A71 and coxsackievirus A16 neutralizing antibodies in healthy people in Shandong province.

  18. Snow Cover Monitoring Using MODIS Data in Liaoning Province, Northeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of snow cover monitoring studies in Liaoning Province, northeastern China, using MODIS data. Snow cover plays an important role in both the regional water balance and soil moisture properties during the early spring in northeastern China. In addition, heavy snowfalls commonly trigger hazards such as flooding, caused by rapid snow melt, or crop failure, resulting from fluctuations in soil temperature associated with changes in the snow cover. The latter is a function of both regional, or global, climatic changes, as well as fluctuations in the albedo resulting from variations in the Snow Covered Area (SCA. These impacts are crucial to human activities, especially to those living in middle-latitude areas such as Liaoning Province. Thus, SCA monitoring is currently an important tool in studies of global climate change, particularly because satellite remote sensing data provide timely and efficient snow cover information for large areas. In this study, MODIS L1B data, MODIS Daily Snow Products (MOD10A1 and MODIS 8-day Snow Products (MOD10A2 were used to monitor the SCA of Liaoning Province over the winter months of November–April, 2006–2008. The effects of cloud masking and forest masking on the snow monitoring results were also assessed. The results show that the SCA percentage derived from MODIS L1B data is relatively consistent, but slightly higher than that obtained from MODIS Snow Products. In situ data from 25 snow stations were used to assess the accuracy of snow cover monitoring from the SCA compared to the results from MODIS Snow Products. The studies found that the SCA results were more reliable than MODIS Snow Products in the study area.

  19. Links between environmental geochemistry and rate of birth defects: Shanxi Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Haiying [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, School of Geography, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Sichuan Agricultural University, Ya' an, Sichuan 625014 (China); Zhang Keli, E-mail: keli@bnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, School of Geography, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2011-01-01

    The rate of birth defects in Shanxi Province is among the highest worldwide. In order to identify the impacts of geochemical and environmental factors on birth defect risk, samples of soil, water and food were collected from an area with an unusually high rate of birth defects (study area) and an area with a low rate of birth defects (control area) in Shanxi Province, China. Element contents were determined by ICP-OES, and the results were analyzed using a non-parametric test and stepwise regression. Differences in the level and distribution of 14 geochemical elements, namely arsenic (As), selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo), zinc (Zn), strontium (Sr), iron (Fe), tin (Sn), magnesium (Mg), vanadium (V), calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), aluminum (Al), potassium (K) and sulfur (S) were thus compared between the study and control areas. The results reveal that the geochemical element contents in soil, water and food show a significant difference between the study area and control area, and suggest that the study area was characterized by higher S and lower Sr and Al contents. These findings, based on statistical analysis, may be useful in directing further epidemiological investigations identifying the leading causes of birth defects. - Research Highlights: {yields} Environmental geochemistry has an significant impact on birth defects in the regions with an unusually high rate of birth defects. {yields} An excess of S and deficiency of Sr and Al are the distinctive environmental features associated with the high rate of birth defects in the Shanxi Province of China. {yields} Geochemical anomalies is a non-medical basis for effective prevention and cure of birth defects.

  20. Impact of Climate Change on Heat-Related Mortality in Jiangsu Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Horton, Radley M.; Bader, Daniel A.; Lesk, Corey; Jiang, Leiwen; Jones, Bryan; Zhou, Lian; Chen, Xiaodong; Bi, Jun; Kinney, Patrick L.

    2017-01-01

    A warming climate is anticipated to increase the future heat-related total mortality in urban areas. However, little evidence has been reported for cause-specific mortality or nonurban areas. Here we assessed the impact of climate change on heat-related total and cause-specific mortality in both urban and rural counties of Jiangsu Province, China, in the next five decades. To address the potential uncertainty in projecting future heat-related mortality, we applied localized urban- and nonurban-specific exposure response functions, six population projections including a no population change scenario and five Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs), and 42 temperature projections from 21 global-scale general circulation models and two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). Results showed that projected warmer temperatures in 2016-2040 and 2041-2065 will lead to higher heat-related mortality for total non-accidental, cardiovascular, respiratory, stroke, ischemic heart disease (IHD), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) causes occurring annually during May to September in Jiangsu Province, China. Nonurban residents in Jiangsu will suffer from more excess heat-related cause-specific mortality in 2016-2065 than urban residents. Variations across climate models and RCPs dominated the uncertainty of heat-related mortality estimation whereas population size change only had limited influence. Our findings suggest that targeted climate change mitigation and adaptation measures should be taken in both urban and nonurban areas of Jiangsu Province. Specific public health interventions should be focused on the leading causes of death (stroke, IHD, and COPD), whose health burden will be amplified by a warming climate.

  1. Impact of climate change on heat-related mortality in Jiangsu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Horton, Radley M; Bader, Daniel A; Lesk, Corey; Jiang, Leiwen; Jones, Bryan; Zhou, Lian; Chen, Xiaodong; Bi, Jun; Kinney, Patrick L

    2017-05-01

    A warming climate is anticipated to increase the future heat-related total mortality in urban areas. However, little evidence has been reported for cause-specific mortality or nonurban areas. Here we assessed the impact of climate change on heat-related total and cause-specific mortality in both urban and rural counties of Jiangsu Province, China, in the next five decades. To address the potential uncertainty in projecting future heat-related mortality, we applied localized urban- and nonurban-specific exposure response functions, six population projections including a no population change scenario and five Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs), and 42 temperature projections from 21 global-scale general circulation models and two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). Results showed that projected warmer temperatures in 2016-2040 and 2041-2065 will lead to higher heat-related mortality for total non-accidental, cardiovascular, respiratory, stroke, ischemic heart disease (IHD), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) causes occurring annually during May to September in Jiangsu Province, China. Nonurban residents in Jiangsu will suffer from more excess heat-related cause-specific mortality in 2016-2065 than urban residents. Variations across climate models and RCPs dominated the uncertainty of heat-related mortality estimation whereas population size change only had limited influence. Our findings suggest that targeted climate change mitigation and adaptation measures should be taken in both urban and nonurban areas of Jiangsu Province. Specific public health interventions should be focused on the leading causes of death (stroke, IHD, and COPD), whose health burden will be amplified by a warming climate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Links between environmental geochemistry and rate of birth defects: Shanxi Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Haiying; Zhang Keli

    2011-01-01

    The rate of birth defects in Shanxi Province is among the highest worldwide. In order to identify the impacts of geochemical and environmental factors on birth defect risk, samples of soil, water and food were collected from an area with an unusually high rate of birth defects (study area) and an area with a low rate of birth defects (control area) in Shanxi Province, China. Element contents were determined by ICP-OES, and the results were analyzed using a non-parametric test and stepwise regression. Differences in the level and distribution of 14 geochemical elements, namely arsenic (As), selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo), zinc (Zn), strontium (Sr), iron (Fe), tin (Sn), magnesium (Mg), vanadium (V), calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), aluminum (Al), potassium (K) and sulfur (S) were thus compared between the study and control areas. The results reveal that the geochemical element contents in soil, water and food show a significant difference between the study area and control area, and suggest that the study area was characterized by higher S and lower Sr and Al contents. These findings, based on statistical analysis, may be useful in directing further epidemiological investigations identifying the leading causes of birth defects. - Research Highlights: → Environmental geochemistry has an significant impact on birth defects in the regions with an unusually high rate of birth defects. → An excess of S and deficiency of Sr and Al are the distinctive environmental features associated with the high rate of birth defects in the Shanxi Province of China. → Geochemical anomalies is a non-medical basis for effective prevention and cure of birth defects.

  3. Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Cement Industry in Shandong Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Lu, Hongyou; Wang, Lan

    2009-10-01

    China's cement industry, which produced 1,388 million metric tons (Mt) of cement in 2008, accounts for almost half of the world's total cement production. Nearly 40% of China's cement production is from relatively obsolete vertical shaft kiln (VSK) cement plants, with the remainder from more modern rotary kiln cement plants, including plants equipped with new suspension pre-heater and pre-calciner (NSP) kilns. Shandong Province is the largest cement-producing Province in China, producing 10% of China's total cement output in 2008. This report documents an analysis of the potential to improve the energy efficiency of NSP kiln cement plants in Shandong Province. Sixteen NSP kiln cement plants were surveyed regarding their cement production, energy consumption, and current adoption of 34 energy-efficient technologies and measures. Plant energy use was compared to both domestic (Chinese) and international best practice using the Benchmarking and Energy Saving Tool for Cement (BEST-Cement). This benchmarking exercise indicated an average technical potential primary energy savings of 12% would be possible if the surveyed plants operated at domestic best practice levels in terms of energy use per ton of cement produced. Average technical potential primary energy savings of 23% would be realized if the plants operated at international best practice levels. Energy conservation supply curves for both fuel and electricity savings were then constructed for the 16 surveyed plants. Using the bottom-up electricity conservation supply curve model, the cost-effective electricity efficiency potential for the studied cement plants in 2008 is estimated to be 373 gigawatt hours (GWh), which accounts for 16% of total electricity use in the 16 surveyed cement plants in 2008. Total technical electricity-saving potential is 915 GWh, which accounts for 40% of total electricity use in the studied plants in 2008. The fuel conservation supply curve model shows the total

  4. Economic Growth, Electricity Consumption, Labor Force and Capital Input: A More Comprehensive Analysis on North China Using Panel Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiru Zhao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades, China’s economy has witnessed remarkable growth, with an average annual growth rate over 9%. However, China also faces great challenges to balance this spectacular economic growth and continuously increasing energy use like many other economies in the world. With the aim of designing effective energy and environmental policies, policymakers are required to master the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth. Therefore, in the case of North China, a multivariate model employing panel data analysis method based on the Cobb-Douglas production function which introduces electricity consumption as a main factor was established in this paper. The equilibrium relationship and causal relationship between real GDP, electricity consumption, total investment in fixed assets, and the employment were explored using data during the period of 1995–2014 for six provinces in North China, including Beijing City, Tianjin City, Hebei Province, Shanxi Province, Shandong Province and Inner Mongolia. The results of panel co-integration tests clearly state that all variables are co-integrated in the long term. Finally, Granger causality tests were used to examine the causal relationship between economic growth, electricity consumption, labor force and capital. From the Granger causality test results, we can draw the conclusions that: (1 There exist bi-directional causal relationships between electricity consumption and real GDP in six provinces except Hebei; and (2 there is a bi-directional relationship between capital input and economic growth and between labor force input and economic growth except Beijing and Hebei. Therefore, the ways to solve the contradiction of economic growth and energy consumption in North China are to reduce fossil energy consumption, develop renewable and sustainable energy sources, improve energy efficiency, and increase the proportion of the third industry, especially the sectors which

  5. [Variation of forest vegetation carbon storage and carbon sequestration rate in Liaoning Province, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Wei; Huang, Mei; Zhai, Yin-Li; Chen, Ke; Gong, Ya-Zhen

    2014-05-01

    The forest vegetation carbon stock and carbon sequestration rate in Liaoning Province, Northeast China, were predicted by using Canadian carbon balance model (CBM-CFS3) combining with the forest resource data. The future spatio-temporal distribution and trends of vegetation carbon storage, carbon density and carbon sequestration rate were projected, based on the two scenarios, i. e. with or without afforestation. The result suggested that the total forest vegetation carbon storage and carbon density in Liaoning Province in 2005 were 133.94 Tg and 25.08 t x hm(-2), respectively. The vegetation carbon storage in Quercus was the biggest, while in Robinia pseudoacacia was the least. Both Larix olgensis and broad-leaved forests had higher vegetation carbon densities than others, and the vegetation carbon densities of Pinus tabuliformis, Quercus and Robinia pseudoacacia were close to each other. The spatial distribution of forest vegetation carbon density in Liaoning Province showed a decrease trend from east to west. In the eastern forest area, the future increase of vegetation carbon density would be smaller than those in the northern forest area, because most of the forests in the former part were matured or over matured, while most of the forests in the later part were young. Under the scenario of no afforestation, the future increment of total forest vegetation carbon stock in Liaoning Province would increase gradually, and the total carbon sequestration rate would decrease, while they would both increase significantly under the afforestation scenario. Therefore, afforestation plays an important role in increasing vegetation carbon storage, carbon density and carbon sequestration rate.

  6. Estimates of Forest Biomass Carbon Storage in Liaoning Province of Northeast China: A Review and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dapao; Wang, Xiaoyu; Yin, You; Zhan, Jinyu; Lewis, Bernard J.; Tian, Jie; Bao, Ye; Zhou, Wangming; Zhou, Li; Dai, Limin

    2014-01-01

    Accurate estimates of forest carbon storage and changes in storage capacity are critical for scientific assessment of the effects of forest management on the role of forests as carbon sinks. Up to now, several studies reported forest biomass carbon (FBC) in Liaoning Province based on data from China's Continuous Forest Inventory, however, their accuracy were still not known. This study compared estimates of FBC in Liaoning Province derived from different methods. We found substantial variation in estimates of FBC storage for young and middle-age forests. For provincial forests with high proportions in these age classes, the continuous biomass expansion factor method (CBM) by forest type with age class is more accurate and therefore more appropriate for estimating forest biomass. Based on the above approach designed for this study, forests in Liaoning Province were found to be a carbon sink, with carbon stocks increasing from 63.0 TgC in 1980 to 120.9 TgC in 2010, reflecting an annual increase of 1.9 TgC. The average carbon density of forest biomass in the province has increased from 26.2 Mg ha−1 in 1980 to 31.0 Mg ha−1 in 2010. While the largest FBC occurred in middle-age forests, the average carbon density decreased in this age class during these three decades. The increase in forest carbon density resulted primarily from the increased area and carbon storage of mature forests. The relatively long age interval in each age class for slow-growing forest types increased the uncertainty of FBC estimates by CBM-forest type with age class, and further studies should devote more attention to the time span of age classes in establishing biomass expansion factors for use in CBM calculations. PMID:24586881

  7. Maternal mortality in Henan Province, China: changes between 1996 and 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengzhi You

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Maternal deaths occur mostly in developing countries and the majority of them are preventable. This study analyzes changes in maternal mortality and related causes in Henan Province, China, between 1996 and 2009, in an attempt to provide a reliable basis for introducing effective interventions to reduce the maternal mortality ratio (MMR, part of the fifth Millennium Development Goal. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This population-based maternal mortality survey in Henan Province was carried out from 1996 to 2009. Basic information was obtained from the health care network for women and children and the vital statistics system, from specially trained monitoring personnel in 25 selected monitoring sites and by household survey in each case of maternal death. This data was subsequently reported to the Henan Provincial Maternal and Child Healthcare Hospital. The total MMR in Henan Province declined by 78.4%, from 80.1 per 100 000 live births in 1996 to 17.3 per 100 000 live births in 2009. The decline was more pronounced in rural than in urban areas. The most common causes of maternal death during this period were obstetric hemorrhage (43.8%, pregnancy-induced hypertension (15.8%, amniotic fluid embolism (13.9% and heart disease (8.0%. The MMR was higher in rural areas with lower income, less education and poorer health care. CONCLUSION: There was a remarkable decrease in the MMR in Henan Province between 1996 and 2009 mainly in the rural areas and MMR due to direct obstetric causes such as obstetric hemorrhage. This study indicates that improving the health care network for women, training of obstetric staff at basic-level units, promoting maternal education, and increasing household income are important interventional strategies to reduce the MMR further.

  8. [Analysis of reports of cases of pesticide poisoning in Jiangsu Province, China, from 2006 to 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bin; Ding, Bangmei; Shen, Han; Zhu, Baoli; Gao, Qianqian

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the characteristics of pesticide poisoning in Jiangsu Province, China, and to provide a scientific basis for developing effective intervention measures and prevention strategies. The data from report cards of pesticide poisoning in Jiangsu Province from 2006 to 2013 were arranged using EXCEL tables, and assessed. Statistical analysis was applied to the epidemiological data using SPSS. From 2006 to 2013, a total of 32672 cases of pesticide poisoning were reported in Jiangsu Province. Most of the cases were caused by non-occupational poisoning (life poisoning) (72.78%). A majority of patients with pesticide poisoning were 35-54 years old (40.85%) or older than 65 years (15.69%). There were more female patients (58.22%) than male patients (41.78%). Among patients with occupational poisoning, male patients (50.90%) were more than female patients. Among patients with non-occupational poisoning, female patients were more than male patients (38.37%). Pesticide poisoning mainly occurred from July to September. The case-fatality rate of occupational poisoning (0.47%) was lower than that of non-occupational poisoning (7.10%). All 13 cities in Jiangsu Province reported cases of pesticide poisoning. There were more cases in the northern regions than in the southern regions. Pesticide poisoning was mainly caused by organophosphorus insecticides including methamidophos, dichlorvos, dimethoate, omethoate, and parathion, which accounted for 65.58%of all cases. Paraquat had the highest case-fatality rate (10.06%) among all pesticides, followed by tetramine (10.00%), dimethoate or omethoate (7.85%), methamidophos (7.79%), and dimehypo (7.68%). Pesticide poisoning cannot be ignored. The management and control should be improved in production and usage of highly toxic pesticides including organophosphorus insecticides, rodenticides, and herbicides. More attention should be paid to the protection of vulnerable groups including women, children, and the elderly.

  9. Molecular typing of mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates circulating in Jiangsu Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Haiyan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, China is the second place with high burden of tuberculosis (TB. To explore the characteristics of the pathogens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB circulating in this area is helpful for understanding and controlling the spread of the strains. Recent developments in molecular biology have allowed prompt identification and tracking specific strains of MTB spreading through the population. Methods Spacer-oligonucleotide typing (spoligotyping and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR were performed in combination to yield specific genetic profiles of 260 MTB strains isolated from 30 counties of Jiangsu province in China between June and July 2010. The spoligotyping results were in comparison to the world Spoligotyping Database of Institute Pasteur de Guadeloupe (SpolDB4. Drug susceptibility test (DST was performed on all strains by proportion method on Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ culture media. Results Based on the spoligotyping method, 246 strains displayed known patterns and 14 were absent in the database. Predominant spoligotypes belonged to the Beijing family (80.4%. By using the 24-loci VNTR typing scheme, 224 different patterns were identified, including 20 clusters and 204 unique patterns. The largest clade comprised 195 strains belonging to the Beijing family. The combination of spoligotyping and 24-loci MIRU-VNTR demonstrated maximal discriminatory power. Furthermore, we observed a significant association between Beijing family strains and drug-resistant phenotypes. The Beijing family strains presented increased risks for developing multi-drug resistant TB, with the OR (95% CI of 11.07(1.45-84.50. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that Beijing family isolates were the most prevalent strains circulating in Jiangsu province of China. The utility of spoligotyping in combination with 24-loci MIRU-VNTR might be a useful tool for epidemiological analysis of MTB

  10. Urbanization Level and Vulnerability to Heat-Related Mortality in Jiangsu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Zhou, Lian; Chen, Xiaodong; Ma, Zongwei; Liu, Yang; Huang, Lei; Bi, Jun; Kinney, Patrick L

    2016-12-01

    Although adverse effects of high temperature on mortality have been studied extensively in urban areas, little is known of the heat-mortality associations outside of cities. We investigated whether heat-mortality associations differed between urban and nonurban areas and how urbanicity affected the vulnerability to heat-related mortality. We first analyzed heat-related mortality risk in each of 102 counties in Jiangsu Province, China, during 2009-2013 using a distributed-lag nonlinear model. The county-specific estimates were then pooled for more urban (percentage of urban population ≥ 57.11%) and less urban (percentage of urban population risk comparing the 99th vs. 75th percentiles of temperature was 1.43 [95% posterior intervals (PI): 1.36, 1.50] in less urban counties and 1.26 (95% PI: 1.23, 1.30) in more urban counties. The heat effects on cardiorespiratory mortality followed a similar pattern. Higher education level and prevalence of air conditioning were significantly associated with counties having lower risks, whereas percentage of elderly people was significantly associated with increased risks. Our findings reveal that nonurban areas have significant heat-related mortality risks in Jiangsu, China. These results suggest the need for enhanced adaptation planning in Chinese nonurban areas under a changing climate. Citation: Chen K, Zhou L, Chen X, Ma Z, Liu Y, Huang L, Bi J, Kinney PL. 2016. Urbanization level and vulnerability to heat-related mortality in Jiangsu Province, China. Environ Health Perspect 124:1863-1869; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP204.

  11. A spatial analysis of county-level variation in syphilis and gonorrhea in Guangdong Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas X Tan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections (STI have made a resurgence in many rapidly developing regions of southern China, but there is little understanding of the social changes that contribute to this spatial distribution of STI. This study examines county-level socio-demographic characteristics associated with syphilis and gonorrhea in Guangdong Province.This study uses linear regression and spatial lag regression to determine county-level (n = 97 socio-demographic characteristics associated with a greater burden of syphilis, gonorrhea, and a combined syphilis/gonorrhea index. Data were obtained from the 2005 China Population Census and published public health data. A range of socio-demographic variables including gross domestic product, the Gender Empowerment Measure, standard of living, education level, migrant population and employment are examined. Reported syphilis and gonorrhea cases are disproportionately clustered in the Pearl River Delta, the central region of Guangdong Province. A higher fraction of employed men among the adult population, higher fraction of divorced men among the adult population, and higher standard of living (based on water availability and people per room are significantly associated with higher STI cases across all three models. Gross domestic product and gender inequality measures are not significant predictors of reported STI in these models.Although many ecological studies of STIs have found poverty to be associated with higher reported STI, this analysis found a greater number of reported syphilis cases in counties with a higher standard of living. Spatially targeted syphilis screening measures in regions with a higher standard of living may facilitate successful control efforts. This analysis also reinforces the importance of changing male sexual behaviors as part of a comprehensive response to syphilis control in China.

  12. Measurement and analysis of equity in health: a case study conducted in Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xueshan; Zhang, Hao; Hu, Xiaoqian; Gu, Shuyan; Zhen, Xuemei; Gu, Yuxuan; Huang, Minzhuo; Wei, Jingming; Dong, Hengjin

    2018-03-22

    Equity is the core of primary care. The issue of equity in health has become urgent, and China has attached increasing attention to it. With rapid economic development and great changes in medical insurance policy, the pattern of equity in health has changed tremendously. The reform of healthcare in Zhejiang Province is at the forefront in China, and studies on Zhejiang Province are of great significance to the entire country. This paper aimed to measure health equity from the perspectives of health needs and health-seeking behavior and to provide suggestions for the next policy formulations, with respect to timeliness. The investigator's household survey was conducted in August 2016. A sample of 1000 households, which included2807 individuals in Zhejiang, China, was obtained with the multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method. Descriptive analysis and chi-square tests were adopted in the analysis. The value of the concentration index was used to measure the equity. This study found that the poor have more urgent health needs and poorer health situations than the rich. Through studies on health-seeking behavior, the utilization of outpatient services was almost equitable, while the utilization of hospitalization showed a pro-rich inequity (i.e., the rich use more services). Individuals with employer-based medical insurance used more outpatient services than those with rural and urban medical insurance. More people in the poorer income groups did not use inpatient services due to financial difficulties. Absolute medical prices and medical insurance may explain the equity in the utilization of outpatient services and the inequity in the utilization of hospitalization. In view of the pro-rich inequity of hospitalization, more financial protection should be provided for the poor.

  13. Epidemiological surveillance of low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV from poultry in Guangxi Province, Southern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Peng

    Full Text Available Low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV usually causes mild disease or asymptomatic infection in poultry. However, some LPAIV strains can be transmitted to humans and cause severe infection. Genetic rearrangement and recombination of even low pathogenic influenza may generate a novel virus with increased virulence, posing a substantial risk to public health. Southern China is regarded as the world "influenza epicenter", due to a rash of outbreaks of influenza in recent years. In this study, we conducted an epidemiological survey of LPAIV at different live bird markets (LBMs in Guangxi province, Southern China. From January 2009 to December 2011, we collected 3,121 cotton swab samples of larynx, trachea and cloaca from the poultry at LBMs in Guangxi. Virus isolation, hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay, and RT-PCR were used to detect and subtype LPAIV in the collected samples. Of the 3,121 samples, 336 samples (10.8% were LPAIV positive, including 54 (1.7% in chicken and 282 (9.1% in duck. The identified LPAIV were H3N1, H3N2, H6N1, H6N2, H6N5, H6N6, H6N8, and H9N2, which are combinations of seven HA subtypes (H1, H3, H4, H6, H9, H10 and H11 and five NA subtypes (N1, N2, N5, N6 and N8. The H3 and H9 subtypes are predominant in the identified LPAIVs. Among the 336 cases, 29 types of mixed infection of different HA subtypes were identified in 87 of the cases (25.9%. The mixed infections may provide opportunities for genetic recombination. Our results suggest that the LPAIV epidemiology in poultry in the Guangxi province in southern China is complicated and highlights the need for further epidemiological and genetic studies of LPAIV in this area.

  14. [A study on the epidemic characteristics of dyslipidemia in adults of nine provinces of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, J; Min, J Q; Yang, Y J

    2018-02-24

    Objective: To explore the current prevalence of dyslipidemia in adult population of 9 provinces of China and the epidemic characteristics of this disease. The potential influence of social economic development on dyslipidemia was also observed. Methods: Present research data are derived from the result of the investigation about survey on health and nutrition in China in 2011, in which multistage stratified cluster random sampling method was adopted to investigate the 24 345 individuals in 216 communities from 9 provinces in China and 10 242 blood samples were collected. In this research, 8 669 blood samples of people over 18 years old were selected for final analysis. After adjustment of age, the percentage of dyslipidemia patients in Chinese adults was calculated. Results: The percentage of dyslipidemia in Chinese adults is 39.91% (3 460/8 669). The percentage of dyslipidemia at the age of 18-24, 35-44, 45-59 and over 60 years old were 30.25% (373/1 233),37.19% (774/2 081), 44.22% (1 304/2 949) and 41.94%(1 009/2 406),respectively (χ(2)=333.02, Pdyslipidemia in male and female population was 51.11% (1 956/3 827) and 31.06%(1 504/4 842), respectively (χ(2)=60.35, Pdyslipidemia in urban residents and rural residents was 42.56% (1 144/2 687) and 38.72%(2 316/5 982), respectively (χ(2)=11.72, Pdyslipidemia in high-GDP regions and low-GDP regions was 43.04% (1 567/3 641) and 37.65% (1 893/5 028), respectively (χ(2)=25.57, Pdyslipidemia in Chinese adults is high and the prevalence increases in a fast pace. The current situation of dyslipidemia in Chinese adults is critical and targeted strategies should be applied to control the dyslipidemia in adult Chinese population.

  15. Receptivity to malaria in the China-Myanmar border in Yingjiang County, Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tianmu; Zhang, Shaosen; Zhou, Shui-Sen; Wang, Xuezhong; Luo, Chunhai; Zeng, Xucan; Guo, Xiangrui; Lin, Zurui; Tu, Hong; Sun, Xiaodong; Zhou, Hongning

    2017-11-21

    The re-establishment of malaria has become an important public health issue in and out of China, and receptivity to this disease is key to its re-emergence. Yingjiang is one of the few counties with locally acquired malaria cases in the China-Myanmar border in China. This study aimed to understand receptivity to malaria in Yingjiang County, China, from June to October 2016. Light-traps were employed to capture the mosquitoes in 17 villages in eight towns which were categorized into four elevation levels: level 1, 0-599 m; level 2, 600-1199 m; level 3, 1200-1799 m; and level 4, > 1800 m. Species richness, diversity, dominance and evenness were used to picture the community structure. Similarity in species composition was compared between different elevation levels. Data of seasonal abundance of mosquitoes, human biting rate, density of light-trap-captured adult mosquitoes and larvae, parous rate, and height distribution (density) of Anopheles minimus and Anopheles sinensis were collected in two towns (Na Bang and Ping Yuan) each month from June to October, 2016. Over the study period, 10,053 Anopheles mosquitoes were collected from the eight towns, and 15 Anopheles species were identified, the most-common of which were An. sinensis (75.4%), Anopheles kunmingensis (15.6%), and An. minimus (3.5%). Anopheles minimus was the major malaria vector in low-elevation areas (malaria in the China-Myanmar border in Yingjiang County.

  16. Calamagrostis nyingchiensis, a new combination for Deyeuxia nyingchiensis (Poaceae: Agrostidinae, and its first record from Yunnan Province, SW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paszko Beata

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Deyeuxia nyingchiensis is here recombined as Calamagrostis nyingchiensis comb. nov. as a result of recent studies of worldwide Agrostidinae. A new record of C. nyingchiensis is reported from Shangri-la (Zhongdian County in Yunnan Province, SW China. Previously, C. nyingchiensis was noted from eastern Xizang and southern Sichuan, SW China. It is compared with the morphologically similar species C. scabrescens. A map with all known geographic records of C. nyingchiensis is presented.

  17. Sulfonamide-Resistant Bacteria and Their Resistance Genes in Soils Fertilized with Manures from Jiangsu Province, Southeastern China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Na; Yang, Xiaohong; Jiao, Shaojun; Zhang, Jun; Ye, Boping; Gao, Shixiang

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes are recognized as new environmental pollutants that warrant special concern. There were few reports on veterinary antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes in China. This work systematically analyzed the prevalence and distribution of sulfonamide resistance genes in soils from the environments around poultry and livestock farms in Jiangsu Province, Southeastern China. The results showed that the animal manure application made the spread and abundance of a...

  18. [A study on health information literacy among urban and suburban residents in six provinces in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xueqiong; Li, Yinghua; Li, Li; Huang, Xianggang

    2014-07-01

    To understand the status and its influencing factors of health information literacy among urban and suburban residents in China, and to explore the method for improving the health information literacy. From March to May in 2013, residents aged 18-60 years in six provinces in China were investigated with Questionnaire of Health Literacy of Diabetes Mellitus of the Public in China about self-reported health information literacy. The results of the survey were standardized by the 6th national census data. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore influencing factors of health information literacy. A total of 4 416 residents were surveyed, and 4 282 (97.0%) valid questionnaires were collected. After weight adjustments, 30.1% of the residents aged 18-60 years had adequate health information literacy in China, and the 95%CI of the rate was 28.5% - 31.6%. Totally, 70.8% of the residents ever actively searched for health information, 43.7% of the residents could easily retrieve the health information, 49.1% of the residents could easily understand the health information, 41.8% of the residents could confidently differentiate the quality of the health information and 51.1% of the residents ever searched health information on the internet. The results of multi-logistic regression showed that the rural residents, the males, those with lower levels of education, those with poor health had a lower health information literacy. The most trusted health information source was from doctors, and the trust rate reached 97.0%, followed by family members, friends or colleagues. The residents trusted the interpersonal communication more than the mass media and the new media. The level of health information literacy of the residents was generally low in China. To improve the health information literacy, high-quality health information services should be delivered to the residents, and the health education on the internet provided by the medical professionals should also be explored.

  19. A Spatial-Dynamic Agent-based Model of Energy Crop Introduction in Jiangsu province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, K.; Schneider, U. A.; Scheffran, J.

    2012-12-01

    Bioenergy, as one promising option to replace a fraction of conventional fossil fuels and lower net greenhouse gas emissions, has gained many countries', in particular developing ones' attention. Their focus is mainly on the design of efficient bioenergy utilization pathways which adapt to both local geographic features and economic conditions. The establishment of a biomass production sector would be the first and pivotal component in the whole industrial chain. Several existing studies have estimated the global biomass for energy potential but arrived at very different results. One reason for the large uncertainty of biomass potential may be ascribed to the diverse nature of biomass leading to different estimates in different circumstances. Therefore, specific research at the local level is essential. Following this thought, our research conducted in the Jiangsu province, a representative region in China, will explore the spatial distribution of biomass production. The employed methodology can also be applied to other locations both in China and similar developing countries if model parameters are adequately adjusted. In this study, we analyze the local situation in the Jiangsu province focusing on the selection of new energy crops, since the cultivation of dedicated crop for energy use is still in experimental phase. We also examine the land use conflict which is especially relevant to China with more than 1.3 billion people and a severe burden on food supply. We develop an agent-based model to find the optimal spatial distribution of biomass (SDA-SDB) in Jiangsu province. Compromising data accessibility and heterogeneity of environmental factors across the province, we resolve our model at county level and consider the aggregated farming community in one county as a single agent. The aim of SDA-SDB is to simulate farmers' decision process of allocating land to either food or energy crops facing limited resources and political targets for bioenergy development

  20. Landsat analysis of the Yangjiatan tungsten district, Hunan Province, People's Republic of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, W.D.; Kiilsgaard, T.H.

    1983-01-01

    The Yangjiatan tungsten district at latitude 27??28??? N. and longitude 111??54???E. is located about 140 km southwest of the city of Changsha and 35 km northeast of the town of Shaoyang, southeast Hunan Province, People's Republic of China. The deposits, consisting largely of scheelite in veins (Wang, 1975), are contained in highly folded and faulted sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic age intruded by granitic plutons that are circular in plan view. The major faults and folds trend in a northeasterly direction; whereas, the plutons are clustered in a more easterly trending band across the Landsat image. Landsat image E-2338-02202, acquired December 26, 1975, is number 470 in the "Landsat Image Atlas of the People's Republic of China" printed by the Publishing House of Geology in 1979. A computer-compatible tape of the image was analyzed and used as a demonstration project under a United Nations technical assistance program. Supervised classification of soils, rocks, and vegetation; band ratioing to detect limonite alteration; and edge enhancement were all conducted to demonstrate the flexibility and capability of interactive computer systems. Field evaluation of the results of this work will be conducted by colleagues of the Remote Sensing Center for Geology, Ministry of Geology, in China. ?? 1983.

  1. Does farmer entrepreneurship alleviate rural poverty in China? Evidence from Guangxi Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jincai

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, entrepreneurship has been gaining more prominence as a potential tool for solving poverty in developing countries. This paper mainly examines the relationship between farmer entrepreneurship and rural poverty alleviation in China by assessing the contribution of farm entrepreneurs towards overcoming poverty. Data were collected from 309 employees of farmer entrepreneurships in Guangxi Province through survey questionnaires. Structural equation modeling was used to conduct an analysis of the effects of three identified capabilities of farm entrepreneurs—economic, educational and knowledge, and socio-cultural capabilities—on attitude towards farmer entrepreneurship growth and the qualitative growth of farmer entrepreneurship and how these in turn affect rural poverty, using AMOS 21. The findings show that socio-cultural capability has the greatest influence on farmer entrepreneurship growth (β = 0.50, pentrepreneurship also more significantly impacts rural poverty (β = 0.69, pentrepreneurship growth. This study suggests that policy makers in China should involve more rural farmers in the targeted poverty alleviation strategies of the government by equipping rural farmers with entrepreneurial skills. This can serve as a sustainable, bottom-up approach to alleviating rural poverty in remote areas of the country. The study also extends the literature on the farmer entrepreneurship-rural poverty alleviation nexus in China, and this can serve as a lesson for other developing countries in the fight against rural poverty. PMID:29596517

  2. Anemia and Feeding Practices among Infants in Rural Shaanxi Province in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renfu Luo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anemia is one of the most prevalent public health problems among infants and iron deficiency anemia has been related to many adverse consequences. The overall goal of this study is to examine the prevalence of anemia among infants in poor rural China and to identify correlates of anemia. In April 2013, we randomly sampled 948 infants aged 6–11 months living in 351 villages across 174 townships in nationally-designated poverty counties in rural areas of southern Shaanxi Province, China. Infants were administered a finger prick blood test for hemoglobin (Hb. Anthropometric measurement and household survey of demographic characteristics and feeding practices were conducted in the survey. We found that 54.3% of 6–11 month old infants in poor rural China are anemic, and 24.3% of sample infants suffer from moderate or severe anemia. We find that children still breastfed over 6 months of age had lower Hb concentrations and higher anemia prevalence than their non-breastfeeding counterparts (p < 0.01, and that children who had ever been formula-fed had significantly higher Hb concentrations and lower anemia prevalence than their non-formula-fed counterparts (p < 0.01. The results suggest the importance of iron supplementation or home fortification while breastfeeding.

  3. Current Situation, Determinants, and Solutions to Drug Shortages in Shaanxi Province, China: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Caijun; Wu, Lina; Cai, Wenfang; Zhu, Wenwen; Shen, Qian; Li, Zongjie; Fang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Drug shortages were a complex global problem. The aim of this study was to analyze, characterize, and assess the drug shortages, and identify possible solutions in Shaanxi Province, western China. A qualitative methodological approach was conducted during May-June 2015 and December 2015-January 2016. Semi-structured interviews were performed to gather information from representatives of hospital pharmacists, wholesalers, pharmaceutical producers, and local health authorities. Thirty participants took part in the study. Eight traditional Chinese medicines and 87 types of biologicals and chemicals were reported to be in short supply. Most were essential medicines. Five main determinants of drug shortages were detected: too low prices, too low market demands, Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) issues, materials issues, and approval issues for imported drugs. Five different solutions were proposed by the participants: 1) let the market decide the drug price; 2) establish an information platform; 3) establish a reserve system; 4) enhance the communication among the three parties in the supply chain; and 5) improve hospital inventory management. Western China was currently experiencing a serious drug shortage. Numerous reasons for the shortage were identified. Most drug shortages in China were currently because of "too low prices." To solve this problem, all of the stakeholders, especially the government, needed to participate in managing the drug shortages.

