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Sample records for hebb-like learning rule

  1. Biclustering Learning of Trading Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qinghua; Wang, Ting; Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong

    2015-10-01

    Technical analysis with numerous indicators and patterns has been regarded as important evidence for making trading decisions in financial markets. However, it is extremely difficult for investors to find useful trading rules based on numerous technical indicators. This paper innovatively proposes the use of biclustering mining to discover effective technical trading patterns that contain a combination of indicators from historical financial data series. This is the first attempt to use biclustering algorithm on trading data. The mined patterns are regarded as trading rules and can be classified as three trading actions (i.e., the buy, the sell, and no-action signals) with respect to the maximum support. A modified K nearest neighborhood ( K -NN) method is applied to classification of trading days in the testing period. The proposed method [called biclustering algorithm and the K nearest neighbor (BIC- K -NN)] was implemented on four historical datasets and the average performance was compared with the conventional buy-and-hold strategy and three previously reported intelligent trading systems. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed trading system outperforms its counterparts and will be useful for investment in various financial markets.

  2. The statistical mechanics of learning a rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkin, T.L.H.; Rau, A.; Biehl, M.

    1993-01-01

    A summary is presented of the statistical mechanical theory of learning a rule with a neural network, a rapidly advancing area which is closely related to other inverse problems frequently encountered by physicists. By emphasizing the relationship between neural networks and strongly interacting physical systems, such as spin glasses, the authors show how learning theory has provided a workshop in which to develop new, exact analytical techniques

  3. Students Learn by Doing: Teaching about Rules of Thumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cude, Brenda J.

    1990-01-01

    Identifies situation in which consumers are likely to substitute rules of thumb for research, reviews rules of thumb often used as substitutes, and identifies teaching activities to help students learn when substitution is appropriate. (JOW)

  4. Online learning algorithm for ensemble of decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor; Moshkov, Mikhail; Zielosko, Beata

    2011-01-01

    We describe an online learning algorithm that builds a system of decision rules for a classification problem. Rules are constructed according to the minimum description length principle by a greedy algorithm or using the dynamic programming approach

  5. Learning of Alignment Rules between Concept Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichise, Ryutaro; Takeda, Hideaki; Honiden, Shinichi

    With the rapid advances of information technology, we are acquiring much information than ever before. As a result, we need tools for organizing this data. Concept hierarchies such as ontologies and information categorizations are powerful and convenient methods for accomplishing this goal, which have gained wide spread acceptance. Although each concept hierarchy is useful, it is difficult to employ multiple concept hierarchies at the same time because it is hard to align their conceptual structures. This paper proposes a rule learning method that inputs information from a source concept hierarchy and finds suitable location for them in a target hierarchy. The key idea is to find the most similar categories in each hierarchy, where similarity is measured by the κ(kappa) statistic that counts instances belonging to both categories. In order to evaluate our method, we conducted experiments using two internet directories: Yahoo! and LYCOS. We map information instances from the source directory into the target directory, and show that our learned rules agree with a human-generated assignment 76% of the time.

  6. Bifurcation and category learning in network models of oscillating cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Bill

    1990-06-01

    A genetic model of oscillating cortex, which assumes “minimal” coupling justified by known anatomy, is shown to function as an associative memory, using previously developed theory. The network has explicit excitatory neurons with local inhibitory interneuron feedback that forms a set of nonlinear oscillators coupled only by long-range excitatory connections. Using a local Hebb-like learning rule for primary and higher-order synapses at the ends of the long-range connections, the system learns to store the kinds of oscillation amplitude patterns observed in olfactory and visual cortex. In olfaction, these patterns “emerge” during respiration by a pattern forming phase transition which we characterize in the model as a multiple Hopf bifurcation. We argue that these bifurcations play an important role in the operation of real digital computers and neural networks, and we use bifurcation theory to derive learning rules which analytically guarantee CAM storage of continuous periodic sequences-capacity: N/2 Fourier components for an N-node network-no “spurious” attractors.

  7. Rule based systems for big data a machine learning approach

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Han; Cocea, Mihaela

    2016-01-01

    The ideas introduced in this book explore the relationships among rule based systems, machine learning and big data. Rule based systems are seen as a special type of expert systems, which can be built by using expert knowledge or learning from real data. The book focuses on the development and evaluation of rule based systems in terms of accuracy, efficiency and interpretability. In particular, a unified framework for building rule based systems, which consists of the operations of rule generation, rule simplification and rule representation, is presented. Each of these operations is detailed using specific methods or techniques. In addition, this book also presents some ensemble learning frameworks for building ensemble rule based systems.

  8. Learning a New Selection Rule in Visual and Frontal Cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Togt, Chris; Stănişor, Liviu; Pooresmaeili, Arezoo; Albantakis, Larissa; Deco, Gustavo; Roelfsema, Pieter R

    2016-01-01

    How do you make a decision if you do not know the rules of the game? Models of sensory decision-making suggest that choices are slow if evidence is weak, but they may only apply if the subject knows the task rules. Here, we asked how the learning of a new rule influences neuronal activity in the

  9. Learning general phonological rules from distributional information: a computational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamaro, Shira; Jarosz, Gaja

    2015-04-01

    Phonological rules create alternations in the phonetic realizations of related words. These rules must be learned by infants in order to identify the phonological inventory, the morphological structure, and the lexicon of a language. Recent work proposes a computational model for the learning of one kind of phonological alternation, allophony (Peperkamp, Le Calvez, Nadal, & Dupoux, 2006). This paper extends the model to account for learning of a broader set of phonological alternations and the formalization of these alternations as general rules. In Experiment 1, we apply the original model to new data in Dutch and demonstrate its limitations in learning nonallophonic rules. In Experiment 2, we extend the model to allow it to learn general rules for alternations that apply to a class of segments. In Experiment 3, the model is further extended to allow for generalization by context; we argue that this generalization must be constrained by linguistic principles. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  10. An Efficient Inductive Genetic Learning Algorithm for Fuzzy Relational Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Fuzzy modelling research has traditionally focused on certain types of fuzzy rules. However, the use of alternative rule models could improve the ability of fuzzy systems to represent a specific problem. In this proposal, an extended fuzzy rule model, that can include relations between variables in the antecedent of rules is presented. Furthermore, a learning algorithm based on the iterative genetic approach which is able to represent the knowledge using this model is proposed as well. On the other hand, potential relations among initial variables imply an exponential growth in the feasible rule search space. Consequently, two filters for detecting relevant potential relations are added to the learning algorithm. These filters allows to decrease the search space complexity and increase the algorithm efficiency. Finally, we also present an experimental study to demonstrate the benefits of using fuzzy relational rules.

  11. Online learning algorithm for ensemble of decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor

    2011-01-01

    We describe an online learning algorithm that builds a system of decision rules for a classification problem. Rules are constructed according to the minimum description length principle by a greedy algorithm or using the dynamic programming approach. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  12. Incremental Learning of Context Free Grammars by Parsing-Based Rule Generation and Rule Set Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Katsuhiko; Hoshina, Akemi

    This paper discusses recent improvements and extensions in Synapse system for inductive inference of context free grammars (CFGs) from sample strings. Synapse uses incremental learning, rule generation based on bottom-up parsing, and the search for rule sets. The form of production rules in the previous system is extended from Revised Chomsky Normal Form A→βγ to Extended Chomsky Normal Form, which also includes A→B, where each of β and γ is either a terminal or nonterminal symbol. From the result of bottom-up parsing, a rule generation mechanism synthesizes minimum production rules required for parsing positive samples. Instead of inductive CYK algorithm in the previous version of Synapse, the improved version uses a novel rule generation method, called ``bridging,'' which bridges the lacked part of the derivation tree for the positive string. The improved version also employs a novel search strategy, called serial search in addition to minimum rule set search. The synthesis of grammars by the serial search is faster than the minimum set search in most cases. On the other hand, the size of the generated CFGs is generally larger than that by the minimum set search, and the system can find no appropriate grammar for some CFL by the serial search. The paper shows experimental results of incremental learning of several fundamental CFGs and compares the methods of rule generation and search strategies.

  13. Learning the Rules of the Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donald A.

    2018-03-01

    Games have often been used in the classroom to teach physics ideas and concepts, but there has been less published on games that can be used to teach scientific thinking. D. Maloney and M. Masters describe an activity in which students attempt to infer rules to a game from a history of moves, but the students don't actually play the game. Giving the list of moves allows the instructor to emphasize the important fact that nature usually gives us incomplete data sets, but it does make the activity less immersive. E. Kimmel suggested letting students attempt to figure out the rules to Reversi by playing it, but this game only has two players, which makes it difficult to apply in a classroom setting. Kimmel himself admits the choice of Reversi is somewhat arbitrary. There are games, however, that are designed to make the process of figuring out the rules an integral aspect of play. These games involve more people and require only a deck or two of cards. I present here an activity constructed around the card game Mao, which can be used to help students recognize aspects of scientific thinking. The game is particularly good at illustrating the importance of falsification tests (questions designed to elicit a negative answer) over verification tests (examples that confirm what is already suspected) for illuminating the underlying rules.

  14. Learning the Rules of the Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donald A.

    2018-01-01

    Games have often been used in the classroom to teach physics ideas and concepts, but there has been less published on games that can be used to teach scientific thinking. D. Maloney and M. Masters describe an activity in which students attempt to infer rules to a game from a history of moves, but the students do not actually play the game. Giving…

  15. Delta Learning Rule for the Active Sites Model

    OpenAIRE

    Lingashetty, Krishna Chaithanya

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the results on methods of comparing the memory retrieval capacity of the Hebbian neural network which implements the B-Matrix approach, by using the Widrow-Hoff rule of learning. We then, extend the recently proposed Active Sites model by developing a delta rule to increase memory capacity. Also, this paper extends the binary neural network to a multi-level (non-binary) neural network.

  16. Learning a New Selection Rule in Visual and Frontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Togt, Chris; Stănişor, Liviu; Pooresmaeili, Arezoo; Albantakis, Larissa; Deco, Gustavo; Roelfsema, Pieter R

    2016-08-01

    How do you make a decision if you do not know the rules of the game? Models of sensory decision-making suggest that choices are slow if evidence is weak, but they may only apply if the subject knows the task rules. Here, we asked how the learning of a new rule influences neuronal activity in the visual (area V1) and frontal cortex (area FEF) of monkeys. We devised a new icon-selection task. On each day, the monkeys saw 2 new icons (small pictures) and learned which one was relevant. We rewarded eye movements to a saccade target connected to the relevant icon with a curve. Neurons in visual and frontal cortex coded the monkey's choice, because the representation of the selected curve was enhanced. Learning delayed the neuronal selection signals and we uncovered the cause of this delay in V1, where learning to select the relevant icon caused an early suppression of surrounding image elements. These results demonstrate that the learning of a new rule causes a transition from fast and random decisions to a more considerate strategy that takes additional time and they reveal the contribution of visual and frontal cortex to the learning process. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  17. Thermodynamic efficiency of learning a rule in neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldt, Sebastian; Seifert, Udo

    2017-11-01

    Biological systems have to build models from their sensory input data that allow them to efficiently process previously unseen inputs. Here, we study a neural network learning a binary classification rule for these inputs from examples provided by a teacher. We analyse the ability of the network to apply the rule to new inputs, that is to generalise from past experience. Using stochastic thermodynamics, we show that the thermodynamic costs of the learning process provide an upper bound on the amount of information that the network is able to learn from its teacher for both batch and online learning. This allows us to introduce a thermodynamic efficiency of learning. We analytically compute the dynamics and the efficiency of a noisy neural network performing online learning in the thermodynamic limit. In particular, we analyse three popular learning algorithms, namely Hebbian, Perceptron and AdaTron learning. Our work extends the methods of stochastic thermodynamics to a new type of learning problem and might form a suitable basis for investigating the thermodynamics of decision-making.

  18. A supervised learning rule for classification of spatiotemporal spike patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilin Guo; Zhenzhong Wang; Adjouadi, Malek

    2016-08-01

    This study introduces a novel supervised algorithm for spiking neurons that take into consideration synapse delays and axonal delays associated with weights. It can be utilized for both classification and association and uses several biologically influenced properties, such as axonal and synaptic delays. This algorithm also takes into consideration spike-timing-dependent plasticity as in Remote Supervised Method (ReSuMe). This paper focuses on the classification aspect alone. Spiked neurons trained according to this proposed learning rule are capable of classifying different categories by the associated sequences of precisely timed spikes. Simulation results have shown that the proposed learning method greatly improves classification accuracy when compared to the Spike Pattern Association Neuron (SPAN) and the Tempotron learning rule.

  19. Students’ Learning Obstacles and Alternative Solution in Counting Rules Learning Levels Senior High School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M A Jatmiko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The counting rules is a topic in mathematics senior high school. In the learning process, teachers often find students who have difficulties in learning this topic. Knowing the characteristics of students' learning difficulties and analyzing the causes is important for the teacher, as an effort in trying to reflect the learning process and as a reference in constructing alternative learning solutions which appropriate to anticipate students’ learning obstacles. This study uses qualitative methods and involves 70 students of class XII as research subjects. The data collection techniques used in this study is diagnostic test instrument about learning difficulties in counting rules, observation, and interview. The data used to know the learning difficulties experienced by students, the causes of learning difficulties, and to develop alternative learning solutions. From the results of data analysis, the results of diagnostic tests researcher found some obstacles faced by students, such as students get confused in describing the definition, students difficulties in understanding the procedure of solving multiplication rules. Based on those problems, researcher analyzed the causes of these difficulties and make hypothetical learning trajectory as an alternative solution in counting rules learning.

  20. Rule Learning in Autism: The Role of Reward Type and Social Context

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, E. J. H.; Webb, S. J.; Estes, A.; Dawson, G.

    2013-01-01

    Learning abstract rules is central to social and cognitive development. Across two experiments, we used Delayed Non-Matching to Sample tasks to characterize the longitudinal development and nature of rule-learning impairments in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Results showed that children with ASD consistently experienced more difficulty learning an abstract rule from a discrete physical reward than children with DD. Rule learning was facilitated by the provision of more concret...

  1. Learning of Rule Ensembles for Multiple Attribute Ranking Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembczyński, Krzysztof; Kotłowski, Wojciech; Słowiński, Roman; Szeląg, Marcin

    In this paper, we consider the multiple attribute ranking problem from a Machine Learning perspective. We propose two approaches to statistical learning of an ensemble of decision rules from decision examples provided by the Decision Maker in terms of pairwise comparisons of some objects. The first approach consists in learning a preference function defining a binary preference relation for a pair of objects. The result of application of this function on all pairs of objects to be ranked is then exploited using the Net Flow Score procedure, giving a linear ranking of objects. The second approach consists in learning a utility function for single objects. The utility function also gives a linear ranking of objects. In both approaches, the learning is based on the boosting technique. The presented approaches to Preference Learning share good properties of the decision rule preference model and have good performance in the massive-data learning problems. As Preference Learning and Multiple Attribute Decision Aiding share many concepts and methodological issues, in the introduction, we review some aspects bridging these two fields. To illustrate the two approaches proposed in this paper, we solve with them a toy example concerning the ranking of a set of cars evaluated by multiple attributes. Then, we perform a large data experiment on real data sets. The first data set concerns credit rating. Since recent research in the field of Preference Learning is motivated by the increasing role of modeling preferences in recommender systems and information retrieval, we chose two other massive data sets from this area - one comes from movie recommender system MovieLens, and the other concerns ranking of text documents from 20 Newsgroups data set.

  2. Symbol manipulation and rule learning in spiking neuronal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Chrisantha

    2011-04-21

    It has been claimed that the productivity, systematicity and compositionality of human language and thought necessitate the existence of a physical symbol system (PSS) in the brain. Recent discoveries about temporal coding suggest a novel type of neuronal implementation of a physical symbol system. Furthermore, learning classifier systems provide a plausible algorithmic basis by which symbol re-write rules could be trained to undertake behaviors exhibiting systematicity and compositionality, using a kind of natural selection of re-write rules in the brain, We show how the core operation of a learning classifier system, namely, the replication with variation of symbol re-write rules, can be implemented using spike-time dependent plasticity based supervised learning. As a whole, the aim of this paper is to integrate an algorithmic and an implementation level description of a neuronal symbol system capable of sustaining systematic and compositional behaviors. Previously proposed neuronal implementations of symbolic representations are compared with this new proposal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Rule learning in autism: the role of reward type and social context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, E J H; Webb, S J; Estes, A; Dawson, G

    2013-01-01

    Learning abstract rules is central to social and cognitive development. Across two experiments, we used Delayed Non-Matching to Sample tasks to characterize the longitudinal development and nature of rule-learning impairments in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Results showed that children with ASD consistently experienced more difficulty learning an abstract rule from a discrete physical reward than children with DD. Rule learning was facilitated by the provision of more concrete reinforcement, suggesting an underlying difficulty in forming conceptual connections. Learning abstract rules about social stimuli remained challenging through late childhood, indicating the importance of testing executive functions in both social and non-social contexts.

  4. Recommendation System Based On Association Rules For Distributed E-Learning Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihai, Gabroveanu

    2015-09-01

    Traditional Learning Management Systems are installed on a single server where learning materials and user data are kept. To increase its performance, the Learning Management System can be installed on multiple servers; learning materials and user data could be distributed across these servers obtaining a Distributed Learning Management System. In this paper is proposed the prototype of a recommendation system based on association rules for Distributed Learning Management System. Information from LMS databases is analyzed using distributed data mining algorithms in order to extract the association rules. Then the extracted rules are used as inference rules to provide personalized recommendations. The quality of provided recommendations is improved because the rules used to make the inferences are more accurate, since these rules aggregate knowledge from all e-Learning systems included in Distributed Learning Management System.

  5. Finding Influential Users in Social Media Using Association Rule Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Erlandsson

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Influential users play an important role in online social networks since users tend to have an impact on one other. Therefore, the proposed work analyzes users and their behavior in order to identify influential users and predict user participation. Normally, the success of a social media site is dependent on the activity level of the participating users. For both online social networking sites and individual users, it is of interest to find out if a topic will be interesting or not. In this article, we propose association learning to detect relationships between users. In order to verify the findings, several experiments were executed based on social network analysis, in which the most influential users identified from association rule learning were compared to the results from Degree Centrality and Page Rank Centrality. The results clearly indicate that it is possible to identify the most influential users using association rule learning. In addition, the results also indicate a lower execution time compared to state-of-the-art methods.

  6. Genetic learning in rule-based and neural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert E.

    1993-01-01

    The design of neural networks and fuzzy systems can involve complex, nonlinear, and ill-conditioned optimization problems. Often, traditional optimization schemes are inadequate or inapplicable for such tasks. Genetic Algorithms (GA's) are a class of optimization procedures whose mechanics are based on those of natural genetics. Mathematical arguments show how GAs bring substantial computational leverage to search problems, without requiring the mathematical characteristics often necessary for traditional optimization schemes (e.g., modality, continuity, availability of derivative information, etc.). GA's have proven effective in a variety of search tasks that arise in neural networks and fuzzy systems. This presentation begins by introducing the mechanism and theoretical underpinnings of GA's. GA's are then related to a class of rule-based machine learning systems called learning classifier systems (LCS's). An LCS implements a low-level production-system that uses a GA as its primary rule discovery mechanism. This presentation illustrates how, despite its rule-based framework, an LCS can be thought of as a competitive neural network. Neural network simulator code for an LCS is presented. In this context, the GA is doing more than optimizing and objective function. It is searching for an ecology of hidden nodes with limited connectivity. The GA attempts to evolve this ecology such that effective neural network performance results. The GA is particularly well adapted to this task, given its naturally-inspired basis. The LCS/neural network analogy extends itself to other, more traditional neural networks. Conclusions to the presentation discuss the implications of using GA's in ecological search problems that arise in neural and fuzzy systems.

  7. Fifty years of computer analysis in chest imaging: rule-based, machine learning, deep learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ginneken, Bram

    2017-03-01

    Half a century ago, the term "computer-aided diagnosis" (CAD) was introduced in the scientific literature. Pulmonary imaging, with chest radiography and computed tomography, has always been one of the focus areas in this field. In this study, I describe how machine learning became the dominant technology for tackling CAD in the lungs, generally producing better results than do classical rule-based approaches, and how the field is now rapidly changing: in the last few years, we have seen how even better results can be obtained with deep learning. The key differences among rule-based processing, machine learning, and deep learning are summarized and illustrated for various applications of CAD in the chest.

  8. A self-learning rule base for command following in dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wei K.; Lee, Hon-Mun; Parlos, Alexander

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, a self-learning Rule Base for command following in dynamical systems is presented. The learning is accomplished though reinforcement learning using an associative memory called SAM. The main advantage of SAM is that it is a function approximator with explicit storage of training samples. A learning algorithm patterned after the dynamic programming is proposed. Two artificially created, unstable dynamical systems are used for testing, and the Rule Base was used to generate a feedback control to improve the command following ability of the otherwise uncontrolled systems. The numerical results are very encouraging. The controlled systems exhibit a more stable behavior and a better capability to follow reference commands. The rules resulting from the reinforcement learning are explicitly stored and they can be modified or augmented by human experts. Due to overlapping storage scheme of SAM, the stored rules are similar to fuzzy rules.

  9. Analysis of Rules for Islamic Inheritance Law in Indonesia Using Hybrid Rule Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosyi'ah, S.; Irfan, M.; Maylawati, D. S.; Mukhlas, O. S.

    2018-01-01

    Along with the development of human civilization in Indonesia, the changes and reform of Islamic inheritance law so as to conform to the conditions and culture cannot be denied. The distribution of inheritance in Indonesia can be done automatically by storing the rule of Islamic inheritance law in the expert system. In this study, we analyze the knowledge of experts in Islamic inheritance in Indonesia and represent it in the form of rules using rule-based Forward Chaining (FC) and Davis-Putman-Logemann-Loveland (DPLL) algorithms. By hybridizing FC and DPLL algorithms, the rules of Islamic inheritance law in Indonesia are clearly defined and measured. The rules were conceptually validated by some experts in Islamic laws and informatics. The results revealed that generally all rules were ready for use in an expert system.

  10. Concurrence of rule- and similarity-based mechanisms in artificial grammar learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, Bertram; Hofmann, Juliane

    2015-03-01

    A current theoretical debate regards whether rule-based or similarity-based learning prevails during artificial grammar learning (AGL). Although the majority of findings are consistent with a similarity-based account of AGL it has been argued that these results were obtained only after limited exposure to study exemplars, and performance on subsequent grammaticality judgment tests has often been barely above chance level. In three experiments the conditions were investigated under which rule- and similarity-based learning could be applied. Participants were exposed to exemplars of an artificial grammar under different (implicit and explicit) learning instructions. The analysis of receiver operating characteristics (ROC) during a final grammaticality judgment test revealed that explicit but not implicit learning led to rule knowledge. It also demonstrated that this knowledge base is built up gradually while similarity knowledge governed the initial state of learning. Together these results indicate that rule- and similarity-based mechanisms concur during AGL. Moreover, it could be speculated that two different rule processes might operate in parallel; bottom-up learning via gradual rule extraction and top-down learning via rule testing. Crucially, the latter is facilitated by performance feedback that encourages explicit hypothesis testing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Functional networks inference from rule-based machine learning models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzarini, Nicola; Widera, Paweł; Williamson, Stuart; Heer, Rakesh; Krasnogor, Natalio; Bacardit, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    Functional networks play an important role in the analysis of biological processes and systems. The inference of these networks from high-throughput (-omics) data is an area of intense research. So far, the similarity-based inference paradigm (e.g. gene co-expression) has been the most popular approach. It assumes a functional relationship between genes which are expressed at similar levels across different samples. An alternative to this paradigm is the inference of relationships from the structure of machine learning models. These models are able to capture complex relationships between variables, that often are different/complementary to the similarity-based methods. We propose a protocol to infer functional networks from machine learning models, called FuNeL. It assumes, that genes used together within a rule-based machine learning model to classify the samples, might also be functionally related at a biological level. The protocol is first tested on synthetic datasets and then evaluated on a test suite of 8 real-world datasets related to human cancer. The networks inferred from the real-world data are compared against gene co-expression networks of equal size, generated with 3 different methods. The comparison is performed from two different points of view. We analyse the enriched biological terms in the set of network nodes and the relationships between known disease-associated genes in a context of the network topology. The comparison confirms both the biological relevance and the complementary character of the knowledge captured by the FuNeL networks in relation to similarity-based methods and demonstrates its potential to identify known disease associations as core elements of the network. Finally, using a prostate cancer dataset as a case study, we confirm that the biological knowledge captured by our method is relevant to the disease and consistent with the specialised literature and with an independent dataset not used in the inference process. The

  12. A rule-learning program in high energy physics event classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clearwater, S.H.; Stern, E.G.

    1991-01-01

    We have applied a rule-learning program to the problem of event classification in high energy physics. The program searches for event classifications, i.e. rules, and effectively allows an exploration of many more possible classifications than is practical by a physicist. The program, RL4, is particularly useful because it can easily explore multi-dimensional rules as well as rules that may seem non-intuitive at first to the physicist. RL4 is also contrasted with other learning programs. (orig.)

  13. Criterion learning in rule-based categorization: simulation of neural mechanism and new data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helie, Sebastien; Ell, Shawn W; Filoteo, J Vincent; Maddox, W Todd

    2015-04-01

    In perceptual categorization, rule selection consists of selecting one or several stimulus-dimensions to be used to categorize the stimuli (e.g., categorize lines according to their length). Once a rule has been selected, criterion learning consists of defining how stimuli will be grouped using the selected dimension(s) (e.g., if the selected rule is line length, define 'long' and 'short'). Very little is known about the neuroscience of criterion learning, and most existing computational models do not provide a biological mechanism for this process. In this article, we introduce a new model of rule learning called Heterosynaptic Inhibitory Criterion Learning (HICL). HICL includes a biologically-based explanation of criterion learning, and we use new category-learning data to test key aspects of the model. In HICL, rule selective cells in prefrontal cortex modulate stimulus-response associations using pre-synaptic inhibition. Criterion learning is implemented by a new type of heterosynaptic error-driven Hebbian learning at inhibitory synapses that uses feedback to drive cell activation above/below thresholds representing ionic gating mechanisms. The model is used to account for new human categorization data from two experiments showing that: (1) changing rule criterion on a given dimension is easier if irrelevant dimensions are also changing (Experiment 1), and (2) showing that changing the relevant rule dimension and learning a new criterion is more difficult, but also facilitated by a change in the irrelevant dimension (Experiment 2). We conclude with a discussion of some of HICL's implications for future research on rule learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. RULE-BASE METHOD FOR ANALYSIS OF QUALITY E-LEARNING IN HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    darsih darsih darsih

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Assessing the quality of e-learning courses to measure the success of e-learning systems in online learning is essential. The system can be used to improve education. The study analyzes the quality of e-learning course on the web site www.kulon.undip.ac.id used a questionnaire with questions based on the variables of ISO 9126. Penilaiann Likert scale was used with a web app. Rule-base reasoning method is used to subject the quality of e-learningyang assessed. A case study conducted in four e-learning courses with 133 sample / respondents as users of the e-learning course. From the obtained results of research conducted both for the value of e-learning from each subject tested. In addition, each e-learning courses have different advantages depending on certain variables. Keywords : E-Learning, Rule-Base, Questionnaire, Likert, Measuring.

  15. Learning a Transferable Change Rule from a Recurrent Neural Network for Land Cover Change Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haobo Lyu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available When exploited in remote sensing analysis, a reliable change rule with transfer ability can detect changes accurately and be applied widely. However, in practice, the complexity of land cover changes makes it difficult to use only one change rule or change feature learned from a given multi-temporal dataset to detect any other new target images without applying other learning processes. In this study, we consider the design of an efficient change rule having transferability to detect both binary and multi-class changes. The proposed method relies on an improved Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM model to acquire and record the change information of long-term sequence remote sensing data. In particular, a core memory cell is utilized to learn the change rule from the information concerning binary changes or multi-class changes. Three gates are utilized to control the input, output and update of the LSTM model for optimization. In addition, the learned rule can be applied to detect changes and transfer the change rule from one learned image to another new target multi-temporal image. In this study, binary experiments, transfer experiments and multi-class change experiments are exploited to demonstrate the superiority of our method. Three contributions of this work can be summarized as follows: (1 the proposed method can learn an effective change rule to provide reliable change information for multi-temporal images; (2 the learned change rule has good transferability for detecting changes in new target images without any extra learning process, and the new target images should have a multi-spectral distribution similar to that of the training images; and (3 to the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first time that deep learning in recurrent neural networks is exploited for change detection. In addition, under the framework of the proposed method, changes can be detected under both binary detection and multi-class change detection.

  16. Using an improved association rules mining optimization algorithm in web-based mobile-learning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yin; Chen, Jianhua; Xiong, Shaojun

    2009-07-01

    Mobile-Learning (M-learning) makes many learners get the advantages of both traditional learning and E-learning. Currently, Web-based Mobile-Learning Systems have created many new ways and defined new relationships between educators and learners. Association rule mining is one of the most important fields in data mining and knowledge discovery in databases. Rules explosion is a serious problem which causes great concerns, as conventional mining algorithms often produce too many rules for decision makers to digest. Since Web-based Mobile-Learning System collects vast amounts of student profile data, data mining and knowledge discovery techniques can be applied to find interesting relationships between attributes of learners, assessments, the solution strategies adopted by learners and so on. Therefore ,this paper focus on a new data-mining algorithm, combined with the advantages of genetic algorithm and simulated annealing algorithm , called ARGSA(Association rules based on an improved Genetic Simulated Annealing Algorithm), to mine the association rules. This paper first takes advantage of the Parallel Genetic Algorithm and Simulated Algorithm designed specifically for discovering association rules. Moreover, the analysis and experiment are also made to show the proposed method is superior to the Apriori algorithm in this Mobile-Learning system.

  17. The evolution of social learning rules: payoff-biased and frequency-dependent biased transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendal, Jeremy; Giraldeau, Luc-Alain; Laland, Kevin

    2009-09-21

    Humans and other animals do not use social learning indiscriminately, rather, natural selection has favoured the evolution of social learning rules that make selective use of social learning to acquire relevant information in a changing environment. We present a gene-culture coevolutionary analysis of a small selection of such rules (unbiased social learning, payoff-biased social learning and frequency-dependent biased social learning, including conformism and anti-conformism) in a population of asocial learners where the environment is subject to a constant probability of change to a novel state. We define conditions under which each rule evolves to a genetically polymorphic equilibrium. We find that payoff-biased social learning may evolve under high levels of environmental variation if the fitness benefit associated with the acquired behaviour is either high or low but not of intermediate value. In contrast, both conformist and anti-conformist biases can become fixed when environment variation is low, whereupon the mean fitness in the population is higher than for a population of asocial learners. Our examination of the population dynamics reveals stable limit cycles under conformist and anti-conformist biases and some highly complex dynamics including chaos. Anti-conformists can out-compete conformists when conditions favour a low equilibrium frequency of the learned behaviour. We conclude that evolution, punctuated by the repeated successful invasion of different social learning rules, should continuously favour a reduction in the equilibrium frequency of asocial learning, and propose that, among competing social learning rules, the dominant rule will be the one that can persist with the lowest frequency of asocial learning.

  18. RuleML-Based Learning Object Interoperability on the Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biletskiy, Yevgen; Boley, Harold; Ranganathan, Girish R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The present paper aims to describe an approach for building the Semantic Web rules for interoperation between heterogeneous learning objects, namely course outlines from different universities, and one of the rule uses: identifying (in)compatibilities between course descriptions. Design/methodology/approach: As proof of concept, a rule…

  19. Ensemble learning with trees and rules: supervised, semi-supervised, unsupervised

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this article, we propose several new approaches for post processing a large ensemble of conjunctive rules for supervised and semi-supervised learning problems. We show with various examples that for high dimensional regression problems the models constructed by the post processing the rules with ...

  20. On-line learning of non-monotonic rules by simple perceptron

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue, Jun-ichi; Nishimori, Hidetoshi; Kabashima, Yoshiyuki

    1997-01-01

    We study the generalization ability of a simple perceptron which learns unlearnable rules. The rules are presented by a teacher perceptron with a non-monotonic transfer function. The student is trained in the on-line mode. The asymptotic behaviour of the generalization error is estimated under various conditions. Several learning strategies are proposed and improved to obtain the theoretical lower bound of the generalization error.

  1. Adaptive Learning Rule for Hardware-based Deep Neural Networks Using Electronic Synapse Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Suhwan; Bae, Jong-Ho; Eum, Jai-Ho; Lee, Sungtae; Kim, Chul-Heung; Kwon, Dongseok; Park, Byung-Gook; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a learning rule based on a back-propagation (BP) algorithm that can be applied to a hardware-based deep neural network (HW-DNN) using electronic devices that exhibit discrete and limited conductance characteristics. This adaptive learning rule, which enables forward, backward propagation, as well as weight updates in hardware, is helpful during the implementation of power-efficient and high-speed deep neural networks. In simulations using a three-layer perceptron net...

  2. Role of Prefrontal Cortex in Learning and Generalizing Hierarchical Rules in 8-Month-Old Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werchan, Denise M; Collins, Anne G E; Frank, Michael J; Amso, Dima

    2016-10-05

    Recent research indicates that adults and infants spontaneously create and generalize hierarchical rule sets during incidental learning. Computational models and empirical data suggest that, in adults, this process is supported by circuits linking prefrontal cortex (PFC) with striatum and their modulation by dopamine, but the neural circuits supporting this form of learning in infants are largely unknown. We used near-infrared spectroscopy to record PFC activity in 8-month-old human infants during a simple audiovisual hierarchical-rule-learning task. Behavioral results confirmed that infants adopted hierarchical rule sets to learn and generalize spoken object-label mappings across different speaker contexts. Infants had increased activity over right dorsal lateral PFC when rule sets switched from one trial to the next, a neural marker related to updating rule sets into working memory in the adult literature. Infants' eye blink rate, a possible physiological correlate of striatal dopamine activity, also increased when rule sets switched from one trial to the next. Moreover, the increase in right dorsolateral PFC activity in conjunction with eye blink rate also predicted infants' generalization ability, providing exploratory evidence for frontostriatal involvement during learning. These findings provide evidence that PFC is involved in rudimentary hierarchical rule learning in 8-month-old infants, an ability that was previously thought to emerge later in life in concert with PFC maturation. Hierarchical rule learning is a powerful learning mechanism that allows rules to be selected in a context-appropriate fashion and transferred or reused in novel contexts. Data from computational models and adults suggests that this learning mechanism is supported by dopamine-innervated interactions between prefrontal cortex (PFC) and striatum. Here, we provide evidence that PFC also supports hierarchical rule learning during infancy, challenging the current dogma that PFC is an

  3. Learning Expressive Linkage Rules for Entity Matching using Genetic Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Isele, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A central problem in data integration and data cleansing is to identify pairs of entities in data sets that describe the same real-world object. Many existing methods for matching entities rely on explicit linkage rules, which specify how two entities are compared for equivalence. Unfortunately, writing accurate linkage rules by hand is a non-trivial problem that requires detailed knowledge of the involved data sets. Another important issue is the efficient execution of link...

  4. Code-specific learning rules improve action selection by populations of spiking neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Johannes; Urbanczik, Robert; Senn, Walter

    2014-08-01

    Population coding is widely regarded as a key mechanism for achieving reliable behavioral decisions. We previously introduced reinforcement learning for population-based decision making by spiking neurons. Here we generalize population reinforcement learning to spike-based plasticity rules that take account of the postsynaptic neural code. We consider spike/no-spike, spike count and spike latency codes. The multi-valued and continuous-valued features in the postsynaptic code allow for a generalization of binary decision making to multi-valued decision making and continuous-valued action selection. We show that code-specific learning rules speed up learning both for the discrete classification and the continuous regression tasks. The suggested learning rules also speed up with increasing population size as opposed to standard reinforcement learning rules. Continuous action selection is further shown to explain realistic learning speeds in the Morris water maze. Finally, we introduce the concept of action perturbation as opposed to the classical weight- or node-perturbation as an exploration mechanism underlying reinforcement learning. Exploration in the action space greatly increases the speed of learning as compared to exploration in the neuron or weight space.

  5. Strategies for adding adaptive learning mechanisms to rule-based diagnostic expert systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stclair, D. C.; Sabharwal, C. L.; Bond, W. E.; Hacke, Keith

    1988-01-01

    Rule-based diagnostic expert systems can be used to perform many of the diagnostic chores necessary in today's complex space systems. These expert systems typically take a set of symptoms as input and produce diagnostic advice as output. The primary objective of such expert systems is to provide accurate and comprehensive advice which can be used to help return the space system in question to nominal operation. The development and maintenance of diagnostic expert systems is time and labor intensive since the services of both knowledge engineer(s) and domain expert(s) are required. The use of adaptive learning mechanisms to increment evaluate and refine rules promises to reduce both time and labor costs associated with such systems. This paper describes the basic adaptive learning mechanisms of strengthening, weakening, generalization, discrimination, and discovery. Next basic strategies are discussed for adding these learning mechanisms to rule-based diagnostic expert systems. These strategies support the incremental evaluation and refinement of rules in the knowledge base by comparing the set of advice given by the expert system (A) with the correct diagnosis (C). Techniques are described for selecting those rules in the in the knowledge base which should participate in adaptive learning. The strategies presented may be used with a wide variety of learning algorithms. Further, these strategies are applicable to a large number of rule-based diagnostic expert systems. They may be used to provide either immediate or deferred updating of the knowledge base.

  6. Effects of the Memorization of Rule Statements on Performance, Retention, and Transfer in a Computer-Based Learning Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towle, Nelson J.

    Research sought to determine whether memorization of rule statements before, during or after instruction in rule application skills would facilitate the acquisition and/or retention of rule-governed behavior as compared to no-rule statement memorization. A computer-assisted instructional (CAI) program required high school students to learn to a…

  7. Rule induction performance in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's dementia: examining the role of simple and biconditional rule learning processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterman, Joukje M; Heringa, Sophie M; Kessels, Roy P C; Biessels, Geert Jan; Koek, Huiberdina L; Maes, Joseph H R; van den Berg, Esther

    2017-04-01

    Rule induction tests such as the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test require executive control processes, but also the learning and memorization of simple stimulus-response rules. In this study, we examined the contribution of diminished learning and memorization of simple rules to complex rule induction test performance in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) or Alzheimer's dementia (AD). Twenty-six aMCI patients, 39 AD patients, and 32 control participants were included. A task was used in which the memory load and the complexity of the rules were independently manipulated. This task consisted of three conditions: a simple two-rule learning condition (Condition 1), a simple four-rule learning condition (inducing an increase in memory load, Condition 2), and a complex biconditional four-rule learning condition-inducing an increase in complexity and, hence, executive control load (Condition 3). Performance of AD patients declined disproportionately when the number of simple rules that had to be memorized increased (from Condition 1 to 2). An additional increment in complexity (from Condition 2 to 3) did not, however, disproportionately affect performance of the patients. Performance of the aMCI patients did not differ from that of the control participants. In the patient group, correlation analysis showed that memory performance correlated with Condition 1 performance, whereas executive task performance correlated with Condition 2 performance. These results indicate that the reduced learning and memorization of underlying task rules explains a significant part of the diminished complex rule induction performance commonly reported in AD, although results from the correlation analysis suggest involvement of executive control functions as well. Taken together, these findings suggest that care is needed when interpreting rule induction task performance in terms of executive function deficits in these patients.

  8. Ontology-based concept map learning path reasoning system using SWRL rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, K.-K.; Lee, C.-I. [National Univ. of Tainan, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Computer Science and Information Learning Technology

    2010-08-13

    Concept maps are graphical representations of knowledge. Concept mapping may reduce students' cognitive load and extend simple memory function. The purpose of this study was on the diagnosis of students' concept map learning abilities and the provision of personally constructive advice dependant on their learning path and progress. Ontology is a useful method with which to represent and store concept map information. Semantic web rule language (SWRL) rules are easy to understand and to use as specific reasoning services. This paper discussed the selection of grade 7 lakes and rivers curriculum for which to devise a concept map learning path reasoning service. The paper defined a concept map e-learning ontology and two SWRL semantic rules, and collected users' concept map learning path data to infer implicit knowledge and to recommend the next learning path for users. It was concluded that the designs devised in this study were feasible and advanced and the ontology kept the domain knowledge preserved. SWRL rules identified an abstraction model for inferred properties. Since they were separate systems, they did not interfere with each other, while ontology or SWRL rules were maintained, ensuring persistent system extensibility and robustness. 15 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  9. The efficiency of the RULES-4 classification learning algorithm in predicting the density of agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad Salem

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Learning is the act of obtaining new or modifying existing knowledge, behaviours, skills or preferences. The ability to learn is found in humans, other organisms and some machines. Learning is always based on some sort of observations or data such as examples, direct experience or instruction. This paper presents a classification algorithm to learn the density of agents in an arena based on the measurements of six proximity sensors of a combined actuator sensor units (CASUs. Rules are presented that were induced by the learning algorithm that was trained with data-sets based on the CASU’s sensor data streams collected during a number of experiments with “Bristlebots (agents in the arena (environment”. It was found that a set of rules generated by the learning algorithm is able to predict the number of bristlebots in the arena based on the CASU’s sensor readings with satisfying accuracy.

  10. Learning Display Rules: The Socialization of Emotion Expression in Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malatesta, Carol Zander; Haviland, Jeannette M.

    1982-01-01

    Develops a methodology for studying emotion socialization and examines the synchrony of mother and infant expressions to determine whether "instruction" in display rules is underway in early infancy and what the short-term effects of such instruction on infant expression might be. Sixty dyads were videotaped during play and reunion after brief…

  11. Monetary Policy Rules, Learning and Stability: a Survey of the Recent Literature (In French)

    OpenAIRE

    Martin ZUMPE (GREThA UMR CNRS 5113)

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the literature about econometric learning and its impact on the performances of monetary policy rules in the framework of the new canonical macroeconomic model. Rational expectations which are a building block of the original model can thus be replaced by expectations based on estimation algorithms. The permanent updating of these estimations can be interpreted as a learning proces of the model’s agents. This learning proces induces additional dynamics into the model. The ...

  12. Bimodal emotion congruency is critical to preverbal infants' abstract rule learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Angeline Sin Mei; Ma, Yuen Ki; Ho, Anna; Chow, Hiu Mei; Tseng, Chia-huei

    2016-05-01

    Extracting general rules from specific examples is important, as we must face the same challenge displayed in various formats. Previous studies have found that bimodal presentation of grammar-like rules (e.g. ABA) enhanced 5-month-olds' capacity to acquire a rule that infants failed to learn when the rule was presented with visual presentation of the shapes alone (circle-triangle-circle) or auditory presentation of the syllables (la-ba-la) alone. However, the mechanisms and constraints for this bimodal learning facilitation are still unknown. In this study, we used audio-visual relation congruency between bimodal stimulation to disentangle possible facilitation sources. We exposed 8- to 10-month-old infants to an AAB sequence consisting of visual faces with affective expressions and/or auditory voices conveying emotions. Our results showed that infants were able to distinguish the learned AAB rule from other novel rules under bimodal stimulation when the affects in audio and visual stimuli were congruently paired (Experiments 1A and 2A). Infants failed to acquire the same rule when audio-visual stimuli were incongruently matched (Experiment 2B) and when only the visual (Experiment 1B) or the audio (Experiment 1C) stimuli were presented. Our results highlight that bimodal facilitation in infant rule learning is not only dependent on better statistical probability and redundant sensory information, but also the relational congruency of audio-visual information. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=KYTyjH1k9RQ. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. A learning rule for very simple universal approximators consisting of a single layer of perceptrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Peter; Burgsteiner, Harald; Maass, Wolfgang

    2008-06-01

    One may argue that the simplest type of neural networks beyond a single perceptron is an array of several perceptrons in parallel. In spite of their simplicity, such circuits can compute any Boolean function if one views the majority of the binary perceptron outputs as the binary output of the parallel perceptron, and they are universal approximators for arbitrary continuous functions with values in [0,1] if one views the fraction of perceptrons that output 1 as the analog output of the parallel perceptron. Note that in contrast to the familiar model of a "multi-layer perceptron" the parallel perceptron that we consider here has just binary values as outputs of gates on the hidden layer. For a long time one has thought that there exists no competitive learning algorithm for these extremely simple neural networks, which also came to be known as committee machines. It is commonly assumed that one has to replace the hard threshold gates on the hidden layer by sigmoidal gates (or RBF-gates) and that one has to tune the weights on at least two successive layers in order to achieve satisfactory learning results for any class of neural networks that yield universal approximators. We show that this assumption is not true, by exhibiting a simple learning algorithm for parallel perceptrons - the parallel delta rule (p-delta rule). In contrast to backprop for multi-layer perceptrons, the p-delta rule only has to tune a single layer of weights, and it does not require the computation and communication of analog values with high precision. Reduced communication also distinguishes our new learning rule from other learning rules for parallel perceptrons such as MADALINE. Obviously these features make the p-delta rule attractive as a biologically more realistic alternative to backprop in biological neural circuits, but also for implementations in special purpose hardware. We show that the p-delta rule also implements gradient descent-with regard to a suitable error measure

  14. Rule-based category learning in children: the role of age and executive functioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahel Rabi

    Full Text Available Rule-based category learning was examined in 4-11 year-olds and adults. Participants were asked to learn a set of novel perceptual categories in a classification learning task. Categorization performance improved with age, with younger children showing the strongest rule-based deficit relative to older children and adults. Model-based analyses provided insight regarding the type of strategy being used to solve the categorization task, demonstrating that the use of the task appropriate strategy increased with age. When children and adults who identified the correct categorization rule were compared, the performance deficit was no longer evident. Executive functions were also measured. While both working memory and inhibitory control were related to rule-based categorization and improved with age, working memory specifically was found to marginally mediate the age-related improvements in categorization. When analyses focused only on the sample of children, results showed that working memory ability and inhibitory control were associated with categorization performance and strategy use. The current findings track changes in categorization performance across childhood, demonstrating at which points performance begins to mature and resemble that of adults. Additionally, findings highlight the potential role that working memory and inhibitory control may play in rule-based category learning.