  4. Patterns and socioeconomic influences of tobacco exposure in tobacco cultivating rural areas of Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Le

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study describes the patterns and socioeconomic influences of tobacco use among adults in tobacco-cultivating regions of rural southwest China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 8681 adults aged ≥18 years in rural areas of Yunnan Province, China from 2010 to 2011. A standardized questionnaire was administered to obtain data about participants’ demographic characteristics, individual socioeconomic status, ethnicity, self-reported smoking habits, and exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS. The socioeconomic predictors of current smoking, nicotine addiction, and SHS exposure were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Results The prevalence rates of tobacco use were much higher in men compared with women (current smoking 68.5% vs. 1.3%; and nicotine dependence 85.2% vs. 72.7%. However, the rate of SHS exposure was higher in women compared with men (76.6% vs. 70.5%. Tobacco farmers had higher prevalence rates of current smoking, nicotine dependence, and SHS exposure compared with participants not engaged in tobacco farming (P Conclusions This study suggests that tobacco control efforts in rural southwest China must be tailored to address tobacco-cultivating status and socioeconomic factors.

  5. Does farmer entrepreneurship alleviate rural poverty in China? Evidence from Guangxi Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naminse, Eric Yaw; Zhuang, Jincai

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, entrepreneurship has been gaining more prominence as a potential tool for solving poverty in developing countries. This paper mainly examines the relationship between farmer entrepreneurship and rural poverty alleviation in China by assessing the contribution of farm entrepreneurs towards overcoming poverty. Data were collected from 309 employees of farmer entrepreneurships in Guangxi Province through survey questionnaires. Structural equation modeling was used to conduct an analysis of the effects of three identified capabilities of farm entrepreneurs-economic, educational and knowledge, and socio-cultural capabilities-on attitude towards farmer entrepreneurship growth and the qualitative growth of farmer entrepreneurship and how these in turn affect rural poverty, using AMOS 21. The findings show that socio-cultural capability has the greatest influence on farmer entrepreneurship growth (β = 0.50, pentrepreneurship also more significantly impacts rural poverty (β = 0.69, pentrepreneurship growth. This study suggests that policy makers in China should involve more rural farmers in the targeted poverty alleviation strategies of the government by equipping rural farmers with entrepreneurial skills. This can serve as a sustainable, bottom-up approach to alleviating rural poverty in remote areas of the country. The study also extends the literature on the farmer entrepreneurship-rural poverty alleviation nexus in China, and this can serve as a lesson for other developing countries in the fight against rural poverty.

  6. Trace elements in two marine fish cultured in fish cages in Fujian province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onsanit, Sarayut; Ke Caihuan; Wang Xinhong; Wang Kejian; Wang Wenxiong

    2010-01-01

    Two cultured marine fish, the Japanese seabass (Lateolabrax japonicus) and red seabream (Pagrus major) were collected from eight fish cage sites along the coast of Fujian province in China. The concentrations of Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, and Zn in their muscle, stomach and liver tissue were quantified. The risk of these trace elements to humans through fish consumption was then assessed. The highest concentrations of As, Cd, Se and Zn in fish feed from fish cages were found in Dongshan Station. Moreover, the As levels in the muscles of both species at all sites were generally higher than China's national standard (>1.0 μg/g). Trace element concentrations in two marine fish followed the order of livers > stomachs > muscles. Although the As levels in two marine caged fish exceeded the permissible standards, the estimated daily intake of As did not exceed the reference dose guideline established by US EPA. For other trace elements examined in this study, their concentrations did not exceed the permissible concentrations of the international standards. - As levels in two marine caged fish from China exceeded the permissible standards, whereas the levels of others trace elements did not exceed the permissible concentrations.

  7. Agricultural water policy reforms in China: a representative look at Zhangye City, Gansu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Tomohiro; Kharrazi, Ali; Li, Jia; Avtar, Ram

    2017-12-07

    Water resources are essential for agricultural production in the grain-producing region of China, and water shortage could significantly affect the production and international trade of agricultural products. China is placing effort in new policies to effectively respond to changes in water resources due to changes in land use/land cover as well as climatic variations. This research investigates the changes in land, water, and the awareness of farmer vis-à-vis the implementation of water-saving policies in Zhangye City, an experimental site for pilot programs of water resources management in China. This research indicates that the water saved through water-saving programs and changes in cropping structure (2.2 × 10 8  m 3  a -1 ) is perhaps lower than the newly increased water withdrawal through corporate-led land reclamation (3.7 × 10 8  m 3  a -1 ). Most critically, the groundwater withdrawal has increased. In addition, our survey suggests that local government is facing a dilemma of water conservation and agricultural development. Therefore, the enforcement of the ban on farmland reclamation and irrigation water quotas in our study area is revealed to be relatively loose. In this vein, the engagement of local stakeholders in water governance is essential for the future sustainable management of water resources.

  8. Associations between risk perception, spontaneous adaptation behavior to heat waves and heatstroke in Guangdong province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Xu, Yan Jun; Zhang, Yong Hui; Yan, Qing Hua; Song, Xiu Ling; Xie, Hui Yan; Luo, Yuan; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia; Lin, Hua Liang; Ma, Wen Jun

    2013-10-02

    In many parts of the world, including in China, extreme heat events or heat waves are likely to increase in intensity, frequency, and duration in light of climate change in the next decades. Risk perception and adaptation behaviors are two important components in reducing the health impacts of heat waves, but little is known about their relationships in China. This study aimed to examine the associations between risk perception to heat waves, adaptation behaviors, and heatstroke among the public in Guangdong province, China. A total of 2,183 adult participants were selected using a four-stage sampling method in Guangdong province. From September to November of 2010 each subject was interviewed at home by a well-trained investigator using a structured questionnaire. The information collected included socio-demographic characteristics, risk perception and spontaneous adaptation behaviors during heat wave periods, and heatstroke experience in the last year. Chi-square tests and unconditional logistic regression models were employed to analyze the data. This study found that 14.8%, 65.3% and 19.9% of participants perceived heat waves as a low, moderate or high health risk, respectively. About 99.1% participants employed at least one spontaneous adaptation behavior, and 26.2%, 51.2% and 22.6% respondents employed 7 adaptation behaviors during heat waves, respectively. Individuals with moderate (OR=2.93, 95% CI: 1.38-6.22) or high (OR=10.58, 95% CI: 4.74-23.63) risk perception experienced more heatstroke in the past year than others. Drinking more water and wearing light clothes in urban areas, while decreasing activity as well as wearing light clothes in rural areas were negatively associated with heatstroke. Individuals with high risk perception and employing risks of heatstroke (OR=47.46, 95% CI: 12.82-175.73). There is a large room for improving health risk perception and adaptation capacity to heat waves among the public of Guangdong province. People with higher

  9. Associations between risk perception, spontaneous adaptation behavior to heat waves and heatstroke in Guangdong province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In many parts of the world, including in China, extreme heat events or heat waves are likely to increase in intensity, frequency, and duration in light of climate change in the next decades. Risk perception and adaptation behaviors are two important components in reducing the health impacts of heat waves, but little is known about their relationships in China. This study aimed to examine the associations between risk perception to heat waves, adaptation behaviors, and heatstroke among the public in Guangdong province, China. Methods A total of 2,183 adult participants were selected using a four-stage sampling method in Guangdong province. From September to November of 2010 each subject was interviewed at home by a well-trained investigator using a structured questionnaire. The information collected included socio-demographic characteristics, risk perception and spontaneous adaptation behaviors during heat wave periods, and heatstroke experience in the last year. Chi-square tests and unconditional logistic regression models were employed to analyze the data. Results This study found that 14.8%, 65.3% and 19.9% of participants perceived heat waves as a low, moderate or high health risk, respectively. About 99.1% participants employed at least one spontaneous adaptation behavior, and 26.2%, 51.2% and 22.6% respondents employed 7 adaptation behaviors during heat waves, respectively. Individuals with moderate (OR=2.93, 95% CI: 1.38-6.22) or high (OR=10.58, 95% CI: 4.74-23.63) risk perception experienced more heatstroke in the past year than others. Drinking more water and wearing light clothes in urban areas, while decreasing activity as well as wearing light clothes in rural areas were negatively associated with heatstroke. Individuals with high risk perception and employing risks of heatstroke (OR=47.46, 95% CI: 12.82-175.73). Conclusions There is a large room for improving health risk perception and adaptation capacity to heat waves among the public of

  10. A remarkable new species of Nemoura (Plecoptera: Nemouridae) from Chuxiong Yi Autonomous Prefecture of Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yu-Han; Xiao, Qian; Chen, Zhi-Teng; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2018-01-24

    A new species of the genus Nemoura, N. latilongispina sp. nov. from Chuxiong Yi Autonomous Prefecture of Yunnan Province, southwestern China is described and illustrated. The new species is characterized by ventral sclerite of epiproct extended laterally, forming upcurved plates fringed with long spines along upper margin, and by the strongly sclerotized, fork-shaped cercus.

  11. Stunting and zinc deficiency among primary school children in rural areas with low soil zinc concentrations in Jiangsu Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Yu; Boonstra, A.; Zhao, J.; Wu, M.; Hu, X.; Kok, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess stunting and zinc deficiency among primary school children in north rural area of Jiangsu Province with low soil zinc concentrations, eastern part of China. METHODS: Two data collection rounds were conducted. In the first data collection round, 2268 primary school children aged

  12. Impact of socioeconomic development on ecosystem services and its conservation strategies: a case study of Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shujun; Liu, Jian; Wang, Renqing; Ni, Zirong; Xu, Shipeng; Sun, Yueyao

    2012-05-01

    Ecosystems and their components provide a lot of benefits for the welfare of human beings. Coupled with increasing socioeconomic development, most of the rapidly developing and transitional countries and regions have been experiencing dramatic land use changes. This has resulted in a large amount of forestland, grassland, and wetland being occupied as residential and industrial land or reclaimed for arable land, which in turn results in a sharp deterioration of ecosystem services around the world. Shandong Province, an economically powerful province of China, was chosen as a case study in order to capture the impact of socioeconomic development on ecosystem services. By way of the study, land uses and their changes were categorized between 1980 and 2006, and the ecosystem services capital and changes of 111 counties of Shandong Province in different phases were evaluated, as well as the total ecosystem services capital, followed by the zoning of ecosystem services function region of Shandong Province. We found that the counties in mountainous areas and wetlands, where generally the prefectural-level cities are located with a rapid socioeconomic development, experienced a successive deterioration of ecosystem services especially during the 2000s. Finally, three conservation strategies for managing and improving ecosystem services were proposed and discussed with the aim of achieving coordinate and sustainable development of the socioeconomy, environment, and ecosystems not only in Shandong Province but also in other provinces of China, as well as in other developing and transitional countries and regions.

  13. Linear mixed-effects models to describe individual tree crown width for China-fir in Fujian Province, southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xu; Yujun, Sun; Xinjie, Wang; Jin, Wang; Yao, Fu

    2015-01-01

    A multiple linear model was developed for individual tree crown width of Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook in Fujian province, southeast China. Data were obtained from 55 sample plots of pure China-fir plantation stands. An Ordinary Linear Least Squares (OLS) regression was used to establish the crown width model. To adjust for correlations between observations from the same sample plots, we developed one level linear mixed-effects (LME) models based on the multiple linear model, which take into account the random effects of plots. The best random effects combinations for the LME models were determined by the Akaike's information criterion, the Bayesian information criterion and the -2logarithm likelihood. Heteroscedasticity was reduced by three residual variance functions: the power function, the exponential function and the constant plus power function. The spatial correlation was modeled by three correlation structures: the first-order autoregressive structure [AR(1)], a combination of first-order autoregressive and moving average structures [ARMA(1,1)], and the compound symmetry structure (CS). Then, the LME model was compared to the multiple linear model using the absolute mean residual (AMR), the root mean square error (RMSE), and the adjusted coefficient of determination (adj-R2). For individual tree crown width models, the one level LME model showed the best performance. An independent dataset was used to test the performance of the models and to demonstrate the advantage of calibrating LME models.

  14. The barriers to energy efficiency in China: Assessing household electricity savings and consumer behavior in Liaoning Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Dianshu; Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Khuong Minh Vu

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the barriers to energy efficiency at the residential sector within one province in China and explores patterns of household electricity consumption. The article presents the results of a survey questionnaire distributed to more than 600 households in Liaoning Province, field research at various Liaoning government agencies, and research interviews of Liaoning government officials to determine the efficacy of their energy efficiency efforts in China. It then investigates the extent that electricity consumers have taken advantage of energy efficiency opportunities relating to more efficient lights, water heaters, appliances, air-conditioners and heaters, and better energy-efficiency labels. The article also assesses the degree that electricity users have become more aware about electricity prices and their levels of consumption, and touches on the connection between rising levels of income and electricity use. It concludes by providing recommendations for how to improve efforts to promote conservation and reduce electricity load growth in Liaoning Province and beyond.

  15. The barriers to energy efficiency in China. Assessing household electricity savings and consumer behavior in Liaoning Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dianshu, Feng; Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Minh Vu, Khuong [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2010-02-15

    This article investigates the barriers to energy efficiency at the residential sector within one province in China and explores patterns of household electricity consumption. The article presents the results of a survey questionnaire distributed to more than 600 households in Liaoning Province, field research at various Liaoning government agencies, and research interviews of Liaoning government officials to determine the efficacy of their energy efficiency efforts in China. It then investigates the extent that electricity consumers have taken advantage of energy efficiency opportunities relating to more efficient lights, water heaters, appliances, air-conditioners and heaters, and better energy-efficiency labels. The article also assesses the degree that electricity users have become more aware about electricity prices and their levels of consumption, and touches on the connection between rising levels of income and electricity use. It concludes by providing recommendations for how to improve efforts to promote conservation and reduce electricity load growth in Liaoning Province and beyond. (author)

  16. The barriers to energy efficiency in China: Assessing household electricity savings and consumer behavior in Liaoning Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Dianshu, E-mail: dianshu@nus.edu.s [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore); Sovacool, Benjamin K., E-mail: bsovacool@nus.edu.s [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore); Khuong Minh Vu, E-mail: sppkmv@nus.edu.s [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2010-02-15

    This article investigates the barriers to energy efficiency at the residential sector within one province in China and explores patterns of household electricity consumption. The article presents the results of a survey questionnaire distributed to more than 600 households in Liaoning Province, field research at various Liaoning government agencies, and research interviews of Liaoning government officials to determine the efficacy of their energy efficiency efforts in China. It then investigates the extent that electricity consumers have taken advantage of energy efficiency opportunities relating to more efficient lights, water heaters, appliances, air-conditioners and heaters, and better energy-efficiency labels. The article also assesses the degree that electricity users have become more aware about electricity prices and their levels of consumption, and touches on the connection between rising levels of income and electricity use. It concludes by providing recommendations for how to improve efforts to promote conservation and reduce electricity load growth in Liaoning Province and beyond.

  17. New evidence on financing equity in China's health care reform--a case study on Gansu province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingsheng; Chen, Wen; Zhao, Yuxin

    2012-12-18

    In the transition from a planned economy to a market-oriented economy, China's state funding for health care declined and traditional coverage plans collapsed, leaving China's poor exposed to potentially ruinous health care costs. In reforming health care for the 21st century, equity in health care financing has become a major policy goal. To assess progress towards this goal, this paper examines the equity characteristics of health care financing in a province of northwestern China, comparing the equity performance between urban and rural areas at two different points in time. Analysis of whether health care financing contributions were progressive according to income were made using the Kakwani index for each of the four health care financing channels of general taxes, public and private health insurance, and out-of-pocket payments. Two rounds of surveys were conducted, the first in 2003 (13,619 individuals in 3946 households) and the second in 2008 (12,973 individuals in 3958 households). Household socio-economic, health care payment, and utilization information were recorded in household interviews. Low-income households have undertaken a larger share of the health care financing burden in recent years, reflected by negative Kakwani indices, which indicate a regressive system. We found that the indices for general taxation were -0.0024 (urban) and -0.0281 (rural) in 2002, and -0.0177 (urban) and -0.0097 (rural) in 2007. Public health insurance presented different financing distributions in urban and rural areas (urban: 0.0742 in 2002, 0.0661 in 2007; rural: -0.0615 in 2002,-0.1436 in 2007.). Out-of-pocket payments were progressive but not equitable. Public health insurance coverage has expanded but financing equity has decreased. Health care financing policies in China need ongoing reform. Given the inequity of general consumption taxes, elimination of these would improve financing equity considerably. Optimizing benefit packages in public health insurance is

  18. Blood parasites of amphibians from Sichuan Province, People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, J K

    1993-06-01

    Two hundred forty-six amphibians from Sichuan Province, People's Republic of China, were examined for blood parasites between April and June 1990. Six trypanosome species were found, 2 of which were not identified because of poor material. Trypanosoma rotatorium (sensu Mayer, 1843) was found in Rana limnocharis and Rana nigromaculata. Trypanosoma chattoni and a T. rotatorium-like species were found in Bufo gargarizans. A sphaeromastigote similar to Trypanosoma tsunezomiyatai was seen in R. limnocharis. The relationship of this parasite to T. chattoni is unclear. Dactylosoma ranarum, Lankesterella minima, and Aegyptianella bacterifera were identified in ranids. Frog erythrocytic virus (FEV) was found in 2 ranids and a bufonid. Differences in shape of FEV and its assumed effect on the host-cell nucleus suggest that different kinds of viruses may be involved.

  19. A new quantitative model of ecological compensation based on ecosystem capital in Zhejiang Province, China*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yan; Huang, Jing-feng; Peng, Dai-liang

    2009-01-01

    Ecological compensation is becoming one of key and multidiscipline issues in the field of resources and environmental management. Considering the change relation between gross domestic product (GDP) and ecological capital (EC) based on remote sensing estimation, we construct a new quantitative estimate model for ecological compensation, using county as study unit, and determine standard value so as to evaluate ecological compensation from 2001 to 2004 in Zhejiang Province, China. Spatial differences of the ecological compensation were significant among all the counties or districts. This model fills up the gap in the field of quantitative evaluation of regional ecological compensation and provides a feasible way to reconcile the conflicts among benefits in the economic, social, and ecological sectors. PMID:19353749

  20. Comparisons of forecasting for hepatitis in Guangxi Province, China by using three neural networks models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruijing Gan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study compares and evaluates the prediction of hepatitis in Guangxi Province, China by using back propagation neural networks based genetic algorithm (BPNN-GA, generalized regression neural networks (GRNN, and wavelet neural networks (WNN. In order to compare the results of forecasting, the data obtained from 2004 to 2013 and 2014 were used as modeling and forecasting samples, respectively. The results show that when the small data set of hepatitis has seasonal fluctuation, the prediction result by BPNN-GA will be better than the two other methods. The WNN method is suitable for predicting the large data set of hepatitis that has seasonal fluctuation and the same for the GRNN method when the data increases steadily.

  1. Geoscience information integration and visualization research of Shandong Province, China based on ArcGIS engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mingzhu; Gao, Zhiqiang; Ning, Jicai

    2014-10-01

    To improve the access efficiency of geoscience data, efficient data model and storage solutions should be used. Geoscience data is usually classified by format or coordinate system in existing storage solutions. When data is large, it is not conducive to search the geographic features. In this study, a geographical information integration system of Shandong province, China was developed based on the technology of ArcGIS Engine, .NET, and SQL Server. It uses Geodatabase spatial data model and ArcSDE to organize and store spatial and attribute data and establishes geoscience database of Shangdong. Seven function modules were designed: map browse, database and subject management, layer control, map query, spatial analysis and map symbolization. The system's characteristics of can be browsed and managed by geoscience subjects make the system convenient for geographic researchers and decision-making departments to use the data.

  2. Risks for fishborne zoonotic trematodes in tilapia production systems in Guangdong province, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Kang; Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard; Murrell, Kenneth Darwin

    2013-01-01

    Guangdong province is the most important region for tilapia culture in China. However, it is also an endemic region for fishborne zoonotic trematodes (FZT), which pose a risk to human food safety and health. A study was designed to assess the status of trematode parasite infections in tilapia...... aquaculture systems as an indicator of potential risks from FZT associated with consumption of tilapia. Tilapia from nursery and grow-out ponds were sampled from monoculture, polyculture and integrated aquaculture systems. The results from 388 tilapia examined revealed a very low prevalence (1...... for tilapia are generally effective in preventing transmission of these parasites into tilapia production systems, the improvement of pond management practices and biosecurity must be maintained at a high level....

  3. A new species of Neoperla (Plecoptera: Perlidae) from Zhejiang Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Teng

    2016-03-24

    The stonefly genus Neoperla Needham (1905) is primarily distributed in eastern North America, Tropical and Temperate Asia and central Africa, with at least 297 species known (Illies 1966, Zwick 1973, Stark & Gaufin 1976, DeWalt et al. 2016). Contributions to Chinese species of Neoperla were made by Chu (1929), Wu & Claassen (1934), Wu (1935, 1938, 1948, 1962, 1973), Yang & Yang (1992, 1995, 1998), Du (1999, 2000a, 2000b), Du et al. (1999, 2001), Du & Sivec (2004, 2005), Du & Wang (2005, 2007), Sivec & Zwick (1987), Li & Wang (2011), Li et al. (2011a, 2011b, 2012a, 2012b, 2013a, 2013b, 2014a, 2014b), Qin et al. (2013), Wang et al. (2013a, 2013b), Li & Zhang (2014), Kong et al. (2014), Wang et al. (2014), Chen & Du (2015). Herein, a new species of this genus is described from Taizhou, Zhejiang Province, of eastern coastal China.

  4. Association between BMI and Dental Caries among School Children and Adolescents in Jiangsu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Hussein Musa, Taha; Gao, Rong; Li, Xiao Shan; Wang, Wei Xiang; Hong, Lei; Wei, Ping Min

    2017-10-01

    Obesity and dental caries are increasing epidemics, especially among children and adolescents. This epidemiological observational cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the possible association between body mass index (BMI) and dental caries among 111,792 school children and adolescents in Jiangsu Province. We found that 13.14% participants of the study sample were overweight, and 7.37% were obese. The prevalence of dental caries was 12.95% in overweight and 7.89% in obese students. There were significant differences in caries prevalence by sex, region, age group, and BMI. Overweight and obesity statuses were associated with dental caries among the study population. BMI and dental caries present a continuous health problem. Thus, we recommend that oral health promotion be used for caries prevention and control. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  5. Epidemiological and radiological study of skeletal fluorosis of Minzhu Town, Longli County, Guizhou Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, D.S.; Duan, R.X.; Wang, S.Q.; He, G.Y.; Li, P.; Nie, Z.X.; Wen, T.G. [Guizhou Province Health and Antiepidemiology Station, Guiyang (China)

    1999-05-01

    A study was carried out on an area of endemic fluorosis based on the relation between detection rate or incidence, classification and severity of skeletal fluorosis, and sex-age distribution. The results show that Minzhu Town of Longli County is a moderate and typical epidemic area of endemic fluorosis resulting from coal-burning pollution in Guizhou Province, China. Five features characterize the skeletal fluorosis of the residents: Osteosclerosis is significantly more prevalent than osteoporosis; no mixed type of skeletal fluorosis and no osteomalacia were found in the subjects examined; no cases with moderate or severe osteoporosis were found; the severity of osteosclerosis in females was significantly milder than in males; and the rate of osteoporosis caused by fluoride in females showed no difference from that in males. These observations provide new parameters for assessing collective conditions of epidemic regions of endemic fluorosis resulting from coal-burning pollution.

  6. [Investigation of a Patient with Pre-vaccine-derived Poliovirus in Shandong Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaojuan; Liu, Yao; Wang, Suting; Zhang Xiao; Song, Lizhi; Tao, Zexin; Ji, Feng; Xiong, Ping; Xu, Aiqiang

    2015-09-01

    To analyze the genetic characteristics of a polio-I highly variant vaccine recombinant virus in Shandong Province (China) in 2011 and to identify isolates from healthy contacts, two stool specimens from one patient with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) and 40 stool specimens from his contacts were collected for virus isolation. The complete genome of poliovirus and VP1 coding region of the non-polio enterovirus were sequenced. Homologous comparison and phylogenetic analyses based on VP1 sequences were undertaken among coxsackievirus (CV) B1, CV-B3 isolates, and those in GenBank. One poliovirus (P1/11186), CV-A4 and CV-A8 were isolated from the AFP patient; one CV-A2, Echovirus 3 (E-3), E-12 and E-14, ten CV-B1, and five CV-B3 strains were isolated from his contacts. These results led us to believe that there may be a human enterovirus epidemic in this area, and that surveillance must be enhanced. P1/11186 was a type-1 vaccine-related poliovirus; it combined with type-2 and type-3 polioviruses in 2A and 3A regions, respectively. There were 25 nucleotide mutations with 9 amino-acid alterations in the entire genome. There were 8 nucleotide mutations with 5 amino-acid alterations in the VP1 region compared with the corresponding Sabin strains. Homology analyses suggested that the ten CV-B1 isolates had 97.0%-100% nucleotide and 98.9%-100% amino-acid identities with each other, as well as 92.6%-100% nucleotide and 99.2%-100% amino-acid identities among the five CV-B3 isolates. Phylogenetic analyses on the complete sequences of VP1 among CV-B1 and CV-B3 isolates showed that Shandong strains, together with strains from other provinces in China, had a close relationship and belonged to the same group.

  7. Health and human rights concerns of drug users in detention in Guangxi Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Elizabeth Cohen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although confinement in drug detoxification ("detox" and re-education through labor (RTL centers is the most common form of treatment for drug dependence in China, little has been published about the experience of drug users in such settings. We conducted an assessment of the impact of detention on drug users' access to HIV prevention and treatment services and consequent threats to fundamental human rights protections. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Chinese government HIV and anti-narcotics legislation and policy documents were reviewed, and in-depth and key informant interviews were conducted with 19 injection drug users (IDUs and 20 government and nongovernmental organization officials in Nanning and Baise, Guangxi Province. Significant contradictions were found in HIV and antinarcotics policies, exemplified by the simultaneous expansion of community-based methadone maintenance therapy and the increasing number of drug users detained in detox and RTL center facilities. IDU study participants reported, on average, having used drugs for 14 y (range 8-23 y and had been confined to detox four times (range one to eight times and to RTL centers once (range zero to three times. IDUs expressed an intense fear of being recognized by the police and being detained, regardless of current drug use. Key informants and IDUs reported that routine HIV testing, without consent and without disclosure of the result, was the standard policy of detox and RTL center facilities, and that HIV-infected detainees were not routinely provided medical or drug dependency treatment, including antiretroviral therapy. IDUs received little or no information or means of HIV prevention, but reported numerous risk behaviors for HIV transmission while detained. CONCLUSIONS: Legal and policy review, and interviews with recently detained IDUs and key informants in Guangxi Province, China, found evidence of anti-narcotics policies and practices that appear to violate human rights

  8. Health and human rights concerns of drug users in detention in Guangxi Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J Elizabeth; Amon, Joseph J

    2008-12-09

    Although confinement in drug detoxification ("detox") and re-education through labor (RTL) centers is the most common form of treatment for drug dependence in China, little has been published about the experience of drug users in such settings. We conducted an assessment of the impact of detention on drug users' access to HIV prevention and treatment services and consequent threats to fundamental human rights protections. Chinese government HIV and anti-narcotics legislation and policy documents were reviewed, and in-depth and key informant interviews were conducted with 19 injection drug users (IDUs) and 20 government and nongovernmental organization officials in Nanning and Baise, Guangxi Province. Significant contradictions were found in HIV and antinarcotics policies, exemplified by the simultaneous expansion of community-based methadone maintenance therapy and the increasing number of drug users detained in detox and RTL center facilities. IDU study participants reported, on average, having used drugs for 14 y (range 8-23 y) and had been confined to detox four times (range one to eight times) and to RTL centers once (range zero to three times). IDUs expressed an intense fear of being recognized by the police and being detained, regardless of current drug use. Key informants and IDUs reported that routine HIV testing, without consent and without disclosure of the result, was the standard policy of detox and RTL center facilities, and that HIV-infected detainees were not routinely provided medical or drug dependency treatment, including antiretroviral therapy. IDUs received little or no information or means of HIV prevention, but reported numerous risk behaviors for HIV transmission while detained. Legal and policy review, and interviews with recently detained IDUs and key informants in Guangxi Province, China, found evidence of anti-narcotics policies and practices that appear to violate human rights and imperil drug users' health.

  9. Impacts of low-carbon power policy on carbon mitigation in Guangdong Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Beibei; Dai, Hancheng; Wang, Peng; Xie, Yang; Chen, Li; Zhao, Daiqing; Masui, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impacts of the low-carbon policy in the power sector of Guangdong Province in China on its energy and carbon emission targets by 2020, as well as their costs and co-benefits, using a regional CGE model with seven scenarios: business as usual (BaU), renewable energy (RE), renewable energy and natural gas (RE–NG), CAP only (CAP), CAP and RE–NG (CAP–RE–NG), carbon emission trading (ETS), and ETS with RE–NG (ETS–RE–NG). Analysis results reveal that provincial energy and carbon intensity targets can be achieved in the assumed carbon mitigation scenarios with carbon cap, ETS, and clean energy development policies. While the carbon constraint exerts negative impacts on the economy, GDP loss could be lowered by the ETS and RE policies. The RE scenario is more economically efficient than the ETS scenario, and coupling the RE and ETS scenarios appears to be the most economically efficient scenario to achieve the desired carbon and energy intensity targets. One of the benefits of the low-carbon policy is its improvement of the energy security of Guangdong in terms of reduced reliance on external coal and oil; in particular, Guangdong coal consumption could peak in 2017–2019. - Highlights: • This study analyzes the low carbon policy in the power sector in Guangdong of China. • The role of power sector in achieving carbon and energy intensity target is shown. • Renewable energy and natural gas are very important for Guangdong Province. • Additional efforts in other sectors are needed to achieve the intensity targets. • The mitigation cost and economic impacts are assessed under various policy settings.

  10. Estimations of distribution and zoning for air temperature using satellite data over Liaoning province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Horiguchi, I.; Takeda, T.; Yazawa, M.; Liu, X.; Yang, Y.; Wang, Q.

    1999-01-01

    The distribution and zoning of air temperature over Liaoning Province, China were examined using the calculated values of air temperature derived from satellite data (GMS data) as well as from altitude data. The results are summarized as follows. At 02:00 LST the correlation coefficients for the air temperatures calculated from altitude compared with the observed air temperatures were the same as those of the air temperatures derived from GMS data. At 14:00 LST, however, the correlation coefficients for air temperatures calculated from altitude were less than those of the air temperatures derived from GMS data. This fact verifies that the distribution of air temperature in the day-time is affected by other factors than altitude. The distribution of air temperature in a cell of approximately 5'(latitude) x 7.5'(longitude) over Liaoning Province, china was estimated by using the regression equations between surface temperature derived from GMS and the observed air temperature. The distribution of air temperature was classified into 5 types, and the types are obtained at 14:00 LST are seasonal ones but the types at 02:00 LST are not related to season. Also, the regional classification for the air temperature was examined using this distribution of air temperature. This regional classification for the air temperature was similar to the published zoning of the agricultural climate. It became clear that the characteristic distribution of air temperature in a cell unit can be obtained by satellite data. And it is possible to define the zoning of air temperature for a cell unit by the accumulated analyses of satellite data over an extended period

  11. Spatiotemporal patterns of drought at various time scales in Shandong Province of Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Depeng; Cai, Siyang; Xu, Zongxue; Li, Fulin; Sun, Wenchao; Yang, Xiaojing; Kan, Guangyuan; Liu, Pin

    2018-01-01

    The temporal variations and spatial patterns of drought in Shandong Province of Eastern China were investigated by calculating the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) at 1-, 3-, 6-, 12-, and 24-month time scales. Monthly precipitation and air temperature time series during the period 1960-2012 were collected at 23 meteorological stations uniformly distributed over the region. The non-parametric Mann-Kendall test was used to explore the temporal trends of precipitation, air temperature, and the SPEI drought index. S-mode principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to identify the spatial patterns of drought. The results showed that an insignificant decreasing trend in annual total precipitation was detected at most stations, a significant increase of annual average air temperature occurred at all the 23 stations, and a significant decreasing trend in the SPEI was mainly detected at the coastal stations for all the time scales. The frequency of occurrence of extreme and severe drought at different time scales generally increased with decades; higher frequency and larger affected area of extreme and severe droughts occurred as the time scale increased, especially for the northwest of Shandong Province and Jiaodong peninsular. The spatial pattern of drought for SPEI-1 contains three regions: eastern Jiaodong Peninsular and northwestern and southern Shandong. As the time scale increased to 3, 6, and 12 months, the order of the three regions was transformed into another as northwestern Shandong, eastern Jiaodong Peninsular, and southern Shandong. For SPEI-24, the location identified by REOF1 was slightly shifted from northwestern Shandong to western Shandong, and REOF2 and REOF3 identified another two weak patterns in the south edge and north edge of Jiaodong Peninsular, respectively. The potential causes of drought and the impact of drought on agriculture in the study area have also been discussed. The temporal variations and spatial patterns

  12. Vehicle emission trends and spatial distribution in Shandong province, China, from 2000 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shida; Jiang, Wei; Gao, Weidong

    2016-12-01

    Vehicle emissions have become a major source of air pollution in Shandong province, which has experienced a sharp growth of vehicle numbers in recent years and now has the largest vehicle population in China. This paper combines the COPERT IV model with the vehicle age distribution to estimate the temporal trends and map the spatial distributions of vehicle emissions in Shandong province during the period ranging from 2000 to 2014. Both conventional air pollutants and greenhouse gases are included. In addition, a high-resolution vehicle emission inventory at the prefecture level is developed and mapped on a 0.05° × 0.05° grid based on road information. Our results show that the emissions of all of the conventional air pollutants have decreased to various extents over the recent past, but greenhouse gas emissions have continued to increase due to the lack of effective control strategies. The total emissions of CO, NMVOC, NOX, PM10, CO2, CH4 and N2O from the Shandong vehicle fleet changed from 1734.5 Gg, 277.9 Gg, 177.0 Gg, 12.4 Gg, 19239.7 Gg, 11.3 Gg and 0.6 Gg, respectively, in 2000 to 1723.3 Gg, 234.2 Gg, 513.8 Gg, 29.5 Gg, 138,419.5 Gg, 15.3 Gg and 3.9 Gg, respectively, in 2014. Vehicle emissions were mainly concentrated in cities and became more dispersed in Shandong province between 2000 and 2014.

  13. Changing Epidemiological Characteristics of Hepatitis A in Zhejiang Province, China: Increased Susceptibility in Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifang Wang

    Full Text Available Hepatitis A is a common acute hepatitis caused by hepatitis A virus (HAV. Annually, it affects 1.4 million people worldwide. Between 1991 and 1994, HAV infections were highly endemic in Zhejiang Province (China, with 78,720 reported HAV infections per year. Hepatitis A vaccine came on the market in 1995 and was implemented for voluntary immunization. Since 2008, hepatitis A vaccine has been integrated into the national childhood routine immunization program.To understand the current epidemiological profile of hepatitis A in Zhejiang Province since hepatitis A vaccine has been available for nearly two decades.This study used the 2005-2014 National Notifiable Diseases Reporting System data to evaluate the incidence rate of notified hepatitis A cases in Zhejiang Province.The overall trend of incidence rate of notified hepatitis A cases significantly decreased from 2005 to 2014 (P< 0.001. During the study period, the reported incidence rate in individuals aged ≤19 years declined to the historically lowest record in 2014. Compared with individuals aged ≤19 years, those aged ≥20 years showed the highest incidence rate (P< 0.001. Majority of HAV infected cases were Laborers, accounting for approximately 70% of reported cases.Childhood immunization strategy with hepatitis A vaccine seemed to be effective in decreasing notified hepatitis A incidence rate in individuals aged ≤19 years. Those aged ≥20 years were observed to be the most susceptible population. The vast majority of hepatitis A cases were notified among Laborers. Therefore, we strongly suggest that future preventive and control measures should focus more on adults, particularly Laborers, in addition to the current childhood hepatitis A vaccination programme.

  14. Emissions inventory and scenario analyses of air pollutants in Guangdong Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Meng, Jing

    2017-03-01

    Air pollution, causing significantly adverse health impacts and severe environmental problems, has raised great concerns in China in the past few decades. Guangdong Province faces major challenges to address the regional air pollution problem due to the lack of an emissions inventory. To fill this gap, an emissions inventory of primary fine particles (PM2.5) is compiled for the year 2012, and the key precursors (sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides) are identified. Furthermore, policy packages are simulated during the period of 2012‒2030 to investigate the potential mitigation effect. The results show that in 2012, SO2, NO x , and PM2.5 emissions in Guangdong Province were as high as (951.7, 1363.6, and 294.9) kt, respectively. Industrial production processes are the largest source of SO2 and PM2.5 emissions, and transport is the top contributor of NO x emissions. Both the baseline scenario and policy scenario are constructed based on projected energy growth and policy designs. Under the baseline scenario, SO2, NO x , and PM2.5 emissions will almost double in 2030 without proper emissions control policies. The suggested policies are categorized into end-of- pipe control in power plants (ECP), end-of-pipe control in industrial processes (ECI), fuel improvement (FI), energy efficiency improvement (EEI), substitution-pattern development (SPD), and energy saving options (ESO). With the implementation of all these policies, SO2, NO x , and PM2.5 emissions are projected to drop to (303.1, 585.4, and 102.4) kt, respectively, in 2030. This inventory and simulated results will provide deeper insights for policy makers to understand the present situation and the evolution of key emissions in Guangdong Province.

  15. Economy-wide material input/output and dematerialization analysis of Jilin Province (China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, MingSheng; Zhang, HuiMin; Li, Zhi; Tong, LianJun

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, both direct material input (DMI) and domestic processed output (DPO) of Jilin Province in 1990-2006 were calculated and then based on these two indexes, a dematerialization model was established. The main results are summarized as follows: (1) both direct material input and domestic processed output increase at a steady rate during 1990-2006, with average annual growth rates of 4.19% and 2.77%, respectively. (2) The average contribution rate of material input to economic growth is 44%, indicating that the economic growth is visibly extensive. (3) During the studied period, accumulative quantity of material input dematerialization is 11,543 x 10(4) t and quantity of waste dematerialization is 5,987 x10(4) t. Moreover, dematerialization gaps are positive, suggesting that the potential of dematerialization has been well fulfilled. (4) In most years of the analyzed period, especially 2003-2006, the economic system of Jilin Province represents an unsustainable state. The accelerated economic growth relies mostly on excessive resources consumption after the Revitalization Strategy of Northeast China was launched.

  16. Development assessment of leisure agriculture in Henan province of China based on SWOT-AHP method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichuan Zhang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The development of leisure agriculture is an important means of agricultural industry structure adjustment of Henan province, China, to realize the transition from traditional agriculture to modern agriculture. Design/methodology/approach: The SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, Threat analysis of Henan leisure agriculture will contribute to the sustainable development of Henan leisure agriculture. The strength, weakness, opportunity and threat of developing leisure agriculture in Henan province were systematically analyzed using SWOT method in our study. The aspects including location, resources, traffic, population, economy, urbanization, industrialization, market, policy, capital, product, technology, management, marketing and environment were involved. The strength, weakness, opportunity and threat were quantified in this study using AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process method. Findings and Originality/value: The result showed that the total strength and total opportunity of Henan leisure agriculture are much greater than that of total weakness and total threat, which suggests that the opportunities outweigh threats, and advantage outweigh disadvantage. The growth-oriented strategy combining the external opportunities and its own advantages shall be employed in development of Henan leisure agriculture as indicated by the strategy strength coefficient in strategy quadrangle we have constructed. The barriers to the development need to be overcome while strengthening competitive advantages. Originality/value: New ideas for working out the developmental strategy for Henan leisure agriculture is provided by SWOT-AHP method.

  17. Allocation of Energy Consumption among Provinces in China: A Weighted ZSG-DEA Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siqin Xiong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available To realize the sustainable development of energy, the Chinese government has formulated a series of national goals of total energy control and energy structure optimization. Under the national constraints, how to efficiently allocate the constrained total amount of energy consumption to each province is a fundamental problem to be solved. Based on a data envelopment analysis (DEA model and a zero-sum game theory (ZSG, this paper constructs a weighted zero-sum game data envelopment analysis (ZSG-DEA model to allocate the energy consumption quota. Additionally, this paper compares the results with the current administrative targets, to examine the efficiency and feasibility of each allocation mechanism. Finally, this paper employs the proposed model to determine the optimal energy structure for each province in China. The results indicate that by 2020, the national goal of energy structure adjustment will be realized, and energy structure will be diversified in most regions, whereas the coal-dominated status in primary energy consumption will not change. Additionally, the weighted ZSG-DEA model focuses on allocation efficiency while the government considers more regional economic disparity. Therefore, this study suggests a mixture of the two allocation mechanisms in accordance with specific conditions.

  18. [Epidemic situation and prevention and control strategy of clonorchiasis in Guangdong Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo-Hui, Deng; Yue-Yi, Fang

    2016-05-24

    Clonorchiasis is one of the food-borne parasitic diseases. Adult parasites live in the human liver and gallbladder tube system, causing serious complications, such as gallstones, cholecystitis and cholangitis, and even bile duct cancer. The disease is very popular in our country, and the population infection rate is high. It is an important public health problem. Guangdong Province is the earliest province being found of clonorchiasis and with serious epidemic. In the second national human parasitic diseases distribution survey, the results showed that the average infection rate of Clonorchis sinensis in the epidemic areas in Guangdong was 16.42%. It is estimated that the population of C. sinensis infection is over 6 million. The prevention and control of clonorchiasis in China is still in the initial stage currently and we face many challenges such as unclear epidemic characteristics and transmission mode, and lack of long-term prevention and control mechanism. This article introduces the epidemic situation of clonorchiasis and prevention and control strategies and measures in Guangdong.

  19. Re-emerging of rabies in Shaanxi province, China, from 2009 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chaofeng; Hao, Xiaoyun; Deng, Huiling; Wu, Rui; Liu, Jifeng; Yang, Yang; Li, Shen; Han, Yifei; Wei, Mingmin; Zhang, Junjun; Wang, Jingjun; Li, Hengxin; Tian, Huaiyu; Xu, Bing; Yu, Pengbo; Wu, Xiaokang

    2017-09-01

    To explore the epidemiological, phylogeographic, and migration characteristics of human rabies in Shaanxi province, China from 2009 to 2015. The collected data were described and the sequenced glycoprotein (G) and nucleoprotein (N) genes were implemented to estimate the evolutionary rates and phylogeographic patterns using BEAST v.1.8.2. A total of 269 rabies cases were reported and 70.26% of the cases were male and 61.71% were between the ages of 19-59. The majority of the cases were farmers (83.27%). The estimated evolutionary rate of the N genes was 2.4 × 10 -4 substitutions/site/year and the G genes was 3.4 × 10 -4 . The time of the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) was estimated around 1990. We detected viral migration paths from Sichuan, Guizhou, and Hunan to Hanzhong prefecture of Shaanxi and then spreaded to Xi'an and other prefectures. The main population affected by rabies virus was male adult farmers. The evolution rate of rabies viruses in Shaanxi was similar with the prior results reported by others and the ancestor virus should be circulating in neighboring province Sichuan around 1990 and then transmitted to Shaanxi. Promptly standard wound treatment and timely post-exposure prophylaxis should be compulsory for the dog-bitten victims. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Assessing Agricultural Drought Vulnerability by a VSD Model: A Case Study in Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiansheng Wu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought vulnerability of agriculture is significant to economic development and sustainable food production. In this paper, we proposed a framework to evaluate the regional agricultural-eco environment in the face of drought caused by climate change. Based on a vulnerability scoping diagram (VSD model, we built up a comprehensive system to evaluate the agricultural drought vulnerability of Yunnan Province in China. The model highlights the human-land relationship by considering both natural conditions and human activities. Twelve indicators were generated to construct three components of the model: exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. During the construction of the VSD model, the entropy and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP comprehensive analysis method were adopted to generate the weights and to compute the composite index for each section. Furthermore, the factor analysis method was used to determine the dominant factors of different cities and the main indicators driving the system. The results indicated a spatial pattern that the vulnerability value was high on the eastern and western sides, but low in the middle of Yunnan Province. Most of the vulnerable regions were concentrated in remote areas. Indicators such as population density, irrigation level, annual average precipitation, cultivation land ratio, and difficulty of water supply were the main driving factors. This means that there is a deep connection between agricultural drought vulnerability and urbanization. The evaluation system developed during this research will provide guidance for drought mitigation in regions of complex terrain.

  1. Socio-economic factors of bacillary dysentery based on spatial correlation analysis in Guangxi Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengjing Nie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the past decade, bacillary dysentery was still a big public health problem in China, especially in Guangxi Province, where thousands of severe diarrhea cases occur every year. METHODS: Reported bacillary dysentery cases in Guangxi Province were obtained from local Centers for Diseases Prevention and Control. The 14 socio-economic indexes were selected as potential explanatory variables for the study. The spatial correlation analysis was used to explore the associations between the selected factors and bacillary dysentery incidence at county level, which was based on the software of ArcGIS10.2 and GeoDA 0.9.5i. RESULTS: The proportion of primary industry, the proportion of younger than 5-year-old children in total population, the number of hospitals per thousand persons and the rates of bacillary dysentery incidence show statistically significant positive correlation. But the proportion of secondary industry, per capital GDP, per capital government revenue, rural population proportion, popularization rate of tap water in rural area, access rate to the sanitation toilets in rural, number of beds in hospitals per thousand persons, medical and technical personnel per thousand persons and the rate of bacillary dysentery incidence show statistically significant negative correlation. The socio-economic factors can be divided into four aspects, including economic development, health development, medical development and human own condition. The four aspects were not isolated from each other, but interacted with each other.

  2. Energy saving and emission reduction: A project of coal-resource integration in Shanxi Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jianjun; Fu Meichen; Geng Yuhuan; Tao Jin

    2011-01-01

    The small or middle coal mines with illegal operations in developing countries or regions can cause bad energy waste and environmental disruption. The project of coal-resource integration in Shanxi Province of China gives a new idea or an approach to energy saving and emission reduction. It is a social- and economic-ecological project. The paper shows the targets of energy saving and emission reduction in Shanxi Province, and analyses the aims, significance, design process and implementation of the integration project. Based on that, the paper discusses the challenges and opportunities the project brings. The analysis shows that the project of coal-resource integration in developing countries or regions can effectively improve mining technologies, collect capital and impel international cooperation and exchange. Finally, the paper analyses the concerns about the future, including the possible problems of implementation period, industrial updating, environmental impact and re-employment. However, the successful integration of coal resources can mitigate energy crisis and climate crisis and promote cleaner production effectively. - Highlights: → Coal-resource integration gives a new idea or an approach to energy saving and emission reduction. → Coal-resource integration mitigates climate crisis and promotes cleaner production. → Coal-resource integration brings challenges and opportunities to traditional mining industries.

  3. What is driving CO2 emissions in a typical manufacturing center of South China? The case of Jiangsu Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Sai; Zhang Tianzhu

    2011-01-01

    Investigating CO 2 emissions of China's manufacturing centers contributes to local and global CO 2 mitigation targets. This study considers Jiangsu Province as a representation of manufacturing centers in South China. Effects of material efficiency improvements, technology development, consumption structure changes and consumption volume growth in Jiangsu Province on its CO 2 emissions during 1997-2007 are investigated using structural decomposition analysis based on environmental input-output table. In order to reduce CO 2 emissions, Jiangsu Province should not only rely on material efficiency improvements and technology development, but also rely on consumption structure changes. For consumption structure changes in detail, Jiangsu Province should not only focus on fixed capital formation and urban residential consumption, but also focus on international and intranational imports and exports. For the implementation of material efficiency improvements and technology development, Jiangsu Province should focus on technology innovation and international technology transfer. For the implementation of consumption structure changes, Jiangsu Province should mainly focus on identified sectors for each separate final demand category: five sectors for urban residential consumption, three sectors for fixed capital formation, four sectors for international exports, five sectors for intranational exports, three sectors for international imports and four sectors for intranational imports. - Highlights: → Effects of four factors on Jiangsu Province's CO 2 emission changes are analyzed. → Key factors are identified for Jiangsu Province to achieve CO 2 mitigation targets. → Key areas for consumption structure changes are analyzed. → Technology innovation and technology transfer should be concerned. → Identified sectors for each final demand category should be concerned.

  4. Explaining the evaporation paradox in Jiangxi Province of China: Spatial distribution and temporal trends in potential evapotranspiration of Jiangxi Province from 1961 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianghui Lu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Evaporation acts as an important component and a key control factor in land hydrological processes. In order to analyze the trend of change on potential evapotranspiration from 1961 to 2013 and to discuss the existence of the evaporation paradox in Jiangxi province, China, monthly meteorological data spanning the years 1961–2013 were analyzed in this study, where the data were collected from 15 national meteorological stations in Jiangxi Province. The Penman–Monteith equation was employed to compute the potential evapotranspiration (ET0. Spatial interpolation and data mining technology were used to analyze the spatial and temporal changes of ET0 and air temperature, with the effort to explain the evaporation paradox. By solving the total differential and the partial derivatives coefficients of the independent variables in Penman–Monteith equation, the cause of the paradox was quantitatively evaluated. The results showed that the annual ET0 had been decreasing significantly in Jiangxi Province since 1979, whereas the air temperature had been rising significantly, presenting the evaporation paradox. The decreases in sunshine duration and wind speed reduced ET0 by 0.207 mm and 0.060 mm, respectively, accounting for 92.3% and 26.7% of the total ET0, respectively. It is concluded that sunshine duration and wind speed are the main causes to the decrease in potential evapotranspiration in Jiangxi Province.

  5. [Hepatitis B prevalence among women in child-bearing age in Shandong Province, China, 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Liu, J Y; Lyu, J J; Yan, B Y; Feng, Y; Wu, W L; Song, L Z; Xu, A Q

    2017-06-06

    Objective: To know the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) among women in child-bearing age in Shandong Province, China, providing references to the improvement of HBV control strategy. Methods: The participants were randomly selected by two-stage sampling method from 12 counties which were representative for the whole province. Firstly two townships were selected from each county by probability proportional to size sampling (PPS) method. Then participants aged 1-4 years, 5-14 years, 15-29 years and 30-59 years were selected by stratified random sampling method. The women in child-bearing age (20-49 years) were involved in this study. Questionnaire survey and 5 ml blood collection were conducted among all participants. Blood samples were detected for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody against HBsAg (anti-HBs) and antibody against hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc). Those who were positive for HBsAg were further detected for hepatitis e antigen (HBeAg), antibody against HBeAg (anti-HBe) and the load of HBV DNA. The basic information of the participants including age, gender, occupation, nationality and residence place were collected. The prevalence of HBV infection indicators after weight adjustment were calculated and compared between participants with different demographic characteristics. Results: A total of 1 151 women in child-bearing age were involved in this study. Twenty-seven participants were positive for HBsAg and the prevalence rate was 2.10% (95 % CI: 0.97%-3.23%). Five participants were positive for both HBsAg and HBeAg and the prevalence rate was 0.36% (95 % CI: 0-0.84%). There were 567 and 291 participants who were positive for anti-HBs and anti-HBc respectively and the corresponding prevalence rates were 47.72% (95 %CI: 41.68%-53.75%) and 24.40% (95 % CI: 18.50%-30.30%). The number of participants susceptible for HBV was 527 and the percentage of HBV susceptible women was 47.55% (95 % CI: 41.63%-53.47%). Conclusion: HBV infection among

  6. Assessment of inter-city transport of particulate matter in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xing; Wang, Shuxiao; Zhao, Bin; Cai, Siyi; Hao, Jiming

    2018-04-01

    The regional transport of particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) plays an important role in the air pollution of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region in China. However, previous studies on regional transport of PM2.5 mainly aim at province level, which is insufficient for the development of an optimal joint PM2.5 control strategy. In this study, we calculate PM2.5 inflows and outflows through the administrative boundaries of three major cities in the BTH region, i.e., Beijing, Tianjin and Shijiazhuang, using the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting model)-CMAQ (Community Multiscale Air Quality) modeling system. The monthly average inflow fluxes indicate the major directions of PM2.5 transport. For Beijing, the PM2.5 inflow fluxes from Zhangjiakou (in the northwest) and Baoding (in the southwest) constitute 57 % of the total in winter, and Langfang (in the southeast) and Baoding constitute 73 % in summer. Based on the net PM2.5 fluxes and their vertical distributions, we find there are three major transport pathways in the BTH region: the northwest-southeast pathway in winter (at all levels below 1000 m), the northwest-southeast pathway in summer (at all levels below 1000 m), and the southwest-northeast pathway in both winter and in summer (mainly at 300-1000 m). In winter, even if surface wind speeds are low, the transport at above 300 m can still be strong. Among the three pathways, the southwest-northeast happens along with PM2.5 concentrations 30 and 55 % higher than the monthly average in winter and summer, respectively. Analysis of two heavy pollution episodes in January and July in Beijing show a much (8-16 times) stronger transport than the monthly average, emphasizing the joint air pollution control of the cities located on the transport pathways, especially during heavy pollution episodes.

  7. Molecular and phylogenetic analysis of Anaplasma spp. in sheep and goats from six provinces of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Lv, Yali; Zhang, Feifei; Zhang, Wenjing; Wang, Jinhong; Cui, Yanyan; Wang, Rongjun; Jian, Fuchun; Zhang, Longxian; Ning, Changshen

    2016-12-30

    Members of the genus Anaplasma are important emerging tick-borne pathogens in both humans and animals in tropical and subtropical areas. Here, we investigated the presence of Anaplasma spp. in 621 sheep and 710 goats from six provinces of China. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing were conducted to determine the prevalence of Anaplasma (A.) phagocytophilum, A. ovis and A. bovis targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA or the major surface protein 4 gene. PCR revealed Anaplasma in 39.0% (240/621) of sheep and 45.5% (323/710) of goats. The most frequently detected species was A. ovis (88/621, 14.2% for sheep; 129/710, 18.2% for goats), followed by A. bovis (60/621, 9.7% for sheep; 74/710, 10.4% for goats) and A. phagocytophilum (33/621, 5.3% for sheep; 15/710, 2.1% for goats). Additionally, eight sheep and 20 goats were found to be infected with three pathogens simultaneously. DNA sequencing confirmed the presence of these three Anaplasma species in the investigated areas, and phylogenetic analysis indicated that there was geographic segregation to a certain extent, as well as a relationship between the host and cluster of A. ovis. The results of the present study provide valuable data that helps understand the epidemiology of anaplasmosis in ruminants from China.

  8. Previously Unrecognized Ornithuromorph Bird Diversity in the Early Cretaceous Changma Basin, Gansu Province, Northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Ming; O'Connor, Jingmai K.; Li, Da-Qing; You, Hai-Lu

    2013-01-01

    Here we report on three new species of ornithuromorph birds from the Lower Cretaceous Xiagou Formation in the Changma Basin of Gansu Province, northwestern China: Yumenornis huangi gen. et sp. nov., Changmaornis houi gen. et sp. nov., and Jiuquanornis niui gen. et sp. nov.. The last of these is based on a previously published but unnamed specimen: GSGM-05-CM-021. Although incomplete, the specimens can be clearly distinguished from each other and from Gansus yumenensis Hou and Liu, 1984. Phylogenetic analysis resolves the three new taxa as basal ornithuromorphs. This study reveals previously unrecognized ornithuromorph diversity in the Changma avifauna, which is largely dominated by Gansus but with at least three other ornithuromorphs. Body mass estimates demonstrate that enantiornithines were much smaller than ornithuromorphs in the Changma avifauna. In addition, Changma enantiornithines preserve long and recurved pedal unguals, suggesting an arboreal lifestyle; in contrast, Changma ornithuromorphs tend to show terrestrial or even aquatic adaptions. Similar differences in body mass and ecology are also observed in the Jehol avifauna in northeastern China, suggesting niche partitioning between these two clades developed early in their evolutionary history. PMID:24147058

  9. The sociodemographic correlates of nutritional status of school adolescents in Jiangsu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zumin; Lien, Nanna; Kumar, Bernadette Nirmal; Dalen, Ingvild; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd

    2005-10-01

    The objective of this article was to describe the relationship between sociodemographic factors and nutritional status (body mass index [BMI], height for age, and anemia) in adolescents. In 2002, a cross-sectional study comprising 824 students aged 12 to 14 years from 8 schools in 2 prefectures in Jiangsu province of China had their height, weight, and hemoglobin level measured. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect sociodemographic information. The prevalence of underweight was low in the overall sample (5.2%). The prevalence of stunting also was low (2.9%), and the differences between residential areas and sociodemographic groups were small. The percentage of overweight/obesity was higher among boys (17.9%) than girls (8.9%). Male students having fathers with a high educational level had the highest percentage of overweight and obesity (27.8%). Household socioeconomic status (SES) was associated positively with BMI. Family size, gender, and the father's level of education also were related to BMI. The percentage of anemia was somewhat higher among girls (23.4%) than boys (17.2%). Anemia coexisted with underweight. No urban/rural or SES differences in the percentage of students with anemia were observed in the sample, but differences between regions and schools were very significant. Undernutrition was not a problem in the research area. Nutritional status was associated with SES and region. Overnutrition and anemia in adolescents are important nutritional problems in Jiangsu, China. Intervention programs are needed to address these problems.

  10. Financial Support for Farmers’ Cooperative Organizations——A Case of Yunan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In the paper,the status quo of the development of farmers’ cooperative organizations in Yunnan Province is introduced.And then a series of problems exist in the financial support of farmers’ cooperatives in Yunnan is analyzed,covering the unitary mainstay of credit and loan supply;inadequate credit and loan supply caused by famers’ lack of security and mortgage;farmers’ difficulties in loaning from banks or other financial institutions;single financial service,which can not satisfy the demands of farmers;the private loans are active while lacks right direction and guide;the outflow of capital in rural areas has limited the development of rural economy.In view of the above mentioned problems,countermeasures and relevant suggestions are put forward,namely increasing the subjects of the loan and credit supply and expanding the financing channels.Therefore,the spheres of business of the Agricultural Development Bank of China should be expanded.Besides,the support from Agricultural Bank of China for rural construction should be strengthened and the major role played by rural credit cooperatives in rural finance should be enforced.In addition,the innovation of financial products should be highlighted;the appearance of private financing should be allowed;financial support from the government should be increased and the preferential policies for taxes and fees should be implemented.

  11. Biodiversity and evolution of Imjin virus and Thottapalayam virus in Crocidurinae shrews in Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xian-Dan; Zhou, Run-Hong; Fan, Fei-Neng; Ying, Xu-Hua; Sun, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Wen; Holmes, Edward C; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2014-08-30

    The recent discovery of numerous hantaviruses in insectivores has provided a new view of hantavirus biodiversity and evolution. To determine the presence and genetic diversity of Imjin virus (MJNV) and Thottapalayam virus (TPMV) in insectivores in Zhejiang Province, China, we captured and performed virus screening of 32 Ussuri white-toothed shrews (Crocidura lasiura) and 105 Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus) in different coastal regions. Hantavirus genome (S, M, and L segments) sequences were successfully recovered from one Ussuri white-toothed shrew and seven Asian house shrews. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the virus carried by the Ussuri white-toothed shrew was most closely related to MJNV, but with >15% nucleotide sequence difference, suggesting that it represents a new subtype. The hantaviruses carried by Asian house shrews were closely related to the TPMV variants found in the same geographic area, but more distantly related to those sampled in India and Nepal. Additionally, the TPMV sequences obtained in this study, as well as those found previously in this area, could be divided into three lineages reflecting their geographic origins, indicative of largely allopatric evolution. Overall, our data highlights the high genetic diversity of insectivore-borne hantaviruses in China, suggesting that more may be discovered in the future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Emergency nurses' knowledge and experience with the triage process in Hunan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, Karen; Peng, Lingli; Anikeeva, Olga; Arbon, Paul; Du, Huiyun; Li, Yinglan

    2017-11-01

    Triage is implemented to facilitate timely and appropriate treatment of patients, and is typically conducted by senior nurses. Triage accuracy and consistency across emergency departments remain a problem in mainland China. This study aimed to investigate the current status of triage practice and knowledge among emergency nurses in Changsha, Hunan Province, China. A sample of 300 emergency nurses was selected from 13 tertiary hospitals in Changsha and a total of 193 completed surveys were returned (response rate=64.3%). Surveys were circulated to head nurses, who then distributed them to nurses who met the selection criteria. Nurses were asked to complete the surveys and return them via dedicated survey return boxes that were placed in discreet locations to ensure anonymity. Just over half (50.8%) of participants reported receiving dedicated triage training, which was provided by their employer (38.6%), an education organisation (30.7%) or at a conference (26.1%). Approximately half (53.2%) reported using formal triage scales, which were predominantly 4-tier (43%) or 5-tier (34%). The findings highlight variability in triage practices and training of emergency nurses in Changsha. This has implications for the comparability of triage data and transferability of triage skills across hospitals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pricing and affordability of renewable energy in China - A case study of Shandong Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Xue-liang; Zuo, Jian

    2011-01-01

    The global warming and climate change have put enormous pressure on both governments and industries to re-think their attitudes and behaviours towards sustainability issues. The past decades have witnessed a number of renewable energy developments across the world. Even though these developments are not issue-free, it is generally recognized that the benefits outweigh disadvantages. However, there is an increasing level of concern on the high initial cost associated with the renewable energies, which was claimed as one of critical barriers to the promotion of its further developments. A case study approach is adopted in this study to investigate the pricing and affordability issues associated with the renewable energy in China. The policy framework and related statistics are critically reviewed in order to discuss these issues from different stakeholders' perspective in Shandong province, China. It is concluded that the affordability remains a critical issue despite numerous efforts have been made by the Chinese Government and Shandong Provincial Government on renewable power pricing. This study offers a useful reference to pricing and affordability of renewable energy. (author)

  14. Energy-saving decomposition and power consumption forecast: The case of liaoning province in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Y.X.; Zhao, Y.S.; Wang, Y.J. [School of Business Administration, North China Electric Power University, Zhu Xin Zhuang, Bei Nong Lu No. 2, Changping District, Beijing (China); Zhang, S.L. [Finance Department, Nanning Power Supply Bureau, Xingguang Street No. 43, Nanning, Guangxi Autonomous Region (China); Li, F.R. [University of Bath, Bath, BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    To achieve sustainable development of the society, the People's Republic of China (PRC) proposed in its 11th Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development Program a shift in energy-saving target of decreasing energy intensity by 20% in 2010 compared with that of 2005. Liaoning province is one of the oldest industrial bases in China. Policymakers are often confronted with problems relating to adjustment in the development pattern as a means to secure steady economic growth. The power industry is a fundamental energy industry; it plays an important role in realizing of energy-saving targets. Based on the input-output model, this paper sets extensive, planning and 20% energy-saving scenarios in order to analyze energy-saving and power consumption situations for Liaoning by 2010. Through extensive simulations, the levels of energy-saving and power demand under different scenarios are obtained. Results from the analysis show that under the premises of adjusting the ratio of investment and consumption, optimizing products structure, and improving energy use efficiency, it is possible to achieve the proposed energy-saving target. Liaoning's power consumption can maintain a stable growth trend in the future. The percentage of electricity to the total energy use can also increase to 16% in 2010. (author)

  15. Water footprint of Jing-Jin-Ji urban agglomeration in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, D.

    2017-12-01

    A rapidly expanding economy and increasing water demand for economic production is placing enormous stress on water quantity and aquatic environment in Northern China, especially the so-called Jing-Jin-Ji (Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei) urban agglomeration. Several studies have focused on energy consumption, air pollution, CO2 emissions and regional blue water footprint (WF) following release of the Jing-Jin-Ji Integration Strategy by the China government. However, a comprehensive assessment distinguishing blue, green and grey WF amongst different industrial sectors, ascertaining how WF transfers internally and beyond the region and final demand consumption is not available. In this study, we quantified the WF and virtual water flow on a sectoral basis for the year 2010 through coupling the multi-regional input-output model (MRIO) with WF assessment. The results showed that Beijing and Tianjin are net importers of green, blue and grey water from Hebei and other provinces to support their needs. Conversely, Hebei exports all WF colors to Beijing, Tianjin and other provinces in China, more than 60% of WF is transferred as virtual water. For the overall Jing-Jin-Ji region a small amount of blue water (2,086 million m3) is exported, but huge amounts of green water (15,573 million m3) and grey water (30,620 million m3) are outsourced. A "Virtual Water Strategy" is one measure which could alleviate water stress at the regional scale, with consideration of financial compensation from water receiving regions made to water supplying regions for achieving water management targets. We also found that physical water transfer to Jing-Jin-Ji could not balance virtual blue water exports. Our research suggests that a continuation of an export-based economic development model will worsen Hebei's water stress. Reducing the dependency of Hebei's sectoral economy on export of water intensive and low value added agricultural products may be one strategy to reduce the pressure on regional water

  16. Rabies trend in China (1990–2007 and post-exposure prophylaxis in the Guangdong province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yu-Ge

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rabies is a major public-health problem in developing countries such as China. Although the recent re-emergence of human rabies in China was noted in several epidemiological studies, little attention was paid to the reasons behind this phenomenon paralleling the findings of the previous reports. The purpose of this study is thus first to characterize the current trends of human rabies in China from 1990 to 2007, and then to define better recommendations for improving the post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP schedules delivered to rabies patients. Methods The most updated epidemiological data for 22527 human rabies cases from January 1990 to July 2007, retrieved from the surveillance database of reportable diseases managed by the Ministry of Health of China, were analysed. To investigate the efficiency for the post-exposure treatment of rabies, the details of 244 rabies patients, including their anti-rabies treatment of injuries or related incidents, were ascertained in Guangdong provincial jurisdiction. The risk factors to which the patients were predisposed or the regimens given to 80 patients who received any type of PEP were analysed to identify the reasons for the PEP failures. Results The results from analysis of the large number of human rabies cases showed that rabies in China was largely under control during the period 1990–1996. However, there has been a large jump in the number of reported rabies cases since 2001 up to a new peak (with an incidence rate of 0.20 per 100000 people that was reached in 2004, and where the level has remained until present. Then, we analysed the PEP in 244 rabies cases collected in the Guangdong province in 2003 and 2004, and found that 67.2% of the patients did not seek medical services or did not receive any PEP. Further analysis of PEP for the 80 rabies patients who received any type of PEP indicated that almost all of the patients did not receive proper or timely treatment on the wounds

  17. Characteristics of tuberculosis patients at intake in Cambodia, two provinces in China, and Viet Nam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauritsen Jens M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tuberculosis register is a critical data source for the information system of national tuberculosis control programs. From the information in the tuberculosis case register, it is possible to extend the standard analysis of age and sex characteristics among sputum smear-positive cases to all tuberculosis case categories. National tuberculosis programs might utilize such information to identify problems related to referral and access to diagnosis and treatment. Objectives Based on the electronic database we created, our objectives were to provide a detailed description of age and sex characteristics of tuberculosis patients at registration and to provide a comparison of age-specific sex characteristics among incident and prevalent sputum smear-positive cases. Methods A representative sample of tuberculosis case registers from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2005 was selected in Cambodia, two provinces in China and Viet Nam. Age and sex characteristics of cases in the three separate prevalence surveys in the three jurisdictions (Cambodia: year 2002; China: year 2000; and Viet Nam: year 2006-2007 were obtained for comparison. Results A total 37,635 patients had been registered during the period in the selected units in the three countries. Cases were more frequently male in all three countries with 53%, 71%, and 69% in Cambodia, China, and Viet Nam, respectively. The ratios of the female-to-male odds in the notification system to that in the prevalence survey in smear-positive cases in Cambodia, China and Viet Nam were 2.1, 0.9, and 1.8, respectively. Because of the small proportion of extrapulmonary tuberculosis registered in China, we limited the analysis on age and sex distribution for extrapulmonary cases to Cambodia and Viet Nam. The proportion with extrapulmonary tuberculosis among all cases was 18.5% in Cambodia and 15.7% in Viet Nam, decreasing in frequency with increasing age. Conclusions Characteristics of patients

  18. Characteristics of tuberculosis patients at intake in Cambodia, two provinces in China, and Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoa, Nguyen B; Wei, Chen; Sokun, Chay; Lauritsen, Jens M; Rieder, Hans L

    2011-05-23

    The tuberculosis register is a critical data source for the information system of national tuberculosis control programs. From the information in the tuberculosis case register, it is possible to extend the standard analysis of age and sex characteristics among sputum smear-positive cases to all tuberculosis case categories. National tuberculosis programs might utilize such information to identify problems related to referral and access to diagnosis and treatment. Based on the electronic database we created, our objectives were to provide a detailed description of age and sex characteristics of tuberculosis patients at registration and to provide a comparison of age-specific sex characteristics among incident and prevalent sputum smear-positive cases. A representative sample of tuberculosis case registers from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2005 was selected in Cambodia, two provinces in China and Viet Nam. Age and sex characteristics of cases in the three separate prevalence surveys in the three jurisdictions (Cambodia: year 2002; China: year 2000; and Viet Nam: year 2006-2007) were obtained for comparison. A total 37,635 patients had been registered during the period in the selected units in the three countries. Cases were more frequently male in all three countries with 53%, 71%, and 69% in Cambodia, China, and Viet Nam, respectively.The ratios of the female-to-male odds in the notification system to that in the prevalence survey in smear-positive cases in Cambodia, China and Viet Nam were 2.1, 0.9, and 1.8, respectively. Because of the small proportion of extrapulmonary tuberculosis registered in China, we limited the analysis on age and sex distribution for extrapulmonary cases to Cambodia and Viet Nam. The proportion with extrapulmonary tuberculosis among all cases was 18.5% in Cambodia and 15.7% in Viet Nam, decreasing in frequency with increasing age. Characteristics of patients greatly differed between countries and between patient categories. In Cambodia

  19. Spatial Econometric Research on the Relationship between Highway Construction and Regional Economic Growth in China: Evidence from the Nationwide Panel Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, N. J.; Li, W. J.; Li, Y.; Bai, Y. F.

    2017-12-01

    Based on spatial panel data from 2010 to 2016 in China, this paper makes an empirical analysis on the relationship between highway construction and regional economic growth by means of spatial econometric model. The results show that there is positive spatial correlation on regional economic growth in China, and strong spatial dependences between some provinces and cities appear, specifically, Hebei, Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Zhejiang and other eastern coastal areas show high-high agglomeration trend, the Pearl River Delta region presents high-low agglomeration trend; In terms of nationwide provinces and municipalities, a province’s highway construction investment for their own province and the neighboring provinces has pulling effect on economic growth to a certain extent, and the direct effect is more obvious.

  20. New evidence on financing equity in China's health care reform - A case study on Gansu province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In the transition from a planned economy to a market-oriented economy, China’s state funding for health care declined and traditional coverage plans collapsed, leaving China’s poor exposed to potentially ruinous health care costs. In reforming health care for the 21st century, equity in health care financing has become a major policy goal. To assess progress towards this goal, this paper examines the equity characteristics of health care financing in a province of northwestern China, comparing the equity performance between urban and rural areas at two different points in time. Methods Analysis of whether health care financing contributions were progressive according to income were made using the Kakwani index for each of the four health care financing channels of general taxes, public and private health insurance, and out-of-pocket payments. Two rounds of surveys were conducted, the first in 2003 (13,619 individuals in 3946 households) and the second in 2008 (12,973 individuals in 3958 households). Household socio-economic, health care payment, and utilization information were recorded in household interviews. Results Low-income households have undertaken a larger share of the health care financing burden in recent years, reflected by negative Kakwani indices, which indicate a regressive system. We found that the indices for general taxation were −0.0024 (urban) and −0.0281 (rural) in 2002, and −0.0177 (urban) and −0.0097 (rural) in 2007. Public health insurance presented different financing distributions in urban and rural areas (urban: 0.0742 in 2002, 0.0661 in 2007; rural: –0.0615 in 2002,–0.1436 in 2007.). Out-of-pocket payments were progressive but not equitable. Public health insurance coverage has expanded but financing equity has decreased. Conclusions Health care financing policies in China need ongoing reform. Given the inequity of general consumption taxes, elimination of these would improve financing equity considerably

  1. New evidence on financing equity in China's health care reform - A case study on Gansu province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Mingsheng

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the transition from a planned economy to a market-oriented economy, China’s state funding for health care declined and traditional coverage plans collapsed, leaving China’s poor exposed to potentially ruinous health care costs. In reforming health care for the 21st century, equity in health care financing has become a major policy goal. To assess progress towards this goal, this paper examines the equity characteristics of health care financing in a province of northwestern China, comparing the equity performance between urban and rural areas at two different points in time. Methods Analysis of whether health care financing contributions were progressive according to income were made using the Kakwani index for each of the four health care financing channels of general taxes, public and private health insurance, and out-of-pocket payments. Two rounds of surveys were conducted, the first in 2003 (13,619 individuals in 3946 households and the second in 2008 (12,973 individuals in 3958 households. Household socio-economic, health care payment, and utilization information were recorded in household interviews. Results Low-income households have undertaken a larger share of the health care financing burden in recent years, reflected by negative Kakwani indices, which indicate a regressive system. We found that the indices for general taxation were −0.0024 (urban and −0.0281 (rural in 2002, and −0.0177 (urban and −0.0097 (rural in 2007. Public health insurance presented different financing distributions in urban and rural areas (urban: 0.0742 in 2002, 0.0661 in 2007; rural: –0.0615 in 2002,���0.1436 in 2007.. Out-of-pocket payments were progressive but not equitable. Public health insurance coverage has expanded but financing equity has decreased. Conclusions Health care financing policies in China need ongoing reform. Given the inequity of general consumption taxes, elimination of these would improve

  2. Scrub typhus caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi Kawasaki-related genotypes in Shandong Province, northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luyan; Bi, Zhenwang; Kou, Zengqiang; Yang, Huili; Zhang, Aihua; Zhang, Shoufeng; Meng, Xiangpeng; Zheng, Li; Zhang, Meng; Yang, Hui; Zhao, Zhongtang

    2015-03-01

    Orientia tsutsugamushi, the causative agent of scrub typhus, is an obligate intracellular bacterium and characterized by dramatic genetic diversity. To elucidate the genotypes of O. tsutsugamushi populating in patients in Shandong Province, a new epidemic zone in China, we sequenced partial of the 56-kDa type-specific antigen gene (TSA) and identified the genotypes of 43 O. tsutsugamushi samples from human patients confirmed with scrub typhus from 2010 to 2013. All of the 43 sequences are in the same clade, 39 of them are in one branch and the other four sequences, nominated as SH1002, SH1306, SH1309, and SH1307 are in four separate branches. To clarify the clinical characterizations caused by Kawasaki-related genotypes, we studied the clinical profiles of these 43 scrub typhus patients. Most patients (88.1%) were farmers lived in rural areas. They presented with fever (100.0%), headache (79.1%), dizziness (32.6%), generalized myalgia (48.8%), fatigue (53.5%), anorexia (53.5%), facial flushing (23.3%), conjunctival congestion (11.6%), skin rashes (58.1%) and lymphadenopathy (23.3%). Eschar (97.7%) was quite common in patients, which provided doctors with a luminous clue for diagnosis of scrub typhus. Thrombocytopenia was seen in 23.1% of patients, and three patients (7.0%) had bronchopneumonia. There was no death report in Shandong Province during the study period. The present study provides beneficial data for clinical, serological, and molecular diagnosis of scrub typhus infections, and also provides foundations for subsequent studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Human paleodiet and animal utilization strategies during the Bronze Age in northwest Yunnan Province, southwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lele Ren

    Full Text Available Reconstructing ancient diets and the use of animals and plants augment our understanding of how humans adapted to different environments. Yunnan Province in southwest China is ecologically and environmentally diverse. During the Neolithic and Bronze Age periods, this region was occupied by a variety of local culture groups with diverse subsistence systems and material culture. In this paper, we obtained carbon (δ13C and nitrogen (δ15N isotopic ratios from human and faunal remains in order to reconstruct human paleodiets and strategies for animal exploitation at the Bronze Age site of Shilinggang (ca. 2500 Cal BP in northwest Yunnan Province. The δ13C results for human samples from Shilinggang demonstrate that people's diets were mainly dominated by C3-based foodstuffs, probably due to both direct consumption of C3 food and as a result of C3 foddering of consumed animals. Auxiliary C4 food signals can also be detected. High δ15N values indicate that meat was an important component of the diet. Analysis of faunal samples indicates that people primarily fed pigs and dogs with human food waste, while sheep/goats and cattle were foddered with other food sources. We compare stable isotope and archaeobotanical data from Shilinggang with data from other Bronze Age sites in Yunnan to explore potential regional variation in subsistence strategies. Our work suggests that people adopted different animal utilization and subsistence strategies in different parts of Yunnan during the Bronze Age period, probably as local adaptations to the highly diversified and isolated environments in the region.