  15. Learning and innovative elements of strategy adoption rules expand cooperative network topologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shijun; Szalay, Máté S; Zhang, Changshui; Csermely, Peter

    2008-04-09

    Cooperation plays a key role in the evolution of complex systems. However, the level of cooperation extensively varies with the topology of agent networks in the widely used models of repeated games. Here we show that cooperation remains rather stable by applying the reinforcement learning strategy adoption rule, Q-learning on a variety of random, regular, small-word, scale-free and modular network models in repeated, multi-agent Prisoner's Dilemma and Hawk-Dove games. Furthermore, we found that using the above model systems other long-term learning strategy adoption rules also promote cooperation, while introducing a low level of noise (as a model of innovation) to the strategy adoption rules makes the level of cooperation less dependent on the actual network topology. Our results demonstrate that long-term learning and random elements in the strategy adoption rules, when acting together, extend the range of network topologies enabling the development of cooperation at a wider range of costs and temptations. These results suggest that a balanced duo of learning and innovation may help to preserve cooperation during the re-organization of real-world networks, and may play a prominent role in the evolution of self-organizing, complex systems.

  16. A Machine Learning Approach to Discover Rules for Expressive Performance Actions in Jazz Guitar Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Sergio I.; Ramirez, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Expert musicians introduce expression in their performances by manipulating sound properties such as timing, energy, pitch, and timbre. Here, we present a data driven computational approach to induce expressive performance rule models for note duration, onset, energy, and ornamentation transformations in jazz guitar music. We extract high-level features from a set of 16 commercial audio recordings (and corresponding music scores) of jazz guitarist Grant Green in order to characterize the expression in the pieces. We apply machine learning techniques to the resulting features to learn expressive performance rule models. We (1) quantitatively evaluate the accuracy of the induced models, (2) analyse the relative importance of the considered musical features, (3) discuss some of the learnt expressive performance rules in the context of previous work, and (4) assess their generailty. The accuracies of the induced predictive models is significantly above base-line levels indicating that the audio performances and the musical features extracted contain sufficient information to automatically learn informative expressive performance patterns. Feature analysis shows that the most important musical features for predicting expressive transformations are note duration, pitch, metrical strength, phrase position, Narmour structure, and tempo and key of the piece. Similarities and differences between the induced expressive rules and the rules reported in the literature were found. Differences may be due to the fact that most previously studied performance data has consisted of classical music recordings. Finally, the rules' performer specificity/generality is assessed by applying the induced rules to performances of the same pieces performed by two other professional jazz guitar players. Results show a consistency in the ornamentation patterns between Grant Green and the other two musicians, which may be interpreted as a good indicator for generality of the ornamentation rules

  17. A Machine Learning Approach to Discover Rules for Expressive Performance Actions in Jazz Guitar Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Sergio I; Ramirez, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Expert musicians introduce expression in their performances by manipulating sound properties such as timing, energy, pitch, and timbre. Here, we present a data driven computational approach to induce expressive performance rule models for note duration, onset, energy, and ornamentation transformations in jazz guitar music. We extract high-level features from a set of 16 commercial audio recordings (and corresponding music scores) of jazz guitarist Grant Green in order to characterize the expression in the pieces. We apply machine learning techniques to the resulting features to learn expressive performance rule models. We (1) quantitatively evaluate the accuracy of the induced models, (2) analyse the relative importance of the considered musical features, (3) discuss some of the learnt expressive performance rules in the context of previous work, and (4) assess their generailty. The accuracies of the induced predictive models is significantly above base-line levels indicating that the audio performances and the musical features extracted contain sufficient information to automatically learn informative expressive performance patterns. Feature analysis shows that the most important musical features for predicting expressive transformations are note duration, pitch, metrical strength, phrase position, Narmour structure, and tempo and key of the piece. Similarities and differences between the induced expressive rules and the rules reported in the literature were found. Differences may be due to the fact that most previously studied performance data has consisted of classical music recordings. Finally, the rules' performer specificity/generality is assessed by applying the induced rules to performances of the same pieces performed by two other professional jazz guitar players. Results show a consistency in the ornamentation patterns between Grant Green and the other two musicians, which may be interpreted as a good indicator for generality of the ornamentation rules.

  18. A learning rule that explains how rewards teach attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rombouts, Jaldert O.; Bohte, Sander M.; Martinez-Trujillo, Julio; Roelfsema, Pieter R.

    2015-01-01

    Many theories propose that top-down attentional signals control processing in sensory cortices by modulating neural activity. But who controls the controller? Here we investigate how a biologically plausible neural reinforcement learning scheme can create higher order representations and top-down

  19. A learning rule that explains how rewards teach attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.O. Rombouts (Jaldert); S.M. Bohte (Sander); J. Martinez-Trujillo; P.R. Roelfsema

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractMany theories propose that top-down attentional signals control processing in sensory cortices by modulating neural activity. But who controls the controller? Here we investigate how a biologically plausible neural reinforcement learning scheme can create higher order representations and

  20. Perceptual learning rules based on reinforcers and attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, Pieter R.; van Ooyen, Arjen; Watanabe, Takeo

    2010-01-01

    How does the brain learn those visual features that are relevant for behavior? In this article, we focus on two factors that guide plasticity of visual representations. First, reinforcers cause the global release of diffusive neuromodulatory signals that gate plasticity. Second, attentional feedback

  1. Category learning strategies in younger and older adults: Rule abstraction and memorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlheim, Christopher N; McDaniel, Mark A; Little, Jeri L

    2016-06-01

    Despite the fundamental role of category learning in cognition, few studies have examined how this ability differs between younger and older adults. The present experiment examined possible age differences in category learning strategies and their effects on learning. Participants were trained on a category determined by a disjunctive rule applied to relational features. The utilization of rule- and exemplar-based strategies was indexed by self-reports and transfer performance. Based on self-reported strategies, the frequencies of rule- and exemplar-based learners were not significantly different between age groups, but there was a significantly higher frequency of intermediate learners (i.e., learners not identifying with a reliance on either rule- or exemplar-based strategies) in the older than younger adult group. Training performance was higher for younger than older adults regardless of the strategy utilized, showing that older adults were impaired in their ability to learn the correct rule or to remember exemplar-label associations. Transfer performance converged with strategy reports in showing higher fidelity category representations for younger adults. Younger adults with high working memory capacity were more likely to use an exemplar-based strategy, and older adults with high working memory capacity showed better training performance. Age groups did not differ in their self-reported memory beliefs, and these beliefs did not predict training strategies or performance. Overall, the present results contradict earlier findings that older adults prefer rule- to exemplar-based learning strategies, presumably to compensate for memory deficits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Learning Dispatching Rules for Scheduling: A Synergistic View Comprising Decision Trees, Tabu Search and Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atif Shahzad

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A promising approach for an effective shop scheduling that synergizes the benefits of the combinatorial optimization, supervised learning and discrete-event simulation is presented. Though dispatching rules are in widely used by shop scheduling practitioners, only ordinary performance rules are known; hence, dynamic generation of dispatching rules is desired to make them more effective in changing shop conditions. Meta-heuristics are able to perform quite well and carry more knowledge of the problem domain, however at the cost of prohibitive computational effort in real-time. The primary purpose of this research lies in an offline extraction of this domain knowledge using decision trees to generate simple if-then rules that subsequently act as dispatching rules for scheduling in an online manner. We used similarity index to identify parametric and structural similarity in problem instances in order to implicitly support the learning algorithm for effective rule generation and quality index for relative ranking of the dispatching decisions. Maximum lateness is used as the scheduling objective in a job shop scheduling environment.

  3. Fuzzy OLAP association rules mining-based modular reinforcement learning approach for multiagent systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Mehmet; Alhajj, Reda

    2005-04-01

    Multiagent systems and data mining have recently attracted considerable attention in the field of computing. Reinforcement learning is the most commonly used learning process for multiagent systems. However, it still has some drawbacks, including modeling other learning agents present in the domain as part of the state of the environment, and some states are experienced much less than others, or some state-action pairs are never visited during the learning phase. Further, before completing the learning process, an agent cannot exhibit a certain behavior in some states that may be experienced sufficiently. In this study, we propose a novel multiagent learning approach to handle these problems. Our approach is based on utilizing the mining process for modular cooperative learning systems. It incorporates fuzziness and online analytical processing (OLAP) based mining to effectively process the information reported by agents. First, we describe a fuzzy data cube OLAP architecture which facilitates effective storage and processing of the state information reported by agents. This way, the action of the other agent, not even in the visual environment. of the agent under consideration, can simply be predicted by extracting online association rules, a well-known data mining technique, from the constructed data cube. Second, we present a new action selection model, which is also based on association rules mining. Finally, we generalize not sufficiently experienced states, by mining multilevel association rules from the proposed fuzzy data cube. Experimental results obtained on two different versions of a well-known pursuit domain show the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy OLAP mining based modular learning approach. Finally, we tested the scalability of the approach presented in this paper and compared it with our previous work on modular-fuzzy Q-learning and ordinary Q-learning.

  4. Learning "Rules" of Practice within the Context of the Practicum Triad: A Case Study of Learning to Teach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalies, Sebastien; Escalie, Guillaume; Stefano, Bertone; Clarke, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    This case study sought to determine the professional development circumstances in which a preservice teacher learned rules of practice (Wittgenstein, 1996) on practicum while interacting with a cooperating teacher and university supervisor. Borrowing from a theoretical conceptualization of teacher professional development based on the postulates…

  5. Optimal monetary policy rules: the problem of stability under heterogeneous learning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bogomolova, Anna; Kolyuzhnov, Dmitri

    -, č. 379 (2008), s. 1-34 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : monetary policy rules * New Keynesian model * adaptive learning Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp379.pdf

  6. The Aptitude-Treatment Interaction Effects on the Learning of Grammar Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwu, Fenfang; Sun, Shuyan

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates the interaction between two types of explicit instructional approaches, deduction and explicit-induction, and the level of foreign language aptitude in the learning of grammar rules. Results indicate that on the whole the two equally explicit instructional approaches did not differentially affect learning…

  7. Beyond Motivation - History as a method for the learning of meta-discursive rules in mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Tinne Hoff; Blomhøj, Morten

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that history might have a profound role to play for learning mathematics by providing a self-evident (if not indispensable) strategy for revealing meta-discursive rules in mathematics and turning them into explicit objects of reflection for students. Our argument is based...

  8. A Machine Learning Approach to Discover Rules for Expressive Performance Actions in Jazz Guitar Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Ivan Giraldo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Expert musicians introduce expression in their performances by manipulating sound properties such as timing, energy, pitch, and timbre. Here, we present a data driven computational approach to induce expressive performance rule models for note duration, onset, energy, and ornamentation transformations in jazz guitar music. We extract high-level features from a set of 16 commercial audio recordings (and corresponding music scores of jazz guitarist Grant Green in order to characterize the expression in the pieces. We apply machine learning techniques to the resulting features to learn expressive performance rule models. We (1 quantitatively evaluate the accuracy of the induced models, (2 analyse the relative importance of the considered musical features, (3 discuss some of the learnt expressive performance rules in the context of previous work, and (4 assess their generailty. The accuracies of the induced predictive models is significantly above base-line levels indicating that the audio performances and the musical features extracted contain sufficient information to automatically learn informative expressive performance patterns. Feature analysis shows that the most important musical features for predicting expressive transformations are note duration, pitch, metrical strength, phrase position, Narmour structure, and tempo and key of the piece. Similarities and differences between the induced expressive rules and the rules reported in the literature were found. Differences may be due to the fact that most previously studied performance data has consisted of classical music recordings. Finally, the rules’ performer specificity/generality is assessed by applying the induced rules to performances of the same pieces performed by two other professional jazz guitar players. Results show a consistency in the ornamentation patterns between Grant Green and the other two musicians, which may be interpreted as a good indicator for generality of the

  9. Robot Grasp Learning by Demonstration without Predefined Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Fernández

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A learning-based approach to autonomous robot grasping is presented. Pattern recognition techniques are used to measure the similarity between a set of previously stored example grasps and all the possible candidate grasps for a new object. Two sets of features are defined in order to characterize grasps: point attributes describe the surroundings of a contact point; point-set attributes describe the relationship between the set of n contact points (assuming an n-fingered robot gripper is used. In the experiments performed, the nearest neighbour classifier outperforms other approaches like multilayer perceptrons, radial basis functions or decision trees, in terms of classification accuracy, while computational load is not excessive for a real time application (a grasp is fully synthesized in 0.2 seconds. The results obtained on a synthetic database show that the proposed system is able to imitate the grasping behaviour of the user (e.g. the system learns to grasp a mug by its handle. All the code has been made available for testing purposes.

  10. Topic categorisation of statements in suicide notes with integrated rules and machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovačević, Aleksandar; Dehghan, Azad; Keane, John A; Nenadic, Goran

    2012-01-01

    We describe and evaluate an automated approach used as part of the i2b2 2011 challenge to identify and categorise statements in suicide notes into one of 15 topics, including Love, Guilt, Thankfulness, Hopelessness and Instructions. The approach combines a set of lexico-syntactic rules with a set of models derived by machine learning from a training dataset. The machine learning models rely on named entities, lexical, lexico-semantic and presentation features, as well as the rules that are applicable to a given statement. On a testing set of 300 suicide notes, the approach showed the overall best micro F-measure of up to 53.36%. The best precision achieved was 67.17% when only rules are used, whereas best recall of 50.57% was with integrated rules and machine learning. While some topics (eg, Sorrow, Anger, Blame) prove challenging, the performance for relatively frequent (eg, Love) and well-scoped categories (eg, Thankfulness) was comparatively higher (precision between 68% and 79%), suggesting that automated text mining approaches can be effective in topic categorisation of suicide notes.

  11. Compensatory Processing During Rule-Based Category Learning in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharani, Krishna L.; Paller, Ken A.; Reber, Paul J.; Weintraub, Sandra; Yanar, Jorge; Morrison, Robert G.

    2016-01-01

    Healthy older adults typically perform worse than younger adults at rule-based category learning, but better than patients with Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease. To further investigate aging's effect on rule-based category learning, we monitored event-related potentials (ERPs) while younger and neuropsychologically typical older adults performed a visual category-learning task with a rule-based category structure and trial-by-trial feedback. Using these procedures, we previously identified ERPs sensitive to categorization strategy and accuracy in young participants. In addition, previous studies have demonstrated the importance of neural processing in the prefrontal cortex and the medial temporal lobe for this task. In this study, older adults showed lower accuracy and longer response times than younger adults, but there were two distinct subgroups of older adults. One subgroup showed near-chance performance throughout the procedure, never categorizing accurately. The other subgroup reached asymptotic accuracy that was equivalent to that in younger adults, although they categorized more slowly. These two subgroups were further distinguished via ERPs. Consistent with the compensation theory of cognitive aging, older adults who successfully learned showed larger frontal ERPs when compared with younger adults. Recruitment of prefrontal resources may have improved performance while slowing response times. Additionally, correlations of feedback-locked P300 amplitudes with category-learning accuracy differentiated successful younger and older adults. Overall, the results suggest that the ability to adapt one's behavior in response to feedback during learning varies across older individuals, and that the failure of some to adapt their behavior may reflect inadequate engagement of prefrontal cortex. PMID:26422522

  12. Using Machine Learning Methods Jointly to Find Better Set of Rules in Data Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUG Hyontai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rough set-based data mining algorithms are one of widely accepted machine learning technologies because of their strong mathematical background and capability of finding optimal rules based on given data sets only without room for prejudiced views to be inserted on the data. But, because the algorithms find rules very precisely, we may confront with the overfitting problem. On the other hand, association rule algorithms find rules of association, where the association resides between sets of items in database. The algorithms find itemsets that occur more than given minimum support, so that they can find the itemsets practically in reasonable time even for very large databases by supplying the minimum support appropriately. In order to overcome the problem of the overfitting problem in rough set-based algorithms, first we find large itemsets, after that we select attributes that cover the large itemsets. By using the selected attributes only, we may find better set of rules based on rough set theory. Results from experiments support our suggested method.

  13. Logic Learning Machine creates explicit and stable rules stratifying neuroblastoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangelosi, Davide; Blengio, Fabiola; Versteeg, Rogier; Eggert, Angelika; Garaventa, Alberto; Gambini, Claudio; Conte, Massimo; Eva, Alessandra; Muselli, Marco; Varesio, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common pediatric solid tumor. About fifty percent of high risk patients die despite treatment making the exploration of new and more effective strategies for improving stratification mandatory. Hypoxia is a condition of low oxygen tension occurring in poorly vascularized areas of the tumor associated with poor prognosis. We had previously defined a robust gene expression signature measuring the hypoxic component of neuroblastoma tumors (NB-hypo) which is a molecular risk factor. We wanted to develop a prognostic classifier of neuroblastoma patients' outcome blending existing knowledge on clinical and molecular risk factors with the prognostic NB-hypo signature. Furthermore, we were interested in classifiers outputting explicit rules that could be easily translated into the clinical setting. Shadow Clustering (SC) technique, which leads to final models called Logic Learning Machine (LLM), exhibits a good accuracy and promises to fulfill the aims of the work. We utilized this algorithm to classify NB-patients on the bases of the following risk factors: Age at diagnosis, INSS stage, MYCN amplification and NB-hypo. The algorithm generated explicit classification rules in good agreement with existing clinical knowledge. Through an iterative procedure we identified and removed from the dataset those examples which caused instability in the rules. This workflow generated a stable classifier very accurate in predicting good and poor outcome patients. The good performance of the classifier was validated in an independent dataset. NB-hypo was an important component of the rules with a strength similar to that of tumor staging. The novelty of our work is to identify stability, explicit rules and blending of molecular and clinical risk factors as the key features to generate classification rules for NB patients to be conveyed to the clinic and to be used to design new therapies. We derived, through LLM, a set of four stable rules identifying a new

  14. Logic Learning Machine creates explicit and stable rules stratifying neuroblastoma patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Neuroblastoma is the most common pediatric solid tumor. About fifty percent of high risk patients die despite treatment making the exploration of new and more effective strategies for improving stratification mandatory. Hypoxia is a condition of low oxygen tension occurring in poorly vascularized areas of the tumor associated with poor prognosis. We had previously defined a robust gene expression signature measuring the hypoxic component of neuroblastoma tumors (NB-hypo) which is a molecular risk factor. We wanted to develop a prognostic classifier of neuroblastoma patients' outcome blending existing knowledge on clinical and molecular risk factors with the prognostic NB-hypo signature. Furthermore, we were interested in classifiers outputting explicit rules that could be easily translated into the clinical setting. Results Shadow Clustering (SC) technique, which leads to final models called Logic Learning Machine (LLM), exhibits a good accuracy and promises to fulfill the aims of the work. We utilized this algorithm to classify NB-patients on the bases of the following risk factors: Age at diagnosis, INSS stage, MYCN amplification and NB-hypo. The algorithm generated explicit classification rules in good agreement with existing clinical knowledge. Through an iterative procedure we identified and removed from the dataset those examples which caused instability in the rules. This workflow generated a stable classifier very accurate in predicting good and poor outcome patients. The good performance of the classifier was validated in an independent dataset. NB-hypo was an important component of the rules with a strength similar to that of tumor staging. Conclusions The novelty of our work is to identify stability, explicit rules and blending of molecular and clinical risk factors as the key features to generate classification rules for NB patients to be conveyed to the clinic and to be used to design new therapies. We derived, through LLM, a set of four

  15. Computational modeling of spiking neural network with learning rules from STDP and intrinsic plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiumin; Wang, Wei; Xue, Fangzheng; Song, Yongduan

    2018-02-01

    Recently there has been continuously increasing interest in building up computational models of spiking neural networks (SNN), such as the Liquid State Machine (LSM). The biologically inspired self-organized neural networks with neural plasticity can enhance the capability of computational performance, with the characteristic features of dynamical memory and recurrent connection cycles which distinguish them from the more widely used feedforward neural networks. Despite a variety of computational models for brain-like learning and information processing have been proposed, the modeling of self-organized neural networks with multi-neural plasticity is still an important open challenge. The main difficulties lie in the interplay among different forms of neural plasticity rules and understanding how structures and dynamics of neural networks shape the computational performance. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to develop the models of LSM with a biologically inspired self-organizing network based on two neural plasticity learning rules. The connectivity among excitatory neurons is adapted by spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) learning; meanwhile, the degrees of neuronal excitability are regulated to maintain a moderate average activity level by another learning rule: intrinsic plasticity (IP). Our study shows that LSM with STDP+IP performs better than LSM with a random SNN or SNN obtained by STDP alone. The noticeable improvement with the proposed method is due to the better reflected competition among different neurons in the developed SNN model, as well as the more effectively encoded and processed relevant dynamic information with its learning and self-organizing mechanism. This result gives insights to the optimization of computational models of spiking neural networks with neural plasticity.

  16. Lessons learned from the Maintenance Rule implementation at Northeast Utilities operating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, K.B.; Khalil, Y.F.; Johnson, W.

    1996-01-01

    The Maintenance Rule as described in 10CFR50.65 requires holders of all operating nuclear power plants to monitor the performance of structures, systems, and components (SSCs) against licensee-established performance criteria. The Industry with the assistance of the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) developed a guideline, which includes all parts of the Maintenance Rule, to establish these performance criteria while incorporating safety and reliability of the operating plants. The NUMARC 93-01 Guideline introduced the term ''Risk Significant'' to categorize subsets of the SSCs which would require increased focus, from a Maintenance Rule perspective, in setting their performance criteria. Northeast Utilities Company (NU) operates five nuclear plants three at Millstone Station in Waterford, Connecticut; the Connecticut Yankee plant in Haddam Neck, Connecticut; and the Seabrook Station in Seabrook, New Hampshire. NU started the implementation process of the Maintenance Rule program at its five operating plants since early 1994, and have identified a population of risk significant SSCs at each plant. Recently, Northeast Utilities' Maintenance Rule Team re-examined the initial risk significant determinations to further refine these populations, and to establish consistencies among its operating units. As a result of the re-examination process, a number of inconsistencies and areas for improvement have been identified. The lessons learned provide valuable insights to consider in the future as one implements more risk based initiatives such as Graded QA and Risk-Based ISI and IST. This paper discusses the risk significance criteria, how Northeast Utilities utilized NUMARC 93-01 Guideline to determine the risk significant SSCs for its operating plants, and lessons learned. The results provided here do not include the Seabrook Station

  17. A Three-Threshold Learning Rule Approaches the Maximal Capacity of Recurrent Neural Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Alemi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the theoretical foundations of how memories are encoded and retrieved in neural populations is a central challenge in neuroscience. A popular theoretical scenario for modeling memory function is the attractor neural network scenario, whose prototype is the Hopfield model. The model simplicity and the locality of the synaptic update rules come at the cost of a poor storage capacity, compared with the capacity achieved with perceptron learning algorithms. Here, by transforming the perceptron learning rule, we present an online learning rule for a recurrent neural network that achieves near-maximal storage capacity without an explicit supervisory error signal, relying only upon locally accessible information. The fully-connected network consists of excitatory binary neurons with plastic recurrent connections and non-plastic inhibitory feedback stabilizing the network dynamics; the memory patterns to be memorized are presented online as strong afferent currents, producing a bimodal distribution for the neuron synaptic inputs. Synapses corresponding to active inputs are modified as a function of the value of the local fields with respect to three thresholds. Above the highest threshold, and below the lowest threshold, no plasticity occurs. In between these two thresholds, potentiation/depression occurs when the local field is above/below an intermediate threshold. We simulated and analyzed a network of binary neurons implementing this rule and measured its storage capacity for different sizes of the basins of attraction. The storage capacity obtained through numerical simulations is shown to be close to the value predicted by analytical calculations. We also measured the dependence of capacity on the strength of external inputs. Finally, we quantified the statistics of the resulting synaptic connectivity matrix, and found that both the fraction of zero weight synapses and the degree of symmetry of the weight matrix increase with the

  18. Mixing Languages during Learning? Testing the One Subject-One Language Rule.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneko Antón

    Full Text Available In bilingual communities, mixing languages is avoided in formal schooling: even if two languages are used on a daily basis for teaching, only one language is used to teach each given academic subject. This tenet known as the one subject-one language rule avoids mixing languages in formal schooling because it may hinder learning. The aim of this study was to test the scientific ground of this assumption by investigating the consequences of acquiring new concepts using a method in which two languages are mixed as compared to a purely monolingual method. Native balanced bilingual speakers of Basque and Spanish-adults (Experiment 1 and children (Experiment 2-learnt new concepts by associating two different features to novel objects. Half of the participants completed the learning process in a multilingual context (one feature was described in Basque and the other one in Spanish; while the other half completed the learning phase in a purely monolingual context (both features were described in Spanish. Different measures of learning were taken, as well as direct and indirect indicators of concept consolidation. We found no evidence in favor of the non-mixing method when comparing the results of two groups in either experiment, and thus failed to give scientific support for the educational premise of the one subject-one language rule.

  19. Mixing Languages during Learning? Testing the One Subject—One Language Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In bilingual communities, mixing languages is avoided in formal schooling: even if two languages are used on a daily basis for teaching, only one language is used to teach each given academic subject. This tenet known as the one subject-one language rule avoids mixing languages in formal schooling because it may hinder learning. The aim of this study was to test the scientific ground of this assumption by investigating the consequences of acquiring new concepts using a method in which two languages are mixed as compared to a purely monolingual method. Native balanced bilingual speakers of Basque and Spanish—adults (Experiment 1) and children (Experiment 2)—learnt new concepts by associating two different features to novel objects. Half of the participants completed the learning process in a multilingual context (one feature was described in Basque and the other one in Spanish); while the other half completed the learning phase in a purely monolingual context (both features were described in Spanish). Different measures of learning were taken, as well as direct and indirect indicators of concept consolidation. We found no evidence in favor of the non-mixing method when comparing the results of two groups in either experiment, and thus failed to give scientific support for the educational premise of the one subject—one language rule. PMID:26107624

  20. Criterial noise effects on rule-based category learning: the impact of delayed feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ell, Shawn W; Ing, A David; Maddox, W Todd

    2009-08-01

    Variability in the representation of the decision criterion is assumed in many category-learning models, yet few studies have directly examined its impact. On each trial, criterial noise should result in drift in the criterion and will negatively impact categorization accuracy, particularly in rule-based categorization tasks, where learning depends on the maintenance and manipulation of decision criteria. In three experiments, we tested this hypothesis and examined the impact of working memory on slowing the drift rate. In Experiment 1, we examined the effect of drift by inserting a 5-sec delay between the categorization response and the delivery of corrective feedback, and working memory demand was manipulated by varying the number of decision criteria to be learned. Delayed feedback adversely affected performance, but only when working memory demand was high. In Experiment 2, we built on a classic finding in the absolute identification literature and demonstrated that distributing the criteria across multiple dimensions decreases the impact of drift during the delay. In Experiment 3, we confirmed that the effect of drift during the delay is moderated by working memory. These results provide important insights into the interplay between criterial noise and working memory, as well as providing important constraints for models of rule-based category learning.

  1. Neuromodulated Spike-Timing-Dependent Plasticity and Theory of Three-Factor Learning Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulfram eGerstner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Classical Hebbian learning puts the emphasis on joint pre- and postsynaptic activity, but neglects the potential role of neuromodulators. Since neuromodulators convey information about novelty or reward, the influence of neuromodulatorson synaptic plasticity is useful not just for action learning in classical conditioning, but also to decide 'when' to create new memories in response to a flow of sensory stimuli.In this review, we focus on timing requirements for pre- and postsynaptic activity in conjunction with one or several phasic neuromodulatory signals. While the emphasis of the text is on conceptual models and mathematical theories, we also discusssome experimental evidence for neuromodulation of Spike-Timing-Dependent Plasticity.We highlight the importance of synaptic mechanisms in bridging the temporal gap between sensory stimulation and neuromodulatory signals, and develop a framework for a class of neo-Hebbian three-factor learning rules that depend on presynaptic activity, postsynaptic variables as well as the influence of neuromodulators.

  2. Applying cognitive developmental psychology to middle school physics learning: The rule assessment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallinen, Nicole R.; Chi, Min; Chin, Doris B.; Prempeh, Joe; Blair, Kristen P.; Schwartz, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive developmental psychology often describes children's growing qualitative understanding of the physical world. Physics educators may be able to use the relevant methods to advantage for characterizing changes in students' qualitative reasoning. Siegler developed the "rule assessment" method for characterizing levels of qualitative understanding for two factor situations (e.g., volume and mass for density). The method assigns children to rule levels that correspond to the degree they notice and coordinate the two factors. Here, we provide a brief tutorial plus a demonstration of how we have used this method to evaluate instructional outcomes with middle-school students who learned about torque, projectile motion, and collisions using different instructional methods with simulations.

  3. Visual perceptual learning by operant conditioning training follows rules of contingency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongho; Seitz, Aaron R; Watanabe, Takeo

    2015-01-01

    Visual perceptual learning (VPL) can occur as a result of a repetitive stimulus-reward pairing in the absence of any task. This suggests that rules that guide Conditioning, such as stimulus-reward contingency (e.g. that stimulus predicts the likelihood of reward), may also guide the formation of VPL. To address this question, we trained subjects with an operant conditioning task in which there were contingencies between the response to one of three orientations and the presence of reward. Results showed that VPL only occurred for positive contingencies, but not for neutral or negative contingencies. These results suggest that the formation of VPL is influenced by similar rules that guide the process of Conditioning. PMID:26028984

  4. Visual perceptual learning by operant conditioning training follows rules of contingency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongho; Seitz, Aaron R; Watanabe, Takeo

    2015-01-01

    Visual perceptual learning (VPL) can occur as a result of a repetitive stimulus-reward pairing in the absence of any task. This suggests that rules that guide Conditioning, such as stimulus-reward contingency (e.g. that stimulus predicts the likelihood of reward), may also guide the formation of VPL. To address this question, we trained subjects with an operant conditioning task in which there were contingencies between the response to one of three orientations and the presence of reward. Results showed that VPL only occurred for positive contingencies, but not for neutral or negative contingencies. These results suggest that the formation of VPL is influenced by similar rules that guide the process of Conditioning.

  5. A SEMI-AUTOMATIC RULE SET BUILDING METHOD FOR URBAN LAND COVER CLASSIFICATION BASED ON MACHINE LEARNING AND HUMAN KNOWLEDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Y. Gu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Classification rule set is important for Land Cover classification, which refers to features and decision rules. The selection of features and decision are based on an iterative trial-and-error approach that is often utilized in GEOBIA, however, it is time-consuming and has a poor versatility. This study has put forward a rule set building method for Land cover classification based on human knowledge and machine learning. The use of machine learning is to build rule sets effectively which will overcome the iterative trial-and-error approach. The use of human knowledge is to solve the shortcomings of existing machine learning method on insufficient usage of prior knowledge, and improve the versatility of rule sets. A two-step workflow has been introduced, firstly, an initial rule is built based on Random Forest and CART decision tree. Secondly, the initial rule is analyzed and validated based on human knowledge, where we use statistical confidence interval to determine its threshold. The test site is located in Potsdam City. We utilised the TOP, DSM and ground truth data. The results show that the method could determine rule set for Land Cover classification semi-automatically, and there are static features for different land cover classes.

  6. Lessons learned from early implementation of the maintenance rule at nine nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrone, C.D.; Correia, R.P.; Black, S.C.

    1995-06-01

    This report summarizes the lessons learned from the nine pilot site visits that were performed to review early implementation of the maintenance rule using the draft NRC Maintenance Inspection Procedure. Licensees followed NUMARC 93-01, ''Industry Guideline for Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants.'' In general, the licensees were thorough in determining which structures, systems, and components (SSCS) were within the scope of the maintenance rule at each site. The use of an expert panel was an appropriate and practical method of determining which SSCs are risk significant. When setting goals, all licensees considered safety but many licensees did not consider operating experience throughout the industry. Although required to do so, licensees were not monitoring at the system or train level the performance or condition for some systems used in standby service but not significant to risk. Most licensees had not established adequate monitoring of structures under the rule. Licensees established reasonable plans for doing periodic evaluations, balancing unavailability and reliability, and assessing the effect of taking equipment out of service for maintenance. However, these plans were not evaluated because they had not been fully implemented at the time of the site visits

  7. Trading Rules on Stock Markets Using Genetic Network Programming with Reinforcement Learning and Importance Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabu, Shingo; Hirasawa, Kotaro; Furuzuki, Takayuki

    Genetic Network Programming (GNP) is an evolutionary computation which represents its solutions using graph structures. Since GNP can create quite compact programs and has an implicit memory function, it has been clarified that GNP works well especially in dynamic environments. In addition, a study on creating trading rules on stock markets using GNP with Importance Index (GNP-IMX) has been done. IMX is a new element which is a criterion for decision making. In this paper, we combined GNP-IMX with Actor-Critic (GNP-IMX&AC) and create trading rules on stock markets. Evolution-based methods evolve their programs after enough period of time because they must calculate fitness values, however reinforcement learning can change programs during the period, therefore the trading rules can be created efficiently. In the simulation, the proposed method is trained using the stock prices of 10 brands in 2002 and 2003. Then the generalization ability is tested using the stock prices in 2004. The simulation results show that the proposed method can obtain larger profits than GNP-IMX without AC and Buy&Hold.

  8. Learning the rules of the rock-paper-scissors game: chimpanzees versus children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Su, Yanjie; Tomonaga, Masaki; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate whether chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) could learn a transverse pattern by being trained in the rules of the rock-paper-scissors game in which "paper" beats "rock," "rock" beats "scissors," and "scissors" beats "paper." Additionally, this study compared the learning processes between chimpanzees and children. Seven chimpanzees were tested using a computer-controlled task. They were trained to choose the stronger of two options according to the game rules. The chimpanzees first engaged in the paper-rock sessions until they reached the learning criterion. Subsequently, they engaged in the rock-scissors and scissors-paper sessions, before progressing to sessions with all three pairs mixed. Five of the seven chimpanzees completed training after a mean of 307 sessions, which indicates that they learned the circular pattern. The chimpanzees required more scissors-paper sessions (14.29 ± 6.89), the third learnt pair, than paper-rock (1.71 ± 0.18) and rock-scissors (3.14 ± 0.70) sessions, suggesting they had difficulty finalizing the circularity. The chimpanzees then received generalization tests using new stimuli, which they learned quickly. A similar procedure was performed with children (35-71 months, n = 38) who needed the same number of trials for all three pairs during single-paired sessions. Their accuracy during the mixed-pair sessions improved with age and was better than chance from 50 months of age, which indicates that the ability to solve the transverse patterning problem might develop at around 4 years of age. The present findings show that chimpanzees were able to learn the task but had difficulties with circularity, whereas children learned the task more easily and developed the relevant ability at approximately 4 years of age. Furthermore, the chimpanzees' performance during the mixed-pair sessions was similar to that of 4-year-old children during the corresponding stage of training.

  9. CACNA1C gene regulates behavioral strategies in operant rule learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppe, Georgia; Mallien, Anne Stephanie; Berger, Stefan; Bartsch, Dusan; Gass, Peter; Vollmayr, Barbara; Durstewitz, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Behavioral experiments are usually designed to tap into a specific cognitive function, but animals may solve a given task through a variety of different and individual behavioral strategies, some of them not foreseen by the experimenter. Animal learning may therefore be seen more as the process of selecting among, and adapting, potential behavioral policies, rather than mere strengthening of associative links. Calcium influx through high-voltage-gated Ca2+ channels is central to synaptic plasticity, and altered expression of Cav1.2 channels and the CACNA1C gene have been associated with severe learning deficits and psychiatric disorders. Given this, we were interested in how specifically a selective functional ablation of the Cacna1c gene would modulate the learning process. Using a detailed, individual-level analysis of learning on an operant cue discrimination task in terms of behavioral strategies, combined with Bayesian selection among computational models estimated from the empirical data, we show that a Cacna1c knockout does not impair learning in general but has a much more specific effect: the majority of Cacna1c knockout mice still managed to increase reward feedback across trials but did so by adapting an outcome-based strategy, while the majority of matched controls adopted the experimentally intended cue-association rule. Our results thus point to a quite specific role of a single gene in learning and highlight that much more mechanistic insight could be gained by examining response patterns in terms of a larger repertoire of potential behavioral strategies. The results may also have clinical implications for treating psychiatric disorders.

  10. Collaborative Working e-Learning Environments Supported by Rule-Based e-Tutor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salaheddin Odeh

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Collaborative working environments for distance education sets a goal of convenience and an adaptation into our technologically advanced societies. To achieve this revolutionary new way of learning, environments must allow the different participants to communicate and coordinate with each other in a productive manner. Productivity and efficiency is obtained through synchronized communication between the different coordinating partners, which means that multiple users can execute an experiment simultaneously. Within this process, coordination can be accomplished by voice communication and chat tools. In recent times, multi-user environments have been successfully applied in many applications such as air traffic control systems, team-oriented military systems, chat text tools, and multi-player games. Thus, understanding the ideas and the techniques behind these systems can be of great significance regarding the contribution of newer ideas to collaborative working e-learning environments. However, many problems still exist in distance learning and tele-education, such as not finding the proper assistance while performing the remote experiment. Therefore, the students become overwhelmed and the experiment will fail. In this paper, we are going to discuss a solution that enables students to obtain an automated help by either a human tutor or a rule-based e-tutor (embedded rule-based system for the purpose of student support in complex remote experimentative environments. The technical implementation of the system can be realized by using the powerful Microsoft .NET, which offers a complete integrated developmental environment (IDE with a wide collection of products and technologies. Once the system is developed, groups of students are independently able to coordinate and to execute the experiment at any time and from any place, organizing the work between them positively.

  11. Differential impact of relevant and irrelevant dimension primes on rule-based and information-integration category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Lisa R; Maddox, W Todd

    2013-11-01

    Research has identified multiple category-learning systems with each being "tuned" for learning categories with different task demands and each governed by different neurobiological systems. Rule-based (RB) classification involves testing verbalizable rules for category membership while information-integration (II) classification requires the implicit learning of stimulus-response mappings. In the first study to directly test rule priming with RB and II category learning, we investigated the influence of the availability of information presented at the beginning of the task. Participants viewed lines that varied in length, orientation, and position on the screen, and were primed to focus on stimulus dimensions that were relevant or irrelevant to the correct classification rule. In Experiment 1, we used an RB category structure, and in Experiment 2, we used an II category structure. Accuracy and model-based analyses suggested that a focus on relevant dimensions improves RB task performance later in learning while a focus on an irrelevant dimension improves II task performance early in learning. © 2013.

  12. LTD windows of the STDP learning rule and synaptic connections having a large transmission delay enable robust sequence learning amid background noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Hatsuo; Igarashi, Jun

    2009-06-01

    Spike-timing-dependent synaptic plasticity (STDP) is a simple and effective learning rule for sequence learning. However, synapses being subject to STDP rules are readily influenced in noisy circumstances because synaptic conductances are modified by pre- and postsynaptic spikes elicited within a few tens of milliseconds, regardless of whether those spikes convey information or not. Noisy firing existing everywhere in the brain may induce irrelevant enhancement of synaptic connections through STDP rules and would result in uncertain memory encoding and obscure memory patterns. We will here show that the LTD windows of the STDP rules enable robust sequence learning amid background noise in cooperation with a large signal transmission delay between neurons and a theta rhythm, using a network model of the entorhinal cortex layer II with entorhinal-hippocampal loop connections. The important element of the present model for robust sequence learning amid background noise is the symmetric STDP rule having LTD windows on both sides of the LTP window, in addition to the loop connections having a large signal transmission delay and the theta rhythm pacing activities of stellate cells. Above all, the LTD window in the range of positive spike-timing is important to prevent influences of noise with the progress of sequence learning.

  13. Increasing the thermal stability of cellulase C using rules learned from thermophilic proteins: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, Attila; Kamondi, Szilárd; Szilágyi, András; Magyar, Csaba; Kovári, Zoltán; Závodszky, Péter

    2002-05-02

    Some structural features underlying the increased thermostability of enzymes from thermophilic organisms relative to their homologues from mesophiles are known from earlier studies. We used cellulase C from Clostridium thermocellum to test whether thermostability can be increased by mutations designed using rules learned from thermophilic proteins. Cellulase C has a TIM barrel fold with an additional helical subdomain. We designed and produced a number of mutants with the aim to increase its thermostability. Five mutants were designed to create new electrostatic interactions. They all retained catalytic activity but exhibited decreased thermostability relative to the wild-type enzyme. Here, the stabilizing contributions are obviously smaller than the destabilization caused by the introduction of the new side chains. In another mutant, the small helical subdomain was deleted. This mutant lost activity but its melting point was only 3 degrees C lower than that of the wild-type enzyme, which suggests that the subdomain is an independent folding unit and is important for catalytic function. A double mutant was designed to introduce a new disulfide bridge into the enzyme. This mutant is active and has an increased stability (deltaT(m)=3 degrees C, delta(deltaG(u))=1.73 kcal/mol) relative to the wild-type enzyme. Reduction of the disulfide bridge results in destabilization and an altered thermal denaturation behavior. We conclude that rules learned from thermophilic proteins cannot be used in a straightforward way to increase the thermostability of a protein. Creating a crosslink such as a disulfide bond is a relatively sure-fire method but the stabilization may be smaller than calculated due to coupled destabilizing effects.

  14. Transcranial infrared laser stimulation improves rule-based, but not information-integration, category learning in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Nathaniel J; Saucedo, Celeste L; Gonzalez-Lima, F

    2017-03-01

    This is the first randomized, controlled study comparing the cognitive effects of transcranial laser stimulation on category learning tasks. Transcranial infrared laser stimulation is a new non-invasive form of brain stimulation that shows promise for wide-ranging experimental and neuropsychological applications. It involves using infrared laser to enhance cerebral oxygenation and energy metabolism through upregulation of the respiratory enzyme cytochrome oxidase, the primary infrared photon acceptor in cells. Previous research found that transcranial infrared laser stimulation aimed at the prefrontal cortex can improve sustained attention, short-term memory, and executive function. In this study, we directly investigated the influence of transcranial infrared laser stimulation on two neurobiologically dissociable systems of category learning: a prefrontal cortex mediated reflective system that learns categories using explicit rules, and a striatally mediated reflexive learning system that forms gradual stimulus-response associations. Participants (n=118) received either active infrared laser to the lateral prefrontal cortex or sham (placebo) stimulation, and then learned one of two category structures-a rule-based structure optimally learned by the reflective system, or an information-integration structure optimally learned by the reflexive system. We found that prefrontal rule-based learning was substantially improved following transcranial infrared laser stimulation as compared to placebo (treatment X block interaction: F(1, 298)=5.117, p=0.024), while information-integration learning did not show significant group differences (treatment X block interaction: F(1, 288)=1.633, p=0.202). These results highlight the exciting potential of transcranial infrared laser stimulation for cognitive enhancement and provide insight into the neurobiological underpinnings of category learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Rule-bases construction through self-learning for a table-based Sugeno-Takagi fuzzy logic control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Boldisor

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A self-learning based methodology for building the rule-base of a fuzzy logic controller (FLC is presented and verified, aiming to engage intelligent characteristics to a fuzzy logic control systems. The methodology is a simplified version of those presented in today literature. Some aspects are intentionally ignored since it rarely appears in control system engineering and a SISO process is considered here. The fuzzy inference system obtained is a table-based Sugeno-Takagi type. System’s desired performance is defined by a reference model and rules are extracted from recorded data, after the correct control actions are learned. The presented algorithm is tested in constructing the rule-base of a fuzzy controller for a DC drive application. System’s performances and method’s viability are analyzed.