  4. Strategies for implementing Health-Promoting Schools in a province in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldinger, Carmen; Zhang, Xin-Wei; Liu, Li-Qun; Guo, Jun-Xiang; Yu Sen Hai; Jones, Jack

    2008-01-01

    After successful pilot projects in 10 schools (four schools with tobacco control and six schools with nutrition interventions, plus 10 control schools), Health and Education officials in Zhejiang Province, China, decided to scale up Health-Promoting Schools (HPS) systematically over the entire province, starting with an initial cohort of 51 additional schools, reaching from primary to vocational schools. Interviews with school personnel during the first phase of scaling up illuminated the key pre-implementation, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation activities. Pre-implementation activities included choosing an entry point, setting up a special HPS committee, and establishing a work plan. Implementation activities included conducting mobilization meetings, prioritizing health, popularizing the HPS concept, ensuring community cooperation and participation, acting as role models, offering training, and using new teaching and learning methods. Monitoring and evaluation activities included process, baseline, and final evaluations and changing standards of evaluation to a more holistic evaluation that schools go through to become Health-Promoting Schools. Schools also reported that they faced - and overcame - a number of challenges including understanding and integrating the HPS concept and lack of professional development and support. Results revealed that schools transitioned from a passive model of education to interactive pedagogy put priority on health and viewed it as a co-responsibility, reshaped assessment to a more holistic approach and called for more training and technical support. Participants mentioned that they gained knowledge and skills and developed a deeper understanding about health. Health impact was also demonstrated, for instance in reduced injuries and reduced smoking, and educational impact was demonstrated, for instance in improved relationships of children to parents and teachers, improved social qualities, and improved teacher

  5. A social epidemiological study on HIV/AIDS in a village of Henan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jin; Xiao, Shuiyuan; Zhou, Liang; Tang, Yong; Xu, Guangming; Luo, Dan; Yi, Qifeng

    2013-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic caused by commercial blood donation in rural Henan Province of China in the early- to mid-1990s is the largest known cohort in the world related to blood donation but is not fully described. The objectives of this study were to describe the epidemic, epidemiology, and social epidemiology of commercial blood donation and HIV/AIDS. Both qualitative and quantitative mixed methods were used. A village was randomly selected from the 38 key HIV/AIDS pandemic villages in Henan Province. "Demographic Data Form" was applied to collect demographic information of each resident. Focus groups were held for the managers, some residents, members of "HIV/AIDS Work-Team" (organized by the Henan Provincial Government) in the village. Every village physician, people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), school header, and other stakeholders were interviewed individually. The social epidemiology of HIV/AIDS was analyzed under three perspectives of the framework: individual, social, and structural perspectives. In this village, there were 2335 residents, 484 (20.3%) were former donors, 107 (4.6%) were PLWHA, and 96.3% of PLWHA were infected through commercial blood donation. Individually, low education and plasma donation were the risky factors of HIV/AIDS infection. Socially, the epidemic was geography-, kinship-, and conformity-related. Structurally, the related macrostructure factor was policy endorsement of national blood products. The microstructure factors were poverty and value belief on male child in passing down generations. It is concluded that commercial blood donation and HIV/AIDS epidemic in the village are symbiotically related. The epidemic is temporary and socially determined.

  6. Temporal variations in reference evapotranspiration in Hubei Province, China, from 1960 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Wang, Xiugui; Wang, Yan; Xu, Yaxin; Han, Xudong

    2018-01-01

    Reference evapotranspiration (ET0) plays a critical role in irrigation planning and is also important for hydrological cycle, environmental, and other studies. Thus, this research examined the trends in ET0 on seasonal and annual timescales in Hubei Province, China. ET0 was estimated using the Penman Monteith method (P-M) at 16 meteorological stations located in different areas of Hubei Province during the period 1960-2014. The trends in seasonal and annual ET0 were investigated using the Mann-Kendall test and Sen's slope estimator. The periodicities of ET0 in different regions were investigated using wavelet analysis. The major meteorological factors affecting ET0 were investigated using partial correlation analysis and the contribution rate method. The results showed, on a seasonal timescale, that in spring, ET0 increased in all geographic zones. In summer, ET0 decreased in all geographic zones. In autumn and winter, ET0 displayed no significant changes in any of the geographic zones. On an annual timescale, ET0 decreased in all geographic zones, and the magnitudes of the negative trend in annual ET0 were 2.58-10.04 mm 10a-1. In the five geographic zones, the periodic characteristics of ET0 were identical; the significant wavelet power spectra of ET0 had 3-7, 13-17, and 24-32-year modulations in variation. Among the meteorological factors, sunshine hours were the major climate element that influenced the variability in ET0. The results will provide important references for scientific planning for agriculture, water resource allocation, and water-saving irrigation.

  7. Monitoring nuclear application from A to Z in Jilin province of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Zhongyan

    2001-01-01

    Full text: National and Provincial Regulations for Radioactive Waste Management. Nuclear applications are supervised and regulated on low levels in China, implemented by central government and provincial governments respectively. Central government is in charge of examination and approval for major nuclear applications while provincial governments are in charge of medium and small-scale nuclear applications and implementation of all the daily nuclear applications supervision and storage. Approaches for Managing - Monitoring Nuclear Applications from A to Z In Jilin. Radiation Environment Supervision Institute of Jilin Province (RESDP), on behalf of provincial government, is in charge of nuclear applications which entail submit and enrollment. The nuclear application programs cannot be permitted unless the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is up to the standards. The programs should be monitored by RESUP from beginning to the end. In the process of implementing of the programs, the monitoring organization should sample timely. The government must be kept well-informed about radioactive wastes produced in the programs which, should transferred to the radioactive waste storage. Implemented programs supposed to decommission must get the agreement of RRSTJP through EIA to ensure the safety of radiation environment. Waste Storage, Transportation and Disposal Measures in Jilin Province. There is a modem radioactive waste storeroom in Jilin, which stores the radioactive wastes collected from all over Jilin everyday. The storeroom, which is located in a beautiful mountain place with ecological monitoring system is safety. The storeroom, with necessary facilities, becomes an model engineering for urban waste storerooms of China. Achievements of Whole Coarse Supervision of Nuclear Applications Nuclear applications are kept under efficient supervision all the time so that environmental safety is guaranteed. The amount of radioactive waste decreased by the means of economy

  8. Indicators of child health, service utilization and mortality in Zhejiang Province of China, 1998-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fang Zhang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the levels of primary health care services for children and their changes in Zhejiang Province, China from 1998 to 2011. METHODS: The data were drawn from Zhejiang maternal and child health statistics collected under the supervision of the Health Bureau of Zhejiang Province. Primary health care coverage, hospital deliveries, low birth weight, postnatal visits, breastfeeding, underweight, early neonatal (<7 days mortality, neonatal mortality, infant mortality and under-5 mortality were investigated. RESULTS: The coverage rates for children under 3 years old and children under 7 years old increased in the last 14 years. The hospital delivery rate was high during the study period, and the overall difference narrowed. There was a significant difference (P<0.001 between the prevalence of low birth weight in 1998 (2.03% and the prevalence in 2011 (2.71%. The increase in low birth weight was more significant in urban areas than in rural areas. The postnatal visit rate increased from 95.00% to 98.45% with a significant difference (P<0.001. The breastfeeding rate was the highest in 2004 at 74.79% and lowest in 2008 at 53.86%. The prevalence of underweight in children under 5 years old decreased from 1.63% to 0.65%, and the prevalence was higher in rural areas. The early neonatal, neonatal, infant and under-5 mortality rates decreased from 6.66‰, 8.67‰, 11.99‰ and 15.28‰ to 1.69‰, 2.36‰, 3.89‰ and 5.42‰, respectively (P<0.001. The mortality rates in rural areas were slightly higher than those in urban areas each year, and the mortality rates were lower in Ningbo, Wenzhou, and Jiaxing regions and higher in Quzhou and Lishui regions. CONCLUSION: Primary health care services for children in Zhejiang Province improved from 1998 to 2011. Continued high rates of low birth weight in urban areas and mortality in rural areas may be addressed with improvements in health awareness and medical technology.

  9. Humidity May Modify the Relationship between Temperature and Cardiovascular Mortality in Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jie; Zhang, Xuehai; Yang, Jun; Bao, Junzhe; Xiang, Hao; Dear, Keith; Liu, Qiyong; Lin, Shao; Lawrence, Wayne R; Lin, Aihua; Huang, Cunrui

    2017-11-14

    Background : The evidence of increased mortality attributable to extreme temperatures is widely characterized in climate-health studies. However, few of these studies have examined the role of humidity on temperature-mortality association. We investigated the joint effect between temperature and humidity on cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in Zhejiang Province, China. Methods : We collected data on daily meteorological and CVD mortality from 11 cities in Zhejiang Province during 2010-2013. We first applied time-series Poisson regression analysis within the framework of distributed lag non-linear models to estimate the city-specific effect of temperature and humidity on CVD mortality, after controlling for temporal trends and potential confounding variables. We then applied a multivariate meta-analytical model to pool the effect estimates in the 11 cities to generate an overall provincial estimate. The joint effects between them were calculated by the attributable fraction (AF). The analyses were further stratified by gender, age group, education level, and location of cities. Results : In total, 120,544 CVD deaths were recorded in this study. The mean values of temperature and humidity were 17.6 °C and 72.3%. The joint effect between low temperature and high humidity had the greatest impact on the CVD death burden over a lag of 0-21 days with a significant AF of 31.36% (95% eCI: 14.79-38.41%), while in a condition of low temperature and low humidity with a significant AF of 16.74% (95% eCI: 0.89, 24.44). The AFs were higher at low temperature and high humidity in different subgroups. When considering the levels of humidity, the AFs were significant at low temperature and high humidity for males, youth, those with a low level of education, and coastal area people. Conclusions : The combination of low temperature and high humidity had the greatest impact on the CVD death burden in Zhejiang Province. This evidence has important implications for developing CVD

  10. Humidity May Modify the Relationship between Temperature and Cardiovascular Mortality in Zhejiang Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jie; Zhang, Xuehai; Yang, Jun; Bao, Junzhe; Dear, Keith; Liu, Qiyong; Lin, Shao; Lin, Aihua; Huang, Cunrui

    2017-01-01

    Background: The evidence of increased mortality attributable to extreme temperatures is widely characterized in climate-health studies. However, few of these studies have examined the role of humidity on temperature-mortality association. We investigated the joint effect between temperature and humidity on cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in Zhejiang Province, China. Methods: We collected data on daily meteorological and CVD mortality from 11 cities in Zhejiang Province during 2010–2013. We first applied time-series Poisson regression analysis within the framework of distributed lag non-linear models to estimate the city-specific effect of temperature and humidity on CVD mortality, after controlling for temporal trends and potential confounding variables. We then applied a multivariate meta-analytical model to pool the effect estimates in the 11 cities to generate an overall provincial estimate. The joint effects between them were calculated by the attributable fraction (AF). The analyses were further stratified by gender, age group, education level, and location of cities. Results: In total, 120,544 CVD deaths were recorded in this study. The mean values of temperature and humidity were 17.6 °C and 72.3%. The joint effect between low temperature and high humidity had the greatest impact on the CVD death burden over a lag of 0–21 days with a significant AF of 31.36% (95% eCI: 14.79–38.41%), while in a condition of low temperature and low humidity with a significant AF of 16.74% (95% eCI: 0.89, 24.44). The AFs were higher at low temperature and high humidity in different subgroups. When considering the levels of humidity, the AFs were significant at low temperature and high humidity for males, youth, those with a low level of education, and coastal area people. Conclusions: The combination of low temperature and high humidity had the greatest impact on the CVD death burden in Zhejiang Province. This evidence has important implications for developing CVD

  11. Humidity May Modify the Relationship between Temperature and Cardiovascular Mortality in Zhejiang Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zeng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The evidence of increased mortality attributable to extreme temperatures is widely characterized in climate-health studies. However, few of these studies have examined the role of humidity on temperature-mortality association. We investigated the joint effect between temperature and humidity on cardiovascular disease (CVD mortality in Zhejiang Province, China. Methods: We collected data on daily meteorological and CVD mortality from 11 cities in Zhejiang Province during 2010–2013. We first applied time-series Poisson regression analysis within the framework of distributed lag non-linear models to estimate the city-specific effect of temperature and humidity on CVD mortality, after controlling for temporal trends and potential confounding variables. We then applied a multivariate meta-analytical model to pool the effect estimates in the 11 cities to generate an overall provincial estimate. The joint effects between them were calculated by the attributable fraction (AF. The analyses were further stratified by gender, age group, education level, and location of cities. Results: In total, 120,544 CVD deaths were recorded in this study. The mean values of temperature and humidity were 17.6 °C and 72.3%. The joint effect between low temperature and high humidity had the greatest impact on the CVD death burden over a lag of 0–21 days with a significant AF of 31.36% (95% eCI: 14.79–38.41%, while in a condition of low temperature and low humidity with a significant AF of 16.74% (95% eCI: 0.89, 24.44. The AFs were higher at low temperature and high humidity in different subgroups. When considering the levels of humidity, the AFs were significant at low temperature and high humidity for males, youth, those with a low level of education, and coastal area people. Conclusions: The combination of low temperature and high humidity had the greatest impact on the CVD death burden in Zhejiang Province. This evidence has important implications

  12. Regional-Level Carbon Emissions Modelling and Scenario Analysis: A STIRPAT Case Study in Henan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengyan Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Global warming has brought increased attention to the relationship between carbon emissions and economic development. Research on the driving factors of carbon emissions from energy consumption can provide a scientific basis for regional energy savings, as well as emissions reduction and sustainable development. Henan Province is a major agricultural province in China, and it is one of most populous provinces. Industrial development and population growth are the causes of carbon emissions. The STIRPAT model was conducted for analyzing carbon emissions and the driving factors for future carbon emission in Henan Province. The results show that: carbon emissions and energy consumption in Henan Province presented a rising trend from 1995 to 2014; Energy consumption due to population growth is the main contributor to carbon emissions in Henan Province. As every 1% increase in the population, GDP per-capita, energy intensity, and the level of urbanization development will contribute to the growth of emissions by 1.099, 0.193, 0.043, and 0.542%, respectively. The optimization of the industrial structure can reduce carbon emissions in Henan Province, as suggested by the results, when the tertiary sector increased by more than 1%, the total energy consumption of carbon emissions reduced by 1.297%. The future pattern of carbon emissions in Henan Province is predicted to increase initially and then follows by a decreasing trend, according to scenario analysis; and maintaining a low population growth rate, and a high growth rate of GDP per-capita and technical level is the best mode for social and economic development.

  13. Genetic characterization of a potentially novel goose parvovirus circulating in Muscovy duck flocks in Fujian Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shao; Cheng, Xiao-Xia; Chen, Shao-Ying; Zhu, Xiao-Li; Chen, Shi-Long; Lin, Feng-Qiang; Li, Zhao-Long

    2013-01-01

    We report a novel goose parvovirus (MDGPV/PT) isolated from an affected Muscovy duck in Fujian Province, China. In this study, the NS1 sequence analyses indicated a close genetic relationship between MDGPV/PT and Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) strains, although MDGPV/DY, which was isolated from a Muscovy duck in 2006 in Sichuan Province, could be divided into GPV-related groups. Phylogenetic analysis showed that except for differences in the NS1 gene, MDGPV strains PT and DY are closely related to a parvovirus that infects domestic waterfowls. This is the first demonstration of recombination between goose and Muscovy duck parvoviruses in nature, and MDGPV/PT might have led to the generation of a novel waterfowl parvovirus strain circulating in Muscovy duck flocks in China.

  14. Economic Impacts from PM2.5 Pollution-Related Health Effects in China: A Provincial-Level Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yang; Dai, Hancheng; Dong, Huijuan; Hanaoka, Tatsuya; Masui, Toshihiko

    2016-05-03

    This study evaluates the PM2.5 pollution-related health impacts on the national and provincial economy of China using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model and the latest nonlinear exposure-response functions. Results show that the health and economic impacts may be substantial in provinces with a high PM2.5 concentration. In the WoPol scenario without PM2.5 pollution control policy, we estimate that China experiences a 2.00% GDP loss and 25.2 billion USD in health expenditure from PM2.5 pollution in 2030. In contrast, with control policy in the WPol scenario, a control investment of 101.8 billion USD (0.79% of GDP) and a gain of 1.17% of China's GDP from improving PM2.5 pollution are projected. At the provincial level, GDP loss in 2030 in the WoPol scenario is high in Tianjin (3.08%), Shanghai (2.98%), Henan (2.32%), Beijing (2.75%), and Hebei (2.60%) and the top five provinces with the highest additional health expenditure are Henan, Sichuan, Shandong, Hebei, and Jiangsu. Controlling PM2.5 pollution could bring positive benefits in two-thirds of provinces. Tianjin, Shanghai, Beijing, Henan, Jiangsu, and Hebei experience most benefits from PM2.5 pollution control as a result of a higher PM2.5 pollution and dense population distribution. Conversely, the control investment is higher than GDP gain in some underdeveloped provinces, such as Ningxia, Guizhou, Shanxi, Gansu, and Yunnan.

  15. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Buffaloes, Sheep and Goats in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengcai ZOU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in buffaloes, sheep and goats in Yunnan Province, southwestern China was conducted between May 2012 and December 2013.Methods: A total of 973 (427 buffaloes, 154 sheep and 392 goats serum samples were collected from seven administrative regions of Yunnan Province, and exam­ined for T. gondii antibodies by indirect hemagglutination (IHA test. Some risk fac­tors related to species, age, gender and geographical origin were determined using a multinomial logistic regression.Results: The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in ruminant species was estimated at 11.9%. The final logistic regression model demonstrated that host species and geographical origin were the main risk factors associated with T. gondii infection (P﹤0.05.Conclusion: Taken together, the results of the present study revealed a high expo­sure to T. gondii in ruminant species in Yunnan Province, which has an important implication for public health.

  16. The first record of a species of Perlidae from Jiangsu Province, China: a new species of Neoperla (Plecoptera: Perlidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Teng; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2015-06-23

    A new species of Neoperla (Plecoptera, Perlidae), N. jiangsuensis Chen & Du from Jiangsu Province, China, is described and illustrated. Neoperla jiangsuensis is characterized by the aedeagal sac with two C-shaped rows of large stout spines laterally, a patch of small spines, and with an apical double ear-shaped membranous lobes. The new species is the first recorded species of Perlidae known from the eastern coastal province of Jiangsu, China.

  17. Virtual scarce water in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Kuishuang; Hubacek, Klaus; Pfister, Stephan; Yu, Yang; Sun, Laixiang

    2014-07-15

    Water footprints and virtual water flows have been promoted as important indicators to characterize human-induced water consumption. However, environmental impacts associated with water consumption are largely neglected in these analyses. Incorporating water scarcity into water consumption allows better understanding of what is causing water scarcity and which regions are suffering from it. In this study, we incorporate water scarcity and ecosystem impacts into multiregional input-output analysis to assess virtual water flows and associated impacts among 30 provinces in China. China, in particular its water-scarce regions, are facing a serious water crisis driven by rapid economic growth. Our findings show that inter-regional flows of virtual water reveal additional insights when water scarcity is taken into account. Consumption in highly developed coastal provinces is largely relying on water resources in the water-scarce northern provinces, such as Xinjiang, Hebei, and Inner Mongolia, thus significantly contributing to the water scarcity in these regions. In addition, many highly developed but water scarce regions, such as Shanghai, Beijing, and Tianjin, are already large importers of net virtual water at the expense of water resource depletion in other water scarce provinces. Thus, increasingly importing water-intensive goods from other water-scarce regions may just shift the pressure to other regions, but the overall water problems may still remain. Using the water footprint as a policy tool to alleviate water shortage may only work when water scarcity is taken into account and virtual water flows from water-poor regions are identified.

  18. Henan - the model: from hegemonism to fragmentism:portrait of the political culture of China's most populated province

    OpenAIRE

    Heberer, Thomas; Jakobi, Sabine

    2000-01-01

    "Henan is China's most populous province. It has long played a strategic role in Chinese history and in more recent decades has played a prominent part in the country's politics. In this paper we explore aspects of the history and political culture of Henan, particularly the collective memory or consciousness of its people, and trends in its recent political history. We focus in particular on specific cultural features and local patterns of socio-economic development, both to highlight import...

  19. A new species of Nemoura (Plecoptera: Nemouridae) from Jiangsu Province, China, with new illustrations for Nemoura nankinensis Wu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Teng; DU, Yu-Zhou

    2017-04-12

    A new species of Nemoura (Plecoptera: Nemouridae), N. fusiformis sp. nov. from Jiangsu Province, China, is described and illustrated. The new species is characterized by a strongly sclerotized large hook formed by outer margin of the outer lobe of the paraproct and by the outer sclerite of cercus with a sub-triangular medial process. The new species is compared with similar taxa. Additionally, supplementary illustrations for N. nankinensis Wu, 1926 are also provided.

  20. Close-out of open pit and waste rock piles of a uranium mine in Guangxi province of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Lechang; Zhang Zhao; Zhang Guopu; Liu Min

    2012-01-01

    Close-out of projects of a mine in Guangxi province of China includes open pit,east and west waste rock piles, ore transfer station, industrial fields, buildings, ore transporting road, and equipment and conduits. The following remediation limits are introduced: environment penetrating radiation dose rate and 222 Rn flux of open pit and waste rock piles, 226 Ra specific activity of soil and individual dose. Remediation objective and programme are discussed in details. Remediation effects are evaluated. (authors)

  1. Detection, Occurrence, and Survey of Rice Stripe and Black-Streaked Dwarf Diseases in Zhejiang Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Heng-mu ZHANG; Hua-di WANG; Jian YANG; Michael J ADAMS; Jian-ping CHEN

    2013-01-01

    The major viral diseases that occur on rice plants in Zhejiang Province, eastern China, are stripe and rice black-streaked dwarf diseases. Rice stripe disease is only caused by rice stripe tenuivirus (RSV), while rice black-streaked dwarf disease can be caused by rice black-streaked dwarf fijivirus (RBSDV) and/or southern rice black-streaked dwarf fijivirus (SRBSDV). Here we review the characterization of these viruses, methods for their detection, and extensive surveys showing their occurren...

  2. Exploring the Factors Driving Seasonal Farmland Abandonment: A Case Study at the Regional Level in Hunan Province, Central China

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Zhonglei; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Hua; Liang, Jinshe

    2017-01-01

    Farmland abandonment, including perennial and seasonal abandonment, is an important process of land use change that matters most to food security. Although there is a great deal of studies on farmland abandonment, seasonal abandonment, which is as serious as perennial abandonment, has attracted little academic attention. This paper takes Hunan Province in central China as its study area and uses a spatial regression model to examine the driving factors of seasonal farmland abandonment at the ...

  3. Community response to construction noise in three central cities of Zhejiang province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Xia, Bo; Cui, Caiyun; Skitmore, Martin

    2017-11-01

    As a common source of environmental noise in China and many developing countries worldwide, construction work provokes many complaints and deterioration in acoustic climate quality. This paper describes research to obtain an improved understanding of people's community response to, and evaluation of, construction noise in three central cities of Zhejiang province, China. This involved carrying out a social survey using standard questionnaires developed by the International Commission on Biological Effects of Noise (ICBEN). A dose-response relationship model is established using a quadratic polynomial regression analysis based on construction noise exposure measurements from 40 construction sites in Hangzhou, Ningbo and Wenzhou. The results of the study indicate that the majority of people have a negative attitude to construction noise; the noise ranges between 60 dB and 80 dB (compared with 50 dB-70 dB traffic noise in Tianjin), with the percentage of highly annoyed people affected increasing from 15%-20% to 30%-40% over the range. There also different levels of annoyance depending on the time of day, and the location and activities of those affected. Other cultural differences are also apparent both between Ningbo/Wenzhou and the more urbane citizens of Hangzhou, and the Chinese people and their more noise-tolerant EU and Vietnam counterparts. The findings of this study provide a new perspective for the study of construction noise that can help local governments have an improved understanding of how residents react to construction noise for the purpose of selecting construction noise-mitigation projects and introducing construction noise-control regulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Spatiotemporal Characterization of Ambient PM2.5 Concentrations in Shandong Province (China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Christakos, George

    2015-11-17

    China experiences severe particulate matter (PM) pollution problems closely linked to its rapid economic growth. Advancing the understanding and characterization of spatiotemporal air pollution distribution is an area where improved quantitative methods are of great benefit to risk assessment and environmental policy. This work uses the Bayesian maximum entropy (BME) method to assess the space-time variability of PM2.5 concentrations and predict their distribution in the Shandong province, China. Daily PM2.5 concentrations obtained at air quality monitoring sites during 2014 were used. On the basis of the space-time PM2.5 distributions generated by BME, we performed three kinds of querying analysis to reveal the main distribution features. The results showed that the entire region of interest is seriously polluted (BME maps identified heavy pollution clusters during 2014). Quantitative characterization of pollution severity included both pollution level and duration. The number of days during which regional PM2.5 exceeded 75, 115, 150, and 250 μg m(-3) varied: 43-253, 13-128, 4-66, and 0-15 days, respectively. The PM2.5 pattern exhibited an increasing trend from east to west, with the western part of Shandong being a heavily polluted area (PM2.5 exceeded 150 μg m(-3) during long time periods). Pollution was much more serious during winter than during other seasons. Site indicators of PM2.5 pollution intensity and space-time variation were used to assess regional uncertainties and risks with their interpretation depending on the pollutant threshold. The observed PM2.5 concentrations exceeding a specified threshold increased almost linearly with increasing threshold value, whereas the relative probability of excess pollution decreased sharply with increasing threshold.

  5. [Genetic Characteristics of Type 2 Vaccine-derived Poliovirus in Shanxi Province (China) in 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dongrei; Li, Xiaolei; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Jianfang; Zhu, Shuangli; Wang, Dongyan; Zhang, Chuangye; Zhu, Hui; Xu, Wenbo

    2015-03-01

    The World Health Organization redefined the type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) in 2010. To study the genetic characteristics and evolution of type 2 VDPV under this new definition, we conducted genome sequencing and analyses of type 2 VDPVs isolated from one patient with acute flaccid paralysis in Shanxi province (China) in 2014. Nucleotide sequencing revealed that the full-length of type 2 VDPV is 7439 bases encoding 2207 amino acids with no insertion or deletion of nucleotides compared with Sabin2. One nucleotide substitution identified as a key determinant of the attenuated phenotype of the Sabin 2 strain (A-G reversion at nucleotide nt 481 in the 5-end of the untranslated region) had reverted in the Shanxi type 2 VDPV. The other known key determinant of the attenuated phenotype of the Sabin 2 strain (U-->C reversion at nt2909 in the VP1 coding region that caused a Ile143Thr substitution in VP1) had not reverted in the Shanxi VDPV. The Shanxi type 2 VDPV was S2/S1 recombinant, the crossover site of which mapped to the 3-end of the 3D region (between nt 6247 and nt 6281). A phylogentic tree based on the VP1 coding region showed that evolution of the Shanxi type 2 VDPV was independent of other type 2 VDPVs detected worldwide. We estimated that the strain circulated for approximately = 11 months in the population according to the known evolution rate. The present study confirmed that the Chinese Polio Laboratory Network could discover the VDPV promptly and that it played an important part in maintenance of a polio-free China.

  6. Estimation of net primary productivity using a process-based model in Gansu Province, Northwest China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peijuan; Xie, Donghui; Zhou, Yuyu; E, Youhao; Zhu, Qijiang

    2014-01-16

    The ecological structure in the arid and semi-arid region of Northwest China with forest, grassland, agriculture, Gobi, and desert, is complex, vulnerable, and unstable. It is a challenging and sustaining job to keep the ecological structure and improve its ecological function. Net primary productivity (NPP) modeling can help to improve the understanding of the ecosystem, and therefore, improve ecological efficiency. The boreal ecosystem productivity simulator (BEPS) model provides the possibility of NPP modeling in terrestrial ecosystem, but it has some limitations for application in arid and semi-arid regions. In this paper we improve the BEPS model, in terms of its water cycle by adding the processes of infiltration and surface runoff, to be applicable in arid and semi-arid regions. We model the NPP of forest, grass, and crop in Gansu Province as an experimental area in Northwest China in 2003 using the improved BEPS model, parameterized with moderate resolution remote sensing imageries and meteorological data. The modeled NPP using improved BEPS agrees better with the ground measurements in Qilian Mountain than that with original BEPS, with a higher R2 of 0.746 and lower root mean square error (RMSE) of 46.53 gC/m2 compared to R2 of 0.662 and RMSE of 60.19 gC/m2 from original BEPS. The modeled NPP of three vegetation types using improved BEPS show evident differences compared to that using original BEPS, with the highest difference ratio of 9.21% in forest and the lowest value of 4.29% in crop. The difference ratios between different vegetation types lie on the dependence on natural water sources. The modeled NPP in five geographic zones using improved BEPS are higher than those with original BEPS, with higher difference ratio in dry zones and lower value in wet zones.

  7. Evaluation of the impact of hepatitis B vaccination in adults in Jiangsu province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liguo Zhu

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B immunization programs for newborns, children, and adolescents in China have shown remarkable results. To establish whether there would be any benefit in extending the program to cover older individuals, we examined both the epidemiology of hepatitis B virus (HBV infection and the coverage of hepatitis B vaccinations among adults born before routine vaccinations were implemented. We then evaluated the impact of hepatitis B vaccination in adults aged 20-59 years. A large-scale cross-sectional epidemiological survey of HBV infection was performed in the province of Jiangsu, south-east China, between September 2009 and March 2010. A total of 86,732 adults aged 20-59 years were included, of which 8,615 (9.9%, 95% CI = 9.7-10.1% were HBsAg sero-positive. Self-reported vaccination status suggested that the coverage was approximately 23.7% (95% CI = 23.4-24.0%. It was shown that higher HBV vaccination coverage was associated with a lower rate of HBsAg seropositivity among adults. There was a negative correlation between hepatitis B vaccination coverage and HBsAg prevalence (correlation coefficient = -0.805, p = 0.016, which might demonstrate the combined effects of vaccination and pre-vaccination HBsAg screening. In the unvaccinated group, the HBsAg-positive rate had an obvious upward trend with age growing among 20-39 year-olds (Trend χ2 = 22.605, P<0.001, while the vaccinated group showed no such trend (Trend χ2 = 3.462, P = 0.063. Overall, hepatitis B vaccination in adults might reduce the rate of HBsAg positivity. Therefore, routine immunization of adults aged 20-39 years should be seriously considered.

  8. Prevalence and Characteristics of Salmonella Isolated from Free-Range Chickens in Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaonan; Gao, Yanxia; Ye, Chaoqun; Yang, Lingling; Wang, Tao; Chang, Weishan

    2016-01-01

    Compared with chickens raised in intensively managed breeding farms, free-range chickens in China are quite popular due to lower breeding density and less antibiotics usage. However, investigations about Salmonella enterica from free-range chickens are quite rare. The aim of the present study was to investigate prevalence and characteristics of Salmonella in free-range chickens in Shandong province, China. During the period of August and November 2015, 300 fresh fecal swabs from different broilers in three free-range chicken farms (100 samples per farm) were collected to isolate Salmonella , and then these isolates were subjected to serotyping, antibiotic sensitivity testing, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR), and multilocus sequence typing (ST). A total of 38 Salmonella isolates (38/300, 12.7%) were recovered. The most common serotype was Enteritidis (81.6%), followed by Indiana (13.2%) and Typhimurium (5.3%). Twenty-two out of 38 isolates (57.9%) were resistant to ampicillin, the highest resistance rate, but resistance rates to cefazolin, cefotaxime, and ceftazidime were only 7.9%. The multidrug resistance (MDR) rate was 26.3%. Additionally, the Salmonella isolates could be classified into 25 genotypes by ERIC-PCR and were divided into three ST types (ST11, ST17, and ST19), with ST11 the highest isolation rate (81.6%). In summary, as with other poultry, free-ranging chickens may also serve as potential reservoir for antibiotic resistant Salmonella , thereby posing a threat to public health.

  9. Physical maltreatment of children with autism in Henan province in China: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Guiqin; Chen, Jingqi; Zhang, Wenjing; Yu, Buyi; Jin, Yanqin; Wang, Yazhe; Yao, Meiling

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of child physical maltreatment (CPM) in children with autism aged 2-5 years in Henan province (China), and to explore the risk factors for severe CPM in these children. This cross-sectional study was performed at the Psychology Clinic of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University between September 2012 and September 2013 with 180 parents of children with autism. Children and parents had no history of any cognitive therapy. The childhood autism rating scale (CARS) was used to evaluate the severity of autism in children. Data on parental CPM during the past 3 months were collected from parental self-reporting. Logistic regression was used to investigate the risk factors of severe CPM. CPM was self-reported by 88% of the parents of children with autism. One hundred and fifty four of these cases were in the minor CPM group (86%) and 64 in the severe CPM group (36%). Most cases of severe CPM were unlikely to have caused injury. Univariate analyses showed that child's age (p=.018), age started to speak (p=.043) and CARS score (p=.048) were associated with severe CPM. Child's age (p=.011) and CARS score (p=.041) were independently associated with severe CPM. The risk of severe CPM increased with age and CARS score. Our findings showed that CPM is widespread in families of children with autism in Central China and more knowledge should be provided to parents of children with autism, particularly in cases of severe autism (those with high CARS scores). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluating the water footprint of the energy supply of Liaoning Province, China: A regional input–output analysis approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okadera, Tomohiro; Geng, Yong; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Dong, Huijuan; Liu, Zhu; Yoshida, Noboru; Kanazawa, Takaaki

    2015-01-01

    Water and energy are important resources for regional economies and are inextricably and reciprocally linked. Global water and energy demand will increase significantly by 2030 while climate change will worsen water availability. Thus, it is important to ensure a sustainable energy supply despite the increasing severity of water resource constraints. Numerous studies have analyzed water requirements to produce energy from production perspectives. However, energy is generally supplied by both internal and external producers. Thus, it is necessary to consider the availability of water to produce energy from consumption perspectives also. We evaluate the water footprint of the energy supply of Liaoning Province, China. We apply the standard top-down approach using an input–output framework. We estimate the water footprint of the energy supply of Liaoning Province at 854 million m 3 in 2002, with 47% of water used for electricity and heating. Our results reveal that energy supply could depend on water resources in neighboring provinces; external producers met 80% of the water footprint of energy supply, although only 35% of energy supply was imported. If Liaoning Province decreased its external dependency, withdrawal of available water resources within the province would increase from 86% to 91%. To guarantee future regional energy security, it is important to manage water resources effectively through water-efficient electricity generation and by allocating water resources among sectors. - Highlights: • We assess the water footprint of energy supply (WFES) for Liaoning Province, China. • The WFES for 2002 was 854 million m 3 , with 47% used for electricity and heating. • External sources accounted for 80% of the WFES and 47% of the energy supply. • Without energy imports, water resource withdrawal would increase from 86% to 91%. • Effective water resource management is important for regional energy security

  11. What makes renewable energy successful in China? The case of the Shandong province solar water heater innovation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goess, Simon; Jong, Martin de; Ravesteijn, Wim

    2015-01-01

    The Chinese province of Shandong, and more particularly its cities Dezhou, Jinan and Rizhao, have established an international reputation of being hotbeds for solar water heating (SWH) technology development and dissemination. The article aims to unveil the evolution of this innovative environment by applying the Functions of Innovation Systems (FIS) approach to the Chinese province of Shandong. It examines the actors, institutions and policy instruments that shape Shandong's innovation system for SWH, the dominant drivers and barriers during the evolution of the TIS and also assesses the applicability of the IS approach to China. It appears that the presence of influential interest organizations and proactive support from local governments have acted as strong drivers for the emergence of Shandong's innovation system for SWHs. On the other hand, the lack of adequate personnel and an overreliance on government policies act as main barriers. With regard to the Chinese specificities potentially detracting from the relevance of applying IS theory to China, we did not find that the central government acted as an initiator of innovation nor that state-owned enterprises had dominant positions in the market. In this innovative industry the impetus for development came from the bottom up and from private corporations. - Highlights: • Application of the functions of innovation systems framework to Chinese province. • Analysis of the evolution of Shandong's solar water heating industry and market. • Local governments and interest organizations make innovation environment successful. • Bottom-up development and dissemination of renewable energy in China.

  12. Environmental isotope investigation of groundwaters in the region of Taiyuan, Shanxi Province of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Keqin; Lin Ruifen; Wang Zhixiang

    1988-01-01

    A comprehensive environmental isotope investigation of several complex groundwater systems and the mixing of groundwater with surface water in the region of Taiyuan, Shanxi Province of China, is presented. Environmental isotopes, including stable isotopes, tritium and uranium series in water and its activity ratio 234 U/ 238 U are applied to divide karstic groundwaters into separate Xishan and Dongshan systems. The Xishan karstic water system shows a great scattering of isotope data. This results from the mixing of karstic groundwater and surface water from the Fenhe River. The Dongshan system is homogeneous and karstic water is tritium free and its age should be more than 50-100 a. The increase in uranium activity ratio, which is correlated with the length of the flow paths, shows the run-off direction of the Dongshan karstic water system towards the major natural outlet, the Lancun Spring. The altitudes of recharge of Xishan and Dongshan karstic waters are evaluated as 1400 m and 1300 m, respectively. The ages of fissure groundwaters in metamorphic rocks are determined in terms of their tritium content. Some practical considerations upon groundwater management are also drawn from isotope results. (author). 9 refs, 10 figs, 9 tabs

  13. Problematic Internet Use in high school students in Guangdong Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Problematic Internet Use (PIU is a growing problem in Chinese adolescents. There are many risk factors for PIU, which are found at school and at home. This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of PIU and to investigate the potential risk factors for PIU among high school students in China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 14,296 high school students were surveyed in four cities in Guangdong province. Problematic Internet Use was assessed by the 20-item Young Internet Addiction Test (YIAT. Information was also collected on demographics, family and school-related factors and Internet usage patterns. Of the 14,296 students, 12,446 were Internet users. Of those, 12.2% (1,515 were identified as problematic Internet users (PIUs. Generalized mixed-model regression revealed that there was no gender difference between PIUs and non-PIUs. High study-related stress, having social friends, poor relations with teachers and students and conflictive family relationships were risk factors for PIU. Students who spent more time on-line were more likely to develop PIU. The habits of and purposes for Internet usage were diverse, influencing the susceptibility to PIU. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: PIU is common among high school students, and risk factors are found at home and at school. Teachers and parents should pay close attention to these risk factors. Effective measures are needed to prevent the spread of this problem.

  14. Prevalence and genetic characterization of Cryptosporidium in yaks in Qinghai Province of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongsheng Mi

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, species and subtypes of Cryptosporidium infecting yaks in the Qinghai Province of Northwestern China. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. was detected by microscopy and nested-PCR. A total of 586 fecal samples were collected from yaks in 6 counties, of which 142 (24.2% samples tested positive for Cryptosporidium. The small subunit (SSU rRNA gene of fifty-five samples were amplified and sequenced successfully and demonstrated that Cryptosporidium bovis (31/55, 56.4% was the most common species, followed by C. parvum (16/55, 29.1% and C. ryanae (5/55, 9.0%. Mixed infections of C. parvum and C. bovis (n = 2, C. ryanae and C. bovis (n = 1 were also detected. All three species were found in yaks ranging in age from 2 years. Cryptosporidium was most commonly detected in spring (28.4%, followed by summer (20.9%, then winter (17.5%. Cryptosporidium parvum positive samples were subtyped using the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60 gene. Subtypes IIaA15G2R1 (n = 8, IIaA16G2R1 (n = 2, IIaA14G1R1 (n = 1, IIaA14G2R1 (n = 1 and IIaA16G3R1 (n = 1 were detected. All of these subtypes are zoonotic, and may pose a potential threat to human health.

  15. Resource and environment efficiency analysis of provinces in China: A DEA approach based on Shannon's entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bian Yiwen; Yang Feng

    2010-01-01

    Data envelopment analysis (DEA) has been widely used in energy efficiency and environment efficiency analysis in recent years. Based on the existing environment DEA technology, this paper presents several DEA models for estimating the aggregated efficiency of resource and environment. These models can evaluate DMUs' energy efficiencies and environment efficiencies simultaneously. However, efficiency ranking results obtained from these models are not the same, and each model can provide some valuable information of DMUs' efficiencies, which we could not ignore. Under this situation, it may be hard for us to choose a specific model in practice. To address this kind of performance evaluation problem, the current paper extends Shannon-DEA procedure to establish a comprehensive efficiency measure for appraising DMUs' resource and environment efficiencies. In the proposed approach, the measure for evaluating a model's importance degree is provided, and the targets setting approach of inputs/outputs for DMU managers to improve DMUs' energy and environmental efficiencies is also discussed. We illustrate the proposed approach using real data set of 30 provinces in China.

  16. Seasonal patterns in microbial communities inhabiting the hot springs of Tengchong, Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Brandon R; Brodie, Eoin L; Tom, Lauren M; Dong, Hailiang; Jiang, Hongchen; Huang, Qiuyuan; Wang, Shang; Hou, Weiguo; Wu, Geng; Huang, Liuquin; Hedlund, Brian P; Zhang, Chuanlun; Dijkstra, Paul; Hungate, Bruce A

    2014-06-01

    Studies focusing on seasonal dynamics of microbial communities in terrestrial and marine environments are common; however, little is known about seasonal dynamics in high-temperature environments. Thus, our objective was to document the seasonal dynamics of both the physicochemical conditions and the microbial communities inhabiting hot springs in Tengchong County, Yunnan Province, China. The PhyloChip microarray detected 4882 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) within 79 bacterial phylum-level groups and 113 OTUs within 20 archaeal phylum-level groups, which are additional 54 bacterial phyla and 11 archaeal phyla to those that were previously described using pyrosequencing. Monsoon samples (June 2011) showed increased concentrations of potassium, total organic carbon, ammonium, calcium, sodium and total nitrogen, and decreased ferrous iron relative to the dry season (January 2011). At the same time, the highly ordered microbial communities present in January gave way to poorly ordered communities in June, characterized by higher richness of Bacteria, including microbes related to mesophiles. These seasonal changes in geochemistry and community structure are likely due to high rainfall influx during the monsoon season and indicate that seasonal dynamics occurs in high-temperature environments experiencing significant changes in seasonal recharge. Thus, geothermal environments are not isolated from the surrounding environment and seasonality affects microbial ecology. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Tidal triggering of earthquakes in the Ning'er area of Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chaodi; Lei, Xinglin; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Ma, Qingbo; Yang, Simeng; Wang, Yingnan

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the potential effect of tidal modulation on the seismicity in the Ning'er area, a seismically and geothermally active zone in Yunnan Province, China, we studied the correlation between Earth tides and the occurrence of M ≥ 6.0 earthquakes dating back to 1970, as well as their aftershock sequences, using theoretically calculated tidal stresses and a statistical test. The results show a significant correlation between Earth tides and the occurrence of earthquakes. Six of seven main events occurred when the Earth tide increased the Coulomb failure stress on the source fault. Four main events occurred in a narrow range of phase angle corresponding to the maximum loading rate of tidal stress. Furthermore, the histories of the aftershock sequence as a function of the tidal phases demonstrate clear tidal modulation with a high significance. Thus, we conclude that Earth tides have a clear role in triggering (or modulating) the rupture of the fault systems in the Ning'er area.

  18. Contents and occurrence of cadmium in the coals from Guizhou province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dangyu; Wang, Mingshi; Zhang, Junying; Zheng, Chuguang

    2008-10-01

    Eleven raw coal samples were collected from Liuzhi, Suicheng, Zunyi, Xingren, Xingyi, and Anlong districts in Guizhou Province, Southwest China. The content of cadmium (Cd) in coal was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS). Cd contents ranged from 0.146 to 2.74 ppm (whole coal basis), with an average of 1.09 ppm. In comparison with the arithmetic means of Cd in Chinese coal (0.25 ppm), this is much higher. In order to find its occurrence in coal, float-sink analysis and a coal flotation test by progressive release were conducted on two raw coal samples. The content of the Cd and ash yield of the flotation products were determined. The organic matter was removed by low-temperature ashing (LTA). X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to differentiate the main, minor, and trace minerals in the LTA from different flotation subproducts. Quartz, kaolinite, pyrite, and calcite were found to dominate the mineral matters, with a proportion of anatase, muscovite, and illite. Then quantitative analysis of minerals in LTA was conducted using material analysis using diffraction (MAUD) based on the Rietveld refinement method. Results show that Cd has a strong association with kaolinite.

  19. Contents and occurrence of cadmium in the coals from Guizhou Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dangyu Song; Mingshi Wang; Junying Zhang; Chuguang Zheng [Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo (China). Institute of Resources and Environment

    2008-10-15

    Eleven raw coal samples were collected from Liuzhi, Suicheng, Zunyi, Xingren, Xingyi, and Anlong districts in Guizhou Province, Southwest China. The content of cadmium (Cd) in coal was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS). Cd contents ranged from 0.146 to 2.74 ppm (whole coal basis), with an average of 1.09 ppm. In comparison with the arithmetic means of Cd in Chinese coal (0.25 ppm), this is much higher. In order to find its occurrence in coal, float-sink analysis and a coal flotation test by progressive release were conducted on two raw coal samples. The content of the Cd and ash yield of the flotation products were determined. The organic matter was removed by low-temperature ashing (LTA). X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to differentiate the main, minor, and trace minerals in the LTA from different flotation subproducts. Quartz, kaolinite, pyrite, and calcite were found to dominate the mineral matters, with a proportion of anatase, muscovite, and illite. Then quantitative analysis of minerals in LTA was conducted using material analysis using diffraction (MAUD) based on the Rietveld refinement method. Results show that Cd has a strong association with kaolinite.

  20. Spatial Patterns and the Regional Differences of Rural Settlements in Jilin Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The spatial patterns of rural settlements are important for understanding the drivers of land use change and the relationship between human activity and environmental processes. It has been suggested that the clustering of houses decreases the negative effects on the environment and promotes the development of the countryside, but few empirical studies have quantified the spatial distribution patterns of houses. Our aim was to explore the regional differences in rural settlement patterns and expand our understanding of their geographic associations, and thus contribute to land use planning and the implementation of the policy of “building a new countryside”. We used spatial statistical methods and indices of landscape metrics to investigate different settlement patterns in three typical counties within different environments in Jilin Province, Northeast China. The results indicated that rural settlements in these three counties were all clustered, but to a varied degree. Settlement density maps and landscape metrics displayed uniformity of the settlement distributions within plain, hill, and mountainous areas. Influenced by the physical environment, the scale, form, and degree of aggregation varied. Accordingly, three types of rural settlements were summarized: a low-density, large-scale and sparse type; a mass-like and point-scattered type; and a low-density and high cluster-like type. The spatial patterns of rural settlements are the result of anthropogenic and complex physical processes, and provide an important insight for the layout and management of the countryside.

  1. Abundance and diversity of archaeal accA gene in hot springs in Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhao-Qi; Wang, Li; Wang, Feng-Ping; Jiang, Hong-Chen; Chen, Jin-Quan; Zhou, En-Min; Liang, Feng; Xiao, Xiang; Li, Wen-Jun

    2013-09-01

    It has been suggested that archaea carrying the accA gene, encoding the alpha subunit of the acetyl CoA carboxylase, autotrophically fix CO2 using the 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate pathway in low-temperature environments (e.g., soils, oceans). However, little new information has come to light regarding the occurrence of archaeal accA genes in high-temperature ecosystems. In this study, we investigated the abundance and diversity of archaeal accA gene in hot springs in Yunnan Province, China, using DNA- and RNA-based phylogenetic analyses and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that archaeal accA genes were present and expressed in the investigated Yunnan hot springs with a wide range of temperatures (66-96 °C) and pH (4.3-9.0). The majority of the amplified archaeal accA gene sequences were affiliated with the ThAOA/HWCG III [thermophilic ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA)/hot water crenarchaeotic group III]. The archaeal accA gene abundance was very close to that of AOA amoA gene, encoding the alpha subunit of ammonia monooxygenase. These data suggest that AOA in terrestrial hot springs might acquire energy from ammonia oxidation coupled with CO2 fixation using the 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate pathway.

  2. Longitudinal Surveillance of Betacoronaviruses in Fruit Bats in Yunnan Province, China During 2009-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yun; Li, Bei; Jiang, Ren-Di; Hu, Bing-Jie; Luo, Dong-Sheng; Zhu, Guang-Jian; Hu, Ben; Liu, Hai-Zhou; Zhang, Yun-Zhi; Yang, Xing-Lou; Shi, Zheng-Li

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies indicated that fruit bats carry two betacoronaviruses, BatCoV HKU9 and BatCoV GCCDC1. To investigate the epidemiology and genetic diversity of these coronaviruses, we conducted a longitudinal surveillance in fruit bats in Yunnan province, China during 2009-2016. A total of 59 (10.63%) bat samples were positive for the two betacorona-viruses, 46 (8.29%) for HKU9 and 13 (2.34%) for GCCDC1, or closely related viruses. We identified a novel HKU9 strain, tentatively designated as BatCoV HKU9-2202, by sequencing the full-length genome. The BatCoV HKU9-2202 shared 83% nucleotide identity with other BatCoV HKU9 stains based on whole genome sequences. The most divergent region is in the spike protein, which only shares 68% amino acid identity with BatCoV HKU9. Quantitative PCR revealed that the intestine was the primary infection organ of BatCoV HKU9 and GCCDC1, but some HKU9 was also detected in the heart, kidney, and lung tissues of bats. This study highlights the importance of virus surveillance in natural reservoirs and emphasizes the need for preparedness against the potential spill-over of these viruses to local residents living near bat caves.

  3. Extreme Weather Impacts on Maize Yield: The Case of Shanxi Province in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taoyuan Wei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Extreme weather can have negative impacts on crop production. In this study, we statistically estimate the impacts of dry days, heat waves, and cold days on maize yield based on household survey data from 1993 to 2011 in ten villages of Shanxi province, China. Our results show that dry days, heat waves, and cold days have negative effects on maize yield, although these effects are marginal if these extreme events do not increase dramatically. Specifically, a one percent increase in extreme-heat-degree-days and consecutive-dry-days results in a maize yield declines of 0.2% and 0.07%, respectively. Maize yield also is reduced by 0.3% for cold days occurring during the growing season from May to September. However, these extreme events can increase dramatically in a warmer world and result in considerable reduction in maize yields. If all the historical temperatures in the villages are shifted up by 2 degrees Celsius, total impacts of these extreme events would lead to a reduction of maize yield by over 30 percent. The impacts may be underestimated since we did not exclude the offset effect of adaptation measures adopted by farmers to combat these extreme events.

  4. Identifying Flood-Related Infectious Diseases in Anhui Province, China: A Spatial and Temporal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lu; Zhang, Ying; Ding, Guoyong; Liu, Qiyong; Jiang, Baofa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore infectious diseases related to the 2007 Huai River flood in Anhui Province, China. The study was based on the notified incidences of infectious diseases between June 29 and July 25 from 2004 to 2011. Daily incidences of notified diseases in 2007 were compared with the corresponding daily incidences during the same period in the other years (from 2004 to 2011, except 2007) by Poisson regression analysis. Spatial autocorrelation analysis was used to test the distribution pattern of the diseases. Spatial regression models were then performed to examine the association between the incidence of each disease and flood, considering lag effects and other confounders. After controlling the other meteorological and socioeconomic factors, malaria (odds ratio [OR] = 3.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.77–7.61), diarrhea (OR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.24–3.78), and hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection (OR = 6.11, 95% CI = 1.04–35.84) were significantly related to the 2007 Huai River flood both from the spatial and temporal analyses. Special attention should be given to develop public health preparation and interventions with a focus on malaria, diarrhea, and HAV infection, in the study region. PMID:26903612

  5. Prevalence and Causes of Visual Impairment and Blindness in Shanxi Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Du, Liping; Du, Lingzhen

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence and causes of visual impairment and blindness in Shanxi Province, China. Data were obtained from the Second National Sampling Survey of Disability conducted in 2006. Blindness and visual impairment were defined as best corrected visual acuity Visual acuity (VA) was measured using a Standard Logarithmic Visual Acuity E chart (Snellen) for subjects aged 7 years and older. Participants younger than 7 years were examined using special experiments or the Childhood Graphical Visual Chart. The prevalence of visual impairment and blindness in Shanxi was estimated to be 0.6% (466/75,016) among persons up to 80 years old. The prevalence in rural areas (0.7%; 351/48,137) was significantly higher than that in urban areas (0.4%; 115/26,879) and was higher in females (0.8%; 298/36,933) than in males (0.4%; 168/38,083). The most common cause of visual impairment and blindness was cataract (44.9%), followed by retinopathy and choroidopathy (12.5%), hereditary and developmental disorders (10.3%), corneal disease (5.2%), and refractive error (4.9%). Prevalences of visual impairment and blindness in women and in rural areas were higher than in men and urban areas, and increased with age. Cataract was the most prevalent cause of visual impairment and blindness. Based on the findings from this study, we suggest that provision of support and welfare services should be organized.

  6. Prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in Tibetan monks from Gansu Province, Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinghui; Cai, Hui; He, Jin; Ramachandran, Devasundaram; Xie, Ping; Huang, Yan; Wang, Hongjing; Liu, Yan; Qiao, Yan; Zhang, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Tibetan monks are a special group in life style and diet customs. We have little information of hypertension about them. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the information on the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in these populations. A cross-sectional study of hypertension was carried out in 984 monks and 1042 Tibetan residents' controls in the same area. All the subjects were selected for interview, and physical examination involved blood pressure (BP) measurement. The overall prevalence of hypertension in monks was significantly lower than those in local residents (19.3% versus 34.1%; p monks were also lower than those in local residents (9.5% versus 16.9%, 4.2% versus 13.2% and 1.6% versus 4.5%; p monks aged 18 years and over in Gannan Tibetan autonomous district of Gansu province in China. We concluded that the relatively healthy diet and ways of life in monks were the major contributing factors to the lower prevalence of hypertension. However, the awareness, treatment and control rates of hypertension were also low. The possible reasons were most likely due to the difficult access to quality medical care and poor health education.

  7. A NEW PERLEIDID FROM THE SPATHIAN (OLENEKIAN, EARLY TRIASSIC OF CHAOHU, ANHUI PROVINCE, CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZUOYU SUN

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A new actinopterygian genus and species, Chaohuperleidus  primus gen. n. n. sp., is described from the Upper Member of the Nanlinghu Formation (Spathian, Olenekian, Early Triassic at Majiashan (Majia Hill, Chaohu City, Anhui Province, Southeast China. The new taxon is assigned to the order Perleidiformes on the base of a combination of features: large wedge-like preoperculum with expanded infraorbital process and sensory canal running almost vertical along the posterior margin of the preoperculum itself, flank scalessomewhat higher than longer in the trunk region and presence of epaxial rays in the caudal fin.AmongPerleidiformes, the new taxonbelongsto thePerleididae, being very similar to Perleidus in the general body shape, pattern of the skull bones, the dentitionmade of peg-like marginal teeth,and number of epaxial rays. The new genus is characterized by the presence of a very large antero-dorsal process on the suboperculum, a high number (about 55 of transversal scale rows and dorsal and anal fin quite posterior. Chaohuperleidus gen. n., beingSpathianin age,represents the oldest record of the order Perleidiformes. 

  8. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Chlamydia abortus infection in Tibetan sheep in Gansu province, northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Si-Yuan; Yin, Ming-Yang; Cong, Wei; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Zhao, Quan; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Zhou, Ji-Zhang; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia abortus, an important pathogen in a variety of animals, is associated with abortion in sheep. In the present study, 1732 blood samples, collected from Tibetan sheep between June 2013 and April 2014, were examined by the indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test, aiming to evaluate the seroprevalence and risk factors of C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. 323 of 1732 (18.65%) samples were seropositive for C. abortus antibodies at the cut-off of 1:16. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk factors associated with seroprevalence, which could provide foundation to prevent and control C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. Gender of Tibetan sheep was left out of the final model because it is not significant in the logistic regression analysis (P > 0.05). Region, season, and age were considered as major risk factors associated with C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep in Gansu province, northwest China, with higher exposure risk in different seasons and ages and distinct geographical distribution.

  9. Phylogenetic analysis of canine parvovirus isolates from Sichuan and Gansu provinces of China in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; Guo, H-C; Wei, Y-Q; Shu, L; Wang, J; Li, J-S; Cao, S-Z; Sun, S-Q

    2015-02-01

    Canine parvovirus causes serious disease in dogs. Study of the genetic variation in emerging CPV strains is important for disease control strategy. The antigenic property of CPV is connected with specific amino acid changes, mainly in the capsid protein VP2. This study was carried out to characterize VP2 gene of CPV viruses from two provinces of China in 2011. The complete VP2 genes of the CPV-positive samples were amplified and sequenced. Genetic analysis based on the VP2 genes of CPV was conducted. All of the isolates screened and sequenced in this study were typed as CPV-2a except GS-K11 strain, which was typed as CPV-2b. Sequence comparison showed nucleotide identities of 98.8-100% among CPV strains, whereas the Aa similarities were 99.6-100%. Compared with the reference strains, there are three distinctive amino acid changes at VP2 gene residue 267, 324 and 440 of the strains isolated in this study. Of the 27 strains, fourteen (51.85%) had the 267 (Phe-Tyr) and 440 (Thr-Ala) substitution, all the 27 (100%) had 324 (Tyr-Ile) substitution. Phylogenetically, all of the strains isolated in this study formed a major monophyletic cluster together with one South Korean isolate, two Thailand isolates and four Chinese former isolates. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Peer Support for Diabetes Management in Primary Care and Community Settings in Anhui Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xuefeng; Wang, Zhimin; Fisher, Edwin B; Tanasugarn, Chanuantong

    2015-08-01

    We evaluated a peer leader-support program (PLSP) for diabetes self-management in China in terms of acceptability and feasibility; implementation; perceived advantages; disadvantages and barriers; reach and recruitment; effectiveness in terms of diabetes knowledge and clinical impacts; adoption; and sustainability. Within each of 3 cities in Anhui Province, 2 subcommunities were randomly assigned to usual care or PLSP. Peer leaders and staff of Community Health Service Centers (CHSCs) co-led biweekly educational meetings. Peer leaders also led biweekly discussion meetings, promoted regular care through the CHSCs, organized informal health promotion activities (eg, walking and tai chi groups), and provided informal individual support to participants through casual contact. Qualitative evaluations indicated acceptance of and positive responses to the program among patients, peer leaders, and CHSC staff. Implementation was successful in 2 of 3 subcommunities, the third failing for lack of staff resources. Reported advantages included peer support as a bridge between CHSCs and their patients. In 2 sites where the PLSP was implemented, analyses controlling for baseline differences and site showed significant benefits for PLSP relative to controls (P management. The PLSP was well accepted, feasible given sufficient administrative and staff resources, effective for those who participated, and generalizable to other sites and health problems. © 2015 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  11. Trends and Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Sustainability in Eastern Anhui Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes and evaluates the status and long-term trend of regional economic sustainability in eastern Anhui Province, China. Based on the triangle model and the definition of economic sustainable development, this study evaluates the interrelationship among regional economic development, resource-energy consumption, environmental pollution, and ecological performance. The sustainable and comprehensive utilization situation in the study region from 1975–2012 is examined. The results show that in 2012, the comprehensive development in the study region had a general status in terms of sustainability. The sustainable development trend of the seven administrative subunits inside the region had a weak and general status in terms of sustainability, while the status of sustainability in the southeastern part of the region was better than that in the northwest. During the period from 1975–1998, the study region’s comprehensive development presented a trend of general sustainability. In the period from 1998–2012, the region experienced a trend of very strong sustainability in its development. These statuses and trends have a certain relationship with the study region’s strong economic development and environmental protection over the past 37 years. The triangle method, as an intuitive platform for illustrating sustainability status and trends in economic development, seems to hold promise as an analytical management tool given its simplicity, ease of use, and flexibility.

  12. A small short-necked hupehsuchian from the lower Triassic of Hubei Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-hong; Motani, Ryosuke; Cheng, Long; Jiang, Da-yong; Rieppel, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Hupehsuchia is a group of enigmatic Triassic marine reptiles that is known exclusively from two counties in Hubei Province, China. One of the common features of the group was a modestly long neck with nine to ten cervical vertebrae. We report a new species of Hupehsuchia, Eohupehsuchus brevicollis gen. et sp. nov., which for the first time shows a short neck in this group, with six cervicals. The configuration of the skull roof in Eohupehsuchus is also unique among Hupehsuchia, with narrow frontals and posteriorly shifted parietals, warranting recognition of a new species. The taxon superficially resembles Nanchangosaurus in retaining hupehsuchian plesiomorphies, such as low neural spines and small body size. However, its limbs are well-developed, unlike in Nanchangosaurus, although the latter genus is marginally larger in body length. Thus, the individual is unlikely to be immature. Also, Eohupehsuchus shares a suite of synapomorphies with Hupehsuchus, including the second and third layers of dermal ossicles above the dorsal neural spines. A phylogenetic analysis suggests that the new species is not the most basal hupehsuchian despite its short neck, and instead forms the sister taxon of Hupehsuchidae. Until recently, Hupehsuchia contained only two monotypic genera. Now there are at least four genera among Hupehsuchia, and the undescribed diversity is even higher. The left forelimb of the only specimen is incomplete, ending with broken phalanges distally. The breakage could only have occurred pre-burial. The individual may have been attacked by a predator and escaped, given that scavenging is unlikely.

  13. A small short-necked hupehsuchian from the lower Triassic of Hubei Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-hong Chen

    Full Text Available Hupehsuchia is a group of enigmatic Triassic marine reptiles that is known exclusively from two counties in Hubei Province, China. One of the common features of the group was a modestly long neck with nine to ten cervical vertebrae. We report a new species of Hupehsuchia, Eohupehsuchus brevicollis gen. et sp. nov., which for the first time shows a short neck in this group, with six cervicals. The configuration of the skull roof in Eohupehsuchus is also unique among Hupehsuchia, with narrow frontals and posteriorly shifted parietals, warranting recognition of a new species. The taxon superficially resembles Nanchangosaurus in retaining hupehsuchian plesiomorphies, such as low neural spines and small body size. However, its limbs are well-developed, unlike in Nanchangosaurus, although the latter genus is marginally larger in body length. Thus, the individual is unlikely to be immature. Also, Eohupehsuchus shares a suite of synapomorphies with Hupehsuchus, including the second and third layers of dermal ossicles above the dorsal neural spines. A phylogenetic analysis suggests that the new species is not the most basal hupehsuchian despite its short neck, and instead forms the sister taxon of Hupehsuchidae. Until recently, Hupehsuchia contained only two monotypic genera. Now there are at least four genera among Hupehsuchia, and the undescribed diversity is even higher. The left forelimb of the only specimen is incomplete, ending with broken phalanges distally. The breakage could only have occurred pre-burial. The individual may have been attacked by a predator and escaped, given that scavenging is unlikely.

  14. [Genetic differentiation of Isaria farinosa populations in Anhui Province of East China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhao-Hong; Luan, Feng-Gang; Zhang, Da-Min; Chen, Ming-Jun; Wang, Bin; Li, Zeng-Zhi

    2011-11-01

    Isaria farinosa is an important entomopathogenic fungus. By using ISSR, this paper studied the genetic heterogeneity of six I. farinosa populations at different localities of Anhui Province, East China. A total of 98.5% polymorphic loci were amplified with ten polymorphic primers, but the polymorphism at population level varied greatly, within the range of 59.6%-93.2%. The genetic differentiation index (G(st)) between the populations based on Nei's genetic heterogenesis analysis was 0.3365, and the gene flow (N(m)) was 0.4931. The genetic differentiation between the populations was lower than that within the populations, suggesting that the genetic variation of I. farinosa mainly come from the interior of the populations. The UPGMA clustering based on the genetic similarities between the isolates revealed that the Xishan population was monophylectic, while the other five populations were polyphylectic, with the Yaoluoping population being the most heterogenic and the Langyashan population being the least heterogenic. No correlations were observed between the geographic distance and the genetic distance of the populations. According to the UPGMA clustering based on the genetic distance between the populations, the six populations were classified into three groups, and this classification was accorded with the clustering based on geographic environment, suggesting the effects of environmental heterogeneity on the population heterogeneity.

  15. Neogene seismites and seismic volcanic rocks in the Linqu area, Shandong Province, E China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian H.S.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Yishu Fault Zone runs through the centre of Shandong Province (E China; it is a deep-seated large fault system that still is active. Two volcanic faulted basins (the Shanwang and Linqu Basins in the Linqu area, west of the fault zone, are exposed to rifting, which process is accompanied by a series of tectonic and volcanic earthquakes with a magnitude of 5-8. Lacustrine sediments in the basins were affected by these earthquakes so that seismites with a variety of soft-sediment deformation structures originated. The seismites form part of the Shanwang Formation of the Linqu Group. Semi-consolidated fluvial conglomerates became deformed in a brittle way; these seismites are present at the base of the Yaoshan Formation. Intense earthquakes triggered by volcanic activity left their traces in the form of seismic volcanic rocks associated with liquefied-sand veins in the basalt/sand intercalations at the base of the Yaoshan Formation. These palaeo-earthquake records are dated around 14-10 Ma; they are responses to the intense tectonic extension and the basin rifting in this area and even the activity of the Yishu Fault Zone in the Himalayan tectonic cycle.

  16. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Chlamydia abortus Infection in Tibetan Sheep in Gansu Province, Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Yuan Qin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia abortus, an important pathogen in a variety of animals, is associated with abortion in sheep. In the present study, 1732 blood samples, collected from Tibetan sheep between June 2013 and April 2014, were examined by the indirect hemagglutination (IHA test, aiming to evaluate the seroprevalence and risk factors of C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. 323 of 1732 (18.65% samples were seropositive for C. abortus antibodies at the cut-off of 1 : 16. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk factors associated with seroprevalence, which could provide foundation to prevent and control C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. Gender of Tibetan sheep was left out of the final model because it is not significant in the logistic regression analysis (P>0.05. Region, season, and age were considered as major risk factors associated with C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep in Gansu province, northwest China, with higher exposure risk in different seasons and ages and distinct geographical distribution.

  17. GNSS Positioning by CORS and EGM2008 in Jilin Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Wu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Continuously Operating Reference Station (CORS technique has been widely applied in land resource management, surveying, mapping, deformation monitoring, precise navigation, etc. This article analyzed the positioning method using EGM2008 and CORS of Jilin Province, China. The vertical transformation of EGM2008 from WGS84 to China’s CGCS2000 datum and the horizontal coordinate transformation from CGCS2000 to a triangulation coordinate system were discussed. The results indicated that a local geoid with respect to CGCS2000 can be transferred from EGM2008 with the same accuracy, and the geoid correction between CGCS2000 and WGS84 varied from 0.023 m to 0.111 m. The coordinate transformation method based on the curve surface approximation method indicated that the theoretical error was less than 0.09 m in the grid within 10° longitudinal and 5° latitudinal, and less than 0.3 m in large area and 0.1 m in small area in field validation. The method proposed in this article expanded the positioning result and its application for JLCORS and other CORS with local datum.

  18. Geochemistry and zircon U-Pb geochronology of the Pulang complex, Yunnan province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, Zhenshan; Du, Yangsong; Cao, Yi; Gao, Fuping; Wang, Gongwen; Dong, Qian

    2014-01-01

    The Pulang complex is located tectonically at the southern margin of the Yidun-Zhongdian island arc belt in Yunnan province, China, and is closely related to formation of the Pulang copper deposit, which is the largest copper deposit in Asia. The Pulang complex can be divided into three intrusion stages based on contact relationships and petrological characteristics: (1) a first stage of quartz dioritic porphyry; (2) a second stage of quartz monzonitic porphyry; and (3) a third stage of granodioritic porphyry. The crystallization ages of these intrusion stages were determined by single-zircon U-Pb dating, yielding ages of 221.0 ± 1.0, 211.8 ± 0.5, and 206.3 ± 0.7 Ma for the first, second, and third stages, respectively. These dates, integrated with previous geochronological data and field investigations, indicate that the second-stage quartz monzonitic porphyry has a close spatial and temporal relationship with the large Pulang porphyry copper deposit. These age data, geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic results suggest that the Pulang complex formed in the Indo-Chinese epoch (257∼ 205 Ma) by multiphase intrusion of a mixture of mantle- and crust-derived magmas. (author)

  19. First human case of avian influenza A (H5N6 in Yunnan province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibo He

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report clinical, virological, and epidemiological features of the first death caused by a H5N6 avian influenza virus in Yunnan Province, China. Method: The case was described in clinical expression, chest radiography, blood test and treatment. Real-time RT-PCR was used to detect H5N6 virus RNA in clinical and environment samples. Epidemiological investigation was performed including case exposure history determinant, close contacts follow up, and environment sample collection. Results: The patient initially developed sore throat and coughs on 27 January 2015. The disease progressed to severe pneumonia, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. And the patient died on 6 February. A highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N6 virus was isolated from the tracheal aspirate specimen of the patient. The viral genome analyses revealed that the H5 hemmagglutinin gene belongs to 2.3.4.4 clade. Epidemiological investigation showed that the patient had exposure to wild bird. All close contacts of the patient did not present the same disease in seven consecutive days. A high H5 positive rate was detected in environmental samples from local live poultry markets. Conclusion: The findings suggest that studies on the source of the virus, transmission models, serologic investigations, vaccines, and enhancing surveillance in both humans and birds are necessary.

  20. Public Awareness of Drinking Water Safety and Contamination Accidents: A Case Study in Hainan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available To understand public awareness about drinking water safety and water contamination accidents in rural areas of China, two rural counties of Hainan Province were selected as pilot sites for investigation. We explored the degree of public satisfaction with drinking water quality, public trust of drinking water safety, and public awareness about drinking water problems and solutions. The results showed that 80.3% of respondents were satisfied with the quality of their drinking water. About 78.8% of respondents paid special attention or comparatively high attention to drinking water quality and contamination accidents, especially regarding potential damage to the human body and health, the influence scope, and the causes of accidents. A total 52.4% of respondents solved drinking water problems by themselves; few respondents complained to the health department or called the local telephone hotline. Age and sex did not play significant roles in the degree of public satisfaction with water quality or in the public perception of water pollution accidents; however, residents in rural areas within a drinking water quality monitoring network were more satisfied with their drinking water quality and more aware of drinking water contamination accidents than in areas outside of such a network. Respondents with higher education levels had greater awareness than those with lower education levels with respect to water quality and water pollution accidents.

  1. A new basal sauropodiform dinosaur from the Lower Jurassic of Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Ming; You, Hai-Lu; Wang, Tao

    2017-02-01

    The Lufeng Formation in Lufeng Basin of Yunnan Province, southwestern China preserves one of the richest terrestrial Lower Jurassic vertebrate faunas globally, especially for its basal sauropodomorphs, such as Lufengosaurus and Yunnanosaurus. Here we report a new taxon, Xingxiulong chengi gen. et sp. nov. represented by three partial skeletons with overlapping elements. Xingxiulong possesses a number of autapomorphies, such as transversely expanded plate-like summit on top of the neural spine of posterior dorsal vertebrae, four sacral vertebrae, robust scapula, and elongated pubic plate approximately 40% of the total length of the pubis. Phylogenetic analysis resolves Xingxiulong as a basal member of Sauropodiformes, and together with another two Lufeng basal sauropodiforms Jingshanosaurus and Yunnanosaurus, they represent the basalmost lineages of this clade, indicating its Asian origin. Although being relatively primitive, Xingxiulong displays some derived features normally occurred in advanced sauropodiforms including sauropods, such as a four sacral-sacrum, a robust scapula, and a pubis with elongated pubic plate. The discovery of Xingxiulong increases the diversity of basal sauropodomorphs from the Lufeng Formation and indicates a more complicated scenario in the early evolution of sauropodiforms.