  16. Rule-Governed and Contingency-Shaped Behavior of Learning-Disabled, Hyperactive, and Nonselected Elementary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Mary Ann; Freund, Lisa

    The major purpose of this study was to describe the rule-governed and contingency-shaped behavior of learning-disabled, hyperactive, and nonselected elementary school children working on a computer-managed task. Hypotheses tested were (1) that the children would differ in the degree to which either instructions or external contingencies controlled…

  17. Effects of neonatal inferior prefrontal and medial temporal lesions on learning the rule for delayed nonmatching-to-sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Málková, L; Bachevalier, J; Webster, M; Mishkin, M

    2000-01-01

    The ability of rhesus monkeys to master the rule for delayed nonmatching-to-sample (DNMS) has a protracted ontogenetic development, reaching adult levels of proficiency around 4 to 5 years of age (Bachevalier, 1990). To test the possibility that this slow development could be due, at least in part, to immaturity of the prefrontal component of a temporo-prefrontal circuit important for DNMS rule learning (Kowalska, Bachevalier, & Mishkin, 1991; Weinstein, Saunders, & Mishkin, 1988), monkeys with neonatal lesions of the inferior prefrontal convexity were compared on DNMS with both normal controls and animals given neonatal lesions of the medial temporal lobe. Consistent with our previous results (Bachevalier & Mishkin, 1994; Málková, Mishkin, & Bachevalier, 1995), the neonatal medial temporal lesions led to marked impairment in rule learning (as well as in recognition memory with long delays and list lengths) at both 3 months and 2 years of age. By contrast, the neonatal inferior convexity lesions yielded no impairment in rule-learning at 3 months and only a mild impairment at 2 years, a finding that also contrasts sharply with the marked effects of the same lesion made in adulthood. This pattern of sparing closely resembles the one found earlier after neonatal lesions to the cortical visual area TE (Bachevalier & Mishkin, 1994; Málková et al., 1995). The functional sparing at 3 months probably reflects the fact that the temporo-prefrontal circuit is nonfunctional at this early age, resulting in a total dependency on medial temporal contributions to rule learning. With further development, however, this circuit begins to provide a supplementary route for learning.

  18. Using rule-based machine learning for candidate disease gene prioritization and sample classification of cancer gene expression data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Glaab

    Full Text Available Microarray data analysis has been shown to provide an effective tool for studying cancer and genetic diseases. Although classical machine learning techniques have successfully been applied to find informative genes and to predict class labels for new samples, common restrictions of microarray analysis such as small sample sizes, a large attribute space and high noise levels still limit its scientific and clinical applications. Increasing the interpretability of prediction models while retaining a high accuracy would help to exploit the information content in microarray data more effectively. For this purpose, we evaluate our rule-based evolutionary machine learning systems, BioHEL and GAssist, on three public microarray cancer datasets, obtaining simple rule-based models for sample classification. A comparison with other benchmark microarray sample classifiers based on three diverse feature selection algorithms suggests that these evolutionary learning techniques can compete with state-of-the-art methods like support vector machines. The obtained models reach accuracies above 90% in two-level external cross-validation, with the added value of facilitating interpretation by using only combinations of simple if-then-else rules. As a further benefit, a literature mining analysis reveals that prioritizations of informative genes extracted from BioHEL's classification rule sets can outperform gene rankings obtained from a conventional ensemble feature selection in terms of the pointwise mutual information between relevant disease terms and the standardized names of top-ranked genes.

  19. Using rule-based machine learning for candidate disease gene prioritization and sample classification of cancer gene expression data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaab, Enrico; Bacardit, Jaume; Garibaldi, Jonathan M; Krasnogor, Natalio

    2012-01-01

    Microarray data analysis has been shown to provide an effective tool for studying cancer and genetic diseases. Although classical machine learning techniques have successfully been applied to find informative genes and to predict class labels for new samples, common restrictions of microarray analysis such as small sample sizes, a large attribute space and high noise levels still limit its scientific and clinical applications. Increasing the interpretability of prediction models while retaining a high accuracy would help to exploit the information content in microarray data more effectively. For this purpose, we evaluate our rule-based evolutionary machine learning systems, BioHEL and GAssist, on three public microarray cancer datasets, obtaining simple rule-based models for sample classification. A comparison with other benchmark microarray sample classifiers based on three diverse feature selection algorithms suggests that these evolutionary learning techniques can compete with state-of-the-art methods like support vector machines. The obtained models reach accuracies above 90% in two-level external cross-validation, with the added value of facilitating interpretation by using only combinations of simple if-then-else rules. As a further benefit, a literature mining analysis reveals that prioritizations of informative genes extracted from BioHEL's classification rule sets can outperform gene rankings obtained from a conventional ensemble feature selection in terms of the pointwise mutual information between relevant disease terms and the standardized names of top-ranked genes.

  20. Alteration of a motor learning rule under mirror-reversal transformation does not depend on the amplitude of visual error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuga, Shoko; Kurata, Makiko; Liu, Meigen; Ushiba, Junichi

    2015-05-01

    Human's sophisticated motor learning system paradoxically interferes with motor performance when visual information is mirror-reversed (MR), because normal movement error correction further aggravates the error. This error-increasing mechanism makes performing even a simple reaching task difficult, but is overcome by alterations in the error correction rule during the trials. To isolate factors that trigger learners to change the error correction rule, we manipulated the gain of visual angular errors when participants made arm-reaching movements with mirror-reversed visual feedback, and compared the rule alteration timing between groups with normal or reduced gain. Trial-by-trial changes in the visual angular error was tracked to explain the timing of the change in the error correction rule. Under both gain conditions, visual angular errors increased under the MR transformation, and suddenly decreased after 3-5 trials with increase. The increase became degressive at different amplitude between the two groups, nearly proportional to the visual gain. The findings suggest that the alteration of the error-correction rule is not dependent on the amplitude of visual angular errors, and possibly determined by the number of trials over which the errors increased or statistical property of the environment. The current results encourage future intensive studies focusing on the exact rule-change mechanism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Memorization of Rule Statements on Acquisition and Retention of Rule-Governed Behavior in a Computer-Based Learning Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towle, Nelson J.

    One hundred and twenty-four high school students were randomly assigned to four groups: 33 subjects memorized the rule statement before, 29 subjects memorized the rule statement during, and 30 subjects memorized the rule statement after instruction in rule application skills. Thirty-two subjects were not required to memorize rule statements.…

  2. Identifying Human Phenotype Terms by Combining Machine Learning and Validation Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Lobo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Named-Entity Recognition is commonly used to identify biological entities such as proteins, genes, and chemical compounds found in scientific articles. The Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO is an ontology that provides a standardized vocabulary for phenotypic abnormalities found in human diseases. This article presents the Identifying Human Phenotypes (IHP system, tuned to recognize HPO entities in unstructured text. IHP uses Stanford CoreNLP for text processing and applies Conditional Random Fields trained with a rich feature set, which includes linguistic, orthographic, morphologic, lexical, and context features created for the machine learning-based classifier. However, the main novelty of IHP is its validation step based on a set of carefully crafted manual rules, such as the negative connotation analysis, that combined with a dictionary can filter incorrectly identified entities, find missed entities, and combine adjacent entities. The performance of IHP was evaluated using the recently published HPO Gold Standardized Corpora (GSC, where the system Bio-LarK CR obtained the best F-measure of 0.56. IHP achieved an F-measure of 0.65 on the GSC. Due to inconsistencies found in the GSC, an extended version of the GSC was created, adding 881 entities and modifying 4 entities. IHP achieved an F-measure of 0.863 on the new GSC.

  3. Perceptron learning rule derived from spike-frequency adaptation and spike-time-dependent plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Prashanth; Liu, Shih-Chii; Hahnloser, Richard H R

    2010-03-09

    It is widely believed that sensory and motor processing in the brain is based on simple computational primitives rooted in cellular and synaptic physiology. However, many gaps remain in our understanding of the connections between neural computations and biophysical properties of neurons. Here, we show that synaptic spike-time-dependent plasticity (STDP) combined with spike-frequency adaptation (SFA) in a single neuron together approximate the well-known perceptron learning rule. Our calculations and integrate-and-fire simulations reveal that delayed inputs to a neuron endowed with STDP and SFA precisely instruct neural responses to earlier arriving inputs. We demonstrate this mechanism on a developmental example of auditory map formation guided by visual inputs, as observed in the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICX) of barn owls. The interplay of SFA and STDP in model ICX neurons precisely transfers the tuning curve from the visual modality onto the auditory modality, demonstrating a useful computation for multimodal and sensory-guided processing.

  4. Habituation: a non-associative learning rule design for spiking neurons and an autonomous mobile robots implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyr, André; Boukadoum, Mounir

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel bio-inspired habituation function for robots under control by an artificial spiking neural network. This non-associative learning rule is modelled at the synaptic level and validated through robotic behaviours in reaction to different stimuli patterns in a dynamical virtual 3D world. Habituation is minimally represented to show an attenuated response after exposure to and perception of persistent external stimuli. Based on current neurosciences research, the originality of this rule includes modulated response to variable frequencies of the captured stimuli. Filtering out repetitive data from the natural habituation mechanism has been demonstrated to be a key factor in the attention phenomenon, and inserting such a rule operating at multiple temporal dimensions of stimuli increases a robot's adaptive behaviours by ignoring broader contextual irrelevant information. (paper)

  5. Habituation: a non-associative learning rule design for spiking neurons and an autonomous mobile robots implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, André; Boukadoum, Mounir

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a novel bio-inspired habituation function for robots under control by an artificial spiking neural network. This non-associative learning rule is modelled at the synaptic level and validated through robotic behaviours in reaction to different stimuli patterns in a dynamical virtual 3D world. Habituation is minimally represented to show an attenuated response after exposure to and perception of persistent external stimuli. Based on current neurosciences research, the originality of this rule includes modulated response to variable frequencies of the captured stimuli. Filtering out repetitive data from the natural habituation mechanism has been demonstrated to be a key factor in the attention phenomenon, and inserting such a rule operating at multiple temporal dimensions of stimuli increases a robot's adaptive behaviours by ignoring broader contextual irrelevant information.

  6. Rule Extraction Based on Extreme Learning Machine and an Improved Ant-Miner Algorithm for Transient Stability Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Li, Guoqing; Wang, Zhenhao

    2015-01-01

    In order to overcome the problems of poor understandability of the pattern recognition-based transient stability assessment (PRTSA) methods, a new rule extraction method based on extreme learning machine (ELM) and an improved Ant-miner (IAM) algorithm is presented in this paper. First, the basic principles of ELM and Ant-miner algorithm are respectively introduced. Then, based on the selected optimal feature subset, an example sample set is generated by the trained ELM-based PRTSA model. And finally, a set of classification rules are obtained by IAM algorithm to replace the original ELM network. The novelty of this proposal is that transient stability rules are extracted from an example sample set generated by the trained ELM-based transient stability assessment model by using IAM algorithm. The effectiveness of the proposed method is shown by the application results on the New England 39-bus power system and a practical power system--the southern power system of Hebei province.

  7. Debate as Encapsulated Conflict: Ruled Controversy as an Approach to Learning Conflict Management Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David G.; Hensley, Carl Wayne

    Debate can provide a format for the development of communication skills to aid students in managing conflicts, because an understanding of rule-governed communication in conflict situations is invaluable in constructive conflict management. Since in debate procedural rules restrict discussion primarily to substantive and procedural topics, debate…

  8. Learning CAD at University through Summaries of the Rules of Design Intent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, Basilio Ramos; Pedrosa, Carlos Melgosa; Samperio, Raúl Zamora

    2017-01-01

    The ease with which 3D CAD models may be modified and reused are two key aspects that improve the design-intent variable and that can significantly shorten the development timelines of a product. A set of rules are gathered from various authors that take different 3D modelling strategies into account. These rules are then applied to CAD…

  9. Multimedia Football Viewing: Embedded Rules, Practice, and Video Context in IVD Procedural Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunsoon; Young, Michael F.

    This study investigated the effects of interactive video (IVD) instruction with embedded rules (production system rules) and practice with feedback on learners' academic achievement and perceived self efficacy in the domain of procedural knowledge for watching professional football. Subjects were 71 female volunteers from undergraduate education…

  10. A comparison of rule-based and machine learning approaches for classifying patient portal messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Robert M; Fabbri, Daniel; Denny, Joshua C; Rosenbloom, S Trent; Jackson, Gretchen Purcell

    2017-09-01

    Secure messaging through patient portals is an increasingly popular way that consumers interact with healthcare providers. The increasing burden of secure messaging can affect clinic staffing and workflows. Manual management of portal messages is costly and time consuming. Automated classification of portal messages could potentially expedite message triage and delivery of care. We developed automated patient portal message classifiers with rule-based and machine learning techniques using bag of words and natural language processing (NLP) approaches. To evaluate classifier performance, we used a gold standard of 3253 portal messages manually categorized using a taxonomy of communication types (i.e., main categories of informational, medical, logistical, social, and other communications, and subcategories including prescriptions, appointments, problems, tests, follow-up, contact information, and acknowledgement). We evaluated our classifiers' accuracies in identifying individual communication types within portal messages with area under the receiver-operator curve (AUC). Portal messages often contain more than one type of communication. To predict all communication types within single messages, we used the Jaccard Index. We extracted the variables of importance for the random forest classifiers. The best performing approaches to classification for the major communication types were: logistic regression for medical communications (AUC: 0.899); basic (rule-based) for informational communications (AUC: 0.842); and random forests for social communications and logistical communications (AUCs: 0.875 and 0.925, respectively). The best performing classification approach of classifiers for individual communication subtypes was random forests for Logistical-Contact Information (AUC: 0.963). The Jaccard Indices by approach were: basic classifier, Jaccard Index: 0.674; Naïve Bayes, Jaccard Index: 0.799; random forests, Jaccard Index: 0.859; and logistic regression, Jaccard

  11. Abstract rule learning in 11- and 14-month-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulaguina, Elena; Shi, Rushen

    2013-02-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that distributional information can guide infants in the generalization of word order movement rules at the initial stage of language acquisition. Participants were 11- and 14-month-old infants. Stimuli were sentences in Russian, a language that was unknown to our infants. During training the word order of each sentence was transformed following a consistent pattern (e.g., ABC-BAC). During the test phase infants heard novel sentences that respected the trained rule and ones that violated the trained rule (i.e., a different transformation such as ABC-ACB). Stimuli words had highly variable phonological and morphological shapes. The cue available was the positional information of words and their non-adjacent relations across sentences. We found that 14-month-olds, but not 11-month-olds, showed evidence of abstract rule generalization to novel instances. The implications of this finding to early syntactic acquisition are discussed.

  12. Comparing Product Category Rules from Different Programs: Learned Outcomes Towards Global Alignment (Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose Product category rules (PCRs) provide category-specific guidance for estimating and reporting product life cycle environmental impacts, typically in the form of environmental product declarations and product carbon footprints. Lack of global harmonization between PCRs or ...

  13. Comparing Product Category Rules from Different Programs: Learned Outcomes Towards Global Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose Product category rules (PCRs) provide category-specific guidance for estimating and reporting product life cycle environmental impacts, typically in the form of environmental product declarations and product carbon footprints. Lack of global harmonization between PCRs or ...

  14. Automatic Learning of Fine Operating Rules for Online Power System Security Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongbin; Zhao, Feng; Wang, Hao; Wang, Kang; Jiang, Weiyong; Guo, Qinglai; Zhang, Boming; Wehenkel, Louis

    2016-08-01

    Fine operating rules for security control and an automatic system for their online discovery were developed to adapt to the development of smart grids. The automatic system uses the real-time system state to determine critical flowgates, and then a continuation power flow-based security analysis is used to compute the initial transfer capability of critical flowgates. Next, the system applies the Monte Carlo simulations to expected short-term operating condition changes, feature selection, and a linear least squares fitting of the fine operating rules. The proposed system was validated both on an academic test system and on a provincial power system in China. The results indicated that the derived rules provide accuracy and good interpretability and are suitable for real-time power system security control. The use of high-performance computing systems enables these fine operating rules to be refreshed online every 15 min.

  15. What can we learn from sum rules for vertex functions in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craigie, N.S.; Stern, J.

    1982-04-01

    We demonstrate that the light cone sum rules for vertex functions based on the operator product expansion and QCD perturbation theory lead to interesting relationships between various non-perturbative parameters associated with hadronic bound states (e.g. vertex couplings and decay constants). We also show that such sum rules provide a valuable means of estimating the matrix elements of the higher spin operators in the meson wave function. (author)

  16. General asymmetric neutral networks and structure design by genetic algorithms: A learning rule for temporal patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bornholdt, S. [Heidelberg Univ., (Germany). Inst., fuer Theoretische Physik; Graudenz, D. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-07-01

    A learning algorithm based on genetic algorithms for asymmetric neural networks with an arbitrary structure is presented. It is suited for the learning of temporal patterns and leads to stable neural networks with feedback.

  17. General asymmetric neutral networks and structure design by genetic algorithms: A learning rule for temporal patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornholdt, S.

    1993-07-01

    A learning algorithm based on genetic algorithms for asymmetric neural networks with an arbitrary structure is presented. It is suited for the learning of temporal patterns and leads to stable neural networks with feedback

  18. Online Learning Behaviors for Radiology Interns Based on Association Rules and Clustering Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsing-Shun; Liou, Chuen-He

    2014-01-01

    In a hospital, clinical teachers must also care for patients, so there is less time for the teaching of clinical courses, or for discussing clinical cases with interns. However, electronic learning (e-learning) can complement clinical skills education for interns in a blended-learning process. Students discuss and interact with classmates in an…

  19. Changing the rules of the game - experiences with Web 2.0 learning in higher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh

    2012-01-01

    The use of Web 2.0 as tools for social learning within higher education is not as widespread as expected, nor with the expected results within non-distance teaching programmes. The question is why? Many have argued that Web 2.0 tools have potentials to support learning in various ways. It has been...... argued, but also questioned, that the current generation of students are digital natives prepared to use new media for learning. At the same time critical voices argue that learning designs with high degrees of Web2.0 characteristics challenge the prevailing norms for learning within most teaching...... systems. This study investigates reasons why Web 2.0 is difficult to adopt in teaching by looking at reflected feedback from students participating in an experiment using Web 2.0 for social learning. The challenges investigated are derived by looking into 37 undergraduate students’ reflections...

  20. Depression-biased reverse plasticity rule is required for stable learning at top-down connections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendra S Burbank

    Full Text Available Top-down synapses are ubiquitous throughout neocortex and play a central role in cognition, yet little is known about their development and specificity. During sensory experience, lower neocortical areas are activated before higher ones, causing top-down synapses to experience a preponderance of post-synaptic activity preceding pre-synaptic activity. This timing pattern is the opposite of that experienced by bottom-up synapses, which suggests that different versions of spike-timing dependent synaptic plasticity (STDP rules may be required at top-down synapses. We consider a two-layer neural network model and investigate which STDP rules can lead to a distribution of top-down synaptic weights that is stable, diverse and avoids strong loops. We introduce a temporally reversed rule (rSTDP where top-down synapses are potentiated if post-synaptic activity precedes pre-synaptic activity. Combining analytical work and integrate-and-fire simulations, we show that only depression-biased rSTDP (and not classical STDP produces stable and diverse top-down weights. The conclusions did not change upon addition of homeostatic mechanisms, multiplicative STDP rules or weak external input to the top neurons. Our prediction for rSTDP at top-down synapses, which are distally located, is supported by recent neurophysiological evidence showing the existence of temporally reversed STDP in synapses that are distal to the post-synaptic cell body.

  1. Depression-Biased Reverse Plasticity Rule Is Required for Stable Learning at Top-Down Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbank, Kendra S.; Kreiman, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    Top-down synapses are ubiquitous throughout neocortex and play a central role in cognition, yet little is known about their development and specificity. During sensory experience, lower neocortical areas are activated before higher ones, causing top-down synapses to experience a preponderance of post-synaptic activity preceding pre-synaptic activity. This timing pattern is the opposite of that experienced by bottom-up synapses, which suggests that different versions of spike-timing dependent synaptic plasticity (STDP) rules may be required at top-down synapses. We consider a two-layer neural network model and investigate which STDP rules can lead to a distribution of top-down synaptic weights that is stable, diverse and avoids strong loops. We introduce a temporally reversed rule (rSTDP) where top-down synapses are potentiated if post-synaptic activity precedes pre-synaptic activity. Combining analytical work and integrate-and-fire simulations, we show that only depression-biased rSTDP (and not classical STDP) produces stable and diverse top-down weights. The conclusions did not change upon addition of homeostatic mechanisms, multiplicative STDP rules or weak external input to the top neurons. Our prediction for rSTDP at top-down synapses, which are distally located, is supported by recent neurophysiological evidence showing the existence of temporally reversed STDP in synapses that are distal to the post-synaptic cell body. PMID:22396630

  2. It Won't Be Easy, but You Must Learn the Arcane New Rules of Arbitrage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David; Brennan, William

    1988-01-01

    With passage of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, school systems became liable to the federal government for any profits earned on tax-exempt bonds. Understanding the requirements is essential for any board facing significant capital financing. Outlines requirements, exceptions to the rule, penalties, costs, and debt planning. (MLF)

  3. Rule Extraction Based on Extreme Learning Machine and an Improved Ant-Miner Algorithm for Transient Stability Assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    Full Text Available In order to overcome the problems of poor understandability of the pattern recognition-based transient stability assessment (PRTSA methods, a new rule extraction method based on extreme learning machine (ELM and an improved Ant-miner (IAM algorithm is presented in this paper. First, the basic principles of ELM and Ant-miner algorithm are respectively introduced. Then, based on the selected optimal feature subset, an example sample set is generated by the trained ELM-based PRTSA model. And finally, a set of classification rules are obtained by IAM algorithm to replace the original ELM network. The novelty of this proposal is that transient stability rules are extracted from an example sample set generated by the trained ELM-based transient stability assessment model by using IAM algorithm. The effectiveness of the proposed method is shown by the application results on the New England 39-bus power system and a practical power system--the southern power system of Hebei province.

  4. The drift diffusion model as the choice rule in reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mads Lund; Frank, Michael J; Biele, Guido

    2017-08-01

    Current reinforcement-learning models often assume simplified decision processes that do not fully reflect the dynamic complexities of choice processes. Conversely, sequential-sampling models of decision making account for both choice accuracy and response time, but assume that decisions are based on static decision values. To combine these two computational models of decision making and learning, we implemented reinforcement-learning models in which the drift diffusion model describes the choice process, thereby capturing both within- and across-trial dynamics. To exemplify the utility of this approach, we quantitatively fit data from a common reinforcement-learning paradigm using hierarchical Bayesian parameter estimation, and compared model variants to determine whether they could capture the effects of stimulant medication in adult patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The model with the best relative fit provided a good description of the learning process, choices, and response times. A parameter recovery experiment showed that the hierarchical Bayesian modeling approach enabled accurate estimation of the model parameters. The model approach described here, using simultaneous estimation of reinforcement-learning and drift diffusion model parameters, shows promise for revealing new insights into the cognitive and neural mechanisms of learning and decision making, as well as the alteration of such processes in clinical groups.

  5. Changing the rules of the game - experiences with Web 2.0 learning in higher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh

    2012-01-01

    the communication genre, the authenticity, quality assurance and blurring of the existing border between university and private life. Social status is found to influence the interaction to a worrying degree. However, at the same time the interaction holds the potential to challenge student images if students...... argued, but also questioned, that the current generation of students are digital natives prepared to use new media for learning. At the same time critical voices argue that learning designs with high degrees of Web2.0 characteristics challenge the prevailing norms for learning within most teaching...... systems. This study investigates reasons why Web 2.0 is difficult to adopt in teaching by looking at reflected feedback from students participating in an experiment using Web 2.0 for social learning. The challenges investigated are derived by looking into 37 undergraduate students’ reflections...

  6. Visual working memory gives up attentional control early in learning: ruling out interhemispheric cancellation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Robert M G; Carlisle, Nancy B; Woodman, Geoffrey F

    2014-08-01

    Current research suggests that we can watch visual working memory surrender the control of attention early in the process of learning to search for a specific object. This inference is based on the observation that the contralateral delay activity (CDA) rapidly decreases in amplitude across trials when subjects search for the same target object. Here, we tested the alternative explanation that the role of visual working memory does not actually decline across learning, but instead lateralized representations accumulate in both hemispheres across trials and wash out the lateralized CDA. We show that the decline in CDA amplitude occurred even when the target objects were consistently lateralized to a single visual hemifield. Our findings demonstrate that reductions in the amplitude of the CDA during learning are not simply due to the dilution of the CDA from interhemispheric cancellation. Copyright © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  7. Supervised spike-timing-dependent plasticity: a spatiotemporal neuronal learning rule for function approximation and decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franosch, Jan-Moritz P; Urban, Sebastian; van Hemmen, J Leo

    2013-12-01

    How can an animal learn from experience? How can it train sensors, such as the auditory or tactile system, based on other sensory input such as the visual system? Supervised spike-timing-dependent plasticity (supervised STDP) is a possible answer. Supervised STDP trains one modality using input from another one as "supervisor." Quite complex time-dependent relationships between the senses can be learned. Here we prove that under very general conditions, supervised STDP converges to a stable configuration of synaptic weights leading to a reconstruction of primary sensory input.

  8. Comparing manually-developed and data-driven rules for P2P learning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Loots, L

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Phoneme-to-phoneme (P2P) learning provides a mechanism for predicting the pronunciation of a word based on its pronunciation in a different accent, dialect or language. The authors evaluate the effectiveness of manually-developed as well...

  9. Two fast and accurate heuristic RBF learning rules for data classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhani, Modjtaba; Javan, Dawood S

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents new Radial Basis Function (RBF) learning methods for classification problems. The proposed methods use some heuristics to determine the spreads, the centers and the number of hidden neurons of network in such a way that the higher efficiency is achieved by fewer numbers of neurons, while the learning algorithm remains fast and simple. To retain network size limited, neurons are added to network recursively until termination condition is met. Each neuron covers some of train data. The termination condition is to cover all training data or to reach the maximum number of neurons. In each step, the center and spread of the new neuron are selected based on maximization of its coverage. Maximization of coverage of the neurons leads to a network with fewer neurons and indeed lower VC dimension and better generalization property. Using power exponential distribution function as the activation function of hidden neurons, and in the light of new learning approaches, it is proved that all data became linearly separable in the space of hidden layer outputs which implies that there exist linear output layer weights with zero training error. The proposed methods are applied to some well-known datasets and the simulation results, compared with SVM and some other leading RBF learning methods, show their satisfactory and comparable performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A Hebbian learning rule gives rise to mirror neurons and links them to control theoretic inverse models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eHanuschkin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mirror neurons are neurons whose responses to the observation of a motor act resemble responses measured during production of that act. Computationally, mirror neurons have been viewed as evidence for the existence of internal inverse models. Such models, rooted within control theory, map desired sensory targets onto the motor commands required to generate those targets. To jointly explore both the formation of mirrored responses and their functional contribution to inverse models, we develop a correlation-based theory of interactions between a sensory and a motor area. We show that a simple eligibility-weighted Hebbian learning rule, operating within a sensorimotor loop during motor explorations and stabilized by heterosynaptic competition, naturally gives rise to mirror neurons as well as control theoretic inverse models encoded in the synaptic weights from sensory to motor neurons. Crucially, we find that the correlational structure or stereotypy of the neural code underlying motor explorations determines the nature of the learned inverse model: Random motor codes lead to causal inverses that map sensory activity patterns to their motor causes; such inverses are maximally useful, they allow for imitating arbitrary sensory target sequences. By contrast, stereotyped motor codes lead to less useful predictive inverses that map sensory activity to future motor actions.Our theory generalizes previous work on inverse models by showing that such models can be learned in a simple Hebbian framework without the need for error signals or backpropagation, and it makes new conceptual connections between the causal nature of inverse models, the statistical structure of motor variability, and the time-lag between sensory and motor responses of mirror neurons. Applied to bird song learning, our theory can account for puzzling aspects of the song system, including necessity of sensorimotor gating and selectivity of auditory responses to bird’s own song

  11. A Hebbian learning rule gives rise to mirror neurons and links them to control theoretic inverse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanuschkin, A; Ganguli, S; Hahnloser, R H R

    2013-01-01

    Mirror neurons are neurons whose responses to the observation of a motor act resemble responses measured during production of that act. Computationally, mirror neurons have been viewed as evidence for the existence of internal inverse models. Such models, rooted within control theory, map-desired sensory targets onto the motor commands required to generate those targets. To jointly explore both the formation of mirrored responses and their functional contribution to inverse models, we develop a correlation-based theory of interactions between a sensory and a motor area. We show that a simple eligibility-weighted Hebbian learning rule, operating within a sensorimotor loop during motor explorations and stabilized by heterosynaptic competition, naturally gives rise to mirror neurons as well as control theoretic inverse models encoded in the synaptic weights from sensory to motor neurons. Crucially, we find that the correlational structure or stereotypy of the neural code underlying motor explorations determines the nature of the learned inverse model: random motor codes lead to causal inverses that map sensory activity patterns to their motor causes; such inverses are maximally useful, by allowing the imitation of arbitrary sensory target sequences. By contrast, stereotyped motor codes lead to less useful predictive inverses that map sensory activity to future motor actions. Our theory generalizes previous work on inverse models by showing that such models can be learned in a simple Hebbian framework without the need for error signals or backpropagation, and it makes new conceptual connections between the causal nature of inverse models, the statistical structure of motor variability, and the time-lag between sensory and motor responses of mirror neurons. Applied to bird song learning, our theory can account for puzzling aspects of the song system, including necessity of sensorimotor gating and selectivity of auditory responses to bird's own song (BOS) stimuli.

  12. Machine learning-, rule- and pharmacophore-based classification on the inhibition of P-glycoprotein and NorA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, T-D; Tran, T-D; Le, M-T; Thai, K-M

    2016-09-01

    The efflux pumps P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in humans and NorA in Staphylococcus aureus are of great interest for medicinal chemists because of their important roles in multidrug resistance (MDR). The high polyspecificity as well as the unavailability of high-resolution X-ray crystal structures of these transmembrane proteins lead us to combining ligand-based approaches, which in the case of this study were machine learning, perceptual mapping and pharmacophore modelling. For P-gp inhibitory activity, individual models were developed using different machine learning algorithms and subsequently combined into an ensemble model which showed a good discrimination between inhibitors and noninhibitors (acctrain-diverse = 84%; accinternal-test = 92% and accexternal-test = 100%). For ligand promiscuity between P-gp and NorA, perceptual maps and pharmacophore models were generated for the detection of rules and features. Based on these in silico tools, hit compounds for reversing MDR were discovered from the in-house and DrugBank databases through virtual screening in an attempt to restore drug sensitivity in cancer cells and bacteria.

  13. Anisotropic interaction rules in circular motions of pigeon flocks: An empirical study based on sparse Bayesian learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Duxin; Xu, Bowen; Zhu, Tao; Zhou, Tao; Zhang, Hai-Tao

    2017-08-01

    Coordination shall be deemed to the result of interindividual interaction among natural gregarious animal groups. However, revealing the underlying interaction rules and decision-making strategies governing highly coordinated motion in bird flocks is still a long-standing challenge. Based on analysis of high spatial-temporal resolution GPS data of three pigeon flocks, we extract the hidden interaction principle by using a newly emerging machine learning method, namely the sparse Bayesian learning. It is observed that the interaction probability has an inflection point at pairwise distance of 3-4 m closer than the average maximum interindividual distance, after which it decays strictly with rising pairwise metric distances. Significantly, the density of spatial neighbor distribution is strongly anisotropic, with an evident lack of interactions along individual velocity. Thus, it is found that in small-sized bird flocks, individuals reciprocally cooperate with a variational number of neighbors in metric space and tend to interact with closer time-varying neighbors, rather than interacting with a fixed number of topological ones. Finally, extensive numerical investigation is conducted to verify both the revealed interaction and decision-making principle during circular flights of pigeon flocks.

  14. TARGETED SEQUENTIAL DESIGN FOR TARGETED LEARNING INFERENCE OF THE OPTIMAL TREATMENT RULE AND ITS MEAN REWARD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambaz, Antoine; Zheng, Wenjing; van der Laan, Mark J

    2017-01-01

    This article studies the targeted sequential inference of an optimal treatment rule (TR) and its mean reward in the non-exceptional case, i.e. , assuming that there is no stratum of the baseline covariates where treatment is neither beneficial nor harmful, and under a companion margin assumption. Our pivotal estimator, whose definition hinges on the targeted minimum loss estimation (TMLE) principle, actually infers the mean reward under the current estimate of the optimal TR. This data-adaptive statistical parameter is worthy of interest on its own. Our main result is a central limit theorem which enables the construction of confidence intervals on both mean rewards under the current estimate of the optimal TR and under the optimal TR itself. The asymptotic variance of the estimator takes the form of the variance of an efficient influence curve at a limiting distribution, allowing to discuss the efficiency of inference. As a by product, we also derive confidence intervals on two cumulated pseudo-regrets, a key notion in the study of bandits problems. A simulation study illustrates the procedure. One of the corner-stones of the theoretical study is a new maximal inequality for martingales with respect to the uniform entropy integral.

  15. Rule-based learning of regular past tense in children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Lock, Karen M

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of children with specific language impairment was used as a means to investigate whether a single- or dual-mechanism theory best conceptualizes the acquisition of English past tense. The dual-mechanism theory proposes that regular English past-tense forms are produced via a rule-based process whereas past-tense forms of irregular verbs are stored in the lexicon. Single-mechanism theories propose that both regular and irregular past-tense verbs are stored in the lexicon. Five 5-year-olds with specific language impairment received treatment for regular past tense. The children were tested on regular past-tense production and third-person singular "s" twice before treatment and once after treatment, at eight-week intervals. Treatment consisted of one-hour play-based sessions, once weekly, for eight weeks. Crucially, treatment focused on different lexical items from those in the test. Each child demonstrated significant improvement on the untreated past-tense test items after treatment, but no improvement on the untreated third-person singular "s". Generalization to untreated past-tense verbs could not be attributed to a frequency effect or to phonological similarity of trained and tested items. It is argued that the results are consistent with a dual-mechanism theory of past-tense inflection.

  16. Information Pre-Processing using Domain Meta-Ontology and Rule Learning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Girish R.; Biletskiy, Yevgen

    Around the globe, extraordinary amounts of documents are being created by Enterprises and by users outside these Enterprises. The documents created in the Enterprises constitute the main focus of the present chapter. These documents are used to perform numerous amounts of machine processing. While using thesedocuments for machine processing, lack of semantics of the information in these documents may cause misinterpretation of the information, thereby inhibiting the productiveness of computer assisted analytical work. Hence, it would be profitable to the Enterprises if they use well defined domain ontologies which will serve as rich source(s) of semantics for the information in the documents. These domain ontologies can be created manually, semi-automatically or fully automatically. The focus of this chapter is to propose an intermediate solution which will enable relatively easy creation of these domain ontologies. The process of extracting and capturing domain ontologies from these voluminous documents requires extensive involvement of domain experts and application of methods of ontology learning that are substantially labor intensive; therefore, some intermediate solutions which would assist in capturing domain ontologies must be developed. This chapter proposes a solution in this direction which involves building a meta-ontology that will serve as an intermediate information source for the main domain ontology. This chapter proposes a solution in this direction which involves building a meta-ontology as a rapid approach in conceptualizing a domain of interest from huge amount of source documents. This meta-ontology can be populated by ontological concepts, attributes and relations from documents, and then refined in order to form better domain ontology either through automatic ontology learning methods or some other relevant ontology building approach.

  17. Optical beam classification using deep learning: a comparison with rule- and feature-based classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alom, Md. Zahangir; Awwal, Abdul A. S.; Lowe-Webb, Roger; Taha, Tarek M.

    2017-08-01

    Deep-learning methods are gaining popularity because of their state-of-the-art performance in image classification tasks. In this paper, we explore classification of laser-beam images from the National Ignition Facility (NIF) using a novel deeplearning approach. NIF is the world's largest, most energetic laser. It has nearly 40,000 optics that precisely guide, reflect, amplify, and focus 192 laser beams onto a fusion target. NIF utilizes four petawatt lasers called the Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC) to produce backlighting X-ray illumination to capture implosion dynamics of NIF experiments with picosecond temporal resolution. In the current operational configuration, four independent short-pulse ARC beams are created and combined in a split-beam configuration in each of two NIF apertures at the entry of the pre-amplifier. The subaperture beams then propagate through the NIF beampath up to the ARC compressor. Each ARC beamlet is separately compressed with a dedicated set of four gratings and recombined as sub-apertures for transport to the parabola vessel, where the beams are focused using parabolic mirrors and pointed to the target. Small angular errors in the compressor gratings can cause the sub-aperture beams to diverge from one another and prevent accurate alignment through the transport section between the compressor and parabolic mirrors. This is an off-normal condition that must be detected and corrected. The goal of the off-normal check is to determine whether the ARC beamlets are sufficiently overlapped into a merged single spot or diverged into two distinct spots. Thus, the objective of the current work is three-fold: developing a simple algorithm to perform off-normal classification, exploring the use of Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) for the same task, and understanding the inter-relationship of the two approaches. The CNN recognition results are compared with other machine-learning approaches, such as Deep Neural Network (DNN) and Support

  18. Dynamic Brains and the Changing Rules of Neuroplasticity: Implications for Learning and Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Voss

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of research publications have illustrated the remarkable ability of the brain to reorganize itself in response to various sensory experiences. A traditional view of this plastic nature of the brain is that it is predominantly limited to short epochs during early development. Although examples showing that neuroplasticity exists outside of these finite time-windows have existed for some time, it is only recently that we have started to develop a fuller understanding of the different regulators that modulate and underlie plasticity. In this article, we will provide several lines of evidence indicating that mechanisms of neuroplasticity are extremely variable across individuals and throughout the lifetime. This variability is attributable to several factors including inhibitory network function, neuromodulator systems, age, sex, brain disease, and psychological traits. We will also provide evidence of how neuroplasticity can be manipulated in both the healthy and diseased brain, including recent data in both young and aged rats demonstrating how plasticity within auditory cortex can be manipulated pharmacologically and by varying the quality of sensory inputs. We propose that a better understanding of the individual differences that exist within the various mechanisms that govern experience-dependent neuroplasticity will improve our ability to harness brain plasticity for the development of personalized translational strategies for learning and recovery following brain injury or disease.

  19. A mathematical analysis of the effects of Hebbian learning rules on the dynamics and structure of discrete-time random recurrent neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siri, Benoît; Berry, Hugues; Cessac, Bruno; Delord, Bruno; Quoy, Mathias

    2008-12-01

    We present a mathematical analysis of the effects of Hebbian learning in random recurrent neural networks, with a generic Hebbian learning rule, including passive forgetting and different timescales, for neuronal activity and learning dynamics. Previous numerical work has reported that Hebbian learning drives the system from chaos to a steady state through a sequence of bifurcations. Here, we interpret these results mathematically and show that these effects, involving a complex coupling between neuronal dynamics and synaptic graph structure, can be analyzed using Jacobian matrices, which introduce both a structural and a dynamical point of view on neural network evolution. Furthermore, we show that sensitivity to a learned pattern is maximal when the largest Lyapunov exponent is close to 0. We discuss how neural networks may take advantage of this regime of high functional interest.

  20. Literature mining of protein-residue associations with graph rules learned through distant supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikumar KE

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We propose a method for automatic extraction of protein-specific residue mentions from the biomedical literature. The method searches text for mentions of amino acids at specific sequence positions and attempts to correctly associate each mention with a protein also named in the text. The methods presented in this work will enable improved protein functional site extraction from articles, ultimately supporting protein function prediction. Our method made use of linguistic patterns for identifying the amino acid residue mentions in text. Further, we applied an automated graph-based method to learn syntactic patterns corresponding to protein-residue pairs mentioned in the text. We finally present an approach to automated construction of relevant training and test data using the distant supervision model. Results The performance of the method was assessed by extracting protein-residue relations from a new automatically generated test set of sentences containing high confidence examples found using distant supervision. It achieved a F-measure of 0.84 on automatically created silver corpus and 0.79 on a manually annotated gold data set for this task, outperforming previous methods. Conclusions The primary contributions of this work are to (1 demonstrate the effectiveness of distant supervision for automatic creation of training data for protein-residue relation extraction, substantially reducing the effort and time involved in manual annotation of a data set and (2 show that the graph-based relation extraction approach we used generalizes well to the problem of protein-residue association extraction. This work paves the way towards effective extraction of protein functional residues from the literature.

  1. Literature mining of protein-residue associations with graph rules learned through distant supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, Ke; Liu, Haibin; Cohn, Judith D; Wall, Michael E; Verspoor, Karin

    2012-10-05

    We propose a method for automatic extraction of protein-specific residue mentions from the biomedical literature. The method searches text for mentions of amino acids at specific sequence positions and attempts to correctly associate each mention with a protein also named in the text. The methods presented in this work will enable improved protein functional site extraction from articles, ultimately supporting protein function prediction. Our method made use of linguistic patterns for identifying the amino acid residue mentions in text. Further, we applied an automated graph-based method to learn syntactic patterns corresponding to protein-residue pairs mentioned in the text. We finally present an approach to automated construction of relevant training and test data using the distant supervision model. The performance of the method was assessed by extracting protein-residue relations from a new automatically generated test set of sentences containing high confidence examples found using distant supervision. It achieved a F-measure of 0.84 on automatically created silver corpus and 0.79 on a manually annotated gold data set for this task, outperforming previous methods. The primary contributions of this work are to (1) demonstrate the effectiveness of distant supervision for automatic creation of training data for protein-residue relation extraction, substantially reducing the effort and time involved in manual annotation of a data set and (2) show that the graph-based relation extraction approach we used generalizes well to the problem of protein-residue association extraction. This work paves the way towards effective extraction of protein functional residues from the literature.

  2. Evaluation of Machine Learning and Rules-Based Approaches for Predicting Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles in Gram-negative Bacilli from Whole Genome Sequence Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesesky, Mitchell W; Hussain, Tahir; Wallace, Meghan; Patel, Sanket; Andleeb, Saadia; Burnham, Carey-Ann D; Dantas, Gautam

    2016-01-01

    The time-to-result for culture-based microorganism recovery and phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility testing necessitates initial use of empiric (frequently broad-spectrum) antimicrobial therapy. If the empiric therapy is not optimal, this can lead to adverse patient outcomes and contribute to increasing antibiotic resistance in pathogens. New, more rapid technologies are emerging to meet this need. Many of these are based on identifying resistance genes, rather than directly assaying resistance phenotypes, and thus require interpretation to translate the genotype into treatment recommendations. These interpretations, like other parts of clinical diagnostic workflows, are likely to be increasingly automated in the future. We set out to evaluate the two major approaches that could be amenable to automation pipelines: rules-based methods and machine learning methods. The rules-based algorithm makes predictions based upon current, curated knowledge of Enterobacteriaceae resistance genes. The machine-learning algorithm predicts resistance and susceptibility based on a model built from a training set of variably resistant isolates. As our test set, we used whole genome sequence data from 78 clinical Enterobacteriaceae isolates, previously identified to represent a variety of phenotypes, from fully-susceptible to pan-resistant strains for the antibiotics tested. We tested three antibiotic resistance determinant databases for their utility in identifying the complete resistome for each isolate. The predictions of the rules-based and machine learning algorithms for these isolates were compared to results of phenotype-based diagnostics. The rules based and machine-learning predictions achieved agreement with standard-of-care phenotypic diagnostics of 89.0 and 90.3%, respectively, across twelve antibiotic agents from six major antibiotic classes. Several sources of disagreement between the algorithms were identified. Novel variants of known resistance factors and

  3. Evaluation of Machine Learning and Rules-Based Approaches for Predicting Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles in Gram-negative Bacilli from Whole Genome Sequence Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Pesesky

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The time-to-result for culture-based microorganism recovery and phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility testing necessitate initial use of empiric (frequently broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapy. If the empiric therapy is not optimal, this can lead to adverse patient outcomes and contribute to increasing antibiotic resistance in pathogens. New, more rapid technologies are emerging to meet this need. Many of these are based on identifying resistance genes, rather than directly assaying resistance phenotypes, and thus require interpretation to translate the genotype into treatment recommendations. These interpretations, like other parts of clinical diagnostic workflows, are likely to be increasingly automated in the future. We set out to evaluate the two major approaches that could be amenable to automation pipelines: rules-based methods and machine learning methods. The rules-based algorithm makes predictions based upon current, curated knowledge of Enterobacteriaceae resistance genes. The machine-learning algorithm predicts resistance and susceptibility based on a model built from a training set of variably resistant isolates. As our test set, we used whole genome sequence data from 78 clinical Enterobacteriaceae isolates, previously identified to represent a variety of phenotypes, from fully-susceptible to pan-resistant strains for the antibiotics tested. We tested three antibiotic resistance determinant databases for their utility in identifying the complete resistome for each isolate. The predictions of the rules-based and machine learning algorithms for these isolates were compared to results of phenotype-based diagnostics. The rules based and machine-learning predictions achieved agreement with standard-of-care phenotypic diagnostics of 89.0% and 90.3%, respectively, across twelve antibiotic agents from six major antibiotic classes. Several sources of disagreement between the algorithms were identified. Novel variants of known resistance

  4. Collaboration rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Philip; Wolf, Bob

    2005-01-01

    Corporate leaders seeking to boost growth, learning, and innovation may find the answer in a surprising place: the Linux open-source software community. Linux is developed by an essentially volunteer, self-organizing community of thousands of programmers. Most leaders would sell their grandmothers for workforces that collaborate as efficiently, frictionlessly, and creatively as the self-styled Linux hackers. But Linux is software, and software is hardly a model for mainstream business. The authors have, nonetheless, found surprising parallels between the anarchistic, caffeinated, hirsute world of Linux hackers and the disciplined, tea-sipping, clean-cut world of Toyota engineering. Specifically, Toyota and Linux operate by rules that blend the self-organizing advantages of markets with the low transaction costs of hierarchies. In place of markets' cash and contracts and hierarchies' authority are rules about how individuals and groups work together (with rigorous discipline); how they communicate (widely and with granularity); and how leaders guide them toward a common goal (through example). Those rules, augmented by simple communication technologies and a lack of legal barriers to sharing information, create rich common knowledge, the ability to organize teams modularly, extraordinary motivation, and high levels of trust, which radically lowers transaction costs. Low transaction costs, in turn, make it profitable for organizations to perform more and smaller transactions--and so increase the pace and flexibility typical of high-performance organizations. Once the system achieves critical mass, it feeds on itself. The larger the system, the more broadly shared the knowledge, language, and work style. The greater individuals' reputational capital, the louder the applause and the stronger the motivation. The success of Linux is evidence of the power of that virtuous circle. Toyota's success is evidence that it is also powerful in conventional companies.