  2. Traffic violations in Guangdong Province of China: speeding and drunk driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangnan; Yau, Kelvin K W; Gong, Xiangpu

    2014-03-01

    The number of speeding- and drunk driving-related injuries in China surged in the years immediately preceding 2004 and then began to decline. However, the percent decrease in the number of speeding and drunk driving incidents (decrease by 22%) is not proportional to the corresponding percent decrease in number of automobile accident-related injuries (decrease by 47%) from the year 2004 to 2010 (Traffic Management Bureau, Ministry of Public Security, Annual Statistical Reports on Road Traffic Accidents). Earlier studies have established traffic violations as one of the major risks threatening road safety. In this study, we examine in greater detail two important types of traffic violation events, speeding and drunk driving, and attempt to identify significant risk factors associated with these types of traffic violations. Risk factors in several different dimensions, including driver, vehicle, road and environmental factors, are considered. We analyze the speeding (N=11,055) and drunk driving (N=10,035) data for the period 2006-2010 in Guangdong Province, China. These data, obtained from the Guangdong Provincial Security Department, are extracted from the Traffic Management Sector-Specific Incident Case Data Report and are the only comprehensive and official source of traffic accident data in China. Significant risk factors associating with speeding and drunk driving are identified. We find that several factors are associated with a significantly higher probability of both speeding and drunk driving, particularly male drivers, private vehicles, the lack of street lighting at night and poor visibility. The impact of other specific and unique risk factors for either speeding or drunk driving, such as hukou, road type/grades, commercial vehicles, compulsory third party insurance and vehicle safety status, also require particular attention. Legislative or regulatory measures targeting different vehicle types and/or driver groups with respect to the various driver

  3. [Evaluation of asthma management from the surveys in 30 provinces of China in 2015-2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W Q; Lin, J T; Zhou, X; Wang, C Z; Huang, M; Cai, S X; Chen, P; Lin, Q C; Zhou, J Y; Gu, Y H; Yuan, Y D; Sun, D J; Yang, X H; Yang, L; Huo, J M; Chen, Z C; Jiang, P; Zhang, J; Ye, X W; Liu, H G; Tang, H P; Liu, R Y; Liu, C T; Zhang, W; Hu, C P; Chen, Y Q; Liu, X J; Dai, L M; Zhou, W; Huang, Y J; Xu, J Y

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the general level of asthma management in urban areas of China and further promote the national asthma management plan. Methods: A multi-center, cross-sectional survey was carried out in 30 provinces of China (except for Tibet) during Oct 2015 to May 2016. It's a questionnaire-based face-to-face survey which included asthma management using peak flow meter (PFM) and pulmonary function test, medication choice of maintenance therapy and asthma education. Results: A total of 3 875 asthmatic outpatients were recruited including 2 347(60.6%) females and 1 528(39.4%) males. The mean age was (50.7±16.7) years ranging from 14 to 99. Only 10.1%(388/3 837) patients used PFM as monitoring, whereas 62.1%(2 405/3 874) patients underwent pulmonary function test during the past year. There were 57.4%(2 226/3 875) patients treated with inhaled cortical steroid plus long-acting β(2)-agonist combinations (ICS+LABA) as daily medication. 43.3%(1 661/3 836) patients were followed up by physicians. Among this population, 1 362 asthmatic outpatients were recruited, who also took part in the asthma control survey in 2007-2008 in 10 cities. In this subgroup, 17.9%(244/1 360) were tested by PFM and 66.6%(907/1 362) by pulmonary function test during last year. As to the medication, 63.1%(860/1 362) selected ICS+LABA for daily control. There were 50.4%(685/1 359) patients in the follow-up cohort by physicians. Compared to the similar survey conducted in 2007-2008, the proportion of patients with ICS+LABA regimen and follow-up by physicians were markedly higher, while the rate of PFM use did not have significant improvement. Conclusion: Although the present level of asthma management in China is still far from ideal, asthma management has improved compared to 8 years ago. Yet the use of PFM does not significantly improve. Asthma action plan and application of PFM should be further promoted to improve the level of asthma management.

  4. Report of 457 sporotrichosis cases from Jilin province, northeast China, a serious endemic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y; Li, S-S; Zhong, S-X; Liu, Y-Y; Yao, L; Huo, S-S

    2013-03-01

    Most reported sporotrichosis cases came from South American countries, the USA, India and Japan. This mycosis is also endemic in Northeast China. However, the situation is not clear for international researchers due to lack of large series reported in English. To report and analyse 457 sporotrichosis cases. Retrospective study of 457 cases of sporotrichosis diagnosed by fungal culture at the First Hospital of Jilin University from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2009. In this series, the male: female ratio was 1:1.42. Mean age was 41.2 years. Cases from age group 51-60 years accounted for most of the cases (22.54%). A total of 434 patients lived in rural areas (94.97%). The onset of symptoms in 67.61% cases happened in cold seasons (winter and spring). History of trauma presented in 133 cases (29.1%). The mean duration of the symptoms before the presentation was 6.41 months. A total of 190 (41.58%) showed lymphocutaneous form, 252 patients (55.14%) showed fixed form, 8 patients (1.75%) showed disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis and the clinical form of 7 patients (1.53%) could not be defined. Extremities and nodules were the most frequently involved sites and founded manifestation. Main histopathology findings were suppurative granuloma, tuberculoid granuloma and mixed inflammatory granuloma. A total of 75 cases (19.74%) had fungal elements revealed by Periodic Acid-Schiff staining. Patients responded well to potassium iodide (KI), itraconazole, terbinafine and combinations of these agents with a mean course of 2.17 months to resolve. As the first report of a large series of sporotrichosis cases from China to be published in English literature, our study indicated a serious sporotrichosis endemic situation in Jilin province, Northeast China, with epidemiological and clinical characteristics similar to those of previous Chinese reports, but different from those in other countries. KI, itraconazole and terbinafine are effective for the treatment. © 2011 The Authors

  5. Geographical distribution patterns of iodine in drinking-water and its associations with geological factors in Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Zhang, Zhijie; Hu, Yi; Bian, Jianchao; Jiang, Wen; Wang, Xiaoming; Sun, Liqian; Jiang, Qingwu

    2014-05-19

    County-based spatial distribution characteristics and the related geological factors for iodine in drinking-water were studied in Shandong Province (China). Spatial autocorrelation analysis and spatial scan statistic were applied to analyze the spatial characteristics. Generalized linear models (GLMs) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) studies were conducted to explore the relationship between water iodine level and its related geological factors. The spatial distribution of iodine in drinking-water was significantly heterogeneous in Shandong Province (Moran's I = 0.52, Z = 7.4, p water were identified in the south-western and north-western parts of Shandong Province by the purely spatial scan statistic approach. Both GLMs and GWR indicated a significantly global association between iodine in drinking-water and geological factors. Furthermore, GWR showed obviously spatial variability across the study region. Soil type and distance to Yellow River were statistically significant at most areas of Shandong Province, confirming the hypothesis that the Yellow River causes iodine deposits in Shandong Province. Our results suggested that the more effective regional monitoring plan and water improvement strategies should be strengthened targeting at the cluster areas based on the characteristics of geological factors and the spatial variability of local relationships between iodine in drinking-water and geological factors.

  6. Seroprevalence survey of avian influenza A (H5) in wild migratory birds in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hua; Dai, Feiyan; Liu, Zili; Yuan, Feizhou; Zhao, Siyue; Xiang, Xun; Zou, Fengcai; Zeng, Bangquan; Fan, Yating; Duan, Gang

    2014-02-03

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) is a highly contagious disease which is a zoonotic pathogen of significant economic and public health concern. The outbreaks caused by HPAIV H5N1 of Asian origin have caused animal and human disease and mortality in several countries of Southeast Asia, such as Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand and Viet Nam. For the first time since 1961, this HPAIV has also caused extensive mortality in wild birds and has sparked debate of the role wild birds have played in the spread of this virus. Other than confirmed mortality events, little is known of this virus in wild birds. There is no report on the seroprevalence of avian influenza H5 infection in wild migratory birds in Yunnan Province. In this study we examined live wild birds in Yunnan Province for H5 specific antibody to better understand the occurrence of this disease in free living birds. Sera from 440 wild birds were collected from in Kunming and Northern Ailaoshan of Yunnan Province, Southwestern China, and assayed for H5 antibodies using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays. The investigation revealed that the seroprevalence of avian influenza H5 was as following: Ciconiiformes 2.6%, Strigiformes 13.04%, Passeriformes 20%, Cuculiformes 21.74%, Gruiformes 0%, Columbiformes 0%, Charadriiformes 0% and Coraciiformes 0%. Statistical analyses showed that there was a significant difference of prevalence between the orders (P avian influenza H5 antibodies were detected in 23 of 440 (5.23%) sera. Mean HI titer 23 positive sera against H5 were 5.4 log₂. The results of the present survey indicated that the proportion of wild birds had previously infected AIV H5 at other times of the year. To our knowledge, this is the first seroprevalence report of avian influenza H5 infection in wild migratory birds in China' s southwestern Yunnan Province. The results of the present survey have significant public health concerns.

  7. Economic Transformation in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region: Is It Undergoing the Environmental Kuznets Curve?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lichun Xiong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region Integration Plan is one of the most important national strategies in China promoting regional economic development. The environmental problems in this region, however, especially air pollution and contaminated groundwater, have enormous influence on the people’s health while also causing economic loss. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the pattern of its environmental and economic development. Panel data in the period 2004–2014 are used to establish an advanced model of the Environmental Kuznets Curve. The results indicate that the economic growth and environmental pollution of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region do not completely meet the Environment Kuznets Curve assumptions. The discharge volume of industrial wastewater and economic growth reflect a wave-type relation. The sulfur dioxide discharge volume and economic growth reflect a U-shaped relation; the generated volume of industrial solid wastes and economic growth reflect a reversed N-shaped relation, which is in accordance with the Environmental Kuznets Curve characteristics at the second inflection point. The variables added value of the secondary industry, population size and raw coal consumption volume have a significant positive influence on the discharge of various environmental pollutants in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. The analysis provides policy recommendations for the government to develop regional economic and environmental protection policies.

  8. Renewable energy markets in China: An analysis of renewable energy markets in Guangdong, Jiangxi, Jilin, and Yunnan provinces, with updated information from Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaupen, S.B.

    1999-12-13

    The People's Republic of China has undergone many changes over the past decade that have led to new growth and created opportunities for many industries, including the renewable energy industry. China has consistently had one of the fastest-growing economies in Asia. This report is a continuation of a market assessment done in 1997, which analyzed six provinces (Inner Mongolia, Gansu, Shandong, Qinghai, Xinjiang, and Zhejiang) in China. The information contained in this report comes mainly from interviews conducted with central and local government officials, state and local power bureau officials, and various company executives. The report provides valuable market information necessary for any company interested in entering China's renewable energy market. It also details the legal, competitive, sociocultural, technological, geographic, and economic environments of four provinces in China: Guangdong, Jiangxi, Jilin, and Yunnan. In addition, it outlines the major central government policies and contacts important to renewable energy development within China.

  9. China's rural electrification and poverty reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ming

    2003-01-01

    This paper aims at quantifying the impact of rural investment in power sector on the rural economic development and poverty reduction in China. An econometric model was developed and six Chinese provinces with different economic background are studied. These provinces comprise Jiangsu and Liaoning with well-developed rural economy, Hebei and Henan with medium-developed rural economy, and Shannxi and Xinjiang with the least-developed rural economy. Over 20-yr historical data for the six provincial rural areas--counties and below, was collected in rural economic development, households, population, per capita income, community infrastructure development, capital investment, electricity consumption, output values in agriculture sector, and township and village enterprises. SPSS V10.0 software program was used in the research. This paper concludes that priority of capital investment in rural power sector should be given to Jiangsu and Liaoning if the objective of the investment is to develop rural economy, and that the priority should be given to Hebei and Henan if the objective is to reduce poverty in rural area

  10. Genetic characterizations of Giardia duodenalis in sheep and goats in Heilongjiang Province, China and possibility of zoonotic transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weizhe Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Giardia duodenalis is a widespread intestinal protozoan of both humans and mammals. To date, few epidemiological studies have assessed the potential and importance of zoonotic transmission; and the human giardiasis burden attributable to G. duodenalis of animal origin is unclear. No information about occurrence and genotyping data of sheep and goat giardiasis is available in China. The aim of the present study was to determine prevalence and distribution of G. duodenalis in sheep and goats in Heilongjiang Province, China, and to characterize G. duodenalis isolates and assess the possibility of zoonotic transmission. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 678 fecal specimens were collected from sheep and goats on six farms ranging in age from one month to four years in Heilongjiang Province, China. The average prevalence of G. duodenalis infection was 5.0% (34/678 by microscopy after Lugol's iodine staining, with 5.6% (30/539 for the sheep versus 2.9% (4/139 for the goats. Molecular analysis was conducted on 34 G. duodenalis isolates based on the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi gene. 29 tpi gene sequences were successfully obtained and identified as assemblages A (n = 4, B (n = 2 and E (n = 23. High heterogeneity was observed within assemblage E at the tpi locus, with five novel subtypes found out of seven subtypes. Two subtypes of assemblage A were detected, including subtype AI (n = 3 and a novel subtype (designated as subtype AIV (n = 1. Two assemblage B isolates were identical to each other in the tpi gene sequences. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first report of G. duodenalis infections in sheep and goats in China. The present data revealed the unique endemicity on prevalence, distribution and genetic characterization of G. duodenalis in sheep and goats in Heilongjiang Province. The findings of assemblages A and B in sheep and goats implied the potential of zoonotic transmission.

  11. Aflatoxin B1, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol in feed ingredients and complete feed from different Province in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current study was carried out to provide a reference for monitory of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, zearalenone (ZEN and deoxynivalenol (DON contamination in feed ingredients and complete feeds were collected from different Province in China from 2013 to 2015. Methods A total of 443 feed ingredients, including 220 corn, 24 wheat, 24 domestic distillers dried grains with soluble (DDGS, 55 bran, 20 wheat shorts and red dog, 37 imported DDGS, 34 corn germ meal and 29 soybean meal as well as 127 complete feeds including 25 pig complete feed (powder, 90 pig complete feed (pellet, six duck complete feed and six cattle complete feed were randomly collected from different Province in China, respectively, by high-performance chromatography in combined with UV or fluorescence analysis. Results The incidence rates of AFB1, ZEN and DON contamination of feed ingredients and complete feeds were 80.8, 92.3 and 93.9 %, respectively. The percentage of positive samples for DON ranged from 66.7 to 100 %. Domestic DDGS and imported DDGS presented the most serious contamination AFB1, ZEN and DON contamination levels of feeds ranged from 61.5 to 100 %, indicated that serious contamination over the studied 3-year period. Conclusion The current data provide clear evidence that AFB1, ZEN and DON contamination of feed ingredients and complete feeds in different Province in China is serious and differs over past 3-year. The use of corn, domestic DDGS, imported DDGS and corn germ meal, which may be contaminated with these three mycotoxins, as animal feed may triggered a health risk for animal. Feeds are most contaminated with DON followed by ZEN and AFB1. Mycotoxins contamination in feed ingredients and complete feeds should be monitored routinely in China.

  12. Primary surveys on molecular epidemiology of bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 infecting goats in Jiangsu province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Li; Li, Wenliang; Yang, Leilei; Wang, Jianhui; Cheng, Suping; Wei, Yong; Wang, Qiusheng; Zhang, Wenwen; Hao, Fei; Ding, Yonglong; Sun, Yinhua; Jiang, Jieyuan

    2016-09-05

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pathogen of domestic and wildlife animals worldwide and is associated with several diseases. In China, there are many reports about genotyping of BVDV strains originated from cattle and pigs, and some of them focused on the geographical distributions of BVDV. Currently, the goat industry in Jiangsu province of China is under going a rapid expansion. Most of these goat farms are backyard enterprises and in close proximity to pig and cattle farms. However, there was very limited information about BVDV infections in goats. The objective of this study was to assess the frequency of BVDV infections of goats, the relationship of these infections to clinical signs and determine what BVDV genotypes are circulating in Jiangsu province. From 236 goat sera collected from six regions in Jiangsu province between 2011 and 2013, BVDV-1 was identified in 29 samples from the five regions by RT-PCR. The BVDV-1 infections occurred with/without clinical signs. Eight different BVDV-1 strains were identified from these positive samples based on the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) sequences, and further clustered into four BVDV-1 subtypes on the phylogenetic analysis. Three were BVDV-1b, two BVDV-1m, two BVDV-1o, and one BVDV-1p, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report to investigate the occurrence of BVDV and the genotypes of BVDV infecting goats in China. The results indicated that BVDV-1 infections were indeed present and the viruses were with genetic variations in Chinese goat herds. The information would be very useful for prevention and control of BVDV-1 infections in China.

  13. Patterns of HIV prevalence among injecting drug users in the cross-border area of Lang Son Province, Vietnam, and Ning Ming County, Guangxi Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Tran V

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess patterns of injecting drug use and HIV prevalence among injecting drug users (IDUs in an international border area along a major heroin trans-shipment route. Methods Cross-sectional surveys of IDUs in 5 sites in Lang Son Province, Vietnam (n = 348 and 3 sites in Ning Ming County, Guangxi Province, China (n = 308. Respondents were recruited through peer referral ("snowball" methods in both countries, and also from officially recorded lists of IDUs in Vietnam. A risk behavior questionnaire was administered and HIV counseling and testing conducted. Results Participants in both countries were largely male, in their 20s, and unmarried. A majority of subjects in both countries were members of ethnic minority groups. There were strong geographic gradients for length of drug injecting and for HIV seroprevalence. Both mean years injecting and HIV seroprevalence declined from the Vietnamese site farthest from the border to the Chinese site farthest from the border. 10.6% of participants in China and 24.5% of participants in Vietnam reported crossing the international border in the 6 months prior to interview. Crossing the border by IDUs was associated with (1 distance from the border, (2 being a member of an ethnic minority group, and (3 being HIV seropositive among Chinese participants. Conclusion Reducing the international spread of HIV among IDUs will require programs at the global, regional, national, and "local cross border" levels. At the local cross border level, the programs should be coordinated on both sides of the border and on a sufficient scale that IDUs will be able to readily obtain clean injection equipment on the other side of the border as well as in their country of residence.

  14. Evaluation of the economic burden of leprosy among migrant and resident patients in Guangdong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Mingzhou; Li, Ming; Zheng, Daocheng; Wang, Xiaohua; Su, Ting; Chen, Yongfeng; Yang, Bin

    2017-12-11

    A lot of time and money was needed during the diagnosis and treatment process of leprosy, the delayed leprosy would also impair the labor capability of patients as well, and these put a heavy burden for the leprosy patients. The migrant leprosy patient is a special group and need more concern. Our goal was to assess the economic burden of leprosy on migrant and resident patient populations in Guangdong province, China. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey from February to July of 2016. A self-designed questionnaire was administered to leprosy patients who: (1) had registered in Leprosy Management Information System in China (LEPMIS) by the end of February 2016, (2) had received multiple drug treatment (MDT) drugs at a local leprosy control institution for three consecutive months or had had at least one physical check in the past half year, and (3) were willing to take part in the investigation and give informed written consent. Demographic characteristics, Financial and disease information, and costs before and after leprosy diagnosis were collected and compared using t-test and χ2 test. A total of 254 participants completed the questionnaires, including 168 males and 86 females. Migrants and residents accounted for 33.9% and 66.1% of patients, respectively. Among migrant patients, the median cost before diagnosis was $131.6 (39.2-450.9), the median yearly cost of leprosy treatment after diagnosis was $300.6 (158.4-868.5), and the median yearly cost of leprosy complications was $69.5 (11-178.4). In comparison, among residents the median yearly costs were $152.4 (30.7-770.9) pre-diagnosis, $309.7 (103.2-1016.7) after diagnosis, and $91.9 (32.6-303.1) for leprosy complications. Base on this, we determined that the median yearly total expense after diagnosis amounted to 15% of migrant and 38% of resident patients' annual income. Leprosy places a heavy economic burden on both migrant and resident leprosy patients and governmental policies and

  15. Total mercury, methylmercury and selenium in mercury polluted areas in the province Guizhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvat, Milena; Nolde, Natasa; Fajon, Vesna; Jereb, Vesna; Logar, Martina; Lojen, Sonja; Jacimovic, Radojko; Falnoga, Ingrid; Liya, Qu; Faganeli, Jadran; Drobne, Damjana

    2003-03-20

    The province of Guizhou in Southwestern China is currently one of the world's most important mercury production areas. Emissions of mercury from the province to the global atmosphere have been estimated to be approximately 12% of the world total anthropogenic emissions. The main objective of this study was to assess the level of contamination with Hg in two geographical areas of Guizhou province. Mercury pollution in the areas concerned originates from mercury mining and ore processing in the area of Wanshan, while in the area of Quingzhen mercury pollution originates from the chemical industry discharging Hg through wastewaters and emissions to the atmosphere due to coal burning for electricity production. The results of this study confirmed high contamination with Hg in soil, sediments and rice in the Hg mining area in Wanshan. High levels of Hg in soil and rice were also found in the vicinity of the chemical plant in Quingzhen. The concentrations of Hg decreased with distance from the main sources of pollution considerably. The general conclusion is that Hg contamination in Wanshan is geographically more widespread, due to deposition and scavenging of Hg from contaminated air and deposition on land. In Quingzhen Hg contamination of soil is very high close to the chemical plant but the levels reach background concentrations at a distance of several km. Even though the major source of Hg in both areas is inorganic Hg, it was observed that active transformation of inorganic Hg to organic Hg species (MeHg) takes place in water, sediments and soils. The concentration of Hg in rice grains can reach up to 569 microg/kg of total Hg of which 145 microg/kg was in MeHg form. The percentage of Hg as MeHg varied from 5 to 83%. The concentrations of selenium can reach up to 16 mg/kg in soil and up to 1 mg/g in rice. A correlation exists between the concentration of Se in soil and rice, indicating that a portion of Se is bioavailable to plants. No correlation between Hg and Se

  16. [Prevalence and risk factors of dyslipidemia in a rural population of Henan Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J M; Luo, X P; Wang, S; Yin, L; Pang, C; Wang, G A; Shen, Y X; Wu, D T; Zhang, L; Ren, Y C; Wang, B Y; Yang, X Y; Zhang, H Y; Han, C Y; Zhao, Y; Li, L L; Wang, C J; Feng, T P; Zhao, J Z; Hu, D S; Zhang, M

    2016-09-06

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of dyslipidemia in a rural population of Henan Province, China. Methods: A total of 20 194 participants aged ≥18 years were selected randomly by cluster sampling from two townships(towns)in Henan Province from July to August 2007 and July to August 2008. Investigations included questionnaires, anthropometric measurements, fasting plasma glucose, and lipid profile examination at baseline. A total of 16 155 participants were followed up from July to August 2013 and July to October 2014. Overall, 13 869 participants were included in the study, after excluding 2 286 participants with incomplete dyslipidemia follow-up data. Distributions of the characteristics of dyslipidemia were determined, and prevalence was standardized by age according to data of the 2010 Sixth National Population Census. Risk factors for dyslipidemia were analyzed using a logistic regression model after adjusting for sex, age, education level, marital status, and income status. Results: The prevalence of dyslipidemia was 53.72%(7 450/13 869)for residents aged ≥22 years living in rural areas of Henan Province(59.32%(3 069/5 174)for men and 50.39%(4 381/8 695)for women). The adjusted prevalence of dyslipidemia was 50.50%(59.27% for men and 45.53% for women). The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-C, and high LDL-C was 4.34%(602/13 868), 20.42%(2 826/13 837), 42.75%(5 927/13 865), and 3.14%(420/13 375), respectively, and the adjusted prevalence was 2.44%, 18.84%, 41.42%, and 1.86%, respectively. Logistic regression analyses showed that alcohol consumption( OR =1.27, 95% CI : 1.05-1.53), family history of hyperlipidemia( OR =1.29, 95% CI : 1.17-1.43), overweight( OR =1.40, 95% CI : 1.22-1.61), obesity( OR = 1.65, 95% CI : 1.39- 1.96), abnormal waist circumference( OR =1.22, 95% CI : 1.04- 1.43), and abnormal waist-height ratio( OR =1.21, 95% CI : 1.01-1.45)were significant

  17. The effect of urban basic medical insurance on health service utilisation in Shaanxi Province, China: a comparison of two schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhongliang; Zhou, Zhiying; Gao, Jianmin; Yang, Xiaowei; Yan, Ju'e; Xue, Qinxiang; Chen, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Urban population in China is mainly covered by two medical insurance schemes: the Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance (UEBMI) for urban employees in formal sector and the Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI) for the left urban residents, mainly the unemployed, the elderly and children. This paper studies the effects of UEBMI and URBMI on health services utilisation in Shaanxi Province, Western China. Cross-sectional data from the 4th National Health Services Survey - Shaanxi Province was studied. The propensity score matching and the coarsened exact matching methods have been used to estimate the average medical insurance effect on the insured. Compared to the uninsured, robust results suggest that UEBMI had significantly increased the outpatient health services utilisation in the last two weeks (pinsured was associated with higher health services utilisation, compared with the uninsured, none of the improvement was statistically significant (p>0.10). It was also found that compared with the uninsured, basic medical insurance enrollees were more likely to purchase inpatient treatments in lower levels of hospitals, consistent with the incentive of the benefit package design. Basic Medical insurance schemes have shown a positive but limited effect on increasing health services utilisation in Shaanxi Province. The benefit package design of higher reimbursement rates for lower level hospitals has induced the insured to use medical services in lower level hospitals for inpatient services.

  18. Surface water contamination by uranium Mining/Milling activities in Northern guangdong province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jin; Song, Gang; Chen, Yongheng; Zhu, Li [Key Laboratory of Waters Safety and Protection in the Pearl River Delta, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou (China); Liu, Juan [Key Laboratory of Waters Safety and Protection in the Pearl River Delta, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou (China); Department of Geosciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei (China); Li, Hongchun [Department of Geosciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei (China); Xiao, Tangfu [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang (China); Qi, Jianying [South China Institute of Environmental Science, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Guangzhou (China)

    2012-12-15

    The northern region of Guangdong Province, China, has suffered from the extensive mining/milling of uranium for several decades. In this study, surface waters in the region were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) for the concentrations of uranium (U), thorium (Th), and non-radioactive metals (Fe, Mn, Mg, Li, Co, Cu, Ni, and Zn). Results showed highly elevated concentrations of the studied radionuclides and metals in the discharged effluents and the tailing seepage of the U mining/milling sites. Radionuclide and heavy metal concentrations were also observed to be overall enhanced in the recipient stream that collected the discharged effluents from the industrial site, compared to the control streams, and rivers with no impacts from the U mining/milling sites. They displayed significant spatial variations and a general decrease downstream away from upper point-source discharges of the industrial site. In addition, obvious positive correlations were found between U and Th, Fe, Zn, Li, and Co (R{sup 2} > 0.93, n = 28) in the studied water samples, which suggest for an identical source and transport pathway of these elements. In combination with present surface water chemistry and chemical compositions of uraniferous minerals, the elevation of the analyzed elements in the recipient stream most likely arose from the liquid effluents, processing water, and acid drainage from the U mining/milling facilities. The dispersion of radionuclides and hazardous metals is actually limited to a small area at present, but some potential risk should not be negligible for local ecosystem. The results indicate that environmental remediation work is required to implement and future cleaner production technology should be oriented to avoid wide dispersion of radioactivity and non-radioactive hazards in U mining/milling sites. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Factors affecting trace element content in periurban market garden subsoil in Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Yanqun; Bock, Laurent; Schvartz, Christian; Colinet, Gilles; Li, Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Field investigations were conducted to measure subsoil trace element content and factors influencing content in an intensive periurban market garden in Chenggong County, Yunnan Province, South-West China. The area was divided into three different geomorphological units: specifically, mountain (M), transition (T) and lacustrine (L). Mean trace element content in subsoil were determined for Pb (58.2 mg/kg), Cd (0.89 mg/kg), Cu (129.2 mg/kg), and Zn (97.0 mg/kg). Strong significant relationships between trace element content in topsoil and subsoil were observed. Both Pb and Zn were accumulated in topsoil (RTS (ratio of mean trace element in topsoil to subsoil) of Pb and Zn > or =1.0) and Cd and Cu in subsoil (RTS of Cd and Cu related to relief, stoniness, soil color, clay content, and cation exchange capacity. Except for 7.5 YR (yellow-red) color, trace element content increased with color intensity from brown to reddish brown. Significant positive relationships were observed between Fe content and that of Pb and Cu. Trace element content in mountain unit subsoil was higher than in transition and lacustrine units (M > T > L), except for Cu (T > M > L). Mean trace element content in calcareous subsoil was higher than in sandstone and shale. Mean trace element content in clay texture subsoil was higher than in sandy and sandy loam subsoil, and higher Cu and Zn content in subsoil with few mottles. It is possible to model Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn distribution in subsoil physico-chemical characteristics to help improve agricultural practice.

  20. Resistance Level of Mosquito Species (Diptera: Culicidae from Shandong Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Mei Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the aquatic habitats, species composition, and the insecticide resistance level of the mosquito Culex pipiens pallens in Shandong Province, China. A cross-sectional survey of mosquito larval habitats was conducted from May to November 2014 to determine the species composition and larval abundance. Larvae were collected using the standard dipping technique, and a total of four habitat types were sampled. The fourth instar larvae of Cx. pipiens pallens collected in each habitat type were tested for resistance to five insecticides according to a WHO bioassay. A total of 7,281 mosquito larvae were collected, of which 399 (5.48% were categorized as Anopheles mosquito larvae ( An. sinensis , 6636 (91.14% as culicine larvae ( Cx. pipiens pallens, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. halifaxii, and Cx. bitaeniorhynchus , 213 (2.93% as Armigeres larvae, and 33 (0.45% as Aedes larvae ( Aedes albopictus . In addition, a total of 1,149 mosquito pupae were collected. Culex larvae were distributed in all habitats investigated. Tukeys HSD analysis showed that roadside drainages were the most productive habitat type for Culex larvae. Armigeres species were found only in drains, Aedes only in water tanks, and Anopheles in water that was comparatively clear and rich in emergent plants. Bioassay showed that the maximum resistance level of Cx. pipiens pallens was to deltamethrin, while it was lowest to plifenate. The productivity of various mosquitoes in different habitat types is very heterogeneous. It is particularly important to modify human activity and the environment to achieve effective mosquito vector control. For effective larval control, the type of habitat should be considered, and the most productive habitat type should be given priority in mosquito abatement programs.

  1. A New Zincian Greenockite Occurrence in the Saishitang Cu Skarn Deposit, Qinghai Province, Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Zn-Cd-S series minerals not only comprise industrial resources for Zn and Cd, but are also significant mineralogical indicators for hydrothermal ore-forming processes. Due to its unique formation conditions and rare occurrence, our understanding of the formation of zincian greenockite in natural systems is limited. Zincian greenockite was discovered during mineralogical studies in the Saishitang Cu skarn deposit, Qinghai Province, Northwest China. This provided an ideal opportunity to assess the occurrence and formation of zincian greenockite in skarn-type deposits. Ore minerals were observed using reflected-light microscopy, and the zincian greenockite was further analyzed using electron-probe microanalysis (EPMA and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The zincian greenockite occurs in the bornite–chalcopyrite ores and is composed of subhedral to anhedral grains approximately 50 × 150 μm2 to 200 × 300 μm2 in size, replaces the bornite, and is replaced by native silver. Two phases (I and II were identified based on back-scattered electron images, X-ray element-distributions maps, and EPMA data. The textural relationship indicated that Phase I was replaced by Phase II. Phase I contained high Zn (14.6 to 21.7 mol % ZnS and low Cd (72.4 to 82.2 mol % CdS, while Phase II contained low Zn (5.6 to 9.1 mol % ZnS and high Cd (85.4 to 89.9 mol % CdS. The zincian greenockite was formed at temperature of 300~270 °C during the transformation from a reducing environment to an oxidizing one in the late stage of the mineralization process in the Saishitang deposit.

  2. Twelve-year prevalence of common neonatal congenital malformations in Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ge; Xu, Zhe-Ming; Liang, Jian-Feng; Li, Lin; Tang, Da-Xing

    2011-11-01

    One of the challenges that pediatricians face when examining birth defects is to understand the trends in its occurrence and provide clues to etiology. This study was undertaken to retrospectively assess the prevalence of 10 common neonatal congenital malformations by reviewing a database of all deliveries from 28 weeks up until 7 days of birth from January 1998 to December 2009 in Zhejiang Province, China. Ten common neonatal congenital malformations were selected for analysis. The incidence and the Cochran-Armitage Trend were assessed via SAS9.2. A P value ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Of 83 888 perinatals, 374 (4.46‰) suffered from congenital heart diseases (CHD), 77 (0.92‰) from congenital hydrocephalus, 32 (0.38‰) from intestinal atresia/stenosis, 36 (0.43‰) from anorectal malformations, 149 (1.78‰) from kidney malformations, 139 (3.31‰) from hypospadias (male), 178 (2.12‰) from orofacial clefts (OFC), 188 (2.24‰) from polydactyly, 62 (0.74‰) from syndactyly, and 269 (3.21‰) from accessory auricle anomaly. Their trend of prevalence varied as follows: CHD, P=0.0026; hydrocephalus, P=0.0042; intestinal atresia/stenosis, P=0.0103; anorectal malformations, P=0.4332; kidney malformations, Pmalformations (Pmalformations (P=0.4332), polydactyly (P=0.0867) and syndactyly (P=0.1941). The incidences of CHD, intestinal atresia/stenosis, kidney malformations, hypospadias, OFC, and accessory auricle anomaly have increased in the last 12 years, but the incidences of anorectal malformations, polydactyly and syndactyly remain stable. The incidence of hydrocephalus shows a downward trend.

  3. Epidemiology of Hemoglobinopathies in the Huzhou Region, Zhejiang Province, Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhong-Ying; Shen, Guo-Song; Zhang, Su; He, Ping-Ya

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to report the frequency of thalassemia traits and other hemoglobinopathies in Huzhou City, Zhejiang Province, People's Republic of China (PRC), and for the future management of hemoglobinopathies. A total of 8578 pregnant women in the Huzhou region was analyzed for thalassemia traits and other hemoglobinopathies from July 1 2012 to November 30 2015. Complete blood count (CBC), and hemoglobin (Hb) variant analyses were performed with automatic counters and capillary electrophoresis (CE). High resolution melting (HRM) analysis was applied for genetic diagnosis of thalassemia. The prevalence of patients with the α-thalassemia (α-thal) trait was 1.01% (87/8578). β-Thalassemia (β-thal) was carried by 112 women with a frequency of 1.3%. The carrier rate of thalassemia genes in the studied samples was nearly 2.32%. We excluded those without iron studies, with 159 cases as our sample, a total of 63/159 cases (39.6%) also had iron deficiencies. Moreover, Hb E (HBB: c.79G > A), and Hb D-Punjab (HBB: c.364G > C) were the most common Hb variants after thalassemia trait with frequencies of 0.16 and 0.06%, respectively. Only two Hb S (HBB: c.20A > T) carriers were detected in 20 months of screening time. Hb A 1c results could be confidently reported on all cases except the Hb D-Punjab and Hb E variants. This study provided a detailed prevalence and molecular characterization of thalassemia in the Huzhou region, and will contribute toward the development of prevention strategies and reducing excessive health care costs in this area, allowing better management of hemoglobinopathies.

  4. Prevalence of photodermatosis in four regions at different altitudes in Yunnan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Danqi; Hang, Yuntao; Chen, Hao; Li, Hanying

    2006-08-01

    Idiopathic photodermatoses are common diseases in dermatology clinics that are associated with ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The group includes a few dermatoses such as polymorphous light eruption (PLE) and chronic actinic dermatitis (CAD). The prevalence of PLE and CAD in China has not been previously reported. To investigate the population-based prevalence of polymorphous light eruption (PLE) and chronic actinic dermatitis (CAD) in six minority groups living in four regions with significantly different altitudes in the Yunnan province, a questionnaire survey was administered to 4899 residents of random villages in Yuanjiang county (Dai and Hani minorities), Kunming city (Han people and Yi minority), Lijiang county (Naxi minority), and Shangri-La county (Zang minority). The altitudes of these counties are 380 m, 1870 m, 2410 m and 3280 m a.s.l., respectively. The results showed that, first, there were 2400 males (49.0%) and 2499 females (51.0%). The prevalence of PLE was 0.65% (32/4899), and the prevalence of CAD was 0.18% (9/4899). PLE was higher among females than males (3.8 vs 1, P 0.05). Second, the prevalence of PLE was increased in higher elevations regions compared to lower elevations (P 0.05). Third, the mean times of sun exposure for PLE and CAD were 6.0 and 6.5 h/day, respectively. The mean durations of PLE and CAD were 5.8 years, and 6.6 years, respectively. The study demonstrated that the prevalence of PLE is higher than that of CAD in Yunnan, and that the prevalence of PLE is correlated with altitude.

  5. A review of the microbiology of the Rehai geothermal field in Tengchong, Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian P. Hedlund

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Rehai Geothermal Field, located in Tengchong County, in central-western Yunnan Province, is the largest and most intensively studied geothermal field in China. A wide physicochemical diversity of springs (ambient to ∼97 °C; pH from ≤1.8 to ≥9.3 provides a multitude of niches for extremophilic microorganisms. A variety of studies have focused on the cultivation, identification, basic physiology, taxonomy, and biotechnological potential of thermophilic microorganisms from Rehai. Thermophilic bacteria isolated from Rehai belong to the phyla Firmicutes and Deinococcus-Thermus. Firmicutes include neutrophilic or alkaliphilic Anoxybacillus, Bacillus, Caldalkalibacillus, Caldanaerobacter, Laceyella, and Geobacillus, as well as thermoacidophilic Alicyclobacillus and Sulfobacillus. Isolates from the Deinococcus-Thermus phylum include several Meiothermus and Thermus species. Many of these bacteria synthesize thermostable polymer-degrading enzymes that may be useful for biotechnology. The thermoacidophilic archaea Acidianus, Metallosphaera, and Sulfolobus have also been isolated and studied. A few studies have reported the isolation of thermophilic viruses belonging to Siphoviridae (TTSP4 and TTSP10 and Fuselloviridae (STSV1 infecting Thermus spp. and Sulfolobus spp., respectively. More recently, cultivation-independent studies using 16S rRNA gene sequences, shotgun metagenomics, or “functional gene” sequences have revealed a much broader diversity of microorganisms than represented in culture. Studies of the gene and mRNA encoding the large subunit of the ammonia monooxygenase (amoA of ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA and the tetraether lipid crenarchaeol, a potential biomarker for AOA, suggest a wide diversity, but possibly low abundance, of thermophilic AOA in Rehai. Finally, we introduce the Tengchong Partnerships in International Research and Education (PIRE project, an international collaboration between Chinese and U.S. scientists with

  6. A NEW SAURICHTHYS (ACTINOPTERYGII FROM THE SPATHIAN (EARLY TRIASSIC OF CHAOHU (ANHUI PROVINCE, CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREA TINTORI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Saurichthys, S. majiashanensis , is described. It comes from a series of marine vertebrate-bearing beds of the upper member of the Nanlinghu Formation outcropping in the large quarry at the top of Majiashan (Majia Hill near Chaohu (Hefei City, Anhui Province, China. Its age is Middle Spathian (Olenekian, Early Triassic. This new species deeply differs from the several pre-Spathian species of Saurichthys mainly for having only two longitudinal scale rows together with a reduced grid-like structure for the neural elements in the vertebral column. Further derived characters are in the endoskeleton of the dorsal and anal fin, where radials articulate only to anterior lepidotrichia, the posterior ones being supported by the first scale from the caudal pedicle mid-dorsal and mid-ventral rows, deeply imbedded in the body. In addition, the haemal spines of the caudal region are much enlarged and reversed, with their distal parts pointing forwards. Though the skull is lacking, postcranial characters are enough to justify the erection of a new species. This new Saurichthys species, together with other few actinopterygians, can be considered as the oldest assemblage of the Triassic Middle Fish Fauna, which bloomed probably in the early Anisian and widespread especially all over the Tethys for the Middle Triassic and at least the Carnian in the Late Triassic. This new fish assemblage, together with some of the oldest marine reptiles, is considered as the beginning of the actual Triassic recovery among marine vertebrates.

  7. Traditional beliefs and practices in the postpartum period in Fujian Province, China: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raven Joanna H

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zuo yuezi is the month postpartum in China associated with a variety of traditional beliefs and practices. We explored the current status of zuo yuezi from social, cultural and western medical perspectives. Methods We interviewed family members (36 and health workers (8 in Fujian Province, selecting one rural and one rapidly developing urban county. We asked about their traditional beliefs and their behaviour postpartum. We used a framework approach to identify main themes. We categorised reported behaviour against their probable effects on health, drawing on Western standards. Results Respondents reported that zuo yuezi was commonly practiced in urban and rural families to help the mother regain her strength and protect her future health. Zuo yuezi included: dietary precautions, such as eating more food and avoiding cold food; behavioural precautions, such as staying inside the home, avoiding housework and limiting visitors; hygiene precautions, such as restricting bathing and dental hygiene; and practices associated with infant feeding, including supplementary feeding and giving honeysuckle herb to the infant. Respondents reported that the main reasons for adhering to these practices were respect for tradition, and following the advice of elders. Categorised against Western medical standards, several zuo yuezi practices are beneficial, including eating more, eating protein rich food, avoiding housework, and daily vulval and perineal hygiene. A few are potentially harmful, including giving honeysuckle herb, and avoiding dental hygiene. Some women reported giving infants supplementary feeds, although zuo yuezi emphasises breast feeding. Conclusion Zuo yuezi is an important ritual in Fujian. In medical terms, most practices are beneficial, and could be used by health staff to promote health in this period. Further research on reported potentially harmful practices, such as supplements to breast feeding, is needed.

  8. Spatial risk profiling of Schistosoma japonicum in Eryuan county, Yunnan province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Steinmann

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Bayesian spatial risk profiling holds promise to enhance our understanding of the epidemiology of parasitic diseases, and to target interventions in a cost-effective manner. Here, we present findings from a study using Bayesian variogram models to map and predict the seroprevalence of Schistosoma japonicum in Eryuan county, Yunnan province, China, including risk factor analysis. Questionnaire and serological data were obtained through a cross-sectional survey carried out in 35 randomly selected villages with 3,220 people enrolled. Remotely-sensed environmental data were derived from publicly available databases. Bivariate and non-spatial Bayesian multiple logistic regression models were used to identify associations between the local seroprevalence and demographic (i.e. age and sex, environmental (i.e. location of village, altitude, slope, land surface temperature and normalized difference vegetation index and socio-economic factors. In the spatially-explicit Bayesian model, S. japonicum seroprevalence was significantly associated with sex, age and the location of the village. Males, those aged below 10 years and inhabitants of villages situated on steep slopes (inclination ≥20° or on less precipitous slopes of >5° above 2,150 m were at lower risk of seroconversion than their respective counterparts. Our final prediction model revealed an elevated risk for seroconversion in the plains of the eastern parts of Eryuan county. In conclusion, the prediction map can be utilized for spatial targeting of schistosomiasis control interventions in Eryuan county. Moreover, S. japonicum seroprevalence studies might offer a convenient means to assess the infection pressure experienced by local communities, and to improve risk profiling in areas where the prevalence and infection intensities have come down following repeated rounds of praziquantel administration.

  9. Technical efficiency and productivity of Chinese county hospitals: an exploratory study in Henan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhaohui; Tao, Hongbing; Cai, Miao; Lin, Haifeng; Lin, Xiaojun; Shu, Qin; Zhang, Ru-Ning

    2015-09-09

    Chinese county hospitals have been excessively enlarging their scale during the healthcare reform since 2009. The purpose of this paper is to examine the technical efficiency and productivity of county hospitals during the reform process, and to determine whether, and how, efficiency is affected by various factors. 114 sample county hospitals were selected from Henan province, China, from 2010 to 2012. Data envelopment analysis was employed to estimate the technical and scale efficiency of sample hospitals. The Malmquist index was used to calculate productivity changes over time. Tobit regression was used to regress against 4 environmental factors and 5 institutional factors that affected the technical efficiency. (1) 112 (98.2%), 112 (98.2%) and 104 (91.2%) of the 114 sample hospitals ran inefficiently in 2010, 2011 and 2012, with average technical efficiency of 0.697, 0.748 and 0.790, respectively. (2) On average, during 2010-2012, productivity of sample county hospitals increased by 7.8%, which was produced by the progress in technical efficiency changes and technological changes of 0.9% and 6.8%, respectively. (3) Tobit regression analysis indicated that government subsidy, hospital size with above 618 beds and average length of stay assumed a negative sign with technical efficiency; bed occupancy rate, ratio of beds to nurses and ratio of nurses to physicians assumed a positive sign with technical efficiency. There was considerable space for technical efficiency improvement in Henan county hospitals. During 2010-2012, sample hospitals experienced productivity progress; however, the adverse change in pure technical efficiency should be emphasised. Moreover, according to the Tobit results, policy interventions that strictly supervise hospital bed scale, shorten the average length of stay and coordinate the proportion among physicians, nurses and beds, would benefit hospital efficiency. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where

  10. Technical efficiency and productivity of Chinese county hospitals: an exploratory study in Henan province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhaohui; Tao, Hongbing; Cai, Miao; Lin, Haifeng; Lin, Xiaojun; Shu, Qin; Zhang, Ru-ning

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Chinese county hospitals have been excessively enlarging their scale during the healthcare reform since 2009. The purpose of this paper is to examine the technical efficiency and productivity of county hospitals during the reform process, and to determine whether, and how, efficiency is affected by various factors. Setting and participants 114 sample county hospitals were selected from Henan province, China, from 2010 to 2012. Outcome measures Data envelopment analysis was employed to estimate the technical and scale efficiency of sample hospitals. The Malmquist index was used to calculate productivity changes over time. Tobit regression was used to regress against 4 environmental factors and 5 institutional factors that affected the technical efficiency. Results (1) 112 (98.2%), 112 (98.2%) and 104 (91.2%) of the 114 sample hospitals ran inefficiently in 2010, 2011 and 2012, with average technical efficiency of 0.697, 0.748 and 0.790, respectively. (2) On average, during 2010–2012, productivity of sample county hospitals increased by 7.8%, which was produced by the progress in technical efficiency changes and technological changes of 0.9% and 6.8%, respectively. (3) Tobit regression analysis indicated that government subsidy, hospital size with above 618 beds and average length of stay assumed a negative sign with technical efficiency; bed occupancy rate, ratio of beds to nurses and ratio of nurses to physicians assumed a positive sign with technical efficiency. Conclusions There was considerable space for technical efficiency improvement in Henan county hospitals. During 2010–2012, sample hospitals experienced productivity progress; however, the adverse change in pure technical efficiency should be emphasised. Moreover, according to the Tobit results, policy interventions that strictly supervise hospital bed scale, shorten the average length of stay and coordinate the proportion among physicians, nurses and beds, would benefit hospital efficiency

  11. [Ecological compensation based on farmers' willingness: A case study of Jingsan County in Hubei Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liang-liang; Cai, Yin-ying

    2015-01-01

    Farmland protection is a pressing issue in China' s major agricultural regions because of the strategic importance of these regions for national food security. This study quantified the appropriate ecological compensation criteria for farmland protection by way of estimating farmers' opportunity cost and willingness to adopt environment-friendly farming practices. Based on survey data collected from Jingsan County, Hubei Province, a Tobit model was constructed to identify factors affecting farmers' willingness to accept (WTA). The result showed that with appropriate economic compensation for farmland protection, 77.1% and 64.7% of the surveyed households were willing to reduce usage of fertilizers and pesticides. When the reduced rates of fertilizer and pesticide increased from 50%, farmers' opportunity costs of production respectively increased from 1198 and 5850 yuan to 9698 and 9750 yuan per hectare per year, and their WTA increased from 4750 and 7313 yuan to 9781 and 12393 yuan per hectare per year. Farmers' opportunity cost and WTA in reducing pesticide inputs were larger than those in reducing the same rate of fertilizer inputs, and in each case farmers' WTA was greater than their opportunity cost. A farm' s distance from township, farmers' knowledge about the ecology of farmland, and their expectation to improve the ecological environment of farmland had positive, significant effect on the farmers' WTA to reducing fertilization, while farmers' education level and the overall economic condition of the village had significantly negative effect. The proportion of agriculture income, farmers' knowledge about the ecology of farmland, and their expectation to improve the ecological environment of farmland had positive, significant effect on the farmers' WTA to reducing pesticide, while household' cash income and the overall economic condition of the village had significantly negative effect.

  12. Emergy Evaluation of the Urban Solid Waste Handling in Liaoning Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixiao Zhang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Waste management is a distinct practice aimed at reducing its effects on health and the environment and increasing energy and material recovery. The urban waste management industry has been slow to adopt new technologies, such as sanitary landfills and incineration, which enable better treatment results. The aim of a thorough ecological-economic evaluation of different treatment technologies is to extract the maximum practical benefits from investments and to ensure the minimum environmental impacts of wastes. This paper compares four garbage treatment systems, including sanitary landfills systems, fluidized bed incineration system, grate type incineration system and the current landfills system in Liaoning Province, China. By considering the economic and environmental impacts of waste treatment and disposal, impact of emissions, and contribution of wastes input, this paper constructed an emergy-based urban solid waste model for evaluating the sustainability of the holistic systems. The results in Liaoning indicate that the human health losses caused by the harmful air emissions are ranked in this order: fluidized bed incineration > grate type incineration > current landfills > sanitary landfills, while the ecosystem losses are ranked: grate type incineration > fluidized bed incineration > sanitary landfills > current landfills. The electricity yield ratios are ranked: grate type incineration > fluidized bed incineration > sanitary landfills > current landfills. Taken together this suggests that in considering the incineration option, decision makers must weigh the benefits of incineration against the significant operating costs, potential environmental impacts, and technical difficulties of operating. Emergy analysis of the urban solid treatment systems can provide a set of useful tools which can be used to compare the comprehensive performances of different waste treatment processes for decision-making and optimizing the whole process.

  13. Postglacial fire history and interactions with vegetation and climate in southwestern Yunnan Province of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiayun; Haberle, Simon G.; Shen, Ji; Xue, Bin; Burrows, Mark; Wang, Sumin

    2017-06-01

    A high-resolution, continuous 18.5 kyr (1 kyr = 1000 cal yr BP) macroscopic charcoal record from Qinghai Lake in southwestern Yunnan Province, China, reveals postglacial fire frequency and variability history. The results show that three periods with high-frequency and high-severity fires occurred during the periods 18.5-15.0, 13.0-11.5, and 4.3-0.8 ka, respectively. This record was compared with major pollen taxa and pollen diversity indices from the same core, and tentatively related to the regional climate proxy records with the aim to separate climate- from human-induced fire activity, and discuss vegetation-fire-climate interactions. The results suggest that fire was mainly controlled by climate before 4.3 ka and by the combined actions of climate and humans after 4.3 ka. Before 4.3 ka, high fire activity corresponded to cold and dry climatic conditions, while warm and humid climatic conditions brought infrequent and weak fires. Fire was an important disturbance factor and played an important role in forest dynamics around the study area. Vegetation responses to fire after 4.3 ka are not consistent with those before 4.3 ka, suggesting that human influence on vegetation and fire regimes may have become more prevalent after 4.3 ka. The comparisons between fire activity and vegetation reveal that evergreen oaks are flammable plants and fire-tolerant taxa. Alnus is a fire-adapted taxon and a nonflammable plant, but density of Alnus forest is a key factor to decide its fire resistance. The forests dominated by Lithocarpus/Castanopsis and/or tropical trees and shrubs are not easy to ignite, but Lithocarpus/Castanopsis and tropical trees and shrubs are fire-sensitive taxa. Fire appears to be unfavourable to plant diversity in the study area.

  14. Clusters of sudden unexplained death associated with the mushroom, Trogia venenata, in rural Yunnan Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Qing Shi

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Since the late 1970's, time-space clusters of sudden unexplained death (SUD in northwest Yunnan, China have alarmed the public and health authorities. From 2006-2009, we initiated enhanced surveillance for SUD to identify a cause, and we warned villagers to avoid eating unfamiliar mushrooms. METHODS: We established surveillance for SUD, defined as follows: sudden onset of serious, unexplained physical impairment followed by death in <24 hours. A mild case was onset of any illness in a member of the family or close socially related group of a SUD victim within 1 week of a SUD. We interviewed witnesses of SUD and mild case-persons to identify exposures to potentially toxic substances. We tested blood from mild cases, villagers, and for standard biochemical, enzyme, and electrolyte markers of disease. RESULTS: We identified 33 SUD, a 73% decline from 2002-2005, distributed among 21 villages of 11 counties. We found a previously undescribed mushroom, Trogia venenata, was eaten by 5 of 7 families with SUD clusters compared to 0 of 31 other control-families from the same villages. In T. venenata-exposed persons SUD was characterized by sudden loss of consciousness during normal activities. This mushroom grew nearby 75% of 61 villages that had time-space SUD clusters from 1975 to 2009 compared to 17% of 18 villages with only single SUD (p<0.001, Fisher's exact test. DISCUSSION: Epidemiologic data has implicated T. venenata as a probable cause of clusters of SUD in northwestern Yunnan Province. Warnings to villagers about eating this mushroom should continue.

  15. Urinary Arsenic Metabolites of Subjects Exposed to Elevated Arsenic Present in Coal in Shaanxi Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linsheng Yang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to arsenic (As poisoning caused by naturally occurring inorganic arsenic-contaminated water consumption, coal arsenic poisoning (CAP induced by elevated arsenic exposure from coal combustion has rarely been reported. In this study, the concentrations and distributions of urinary arsenic metabolites in 57 volunteers (36 subjects with skin lesions and 21 subjects without skin lesions, who had been exposed to elevated levels of arsenic present in coal in Changshapu village in the south of Shaanxi Province (China, were reported. The urinary arsenic species, including inorganic arsenic (iAs [arsenite (iAsIII and arsenate (iAsV], monomethylarsonic acid (MMAV and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV, were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS. The relative distributions of arsenic species, the primary methylation index (PMI = MMAV/iAs and the secondary methylation index (SMI = DMAV/MMAV were calculated to assess the metabolism of arsenic. Subjects with skin lesions had a higher concentration of urinary arsenic and a lower arsenic methylation capability than subjects without skin lesions. Women had a significantly higher methylation capability of arsenic than men, as defined by a higher percent DMAV and SMI in urine among women, which was the one possible interpretation of women with a higher concentration of urinary arsenic but lower susceptibility to skin lesions. The findings suggested that not only the dose of arsenic exposure but also the arsenic methylation capability have an impact on the individual susceptibility to skin lesions induced by coal arsenic exposure.

  16. Risks for fishborne zoonotic trematodes in tilapia production systems in Guangdong province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kang; Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard; Murrell, K Darwin; Liu, Liping; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2013-11-15

    Guangdong province is the most important region for tilapia culture in China. However, it is also an endemic region for fishborne zoonotic trematodes (FZT), which pose a risk to human food safety and health. A study was designed to assess the status of trematode parasite infections in tilapia aquaculture systems as an indicator of potential risks from FZT associated with consumption of tilapia. Tilapia from nursery and grow-out ponds were sampled from monoculture, polyculture and integrated aquaculture systems. The results from 388 tilapia examined revealed a very low prevalence (1.5%) of trematode infections (Heterophyidae and Echinostomatidae). Integrated systems using animal manure and latrine wastes as fertilizer did not show a higher prevalence of FZT. Because it was not clear whether the low risk of infection was attributable to existing effective pond management practices or a low risk of spillover of FZT from area sylvatic reservoir hosts, a survey of local wild-caught fish was conducted. Five species of FZT were discovered from a total of 271 wild-caught fish and a mean infection density of 4.0 metacercariae/100g; FZT discovered included intestinal flukes (Haplorchis spp., Procerovum varium, and Metagonimus spp.) and metacercariae tentatively identified as Clonorchis sinenesis. The common occurrence of FZT in wild-caught fish suggests that the presence of FZT in local wild animal reservoirs is substantial, and that although the current aquaculture management systems for tilapia are generally effective in preventing transmission of these parasites into tilapia production systems, the improvement of pond management practices and biosecurity must be maintained at a high level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Residues of veterinary antibiotics in manures from feedlot livestock in eight provinces of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ling; Dong, Yuan Hua; Wang, Hui

    2010-02-01

    The residue levels of selected fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides and tetracyclines in 143 animal dung samples collected in 2007 from large-scale livestock and poultry feedlots in 8 provinces were determined by using ultrasonic extraction and liquid chromatography. Recoveries from spiked pig dung samples (spike level=1mg/kg) ranged from 73.9 to 102.0% for fluoroquinolones, from 81.6 to 92.3% for sulfonamides, and from 57.2 to 72.6% for tetracyclines. Relative standard deviations of the recoveries were less than 10% within the same day. Method quantification limits were measured from 0.031 to 0.150 mg/kg for fluoroquinolones, from 0.023 to 0.082 mg/kg for sulfonamides, and 0.091 to 0.182 mg/kg for tetracyclines in spiked pig manure samples. Analysis of 61 pig, 54 chicken and 28 cow dung samples collected in China revealed that in pig and cow dung, up to 33.98 and 29.59 mg/kg ciprofloxacin, 33.26 and 46.70 mg/kg enrofloxacin, 59.06 and 59.59 mg/kg oxytetracycline, and 21.06 and 27.59 mg/kg chlortetracycline could be detected, respectively. A maximum concentration of 99.43 mg/kg fleroxacin, 225.45 mg/kg norfloxacin, 45.59 mg/kg ciprofloxacin and 1420.76 mg/kg enrofloxacin could be detected in chicken dung. No appreciable sulfonamide antibiotic concentrations (less than 10mg/kg) were found in any animal dung, and only sulfadimidine was observed, at a maximum concentration of 6.04 mg/kg, in chicken dung. Both enrofloxacin and chlortetracycline were detected with a very high occurrence in three animal manure samples. The residue levels for most antibiotics showed significant statistical differences among the sampling districts and the animal species. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Sharply Reduced but Still Heavy Self-Harm Burdens in Hubei Province, China, 1990–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingju Pan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to describe fatal and non-fatal self-harm burdens, as well as burdens from the main preventable risk factors, and to investigate the different suicide methods in Hubei province in central China utilizing data from both Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 and Hubei Disease Surveillance Points system. All self-harm burdens including mortality, years of life lost (YLLs, prevalence, years lived with disability (YLDs, and disability adjusted life-years (DALYs consistently demonstrated downward trends in Hubei from 1990 to 2015, with a bigger decline gap observed among females and narrower decreasing amplitudes among the elderly. Hubei experienced much higher age-standardized rates for self-harm mortality (22.0 per 100,000, YLLs (560.1 per 100,000 and DALYs (563.9 per 100,000 than the national (9.0, 292.3 and 295.0 per 100,000 respectively and global levels (11.5, 453.3 and 457.9 per 100,000 respectively in 2015. Self-harm burdens have begun shifting from females to males and the elderly suffered more self-harm burdens than other age groups. Alcohol use accounted for 20.9% of all self-harm DALYs for males, whereas intimate partner violence accounted for 24.4% of all self-harm DALYs for females. Poisoning, mainly pesticide self-poisoning, was still the most common method of suicide. Effective interventions by multi-sectoral collaboration are urgently needed to reduce the alarmingly heavy self-harm burdens in Hubei.

  19. Population structure and diversity of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates in Hunan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Cui; Yao, Run-Xian; Li, Fang; Dai, Su-Ming; Licciardello, Grazia; Catara, Antonino; Gentile, Alessandra; Deng, Zi-Niu

    2017-02-01

    Stem-pitting (SP) is the main type of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) that causes severe damage to citrus trees, especially those of sweet orange, in Hunan province, China. Understanding the local CTV population structure should provide clues for effective mild strain cross-protection (MSCP) of the SP strain of CTV. In this study, markers for the p23 gene, multiple molecular markers (MMMs), and sequence analysis of the three silencing suppressor genes (p20, p23 and p25) were employed to analyze the genetic diversity and genotype composition of the CTV population based on 51 CTV-positive samples collected from 14 citrus orchards scattered around six major citrus-growing areas of Hunan. The results indicated that the CTV population structure was extremely complex and that infection was highly mixed. In total, p23 gene markers resulted in six profiles, and MMMs demonstrated 25 profiles. The severe VT and T3 types appeared to be predominantly associated with SP, while the mild T30 and RB types were related to asymptomatic samples. Based on phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences of p20, p23 and p25, 19 representative CTV samples were classified into seven recently established CTV groups and a potentially novel one. A high level of genetic diversity, as well as potential recombination, was revealed among different CTV isolates. Five pure SP severe and two pure mild strains were identified by genotype composition analysis. Taken together, the results update the genetic diversity of CTV in Hunan with the detection of one possible novel strain, and this information might be applicable for the selection of appropriate mild CTV strains for controlling citrus SP disease through cross-protection.

  20. A methodological framework for coastal development assessment: A case study of Fujian Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Haiyan; Lindenmayer, David B; Wong, Gabriel T W; Mao, Zhu; Huang, Yi; Xue, Xiongzhi

    2018-02-15

    Decision-makers often have to make trade-offs between economic growth and environmental conservation when developing and managing coastal environments. Coastal development and management need to be subject to rigorous assessments to determine if they are sustainable over time. We propose a methodological framework - the Coastal Development Index (CDI) for the assessment of the changes in sustainability of coastal development over time. CDI is a modified version of the Ocean Health Index (OHI) but with two new indicators - ecological and environmental indicators (EEI), and social and economic indicators (SEI), both of which comprise three sub-indicators (coastal protection, clean waters and species protection for EEI, and food provision, coastal livelihoods and economies and tourism and recreation for SEI). The six sub-indicators represent key aspects of coastal development and the level of exploitation of natural resources that have previously been missing in other conceptual frameworks. We demonstrate the value of CDI with a detailed case study of Fujian Province in China, 2000-2013. The scores of CDI decreased from 1.01 in 2000 to 0.42 in 2013 suggesting that the Fujian coastal zone has experienced unsustainable development in that time. Meanwhile, the scores of EEI decreased from 22.1 to 20.4 while the scores of SEI increased from 21.9 to 48.1 suggesting that environmental values have been eroded by economic growth. Analysis of the scores of sub-indicators reveals a need to integrate economic growth and social development with environmental conservation on Fujian coastal management. Our case study highlights the potential value of the CDI for improving the ecological sustainability of coastal zone management and development practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Geochemistry of cenozoic basaltic rocks from Shandong province and its implication for mantle process in North China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Yungtan; Chen Juchin; Huang Shaowei; Shih Jyhyi; Lin Menglung; Juang Wenshing; Yang Huaijen

    2006-01-01

    Cenozoic (Miocene to Pleistocene) basaltic rocks found in Shandong province of northern China include tholeiite, olivine tholeiite and alkali basalt. We present major, trace and rare earth elements data of these basalts and together with Sr-Nd isotopic data in the literatures to discuss the petrogenesis of these basalts. The basalts from Penglai area have higher K, Na and P and incompatible elements, but lower Ca, Mg and compatible elements contents than those from Changle area of Shandong province. Spidergrams indicate that Cenozoic basalts from Shandong province have geochemical characteristics similar to those of ocean island basalts (OIB) with slight positive Nb anomaly. The negative Ba, Rb and K anomalies found in the alkali basalts suggest the presence of residual phlogopite in the mantle source, indicating a metasomatic event occurred before the partial melting. The 143 Nd/ 144 Nd vs. 87 Sr/ 86 Sr plot suggested that basalts from Shandong province can be produced by MORB and EM-I components mixing. We propose that the EM-I type lithospheric mantle may have been produced by the recent H 2 O-CO 2 -fluids metasomatism and the fluids may be derived from dehydration of the subducted slab. Based on Shaw's equation, the basalts from eastern and central Shandong province have undergone different degrees of particle melting from the mantle source. Degrees of partial melting and chemical composition of basalts from Shandong province suggest that the lithosphere has thickened progressively since the Miocene. On the basis of Ar-Ar ages of this study and the fractional crystallization model proposed by Brooks and Nielsen (1982), we suggest that basalts from Changle and Penglai areas belong to different magmatic systems which have undergone fractional crystallization and evolved progressively to produce other types of basalts. (author)

  2. An economic evaluation of the use of Japanese encephalitis vaccine in the expanded program of immunization of Guizhou province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zundong; Beeler Asay, Garrett R; Zhang, Li; Li, Yixing; Zuo, Shuyan; Hutin, Yvan J; Ning, Guijun; Sandhu, Hardeep S; Cairns, Lisa; Luo, Huiming

    2012-08-10

    Historically, China's Japanese encephalitis vaccination program was a mix of household purchase of vaccine and government provision of vaccine in some endemic provinces. In 2006, Guizhou, a highly endemic province in South West China, integrated JE vaccine into the provincial Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI); later, in 2007 China fully integrated 28 provinces into the national EPI, including Guizhou, allowing for vaccine and syringe costs to be paid at the national level. We conducted a retrospective economic analysis of JE integration into EPI in Guizhou province. We modeled two theoretical cohorts of 100,000 persons for 65 years; one using JE live-attenuated vaccine in EPI (first dose: 95% coverage and 94.5% efficacy; second dose: 85% coverage and 98% efficacy) and one not. We assumed 60% sensitivity of surveillance for reported JE rates, 25% case fatality, 30% chronic disability and 3% discounting. We reviewed acute care medical records and interviewed a sample of survivors to estimate direct and indirect costs of illness. We reviewed the EPI offices expenditures in 2009 to estimate the average Guizhou program cost per vaccine dose. Use of JE vaccine in EPI for 100,000 persons would cost 434,898 US$ each year (46% of total cost due to vaccine) and prevent 406 JE cases, 102 deaths, and 122 chronic disabilities (4554 DALYs). If we ignore future cost savings and only use EPI program cost, the program would cost 95.5 US$/DALY, less than China Gross Domestic Product per capita in 2009 (3741 US$). From a cost-benefit perspective taking into account future savings, use of JE vaccine in EPI for a 100,000-person cohort would lead to savings of 1,591,975 US$ for the health system and 11,570,989 US$ from the societal perspective. In Guizhou, China, use of JE vaccine in EPI is a cost effective investment. Furthermore, it would lead to savings for the health system and society. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Space-Time Study of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS and Its Climatic Associations in Heilongjiang Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyu He

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS is highly endemic in China, especially in Heilongjiang province (90% of all reported HFRS cases worldwide occur in China. The dynamic identification of high HFRS incidence spatiotemporal regions and the quantitative assessment of HFRS associations with climate change in Heilongjiang province can provide valuable guidance for HFRS monitoring, preventing and control. Yet, so far there exist very few and of limited scope quantitative studies of the spatiotemporal HFRS spread and its climatic associations in Heilongjiang province. Making up for this lack of quantitative studies is the reason for the development of the present work.Method: To address this need, the well-known Bayesian maximum entropy (BME method of space-time modeling and mapping together with its recently proposed variant, the projected BME (P-BME method, were employed in this work to perform a composite space-time analysis and mapping of HFRS incidence in Heilongjiang province during the years 2005–2013. Also, using multivariate El Niño-Southern Oscillation index as a proxy, we proposed a combination of Hilbert-Huang transform and wavelet analysis to study the “HFRS incidence-climate change” associations.Results: The main results of this work were two-fold: (1 three core areas were identified with high HFRS incidences that were spatially distributed and exhibited distinct biomodal temporal patterns in the eastern, western, and southern parts of Heilongjiang province; and (2 there exists a considerable association between HFRS incidence and climate change, particularly, an ~6 months period coherency was clearly detected.Conclusions: The combination of modern space-time modeling and mapping techniques (P-BME theory, Hilbert-Huang spectrum analysis, and wavelet analysis used in this work led to valuable quantitative findings concerning the spatiotemporal spread of HFRS incidence in Heilongjiang province and its association

  4. Factors related to burnout among Chinese female hospital nurses: cross-sectional survey in Liaoning Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hui; Liu, Li; Sun, Wei; Zhao, Xue; Wang, Jiana; Wang, Lie

    2014-07-01

    To explore the factors associated with burnout among female hospital nurses in China. Burnout has been a major concern in the field of occupational health, and yet there has been little research exploring the factors related to burnout among Chinese nurses. Exploring the factors associated with burnout is important in improving nurses' health and the quality of health care services in China. The study population consisted of 1845 female hospital nurses in the Liaoning Province of China. Burnout was measured using the Chinese version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey; occupational stress was measured using the Chinese versions of the Job Content Questionnaire and Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire. A general linear regression model was applied to analyse the factors associated with burnout. Mean scores (±SD) were 11.74 (7.14) for emotional exhaustion, 7.12 (5.67) for cynicism and 23.34 (9.60) for self-efficacy. Strong extrinsic effort was the most powerful predictor of emotional exhaustion and cynicism; strong psychological job demands were the most robust predictor of low self-efficacy. The findings suggest that occupational stress was strongly related to burnout among female hospital nurses in China. Occupational stress was identified as the most robust predictor of burnout among Chinese female hospital nurses. Reducing burnout among nurses working in China may require health education, health promotion and occupational training programmes aimed at improving work situations and reducing occupational stress. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Did the Establishment of Poyang Lake Eco-Economic Zone Increase Agricultural Labor Productivity in Jiangxi Province, China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we take the establishment of Poyang Lake Eco-Economic Zone in 2009 as a quasi-natural experiment, to evaluate its influence on the agricultural labor productivity in Jiangxi Province, China. The estimation results of the DID method show that the establishment of the zone reduced agricultural labor productivity by 3.1%, lowering farmers’ net income by 2.5% and reducing the agricultural GDP by 3.6%. Furthermore, this negative effect has increased year after year since 2009. However, the heterogeneity analysis implies that the agricultural labor productivities of all cities in Jiangxi Province will ultimately converge. We find that the lack of agricultural R&D activities and the abuse of chemical fertilizers may be the main reasons behind the negative influence of the policy, by examining two possible transmission channels—the R&D investment and technological substitution. Corresponding policy implications are also provided.

  6. Eriophyoid mites from Qinghai Province, northwestern China with descriptions of nine new species (Acari, Eriophyoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Sen Li

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Eriophyoid mites from Qinghai Province, northwestern China were studied herein. Up to now, only six species have been reported from Qinghai Province. In field surveys, 17 eriophyoid mite species were collected, among which nine species were found new to science. The new species and their host plants are listed as follows: Acaphyllisa tuberculumae sp. n. on Populus sp. (Salicaceae; Proiectus xiningensis sp. n. on Pinus sp. (Pinaceae; Phyllocoptes beishaniensis sp. n. on Spiraea mongolica Maxim. (Rosaceae; Tetra pruniana sp. n. on Prunus tomentosa Thunb. (Rosaceae Rupr. (Berberidaceae; Tetra pyriana sp. n. on Pyrus calleryana Decne. (Rosaceae; Tetra simonia sp. n. on Populus simonii Carr. (Salicaceae; Diptacus berberinus sp. n. on Berberis amurensis Rupr. (Berberidaceae; Diptacus mengdaensis sp. n. on Lonicera elisae Franch. (Caprifoliaceae; Rhyncaphytoptus spinus sp. n. on Lonicera rupicola Hook. f. et Thoms. (Caprifoliaceae. Aculops ulmi Hong & Xue, 2005 was re-described.

  7. Multi-Regional Input-Output (MRIO Study of the Provincial Ecological Footprints and Domestic Embodied Footprints Traded among China’s 30 Provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decun Wu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development in China has led to imbalances and inequities of ecological resources among the provinces and regions. In this study, an environmentally extended multi-regional input-output (MRIO model was used to analyze the imbalances, inequities and pressures of the ecological footprints (EF of China’s 30 provinces in 2007. In addition, by decomposing the total product consumption coefficients, we calculated the net embodied EF of the flows among the provinces by the total amount, land type and sector. The results showed that most provinces presented EF deficits. Significant differences were observed between the ecological pressure in consumption (EPC and ecological pressure in production (EPP for each province because of the net embodied EF trade; the EPCs of Shanghai (15.16, Beijing (7.81 and Tianjin (7.81 were the largest and presented descending EPPs, whereas the EPCs of Heilongjiang (0.98, Hebei (0.98, Xinjiang (0.98 and Guangxi (0.98 were under the threshold value (1 and presented ascending EPPs. The carbon footprint in the secondary sector was the main embodied EF of the flows among the provinces responsible for inequities. Finally, based on the various conditions of the provinces in different geographical regions, we have provided suggestions for regionally balanced development that can maintain the EPP and EPC values under the threshold for each province.

  8. [Virtual water content of livestock products in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-rui; Wang, Jun-hong

    2006-04-01

    The paper expatiated the virtual water content concept of livestock products and the study meaning on developing virtual water trade of livestock products in China, then summarized the calculation methods on virtual water and virtual water trade of livestock products. Based on these, the paper analyzed and researched every province virtual water content of livestock products in details, then elicited various situation of every province virtual water content of livestock products in China by year. Moreover, it compared virtual water content of livestock products with local water resources. The study indicated the following results: (1) The virtual water content of livestock products is increasing rapidly in China recently, especially poultry eggs and pork. (2) The distribution of virtual water content of livestock products is not balanced, mainly lies in North China, East China and so on; (3) The increasing production of livestock in Beijing City, Tianjin City, Hebei, Nei Monggol, Liaononing, Jilin, Shandong, Henan and Ningxia province and autonom ous region will bring pressure to local water shortage.