  5. Facilitated stimulus-response associative learning and long-term memory in mice lacking the NTAN1 amidase of the N-end rule pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, S A; McDowell, C S; Tae Kwon, Y; Denenberg, V H

    2001-02-23

    The N-end rule relates the in vivo half-life of a protein to the identity of its N-terminal residue. Inactivation of the NTAN1 gene encoding the asparagine-specific N-terminal amidase in mice results in impaired spatial memory [26]. The studies described here were designed to further characterize the effects upon learning and memory of inactivating the NTAN1 gene. NTAN1-deficient mice were found to be better than wild-type mice on black-white and horizontal-vertical discrimination learning. They were also better at 8-week Morris maze retention testing when a reversal trial was not included in the testing procedures. In all three tasks NTAN1-deficient mice appeared to use a strong win-stay strategy. It is concluded that inactivating the asparagine-specific branch of the N-end rule pathway in mice results in impaired spatial learning with concomitant compensatory restructuring of the nervous system in favor of non-spatial (stimulus-response) learning.

  6. Predictions of the spontaneous symmetry-breaking theory for visual code completeness and spatial scaling in single-cell learning rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, C J

    2001-05-01

    This article shows analytically that single-cell learning rules that give rise to oriented and localized receptive fields, when their synaptic weights are randomly and independently initialized according to a plausible assumption of zero prior information, will generate visual codes that are invariant under two-dimensional translations, rotations, and scale magnifications, provided that the statistics of their training images are sufficiently invariant under these transformations. Such codes span different image locations, orientations, and size scales with equal economy. Thus, single-cell rules could account for the spatial scaling property of the cortical simple-cell code. This prediction is tested computationally by training with natural scenes; it is demonstrated that a single-cell learning rule can give rise to simple-cell receptive fields spanning the full range of orientations, image locations, and spatial frequencies (except at the extreme high and low frequencies at which the scale invariance of the statistics of digitally sampled images must ultimately break down, because of the image boundary and the finite pixel resolution). Thus, no constraint on completeness, or any other coupling between cells, is necessary to induce the visual code to span wide ranges of locations, orientations, and size scales. This prediction is made using the theory of spontaneous symmetry breaking, which we have previously shown can also explain the data-driven self-organization of a wide variety of transformation invariances in neurons' responses, such as the translation invariance of complex cell response.

  7. Comparison of Natural Language Processing Rules-based and Machine-learning Systems to Identify Lumbar Spine Imaging Findings Related to Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, W Katherine; Hassanpour, Saeed; Heagerty, Patrick J; Rundell, Sean D; Suri, Pradeep; Huhdanpaa, Hannu T; James, Kathryn; Carrell, David S; Langlotz, Curtis P; Organ, Nancy L; Meier, Eric N; Sherman, Karen J; Kallmes, David F; Luetmer, Patrick H; Griffith, Brent; Nerenz, David R; Jarvik, Jeffrey G

    2018-03-28

    To evaluate a natural language processing (NLP) system built with open-source tools for identification of lumbar spine imaging findings related to low back pain on magnetic resonance and x-ray radiology reports from four health systems. We used a limited data set (de-identified except for dates) sampled from lumbar spine imaging reports of a prospectively assembled cohort of adults. From N = 178,333 reports, we randomly selected N = 871 to form a reference-standard dataset, consisting of N = 413 x-ray reports and N = 458 MR reports. Using standardized criteria, four spine experts annotated the presence of 26 findings, where 71 reports were annotated by all four experts and 800 were each annotated by two experts. We calculated inter-rater agreement and finding prevalence from annotated data. We randomly split the annotated data into development (80%) and testing (20%) sets. We developed an NLP system from both rule-based and machine-learned models. We validated the system using accuracy metrics such as sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). The multirater annotated dataset achieved inter-rater agreement of Cohen's kappa > 0.60 (substantial agreement) for 25 of 26 findings, with finding prevalence ranging from 3% to 89%. In the testing sample, rule-based and machine-learned predictions both had comparable average specificity (0.97 and 0.95, respectively). The machine-learned approach had a higher average sensitivity (0.94, compared to 0.83 for rules-based), and a higher overall AUC (0.98, compared to 0.90 for rules-based). Our NLP system performed well in identifying the 26 lumbar spine findings, as benchmarked by reference-standard annotation by medical experts. Machine-learned models provided substantial gains in model sensitivity with slight loss of specificity, and overall higher AUC. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. All rights reserved.

  8. The Influence of Rule Structure and Problem Composition on Conceptual Learning Among Rural Hawaiian Children. Technical Report #75.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciborowski, Tom; Price-Williams, D.

    The conceptual and problem solving skills of Hawaiian rural elementary school students in the Kamehameha Early Education Program were investigated by comparing the logical connecting rules of conjunction (red and triangle) to inclusive disjunction (red and/or triangle) with respect to Traditional problems (selection of attributes from 2 different…

  9. Playing by the Rules: Researching, Teaching and Learning Sexual Ethics with Young Men in the Australian National Rugby League

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albury, Kath; Carmody, Moira; Evers, Clifton; Lumby, Catharine

    2011-01-01

    In 2004, the Australian National Rugby League (NRL) commissioned the Playing By The Rules research project in response to allegations of sexual assault by members of a professional rugby league team. This article offers an overview of the theoretical and methodological approaches adopted by the team, and the subsequent workplace education…

  10. Transition form factors of π0,η and η′ mesons: What can be learned from anomaly sum rule?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klopot, Yaroslav; Oganesian, Armen; Teryaev, Oleg

    2013-01-01

    We studied the applications of the anomaly sum rule (ASR) to the transition form factors of light pseudoscalar mesons: π 0 ,η and η ′ . This nonperturbative QCD approach can be used even if the QCD factorization is broken. The status of possible small non-OPE corrections to continuum in comparison to BaBar and Belle data is explored. The accuracy of the applied method and the role of the quark mass contributions are discussed

  11. Dynamic, Dogmatic, & Divergent: How United States Marine Corps Officers Learn the Innovative Art of Constructive Rule-Breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-16

    organizations nurture innovative creativity and integrity of purpose when rules governing consequential decision-making remain somewhat “ elastic .”24...competencies demanded by the Warfighting doctrine. The two key components of this training & education reset involved expanding professional military...at the bridge and is preparing a textbook defense, she makes the divergent decision to disobey her order to secure the bridge, and instead locates a

  12. Rules of (Student) Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskist, William; Busler, Jessica N.; Kirby, Lauren A. J.

    2018-01-01

    Teachers often think of student engagement in terms of hands-on activities that get students involved in their courses. They seldom consider the larger aspects of the teaching--learning environment that often influence the extent to which students are willing to become engaged in their coursework. In this chapter, we describe five "rules of…

  13. Uncovering Hospitalists' Information Needs from Outside Healthcare Facilities in the Context of Health Information Exchange Using Association Rule Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, D A; Mora, E; Gemmani, M; Zayas-Castro, J

    2015-01-01

    Important barriers to health information exchange (HIE) adoption are clinical workflow disruptions and troubles with the system interface. Prior research suggests that HIE interfaces providing faster access to useful information may stimulate use and reduce barriers for adoption; however, little is known about informational needs of hospitalists. To study the association between patient health problems and the type of information requested from outside healthcare providers by hospitalists of a tertiary care hospital. We searched operational data associated with fax-based exchange of patient information (previous HIE implementation) between hospitalists of an internal medicine department in a large urban tertiary care hospital in Florida, and any other affiliated and unaffiliated healthcare provider. All hospitalizations from October 2011 to March 2014 were included in the search. Strong association rules between health problems and types of information requested during each hospitalization were discovered using Apriori algorithm, which were then validated by a team of hospitalists of the same department. Only 13.7% (2 089 out of 15 230) of the hospitalizations generated at least one request of patient information to other providers. The transactional data showed 20 strong association rules between specific health problems and types of information exist. Among the 20 rules, for example, abdominal pain, chest pain, and anaemia patients are highly likely to have medical records and outside imaging results requested. Other health conditions, prone to have records requested, were lower urinary tract infection and back pain patients. The presented list of strong co-occurrence of health problems and types of information requested by hospitalists from outside healthcare providers not only informs the implementation and design of HIE, but also helps to target future research on the impact of having access to outside information for specific patient cohorts. Our data

  14. Negotiating the Rules of Engagement: Exploring Perceptions of Dance Technique Learning through Bourdieu's Concept of "Doxa"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmer, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the findings from a focus group discussion conducted with first year undergraduate dance students in March 2015. The focus group concluded a cycle of action research during which the researcher explored the use of enquiry-based learning approaches to teaching dance technique in higher education. Grounded in transformative and…

  15. TEMPTING system: a hybrid method of rule and machine learning for temporal relation extraction in patient discharge summaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yung-Chun; Dai, Hong-Jie; Wu, Johnny Chi-Yang; Chen, Jian-Ming; Tsai, Richard Tzong-Han; Hsu, Wen-Lian

    2013-12-01

    Patient discharge summaries provide detailed medical information about individuals who have been hospitalized. To make a precise and legitimate assessment of the abundant data, a proper time layout of the sequence of relevant events should be compiled and used to drive a patient-specific timeline, which could further assist medical personnel in making clinical decisions. The process of identifying the chronological order of entities is called temporal relation extraction. In this paper, we propose a hybrid method to identify appropriate temporal links between a pair of entities. The method combines two approaches: one is rule-based and the other is based on the maximum entropy model. We develop an integration algorithm to fuse the results of the two approaches. All rules and the integration algorithm are formally stated so that one can easily reproduce the system and results. To optimize the system's configuration, we used the 2012 i2b2 challenge TLINK track dataset and applied threefold cross validation to the training set. Then, we evaluated its performance on the training and test datasets. The experiment results show that the proposed TEMPTING (TEMPoral relaTion extractING) system (ranked seventh) achieved an F-score of 0.563, which was at least 30% better than that of the baseline system, which randomly selects TLINK candidates from all pairs and assigns the TLINK types. The TEMPTING system using the hybrid method also outperformed the stage-based TEMPTING system. Its F-scores were 3.51% and 0.97% better than those of the stage-based system on the training set and test set, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Association rules for rat spatial learning: the importance of the hippocampus for binding item identity with item location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albasser, Mathieu M; Dumont, Julie R; Amin, Eman; Holmes, Joshua D; Horne, Murray R; Pearce, John M; Aggleton, John P

    2013-12-01

    Three cohorts of rats with extensive hippocampal lesions received multiple tests to examine the relationships between particular forms of associative learning and an influential account of hippocampal function (the cognitive map hypothesis). Hippocampal lesions spared both the ability to discriminate two different digging media and to discriminate two different room locations in a go/no-go task when each location was approached from a single direction. Hippocampal lesions had, however, differential effects on a more complex task (biconditional discrimination) where the correct response was signaled by the presence or absence of specific cues. For all biconditional tasks, digging in one medium (A) was rewarded in the presence of cue C, while digging in medium B was rewarded in the presences of cue D. Such biconditional tasks are "configural" as no individual cue or element predicts the solution (AC+, AD-, BD+, and BC-). When proximal context cues signaled the correct digging choice, biconditional learning was seemingly unaffected by hippocampal lesions. Severe deficits occurred, however, when the correct digging choice was signaled by distal room cues. Also, impaired was the ability to discriminate two locations when each location was approached from two directions. A task demand that predicted those tasks impaired by hippocampal damage was the need to combine specific cues with their relative spatial positions ("structural learning"). This ability makes it possible to distinguish the same cues set in different spatial arrays. Thus, the hippocampus appears necessary for configural discriminations involving structure, discriminations that potentially underlie the creation of cognitive maps. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Hippocampus Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Learning to Learn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Helen; Weiss, Martin

    1988-01-01

    The article reviews theories of learning (e.g., stimulus-response, trial and error, operant conditioning, cognitive), considers the role of motivation, and summarizes nine research-supported rules of effective learning. Suggestions are applied to teaching learning strategies to learning-disabled students. (DB)

  18. The Rule-Assessment Approach and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the rule-assessment approach to cognitive development. The basic question that motivated the rule-assessment approach is how people's existing knowledge influences their ability to learn. Research using the rule-assessment approach is summarized in terms of eight conclusions, each illustrated with empirical examples.…

  19. Binary translation using peephole translation rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sorav; Aiken, Alex

    2010-05-04

    An efficient binary translator uses peephole translation rules to directly translate executable code from one instruction set to another. In a preferred embodiment, the translation rules are generated using superoptimization techniques that enable the translator to automatically learn translation rules for translating code from the source to target instruction set architecture.

  20. Quality control of the soil moisture probe response patterns from a green infrastructure site using Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) and association rule learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Z.; Bedig, A.; Quigley, M.; Montalto, F. A.

    2017-12-01

    In-situ field monitoring can help to improve the design and management of decentralized Green Infrastructure (GI) systems in urban areas. Because of the vast quantity of continuous data generated from multi-site sensor systems, cost-effective post-construction opportunities for real-time control are limited; and the physical processes that influence the observed phenomena (e.g. soil moisture) are hard to track and control. To derive knowledge efficiently from real-time monitoring data, there is currently a need to develop more efficient approaches to data quality control. In this paper, we employ dynamic time warping method to compare the similarity of two soil moisture patterns without ignoring the inherent autocorrelation. We also use a rule-based machine learning method to investigate the feasibility of detecting anomalous responses from soil moisture probes. The data was generated from both individual and clusters of probes, deployed in a GI site in Milwaukee, WI. In contrast to traditional QAQC methods, which seek to detect outliers at individual time steps, the new method presented here converts the continuous time series into event-based symbolic sequences from which unusual response patterns can be detected. Different Matching rules are developed on different physical characteristics for different seasons. The results suggest that this method could be used alternatively to detect sensor failure, to identify extreme events, and to call out abnormal change patterns, compared to intra-probe and inter-probe historical observations. Though this algorithm was developed for soil moisture probes, the same approach could easily be extended to advance QAQC efficiency for any continuous environmental datasets.

  1. “The Rules of Engagement”: Student Engagement and Motivation to Improve the Quality of Undergraduate Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowena M. Senior

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Studying at university continues to grow in popularity and the modern-day university has expanded considerably to meet this need. Invariably as such expansion occurs pressures arise on a range of quality enhancement processes. This may have serious implications for the continued delivery of high quality learning experiences that both meet the expectations of incoming students and are appropriate to their postgraduation aspirations. Ensuring students become active partners in their learning will encourage them to engage with a range of quality enhancement processes. The aim of the current work is to examine the various factors that motivate students to engage in such a fashion. Three focus groups were carried out in a stratified manner to ascertain student motivations and to triangulate an effective set of recommendations for subsequent practice. The participants consisted of engaged and non-engaged first year undergraduate students as well as student-facing staff who were asked to comment on their experiences as to why students would want to engage as a course representative. Nominal group technique was applied to the emerging thematic data in each group. Three key motivational themes emerged that overlapped across all focus groups i.e., a need for individual representation that makes a change, a desire to develop a professional skillset as well as a desire to gain a better understanding of their course of study. A university that aligns its student experience along these themes is likely to facilitate student representation. As is standard practice recommendations for future work are described alongside a discussion of the limitations.

  2. Australian road rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    *These are national-level rules. Australian Road Rules - 2009 Version, Part 18, Division 1, Rule 300 "Use of Mobile Phones" describes restrictions of mobile phone use while driving. The rule basically states that drivers cannot make or receive calls ...

  3. QCD Sum Rules, a Modern Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Colangelo, Pietro; Colangelo, Pietro; Khodjamirian, Alexander

    2001-01-01

    An introduction to the method of QCD sum rules is given for those who want to learn how to use this method. Furthermore, we discuss various applications of sum rules, from the determination of quark masses to the calculation of hadronic form factors and structure functions. Finally, we explain the idea of the light-cone sum rules and outline the recent development of this approach.

  4. Learning Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    1998-01-01

    the article present different concepts and modelsof learning. It discuss some strutural tendenciesof developing environmental management systemsand point out alternatives to increasing formalization of rules.......the article present different concepts and modelsof learning. It discuss some strutural tendenciesof developing environmental management systemsand point out alternatives to increasing formalization of rules....

  5. Rule of Thumb and Dynamic Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lettau, M.; Uhlig, H.F.H.V.S.

    1995-01-01

    This paper studies the relationships between learning about rules of thumb (represented by classifier systems) and dynamic programming. Building on a result about Markovian stochastic approximation algorithms, we characterize all decision functions that can be asymptotically obtained through

  6. Comparison of Heuristics for Inhibitory Rule Optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2014-09-13

    Knowledge representation and extraction are very important tasks in data mining. In this work, we proposed a variety of rule-based greedy algorithms that able to obtain knowledge contained in a given dataset as a series of inhibitory rules containing an expression “attribute ≠ value” on the right-hand side. The main goal of this paper is to determine based on rule characteristics, rule length and coverage, whether the proposed rule heuristics are statistically significantly different or not; if so, we aim to identify the best performing rule heuristics for minimization of rule length and maximization of rule coverage. Friedman test with Nemenyi post-hoc are used to compare the greedy algorithms statistically against each other for length and coverage. The experiments are carried out on real datasets from UCI Machine Learning Repository. For leading heuristics, the constructed rules are compared with optimal ones obtained based on dynamic programming approach. The results seem to be promising for the best heuristics: the average relative difference between length (coverage) of constructed and optimal rules is at most 2.27% (7%, respectively). Furthermore, the quality of classifiers based on sets of inhibitory rules constructed by the considered heuristics are compared against each other, and the results show that the three best heuristics from the point of view classification accuracy coincides with the three well-performed heuristics from the point of view of rule length minimization.

  7. The rules for land use, land use change and forestry under the Kyoto Protocol. Lessons learned for the future climate negotiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoehne, N.; Wartmann, S.; Herold, A.; Freibauer, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the rules for accounting emissions of land use, land use change and forestry (LULUCF) for the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. It first describes the rules in detail, it then provides an overview of the history of negotiations that led to these rules and provides resulting conclusions for future international climate negotiations. We conclude that the current rules can be better understood in the light of the negotiation history. For the future, we conclude that first an agreement on the objectives of including LULUCF in the future climate regime should be developed, e.g. to contribute significantly to the ultimate objective of the convention. Further, a solid set of data should be developed that can assess the magnitude of possible options. The rules should be scientifically sound, complete and balanced as well as unambiguous before the quantitative targets are defined. They should further be simple and inclusive to include all carbon pools, i.e. provide incentives to avoid deforestation and unsustainable logging in all countries

  8. Moral empiricism and the bias for act-based rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayars, Alisabeth; Nichols, Shaun

    2017-10-01

    Previous studies on rule learning show a bias in favor of act-based rules, which prohibit intentionally producing an outcome but not merely allowing the outcome. Nichols, Kumar, Lopez, Ayars, and Chan (2016) found that exposure to a single sample violation in which an agent intentionally causes the outcome was sufficient for participants to infer that the rule was act-based. One explanation is that people have an innate bias to think rules are act-based. We suggest an alternative empiricist account: since most rules that people learn are act-based, people form an overhypothesis (Goodman, 1955) that rules are typically act-based. We report three studies that indicate that people can use information about violations to form overhypotheses about rules. In study 1, participants learned either three "consequence-based" rules that prohibited allowing an outcome or three "act-based" rules that prohibiting producing the outcome; in a subsequent learning task, we found that participants who had learned three consequence-based rules were more likely to think that the new rule prohibited allowing an outcome. In study 2, we presented participants with either 1 consequence-based rule or 3 consequence-based rules, and we found that those exposed to 3 such rules were more likely to think that a new rule was also consequence based. Thus, in both studies, it seems that learning 3 consequence-based rules generates an overhypothesis to expect new rules to be consequence-based. In a final study, we used a more subtle manipulation. We exposed participants to examples act-based or accident-based (strict liability) laws and then had them learn a novel rule. We found that participants who were exposed to the accident-based laws were more likely to think a new rule was accident-based. The fact that participants' bias for act-based rules can be shaped by evidence from other rules supports the idea that the bias for act-based rules might be acquired as an overhypothesis from the

  9. Usage-Based vs. Rule-Based Learning: The Acquisition of Word Order in "Wh"-Questions in English and Norwegian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westergaard, Marit

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses different approaches to language acquisition in relation to children's acquisition of word order in "wh"-questions in English and Norwegian. While generative models assert that children set major word order parameters and thus acquire a rule of subject-auxiliary inversion or generalized verb second (V2) at an early stage, some…

  10. Drivers of Changes in Product Development Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, John K.; Varnes, Claus J.

    2015-01-01

    regimes. However, the analysis here indicates that there are different drivers, both internal and external, that cause companies to adopt new rules or modify their existing ones, such as changes in organizational structures, organizational conflicts, and changes in ownership or strategy. In addition......Purpose: - The purpose of this research is to investigate the drivers that induce companies to change their rules for managing product development. Most companies use a form of rule-based management approach, but surprisingly little is known about what makes companies change these rules...... 10 years based on three rounds of interviews with 40 managers. Findings: - Previous research has assumed that the dynamics of product development rules are based on internal learning processes, and that increasingly competent management will stimulate the implementation of newer and more complex rule...

  11. Generating Concise Rules for Human Motion Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Tomohiko; Wakisaka, Ken-Ichi; Kuriyama, Shigeru

    This paper proposes a method for retrieving human motion data with concise retrieval rules based on the spatio-temporal features of motion appearance. Our method first converts motion clip into a form of clausal language that represents geometrical relations between body parts and their temporal relationship. A retrieval rule is then learned from the set of manually classified examples using inductive logic programming (ILP). ILP automatically discovers the essential rule in the same clausal form with a user-defined hypothesis-testing procedure. All motions are indexed using this clausal language, and the desired clips are retrieved by subsequence matching using the rule. Such rule-based retrieval offers reasonable performance and the rule can be intuitively edited in the same language form. Consequently, our method enables efficient and flexible search from a large dataset with simple query language.

  12. Transition form factors of π{sup 0},η and η{sup ′} mesons: What can be learned from anomaly sum rule?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klopot, Yaroslav, E-mail: klopot@theor.jinr.ru [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Oganesian, Armen, E-mail: armen@itep.ru [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation); Teryaev, Oleg, E-mail: teryaev@theor.jinr.ru [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-15

    We studied the applications of the anomaly sum rule (ASR) to the transition form factors of light pseudoscalar mesons: π{sup 0},η and η{sup ′}. This nonperturbative QCD approach can be used even if the QCD factorization is broken. The status of possible small non-OPE corrections to continuum in comparison to BaBar and Belle data is explored. The accuracy of the applied method and the role of the quark mass contributions are discussed.

  13. FeynRules - Feynman rules made easy

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Neil D.; Duhr, Claude

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present FeynRules, a new Mathematica package that facilitates the implementation of new particle physics models. After the user implements the basic model information (e.g. particle content, parameters and Lagrangian), FeynRules derives the Feynman rules and stores them in a generic form suitable for translation to any Feynman diagram calculation program. The model can then be translated to the format specific to a particular Feynman diagram calculator via F...

  14. Delayed rule following

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, David R.

    2001-01-01

    Although the elements of a fully stated rule (discriminative stimulus [SD], some behavior, and a consequence) can occur nearly contemporaneously with the statement of the rule, there is often a delay between the rule statement and the SD. The effects of this delay on rule following have not been studied in behavior analysis, but they have been investigated in rule-like settings in the areas of prospective memory (remembering to do something in the future) and goal pursuit. Discriminative even...

  15. Usage-based vs. rule-based learning: the acquisition of word order in wh-questions in English and Norwegian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westergaard, Marit

    2009-11-01

    This paper discusses different approaches to language acquisition in relation to children's acquisition of word order in wh-questions in English and Norwegian. While generative models assert that children set major word order parameters and thus acquire a rule of subject-auxiliary inversion or generalized verb second (V2) at an early stage, some constructivist work argues that English-speaking children are simply reproducing frequent wh-word+auxiliary combinations in the input. The paper questions both approaches, re-evaluates some previous work, and provides some further data, concluding that the acquisition of wh-questions must be the result of a rule-based process. Based on variation in adult grammars, a cue-based model to language acquisition is presented, according to which children are sensitive to minor cues in the input, called micro-cues. V2 is not considered to be one major parameter, but several smaller-scale cues, which are responsible for children's lack of syntactic (over-)generalization in the acquisition process.

  16. Heterogeneous Information about the Term Structure of Interest rates, Least-Squares Learning and Optimal Interest Rate Rules for Inflation Forecast Targeting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaling, E.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Tesfaselassie, M.F.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we incorporate the term structure of interest rates in a standard inflation forecast targeting framework.Learning about the transmission process of monetary policy is introduced by having heterogeneous agents - i.e. the central bank and private agents - who have different information

  17. Phonological reduplication in sign language: rules rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris eBerent

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Productivity—the hallmark of linguistic competence—is typically attributed to algebraic rules that support broad generalizations. Past research on spoken language has documented such generalizations in both adults and infants. But whether algebraic rules form part of the linguistic competence of signers remains unknown. To address this question, here we gauge the generalization afforded by American Sign Language (ASL. As a case study, we examine reduplication (X→XX—a rule that, inter alia, generates ASL nouns from verbs. If signers encode this rule, then they should freely extend it to novel syllables, including ones with features that are unattested in ASL. And since reduplicated disyllables are preferred in ASL, such rule should favor novel reduplicated signs. Novel reduplicated signs should thus be preferred to nonreduplicative controls (in rating, and consequently, such stimuli should also be harder to classify as nonsigns (in the lexical decision task. The results of four experiments support this prediction. These findings suggest that the phonological knowledge of signers includes powerful algebraic rules. The convergence between these conclusions and previous evidence for phonological rules in spoken language suggests that the architecture of the phonological mind is partly amodal.

  18. Single neurons in prefrontal cortex encode abstract rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, J D; Anderson, K C; Miller, E K

    2001-06-21

    The ability to abstract principles or rules from direct experience allows behaviour to extend beyond specific circumstances to general situations. For example, we learn the 'rules' for restaurant dining from specific experiences and can then apply them in new restaurants. The use of such rules is thought to depend on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) because its damage often results in difficulty in following rules. Here we explore its neural basis by recording from single neurons in the PFC of monkeys trained to use two abstract rules. They were required to indicate whether two successively presented pictures were the same or different depending on which rule was currently in effect. The monkeys performed this task with new pictures, thus showing that they had learned two general principles that could be applied to stimuli that they had not yet experienced. The most prevalent neuronal activity observed in the PFC reflected the coding of these abstract rules.

  19. Learning the Rules of the Game: The Nature of Game and Classroom Supports When Using a Concept-Integrated Digital Physics Game in the Middle School Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Phillip Michael, Jr.

    Games in science education is emerging as a popular topic of scholarly inquiry. The National Research Council recently published a report detailing a research agenda for games and science education entitled Learning Science Through Computer Games and Simulations (2011). The report recommends moving beyond typical proof-of-concept studies into more exploratory and theoretically-based work to determine how best to integrate games into K-12 classrooms for learning , as well as how scaffolds from within the game and from outside the game (from peers and teachers) support the learning of applicable science. This study uses a mixed-methods, quasi-experimental design with an 8th grade class at an independent school in southern Connecticut to answer the following questions: 1. What is the nature of the supports for science content learning provided by the game, the peer, and the teacher, when the game is used in a classroom setting? 2. How do the learning gains in the peer support condition compare to the solo play condition, both qualitatively and quantitatively? The concept-integrated physics game SURGE (Scaffolding Understanding through Redesigning Games for Education) was selected for this study, as it was developed with an ear towards specific learning theories and prior work on student understandings of impulse, force, and vectors. Stimulated recall interviews and video observations served as the primary sources and major patterns emerged through the triangulation of data sources and qualitative analysis in the software QSR NVivo 9. The first pattern which emerged indicated that scaffolding from within the game and outside the game requires a pause in game action to be effective, unless that scaffolding is directly useful to the player in the moment of action. The second major pattern indicated that both amount and type of prior gaming experience has somewhat complex effects on both the uses of supports and learning outcomes. In general, a high correlation was found

  20. A Better Budget Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dothan, Michael; Thompson, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Debt limits, interest coverage ratios, one-off balanced budget requirements, pay-as-you-go rules, and tax and expenditure limits are among the most important fiscal rules for constraining intertemporal transfers. There is considerable evidence that the least costly and most effective of such rules are those that focus directly on the rate of…

  1. Avaliação do aprendizado dos pacientes sobre a regra do ABCD: um estudo randomizado no sul do Brasil Evaluation of patients’ learning about the ABCD rule: a randomized study in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Reetz Müller

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: A regra do ABCD é utilizada para orientar médicos, profissionais da saúde e pacientes quanto ao reconhecimento das principais características de lesões cutâneas suspeitas de melanoma. Não há, no Brasil,estudos que validem a utilização da regra do ABCD pelos pacientes após orientações realizadas por dermatologistas. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar o aprendizado da regra do ABCD por pacientes atendidos em centro dermatológico de referência no sul do Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo randomizado com 80 pacientes ambulatoriais de ambos os sexos, com 12 anos ou mais. Foram avaliados: grau de escolaridade, renda mensal e acesso aos meios de comunicação. O grupo de intervenção recebeu orientações sobre o emprego da regra do ABCD, ao passo que o grupo-controle não recebeu. Ambos os grupos foram avaliados quanto às suas respostas em três momentos (basal, fora do consultório e no consultório, 15 dias após em painel de fotografias. O nível de significância utilizado foi o p Background: the ABCD rule is used to guide physicians, health care professionals and patients to recognize the main characteristics of suspicious skin lesions for melanoma. In Brazil there are no studies to validate the use of the ABCD rule by patients after instructions given by dermatologists. Objectives: to evaluate the learning of the ABCD rule by patients at a dermatology center of reference in the Southern region of Brazil. Methods: a randomized study, with 80 outpatients. The following were evaluated: sex, age, level of schooling, monthly income and access to means of communication. The intervention group received instructions regarding the use of the ABCD rule and the control group did not. Both groups were evaluated at three points in time (baseline; outside the office; and in the doctor's office, 15 days later regarding their answers about a panel of photographs. The level of significance used was p < 0.05 and a power of 0.80. Results: the group that

  2. New Safety rules

    CERN Multimedia

    Safety Commission

    2008-01-01

    The revision of CERN Safety rules is in progress and the following new Safety rules have been issued on 15-04-2008: Safety Procedure SP-R1 Establishing, Updating and Publishing CERN Safety rules: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SP-R1.htm; Safety Regulation SR-S Smoking at CERN: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SR-S.htm; Safety Regulation SR-M Mechanical Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SR-M.htm; General Safety Instruction GSI-M1 Standard Lifting Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/GSI-M1.htm; General Safety Instruction GSI-M2 Standard Pressure Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/GSI-M2.htm; General Safety Instruction GSI-M3 Special Mechanical Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/GSI-M3.htm. These documents apply to all persons under the Director General’s authority. All Safety rules are available at the web page: http://www.cern.ch/safety-rules The Safety Commission

  3. Action Rules Mining

    CERN Document Server

    Dardzinska, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    We are surrounded by data, numerical, categorical and otherwise, which must to be analyzed and processed to convert it into information that instructs, answers or aids understanding and decision making. Data analysts in many disciplines such as business, education or medicine, are frequently asked to analyze new data sets which are often composed of numerous tables possessing different properties. They try to find completely new correlations between attributes and show new possibilities for users.   Action rules mining discusses some of data mining and knowledge discovery principles and then describe representative concepts, methods and algorithms connected with action. The author introduces the formal definition of action rule, notion of a simple association action rule and a representative action rule, the cost of association action rule, and gives a strategy how to construct simple association action rules of a lowest cost. A new approach for generating action rules from datasets with numerical attributes...

  4. 18 CFR 385.104 - Rule of construction (Rule 104).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Definitions § 385.104 Rule of construction (Rule 104). To the extent that the text of a rule is inconsistent with its caption, the text of the rule controls. [Order 376, 49 FR 21705, May 23, 1984] ...

  5. Improving drivers' knowledge of road rules using digital games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Tay, Richard

    2014-04-01

    Although a proficient knowledge of the road rules is important to safe driving, many drivers do not retain the knowledge acquired after they have obtained their licenses. Hence, more innovative and appealing methods are needed to improve drivers' knowledge of the road rules. This study examines the effect of game based learning on drivers' knowledge acquisition and retention. We find that playing an entertaining game that is designed to impart knowledge of the road rules not only improves players' knowledge but also helps them retain such knowledge. Hence, learning by gaming appears to be a promising learning approach for driver education. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Collaborative Educational Association Rule Mining Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Enrique; Romero, Cristobal; Ventura, Sebastian; de Castro, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a collaborative educational data mining tool based on association rule mining for the ongoing improvement of e-learning courses and allowing teachers with similar course profiles to share and score the discovered information. The mining tool is oriented to be used by non-expert instructors in data mining so its internal…

  7. Comparison of Heuristics for Inhibitory Rule Optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz; Chikalov, Igor; Moshkov, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    Friedman test with Nemenyi post-hoc are used to compare the greedy algorithms statistically against each other for length and coverage. The experiments are carried out on real datasets from UCI Machine Learning Repository. For leading heuristics, the constructed rules are compared with optimal ones obtained based on dynamic programming approach. The results seem to be promising for the best heuristics: the average relative difference between length (coverage) of constructed and optimal rules is at most 2.27% (7%, respectively). Furthermore, the quality of classifiers based on sets of inhibitory rules constructed by the considered heuristics are compared against each other, and the results show that the three best heuristics from the point of view classification accuracy coincides with the three well-performed heuristics from the point of view of rule length minimization.

  8. Technical rules in law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debelius, J

    1978-08-01

    An important source of knowledge for technical experts is the state of the art reflected by catalogues of technical rules. Technical rules may also achieve importance in law due to a legal transformation standard. Here, rigid and flexible reference are controversial with regard to their admissibility from the point of view of constitutional law. In case of a divergence from the generally accepted technical rules, it is assumed - refutably - that the necessary care had not been taken. Technical rules are one out of several sources of information; they have no normative effect. This may result in a duty of anyone applying them to review the state of technology himself.

  9. Technical rules in law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debelius, J.

    1978-01-01

    An important source of knowledge for technical experts is the state of the art reflected by catalogues of technical rules. Technical rules may also achieve importance in law due to a legal transformation standard. Here, rigid and flexible reference are controversial with regard to their admissibility from the point of view of constitutional law. In case of a divergence from the generally accepted technical rules, it is assumed - refutably - that the necessary care had not been taken. Technical rules are one out of several sources of information; they have no normative effect. This may result in a duty of anyone applying them to review the state of technology himself. (orig.) [de

  10. Effects of bursting dynamic features on the generation of multi-clustered structure of neural network with symmetric spike-timing-dependent plasticity learning rule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hui; Song, Yongduan; Xue, Fangzheng; Li, Xiumin, E-mail: xmli@cqu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Dependable Service Computing in Cyber Physical Society of Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); College of Automation, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2015-11-15

    In this paper, the generation of multi-clustered structure of self-organized neural network with different neuronal firing patterns, i.e., bursting or spiking, has been investigated. The initially all-to-all-connected spiking neural network or bursting neural network can be self-organized into clustered structure through the symmetric spike-timing-dependent plasticity learning for both bursting and spiking neurons. However, the time consumption of this clustering procedure of the burst-based self-organized neural network (BSON) is much shorter than the spike-based self-organized neural network (SSON). Our results show that the BSON network has more obvious small-world properties, i.e., higher clustering coefficient and smaller shortest path length than the SSON network. Also, the results of larger structure entropy and activity entropy of the BSON network demonstrate that this network has higher topological complexity and dynamical diversity, which benefits for enhancing information transmission of neural circuits. Hence, we conclude that the burst firing can significantly enhance the efficiency of clustering procedure and the emergent clustered structure renders the whole network more synchronous and therefore more sensitive to weak input. This result is further confirmed from its improved performance on stochastic resonance. Therefore, we believe that the multi-clustered neural network which self-organized from the bursting dynamics has high efficiency in information processing.

  11. Effects of bursting dynamic features on the generation of multi-clustered structure of neural network with symmetric spike-timing-dependent plasticity learning rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hui; Song, Yongduan; Xue, Fangzheng; Li, Xiumin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the generation of multi-clustered structure of self-organized neural network with different neuronal firing patterns, i.e., bursting or spiking, has been investigated. The initially all-to-all-connected spiking neural network or bursting neural network can be self-organized into clustered structure through the symmetric spike-timing-dependent plasticity learning for both bursting and spiking neurons. However, the time consumption of this clustering procedure of the burst-based self-organized neural network (BSON) is much shorter than the spike-based self-organized neural network (SSON). Our results show that the BSON network has more obvious small-world properties, i.e., higher clustering coefficient and smaller shortest path length than the SSON network. Also, the results of larger structure entropy and activity entropy of the BSON network demonstrate that this network has higher topological complexity and dynamical diversity, which benefits for enhancing information transmission of neural circuits. Hence, we conclude that the burst firing can significantly enhance the efficiency of clustering procedure and the emergent clustered structure renders the whole network more synchronous and therefore more sensitive to weak input. This result is further confirmed from its improved performance on stochastic resonance. Therefore, we believe that the multi-clustered neural network which self-organized from the bursting dynamics has high efficiency in information processing

  12. Strategy as simple rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhardt, K M; Sull, D N

    2001-01-01

    The success of Yahoo!, eBay, Enron, and other companies that have become adept at morphing to meet the demands of changing markets can't be explained using traditional thinking about competitive strategy. These companies have succeeded by pursuing constantly evolving strategies in market spaces that were considered unattractive according to traditional measures. In this article--the third in an HBR series by Kathleen Eisenhardt and Donald Sull on strategy in the new economy--the authors ask, what are the sources of competitive advantage in high-velocity markets? The secret, they say, is strategy as simple rules. The companies know that the greatest opportunities for competitive advantage lie in market confusion, but they recognize the need for a few crucial strategic processes and a few simple rules. In traditional strategy, advantage comes from exploiting resources or stable market positions. In strategy as simple rules, advantage comes from successfully seizing fleeting opportunities. Key strategic processes, such as product innovation, partnering, or spinout creation, place the company where the flow of opportunities is greatest. Simple rules then provide the guidelines within which managers can pursue such opportunities. Simple rules, which grow out of experience, fall into five broad categories: how- to rules, boundary conditions, priority rules, timing rules, and exit rules. Companies with simple-rules strategies must follow the rules religiously and avoid the temptation to change them too frequently. A consistent strategy helps managers sort through opportunities and gain short-term advantage by exploiting the attractive ones. In stable markets, managers rely on complicated strategies built on detailed predictions of the future. But when business is complicated, strategy should be simple.

  13. Rules, culture, and fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, W M

    1995-01-01

    Behavior analysis risks intellectual isolation unless it integrates its explanations with evolutionary theory. Rule-governed behavior is an example of a topic that requires an evolutionary perspective for a full understanding. A rule may be defined as a verbal discriminative stimulus produced by the behavior of a speaker under the stimulus control of a long-term contingency between the behavior and fitness. As a discriminative stimulus, the rule strengthens listener behavior that is reinforced in the short run by socially mediated contingencies, but which also enters into the long-term contingency that enhances the listener's fitness. The long-term contingency constitutes the global context for the speaker's giving the rule. When a rule is said to be "internalized," the listener's behavior has switched from short- to long-term control. The fitness-enhancing consequences of long-term contingencies are health, resources, relationships, or reproduction. This view ties rules both to evolutionary theory and to culture. Stating a rule is a cultural practice. The practice strengthens, with short-term reinforcement, behavior that usually enhances fitness in the long run. The practice evolves because of its effect on fitness. The standard definition of a rule as a verbal statement that points to a contingency fails to distinguish between a rule and a bargain ("If you'll do X, then I'll do Y"), which signifies only a single short-term contingency that provides mutual reinforcement for speaker and listener. In contrast, the giving and following of a rule ("Dress warmly; it's cold outside") can be understood only by reference also to a contingency providing long-term enhancement of the listener's fitness or the fitness of the listener's genes. Such a perspective may change the way both behavior analysts and evolutionary biologists think about rule-governed behavior.

  14. Decision rule classifiers for multi-label decision tables

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz; Azad, Mohammad; Chikalov, Igor; Moshkov, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    for decision tables from UCI Machine Learning Repository and KEEL Repository show that rule heuristics taking into account both coverage and uncertainty perform better than the strategies taking into account a single criterion. © 2014 Springer International

  15. Relationships between length and coverage of decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha M.; Chikalov, Igor; Moshkov, Mikhail; Zielosko, Beata

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes a new tool for study relationships between length and coverage of exact decision rules. This tool is based on dynamic programming approach. We also present results of experiments with decision tables from UCI Machine Learning Repository.

  16. Relationships between length and coverage of decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha

    2014-02-14

    The paper describes a new tool for study relationships between length and coverage of exact decision rules. This tool is based on dynamic programming approach. We also present results of experiments with decision tables from UCI Machine Learning Repository.

  17. Class association rules mining from students’ test data (Abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romero, C.; Ventura, S.; Vasilyeva, E.; Pechenizkiy, M.; Baker, de R.S.J.; Merceron, A.; Pavlik Jr., P.I.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we propose the use of a special type of association rules mining for discovering interesting relationships from the students’ test data collected in our case with Moodle learning management system (LMS). Particularly, we apply Class Association Rule (CAR) mining to different data

  18. Binary effectivity rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Peleg, Bezalel

    2006-01-01

    is binary if it is rationalized by an acyclic binary relation. The foregoing result motivates our definition of a binary effectivity rule as the effectivity rule of some binary SCR. A binary SCR is regular if it satisfies unanimity, monotonicity, and independence of infeasible alternatives. A binary...

  19. Delayed rule following.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, D R

    2001-01-01

    Although the elements of a fully stated rule (discriminative stimulus [S(D)], some behavior, and a consequence) can occur nearly contemporaneously with the statement of the rule, there is often a delay between the rule statement and the S(D). The effects of this delay on rule following have not been studied in behavior analysis, but they have been investigated in rule-like settings in the areas of prospective memory (remembering to do something in the future) and goal pursuit. Discriminative events for some behavior can be event based (a specific setting stimulus) or time based. The latter are more demanding with respect to intention following and show age-related deficits. Studies suggest that the specificity with which the components of a rule (termed intention) are stated has a substantial effect on intention following, with more detailed specifications increasing following. Reminders of an intention, too, are most effective when they refer specifically to both the behavior and its occasion. Covert review and written notes are two effective strategies for remembering everyday intentions, but people who use notes appear not to be able to switch quickly to covert review. By focusing on aspects of the setting and rule structure, research on prospective memory and goal pursuit expands the agenda for a more complete explanation of rule effects.

  20. "Chaos Rules" Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, David

    2011-01-01

    About 20 years ago, while lost in the midst of his PhD research, the author mused over proposed titles for his thesis. He was pretty pleased with himself when he came up with "Chaos Rules" (the implied double meaning was deliberate), or more completely, "Chaos Rules: An Exploration of the Work of Instructional Designers in Distance Education." He…

  1. Electronuclear sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenhoevel, H.; Drechsel, D.; Weber, H.J.

    1978-01-01

    Generalized sum rules are derived by integrating the electromagnetic structure functions along lines of constant ratio of momentum and energy transfer. For non-relativistic systems these sum rules are related to the conventional photonuclear sum rules by a scaling transformation. The generalized sum rules are connected with the absorptive part of the forward scattering amplitude of virtual photons. The analytic structure of the scattering amplitudes and the possible existence of dispersion relations have been investigated in schematic relativistic and non-relativistic models. While for the non-relativistic case analyticity does not hold, the relativistic scattering amplitude is analytical for time-like (but not for space-like) photons and relations similar to the Gell-Mann-Goldberger-Thirring sum rule exist. (Auth.)

  2. RIGHTS, RULES, AND DEMOCRACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard S. Kay, University of Connecticut-School of Law, Estados Unidos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Democracy require protection of certain fundamental rights, but can we expect courts to follow rules? There seems little escape from the proposition that substantive constitutional review by an unelected judiciary is a presumptive abridgement of democratic decision-making. Once we have accepted the proposition that there exist human rights that ought to be protected, this should hardly surprise us. No one thinks courts are perfect translators of the rules invoked before them on every occasion. But it is equally clear that rules sometimes do decide cases. In modern legal systems the relative roles of courts and legislators with respect to the rules of the system is a commonplace. Legislatures make rules. Courts apply them in particular disputes. When we are talking about human rights, however, that assumption must be clarified in at least one way. The defense of the practice of constitutional review in this article assumes courts can and do enforce rules. This article also makes clear what is the meaning of “following rules”. Preference for judicial over legislative interpretation of rights, therefore, seems to hang on the question of whether or not judges are capable of subordinating their own judgment to that incorporated in the rules by their makers. This article maintains that, in general, entrenched constitutional rules (and not just constitutional courts can and do constrain public conduct and protect human rights. The article concludes that the value judgments will depend on our estimate of the benefits we derive from the process of representative self-government. Against those benefits we will have to measure the importance we place on being able to live our lives with the security created by a regime of human rights protected by the rule of law. Keywords: Democracy. Human Rights. Rules. Judicial Review.

  3. Totally optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha

    2017-11-22

    Optimality of decision rules (patterns) can be measured in many ways. One of these is referred to as length. Length signifies the number of terms in a decision rule and is optimally minimized. Another, coverage represents the width of a rule’s applicability and generality. As such, it is desirable to maximize coverage. A totally optimal decision rule is a decision rule that has the minimum possible length and the maximum possible coverage. This paper presents a method for determining the presence of totally optimal decision rules for “complete” decision tables (representations of total functions in which different variables can have domains of differing values). Depending on the cardinalities of the domains, we can either guarantee for each tuple of values of the function that totally optimal rules exist for each row of the table (as in the case of total Boolean functions where the cardinalities are equal to 2) or, for each row, we can find a tuple of values of the function for which totally optimal rules do not exist for this row.

  4. Totally optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha M.; Moshkov, Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    Optimality of decision rules (patterns) can be measured in many ways. One of these is referred to as length. Length signifies the number of terms in a decision rule and is optimally minimized. Another, coverage represents the width of a rule’s applicability and generality. As such, it is desirable to maximize coverage. A totally optimal decision rule is a decision rule that has the minimum possible length and the maximum possible coverage. This paper presents a method for determining the presence of totally optimal decision rules for “complete” decision tables (representations of total functions in which different variables can have domains of differing values). Depending on the cardinalities of the domains, we can either guarantee for each tuple of values of the function that totally optimal rules exist for each row of the table (as in the case of total Boolean functions where the cardinalities are equal to 2) or, for each row, we can find a tuple of values of the function for which totally optimal rules do not exist for this row.

  5. Following the Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Anne

    2016-05-01

    I am getting better at following the rules as I grow older, although I still bristle at many of them. I was a typical rebellious teenager; no one understood me, David Bowie was my idol, and, one day, my generation was going to change the world. Now I really want people to understand me: David Bowie remains one of my favorite singers and, yes, my generation has changed the world, and not necessarily for the better. Growing up means that you have to make the rules, not just follow those set by others, and, at times, having rules makes a lot of sense.
.

  6. Do Fiscal Rules Matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grembi, Veronica; Nannicini, Tommaso; Troiano, Ugo

    2016-01-01

    , the central government imposed fiscal rules on municipal governments, and in 2001 relaxed them below 5,000 inhabitants. We exploit the before/after and discontinuous policy variation, and show that relaxing fiscal rules increases deficits and lowers taxes. The effect is larger if the mayor can be reelected......Fiscal rules are laws aimed at reducing the incentive to accumulate debt, and many countries adopt them to discipline local governments. Yet, their effectiveness is disputed because of commitment and enforcement problems. We study their impact applying a quasi-experimental design in Italy. In 1999...

  7. Rule-governed behavior and behavioral anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malott, R W

    1988-01-01

    According to cultural materialism, cultural practices result from the materialistic outcomes of those practices, not from sociobiological, mentalistic, or mystical predispositions (e.g., Hindus worship cows because, in the long run, that worship results in more food, not less food). However, according to behavior analysis, such materialistic outcomes do not reinforce or punish the cultural practices, because such outcomes are too delayed, too improbable, or individually too small to directly reinforce or punish the cultural practices (e.g., the food increase is too delayed to reinforce the cow worship). Therefore, the molar, materialistic contingencies need the support of molecular, behavioral contingencies. And according to the present theory of rule-governed behavior, the statement of rules describing those molar, materialistic contingencies can establish the needed molecular contingencies. Given the proper behavioral history, such rule statements combine with noncompliance to produce a learned aversive condition (often labeled fear, anxiety, or guilt). The termination of this aversive condition reinforces compliance, just as its presentation punishes noncompliance (e.g., the termination of guilt reinforces the tending to a sick cow). In addition, supernatural rules often supplement these materialistic rules. Furthermore, the production of both materialistic and supernatural rules needs cultural designers who understand the molar, materialistic contingencies.

  8. Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Laabidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays learning technologies transformed educational systems with impressive progress of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT. Furthermore, when these technologies are available, affordable and accessible, they represent more than a transformation for people with disabilities. They represent real opportunities with access to an inclusive education and help to overcome the obstacles they met in classical educational systems. In this paper, we will cover basic concepts of e-accessibility, universal design and assistive technologies, with a special focus on accessible e-learning systems. Then, we will present recent research works conducted in our research Laboratory LaTICE toward the development of an accessible online learning environment for persons with disabilities from the design and specification step to the implementation. We will present, in particular, the accessible version “MoodleAcc+” of the well known e-learning platform Moodle as well as new elaborated generic models and a range of tools for authoring and evaluating accessible educational content.

  9. Staff rules and regulations

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The 11th edition of the Staff Rules and Regulations, dated 1 January 2007, adopted by the Council and the Finance Committee in December 2006, is currently being distributed to departmental secretariats. The Staff Rules and Regulations, together with a summary of the main modifications made, will be available, as from next week, on the Human Resources Department's intranet site: http://cern.ch/hr-web/internal/admin_services/rules/default.asp The main changes made to the Staff Rules and Regulations stem from the five-yearly review of employment conditions of members of the personnel. The changes notably relate to: the categories of members of the personnel (e.g. removal of the local staff category); the careers structure and the merit recognition system; the non-residence, installation and re-installation allowances; the definition of family, family allowances and family-related leave; recognition of partnerships; education fees. The administrative circulars, some of which are being revised following the ...

  10. Data breaches. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-11

    This document adopts, without change, the interim final rule that was published in the Federal Register on June 22, 2007, addressing data breaches of sensitive personal information that is processed or maintained by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). This final rule implements certain provisions of the Veterans Benefits, Health Care, and Information Technology Act of 2006. The regulations prescribe the mechanisms for taking action in response to a data breach of sensitive personal information.

  11. Mechanisms of rule acquisition and rule following in inductive reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescentini, Cristiano; Seyed-Allaei, Shima; De Pisapia, Nicola; Jovicich, Jorge; Amati, Daniele; Shallice, Tim

    2011-05-25

    Despite the recent interest in the neuroanatomy of inductive reasoning processes, the regional specificity within prefrontal cortex (PFC) for the different mechanisms involved in induction tasks remains to be determined. In this study, we used fMRI to investigate the contribution of PFC regions to rule acquisition (rule search and rule discovery) and rule following. Twenty-six healthy young adult participants were presented with a series of images of cards, each consisting of a set of circles numbered in sequence with one colored blue. Participants had to predict the position of the blue circle on the next card. The rules that had to be acquired pertained to the relationship among succeeding stimuli. Responses given by subjects were categorized in a series of phases either tapping rule acquisition (responses given up to and including rule discovery) or rule following (correct responses after rule acquisition). Mid-dorsolateral PFC (mid-DLPFC) was active during rule search and remained active until successful rule acquisition. By contrast, rule following was associated with activation in temporal, motor, and medial/anterior prefrontal cortex. Moreover, frontopolar cortex (FPC) was active throughout the rule acquisition and rule following phases before a rule became familiar. We attributed activation in mid-DLPFC to hypothesis generation and in FPC to integration of multiple separate inferences. The present study provides evidence that brain activation during inductive reasoning involves a complex network of frontal processes and that different subregions respond during rule acquisition and rule following phases.

  12. Storage capacity of the Tilinglike Learning Algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buhot, Arnaud; Gordon, Mirta B.

    2001-01-01

    The storage capacity of an incremental learning algorithm for the parity machine, the Tilinglike Learning Algorithm, is analytically determined in the limit of a large number of hidden perceptrons. Different learning rules for the simple perceptron are investigated. The usual Gardner-Derrida rule leads to a storage capacity close to the upper bound, which is independent of the learning algorithm considered

  13. A "Sweet 16" of Rules About Teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Alexander (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    The following "Sweet 16" rules included in this paper derive from a longer paper by APPL Director Dr. Edward Hoffman and myself entitled " 99 Rules for Managing Faster, Better, Cheaper Projects." Our sources consisted mainly of "war stories" told by master project managers in my book Simultaneous Management: Managing Projects in a Dynamic Environment (AMACOM, The American Management Association, 1996). The Simultaneous Management model was a result of 10 years of intensive research and testing conducted with the active participation of master project managers from leading private organizations such as AT&T, DuPont, Exxon, General Motors, IBM, Motorola and Procter & Gamble. In a more recent study, led by Dr. Hoffman, we learned that master project managers in leading public organizations employ most of these rules as well. Both studies, in private and public organizations, found that a dynamic environment calls for dynamic management, and that is especially clear in how successful project managers think about their teams.

  14. Rule-based decision making model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirola, Miki

    1998-01-01

    A rule-based decision making model is designed in G2 environment. A theoretical and methodological frame for the model is composed and motivated. The rule-based decision making model is based on object-oriented modelling, knowledge engineering and decision theory. The idea of safety objective tree is utilized. Advanced rule-based methodologies are applied. A general decision making model 'decision element' is constructed. The strategy planning of the decision element is based on e.g. value theory and utility theory. A hypothetical process model is built to give input data for the decision element. The basic principle of the object model in decision making is division in tasks. Probability models are used in characterizing component availabilities. Bayes' theorem is used to recalculate the probability figures when new information is got. The model includes simple learning features to save the solution path. A decision analytic interpretation is given to the decision making process. (author)

  15. Sleep promotes the extraction of grammatical rules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid L C Nieuwenhuis

    Full Text Available Grammar acquisition is a high level cognitive function that requires the extraction of complex rules. While it has been proposed that offline time might benefit this type of rule extraction, this remains to be tested. Here, we addressed this question using an artificial grammar learning paradigm. During a short-term memory cover task, eighty-one human participants were exposed to letter sequences generated according to an unknown artificial grammar. Following a time delay of 15 min, 12 h (wake or sleep or 24 h, participants classified novel test sequences as Grammatical or Non-Grammatical. Previous behavioral and functional neuroimaging work has shown that classification can be guided by two distinct underlying processes: (1 the holistic abstraction of the underlying grammar rules and (2 the detection of sequence chunks that appear at varying frequencies during exposure. Here, we show that classification performance improved after sleep. Moreover, this improvement was due to an enhancement of rule abstraction, while the effect of chunk frequency was unaltered by sleep. These findings suggest that sleep plays a critical role in extracting complex structure from separate but related items during integrative memory processing. Our findings stress the importance of alternating periods of learning with sleep in settings in which complex information must be acquired.

  16. Life fraction rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maile, K.

    1989-01-01

    Evaluations for lifetime estimation of high temperature loaded HTR-components under creep fatigue load had been performed. The evaluations were carried out on the basis of experimental data of strain controlled fatigue tests with respectively without hold times performed on material NiCr 22 Co 12 Mo (Inconel 617). Life prediction was made by means of the linear damage accumulation rule. Due to the high temperatures no realistic estimates of creep damage can be obtained with this rule. Therefore the rule was modified. The modifications consist in a different analysis of the relaxation curve including different calculation of the creep damage estimate resp. in an extended rule, taking into consideration the interaction between creep and fatigue. In order to reach a better result transparency and to reduce data set dependent result scattering a round robin with a given data set was carried out. The round robin yielded that for a given test temperature of T = 950deg C realistic estimate of damage can be obtained with each modification. Furthermore a reduction of resulting scatterbands in the interaction diagram can be observed, i.e. the practicability of the rule has been increased. (orig.)

  17. The role of traffic rules.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, P.C.

    1988-01-01

    Experienced road users seem to have their own set of traffic rules (including rules about when to violate the official rules). The number of violations is enormous, causing great concern for the authorities. The situation could be improved by separating a set of rules with the aim of deterring road

  18. Communicating rules in recreation areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terence L. Ross; George H. Moeller

    1974-01-01

    Five hundred fifty-eight campers were surveyed on the Allegheny National Forest to determine their knowledge of rules governing recreation behavior. Most of them were uninformed about the rules. Results of the study suggest that previous camping experience, age, camping style, and residence significantly affect knowledge of rules. Campers who received rule brochures or...

  19. The rule of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besnik Murati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The state as an international entity and its impact on the individual’s right has been and still continues to be a crucial factor in the relationship between private and public persons. States vary in terms of their political system, however, democratic states are based on the separation of powers and human rights within the state. Rule of law is the product of many actors in a state, including laws, individuals, society, political system, separation of powers, human rights, the establishment of civil society, the relationship between law and the individual, as well as, individual-state relations. Purpose and focus of this study is the importance of a functioning state based on law, characteristics of the rule of law, separation of powers and the basic concepts of the rule of law.

  20. Robert's rules of order

    CERN Document Server

    Robert, Henry M; Balch, Thomas J; Seabold, Daniel E; Gerber, Shmuel

    2011-01-01

    The only authorized edition of the classic work on parliamentary procedure, with new and enhanced features, including how to conduct electronic meetings. Robert's Rules of Order is the book on parliamentary procedure for parliamentarians and anyone involved in an organization, association, club, or group and the authoritative guide to smooth, orderly, and fairly conducted meetings and assemblies. This newly revised edition is the only book on parliamentary procedure to have been updated since 1876 under the continuing program of review established by General Henry M. Robert himself, in cooperation with the official publisher of Robert's Rules. The eleventh edition has been thoroughly revised to address common inquiries and incorporate new rules, interpretations, and procedures made necessary by the evolution of parliamentary procedure, including new material relating to electronic communication and "electronic meetings."

  1. Cosmic Sum Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    T. Frandsen, Mads; Masina, Isabella; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    We introduce new sum rules allowing to determine universal properties of the unknown component of the cosmic rays and show how it can be used to predict the positron fraction at energies not yet explored by current experiments and to constrain specific models.......We introduce new sum rules allowing to determine universal properties of the unknown component of the cosmic rays and show how it can be used to predict the positron fraction at energies not yet explored by current experiments and to constrain specific models....

  2. Value learning through reinforcement : The basics of dopamine and reinforcement learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daw, N.D.; Tobler, P.N.; Glimcher, P.W.; Fehr, E.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of reinforcement learning and temporal difference learning and relates these topics to the firing properties of midbrain dopamine neurons. First, we review the RescorlaWagner learning rule and basic learning phenomena, such as blocking, which the rule explains. Then

  3. Cramer's Rule Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, Ayoub B.

    2005-01-01

    In 1750, the Swiss mathematician Gabriel Cramer published a well-written algebra book entitled "Introduction a l'Analyse des Lignes Courbes Algebriques." In the appendix to this book, Cramer gave, without proof, the rule named after him for solving a linear system of equations using determinants (Kosinki, 2001). Since then several derivations of…

  4. Crispen's Five Antivirus Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispen, Patrick Douglas

    2000-01-01

    Explains five rules to protect computers from viruses. Highlights include commercial antivirus software programs and the need to upgrade them periodically (every year to 18 months); updating virus definitions at least weekly; scanning attached files from email with antivirus software before opening them; Microsoft Word macro protection; and the…

  5. Staff rules and regulations

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The 11th edition of the Staff Rules and Regulations, dated 1 January 2007, adopted by the Council and the Finance Committee in December 2006, is currently being distributed to departmental secretariats. The Staff Rules and Regulations, together with a summary of the main modifications made, will be available, as from next week, on the Human Resources Department's intranet site: http://cern.ch/hr-web/internal/admin_services/rules/default.asp The main changes made to the Staff Rules and Regulations stem from the five-yearly review of employment conditions of members of the personnel. The changes notably relate to: the categories of members of the personnel (e.g. removal of the local staff category); the careers structure and the merit recognition system; the non-residence, installation and re-installation allowances; the definition of family, family allowances and family-related leave; recognition of partnerships; education fees. The administrative circulars, some of which are being revised following the m...

  6. Ruled Laguerre minimal surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Skopenkov, Mikhail; Pottmann, Helmut; Grohs, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    A Laguerre minimal surface is an immersed surface in ℝ 3 being an extremal of the functional ∫ (H 2/K-1)dA. In the present paper, we prove that the only ruled Laguerre minimal surfaces are up to isometry the surfaces ℝ (φλ) = (Aφ, Bφ, Cφ + D cos 2φ

  7. Ten-day rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, E.G.; Stewart, A.M.; Kneale, G.W.; Gilman, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors argue against R.H. Mole's paper (Lancet, Dec. 12 1987), supporting the relaxation of ICRP recommendations and the DHSS decision to withdraw the 10 day rule in relation to diagnostic radiography for menstruating women, and draw attention to the recent refinement of estimates of the enhanced risk of childhood cancers, following diagnostic radiography during pregnancy. (U.K.)

  8. TEDXCERN BREAKS THE RULES

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN, Bulletin

    2015-01-01

    On Friday, 9 October, TEDxCERN brought together 14 ‘rule-breakers’ to explore ideas that push beyond the boundaries of academia. They addressed a full house of 600 audience members, as well as thousands watching the event online.

  9. Learning from Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Janet

    2017-01-01

    Although error avoidance during learning appears to be the rule in American classrooms, laboratory studies suggest that it may be a counterproductive strategy, at least for neurologically typical students. Experimental investigations indicate that errorful learning followed by corrective feedback is beneficial to learning. Interestingly, the…

  10. How to Learn English Grammar?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖琳燃

    2017-01-01

    Grammar is an aspect of language about which learners have different opinions. Some learners are very interested in ifnding out or learning grammar rules and doing lots of grammar exercises. Others hate grammar and think it is the most boring part of learning a new language. Whatever opinion you have, however, you cannot escape from grammar; it is in every sentence you read or write, speak or hear. Grammar is simply the word for the rules that people follow when they use a language. We need those rules in the same way as we need the rules in a game. If there are no rules, or if everybody follows their own rules, the game would soon break down. It's the same with language; without rules we would not be able to communicate with other people. So you cannot escape from grammar, but the key question here is: what is the best way to learn grammar? You can learn the rules of a game by simply playing the game. You will certainly make mistakes; you may even get hurt. Eventually, however, you will know how to play. Of course, the rules of a language are very much more complicated than the rules of any game, but in fact this is exactly how you learned your own language. Nobody taught you the rules of your mother tongue as you were growing up but now you never make a grammar mistake.

  11. Verification of business rules programs

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Bruno Berstel-Da

    2013-01-01

    Rules represent a simplified means of programming, congruent with our understanding of human brain constructs. With the advent of business rules management systems, it has been possible to introduce rule-based programming to nonprogrammers, allowing them to map expert intent into code in applications such as fraud detection, financial transactions, healthcare, retail, and marketing. However, a remaining concern is the quality, safety, and reliability of the resulting programs.  This book is on business rules programs, that is, rule programs as handled in business rules management systems. Its

  12. Decision rule classifiers for multi-label decision tables

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2014-01-01

    Recently, multi-label classification problem has received significant attention in the research community. This paper is devoted to study the effect of the considered rule heuristic parameters on the generalization error. The results of experiments for decision tables from UCI Machine Learning Repository and KEEL Repository show that rule heuristics taking into account both coverage and uncertainty perform better than the strategies taking into account a single criterion. © 2014 Springer International Publishing.

  13. Can power spectrum observations rule out slow-roll inflation?

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, J. P. P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony

    2017-01-01

    The spectral index of scalar perturbations is an important observable that allows us to learn about inflationary physics. In particular, a detection of a significant deviation from a constant spectral index could enable us to rule out the simplest class of inflation models. We investigate whether future observations could rule out canonical single-field slow-roll inflation given the parameters allowed by current observational constraints. We find that future measurements of a constant running...

  14. Fuzzy-logic based learning style prediction in e-learning using web ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tion, especially in web environments and proposes to use Fuzzy rules to handle the uncertainty in .... learning in safe and supportive environment ... working of the proposed Fuzzy-logic based learning style prediction in e-learning. Section 4.

  15. Convention on nuclear safety. Rules of procedure and financial rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The document presents the Rules of Procedure and Financial Rules that apply mutatis mutandis to any meeting of the Contracting Parties to the Convention on Nuclear Safety (INFCIRC/449) convened in accordance with Chapter 3 of the Convention. It includes four parts: General provisions, Preparatory process for review meetings, Review meetings, and Amendment and interpretation of rules

  16. Design and Analysis of Decision Rules via Dynamic Programming

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha M.

    2017-04-24

    The areas of machine learning, data mining, and knowledge representation have many different formats used to represent information. Decision rules, amongst these formats, are the most expressive and easily-understood by humans. In this thesis, we use dynamic programming to design decision rules and analyze them. The use of dynamic programming allows us to work with decision rules in ways that were previously only possible for brute force methods. Our algorithms allow us to describe the set of all rules for a given decision table. Further, we can perform multi-stage optimization by repeatedly reducing this set to only contain rules that are optimal with respect to selected criteria. One way that we apply this study is to generate small systems with short rules by simulating a greedy algorithm for the set cover problem. We also compare maximum path lengths (depth) of deterministic and non-deterministic decision trees (a non-deterministic decision tree is effectively a complete system of decision rules) with regards to Boolean functions. Another area of advancement is the presentation of algorithms for constructing Pareto optimal points for rules and rule systems. This allows us to study the existence of “totally optimal” decision rules (rules that are simultaneously optimal with regards to multiple criteria). We also utilize Pareto optimal points to compare and rate greedy heuristics with regards to two criteria at once. Another application of Pareto optimal points is the study of trade-offs between cost and uncertainty which allows us to find reasonable systems of decision rules that strike a balance between length and accuracy.

  17. Rules of Deception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhlin, Jonas

    In all wars, deception has been an important element for the military planners, on both the tactical level and the operational level. The good, effective deception operation is of great risk of conflicting with the current Laws of Armed Conflicts, which will be of great concern for the deception ......, the paper will discuss how the inclusion of mission specific rules of deception can greatly help define the boundaries, and give necessary guide lines for conducting deception operations within the laws of armed conflict....

  18. Optimization of Approximate Inhibitory Rules Relative to Number of Misclassifications

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2013-10-04

    In this work, we consider so-called nonredundant inhibitory rules, containing an expression “attribute:F value” on the right- hand side, for which the number of misclassifications is at most a threshold γ. We study a dynamic programming approach for description of the considered set of rules. This approach allows also the optimization of nonredundant inhibitory rules relative to the length and coverage. The aim of this paper is to investigate an additional possibility of optimization relative to the number of misclassifications. The results of experiments with decision tables from the UCI Machine Learning Repository show this additional optimization achieves a fewer misclassifications. Thus, the proposed optimization procedure is promising.

  19. Consistence of Network Filtering Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHE Kun; WU Yuancheng; HUANG Juncai; ZHOU Mingtian

    2004-01-01

    The inconsistence of firewall/VPN(Virtual Private Network) rule makes a huge maintainable cost.With development of Multinational Company,SOHO office,E-government the number of firewalls/VPN will increase rapidly.Rule table in stand-alone or network will be increased in geometric series accordingly.Checking the consistence of rule table manually is inadequate.A formal approach can define semantic consistence,make a theoretic foundation of intelligent management about rule tables.In this paper,a kind of formalization of host rules and network ones for auto rule-validation based on SET theory were proporsed and a rule validation scheme was defined.The analysis results show the superior performance of the methods and demonstrate its potential for the intelligent management based on rule tables.

  20. Different neurophysiological mechanisms underlying word and rule extraction from speech.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth De Diego Balaguer

    Full Text Available The initial process of identifying words from spoken language and the detection of more subtle regularities underlying their structure are mandatory processes for language acquisition. Little is known about the cognitive mechanisms that allow us to extract these two types of information and their specific time-course of acquisition following initial contact with a new language. We report time-related electrophysiological changes that occurred while participants learned an artificial language. These changes strongly correlated with the discovery of the structural rules embedded in the words. These changes were clearly different from those related to word learning and occurred during the first minutes of exposition. There is a functional distinction in the nature of the electrophysiological signals during acquisition: an increase in negativity (N400 in the central electrodes is related to word-learning and development of a frontal positivity (P2 is related to rule-learning. In addition, the results of an online implicit and a post-learning test indicate that, once the rules of the language have been acquired, new words following the rule are processed as words of the language. By contrast, new words violating the rule induce syntax-related electrophysiological responses when inserted online in the stream (an early frontal negativity followed by a late posterior positivity and clear lexical effects when presented in isolation (N400 modulation. The present study provides direct evidence suggesting that the mechanisms to extract words and structural dependencies from continuous speech are functionally segregated. When these mechanisms are engaged, the electrophysiological marker associated with rule-learning appears very quickly, during the earliest phases of exposition to a new language.

  1. Rule-Based Event Processing and Reaction Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschke, Adrian; Kozlenkov, Alexander

    Reaction rules and event processing technologies play a key role in making business and IT / Internet infrastructures more agile and active. While event processing is concerned with detecting events from large event clouds or streams in almost real-time, reaction rules are concerned with the invocation of actions in response to events and actionable situations. They state the conditions under which actions must be taken. In the last decades various reaction rule and event processing approaches have been developed, which for the most part have been advanced separately. In this paper we survey reaction rule approaches and rule-based event processing systems and languages.

  2. Proof Rules for Recursive Procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Wim H.

    1993-01-01

    Four proof rules for recursive procedures in a Pascal-like language are presented. The main rule deals with total correctness and is based on results of Gries and Martin. The rule is easier to apply than Martin's. It is introduced as an extension of a specification format for Pascal-procedures, with

  3. Endogeneously arising network allocation rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slikker, M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we study endogenously arising network allocation rules. We focus on three allocation rules: the Myerson value, the position value and the component-wise egalitarian solution. For any of these three rules we provide a characterization based on component efficiency and some balanced

  4. Business rules for creating process flexibility : Mapping RIF rules and BDI rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, Y.; Overbeek, S.J.; Janssen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Business rules and software agents can be used for creating flexible business processes. The Rule Interchange Format (RIF) is a new W3C recommendation standard for exchanging rules among disparate systems. Yet, the impact that the introduction of RIF has on the design of flexible business processes

  5. Post Rule of Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Kerstin Bree

    2016-01-01

    The value of developing hybrid international criminal procedure (ICP) is that it is arguably inclusive (representing two major legal traditions) and distinct from any domestic system, thus creating a separate, sui generis realm for international criminal law (ICL) jurists to meet. Since its...... addresses the practice of hybridity in ICP, drawing examples from the construction and evolution of hybrid procedure at the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY), to argue that the hybridity practiced by international criminal tribunals renders them ‘post rule of law’ institutions...

  6. OZI rule and instantons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, M.A.; Zahed, I.; Verbaarschot, J.J.M.

    1989-01-01

    We investigate the effects of strangeness mixing in the QCD vacuum described as a quantum disordered phase of instantons and anti-instantons. We find that the constituent mass of the light quarks is a decreasing function of the current quark masses, and that its mass is almost insensitive to the value of the strange quark mass. Our results cannot account for a breach in the OZI rule in the vacuum. The relevance of this result for the amount of santi s pairs in the nucleon and the pion-nucleon sigma term is discussed. (orig.)

  7. Description logic rules

    CERN Document Server

    Krötzsch, M

    2010-01-01

    Ontological modelling today is applied in many areas of science and technology,including the Semantic Web. The W3C standard OWL defines one of the most important ontology languages based on the semantics of description logics. An alternative is to use rule languages in knowledge modelling, as proposed in the W3C's RIF standard. So far, it has often been unclear how to combine both technologies without sacrificing essential computational properties. This book explains this problem and presents new solutions that have recently been proposed. Extensive introductory chapters provide the necessary

  8. A Hybrid Genetic Programming Algorithm for Automated Design of Dispatching Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Su; Mei, Yi; Xue, Bing; Zhang, Mengjie

    2018-06-04

    Designing effective dispatching rules for production systems is a difficult and timeconsuming task if it is done manually. In the last decade, the growth of computing power, advanced machine learning, and optimisation techniques has made the automated design of dispatching rules possible and automatically discovered rules are competitive or outperform existing rules developed by researchers. Genetic programming is one of the most popular approaches to discovering dispatching rules in the literature, especially for complex production systems. However, the large heuristic search space may restrict genetic programming from finding near optimal dispatching rules. This paper develops a new hybrid genetic programming algorithm for dynamic job shop scheduling based on a new representation, a new local search heuristic, and efficient fitness evaluators. Experiments show that the new method is effective regarding the quality of evolved rules. Moreover, evolved rules are also significantly smaller and contain more relevant attributes.

  9. Phonological Concept Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreton, Elliott; Pater, Joe; Pertsova, Katya

    2017-01-01

    Linguistic and non-linguistic pattern learning have been studied separately, but we argue for a comparative approach. Analogous inductive problems arise in phonological and visual pattern learning. Evidence from three experiments shows that human learners can solve them in analogous ways, and that human performance in both cases can be captured by the same models. We test GMECCS (Gradual Maximum Entropy with a Conjunctive Constraint Schema), an implementation of the Configural Cue Model (Gluck & Bower, ) in a Maximum Entropy phonotactic-learning framework (Goldwater & Johnson, ; Hayes & Wilson, ) with a single free parameter, against the alternative hypothesis that learners seek featurally simple algebraic rules ("rule-seeking"). We study the full typology of patterns introduced by Shepard, Hovland, and Jenkins () ("SHJ"), instantiated as both phonotactic patterns and visual analogs, using unsupervised training. Unlike SHJ, Experiments 1 and 2 found that both phonotactic and visual patterns that depended on fewer features could be more difficult than those that depended on more features, as predicted by GMECCS but not by rule-seeking. GMECCS also correctly predicted performance differences between stimulus subclasses within each pattern. A third experiment tried supervised training (which can facilitate rule-seeking in visual learning) to elicit simple rule-seeking phonotactic learning, but cue-based behavior persisted. We conclude that similar cue-based cognitive processes are available for phonological and visual concept learning, and hence that studying either kind of learning can lead to significant insights about the other. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  10. The Product and Quotient Rules Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleton, Roger; Kustov, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical elegance is illustrated by strikingly parallel versions of the product and quotient rules of basic calculus, with some applications. Corresponding rules for second derivatives are given: the product rule is familiar, but the quotient rule is less so.

  11. News and Trading Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    indexes or small groups of forex series. Although I use a shorter time period – five years for the work on technical analysis and machine learning, only...products. (“Indus International to Provide Transocean Sedco Forex With Robust Enterprise Asset Management Solution”, IINT, 3/7/2001) – Industry Group

  12. Hamburg rules V Hague Visby rules an English perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Tozaj Dorian; Xhelilaj Ermal

    2010-01-01

    It has often been argued for the effect of defences provided to carriers under Art IV (2) of Hague Visby Rules to almost nullify the protection guaranteed to shippers in other provisions of this convention. Therefore an all embracing universal shipper friendly convention, merely the Hamburg Rules, need be incorporated in all countries in order to address this issue and fully satisfy the intentions of the parties for the establishment of international rules in international trade

  13. Evolving fuzzy rules for relaxed-criteria negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Kwang Mong

    2008-12-01

    In the literature on automated negotiation, very few negotiation agents are designed with the flexibility to slightly relax their negotiation criteria to reach a consensus more rapidly and with more certainty. Furthermore, these relaxed-criteria negotiation agents were not equipped with the ability to enhance their performance by learning and evolving their relaxed-criteria negotiation rules. The impetus of this work is designing market-driven negotiation agents (MDAs) that not only have the flexibility of relaxing bargaining criteria using fuzzy rules, but can also evolve their structures by learning new relaxed-criteria fuzzy rules to improve their negotiation outcomes as they participate in negotiations in more e-markets. To this end, an evolutionary algorithm for adapting and evolving relaxed-criteria fuzzy rules was developed. Implementing the idea in a testbed, two kinds of experiments for evaluating and comparing EvEMDAs (MDAs with relaxed-criteria rules that are evolved using the evolutionary algorithm) and EMDAs (MDAs with relaxed-criteria rules that are manually constructed) were carried out through stochastic simulations. Empirical results show that: 1) EvEMDAs generally outperformed EMDAs in different types of e-markets and 2) the negotiation outcomes of EvEMDAs generally improved as they negotiated in more e-markets.

  14. New Games, New Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantiou, Ioanna; Kallinikos, Jannis

    2015-01-01

    Big data and the mechanisms by which it is produced and disseminated introduce important changes in the ways information is generated and made relevant for organizations. Big data often represents miscellaneous records of the whereabouts of large and shifting online crowds. It is frequently......, the usefulness of big data rests on their steady updatability, a condition that reduces the time span within which this data is useful or relevant. Jointly, these attributes challenge established rules of strategy making as these are manifested in the canons of procuring structured information of lasting value...... that addresses specific and long-term organizational objectives. The developments underlying big data thus seem to carry important implications for strategy making, and the data and information practices with which strategy has been associated. We conclude by placing the understanding of these changes within...

  15. Ruled Laguerre minimal surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Skopenkov, Mikhail

    2011-10-30

    A Laguerre minimal surface is an immersed surface in ℝ 3 being an extremal of the functional ∫ (H 2/K-1)dA. In the present paper, we prove that the only ruled Laguerre minimal surfaces are up to isometry the surfaces ℝ (φλ) = (Aφ, Bφ, Cφ + D cos 2φ) + λ(sin φ, cos φ, 0), where A,B,C,D ε ℝ are fixed. To achieve invariance under Laguerre transformations, we also derive all Laguerre minimal surfaces that are enveloped by a family of cones. The methodology is based on the isotropic model of Laguerre geometry. In this model a Laguerre minimal surface enveloped by a family of cones corresponds to a graph of a biharmonic function carrying a family of isotropic circles. We classify such functions by showing that the top view of the family of circles is a pencil. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  16. The biosphere rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, Gregory C

    2008-02-01

    Sustainability, defined by natural scientists as the capacity of healthy ecosystems to function indefinitely, has become a clarion call for business. Leading companies have taken high-profile steps toward achieving it: Wal-Mart, for example, with its efforts to reduce packaging waste, and Nike, which has removed toxic chemicals from its shoes. But, says Unruh, the director of Thunderbird's Lincoln Center for Ethics in Global Management, sustainability is more than an endless journey of incremental steps. It is a destination, for which the biosphere of planet Earth--refined through billions of years of trial and error--is a perfect model. Unruh distills some lessons from the biosphere into three rules: Use a parsimonious palette. Managers can rethink their sourcing strategies and dramatically simplify the number and types of materials their companies use in production, making recycling cost-effective. After the furniture manufacturer Herman Miller discovered that its leading desk chair had 200 components made from more than 800 chemical compounds, it designed an award-winning successor whose far more limited materials palette is 96% recyclable. Cycle up, virtuously. Manufacturers should design recovery value into their products at the outset. Shaw Industries, for example, recycles the nylon fiber from its worn-out carpet into brand-new carpet tile. Exploit the power of platforms. Platform design in industry tends to occur at the component level--but the materials in those components constitute a more fundamental platform. Patagonia, by recycling Capilene brand performance underwear, has achieved energy costs 76% below those for virgin sourcing. Biosphere rules can teach companies how to build ecologically friendly products that both reduce manufacturing costs and prove highly attractive to consumers. And managers need not wait for a green technological revolution to implement them.

  17. Dynamic Programming Approach for Exact Decision Rule Optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is devoted to the study of an extension of dynamic programming approach that allows sequential optimization of exact decision rules relative to the length and coverage. It contains also results of experiments with decision tables from UCI Machine Learning Repository. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013.

  18. Rule-based Test Generation with Mind Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitry Polivaev

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces basic concepts of rule based test generation with mind maps, and reports experiences learned from industrial application of this technique in the domain of smart card testing by Giesecke & Devrient GmbH over the last years. It describes the formalization of test selection criteria used by our test generator, our test generation architecture and test generation framework.

  19. Optimal Sequential Rules for Computer-Based Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Hans J.

    1998-01-01

    Formulates sequential rules for adapting the appropriate amount of instruction to learning needs in the context of computer-based instruction. Topics include Bayesian decision theory, threshold and linear-utility structure, psychometric model, optimal sequential number of test questions, and an empirical example of sequential instructional…

  20. Knowledge discovery with classification rules in a cardiovascular dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgorelec, Vili; Kokol, Peter; Stiglic, Milojka Molan; Hericko, Marjan; Rozman, Ivan

    2005-12-01

    In this paper we study an evolutionary machine learning approach to data mining and knowledge discovery based on the induction of classification rules. A method for automatic rules induction called AREX using evolutionary induction of decision trees and automatic programming is introduced. The proposed algorithm is applied to a cardiovascular dataset consisting of different groups of attributes which should possibly reveal the presence of some specific cardiovascular problems in young patients. A case study is presented that shows the use of AREX for the classification of patients and for discovering possible new medical knowledge from the dataset. The defined knowledge discovery loop comprises a medical expert's assessment of induced rules to drive the evolution of rule sets towards more appropriate solutions. The final result is the discovery of a possible new medical knowledge in the field of pediatric cardiology.

  1. Optimization of approximate decision rules relative to number of misclassifications

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha M.; Chikalov, Igor; Moshkov, Mikhail; Zielosko, Beata

    2012-01-01

    In the paper, we study an extension of dynamic programming approach which allows optimization of approximate decision rules relative to the number of misclassifications. We introduce an uncertainty measure J(T) which is a difference between the number of rows in a decision table T and the number of rows with the most common decision for T. For a nonnegative real number γ, we consider γ-decision rules that localize rows in subtables of T with uncertainty at most γ. The presented algorithm constructs a directed acyclic graph Δγ(T). Based on this graph we can describe the whole set of so-called irredundant γ-decision rules. We can optimize rules from this set according to the number of misclassifications. Results of experiments with decision tables from the UCI Machine Learning Repository are presented. © 2012 The authors and IOS Press. All rights reserved.

  2. Optimization of approximate decision rules relative to number of misclassifications

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha

    2012-12-01

    In the paper, we study an extension of dynamic programming approach which allows optimization of approximate decision rules relative to the number of misclassifications. We introduce an uncertainty measure J(T) which is a difference between the number of rows in a decision table T and the number of rows with the most common decision for T. For a nonnegative real number γ, we consider γ-decision rules that localize rows in subtables of T with uncertainty at most γ. The presented algorithm constructs a directed acyclic graph Δγ(T). Based on this graph we can describe the whole set of so-called irredundant γ-decision rules. We can optimize rules from this set according to the number of misclassifications. Results of experiments with decision tables from the UCI Machine Learning Repository are presented. © 2012 The authors and IOS Press. All rights reserved.

  3. Food rules in the Koran

    OpenAIRE

    Kocturk, Tahire O.

    2002-01-01

    Islam is now the second largest religion in Scandinavia and has a high representation among immigrant groups. Knowledge of food rules in Islam is a necessity for nutritionists in multicultural settings. Food rules as they appear in the Koran are contained within the concepts of halal and haram. Halal means lawful, permitted and recommended by the Islamic law. Haram is the opposite, meaning unlawful, prohibited. Food rules are meant to be observed by postpubertal people in good physical and me...

  4. Atomic Energy (factories) rules: 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    These rules are made by the Central Government under the Factories Act, 1948 and extend to all factories engaged in carrying out the purposes of the Atomic Energy Act, 1962. The rules cover the requirements of inspecting staff, health aspects, personnel safety, personnel welfare, working hours, employment of young persons, special provisions in case of dangerous manufacturing processes or operations, supplemental rules for administrative aspects and special powers of competent authority. (M.G.B.)

  5. Targeted training of the decision rule benefits rule-guided behavior in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ell, Shawn W

    2013-12-01

    The impact of Parkinson's disease (PD) on rule-guided behavior has received considerable attention in cognitive neuroscience. The majority of research has used PD as a model of dysfunction in frontostriatal networks, but very few attempts have been made to investigate the possibility of adapting common experimental techniques in an effort to identify the conditions that are most likely to facilitate successful performance. The present study investigated a targeted training paradigm designed to facilitate rule learning and application using rule-based categorization as a model task. Participants received targeted training in which there was no selective-attention demand (i.e., stimuli varied along a single, relevant dimension) or nontargeted training in which there was selective-attention demand (i.e., stimuli varied along a relevant dimension as well as an irrelevant dimension). Following training, all participants were tested on a rule-based task with selective-attention demand. During the test phase, PD patients who received targeted training performed similarly to control participants and outperformed patients who did not receive targeted training. As a preliminary test of the generalizability of the benefit of targeted training, a subset of the PD patients were tested on the Wisconsin card sorting task (WCST). PD patients who received targeted training outperformed PD patients who did not receive targeted training on several WCST performance measures. These data further characterize the contribution of frontostriatal circuitry to rule-guided behavior. Importantly, these data also suggest that PD patient impairment, on selective-attention-demanding tasks of rule-guided behavior, is not inevitable and highlight the potential benefit of targeted training.

  6. Dynamic programming approach to optimization of approximate decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha

    2013-02-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of an extension of dynamic programming approach which allows sequential optimization of approximate decision rules relative to the length and coverage. We introduce an uncertainty measure R(T) which is the number of unordered pairs of rows with different decisions in the decision table T. For a nonnegative real number β, we consider β-decision rules that localize rows in subtables of T with uncertainty at most β. Our algorithm constructs a directed acyclic graph Δβ(T) which nodes are subtables of the decision table T given by systems of equations of the kind "attribute = value". This algorithm finishes the partitioning of a subtable when its uncertainty is at most β. The graph Δβ(T) allows us to describe the whole set of so-called irredundant β-decision rules. We can describe all irredundant β-decision rules with minimum length, and after that among these rules describe all rules with maximum coverage. We can also change the order of optimization. The consideration of irredundant rules only does not change the results of optimization. This paper contains also results of experiments with decision tables from UCI Machine Learning Repository. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Challenges for Rule Systems on the Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuh-Jong; Yeh, Ching-Long; Laun, Wolfgang

    The RuleML Challenge started in 2007 with the objective of inspiring the issues of implementation for management, integration, interoperation and interchange of rules in an open distributed environment, such as the Web. Rules are usually classified as three types: deductive rules, normative rules, and reactive rules. The reactive rules are further classified as ECA rules and production rules. The study of combination rule and ontology is traced back to an earlier active rule system for relational and object-oriented (OO) databases. Recently, this issue has become one of the most important research problems in the Semantic Web. Once we consider a computer executable policy as a declarative set of rules and ontologies that guides the behavior of entities within a system, we have a flexible way to implement real world policies without rewriting the computer code, as we did before. Fortunately, we have de facto rule markup languages, such as RuleML or RIF to achieve the portability and interchange of rules for different rule systems. Otherwise, executing real-life rule-based applications on the Web is almost impossible. Several commercial or open source rule engines are available for the rule-based applications. However, we still need a standard rule language and benchmark for not only to compare the rule systems but also to measure the progress in the field. Finally, a number of real-life rule-based use cases will be investigated to demonstrate the applicability of current rule systems on the Web.

  8. Convention on nuclear safety. Rules of procedure and financial rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The document is the first revision of the Rules of Procedures and Financial Rules that apply mutatis mutandis to any meetings of the Contracting Parties to the Convention on Nuclear Safety (INFCIRC/573), convened in accordance with the Chapter 3 of the Convention

  9. Convention on Nuclear Safety. Rules of procedure and financial rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The document is the second revision of the Rules of Procedures and Financial Rules that apply mutatis mutandis to any meetings of the Contracting Parties to the Convention on Nuclear Safety (INFCIRC/573), convened in accordance with the Chapter 3 of the Convention

  10. Decision Rules, Trees and Tests for Tables with Many-valued Decisions–comparative Study

    KAUST Repository

    Azad, Mohammad

    2013-10-04

    In this paper, we present three approaches for construction of decision rules for decision tables with many-valued decisions. We construct decision rules directly for rows of decision table, based on paths in decision tree, and based on attributes contained in a test (super-reduct). Experimental results for the data sets taken from UCI Machine Learning Repository, contain comparison of the maximum and the average length of rules for the mentioned approaches.

  11. Decision Rules, Trees and Tests for Tables with Many-valued Decisions–comparative Study

    KAUST Repository

    Azad, Mohammad; Zielosko, Beata; Moshkov, Mikhail; Chikalov, Igor

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present three approaches for construction of decision rules for decision tables with many-valued decisions. We construct decision rules directly for rows of decision table, based on paths in decision tree, and based on attributes contained in a test (super-reduct). Experimental results for the data sets taken from UCI Machine Learning Repository, contain comparison of the maximum and the average length of rules for the mentioned approaches.

  12. Rule Versus the Causality Rule in Insurance Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Henrik

    When the Buyer of insurance has negligently kept silent or misrepresented a (material) fact to the Seller, one of two rules will determine the extent to which cover will consequently be reduced. The pro-rata rule lowers cover in proportion to how much the Seller would have increased the premium had...... he been correctly informed; the causality rule provides either zero cover if the omitted fact has caused the insurance event, or full cover if the event would have occurred regardless of the fact. This article explores which rule is more efficient. Using the framework proposed by Picard and Dixit...... it subjects the risk averse Buyer of insurance to less variance. This implies that the pro rata rule should apply when there is significant risk for a Buyer of unintentional misrepresentation, and when the incentive to intentionally misrepresent can be curtailed through frequent verification of the Buyer...

  13. Retrieving Knowledge in Social Situations: A Test of the Implicit Rules Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Janet R.

    1996-01-01

    Supports the Implicit Rules Model, which suggests that individuals acquire implicit rules that connect request situation schemas to behaviors. Shows how individuals, in two experiments, learned, based on feedback, which behaviors were "correct" for multiple instances, and then, on their own, chose the correct behavior for new instances.…

  14. A forecast-based STDP rule suitable for neuromorphic implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, S; Galluppi, F; Rast, A D; Furber, S B

    2012-08-01

    Artificial neural networks increasingly involve spiking dynamics to permit greater computational efficiency. This becomes especially attractive for on-chip implementation using dedicated neuromorphic hardware. However, both spiking neural networks and neuromorphic hardware have historically found difficulties in implementing efficient, effective learning rules. The best-known spiking neural network learning paradigm is Spike Timing Dependent Plasticity (STDP) which adjusts the strength of a connection in response to the time difference between the pre- and post-synaptic spikes. Approaches that relate learning features to the membrane potential of the post-synaptic neuron have emerged as possible alternatives to the more common STDP rule, with various implementations and approximations. Here we use a new type of neuromorphic hardware, SpiNNaker, which represents the flexible "neuromimetic" architecture, to demonstrate a new approach to this problem. Based on the standard STDP algorithm with modifications and approximations, a new rule, called STDP TTS (Time-To-Spike) relates the membrane potential with the Long Term Potentiation (LTP) part of the basic STDP rule. Meanwhile, we use the standard STDP rule for the Long Term Depression (LTD) part of the algorithm. We show that on the basis of the membrane potential it is possible to make a statistical prediction of the time needed by the neuron to reach the threshold, and therefore the LTP part of the STDP algorithm can be triggered when the neuron receives a spike. In our system these approximations allow efficient memory access, reducing the overall computational time and the memory bandwidth required. The improvements here presented are significant for real-time applications such as the ones for which the SpiNNaker system has been designed. We present simulation results that show the efficacy of this algorithm using one or more input patterns repeated over the whole time of the simulation. On-chip results show that

  15. Revised Rules for Concrete Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Jensen, F. M.; Middleton, C.

    This paper is based on research performed for the Highway Agency, London, UK under the project DPU/9/44 "Revision of Bridge Assessment Rules Based on Whole Life Performance: Concrete Bridges" It contains details of a methodology which can be used to generate Whole Life (WL) reliability profiles....... These WL reliability profiles may be used to establish revised rules for Concrete Bridges....

  16. Business model for business rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eline Haan; Martin Zoet; Koen Smit

    2014-01-01

    Business rule models are widely applied, standalone and embedded in smart objects. They have become segregated from information technology and they are now a valuable asset in their own right. As more business rule models are becoming assets, business models to monetize these assets are designed.

  17. Statistical Rules-of-Thumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, James K.

    1988-01-01

    Six best-selling introductory behavioral statistics textbooks that were published in 1982 and two well-known sampling theory textbooks were reviewed to determine the presence of rules-of-thumb--useful principles with wide application that are not intended to be strictly accurate. The relative frequency and type of rules are reported along with a…

  18. Spatio-Temporal Rule Mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2005-01-01

    Recent advances in communication and information technology, such as the increasing accuracy of GPS technology and the miniaturization of wireless communication devices pave the road for Location-Based Services (LBS). To achieve high quality for such services, spatio-temporal data mining techniques...... are needed. In this paper, we describe experiences with spatio-temporal rule mining in a Danish data mining company. First, a number of real world spatio-temporal data sets are described, leading to a taxonomy of spatio-temporal data. Second, the paper describes a general methodology that transforms...... the spatio-temporal rule mining task to the traditional market basket analysis task and applies it to the described data sets, enabling traditional association rule mining methods to discover spatio-temporal rules for LBS. Finally, unique issues in spatio-temporal rule mining are identified and discussed....

  19. Neuromorphic Deep Learning Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Neftci, E; Augustine, C; Paul, S; Detorakis, G

    2017-01-01

    An ongoing challenge in neuromorphic computing is to devise general and computationally efficient models of inference and learning which are compatible with the spatial and temporal constraints of the brain. One increasingly popular and successful approach is to take inspiration from inference and learning algorithms used in deep neural networks. However, the workhorse of deep learning, the gradient descent Back Propagation (BP) rule, often relies on the immediate availability of network-wide...

  20. The rule of rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKie, John; Richardson, Jeff

    2003-06-01

    Jonsen coined the term "Rule of Rescue"(RR) to describe the imperative people feel to rescue identifiable individuals facing avoidable death. In this paper we attempt to draw a more detailed picture of the RR, identifying its conflict with cost-effectiveness analysis, the preference it entails for identifiable over statistical lives, the shock-horror response it elicits, the preference it entails for lifesaving over non-lifesaving measures, its extension to non-life-threatening conditions, and whether it is motivated by duty or sympathy. We also consider the measurement problems it raises, and argue that quantifying the RR would probably require a two-stage procedure. In the first stage the size of the individual utility gain from a health intervention would be assessed using a technique such as the Standard Gamble or the Time Trade-Off, and in the second the social benefits arising from the RR would be quantified employing the Person Trade-Off. We also consider the normative status of the RR. We argue that it can be defended from a utilitarian point of view, on the ground that rescues increase well-being by reinforcing people's belief that they live in a community that places great value upon life. However, utilitarianism has long been criticised for failing to take sufficient account of fairness, and the case is no different here: fairness requires that we do not discriminate between individuals on morally irrelevant grounds, whereas being "identifiable" does not seem to be a morally relevant ground for discrimination.

  1. Checklists, rules and creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasmacher, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Universities have something that private industry wants - a unique culture of continuous learning, curiosity-driven research and international collaboration. According to an unending string of accounts in the business press, adopting this university culture is imperative for survival and success in the "technology-driven" 21st-century economy. The industry poster child for this idea is the IT giant Google. Its success undoubtedly buys the company increasing freedom to experiment with and nurture its own unique culture. But Google is routinely lauded for fostering academic-style debate in meetings, maintaining a fluid organization chart that allows employees to try other roles, and giving its engineers one day a week to pursue their own creative ideas for advancing the company's interests.

  2. Firm heterogeneity, Rules of Origin and Rules of Cumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Bombarda , Pamela; Gamberoni , Elisa

    2013-01-01

    We analyse the impact of relaxing rules of origin (ROOs) in a simple setting with heterogeneous firms that buy intermediate inputs from domestic and foreign sources. In particular, we consider the impact of switching from bilateral to diagonal cumulation when using preferences (instead of paying the MFN tariff) involving the respect of rules of origin. We find that relaxing the restrictiveness of the ROOs leads the least productive exporters to stop exporting. The empirical part confirms thes...

  3. Operator algebra from fusion rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, J.

    1989-03-01

    It is described how the fusion rules of a conformal field theory can be employed to derive differential equations for the four-point functions of the theory, and thus to determine eventually the operator product coeffients for primary fields. The results are applied to the Ising fusion rules. A set of theories possessing these function rules is found which is labelled by two discrete parameters. For a specific value of one of the parameters, these are the level one Spin(2m+1) Wess-Zusimo-Witten theories; it is shown that they represent an infinite number of inequivalent theories. (author). 38 refs

  4. Learning unlearnable problems with perceptrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkin, Timothy L. H.; Rau, Albrecht

    1992-03-01

    We study how well perceptrons learn to solve problems for which there is no perfect answer (the usual case), taking as examples a rule with a threshold, a rule in which the answer is not a monotonic function of the overlap between question and teacher, and a rule with many teachers (a ``hard'' unlearnable problem). In general there is a tendency for first-order transitions, even using spherical perceptrons, as networks compromise between conflicting requirements. Some existing learning schemes fail completely-occasionally even finding the worst possible solution; others are more successful. High-temperature learning seems more satisfactory than zero-temperature algorithms and avoids ``overlearning'' and ``overfitting,'' but care must be taken to avoid ``trapping'' in spurious free-energy minima. For some rules examples alone are not enough to learn from, and some prior information is required.

  5. Decision Mining Revisited – Discovering Overlapping Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mannhardt, F.; de Leoni, M.; Reijers, H.A.; van der Aalst, W.M.P.

    2016-01-01

    Decision mining enriches process models with rules underlying decisions in processes using historical process execution data. Choices between multiple activities are specified through rules defined over process data. Existing decision mining methods focus on discovering mutually-exclusive rules,

  6. Decision Mining Revisited - Discovering Overlapping Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mannhardt, F.; De Leoni, M.; Reijers, H.A.; van der Aalst, W.M.P.; Nurcan, S.; Soffer, P.; Bajec, M.; Eder, J.

    2016-01-01

    Decision mining enriches process models with rules underlying decisions in processes using historical process execution data. Choices between multiple activities are specified through rules defined over process data. Existing decision mining methods focus on discovering mutually-exclusive rules,

  7. Decision mining revisited - Discovering overlapping rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mannhardt, Felix; De Leoni, Massimiliano; Reijers, Hajo A.; Van Der Aalst, Wil M P

    2016-01-01

    Decision mining enriches process models with rules underlying decisions in processes using historical process execution data. Choices between multiple activities are specified through rules defined over process data. Existing decision mining methods focus on discovering mutually-exclusive rules,

  8. Choice Rules and Accumulator Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a preference accumulation model that can be used to implement a number of different multi-attribute heuristic choice rules, including the lexicographic rule, the majority of confirming dimensions (tallying) rule and the equal weights rule. The proposed model differs from existing accumulators in terms of attribute representation: Leakage and competition, typically applied only to preference accumulation, are also assumed to be involved in processing attribute values. This allows the model to perform a range of sophisticated attribute-wise comparisons, including comparisons that compute relative rank. The ability of a preference accumulation model composed of leaky competitive networks to mimic symbolic models of heuristic choice suggests that these 2 approaches are not incompatible, and that a unitary cognitive model of preferential choice, based on insights from both these approaches, may be feasible. PMID:28670592

  9. q-state Potts-glass neural network based on pseudoinverse rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Daxing; Zhao Hong

    2010-01-01

    We study the q-state Potts-glass neural network with the pseudoinverse (PI) rule. Its performance is investigated and compared with that of the counterpart network with the Hebbian rule instead. We find that there exists a critical point of q, i.e., q cr =14, below which the storage capacity and the retrieval quality can be greatly improved by introducing the PI rule. We show that the dynamics of the neural networks constructed with the two learning rules respectively are quite different; but however, regardless of the learning rules, in the q-state Potts-glass neural networks with q≥3 there is a common novel dynamical phase in which the spurious memories are completely suppressed. This property has never been noticed in the symmetric feedback neural networks. Free from the spurious memories implies that the multistate Potts-glass neural networks would not be trapped in the metastable states, which is a favorable property for their applications.

  10. Boltzmann learning of parameters in cellular neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai

    1992-01-01

    The use of Bayesian methods to design cellular neural networks for signal processing tasks and the Boltzmann machine learning rule for parameter estimation is discussed. The learning rule can be used for models with hidden units, or for completely unsupervised learning. The latter is exemplified...

  11. 'Sum rules' for preequilibrium reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, M.S.

    1981-03-01

    Evidence that suggests a correct relationship between the optical transmission matrix, P, and the several correlation widths, gamma sub(n), found in nsmission matrix, P, and the several correlation widths, n, found in multistep compound (preequilibrium) nuclear reactions, is presented. A second sum rule is also derived within the shell model approach to nuclear reactions. Indications of the potential usefulness of the sum rules in preequilibrium studies are given. (Author) [pt

  12. Cellular automata with voting rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowiec, D.

    1996-01-01

    The chosen local interaction - the voting (majority) rule applied to the square lattice is known to cause the non ergodic cellular automata behaviour. Presented computer simulation results verify two cases of non ergodicity. The first one is implicated by the noise introduced to the local interactions and the second one follows properties of the initial lattice configuration selected at random. For the simplified voting rule - non symmetric voting, the critical behaviour has been explained rigorously. (author)

  13. Sum rules in classical scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolle, D.; Osborn, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper derives sum rules associated with the classical scattering of two particles. These sum rules are the analogs of Levinson's theorem in quantum mechanics which provides a relationship between the number of bound-state wavefunctions and the energy integral of the time delay of the scattering process. The associated classical relation is an identity involving classical time delay and an integral over the classical bound-state density. We show that equalities between the Nth-order energy moment of the classical time delay and the Nth-order energy moment of the classical bound-state density hold in both a local and a global form. Local sum rules involve the time delay defined on a finite but otherwise arbitrary coordinate space volume S and the bound-state density associated with this same region. Global sum rules are those that obtain when S is the whole coordinate space. Both the local and global sum rules are derived for potentials of arbitrary shape and for scattering in any space dimension. Finally the set of classical sum rules, together with the known quantum mechanical analogs, are shown to provide a unified method of obtaining the high-temperature expansion of the classical, respectively the quantum-mechanical, virial coefficients

  14. Using the Chain Rule as the Key Link in Deriving the General Rules for Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprows, David

    2011-01-01

    The standard approach to the general rules for differentiation is to first derive the power, product, and quotient rules and then derive the chain rule. In this short article we give an approach to these rules which uses the chain rule as the main tool in deriving the power, product, and quotient rules in a manner which is more student-friendly…

  15. Looking for exceptions on knowledge rules induced from HIV cleavage data set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Cristiano Prati

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of data mining is to find useful knowledge inout of databases. In order to extract such knowledge, several methods can be used, among them machine learning (ML algorithms. In this work we focus on ML algorithms that express the extracted knowledge in a symbolic form, such as rules. This representation may allow us to ''explain'' the data. Rule learning algorithms are mainly designed to induce classification rules that can predict new cases with high accuracy. However, these sorts of rules generally express common sense knowledge, resulting in many interesting and useful rules not being discovered. Furthermore, the domain independent biases, especially those related to the language used to express the induced knowledge, could induce rules that are difficult to understand. Exceptions might be used in order to overcome these drawbacks. Exceptions are defined as rules that contradict common believebeliefs. This kind of rules can play an important role in the process of understanding the underlying data as well as in making critical decisions. By contradicting the user's common beliefves, exceptions are bound to be interesting. This work proposes a method to find exceptions. In order to illustrate the potential of our approach, we apply the method in a real world data set to discover rules and exceptions in the HIV virus protein cleavage process. A good understanding of the process that generates this data plays an important role oin the research of cleavage inhibitors. We consider believe that the proposed approach may help the domain expert to further understand this process.

  16. Geometrical methods in learning theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdet, G.; Combe, Ph.; Nencka, H.

    2001-01-01

    The methods of information theory provide natural approaches to learning algorithms in the case of stochastic formal neural networks. Most of the classical techniques are based on some extremization principle. A geometrical interpretation of the associated algorithms provides a powerful tool for understanding the learning process and its stability and offers a framework for discussing possible new learning rules. An illustration is given using sequential and parallel learning in the Boltzmann machine

  17. Optimization of decision rules based on dynamic programming approach

    KAUST Repository

    Zielosko, Beata

    2014-01-14

    This chapter is devoted to the study of an extension of dynamic programming approach which allows optimization of approximate decision rules relative to the length and coverage. We introduce an uncertainty measure that is the difference between number of rows in a given decision table and the number of rows labeled with the most common decision for this table divided by the number of rows in the decision table. We fix a threshold γ, such that 0 ≤ γ < 1, and study so-called γ-decision rules (approximate decision rules) that localize rows in subtables which uncertainty is at most γ. Presented algorithm constructs a directed acyclic graph Δ γ T which nodes are subtables of the decision table T given by pairs "attribute = value". The algorithm finishes the partitioning of a subtable when its uncertainty is at most γ. The chapter contains also results of experiments with decision tables from UCI Machine Learning Repository. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

  18. A rule of thumb in mammalian herbivores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augner; Provenza; Villalba

    1998-08-01

    In two experiments on appetitive learning we conditioned lambs, Ovis aries, to particular concentrations of a flavour by mixing the flavour with an energy-rich food that complemented their energy-poor diet. The lambs were subsequently offered energy-rich food with five different concentrations of the flavour (the concentration to which they were conditioned, two higher concentrations, and two lower concentrations). At these tests, the lambs consistently preferred the weaker flavours. This finding stands in contrast to earlier results on generalization gradients. In a third experiment, similarly designed to the other two, we tested for effects of a strong flavour on the behaviour of lambs when they were offered a novel nutritious food. Half of the lambs were offered unadulterated wheat, and the others strongly flavoured wheat. We found that the flavour in itself was initially aversive. We propose that the lambs' avoidance of foods with strong flavours may be an expression of a rule of thumb of the type 'given a choice, avoid food with strong flavours'. Such a rule could be part of a risk-averse foraging strategy displayed by mammalian herbivores, and which could be of particular importance when they encounter unfamiliar foods. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour

  19. Bridging Weighted Rules and Graph Random Walks for Statistical Relational Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mehran Kazemi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of statistical relational learning is to learn statistical models from relational or graph-structured data. Three main statistical relational learning paradigms include weighted rule learning, random walks on graphs, and tensor factorization. These paradigms have been mostly developed and studied in isolation for many years, with few works attempting at understanding the relationship among them or combining them. In this article, we study the relationship between the path ranking algorithm (PRA, one of the most well-known relational learning methods in the graph random walk paradigm, and relational logistic regression (RLR, one of the recent developments in weighted rule learning. We provide a simple way to normalize relations and prove that relational logistic regression using normalized relations generalizes the path ranking algorithm. This result provides a better understanding of relational learning, especially for the weighted rule learning and graph random walk paradigms. It opens up the possibility of using the more flexible RLR rules within PRA models and even generalizing both by including normalized and unnormalized relations in the same model.

  20. Sum rules for collisional processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oreg, J.; Goldstein, W.H.; Bar-Shalom, A.; Klapisch, M.

    1991-01-01

    We derive level-to-configuration sum rules for dielectronic capture and for collisional excitation and ionization. These sum rules give the total transition rate from a detailed atomic level to an atomic configuration. For each process, we show that it is possible to factor out the dependence on continuum-electron wave functions. The remaining explicit level dependence of each rate is then obtained from the matrix element of an effective operator acting on the bound orbitals only. In a large class of cases, the effective operator reduces to a one-electron monopole whose matrix element is proportional to the statistical weight of the level. We show that even in these cases, nonstatistical level dependence enters through the dependence of radial integrals on continuum orbitals. For each process, explicit analytic expressions for the level-to-configuration sum rules are given for all possible cases. Together with the well-known J-file sum rule for radiative rates [E. U. Condon and G. H. Shortley, The Theory of Atomic Spectra (University Press, Cambridge, 1935)], the sum rules offer a systematic and efficient procedure for collapsing high-multiplicity configurations into ''effective'' levels for the purpose of modeling the population kinetics of ionized heavy atoms in plasma

  1. Circuit mechanisms of sensorimotor learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Hiroshi; Hwang, Eun Jung; Hedrick, Nathan G.; Komiyama, Takaki

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The relationship between the brain and the environment is flexible, forming the foundation for our ability to learn. Here we review the current state of our understanding of the modifications in the sensorimotor pathway related to sensorimotor learning. We divide the process in three hierarchical levels with distinct goals: 1) sensory perceptual learning, 2) sensorimotor associative learning, and 3) motor skill learning. Perceptual learning optimizes the representations of important sensory stimuli. Associative learning and the initial phase of motor skill learning are ensured by feedback-based mechanisms that permit trial-and-error learning. The later phase of motor skill learning may primarily involve feedback-independent mechanisms operating under the classic Hebbian rule. With these changes under distinct constraints and mechanisms, sensorimotor learning establishes dedicated circuitry for the reproduction of stereotyped neural activity patterns and behavior. PMID:27883902

  2. 75 FR 51934 - Telemarketing Sales Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 310 Telemarketing Sales Rule AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION: Final rule; correction. SUMMARY: The Federal Trade Commission (``Commission'') published a final rule on August 10, 2010, adopting amendments to the Telemarketing Sales Rule that address the...

  3. Dynamic programming approach for partial decision rule optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha

    2012-10-04

    This paper is devoted to the study of an extension of dynamic programming approach which allows optimization of partial decision rules relative to the length or coverage. We introduce an uncertainty measure J(T) which is the difference between number of rows in a decision table T and number of rows with the most common decision for T. For a nonnegative real number γ, we consider γ-decision rules (partial decision rules) that localize rows in subtables of T with uncertainty at most γ. Presented algorithm constructs a directed acyclic graph Δ γ(T) which nodes are subtables of the decision table T given by systems of equations of the kind "attribute = value". This algorithm finishes the partitioning of a subtable when its uncertainty is at most γ. The graph Δ γ(T) allows us to describe the whole set of so-called irredundant γ-decision rules. We can optimize such set of rules according to length or coverage. This paper contains also results of experiments with decision tables from UCI Machine Learning Repository.

  4. Dynamic programming approach for partial decision rule optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha M.; Chikalov, Igor; Moshkov, Mikhail; Zielosko, Beata

    2012-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of an extension of dynamic programming approach which allows optimization of partial decision rules relative to the length or coverage. We introduce an uncertainty measure J(T) which is the difference between number of rows in a decision table T and number of rows with the most common decision for T. For a nonnegative real number γ, we consider γ-decision rules (partial decision rules) that localize rows in subtables of T with uncertainty at most γ. Presented algorithm constructs a directed acyclic graph Δ γ(T) which nodes are subtables of the decision table T given by systems of equations of the kind "attribute = value". This algorithm finishes the partitioning of a subtable when its uncertainty is at most γ. The graph Δ γ(T) allows us to describe the whole set of so-called irredundant γ-decision rules. We can optimize such set of rules according to length or coverage. This paper contains also results of experiments with decision tables from UCI Machine Learning Repository.

  5. Integration rules for scattering equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baadsgaard, Christian; Bjerrum-Bohr, N.E.J.; Bourjaily, Jacob L.; Damgaard, Poul H.

    2015-01-01

    As described by Cachazo, He and Yuan, scattering amplitudes in many quantum field theories can be represented as integrals that are fully localized on solutions to the so-called scattering equations. Because the number of solutions to the scattering equations grows quite rapidly, the contour of integration involves contributions from many isolated components. In this paper, we provide a simple, combinatorial rule that immediately provides the result of integration against the scattering equation constraints for any Möbius-invariant integrand involving only simple poles. These rules have a simple diagrammatic interpretation that makes the evaluation of any such integrand immediate. Finally, we explain how these rules are related to the computation of amplitudes in the field theory limit of string theory.

  6. Assessing predation risk: optimal behaviour and rules of thumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, Nicky J; McNamara, John M; Houston, Alasdair I

    2003-12-01

    We look at a simple model in which an animal makes behavioural decisions over time in an environment in which all parameters are known to the animal except predation risk. In the model there is a trade-off between gaining information about predation risk and anti-predator behaviour. All predator attacks lead to death for the prey, so that the prey learns about predation risk by virtue of the fact that it is still alive. We show that it is not usually optimal to behave as if the current unbiased estimate of the predation risk is its true value. We consider two different ways to model reproduction; in the first scenario the animal reproduces throughout its life until it dies, and in the second scenario expected reproductive success depends on the level of energy reserves the animal has gained by some point in time. For both of these scenarios we find results on the form of the optimal strategy and give numerical examples which compare optimal behaviour with behaviour under simple rules of thumb. The numerical examples suggest that the value of the optimal strategy over the rules of thumb is greatest when there is little current information about predation risk, learning is not too costly in terms of predation, and it is energetically advantageous to learn about predation. We find that for the model and parameters investigated, a very simple rule of thumb such as 'use the best constant control' performs well.

  7. Atypical Rulings of the Indonesian Constitutional Court

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bisariyadi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In deciding judicial review cases, the Court may issue rulings that is not in accordance to what is stipulated in the Constitutional Court Law (Law Number 8 Year 2011. Atypical rulings means that the court may reconstruct a provision, delay the legislation/rulings enactment or give instruction to lawmakers. In addition, the court also introduce the “conditionally (unconstitutional” concept. This essay attempts to identify and classify these atypical rulings, including conditionally (un constitutional rulings, by examined the constitutional court judicial review rulings from 2003 to 2015. This study will provide a ground work for advance research on typical rulings by the Indonesian constitutional court.

  8. Conformance Testing: Measurement Decision Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimbs, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of a Quality Management System (QMS) as specified in ISO 9001 and AS9100 is to provide assurance to the customer that end products meet specifications. Measuring devices, often called measuring and test equipment (MTE), are used to provide the evidence of product conformity to specified requirements. Unfortunately, processes that employ MTE can become a weak link to the overall QMS if proper attention is not given to the measurement process design, capability, and implementation. Documented "decision rules" establish the requirements to ensure measurement processes provide the measurement data that supports the needs of the QMS. Measurement data are used to make the decisions that impact all areas of technology. Whether measurements support research, design, production, or maintenance, ensuring the data supports the decision is crucial. Measurement data quality can be critical to the resulting consequences of measurement-based decisions. Historically, most industries required simplistic, one-size-fits-all decision rules for measurements. One-size-fits-all rules in some cases are not rigorous enough to provide adequate measurement results, while in other cases are overly conservative and too costly to implement. Ideally, decision rules should be rigorous enough to match the criticality of the parameter being measured, while being flexible enough to be cost effective. The goal of a decision rule is to ensure that measurement processes provide data with a sufficient level of quality to support the decisions being made - no more, no less. This paper discusses the basic concepts of providing measurement-based evidence that end products meet specifications. Although relevant to all measurement-based conformance tests, the target audience is the MTE end-user, which is anyone using MTE other than calibration service providers. Topics include measurement fundamentals, the associated decision risks, verifying conformance to specifications, and basic measurement

  9. Gaming the system. Dodging the rules, ruling the dodgers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morreim, E H

    1991-03-01

    Although traditional obligations of fidelity require physicians to deliver quality care to their patients, including to utilize costly technologies, physicians are steadily losing their accustomed control over the necessary resources. The "economic agents" who own the medical and monetary resources of care now impose a wide array of rules and restrictions in order to contain their costs of operation. However, physicians can still control resources indirectly through "gaming the system," employing tactics such as "fudging" that exploit resource rules' ambiguity and flexibility to bypass the rules while ostensibly honoring them. Physicians may be especially inclined to game the system where resource rules seriously underserve patients' needs, where economic agents seem to be "gaming the patient," with needless obstacles to care, or where others, such as hospitals or even physicians themselves, may be denied needed reimbursements. Though tempting, gaming is morally and medically hazardous. It can harm patients and society, offend honesty, and violate basic principles of contractual and distributive justice. It is also, in fact, usually unnecessary in securing needed resources for patients. More fundamentally, we must reconsider what physicians owe their patients. They owe what is theirs to give: their competence, care and loyalty. In light of medicine's changing economics, two new duties emerge: economic advising, whereby physicians explicitly discuss the economic as well as medical aspects of each treatment option; and economic advocacy, whereby physicians intercede actively on their patients' behalf with the economic agents who control the resources.

  10. Methodological approaches based on business rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Ioana ANDREESCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Business rules and business processes are essential artifacts in defining the requirements of a software system. Business processes capture business behavior, while rules connect processes and thus control processes and business behavior. Traditionally, rules are scattered inside application code. This approach makes it very difficult to change rules and shorten the life cycle of the software system. Because rules change more quickly than the application itself, it is desirable to externalize the rules and move them outside the application. This paper analyzes and evaluates three well-known business rules approaches. It also outlines some critical factors that have to be taken into account in the decision to introduce business rules facilities in a software system. Based on the concept of explicit manipulation of business rules in a software system, the need for a general approach based on business rules is discussed.

  11. Ellipsoidal fuzzy learning for smart car platoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Julie A.; Kosko, Bart

    1993-12-01

    A neural-fuzzy system combined supervised and unsupervised learning to find and tune the fuzzy-rules. An additive fuzzy system approximates a function by covering its graph with fuzzy rules. A fuzzy rule patch can take the form of an ellipsoid in the input-output space. Unsupervised competitive learning found the statistics of data clusters. The covariance matrix of each synaptic quantization vector defined on ellipsoid centered at the centroid of the data cluster. Tightly clustered data gave smaller ellipsoids or more certain rules. Sparse data gave larger ellipsoids or less certain rules. Supervised learning tuned the ellipsoids to improve the approximation. The supervised neural system used gradient descent to find the ellipsoidal fuzzy patches. It locally minimized the mean-squared error of the fuzzy approximation. Hybrid ellipsoidal learning estimated the control surface for a smart car controller.

  12. A multiplicative reinforcement learning model capturing learning dynamics and interindividual variability in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Bathellier, Brice; Tee, Sui Poh; Hrovat, Christina; Rumpel, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Learning speed can strongly differ across individuals. This is seen in humans and animals. Here, we measured learning speed in mice performing a discrimination task and developed a theoretical model based on the reinforcement learning framework to account for differences between individual mice. We found that, when using a multiplicative learning rule, the starting connectivity values of the model strongly determine the shape of learning curves. This is in contrast to current learning models ...

  13. Methodological approaches based on business rules

    OpenAIRE

    Anca Ioana ANDREESCU; Adina UTA

    2008-01-01

    Business rules and business processes are essential artifacts in defining the requirements of a software system. Business processes capture business behavior, while rules connect processes and thus control processes and business behavior. Traditionally, rules are scattered inside application code. This approach makes it very difficult to change rules and shorten the life cycle of the software system. Because rules change more quickly than the application itself, it is desirable to externalize...

  14. Evolving temporal association rules with genetic algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, Stephen G.; Gongora, Mario A.; Hopgood, Adrian A.

    2010-01-01

    A novel framework for mining temporal association rules by discovering itemsets with a genetic algorithm is introduced. Metaheuristics have been applied to association rule mining, we show the efficacy of extending this to another variant - temporal association rule mining. Our framework is an enhancement to existing temporal association rule mining methods as it employs a genetic algorithm to simultaneously search the rule space and temporal space. A methodology for validating the ability of...

  15. Rules Extraction with an Immune Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deqin Yan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a method of extracting rules with immune algorithms from information systems is proposed. Designing an immune algorithm is based on a sharing mechanism to extract rules. The principle of sharing and competing resources in the sharing mechanism is consistent with the relationship of sharing and rivalry among rules. In order to extract rules efficiently, a new concept of flexible confidence and rule measurement is introduced. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed method is effective.

  16. Bisphenol A; Final Test Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is issuing a final rule, under section 4 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) requiring manufacturers and processors of bisphenol A, hereinafter BPA, (4.4’-isopropylidenediphenol, CAS No. 80-05—7) to conduct a 90-day inhalation study.

  17. Polarizability sum rules in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llanta, E.; Tarrach, R.

    1978-01-01

    The well founded total photoproduction and the, assumed subtraction free, longitudinal photoproduction polarizability sum rules are checked in QED at the lowest non-trivial order. The first one is shown to hold, whereas the second one turns out to need a subtraction, which makes its usefulness for determining the electromagnetic polarizabilities of the nucleons quite doubtful. (Auth.)

  18. Rules and Acts of Considerateness

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beran, Ondřej

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 3 (2015), s. 395-418 ISSN 1370-0049 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-20785S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : normativity, moral rules * Wittgensteinian ethics * particularity Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion Impact factor: 0.250, year: 2015

  19. Phase space quark counting rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei-gin, C.; Lo, S.

    1980-01-01

    A simple quark counting rule based on phase space consideration suggested before is used to fit all 39 recent experimental data points on inclusive reactions. Parameter free relations are found to agree with experiments. Excellent detail fits are obtained for 11 inclusive reactions

  20. Selection rules for splitting strings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achucarro, A; Gregory, R

    1997-01-01

    It has been pointed out that Nielsen-Olesen vortices may be able to decay by pair production of black holes. We show that when the Abelian-Higgs model is embedded in a larger theory, the additional fields mau lead to selection rules for this process-even in the absence of fermions-due to the failure

  1. Cosmic-ray sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frandsen, Mads T.; Masina, Isabella; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    We introduce new sum rules allowing to determine universal properties of the unknown component of the cosmic rays; we show how they can be used to predict the positron fraction at energies not yet explored by current experiments, and to constrain specific models.

  2. New Economy - New Policy Rules?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bullard, J.; Schaling, E.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. economy appears to have experienced a pronounced shift toward higher productivity over the last five years or so. We wish to understand the implications of such shifts for the structure of optimal monetary policy rules in simple dynamic economies. Accordingly, we begin with a standard

  3. Rule-based Information Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Keijzer, Ander; van Keulen, Maurice

    2005-01-01

    In this report, we show the process of information integration. We specifically discuss the language used for integration. We show that integration consists of two phases, the schema mapping phase and the data integration phase. We formally define transformation rules, conversion, evolution and

  4. Following the Rules of Discourse

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peregrin, Jaroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2010), s. 118-128 ISSN 1877-3095 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA401/07/0904 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : rule * normativity * speech acts * evolution Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  5. Neutrino mass sum-rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damanik, Asan

    2018-03-01

    Neutrino mass sum-rele is a very important research subject from theoretical side because neutrino oscillation experiment only gave us two squared-mass differences and three mixing angles. We review neutrino mass sum-rule in literature that have been reported by many authors and discuss its phenomenological implications.

  6. Use of a Recursive-Rule eXtraction algorithm with J48graft to achieve highly accurate and concise rule extraction from a large breast cancer dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichi Hayashi

    Full Text Available To assist physicians in the diagnosis of breast cancer and thereby improve survival, a highly accurate computer-aided diagnostic system is necessary. Although various machine learning and data mining approaches have been devised to increase diagnostic accuracy, most current methods are inadequate. The recently developed Recursive-Rule eXtraction (Re-RX algorithm provides a hierarchical, recursive consideration of discrete variables prior to analysis of continuous data, and can generate classification rules that have been trained on the basis of both discrete and continuous attributes. The objective of this study was to extract highly accurate, concise, and interpretable classification rules for diagnosis using the Re-RX algorithm with J48graft, a class for generating a grafted C4.5 decision tree. We used the Wisconsin Breast Cancer Dataset (WBCD. Nine research groups provided 10 kinds of highly accurate concrete classification rules for the WBCD. We compared the accuracy and characteristics of the rule set for the WBCD generated using the Re-RX algorithm with J48graft with five rule sets obtained using 10-fold cross validation (CV. We trained the WBCD using the Re-RX algorithm with J48graft and the average classification accuracies of 10 runs of 10-fold CV for the training and test datasets, the number of extracted rules, and the average number of antecedents for the WBCD. Compared with other rule extraction algorithms, the Re-RX algorithm with J48graft resulted in a lower average number of rules for diagnosing breast cancer, which is a substantial advantage. It also provided the lowest average number of antecedents per rule. These features are expected to greatly aid physicians in making accurate and concise diagnoses for patients with breast cancer. Keywords: Breast cancer diagnosis, Rule extraction, Re-RX algorithm, J48graft, C4.5

  7. Exploration of SWRL Rule Bases through Visualization, Paraphrasing, and Categorization of Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanpour, Saeed; O'Connor, Martin J.; Das, Amar K.

    Rule bases are increasingly being used as repositories of knowledge content on the Semantic Web. As the size and complexity of these rule bases increases, developers and end users need methods of rule abstraction to facilitate rule management. In this paper, we describe a rule abstraction method for Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL) rules that is based on lexical analysis and a set of heuristics. Our method results in a tree data structure that we exploit in creating techniques to visualize, paraphrase, and categorize SWRL rules. We evaluate our approach by applying it to several biomedical ontologies that contain SWRL rules, and show how the results reveal rule patterns within the rule base. We have implemented our method as a plug-in tool for Protégé-OWL, the most widely used ontology modeling software for the Semantic Web. Our tool can allow users to rapidly explore content and patterns in SWRL rule bases, enabling their acquisition and management.

  8. Performance based regulation - The maintenance rule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Richard P. [NRR/DOTS/TQMP, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, M/S OWFN 10A19, Washington, D.C. 20555 (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has begun a transition from 'process-oriented' to 'results-oriented' regulations. The maintenance rule is a results-oriented rule that mandates consideration of risk and plant performance. The Maintenance Rule allows licensees to devise the most effective and efficient means of achieving the results described in the rule including the use of Probabilistic Risk (or Safety) Assessments. The NRC staff conducted a series of site visits to evaluate implementation of the Rule. Conclusions from the site visits indicated that the results-oriented Maintenance Rule can be successfully implemented and enforced. (author)

  9. Performance based regulation - The maintenance rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia, Richard P.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has begun a transition from 'process-oriented' to 'results-oriented' regulations. The maintenance rule is a results-oriented rule that mandates consideration of risk and plant performance. The Maintenance Rule allows licensees to devise the most effective and efficient means of achieving the results described in the rule including the use of Probabilistic Risk (or Safety) Assessments. The NRC staff conducted a series of site visits to evaluate implementation of the Rule. Conclusions from the site visits indicated that the results-oriented Maintenance Rule can be successfully implemented and enforced. (author)

  10. How Knowledge Influences Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses how children's knowledge can be measured/described, knowledge patterns across diverse concepts, interaction of knowledge/learning, and ways children construct more advanced problem-solving rules to replace less adequate ones. Evidence, drawn from studies on children's acquisition of knowledge about balance beams, suggests that knowledge…

  11. Algorithm for detecting violations of traffic rules based on computer vision approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibadov Samir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new algorithm for automatic detect violations of traffic rules for improving the people safety on the unregulated pedestrian crossing. The algorithm uses multi-step proceedings. They are zebra detection, cars detection, and pedestrian detection. For car detection, we use faster R-CNN deep learning tool. The algorithm shows promising results in the detection violations of traffic rules.

  12. Comparison of rule induction, decision trees and formal concept analysis approaches for classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotelnikov, E. V.; Milov, V. R.

    2018-05-01

    Rule-based learning algorithms have higher transparency and easiness to interpret in comparison with neural networks and deep learning algorithms. These properties make it possible to effectively use such algorithms to solve descriptive tasks of data mining. The choice of an algorithm depends also on its ability to solve predictive tasks. The article compares the quality of the solution of the problems with binary and multiclass classification based on the experiments with six datasets from the UCI Machine Learning Repository. The authors investigate three algorithms: Ripper (rule induction), C4.5 (decision trees), In-Close (formal concept analysis). The results of the experiments show that In-Close demonstrates the best quality of classification in comparison with Ripper and C4.5, however the latter two generate more compact rule sets.

  13. The Rule of Metaphor commented.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-France Begué

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the exposure provided by Marie-France Begué to SIPLET (Permanent Interdisciplinary Seminar Literature, Aesthetics and Theology around The Rule of Methaphor of Paul Ricoeur. In it, after a general introduction, are addressed in detail four of the studies in the book: the first, “Between Rhetoric and Poetics: Aristotle,”; the sixth, “The work of the likeness,”; the seventh, “Metaphor and reference”; and the eighth,” Metaphor and philosophical discourse”. The main objective of the paper was to provide an introduction to the thought of Ricoeur in this book, to the seminar participants according to the work they have been doing on the dialogue between poetry and mysticism.Key words: Paul Ricoeur, Rule Methaphor, Theology and Literature, Philosophy of Language.

  14. Cultural Learning Redux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasello, Michael

    2016-05-01

    M. Tomasello, A. Kruger, and H. Ratner (1993) proposed a theory of cultural learning comprising imitative learning, instructed learning, and collaborative learning. Empirical and theoretical advances in the past 20 years suggest modifications to the theory; for example, children do not just imitate but overimitate in order to identify and affiliate with others in their cultural group, children learn from pedagogy not just episodic facts but the generic structure of their cultural worlds, and children collaboratively co-construct with those in their culture normative rules for doing things. In all, human children do not just culturally learn useful instrumental activities and information, they conform to the normative expectations of the cultural group and even contribute themselves to the creation of such normative expectations. © 2016 The Author. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  15. Contributions of Lateral and Orbital Frontal Regions to Abstract Rule Acquisition and Reversal in Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Camera, Giancarlo; Bouret, Sebastien; Richmond, Barry J.

    2018-01-01

    The ability to learn and follow abstract rules relies on intact prefrontal regions including the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Here, we investigate the specific roles of these brain regions in learning rules that depend critically on the formation of abstract concepts as opposed to simpler input-output associations. To this aim, we tested monkeys with bilateral removals of either LPFC or OFC on a rapidly learned task requiring the formation of the abstract concept of same vs. different. While monkeys with OFC removals were significantly slower than controls at both acquiring and reversing the concept-based rule, monkeys with LPFC removals were not impaired in acquiring the task, but were significantly slower at rule reversal. Neither group was impaired in the acquisition or reversal of a delayed visual cue-outcome association task without a concept-based rule. These results suggest that OFC is essential for the implementation of a concept-based rule, whereas LPFC seems essential for its modification once established. PMID:29615854

  16. Diversity of Rule-based Approaches: Classic Systems and Recent Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz J. Nalepa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Rules are a common symbolic model of knowledge. Rule-based systems share roots in cognitive science and artificial intelligence. In the former, they are mostly used in cognitive architectures; in the latter, they are developed in several domains including knowledge engineering and machine learning. This paper aims to give an overview of these issues with the focus on the current research perspective of artificial intelligence. Moreover, in this setting we discuss our results in the design of rule-based systems and their applications in context-aware and business intelligence systems.

  17. Optimization of β-decision rules relative to number of misclassifications

    KAUST Repository

    Zielosko, Beata

    2012-01-01

    In the paper, we present an algorithm for optimization of approximate decision rules relative to the number of misclassifications. The considered algorithm is based on extensions of dynamic programming and constructs a directed acyclic graph Δ β (T). Based on this graph we can describe the whole set of so-called irredundant β-decision rules. We can optimize rules from this set according to the number of misclassifications. Results of experiments with decision tables from the UCI Machine Learning Repository are presented. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  18. Research on Fault Diagnosis Method Based on Rule Base Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Ni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between fault phenomenon and fault cause is always nonlinear, which influences the accuracy of fault location. And neural network is effective in dealing with nonlinear problem. In order to improve the efficiency of uncertain fault diagnosis based on neural network, a neural network fault diagnosis method based on rule base is put forward. At first, the structure of BP neural network is built and the learning rule is given. Then, the rule base is built by fuzzy theory. An improved fuzzy neural construction model is designed, in which the calculated methods of node function and membership function are also given. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of this method.

  19. Sum rules for neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobzarev, I.Yu.; Martemyanov, B.V.; Okun, L.B.; Schepkin, M.G.

    1981-01-01

    Sum rules for neutrino oscillations are obtained. The derivation of the general form of the s matrix for two stage process lsub(i)sup(-)→ν→lsub(k)sup(+-) (where lsub(i)sup(-)e, μ, tau, ... are initial leptons with flavor i and lsub(k)sup(+-) is final lepton) is presented. The consideration of two stage process lsub(i)sup(-)→ν→lsub(k)sup(+-) gives the possibility to take into account neutrino masses and to obtain the expressions for the oscillating cross sections. In the case of Dirac and left-handed Majorana neutrino is obtained the sum rule for the quantities 1/Vsub(K)σ(lsub(i)sup(-)→lsub(K)sup(+-)), (where Vsub(K) is a velocity of lsub(K)). In the left-handed Majorana neutrino case there is an additional antineutrino admixture leading to lsub(i)sup(-)→lsub(K)sup(+) process. Both components (neutrino and antineutrino) oscillate independently. The sums Σsub(K)1/Vsub(k)σ(lsub(i)sup(-) - lsub(K)sup(+-) then oscillate due to the presence of left-handed antineutrinos and right-handed neutrinos which do not take part in weak interactions. If right-handed currents are added sum rules analogous to considered above may be obtained. All conclusions are valid in the general case when CP is not conserved [ru

  20. The OZI rule and nucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1991-11-01

    The title of this lecture series raises two questions: (1) what is the OZI rule? (2) what is a nucleon. In the lectures both questions were addressed in parallel and the material moved back and forth between them. In a written version it seems more appropriate to treat the two question separately, begining with trying to understand the structure of the nucleon. Experimental evidence for the symmetry and quark structure of hadrons is reviewed with a historical introduction and updated by presenting constituent quark model relation for hadron masses and magnetic moments.Three definitions of the OZI rule are presented, all which forbid decay like φ->ρπ but making different selection rules for more complicate reactions. All suffer from the higer order paradox that a forbidden process can take place via two-step transition in which each step is allowed; e.g. φ-> KK-bar -> ρπ. No prescription is given for estimating the strength of forbidden processes. The role of cancellations between different higer order diagrams is discussed. (author)

  1. Autonomous Rule Creation for Intrusion Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd Vollmer; Jim Alves-Foss; Milos Manic

    2011-04-01

    Many computational intelligence techniques for anomaly based network intrusion detection can be found in literature. Translating a newly discovered intrusion recognition criteria into a distributable rule can be a human intensive effort. This paper explores a multi-modal genetic algorithm solution for autonomous rule creation. This algorithm focuses on the process of creating rules once an intrusion has been identified, rather than the evolution of rules to provide a solution for intrusion detection. The algorithm was demonstrated on anomalous ICMP network packets (input) and Snort rules (output of the algorithm). Output rules were sorted according to a fitness value and any duplicates were removed. The experimental results on ten test cases demonstrated a 100 percent rule alert rate. Out of 33,804 test packets 3 produced false positives. Each test case produced a minimum of three rule variations that could be used as candidates for a production system.

  2. Performance Indicators for Business Rule Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eline de Haan; dr. Martijn Zoet; Koen Smit

    2016-01-01

    From the article: With increasing investments in business rules management (BRM), organizations are searching for ways to value and benchmark their processes to elicitate, design, accept, deploy and execute business rules. To realize valuation and benchmarking of previously mentioned processes,

  3. Teaching versus enforcing game rules in preschoolers' peer interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köymen, Bahar; Schmidt, Marco F H; Rost, Loreen; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Children use normative language in two key contexts: when teaching others and when enforcing social norms. We presented pairs of 3- and 5-year-old peers (N=192) with a sorting game in two experimental conditions (in addition to a third baseline condition). In the teaching condition, one child was knowledgeable, whereas the other child was ignorant and so in need of instruction. In the enforcement condition, children learned conflicting rules so that each child was making mistakes from the other's point of view. When teaching rules to an ignorant partner, both age groups used generic normative language ("Bunnies go here"). When enforcing rules on a rule-breaking partner, 3-year-olds used normative utterances that were not generic and aimed at correcting individual behavior ("No, this goes there"), whereas 5-year-olds again used generic normative language, perhaps because they discerned that instruction was needed in this case as well. Young children normatively correct peers differently depending on their assessment of what their wayward partners need to bring them back into line. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. An Efficient Compiler for Weighted Rewrite Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Mohri, Mehryar; Sproat, Richard

    1996-01-01

    Context-dependent rewrite rules are used in many areas of natural language and speech processing. Work in computational phonology has demonstrated that, given certain conditions, such rewrite rules can be represented as finite-state transducers (FSTs). We describe a new algorithm for compiling rewrite rules into FSTs. We show the algorithm to be simpler and more efficient than existing algorithms. Further, many of our applications demand the ability to compile weighted rules into weighted FST...

  5. Religionsfrihed i Kina & The Rule of Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen redegør for aktuel kinesisk religionsret, sammenstiller den med internationale religionsretlige grundbegreber og anvender dette empiriske materiale til en reflektion over begreberne Rule of Law vs Rule by Law......Artiklen redegør for aktuel kinesisk religionsret, sammenstiller den med internationale religionsretlige grundbegreber og anvender dette empiriske materiale til en reflektion over begreberne Rule of Law vs Rule by Law...

  6. The efficiency of the negligence rules

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolić, Ljubica; Mojašević, Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    This study comparatively analizes economic effects of different negligence rules, contained in American law on the one hand, and Serbian law on the other. It is important to establish economic implications of the different negligence rules, based on the incentives for tortfeasor’s and victim’s precaution under the different negligence rules. Study of the efficiency of several different forms of negligence rules: simple negligence, negligence with a defense of contributory negligence, comparat...

  7. WINE ADVISOR EXPERT SYSTEM USING DECISION RULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinuca Elena Claudia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article I focus on developing an expert system for advising the choice of wine that best matches a specific occasion. An expert system is a computer application that performs a task that would be performed by a human expert. The implementation is done using Delphi programming language. I used to represent the knowledge bases a set of rules. The rules are of type IF THEN ELSE rules, decision rules based on different important wine features.

  8. The CCCTB Rules on Leaving a Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Streek, J.

    2012-01-01

    The consolidation system proposed in the draft of the CCCTB Directive puts relationships between Member States on edge. This is clearly apparent in the rules that apply when a company leaves a group. In this article the leaving rules are examined. Although the leaving rules are claimed to be

  9. Safe reduction rules for weighted treewidth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkhof, F. van den; Bodlaender, H.L.; Koster, A.M.C.A.

    2002-01-01

    Several sets of reductions rules are known for preprocessing a graph when computing its treewidth. In this paper, we give reduction rules for a weighted variant of treewidth, motivated by the analysis of algorithms for probabilistic networks. We present two general reduction rules that are safe for

  10. Rules Regarding Voluntary Contributions to the Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-11-06

    The texts of the following rules are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency: I. Rules to Govern the Acceptance of Gifts of Services, Equipment and Facilities; II. Rules Regarding the Acceptance of Voluntary Contributions of Money to the Agency.

  11. 76 FR 76815 - Business Opportunity Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ... Used Throughout This Statement of Basis and Purpose ``Amended Franchise Rule'' refers to the amended Franchise Rule published at 72 FR 15444 (Mar. 30, 2007) and codified at 16 CFR 436. ``ANPR'' refers to the.../bcp/workshops/bizopps/disclosure-form-report.pdf . ``Original Franchise Rule'' refers to the original...

  12. Rules regarding voluntary contributions to the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    The texts of the following Rules Regarding Voluntary Contributions to the Agency are reproduced: 1. Rules to Govern the Acceptance of Gifts of Services, Equipment and Facilities (adopted by the Board of Governors on 13 June 1989); 2. Rules Regarding the Acceptance of Voluntary Contributions of Money to the Agency (approved by the General Conference on 29 September 1989)

  13. Rules Regarding Voluntary Contributions to the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-01-01

    The texts of the following rules are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency: I. Rules to Govern the Acceptance of Gifts of Services, Equipment and Facilities; II. Rules Regarding the Acceptance of Voluntary Contributions of Money to the Agency

  14. Momentum sum rules for fragmentation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meissner, S.; Metz, A.; Pitonyak, D.

    2010-01-01

    Momentum sum rules for fragmentation functions are considered. In particular, we give a general proof of the Schaefer-Teryaev sum rule for the transverse momentum dependent Collins function. We also argue that corresponding sum rules for related fragmentation functions do not exist. Our model-independent analysis is supplemented by calculations in a simple field-theoretical model.

  15. Idioms-based Business Rule Extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R Smit (Rob)

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractThis thesis studies the extraction of embedded business rules, using the idioms of the used framework to identify them. Embedded business rules exist as source code in the software system and knowledge about them may get lost. Extraction of those business rules could make them accessible

  16. Implementing XML Schema Naming and Design Rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubell, Joshua [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Kulvatunyou, Boonserm [ORNL; Morris, Katherine [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Harvey, Betty [Electronic Commerce Connection, Inc.

    2006-08-01

    We are building a methodology and tool kit for encoding XML schema Naming and Design Rules (NDRs) in a computer-interpretable fashion, enabling automated rule enforcement and improving schema quality. Through our experience implementing rules from various NDR specifications, we discuss some issues and offer practical guidance to organizations grappling with NDR development.

  17. Product and Quotient Rules from Logarithmic Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhibo

    2012-01-01

    A new application of logarithmic differentiation is presented, which provides an alternative elegant proof of two basic rules of differentiation: the product rule and the quotient rule. The proof can intrigue students, help promote their critical thinking and rigorous reasoning and deepen their understanding of previously encountered concepts. The…

  18. A dynamic analysis of moving average rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiarella, C.; He, X.Z.; Hommes, C.H.

    2006-01-01

    The use of various moving average (MA) rules remains popular with financial market practitioners. These rules have recently become the focus of a number empirical studies, but there have been very few studies of financial market models where some agents employ technical trading rules of the type

  19. FUZZY MODELING BY SUCCESSIVE ESTIMATION OF RULES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents an algorithm for automatically deriving fuzzy rules directly from a set of input-output data of a process for the purpose of modeling. The rules are extracted by a method termed successive estimation. This method is used to generate a model without truncating the number of fired rules, to within user ...

  20. Obtaining a minimal set of rewrite rules

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davel, M

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors describe a new approach to rewrite rule extraction and analysis, using Minimal Representation Graphs. This approach provides a mechanism for obtaining the smallest possible rule set – within a context-dependent rewrite rule...

  1. Australian Children's Understanding of Display Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Grace

    2009-01-01

    Cultural display rules govern the manifestation of emotional expressions. In compliance with display rules, the facial expressions displayed (i.e. apparent emotion) may be incongruent with the emotion experienced (i.e. real emotion). This study investigates Australian Caucasian children's understanding of display rules. A sample of 80 four year…

  2. Oxytocin modulates trait-based rule following

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gross, J.; de Dreu, C.K.W.

    Rules, whether in the form of norms, taboos or laws, regulate and coordinate human life. Some rules, however, are arbitrary and adhering to them can be personally costly. Rigidly sticking to such rules can be considered maladaptive. Here, we test whether, at the neurobiological level, (mal)adaptive

  3. Cellular Automata Rules and Linear Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Nayak, Birendra Kumar; Sahoo, Sudhakar; Biswal, Sagarika

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, linear Cellular Automta (CA) rules are recursively generated using a binary tree rooted at "0". Some mathematical results on linear as well as non-linear CA rules are derived. Integers associated with linear CA rules are defined as linear numbers and the properties of these linear numbers are studied.

  4. Rules in School. Strategies for Teachers Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Kathryn; Forton, Mary Beth; Porter, Deborah; Wood, Chip

    This book offers an approach for helping K-8 students become invested in creating and living by classroom rules. It provides techniques for: helping students articulate their hopes and dreams for school; involving students in generating classroom rules that grow out of their hopes and dreams; modeling, practicing, and role playing the rules; using…

  5. On Communication Rules from a Social Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigman, Stuart J.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses assumptions and criticisms of rule-governed approaches to interpersonal communication research and theory. Outlines a definition of rules that does not require sole reliance on interpersonal actors' statements about their behavior or assumptions of communicator self-awareness. Suggests consideration of rules-based concomitants of…

  6. Stochastic Variational Learning in Recurrent Spiking Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo eJimenez Rezende

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability to learn and perform statistical inference with biologically plausible recurrent network of spiking neurons is an important step towards understanding perception and reasoning. Here we derive and investigate a new learning rule for recurrent spiking networks with hidden neurons, combining principles from variational learning and reinforcement learning. Our network defines a generative model over spike train histories and the derived learning rule has the form of a local Spike Timing Dependent Plasticity rule modulated by global factors (neuromodulators conveying information about ``novelty on a statistically rigorous ground.Simulations show that our model is able to learn bothstationary and non-stationary patterns of spike trains.We also propose one experiment that could potentially be performed with animals in order to test the dynamics of the predicted novelty signal.

  7. Stochastic variational learning in recurrent spiking networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez Rezende, Danilo; Gerstner, Wulfram

    2014-01-01

    The ability to learn and perform statistical inference with biologically plausible recurrent networks of spiking neurons is an important step toward understanding perception and reasoning. Here we derive and investigate a new learning rule for recurrent spiking networks with hidden neurons, combining principles from variational learning and reinforcement learning. Our network defines a generative model over spike train histories and the derived learning rule has the form of a local Spike Timing Dependent Plasticity rule modulated by global factors (neuromodulators) conveying information about "novelty" on a statistically rigorous ground. Simulations show that our model is able to learn both stationary and non-stationary patterns of spike trains. We also propose one experiment that could potentially be performed with animals in order to test the dynamics of the predicted novelty signal.

  8. Can power spectrum observations rule out slow-roll inflation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, J. P. P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony

    2018-01-01

    The spectral index of scalar perturbations is an important observable that allows us to learn about inflationary physics. In particular, a detection of a significant deviation from a constant spectral index could enable us to rule out the simplest class of inflation models. We investigate whether future observations could rule out canonical single-field slow-roll inflation given the parameters allowed by current observational constraints. We find that future measurements of a constant running (or running of the running) of the spectral index over currently available scales are unlikely to achieve this. However, there remains a large region of parameter space (especially when considering the running of the running) for falsifying the assumed class of slow-roll models if future observations accurately constrain a much wider range of scales.

  9. Rough set and rule-based multicriteria decision aiding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Slowinski

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of multicriteria decision aiding is to give the decision maker a recommendation concerning a set of objects evaluated from multiple points of view called criteria. Since a rational decision maker acts with respect to his/her value system, in order to recommend the most-preferred decision, one must identify decision maker's preferences. In this paper, we focus on preference discovery from data concerning some past decisions of the decision maker. We consider the preference model in the form of a set of "if..., then..." decision rules discovered from the data by inductive learning. To structure the data prior to induction of rules, we use the Dominance-based Rough Set Approach (DRSA. DRSA is a methodology for reasoning about data, which handles ordinal evaluations of objects on considered criteria and monotonic relationships between these evaluations and the decision. We review applications of DRSA to a large variety of multicriteria decision problems.

  10. Rules Versus Discretion in Monetary Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Stanley Fischer

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines the case for rules rather than discretion in the conduct of monetary policy, from both historical and analytic perspectives. The paper starts with the rules of the game under the gold standard. These rules were ill-defined and not adhered to; active discretionary policy was pursued to defend the gold standard -- but the gold standard came closer to a regime of rules than the current system. The arguments for rules in general developed by Milton Friedman are described mo ap...

  11. Rules of engagement: developing the online tutor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Golden

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers professional development in a context that is familiar and problematic to teaching teams in tertiary education everywhere, that of delivering online programmes with an ever-decreasing complement of staff. The Teaching Qualification Further Education (TQFE teaching team at University of Dundee confronted the reality of reduced staff numbers by centralising tutoring and support for programme participants. The new system involves standardising tutoring as far as possible through generic email, blog and microblog accounts, all badged “TQFE-Tutor” and staffed on a roster basis. Once the new “rules of engagement” via TQFE-Tutor were in place, it became clear that in addition to benefits in terms of student support, there were other unintended positive consequences: opportunities for informal professional development for staff and the promotion of effective team working. The experience of collective tutoring has facilitated collaboration on a range of innovations within online learning. This paper describes the evolution of the TQFE-Tutor innovation and reports upon a small scale study which was carried out to gather the views of the tutor team working with TQFE-Tutor. The authors conclude that the centralisation of communication and tutoring on the TQFE programme has been highly beneficial in terms of professional development for the team.

  12. Do Group Decision Rules Affect Trust? A Laboratory Experiment on Group Decision Rules and Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Julie Hassing

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced participation has been prescribed as the way forward for improving democratic decision making while generating positive attributes like trust. Yet we do not know the extent to which rules affect the outcome of decision making. This article investigates how different group decision rules......-hierarchical decision-making procedures enhance trust vis-à-vis other more hierarchical decision-making procedures....... affect group trust by testing three ideal types of decision rules (i.e., a Unilateral rule, a Representative rule and a 'Non-rule') in a laboratory experiment. The article shows significant differences between the three decision rules on trust after deliberation. Interestingly, however, it finds...

  13. Explanation-based learning in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillargeon, Renée; DeJong, Gerald F

    2017-10-01

    In explanation-based learning (EBL), domain knowledge is leveraged in order to learn general rules from few examples. An explanation is constructed for initial exemplars and is then generalized into a candidate rule that uses only the relevant features specified in the explanation; if the rule proves accurate for a few additional exemplars, it is adopted. EBL is thus highly efficient because it combines both analytic and empirical evidence. EBL has been proposed as one of the mechanisms that help infants acquire and revise their physical rules. To evaluate this proposal, 11- and 12-month-olds (n = 260) were taught to replace their current support rule (that an object is stable when half or more of its bottom surface is supported) with a more sophisticated rule (that an object is stable when half or more of the entire object is supported). Infants saw teaching events in which asymmetrical objects were placed on a base, followed by static test displays involving a novel asymmetrical object and a novel base. When the teaching events were designed to facilitate EBL, infants learned the new rule with as few as two (12-month-olds) or three (11-month-olds) exemplars. When the teaching events were designed to impede EBL, however, infants failed to learn the rule. Together, these results demonstrate that even infants, with their limited knowledge about the world, benefit from the knowledge-based approach of EBL.

  14. Majority rule on heterogeneous networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambiotte, R

    2008-01-01

    We focus on the majority rule (MR) applied on heterogeneous networks. When the underlying topology is homogeneous, the system is shown to exhibit a transition from an ordered regime to a disordered regime when the noise is increased. When the network exhibits modular structures, in contrast, the system may also exhibit an asymmetric regime, where the nodes in each community reach an opposite average opinion. Finally, the node degree heterogeneity is shown to play an important role by displacing the location of the order-disorder transition and by making the system exhibit non-equipartition of the average spin

  15. Inference rule and problem solving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, S

    1982-04-01

    Intelligent information processing signifies an opportunity of having man's intellectual activity executed on the computer, in which inference, in place of ordinary calculation, is used as the basic operational mechanism for such an information processing. Many inference rules are derived from syllogisms in formal logic. The problem of programming this inference function is referred to as a problem solving. Although logically inference and problem-solving are in close relation, the calculation ability of current computers is on a low level for inferring. For clarifying the relation between inference and computers, nonmonotonic logic has been considered. The paper deals with the above topics. 16 references.

  16. How Politics Shapes the Growth of Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mads Leth Felsager; Mortensen, Peter Bjerre

    2015-01-01

    when, why, and how political factors shape changes in the stock of rules. Furthermore, we test these hypotheses on a unique, new data set based on all Danish primary legislation and administrative rules from 1989 to 2011 categorized into 20 different policy domains. The analysis shows......This article examines the impact of politics on governmental rule production. Traditionally, explanations of rule dynamics have focused on nonpolitical factors such as the self-evolvement of rules, environmental factors, and decision maker attributes. This article develops a set of hypotheses about...... that the traditional Weberian “rules breed rules” explanations must be supplemented with political explanations that take party ideology and changes in the political agenda into account. Moreover, the effect of political factors is indistinguishable across changes in primary laws and changes in administrative rules...

  17. A Numerical Comparison of Rule Ensemble Methods and Support Vector Machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meza, Juan C.; Woods, Mark

    2009-12-18

    Machine or statistical learning is a growing field that encompasses many scientific problems including estimating parameters from data, identifying risk factors in health studies, image recognition, and finding clusters within datasets, to name just a few examples. Statistical learning can be described as 'learning from data' , with the goal of making a prediction of some outcome of interest. This prediction is usually made on the basis of a computer model that is built using data where the outcomes and a set of features have been previously matched. The computer model is called a learner, hence the name machine learning. In this paper, we present two such algorithms, a support vector machine method and a rule ensemble method. We compared their predictive power on three supernova type 1a data sets provided by the Nearby Supernova Factory and found that while both methods give accuracies of approximately 95%, the rule ensemble method gives much lower false negative rates.

  18. The Implementation of "The n-term" Formula to Improve Student Ability in Determining the Rules of a Numeric Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    In'am, Akhsanul; Hajar, Siti

    2013-01-01

    A good-quality teacher may determines a good-quality learning, thus good-quality students will be the results. In order to have a good-quality learning, a lot of strategies and methods can be adopted. The objective of this research is to improve students' ability in determining the rules of a numeric sequence and analysing the effectiveness of the…

  19. New Rules on Consumer Sales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelvang-Hansen, Peter; Lando, Henrik; Kristensen, Bo

    2006-01-01

    The project described in this report was carried out with support from The Ministry of Justice's Research Pool. The aim of the project is to examine the effects of Amending Act no. 213/2002, amending the rules on consumer sales in the Danish Sale of Goods Act. The amendments were part of Denmark......'s implementation of Directive 1999/44/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on certain aspects of the sale of consumer goods and associated guarantees. The Amending Act came into force on 24 April 2002, having effect on consumer sales made on and after 1 January 2002. At the time of completion...... of this report, the Amending Act had been in force for more than two and a half years. In the planning of this project, we assumed that at this point in time sufficient experience with the new rules would be available, enabling us to get an impression of its practical consequences for businesses. Also, we...

  20. A fuzzy controller with a robust learning function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanji, Jun-ichi; Kinoshita, Mitsuo

    1987-01-01

    A self-organizing fuzzy controller is able to use linguistic decision rules of control strategy and has a strong adaptive property by virture of its rule learning function. While a simple linguistic description of the learning algorithm first introduced by Procyk, et al. has much flexibility for applications to a wide range of different processes, its detailed formulation, in particular with control stability and learning process convergence, is not clear. In this paper, we describe the formulation of an analytical basis for a self-organizing fuzzy controller by using a method of model reference adaptive control systems (MRACS) for which stability in the adaptive loop is theoretically proven. A detailed formulation is described regarding performance evaluation and rule modification in the rule learning process of the controller. Furthermore, an improved learning algorithm using adaptive rule is proposed. An adaptive rule gives a modification coefficient for a rule change estimating the effect of disturbance occurrence in performance evaluation. The effect of introducing an adaptive rule to improve the learning convergency is described by using a simple iterative formulation. Simulation tests are presented for an application of the proposed self-organizing fuzzy controller to the pressure control system in a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) plant. Results with the tests confirm the improved learning algorithm has strong convergent properties, even in a very disturbed environment. (author)

  1. Conditional discrimination learning: A critique and amplification

    OpenAIRE

    Schrier, Allan M.; Thompson, Claudia R.

    1980-01-01

    Carter and Werner recently reviewed the literature on conditional discrimination learning by pigeons, which consists of studies of matching-to-sample and oddity-from-sample. They also discussed three models of such learning: the “multiple-rule” model (learning of stimulus-specific relations), the “configuration” model, and the “single-rule” model (concept learning). Although their treatment of the multiple-rule model, which seems most applicable to the pigeon data, is generally excellent, the...

  2. The new community rules marketing on the social web

    CERN Document Server

    Weinberg, Tamar

    2009-01-01

    Blogs, networking sites, and other examples of the social web provide businesses with a largely untapped marketing channel for products and services. But how do you take advantage of them? With The New Community Rules, you''ll understand how social web technologies work, and learn the most practical and effective ways to reach people who frequent these sites. Written by an expert in social media and viral marketing, this book cuts through the hype and jargon to give you intelligent advice and strategies for positioning your business on the social web, with case studies that show how other c

  3. Proposal to modify Rule 6, Rule 10a, and Rule 12c of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Aharon; Garrity, George M; Schink, Bernhard

    2014-04-01

    According to the current versions of Rule 10a and Rule 12c of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes, names of a genus or subgenus and specific epithets may be taken from any source and may even be composed in an arbitrary manner. Based on these rules, names may be composed of any word or any combination of elements derived from any language with a Latin ending. We propose modifying these rules by adding the text, currently part of Recommendation 6, according to which words from languages other than Latin or Greek should be avoided as long as equivalents exist in Latin or Greek or can be constructed by combining word elements from these two languages. We also propose modification of Rule 6 by adopting some of the current paragraphs of Recommendation 6 to become part of the Rule.

  4. Having Linguistic Rules and Knowing Linguistic Facts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ludlow

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    'Knowledge' doesn't correctly describe our relation to linguistic rules. It is too thick a notion (for example, we don't believe linguistic rules. On the other hand, 'cognize', without further elaboration, is too thin a notion, which is to say that it is too thin to play a role in a competence theory. One advantage of the term 'knowledge'-and presumably Chomsky's original motivation for using it-is that knowledge would play the right kind of role in a competence theory: Our competence would consist in a body of knowledge which we have and which we may or may not act upon-our performance need not conform to the linguistic rules that we know.

    Is there a way out of the dilemma? I'm going to make the case that the best way to talk about grammatical rules is simply to say that we have them. That doesn't sound very deep, I know, but saying that we have individual rules leaves room for individual norm guidance in a way that 'cognize' does not. Saying we have a rule like subjacency is also thicker than merely saying we cognize it. Saying I have such a rule invites the interpretation that it is a rule for me-that I am normatively guided by it. The competence theory thus becomes a theory of the rules that we have. Whether we follow those rules is another matter entirely.

  5. Analysis of ensemble learning using simple perceptrons based on online learning theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Seiji; Hara, Kazuyuki; Okada, Masato

    2005-03-01

    Ensemble learning of K nonlinear perceptrons, which determine their outputs by sign functions, is discussed within the framework of online learning and statistical mechanics. One purpose of statistical learning theory is to theoretically obtain the generalization error. This paper shows that ensemble generalization error can be calculated by using two order parameters, that is, the similarity between a teacher and a student, and the similarity among students. The differential equations that describe the dynamical behaviors of these order parameters are derived in the case of general learning rules. The concrete forms of these differential equations are derived analytically in the cases of three well-known rules: Hebbian learning, perceptron learning, and AdaTron (adaptive perceptron) learning. Ensemble generalization errors of these three rules are calculated by using the results determined by solving their differential equations. As a result, these three rules show different characteristics in their affinity for ensemble learning, that is “maintaining variety among students.” Results show that AdaTron learning is superior to the other two rules with respect to that affinity.

  6. Rules for Adaptive Learning and Assistance on the Shop Floor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Today's shop floor, the area of a factory where operatives assemble products, is a complex and demanding work environment. The employed and produced technology becomes ever more complex, and employees are responsible for an increasing amount of tasks. As a consequence, the employee is under constant pressure to solve problems occurring on the shop…

  7. Intelligent Query Answering Through Rule Learning and Generalization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carsten, James

    2004-01-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) relies heavily on information systems to complete a myriad of tasks, from day-to-day personnel actions to mission critical imagery retrieval, intelligence analysis, and mission planning...

  8. Learning Structural Classification Rules for Web-page Categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuckenschmidt, Heiner; Hartmann, Jens; Van Harmelen, Frank

    2002-01-01

    Content-related metadata plays an important role in the effort of developing intelligent web applications. One of the most established form of providing content-related metadata is the assignment of web-pages to content categories. We describe the Spectacle system for classifying individual web

  9. Learning rules and categorization networks for language standardization

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Huyssteen, GB

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available defined a generic, automated process that allows them to extract constructional schemas and present these visually as categorization networks, similar to what is often being used in Cognitive Grammar. The authors conclude that computational modeling...

  10. Choosing the rules: distinct and overlapping frontoparietal representations of task rules for perceptual decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaxiang; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus; Carlin, Johan D; Rowe, James B

    2013-07-17

    Behavior is governed by rules that associate stimuli with responses and outcomes. Human and monkey studies have shown that rule-specific information is widely represented in the frontoparietal cortex. However, it is not known how establishing a rule under different contexts affects its neural representation. Here, we use event-related functional MRI (fMRI) and multivoxel pattern classification methods to investigate the human brain's mechanisms of establishing and maintaining rules for multiple perceptual decision tasks. Rules were either chosen by participants or specifically instructed to them, and the fMRI activation patterns representing rule-specific information were compared between these contexts. We show that frontoparietal regions differ in the properties of their rule representations during active maintenance before execution. First, rule-specific information maintained in the dorsolateral and medial frontal cortex depends on the context in which it was established (chosen vs specified). Second, rule representations maintained in the ventrolateral frontal and parietal cortex are independent of the context in which they were established. Furthermore, we found that the rule-specific coding maintained in anticipation of stimuli may change with execution of the rule: representations in context-independent regions remain invariant from maintenance to execution stages, whereas rule representations in context-dependent regions do not generalize to execution stage. The identification of distinct frontoparietal systems with context-independent and context-dependent task rule representations, and the distinction between anticipatory and executive rule representations, provide new insights into the functional architecture of goal-directed behavior.

  11. Who Knows? Metacognitive Social Learning Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2016-03-01

    To make good use of learning from others (social learning), we need to learn from the right others; from agents who know better than we do. Research on social learning strategies (SLSs) has identified rules that focus social learning on the right agents, and has shown that the behaviour of many animals conforms to these rules. However, it has not asked what the rules are made of, that is, about the cognitive processes implementing SLSs. Here, I suggest that most SLSs depend on domain-general, sensorimotor processes. However, some SLSs have the characteristics tacitly ascribed to all of them. These metacognitive SLSs represent 'who knows' in a conscious, reportable way, and have the power to promote cultural evolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fusion rules of chiral algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaberdiel, M.

    1994-01-01

    Recently we showed that for the case of the WZW and the minimal models fusion can be understood as a certain ring-like tensor product of the symmetry algebra. In this paper we generalize this analysis to arbitrary chiral algebras. We define the tensor product of conformal field theory in the general case and prove that it is associative and symmetric up to equivalence. We also determine explicitly the action of the chiral algebra on this tensor product. In the second part of the paper we demonstrate that this framework provides a powerful tool for calculating restrictions for the fusion rules of chiral algebras. We exhibit this for the case of the W 3 algebra and the N=1 and N=2 NS superconformal algebras. (orig.)

  13. Optimal short-sighted rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacha eBourgeois-Gironde

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess the relevance of methodological transfers from behavioral ecology to experimental economics with respect to the elicitation of intertemporal preferences. More precisely our discussion will stem from the analysis of Stephens and Anderson’s (2001 seminal article. In their study with blue jays they document that foraging behavior typically implements short sighted choice rules which are beneficial in the long-run. Such long term profitability of short-sighted behavior cannot be evidenced when using a self-control paradigm (one which contrasts in a binary way sooner smaller and later larger payoffs but becomes apparent when ecological patch-paradigms (replicating economic situations in which the main trade-off consists in staying on a food patch or leaving for another patch are implemented. We transfer this methodology in view of contrasting foraging strategies and self-control in human intertemporal choices.

  14. ADVERTISING BETWEEN RULES AND CREATIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina SUSANU

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Where would the world be without advertising? Stuart Henderson Britt strongly believed in it. Hesaid: “Doing business without advertising is like winking at a girl in the dark. You know what youare doing, but she doesn’t.” The work reviews the evolution of advertising, highlighting theuncontestable part played by it within organizations and society in general and it focuses on anessential element of it, that is the advertising print. The purpose of this paperwork is to highlight thenecessary rules for the making of a quality print, with the help of a comparative study on prints ofeight organizations. The print represents an exercise of writing and design, in words and images, fortransmitting the advertising message. The fulfillment of this task depends on the perspicacity,imagination and the creativity of the maker.

  15. When do ruling elites support productive sectors?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette

    that the ruling elite initially supported the fishing industry because of industry pressure. They have failed to enforce fisheries management because there are big political costs associated with such enforcement. The dairy sector in the southwestern milk region was initially supported because the ruling elite......This paper explains the differences in ruling elite support for the fisheries and dairy sectors in Uganda. Although production in Uganda has not generally been promoted in any sustained way, ruling elites have to varying degrees supported the dairy and fisheries sectors. The paper shows...... wanted to build a coalition of support in this region. Coming from the region himself, the president had a keen interest in dairy cattle. The sector was subsequently regulated because the biggest processor put pressure on the ruling elite to do so. Even when the ruling coalition is fragmented, promoting...

  16. Young children consider individual authority and collective agreement when deciding who can change rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Kushnir, Tamar

    2018-01-01

    Young children demonstrate awareness of normativity in various domains of social learning. It is unclear, however, whether children recognize that rules can be changed in certain contexts and by certain people or groups. Across three studies, we provided empirical evidence that children consider individual authority and collective agreement when reasoning about who can change rules. In Study 1, children aged 4-7years watched videos of children playing simply sorting and stacking games in groups or alone. Across conditions, the group game was initiated (a) by one child, (b) by collaborative agreement, or (c) by an adult authority figure. In the group games with a rule initiated by one child, children attributed ability to change rules only to that individual and not his or her friends, and they mentioned ownership and authority in their explanations. When the rule was initiated collaboratively, older children said that no individual could change the rule, whereas younger children said that either individual could do so. When an adult initiated the rule, children stated that only the adult could change it. In contrast, children always endorsed a child's decision to change his or her own solitary rule and never endorsed any child's ability to change moral and conventional rules in daily life. Age differences corresponded to beliefs about friendship and agreement in peer play (Study 2) and disappeared when the decision process behind and normative force of collaboratively initiated rules were clarified (Study 3). These results show important connections between normativity and considerations of authority and collaboration during early childhood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Complexity, Training Paradigm Design, and the Contribution of Memory Subsystems to Grammar Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Mark; Ettlinger, Marc; Wong, Patrick C M

    2016-01-01

    Although there is variability in nonnative grammar learning outcomes, the contributions of training paradigm design and memory subsystems are not well understood. To examine this, we presented learners with an artificial grammar that formed words via simple and complex morphophonological rules. Across three experiments, we manipulated training paradigm design and measured subjects' declarative, procedural, and working memory subsystems. Experiment 1 demonstrated that passive, exposure-based training boosted learning of both simple and complex grammatical rules, relative to no training. Additionally, procedural memory correlated with simple rule learning, whereas declarative memory correlated with complex rule learning. Experiment 2 showed that presenting corrective feedback during the test phase did not improve learning. Experiment 3 revealed that structuring the order of training so that subjects are first exposed to the simple rule and then the complex improved learning. The cumulative findings shed light on the contributions of grammatical complexity, training paradigm design, and domain-general memory subsystems in determining grammar learning success.

  18. Complexity, Training Paradigm Design, and the Contribution of Memory Subsystems to Grammar Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettlinger, Marc; Wong, Patrick C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Although there is variability in nonnative grammar learning outcomes, the contributions of training paradigm design and memory subsystems are not well understood. To examine this, we presented learners with an artificial grammar that formed words via simple and complex morphophonological rules. Across three experiments, we manipulated training paradigm design and measured subjects' declarative, procedural, and working memory subsystems. Experiment 1 demonstrated that passive, exposure-based training boosted learning of both simple and complex grammatical rules, relative to no training. Additionally, procedural memory correlated with simple rule learning, whereas declarative memory correlated with complex rule learning. Experiment 2 showed that presenting corrective feedback during the test phase did not improve learning. Experiment 3 revealed that structuring the order of training so that subjects are first exposed to the simple rule and then the complex improved learning. The cumulative findings shed light on the contributions of grammatical complexity, training paradigm design, and domain-general memory subsystems in determining grammar learning success. PMID:27391085

  19. Learning How to Learn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.; Lauridsen, Ole

    Ole Lauridsen, Aarhus School of Business and Social Sciences, Aarhus University, Denmark Karen M. Lauridsen, Aarhus School of Business and Social Sciences, Aarhus University, Denmark Learning Styles in Higher Education – Learning How to Learn Applying learning styles (LS) in higher education...... by Constructivist learning theory and current basic knowledge of how the brain learns. The LS concept will thus be placed in a broader learning theoretical context as a strong learning and teaching tool. Participants will be offered the opportunity to have their own LS preferences established before...... teaching leads to positive results and enhanced student learning. However, learning styles should not only be considered a didactic matter for the teacher, but also a tool for the individual students to improve their learning capabilities – not least in contexts where information is not necessarily...

  20. Sequential optimization of approximate inhibitory rules relative to the length, coverage and number of misclassifications

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2013-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of algorithms for sequential optimization of approximate inhibitory rules relative to the length, coverage and number of misclassifications. Theses algorithms are based on extensions of dynamic programming approach. The results of experiments for decision tables from UCI Machine Learning Repository are discussed. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.

  1. Children's Reasoning about Self-Presentation Following Rule Violations: The Role of Self-Focused Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Robin; Bennett, Mark; Luke, Nikki

    2012-01-01

    Rule violations are likely to serve as key contexts for learning to reason about public identity. In an initial study with 91 children aged 4-9 years, social emotions and self-presentational concerns were more likely to be cited when children were responding to hypothetical vignettes involving social-conventional rather than moral violations. In 2…

  2. Rule-Governed Imitative Verbal Behavior as a Function of Modeling Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, LeRoy; Boyce, Kathleen D.

    1975-01-01

    Investigated the effectiveness of modeling procedures alone and complemented by the appropriate rule statement on the production of plurals. Subjects were 20 normal and 20 retarded children who were randomly assigned to one of two learning conditions and who received either affective or informative social reinforcement. (Author/SDH)

  3. Presynaptic Ionotropic Receptors Controlling and Modulating the Rules for Spike Timing-Dependent Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthijs B. Verhoog

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout life, activity-dependent changes in neuronal connection strength enable the brain to refine neural circuits and learn based on experience. In line with predictions made by Hebb, synapse strength can be modified depending on the millisecond timing of action potential firing (STDP. The sign of synaptic plasticity depends on the spike order of presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons. Ionotropic neurotransmitter receptors, such as NMDA receptors and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, are intimately involved in setting the rules for synaptic strengthening and weakening. In addition, timing rules for STDP within synapses are not fixed. They can be altered by activation of ionotropic receptors located at, or close to, synapses. Here, we will highlight studies that uncovered how network actions control and modulate timing rules for STDP by activating presynaptic ionotropic receptors. Furthermore, we will discuss how interaction between different types of ionotropic receptors may create “timing” windows during which particular timing rules lead to synaptic changes.

  4. Online Rule Generation Software Process Model

    OpenAIRE

    Sudeep Marwaha; Alka Aroa; Satma M C; Rajni Jain; R C Goyal

    2013-01-01

    For production systems like expert systems, a rule generation software can facilitate the faster deployment. The software process model for rule generation using decision tree classifier refers to the various steps required to be executed for the development of a web based software model for decision rule generation. The Royce’s final waterfall model has been used in this paper to explain the software development process. The paper presents the specific output of various steps of modified wat...

  5. Circumventing the Privity Rule in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Pei Meng, Tan

    2009-01-01

    This article briefly introduces the privity rule and its application in Malaysia which has created difficulties in relation to contracts made for the benefit of third parties. This article then investigates how Malaysian courts circumvent the privity rule to ensure that justice prevails. The mechanisms examined include among others agency, trust, tort and estoppel. This article argues that the application of these mechanisms rule are not adequate to resolve the difficulties caused by the priv...

  6. Rules of Origin as Commercial Policy Instruments.

    OpenAIRE

    Falvey, Rod; Reed, Geoff

    1997-01-01

    This article examines the role of rules of origin as a commercial policy instrument that targets the input composition of imports. Using a three-country, partial equilibrium structure, we demonstrate conditions under which the imposition of a binding rule will be welfare improving for an importer facing competitive export suppliers. We further show that employing rules of origin in this way would be complementary to, rather than a substitute for, conventional optimal tariffs. Copyright Econom...

  7. Length and coverage of inhibitory decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2012-01-01

    Authors present algorithms for optimization of inhibitory rules relative to the length and coverage. Inhibitory rules have a relation "attribute ≠ value" on the right-hand side. The considered algorithms are based on extensions of dynamic programming. Paper contains also comparison of length and coverage of inhibitory rules constructed by a greedy algorithm and by the dynamic programming algorithm. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  8. Dual Smarandache Curves and Smarandache Ruled Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Tanju KAHRAMAN; Mehmet ÖNDER; H. Hüseyin UGURLU

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, by considering dual geodesic trihedron (dual Darboux frame) we define dual Smarandache curves lying fully on dual unit sphere S^2 and corresponding to ruled surfaces. We obtain the relationships between the elements of curvature of dual spherical curve (ruled surface) x(s) and its dual Smarandache curve (Smarandache ruled surface) x1(s) and we give an example for dual Smarandache curves of a dual spherical curve.

  9. Electromagnetic compatibility design and cabling system rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimbourg, J.

    2009-01-01

    This report is devoted to establish EMC (Electromagnetic Compatibility) design and cabling system rules. It is intended for hardware designers in charge of designing electronic maps or integrating existing materials into a comprehensive system. It is a practical guide. The rules described in this document do not require enhanced knowledge of advanced mathematical or physical concepts. The key point is to understand phenomena with a pragmatic approach to highlight the design and protection rules. (author)

  10. Streamling the Change Management with Business Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savela, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Will discuss how their organization is trying to streamline workflows and the change management process with business rules. In looking for ways to make things more efficient and save money one way is to reduce the work the workflow task approvers have to do when reviewing affected items. Will share the technical details of the business rules, how to implement them, how to speed up the development process by using the API to demonstrate the rules in action.

  11. Rules regarding voluntary contributions to the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The texts of the following Rules Regarding Voluntary Contributions to the Agency are reproduced for the information of all Members of the Agency. Rules to Govern the Acceptance of Gifts of Services, Equipment and Facilities - adopted by the Board of Governors on 10 March 2004; Rules Regarding the Acceptance of Voluntary Contributions of Money to the Agency - approved by the General Conference on 21 September 2001 (GC (45)/RES/9)

  12. Rules regarding voluntary contributions to the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The texts of the following Rules Regarding Voluntary Contributions to the Agency are reproduced for the information of all Members of the Agency. Rules to Govern the Acceptance of Gifts of Services, Equipment and Facilities - adopted by the Board of Governors on 13 June 2001; Rules Regarding the Acceptance of Voluntary Contributions of Money to the Agency - approved by the General Conference on 21 September 2001 (GC(45)/RES/9)

  13. Static Analysis Alert Audits: Lexicon and Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-04

    1 Audit Rules and Lexicon Date 00, 2016 © 2016 Carnegie Mellon University [DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A] This material has been approved for public...DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A] This material has been approved for public release and unlimited distribution. REV-03.18.2016.0 Static Analysis Alert Audits ...Lexicon And Rules William Snavely 2 Audit Rules and Lexicon Date 00, 2016 © 2016 Carnegie Mellon University [DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A] This material

  14. Learning in Artificial Neural Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheus, Christopher J.; Hohensee, William E.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents an overview and analysis of learning in Artificial Neural Systems (ANS's). It begins with a general introduction to neural networks and connectionist approaches to information processing. The basis for learning in ANS's is then described, and compared with classical Machine learning. While similar in some ways, ANS learning deviates from tradition in its dependence on the modification of individual weights to bring about changes in a knowledge representation distributed across connections in a network. This unique form of learning is analyzed from two aspects: the selection of an appropriate network architecture for representing the problem, and the choice of a suitable learning rule capable of reproducing the desired function within the given network. The various network architectures are classified, and then identified with explicit restrictions on the types of functions they are capable of representing. The learning rules, i.e., algorithms that specify how the network weights are modified, are similarly taxonomized, and where possible, the limitations inherent to specific classes of rules are outlined.

  15. School children's reasoning about school rules

    OpenAIRE

    Thornberg, Robert

    2008-01-01

    School rules are usually associated with classroom management and school discipline. However, rules also define ways of thinking about oneself and the world. Rules are guidelines for actions and for the evaluation of actions in terms of good and bad, or right and wrong, and therefore a part of moral or values education in school. This study is a part of a larger ethnographic study on values education in the everyday life of school. Here the focus is on school rules and students' reasoning abo...

  16. An Historical Analysis of Monetary Policy Rules

    OpenAIRE

    John B. Taylor

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines several episodes in U.S. monetary history using the framework of an interest rate rule for monetary policy. The main finding is that a monetary policy rule in which the interest rate responds to inflation and real output more aggressively than it did in the 1960s and 1970s, or than during the time of the international gold standard, and more like the late 1980s and 1990s, is a good policy rule. Moreover, if one defines rule, then such mistakes have been associated with eit...

  17. Sum rules in the response function method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayanagi, Kazuo

    1990-01-01

    Sum rules in the response function method are studied in detail. A sum rule can be obtained theoretically by integrating the imaginary part of the response function over the excitation energy with a corresponding energy weight. Generally, the response function is calculated perturbatively in terms of the residual interaction, and the expansion can be described by diagrammatic methods. In this paper, we present a classification of the diagrams so as to clarify which diagram has what contribution to which sum rule. This will allow us to get insight into the contributions to the sum rules of all the processes expressed by Goldstone diagrams. (orig.)

  18. Guide to the collision avoidance rules

    CERN Document Server

    Cockcroft, A N

    2004-01-01

    A Guide to the Collision Avoidance Rules is the essential reference to the safe operation of all vessels at sea. Published continuously since 1965, this respected and expert guide is the classic text for all who need to, practically and legally, understand and comply with the Rules. This sixth edition incorporates all of the amendments to the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea which came into force in November 2003.The books sets out all of the Rules with clear explanation of their meaning, and gives detailed examples of how the rules have been used in practice

  19. Modeling the learning of the English past tense with memory-based learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noord, Rik; Spenader, Jennifer K.

    2015-01-01

    Modeling the acquisition and final state of English past tense inflection has been an ongoing challenge since the mid-eighties. A number of rule-based and connectionist models have been proposed over the years, but the former usually have no explanation of how the rules are learned and the latter

  20. From rule to response: neuronal processes in the premotor and prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Jonathan D; Miller, Earl K

    2003-09-01

    The ability to use abstract rules or principles allows behavior to generalize from specific circumstances (e.g., rules learned in a specific restaurant can subsequently be applied to any dining experience). Neurons in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) encode such rules. However, to guide behavior, rules must be linked to motor responses. We investigated the neuronal mechanisms underlying this process by recording from the PFC and the premotor cortex (PMC) of monkeys trained to use two abstract rules: "same" or "different." The monkeys had to either hold or release a lever, depending on whether two successively presented pictures were the same or different, and depending on which rule was in effect. The abstract rules were represented in both regions, although they were more prevalent and were encoded earlier and more strongly in the PMC. There was a perceptual bias in the PFC, relative to the PMC, with more PFC neurons encoding the presented pictures. In contrast, neurons encoding the behavioral response were more prevalent in the PMC, and the selectivity was stronger and appeared earlier in the PMC than in the PFC.

  1. Smooth criminal: convicted rule-breakers show reduced cognitive conflict during deliberate rule violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusyte, Aiste; Pfister, Roland; Mayer, Sarah V; Schwarz, Katharina A; Wirth, Robert; Kunde, Wilfried; Schönenberg, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Classic findings on conformity and obedience document a strong and automatic drive of human agents to follow any type of rule or social norm. At the same time, most individuals tend to violate rules on occasion, and such deliberate rule violations have recently been shown to yield cognitive conflict for the rule-breaker. These findings indicate persistent difficulty to suppress the rule representation, even though rule violations were studied in a controlled experimental setting with neither gains nor possible sanctions for violators. In the current study, we validate these findings by showing that convicted criminals, i.e., individuals with a history of habitual and severe forms of rule violations, can free themselves from such cognitive conflict in a similarly controlled laboratory task. These findings support an emerging view that aims at understanding rule violations from the perspective of the violating agent rather than from the perspective of outside observer.

  2. When more is less: Feedback effects in perceptual category learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, W. Todd; Love, Bradley C.; Glass, Brian D.; Filoteo, J. Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Rule-based and information-integration category learning were compared under minimal and full feedback conditions. Rule-based category structures are those for which the optimal rule is verbalizable. Information-integration category structures are those for which the optimal rule is not verbalizable. With minimal feedback subjects are told whether their response was correct or incorrect, but are not informed of the correct category assignment. With full feedback subjects are informed of the correctness of their response and are also informed of the correct category assignment. An examination of the distinct neural circuits that subserve rule-based and information-integration category learning leads to the counterintuitive prediction that full feedback should facilitate rule-based learning but should also hinder information-integration learning. This prediction was supported in the experiment reported below. The implications of these results for theories of learning are discussed. PMID:18455155

  3. Neuronal avalanches and learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcangelis, Lucilla de, E-mail: dearcangelis@na.infn.it [Department of Information Engineering and CNISM, Second University of Naples, 81031 Aversa (Italy)

    2011-05-01

    Networks of living neurons represent one of the most fascinating systems of biology. If the physical and chemical mechanisms at the basis of the functioning of a single neuron are quite well understood, the collective behaviour of a system of many neurons is an extremely intriguing subject. Crucial ingredient of this complex behaviour is the plasticity property of the network, namely the capacity to adapt and evolve depending on the level of activity. This plastic ability is believed, nowadays, to be at the basis of learning and memory in real brains. Spontaneous neuronal activity has recently shown features in common to other complex systems. Experimental data have, in fact, shown that electrical information propagates in a cortex slice via an avalanche mode. These avalanches are characterized by a power law distribution for the size and duration, features found in other problems in the context of the physics of complex systems and successful models have been developed to describe their behaviour. In this contribution we discuss a statistical mechanical model for the complex activity in a neuronal network. The model implements the main physiological properties of living neurons and is able to reproduce recent experimental results. Then, we discuss the learning abilities of this neuronal network. Learning occurs via plastic adaptation of synaptic strengths by a non-uniform negative feedback mechanism. The system is able to learn all the tested rules, in particular the exclusive OR (XOR) and a random rule with three inputs. The learning dynamics exhibits universal features as function of the strength of plastic adaptation. Any rule could be learned provided that the plastic adaptation is sufficiently slow.

  4. Neuronal avalanches and learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcangelis, Lucilla de

    2011-01-01

    Networks of living neurons represent one of the most fascinating systems of biology. If the physical and chemical mechanisms at the basis of the functioning of a single neuron are quite well understood, the collective behaviour of a system of many neurons is an extremely intriguing subject. Crucial ingredient of this complex behaviour is the plasticity property of the network, namely the capacity to adapt and evolve depending on the level of activity. This plastic ability is believed, nowadays, to be at the basis of learning and memory in real brains. Spontaneous neuronal activity has recently shown features in common to other complex systems. Experimental data have, in fact, shown that electrical information propagates in a cortex slice via an avalanche mode. These avalanches are characterized by a power law distribution for the size and duration, features found in other problems in the context of the physics of complex systems and successful models have been developed to describe their behaviour. In this contribution we discuss a statistical mechanical model for the complex activity in a neuronal network. The model implements the main physiological properties of living neurons and is able to reproduce recent experimental results. Then, we discuss the learning abilities of this neuronal network. Learning occurs via plastic adaptation of synaptic strengths by a non-uniform negative feedback mechanism. The system is able to learn all the tested rules, in particular the exclusive OR (XOR) and a random rule with three inputs. The learning dynamics exhibits universal features as function of the strength of plastic adaptation. Any rule could be learned provided that the plastic adaptation is sufficiently slow.

  5. Using Rule-Based Computer Programming to Unify Communication Rules Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, David L.; Roach, J. W.

    This paper proposes the use of a rule-based computer programming language as a standard for the expression of rules, arguing that the adoption of a standard would enable researchers to communicate about rules in a consistent and significant way. Focusing on the formal equivalence of artificial intelligence (AI) programming to different types of…

  6. 18 CFR 39.10 - Changes to an Electric Reliability Organization Rule or Regional Entity Rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... RULES CONCERNING CERTIFICATION OF THE ELECTRIC RELIABILITY ORGANIZATION; AND PROCEDURES FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, APPROVAL, AND ENFORCEMENT OF ELECTRIC RELIABILITY STANDARDS § 39.10 Changes to an Electric... Reliability Organization Rule or Regional Entity Rule. 39.10 Section 39.10 Conservation of Power and Water...

  7. A Constructivist Approach to Rule Bases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sileno, G.; Boer, A.; van Engers, T.; Loiseau, S.; Filipe, J.; Duval, B.; van den Herik, J.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a set of algorithms for the conversion of rule bases between priority-based and constraint-based representations. Inspired by research in precedential reasoning in law, such algorithms can be used for the analysis of a rule base, and for the study of the impact of the introduction

  8. Procedures to establish National Rules of Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this procedure is to establish the EPA National Rules of Behavior to comply with OMB Circular A-130, regarding rules of behavior for users of information systems applicable to all users of EPA information and information systems for users.

  9. Conformal branching rules and modular invariants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Using the outer automorphisms of the affine algebra SU(n), we show how the branching rules for the conformal subalgebra SU(pq) contains SU(p) x SU(q) may be simply calculated. We demonstrate that new modular invariant combinations of SU(n) characters are obtainable from the branching rules. (orig.)

  10. 77 FR 22200 - Rescission of Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... ``Identity Theft Rules,'' 16 CFR part 681, and its rules governing ``Disposal of Consumer Report Information...; Duties of Creditors Regarding Risk-Based Pricing, 16 CFR part 640; Duties of Users of Consumer Reports... collection, assembly, and use of consumer report information and provides the framework for the credit...

  11. 42 CFR 401.108 - CMS rulings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CMS rulings. 401.108 Section 401.108 Public Health... GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Confidentiality and Disclosure § 401.108 CMS rulings. (a) After... regulations, but which has been adopted by CMS as having precedent, may be published in the Federal Register...

  12. Bewijslastverdeling onder de Hague (Visby) Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Margetson, N.J.

    2009-01-01

    Er bestaat geen heersende leer ten aanzien van de bewijslastverdeling onder de Hague Rules en de Hague Visby Rules. In dit artikel worden verschillende visies die naast elkaar bestaan besproken. De auteur concludeert dat een algemene regel van bewijslastverdeling niet bestaat. De bewijslast zal

  13. Implicit and Explicit Instruction of Spelling Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, M. J.; Verhoeven, L.; Bosman, A. M. T.

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to compare the differential effectiveness of explicit and implicit instruction of two Dutch spelling rules. Students with and without spelling disabilities were instructed a spelling rule either implicitly or explicitly in two experiments. Effects were tested in a pretest-intervention-posttest control group design. Experiment 1…

  14. 18 CFR 358.7 - Transparency rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transparency rule. 358.7 Section 358.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... Transparency rule. (a) Contemporaneous disclosure. (1) If a transmission provider discloses non-public...

  15. Restoring trust in the rule of law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirsch Ballin, Ernst

    The law as an abstract system of rules establishes the conditions under which people in large societies can live together in peace. This is not because they all have personal trust in each other (which is obviously impossible to establish) but because they trust that living up to the rules is what

  16. 20 CFR 345.401 - General rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General rule. 345.401 Section 345.401... EMPLOYERS' CONTRIBUTIONS AND CONTRIBUTION REPORTS Benefit Charging § 345.401 General rule. Effective January... the basis of a claim for benefits to that employee's base year employer's cumulative benefit balance...

  17. Rule customization in head-up games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toering, E.B.; Soute, I.A.C.; Markopoulos, P.

    2010-01-01

    This research examines the feasibility of rule customization for a genre of pervasive games for children called Head-Up Games [11], which are intended to be played outdoors by children and to encourage physical activity and social interaction. An interface to allow customization of game rules was

  18. Fusion rules in conformal field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, J.

    1993-06-01

    Several aspects of fusion rings and fusion rule algebras, and of their manifestations in two-dimensional (conformal) field theory, are described: diagonalization and the connection with modular invariance; the presentation in terms of quotients of polynomial rings; fusion graphs; various strategies that allow for a partial classification; and the role of the fusion rules in the conformal bootstrap programme. (orig.)

  19. Following legal rules : Visibility and feasibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Roermund, G.C.G.J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reflects on the idea of ‘visualization’ of legal rules as part of an account of rule following in action. Presenting an alternative to Van Schooten’s (Jurisprudence and communication. Deborah Charles, Liverpool, 2012) account of interpretation, I first distinguish between two modes of

  20. Interpreting the Customary Rules on Interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkouris, Panos

    2017-01-01

    International courts have at times interpreted the customary rules on interpretation. This is interesting because what is being interpreted is: i) rules of interpretation, which sounds dangerously tautological, and ii) customary law, the interpretation of which has not been the object of critical

  1. 16 CFR 1025.41 - General rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General rules. 1025.41 Section 1025.41 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE FOR ADJUDICATIVE... to the convenience of the parties, shall continue without suspension until concluded, except in...

  2. Intergroup Bias in Parliamentary Rule Enforcement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Frederik Georg

    2016-01-01

    Political actors are often assigned roles requiring them to enforce rules without giving in-groups special treatment. But are such institutional roles likely to be successful? Here, I exploit a special case of exogenously assigned intergroup relations: debates in the Danish Parliament, in which P...... of clear rules, complete observability, and a tradition of parliamentary cooperation....

  3. The Filtering Effect of Sharing Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dari Mattiacci, G.; de Geest, G.G.A.

    2004-01-01

    Sharing rules have a filtering effect on violations: they prevent the most harmful violations and let the least harmful ones occur. We show under what conditions the filtering effect improves social welfare and argue that this may explain why, in most areas of the law, sharing rules are, in general,

  4. The Equilibrium Rule--A Personal Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Paul G.

    2016-01-01

    Examples of equilibrium are evident everywhere and the equilibrium rule provides a reasoned way to view all things, whether in static (balancing rocks, steel beams in building construction) or dynamic (airplanes, bowling balls) equilibrium. Interestingly, the equilibrium rule applies not just to objects at rest but whenever any object or system of…

  5. Rule - Governed Behavior as a Psychological Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Erwin M.; Stacy, E. Webb, Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Some descriptive criteria for identifying rule-governed behavior are identified from the perspective of cognitive psychology. It is suggested that the concept of explanation in psychology be modified from a specification in terms of physical properties of the antecedent events in a causal sequence to a mapping of rules onto behavior or behavior…

  6. Discovering Sentinel Rules for Business Intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Middelfart, Morten; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes the concept of sentinel rules for multi-dimensional data that warns users when measure data concerning the external environment changes. For instance, a surge in negative blogging about a company could trigger a sentinel rule warning that revenue will decrease within two month...

  7. 76 FR 58716 - Telemarketing Sales Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 310 Telemarketing Sales Rule AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission... Telemarketing Sales Rule in the Federal Register on August 10, 2010 (75 FR 48458), with new provisions to..., Division of Marketing Practices, Bureau of Consumer Protection, Federal Trade Commission, Washington, DC...

  8. Rule representation using linked data technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, C.; Beetz, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report a prototype rule checking system based on Semantic Web and Linked Data technologies. This research aims to find a method to represent rules outside of specific systems, and can be used to integrate and share them among different organizations. In this system we propose to

  9. Superconvergent sum rules for the normal reflectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, K.; Zimerman, A.H.; Villani, A.

    1976-05-01

    Families of superconvergent relations for the normal reflectivity function are written. Sum rules connecting the difference of phases of the reflectivities of two materials are also considered. Finally superconvergence relations and sum rules for magneto-reflectivity in the Faraday and Voigt regimes are also studied

  10. Interjurisdictional trading rules and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keizer, C.

    2001-01-01

    Rules and issues regarding financial transmission rights were presented in this power point presentation which focused on access to the Ontario electricity grid. Power generators submit offers to the independent market operator (IMO) to participate in the IMO dispatch. This presentation covered uniform pricing issues in Ontario, the congestion pricing theory, congestion management, and how congestion pricing can apply to inter-regional trades. Inter-regional trading examples of buying and selling electricity in Ontario were also presented. IMOs have the power to auction transmission rights, which are the financial instrument that protects against exposure to changes in price differences. Initially, this would apply only to price differences between the uniform Ontario price and prices in each zone. The holders of financial transmission rights receive a portion of the congestion surplus collected through the IMO settlements as a result of congestion pricing on the entities. The problem is that this provides no incentive for transmitters. Another problem is that there are different trading regimes in Ontario, but it is preferable to have seamless trading across jurisdictions to promote inter-jurisdictional trading

  11. Exploring the Virtuality Continuum for Complex Rule-Set Education in the Context of Soccer Rule Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés N. Vargas González

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We present an exploratory study to assess the benefits of using Augmented Reality (AR in training sports rule comprehension. Soccer is the chosen context for this study due to the wide range of complexity in the rules and regulations. Observers must understand and holistically evaluate the proximity of players in the game to the ball and other visual objects, such as the goal, penalty area, and other players. Grounded in previous literature investigating the effects of Virtual Reality (VR scenarios on transfer of training (ToT, we explore how three different interfaces influence user perception using both qualitative and quantitative measures. To better understand how effective augmented reality technology is when combined with learning systems, we compare results on the effects of learning outcomes in three interface conditions: AR, VR and a traditional Desktop interface. We also compare these interfaces as measured by user experience, engagement, and immersion. Results show that there were no significance difference among VR and AR; however, these participants outperformed the Desktop group which needed a higher number of adaptations to acquire the same knowledge.

  12. Rules of thumb in life-cycle savings models

    OpenAIRE

    Rodepeter, Ralf; Winter, Joachim

    1999-01-01

    We analyze life-cycle savings decisions when households use simple heuristics, or rules of thumb, rather than solve the underlying intertemporal optimization problem. The decision rules we explore are a simple Keynesian rule where consumption follows income; a simple consumption rule where only a fraction of positive income shocks is saved; a rule that corresponds to the permanent income hypothesis; and two rules that have been found in experimental studies. Using these rules, we simulate lif...

  13. The research on business rules classification and specification methods

    OpenAIRE

    Baltrušaitis, Egidijus

    2005-01-01

    The work is based on the research of business rules classification and specification methods. The basics of business rules approach are discussed. The most common business rules classification and modeling methods are analyzed. Business rules modeling techniques and tools for supporting them in the information systems are presented. Basing on the analysis results business rules classification method is proposed. Templates for every business rule type are presented. Business rules structuring ...

  14. Learning and structure of neuronal networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study the effect of learning dynamics on network topology. Firstly, a network of discrete dynamical systems is considered for this purpose and the coupling strengths are made to evolve according to a temporal learning rule that is based on the paradigm of spike-time-dependent plasticity (STDP). This incorporates ...

  15. The Biological Basis of Learning and Individuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Eric R.; Hawkins, Robert D.

    1992-01-01

    Describes the biological basis of learning and individuality. Presents an overview of recent discoveries that suggest learning engages a simple set of rules that modify the strength of connection between neurons in the brain. The changes are cited as playing an important role in making each individual unique. (MCO)

  16. Current algebra sum rules for Reggeons

    CERN Document Server

    Carlitz, R

    1972-01-01

    The interplay between the constraints of chiral SU/sub 2/*SU/sub 2/ symmetry and Regge asymptotic behaviour is investigated. The author reviews the derivation of various current algebra sum rules in a study of the reaction pi + alpha to pi + beta . These sum rules imply that all particles may be classified in multiplets of SU/sub 2/*SU/sub 2/ and that each of these multiplets may contain linear combinations of an infinite number of physical states. Extending his study to the reaction pi + alpha to pi + pi + beta , he derives new sum rules involving commutators of the axial charge with the reggeon coupling matrices of the rho and f Regge trajectories. Some applications of these new sum rules are noted, and the general utility of these and related sum rules is discussed. (17 refs).

  17. Study of QCD medium by sum rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallik, S [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Calcutta (India)

    1998-08-01

    Though it has no analogue in condensed matter physics, the thermal QCD sum rules can, nevertheless, answer questions of condensed matter type about the QCD medium. The ingredients needed to write such sum rules, viz. the operator product expansion and the spectral representation at finite temperature, are reviewed in detail. The sum rules are then actually written for the case of correlation function of two vector currents. Collecting information on the thermal average of the higher dimension operators from other sources, we evaluate these sum rules for the temperature dependent {rho}-meson parameters. Possibility of extracting more information from the combined set of all sum rules from different correlation functions is also discussed. (author) 30 refs., 2 figs.

  18. The formal logic of business rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Rábová

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of improvement areas and utilization of information and communication technologies have gained value and priority in our knowledge driven society. Rules define constraints, conditions and policies of how the business processes are to be performed but they also affect the behavior of the resource and facilitate strategic business goals achieving. They control the business and represent business knowledge. The research works about business rules show how to specify and classify business rules from the business perspective and to establish an approach to managing them that will enable faster change in business processes and other business concepts in all areas of the business. In concrete this paper deals with four approaches to business rules formalization, i. e. notation of OCL, inference rules, decision table and predicate logic and with their general evaluation. The article shows also the advantages and disadvantages of these approaches of formalization. They are the example of every mentioned approach.

  19. Business rules formalisation for information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Rábová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with relation business rules and business applications and describes a number of structures for support of information systems implementation and customization. Particular formats of structure are different according to different type of business rules. We arise from model of enterprise architecture that is a significant document of all what happens in business and serves for blueprint and facilitates of managers decisions. Most complicated part of enterprise architecture is business rule. When we gain its accurate formulation and when we achieve to formalize and to store business rule in special repository we can manage it actualize it and use it for many reasons. The article emphasizes formats of business rule formalization and its reference to business applications implementation.

  20. Classifiers based on optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha

    2013-11-25

    Based on dynamic programming approach we design algorithms for sequential optimization of exact and approximate decision rules relative to the length and coverage [3, 4]. In this paper, we use optimal rules to construct classifiers, and study two questions: (i) which rules are better from the point of view of classification-exact or approximate; and (ii) which order of optimization gives better results of classifier work: length, length+coverage, coverage, or coverage+length. Experimental results show that, on average, classifiers based on exact rules are better than classifiers based on approximate rules, and sequential optimization (length+coverage or coverage+length) is better than the ordinary optimization (length or coverage).

  1. Classifiers based on optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha M.; Chikalov, Igor; Moshkov, Mikhail; Zielosko, Beata

    2013-01-01

    Based on dynamic programming approach we design algorithms for sequential optimization of exact and approximate decision rules relative to the length and coverage [3, 4]. In this paper, we use optimal rules to construct classifiers, and study two questions: (i) which rules are better from the point of view of classification-exact or approximate; and (ii) which order of optimization gives better results of classifier work: length, length+coverage, coverage, or coverage+length. Experimental results show that, on average, classifiers based on exact rules are better than classifiers based on approximate rules, and sequential optimization (length+coverage or coverage+length) is better than the ordinary optimization (length or coverage).

  2. Discovering Sentinel Rules for Business Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelfart, Morten; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    This paper proposes the concept of sentinel rules for multi-dimensional data that warns users when measure data concerning the external environment changes. For instance, a surge in negative blogging about a company could trigger a sentinel rule warning that revenue will decrease within two months, so a new course of action can be taken. Hereby, we expand the window of opportunity for organizations and facilitate successful navigation even though the world behaves chaotically. Since sentinel rules are at the schema level as opposed to the data level, and operate on data changes as opposed to absolute data values, we are able to discover strong and useful sentinel rules that would otherwise be hidden when using sequential pattern mining or correlation techniques. We present a method for sentinel rule discovery and an implementation of this method that scales linearly on large data volumes.

  3. Class Association Rule Pada Metode Associative Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Karyawati

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Frequent patterns (itemsets discovery is an important problem in associative classification rule mining.  Differents approaches have been proposed such as the Apriori-like, Frequent Pattern (FP-growth, and Transaction Data Location (Tid-list Intersection algorithm. This paper focuses on surveying and comparing the state of the art associative classification techniques with regards to the rule generation phase of associative classification algorithms.  This phase includes frequent itemsets discovery and rules mining/extracting methods to generate the set of class association rules (CARs.  There are some techniques proposed to improve the rule generation method.  A technique by utilizing the concepts of discriminative power of itemsets can reduce the size of frequent itemset.  It can prune the useless frequent itemsets. The closed frequent itemset concept can be utilized to compress the rules to be compact rules.  This technique may reduce the size of generated rules.  Other technique is in determining the support threshold value of the itemset. Specifying not single but multiple support threshold values with regard to the class label frequencies can give more appropriate support threshold value.  This technique may generate more accurate rules. Alternative technique to generate rule is utilizing the vertical layout to represent dataset.  This method is very effective because it only needs one scan over dataset, compare with other techniques that need multiple scan over dataset.   However, one problem with these approaches is that the initial set of tid-lists may be too large to fit into main memory. It requires more sophisticated techniques to compress the tid-lists.

  4. LEARN HOW TO LEARN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mekonnen

    traditional educational approach is not helping to improve poor countries ..... If students understand the rules of the game they could better prepared to reflect their .... It seems, it is a better idea to use the online technology both for relatively.

  5. RuleMaDrone: A Web-Interface to Visualise Space Usage Rules for Drones

    OpenAIRE

    Trippaers, Aäron

    2015-01-01

    RuleMaDrone, an application developed within this thesis, is presented as a solution to communicate the rules and regulations to drone operators. To provide the solution a framework for drone safety was designed which consists of the rules and regulations, the drone properties and the environmental factors. RuleMaDrone is developed with this framework and thus will provide drone operators with an application which they can use to find a safe and legal fly zone. RuleMaDrone u...

  6. Learning Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Coll. of Education.

    Information is provided regarding major learning styles and other factors important to student learning. Several typically asked questions are presented regarding different learning styles (visual, auditory, tactile and kinesthetic, and multisensory learning), associated considerations, determining individuals' learning styles, and appropriate…

  7. Learning and coding in biological neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiete, Ila Rani

    How can large groups of neurons that locally modify their activities learn to collectively perform a desired task? Do studies of learning in small networks tell us anything about learning in the fantastically large collection of neurons that make up a vertebrate brain? What factors do neurons optimize by encoding sensory inputs or motor commands in the way they do? In this thesis I present a collection of four theoretical works: each of the projects was motivated by specific constraints and complexities of biological neural networks, as revealed by experimental studies; together, they aim to partially address some of the central questions of neuroscience posed above. We first study the role of sparse neural activity, as seen in the coding of sequential commands in a premotor area responsible for birdsong. We show that the sparse coding of temporal sequences in the songbird brain can, in a network where the feedforward plastic weights must translate the sparse sequential code into a time-varying muscle code, facilitate learning by minimizing synaptic interference. Next, we propose a biologically plausible synaptic plasticity rule that can perform goal-directed learning in recurrent networks of voltage-based spiking neurons that interact through conductances. Learning is based on the correlation of noisy local activity with a global reward signal; we prove that this rule performs stochastic gradient ascent on the reward. Thus, if the reward signal quantifies network performance on some desired task, the plasticity rule provably drives goal-directed learning in the network. To assess the convergence properties of the learning rule, we compare it with a known example of learning in the brain. Song-learning in finches is a clear example of a learned behavior, with detailed available neurophysiological data. With our learning rule, we train an anatomically accurate model birdsong network that drives a sound source to mimic an actual zebrafinch song. Simulation and

  8. Supervised Learning in Spiking Neural Networks for Precise Temporal Encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Brian; Grüning, André

    2016-01-01

    Precise spike timing as a means to encode information in neural networks is biologically supported, and is advantageous over frequency-based codes by processing input features on a much shorter time-scale. For these reasons, much recent attention has been focused on the development of supervised learning rules for spiking neural networks that utilise a temporal coding scheme. However, despite significant progress in this area, there still lack rules that have a theoretical basis, and yet can be considered biologically relevant. Here we examine the general conditions under which synaptic plasticity most effectively takes place to support the supervised learning of a precise temporal code. As part of our analysis we examine two spike-based learning methods: one of which relies on an instantaneous error signal to modify synaptic weights in a network (INST rule), and the other one relying on a filtered error signal for smoother synaptic weight modifications (FILT rule). We test the accuracy of the solutions provided by each rule with respect to their temporal encoding precision, and then measure the maximum number of input patterns they can learn to memorise using the precise timings of individual spikes as an indication of their storage capacity. Our results demonstrate the high performance of the FILT rule in most cases, underpinned by the rule's error-filtering mechanism, which is predicted to provide smooth convergence towards a desired solution during learning. We also find the FILT rule to be most efficient at performing input pattern memorisations, and most noticeably when patterns are identified using spikes with sub-millisecond temporal precision. In comparison with existing work, we determine the performance of the FILT rule to be consistent with that of the highly efficient E-learning Chronotron rule, but with the distinct advantage that our FILT rule is also implementable as an online method for increased biological realism.

  9. Proof of Kochen–Specker Theorem: Conversion of Product Rule to Sum Rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toh, S.P.; Zainuddin, Hishamuddin

    2009-01-01

    Valuation functions of observables in quantum mechanics are often expected to obey two constraints called the sum rule and product rule. However, the Kochen–Specker (KS) theorem shows that for a Hilbert space of quantum mechanics of dimension d ≤ 3, these constraints contradict individually with the assumption of value definiteness. The two rules are not irrelated and Peres [Found. Phys. 26 (1996) 807] has conceived a method of converting the product rule into a sum rule for the case of two qubits. Here we apply this method to a proof provided by Mermin based on the product rule for a three-qubit system involving nine operators. We provide the conversion of this proof to one based on sum rule involving ten operators. (general)

  10. 76 FR 27274 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Rules of the Armed Services Board of Contract...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ..., Organization, Forwarding, and Status of Appeal File Rule 5 Motions Rule 6 Pleadings Rule 7 Amendments of Pleadings or Record Rule 8 Hearing Election Rule 9 Prehearing Briefs Rule 10 Prehearing or Presubmission... Party Rule 20 Hearings: Nature, Examination of Witnesses Rule 21 Subpoenas Rule 22 Copies of Papers Rule...

  11. A Visual Detection Learning Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Bettina L.; Ahumada, Albert J., Jr.; Trejo, Leonard (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Our learning model has memory templates representing the target-plus-noise and noise-alone stimulus sets. The best correlating template determines the response. The correlations and the feedback participate in the additive template updating rule. The model can predict the relative thresholds for detection in random, fixed and twin noise.

  12. Implicit Procedural Learning in Fragile X and Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussy, G.; Charrin, E.; Brun, A.; Curie, A.; des Portes, V.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Procedural learning refers to rule-based motor skill learning and storage. It involves the cerebellum, striatum and motor areas of the frontal lobe network. Fragile X syndrome, which has been linked with anatomical abnormalities within the striatum, may result in implicit procedural learning deficit. Methods: To address this issue, a…

  13. 14 CFR 91.139 - Emergency air traffic rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency air traffic rules. 91.139 Section 91.139 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.139 Emergency air traffic rules. (a) This...

  14. Rules for preventing chemical risks: fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-02-01

    The Fundamental Safety Rules applicable to certain types of nuclear installation are intended to clarify the conditions of which observance, for the type of installation concerned and for the subject that they deal with, is considered as equivalent to compliance with regulatory French technical practice. These Rules should facilitate safety analysises and the clear understanding between persons interested in matters related to nuclear safety. They in no way reduce the operator's liability and pose no obstacle to statutory provisions in force. For any installation to which a Fundamental Safety Rule applies according to the foregoing paragraph, the operator may be relieved from application of the Rule if he shows proof that the safety objectives set by the Rule are attained by other means that he proposes within the framework of statutory procedures. Furthermore, the Central Service for the Safety of Nuclear Installations reserves the right at all times to alter any Fundamental Safety Rule, as required, should it deem, this necessary, while specifying the applicability conditions. The present rule defines the dispositions to take in account for avoid fire hazards in nuclear facilities (Power reactors and accelerators are excluded) [fr

  15. Implementation of maintenance rule for structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashar, H.; Bagchi, G.

    1999-01-01

    The maintenance rule, 10 CFR 50.65, 'Requirements for Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants', was published by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in the Federal Register (56 FR 31324) on July 10, 1991. The rule became effective on July 10, 1996, giving nuclear power plant licensees 5 years to implement it. During 1994-1995, NRC staff visited nine nuclear power plant sites to observe licensees' preparations for implementation of the rule. The teams found that most of the licensees had not established goals, or performance criteria for monitoring structures at their sites. The licensees contended that the structures were inherently reliable and required no monitoring under the maintenance rule. On the basis of earlier site visits performed by NRC staff to assess the condition of structures, the NRC staff could not accept this contention, and clarified its position in Revision 1 of Regulatory Guide 1.160, 'Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants'. This paper discusses the applicability of the maintenance rule criteria for structures and its usefulness in ensuring that the structures, systems, and components within the scope of the maintenance rule are capable of fulfilling their intended functions. Also discussed are the aspects of maintenance rule efforts that could be useful for license renewal applications. (orig.)

  16. The INCOTERMS rules and their importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca LAZĂR

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The content INCOTERMS are a set of rules that determine the rights and obligations of the international sales contract, selecting a rule of interpretation of commercial terms INCOTERMS, progress is the result of negotiation between the parties and expresses the ratio of these economic forces. In relation to the obligations of the parties to an international sales contract are several different types of contracts covered by the clause. To define the main rules INCOTERMS was considered as a starting point delivery of goods, establishment of the seller and the buyer2, the rules concerning the obligations of each party that are grouped into ten items with identical titles for all the rules. Due to significant developments in international trade, for making available to retailers in the interpretation of the rules commonly used trade terms in international trade, the International Chamber of Commerce in Paris draw a set of delivery conditions for their interpretation in international sales, rules that were in international trade practice some habits, but who were not of equal significance to traders in different countries.

  17. Module Six: Parallel Circuits; Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    In this module the student will learn the rules that govern the characteristics of parallel circuits; the relationships between voltage, current, resistance and power; and the results of common troubles in parallel circuits. The module is divided into four lessons: rules of voltage and current, rules for resistance and power, variational analysis,…

  18. Learning Networks, Networked Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter; Berlanga, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    Sloep, P. B., & Berlanga, A. J. (2011). Learning Networks, Networked Learning [Redes de Aprendizaje, Aprendizaje en Red]. Comunicar, XIX(37), 55-63. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.3916/C37-2011-02-05

  19. Rules and routines in organizations and the management of safety rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weichbrodt, J. Ch.

    2013-07-01

    This thesis is concerned with the relationship between rules and routines in organizations and how the former can be used to steer the latter. Rules are understood as formal organizational artifacts, whereas organizational routines are collective patterns of action. While research on routines has been thriving, a clear understanding of how rules can be used to influence or control organizational routines (and vice-versa) is still lacking. This question is of particular relevance to safety rules in high-risk organizations, where the way in which organizational routines unfold can ultimately be a matter of life and death. In these organizations, an important and related issue is the balancing of standardization and flexibility – which, in the case of rules, takes the form of finding the right degree of formalization. In high-risk organizations, the question is how to adequately regulate actors’ routines in order to facilitate safe behavior, while at the same time leaving enough leeway for actors to make good decisions in abnormal situations. The railroads are regarded as high-risk industries and also rely heavily on formal rules. In this thesis, the Swiss Federal Railways (SBB) were therefore selected for a field study on rules and routines. The issues outlined so far are being tackled theoretically (paper 1), empirically (paper 2), and from a practitioner’s (i.e., rule maker’s) point of view (paper 3). In paper 1, the relationship between rules and routines is theoretically conceptualized, based on a literature review. Literature on organizational control and coordination, on rules in human factors and safety, and on organizational routines is combined. Three distinct roles (rule maker, rule supervisor, and rule follower) are outlined. Six propositions are developed regarding the necessary characteristics of both routines and rules, the respective influence of the three roles on the rule-routine relationship, and regarding organizational aspects such as

  20. Rules and routines in organizations and the management of safety rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weichbrodt, J. Ch.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the relationship between rules and routines in organizations and how the former can be used to steer the latter. Rules are understood as formal organizational artifacts, whereas organizational routines are collective patterns of action. While research on routines has been thriving, a clear understanding of how rules can be used to influence or control organizational routines (and vice-versa) is still lacking. This question is of particular relevance to safety rules in high-risk organizations, where the way in which organizational routines unfold can ultimately be a matter of life and death. In these organizations, an important and related issue is the balancing of standardization and flexibility – which, in the case of rules, takes the form of finding the right degree of formalization. In high-risk organizations, the question is how to adequately regulate actors’ routines in order to facilitate safe behavior, while at the same time leaving enough leeway for actors to make good decisions in abnormal situations. The railroads are regarded as high-risk industries and also rely heavily on formal rules. In this thesis, the Swiss Federal Railways (SBB) were therefore selected for a field study on rules and routines. The issues outlined so far are being tackled theoretically (paper 1), empirically (paper 2), and from a practitioner’s (i.e., rule maker’s) point of view (paper 3). In paper 1, the relationship between rules and routines is theoretically conceptualized, based on a literature review. Literature on organizational control and coordination, on rules in human factors and safety, and on organizational routines is combined. Three distinct roles (rule maker, rule supervisor, and rule follower) are outlined. Six propositions are developed regarding the necessary characteristics of both routines and rules, the respective influence of the three roles on the rule-routine relationship, and regarding organizational aspects such as

  1. On construction of partial association rules

    KAUST Repository

    Moshkov, Mikhail

    2009-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of approximate algorithms for minimization of partial association rule length. It is shown that under some natural assumptions on the class NP, a greedy algorithm is close to the best polynomial approximate algorithms for solving of this NP-hard problem. The paper contains various bounds on precision of the greedy algorithm, bounds on minimal length of rules based on an information obtained during greedy algorithm work, and results of the study of association rules for the most part of binary information systems. © 2009 Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

  2. Amendments to the Staff Rules and Regulations

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The Staff Rules and Regulations in force since 1 January 1996 are modified as follows: as from 1 April 2003 • Article R II 1.19 - Types and duration of contracts of staff members (page 15) as from 1 July 2003 Implementation of the category of local staff members Copies of this update are available in the divisional secretariats. In addition, Staff Rules and Regulations are available for consultation on the Web at http://cern.ch/hr-div/internal/admin_services/rules/default.asp Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  3. The Mortensen Rule and Efficient Coordination Unemployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennes, John; King, Ian; Julien, Benoit

    2006-01-01

    We apply the efficiency axioms of [Mortensen, D. (1982). Efficiency of mating, racing and related games. American Economic Review, 72 968–979.] to a set of matching games involving coordination frictions between buyers. These games include markets with finite numbers of buyers and sellers...... and markets with infinite numbers of heterogeneous buyers and homogenous sellers. We show that the Mortensen rule, but not the Hosios rule, gives constrained efficient allocations. We also show that the Mortensen rule is implemented by a simple auction...

  4. Fixed mass and scaling sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, B.F.L.

    1975-01-01

    Using the correspondence principle (continuity in dynamics), the approach of Keppell-Jones-Ward-Taha to fixed mass and scaling current algebraic sum rules is extended so as to consider explicitly the contributions of all classes of intermediate states. A natural, generalized formulation of the truncation ideas of Cornwall, Corrigan, and Norton is introduced as a by-product of this extension. The formalism is illustrated in the familiar case of the spin independent Schwinger term sum rule. New sum rules are derived which relate the Regge residue functions of the respective structure functions to their fixed hadronic mass limits for q 2 → infinity. (Auth.)

  5. Sign rules for anisotropic quantum spin systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, R. F.; Farnell, D. J. J.; Parkinson, J. B.

    2000-01-01

    We present exact ''sign rules'' for various spin-s anisotropic spin-lattice models. It is shown that, after a simple transformation which utilizes these sign rules, the ground-state wave function of the transformed Hamiltonian is positive definite. Using these results exact statements for various expectation values of off-diagonal operators are presented, and transitions in the behavior of these expectation values are observed at particular values of the anisotropy. Furthermore, the importance of such sign rules in variational calculations and quantum Monte Carlo calculations is emphasized. This is illustrated by a simple variational treatment of a one-dimensional anisotropic spin model

  6. Memory formation in reversal learning of the honeybee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravit Hadar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In reversal learning animals are first trained with a differential learning protocol, where they learn to respond to a reinforced odor (CS+ and not to respond to a nonreinforced odor (CS-. Once they respond correctly to this rule, the contingencies of the conditioned stimuli are reversed, and animals learn to adjust their response to the new rule. This study investigated the effect of a protein synthesis inhibitor (emetine on the memory formed after reversal learning in the honeybee Apis mellifera. Two groups of bees were studied: summer bees and winter bees, each yielded different results. Blocking protein synthesis in summer bees inhibits consolidation of the excitatory learning following reversal learning whereas it blocked the consolidation of the inhibitory learning in winter bees. These findings suggest that excitatory and inhibitory learning may involve different molecular processes in bees, which are seasonally dependent.

  7. Learning-parameter adjustment in neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heskes, Tom M.; Kappen, Bert

    1992-06-01

    We present a learning-parameter adjustment algorithm, valid for a large class of learning rules in neural-network literature. The algorithm follows directly from a consideration of the statistics of the weights in the network. The characteristic behavior of the algorithm is calculated, both in a fixed and a changing environment. A simple example, Widrow-Hoff learning for statistical classification, serves as an illustration.

  8. 77 FR 14979 - Transportation Conformity Rule Restructuring Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... Transportation Conformity Rule Restructuring Amendments AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is amending the transportation conformity rule to finalize provisions that were proposed on August 13, 2010. These amendments restructure several sections of the transportation conformity...

  9. Design and Analysis of Decision Rules via Dynamic Programming

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha M.

    2017-01-01

    Another area of advancement is the presentation of algorithms for constructing Pareto optimal points for rules and rule systems. This allows us to study the existence of “totally optimal” decision rules

  10. Historical Relics and Qing Rule Over Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    In October 1720, when the Qing troops had driven the Zungar forces out of Tibet, the Qing court started to reform the govemment system of the region that was geared to control by Tibetans of the upper ruling class.

  11. Extracting pronunciation rules for phonemic variants

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davel, M

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Various automated techniques can be used to generalise from phonemic lexicons through the extraction of grapheme-to-phoneme rule sets. These techniques are particularly useful when developing pronunciation models for previously unmodelled languages...

  12. 17 CFR 200.29 - Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Organization and Program Management General Organization § 200.29 Rules. The.... Where any such proposals presents a legal problem or is a matter of first impression, or involves a...

  13. A Bayesian analysis of QCD sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubler, Philipp; Oka, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    A new technique has recently been developed, in which the Maximum Entropy Method is used to analyze QCD sum rules. This approach has the virtue of being able to directly generate the spectral function of a given operator, without the need of making an assumption about its specific functional form. To investigate whether useful results can be extracted within this method, we have first studied the vector meson channel, where QCD sum rules are traditionally known to provide a valid description of the spectral function. Our results show a significant peak in the region of the experimentally observed ρ-meson mass, which is in agreement with earlier QCD sum rules studies and suggests that the Maximum Entropy Method is a strong tool for analyzing QCD sum rules.

  14. Early implementation of the Maintenance Rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    On July 10, 1991, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published the Maintenance Rule as Section 50.65 of 10 CFR 50. The purpose of the Maintenance Rule is to ensure that the effectiveness of maintenance activities is assessed on an ongoing basis in a manner that ensures key structures, systems, and components are capable of performing their intended function. Full implementation of the rule is required by July 10, 1996. On May 31, 1994, the NRC published Generic Letter 94-01, which allowed removal of technical specification accelerated testing and special reporting requirements for emergency diesel generators provided a program is implemented for monitoring and maintaining emergency diesel generator performance consistent with the provisions of the Maintenance Rule

  15. Automatic inference of indexing rules for MEDLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shooshan Sonya E

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Indexing is a crucial step in any information retrieval system. In MEDLINE, a widely used database of the biomedical literature, the indexing process involves the selection of Medical Subject Headings in order to describe the subject matter of articles. The need for automatic tools to assist MEDLINE indexers in this task is growing with the increasing number of publications being added to MEDLINE. Methods: In this paper, we describe the use and the customization of Inductive Logic Programming (ILP to infer indexing rules that may be used to produce automatic indexing recommendations for MEDLINE indexers. Results: Our results show that this original ILP-based approach outperforms manual rules when they exist. In addition, the use of ILP rules also improves the overall performance of the Medical Text Indexer (MTI, a system producing automatic indexing recommendations for MEDLINE. Conclusion: We expect the sets of ILP rules obtained in this experiment to be integrated into MTI.

  16. New Brunswick electricity market rules : summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-02-01

    The electricity market rules for New Brunswick were reviewed with particular reference to two broad classifications. The first classification is based on the roles and responsibilities of the system operator (SO) in facilitating the Bilateral Contract market, as well as the role of market participants in participating in the Bilateral Contract market. The second classification is based on the roles and responsibilities of each of the SO, market participants and transmitters in maintaining the reliability of the integrated electricity system and ensuring a secure supply of electricity for consumers in New Brunswick. The market rules consist of 10 chapters entitled: (1) introduction to the market rules and administrative rules of general application, (2) market participation and the use of the SO-controlled grid, (3) market administration, (4) technical and connection requirements, testing and commissioning, (5) system reliability, (6) operational requirements, (7) settlement, (8) connection of new or modified facilities, (9) transmission system planning, investment and operation, and (10) definitions and interpretation

  17. Decision Analysis of Dynamic Spectrum Access Rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juan D. Deaton; Luiz A. DaSilva; Christian Wernz

    2011-12-01

    A current trend in spectrum regulation is to incorporate spectrum sharing through the design of spectrum access rules that support Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA). This paper develops a decision-theoretic framework for regulators to assess the impacts of different decision rules on both primary and secondary operators. We analyze access rules based on sensing and exclusion areas, which in practice can be enforced through geolocation databases. Our results show that receiver-only sensing provides insufficient protection for primary and co-existing secondary users and overall low social welfare. On the other hand, using sensing information between the transmitter and receiver of a communication link, provides dramatic increases in system performance. The performance of using these link end points is relatively close to that of using many cooperative sensing nodes associated to the same access point and large link exclusion areas. These results are useful to regulators and network developers in understanding in developing rules for future DSA regulation.

  18. Interest rate rules with heterogeneous expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anufriev, M.; Assenza, T.; Hommes, C.; Massaro, D.

    2011-01-01

    The recent macroeconomic literature stresses the importance of managing heterogeneous expectations in the formulation of monetary policy. We use a simple frictionless DSGE model to investigate inflation dynamics under alternative interest rate rules when agents have heterogeneous expectations and

  19. On construction of partial association rules

    KAUST Repository

    Moshkov, Mikhail; Piliszczuk, Marcin; Zielosko, Beata Marta

    2009-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of approximate algorithms for minimization of partial association rule length. It is shown that under some natural assumptions on the class NP, a greedy algorithm is close to the best polynomial approximate

  20. Accounting principles, reporting rules, and payment practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovener, R R

    1979-12-01

    Misconceptions concerning the distinction between accounting principles, reporting rules, and payment practices and how they interrelate can lessen the effectiveness of hospital financial managers in these areas/clarification and recommendations are offered.