  9. Spatial analysis of Schistosomiasis in Hubei Province, China: a GIS-based analysis of Schistosomiasis from 2009 to 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Yan Chen

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis remains a major public health problem in China. The major endemic areas are located in the lake and marshland regions of southern China, particularly in areas along the middle and low reach of the Yangtze River. Spatial analytical techniques are often used in epidemiology to identify spatial clusters in disease regions. This study assesses the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis and explores high-risk regions in Hubei Province, China to provide guidance on schistosomiasis control in marshland regions.In this study, spatial autocorrelation methodologies, including global Moran's I and local Getis-Ord statistics, were utilized to describe and map spatial clusters and areas where human Schistosoma japonicum infection is prevalent at the county level in Hubei province. In addition, linear logistic regression model was used to determine the characteristics of spatial autocorrelation with time.The infection rates of S. japonicum decreased from 2009 to 2013. The global autocorrelation analysis results on the infection rate of S. japonicum for five years showed statistical significance (Moran's I > 0, P < 0.01, which suggested that spatial clusters were present in the distribution of S. japonicum infection from 2009 to 2013. Local autocorrelation analysis results showed that the number of highly aggregated areas ranged from eight to eleven within the five-year analysis period. The highly aggregated areas were mainly distributed in eight counties.The spatial distribution of human S. japonicum infections did not exhibit a temporal change at the county level in Hubei Province. The risk factors that influence human S. japonicum transmission may not have changed after achieving the national criterion of infection control. The findings indicated that spatial-temporal surveillance of S. japonicum transmission plays a significant role on schistosomiasis control. Timely and integrated prevention should be continued, especially in the Yangtze

  10. Target Allocation Methodology for China's Provinces: Energy Intensity in the 12th FIve-Year Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohshita, Stephanie; Price, Lynn

    2011-03-21

    Experience with China's 20% energy intensity improvement target during the 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) (2006-2010) has shown the challenges of rapidly setting targets and implementing measures to meet them. For the 12th FYP (2011-2015), there is an urgent need for a more scientific methodology to allocate targets among the provinces and to track physical and economic indicators of energy and carbon saving progress. This report provides a sectoral methodology for allocating a national energy intensity target - expressed as percent change in energy per unit gross domestic product (GDP) - among China's provinces in the 12th FYP. Drawing on international experience - especially the European Union (EU) Triptych approach for allocating Kyoto carbon targets among EU member states - the methodology here makes important modifications to the EU approach to address an energy intensity rather than a CO{sub 2} emissions target, and for the wider variation in provincial energy and economic structure in China. The methodology combines top-down national target projections and bottom-up provincial and sectoral projections of energy and GDP to determine target allocation of energy intensity targets. Total primary energy consumption is separated into three end-use sectors - industrial, residential, and other energy. Sectoral indicators are used to differentiate the potential for energy saving among the provinces. This sectoral methodology is utilized to allocate provincial-level targets for a national target of 20% energy intensity improvement during the 12th FYP; the official target is determined by the National Development and Reform Commission. Energy and GDP projections used in the allocations were compared with other models, and several allocation scenarios were run to test sensitivity. The resulting allocations for the 12th FYP offer insight on past performance and offer somewhat different distributions of provincial targets compared to the 11th FYP. Recommendations for

  11. Geochemical and palaeontological evidence for the definition of the Silurian/Devonian boundary in the Changwantang Section, Guangxi Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-jin Zhao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Southern Guangxi Province is one of the important areas for the study of the Silurian/Devonian boundary (SDB in South China. Despite attempts to define the exact level of the SDB in the Yulin (Guangxi Province area using biostratigraphy, no consensus has been reached as the indicator fossils (e.g. graptolite Monograptus uniformis uniformis, conodont Icriodus woschmidti woschmidti and trilobite Warburgella rugulosa rugosa are not coexistent in South China. Since Mann et al. (2001: Dynamics of the Silurian/Devonian boundary sequence: sedimentary cycles vs. organic matter variation. Terra Nostra, 2001, 44–48 reported the first isotope curve based on organic carbon for the SDB at Klonk in the Czech Republic (GSSP, some comparable variation curves of δ13Corg across the SDB have been obtained at several locations including sections in Turkey and China. This distinct variation curve of the isotopic composition of organic carbon across the SDB provides a chemostratigraphic reference for a worldwide correlation of the SDB. In this study, organic geochemistry together with graptolite biostratigraphy is applied as a tool for identifying the SDB at the Changwantang Section in Yulin (Guangxi Province. The results suggest that the variations in some indexes of organic geochemistry can be correlated to the representative curve of the SDB in the Klonk and Esenyali sections. The exact level of the SDB in the Changwantang Section is positioned within the upper part of the Fangcheng Formation, which is consistent with the available palaeontological data from graptolites (e.g. Colonograptus colonus, Plectograptus sp., Monograptus uniformis, M. cf. M. praehercynicus and M. aequabilis.

  12. Density and Seasonal Dynamics of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) Mediterranean on Common Crops and Weeds around Cotton Fields in Northern China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiao-ming; Yang, Nian-wan; Wan, Fang-hao

    2014-01-01

    theophrasti Medicus), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.), soybean (Glycine max L.), and maize (Zea mays L.). The whitefly species identity was repeatedly tested and confirmed; seasonal dynamics on the various host plants was standardized by the quartile method. B. tabaci MED......The density seasonal dynamics of Bemisia tabaci MED were evaluated over two-years in a cotton-growing area in Langfang, Hebei Province, northern China on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and six other, co-occurring common plants: common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.), piemarker (Abutilon...

  13. Dietary intake of zinc in the population of Jiangsu Province, China.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Q.; Boonstra, A.; Shi, Z.; Pan, X.; Yuan, B.; Dai, Yue; Zhao, J.; Zimmermann, M.B.; Kok, F.J.; Zhou, M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate dietary zinc and other divalent minerals intake among the population of Jiangsu Province. Methods: 3,867 subjects aged 4-89 years were representatively sampled in two urban and six rural areas of Jiangsu Province. Dietary intake was assessed using 24-hour recalls on three

  14. Comparison between two population-based hepatitis B serosurveys with an 8-year interval in Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiaye; Lv, Jingjing; Yan, Bingyu; Feng, Yi; Song, Lizhi; Xu, Aiqiang; Zhang, Li; Yan, Yongping

    2017-08-01

    Tremendous progress has been made in hepatitis B virus (HBV) prevention and control in the last 30 years in China, but it continues to be a major public health problem. The most recently reported population-based seroepidemiological survey on HBV in Shandong Province in China was published in 2006, and an updated baseline for HBV prevalence was badly needed in the province to identify the change in HBV epidemiology in the last decade. Two population-based cross-sectional serosurveys were performed among the population aged 1-59 years in the same sample areas in Shandong Province, China in 2006 and 2014, respectively. Data on demographic characteristics were collected. A blood sample was obtained from each person and was tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody against HBsAg (anti-HBs), and antibody against hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc). Overall, the prevalence rates of HBsAg, anti-HBs, and anti-HBc were 3.39% (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.51-4.26), 44.96% (95% CI 41.34-48.57), and 24.45% (95% CI 22.19-26.71), respectively, among the population aged 1-59 years in the 2006 serovsurvey; the corresponding prevalence rates were 2.49% (95% CI 1.81-3.17), 48.27% (95% CI 45.63-50.92), and 22.56% (95% CI 20.14-24.97), respectively, in 2014. The prevalence rates of HBsAg and anti-HBc were lower in 2014 than in 2006. Conversely, the prevalence of anti-HBs showed an increase. However, none of these differences were statistically significant (all p>0.05). The prevalence of HBsAg showed an increase among persons aged 20-24 years in 2014 (3.83%) compared with 2006 (2.98%) (t=0.45, p=0.67). Among all occupation groups, the prevalence of HBsAg was lower in 2014 than in 2006, while the prevalence of anti-HBc showed moderate increases in students and farmers (all p>0.05). The prevalence of HBsAg decreased more obviously in urban areas (65.49%) than rural areas (7.07%) from 2006 to 2014. The epidemiology of HBV infection has changed in Shandong Province, China

  15. A STUDY OF CRYPTOLECHIA ZELLER(LEPIDOPTERA. OECOPHORIDAE) IN CHINA (Ⅱ): SPECIES FROM GUIZHOU PROVINCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-xiaWang

    2004-01-01

    The present paper reports fourteen species of the genus Cryptolechia from Guizhou Province, China. Eleven species are described as new: C. proximideflecta sp. nov., C. muscosa sp.nov., C. solifasciaria sp. nov., C. spinifera sp. nov., C. denticulata sp. nov., C. furcellata sp. nov.,C. latifascia sp. nov., C. acutiuscula sp. nov., C. fasciculifera sp. nov., C. hamatilis sp. nov. and C.concaviuscula sp. nov. The female of C. gei Wang is reported for the first time, and the genital structures of the new species are illustrated.

  16. Ostracods (Crustacea associated with microbialites across the Permian-Triassic boundary in Dajiang (Guizhou Province, South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Beatrice FOREL

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available 26 samples were processed for a taxonomic study of ostracods from the Upper Permian (Changhsingian - Lower Triassic (Griesbachian interval of the Dajiang section, Guizhou Province, South China. 112 species belonging to 27 genera are recognized. Five new species are described: Acratia candyae sp. nov, Bairdia adelineae sp. nov., Bairdia? huberti sp. nov., Bairdia jeromei sp. nov., Orthobairdia jeanlouisi sp. nov. The unexpected survival faunas associated with microbial formations in the aftermath of the end-Permian extinction are documented for the first time. Ostracod biodiversity variations and palaeo-environmental modifications associated with microbial growth through the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB are discussed.

  17. Isolation and sequence analysis of a canine distemper virus from a raccoon dog in Jilin Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuening; Wang, Jianke; Zhang, Miao; Zhao, Jianjun; Shao, Xiqun; Ma, Zengjun; Zhao, Hang; Lin, Peng; Wu, Hua

    2015-10-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a major pathogen not only in raccoon dogs but also in a variety of carnivorous animals, including domesticated animals, particularly if they have not been vaccinated. In this study, a wild-type strain of CDV was isolated from lung tissue from a raccoon dog kept at a fur farm in Jilin Province, China. Cytopathic effects typical of CDV infection were observed after three blind passages in Vero cells, yielding a virus titer of 10(4.6) TCID50/mL. Virus identification was carried out by RT-PCR, immunofluorescence, electron microscopy, and genome sequencing. The results showed that the isolated virus, termed the SY strain, corresponded to the Asia-1 genotype of CDV and has a genome of 15,690 nucleotides. This represents the first complete nucleotide sequence of a CDV strain circulating in raccoon dogs in China.

  18. Risk Assessment of Canine Distemper in the Distribution Area of Giant Panda in Sichuan, Shaanxi and Gansu Provinces, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weigeng Shao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Giant panda is the world-class precious endangered species, facing the canine distemper and other important infectious diseases on its wild and captive population of a serious threat. In this study, we used MaxEnt model and combined with ArcGIS analysis to predict the potential risk of canine distemper to giant panda habitat in Sichuan, Gansu and Shaanxi Provinces, China. The results showed that 35.05% and 19.47% of the distribution areas of the giant pandas were in the high risk and medium risk of canine distemper, respectively. The canine distemper pose a great risk to the healthy survival of giant pandas in China. In future, epidemic prevention, vaccine development and application of wild animals should be enhanced so as to effectively protect the giant panda.

  19. Complete genomic characterization of milk vetch dwarf virus isolates from cowpea and broad bean in Anhui province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenhua; Zheng, Hongying; Yan, Dankan; Han, Kelei; Song, Xijiao; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Dongfang; Chen, Jianping; Yan, Fei

    2017-08-01

    Cowpea and broad bean plants showing severe stunting and leaf rolling symptoms were observed in Hefei city, Anhui province, China, in 2014. Symptomatic plants from both species were shown to be infected with milk vetch dwarf virus (MDV) by PCR. The complete genomes of MDV isolates from cowpea and broad bean were sequenced. Each of them had eight genomic DNAs that differed between the two isolates by 10.7% in their overall nucleotide sequences. In addition, the MDV genomes from cowpea and broad bean were associated with two and three alphasatellite DNAs, respectively. This is the first report of MDV on cowpea in China and the first complete genome sequences of Chinese MDV isolates.

  20. Dental and prosthodontic status of an over 40 year-old population in Shandong Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Creugers Nico HJ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to (1 describe the dental status using DMFT for the whole dentition and the anterior, premolar and molar regions; (2 determine associations of demographic variables and socio-economic status (SES with DMFT and tooth replacement; (3 analyze to what extent the goal as proposed by the WHO -'the retention of not less than 20 teeth throughout life' is achieved. Methods DMFT and tooth replacement data of 1588 subjects over 40 years from urban and rural sites in Qingdao (Shandong Province, China were collected. Relative D, M, and F scores per dental region were calculated and compared by paired T-tests. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine relationships with age, gender, place of residence, and SES. Results Mean numbers of D and F were low (1.36 respectively 0.27 at all ages. Molars had highest chance for D and M. For the molar region every additional year of age gave significantly lower chance for D and higher chance for M (OR: 0.98 and 1.02 respectively; both p ≤ 0.01. Mean number of M was associated with age (approximately 1.5 in each jaw at 40 years and 6 at 80 years. Females had higher chance for D (OR: 1.34; p ≤ 0.05 and F (OR: 1.69; p ≤ 0.01, and lower chance for M (OR: 0.60; p ≤ 0.01. Urban and rural subjects had similar chance for D; urban subjects had approximately 5 times more chance for F (p ≤ 0.01. SES had no relationship with D and M, however SES low was associated with F (OR: 0.45; p ≤ 0.01. Replacements were significantly associated with age (all dental regions except anterior region, gender (all dental regions, place of residence (whole dentition and molar region, and SES (whole dentition and premolar and molar regions. Conclusions The majority of subjects presented a reduced dentition. Molars were most frequently affected by D and M. D, M, F and replaced teeth were associated with the background variables, however differently for different dental regions. Above the age

  1. Magnetite as the indicator of ore genesis for the Huangshaping polymetallic deposit, southern Hunan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, T.; Ma, D.; Lu, J.; Zhang, R.

    2017-12-01

    Huangshaping polymetallic deposit, located in southern Hunan Province, China, hosts abundant W-Mo-Pb-Zn mineralization which linked with the skarn system located between late Mesozoic high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic granitoids and the Carboniferous carbonate in this deposit. In this study, concentrations of trace and minor elements of the magnetites from different skarn stages are obtained by in situ LA-ICP-MS analysis, in order to further understand the polymetallic mineralization processes within this deposit. The generally high concentrations of spinel elements, including Mg, Al, Ti, Mn, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Ga, Ge, and Sn, in all magnetites from this deposit suggest that these elements are incorporated into magnetite lattice by substituting Fe3+ and/or Fe2+. However, the various concentrations of Na, Si, K, Ca, and W elements in magnetites, combining the abnormal time-resolved analytical signals of LA-ICP-MS analyses, suggest that these elements are significantly affected by the fluid inclusions in magnetites. Two groups of magnetites can be further distinguished based on their trace and minor elements concentrations: Group-1 magnetites, including those in medium grain garnets and calcite, have obvious lower Na, Si, K, Ca, Sn, W, but higher Mg, Al, Ti, V, Co, Ni, Zn concentrations compared with Group-2 magnetites, which including those in coarse grain garnets, tremolite, and bulk magnetite ores. This suggests that the hydrothermal fluids where Group-2 magnetites precipitated are evolved magmatic fluids which have undergone the crystal fractionation during the early skarn stages (eg. Garnet and tremolite), the high Na, Si, K, and Ca in the hydrothermal fluids probably result from the dissolution of the host rocks, such as limestone, sandstone, and evaporite horizons in this deposit. However, the Group-1 magnetites probably precipitated in the hydrothermal fluids with low salinity, which result the low Na, Si, K, and Ca in these magnitites. Furthermore, these

  2. Prevalence and awareness of diabetes mellitus among a rural population in China: results from Liaoning Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X; Guan, H; Zheng, L; Li, Z; Guo, X; Yang, H; Yu, S; Sun, G; Li, W; Hu, W; Guo, L; Pan, G; Xing, L; Zhang, Y; Sun, Y

    2015-03-01

    To clarify the diabetes prevalence trends among the rural population in northern China. All eligible permanent residents aged ≥ 35 years in selected rural villages of Liaoning province were invited to participate in the study. A total of 11 600 people completed all questionnaires and were included in the study. The response rate was 85.3%. Fasting plasma glucose levels were measured after at least 12 h of fasting and diabetes was diagnosed according to WHO criteria, i.e. fasting plasma glucose ≥ 7 mmol/l and/or being on treatment for diabetes. Impaired fasting glucose was defined according to the 1997 and the 2010 American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria (6.1-6.9 and 5.6-6.9 mmol/l, respectively). Previous diagnoses of diabetes were assessed on the basis of self-reports. The prevalence of diabetes among adults in the rural population was 10.6% (10.0% in men and 11.1% in women). The prevalence of impaired fasting glucose was 13.0 and 36.1% according to the 1997 and the 2010 ADA criteria, respectively. The prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes was 4.3% among the whole population (3.3% in men and 5.1% in women). The prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes was 34.8% in men and 50.2% in women. Only 29.6% of men and 42% of women with diabetes had taken oral hypoglycaemic agents or insulin to lower their blood sugar. In multivariate analysis, age, drinking habits, BMI, dyslipidaemia and family history of diabetes were identified as independent risk factors for diabetes, and occupational physical activity, smoking and lean meat intake were identified as independent protective factors for diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose were found to be high in this rural population. Although the rate of treatment of people with diabetes has increased, the glycaemic control rate was still at a low level. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  3. Molecular epidemiological survey of hemoglobinopathies in the Wuxi region of Jiangsu Province, eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Min; Han, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Qian; Zheng, Lei; Wang, Yan; Yang, Hui; Huang, Yue; Lin, Fen; Zhan, Xiao-Fen; Lin, Chun-Ping; Wu, Jiao-Ren; Luo, Zhao-Yun; Liu, Jing-Bo; Yan, Zhi-He; Zheng, Shu-Yan; Zheng, Jia-Kun; Lu, Min; Zhu, Juan-Juan; Xie, Long-Xu; Yang, Li-Ye

    2013-01-01

    In order to determine the prevalence and molecular characterization of hemoglobinopathies in the Wuxi region of Jiangsu Province in the People's Republic of China (PRC), a total of 10,297 healthy people selected from a regional hospital were screened. Hemoglobin (Hb) electrophoresis, complete blood cell (CBC) count, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA sequencing, reverse dot-blot and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) were used to detect Hb variants, thalassemias and hereditary persistence of fetal Hb (HPFH). Two thousand and twenty-one adult subjects were screened for thalassemia, five cases were identified as α-thalassemia (α-thal) carriers including three cases of the -α(3.7) (rightward) deletion, one case of the - -(SEA) deletion and one case of β-thal [IVS-II-654 (C>T), (HBB: c.316-197C>T)]. The incidence of Hb variants, thalassemia and HPFH/δβ-thal were 0.136% (14/10,297), 0.25% (5/2021) and 0.0001% (1/10,297), respectively. Eight genotypes of Hb variants were found, including Hb E [β26(B8)Glu→Lys, GAG>AAG; HBB: c.79G>A], Hb J-Bangkok [β56(D7)Gly→Asp (GGC>GAC); HBB; c.170G>A], Hb G-Coushatta [β22(4)Glu→Ala (GAA>GCA); HBB: c.68A>C], Hb Queens [α34(B15)Leu→Arg (CTG>CGG) (α2 or α1); HBA2: c.104T>G (or HBA1)], Hb I [α16(A14)Lys→Glu, AAG>GAG (α1); HBA1: c.49A>G], Hb Beijing [α16(A14)Lys→Asn (AAG>AAC or AAT) (α2 or α1); HBA2: c.51G>C (or HBA1) or 51G>T (or HBA1)], Hb Ube-2 [α68(E17)Asn→Asp (AAC>GAC) (α2 or α1); HBA2: c.205A>G (or HBA1)] and Hb G-Taipei [β22(B4)Glu→Gly (GAA>GGA); HBB: c.68A>G]. A Sicilian δβ(0)-thal, identified for the first time in Asia, was also found in this survey.

  4. Maternal care in rural China: a case study from Anhui province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiaohong

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on prenatal care in China have focused on the timing and frequency of prenatal care and relatively little information can be found on how maternal care has been organized and funded or on the actual content of the visits, especially in the less developed rural areas. This study explored maternal care in a rural county from Anhui province in terms of care organization, provision and utilization. Methods A total of 699 mothers of infants under one year of age were interviewed with structured questionnaires; the county health bureau officials and managers of township hospitals (n = 10 and county level hospitals (n = 2 were interviewed; the process of the maternal care services was observed by the researchers. In addition, statistics from the local government were used. Results The county level hospitals were well staffed and equipped and served as a referral centre for women with a high-risk pregnancy. Township hospitals had, on average, 1.7 midwives serving an average population of 15,000 people. Only 10–20% of the current costs in county level hospitals and township hospitals were funded by the local government, and women paid for delivery care. There was no systematic organized prenatal care and referrals were not mandatory. About half of the women had their first prenatal visit before the 13th gestational week, 36% had fewer than 5 prenatal visits, and about 9% had no prenatal visits. A major reason for not having prenatal care visits was that women considered it unnecessary. Most women (87% gave birth in public health facilities, and the rest in a private clinic or at home. A total of 8% of births were delivered by caesarean section. Very few women had any postnatal visits. About half of the women received the recommended number of prenatal blood pressure and haemoglobin measurements. Conclusion Delivery care was better provided than both prenatal and postnatal care in the study area. Reliance on user fees gave

  5. Mountain pastures of Qilian Shan: plant communities, grazing impact and degradation status (Gansu province, NW China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranova, Alina; Schickhoff, Udo; Shunli, Wang; Ming, Jin

    2015-04-01

    Qilian Mountains are the water source region for the low arid reaches of HeiHe river basin (Gansu province, NW China). Due to overstocking and overgrazing during the last decades adverse ecological ef¬fects, in particular on soil properties and hydrological cycle, are to be expected in growing land areas. Vegetation cover is very important to prevent erosion process and to sustain stable subsurface runoff and ground water flow. The aim of this research is to identify plant communities, detecting grazing-induced and spatially differentiated changes in vegetation patterns, and to evaluate status of pasture land degradation.The study area is located in the spring/autumn pasture area of South Qilian Mountains between 2600-3600 m a.s.l., covering five main vegetation types: spruce forest, alpine shrubland, shrubby grassland, mountain grassland, degraded mountain grassland. In order to analyze gradual changes in vegetation patterns along altitudinal and grazing gradients and to classify related plant communities, quantitative and qualitative relevé data were collected (coverage, species composition, abundance of unpalatable plants, plant functional types, etc.). Vegetation was classified using hierarchical cluster analyses. Indirect Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) was used to analyze variation in relationships between vegetation, environmental factors, and grazing impact. According to DCA results, distribution of the plant communities was strongly affected by altitude and exposition. Grassland floristic gradients showed greater dependence on grazing impact, which correlated contrarily with soil organic content, soil moisture and pH. Highest numbers of species richness and alpha diversity were detected in alpine shrubland vegetation type. Comparing the monitoring data for the recent nine years, a trend of deterioration, species successions and shift in dominant species becomes obvious. Species indicating degrading site environmental conditions were identified

  6. Impact factors on expansion of built-up areas in Zhejiang Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Zhu, Qiankun; Li, Yan; Gong, Fang

    2017-10-01

    Built-up areas are the results of human activities. Not only are they the real reflection of human and society activities, but also one of the most important input parameters for the simulation of biogeochemical cycle. Therefore, it is very necessary to map the distribution of built-up areas and monitor their changes by using new technologies and methods at high spatiotemporal resolution. By combining technologies of GIS (Geographic Information System) and RS (Remote Sensing), this study mainly explored the expansion and driving factors of built-up areas at the beginning of the 21st century in Zhejiang Province, China. Firstly, it introduced the mapping processes of LULC (Land Use and Land Cover) based on the method which combined object-oriented method and binary decision tree. Then, it analyzed the expansion features of built-up areas in Zhejiang from 2000 to 2005 and 2005 to 2010. In addition to these, potential driving factors on the expansion of built-up areas were also explored, which contained physical geographical factors, railways, highways, rivers, urban centers, elevation, and slop. Results revealed that the expansions of built-up areas in Zhejiang from 2000 to 2005 and from 2005 to 2010 were very obvious and they showed high levels of variation in spatial heterogeneity. Except those, increased built-up areas with distance to railways, highways, rivers, and urban centers could be fitted with power function (y = a*xb ), with minimum R2 of 0.9507 for urban centers from 2000 to 2005; the increased permillages of built-up areas to mean elevation and mean slop could be fitted with exponential functions (y = a*ebx), with minimum R2 of 0.6657 for mean slop from 2005 to 2010. Besides, government policy could also impact expansion of built-up areas. In a nutshell, a series of conclusions were obtained through this study about the spatial features and driving factors of evolution of built-up areas in Zhejiang from 2000 to 2010.

  7. [The application of National AIDS spending assessment in a county of Dehong prefecture, Yunnan province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Duo; Sun, Jiang-ping; Yakusik, Anna; Chen, Zhong-dan; Yuan, Jian-hua; Li, Tao; Duan, Song; Yang, Xing; Wei, Mei; Michael, Sante; Ye, Run-hua; Xiang, Li-fen; Yang, Yue-cheng; Ren, Da

    2012-11-01

    To calculate the actual expenditures in a county of Dehong prefecture, Yunnan province, China by using the method of National AIDS Spending Assessment (NASA) in 2010. Data were collected through NASA data collection form based on adapted NASA classification in the county of Dehong prefecture from October to December, 2011, and complemented by semi-structured interview with 16 well trained programmatic and financial representatives in 8 spending units. Data were entered in Resource Tracking Software (RTS) V 2009.3.0, and SPSS 13.0 was used for data processing and analysis. The NASA estimations showed that the county spent a total of ¥16 235 954 on HIV/AIDS in 2010. Public funds constituted 96.3% of the total expenditure (¥15 630 937), followed by Global Fund which accounted for 3.0% (¥484 585) and private sources which accounted for 0.7% (¥120 432). Findings based on NASA categories showed that AIDS spendings were mainly on 4 areas, and expenditure on Care & Treatment was ¥12 401 382 (76.4% of total expenditure), followed by Prevention which accounted for 14.3% (¥2 325 707), Program Management & Administration which accounted for 7.8% (¥1 268 523) and human resources which accounted for 1.5% (¥240 342). The most beneficial population group was People Living with HIV (PLHIV), accounting for 84.7% of total expenditure. (¥13 753 428), followed by 4.8% for high risk population, including female sex workers and their partners (¥297 333), injection drug users and their partners (¥293 143), men having sex with men and their partners (¥185 136) and 1.5% (¥241 429) for the general population. The local funds for HIV/AIDS in this county was insufficient. The local government should increase corresponding funds based on central government funding. Care and treatment was the first spending priority in the county and the investment of prevention services needs to be increased. Prevention and treatment and care should be combined to ensure the effectiveness of

  8. Epidemiologic characterization of human papillomavirus infection in rural Chaozhou, eastern Guangdong Province of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human papilloma virus (HPV infection was the main cause of cervical cancer. There were only a few reports and detailed data about epidemiological research of HPV infection in rural population of China. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cervical cells of rural Chaozhou women were collected, and multiplex real time PCR was firstly performed to detect high-risk HPV (HR-HPV infection, which could detect 13 types of HR-HPV (types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, and 68. Then, HPV-positive samples were typed by HPV GenoArray test. RESULTS: HR-HPV DNA was detected by multiplex real time-PCR in 3830 of 48559 cases (7.89%. There was a peak incidence in age of 55-60 years group, and a lower incidence in who lived in plain group compared with suburban, mountain and seashore group. 3380 cases of HPV positive sample were genotyped, 11.01% (372/3380 cases could not be classified, among the typed 3008 cases, 101 cases were identified without HR-HPV type infection, 2907 cases were infected with one HR-HPV type at least, the 6 most common HR-HPV types in descending order of infection, were type 52 (33.4%, 16 (20.95%, 58 (15.93%, 33 (9.94%, 68 (9.22% and 18 (8.36%. The combined prevalence of HPV types 16 and 18 accounted for 28.52% of total infection. However, type 52 plus 58 presented 48.23% of total infection. 2209/2907 cases were infected with a single HPV type and 698/2907 cases were infected with multiple types, and multiple infection constituent ratio increased with age, with a peak incidence in age 55-60 years group. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings showed low prevalence of HPV vaccine types (16 and 18 and relatively high prevalence of HPV-52 and -58, support the hypothesis that the second-generation HPV vaccines including HPV-52 and -58 may offer higher protection for women in rural Guangdong Province.

  9. Job-housing imbalance and commuting of coastal industrial town in Liaoning province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Lu, Wei; Cai, Jun; Yang, Qiyao

    2017-11-01

    During the Twelve Five period, China promulgated industrial policies promote the energy-intensive industries relocate to coastal areas in order to utilize marine shipping resources. Consequently, some major state-owned steel and petrochemical enterprises have relocated and resulted in a large scale coastal area development. Restricted by the port construction, most of the coastal industrial areas are located in the outer suburbs. To balance between employment and housing, new industrial coastal towns were constructed. In this paper, we adopt a case-study approach to analysis some typical industrial coastal towns of Liaoning Province situated in the Bohai Bay, which is currently under rapid economic growth. Our investigations reflect the common phenomenon of long distance commuting and massive amount of vacant residences. More specifically, large plant relocation caused hundreds of kilometers of daily commute and enterprises had to provide housing subsidies and education incentives to motivate employees to relocate to coastal areas. Nonetheless, many employees still refuse to relocate due to job stability, diverse needs of family members and access to convenient services. These employees averaged 4 hours of commute daily and some who lived further had to reside in temporary industrial housing units and subject to long-term family separation. As a result, only a small portion of employees purchase new coastal residences but mostly for investment and retirement purposes, leading to massive vacancy and ghost-town phenomenon. In contrast to the low demand, coastal areas tend to develop large amount of residences prior to industrial relocation, which may be directly related to local government finances. Some local governments have sold residential land to developers to general revenue to support the subsequent industrial development. Subject to the strong preference of ocean- view, residential housing developers tend to select coast-line land to construct new residential

  10. Toxocara seroprevalence among clinically healthy individuals, pregnant women and psychiatric patients and associated risk factors in Shandong Province, Eastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Cong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Toxocarosis is a widespread zoonosis caused by the ascarid nematodes Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati, which primarily infect dogs and cats, respectively. Most human infections with Toxocara are asymptomatic; however, some infected individuals may develop a serious illness and even death. Nevertheless, epidemiological knowledge regarding the prevalence and risks associated with Toxocara infection is limited in China. Therefore, we performed a cross-sectional pilot study and estimated the seroprevalence of Toxocara infection in humans in Shandong Province, eastern China for the first time, from June 2011 to July 2013, involving clinically healthy individuals, pregnant women and psychiatric patients, aiming to attract public attention to Toxocara infection.Seroprevalence of Toxocara was determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on a cross-sectional study conducted in Qingdao and Weihai, Shandong Province, eastern China. Factors potentially associated with Toxocara infection were identified by logistic regression analysis. The overall Toxocara seroprevalence among the study population (n = 2866 was 12.25%, and a significantly higher seroprevalence in psychiatric patients (16.40%, 73/445 than that in clinically healthy individuals (13.07%, 187/1431 and pregnant women (9.19%, 91/990 was revealed. Univariate analyses suggested that keeping dogs at home (OR = 0.06, 95% CI 0.05-0.08, P<0.001, contact with cats and dogs (OR = 0.42, 95% CI 0.33-0.53, P<0.001 and exposure with soil (OR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.28-0.49, P<0.001 were risk factors associated with Toxocara infection.The present study revealed, for the first time, that human infection with Toxocara is common in eastern China, posing a significant public health concern. Increasing human and dog populations, population movements and climate change all will serve to increase the importance of this zoonosis. Further studies under controlled conditions are necessary to define potential

  11. The gender gap among school children in poor rural areas of western China: evidence from a multi-province dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hua; Mo, Di; Zhou, Chengchao; Medina, Alexis; Shi, Yaojiang; Zhang, Linxiu; Rozelle, Scott

    2016-09-29

    The gender gap remains a major impediment in the path towards equality and it is especially wide in low-income countries. Up to the early 2000s, many studies documented extensive inequalities in China: girls had poorer health, less nutrition and less education than their male counterparts. The goal of this study is to examine whether the gender gap persists, given that China is now making the transition into the ranks of upper-middle income countries. We consider educational outcomes, mental and physical health status, as well as non-cognitive outcomes. We draw on a dataset containing 69,565 observations constructed by combining data from 7 different school-level surveys spanning 5 provinces. The surveys were all conducted by the authors between 2008 and 2013 using uniform survey instruments and data collection protocols in randomly selected schools across western provinces in rural China. The sample children range in age from 9 to 14 years (with 79 % of the sample being aged 10 to 12). Our analysis compares rural girls with rural boys in terms of 13 different indicators. With the exception of anemia rates, the health outcomes of girls are equal to those of boys. Girls and boys are statistically identical in terms of weight-for-age, height-for-age, and prevalence of intestinal worm infections. Girls performed better than boys on five of six cognitive and educational performance indicators. Girls performed worse than boys on all mental health indicators. All estimates are robust to the inclusion of different age ranges, controlling for the level of household assets, ethnic minority status, as well as the addition of provincial dummies. Our findings suggest that with the exception of non-cognitive outcomes, anemia and standardized math test scores, the gender gap in our study areas in China appears to be diminishing.

  12. Assessment of inter-city transport of particulate matter in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Chang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The regional transport of particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5 plays an important role in the air pollution of the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei (BTH region in China. However, previous studies on regional transport of PM2.5 mainly aim at province level, which is insufficient for the development of an optimal joint PM2.5 control strategy. In this study, we calculate PM2.5 inflows and outflows through the administrative boundaries of three major cities in the BTH region, i.e., Beijing, Tianjin and Shijiazhuang, using the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting model-CMAQ (Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system. The monthly average inflow fluxes indicate the major directions of PM2.5 transport. For Beijing, the PM2.5 inflow fluxes from Zhangjiakou (in the northwest and Baoding (in the southwest constitute 57 % of the total in winter, and Langfang (in the southeast and Baoding constitute 73 % in summer. Based on the net PM2.5 fluxes and their vertical distributions, we find there are three major transport pathways in the BTH region: the northwest–southeast pathway in winter (at all levels below 1000 m, the northwest–southeast pathway in summer (at all levels below 1000 m, and the southwest–northeast pathway in both winter and in summer (mainly at 300–1000 m. In winter, even if surface wind speeds are low, the transport at above 300 m can still be strong. Among the three pathways, the southwest–northeast happens along with PM2.5 concentrations 30 and 55 % higher than the monthly average in winter and summer, respectively. Analysis of two heavy pollution episodes in January and July in Beijing show a much (8–16 times stronger transport than the monthly average, emphasizing the joint air pollution control of the cities located on the transport pathways, especially during heavy pollution episodes.

  13. Multilocus genotyping of Giardia duodenalis in captive non-human primates in Sichuan and Guizhou provinces, Southwestern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Zhong

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis is a common human and animal pathogen. It has been increasingly reported in wild and captive non-human primates (NHPs in recent years. However, multilocus genotyping information for G. duodenalis infecting NHPs in southwestern China is limited. In the present study, the prevalence and multilocus genotypes (MLGs of G. duodenalis in captive NHPs in southwestern China were determined. We examined 207 fecal samples from NHPs in Sichuan and Guizhou provinces, and 16 specimens were positive for G. duodenalis. The overall infection rate was 7.7%, and only assemblage B was identified. G. duodenalis was detect positive in northern white-cheeked gibbon (14/36, 38.9%, crab-eating macaque (1/60, 1.7% and rhesus macaques (1/101, 0.9%. Multilocus sequence typing based on beta-giardin (bg, triose phosphate isomerase (tpi and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh revealed nine different assemblage B MLGs (five known genotypes and four novel genotypes. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, one potentially zoonotic genotype of MLG SW7 was identified in a northern white-cheeked gibbon. A high degree of genetic diversity within assemblage B was observed in captive northern white-cheeked gibbons in Southwestern China, including a potentially zoonotic genotype, MLG SW7. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report using a MLGs approach to identify G. duodenalis in captive NHPs in Southwestern China.

  14. [Prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Shuangcheng City of Heilongjiang Province: the China Nine-Province Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liqiong; Cui, Hao; Zhao, Jialiang; Ellwein, Leon B; Li, Zhijian; Li, Mingsheng; Yu, Nannan; Wang, Yu; Gao, Xuecheng

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Shuangcheng City of Heilongjiang Province, China. It was a population-based cross-section study. Geographically defined cluster sampling was used in randomly selecting 5 841 individuals aged 50 years or above in 28 basic sample units in Shuangcheng City from September to December 2006. The survey was preceded by a pilot study where operational methods were refined and quality assurance evaluation was carried out. All participants were enumerated through village registers followed door-to-door visits.Eligible individuals were invited to receive visual acuity measurement and eye examination. Statistical analyses were performed using Stata/SE Statistical Software, release 9.0. Chi-square test was used to investigate the association of age, gender and education with presenting and best corrected visual acuity. Five thousands four hundreds and eighty-one individuals were enumerated and 5 047 persons were examined, the response rate was 92.08%. Based on the criteria of World Health Organization visual impairment classification in 1973, the prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as best corrected visual acuity was 1.72% (87/5 047) and 4.69% (237/5 047) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as presenting visual acuity was 1.90% (96/5 047) and 7.23% (365/5 047) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was higher in aged (trend χ(2)=674.44, P blindness and visual impairment. The percentage of the retinal diseases, including age-related macular degeneration, high myopic retinopathy and diabetic retinopathy was 11.31% among the eyes with blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment. Un-corrected refractive error(13.38%) also was the main cause of visual impairment. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe

  15. Cadmium Profiles in Dental Calculus: a Cross-Sectional Population-Based Study in Hunan Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Tan, Xiaodan; Zhang, Kunlun

    2018-01-24

    We aimed to investigate whether the cadmium concentrations differ in human dental calculus obtained from the residents with no smoking living in the contaminated area and those with no smoking living in noncontaminated area. In total, there were 260 samples of dental calculus from the adults (n = 50) with no smoking living in contaminated area, the adults (n = 60) with no smoking living in mountainous area, and the adults (n = 150) with no smoking living in low altitude area in Hunan province of China. All samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for cadmium levels. The cadmium levels in dental calculus were significantly higher in the adults with no smoking living in contaminated area than those living in mountainous area and in low altitude area (p dental calculus were also higher in the adults with no smoking living in low altitude area than those living in mountainous region (p dental calculus may be a useful noninvasive method for analysis of environmental exposure to cadmium in the human oral cavity. The low altitude region may have an area contaminated with cadmium in Hunan province of China.

  16. Hepatitis B virus infections and risk factors among the general population in Anhui Province, China: an epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiaoqing

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgrou