WorldWideScience

Sample records for heavy vehicle systems

  1. A high performance pneumatic braking system for heavy vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jonathan I.; Cebon, David

    2010-12-01

    Current research into reducing actuator delays in pneumatic brake systems is opening the door for advanced anti-lock braking algorithms to be used on heavy goods vehicles. However, these algorithms require the knowledge of variables that are impractical to measure directly. This paper introduces a sliding mode braking force observer to support a sliding mode controller for air-braked heavy vehicles. The performance of the observer is examined through simulations and field testing of an articulated heavy vehicle. The observer operated robustly during single-wheel vehicle simulations, and provided reasonable estimates of surface friction from test data. The effect of brake gain errors on the controller and observer are illustrated, and a recursive least squares estimator is derived for the brake gain. The estimator converged within 0.3 s in simulations and vehicle trials.

  2. Monitoring System for Drivers of Heavy Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Selime Ozaktas; Feyza Galip; Ibrahim Furkan Ince; Sahin Uyaver; Adil Guler; Md. Haidar Sharif

    2016-01-01

    It is a key important issue to prevent life and property from the accidents caused by vehicles of drivers. Alcohol can, speed, drowsy driving, and sudden heart attack are the major causes for road accidents, which can lead to severe physical injuries, deaths and significant economic losses. Various methods have been proposed to detect automatically those causes to prevent accidents. We have addressed an automatic system to provide protection of drivers and travelers by dint of computer vision...

  3. Energy Efficiency in Heavy Vehicle Tires, Drivetrains, and Braking Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter J. Blau

    2000-04-26

    This document was prepared to support the primary goals of the Department of Energy, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies. These were recently stated as follows: ''Develop by 2004 the enabling technologies for a class 7-8 truck with a fuel efficiency of 10 mpg (at 65 mph) which will meet prevailing emission standards. For Class 3-6 trucks operating on an urban driving cycle, develop by 2004 commercially viable vehicles that achieve at least double the fuel economy of comparable current vehicles (1999), and as a research goal, reduce criteria pollutants to 30% below EPA standards. Develop by 2004 the diesel engine enabling technologies to support large-scale industry dieselization of Class 1 and 2 trucks, achieving a 35 % fuel efficiency improvement over comparable gasoline-fueled trucks, while meeting applicable emissions standards.'' The enabling technologies for improving the fuel efficiency of trucks, include not only engine technologies but also technologies involved with lowering the rolling resistance of tires, reducing vehicle aerodynamic drag, improving thermal management, and reducing parasitic frictional losses in drive train components. Opportunities also exist for making better use of the energy that might ordinarily be dissipated during vehicle braking. Braking systems must be included in this evaluation since safety in truck operations is vital, and braking requirements are greater for vehicles having lowered resistance to rolling. The Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies has initiated a program to improve the aerodynamics of heavy vehicles through wind tunnel testing, computational modeling, and on-road evaluations. That activity is described in a separate multi-year plan; therefore, emphasis in this document will be on tires, drive trains, and braking systems. Recent, dramatic fluctuations in diesel fuel prices have emphasized the importance of effecting savings in truck fuel economy by implementing new component designs and

  4. Hybrid and electric advanced vehicle systems (heavy) simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, R. A.; Mcgehee, R. K.

    1981-01-01

    A computer program to simulate hybrid and electric advanced vehicle systems (HEAVY) is described. It is intended for use early in the design process: concept evaluation, alternative comparison, preliminary design, control and management strategy development, component sizing, and sensitivity studies. It allows the designer to quickly, conveniently, and economically predict the performance of a proposed drive train. The user defines the system to be simulated using a library of predefined component models that may be connected to represent a wide variety of propulsion systems. The development of three models are discussed as examples.

  5. Road transport management system: a self regulation initiative to promote load optimisation, vehicle maintenance and driver wellness in heavy vehicle transport in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available vehicle transport industry through a Road Transport Management System (RTMS) with the aim of contributing to the road authorities’ efforts to address the above problems. During 2003 a heavy vehicle accreditation scheme was developed and implemented...

  6. Innovative Structural and Joining Concepts for Lightweight Design of Heavy Vehicle Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacky C. Prucz; Samir N. Shoukry; Gergis W. William

    2005-08-31

    Recent advances in the area of Metal Matrix Composites (MMC's) have brought these materials to a maturity stage where the technology is ready for transition to large-volume production and commercialization. The new materials seem to allow the fabrication of higher quality parts at less than 50 percent of the weight as compared to steel, especially when they are selectively reinforced with carbon, silicon carbide, or aluminum oxide fibers. Most of the developments in the MMC materials have been spurred, mainly by applications that require high structural performance at elevated temperatures, the heavy vehicle industry could also benefit from this emerging technology. Increasing requirements of weight savings and extended durability are the main drivers for potential insertion of MMC technology into the heavy vehicle market. Critical elements of a typical tractor-trailer combination, such as highly loaded sections of the structure, engine components, brakes, suspensions, joints and bearings could be improved through judicious use of MMC materials. Such an outcome would promote the DOE's programmatic objectives of increasing the fuel efficiency of heavy vehicles and reducing their life cycle costs and pollution levels. However, significant technical and economical barriers are likely to hinder or even prevent broad applications of MMC materials in heavy vehicles. The tradeoffs between such expected benefits (lower weights and longer durability) and penalties (higher costs, brittle behavior, and difficult to machine) must be thoroughly investigated both from the performance and cost viewpoints, before the transfer of MMC technology to heavy vehicle systems can be properly assessed and implemented. MMC materials are considered to form one element of the comprehensive, multi-faceted strategy pursued by the High Strength/Weight Reduction (HS/WR) Materials program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for structural weight savings and quality enhancements in

  7. Design and research on the electronic parking brake system of the medium and heavy duty vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongliang WANG

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on auto control of parking brake system of the medium and heavy duty vehicles, the key problems are studied including the system design and control strategies. The structure and working principle of the parking brake system of the medium and heavy duty vehicles are analyzed. The functions of EPB are proposed. The important information of the vehicle are analyzed which could influence the EPB system. The overall plan of the pneumatic EPB system is designed, which adopts the two-position three-way electromagnetic valve with double coil as actuator. The system could keep the vehicle parking brake status or parking release status for a long time without power supply. The function modules of the system are planned, and the control strategies of automatic parking brake and parking release are made. The experiment is performed on a medium-sized commercial vehicle which is experimentally modified. The overall plan of the pneumatic EPB system and the automatic parking function are proved through real vehicle tests.

  8. Road Transport Management System (RTMS): a self regulation initiative in heavy vehicle transport in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the most recent developments of an initiative to introduce meaningful self-regulation in the heavy vehicle transport industry through a Road Transport Management System (RTMS) with the aim of contributing to the road authorities...

  9. Heavy vehicle propulsion system materials program semiannual progress report for April 1998 thru September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1--3 trucks to realize a 35{percent} fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7--8 trucks. The Office of Transportation Technologies, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OTT OHVT) has an active program to develop the technology for advanced LE-55 diesel engines with 55{percent} efficiency and low emissions levels of 2.0 g/bhp-h NO{sub x} and 0.05 g/bhp-h particulates. The goal is also for the LE-55 engine to run on natural gas with efficiency approaching that of diesel fuel. The LE-55 program is being completed in FY 1997 and, after approximately 10 years of effort, has largely met the program goals of 55{percent} efficiency and low emissions. However, the commercialization of the LE-55 technology requires more durable materials than those that have been used to demonstrate the goals. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials will, in concert with the heavy-duty diesel engine companies, develop the durable materials required to commercialize the LE-55 technologies.

  10. Heavy vehicle propulsion system materials program: Semiannual progress report, April 1996--September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.R.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1-3 trucks to realize a 35% fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7-8 trucks. The Office of Transportation Technologies, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OTT OHVT) has an active program to develop the technology for advanced LE-55 diesel engines with 55% efficiency and low emissions levels of 2.0 g/bhp-h NO{sub x} and 0.05 g/bhp-h particulates. The goal is also for the LE-55 engine to run on natural gas with efficiency approaching that of diesel fuel. The LE-55 program is being completed in FY 1997 and, after approximately 10 years of effort, has largely met the program goals of 55% efficiency and low emissions. However, the commercialization of the LE-55 technology requires more durable materials than those that have been used to demonstrate the goals. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials will, in concert with the heavy duty diesel engine companies, develop the durable materials required to commercialize the LE-55 technologies. OTT OHVT also recognizes a significant opportunity for reduction in petroleum consumption by dieselization of pickup trucks, vans, and sport utility vehicles. Application of the diesel engine to class 1, 2, and 3 trucks is expected to yield a 35% increase in fuel economy per vehicle. The foremost barrier to diesel use in this market is emission control. Once an engine is made certifiable, subsequent challenges will be in cost; noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH); and performance. Separate abstracts have been submitted to the database for contributions to this report.

  11. Heavy vehicle propulsion system materials program semiannual progress report for April 1999 through September 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1-3 trucks to realize a 35% fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7-8 trucks.

  12. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program Semiannual Progress Report for October 1998 Through March 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.D.

    1999-06-01

    The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1-3 trucks to realize a 35% fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7-8 trucks. The Office of Transportation Technologies, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OIT OHVT) has an active program to develop the technology for advanced LE-55 diesel engines with 55% efficiency and low emissions levels of 2.0 g/bhp-h NOX and 0.05 g/bhp-h particulate. The goal is also for the LE-55 engine to run on natural gas with efficiency approaching that of diesel fuel. The LE-55 program is being completed in FY 1997 and, after approximately 10 years of effort, has largely met the program goals of 55% efficiency and low emissions. However, the commercialization of the LE-55 technology requires more durable materials than those that have been used to demonstrate the goals. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials will, in concert with the heavy duty diesel engine companies, develop the durable materials required to commercialize the LE-55 technologies. OIT OHVT also recognizes a significant opportunity for reduction in petroleum consumption by dieselization of pickup trucks, vans, and sport utility vehicles. Application of the diesel engine to class 1,2, and 3 trucks is expected to yield a 35% increase in fuel economy per vehicle. The foremost barrier to diesel use in this market is emission control. Once an engine is made certifiable, subsequent challenges will be in cost; noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH); and performance. The design of advanced components for high-efficiency diesel engines has, in some cases, pushed the performance envelope for materials of construction past the point of reliable operation. Higher mechanical and

  13. 77 FR 30765 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control Systems for Heavy Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ..., oversteer, trailer swing or any other yaw motion leading to directional loss of control). In such situations... fatalities and injuries associated with vehicle rollover or collision. Based on the agency's estimates... by automatically applying brake force at selected wheel-ends to help maintain directional control of...

  14. Innovative Structural and Joining Concepts for Lightweight Design of Heavy Vehicle Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prucz, Jacky C; Shoukry, Samir N; William, Gergis W; Evans, Thomas H

    2006-09-30

    The extensive research and development effort was initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in 2002 at West Virginia University (WVU) in order to investigate practical ways of reducing the structural weight and increasing the durability of heavy vehicles through the judicious use of lightweight composite materials. While this project was initially focused on specific Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) material, namely Aluminum/Silicon Carbide (Al/SiC) commercially referenced as ''LANXIDE'', the current research effort was expanded from the component level to the system level and from MMC to other composite material systems. Broadening the scope of this research is warranted not only by the structural and economical deficiencies of the ''LANXIDE'' MMC material, but also by the strong coupling that exists between the material and the geometric characteristics of the structure. Such coupling requires a truly integrated design approach, focused on the heaviest sections of a van trailer. Obviously, the lightweight design methods developed in this study will not be implemented by the commercial industry unless the weight savings are indeed impressive and proven to be economically beneficial in the context of Life Cycle Costs (LCC). ''Bulk Haul'' carriers run their vehicles at maximum certified weight, so that each pound saved in structural weight would translate into additional pound of cargo, and fewer vehicles necessary to transport a given amount of freight. It is reasonable to ascertain that a typical operator would be ready to pay a premium of about $3-4 for every additional pound of cargo, or every pound saved in structural weight. The overall scope of this project is to devise innovative, lightweight design and joining concepts for heavy vehicle structures, including cost effective applications of components made of metal matrix composite (MMC) and other composite materials in selected sections of such

  15. Heavy Vehicle and Engine Resource Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-03-01

    The Heavy Vehicle and Engine Resource Guide is a catalog of medium- and heavy-duty engines and vehicles with alternative fuel and advanced powertrain options. This edition covers model year 2003 engines and vehicles.

  16. Recovery vehicle and recovery system for heavy loads such as an aeroplane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodewijks, G.; Van Deursen, M.; Van Deursen, J.

    2004-01-01

    The invention relates to a recovery vehicle suitable for heavy loads such as an aircraft, comprising a mobile chassis upon which a lifting element is provided and the lifting element comprises an air cushion. The lifting element comprises an adjustable lifting platform and the air cushion is

  17. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program semiannual progress report for October 1996 through March 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1-3 trucks to realize a 35% fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7-8 trucks. The design of advanced components for high-efficiency diesel engines has, in some cases, pushed the performance envelope for materials of construction past the point of reliable operation. Higher mechanical and tribological stresses and higher temperatures of advanced designs limit the engine designers; advanced materials allow the design of components that may operate reliably at higher stresses and temperatures, thus enabling more efficient engine designs. Advanced materials also offer the opportunity to improve the emissions, NVH, and performance of diesel engines for pickup trucks, vans, and sport utility vehicles. The principal areas of research are: (1) cost effective high performance materials and processing; (2) advanced manufacturing technology; (3) testing and characterization; and (4) materials and testing standards.

  18. Overview of the Safety Issues Associated with the Compressed Natural Gas Fuel System and Electric Drive System in a Heavy Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, S.C.

    2002-11-14

    This report evaluates the hazards that are unique to a compressed-natural-gas (CNG)-fueled heavy hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) design compared with a conventional heavy vehicle. The unique design features of the heavy HEV are the CNG fuel system for the internal-combustion engine (ICE) and the electric drive system. This report addresses safety issues with the CNG fuel system and the electric drive system. Vehicles on U. S. highways have been propelled by ICEs for several decades. Heavy-duty vehicles have typically been fueled by diesel fuel, and light-duty vehicles have been fueled by gasoline. The hazards and risks posed by ICE vehicles are well understood and have been generally accepted by the public. The economy, durability, and safety of ICE vehicles have established a standard for other types of vehicles. Heavy-duty (i.e., heavy) HEVs have recently been introduced to U. S. roadways, and the hazards posed by these heavy HEVs can be compared with the hazards posed by ICE vehicles. The benefits of heavy HEV technology are based on their potential for reduced fuel consumption and lower exhaust emissions, while the disadvantages are the higher acquisition cost and the expected higher maintenance costs (i.e., battery packs). The heavy HEV is more suited for an urban drive cycle with stop-and-go driving conditions than for steady expressway speeds. With increasing highway congestion and the resulting increased idle time, the fuel consumption advantage for heavy HEVs (compared with conventional heavy vehicles) is enhanced by the HEVs' ability to shut down. Any increase in fuel cost obviously improves the economics of a heavy HEV. The propulsion system for a heavy HEV is more complex than the propulsion system for a conventional heavy vehicle. The heavy HEV evaluated in this study has in effect two propulsion systems: an ICE fueled by CNG and an electric drive system with additional complexity and failure modes. This additional equipment will result in a less

  19. Heavy-truck drivers' following behavior with intervention of an integrated, in-vehicle crash warning system: a field evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Shan; LeBlanc, David J; Sayer, James R; Flannagan, Carol

    2012-10-01

    This study is designed to evaluate heavy-truck drivers' following behavior and how a crash warning system influences their headway maintenance. Rear-end crashes are one of the major crash types involving heavy trucks and are more likely than other crash types to result in fatalities. Previous studies have observed positive effects of in-vehicle crash warning systems in passenger car drivers. Although heavy-truck drivers are generally more experienced, driver-related errors are still the leading factors contributing to heavy-truck-related rear-end crashes. Data from a 10-month naturalistic driving study were used. Participants were 18 professional heavy-truck drivers who received warnings during the last 8 months of the study (treatment period) but not during the first 2 months (baseline period). Time headway and driver's brake reaction time were extracted and compared with condition variables, including one between-subjects variable (driver shift) and five within-subjects variables (treatment condition, roadway types, traffic density, wiper state, and trailer configuration). The presence of warnings resulted in a 0.28-s increase of mean time headway with dense on-road traffic and a 0.20-s increase with wipers on. Drivers also responded to the forward conflicts significantly faster (by 0.26 s, a 15% enhancement) in the treatment condition compared with responses in the baseline condition. Positive effects on heavy-truck drivers' following performance were observed with the warning system. The installation of such in-vehicle crash warning systems can help heavy-truck drivers keep longer headway distances in challenging situations and respond quicker to potential traffic conflicts, therefore possibly increasing heavy-truck longitudinal driving safety.

  20. Heavy vehicle propulsion system materials program semi-annual progress report for October 1997 through March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.R.

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1--3 trucks to realize a 35{percent} fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7--8 trucks. The Office of Transportation Technologies, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OTT OHVT) has an active program to develop the technology for advanced LE-55 diesel engines with 55{percent} efficiency and low emissions levels of 2.0 g/bhp-h NO{sub x} and 0.05 g/bhp-h particulates. The goal is also for the LE-55 engine to run on natural gas with efficiency approaching that of diesel fuel. The LE-55 program is being completed in FY 1997 and, after approximately 10 years of effort, has largely met the program goals of 55{percent} efficiency and low emissions. However, the commercialization of the LE-55 technology requires more durable materials than those that have been used to demonstrate the goals. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials will, in concert with the heavy-duty diesel engine companies, develop the durable materials required to commercialize the LE-55 technologies.

  1. Heavy Duty Vehicle Futures Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askin, Amanda Christine; Barter, Garrett.; West, Todd H.; Manley, Dawn Kataoka

    2014-05-01

    This report describes work performed for an Early Career Research and Development project. This project developed a heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) sector model to assess the factors influencing alternative fuel and efficiency technology adoption. This model builds on a Sandia light duty vehicle sector model and provides a platform for assessing potential impacts of technological advancements developed at the Combustion Research Facility. Alternative fuel and technology adoption modeling is typically developed around a small set of scenarios. This HDV sector model segments the HDV sector and parameterizes input values, such as fuel prices, efficiencies, and vehicle costs. This parameterization enables sensitivity and trade space analyses to identify the inputs that are most associated with outputs of interest, such as diesel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Thus this analysis tool enables identification of the most significant HDV sector drivers that can be used to support energy security and climate change goals.

  2. Heavy vehicle pitch dynamics and suspension tuning

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Dongpu; Rakheja, Subhash; Su, Chun-Yi

    2008-01-01

    The influence of suspension tuning of passenger cars on bounce and pitch ride performance has been explored in a number of studies, while only minimal efforts have been made for establishing similar rules for heavy vehicles. This study aims to explore pitch dynamics and suspension tunings of a two-axle heavy vehicle with unconnected suspension, which could also provide valuable information for heavy vehicles with coupled suspensions. Based on a generalised pitch-plane model of a two-axle heav...

  3. Modelling of NO{sub x} emission factors from heavy and light-duty vehicles equipped with advanced aftertreatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, M.L.M., E-mail: monalisa@unifor.br [IDMEC - Institute of Mechanical Engineering, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Silva, C.M. [IDMEC - Institute of Mechanical Engineering, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Moreno-Tost, R. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Unidad Asociada al Instituto de Catalisis, CSIC, Universidad de Malaga, Campus de Teatinos, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Farias, T.L. [IDMEC - Institute of Mechanical Engineering, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Jimenez-Lopez, Antonio [IDMEC - Institute of Mechanical Engineering, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Unidad Asociada al Instituto de Catalisis, CSIC, Universidad de Malaga, Campus de Teatinos, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Rodriguez-Castellon, E. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Unidad Asociada al Instituto de Catalisis, CSIC, Universidad de Malaga, Campus de Teatinos, 29071 Malaga (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Alternative SCR materials. {yields} Catalysts used in heavy-duty vehicles are based on V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-WO{sub 3}-TiO{sub 2}. {yields}Zeolites containing transition metal ions as catalysts for urea SCR has increased. {yields} FeZSM5 catalyst can be a possible candidate as far as pollutants regulation is considered. {yields} Regarding N{sub 2}O emissions mordenite based SCR do not emit this pollutant. - Abstract: NO{sub x} emission standards are becoming stringiest over the world especially for heavy-duty vehicles. To comply with current and future regulations some vehicle manufacturers are adopting exhaust aftertreatment systems known as Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). The catalysts are based on Vanadium (Va) and the reductant agent based on ammonia. However, Va is listed on the California Proposition 65 List as potentially causing cancer and alternatives are being studied. This paper presents a model based on neural networks that integrated with a road vehicle simulator allows to estimate NO{sub x} emission factors for different powertrain configurations, along different driving conditions, and covering commercial, zeolite and mordenite alternatives as the base monolith for SCR. The research included the experimental study of copper based and iron based zeolites (ZSM5 and Cuban natural mordenite). The response of NO{sub x} conversion efficiency was monitored in a laboratory for varying space velocity, oxygen, sulfur, water, NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emulating the conditions of a Diesel engine exhaust along a trip. The experimental data was used for training neural networks and obtaining a mathematical correlation between the outputs and inputs of the SCR system. The developed correlation was integrated with ADVISOR road vehicle simulator to obtain NO{sub x} emission factors and to test each SCR system installed on light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles for standardized driving cycles and real measured driving cycles. Despite having lower NO

  4. Lightweight Composite Materials for Heavy Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruez, Jacky; Shoukry, Samir; Williams, Gergis; Shoukry, Mark

    2013-08-31

    The main objective of this project is to develop, analyze and validate data, methodologies and tools that support widespread applications of automotive lightweighting technologies. Two underlying principles are guiding the research efforts towards this objective: • Seamless integration between the lightweight materials selected for certain vehicle systems, cost-effective methods for their design and manufacturing, and practical means to enhance their durability while reducing their Life-Cycle-Costs (LCC). • Smooth migration of the experience and findings accumulated so far at WVU in the areas of designing with lightweight materials, innovative joining concepts and durability predictions, from applications to the area of weight savings for heavy vehicle systems and hydrogen storage tanks, to lightweighting applications of selected systems or assemblies in light–duty vehicles.

  5. Development of a direct-injected natural gas engine system for heavy-duty vehicles: Final report phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-02

    The transportation sector accounts for approximately 65% of US petroleum consumption. Consumption for light-duty vehicles has stabilized in the last 10--15 years; however, consumption in the heavy-duty sector has continued to increase. For various reasons, the US must reduce its dependence on petroleum. One significant way is to substitute alternative fuels (natural gas, propane, alcohols, and others) in place of petroleum fuels in heavy-duty applications. Most alternative fuels have the additional benefit of reduced exhaust emissions relative to petroleum fuels, thus providing a cleaner environment. The best long-term technology for heavy-duty alternative fuel engines is the 4-stroke cycle, direct injected (DI) engine using a single fuel. This DI, single fuel approach maximizes the substitution of alternative fuel for diesel and retains the thermal efficiency and power density of the diesel engine. This report summarizes the results of the first year (Phase 1) of this contract. Phase 1 focused on developing a 4-stroke cycle, DI single fuel, alternative fuel technology that will duplicate or exceed diesel power density and thermal efficiency, while having exhaust emissions equal to or less than the diesel. Although the work is currently on a 3500 Series DING engine, the work is viewed as a basic technology development that can be applied to any engine. Phase 1 concentrated on DING engine component durability, exhaust emissions, and fuel handling system durability. Task 1 focused on identifying primary areas (e.g., ignition assist and gas injector systems) for future durability testing. In Task 2, eight mode-cycle-averaged NO{sub x} emissions were reduced from 11.8 gm/hp-hr (baseline conditions) to 2.5 gm/hp-hr (modified conditions) on a 3501 DING engine. In Task 3, a state-of-the-art fuel handling system was identified.

  6. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 5: Transportation and operations analysis. [heavy lift launch and orbit transfer vehicles for orbital assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, G.

    1978-01-01

    The development of transportation systems to support the operations required for the orbital assembly of a 5-gigawatt satellite is discussed as well as the construction of a ground receiving antenna (rectenna). Topics covered include heavy lift launch vehicle configurations for Earth-to LEO transport; the use of chemical, nuclear, and electric orbit transfer vehicles for LEO to GEO operations; personnel transport systems; ground operations; end-to-end analysis of the construction, operation, and maintenance of the satellite and rectenna; propellant production and storage; and payload packaging.

  7. Smart Vehicle System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahadiya, Pallavi; Gupta, Rajni

    2010-11-01

    An approach to overcome the accidental problem happens in the night, while the driver is drunk or feels sleepy. This system controls the speed of the vehicle at steep turns. It is designed, to provide the information to the driver, whether the next turn is right/left, is there any traffic jam or land sliding in the coming way. It also assists during heavy rains and mist conditions. It may be implemented by using computer or by using a dedicated microcontroller. If we have a group of vehicles connected with the system then we can locate them by using the cameras, at different places. Information regarding any vehicle can be transmitted anywhere using Internet provided at the monitoring system, so as to prevent accidents or provide information during any calamity.

  8. Heavy Vehicle Crash Characteristics in Oman 2009–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bulushi, Islam; Edwards, Jason; Davey, Jeremy; Armstrong, Kerry; Al-Reesi, Hamed; Al-Shamsi, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, Oman has seen a shift in the burden of diseases towards road accidents. The main objective of this paper, therefore, is to describe key characteristics of heavy vehicle crashes in Oman and identify the key driving behaviours that influence fatality risks. Crash data from January 2009 to December 2011 were examined and it was found that, of the 22,543 traffic accidents that occurred within this timeframe, 3,114 involved heavy vehicles. While the majority of these crashes were attributed to driver behaviours, a small proportion was attributed to other factors. The results of the study indicate that there is a need for a more thorough crash investigation process in Oman. Future research should explore the reporting processes used by the Royal Oman Police, cultural influences on heavy vehicle operations in Oman and improvements to the current licensing system. PMID:26052451

  9. Advanced transportation system studies technical area 2 (TA-2): Heavy lift launch vehicle development. volume 3; Program Cost estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurry, J. B.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the TA-2 contract was to provide advanced launch vehicle concept definition and analysis to assist NASA in the identification of future launch vehicle requirements. Contracted analysis activities included vehicle sizing and performance analysis, subsystem concept definition, propulsion subsystem definition (foreign and domestic), ground operations and facilities analysis, and life cycle cost estimation. The basic period of performance of the TA-2 contract was from May 1992 through May 1993. No-cost extensions were exercised on the contract from June 1993 through July 1995. This document is part of the final report for the TA-2 contract. The final report consists of three volumes: Volume 1 is the Executive Summary, Volume 2 is Technical Results, and Volume 3 is Program Cost Estimates. The document-at-hand, Volume 3, provides a work breakdown structure dictionary, user's guide for the parametric life cycle cost estimation tool, and final report developed by ECON, Inc., under subcontract to Lockheed Martin on TA-2 for the analysis of heavy lift launch vehicle concepts.

  10. FY2015 Vehicle Systems Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-01-31

    The Vehicle Systems research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies under development. Research focuses on addressing critical barriers to advancing light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicle systems to help maximize the number of electric miles driven and increase the energy efficiency of transportation vehicles.

  11. Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Enevoldsen, I.

    of heavier trucks moving at larger speeds, and partly because the authorities want to permit transportation of special heavy goods at a larger part of the road net. These needs will in many cases cause the strengthening of the bridges becomes necessary. In order to keep the expenses of such strengthening......Vibration of a bridge structure due to the passage of vehicles is an important consideration in the design of bridges. Further, a common problem in bridge engineering practice in these years is the upgrading of minor highway bridges (=5-20 m) to carry heavier loads partly due to a tendency...... the numerical models for the mathematical models of the vehicles and the bridge from which the load amplification factors can be estimated assuming that the dynamic parameters of the vehicles and the modal parameters of the bridge are known....

  12. Research on Correlation between Vehicle Cycle and Engine Cycle in Heavy-duty commercial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    lin, Chen; Zhong, Wang; Shuai, Liu

    2017-12-01

    In order to study the correlation between vehicle cycle and engine cycle in heavy commercial vehicles, the conversion model of vehicle cycle to engine cycle is constructed based on the vehicle power system theory and shift strategy, which considers the verification on diesel truck. The results show that the model has high rationality and reliability in engine operation. In the acceleration process of high speed, the difference of model gear selection leads to the actual deviation. Compared with the drum test, the engine speed distribution obtained by the model deviates to right, which fits to the lower grade. The grade selection has high influence on the model.

  13. Demonstration of Heavy Diesel Hybrid Fleet Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-29

    vehicle propulsion when needed. These systems avoid the requirement for large battery systems and complex electrical controls. 1.2. Objective of...HEVEA program to evaluate the benefits of hybrid electric propulsion systems on tactical vehicles . Tools developed through the program include test...either electric or hydraulic. With an electric hybrid, braking (kinetic) energy is captured by using the propulsion system to apply a load to

  14. Demonstration of Heavy Hybrid Diesel Fleet Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    captured by using the propulsion system to apply a load to the drive axle during braking, and then converted into electrical energy via a generator. The...store braking energy with high pressure accumulators that assist with vehicle propulsion when needed. These systems avoid the requirement for large...battery systems and complex electrical controls. 1.2. Objective of the Demonstration DoD’s fleet of diesel powered vehicles and equipment generates

  15. An Experimental Study on Hysteresis Characteristics of a Pneumatic Braking System for a Multi-Axle Heavy Vehicle in Emergency Braking Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the hysteresis characteristics of a pneumatic braking system for multi-axle heavy vehicles (MHVs. Hysteresis affects emergency braking performance severely. The fact that MHVs have a large size and complex structure leads to more nonlinear coupling property of the pneumatic braking system compared to normal two-axle vehicles. Thus, theoretical analysis and simulation are not enough when studying hysteresis. In this article, the hysteresis of a pneumatic brake system for an eight-axle vehicle in an emergency braking situation is studied based on a novel test bench. A servo drive device is applied to simulate the driver’s braking intensions normally expressed by opening or moving speed of the brake pedal. With a reasonable arrangement of sensors and the NI LabVIEW platform, both the delay time of eight loops and the response time of each subassembly in a single loop are detected in real time. The outcomes of the experiment show that the delay time of each loop gets longer with the increase of pedal opening, and a quadratic relationship exists between them. Based on this, the pressure transient in the system is fitted to a first-order plus time delay model. Besides, the response time of treadle valve and controlling pipeline accounts for more than 80% of the loop’s total delay time, indicating that these two subassemblies are the main contributors to the hysteresis effect.

  16. Standardisation of heavy vehicle crash investigation procedures in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dube, S

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available regarding accidents involving heavy vehicles and even less is known about the real cause of these accidents. This paper reports on the findings of a study on the status of heavy vehicle accident investigation procedures in South Africa. This study involved a...

  17. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Heavy Fuel Engine Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    engines and gaz turbine engines. Unfortunately, the best production diesel engines in the 50 HP class weigh 250 lbs or more, although these engines...Heavy Fuel Engine Test 6. AUTHOR(S) Robert Brucato Joseph Lawton Anthony Magglo 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ...BASELINE ENGINE PERFORMANCE ................. 20 3.2.3.2 EXHAUST SYSTEM TUNING ........................ 20-21 3.2.3.3 TURBOCHARGER TESTING

  18. DOE Project on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCallen, R; Salari, K; Ortega, J; Castellucci, P; Pointer, D; Browand, F; Ross, J; Storms, B

    2007-01-04

    Class 8 tractor-trailers consume 11-12% of the total US petroleum use. At highway speeds, 65% of the energy expenditure for a Class 8 truck is in overcoming aerodynamic drag. The project objective is to improve fuel economy of Class 8 tractor-trailers by providing guidance on methods of reducing drag by at least 25%. A 25% reduction in drag would present a 12% improvement in fuel economy at highway speeds, equivalent to about 130 midsize tanker ships per year. Specific goals include: (1) Provide guidance to industry in the reduction of aerodynamic drag of heavy truck vehicles; (2) Develop innovative drag reducing concepts that are operationally and economically sound; and (3) Establish a database of experimental, computational, and conceptual design information, and demonstrate the potential of new drag-reduction devices. The studies described herein provide a demonstration of the applicability of the experience developed in the analysis of the standard configuration of the Generic Conventional Model. The modeling practices and procedures developed in prior efforts have been applied directly to the assessment of new configurations including a variety of geometric modifications and add-on devices. Application to the low-drag 'GTS' configuration of the GCM has confirmed that the error in predicted drag coefficients increases as the relative contribution of the base drag resulting from the vehicle wake to the total drag increases and it is recommended that more advanced turbulence modeling strategies be applied under those circumstances. Application to a commercially-developed boat tail device has confirmed that this restriction does not apply to geometries where the relative contribution of the base drag to the total drag is reduced by modifying the geometry in that region. Application to a modified GCM geometry with an open grille and radiator has confirmed that the underbody flow, while important for underhood cooling, has little impact on the drag

  19. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle Systems Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, R. F.; Hammond, R. A.; Mcgehee, R. K.

    1985-01-01

    Predefined components connected to represent wide variety of propulsion systems. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle System (HEAVY) computer program is flexible tool for evaluating performance and cost of electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems. Allows designer to quickly, conveniently, and economically predict performance of proposed drive train.

  20. FY2016 Vehicle Systems Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-10-31

    Vehicle Systems is concerned with advancing light-, medium-, and heavy-duty (HD) vehicle systems to support DOE’s goals of developing technologies for the U.S. transportation sector that enhance national energy security,increase U.S. competitiveness in the global economy, and support improvement of U.S. transportation and energy infrastructure.

  1. Electric Vehicle Propulsion System

    OpenAIRE

    Keshri, Ritesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Electric vehicles are being considered as one of the pillar of eco-friendly solutions to overcome the problem of global pollution and radiations due to greenhouse gases. Present thesis work reports the improvement in overall performance of the propulsion system of an electric vehicle by improving autonomy and torque-speed characteristic. Electric vehicle propulsion system consists of supply and traction system, and are coordinated by the monitoring & control system. Case of light electric veh...

  2. Scenario analysis of hybrid class 3-7 heavy vehicles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, F.; Stodolsky, F.; Vyas, A.; Cuenca, R.; Eberhardt, J. J.

    1999-12-23

    The effects of hybridization on heavy-duty vehicles are not well understood. Heavy vehicles represent a broader range of applications than light-duty vehicles, resulting in a wide variety of chassis and engine combinations, as well as diverse driving conditions. Thus, the strategies, incremental costs, and energy/emission benefits associated with hybridizing heavy vehicles could differ significantly from those for passenger cars. Using a modal energy and emissions model, they quantify the potential energy savings of hybridizing commercial Class 3-7 heavy vehicles, analyze hybrid configuration scenarios, and estimate the associated investment cost and payback time. From the analysis, they conclude that (1) hybridization can significantly reduce energy consumption of Class 3-7 heavy vehicles under urban driving conditions; (2) the grid-independent, conventional vehicle (CV)-like hybrid is more cost-effective than the grid-dependent, electric vehicle (EV)-like hybrid, and the parallel configuration is more cost-effective than the series configuration; (3) for CV-like hybridization, the on-board engine can be significantly downsized, with a gasoline or diesel engine used for SUVs perhaps being a good candidate for an on-board engine; (4) over the long term, the incremental cost of a CV-like, parallel-configured Class 3-4 hybrid heavy vehicle is about %5,800 in the year 2005 and $3,000 in 2020, while for a Class 6-7 truck, it is about $7,100 in 2005 and $3,300 in 2020; and (5) investment payback time, which depends on the specific type and application of the vehicle, averages about 6 years under urban driving conditions in 2005 and 2--3 years in 2020.

  3. Engine-Out Capabilities Assessment of Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Jon; Baggett, Keithe; Thrasher, Chad; Bellamy, K. Scott; Feldman, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Engine-out (EO) is a condition that might occur during flight due to the failure of one or more engines. Protection against this occurrence can be called engine-out capability (EOC) whereupon significantly improved loss of mission may occur, in addition to reduction in performance and increased cost. A standardized engine-out capability has not been studied exhaustively as it pertains to space launch systems. This work presents results for a specific vehicle design with specific engines, but also uniquely provides an approach to realizing the necessity of EOC for any launch vehicle system design. A derived top-level approach to engine-out philosophy for a heavy lift launch vehicle is given herein, based on an historical assessment of launch vehicle capabilities. The methodology itself is not intended to present a best path forward, but instead provides three parameters for assessment of a particular vehicle. Of the several parameters affected by this EOC, the three parameters of interest in this research are reliability (Loss of Mission (LOM) and Loss of Crew (LOC)), vehicle performance, and cost. The intent of this effort is to provide insight into the impacts of EO capability on these parameters. The effects of EOC on reliability, performance and cost are detailed, including how these important launch vehicle metrics can be combined to assess what could be considered overall launch vehicle affordability. In support of achieving the first critical milestone (Mission Concept Review) in the development of the Space Launch System (SLS), a team assessed two-stage, large-diameter vehicles that utilized liquid oxygen (LOX)-RP propellants in the First Stage and LOX/LH2 propellant in the Upper Stage. With multiple large thrust-class engines employed on the stages, engine-out capability could be a significant driver to mission success. It was determined that LOM results improve by a factor of five when assuming EOC for both Core Stage (CS) (first stage) and Upper Stage (US

  4. New range of heavy electric vehicle chassis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    A new range of electrically-powered vehicles is announced in the UK. The vehicles are a joint venture between the Electric Vehicle Division of Hydrotechniek and its Dutch associate, Creusen Elektro-Mechanische Industrie BV. The 867S and 968S are three-axle vehicles with four-wheel drive on the rear four wheels. At present the vehicles go 20 km/h and have an 80-km range. The speed is to be extended in the near future and a diesel-electric hybrid may be introduced. An 867S is to be fitted out as a mobile library.

  5. Aeromechanical stability analysis of a multirotor vehicle with application to hybrid heavy lift helicopter dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, C.; Friedmann, P. P.

    1984-01-01

    The Hybrid Heavy Lift Helicopter (HHLH) is a potential candidate vehicle aimed at providing heavy lift capability at low cost. This vehicle consists of a buoyant envelope attached to a supporting structure. Four rotor systems are also attached to the supporting structure. Nonlinear equations of motion capable of modeling the dynamics of this multi-rotor/support frame/vehicle system have been developed and used to study the fundamental aeromechanical stability characteristics of this class of vehicles. The mechanism of coupling between the blades, supporting structure and rigid body modes is identified and the effect of buoyancy ratio (buoyant lift/total weight) on the vehicle dynamics is studied. It is shown that dynamics effects have a major role in the design of such vehicles. The analytical model developed is also useful for studying the aeromechanical stability of single rotor and tandem rotor coupled rotor/fuselage systems.

  6. Aeromechanical stability analysis of a multirotor vehicle model representing a hybrid heavy lift airship (HHLA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, C.; Friedmann, P. P.

    1984-01-01

    Hybrid Heavy Lift Airship (HHLA) is a proposed candidate vehicle aimed at providing heavy lift capability at low cost. This vehicle consists of a buoyant envelope attached to a supporting structure to which four rotor systems, taken from existing helicopters are attached. Nonlinear equations of motion capable of modelling the dynamics of this coupled multi-rotor/support frame/vehicle system have been developed. Using these equations of motion the aeroelastic and aeromechanical stability analysis is performed aimed at identifying potential instabilities which could occur for this type of vehicle. The coupling between various blade, supporting structure and rigid body modes is identified. Furthermore, the effects of changes in buoyancy ratio (Buoyant lift/total weight) on the dynamic characteristics of the vehicle are studied. The dynamic effects found are of considerable importance for the design of such vehicles. The analytical model developed is also useful for studying the aeromechanical stability of single rotor and tandem rotor coupled rotor/fuselage systems.

  7. Preventive Maintenance and Operating Techniques for Heavy Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide students who are acquainted with motor transport and tactical heavy vehicles with information on how to operate and perform preventive maintenance of those vehicles. The course contains five study units covering 2.5-ton M-Series tactical trucks, 5-ton and…

  8. A survey of light-vehicle driver education curriculum on sharing the road with heavy vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Stephanie; Schaudt, William A; Freed, J C; Toole, Laura

    2012-07-01

    Light-vehicle driver education programs that contain content about sharing the road with heavy vehicles may be helpful in reducing future light-vehicle/heavy-vehicle interactions. However, the extent of curricula in the United States including such content is unclear. Researchers developed an online survey targeted at instructors/administrators of state driver education programs to identify curricula addressing heavy vehicles and to determine perceived effectiveness. Ninety-one percent of respondents indicated that the light-vehicle driver education curriculum they teach/administer included a component covering how to safely share the road with heavy vehicles (82% perceived this component to be effective). Although a large proportion of these programs included a component on how to safely share the road with heavy vehicles, participants indicated there may be room for improvement. Participants recommended that future improvements to driver education programs include updated materials and student hands-on experience with heavy vehicles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Substantiation of the road toll for heavy transport vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Burmaka, N.; Chernykh, A.

    2010-01-01

    The existing and possible additional sources of developing state and local road funds of Ukraine have been considered. The formula for calculating monthly road toll for heavy transport vehicles has been proposed. This formula includes the payment rate per every kilometer of distance, the vehicle capacity utilization factor and the run with the load. The payment rate per every kilometer of distance for transport vehicles depending on the allowed total weight has been substantiated. The given r...

  10. Vehicle usage verification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scanlon, W.G.; McQuiston, Jonathan; Cotton, Simon L.

    2012-01-01

    EN)A computer-implemented system for verifying vehicle usage comprising a server capable of communication with a plurality of clients across a communications network. Each client is provided in a respective vehicle and with a respective global positioning system (GPS) by which the client can

  11. HYBRID VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vehicle control system includes a start–stop system for an internal combustion engine. The system works in a hybrid mode and normal vehicle operation. To simplify the start–stop system, there were user new possibilities of a hybrid car, which appeared after the conversion. Results of the circuit design of the proposed system of basic blocks are analyzed.

  12. Ground and Range Operations for a Heavy-Lift Vehicle: Preliminary Thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo, Luis; Zhu, Yanshen; Compton, Jeppie; Bardina, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the ground and range operations for a Shuttle derived Heavy-Lift Vehicle being launched from the Kennedy Space Center on the Eastern range. Comparisons will be made between the Shuttle and a heavy lift configuration (SLS-ETF MPCV April 2011) by contrasting their subsystems. The analysis will also describe a simulation configuration with the potential to be utilized for heavy lift vehicle processing/range simulation modeling and the development of decision-making systems utilized by the range. In addition, a simple simulation model is used to provide the required critical thinking foundations for this preliminary analysis.

  13. Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Field Evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Kenneth J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Prohaska, Robert S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-11

    This presentation provides information about NREL's real-world evaluations of commercial vehicle technologies, which compare the performance of advanced medium- and heavy-duty fleet vehicles to conventional vehicles. NREL conducts these customized evaluations in partnership with commercial and government fleets across the nation. Current fleet and industry partners include UPS, Workhorse, Parker Hannifin, Proterra, Foothill Transit, Long Beach Transit, BYD, Odyne, Duke Energy, Miami-Dade, TransPower, Eaton, Cummins, Bosch, and Clean Cities/National Clean Fleet Partnership. The presentation focuses on two particular vehicle evaluation projects -- hydraulic hybrid refuse haulers operated by Miami-Dade and electric transit buses operated by Foothill Transit.

  14. Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines; Non-Conformance Penalties for 2004 and later Model Year Emission Standards for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines; Non-Conformance Penalties for 2004 and later Model Year Emission Standards for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles

  15. Multiyear Program Plan: Reducing Friction and Wear in Heavy Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.R. Fessler; G.R. Fenske

    1999-12-13

    improvement over equivalent gasoline-fueled trucks. (2) Develop by 2004 the enabling technology for a Class 7-8 truck with a fuel efficiency of 10 mpg (at 65 mph) that will meet prevailing emission standards, using either diesel or a liquid alternative fuel. (3) Develop by 2006 diesel engines with fuel flexibility and a thermal efficiency of 55% with liquid alternative fuels, and a thermal efficiency of 55% with dedicated gaseous fuels. (4) Develop a methodology for analyzing and evaluating the operation of a heavy vehicle as an integrated system, considering such factors as engine efficiency; emissions; rolling resistance; aerodynamic drag; friction, wear, and lubrication effects; auxiliary power units; material substitutions for reducing weight; and other sources of parasitic energy losses. Overarching these considerations is the need to preserve system functionality, cost, competitiveness, reliability, durability, and safety.

  16. An investigation of the effects of pneumatic actuator design on slip control for heavy vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jonathan I.; Cebon, David

    2013-01-01

    Progress in reducing actuator delays in pneumatic brake systems is opening the door for advanced anti-lock braking algorithms to be used on heavy goods vehicles. However, little has been published on slip controllers for air-braked heavy vehicles, or the effects of slow pneumatic actuation on their design and performance. This paper introduces a sliding mode slip controller for air-braked heavy vehicles. The effects of pneumatic actuator delays and flow rates on stopping performance and air (energy) consumption are presented through vehicle simulations. Finally, the simulations are validated with experiments using a hardware-in-the-loop rig. It is shown that for each wheel, pneumatic valves with delays smaller than 3 ms and orifice diameters around 8 mm provide the best performance.

  17. Large Scale Composite Manufacturing for Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavana, Jacob; Cohen, Leslie J.; Houseal, Keth; Pelham, Larry; Lort, Richard; Zimmerman, Thomas; Sutter, James; Western, Mike; Harper, Robert; Stuart, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Risk reduction for the large scale composite manufacturing is an important goal to produce light weight components for heavy lift launch vehicles. NASA and an industry team successfully employed a building block approach using low-cost Automated Tape Layup (ATL) of autoclave and Out-of-Autoclave (OoA) prepregs. Several large, curved sandwich panels were fabricated at HITCO Carbon Composites. The aluminum honeycomb core sandwich panels are segments of a 1/16th arc from a 10 meter cylindrical barrel. Lessons learned highlight the manufacturing challenges required to produce light weight composite structures such as fairings for heavy lift launch vehicles.

  18. Marginal abatement cost curves for Heavy Duty Vehicles. Background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroten, A.; Warringa, G.; Bles, M.

    2012-09-15

    Cost curves were calculated for CO2 abatement technologies for Heavy Duty Vehicles. These curves were elaborated for eight different vehicle categories (six categories of truck and two subcategories), as well as for an 'average' truck and bus. Given that cost curves depend very much on underlying assumptions, the MACH model (Marginal Abatement Costs of Heavy duty vehicles) was developed. This model allows users to enter their own assumptions with respect to parameters like fuel prices and cost and lifetime of individual technologies, with the model then generating new cost curves for the various vehicle categories. This background report contains a description of the model and a summary of the results of several model runs.

  19. Development of a direct-injected natural gas engine system for heavy-duty vehicles: Final report phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, G.B.; DelVecchio, K.A.; Hays, W.J.; Hiltner, J.D.; Nagaraj, R.; Emmer, C.

    2000-03-02

    This report summarizes the results of Phase 2 of this contract. The authors completed four tasks under this phase of the subcontract. (1) They developed a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of a 3500 direct injected natural gas (DING) engine gas injection/combustion system and used it to identify DING ignition/combustion system improvements. The results were a 20% improvement in efficiency compared to Phase 1 testing. (2) The authors designed and procured the components for a 3126 DING engine (300 hp) and finished assembling it. During preliminary testing, the engine ran successfully at low loads for approximately 2 hours before injector tip and check failures terminated the test. The problems are solvable; however, this phase of the program was terminated. (3) They developed a Decision & Risk Analysis model to compare DING engine technology with various other engine technologies in a number of commercial applications. The model shows the most likely commercial applications for DING technology and can also be used to identify the sensitivity of variables that impact commercial viability. (4) MVE, Inc., completed a preliminary design concept study that examines the major design issues involved in making a reliable and durable 3,000 psi LNG pump. A primary concern is the life of pump seals and piston rings. Plans for the next phase of this program (Phase 3) have been put on indefinite hold. Caterpillar has decided not to fund further DING work at this time due to limited current market potential for the DING engine. However, based on results from this program, the authors believe that DI natural gas technology is viable for allowing a natural gas-fueled engine to achieve diesel power density and thermal efficiency for both the near and long terms.

  20. Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Enevoldsen, I.

    Vibration of a bridge structure due to the passage of vehicles is an important consideration in the design of bridges. Further, a common problem in bridge engineering practice in these years is the upgrading of minor highway bridges (=5-20 m) to carry heavier loads partly due to a tendency of hea...

  1. Research on identification method of heavy vehicle rollover based on hidden Markov model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhiguo; Wang, Yeqin; Hu, Xiaoming; Tao, Yukai; Wang, Jinsheng

    2017-07-01

    Aiming at the problem of early warning credibility degradation as the heavy vehicle load and its center of gravity change greatly; the heavy vehicle rollover state identification method based on the Hidden Markov Model (HMM, is introduced to identify heavy vehicle lateral conditions dynamically in this paper. In this method, the lateral acceleration and roll angle are taken as the observation values of the model base. The Viterbi algorithm is used to predict the state sequence with the highest probability in the observed sequence, and the Markov prediction algorithm is adopted to calculate the state transition law and to predict the state of the vehicle in a certain period of time in the future. According to combination conditions of Double lane change and steering, applying Trucksim and Matlab trained hidden Markov model, the model is applied to the online identification of heavy vehicle rollover states. The identification results show that the model can accurately and efficiently identify the vehicle rollover state, and has good applicability. This study provides a novel method and a general strategy for active safety early warning and control of vehicles, which has reference significance for the application of the Hidden Markov theory in collision, rear-end and lane departure warning system.

  2. Research on identification method of heavy vehicle rollover based on hidden Markov model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Zhiguo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the problem of early warning credibility degradation as the heavy vehicle load and its center of gravity change greatly; the heavy vehicle rollover state identification method based on the Hidden Markov Model (HMM, is introduced to identify heavy vehicle lateral conditions dynamically in this paper. In this method, the lateral acceleration and roll angle are taken as the observation values of the model base. The Viterbi algorithm is used to predict the state sequence with the highest probability in the observed sequence, and the Markov prediction algorithm is adopted to calculate the state transition law and to predict the state of the vehicle in a certain period of time in the future. According to combination conditions of Double lane change and steering, applying Trucksim and Matlab trained hidden Markov model, the model is applied to the online identification of heavy vehicle rollover states. The identification results show that the model can accurately and efficiently identify the vehicle rollover state, and has good applicability. This study provides a novel method and a general strategy for active safety early warning and control of vehicles, which has reference significance for the application of the Hidden Markov theory in collision, rear-end and lane departure warning system.

  3. Heavy Lift Vehicle (HLV) Avionics Flight Computing Architecture Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, Robert F.; Chen, Yuan; Morgan, Dwayne R.; Butler, A. Marc; Sdhuh, Joseph M.; Petelle, Jennifer K.; Gwaltney, David A.; Coe, Lisa D.; Koelbl, Terry G.; Nguyen, Hai D.

    2011-01-01

    A NASA multi-Center study team was assembled from LaRC, MSFC, KSC, JSC and WFF to examine potential flight computing architectures for a Heavy Lift Vehicle (HLV) to better understand avionics drivers. The study examined Design Reference Missions (DRMs) and vehicle requirements that could impact the vehicles avionics. The study considered multiple self-checking and voting architectural variants and examined reliability, fault-tolerance, mass, power, and redundancy management impacts. Furthermore, a goal of the study was to develop the skills and tools needed to rapidly assess additional architectures should requirements or assumptions change.

  4. Modelling vertical uniform contact stress of heavy vehicle tyres

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steenkamp, Anton J

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available over the selected operating range of 25 kN to 45 kN which is the typical load range for heavy vehicle tyres due to legal axle load limits. The polynomial formulas require only the tyre inflation pressure and vertical tyre load as inputs, in order...

  5. Road user charges for heavy goods vehicles (HGV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    In this report, the European Environment Agency (EEA) presents updated estimates of the external costs of air pollution for different categories of heavy goods vehicles (HGVs). This report on road transport is a continuation of previous reporting from EEA on estimates for the external costs of air...

  6. Liquid Propellant Blast Yields for Delta IV Heavy Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    interface of the first stage fuel and oxidizer tanks. Upon contacting the sand surface, shock waves propagate through the liquid propellants and...Research Triangle Institute, Cocoa Beach, FL, 30 July 2004. LIQUID PROPELLANT BLAST YIELDS FOR DELTA IV HEAVY VEHICLES Ron R. Lambert ACTA Lompoc, CA

  7. Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Enevoldsen, I.

    The present paper worked out as a part of a research project on "Dynamic amplification factor of vehicle loadings on smaller bridges" establishes a two-dimensional spectral description of the road roughness surface based on measurements from a Danish road using so-called Profilograph used by Danish...... Road Directorate. The stochastic model for the surface irregularities models, based on observations from the measured data, the deterministic trends in transversal (wheel tracking) as well as longitudinal direction (some longwaved tendency). Further the bumps/expansion joints at the approaches...... to the bridge and the stochastic nature of the surface roughness are included into the model....

  8. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-08-01

    Today's fleets are increasingly interested in medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles that use alternative fuels or advanced technologies that can help reduce operating costs, meet emissions requirements, improve fleet sustainability, and support U.S. energy independence. Vehicle and engine manufacturers are responding to this interest with a wide range of options across a steadily growing number of vehicle applications. This guide provides an overview of alternative fuel power systems--including engines, microturbines, electric motors, and fuel cells--and hybrid propulsion systems. The guide also offers a list of individual medium- and heavy-duty vehicle models listed by application, along with associated manufacturer contact information, fuel type(s), power source(s), and related information.

  9. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-08-01

    Today's fleets are increasingly interested in medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles that use alternative fuels or advanced technologies that can help reduce operating costs, meet emissions requirements, improve fleet sustainability, and support U.S. energy independence. Vehicle and engine manufacturers are responding to this interest with a wide range of options across a steadily growing number of vehicle applications. This guide provides an overview of alternative fuel power systems?including engines, microturbines, electric motors, and fuel cells?and hybrid propulsion systems. The guide also offers a list of individual medium- and heavy-duty vehicle models listed by application, along with associated manufacturer contact information, fuel type(s), power source(s), and related information.

  10. BENCHMARKING FOR THE ROMANIAN HEAVY COMMERCIAL VEHICLES MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Nicolae Alexandru

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The globalization has led to a better integration of international markets of goods, services and capital markets, fact which leads to a significant increase of investments in those regions with low labor cost and with access to commercial routes. The development of international trade has imposed a continuous growth of the volumes of transported goods and the development of a transport system, able to stand against the new pressure exercised by cost, time and space. The solution to efficient transport is the intermodal transportation relying on state-of-the-art technological platforms, which integrates the advantages specific to each means of transportation: flexibility for road transportation, high capacity for railway, low costs for sea, and speed for air transportation. Romania’s integration in the pan-European transport system alongside with the EU’s enlargement towards the east will change Romania’s positioning into a central one. The integrated governmental program of improving the intermodal infrastructure will ensure fast railway, road and air connections. For the Danube harbors and for the sea ports, EU grants and allowances will be used thus increasing Romania’s importance in its capacity as one of Europe’s logistical hubs. The present paper intends to use benchmarking, the management and strategic marketing tool, in order to realize an evaluation of the Romanian heavy commercial vehicles market, within European context. Benchmarking encourages change in a complex and dynamic context where a permanent solution cannot be found. The different results stimulate the use of benchmarking as a solution to reduce gaps. MAN’s case study shows the dynamics of the players on the Romanian market for heavy commercial vehicles, when considering the strong growth of Romanian exported goods but with a modest internal demand, a limited but developing road infrastructure, and an unfavorable international economical context together with

  11. Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicle Field Evaluations (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walkowicz, K.

    2014-06-01

    This presentation discusses field evaluations of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles performed by NREL. The project provides medium-duty (MD) and heavy-duty (HD) test results, aggregated data, and detailed analysis, including 3rd party unbiased data (data that would not normally be shared by industry in an aggregated and detailed manner). Over 5.6 million miles of advanced technology MD and HD truck data have been collected, documented, and analyzed on over 240 different vehicles since 2002. Data, analysis, and reports are shared within DOE, national laboratory partners, and industry for R&D planning and strategy. The results help guide R&D for new technology development, help define intelligent usage of newly developed technology, and help fleets/users understand all aspects of advanced technology.

  12. Market Innovation in the Transport and Heavy Vehicle Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgström, Benedikte; Agndal, Henrik; Cui, Lianguang

    The purpose is to better understand the interrelatedness of new business models in the truck market and developments in the road transport sector. Based on a three year research project in cooperation with a European heavy vehicle manufacturer, we describe short cases showing some of the business...... models in use and demonstrate changes and the relations between the markets trucking and transport. New business models emerge both in the heavy vehicle and transportation markets, in complex ways involving multiple actors. The impetus for the models can come from several directions but the final impact...... must be negotiated and cannot be planned by a single actor. The paper considers the development of new business models and implications on the market from the point of view of the firms actually using the business models. This shows how different business models can co-exist and involve different types...

  13. Continued Development and Improvement of Pneumatic Heavy Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert J. Englar

    2005-07-15

    The objective of this applied research effort led by Georgia Tech Research Institute is the application of pneumatic aerodynamic technology previously developed and patented by us to the design of an appropriate Heavy Vehicle (HV) tractor-trailer configuration, and experimental confirmation of this pneumatic configuration's improved aerodynamic characteristics. In Phases I to IV of our previous DOE program (Reference 1), GTRI has developed, patented, wind-tunnel tested and road-tested blown aerodynamic devices for Pneumatic Heavy Vehicles (PHVs) and Pneumatic Sports Utility Vehicles (PSUVs). To further advance these pneumatic technologies towards HV and SUV applications, additional Phase V tasks were included in the first year of a continuing DOE program (Reference 2). Based on the results of the Phase IV full-scale test programs, these Phase V tasks extended the application of pneumatic aerodynamics to include: further economy and performance improvements; increased aerodynamic stability and control; and safety of operation of Pneumatic HVs. Continued development of a Pneumatic SUV was also conducted during the Phase V program. Phase V was completed in July, 2003; its positive results towards development and confirmation of this pneumatic technology are reported in References 3 and 4. The current Phase VI of this program was incrementally funded by DOE in order to continue this technology development towards a second fuel economy test on the Pneumatic Heavy Vehicle. The objectives of this current Phase VI research and development effort (Ref. 5) fall into two categories: (1) develop improved pneumatic aerodynamic technology and configurations on smaller-scale models of the advanced Pneumatic Heavy Vehicle (PHV); and based on these findings, (2) redesign, modify, and re-test the modified full-scale PHV test vehicle. This second objective includes conduct of an on-road preliminary road test of this configuration to prepare it for a second series of SAE Type

  14. Pavement Response to Variable Tyre Pressure of Heavy Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Ahmad Kamil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the effect of overinflated tyre pressure and increased heavy vehicles’ axle load on flexible pavements has become a subject of great concern because of the higher stress levels induced and damage caused to road pavements. This paper aims to evaluate the effect of variable tyre inflation pressures (using actual tyre contact/footprint area to determine the responses of flexible pavement. A full scale experiment was conducted on a heavy vehicle with 1:1:2 axle configuration, 10 R 20 tyre size and attached trailer with constant axle load. Measurements were made for actual tyre-pavement contact area. KENPAVE linear elastic program was then used to analyse the effects of the measured actual tyre-pavement contact area and the results was compared using conventional circular tyre contact area. A comparative analysis was then made between the actual contact area and the conventional circular tyre contact area. It was found that high tyre inflation pressure produce smaller contact area, giving more detrimental effect on the flexible pavement. It was also found that the temperature of tyres when the heavy vehicles are operational give less significant impact on tyre inflation pressure for the Malaysian climate.

  15. Vehicle technologies heavy vehicle program : FY 2008 benefits analysis, methodology and results --- final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M.; Energy Systems; TA Engineering

    2008-02-29

    This report describes the approach to estimating the benefits and analysis results for the Heavy Vehicle Technologies activities of the Vehicle Technologies (VT) Program of EERE. The scope of the effort includes: (1) Characterizing baseline and advanced technology vehicles for Class 3-6 and Class 7 and 8 trucks, (2) Identifying technology goals associated with the DOE EERE programs, (3) Estimating the market potential of technologies that improve fuel efficiency and/or use alternative fuels, and (4) Determining the petroleum and greenhouse gas emissions reductions associated with the advanced technologies. In FY 08 the Heavy Vehicles program continued its involvement with various sources of energy loss as compared to focusing more narrowly on engine efficiency and alternative fuels. These changes are the result of a planning effort that first occurred during FY 04 and was updated in the past year. (Ref. 1) This narrative describes characteristics of the heavy truck market as they relate to the analysis, a description of the analysis methodology (including a discussion of the models used to estimate market potential and benefits), and a presentation of the benefits estimated as a result of the adoption of the advanced technologies. The market penetrations are used as part of the EERE-wide integrated analysis to provide final benefit estimates reported in the FY08 Budget Request. The energy savings models are utilized by the VT program for internal project management purposes.

  16. Electric vehicle drive systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleyard, M.

    1992-01-01

    New legislation in the State of California requires that 2% of vehicles sold there from 1998 will be 'zero-emitting'. This provides a unique market opportunity for developers of electric vehicles but substantial improvements in the technology are probably required if it is to be successfully exploited. There are around a dozen types of battery that are potentially relevant to road vehicles but, at the present, lead/acid and sodium—sulphur come closest to combining acceptable performance, life and cost. To develop an efficient, lightweight electric motor system requires up-to-date techniques of magnetics design, and the latest power-electronic and microprocessor control methods. Brushless machines, coupled with solid-state inverters, offer the most economical solution for mass production, even though their development costs are higher than for direct-current commutator machines. Fitted to a small car, even the highest energy-density batteries will only provide around 200 km average range before recharging. Therefore, some form of supplementary on-board power generation will probably be needed to secure widespread acceptance by the driving public. Engine-driven generators of quite low power can achieve useful increases in urban range but will fail to qualify as 'zero-emitting'. On the other hand, if the same function could be economically performed by a small fuel-cell using hydrogen derived from a methanol reformer, then most of the flexibility provided by conventional vehicles would be retained. The market prospects for electric cars would then be greatly enhanced and their dependence on very advanced battery technology would be reduced.

  17. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  18. Next Generation Heavy-Lift Launch Vehicle: Large Diameter, Hydrocarbon-Fueled Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Jon; Monk, Timothy; Adams, Charles; Campbell, Ricky

    2012-01-01

    With the passage of the 2010 NASA Authorization Act, NASA was directed to begin the development of the Space Launch System (SLS) as a follow-on to the Space Shuttle Program. The SLS is envisioned as a heavy lift launch vehicle that will provide the foundation for future large-scale, beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) missions. Supporting the Mission Concept Review (MCR) milestone, several teams were formed to conduct an initial Requirements Analysis Cycle (RAC). These teams identified several vehicle concept candidates capable of meeting the preliminary system requirements. One such team, dubbed RAC Team 2, was tasked with identifying launch vehicles that are based on large stage diameters (up to the Saturn V S-IC and S-II stage diameters of 33 ft) and utilize high-thrust liquid oxygen (LOX)/RP engines as a First Stage propulsion system. While the trade space for this class of LOX/RP vehicles is relatively large, recent NASA activities (namely the Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Study in late 2009 and the Heavy Lift Propulsion Technology Study of 2010) examined specific families within this trade space. Although the findings from these studies were incorporated in the Team 2 activity, additional branches of the trade space were examined and alternative approaches to vehicle development were considered. Furthermore, Team 2 set out to define a highly functional, flexible, and cost-effective launch vehicle concept. Utilizing this approach, a versatile two-stage launch vehicle concept was chosen as a preferred option. The preferred vehicle option has the capability to fly in several different configurations (e.g. engine arrangements) that gives this concept an inherent operational flexibility which allows the vehicle to meet a wide range of performance requirements without the need for costly block upgrades. Even still, this concept preserves the option for evolvability should the need arise in future mission scenarios. The foundation of this conceptual design is a focus on low

  19. Quantitative Effects of Vehicle Parameters on Fuel Consumption for Heavy-Duty Vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lijuan; Kelly, Kenneth; Walkowicz, Kevin; Duran, Adam

    2015-10-16

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Fleet Test and Evaluations team recently conducted chassis dynamometer tests of a class 8 conventional regional delivery truck over the Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT), West Virginia University City (WVU City), and Composite International Truck Local and Commuter Cycle (CILCC) drive cycles. A quantitative study was conducted by analyzing the impacts of various factors on fuel consumption (FC) and fuel economy (FE) by modeling and simulating the truck using NREL's Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim). Factors used in this study included vehicle weight, and the coefficients of rolling resistance and aerodynamic drag. The simulation results from a single parametric study revealed that FC was approximately a linear function of the weight, coefficient of aerodynamic drag, and rolling resistance over various drive cycles. Among these parameters, the truck weight had the largest effect on FC. The study of the impact of two technologies on FE suggested that, depending on the circumstances, it may be more cost effective to reduce one parameter (such as coefficient of aerodynamic drag) to increase fuel economy, or it may be more beneficial to reduce another (such as the coefficient of rolling resistance). It also provided a convenient way to estimate FE by interpolating within the parameter values and extrapolating outside of them. The simulation results indicated that the FC could be reduced from 38.70 L/100 km, 50.72 L/100 km, and 38.42 L/100 km in the baseline truck to 26.78 L/100 km, 43.14 L/100 km and 29.84 L/100 km over the HHDDT, WVU City and CILCC drive cycles, respectively, when the U.S. Department of Energy's three targeted new technologies were applied simultaneously.

  20. Investigating articulated heavy-vehicle crashes in Western Australia using a spatial approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudes, Ori; Varhol, Richard; Sun, Qian Chayn; Meuleners, Lynn

    2017-09-01

    Recent developments in Western Australia's economy including widespread traffic congestion as well as road safety issues are increasingly becoming prominent. Previous studies relied on traditional statistical methods to investigate patterns and characteristics of motor vehicle crashes. Although useful, statistical analysis alone is incapable of providing a spatial context and is therefore unable to associate existing crash characteristics with a spatial distribution. To identify concentrations or "hotspots" of articulated heavy vehicle crashes in WA between the years 2001-2013, by using a spatial analysis approach. Spatial modelling and spatio-temporal analytical methods such as Emerging Hotspots were used to identify emerging hotspots on specific roads in Western Australia using the Integrated Road Information System (IRIS). The results suggest that the majority of articulated heavy vehicles crashes occurred in the vicinity or within the Perth metropolitan area. Based on spatial-temporal trend analyses, our findings highlight some regions that are emerging as areas of interest. This study was one of the first attempts to adopt a spatial analysis approach in studying heavy-vehicle crashes in Western Australia. Applying spatial methodologies to road safety data has the potential of obtaining previously undiscovered insights, which can be extended further, and provide future avenues to research in this field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Heavy Vehicle Study: a case-control study investigating risk factors for crash in long distance heavy vehicle drivers in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grunstein Ron R

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heavy vehicle transportation continues to grow internationally; yet crash rates are high, and the risk of injury and death extends to all road users. The work environment for the heavy vehicle driver poses many challenges; conditions such as scheduling and payment are proposed risk factors for crash, yet the precise measure of these needs quantifying. Other risk factors such as sleep disorders including obstructive sleep apnoea have been shown to increase crash risk in motor vehicle drivers however the risk of heavy vehicle crash from this and related health conditions needs detailed investigation. Methods and Design The proposed case control study will recruit 1034 long distance heavy vehicle drivers: 517 who have crashed and 517 who have not. All participants will be interviewed at length, regarding their driving and crash history, typical workloads, scheduling and payment, trip history over several days, sleep patterns, health, and substance use. All participants will have administered a nasal flow monitor for the detection of obstructive sleep apnoea. Discussion Significant attention has been paid to the enforcement of legislation aiming to deter problems such as excess loading, speeding and substance use; however, there is inconclusive evidence as to the direction and strength of associations of many other postulated risk factors for heavy vehicle crashes. The influence of factors such as remuneration and scheduling on crash risk is unclear; so too the association between sleep apnoea and the risk of heavy vehicle driver crash. Contributory factors such as sleep quality and quantity, body mass and health status will be investigated. Quantifying the measure of effect of these factors on the heavy vehicle driver will inform policy development that aims toward safer driving practices and reduction in heavy vehicle crash; protecting the lives of many on the road network.

  2. The Virtual Driving Coach - design and preliminary testing of a predictive eco-driving assistance system for heavy-duty vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heyes, Daniel; Daun, Thomas J; Zimmermann, Andreas; Lienkamp, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The commercial vehicle sector is characterized by high competitive pressure. Fuel consumption is one major factor that influences the transport efficiency and competitiveness of logistics companies...

  3. Vehicle systems design optimization study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmour, J. L.

    1980-04-01

    The optimization of an electric vehicle layout requires a weight distribution in the range of 53/47 to 62/38 in order to assure dynamic handling characteristics comparable to current production internal combustion engine vehicles. It is possible to achieve this goal and also provide passenger and cargo space comparable to a selected current production sub-compact car either in a unique new design or by utilizing the production vehicle as a base. Necessary modification of the base vehicle can be accomplished without major modification of the structure or running gear. As long as batteries are as heavy and require as much space as they currently do, they must be divided into two packages - one at front under the hood and a second at the rear under the cargo area - in order to achieve the desired weight distribution. The weight distribution criteria requires the placement of batteries at the front of the vehicle even when the central tunnel is used for the location of some batteries. The optimum layout has a front motor and front wheel drive. This configuration provides the optimum vehicle dynamic handling characteristics and the maximum passsenger and cargo space for a given size vehicle.

  4. The Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles III : Trucks, Buses and Trains

    CERN Document Server

    Orellano, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the International conference “The Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles III: Trucks, Buses and Trains” held in Potsdam, Germany, September 12-17, 2010 by Engineering Conferences International (ECI). Leading scientists and engineers from industry, universities and research laboratories, including truck and high-speed train manufacturers and operators were brought together to discuss computer simulation and experimental techniques to be applied for the design of more efficient trucks, buses and high-speed trains in the future.   This conference was the third in the series after Monterey-Pacific Groove in 2002 and Lake Tahoe in 2007.  The presentations address different aspects of train aerodynamics (cross wind effects, underbody flow, tunnel aerodynamics and aeroacoustics, experimental techniques), truck aerodynamics (drag reduction, flow control, experimental and computational techniques) as well as computational fluid dynamics and bluff body, wake and jet flows.

  5. Particle number and particulate mass emissions of heavy duty vehicles in real operating conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rymaniak Lukasz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the issue of PM emissions from HDV vehicles. The theoretical part discusses the problem of emission of this toxic compound in terms of particle structure taking into account the mass and dimensions of PM. Next, the methodology of the research and the results of the measurements performed under the conditions of actual operation were presented. The test drive routes were chosen in accordance with the operational purpose of the selected test vehicles. Two heavy vehicles were used for the study: a tractor with trailer and an eighteen meter long city bus. The test vehicles complied with the Euro V standard, with the second vehicle additionally complying with the EEV standard and being equipped with a DPF. The analysis of the research results was performed in the aspect of determining the operating time densities of vehicles and their drive systems as well as defining their emission characteristics and ecological indicators. PM and PN emissions were measured in the tests and particle size distribution was determined. It was shown that the exhaust gas after treatment system used in the city bus had a positive influence on the ecological indicators and had contributed to the reduction of PN emissions for heavier particles.

  6. Electric vehicle data acquisition system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mathias; Winther-Jensen, Mads; Pedersen, Anders Bro

    2014-01-01

    A data acquisition system for electric vehicles is presented. The system connects to the On-board Diagnostic port of newer vehicles, and utilizes the in-vehicle sensor network, as well as auxiliary sensors, to gather data. Data is transmitted continuously to a central database for academic...... and industrial applications, e.g. research in electric vehicle driving patterns, vehicle substitutability analysis and fleet management. The platform is based on a embedded computer running Linux, and features a high level of modularity and flexibility. The system operates independently of the make of the car......, by using the On-board Diagnostic port to identify car model and adapt its software accordingly. By utilizing on-board Global Navigation Satellite System, General Packet Radio Service, accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer, the system not only provides valuable data for research in the field of electric...

  7. The selection of the traction system based on the energy efficiency for vehicles of heavy service; La seleccion del tren motriz basada en la eficiencia energetica para vehiculos de servicio pesado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafael Morales, M.Y [Instituto Mexicano del Transporte, (Mexico); Cervantes de Gortari, J [Departamento de termoenergia, Facultad de ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-01-15

    Transportation activities in Mexico, especially in heavy-duty vehicles, are affected by the low efficiency in fuel consumption. In spite of the advanced technology in energy efficiency that generally is being adopted and used in the Mexican cargo fleet, there is not a significant reduction in the operation costs of this very important economic activity. In this paper, an account about the influence that the selection of the traction system components has on the fuel consumption and the ascending capacity of the vehicle, is presented. As a result of the study, an algorithm based on real performance tests with optimal fuel economy, was developed. The program is useful for the selection of the most appropriate traction system of a given vehicle, taking into account the condition that has to fulfill for a give task. [Spanish] Entre los problemas que afectan a la economia del sector de autotransporte en Mexico, especialmente en el transporte destinado al servicio pesado, se encuentra el de baja eficiencia en el consumo de combustible. A pesar de la avanzada tecnologia que generalmente se va disponiendo y adoptando en el parque vehicular con relacion a la eficiencia energetica, el costo por toneladas transportada no ha disminuido de manera importante. En este trabajo, se presenta un estudio acerca de la influencia que tiene dentro de esta problematica la seleccion de los componentes del tren motriz en el consumo de combustible y en la capacidad de ascenso del vehiculo, en relacion con el peso de la carga transportada. Como resultado del estudio se desarrollo un algoritmo basado en las pruebas reales de desempeno a que puede someterse un vehiculo, buscando el regimen optimo de economia del combustible. El programa permite a las empresas de transporte, seleccionar el tren motriz mas adecuado para cada vehiculo teniendo en cuenta las operaciones a que debera sujetarse en un determinado servicio.

  8. Development of Pneumatic Aerodynamic Devices to Improve the Performance, Economics, and Safety of Heavy Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert J. Englar

    2000-06-19

    Under contract to the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies, the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) is developing and evaluating pneumatic (blown) aerodynamic devices to improve the performance, economics, stability and safety of operation of Heavy Vehicles. The objective of this program is to apply the pneumatic aerodynamic aircraft technology previously developed and flight-tested by GTRI personnel to the design of an efficient blown tractor-trailer configuration. Recent experimental results obtained by GTRI using blowing have shown drag reductions of 35% on a streamlined automobile wind-tunnel model. Also measured were lift or down-load increases of 100-150% and the ability to control aerodynamic moments about all 3 axes without any moving control surfaces. Similar drag reductions yielded by blowing on bluff afterbody trailers in current US trucking fleet operations are anticipated to reduce yearly fuel consumption by more than 1.2 billion gallons, while even further reduction is possible using pneumatic lift to reduce tire rolling resistance. Conversely, increased drag and down force generated instantaneously by blowing can greatly increase braking characteristics and control in wet/icy weather due to effective ''weight'' increases on the tires. Safety is also enhanced by controlling side loads and moments caused on these Heavy Vehicles by winds, gusts and other vehicles passing. This may also help to eliminate the jack-knifing problem if caused by extreme wind side loads on the trailer. Lastly, reduction of the turbulent wake behind the trailer can reduce splash and spray patterns and rough air being experienced by following vehicles. To be presented by GTRI in this paper will be results developed during the early portion of this effort, including a preliminary systems study, CFD prediction of the blown flowfields, and design of the baseline conventional tractor-trailer model and the pneumatic wind-tunnel model.

  9. Condition-based dynamic maintenance operations planning and grouping. Application to commercial heavy vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouvard, K., E-mail: keomany.bouvard@volvo.co [Volvo Technology, 99 route de Lyon, 69806 Saint Priest cedex (France); Laboratoire d' Automatique de Genie Informatique et Signal - FRE3303 - Polytech' Lille, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Artus, S., E-mail: samuel.artus@volvo.co [Volvo Technology, 99 route de Lyon, 69806 Saint Priest cedex (France); Berenguer, C., E-mail: christophe.berenguer@utt.f [Universite de technologie de Troyes - Institut Charles Delaunay and UMR CNRS 6279 - 12, rue Marie Curie, BP2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France); Cocquempot, V., E-mail: vincent.cocquempot@univ-lille1.f [Laboratoire d' Automatique de Genie Informatique et Signal - FRE3303 - Polytech' Lille, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2011-06-15

    This paper aims at presenting a method to optimize the maintenance planning for a commercial heavy vehicle. Such a vehicle may be considered as a multi-components system. Grouping maintenance operations related to each component reduces the global maintenance cost of the system. Classically, the optimization problem is solved using a priori reliability characteristics of components. Two types of methods may be used, i.e. static or dynamic methods. Static methods provide a fixed maintenance planning, whereas dynamic methods redefine the groups of maintenance operations at each decision time. Dynamic procedures can incorporate component information such as component states or detected failures. For deteriorating systems, reliability characteristics of each component may be estimated thanks to deterioration models and may be updated when a degradation measure is available. This additional information on degradation features allows to better follow the real state of each component and to improve the maintenance planning.

  10. Thermal management for heavy vehicles (Class 7-8 trucks)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wambsganss, M.W.

    2000-04-03

    Thermal management is a crosscutting technology that has an important effect on fuel economy and emissions, as well as on reliability and safety, of heavy-duty trucks. Trends toward higher-horsepower engines, along with new technologies for reducing emissions, are substantially increasing heat-rejection requirements. For example, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), which is probably the most popular near-term strategy for reducing NO{sub x} emissions, is expected to add 20 to 50% to coolant heat-rejection requirements. There is also a need to package more cooling in a smaller space without increasing costs. These new demands have created a need for new and innovative technologies and concepts that will require research and development, which, due to its long-term and high-risk nature, would benefit from government funding. This document outlines a research program that was recommended by representatives of truck manufacturers, engine manufacturers, equipment suppliers, universities, and national laboratories. Their input was obtained through personal interviews and a plenary workshop that was sponsored by the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies and held at Argonne National Laboratory on October 19--20, 1999. Major research areas that received a strong endorsement by industry and that are appropriate for government funding were identified and included in the following six tasks: (1) Program management/coordination and benefits/cost analyses; (2) Advanced-concept development; (3) Advanced heat exchangers and heat-transfer fluids; (4) Simulation-code development; (5) Sensors and control components development; and (6) Concept/demonstration truck sponsorship.

  11. Omnidirectional configuration and control approach on mini heavy loaded forklift autonomous guided vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Norsharimie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the omnidirectional configuration and control approach on Mini Heavy Loaded Forklift Autonomous Guided Vehicle (MHeLFAGV for flexibility maneuverability in confine and narrow area. The issue in turning motion for nonholonomic vehicle in confine area becoming a motivation in MHeLFAGV design to provide holonomic vehicle with flexible movement. Therefore an omni-wheeled named Mecanum wheel has been configured in this vehicle design as well as omnidirectional control algorithm. MHeLFAGV system is developed with collaboration and inspired from Vacuumshmelze (M Sdn. Bhd. Pekan, Pahang in order to have a customized mini forklift that able to work in a very confined warehouse (170cm × 270cm square with heavy payload in a range of 20-200kg. In electronics control design, two stages of controller boards are developed namely as Board 1 and 2 that specifically for movement controller board and monitoring controller board respectively. In addition separate module of left, right, forward, backward, diagonal and zigzagging movement is developed as embedded modules for MHeLFAGV system’s control architecture. A few experiments are done to verify the algorithm for each omnidirectional movement of MHeLFAGV system in the wide area. The waypoint of MHeLFAGV movement is plotted using Global Positioning System (GPS as well as a digital compass by mapping the longitude and latitude of the vehicle. There are slightly different between the targeted movements with recorded data since Mecanum wheeled affected by the uneven surface of the landscape. The experiment is also further on moving in confine are on the actual targeted warehouse.

  12. A Near-Term, High-Confidence Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, William J.; Talay, Theodore A.

    2009-01-01

    The use of well understood, legacy elements of the Space Shuttle system could yield a near-term, high-confidence Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle that offers significant performance, reliability, schedule, risk, cost, and work force transition benefits. A side-mount Shuttle-Derived Vehicle (SDV) concept has been defined that has major improvements over previous Shuttle-C concepts. This SDV is shown to carry crew plus large logistics payloads to the ISS, support an operationally efficient and cost effective program of lunar exploration, and offer the potential to support commercial launch operations. This paper provides the latest data and estimates on the configurations, performance, concept of operations, reliability and safety, development schedule, risks, costs, and work force transition opportunities for this optimized side-mount SDV concept. The results presented in this paper have been based on established models and fully validated analysis tools used by the Space Shuttle Program, and are consistent with similar analysis tools commonly used throughout the aerospace industry. While these results serve as a factual basis for comparisons with other launch system architectures, no such comparisons are presented in this paper. The authors welcome comparisons between this optimized SDV and other Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle concepts.

  13. Proceedings of the heavy lift launch vehicle tropospheric effects workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    A workshop, sponsored by the Argonne National Laboratory, on Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV) troposheric effects was held in Chicago, Illinois, on September 12, 13, and 14, 1978. Briefings were conducted on the latest HLLV congigurations, launch schedules, and proposed fuels. The geographical, environmental, and ecological background of three proposed launch sites were presented in brief. The sites discussed were launch pads near the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), a site in the southwestern United States near Animus, New Mexico, and an ocean site just north of the equator off the coast of Ecuador. A review of past efforts in atmospheric dynamics modeling, source term prediction, atmospheric effects, cloud rise modeling, and rainout/washout effects for the Space Shuttle tropospheric effects indicated that much of the progress made in these areas has direct applicability to the HLLV. The potential pollutants from the HLLV are different and their chymical interactions with the atmosphere are more complex, but the analytical techniques developed for the Space Shuttle can be applied, with the appropriate modification, to the HLLV. Reviews were presented of the ecological baseline monitoring being performed at KSC and the plant toxicology studies being conducted at North Carolina State. Based on the proposed launch sites, the latest HLLV configuration fuel, and launch schedule, the attendees developed a lit of possible environmental issues associated with the HLLV. In addition, a list of specific recommendations for short- and long-term research to investigate, understand, and possibly mitigate the HLLV environmental impacts was developed.

  14. Real-world NOx emissions of Euro V and Euro VI heavy duty vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeulen, R.; Dekker, H.; Vonk, W.

    2012-04-15

    TNO regularly performs measurements to determine the in-service performance and durability with respect to the pollutant emissions of heavy-duty vehicles under representative driving conditions. The 2011 measurement programme yields new insights regarding the emission performance of the upcoming Euro VI technology for heavy-duty vehicles, mandatory as of 31 December 2013 and, together with the results from earlier performed programmes, leads to conclusions on the emission performance of past and present generations of heavy-duty vehicles (Euro V, EEV)

  15. Evaluation of a performance-based standards approach to heavy vehicle design to reduce pavement wear

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available are shown in FIGURE 3. TABLE 2 Road Wear Assessment Results for Baseline and PBS Vehicles in the Forestry Industry Assess- ment Date Client Operator Baseline/PBS vehicle Overall Length (m) Combination mass (kg) Payload (kg) PEF Average... Date Operator Commodity Baseline/ PBS vehicle Overall Length (m) Combination Mass (kg) Payload (kg) PEF Average LEF/ vehicle Average LEF/ton payload Feb-12 Unitrans (Richards Bay Minerals) Heavy Metal Concen- trate Baseline...

  16. Assessing retro-reflective markers (RRMs usage on heavy vehicles with respect to MS 828:2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Amirudin M.R

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is continuously developing and enhancing the safety system and policies for road users. One of the essential elements of safety is a good marking and thus the visibility of vehicles on the road. Since 2011, MS 828:2011 has been gazetted to guide industry on the right specification to follow with regards to RRMs. However, the RRMs that being used by heavy and long vehicle including in the current market were not up to the standard. Thus, the objectives of this study is to identify the current status of RRMs in Malaysia besides to measure the photometric values of current RRMs and to determine the usage rate of substandard RRMs on heavy vehicles and current market. Market surveillance and sample testing were conducted to determine on current RRMs usage and to analyse the RRMs with respect to MS 828:2011. As a result, 62% of RRMs condition on heavy vehicles are still not in a good condition or covered by dust. Also, only 4% of the RRMs sample complied to MS 828:2011. From this paper, it can be concluded that majority or 96% of the RRMs in current market and have been used by current heavy vehicles are substandard markings.

  17. Driver Steering Control and Full Vehicle Dynamics Study Based on a Nonlinear Three-Directional Coupled Heavy-Duty Vehicle Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Under complicated driving situations, such as cornering brake, lane change, or barrier avoidance, the vertical, lateral, and longitudinal dynamics of a vehicle are coupled and interacted obviously. This work aims to propose the suitable vehicle and driver models for researching full vehicle dynamics in complicated conditions. A nonlinear three-directional coupled lumped parameters (TCLP model of a heavy-duty vehicle considering the nonlinearity of suspension damping and tire stiffness is built firstly. Then a modified preview driver model with nonlinear time delay is proposed and connected to the TCLP model to form a driver-vehicle closed-loop system. The presented driver-vehicle closed-loop system is evaluated during a double-lane change and compared with test data, traditional handling stability vehicle model, linear full vehicle model, and other driver models. The results show that the new driver model has better lane keeping performances than the other two driver models. In addition, the effects of driver model parameters on lane keeping performances, handling stability, ride comfort, and roll stability are discussed. The models and results of this paper are useful to enhance understanding the effects of driver behaviour on full vehicle dynamics.

  18. Powertrain Test Procedure Development for EPA GHG Certification of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Engines and Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambon, Paul H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Deter, Dean D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-07-01

    xiii ABSTRACT The goal of this project is to develop and evaluate powertrain test procedures that can accurately simulate real-world operating conditions, and to determine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of advanced medium- and heavy-duty engine and vehicle technologies. ORNL used their Vehicle System Integration Laboratory to evaluate test procedures on a stand-alone engine as well as two powertrains. Those components where subjected to various drive cycles and vehicle conditions to evaluate the validity of the results over a broad range of test conditions. Overall, more than 1000 tests were performed. The data are compiled and analyzed in this report.

  19. FY2003 Annual Report: DOE Project on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCallen, R C; Salari, K; Ortega, J; DeChant, L J; Roy, C J; Payne, J J; Hassan, B; Pointer, W D; Browand, F; Hammache, M; Hsu, T; Ross, J; Satran, D; Heineck, J; Walker, S; Yaste, D; Englar, R; Leonard, A; Rubel, M; Chatelain, P

    2003-10-24

    Objective: {sm_bullet} Provide guidance to industry in the reduction of aerodynamic drag of heavy truck vehicles. {sm_bullet} Establish a database of experimental, computational, and conceptual design information, and demonstrate potential of new drag-reduction devices.

  20. UW Inventory of Freight Emissions (WIFE3) heavy duty diesel vehicle web calculator methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This document serves as an overview and technical documentation for the University of Wisconsin Inventory of : Freight Emissions (WIFE3) calculator. The WIFE3 web calculator rapidly estimates future heavy duty diesel : vehicle (HDDV) roadway emission...

  1. Self regulation initiative to address the heavy vehicle overloading problem in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Heavy vehicle overloading continues to be a major problem in South Africa notwithstanding efforts at more effective overload control by the authorities. This paper describes a pilot project, funded by the Department of Trade and Industry...

  2. Aggregate strength for bituminous surfacings for low volume roads: a heavy vehicle simulator experience

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses an investigation using the CSIR Transportek Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS) to determine the impact of using aggregates softer than specified in chip seals and to propose possible relaxations in the currently specified strength...

  3. Impact of the CSIR heavy vehicle simulator (HVS) on the performance of the SA road network

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, L

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The CSIR plays a leading role in the development, application and transfer of processes and technologies for the design, construction, maintainance and management of transport infrastructure in Southern Africa. The heavy vehicle simulator (HVS...

  4. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Model (GEM) for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s Greenhouse Gas Emissions Model (GEM) is a free, desktop computer application that estimates the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fuel efficiency performance of specific aspects of heavy-duty vehicles.

  5. Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Duty Cycles for Electric Powertrains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Kenneth; Bennion, Kevin; Miller, Eric; Prohaska, Bob

    2016-03-02

    NREL's Fleet Test and Evaluation group has extensive in-use vehicle data demonstrating the importance of understanding the vocational duty cycle for appropriate sizing of electric vehicle (EV) and power electronics components for medium- and heavy-duty EV applications. This presentation includes an overview of recent EV fleet evaluation projects that have valuable in-use data that can be leveraged for sub-system research, analysis, and validation. Peak power and power distribution data from in-field EVs are presented for four different vocations, including class 3 delivery vans, class 6 delivery trucks, class 8 transit buses, and class 8 port drayage trucks, demonstrating the impacts of duty cycle on performance requirements.

  6. Light and Heavy Tactical Wheeled Vehicle Fuel Consumption Evaluations Using Fuel Efficient Gear Oils (FEGO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    UNCLASSIFIED LIGHT AND HEAVY TACTICAL WHEELED VEHICLE FUEL CONSUMPTION EVALUATIONS USING FUEL EFFICIENT GEAR OILS (FEGO) FINAL...HEAVY TACTICAL WHEELED VEHICLE FUEL CONSUMPTION EVALUATIONS USING FUEL EFFICIENT GEAR OILS (FEGO) FINAL REPORT TFLRF No. 477 by Adam C... subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO

  7. Designing heavy vehicles to be safer and more productive using PBS

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kienhöfer, FW

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available and required road width are termed performance based standards (PBS). The PBS approach to heavy vehicle legislation provides a framework to allow vehicles that exceed current legal prescriptive mass and dimension limits access to the road network, under...

  8. 40 CFR 86.1817-08 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program. 86.1817-08 Section 86.1817-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1817-05 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program. 86.1817-05 Section 86.1817-05 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In...

  10. 76 FR 70128 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Amendments to the California Heavy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Amendments to the California Heavy... thereof shall adopt or attempt to enforce any standard relating to the control of emissions from new motor..., inspection or any other approval relating to the control of emissions from any new motor vehicle or new motor...

  11. Heavy vehicle simulation and validation for handling and roll-over using integrated development tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lupker, H.A.; Vink, W.J.; Besselink, I.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    A systematic modelling approach to vehicle dynamics simulation, validation and optimization is presented using an effective link between a multibody solver and a mathematical analysis package. In particular, a heavy vehicle tractor/trailer combination which is common on European roads is modelled

  12. Model of the Heavy Freight Vehicle's Running Speed Used for Diversion Traffic Routes Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanzl Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the construction process of a discrete model of a heavy truck running speed. The running speed calculation is based on the technical parameters of the road (geometry, gradient, curves, etc. and valid Czech legislation for road designing. In this article, road factors influencing the final heavy freight vehicle's running speed are presented as well. The main assumption is the fact that every heavy vehicle moves on the road by speed allowed by the geometry of this road, road signs and traffic flow characteristics (intensity, density or road capacity.

  13. Mobility Systems For Robotic Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Wendell

    1987-02-01

    The majority of existing robotic systems can be decomposed into five distinct subsystems: locomotion, control/man-machine interface (MMI), sensors, power source, and manipulator. When designing robotic vehicles, there are two main requirements: first, to design for the environment and second, for the task. The environment can be correlated with known missions. This can be seen by analyzing existing mobile robots. Ground mobile systems are generally wheeled, tracked, or legged. More recently, underwater vehicles have gained greater attention. For example, Jason Jr. made history by surveying the sunken luxury liner, the Titanic. The next big surge of robotic vehicles will be in space. This will evolve as a result of NASA's commitment to the Space Station. The foreseeable robots will interface with current systems as well as standalone, free-flying systems. A space robotic vehicle is similar to its underwater counterpart with very few differences. Their commonality includes missions and degrees-of-freedom. The issues of stability and communication are inherent in both systems and environment.

  14. Vehicle electrical system state controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissontz, Jay E.

    2017-10-17

    A motor vehicle electrical power distribution system includes a plurality of distribution sub-systems, an electrical power storage sub-system and a plurality of switching devices for selective connection of elements of and loads on the power distribution system to the electrical power storage sub-system. A state transition initiator provides inputs to control system operation of switching devices to change the states of the power distribution system. The state transition initiator has a plurality of positions selection of which can initiate a state transition. The state transition initiator can emulate a four position rotary ignition switch. Fail safe power cutoff switches provide high voltage switching device protection.

  15. Dynamic Vibration Analysis of Heavy Vehicle Truck Transmission Gearbox Housing Using FEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwani Kumar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this original research article is to study the loose fixture mounting affect of heavy vehicle transmission gearbox housing. The studies were completed in three phases. In first phase the aim was to find the actual suitable boundary condition. After finding the boundary condition in second phase the fixture bolts were loosened to monitor the affect of looseness and in third phase the positional looseness based study were completed. The looseness of transmission housing causes heavy vibration and noise. In order to prevent this noise and vibration the transmission housing is tightly mounted on the chassis frame using bolts. In our design transmission housing is constraint on chassis frame using 37 bolts. Truck transmission system determines the level of noise together with the chassis, engine and bodywork. Vehicle transmissions under torsional vibration condition caused rattling and clattering noises. Reciprocity Principle was used to determine the failure frequencies for transmission housing. In reciprocity principle gear and shafts are suppressed and all the forces transmitted through the bearings are applied on the empty housing. FEA based ANSYS 14.5 has been used as analysis tool. The free vibration frequency for zero displacement condition varies from 1669 Hz to 2865 Hz and for loose transmission casing frequency varies from 1311 Hz to 3110 Hz. The analysis have theoretical and practical aspects and useful for transmission housing structure optimization.

  16. Experimental Autonomous Vehicle Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ole; Andersen, Nils Axel

    1998-01-01

    ANSI-C program extending the TCL system is used for plan execution and a combination of MATLAB and a custom made Java GUI as user interface on the remote operator console. The choice of these standard software components is explained and the individual components demonstrated. Examples of how specific...

  17. Superconducting gap anomaly in heavy fermion systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    metal and undergoes a transition to the gap-less superconducting state. Keywords. Heavy fermion superconductor; Narrow band system; Valence fluctuation. PACS Nos 74.70.Tx; 71.28.+d; 75.30.Mb. 1. Introduction. The discovery of superconductivity in the so-called heavy fermion system CeCu2Si2,. UBe13, UPt3 [1] ...

  18. Autonomous prediction of performance-based standards for heavy vehicles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Berman, R

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available performance-based standards approach which specifies on-road vehicle performance measures. One such standard is the low-speed swept path, which is a measure of road width required by a vehicle to complete a prescribed turning manoeuvre. This is typically...

  19. FY2014 Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-03-01

    The Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies under development. Research focuses on addressing critical barriers to advancing light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicle systems to help maximize the number of electric miles driven and increase the energy efficiency of transportation vehicles.

  20. Assessing the ground vibrations produced by a heavy vehicle traversing a traffic obstacle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducarne, Loïc; Ainalis, Daniel; Kouroussis, Georges

    2018-01-15

    Despite advancements in alternative transport networks, road transport remains the dominant mode in many modern and developing countries. The ground-borne motions produced by the passage of a heavy vehicle over a geometric obstacle (e.g. speed hump, train tracks) pose a fundamental problem in transport annoyance in urban areas. In order to predict the ground vibrations generated by the passage of a heavy vehicle over a geometric obstacle, a two-step numerical model is developed. The first step involves simulating the dynamic loads generated by the heavy vehicle using a multibody approach, which includes the tyre-obstacle-ground interaction. The second step involves the simulation of the ground wave propagation using a three dimensional finite element model. The simulation is able to be decoupled due to the large difference in stiffness between the vehicle's tyres and the road. First, the two-step model is validated using an experimental case study available in the literature. A sensitivity analysis is then presented, examining the influence of various factors on the generated ground vibrations. Factors investigated include obstacle shape, obstacle dimensions, vehicle speed, and tyre stiffness. The developed model can be used as a tool in the early planning stages to predict the ground vibrations generated by the passage of a heavy vehicle over an obstacle in urban areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. In-Vehicle Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Štefančić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The work considers different information systems, includingthe infonnation ~ystems with autonomous units, whichcany all their intelligence around with them, and those withcommunicating units, which infonn the motorist about the currentsituation of the road system by radio or other means. Thesymbols of various messages have three main objectives: to provideinstruction, to warn of oncoming dange1~ or to give adviceregarding parking or looking for altemative routes. When notused for these pwposes, they are used to provide general informationabout the weathe1~ temperature or possible attractions.The in-vehicle information systems fly to assist the motorist indriving, and they are promoted as part of the comprehensive intelligenttransport system.

  2. Particulate matter emissions from a heavy duty vehicle fuelled by petroleum diesel and used cooking oil blends

    OpenAIRE

    Dizayi,; Li, HU; Hadavi,; Tomlin, AS

    2015-01-01

    Fuel characteristic and exhaust particulate emissions tests were carried out for a EURO5 compliant Heavy Duty Vehicle operating on both pure petroleum diesel (PD) and used cooking oil (C2G Ultra Biofuel) PD blends under real world driving conditions. Fuel tests showed that fuel temperature, substitution ratio and engine speed play a key role in determining the spray characteristics of the Ultra Biofuel blends. However, under real world operating conditions, the Bioltec fuel blending system wa...

  3. In-Vehicle Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Štefančić

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers different systems, including thesystems with autonomous units, which cany all their knowledgewith them, and those with communication units, which informthe driver about the current situation of the road system byradio or other means. The symbols of various messageshave three main goals: to provide instruction, to warn ofoncoming danger, or to give advice regarding parking or lookingfor alternative routes. When not used for these purposes,they are used to provide general information about/he weathe1;temperature or possible attractions. The in-vehicle informationsystems try to assist the motorist in driving, and they arepromoted as part of the comprehensive intelligent transport system.

  4. Launch vehicle systems design analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Robert; Verderaime, V.

    1993-01-01

    Current launch vehicle design emphasis is on low life-cycle cost. This paper applies total quality management (TQM) principles to a conventional systems design analysis process to provide low-cost, high-reliability designs. Suggested TQM techniques include Steward's systems information flow matrix method, quality leverage principle, quality through robustness and function deployment, Pareto's principle, Pugh's selection and enhancement criteria, and other design process procedures. TQM quality performance at least-cost can be realized through competent concurrent engineering teams and brilliance of their technical leadership.

  5. Bayesian Parameter Estimation for Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Eric; Konan, Arnaud; Duran, Adam

    2017-03-28

    Accurate vehicle parameters are valuable for design, modeling, and reporting. Estimating vehicle parameters can be a very time-consuming process requiring tightly-controlled experimentation. This work describes a method to estimate vehicle parameters such as mass, coefficient of drag/frontal area, and rolling resistance using data logged during standard vehicle operation. The method uses Monte Carlo to generate parameter sets which is fed to a variant of the road load equation. Modeled road load is then compared to measured load to evaluate the probability of the parameter set. Acceptance of a proposed parameter set is determined using the probability ratio to the current state, so that the chain history will give a distribution of parameter sets. Compared to a single value, a distribution of possible values provides information on the quality of estimates and the range of possible parameter values. The method is demonstrated by estimating dynamometer parameters. Results confirm the method's ability to estimate reasonable parameter sets, and indicates an opportunity to increase the certainty of estimates through careful selection or generation of the test drive cycle.

  6. Fuel Economy Improvement by Utilizing Thermoelectric Generator in Heavy-Duty Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Y. D.; Hu, T.; Su, C. Q.; Yuan, X. H.

    2017-05-01

    Recent advances in thermoelectric technology have made exhaust-based thermoelectric generators (TEGs) promising for recovery of waste heat. Utilization of exhaust-based TEGs in heavy-duty vehicles was studied in this work. Given that the generated power is limited, the alternator is still indispensable. To improve the fuel economy, the generated electricity must be integrated into the automotive electrical system and consumed by electrical loads. Therefore, two feasible ways of integrating the generated electricity into the automotive electrical system are discussed: one in which the original alternator works only under certain conditions, i.e., the "thermostat" strategy, and another in which a smaller alternator is adopted and works together with the TEG, i.e., the "cooperative work" strategy. The overall performance and efficiency are obtained through simulation analysis. The simulation results show that both methods can improve the fuel economy, but the former provides better results. Moreover, if the electrical loads can be properly modified, the fuel economy is further improved. These simulation results lay a solid foundation for application of TEGs in vehicles in the future.

  7. Modelling and simulation of vehicle electric power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wootaik; Choi, Daeho; Sunwoo, Myoungho

    In recent years, the demand for an increased number of vehicle functions by legislation and customer expectations has introduced many electronic control systems and electrical driven units in vehicles and has resulted in steadily increasing electrical loads. Moreover, due to heavy urban traffic conditions, the idling time fraction has increased and reduced the power generation of the alternator. In the vehicle design phase, in order to avoid an over- or under-design problem of the electric power system, it is necessary to understand both the characteristics of each component of the vehicle electric power system and the interactions between the components. For this purpose, model and simulation algorithms of the vehicle power system are required. In this study, the vehicle electric power system, which is mainly composed of a generator and battery, is modelled and evaluated. Among the various proposed battery models, two types are compared in terms of accuracy and ease-of-use. These two models are distinguished by the consideration of inrush current at the beginning of charging and discharging. In addition, a variable terminal voltage alternator model (VTVA model) is proposed, and is compared with a constant terminal voltage alternator model (CTVA model). Based on the major component model, a simulation algorithm is developed and used to perform a case study. Compared with real data from the vehicle, the simulation results of energy generation and consumption are comparable.

  8. Initial Effects of Heavy Vehicle Trafficking on Vegetated Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    1.1 Background In 2004, the Army introduced “The Army Strategy for the Environment : Sustain the Mission, Secure the Future.” This document...highlights the Army’s desire to shift from a compliance-driven environmental strategy to a sustainability-based strategy. By shifting the focus to... glyphosate and raked prior ERDC/CRREL TR-12-6 5 to the experiments. The test vehicle traveled from North to South, crossing the silty loam test section

  9. Investigation of Tractor Base Bleeding for Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, J; Salari, K; Storms, B

    2007-10-25

    One of the main contributors to the aerodynamic drag of a heavy vehicle is tractor-trailer gap drag, which arises when the vehicle operates within a crosswind. Under this operating condition, freestream flow is entrained into the tractor-trailer gap, imparting a momentum exchange to the vehicle and subsequently increasing the aerodynamic drag. While a number of add-on devices, including side extenders, splitter plates, vortex stabilizers, and gap sealers, have been previously tested to alleviate this source of drag, side extenders remain the primary add-on device of choice for reducing tractor-trailer gap drag. However, side extenders are not without maintenance and operational issues. When a heavy vehicle pivots sharply with respect to the trailer, as can occur during loading or unloading operations, the side extenders can become crushed against the trailer. Consequently, fleet operators are forced to incur additional costs to cover the repair or replacement of the damaged side extenders. This issue can be overcome by either shortening the side extenders or by devising an alternative drag reduction concept that can perform just as effectively as side extenders. To explore such a concept, we investigate tractor base bleeding as a means of reducing gap drag. Wind tunnel measurements are made on a 1:20 scale heavy vehicle model at a vehicle width-based Reynolds number of 420,000. The tractor bleeding flow, which is delivered through a porous material embedded within the tractor base, is introduced into the tractor-trailer gap at bleeding coefficients ranging from 0.0-0.018. To determine the performance of tractor base bleeding under more realistic operating conditions, computational fluid dynamics simulations are performed on a full-scale heavy vehicle within a crosswind for bleeding coefficients ranging from 0.0-0.13.

  10. Emission factors for heavy metals from diesel and petrol used in European vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulles, M.P.J.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.; Appelman, W.A.J.; Verheul, M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Heavy metals constitute an important group of persistent toxic pollutants occurring in ambient air and other media. One of the suspected sources of these metals in the atmosphere is combustion of transport fuels in road vehicles. However estimates of the emissions of these metals from road

  11. US Department of Energy workshop on future fuel technology for heavy vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The objective of the workshop described in this report was to develop consensus on a program strategy for use of alternative fuels in heavy vehicles. Participants represented fuel providers, additive suppliers, the trucking industry, engine manufacturers, and government or national laboratory staff. Breakout sessions were co-facilitated by national laboratory staff and industry representatives.

  12. 40 CFR 86.1816-08 - Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles. 86.1816-08 Section 86.1816-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  13. Mechanistic-empirical subgrade design model based on heavy vehicle simulator test results

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Theyse, HL

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available -empirical design models. This paper presents a study on subgrade permanent deformation based on the data generated from a series of Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS) tests done at the Richmond Field Station in California. The total subgrade deflection was found to be a...

  14. Dynamics of vehicle-road coupled system

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Shaopu; Li, Shaohua

    2015-01-01

    Vehicle dynamics and road dynamics are usually considered to be two largely independent subjects. In vehicle dynamics, road surface roughness is generally regarded as random excitation of the vehicle, while in road dynamics, the vehicle is generally regarded as a moving load acting on the pavement. This book suggests a new research concept to integrate the vehicle and the road system with the help of a tire model, and establishes a cross-subject research framework dubbed vehicle-pavement coupled system dynamics. In this context, the dynamics of the vehicle, road and the vehicle-road coupled system are investigated by means of theoretical analysis, numerical simulations and field tests. This book will be a valuable resource for university professors, graduate students and engineers majoring in automotive design, mechanical engineering, highway engineering and other related areas. Shaopu Yang is a professor and deputy president of Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, China; Liqun Chen is a professor at Shanghai Univ...

  15. Human health impacts of biodiesel use in on-road heavy duty diesel vehicles in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouleau, Mathieu; Egyed, Marika; Taylor, Brett; Chen, Jack; Samaali, Mehrez; Davignon, Didier; Morneau, Gilles

    2013-11-19

    Regulatory requirements for renewable content in diesel fuel have been adopted in Canada. Fatty acid alkyl esters, that is, biodiesel, will likely be used to meet the regulations. However, the impacts on ambient atmospheric pollutant concentrations and human health outcomes associated with the use of biodiesel fuel blends in heavy duty diesel vehicles across Canada have not been evaluated. The objective of this study was to assess the potential human health implications of the widespread use of biodiesel in Canada compared to those from ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD). The health impacts/benefits resulting from biodiesel use were determined with the Air Quality Benefits Assessment Tool, based on output from the AURAMS air quality modeling system and the MOBILE6.2C on-road vehicle emissions model. Scenarios included runs for ULSD and biodiesel blends with 5 and 20% of biodiesel by volume, and compared their use in 2006 and 2020. Although modeling and data limitations exist, the results of this study suggested that the use of biodiesel fuel blends compared to ULSD was expected to result in very minimal changes in air quality and health benefits/costs across Canada, and these were likely to diminish over time.

  16. Introducing Dual Suspension System in Road Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imtiaz Hussain

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of suspension system is to reduce the motions of the vehicle body with respect to road disturbances. The conventional suspension systems in road vehicles use passive elements such as springs and dampers to suppress the vibrations induced by the irregularities in the road. But these conventional suspension systems can suppress vibrations to a certain limit. This paper presents a novel idea to improve the ride quality of roads vehicles without compromising vehicle?s stability. The paper proposes the use of primary and secondary suspension to suppress the vibrations more effectively.

  17. The challenge to NOx emission control for heavy-duty diesel vehicles in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. He

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available China's new "Twelfth Five-Year Plan" set a target for total NOx emission reduction of 10% for the period of 2011–2015. Heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs have been considered a major contributor to NOx emissions in China. Beijing initiated a comprehensive vehicle test program in 2008. This program included a sub-task for measuring on-road emission profiles of hundreds of HDDVs using portable emission measurement systems (PEMS. The major finding is that neither the on-road distance-specific (g km−1 nor brake-specific (g kWh−1 NOx emission factors for diesel buses and heavy-duty diesel trucks improved in most cases as emission standards became more stringent. For example, the average NOx emission factors for Euro II, Euro III and Euro IV buses are 11.3 ± 3.3 g km−1, 12.5 ± 1.3 g km−1, and 11.8 ± 2.0 g km−1, respectively. No statistically significant difference in NOx emission factors was observed between Euro II and III buses. Even for Euro IV buses equipped with SCR systems, the NOx emission factors are similar to Euro III buses. The data regarding real-time engine performance of Euro IV buses suggest the engine certification cycles did not reflect their real-world operating conditions. These new on-road test results indicate that previous estimates of total NOx emissions for HDDV fleet may be significantly underestimated. The new estimate in total NOx emissions for the Beijing HDDV fleet in 2009 is 37.0 Gg, an increase of 45% compared to the previous study. Further, we estimate that the total NOx emissions for the national HDDV fleet in 2009 are approximately 4.0 Tg, higher by 1.0 Tg (equivalent to 18% of total NOx emissions for vehicle fleet in 2009 than that estimated in the official report. This would also result in 4% increase in estimation of national anthropogenic NOx emissions. More effective control measures (such as promotion of CNG buses and a new in-use compliance testing program are urged to secure the goal of total NOx

  18. Demonstration of Alternative Fuel, Light and Heavy Duty Vehicles in State and Municipal Vehicle Fleets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, John H.; Polubiatko, Peter; Tucchio, Michael A.

    2002-02-06

    This project involved the purchase of two Compressed Natural Gas School Buses and two electric Ford Rangers to demonstrate their viability in a municipal setting. Operational and maintenance data were collected for analysis. In addition, an educational component was undertaken with middle school children. The children observed and calculated how electric vehicles could minimize pollutants through comparison to conventionally powered vehicles.

  19. Multi-Sensor Based Online Attitude Estimation and Stability Measurement of Articulated Heavy Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingyuan Zhu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Articulated wheel loaders used in the construction industry are heavy vehicles and have poor stability and a high rate of accidents because of the unpredictable changes of their body posture, mass and centroid position in complex operation environments. This paper presents a novel distributed multi-sensor system for real-time attitude estimation and stability measurement of articulated wheel loaders to improve their safety and stability. Four attitude and heading reference systems (AHRS are constructed using micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS sensors, and installed on the front body, rear body, rear axis and boom of an articulated wheel loader to detect its attitude. A complementary filtering algorithm is deployed for sensor data fusion in the system so that steady state margin angle (SSMA can be measured in real time and used as the judge index of rollover stability. Experiments are conducted on a prototype wheel loader, and results show that the proposed multi-sensor system is able to detect potential unstable states of an articulated wheel loader in real-time and with high accuracy.

  20. Heat Exchanger for Motor Vehicle Cooling System

    OpenAIRE

    Thuliez, Jean-Luc; Chevroulet, Tristan; Stoll, Daniel

    1997-01-01

    Heat exchanger for a motor vehicle cooling system including a sleeve-like meter hermetically mounted on, and surrounding, a hollow tubular chassis meter of the vehicle. The sleeve is provided with inlets and outlets communicating with the space between the sleeve and the chassis meter and vehicle coolant flows through the inlet and outlet. Air, flowing over the outside surface of the sleeve and the inside surface of the chassis meter, cools the vehicle coolant. SMH - MCC Smart, car concepts (...

  1. Heavy and Overweight Vehicle Brake Testing: Five-Axle Combination Tractor-Flatbed Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL

    2013-10-01

    The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, in coordination with the Federal Highway Administration, sponsored the Heavy and Overweight Vehicle Brake Testing (HOVBT) program in order to provide information about the effect of gross vehicle weight (GVW) on braking performance. Because the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations limit the number of braking system defects that may exist for a vehicle to be allowed to operate on the roadways, the examination of the effect of brake defects on brake performance for increased loads is also relevant. The HOVBT program seeks to provide relevant information to policy makers responsible for establishing load limits, beginning with providing test data for a combination tractor/trailer. This testing was conducted on a five-axle combination vehicle with tractor brakes meeting the Reduced Stopping Distance requirement rulemaking. This report provides a summary of the testing activities, the results of various analyses of the data, and recommendations for future research. Following a complete brake rebuild, instrumentation, and brake burnish, stopping tests were performed from 20 and 40 mph with various brake application pressures (15 psi, 25 psi, 35 psi, 45 psi, 55 psi, and full system pressure). These tests were conducted for various brake conditions at the following GVWs: 60,000, 80,000, 91,000, 97,000, 106,000, and 116,000 lb. The 80,000-lb GVWs included both balanced and unbalanced loads. The condition of the braking system was also varied. To introduce these defects, brakes (none, forward drive axle, or rear trailer axle) were made inoperative. In addition to the stopping tests, performance-based brake tests were conducted for the various loading and brake conditions. Analysis of the stopping test data showed the stopping distance to increase with load (as expected) and also showed that more braking force was generated by the drive axle brakes than the trailer axle brakes. The constant-pressure stopping test data

  2. Development of crash imminent test scenarios for Integrated Vehicle-Based Safety Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    This report identifies crash imminent test scenarios based on common pre-crash scenarios for integrated vehicle-based safety systems that alert the driver of a light vehicle or a heavy truck to an impending rear-end, lane change, or run-off-road cras...

  3. Longitudinal annoyance responses to a road traffic noise management strategy that reduced heavy vehicles at night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A L

    2015-01-01

    A traffic management strategy was designed to reduce trucks using an urban corridor. The intervention had potential to affect night-time truck flows, but did not target truck traffic in the day, or vehicles other than trucks at any hour. A two-year long panel study measured the community's response to this intervention, using five repeated measurements of response. There were significant reductions in the panel's response to noise, both for night-time annoyance and for interference with activities. This was remarkable given that noise monitoring showed that the intervention produced no change in conventional traffic noise indicators. However, there were measureable changes in the number of articulated truck movements at night, and the benefit can be attributed to reduction in the number of noise events from heavy vehicles. The parallel tracking of changes in reported noise effects and the numbers of heavy vehicles in the night hours in this longitudinal study provides strong support to the notion that noise effects at night depend on the number of noise events experienced, not only on the overall level of traffic noise. The latter appear to be unresponsive indicators by which to assess the noise-effect benefit of heavy vehicle reduction strategies.

  4. Systemic causes of heavy menstrual bleeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschueren, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is a common problem in fertile women. In addition to local factors, such as a polyp or a uterine fibroid, systemic causes may lead to HMB. These systemic causes are discussed in this thesis. For years, women with HMB were tested underlying thyroid disorder, but our

  5. Classification of Dynamic Vehicle Routing Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.; Solomon, Marius M.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter discusses important characteristics seen within dynamic vehicle routing problems. We discuss the differences between the traditional static vehicle routing problems and its dynamic counterparts. We give an in-depth introduction to the degree of dynamism measure which can be used...... to classify dynamic vehicle routing systems. Methods for evaluation of the performance of algorithms that solve on-line routing problems are discussed and we list some of the most important issues to include in the system objective. Finally, we provide a three-echelon classification of dynamic vehicle routing...... systems based on their degree of dynamism and the system objective....

  6. Scenarios for use of biogas for heavy-duty vehicles in Denmark and related GHG emissions impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Winther, Morten; Jørgensen, Uffe

    2017-01-01

    , and potential use of the limited biogas resource taking into account alternative fuel options available for transportation (electricity, hydrogen, biofuels). Further, the total differences in fuel consumption and GHG emissions due to the replacement of diesel-powered heavy-duty vehicles by gas-powered heavy......Biogas may be a promising alternative fuel, mainly for heavy-duty vehicles, that can reduce CO2 emissions via substitution of fossil fuels and further reduce methane emissions from agricultural manure handling. However, as methane is a potent climate gas loss of methane from production to use......-duty vehicles are estimated in a well-to-wheel perspective taking into account methane losses....

  7. Total Particle Number Emissions from Modern Diesel, Natural Gas, and Hybrid Heavy-Duty Vehicles During On-Road Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianyang; Quiros, David C; Thiruvengadam, Arvind; Pradhan, Saroj; Hu, Shaohua; Huai, Tao; Lee, Eon S; Zhu, Yifang

    2017-06-20

    Particle emissions from heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) have significant environmental and public health impacts. This study measured total particle number emission factors (PNEFs) from six newly certified HDVs powered by diesel and compressed natural gas totaling over 6800 miles of on-road operation in California. Distance-, fuel- and work-based PNEFs were calculated for each vehicle. Distance-based PNEFs of vehicles equipped with original equipment manufacturer (OEM) diesel particulate filters (DPFs) in this study have decreased by 355-3200 times compared to a previous retrofit DPF dynamometer study. Fuel-based PNEFs were consistent with previous studies measuring plume exhaust in the ambient air. Meanwhile, on-road PNEF shows route and technology dependence. For vehicles with OEM DPFs and Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems, PNEFs under highway driving (i.e., 3.34 × 1012 to 2.29 × 1013 particles/mile) were larger than those measured on urban and drayage routes (i.e., 5.06 × 1011 to 1.31 × 1013 particles/mile). This is likely because a significant amount of nucleation mode volatile particles were formed when the DPF outlet temperature reached a critical value, usually over 310 °C, which was commonly achieved when vehicle speed sustained over 45 mph. A model year 2013 diesel HDV produced approximately 10 times higher PNEFs during DPF active regeneration events than nonactive regeneration.

  8. July 2004 Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag: Presentation, Summary of Comments, and Conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCallen, R; Salari, K; Ortega, J; Castellucci, P; Eastwood, C; DeChant, L; Hassan, B; Browand, F; Arcas, D; Ross, J; Heineck, J; Storms, B; Walker, S; Leonard, A; Roy, C; Whitfield, D; Pointer, D; Sofu, T; Englar, R; Funk, R

    2004-08-17

    A Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag was held in Portland, Oregon on July 1, 2004. The purpose of the meeting was to provide a summary of achievements, discuss pressing issues, present a general overview of future plans, and to provide a forum for dialogue with the Department of Energy (DOE) and industry representatives. The meeting was held in Portland, because the DOE Aero Team participated in an exclusive session on Heavy Truck Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag at the 34th AIAA Fluid Dynamics Conference and Exhibit in Portland on the morning of July 1st, just preceding our Working Group meeting. Even though the paper session was on the last day of the Conference, the Team presented to a full room of interested attendees.

  9. FY 2004 Annual Report: DOE Project on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCallen, R C; Salari, K; Ortega, J; Castellucci, P; Eastwood, C; Whittaker, K; DeChant, L J; Roy, C J; Payne, J L; Hassan, B; Pointer, W D; Browand, F; Hammache, M; Hsu, T; Ross, J; Satran, D; Heineck, J T; Walker, S; Yaste, D; Englar, R; Leonard, A; Rubel, M; Chatelain, P

    2004-11-18

    The objective of this report is: (1) Provide guidance to industry in the reduction of aerodynamic drag of heavy truck vehicles; and (2) Establish a database of experimental, computational, and conceptual design information, and demonstrate potential of new drag-reduction devices. The approaches used were: (1) Develop and demonstrate the ability to simulate and analyze aerodynamic flow around heavy truck vehicles using existing and advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools; (2) Through an extensive experimental effort, generate an experimental data base for code validation; (3) Using experimental data base, validate computations; (4) Provide industry with design guidance and insight into flow phenomena from experiments and computations; and (5) Investigate aero devices (e.g., base flaps, tractor-trailer gap stabilizer, underbody skirts and wedges, blowing and acoustic devices), provide industry with conceptual designs of drag reducing devices, and demonstrate the full-scale fuel economy potential of these devices.

  10. Advanced hybrid and electric vehicles system optimization and vehicle integration

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This contributed volume contains the results of the research program “Agreement for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles”, funded by the International Energy Agency. The topical focus lies on technology options for the system optimization of hybrid and electric vehicle components and drive train configurations which enhance the energy efficiency of the vehicle. The approach to the topic is genuinely interdisciplinary, covering insights from fields. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and industry experts in the field of automotive engineering, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  11. AUTOMATED COMPUTER SYSTEM OF VEHICLE VOICE CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kravchenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Domestic cars and foreign analogues are considered. Failings are marked related to absence of the auxiliary electronic system which serves for the increase of safety and comfort of vehicle management. Innovative development of the complex system of vocal management which provides reliability, comfort and simplicity of movement in a vehicle is offered.

  12. Scheduling vehicles in automated transportation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Matthijs C.; Ebben, Mark; Gademann, Noud; van Harten, Aart

    2002-01-01

    One of the major planning issues in large scale automated transportation systems is so-called empty vehicle management, the timely supply of vehicles to terminals in order to reduce cargo waiting times. Motivated by a Dutch pilot project on an underground cargo transportation system using Automated

  13. ADAPTIVE OPTICAL SYSTEMS LIGHTING EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

    OpenAIRE

    S. P. Sernov; D. V. Balokhonov; T. V. Kolontaeva; A. V. Zhuravok

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the main principles of implementation of modern adaptive signal lighting equipment of vehicles, provides an analysis of optical systems are used, the necessity of the use of LEDs. We present the design of adaptive optical system, rear combination LED lamp of a vehicle with several levels of intensity, we discuss the algorithm of its work in different modes. 

  14. Emergency vehicle traffic signal preemption system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelder, Aaron D. (Inventor); Foster, Conrad F. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An emergency vehicle traffic light preemption system for preemption of traffic lights at an intersection to allow safe passage of emergency vehicles. The system includes a real-time status monitor of an intersection which is relayed to a control module for transmission to emergency vehicles as well as to a central dispatch office. The system also provides for audio warnings at an intersection to protect pedestrians who may not be in a position to see visual warnings or for various reasons cannot hear the approach of emergency vehicles. A transponder mounted on an emergency vehicle provides autonomous control so the vehicle operator can attend to getting to an emergency and not be concerned with the operation of the system. Activation of a priority-code (i.e. Code-3) situation provides communications with each intersection being approached by an emergency vehicle and indicates whether the intersection is preempted or if there is any conflict with other approaching emergency vehicles. On-board diagnostics handle various information including heading, speed, and acceleration sent to a control module which is transmitted to an intersection and which also simultaneously receives information regarding the status of an intersection. Real-time communications and operations software allow central and remote monitoring, logging, and command of intersections and vehicles.

  15. Improving the road wear performance of heavy vehicles in South Africa using a performance-based standards approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In most countries throughout the world, heavy vehicle use on the road network is controlled predominantly by prescriptive regulations. These regulations, in many cases, differ significantly from one country to another. Efforts in various parts...

  16. Mode Shift Control for a Hybrid Heavy-Duty Vehicle with Power-Split Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Huang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Given that power-split transmission (PST is considered to be a major powertrain technology for hybrid heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs, the development and application of PST in the HDVs make mode shift control an essential aspect of powertrain system design. This paper presents a shift schedule design and torque control strategy for a hybrid HDV with PST during mode shift, intended to reduce the output torque variation and improve the shift quality (SQ. Firstly, detailed dynamic models of the hybrid HDV are developed to analyze the mode shift characteristics. Then, a gear shift schedule calculation method including a dynamic shift schedule and an economic shift schedule is provided. Based on the dynamic models and the designed shift schedule, a mode shift performance simulator is built using MATLAB/Simulink, and simulations are carried out. Through analysis of the dynamic equations, it is seen that the inertia torques of the motor–generator lead to the occurrence of transition torque. To avoid the unwanted transition torque, we use a mode shift control strategy that coordinates the motor–generator torque to compensate for the transition torque. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the output torque variation during mode shift is effectively reduced by the proposed control strategy, thereby improving the SQ.

  17. Greenhouse Gas and Noxious Emissions from Dual Fuel Diesel and Natural Gas Heavy Goods Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stettler, Marc E J; Midgley, William J B; Swanson, Jacob J; Cebon, David; Boies, Adam M

    2016-02-16

    Dual fuel diesel and natural gas heavy goods vehicles (HGVs) operate on a combination of the two fuels simultaneously. By substituting diesel for natural gas, vehicle operators can benefit from reduced fuel costs and as natural gas has a lower CO2 intensity compared to diesel, dual fuel HGVs have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the freight sector. In this study, energy consumption, greenhouse gas and noxious emissions for five after-market dual fuel configurations of two vehicle platforms are compared relative to their diesel-only baseline values over transient and steady state testing. Over a transient cycle, CO2 emissions are reduced by up to 9%; however, methane (CH4) emissions due to incomplete combustion lead to CO2e emissions that are 50-127% higher than the equivalent diesel vehicle. Oxidation catalysts evaluated on the vehicles at steady state reduced CH4 emissions by at most 15% at exhaust gas temperatures representative of transient conditions. This study highlights that control of CH4 emissions and improved control of in-cylinder CH4 combustion are required to reduce total GHG emissions of dual fuel HGVs relative to diesel vehicles.

  18. OPTIMIZATION OF MOTOR VEHICLE INDUSTRIES WASTEWATER TREATMENT METHODS WITH THE AIM OF HEAVY METALS REMOVAL AND WATER REUSE IN PILOT SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Mirbagheri, M. Salehi M

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The waste of motor vehicle industries is mainly the result of washing, coloring and various stages of chassis manufacturing, which include oil, grease, dyestuff, chromium, phosphate and other pollutants. In the present research, extended aeration activated sludge biological treatment plant is being considered and evaluated, for the removal of heavy metals and pollution load from industrial wastes and sanitary wastewaters, and on the pilot scale for optimization of waste treatment method for motor vehicle industries. To accomplish the pilot experiments, the natural waste of Bahman motor vehicle factory is used. Effective factors on efficient removal of heavy metals and pollution load such as concentration of biological mass (MLVSS, COD, BOD, pH in the extended aeration activated sludge biological treatment system, in different ratios of the mixing of industrial waste to sanitary wastewater have been experimented and evaluated. The performance of the above system, in the best of conditions, removes about 90% of pollution load and 65% of heavy metals existing in the industrial wastes. After analyzing the experiments, it is concluded that the removal of heavy metals through biological methods is possible and moreover it is feasible to biologically treat the mixing of motor vehicle industries effluent and sanitary wastewater up to the ratio of one to one, if guided exactly and scientifically.

  19. Advanced propulsion system concept for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhate, S.; Chen, H.; Dochat, G.

    1980-01-01

    A series hybrid system, utilizing a free piston Stirling engine with a linear alternator, and a parallel hybrid system, incorporating a kinematic Stirling engine, are analyzed for various specified reference missions/vehicles ranging from a small two passenger commuter vehicle to a van. Parametric studies for each configuration, detail tradeoff studies to determine engine, battery and system definition, short term energy storage evaluation, and detail life cycle cost studies were performed. Results indicate that the selection of a parallel Stirling engine/electric, hybrid propulsion system can significantly reduce petroleum consumption by 70 percent over present conventional vehicles.

  20. 75 FR 70237 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; California Heavy-Duty On-Highway Otto...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; California Heavy-Duty On-Highway Otto... thereof shall adopt or attempt to enforce any standard relating to the control of emissions from new motor..., inspection or any other approval relating to the control of emissions from any new motor vehicle or new motor...

  1. Self regulation initiative in heavy vehicle transport to address road safety, accelerated road deterioration and transport productivity in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available with inadequate vehicle maintenance, driver fatigue and poor driver health, contributes significantly to South Africa’s poor road safety record. The Heavy Vehicle Accreditation Scheme (LAP) is an initiative to introduce self-regulation, as opposed to legal...

  2. Bridge Expansion Joint in Road Transition Curve: Effects Assessment on Heavy Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Di Mascio

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Properly-designed road surfaces provide a durable surface on which traffic can pass smoothly and safely. In fact, the main causes that determine the structural decay of the pavement and its parts are the traffic loads. These repeated actions can create undesirable unevennesses on the road surface, which induce vertical accelerations on vehicles, up to hindering contact between pavement and tire, with dangerous consequences on traffic safety. The dynamic actions transmitted by the vehicles depend on these irregularities: often, a bridge expansion joint (BEJ, introducing a necessary discontinuity between different materials, determines from the beginning a geometric irregularity in the running surface. Besides, some structural conditions could emphasize the problem (e.g., local cracking due to the settlement of the subgrade near the abutment or the discontinuity of stiffness due to the presence of different materials. When the BEJ is located in a transition curve, an inevitable vertical irregularity between road and joint can reach values of some centimeters, with serious consequences for the road safety. This paper deals with the analysis of a case study of a BEJ. Several test surveys were performed in order to fully characterize the effects on both vehicles and pavement. The three-dimensional representation of the pavement surface and the acceleration measurements on a heavy test vehicle were performed to analyze the joint behavior under traffic. Finally, a finite element model was implemented to evaluate the stress contribution on vehicle components induced by the vertical irregularities.

  3. 75 FR 51521 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems; Technical Report on the Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... Expenses for the Anti-Lock Brake System and Underride Guard for Tractors and Trailers (74 FR 18803...; Technical Report on the Effectiveness of Antilock Braking Systems in Heavy Truck Tractors and Trailers... antilock braking systems (ABS) on all new air-braked vehicles with a GVWR of 10,000 pounds or greater. ABS...

  4. HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL VEHICLE MODAL EMISSION MODEL (HDDV-MEM): VOLUME I: MODAL EMISSION MODELING FRAMEWORK; VOLUME II: MODAL COMPONENTS AND OUTPUTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research outlines a proposed Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicle Modal Emission Modeling Framework (HDDV-MEMF) for heavy-duty diesel-powered trucks and buses. The heavy-duty vehicle modal modules being developed under this research effort, although different, should be compatible wi...

  5. Fusion Enhanced Vehicle Level Diagnostic System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Technology Connection, Inc. in conjunction with its partner, Vanderbilt University, is proposing to build a Fusion-enhanced Vehicle Diagnostics System (FVDS)...

  6. A Vehicle Control Strategy in AGV System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Cao; Yamada, Jun; Suzuki, Yuuki; Hamamatsu, Yoshio

    It is important to discuss the behavior of traffic at merging sections in the design of the overall Automated Guided Vehicle System (AGVS) and in the realization of the system. In this paper, we deal with a merging section of the AGVS under time limit for merging. Near the merging section, one flow of traffic must form a queue to avoid collision of vehicles. We propose an improved control strategy and clarify the fundamental features comparing with previous model. It is analyzed that the vehicle behavior at the merging section of the AGVS using the recurrence relation. The analytical solutions have been obtained.

  7. ADAPTIVE OPTICAL SYSTEMS LIGHTING EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Sernov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the main principles of implementation of modern adaptive signal lighting equipment of vehicles, provides an analysis of optical systems are used, the necessity of the use of LEDs. We present the design of adaptive optical system, rear combination LED lamp of a vehicle with several levels of intensity, we discuss the algorithm of its work in different modes. 

  8. Carbonyl emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicle exhaust in China and the contribution to ozone formation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Dong; Shao, Min; Li, Yue; Lu, Sihua; Wang, Yanjun; Ji, Zhe; Tang, Dagang

    2014-01-01

    Fifteen heavy-duty diesel vehicles were tested on chassis dynamometer by using typical heavy duty driving cycle and fuel economy cycle. The air from the exhaust was sampled by 2,4-dinitrophenyhydrazine cartridge and 23 carbonyl compounds were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. The average emission factor of carbonyls was 97.2 mg/km, higher than that of light-duty diesel vehicles and gasoline-powered vehicles. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone and propionaldehyde were the species with the highest emission factors. Main influencing factors for carbonyl emissions were vehicle type, average speed and regulated emission standard, and the impact of vehicle loading was not evident in this study. National emission of carbonyls from diesel vehicles exhaust was calculated for China, 2011, based on both vehicle miles traveled and fuel consumption. Carbonyl emission of diesel vehicle was estimated to be 45.8 Gg, and was comparable to gasoline-powered vehicles (58.4 Gg). The emissions of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acetone were 12.6, 6.9, 3.8 Gg, respectively. The ozone formation potential of carbonyls from diesel vehicles exhaust was 537 mg O3/km, higher than 497 mg O3/km of none-methane hydrocarbons emitted from diesel vehicles.

  9. The GREET Model Expansion for Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Hao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Burnham, Andrew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hang, Wen [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vyas, Anant [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) account for a significant portion of the U.S. transportation sector’s fuel consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and air pollutant emissions. In our most recent efforts, we expanded the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREETTM) model to include life-cycle analysis of HDVs. In particular, the GREET expansion includes the fuel consumption, GHG emissions, and air pollutant emissions of a variety of conventional (i.e., diesel and/or gasoline) HDV types, including Class 8b combination long-haul freight trucks, Class 8b combination short-haul freight trucks, Class 8b dump trucks, Class 8a refuse trucks, Class 8a transit buses, Class 8a intercity buses, Class 6 school buses, Class 6 single-unit delivery trucks, Class 4 single-unit delivery trucks, and Class 2b heavy-duty pickup trucks and vans. These vehicle types were selected to represent the diversity in the U.S. HDV market, and specific weight classes and body types were chosen on the basis of their fuel consumption using the 2002 Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey (VIUS) database. VIUS was also used to estimate the fuel consumption and payload carried for most of the HDV types. In addition, fuel economy projections from the U.S. Energy Information Administration, transit databases, and the literature were examined. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s latest Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator was employed to generate tailpipe air pollutant emissions of diesel and gasoline HDV types.

  10. Sensor system for fuel transport vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Dennis Duncan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; West, David L.

    2016-03-22

    An exemplary sensor system for a fuel transport vehicle can comprise a fuel marker sensor positioned between a fuel storage chamber of the vehicle and an access valve for the fuel storage chamber of the vehicle. The fuel marker sensor can be configured to measure one or more characteristics of one or more fuel markers present in the fuel adjacent the sensor, such as when the marked fuel is unloaded at a retail station. The one or more characteristics can comprise concentration and/or identity of the one or more fuel markers in the fuel. Based on the measured characteristics of the one or more fuel markers, the sensor system can identify the fuel and/or can determine whether the fuel has been adulterated after the marked fuel was last measured, such as when the marked fuel was loaded into the vehicle.

  11. Particulate emissions from new heavy duty vehicles (Euro IV and V); Partikeludslip fra nye tunge koeretoejer (Euronorm IV og V)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordal-Joergensen, J.; Ohm, A.; Willumsen, E. (COWI A/S, Kgs. Lyngby (DK))

    2008-07-01

    The new Danish act on environmental zones allows local authorities to define zones where EURO III or older heavy duty vehicles should be equipped with a particulate filter. The introduction of EURO IV and V has reduced particulate emissions from heavy duty vehicles by approximately 80 % based on the mass of particles. There is, however, substantial uncertainty about the impact on the number of ultrafine particles, since they are not covered by Euronorm standards. When passing the bill, the Danish Minister for the Environment of the time stated that all relevant knowledge about particle emission from heavy duty vehicles needed to be collected for subsequent publication. To this end, the Danish Environmental Protection Agency (DEPA) commissioned a literature survey. The purpose of the survey is to provide an overview of the latest knowledge in the field of particle emissions from heavy duty vehicles, with special focus on the average size of the particle emissions. Another objective of the study is to analyse the direct emissions of NO{sub 2} from heavy duty vehicles classified under EURO IV and V. (au)

  12. Waste management of a heavy vehicle maintenance: A study on reverse logistics for steel leftovers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique de Oliveira Buono

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In addition to environmental performance, supply chain management is increasingly important in business context. Thus, companies started to give more importance to the management of by-products and the proper disposal of waste generated. In this sense, the objective of the study was to analyze the waste management in a maintenance workshop for heavy vehicles. Therefore, was conducted a case study in a maintenance workshop for heavy vehicles in the state of São Paulo that provides services for the main plants of this sector in the region. Data were collected over a period of 18 months and they were treated by the method of Input Per Service Material unit (MIPS, which allows measuring the environmental gains from the use of a certain material within the supply chain. As a result of the steel sale would be discarded and that, by the reverse logistics back to be included in the production cycle, it was found that 2000 tonnes of water and 20 tons of air are no longer polluted and used in the production of new material and more 245 tons of abiotic materials are no longer generated

  13. Improved heavy-duty vehicle fuel efficiency in India, benefits, costs and environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopal, Anand R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Karali, Nihan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sharpe, Ben [International Council on Clean Transportation (United States); Delgado, Oscar [International Council on Clean Transportation (United States); Bandivadekar, Anup [International Council on Clean Transportation (United States); Garg, Mehul [International Council on Clean Transportation (United States)

    2017-06-14

    The main objectives of this analysis are to examine the benefits and costs of fuel-saving technologies for new heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) in India over the next 10 years and, to explore how various scenarios for the deployment of vehicles with these technologies will impact petroleum consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions over the next three decades. The study team developed simulation models for three representative HDV types—a 40-tonne tractor-trailer, 25-tonne rigid truck, and 16-tonne transit bus—based on top-selling vehicle models in the Indian market. The baseline technology profiles for all three vehicles were developed using India-specific engine data and vehicle specification information from manufacturer literature and input from industry experts. For each of the three vehicles we developed a comprehensive set of seven efficiency technology packages drawing from five major areas: engine, transmission and driveline, tires, aerodynamics, and weight reduction. Our analysis finds that India has substantial opportunity to improve HDV fuel efficiency levels using cost-effective technologies. Results from our simulation modeling of three representative HDV types—a tractor-trailer, rigid truck, and transit bus—reveal that per-vehicle fuel consumption reductions between roughly 20% and 35% are possible with technologies that provide a return on the initial capital investment within 1 to 2 years. Though most of these technologies are currently unavailable in India, experiences in other more advanced markets such as the US and EU suggest that with sufficient incentives and robust regulatory design, significant progress can be made in developing and deploying efficiency technologies that can provide real-world fuel savings for new commercial vehicles in India over the next 10 years. Bringing HDVs in India up to world-class technology levels will yield substantial petroleum and GHG reductions. By 2030, the fuel and CO2 reductions of the

  14. Innovative control systems for tracked vehicle platforms

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

     This book has been motivated by an urgent need for designing and implementation of innovative control algorithms and systems for tracked vehicles. Nowadays the unmanned vehicles are becoming more and more common. Therefore there is a need for innovative mechanical constructions capable of adapting to various applications regardless the ground, air or water/underwater environment. There are multiple various activities connected with tracked vehicles. They can be distributed among three main groups: design and control algorithms, sensoric and vision based in-formation, construction and testing mechanical parts of unmanned vehicles. Scientists and researchers involved in mechanics, control algorithms, image processing, computer vision, data fusion, or IC will find this book useful.

  15. Kinetic energy recovery systems in motor vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwiński, C.

    2016-09-01

    The article draws attention to the increasing environmental pollution caused by the development of vehicle transport and motorization. Different types of design solutions used in vehicles for the reduction of fuel consumption, and thereby emission of toxic gasses into the atmosphere, were specified. Historical design solutions concerning energy recovery devices in mechanical vehicles which used flywheels to accumulate kinetic energy were shown. Developmental tendencies in the area of vehicle manufacturing in the form of hybrid electric and electric devices were discussed. Furthermore, designs of energy recovery devices with electrical energy storage from the vehicle braking and shock absorbing systems were presented. A mechanical energy storing device using a flywheel operating under vacuum was presented, as were advantages and disadvantages of both systems, the limitations they impose on individual constructions and safety issues. The paper also discusses a design concept of an energy recovery device in mechanical vehicles which uses torsion springs as the main components of energy accumulation during braking. The desirability of a cooperation of both the mechanical- and electrical energy recovery devices was indicated.

  16. Evaluation of duty cycles for heavy-duty urban vehicles : final report of IEA AMF Annex 29

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nylund, N.O.; Erkkila, K. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Clark, N. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Rideout, G. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Environmental Technology Centre, Emissions Research and Measurement Div

    2007-07-01

    Heavy-duty vehicles in Europe and North America will require incylinder measures or exhaust gas after-treatment technology to control emissions and meet ever stringent emission requirements. Alternatively, manufacturers can choose clean burning alternative fuels such as natural gas. Although there are no international standards for heavy-duty vehicle chassis dynamometer testing at present, the IEA Implementing Agreements offer excellent platforms for international collaborative research. Harmonization of test methods for vehicles and fuels is one important task. This paper reported on the work of 3 laboratories that have produced emission results for complete heavy-duty vehicles. VTT Technical Research of Finland, Environment Canada and West Virginia University measured standard size urban buses driving various duty cycles on chassis dynamometers. The number of transient test cycles per laboratory varied from 6 to 16. European and North American diesel and natural gas vehicles were included in the vehicle matrix. The objective was to demonstrate how the driving cycle affects the emission performance of conventional and advanced urban buses. Several driving cycles were run on urban buses to better understand the characteristics of different duty cycles; produce a key for cross-interpretation of emission results generated with different cycles; and study the interaction between vehicle, exhaust after-treatment and fuel technologies and test procedures. Fuel consumption and exhaust emissions were measured. The results varied significantly not only by test cycle, but also by vehicle technology. In general, vehicles emissions were directly proportioned to the amount of fuel consumed, with the exception of NOx-emissions from SCR-vehicles. There was a clear difference in the emission profiles of European and North American vehicles. In Europe, fuel efficiency was emphasized, while in North America, more focus was given to regulated exhaust emissions, especially low

  17. FY2011 Annual Progress Report for Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-01-15

    The VSST team's mission is to evaluate the technologies and performance characteristics of advanced automotive powertrain components and subsystems in an integrated vehicle systems context. These evaluations address light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicle platforms. This work is directed toward evaluating and verifying the targets of the VTP R&D teams and to providing guidance in establishing roadmaps for achievement of these goals.

  18. Vehicle dynamic prediction systems with on-line identification of vehicle parameters and road conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ling-Yuan; Chen, Tsung-Lin

    2012-11-13

    This paper presents a vehicle dynamics prediction system, which consists of a sensor fusion system and a vehicle parameter identification system. This sensor fusion system can obtain the six degree-of-freedom vehicle dynamics and two road angles without using a vehicle model. The vehicle parameter identification system uses the vehicle dynamics from the sensor fusion system to identify ten vehicle parameters in real time, including vehicle mass, moment of inertial, and road friction coefficients. With above two systems, the future vehicle dynamics is predicted by using a vehicle dynamics model, obtained from the parameter identification system, to propagate with time the current vehicle state values, obtained from the sensor fusion system. Comparing with most existing literatures in this field, the proposed approach improves the prediction accuracy both by incorporating more vehicle dynamics to the prediction system and by on-line identification to minimize the vehicle modeling errors. Simulation results show that the proposed method successfully predicts the vehicle dynamics in a left-hand turn event and a rollover event. The prediction inaccuracy is 0.51% in a left-hand turn event and 27.3% in a rollover event.

  19. Hennepin County`s experience with heavy-duty ethanol vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    From November 1993 to October 1996, Hennepin County, which includes Minneapolis, field-tested two heavy-duty snowplow/road maintenance trucks fueled by ethanol. The overall objective of this program was to collect data from original equipment manufacturer alternative fuel heavy-duty trucks, along with comparable data from a similarly configured diesel-powered vehicle, to establish economic, emissions, performance, and durability data for the alternative fuel technology. These ethanol trucks, along with an identical third truck equipped with a diesel engine, were operated year round to maintain the Hennepin county roads. In winter, the trucks were run in 8-hour shifts plowing and hauling snow from urban and suburban roads. For the rest of the year, the three trucks were used to repair and maintain these same roads. As a result of this project, a considerable amount of data was collected on E95 fuel use, as well as maintenance, repair, emissions, and operational characteristics. Maintenance and repair costs of the E95 trucks were considerably higher primarily due to fuel filter and fuel pump issues. From an emissions standpoint, the E95 trucks emitted less particulate matter and fewer oxides of nitrogen but more carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons. Overall, the E95 trucks operated as well as the diesel, as long as the fuel filters were changed frequently. This project was a success in that E95, a domestically produced fuel from a renewable energy source, was used in a heavy-duty truck application and performed the same rigorous tasks as the diesel counterparts. The drawbacks to E95 as a heavy-duty fuel take the form of higher operational costs, higher fuel costs, shorter range, and the lack of over-the-road infrastructure.

  20. Advanced propulsion system for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrup, L. V.; Lintz, A. T.

    1980-01-01

    A number of hybrid propulsion systems were evaluated for application in several different vehicle sizes. A conceptual design was prepared for the most promising configuration. Various system configurations were parametrically evaluated and compared, design tradeoffs performed, and a conceptual design produced. Fifteen vehicle/propulsion systems concepts were parametrically evaluated to select two systems and one vehicle for detailed design tradeoff studies. A single hybrid propulsion system concept and vehicle (five passenger family sedan)were selected for optimization based on the results of the tradeoff studies. The final propulsion system consists of a 65 kW spark-ignition heat engine, a mechanical continuously variable traction transmission, a 20 kW permanent magnet axial-gap traction motor, a variable frequency inverter, a 386 kg lead-acid improved state-of-the-art battery, and a transaxle. The system was configured with a parallel power path between the heat engine and battery. It has two automatic operational modes: electric mode and heat engine mode. Power is always shared between the heat engine and battery during acceleration periods. In both modes, regenerative braking energy is absorbed by the battery.

  1. The technologies for heavy vehicles motors and their fuels; Les technologies des moteurs de vehicules lourds et leurs carburants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plassat, G.

    2005-07-01

    The heavy vehicles are those the total weight (charged) is more than 3,5 tons. This document provides a comparative and parametric analysis of the main technologies developed for the future buses. A detailed presentation is done for each technique, as the operating principles and the advantages and disadvantages facing the today solution. More particularly the author presents the evolution of the diesel-fuel motor, the motor optimization for specific fuel as the natural gas and the liquefied petroleum gas, the hybrid thermal-electric motor, the hydrogen fuel cells, the biofuels and the de-pollution systems to eliminate the NO{sub X} and the particles. (A.L.B.)

  2. Analysis of application of alternative drive systems for international heavy-duty transport on Wroclaw-Dresden-Prague routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrętowicz, Maria; Sroka, Zbigniew

    2017-11-01

    The depletion of the fossil fuels resources, significant increase of the air pollution caused by the use of internal combustion engines, and emission of carbon dioxide which is responsible for the greenhouse effect escalates the development of vehicle's alternative drive systems. Generally, the emphasis is given to the alternative fuels (natural gas CNG, mixture of propane-butane gases LPG, hydrogen, alcohol fuels, biofuels) and hybrid or electric vehicles. Roads between large industrial and commercial centres, i.e. Wroclaw - Dresden - Prague, are used mainly by heavy-duty vehicles. Consequently, the contribution of the road transport to the ecological threat in this realm is significant. The objectives of this research were the assessment of the traffic volume and emission rate of exhaust gases caused by heavy-duty vehicles on the analysed roads and evaluation of the possibility of using existing and alternative drive systems in vehicles driving on the roads in the analysed region.

  3. Characterization Test Procedures for Intersection Collision Avoidance Systems Based on Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Characterization test procedures have been developed to quantify the performance of intersection collision avoidance (ICA) systems based on vehicle-to-vehicle communications. These systems warn the driver of an imminent crossing-path collision at a r...

  4. Road user charges for heavy goods vehicles (HGV). Tables with external costs of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skou Andersen, M.

    2013-02-15

    In this report, the European Environment Agency (EEA) presents updated estimates of the external costs of air pollution for different categories of heavy goods vehicles (HGVs). The amended Eurovignette Directive (2011/76/EU) relating to the charging of HGVs for use of major European motorways prescribes that from 2013, Member States may include air pollution costs in any charging structure for roads under the Trans-European Network (TEN-T) and for comparable domestic motorways. The tables published here provide the basis for the inclusion of a vehicle-specific air pollution component in road user charges. Air pollution costs have been calculated on the basis of the formula prescribed in the directive, taking into account the fact that road transport emissions are mixed in a low volume of air. Following Article 9 in the Eurovignette Directive, additional revenues from external-cost charges must be used by Member States to benefit the transport sector and promote sustainable mobility. Making use of scientific developments subsequent to the 2007 Handbook of external costs (Maibach et al., 2008), the EEA is able to provide an updated estimate of the external costs of air pollution from road transport. The tables in this report indicate for each country and for the relevant vehicle categories, estimates of the external costs of air pollution in 2010 prices. The high level of detail gives member countries an informed basis to group the vehicle categories for administrative purposes. The tables also include estimates for three non-EU member countries of the EEA, of which one (Switzerland) pioneered the first HGV road user charge in Europe. (LN)

  5. A 6-DOF vibration isolation system for hydraulic hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, The; Elahinia, Mohammad; Olson, Walter W.; Fontaine, Paul

    2006-03-01

    This paper presents the results of vibration isolation analysis for the pump/motor component of hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs). The HHVs are designed to combine gasoline/diesel engine and hydraulic power in order to improve the fuel efficiency and reduce the pollution. Electric hybrid technology is being applied to passenger cars with small and medium engines to improve the fuel economy. However, for heavy duty vehicles such as large SUVs, trucks, and buses, which require more power, the hydraulic hybridization is a more efficient choice. In function, the hydraulic hybrid subsystem improves the fuel efficiency of the vehicle by recovering some of the energy that is otherwise wasted in friction brakes. Since the operation of the main component of HHVs involves with rotating parts and moving fluid, noise and vibration are an issue that affects both passengers (ride comfort) as well as surrounding people (drive-by noise). This study looks into the possibility of reducing the transmitted noise and vibration from the hydraulic subsystem to the vehicle's chassis by using magnetorheological (MR) fluid mounts. To this end, the hydraulic subsystem is modeled as a six degree of freedom (6-DOF) rigid body. A 6-DOF isolation system, consisting of five mounts connected to the pump/motor at five different locations, is modeled and simulated. The mounts are designed by combining regular elastomer components with MR fluids. In the simulation, the real loading and working conditions of the hydraulic subsystem are considered and the effects of both shock and vibration are analyzed. The transmissibility of the isolation system is monitored in a wide range of frequencies. The geometry of the isolation system is considered in order to sustain the weight of the hydraulic system without affecting the design of the chassis and the effectiveness of the vibration isolating ability. The simulation results shows reduction in the transmitted vibration force for different working cycles of

  6. FY2010 Annual Progress Report for Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slezak, Lee [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-01-15

    The VSST team evaluates the technologies and performance characteristics of advanced automotive powertrain components and subsystems in an integrated vehicle systems context, covering light to heavy platforms. This work is directed toward evaluating and verifying the targets of the VTP R&D teams and to provide guidance in establishing roadmaps for achievement of these goals.

  7. THE INFLUENCE ON EMERGENCY VEHICLE CAUSED BY THE GUERRILLA HEAVY SNOWFALL AND CONSIDERATION ABOUT MEASURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Masanori; Takayama, Jun-Ichi; Nakayama, Shoichiro

    In Nanao City, Ishikawa, it was a sudden snowfall (the following, "guerrilla heavy snowfall") in a short time in January, 2009, and a traffic jam occurred in the various places in city. Therefore, the snow removing was late, and the emergency transportation was late, too. So, Ishikawa Prefecture performed the review of the snow removing system with this guerrilla heavy snowfall as a lesson in the next year. As a result, in January, 2011, similar guerrilla heavy snowfall was generated, but the traffic jam in the city didn't occur that much, and the big hindrance didn't produce the delay of the emergency transportation either. Therefore, in this study, I analyzed the snowfall situation of the year before and after the snow removing system improvement, the traffic jam situation and snow removing dispatch data and compared the difference quantitatively. In addition, after guerrilla heavy snowfall, the study meeting the study meeting was held by prefecture, country, city, town and association of construction industry, and they built the area snow removing cooperation system, so I carried out an interview investigation about the real enforcement situation and progress.

  8. Component Control System for a Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser-Chanpong, Nathan (Inventor); Spain, Ivan (Inventor); Dawson, Andrew D. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Waligora, Thomas M. (Inventor); Akinyode, Akinjide Akinniyi (Inventor); Reed, Ryan M. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A vehicle includes a chassis, a modular component, and a central operating system. The modular component is supported by the chassis. The central operating system includes a component control system, a primary master controller, and a secondary master controller. The component control system is configured for controlling the modular component. The primary and secondary master controllers are in operative communication with the component control system. The primary and secondary master controllers are configured to simultaneously transmit commands to the component control system. The component control system is configured to accept commands from the secondary master controller only when a fault occurs in the primary master controller.

  9. A COOPERATIVE ASSISTANCE SYSTEM BETWEEN VEHICLES FOR ELDERLY DRIVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naohisa HASHIMOTO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new concept of elderly driver assistance systems, which performs the assistance by cooperative driving between two vehicles, and describes some experiments with elderly drivers. The assistance consists of one vehicle driven by an elderly driver called a guest vehicle and the other driven by a assisting driver called a host vehicle, and the host vehicle assists or escorts the guest vehicle through the inter-vehicle communications. The functions of the systems installed on a single-seat electric vehicle are highly evaluated by subjects of elderly drivers in virtual streets on a test track.

  10. Extent and variations in mobile phone use among drivers of heavy vehicles in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troglauer, Thomas; Hels, Tove; Christens, P.

    2006-01-01

    A substantial body of research has shown that use of mobile phones while driving can impair driving performance and increase the risk of being involved in accidents. Similarly, mobile phone use seems to be an increasing activity thus representing a relevant traffic safety issue. This paper...... investigates the extent and variations in mobile phone use among drivers of heavy vehicles in Denmark. The data was collected through written questionnaires and had a response rate of 58%. It was found that more than 99% of the drivers used mobile phones while driving. Despite a prohibition of hand-held mobile...... the number of stops and the amount of phone use. 0.5% reported that their use of mobile phones had contributed to an accident, while 6% had experienced their mobile phone use causing a dangerous situation. However, 66% reported experiencing dangerous situations because of others road users' mobile phone use...

  11. DOE Project on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag FY 2005 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCallen, R C; Salari, K; Ortega, J; Castellucci, P; Eastwood, C; Paschkewitz, J; Pointer, W D; DeChant, L J; Hassan, B; Browand, F; Radovich, C; Merzel, T; Plocher, D; Ross, J; Storms, B; Heineck, J T; Walker, S; Roy, C J

    2005-11-14

    Class 8 tractor-trailers consume 11-12% of the total US petroleum use. At high way speeds, 65% of the energy expenditure for a Class 8 truck is in overcoming aerodynamic drag. The project objective is to improve fuel economy of Class 8 tractor-trailers by providing guidance on methods of reducing drag by at least 25%. A 25% reduction in drag would present a 12% improvement in fuel economy at highway speeds, equivalent to about 130 midsize tanker ships per year. Specific goals include: (1) Provide guidance to industry in the reduction of aerodynamic drag of heavy truck vehicles; and (2) Establish a database of experimental, computational, and conceptual design information, and demonstrate the potential of new drag-reduction devices.

  12. Prevalence of refraction errors and color blindness in heavy vehicle drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdoğan, Haydar; Ozdemir, Levent; Arslan, Seher; Cetin, Ilhan; Ozeç, Ayşe Vural; Cetinkaya, Selma; Sümer, Haldun

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the frequency of eye disorders in heavy vehicle drivers. A cross-sectional type study was conducted between November 2004 and September 2006 in 200 driver and 200 non-driver persons. A complete ophthalmologic examination was performed, including visual acuity, and dilated examination of the posterior segment. We used the auto refractometer for determining refractive errors. According to eye examination results, the prevalence of the refractive error was 21.5% and 31.3% in study and control groups respectively (P<0.05). The most common type of refraction error in the study group was myopic astigmatism (8.3%) while in the control group simple myopia (12.8%). Prevalence of dyschromatopsia in the rivers, control group and total group was 2.2%, 2.8% and 2.6% respectively. A considerably high number of drivers are in lack of optimal visual acuity. Refraction errors in drivers may impair the traffic security.

  13. Prevalence of refraction errors and color blindness in heavy vehicle drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdoğan, Haydar; Özdemir, Levent; Arslan, Seher; Çetin, Ilhan; Özeç, Ayşe Vural; Çetinkaya, Selma; Sümer, Haldun

    2011-01-01

    AIM To investigate the frequency of eye disorders in heavy vehicle drivers. METHODS A cross-sectional type study was conducted between November 2004 and September 2006 in 200 driver and 200 non-driver persons. A complete ophthalmologic examination was performed, including visual acuity, and dilated examination of the posterior segment. We used the auto refractometer for determining refractive errors. RESULTS According to eye examination results, the prevalence of the refractive error was 21.5% and 31.3% in study and control groups respectively (Pdyschromatopsia in the rivers, control group and total group was 2.2%, 2.8% and 2.6% respectively. CONCLUSION A considerably high number of drivers are in lack of optimal visual acuity. Refraction errors in drivers may impair the traffic security. PMID:22553671

  14. Solar cell power systems for space vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, N.W. (Inst. for Defense Analyses, Washington, DC); Karcher, R.W.

    1961-01-01

    On May 3 and 4, 1960, a symposium was held in Washington, DC, under the sponsorship of the Advanced Research Projects Agency by the Institute for Defense Analyses. Ten programs involving solar cell power systems for current US space vehicles conducted under government sponsorship were discussed by the project engineers who directed these programs. The results of that symposium are highlighted and summarized.

  15. Hybrid vehicles system studies and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weijer, C.J.T. van de; Schmal, Dick [TNO Road-Vehicles Research Inst. (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    In the design of hybrid vehicles, several factors must be taken into account. Amongst others, accurate analysis of the proposed driving cycle and the state of charge of the battery systems can allow for full optimisation of the proposed design, which can be fully validated by effective simulation programs. (Author)

  16. Robust Vehicle Suspension System by Converting Active & Passive Control of a Vehicle to Semi-Active Control System Analytically

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hassan Elahi; Dr. Riffat Asim Pasha; Dr. Asif Israr; Dr. M. Zubair Khan

    2014-01-01

    .... Passive Vehicle Suspension System is converted into Semi Active Vehicle System. Major advantage achieved by this system is that it adjusts the damping of the suspension system without the application of any actuator by using MATLAB® simulations...

  17. Exhaust gas catalysts for heavy-duty vehicles fuelled by alcohol or biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, L.J.; Wahlberg, A.M.; Jaeraas, S.G. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    1997-06-01

    The long-term objective for the project is to develop tailor-made exhaust gas catalysts for heavy-duty ethanol fuelled diesel vehicles operating in urban traffic. Due to special problems, related to emissions of unregulated compounds emanating from ethanol fuelled buses in Swedish fleet tests, a catalyst research programme has been initiated. The engineering target was to achieve a light-off temperature (T{sub 50}) for ethanol conversion below 110 deg C and a selectivity for total oxidation over 90 %. In this report results from laboratory-reactor tests are described. The results indicate that by combining two different precious metals both activity and selectivity can be positively affected compared to the properties of the corresponding mono metallic catalysts. The best results show a light-off temperature for ethanol conversion below 100 deg C. The base metal oxides were more selective for total oxidation than the corresponding precious metal catalysts. The results also indicate a considerable interaction between support and active material which affects the product distribution in catalytic oxidation of ethanol. At temperatures below 250 deg C the by-product formation can be quite high and the major by-product is acetaldehyde. The metal support interaction also has a certain influence on the oxidation of NO to NO{sub 2}. The results show that the NO{sub 2} formation can be suppressed without considerably affecting the activity of the catalyst. This report also includes a preliminary life cycle analysis (LCA) and life cycle cost (LCC) estimate for exhaust gas catalysts intended for heavy-duty ethanol vehicles in urban traffic. 22 refs, numerous figs and tabs

  18. [Study on the Reliability Assessment Method of Heavy Vehicle Gearbox Based on Spectrometric Analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Ke; Zhang, Zhong; Cao, Yuan-fu; Chen, Yi-jie

    2015-04-01

    Spectrometric oil analysis is of great importance for wear condition monitoring of gearbox. In this context, the contents of main elements compositions in the bench test of heavy vehicle gearbox are obtained by atomic emission spectrometric oil analysis first. Then correlation analysis of the test data and wearing mechanism analysis are carried out to get the metal element which could be used to describe the wearing and failure of the gearbox. The spectrometric data after filling/changing oil are corrected, and the laws of the contents of main elements compositions during tests are expressed as linear functions. After that, the reliability assessment is executed with considering the degradation law and discreteness of test data, in which the mean and standard deviation of normal distribution of spectrometric oil data at each time point are adopted. Finally, the influences of the threshold are discussed. It has been proved that the contents of metal element Cu, which is got by spectrometric oil analysis of different samples, could be used to assess the reliability of heavy vehicle gearbox. The reason is that the metal element Cu is closely related to the general wear state of gearbox, and is easy to be measured. When the threshold of Cu content is treated as a constant, bigger threshold means higher reliability at the same time, and the mean value of threshold has significant impact on the reliability assessment results as R > 0.9. When the threshold is treated as a random variable, bigger dispersion of threshold means smaller slope of reliability against time, and also means lower reliability of gearbox as R > 0.9 at the same time. In this study, the spectrometric oil analysis and probability statistics are used together for the reliability assessment of gear box, which extends the application range of spectrometric analysis.

  19. Vehicle fault diagnostics and management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Jagadeesh; Gowthamsachin

    2017-11-01

    This project is a kind of advanced automatic identification technology, and is more and more widely used in the fields of transportation and logistics. It looks over the main functions with like Vehicle management, Vehicle Speed limit and Control. This system starts with authentication process to keep itself secure. Here we connect sensors to the STM32 board which in turn is connected to the car through Ethernet cable, as Ethernet in capable of sending large amounts of data at high speeds. This technology involved clearly shows how a careful combination of software and hardware can produce an extremely cost-effective solution to a problem.

  20. 75 FR 39251 - Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles: Announcement of Public Workshop for Heavy-Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... AGENCY Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles: Announcement of Public Workshop for Heavy-Duty... manufacturers have recently begun utilizing a NO X emission control technology called selective catalyst... ensure, among other things, that SCR-equipped engines are designed to properly control emissions as...

  1. 77 FR 65840 - Section 610 Reviews of Heavy-Duty Engine and Vehicle Standards and Highway Diesel Fuel Sulfur...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... Highway Diesel Fuel Sulfur Control Requirements; NESHAP: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production; and... EPA's 610 Review related to Heavy-Duty Engine and Vehicle Standards and Highway Diesel Fuel Sulfur... questions concerning EPA's 610 Review related to NESHAP: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production, please...

  2. 77 FR 50502 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; In-Use Heavy-Duty Vehicles (As...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... AGENCY California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; In- Use Heavy-Duty Vehicles (As...: The California Air Resources Board (CARB) has notified EPA that it has adopted and subsequently amended emission standards applicable to yard trucks powered by off-road engines and the auxiliary engines...

  3. Initiative to introduce a performance-based standards (PBS) approach for heavy vehicle design and operations in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of PBS for heavy vehicles in South Africa was first identified in the National Overload Control Strategy as a potential concession of a proposed Self-regulation initiative. In August 2004 a PBS committee was established...

  4. Battery control system for hybrid vehicle and method for controlling a hybrid vehicle battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockelmann, Thomas R [Battle Creek, MI; Hope, Mark E [Marshall, MI; Zou, Zhanjiang [Battle Creek, MI; Kang, Xiaosong [Battle Creek, MI

    2009-02-10

    A battery control system for hybrid vehicle includes a hybrid powertrain battery, a vehicle accessory battery, and a prime mover driven generator adapted to charge the vehicle accessory battery. A detecting arrangement is configured to monitor the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge. A controller is configured to activate the prime mover to drive the generator and recharge the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a first predetermined level, or transfer electrical power from the hybrid powertrain battery to the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a second predetermined level. The invention further includes a method for controlling a hybrid vehicle powertrain system.

  5. Opportunities for Low Cost Titanium in Reduced Fuel Consumption, Improved Emissions, and Enhanced Durability Heavy Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, E.H.

    2002-07-22

    The purpose of this study was to determine which components of heavy-duty highway vehicles are candidates for the substitution of titanium materials for current materials if the cost of those Ti components is very significantly reduced from current levels. The processes which could be used to produce those low cost components were also investigated. Heavy-duty highway vehicles are defined as all trucks and busses included in Classes 2C through 8. These include heavy pickups and vans above 8,500 lbs. GVWR, through highway tractor trailers. Class 8 is characterized as being a very cyclic market, with ''normal'' year volume, such as in 2000, of approximately 240,000 new vehicles. Classes 3-7 are less cyclic, with ''normal'' i.e., year 2000, volume totaling approximately 325,000 new vehicles. Classes 3-8 are powered about 88.5% by diesel engines, and Class 2C at very roughly 83% diesel. The engine portion of the study therefore focused on diesels. Vehicle production volumes were used in estimates of the market size for candidate components.

  6. Size and morphology of heavy-duty vehicle particle emissions; Raskaan ajoneuvokannan hiukkaspaeaestoen koko ja morfologia - HD-PM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lappi, M.; Aakko, P.; Vesala, H.; Tapper, U. [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Ristimaeki, J.; Keskinen, J. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland); Amberla, A. [Finnkatalyt Oy, Tampere (Finland)

    2006-10-15

    Formation of particles from heavy duty diesel and CNG vehicles was studied in laboratory conditions. PM, nano and soot mode particle emissions formed from buses of Euro 2-5 -emission levels were studied in relation to age and type approval characteristics of the vehicle. Characteristic particle emission factors from city driving were obtained by driving the buses on VTT's heavy duty chassis dynamometer applying the transient Braunschweig city cycle. The vehicles were a representative set of Euro 2 to 3 emission categories, supplemented with Euro 4-5 (EEV) -targeted CRT, CNG and DPF cars. Particle number emissions from Euro 4 to 5 buses were 1/100-1/1000 and mass emissions 1/10-1/100 of those of the current fleet. Particle emission from natural gas buses and after an advanced CRT trap contained almost entirely liquid < 60 nm nano particles, which will make filter mass based PM control very challenging in the near future. One result was that gravimetric PM emission could be prognostigated from nano and soot particle numbers of ELPI measurements both from CVS tunnel and a partial flow sampling system. Morphological properties: shape, fractal dimension, structure plus particle size distributions of < 1 {mu}m diesel particles were studied from emissions of a Euro 2 type approved engine (ox cat or no cat) in a set of engine and dilution condition specific formation conditions. Representative particle size populations were analysed from SEM and ESEM electron microscopy images and individual particles or agglomerates from TEM images, as a function of particle size. A thermophoretic sampling system was developed to collect a non-size segregated EM sample from diluted exhaust. For distribution quantities and morphological characterization an image processing program was developed. It calculates equivalent area, eq. diameter, max. length and width and perimeter distributions for D{sub e} > 20 nm particle populations from SEM images, and size distribution of primary

  7. 40 CFR 86.099-10 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.099-10 Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-10 Section 86.099-10 Protection of...

  8. ac propulsion system for an electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geppert, S.

    1980-01-01

    It is pointed out that dc drives will be the logical choice for current production electric vehicles (EV). However, by the mid-80's, there is a good chance that the price and reliability of suitable high-power semiconductors will allow for a competitive ac system. The driving force behind the ac approach is the induction motor, which has specific advantages relative to a dc shunt or series traction motor. These advantages would be an important factor in the case of a vehicle for which low maintenance characteristics are of primary importance. A description of an EV ac propulsion system is provided, taking into account the logic controller, the inverter, the motor, and a two-speed transmission-differential-axle assembly. The main barrier to the employment of the considered propulsion system in EV is not any technical problem, but inverter transistor cost.

  9. The impact of replacing heavy passenger vehicles (LTVs and SUVs) in the British Columbia fleet with lighter versions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Peter J; Zheng, Yvonne; Andersen, Linda; Pellegrini, Nicole

    2009-10-01

    The study reported in this article addressed the potential safety impact of consumer movement toward smaller vehicle choices by examining the makeup of the full British Columbia (BC) vehicle fleet--from smaller cars to heavy commercial vehicles. The basic assumption made was that some operators of heavy light trucks/vans (LTVs) or sport utility vehicles (SUVs) would, in the short term, be induced to downsize to lighter vehicles of the same type. The 2000-2007 BC crash-claim data at the Insurance Corporation of British Columbia (ICBC) was used to create matrices of average information by culpable and nonculpable entities in two-vehicle collisions in 15 weight categories. Models for the effects of various driver/crash characteristics on injury potential were created and used to adjust the effect calculated solely on the basis of weight change. Levels of heavy LTV/SUV replacement from 0.05 to 0.95 of the current population were tested and the redistribution of vehicles was done in such a way that the relationship between small-large vehicle injury ratio and large-small vehicle mass ratio over the whole fleet remained constant as did the relative proportions of culpable and nonculpable involvements. The net effect of downsizing in the manner assumed for this study was mildly positive in terms of overall injury risk--that is, downsizing resulted in slightly fewer total injuries--but not in the case of fatalities, which tended to be increased by a more substantial margin. However, the results showed that even replacing substantial proportions of the heavy LTV/SUV population would not result in a large impact on safety. Replacing almost all the heavy LTV/SUVs with lighter versions should reduce injuries by less than 1 percent and increase fatalities by 3.5 percent percent. Nevertheless, in terms of persons impacted and the associated costs, the effects would be noticeable. The issue for policy-makers is to judge how the environmental benefits associated with encouraging

  10. Safety restraint systems in heavy truck rollover scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaats, P.M.A.; Coo, P.J.A. de

    2003-01-01

    Safety restraint systems have been widely applied in the passenger car industry. The heavy truck industry has followed along, integrating the seat belts in the seat system. The effectiveness of seat belts, in particular in rollover scenarios, was studied for a number of heavy truck rollover

  11. Design and Comparison of Power Systems for a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2008-01-01

    In a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle (FCHEV) the fuel cell stack is assisted by one or more energy storage devices. Thereby the system cost, mass, and volume can be decreased, and a significant better performance can be obtained. Two often used energy storage devices are the battery...... ultracapacitors are the only energy storage device the system becomes too big and heavy. A fuel cell/battery/ultracapacitor hybrid provides the longest life time of the batteries. If the fuel cell stack power is too small, the system will be big, heavy, and have a poor efficiency....

  12. The Analytical Review of the Condition of Heavy Class Military and Dual-Purpose Unmanned Ground Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blokhin Aleksandr

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is the evaluation of the actual condition of heavy (weight more than 700 kg military robotics and dual-purpose robotics in the world. The extensive review of the world market of heavy class military unmanned ground vehicle was made. All reviewed robots are used at present time or exist like prototypes. All robots were systematized by most important technical characteristics. In the closing of article the analysis of the reviewed heavy class dual purpose UGVs are presented. Based on the analysis the conclusion about actual condition of the heavy military robotics and dual-purpose robotics was made. Also the most promising ways and tendencies of development are representeds.

  13. Heavy-Duty Vehicle Port Drayage Drive Cycle Characterization and Development: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prohaska, Robert; Konan, Arnaud; Kelly, Kenneth; Lammert, Michael

    2016-08-01

    In an effort to better understand the operational requirements of port drayage vehicles and their potential for adoption of advanced technologies, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers collected over 36,000 miles of in-use duty cycle data from 30 Class 8 drayage trucks operating at the Port of Long Beach and Port of Los Angeles in Southern California. These data include 1-Hz global positioning system location and SAE J1939 high-speed controller area network information. Researchers processed the data through NREL's Drive-Cycle Rapid Investigation, Visualization, and Evaluation tool to examine vehicle kinematic and dynamic patterns across the spectrum of operations. Using the k-medoids clustering method, a repeatable and quantitative process for multi-mode drive cycle segmentation, the analysis led to the creation of multiple drive cycles representing four distinct modes of operation that can be used independently or in combination. These drive cycles are statistically representative of real-world operation of port drayage vehicles. When combined with modeling and simulation tools, these representative test cycles allow advanced vehicle or systems developers to efficiently and accurately evaluate vehicle technology performance requirements to reduce cost and development time while ultimately leading to the commercialization of advanced technologies that meet the performance requirements of the port drayage vocation. The drive cycles, which are suitable for chassis dynamometer testing, were compared to several existing test cycles. This paper presents the clustering methodology, accompanying results of the port drayage duty cycle analysis and custom drive cycle creation.

  14. Heavy-Duty Vehicle Port Drayage Drive Cycle Characterization and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prohaska, Robert; Konan, Arnaud; Kelly, Kenneth; Lammert, Michael

    2016-10-06

    In an effort to better understand the operational requirements of port drayage vehicles and their potential for adoption of advanced technologies, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers collected over 36,000 miles of in-use duty cycle data from 30 Class 8 drayage trucks operating at the Port of Long Beach and Port of Los Angeles in Southern California. These data include 1-Hz global positioning system location and SAE J1939 high-speed controller area network information. Researchers processed the data through NREL's Drive-Cycle Rapid Investigation, Visualization, and Evaluation tool to examine vehicle kinematic and dynamic patterns across the spectrum of operations. Using the k-medoids clustering method, a repeatable and quantitative process for multi-mode drive cycle segmentation, the analysis led to the creation of multiple drive cycles representing four distinct modes of operation that can be used independently or in combination. These drive cycles are statistically representative of real-world operation of port drayage vehicles. When combined with modeling and simulation tools, these representative test cycles allow advanced vehicle or systems developers to efficiently and accurately evaluate vehicle technology performance requirements to reduce cost and development time while ultimately leading to the commercialization of advanced technologies that meet the performance requirements of the port drayage vocation. The drive cycles, which are suitable for chassis dynamometer testing, were compared to several existing test cycles. This paper presents the clustering methodology, accompanying results of the port drayage duty cycle analysis and custom drive cycle creation.

  15. Heavy-Duty Vehicle Port Drayage Drive Cycle Characterization and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prohaska, Robert; Konan, Arnaud; Kelly, Kenneth; Lammert, Michael

    2016-05-02

    In an effort to better understand the operational requirements of port drayage vehicles and their potential for adoption of advanced technologies, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers collected over 36,000 miles of in-use duty cycle data from 30 Class 8 drayage trucks operating at the Port of Long Beach and Port of Los Angeles in Southern California. These data include 1-Hz global positioning system location and SAE J1939 high-speed controller area network information. Researchers processed the data through NREL's Drive-Cycle Rapid Investigation, Visualization, and Evaluation tool to examine vehicle kinematic and dynamic patterns across the spectrum of operations. Using the k-medoids clustering method, a repeatable and quantitative process for multi-mode drive cycle segmentation, the analysis led to the creation of multiple drive cycles representing four distinct modes of operation that can be used independently or in combination. These drive cycles are statistically representative of real-world operation of port drayage vehicles. When combined with modeling and simulation tools, these representative test cycles allow advanced vehicle or systems developers to efficiently and accurately evaluate vehicle technology performance requirements to reduce cost and development time while ultimately leading to the commercialization of advanced technologies that meet the performance requirements of the port drayage vocation. The drive cycles, which are suitable for chassis dynamometer testing, were compared to several existing test cycles. This paper presents the clustering methodology, accompanying results of the port drayage duty cycle analysis and custom drive cycle creation.

  16. Electrical Systems (Vehicles and Weapon Subsystems)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-06-20

    Wattmeter ±1% of full scale range Multichannel oscillograph Voltage and current to ±2% of and appropriate voltage recorded value dropping resistor...lights), and for mechanical power for components (motors for hydraulic systems, fans, gun controls). ’i L.,.......... The vehicles usually have two ...Voltage Tests. 5.1.1 Engine Starting Power. 5.1.1.1 Method . To determine starting power requirements, use a fully charged battery in prime condition. Turn

  17. Remote Vision Systems for Teleoperated Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-01

    Paperworkr Reductlo Proyect (0704-0188). Washingtont. DC 20503._____________________ I AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave bAW4V 2 REPORT DATE 3 REPORT TYPE AND DATES...of the sensory feedback to the operator." [2]. Based on NOSC’s experience with teleoperated vehicles and research in remote presence principles...effort. Lessons learned from this development, and from field tests of TOV vision systems, are presented in this paper. )UEe’ Figure 1. TOV Remote

  18. An Automatic Monitoring System for Vehicle Drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Selime Ozaktas; Feyza Galip; Ibrahim Furkan Ince; Md. Haidar Sharif

    2016-01-01

    — it is a key issue to prevent life and property from the accidents caused by vehicle drivers. Alcohol can, speed, drowsy driving, and sudden heart attack are the major reasons for road accidents, which can lead to severe physical injuries, deaths, and serious economic losses. Various methods have been proposed to detect automatically those causes to prevent accidents. We have addressed an automatic system to provide protection of drivers and travelers by dint of computer vision techniques al...

  19. An Automatic Monitoring System for Vehicle Drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Selime Ozaktas; Feyza Galip; Ibrahim Furkan Ince; Md. Haidar Sharif

    2016-01-01

    It is a key issue to prevent life and property from the accidents caused by vehicle drivers. Alcohol can, speed, drowsy driving, and sudden heart attack are the major reasons for road accidents, which can lead to severe physical injuries, deaths, and serious economic losses. Various methods have been proposed to detect automatically those causes to prevent accidents. We have addressed an automatic system to provide protection of drivers and travelers by dint of computer vision techniques alon...

  20. Lunar roving vehicle thermal control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, R. G.; Paoletti, C. J.; Britt, M. A.

    1972-01-01

    A thermal control system was incorporated into the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) to maintain temperature sensitive components within appropriate temperature limits during the translunar transportation phase, lunar surface operation, and quiescent periods between lunar traverses. This paper describes the thermal control system and discusses its thermal characteristics during all phases of operation. The basic concept is a passive system which stores internally generated energy during operation with subsequent radiation to space. The external environments are regulated by selected radiative surface finishes. Multi-layer insulation blankets, space radiators, flexible thermal straps, and fusible mass heat sinks were designed to control the temperatures of the electronic components.

  1. Electrical system for a motor vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamor, Michael Alan

    1999-01-01

    In one embodiment of the present invention, an electrical system for a motor vehicle comprises a capacitor, an engine cranking motor coupled to receive motive power from the capacitor, a storage battery and an electrical generator having an electrical power output, the output coupled to provide electrical energy to the capacitor and to the storage battery. The electrical system also includes a resistor which limits current flow from the battery to the engine cranking motor. The electrical system further includes a diode which allows current flow through the diode from the generator to the battery but which blocks current flow through the diode from the battery to the cranking motor.

  2. No increased systemic fibrinolysis in women with heavy menstrual bleeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiewel-Verschueren, S.; Knol, H. M.; Lisman, T.; Bogchelman, D. H.; Kluin-Nelemans, J. C.; van der Zee, A.G.J.; Mulder, A.B.; Meijer, K.

    BackgroundBleeding disorders have been recognized as important etiologic or contributory factors in women with heavy menstrual bleeding. Fibrinolysis in the endometrium plays a role in heavy menstrual bleeding. It is unknown whether increased systemic fibrinolysis might also increase the risk of

  3. Advanced hybrid vehicle propulsion system study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, R.

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented of a study of an advanced heat engine/electric automotive hybrid propulsion system. The system uses a rotary stratified charge engine and ac motor/controller in a parallel hybrid configuration. The three tasks of the study were (1) parametric studies involving five different vehicle types, (2) design trade-off studies to determine the influence of various vehicle and propulsion system paramaters on system performance fuel economy and cost, and (3) a conceptual design establishing feasibility at the selected approach. Energy consumption for the selected system was .034 1/km (61.3 mpg) for the heat engine and .221 kWh/km (.356 kWh/mi) for the electric power system over a modified J227 a schedule D driving cycle. Life cycle costs were 7.13 cents/km (11.5 cents/mi) at $2/gal gasoline and 7 cents/kWh electricity for 160,000 km (100,000 mi) life.

  4. Powertrain system for a hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Jr., Richard G.; Boberg, Evan S.; Lawrie, Robert E.; Castaing, Francois J.

    1999-08-31

    A hybrid electric powertrain system is provided including an electric motor/generator drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of a transmission. The electric is utilized for synchronizing the rotation of the drive shaft with the driven shaft during gear shift operations. In addition, a mild hybrid concept is provided which utilizes a smaller electric motor than typical hybrid powertrain systems. Because the electric motor is drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of the transmission, the electric motor/generator is driven at high speed even when the vehicle speed is low so that the electric motor/generator provides more efficient regeneration.

  5. Hybrid electric vehicle power management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissontz, Jay E.

    2015-08-25

    Level voltage levels/states of charge are maintained among a plurality of high voltage DC electrical storage devices/traction battery packs that are arrayed in series to support operation of a hybrid electric vehicle drive train. Each high voltage DC electrical storage device supports a high voltage power bus, to which at least one controllable load is connected, and at least a first lower voltage level electrical distribution system. The rate of power transfer from the high voltage DC electrical storage devices to the at least first lower voltage electrical distribution system is controlled by DC-DC converters.

  6. Combined braking system for hybrid vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulekina, A. V.; Bakholdin, P. A.; Shchurov, N. I.

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents an analysis of surface vehicle’s existing braking systems. The technical solution and brake-system design were developed for use of regenerative braking energy. A technical parameters comparison of energy storage devices of various types was made. Based on the comparative analysis, it was decided to use supercapacitor because of its applicability for an electric drive intermittent operation. The calculation methods of retarder key components were proposed. Therefrom, it was made a conclusion that rebuild gasoline-electric vehicles are more efficient than gasoline ones.

  7. Usability Analysis of Collision Avoidance System in Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Cho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional intelligent vehicles have performance limitations owing to the short road and obstacle detection range of the installed sensors. In this study, to overcome this limitation, we tested the usability of a new conceptual autonomous emergency braking (AEB system that employs vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V communication technology in the existing AEB system. To this end, a radar sensor and a driving and communication environment constituting the AEB system were simulated; the simulation was then linked by applying vehicle dynamics and control logic. The simulation results show that the collision avoidance relaxation rate of V2V communication-based AEB system was reduced compared with that of existing vehicle-mounted-sensor-based system. Thus, a method that can lower the collision risk of the existing AEB system, which uses only a sensor cluster installed on the vehicle, is realized.

  8. Digital Signal Processing for In-Vehicle Systems and Safety

    CERN Document Server

    Boyraz, Pinar; Takeda, Kazuya; Abut, Hüseyin

    2012-01-01

    Compiled from papers of the 4th Biennial Workshop on DSP (Digital Signal Processing) for In-Vehicle Systems and Safety this edited collection features world-class experts from diverse fields focusing on integrating smart in-vehicle systems with human factors to enhance safety in automobiles. Digital Signal Processing for In-Vehicle Systems and Safety presents new approaches on how to reduce driver inattention and prevent road accidents. The material addresses DSP technologies in adaptive automobiles, in-vehicle dialogue systems, human machine interfaces, video and audio processing, and in-vehicle speech systems. The volume also features: Recent advances in Smart-Car technology – vehicles that take into account and conform to the driver Driver-vehicle interfaces that take into account the driving task and cognitive load of the driver Best practices for In-Vehicle Corpus Development and distribution Information on multi-sensor analysis and fusion techniques for robust driver monitoring and driver recognition ...

  9. Evaluation of fuel consumption potential of medium and heavy duty vehicles through modeling and simulation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delorme, A.; Karbowski, D.; Sharer, P.; Energy Systems

    2010-03-31

    The main objective of this report is to provide quantitative data to support the Committee in its task of establishing a report to support rulemaking on medium- and heavy-duty fuel efficiency improvement. In particular, it is of paramount importance for the Committee to base or illustrate their conclusions on established models and actual state-of-the art data. The simulations studies presented in the report have been defined and requested by the members of the National Academy committee to provide quantitative inputs to support their recommendations. As such, various technologies and usage scenarios were considered for several applications. One of the objective is to provide the results along with their associated assumptions (both vehicle and drive cycles), information generally missing from public discussions on literature search. Finally, the advantages and limitations of using simulation will be summarized. The study addresses several of the committee tasks, including: (1) Discussion of the implication of metric selection; (2) Assessing the impact of existing technologies on fuel consumption through energy balance analysis (both steady-state and standard cycles) as well as real world drive cycles; and (3) Impact of future technologies, both individually and collectively.

  10. In-vehicle information system functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tufano, D.R.; Spelt, P.F.; Knee, H.E.

    1997-04-01

    This paper describes the functional requirement for an In-Vehicle Information System (IVIS), which will manage and display all driving-related information from many sources. There are numerous information systems currently being fielded or developed (e.g., routing and navigation, collision avoidance). However, without a logical integration of all of the possible on-board information, there is a potential for overwhelming the driver. The system described in this paper will filter and prioritize information across all sources, and present it to the driver in a timely manner, within a unified interface. To do this, IVIS will perform three general functions: (1) interact with other, on-board information subsystems and the vehicle; (2) manage the information by filtering, prioritizing, and integrating it; and (3) interact with the driver, both in terms of displaying information to the driver and allowing the driver to input requests, goals and preferences. The functional requirements described in this paper have either been derived from these three high-level functions or are directly mandated by the overriding requirements for modularity and flexibility. IVIS will have to be able to accommodate different types of information subsystems, of varying level of sophistication. The system will also have to meet the diverse needs of different types of drivers (private, commercial, transit), who may have very different levels of expertise in using information systems.

  11. System Architecture Design for Electric Vehicle (EV) Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2010-01-01

    The electric vehicle (EV) system should fulfill the energy needs of EVs to meet the EV users’ driving requirements and enable the system service from EVs to support the power system operation with high penetration of renewable energy resources (RES) by providing necessary infrastructures. In order...

  12. Research and Simulation of the Electrical Vehicle Based Dynamical System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko-Chun Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study developed a dynamic model of electric vehicle system by using the MATLAB/Simulink tool. The vehicle model comprises two system components: an electrical system and a suspension system. This study also designed various road conditions for simulating the motion of vehicle traveling along a road. The results show that the electrical and suspension system parameters can be adjusted immediately to enhance passenger comfort. The findings of this research have practical teaching applications. Students can modify the vehicle model parameters byes using the MATLAB graphical user interface, allowing them to observe the motion of vehicle under various road conditions.

  13. Composite armor, armor system and vehicle including armor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Henry S.; Jones, Warren F.; Lacy, Jeffrey M.; Thinnes, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    Composite armor panels are disclosed. Each panel comprises a plurality of functional layers comprising at least an outermost layer, an intermediate layer and a base layer. An armor system incorporating armor panels is also disclosed. Armor panels are mounted on carriages movably secured to adjacent rails of a rail system. Each panel may be moved on its associated rail and into partially overlapping relationship with another panel on an adjacent rail for protection against incoming ordnance from various directions. The rail system may be configured as at least a part of a ring, and be disposed about a hatch on a vehicle. Vehicles including an armor system are also disclosed.

  14. Proposed Rule for Modification of Federal On Board Diagnostic Regulations for: Light Duty Vehicles, Light Duty Trucks, Medium Duty Passenger Vehicles, Complete Heavy Duty Vehicles and Engines Intended for Use in Heavy Duty Vehicles Weighing 14,000 Pounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Following is information for the proposed rule for the Modification of Federal On Board Diagnostic Regulations for Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, etc. Includes links to Federal Register and final rule.

  15. Wireless Intra-vehicle Communication System (WICS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Invocon's Wireless Intra-vehicle Communication System (WICS) is being designed as an enabling technology for low-cost launch vehicles. It will reduce the cost of...

  16. DESIGN AND CONTROL OF FULL VEHICLE SUSPENSION SYSTEM

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ramë Likaj; Ahmet Shala

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with the design and control of vehicle suspension system for a full vehicle model with the aim to improve the ride comfort and to guarantee permanent contact between road and wheel...

  17. The Commercial Vehicle Information Systems and Network program, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    The Commercial Vehicle Information Systems and : Networks (CVISN) program supports that safety : mission by providing grant funds to States for: : Improving safety and productivity of motor : carriers, commercial motor vehicles : (CMVs), and thei...

  18. April 2002 Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag: Presentations and Summary of Comments and Conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salari, K; Dunn, T; Ortega, J; Yen-Nakafuji, D; Browand, F; Arcas, D; Jammache, M; Leoard, A; Chatelain, P; Rubel, M; Rutledge, W; McWherter-Payne, M; Roy, Ca; Ross, J; Satran, D; Heineck, J T; Storms, B; Pointer, D; Sofu, T; Weber, D; Chu, E; Hancock, P; Bundy, B; Englar, B

    2002-08-22

    A Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag was held at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on April 3 and 4, 2002. The purpose of the meeting was to present and discuss technical details on the experimental and computational work in progress and future project plans. Representatives from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Transportation Technology Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology (OHVT), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), NASA Ames Research Center, University of Southern California (USC), and California Institute of Technology (Caltech), Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Volvo Trucks, and Freightliner Trucks presented and participated in discussions. This report contains the technical presentations (viewgraphs) delivered at the Meeting, briefly summarizes the comments and conclusions, and outlines the future action items.

  19. Implementation of the vehicle recognition systems using wireless ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wireless network sensors and their use in traffic monitoring, traffic density determination or vehicle speed detection and classification have recently been the ... With the proposed logic algorithm, it was possible tocategorise the instantaneous traffic status of a road in four levels: no traffic, mild traffic, heavy traffic and very ...

  20. Smart mobile in-vehicle systems next generation advancements

    CERN Document Server

    Abut, Huseyin; Takeda, Kazuya; Hansen, John

    2014-01-01

    This is an edited collection by world-class experts, from diverse fields, focusing on integrating smart in-vehicle systems with human factors to enhance safety in automobiles. The book presents developments on road safety, in-vehicle technologies and state-of-the art systems. Includes coverage of DSP technologies in adaptive automobiles, algorithms and evaluation of in-car communication systems, driver-status monitoring and stress detection, in-vehicle dialogue systems and human-machine interfaces, challenges in video and audio processing for in-vehicle products, multi-sensor fusion for driver identification and vehicle to infrastructure wireless technologies.

  1. Vehicle System Management Modeling in UML for Ares I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Newton W.; Biehn, Bradley A.; Curry, Tristan D.; Martinez, Mario R.

    2011-01-01

    The Spacecraft & Vehicle Systems Department of Marshall Space Flight Center is responsible for modeling the Vehicle System Management for the Ares I vehicle which was a part of the now canceled Constellation Program. An approach to generating the requirements for the Vehicle System Management was to use the Unified Modeling Language technique to build and test a model that would fulfill the Vehicle System Management requirements. UML has been used on past projects (flight software) in the design phase of the effort but this was the first attempt to use the UML technique from a top down requirements perspective.

  2. Sample Management System for Heavy Ion Irradiation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A robotic sample management device and system for the exposure of biological and material specimens to heavy ion beams of the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL)...

  3. Vehicle-to-Grid Power in Danish Electric Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    The integration of renewable energy systems is often constrained by the variable nature of their output. This demands for the services of storing the electricity generated from most of the renewable energy sources. Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) power could use the inherent energy storage of electric...... vehicles and its quick response time to balance and stabilize a power system with fluctuating power. This paper outlines the use of battery electric vehicles in supporting large-scale integration of renewable energy in the Danish electric power systems. The reserve power requirements for a high renewable...... energy penetration could be met by an amount of V2G based electric vehicles less than 10% of the total vehicle need in Denmark. The participation of electric vehicle in ancillary services would earn significant revenues to the vehicle owner. The power balancing services of electric vehicles...

  4. Hybrid vehicle powertrain system with power take-off driven vehicle accessory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaty, Kevin D.; Bockelmann, Thomas R.; Zou, Zhanijang; Hope, Mark E.; Kang, Xiaosong; Carpenter, Jeffrey L.

    2006-09-12

    A hybrid vehicle powertrain system includes a first prime mover, a first prime mover driven power transmission mechanism having a power take-off adapted to drive a vehicle accessory, and a second prime mover. The second prime mover is operable to drive the power transmission mechanism alone or in combination with the first prime mover to provide power to the power take-off through the power transmission mechanism. The invention further includes methods for operating a hybrid vehicle powertrain system.

  5. An automated miniature robotic vehicle inspection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobie, Gordon; Summan, Rahul; MacLeod, Charles; Pierce, Gareth; Galbraith, Walter [Centre for Ultrasonic Engineering, University of Strathclyde, 204 George Street, Glasgow, G1 1XW (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-18

    A novel, autonomous reconfigurable robotic inspection system for quantitative NDE mapping is presented. The system consists of a fleet of wireless (802.11g) miniature robotic vehicles, each approximately 175 × 125 × 85 mm with magnetic wheels that enable them to inspect industrial structures such as storage tanks, chimneys and large diameter pipe work. The robots carry one of a number of payloads including a two channel MFL sensor, a 5 MHz dry coupled UT thickness wheel probe and a machine vision camera that images the surface. The system creates an NDE map of the structure overlaying results onto a 3D model in real time. The authors provide an overview of the robot design, data fusion algorithms (positioning and NDE) and visualization software.

  6. Synergistic Effects of Heavy Metals and Pesticides in Living Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitika Singh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a widespread repeated exposure of the population to the pesticides and heavy metals of occupational and environmental origin. Such population is forced to undergo continuous stress imposed by combined exposure of the heavy metals and different classes of the pesticides used in agricultural as well as health practices. The existing reports from several workers have indicated that heavy metals and pesticides in combination may lead more severe impact on the human health when compared to their individual effects. Such a combination of pesticides and heavy metals may also change or influence the detection of exposure. Several studies in past have shown the synergistic toxic effects of heavy metals and pesticides. Such evaluations have revealed the synergistic interactions of various heavy metals and pesticides in animals as well as humans. The aim of the present article is to provide a synthesis of existing knowledge on the synergistic effects of heavy metal and pesticides in living systems. The information included in this article may be useful for different environment protection agencies and policy makers to consider the combined effects of heavy metals and pesticides on humans while designing strategies toward environmental protection and safety regulations about human health.

  7. Impacts of Electric Vehicle Loads on Power Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) are the most promising alternative to replace a significant amount of gasoline vehicles to provide cleaner, CO2 free and climate friendly transportation. On integrating more electric vehicles, the electric utilities must analyse the related impacts on the electricity system...... operation. This paper investigates the effects on the key power distribution system parameters like voltages, line drops, system losses etc. by integrating electric vehicles in the range of 0-50% of the cars with different charging capacities. The dump as well as smart charging modes of electric vehicles...... is applied in this analysis. A typical Danish primary power distribution system is used as a test case for the studies. From the simulation results, not more than 10% of electric vehicles could be integrated in the test system for the dump charging mode. About 40% of electric vehicle loads could...

  8. The random field model of the spatial distribution of heavy vehicle loads on long-span bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhicheng; Bao, Yuequan; Li, Hui

    2016-04-01

    A stochastic model based on Markov random field is proposed to model the spatial distribution of vehicle loads on longspan bridges. The bridge deck is divided into a finite set of discrete grid cells, each cell has two states according to whether the cell is occupied by the heavy vehicle load or not, then a four-neighbor lattice-structured undirected graphical model with each node corresponding to a cell state variable is proposed to model the location distribution of heavy vehicle loads on the bridge deck. The node potential is defined to quantitatively describe the randomness of node state, and the edge potential is defined to quantitatively describe the correlation of the connected node pair. The junction tree algorithm is employed to obtain the systematic solutions of inference problems of the graphical model. A marked random variable is assigned to each node to represent the amplitude of the total weight of vehicle applied on the corresponding cell of the bridge deck. The rationality of the model is validated by a Monte Carlo simulation of a learned model based on monitored data of a cable-stayed bridge.

  9. Effectiveness of vehicle weight enforcement in a developing country using weigh-in-motion sorting system considering vehicle by-pass and enforcement capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Rehan Karim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle overloading has been identified as one of the major contributors to road pavement damage in Malaysia. In this study, the weigh-in-motion (WIM system has been used to function as a vehicle weight sorting tool to complement the exsiting static weigh bridge enforcement station. Data collected from the developed system is used to explore the effectiveness of using WIM system in terms of generating more accurate data for enforcement purposes and at the same time improving safety and reducing the number of vehicle weight violations on the roads. This study specifically focus on the effect of vehicle by-pass and static weigh station enforcement capability on the overall effectiveness of vehicle weight enforcement system in a developing country. Results from this study suggest that the WIM system will significantly enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of the current vehicle weight enforcement, thus generating substantial revenue that would greatly off-set the current road maintenance budget that comes from tax payers money. If there is substantial reduction in overloaded vehicles, the public will still gain through reduction in road maintenance budget, less accident risks involving heavy trucks, and lesser greenhouse gases (GHGs emissions.

  10. Aerodynamic Design of Heavy Vehicles Reporting Period January 15, 2004 through April 15, 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, A; Chatelain, P; Heineck, J; Browand, F; Mehta, R; Ortega, J; Salari, K; Storms, B; Brown, J; DeChant, L; Rubel, M; Ross, J; Hammache, M; Pointer, D; Roy, C; Hassan, B; Arcas, D; Hsu, T; Payne, J; Walker, S; Castellucci, P; McCallen, R

    2004-04-13

    Listed are summaries of the activities and accomplishments during this second-quarter reporting period for each of the consortium participants. The following are some highlights for this reporting period: (1) Experiments and computations guide conceptual designs for reduction of drag due to tractor-trailer gap flow (splitter plate), trailer underbody (wedges), and base drag (base-flap add-ons). (2) Steady and unsteady RANS simulations for the GTS geometry are being finalized for development of clear modeling guidelines with RANS. (3) Full geometry and tunnel simulations on the GCM geometry are underway. (4) CRADA with PACCAR is supporting computational parametric study to determine predictive need to include wind tunnel geometry as limits of computational domain. (5) Road and track test options are being investigated. All is ready for field testing of base-flaps at Crows Landing in California in collaboration with Partners in Advanced Transportation Highways (PATH). In addition, MAKA of Canada is providing the device and Wabash is providing a new trailer. (6) Apparatus to investigate tire splash and spray has been designed and is under construction. Michelin has offered tires with customized threads for this study. (7) Vortex methods have improved techniques for the treatment of vorticity near surfaces and spinning geometries like rotating tires. (8) Wind tunnel experiments on model rail cars demonstrate that empty coal cars exhibit substantial aerodynamic drag compared to full coal cars, indicating that significant fuel savings could be obtained by reducing the drag of empty coal cars. (9) Papers are being prepared for an exclusive conference session on the Heavy Vehicle DOE Aerodynamic Drag Project at the 34th AIAA Fluid Dynamics Conference in Portland, Oregon, June 28-July 1, 2004.

  11. MODAL ANALYSIS OF HEAVY VEHICLE TRUCK TRANSMISSION GEARBOX HOUSING MADE FROM DIFFERENT MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASHWANI KUMAR

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Heavy vehicle truck transmission gearbox housing is subjected to load fluctuations, harmonic excitation, gear meshing excitation, gear defects, varying speed and torque conditions. Transmission errors and internal excitations are the root cause of vibration and noise. The main objective of this research work is weight calculation and modal analysis of gearbox housing. For weight calculation four different materials have been selected, apart from weight calculation the material mechanical properties influence on natural frequency and mode shape of transmission gearbox housing was also simulated using modal analysis. Grey cast iron FG260, Grey cast iron HT200, structural steel and Al alloys are the four materials used for the weight calculation process. Zero displacement constraint based boundary condition was applied for simulation. FEA based numerical simulation method was used to find the natural frequency, mode shapes and weight calculation of housing. The FEA simulation results show that the natural frequency of all materials varies (1669-4655 Hz. In weight calculation the weight of Al alloys housing is minimum (21.102 kg.The housing weight of Grey cast iron HT200 and FG260 is same, 54.85 kg. The density of structural steel is high, which increases the weight of housing as 59.80 kg. The modal analysis results show the lateral vibration, axial bending vibration, torsional vibration, and axial bending with torsional vibration. The vibration signature patterns for first twenty modes were studied for four different materials. Solid Edge and Pro-E software have good feature suited for complex geometric modeling. FEA based software Ansys 14.5 is used for modal analysis. The result of this research work has been verified with experimental result available in literature.

  12. Intelligent Control of Vehicle-Based Internal Transport Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Le-Anh (Tuan)

    2005-01-01

    textabstract“Intelligent control of vehicle-based internal transport (VBIT) systems” copes with real-time dispatching and scheduling of internal-transport vehicles, such as forklifts and guided vehicles. VBIT systems can be found in warehouses, distribution centers, manufacturing plants, airport and

  13. Contributions of vehicle inspection operations to traffic system in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The general view about the routine vehicle inspection operations is to ensure that vehicles are road worthy and meet safety requirements. This is done to enhance safe and clean transport within urban centres since the nature and condition of vehicles on roads can be associated with the efficiency of traffic system.

  14. Vehicle health management for guidance, navigation and control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radke, Kathleen; Frazzini, Ron; Bursch, Paul; Wald, Jerry; Brown, Don

    The objective of the program was to architect a vehicle health management (VHM) system for space systems avionics that assures system readiness for launch vehicles and for space-based dormant vehicles. The platforms which were studied and considered for application of VHM for guidance, navigation and control (GN&C) included the Advanced Manned Launch System (AMLS), the Horizontal Landing-20/Personnel Launch System (HL-20/PLS), the Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) and the Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO). This set was selected because dormancy and/or availability requirements are driving the designs of these future systems.

  15. Parallel Hybrid Vehicle Optimal Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Aaron P.

    2009-01-01

    A paper reports the results of a Hybrid Diesel Vehicle Project focused on a parallel hybrid configuration suitable for diesel-powered, medium-sized, commercial vehicles commonly used for parcel delivery and shuttle buses, as the missions of these types of vehicles require frequent stops. During these stops, electric hybridization can effectively recover the vehicle's kinetic energy during the deceleration, store it onboard, and then use that energy to assist in the subsequent acceleration.

  16. Configuration and Design of Checkout System for Reusable Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraleedharan, A.; Mohanan Chettiar, V.; Shyamkumar, U.; Vivekanand, V.; Sandeep, C. R.; Kishorenath, V.

    2017-11-01

    The structure and concept of the reusable launch vehicle (RLV) is different from conventional satellite launch vehicles including its avionic systems architecture, which introduces new concept for power distribution and closed loop control response timings. This work describes about the systems involved in the testing of this new concept launch vehicle. The work also describes about the new avionic systems powering scheme introduced and new measurement system adopted.

  17. Hypersonic Vehicle Propulsion System Simplified Model Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stueber, Thomas J.; Raitano, Paul; Le, Dzu K.; Ouzts, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This document addresses the modeling task plan for the hypersonic GN&C GRC team members. The overall propulsion system modeling task plan is a multi-step process and the task plan identified in this document addresses the first steps (short term modeling goals). The procedures and tools produced from this effort will be useful for creating simplified dynamic models applicable to a hypersonic vehicle propulsion system. The document continues with the GRC short term modeling goal. Next, a general description of the desired simplified model is presented along with simulations that are available to varying degrees. The simulations may be available in electronic form (FORTRAN, CFD, MatLab,...) or in paper form in published documents. Finally, roadmaps outlining possible avenues towards realizing simplified model are presented.

  18. September 2002 Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag: Presentations and Summary of Comments and Conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCallen, R

    2002-09-01

    report. Sid Diamond of DOE discussed the reorganization of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and that the Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology is now part of the Office of FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies. Sid reviewed the FY03 budget and provided information on some plans for FY04. The soon to be posted DOE request for proposals from industry for projects related to parasitic energy losses was discussed. A minimum of 50% cost share by industry will be required and the proposal must be submitted by industry. Collaborative efforts in aerodynamic drag with members of the DOE consortium are encouraged. Sid also mentioned interest in aerodynamic drag contribution due to wheel wells and underbody flow. Sid also mentioned his continued interest in the application of our computational and experimental expertise to the area of locomotive and railcar aerodynamics for the reduction of drag effects and thus, the reduction of fuel consumption by trains. In summary, the technical presentations at the meeting included a review of experimental results and plans by GTRI, USC, and NASA Ames, the computational results from LLNL and SNL for the integrated tractor-trailer benchmark geometry called the Ground Transportation System (GTS) model, and by LLNL for the tractor-trailer gap and trailer wake flow, and turbulence model development and benchmark simulations being investigated by Caltech. USC is also investigating an acoustic drag reduction device that has been named ''Mozart'', GTRI continues their investigation of a blowing device, and LLNL presented their ideas for 2 new base drag reduction devices. ANL presented their plans for a DOE supported Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with Paccar Truck Company utilizing commercial software tools to simulate the flow and drag for an actual tractor and showed the results of some preliminary griding attempts. The attendees also had the opportunity to tour the 12-ft pressure wind tunnel

  19. Integrated Propulsion/Vehicle System Structurally Optimized

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, James E.; McCurdy, David R.

    2003-01-01

    Ongoing research and testing are essential in the development of air-breathing hypersonic propulsion technology, and this year some positive advancement was made at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Recent work performed for GTX, a rocket-based combined-cycle, single-stage-to-orbit concept, included structural assessments of both the engine and flight vehicle. In the development of air-breathing engine technology, it is impractical to design and optimize components apart from the fully integrated system because tradeoffs must be made between performance and structural capability. Efforts were made to control the flight trajectory, for example, to minimize the aerodynamic heating effects. Structural optimization was applied to evaluate concept feasibility and was instrumental in the determination of the gross liftoff weight of the integrated system. Achieving low Earth orbit with even a small payload requires an aggressive approach to weight minimization through the use of lightweight, oxidation-resistant composite materials. Assessing the integrated system involved investigating the flight trajectory to determine where the critical load events occur in flight and then generating the corresponding environment at each of these events. Structural evaluation requires the mapping of the critical flight loads to finite element models, including the combined effects of aerodynamic, inertial, combustion, and other loads. NASA s APAS code was used to generate aerodynamic pressure and temperature profiles at each critical event. The radiation equilibrium surface temperatures from APAS were used to predict temperatures through the thickness. Heat transfer solutions using NASA's MINIVER code and the SINDA code (Cullimore & Ring Technologies, Littleton, CO) were calculated at selective points external to the integrated vehicle system and then extrapolated over the entire exposed surface. FORTRAN codes were written to expedite the finite element mapping of the aerodynamic heating

  20. Control of AWD System for Vehicle Performance and Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hojin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AWD (All-Wheel Drive system transfers drive force to all wheels so that it can help vehicle escape low mu surface or climb hill more conveniently. Recently, AWD system for on road vehicle has become popular to improve vehicle driving performance. However, there has not been enough research of applying AWD system for vehicle stability especially for lateral movement. Compared with ESC (Electronic Stability Control, AWD system does not cause any inconveniences to the driver because it controls vehicle only by distributing front and rear drive torque, without using brake. By allowing slipping/locking of wet clutch inside the transfer case, AWD system can distribute different amount of torque between front and rear axle. This paper introduces modelling of AWD system and suggests the control of AWD system based on peak slip ratio and slip angle at which tyre saturates. Carsim based vehicle simulation results of AWD controller is presented.

  1. 78 FR 36369 - Heavy-Duty Engine and Vehicle, and Nonroad Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... Industry 541514 Commercial Importers of 811112 Vehicles and Vehicle 811198 Components. Industry 336111... data and to identify which manufacturers have a credit surplus or deficit for the given model year...

  2. Vehicle Signal Analysis Using Artificial Neural Networks for a Bridge Weigh-in-Motion System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungkon; Lee, Jungwhee; Park, Min-Seok; Jo, Byung-Wan

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the procedures for development of signal analysis algorithms using artificial neural networks for Bridge Weigh-in-Motion (B-WIM) systems. Through the analysis procedure, the extraction of information concerning heavy traffic vehicles such as weight, speed, and number of axles from the time domain strain data of the B-WIM system was attempted. As one of the several possible pattern recognition techniques, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was employed since it could effectively include dynamic effects and bridge-vehicle interactions. A number of vehicle traveling experiments with sufficient load cases were executed on two different types of bridges, a simply supported pre-stressed concrete girder bridge and a cable-stayed bridge. Different types of WIM systems such as high-speed WIM or low-speed WIM were also utilized during the experiments for cross-checking and to validate the performance of the developed algorithms.

  3. Vehicle Signal Analysis Using Artificial Neural Networks for a Bridge Weigh-in-Motion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Seok Park

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the procedures for development of signal analysis algorithms using artificial neural networks for Bridge Weigh-in-Motion (B-WIM systems. Through the analysis procedure, the extraction of information concerning heavy traffic vehicles such as weight, speed, and number of axles from the time domain strain data of the B-WIM system was attempted. As one of the several possible pattern recognition techniques, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN was employed since it could effectively include dynamic effects and bridge-vehicle interactions. A number of vehicle traveling experiments with sufficient load cases were executed on two different types of bridges, a simply supported pre-stressed concrete girder bridge and a cable-stayed bridge. Different types of WIM systems such as high-speed WIM or low-speed WIM were also utilized during the experiments for cross-checking and to validate the performance of the developed algorithms.

  4. 40 CFR 86.005-10 - Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.005-10 Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty... and later model year Otto-cycle HDEs, except for Otto-cycle HDEs subject to the alternative standards... alternative exhaust emission standards in this paragraph (f)(2) shall apply to new 2004 through 2007 model...

  5. Performance evaluation and design of flight vehicle control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Falangas, Eric T

    2015-01-01

    This book will help students, control engineers and flight dynamics analysts to model and conduct sophisticated and systemic analyses of early flight vehicle designs controlled with multiple types of effectors and to design and evaluate new vehicle concepts in terms of satisfying mission and performance goals. Performance Evaluation and Design of Flight Vehicle Control Systems begins by creating a dynamic model of a generic flight vehicle that includes a range of elements from airplanes and launch vehicles to re-entry vehicles and spacecraft. The models may include dynamic effects dealing with structural flexibility, as well as dynamic coupling between structures and actuators, propellant sloshing, and aeroelasticity, and they are typically used for control analysis and design. The book shows how to efficiently combine different types of effectors together, such as aero-surfaces, TVC, throttling engines and RCS, to operate as a system by developing a mixing logic atrix. Methods of trimming a vehicle controll...

  6. Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Magnetic Mapping System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigerwalt, R.; Johnson, R. M.; Trembanis, A. C.; Schmidt, V. E.; Tait, G.

    2012-12-01

    An Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) Magnetic Mapping (MM) System has been developed and tested for military munitions detection as well as pipeline locating, wreck searches, and geologic surveys in underwater environments. The system is comprised of a high sensitivity Geometrics G-880AUV cesium vapor magnetometer integrated with a Teledyne-Gavia AUV and associated Doppler enabled inertial navigation further utilizing traditional acoustic bathymetric and side scan imaging. All onboard sensors and associated electronics are managed through customized crew members to autonomously operate through the vehicles primary control module. Total field magnetic measurements are recorded with asynchronous time-stamped data logs which include position, altitude, heading, pitch, roll, and electrical current usage. Pre-planned mission information can be uploaded to the system operators to define data collection metrics including speed, height above seafloor, and lane or transect spacing specifically designed to meet data quality objectives for the survey. As a result of the AUVs modular design, autonomous navigation and rapid deployment capabilities, the AUV MM System provides cost savings over current surface vessel surveys by reducing the mobilization/demobilization effort, thus requiring less manpower for operation and reducing or eliminating the need for a surface support vessel altogether. When the system completes its mission, data can be remotely downloaded via W-LAN and exported for use in advanced signal processing platforms. Magnetic compensation software has been concurrently developed to accept electrical current measurements directly from the AUV to address distortions from permanent and induced magnetization effects on the magnetometer. Maneuver and electrical current compensation terms can be extracted from the magnetic survey missions to perform automated post-process corrections. Considerable suppression of system noise has been observed over traditional

  7. NASA Exploration Launch Projects Overview: The Crew Launch Vehicle and the Cargo Launch Vehicle Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoddy, Jimmy R.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.; Cook, Stephen A.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Vision for Space Exploration (January 2004) serves as the foundation for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) strategic goals and objectives. As the NASA Administrator outlined during his confirmation hearing in April 2005, these include: 1) Flying the Space Shuttle as safely as possible until its retirement, not later than 2010. 2) Bringing a new Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) into service as soon as possible after Shuttle retirement. 3) Developing a balanced overall program of science, exploration, and aeronautics at NASA, consistent with the redirection of the human space flight program to focus on exploration. 4) Completing the International Space Station (ISS) in a manner consistent with international partner commitments and the needs of human exploration. 5) Encouraging the pursuit of appropriate partnerships with the emerging commercial space sector. 6) Establishing a lunar return program having the maximum possible utility for later missions to Mars and other destinations. In spring 2005, the Agency commissioned a team of aerospace subject matter experts to perform the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS). The ESAS team performed in-depth evaluations of a number of space transportation architectures and provided recommendations based on their findings? The ESAS analysis focused on a human-rated Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) for astronaut transport and a heavy lift Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) to carry equipment, materials, and supplies for lunar missions and, later, the first human journeys to Mars. After several months of intense study utilizing safety and reliability, technical performance, budget, and schedule figures of merit in relation to design reference missions, the ESAS design options were unveiled in summer 2005. As part of NASA's systems engineering approach, these point of departure architectures have been refined through trade studies during the ongoing design phase leading to the development phase that

  8. 40 CFR 86.099-11 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards for 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-11 Section 86.099-11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES...

  9. Influence of methane emissions and vehicle efficiency on the climate implications of heavy-duty natural gas trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camuzeaux, Jonathan R; Alvarez, Ramón A; Brooks, Susanne A; Browne, Joshua B; Sterner, Thomas

    2015-06-02

    While natural gas produces lower carbon dioxide emissions than diesel during combustion, if enough methane is emitted across the fuel cycle, then switching a heavy-duty truck fleet from diesel to natural gas can produce net climate damages (more radiative forcing) for decades. Using the Technology Warming Potential methodology, we assess the climate implications of a diesel to natural gas switch in heavy-duty trucks. We consider spark ignition (SI) and high-pressure direct injection (HPDI) natural gas engines and compressed and liquefied natural gas. Given uncertainty surrounding several key assumptions and the potential for technology to evolve, results are evaluated for a range of inputs for well-to-pump natural gas loss rates, vehicle efficiency, and pump-to-wheels (in-use) methane emissions. Using reference case assumptions reflecting currently available data, we find that converting heavy-duty truck fleets leads to damages to the climate for several decades: around 70-90 years for the SI cases, and 50 years for the more efficient HPDI. Our range of results indicates that these fuel switches have the potential to produce climate benefits on all time frames, but combinations of significant well-to-wheels methane emissions reductions and natural gas vehicle efficiency improvements would be required.

  10. Computational Modeling of Flow Control Systems for Aerospace Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Clear Science Corp. proposes to develop computational methods for designing active flow control systems on aerospace vehicles with the primary objective of...

  11. Development and Demonstration of a Low Cost Hybrid Drive Train for Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strangas, Elias; Schock, Harold; Zhu, Guoming; Moran, Kevin; Ruckle, Trevor; Foster, Shanelle; Cintron-Rivera, Jorge; Tariq, Abdul; Nino-Baron, Carlos

    2011-04-30

    The DOE sponsored effort is part of a larger effort to quantify the efficiency of hybrid powertrain systems through testing and modeling. The focus of the DOE sponsored activity was the design, development and testing of hardware to evaluate the efficiency of the electrical motors relevant to medium duty vehicles. Medium duty hybrid powertrain motors and generators were designed, fabricated, setup and tested. The motors were a permanent magnet configuration, constructed at Electric Apparatus Corporation in Howell, Michigan. The purpose of this was to identify the potential gains in terms of fuel cost savings that could be realized by implementation of such a configuration. As the electric motors constructed were prototype designs, the scope of the project did not include calculation of the costs of mass production of the subject electrical motors or generator.

  12. Vehicle Safety Enhancement System: Sensing and Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Huihuan Qian; Yongquan Chen; Yuandong Sun; Niansheng Liu; Ning Ding; Yangsheng Xu; Guoqing Xu; Yunjian Tang; Jingyu Yan

    2013-01-01

    With the substantial increase of vehicles on road, driving safety and transportation efficiency have become increasingly concerned focus from drivers, passengers, and governments. Wireless networks constructed by vehicles and infrastructures provide abundant information to share for the sake of both enhanced safety and network efficiency. This paper presents the systematic research to enhance the vehicle safety by wireless communication, in the aspects of information acquisition through vehic...

  13. No increased systemic fibrinolysis in women with heavy menstrual bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiewel-Verschueren, S; Knol, H M; Lisman, T; Bogchelman, D H; Kluin-Nelemans, J C; van der Zee, A G J; Mulder, A B; Meijer, K

    2014-09-01

    Bleeding disorders have been recognized as important etiologic or contributory factors in women with heavy menstrual bleeding. Fibrinolysis in the endometrium plays a role in heavy menstrual bleeding. It is unknown whether increased systemic fibrinolysis might also increase the risk of heavy menstrual bleeding. To investigate fibrinolytic parameters, including clot lysis time, in women with heavy menstrual bleeding. We included 102 patients referred for heavy menstrual bleeding (Pictorial Bleeding Assessment Chart score of > 100) in our cohort. Patients and controls (28 healthy volunteers without heavy menstrual bleeding) underwent hemostatic testing in the first week after menstruation. For 79 patients and all controls, fibrinolytic parameters (thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor activity, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, tissue-type plasminogen activator and plasmin inhibitor levels) and clot lysis time were available. Fibrinolytic parameters were similar between patients and controls, except for thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (89.4% vs. 82.5%) and plasmin inhibitor (106% vs. 96%), the levels of which which were significantly higher in patients. In women with menorrhagia without gynecologic abnormalities, we found lower thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels than in women with gynecologic abnormalities (thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor, 85.4% vs. 94.8%; plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, 16.0 μg L(-1) vs. 24.5 μg L(-1) ). Systemic fibrinolytic capacity is not increased in women with heavy menstrual bleeding. Overall, levels of the fibrinolytic inhibitors thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor and plasmin inhibitor were even higher in patients than in controls. However, in a subgroup of women without gynecologic abnormalities, relatively lower levels of inhibitors may contribute to the heavy menstrual bleeding. © 2014 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  14. Dropsonde System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are assuming more numerous and increasingly important roles in global environmental and atmospheric research. There is a...

  15. Systems and methods for vehicle speed management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sujan, Vivek Anand; Vajapeyazula, Phani; Follen, Kenneth; Wu, An; Forst, Howard Robert

    2016-03-01

    Controlling a speed of a vehicle based on at least a portion of a route grade and a route distance divided into a plurality of route sections, each including at least one of a section grade and section length. Controlling the speed of the vehicle is further based on determining a cruise control speed mode for the vehicle for each of the plurality of route sections and determining a speed reference command of the vehicle based on at least one of the cruise control speed mode, the section length, the section grade, and a current speed.

  16. 78 FR 49963 - Heavy-Duty Engine and Vehicle and Nonroad Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... weighted average of the city (55%) and highway (45%) test cycle results. Note that this differs from the... and one principal NHTSA provision. The EPA provisions are: (1) Test requirements for heavy-duty... optional chassis certification for heavy-duty fuel efficiency requirements in 49 CFR 535.5(a)(6). We stated...

  17. Safety problems in vehicles with adaptive cruise control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav Arun K.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world automotive industries are still putting efforts towards more autonomous vehicles (AVs. The main concern of introducing the autonomous technology is safety of driver. According to a survey 90% of accidents happen due to mistake of driver. The adaptive cruise control system (ACC is a system which combines cruise control with a collision avoidance system. The ACC system is based on laser and radar technologies. This system is capable of controlling the velocity of vehicle automatically to match the velocity of car, bus or truck in front of vehicle. If the lead vehicle gets slow down or accelerate, than ACC system automatically matches that velocity. The proposed paper is focusing on more accurate methods of detecting the preceding vehicle by using a radar and lidar sensors by considering the vehicle side slip and by controlling the distance between two vehicles. By using this approach i.e. logic for calculation of former vehicle distance and controlling the throttle valve of ACC equipped vehicle, an improvement in driving stability was achieved. The own contribution results with fuel efficient driving and with more safer and reliable driving system, but still some improvements are going on to make it more safe and reliable.

  18. Remotely Accessed Vehicle Traffic Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alawi, Raida

    2010-06-01

    The ever increasing number of vehicles in most metropolitan cities around the world and the limitation in altering the transportation infrastructure, led to serious traffic congestion and an increase in the travelling time. In this work we exploit the emergence of novel technologies such as the internet, to design an intelligent Traffic Management System (TMS) that can remotely monitor and control a network of traffic light controllers located at different sites. The system is based on utilizing Embedded Web Servers (EWS) technology to design a web-based TMS. The EWS located at each intersection uses IP technology for communicating remotely with a Central Traffic Management Unit (CTMU) located at the traffic department authority. Friendly GUI software installed at the CTMU will be able to monitor the sequence of operation of the traffic lights and the presence of traffic at each intersection as well as remotely controlling the operation of the signals. The system has been validated by constructing a prototype that resembles the real application.

  19. Non-Tactical Vehicle Replacement for the Department of the Navy’s Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    descriptions provided by the region for use in their mater inventory spreadsheets. The categories and example images for reference are as follows: 20 a...the Alternative Fuel Data Center (www.afdc.energy.gov) and Transportation Energy Data Book , Edition 31. Average Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT – annual...correlation coefficient of 0.87. Table 18. LDV Purchase Price Data. Adapted from U.S. Department of Energy (n.d.a). Brand Weight Cost 2016 Smart

  20. Design of vehicle overload detection system based on geophone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Siquan; Kong, Min; She, Chundong

    2017-08-01

    A vehicle overload detection system is proposed based on geophone. Under normal circumstances, when overloaded vehicles and ordinary vehicles pass through the road, the amplitude of the ground vibration will be different, and the geophone sensor can detect tiny vibrations of the ground. The system includes information acquisition module, signal conditioning module and wireless transmission module. The collected vibration data is transmitted through the wireless transmission module to the background, and the SVM algorithm is used to classify the information and determine whether the vehicle is overloaded. Experiments show that the system can detect overload accurately.

  1. Design of a digital adaptive control system for reentry vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picon-Jimenez, J. L.; Montgomery, R. C.; Grigsby, L. L.

    1972-01-01

    The flying qualities of atmospheric reentry vehicles experience considerable variations due to the wide changes in flight conditions characteristic of reentry trajectories. A digital adaptive control system has been designed to modify the vehicle's dynamic characteristics and to provide desired flying qualities for all flight conditions. This adaptive control system consists of a finite-memory identifier which determines the vehicle's unknown parameters, and a gain computer which calculates feedback gains to satisfy flying quality requirements.

  2. Investigation of the transient nature of rolling resistance on an operating Heavy Duty Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, Petter

    2014-01-01

    An operating vehicle requires energy to oppose the subjected driving resistances. This energy is supplied via the fuel combustion in the engine. Decreasing the opposing driving resistances for an operating vehicle increases its fuel efficiency: an effect which is highly valued in today’s industry, both from an environmental and economical point of view. Therefore a lot of progress has been made during recent years in the area of fuel efficient vehicles, even though some driving resistances st...

  3. Lane-Level Vehicle Trajectory Reckoning for Cooperative Vehicle-Infrastructure System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinsong Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a lane-level positioning method by trajectory reckoning without Global Positioning System (GPS equipment in the environment of Cooperative Vehicle-Infrastructure System (CVIS. Firstly, the accuracy requirements of vehicle position in CVIS applications and the applicability of GPS positioning methods were analyzed. Then, a trajectory reckoning method based on speed and steering data from vehicle’s Control Area Network (CAN and roadside calibration facilities was proposed, which consists of three critical models, including real-time estimation of steering angle and vehicle direction, vehicle movement reckoning, and wireless calibration. Finally, the proposed method was validated through simulation and field tests under a variety of traffic conditions. Results show that the accuracy of the reckoned vehicle position can reach the lane level and match the requirements of common CVIS applications.

  4. Design of Launch Vehicle Flight Control Systems Using Ascent Vehicle Stability Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jiann-Woei; Alaniz, Abran; Hall, Robert; Bedossian, Nazareth; Hall, Charles; Jackson, Mark

    2011-01-01

    A launch vehicle represents a complicated flex-body structural environment for flight control system design. The Ascent-vehicle Stability Analysis Tool (ASAT) is developed to address the complicity in design and analysis of a launch vehicle. The design objective for the flight control system of a launch vehicle is to best follow guidance commands while robustly maintaining system stability. A constrained optimization approach takes the advantage of modern computational control techniques to simultaneously design multiple control systems in compliance with required design specs. "Tower Clearance" and "Load Relief" designs have been achieved for liftoff and max dynamic pressure flight regions, respectively, in the presence of large wind disturbances. The robustness of the flight control system designs has been verified in the frequency domain Monte Carlo analysis using ASAT.

  5. Electric vehicle regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cikanek, Susan R.

    1995-01-01

    An antiskid braking and traction control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle having a regenerative braking system operatively connected to an electric traction motor, and a separate hydraulic braking system includes one or more sensors for monitoring present vehicle parameters and a processor, responsive to the sensors, for calculating vehicle parameters defining the vehicle behavior not directly measurable by the sensors and determining if regenerative antiskid braking control, requiring hydrualic braking control, or requiring traction control are required. The processor then employs a control strategy based on the determined vehicle state and provides command signals to a motor controller to control the operation of the electric traction motor and to a brake controller to control fluid pressure applied at each vehicle wheel to provide the appropriate regenerative antiskid braking control, hydraulic braking control, and traction control.

  6. Systems Analysis and Structural Design of an Unpressurized Cargo Delivery Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, K. Chauncey; Cruz, Jonathan N.; Antol, Jeffrey; Sasamoto, Washito A.

    2007-01-01

    The International Space Station will require a continuous supply of replacement parts for ongoing maintenance and repair after the planned retirement of the Space Shuttle in 2010. These parts are existing line-replaceable items collectively called Orbital Replacement Units, and include heavy and oversized items such as Control Moment Gyroscopes and stowed radiator arrays originally intended for delivery aboard the Space Shuttle. Current resupply spacecraft have limited to no capability to deliver these external logistics. In support of NASA's Exploration Systems Architecture Study, a team at Langley Research Center designed an Unpressurized Cargo Delivery Vehicle to deliver bulk cargo to the Space Station. The Unpressurized Cargo Delivery Vehicle was required to deliver at least 13,200 lbs of cargo mounted on at least 18 Flight Releasable Attachment Mechanisms. The Crew Launch Vehicle design recommended in the Exploration Systems Architecture Study would be used to launch one annual resupply flight to the International Space Station. The baseline vehicle design developed here has a cargo capacity of 16,000 lbs mounted on up to 20 Flight Releasable Attachment Mechanisms. Major vehicle components are a 5.5m-diameter cargo module containing two detachable cargo pallets with the payload, a Service Module to provide propulsion and power, and an aerodynamic nose cone. To reduce cost and risk, the Service Module is identical to the one used for the Crew Exploration Vehicle design.

  7. Evaluation of aftermarket fuel delivery systems for natural gas and LPG vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willson, B. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States))

    1992-09-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of aftermarket fuel delivery systems for vehicles fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Most of the CNG and LPG vehicles studied were converted to the alternative fuel after purchase. There are wide variations in the quality of the conversion hardware and the installation. This leads to questions about the overall quality of the converted vehicles, in terms of emissions, safety, and performance. There is a considerable body of emissions data for converted light-duty vehicles, and a smaller amount for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles. However, very few of these data involve real world conditions, and there is growing concern about in-use emissions. This report also attempts to assess factors that could allow in-use emissions to vary from the best-case'' results normally reported. The study also addresses issues of fuel supply, fuel composition, performance, safety, and warranty waivers. The report is based on an extensive literature and product survey and on the author's experience with fuel delivery systems for light-duty vehicles.

  8. Evaluation of aftermarket fuel delivery systems for natural gas and LPG vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willson, B. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1992-09-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of aftermarket fuel delivery systems for vehicles fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Most of the CNG and LPG vehicles studied were converted to the alternative fuel after purchase. There are wide variations in the quality of the conversion hardware and the installation. This leads to questions about the overall quality of the converted vehicles, in terms of emissions, safety, and performance. There is a considerable body of emissions data for converted light-duty vehicles, and a smaller amount for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles. However, very few of these data involve real world conditions, and there is growing concern about in-use emissions. This report also attempts to assess factors that could allow in-use emissions to vary from the ``best-case`` results normally reported. The study also addresses issues of fuel supply, fuel composition, performance, safety, and warranty waivers. The report is based on an extensive literature and product survey and on the author`s experience with fuel delivery systems for light-duty vehicles.

  9. May 2003 Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag: Presentations and Summary of Comments and Conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCallen, R; Salari, K; Ortega, J; Browand, F; Hammache, M; Hsu, T Y; Arcas, D; Leoard, A; Chatelain, P; Rubel, M; Roy, C; DeChant, L; Hassan, B; Ross, J; Satran, D; Walker, S; Heineck, J T; Englar, R; Pointer, D; Sofu, T

    2003-05-01

    A Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag was held at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on May 29-30, 2003. The purpose of the meeting was to present and discuss suggested guidance and direction for the design of drag reduction devices determined from experimental and computational studies. Representatives from the Department of Energy (DOE)/Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy/Office of FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), NASA Ames Research Center (NASA), University of Southern California (USC), California Institute of Technology (Caltech), Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Clarkson University, and PACCAR participated in the meeting. This report contains the technical presentations (viewgraphs) delivered at the Meeting, briefly summarizes the comments and conclusions, provides some highlighted items, and outlines the future action items.

  10. Comparison of life cycle greenhouse gases from natural gas pathways for medium and heavy-duty vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Fan; Jaramillo, Paulina; Azevedo, Inês M L

    2015-06-16

    The low-cost and abundant supply of shale gas in the United States has increased the interest in using natural gas for transportation. We compare the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from different natural gas pathways for medium and heavy-duty vehicles (MHDVs). For Class 8 tractor-trailers and refuse trucks, none of the natural gas pathways provide emissions reductions per unit of freight-distance moved compared to diesel trucks. When compared to the petroleum-based fuels currently used in these vehicles, CNG and centrally produced LNG increase emissions by 0-3% and 2-13%, respectively, for Class 8 trucks. Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) powered with natural gas-produced electricity are the only fuel-technology combination that achieves emission reductions for Class 8 transit buses (31% reduction compared to the petroleum-fueled vehicles). For non-Class 8 trucks (pick-up trucks, parcel delivery trucks, and box trucks), BEVs reduce emissions significantly (31-40%) compared to their diesel or gasoline counterparts. CNG and propane achieve relatively smaller emissions reductions (0-6% and 19%, respectively, compared to the petroleum-based fuels), while other natural gas pathways increase emissions for non-Class 8 MHDVs. While using natural gas to fuel electric vehicles could achieve large emission reductions for medium-duty trucks, the results suggest there are no great opportunities to achieve large emission reductions for Class 8 trucks through natural gas pathways with current technologies. There are strategies to reduce the carbon footprint of using natural gas for MHDVs, ranging from increasing vehicle fuel efficiency, reducing life cycle methane leakage rate, to achieving the same payloads and cargo volumes as conventional diesel trucks.

  11. Natural gas application in light- and heavy-duty vehicles in Brazil: panorama, technological routes and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Guilherme Bastos, Cordeiro de Melo, Tadeu Cavalcante; Leao, Raphael Riemke de Campos Cesar; Iaccarino, Fernando Aniello; Figueiredo Moreira, Marcia

    2007-07-01

    The Brazilian CNG light-duty vehicle fleet has currently reached more than 1,300,000 units. This growth increased in the late 1990's, when CNG was approved for use in passenger cars. In 2001, the IBAMA (Brazilian Institute for Environment and Natural Renewable Resources), concerned with this uncontrolled growth, published CONAMA (National Environmental Council, controlled by IBAMA) resolution 291, which establishes rules for CNG conversion kit environmental certification.This paper discusses the technological challenges for CNG-converted vehicles to comply with PROCONVE (Brazilian Program for Automotive Air Pollution Control) emission limits. In the 1980's, because of the oil crisis, Natural Gas (NG) emerged as a fuel with great potential to replace Diesel in heavy-duty vehicles. Some experiences were conducted for partial conversions from Diesel to NG (Diesel-gas). Other experiences using NG Otto Cycle buses were conducted in some cities, but have not expanded. Another technological route called 'Ottolization' (Diesel to Otto cycle convertion) appeared recently. Population increase and the great growth in vehicle fleet promote a constant concern with automotive emissions. More restrictive emission limits, high international oil prices, and the strategic interest in replacing Diesel imports, altogether form an interesting scenario for CNG propagation to public transportation in the main Brazilian metropolises.

  12. Acoustic Data for Hybrid and Electric Heavy-Duty Vehicles and Electric Motorcycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The Pedestrian Safety Enhancement Act (PSEA) of 2010 requires NHTSA to conduct a rulemaking to establish a Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard requiring an alert sound for pedestrians to be emitted by all types of motor vehicles that are electric o...

  13. 78 FR 36135 - Heavy-Duty Engine and Vehicle, and Nonroad Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... tractors and in pickup trucks and vans. Also exclusive to the EPA rules are standards for nitrous oxide (N...) for nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and methane (CH 4 ) emissions from 0.02 to 0.020 g/hp-hr to account for the... vehicle, thereby obtaining the relative marginal improvement between the two vehicles (the ``improvement...

  14. Scheduling vehicles in automated transportation systems : algorithms and case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Matthijs C.; Ebben, Mark; Gademann, Noud; van Harten, Aart

    2000-01-01

    One of the major planning issues in large scale automated transportation systems is so-called empty vehicle management, the timely supply of vehicles to terminals in order to reduce cargo waiting times. Motivated by a Dutch pilot project on an underground cargo transportation system using Automated

  15. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle System Research and Development Project: Hybrid Vehicle Potential Assessment. Volume 1. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surber, F.T.

    1979-09-30

    The results of investigations conducted under Ce Hybrid Vehicle Potential Assessment Task are reported in 10 volumes. This volume contains an overview of the study and its results. The purpose of the overall study was to determine if the petroleum fuel savings achievable through the use of hybrid electric vehicles is worth the R and D expenditures needed to develop the hybrid vehicles and to determine R and D priorities. It was concluded that by the year 2010 hybrid vehicles could replace 80% of the automotive power that would otherwise be produced from petroleum fuels; the public should not suffer any mobility loss through the use of hybrid vehicles; high initial and life-cycle costs are a limiting factor; and R and D funds should be spent for systems design and the development of low-cost batteries and controllers. (LCL)

  16. Robust Vehicle Suspension System by Converting Active & Passive Control of a Vehicle to Semi-Active Control System Analytically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Elahi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research work a simplified translational model of an automotive suspension system is constructed by only considering the translation motion of one wheel of a car. Passive Vehicle Suspension System is converted into Semi Active Vehicle System. Major advantage achieved by this system is that it adjusts the damping of the suspension system without the application of any actuator by using MATLAB® simulations. The semi-active control is found to control the vibration of suspension system very well.

  17. Dropsonde System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A small, modular dropsonde launcher is being developed for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Some critical measurement needs can only be satisfied by in-situ...

  18. System modeling of an air-independent solid oxide fuel cell system for unmanned undersea vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, A. Alan; Carreiro, Louis G. [Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Newport, 1176 Howell Street, Bldg. 1302/2, Newport, RI 02841 (United States)

    2006-07-14

    To examine the feasibility of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)-powered unmanned undersea vehicle (UUV), a system level analysis is presented that projects a possible integration of the SOFC stack, fuel steam reformer, fuel/oxidant storage and balance of plant components into a 21-in. diameter UUV platform. Heavy hydrocarbon fuel (dodecane) and liquid oxygen (LOX) are chosen as the preferred reactants. A maximum efficiency of 45% based on the lower heating value of dodecane was calculated for a system that provides 2.5kW for 40h. Heat sources and sinks have been coupled to show viable means of thermal management. The critical design issues involve proper recycling of exhaust steam from the fuel cell back into the reformer and effective use of the SOFC stack radiant heat for steam reformation of the hydrocarbon fuel. (author)

  19. Integrated vehicle control and guidance systems in unmanned ground vehicles for commercial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chase H.

    1995-01-01

    While there is a lot of recent development in the entire IVHS field, very few have had the opportunity to combine the many areas of development into a single integrated `intelligent' unmanned vehicle. One of our systems was developed specifically to serve a major automobile manufacturer's need for an automated vehicle chassis durability test facility. Due to the severity of the road surface human drivers could not be used. A totally automated robotic vehicle driver and guidance system was necessary. In order to deliver fixed price commercial projects now, it was apparent system and component costs were of paramount importance. Cyplex has developed a robust, cost effective single wire guidance system. This system has inherent advantages in system simplicity. Multi-signal (per vehicle lane) systems complicate path planning and layout when multiple lanes and lane changes are required, as on actual highways. The system has demonstrated high enough immunity to rain and light snow cover that normal safety reductions in speed are adequate to stay within the required system performance envelope. This system and it's antenna interface have shown the ability to guide the vehicle at slow speeds (10 MPH) with a tracking repeatability of plus or minus 1/8 of an inch. The basic guide and antenna system has been tested at speeds up to 80 mph. The system has inherently superior abilities for lane changes and precision vehicle placement. The operation of this system will be described and the impact of a system that is commercially viable now for highway and off road use will be discussed.

  20. Biomedical Implications of Heavy Metals Induced Imbalances in Redox Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bechan Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several workers have extensively worked out the metal induced toxicity and have reported the toxic and carcinogenic effects of metals in human and animals. It is well known that these metals play a crucial role in facilitating normal biological functions of cells as well. One of the major mechanisms associated with heavy metal toxicity has been attributed to generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, which develops imbalance between the prooxidant elements and the antioxidants (reducing elements in the body. In this process, a shift to the former is termed as oxidative stress. The oxidative stress mediated toxicity of heavy metals involves damage primarily to liver (hepatotoxicity, central nervous system (neurotoxicity, DNA (genotoxicity, and kidney (nephrotoxicity in animals and humans. Heavy metals are reported to impact signaling cascade and associated factors leading to apoptosis. The present review illustrates an account of the current knowledge about the effects of heavy metals (mainly arsenic, lead, mercury, and cadmium induced oxidative stress as well as the possible remedies of metal(s toxicity through natural/synthetic antioxidants, which may render their effects by reducing the concentration of toxic metal(s. This paper primarily concerns the clinicopathological and biomedical implications of heavy metals induced oxidative stress and their toxicity management in mammals.

  1. Biomedical implications of heavy metals induced imbalances in redox systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bechan; Singh, Shweta; Siddiqi, Nikhat J

    2014-01-01

    Several workers have extensively worked out the metal induced toxicity and have reported the toxic and carcinogenic effects of metals in human and animals. It is well known that these metals play a crucial role in facilitating normal biological functions of cells as well. One of the major mechanisms associated with heavy metal toxicity has been attributed to generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, which develops imbalance between the prooxidant elements and the antioxidants (reducing elements) in the body. In this process, a shift to the former is termed as oxidative stress. The oxidative stress mediated toxicity of heavy metals involves damage primarily to liver (hepatotoxicity), central nervous system (neurotoxicity), DNA (genotoxicity), and kidney (nephrotoxicity) in animals and humans. Heavy metals are reported to impact signaling cascade and associated factors leading to apoptosis. The present review illustrates an account of the current knowledge about the effects of heavy metals (mainly arsenic, lead, mercury, and cadmium) induced oxidative stress as well as the possible remedies of metal(s) toxicity through natural/synthetic antioxidants, which may render their effects by reducing the concentration of toxic metal(s). This paper primarily concerns the clinicopathological and biomedical implications of heavy metals induced oxidative stress and their toxicity management in mammals.

  2. Biomedical Implications of Heavy Metals Induced Imbalances in Redox Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shweta; Siddiqi, Nikhat J.

    2014-01-01

    Several workers have extensively worked out the metal induced toxicity and have reported the toxic and carcinogenic effects of metals in human and animals. It is well known that these metals play a crucial role in facilitating normal biological functions of cells as well. One of the major mechanisms associated with heavy metal toxicity has been attributed to generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, which develops imbalance between the prooxidant elements and the antioxidants (reducing elements) in the body. In this process, a shift to the former is termed as oxidative stress. The oxidative stress mediated toxicity of heavy metals involves damage primarily to liver (hepatotoxicity), central nervous system (neurotoxicity), DNA (genotoxicity), and kidney (nephrotoxicity) in animals and humans. Heavy metals are reported to impact signaling cascade and associated factors leading to apoptosis. The present review illustrates an account of the current knowledge about the effects of heavy metals (mainly arsenic, lead, mercury, and cadmium) induced oxidative stress as well as the possible remedies of metal(s) toxicity through natural/synthetic antioxidants, which may render their effects by reducing the concentration of toxic metal(s). This paper primarily concerns the clinicopathological and biomedical implications of heavy metals induced oxidative stress and their toxicity management in mammals. PMID:25184144

  3. Review on Automotive Power Generation System on Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles & Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leong Yap Wee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative braking is a function to recharge power bank on the Plug-in electric vehicles (PHEV and electric vehicles (EV. The weakness of this system is, it can only perform its function when the vehicle is slowing down or by stepping the brake foot pedal. In other words, the electricity recharging system is inconsistent, non-continuous and geography dependent. To overcome the weakness of the regenerative braking system, it is suggested that to apply another generator which is going to be parallel with the regenerative braking system so that continuous charging can be achieved. Since the ironless electricity generator has a less counter electromotive force (CEMF comparing to an ironcored electricity generator and no cogging torque. Applying the ironless electricity generator parallel to the regenerative braking system is seen one of the options which creates sustainable charging system compared to cored electricity generator.

  4. Active System for Electromagnetic Perturbation Monitoring in Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoi, Adrian Marian; Helerea, Elena

    Nowadays electromagnetic environment is rapidly expanding in frequency domain and wireless services extend in terms of covered area. European electromagnetic compatibility regulations refer to limit values regarding emissions, as well as procedures for determining susceptibility of the vehicle. Approval procedure for a series of cars is based on determining emissions/immunity level for a few vehicles picked randomly from the entire series, supposing that entire vehicle series is compliant. During immunity assessment, the vehicle is not subjected to real perturbation sources, but exposed to electric/magnetic fields generated by laboratory equipment. Since current approach takes into account only partially real situation regarding perturbation sources, this paper proposes an active system for determining electromagnetic parameters of vehicle's environment, that implements a logical diagram for measurement, satisfying the imposed requirements. This new and original solution is useful for EMC assessment of hybrid and electrical vehicles.

  5. Automatic electronic and mechanical system to avoid vehicle theft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejeda, J.O.

    1988-05-24

    An automatic vehicle anti-theft system having an anti-theft mode and an anti-hijack mode, for a vehicle having both an ignition switch and an open door switch for a door is described comprising in combination: (a) an electrically controlled fuel supply system supplied with switched electrical current by the ignition switch S; (b) a momentary switch supplied with switched electrical current by the ignition switch; (c) an electronic valve; (d) an open door override switch to selectively disable the open door switch and to disable the anti-hijack mode; and (e) a valet parking override switch to selectively disable the anti-theft mode while the vehicles in the valet mode. The automatic vehicle anti-theft system permits the owner of the vehicle to disable either of two protection modes.

  6. Lp String Stability of Cascaded Systems: application to vehicle platooning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, J.; Wouw, N. van de; Nijmeijer, H.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, throughput has become a limiting factor in road transport. An effective means to increase the road throughput is to employ a small intervehicle time gap using automatic vehicle-following control systems. String stability, i.e., the disturbance attenuation along the vehicle string, is

  7. Driver memory retention of in-vehicle information system messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Memory retention of drivers was tested for traffic- and traveler-related messages displayed on an in-vehicle information system (IVIS). Three research questions were asked: (a) How does in-vehicle visual message format affect comprehension? (b) How d...

  8. Improving Vehicle Safety: A New Methodology for Vehicle Steering System Inspection by Means of Forces Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. García-Pozuelo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Some mechanical systems, such as steering, brakes, and suspension, critically affect the safety of the vehicle. These systems are subject to wear through use and time, changing their status throughout the lifetime of a vehicle. It is, therefore, essential to develop adequate components and procedures of inspection that ensure the correct operation of these systems. Moreover, the steering inspection must guarantee certain requirements, such as, being able to test any vehicle steering system and being low priced. In addition, one of the most important requirements for any inspection procedure is to provide the measurements in a short time. This fact conditions the measurement process and sensors to be employed. The current steering system that measures the steering angles is time consuming. The aim of this research is to introduce a steering system inspection based on forces measured by means of a dynamometer plate. The main features of the proposed system ensure minimum testing time, and simple operation and avoid manipulation of the vehicle. In addition, precise and objective limits for acceptance and rejection have been established. Therefore, the proposed procedure meets all the requirements for the periodic motor vehicle inspection (PMVI.

  9. A PEMFC hybrid electric vehicle real time control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongqiao

    In recent years, environmental friendly technologies and alternative energy solutions have drawn a lot of public attentions due to global energy crisis and pollution issues. Fuel cell (FC), a technology invented almost at the same time as the internal combustion (IC) engine, is now the focus of the automotive industry again. The fuel cell vehicle (FCV) has zero emission and its efficiency is significantly higher than the conventional IC engine power vehicles. Among a variety of FCV technologies, proton exchange membrane (PEM) FC vehicle appears to be far more attractive and mature. The prototype PEMFC vehicle has been developed and demonstrated to the public by nearly all the major automotive manufacturers in recent years. However, to the interest of the public research, publications and documentations on the PEMFC vehicle technology are rarely available due to its proprietary nature, which essentially makes it a secured technology. This dissertation demonstrates a real world application of a PEMFC hybrid electric vehicle. Through presenting the vehicle design concept, developing the real time control system and generating generic operation principles, this dissertation targets at establishing the public knowledge base on this new technology. A complete PEMFC hybrid electric vehicle design, including vehicle components layout, process flow diagram, real time control system architecture, subsystem structures and control algorithms, is presented in order to help understand the whole vehicle system. The design concept is validated through the vehicle demonstration. Generic operating principles are established along with the validation process, which helps populate this emerging technology. Thereafter, further improvements and future research directions are discussed.

  10. Development of dynamic analysis program for tethered type deep-sea ROV (remotely operated vehicle) system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takasugi, Noriyuki; Taniuchi, Takuya; Fukuda, Yutaka; Ito, Reiji; Kawakami, Hajime; Yoshikawa, Takao

    1987-08-20

    Nowadays, the development of the tethered type deep-sea ROV system using optical communication techniques, automated control techniques and robotics has been conducted and it is becoming possible to do safe and comparatively inexpensive investigations. However, since it constitutes problems that the power and light cables which hang an unmanned submarine (vehicle) receive the fluid dynamic actions and that due to the above effect, and the free movements of a mother ship and the vehicle are restricted, the technique of analyzing these behaviors is indispensable for the design of the vehicle system. Kawasaki Heavy Industries developed a program which can analyze in the time domain by the finite element method the three dimensional behaviors of the system in which mothership, tethering cable, launcher and vehicle are deemed to be an entirety and the tension of the tethering cables, etc. This article introduces this program. Thanks for this, the simulation of dynamic behavior of the above system and the simulation of total deep-sea operation supporting system have become feasible. (11 figs, 1 tab, 2 refs)

  11. An operating system for future aerospace vehicle computer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foudriat, E. C.; Berman, W. J.; Will, R. W.; Bynum, W. L.

    1984-01-01

    The requirements for future aerospace vehicle computer operating systems are examined in this paper. The computer architecture is assumed to be distributed with a local area network connecting the nodes. Each node is assumed to provide a specific functionality. The network provides for communication so that the overall tasks of the vehicle are accomplished. The O/S structure is based upon the concept of objects. The mechanisms for integrating node unique objects with node common objects in order to implement both the autonomy and the cooperation between nodes is developed. The requirements for time critical performance and reliability and recovery are discussed. Time critical performance impacts all parts of the distributed operating system; e.g., its structure, the functional design of its objects, the language structure, etc. Throughout the paper the tradeoffs - concurrency, language structure, object recovery, binding, file structure, communication protocol, programmer freedom, etc. - are considered to arrive at a feasible, maximum performance design. Reliability of the network system is considered. A parallel multipath bus structure is proposed for the control of delivery time for time critical messages. The architecture also supports immediate recovery for the time critical message system after a communication failure.

  12. Current state and emission performance of CNG/LNG heavy-duty vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligterink, N.E.; Patuleia, A.F.; Koornneef, G.P.

    2013-01-01

    The use of natural gas and biogas for heavy-duty road transport is gaining popularity. Apart from economic benefits and supply security, the environmental advantages are often cited. This report, with an extended Dutch summary, gives an overview of the current situation in Europe, with a focus on

  13. Heavy Vehicle Simulator aided evaluation of overlays on pavements with active cracks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Viljoen, AW

    1987-07-01

    Full Text Available their effects by means of field data from actual pavements. The South African Heavy Simulator was also used to evaluate a variety of conventional and innovative asphaltic overlays on a severely cracked concrete pavement of which the mechanisms and extent...

  14. ATHLETE: A Cargo-Handling Vehicle for Solar System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian H.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the NASA Exploration Technology Development Program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is developing a vehicle called ATHLETE: the All-Terrain Hex-Limbed Extra-Terrestrial Explorer. Each vehicle is based on six wheels at the ends of six multi-degree-of-freedom limbs. Because each limb has enough degrees of freedom for use as a general-purpose leg, the wheels can be locked and used as feet to walk out of excessively soft or other extreme terrain. Since the vehicle has this alternative mode of traversing through or at least out of extreme terrain, the wheels and wheel actuators can be sized for nominal terrain. There are substantial mass savings in the wheel and wheel actuators associated with designing for nominal instead of extreme terrain. These mass savings are comparable-to or larger-than the extra mass associated with the articulated limbs. As a result, the entire mobility system, including wheels and limbs, can be about 25% lighter than a conventional mobility chassis. A side benefit of this approach is that each limb has sufficient degrees-of-freedom to use as a general-purpose manipulator (hence the name "limb" instead of "leg"). Our prototype ATHLETE vehicles have quick-disconnect tool adapters on the limbs that allow tools to be drawn out of a "tool belt" and maneuvered by the limb. A power-take-off from the wheel actuates the tools, so that they can take advantage of the 1+ horsepower motor in each wheel to enable drilling, gripping or other power-tool functions. Architectural studies have indicated that one useful role for ATHLETE in planetary (moon or Mars) exploration is to "walk" cargo off the payload deck of a lander and transport it across the surface. Recent architectural approaches are focused on the concept that the lander descent stage will use liquid hydrogen as a propellant. This is the highest performance chemical fuel, but it requires very large tanks. A natural geometry for the lander is to have a single throttleable rocket engine on

  15. Modular design of the LED vehicle projector headlamp system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chi-Chang; Li, Yan-Huei; Hung, Chih-Ching

    2013-07-20

    A well designed headlamp for a vehicle lighting system is very important as it provides drivers with safe and comfortable driving conditions at night or in dark places. With the advances of the semiconductor technology, the LED has become the fourth generation lighting source in the auto industry. In this study, we will propose a LED vehicle projector headlamp system. This headlamp system contains several LED headlamp modules, and every module of it includes four components: focused LEDs, asymmetric metal-based plates, freeform surfaces, and condenser lenses. By optimizing the number of LED headlamp modules, the proposed LED vehicle projector headlamp system has only five LED headlamp modules. It not only provides the low-beam cutoff without a shield, but also meets the requirements of the ECE R112 regulation. Finally, a prototype of the LED vehicle projector headlamp system was assembled and fabricated to create the correct light pattern.

  16. Lights and siren: a review of emergency vehicle warning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzo, R A; Eilers, M A

    1991-12-01

    Emergency medical services providers routinely respond to emergencies using lights and siren. This practice is not without risk of collision. Audible and visual warning devices and vehicle markings are integral to efficient negotiation of traffic and reduction of collision risk. An understanding of warning system characteristics is necessary to implement appropriate guidelines for prehospital transportation systems. The pertinent literature on emergency vehicle warning systems is reviewed, with emphasis on potential health hazards associated with these techniques. Important findings inferred from the literature are 1) red flashing lights alone may not be as effective as other color combinations, 2) there are no data to support a seizure risk with strobe lights, 3) lime-yellow is probably superior to traditional emergency vehicle colors, 4) the siren is an extremely limited warning device, and 5) exposure to siren noise can cause hearing loss. Emergency physicians must ensure that emergency medical services transportation systems consider the pertinent literature on emergency vehicle warning systems.

  17. RF Infrastructure Cooperative System for in Lane Vehicle Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Houdali

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a sensor which can be included in an Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS that is compliant with the Vehicle to Infrastructure communication standard (V2I. This system allows estimation of the vehicle lateral position in real time by ensuring cooperation between an on-board vehicle system and passive transponders integrated in the lateral white strips of the road. Based on an optimization method, the lateral position vehicle is provided with a distance error less than 3 cm. In this paper, experimental results are presented in order to evaluate the robustness of the proposed system in a realistic environment. Three scenarios are considered to take into account the bitumen properties, the presence of parasitic reflectors in different positions around the system and the interaction between transponders.

  18. Roll control resonance test vehicle (RCRTV) system postflight evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryvoruka, J.K.

    1973-03-01

    This report presents the flight test results for a reentry vehicle spin-fin roll control system. The test vehicle, designated the Roll Control Resonance Test Vehicle, was flight tested on May 10, 1972, at the Sandia Laboratories Tonopah Test Range. The purpose of the flight were (1) to demonstrate and evaluate the capability of the control system to overcome a roll resonance flight instability and (2) to confirm the analytic predictions of system performance. The flight test vehicle had built-in asymmetries which, without roll control, would have caused a persistent roll resonance instability to occur. The test was successful in that all systems functioned properly and all program and flight test objectives were accomplished. Flight test data presented herein confirm analytic predictions and flight simulation methods. Results show that the system maintained roll rate control and prevented the roll resonance instability.

  19. Control system and method for a hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Anthony Mark; Blankenship, John Richard; Bailey, Kathleen Ellen; Jankovic, Miroslava

    2001-01-01

    A vehicle system controller (20) is presented for a LSR parallel hybrid electric vehicle having an engine (10), a motor (12), wheels (14), a transmission (16) and a battery (18). The vehicle system controller (20) has a state machine having a plurality of predefined states (22-32) that represent operating modes for the vehicle. A set of rules is defined for controlling the transition between any two states in the state machine. The states (22-32) are prioritized according to driver demands, energy management concerns and system fault occurrences. The vehicle system controller (20) controls the transitions from a lower priority state to a higher priority state based on the set of rules. In addition, the vehicle system controller (20) will control a transition to a lower state from a higher state when the conditions no longer warrant staying in the current state. A unique set of output commands is defined for each state for the purpose of controlling lower level subsystem controllers. These commands serve to achieve the desire vehicle functionality within each state and insure smooth transitions between states.

  20. Vehicle Remote Health Monitoring and Prognostic Maintenance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uferah Shafi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In many industries inclusive of automotive vehicle industry, predictive maintenance has become more important. It is hard to diagnose failure in advance in the vehicle industry because of the limited availability of sensors and some of the designing exertions. However with the great development in automotive industry, it looks feasible today to analyze sensor’s data along with machine learning techniques for failure prediction. In this article, an approach is presented for fault prediction of four main subsystems of vehicle, fuel system, ignition system, exhaust system, and cooling system. Sensor is collected when vehicle is on the move, both in faulty condition (when any failure in specific system has occurred and in normal condition. The data is transmitted to the server which analyzes the data. Interesting patterns are learned using four classifiers, Decision Tree, Support Vector Machine, K Nearest Neighbor, and Random Forest. These patterns are later used to detect future failures in other vehicles which show the similar behavior. The approach is produced with the end goal of expanding vehicle up-time and was demonstrated on 70 vehicles of Toyota Corolla type. Accuracy comparison of all classifiers is performed on the basis of Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC curves.

  1. Direct hydrogen fuel cell systems for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Wang, X.

    Hybridizing a fuel cell system with an energy storage system offers an opportunity to improve the fuel economy of the vehicle through regenerative braking and possibly to increase the specific power and decrease the cost of the combined energy conversion and storage systems. Even in a hybrid configuration it is advantageous to operate the fuel cell system in a load-following mode and use the power from the energy storage system when the fuel cell alone cannot meet the power demand. This paper discusses an approach for designing load-following fuel cell systems for hybrid vehicles and illustrates it by applying it to pressurized, direct hydrogen, polymer-electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) systems for a mid-size family sedan. The vehicle level requirements relative to traction power, response time, start-up time and energy conversion efficiency are used to select the important parameters for the PEFC stack, air management system, heat rejection system and the water management system.

  2. Energy conversion efficiency of hybrid electric heavy-duty vehicles operating according to diverse drive cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banjac, Titina [AVL-AST d.o.o., Trg Leona Stuklja 5, SI-2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Trenc, Ferdinand; Katrasnik, Tomaz [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Univ. of Ljubljana, Askerceva 6, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2009-12-15

    Energy consumption and exhaust emissions of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) strongly depend on the HEV topology, power ratios of their components and applied control strategy. Combined analytical and simulation approach was applied to analyze energy conversion efficiency of different HEV topologies. Analytical approach is based on the energy balance equations and considers all energy paths in the HEVs from the energy sources to the wheels and to other energy sinks. Simulation approach is based on a fast forward-facing simulation model for simulating parallel and series HEVs as well as for conventional internal combustion engine vehicles, and considers all components relevant for modeling energy conversion phenomena. Combined approach enables evaluation of energy losses on different energy paths and provides their impact on the fuel economy. It therefore enables identification of most suitable HEV topology and of most suitable power ratios of the components for targeted vehicle application, since it reveals and quantifies the mechanisms that could lead to improved energy conversion efficiency of particular HEV. The paper exposes characteristics of the test cycles that lead to improved energy conversion efficiency of HEVs. Mechanisms leading to improved fuel economy of parallel HEVs through drive-away and vehicle propulsion at low powertrain loads by electric motor are also analyzed. It was also shown that control strategies managing energy flow through electric storage devices significantly influence energy conversion efficiency of series HEVs. (author)

  3. Highway vehicle systems contractors coordination meeting. Seventeenth summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    Separate abstracts was prepared for each of the 62 papers presented at the Contractors' Coordination meeting on highway vehicle systems. One paper had previously appeared in DOE's data base.

  4. Variable buoyancy system for unmanned multi-domain vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Marc; Bryant, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the system design, construction, and testing of an active variable buoyancy system (VBS) actuator with applications to unmanned multi-domain vehicles. Unmanned multi-domain vehicles require nontraditional VBS designs because of their unique operation requirements. We present a VBS actuator design that targets multi-domain vehicle design objectives of high endurance, stealth, and underwater loitering. The design features a rigid ballast tank with an inner elastic bladder connected to a hydraulic pump and a proportionally controlled vent valve. The system working fluid is obtained from the ambient surrounding water and the elastic bladder separates the water from pressurized gas, thus preventing any gas from escaping during a venting operation. An analytic model of the VBS characterizing the system dynamics is derived. Ballast tank prototype design and construction is discussed. A VBS test platform vehicle is presented, featuring two ballast tanks, motor, pump, and RF receiver for control.

  5. Roadway weather information system and automatic vehicle location (AVL) coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    Roadway Weather Information System and Automatic Vehicle Location Coordination involves the : development of an Inclement Weather Console that provides a new capability for the state of Oklahoma : to monitor weather-related roadway conditions. The go...

  6. The commercial vehicle information systems and networks program, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The Commercial Vehicle Information Systems and Networks (CVISN) grant program supports the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrations (FMCSAs) safety mission by providing grant funds to States to: : Improve safety and productivity of moto...

  7. Hypersonic Vehicle Propulsion System Control Model Development Roadmap and Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stueber, Thomas J.; Le, Dzu K.; Vrnak, Daniel R.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program Hypersonic project is directed towards fundamental research for two classes of hypersonic vehicles: highly reliable reusable launch systems (HRRLS) and high-mass Mars entry systems (HMMES). The objective of the hypersonic guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) discipline team is to develop advanced guidance and control algorithms to enable efficient and effective operation of these challenging vehicles. The ongoing work at the NASA Glenn Research Center supports the hypersonic GN&C effort in developing tools to aid the design of advanced control algorithms that specifically address the propulsion system of the HRRLSclass vehicles. These tools are being developed in conjunction with complementary research and development activities in hypersonic propulsion at Glenn and elsewhere. This report is focused on obtaining control-relevant dynamic models of an HRRLS-type hypersonic vehicle propulsion system.

  8. Advanced Control System Design for Hypersonic Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Guidance and control system design for hypersonic vehicles is more challenging than their subsonic and supersonic counterparts. Some of these challenges are (i)...

  9. The ac propulsion system for an electric vehicle, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geppert, S.

    1981-01-01

    A functional prototype of an electric vehicle ac propulsion system was built consisting of a 18.65 kW rated ac induction traction motor, pulse width modulated (PWM) transistorized inverter, two speed mechanically shifted automatic transmission, and an overall drive/vehicle controller. Design developmental steps, and test results of individual components and the complex system on an instrumented test frame are described. Computer models were developed for the inverter, motor and a representative vehicle. A preliminary reliability model and failure modes effects analysis are given.

  10. Fault-tolerant Actuator System for Electrical Steering of Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Sandberg; Blanke, Mogens

    2006-01-01

    Being critical to the safety of vehicles, the steering system is required to maintain the vehicles ability to steer until it is brought to halt, should a fault occur. With electrical steering becoming a cost-effective candidate for electrical powered vehicles, a fault-tolerant architecture...... is needed that meets this requirement. This paper studies the fault-tolerance properties of an electrical steering system. It presents a fault-tolerant architecture where a dedicated AC motor design used in conjunction with cheap voltage measurements can ensure detection of all relevant faults...

  11. Drive system failure control for distributed drive electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Tang, Yuan; Wang, Jianfeng; Li, Yaou; Yang, Na; Liu, Yiqun

    2017-09-01

    Aiming at the failure problem of distributed electric drive vehicle, the conventional control strategy of drive system failure is designed according to the characteristics of each wheel torque independent control and the redundant configuration of the power unit. On this basis, combined with the traditional body stability control technology, the direct yaw moment control method is used. The simulation results show that the conventional control method designed of the drive system failure can effectively improve the driving condition of the vehicle. The driving stability of the vehicle is further improved after the direct yaw torque control is applied.

  12. The control system of an autonomous underwater vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn Jalving

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the flight control system of an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV developed at the Norwegian Defence Research Establishment. A mathematical model of the vehicle is derived and discussed. The system is separated into lightly interacting subsystems and three autopilots are designed for steering, diving and speed control. The design of the separate controllers is based on PID techniques. Results from sea trials show robust performance and stability for the autopilot.

  13. Power system modeling for a six legged walking vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Satishkumar S.

    1988-08-01

    Power system of a legged vehicle is considerably more complex than the one used by a conventional land vehicle because of the wide range of power demands and the large number of degrees of freedom required for coordination and stability. Very little is currently known about the generalized power and actuation requirements for such vehicles. This dissertation undertakes a study of the conceptual and physical characteristics of the power system of a typical rough terrain six legged vehicle. Detailed analytical and digital simulation models have been developed for the power system consisting of the prime mover, energy storage system, mechanical drives, hydraulic actuation systems and the control systems. Modeling techniques and design concepts pertaining to such systems have been developed and the complex interactions between the mechanical, hydraulic and computer systems have been studied. These models and concepts can easily be extended to similar vehicles and robotic systems. Theoretical basis for studies of the dynamic and control issues for the legs has been established. A new model for the low frequency dynamics of the servovalve has been proposed using the describing function approach which explains the small signal limit cycle behavior of the actuation system successfully. Models for the mechanical transmission have been used successfully to modify system parameters and to eliminate potentially troublesome torsional vibrations.

  14. RLV vehicle health management system modeling and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangu, Srimal

    1999-02-01

    Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company, is leading the development and integration of the Vehicle Health Management (VHM) system for Lockheed Martin's VentureStar Reusable Launch Vehicle. The primary objective of this effort is to provide an automated health status and decision-making system for the vehicle. A detailed simulation of the VHM system on RLV is currently being developed using the Foresight Design and Modeling Tool. The simulation will consists of models of key components of the RLV VHM system. An effective detailed system simulation will allow for system and design engineering, as well as program management teams, to accurately and efficiently system designs, analyze the behavior of current systems, and predict the feasibility of making smooth and cost-efficient transitions form older technologies to newer ones. This methodology will reduce program costs, decrease total program life-cycle time, and ultimately increase mission success.

  15. March 2001 Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag: Presentations and Summary of Comments and Conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenman, R; Dunn, T; Owens, J; Laskowski, G; Flowers, D; Browand, F; Knight, A; Hammache, M; Leoard, A; Rubel, M; Salari, K; Rutledge, W; Ross, J; Satran, D; Heineck, J T; Walker, S; Driver, D; Storms, B

    2001-05-14

    A Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag was held at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on March 28 and 29, 2001. The purpose of the meeting was to present and discuss technical details on the experimental and computational work in progress and future project plans. Due to the large participation from industry and other research organizations, a large portion of the meeting (all of the first day and part of the second day) was devoted to the presentation and discussion of industry's perspective and work being done by other organizations on the demonstration of commercial software and the demonstration of a drag reduction device. This report contains the technical presentations (viewgraphs) delivered at the Meeting, briefly summarizes the comments and conclusions, and outlines the future action items.

  16. Soil Models and Vehicle System Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    soil was modeled using the parametric CU-ARL sand model. The vehicle consisted of interconnected subcomponents which include the chassis, suspension ...the dynamic tire - soft soil interaction in a straight-line scenario. A suspension - less set of four tires was used to investigate soil compaction...Terramechanics, 48(2), pp. 113-123. [34] Lee, J.H., 2011, “Finite Element Modeling of Interfacial Forces and Contact Stresses of Pneumatic Tire on Fresh

  17. The JASON Remotely Operated Vehicle System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    Project FAMOUS were the French bathyscaph ARCHIMEDE and the submersible CYANA as well as the American submersible ALVIN (ref. 6). In all, forty-two dives...their thrust characteristics and improved their low-level control over the thrusters broad dynamic range (ref. 31). During the JASON vehicle design a...his console is the JASON control box (figure 12). On the left is a grip control for thrusting JASON up or down. Next to it is a push button for

  18. ADVANCED DRIVER SAFETY SUPPORT SYSTEMS FOR THE URBAN TYPE VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna JEZIERSKA-KRUPA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Smart Power Team is currently working on the design of an urban electric vehicle designed to compete in the Shell Eco-marathon. One important aspect of this type of vehicle characteristics is it safety. The project of advanced driver assistance systems has included some proposals of such systems and the concept of their execution. The first concept, BLIS (Blind Spot Information System, is to build a system of informing a driver about vehicles appearing in the blind spot. The system constitutes a second concept, CDIS (Collision Detection and Information System, and it is designed to detect a vehicle collision and inform the team. Further systems are: DPMS (Dew Point Measurement System - a system which does not allow a situation, where the windows are fogged, OHRS (Overtaking Horn Reminder System - a system which checks overtaking and MSS (main supervision system - a supervisory system. These concepts are based on the assumption of the use of laser sensors, photoelectric, humidity and temperature, and other commercially available systems. The article presents a detailed description of driver assistance systems and virtual prototyping methodology for these systems, as well as the numerical results of the verification of one of the systems.

  19. Electric vehicles and renewable energy in the transport sector - energy system consequences. Main focus: Battery electric vehicles and hydrogen based fuel cell vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L.H.; Jørgensen K.

    2000-01-01

    vehicles based on hydrogen. Based on assumptions on the future technical development for battery electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles on hydrogen, and forthe conventional internal combustion engine vehicles, scenarios are set up to reflect expected options for the long-term development of road transport......The aim of the project is to analyse energy, environmental and economic aspects of integrating electric vehicles in the future Danish energy system. Consequences of large-scale utilisation of electric vehicles are analysed. The aim is furthermore toillustrate the potential synergistic interplay...... between the utilisation of electric vehicles and large-scale utilisation of fluctuating renewable energy resources, such as wind power. Economic aspects for electric vehicles interacting with a liberalisedelectricity market are analysed. The project focuses on battery electric vehicles and fuel cell...

  20. Passive vs. Parachute System Architecture for Robotic Sample Return Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddock, Robert W.; Henning, Allen B.; Samareh, Jamshid A.

    2016-01-01

    The Multi-Mission Earth Entry Vehicle (MMEEV) is a flexible vehicle concept based on the Mars Sample Return (MSR) EEV design which can be used in the preliminary sample return mission study phase to parametrically investigate any trade space of interest to determine the best entry vehicle design approach for that particular mission concept. In addition to the trade space dimensions often considered (e.g. entry conditions, payload size and mass, vehicle size, etc.), the MMEEV trade space considers whether it might be more beneficial for the vehicle to utilize a parachute system during descent/landing or to be fully passive (i.e. not use a parachute). In order to evaluate this trade space dimension, a simplified parachute system model has been developed based on inputs such as vehicle size/mass, payload size/mass and landing requirements. This model works in conjunction with analytical approximations of a mission trade space dataset provided by the MMEEV System Analysis for Planetary EDL (M-SAPE) tool to help quantify the differences between an active (with parachute) and a passive (no parachute) vehicle concept.

  1. Cooperative Path-Planning for Multi-Vehicle Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qichen Wang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a collision avoidance algorithm for multi-vehicle systems, which is a common problem in many areas, including navigation and robotics. In dynamic environments, vehicles may become involved in potential collisions with each other, particularly when the vehicle density is high and the direction of travel is unrestricted. Cooperatively planning vehicle movement can effectively reduce and fairly distribute the detour inconvenience before subsequently returning vehicles to their intended paths. We present a novel method of cooperative path planning for multi-vehicle systems based on reinforcement learning to address this problem as a decision process. A dynamic system is described as a multi-dimensional space formed by vectors as states to represent all participating vehicles’ position and orientation, whilst considering the kinematic constraints of the vehicles. Actions are defined for the system to transit from one state to another. In order to select appropriate actions whilst satisfying the constraints of path smoothness, constant speed and complying with a minimum distance between vehicles, an approximate value function is iteratively developed to indicate the desirability of every state-action pair from the continuous state space and action space. The proposed scheme comprises two phases. The convergence of the value function takes place in the former learning phase, and it is then used as a path planning guideline in the subsequent action phase. This paper summarizes the concept and methodologies used to implement this online cooperative collision avoidance algorithm and presents results and analysis regarding how this cooperative scheme improves upon two baseline schemes where vehicles make movement decisions independently.

  2. System dynamics of electrified vehicles: some facts, thoughts, and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh, Jochen; Ammon, Dieter

    2011-07-01

    Mainly motivated by ecological aspects and the resulting worldwide regulations, electrified vehicles are getting increasing attention from researchers, car manufacturers, and consumers. While most discussions are focusing on the hybrid or completely electric propulsion technologies, this contribution will focus on the aspects of system dynamics related to electrified vehicles. Most of the aspects discussed here are also interesting for vehicles with conventional combustion engines, which will be dominating the mobility market for many years to come. Here, after discussing some basic principles of energy consumption and recuperation potentials, chassis systems are discussed with respect to energy efficiency and fitness for electrified vehicles. Further on, some system implementations are presented to show promising or already successful solutions to the arising challenges.

  3. Electrical and Wind Energy Coordination System for Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajeev

    2010-11-01

    Nowadays, policies are being developed in many countries in order to decrease their greenhouse gases emissions. While in this area some technologies are widely installed (hydro and solar energy), other ones, like the Wind energy could get an important role in the medium and long term. Coal, gas, diesel, atomic etc. are the basic Natural source of energy. The uses of these sources are also harmful to the nature because they produce the different types of pollution. On the other hand hydro and wind energy are Clean, Green, renewable energy and pollution free sources. Now a day's most of the Company manufactures the hybrid vehicles with the coordination. But they are suffering lot of limitation like the speed of the vehicle and travel distance by the vehicle. So here we have proposed the Electrical and wind energy coordination (EWEC) system. This system is highly useful to improve the overall performance of hybrid vehicle. This system is also 100% pollution free.

  4. An Integrated Expert System for Linear Scheduling Heavy Earthmoving Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizar Markiz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy earthmoving operations are repetitive in nature and vulnerable to time-related restraints and uncertainties. Therefore, at the conceptual stage, scheduling these operations can take a linear form, known as linear schedule or line of balance (LOB. In such type of work, generating a preliminary line of balance for variable sequencing of activities is crucial. In this paper, an integrated expert system for determining preliminary linear schedules for heavy earthmoving operations at the conceptual stage is presented. The proposed system incorporates numerous factors that influence the analysis of earthmoving operations, which include geological and topographical parameters used to determine productivity rates at the conceptual stage. Also, the proposed system is capable of automatically generating a line of balance based on a stochastic scheduling technique via the metaheuristic simulated annealing intelligent approach to incorporate randomness and uncertainties in performing the associated activities. A parametric analysis is conducted in order to quantify the system’s degree of accuracy. An actual case project is then utilized to illustrate its numerical capabilities. Generating accurate linear schedules for heavy earthmoving operations at the conceptual design stage is anticipated to be of major significance to infrastructure project stakeholders, engineers, and construction managers by detecting schedule’s conflicts early in order to enhance overall operational logistics.

  5. Aerodynamic Drag Reduction Technologies Testing of Heavy-Duty Vocational Vehicles and a Dry Van Trailer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragatz, Adam [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Thornton, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This study focused on two accepted methods for quantifying the benefit of aerodynamic improvement technologies on vocational vehicles: the coastdown technique, and on-road constant speed fuel economy measurements. Both techniques have their advantages. Coastdown tests are conducted over a wide range in speed and allow the rolling resistance and aerodynamic components of road load force to be separated. This in turn allows for the change in road load and fuel economy to be estimated at any speed, as well as over transient cycles. The on-road fuel economy measurements only supply one lumped result, applicable at the specific test speed, but are a direct measurement of fuel usage and are therefore used in this study as a check on the observed coastdown results. Resulting coefficients were then used to populate a vehicle model and simulate expected annual fuel savings over real-world vocational drive cycles.

  6. System for sterilizing objects. [cleaning space vehicle systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, C. J.; Wright, E. E., Jr.; Moyers, C. V. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A system for producing a stream of humidified sterilizing gas for sterilizing objects such as the water systems of space vehicles and the like includes a source of sterilant gas which is fed to a mixing chamber which has inlet and outlet ports. The level of the water only partially fills the mixing chamber so as to provide an empty space adjacent the top of the chamber. A heater is provided for heating the water in the chamber so as to produce a humidified atmosphere. The sterilant gas is fed through an arcuate shaped tubular member connected to the inlet port of the mixing chamber for producing a vortex type of flow of sterilant gas into the chamber for humidification. A tubular member extends from the mixing chamber for supplying the humidified sterilant gas to the object for being sterilized. Scrubbers are provided for removing the sterilant gas after use.

  7. A Review Of Design And Control Of Automated Guided Vehicle Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Le-Anh, Tuan; Koster, René

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis paper presents a review on design and control of automated guided vehicle systems. We address most key related issues including guide-path design, estimating the number of vehicles, vehicle scheduling, idle-vehicle positioning, battery management, vehicle routing, and conflict resolution. We discuss and classify important models and results from key publications in literature on automated guided vehicle systems, including often-neglected areas, such as idle-vehicle positionin...

  8. Total fuel-cycle analysis of heavy-duty vehicles using biofuels and natural gas-based alternative fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Patrick E; Green, Erin H; Corbett, James J; Mas, Carl; Winebrake, James J

    2011-03-01

    Heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) present a growing energy and environmental concern worldwide. These vehicles rely almost entirely on diesel fuel for propulsion and create problems associated with local pollution, climate change, and energy security. Given these problems and the expected global expansion of HDVs in transportation sectors, industry and governments are pursuing biofuels and natural gas as potential alternative fuels for HDVs. Using recent lifecycle datasets, this paper evaluates the energy and emissions impacts of these fuels in the HDV sector by conducting a total fuel-cycle (TFC) analysis for Class 8 HDVs for six fuel pathways: (1) petroleum to ultra low sulfur diesel; (2) petroleum and soyoil to biodiesel (methyl soy ester); (3) petroleum, ethanol, and oxygenate to e-diesel; (4) petroleum and natural gas to Fischer-Tropsch diesel; (5) natural gas to compressed natural gas; and (6) natural gas to liquefied natural gas. TFC emissions are evaluated for three greenhouse gases (GHGs) (carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane) and five other pollutants (volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, and sulfur oxides), along with estimates of total energy and petroleum consumption associated with each of the six fuel pathways. Results show definite advantages with biodiesel and compressed natural gas for most pollutants, negligible benefits for e-diesel, and increased GHG emissions for liquefied natural gas and Fischer-Tropsch diesel (from natural gas).

  9. Navigation System Fault Diagnosis for Underwater Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkenberg, Thomas; Gregersen, Rene Tavs; Blanke, Mogens

    2014-01-01

    This paper demonstrates fault diagnosis on unmanned underwater vehicles (UUV) based on analysis of structure of the nonlinear dynamics. Residuals are generated using dierent approaches in structural analysis followed by statistical change detection. Hypothesis testing thresholds are made signal...... based to cope with non-ideal properties seen in real data. Detection of both sensor and thruster failures are demonstrated. Isolation is performed using the residual signature of detected faults and the change detection algorithm is used to assess severity of faults by estimating their magnitude...

  10. An anticipative escape system for vehicles in water crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chuanliang; Wang, Jiawei; Yin, Qi; Zhu, Yantao; Yang, Jiawei; Liao, Mengdi; Yang, Liming

    2017-07-01

    In this article, it designs an escape system for vehicles in water crashes. The structure mainly contains sensors, control organs and actuating mechanism for both doors and windows. Sensors judge whether the vehicle falls into water or is in the falling process. The actuating mechanism accepts the signal delivered by the control organs, then open the electronic central lock on doors and meanwhile lower the window. The water escape system is able to anticipate drowning situations for vehicles and controls both doors and windows in such an emergency. Under the premise of doors staying in an undamaged state, it is for sure that people in the vehicle can open the door while drowning in the water and safely escape.

  11. A Collaborative Analysis Tool for Thermal Protection Systems for Single Stage to Orbit Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Reginald A.; Stanley, Thomas Troy

    1999-01-01

    Presented is a design tool and process that connects several disciplines which are needed in the complex and integrated design of high performance reusable single stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicles. Every system is linked to every other system and in the case of SSTO vehicles with air breathing propulsion, which is currently being studied by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA); the thermal protection system (TPS) is linked directly to almost every major system. The propulsion system pushes the vehicle to velocities on the order of 15 times the speed of sound in the atmosphere before pulling up to go to orbit which results high temperatures on the external surfaces of the vehicle. Thermal protection systems to maintain the structural integrity of the vehicle must be able to mitigate the heat transfer to the structure and be lightweight. Herein lies the interdependency, in that as the vehicle's speed increases, the TPS requirements are increased. And as TPS masses increase the effect on the propulsion system and all other systems is compounded. To adequately determine insulation masses for a vehicle such as the one described above, the aeroheating loads must be calculated and the TPS thicknesses must be calculated for the entire vehicle. To accomplish this an ascent or reentry trajectory is obtained using the computer code Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST). The trajectory is then used to calculate the convective heat rates on several locations on the vehicles using the Miniature Version of the JA70 Aerodynamic Heating Computer Program (MINIVER). Once the heat rates are defined for each body point on the vehicle, then insulation thicknesses that are required to maintain the vehicle within structural limits are calculated using Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer (SINDA) models. If the TPS masses are too heavy for the performance of the vehicle the process may be repeated altering the trajectory or some other input to

  12. GPS/Low-Cost IMU/Onboard Vehicle Sensors Integrated Land Vehicle Positioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Jianchen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to develop a GPS, low-cost IMU, and onboard vehicle sensors integrated land vehicle positioning system at low cost and with high (cm level accuracy. Using a centralized Kalman filter, the integration strategies and algorithms are discussed. A mechanism is proposed for detecting and alleviating the violation of the lateral nonholonomic constraint on the wheel speed sensors that is widely used in previous research. With post-mission and real-time tests, the benefits gained from onboard vehicle sensors and the side slip detection and alleviation mechanism in terms of the horizontal positioning accuracy are analyzed. It is illustrated by all the tests that GPS plays a dominant role in determining the absolute positioning accuracy of the system when GPS is fully available. The integration of onboard vehicle sensors can improve the horizontal positioning accuracy during GPS outages. With respect to GPS and low-cost IMU integrated system, the percentage improvements from the wheel speed sensor are 90.4% for the open-sky test and 56.0% for suburban area real-time test. By integrating all sensors to detect and alleviate the violation of the lateral nonholonomic constraint, the percentage improvements over GPS and low-cost IMU integrated system can be enhanced to 92.6% for open-sky test and 65.1% for the real-time test in suburban area.

  13. Modular Energy Storage System for Alternative Energy Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Janice [Magna Electronics Inc., Auburn Hills, MI (United States); Ervin, Frank [Magna Electronics Inc., Auburn Hills, MI (United States)

    2012-05-15

    An electrical vehicle environment was established to promote research and technology development in the area of high power energy management. The project incorporates a topology that permits parallel development of an alternative energy delivery system and an energy storage system. The objective of the project is to develop technologies, specifically power electronics, energy storage electronics and controls that provide efficient and effective energy management between electrically powered devices in alternative energy vehicles plugin electric vehicles, hybrid vehicles, range extended vehicles, and hydrogen-based fuel cell vehicles. In order to meet the project objectives, the Vehicle Energy Management System (VEMS) was defined and subsystem requirements were obtained. Afterwards, power electronics, energy storage electronics and controls were designed. Finally, these subsystems were built, tested individually, and integrated into an electric vehicle system to evaluate and optimize the subsystems performance. Phase 1 of the program established the fundamental test bed to support development of an electrical environment ideal for fuel cell application and the mitigation of many shortcomings of current fuel cell technology. Phase 2, continued development from Phase 1, focusing on implementing subsystem requirements, design and construction of the energy management subsystem, and the integration of this subsystem into the surrogate electric vehicle. Phase 2 also required the development of an Alternative Energy System (AES) capable of emulating electrical characteristics of fuel cells, battery, gen set, etc. Under the scope of the project, a boost converter that couples the alternate energy delivery system to the energy storage system was developed, constructed and tested. Modeling tools were utilized during the design process to optimize both component and system design. This model driven design process enabled an iterative process to track and evaluate the impact

  14. Catalog of components for electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissler, H. C.

    1981-01-01

    This catalog of commercially available electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion system components is intended for designers and builders of these vehicles and contains 50 categories of components. These categories include those components used between the battery terminals and the output axle hub, as well as some auxiliary equipment. An index of the components and a listing of the suppliers and their addresses and phone numbers are included.

  15. Vehicle-manipulator systems modeling for simulation, analysis, and control

    CERN Document Server

    From, Pal Johan; Pettersen, Kristin Ytterstad

    2014-01-01

    Furthering the aim of reducing human exposure to hazardous environments, this monograph presents a detailed study of the modeling and control of vehicle-manipulator systems. The text shows how complex interactions can be performed at remote locations using systems that combine the manipulability of robotic manipulators with the ability of mobile robots to locomote over large areas.  The first part studies the kinematics and dynamics of rigid bodies and standard robotic manipulators and can be used as an introduction to robotics focussing on robust mathematical modeling. The monograph then moves on to study vehicle-manipulator systems in great detail with emphasis on combining two different configuration spaces in a mathematically sound way. Robustness of these systems is extremely important and Modeling and Control of Vehicle-manipulator Systems effectively represents the dynamic equations using a mathematically robust framework. Several tools from Lie theory and differential geometry are used to obtain glob...

  16. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems for Disaster Relief: Tornado Alley

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBusk, Wesley M.

    2009-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle systems are currently in limited use for public service missions worldwide. Development of civil unmanned technology in the United States currently lags behind military unmanned technology development in part because of unresolved regulatory and technological issues. Civil unmanned aerial vehicle systems have potential to augment disaster relief and emergency response efforts. Optimal design of aerial systems for such applications will lead to unmanned vehicles which provide maximum potentiality for relief and emergency response while accounting for public safety concerns and regulatory requirements. A case study is presented that demonstrates application of a civil unmanned system to a disaster relief mission with the intent on saving lives. The concept utilizes unmanned aircraft to obtain advanced warning and damage assessments for tornados and severe thunderstorms. Overview of a tornado watch mission architecture as well as commentary on risk, cost, need for, and design tradeoffs for unmanned aerial systems are provided.

  17. ISSUES AND RECENT TRENDS IN VEHICLE SAFETY COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadayuki TSUGAWA

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper surveys the research on the applications of inter-vehicle communications, the issues of the deployment and technology, and the current status of inter-vehicle communications projects in Europe, the United States and Japan. The inter-vehicle communications, defined here as communications between on-board ITS computers, improve road traffic safety and efficiency by expanding the horizon of the drivers and on-board sensors. One of the earliest studies on inter-vehicle communications began in Japan in the early 1980s. The inter-vehicle communications play an essential role in automated platooning and cooperative driving systems developed since the 1990's by enabling vehicles to obtain data that would be difficult or impossible to measure with on-board sensors. During these years, interest in applications for inter-vehicle communications increased in the EU, the US and Japan, resulting in many national vehicle safety communications projects such as CarTALK2000 in the EU and VSCC in the US. The technological issues include protocol and communications media. Experiments employ various kinds of protocols and typically use infrared, microwave or millimeter wave media. The situation is ready for standardization. The deployment strategy is another issue. To be feasible, deployment should begin with multiple rather than single services that would work even at a low penetration rate of the communication equipment. In addition, non-technological, legal and institutional issues remained unsolved. Although inter-vehicle communications involve many issues, such applications should be promoted because they will lead to safer and more efficient automobile traffic.

  18. Effects of electric vehicles on power systems in Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Karsten; Ravn, Hans; Juul, Nina

    2012-01-01

    In this study, it is analysed how a large-scale implementation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and battery electric vehicles towards 2030 would influence the power systems of five Northern European countries, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Norway, and Sweden. Increasing shares of electric vehicles....... Moreover, due to vehicle-to-grid capability, EVs can reduce the need for new coal/natural gas power capacities. Wind power can be expected to provide a large share of the electricity for EVs in several of the countries. However, if EVs are not followed up by economic support for renewable energy...... technologies, coal based power will in several cases, particularly in the short term, likely provide a large part of this electricity. The effects of EVs vary significantly from country to country and are sensitive to fuel and CO2 price variations. The EVs bring CO2 reductions of 1e6% in 2025 and 3e28% in 2030...

  19. Lunar transfer vehicle design issues with electric propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes parametric design studies of electric propulsion lunar transfer vehicles. In designing a lunar transfer vehicle, selecting the 'best' operating points for the design parameters allows significant reductions in the mass in low earth orbit (LEO) for the mission. These parameters include the specific impulse, the power level, and the propulsion technology. Many of the decisions regarding the operating points are controlled by the propulsion and power system technologies that are available for the spacecraft. The relationship between these technologies is discussed and analyzed here. It is found that both ion and MPD propulsion offer significant LEO mass reductions over O2/H2 for lunar transfer vehicle missions. The recommended operating points for the lunar transfer vehicle are an I(sp) of 5000 lb(f)-s/lb(m) and a 1 MW power level. For large lunar missions, krypton may be the best choice for ion propulsion.

  20. Wireless alerting system using vibration for vehicles dashboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Sweta; Rai, Shweta; Magaramagara, Wilbert; Sivacoumar, R.

    2017-11-01

    This paper aims at improving the engine life of any vehicle through a continuous measurement and monitoring of vital engine operational parameters and providing an effective alerting to drivers for any abnormality. Vehicles currently are using audio and visible alerting signals through alarms and light as a warning to the driver but these are not effective in noisy environments and during daylight. Through the use of the sense of feeling a driver can be alerted effectively. The need to no other vehicle parameter needs to be aided through the mobile display (phone).Thus a system is designed and implements to measure engine temperature, RPM, Oil level and Coolant level using appropriate sensors and a wireless communication (Bluetooth) is established to actuate a portable vibration control device and to read the different vehicle sensor readings through an android application for display and diagnosis.

  1. Systems analysis of decontamination options for civilian vehicles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foltz, Greg W.; Hoette, Trisha Marie

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this project, which was supported by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Science and Technology Directorate (S&T) Chemical and Biological Division (CBD), was to investigate options for the decontamination of the exteriors and interiors of vehicles in the civilian setting in order to restore those vehicles to normal use following the release of a highly toxic chemical. The decontamination of vehicles is especially challenging because they often contain sensitive electronic equipment, multiple materials some of which strongly adsorb chemical agents, and in the case of aircraft, have very rigid material compatibility requirements (i.e., they cannot be exposed to reagents that may cause even minor corrosion). A systems analysis approach was taken examine existing and future civilian vehicle decontamination capabilities.

  2. Quantifying on-road emissions from gasoline-powered motor vehicles: accounting for the presence of medium- and heavy-duty diesel trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallmann, Timothy R; Kirchstetter, Thomas W; DeMartini, Steven J; Harley, Robert A

    2013-12-03

    Vehicle emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), organic aerosol (OA), and black carbon (BC) were measured at the Caldecott tunnel in the San Francisco Bay Area. Measurements were made in bore 2 of the tunnel, where light-duty (LD) vehicles accounted for >99% of total traffic and heavy-duty trucks were not allowed. Prior emission studies conducted in North America have often assumed that route- or weekend-specific prohibitions on heavy-duty truck traffic imply that diesel contributions to pollutant concentrations measured in on-road settings can be neglected. However, as light-duty vehicle emissions have declined, this assumption can lead to biased results, especially for pollutants such as NOx, OA, and BC, for which diesel-engine emission rates are high compared to corresponding values for gasoline engines. In this study, diesel vehicles (mostly medium-duty delivery trucks with two axles and six tires) accounted for trucks. Using measured emission factors from this study and publicly available data on taxable fuel sales, as of 2010, LD gasoline vehicles were estimated to be responsible for 85%, 18%, 18%, and 6% of emissions of CO, NOx, OA, and BC, respectively, from on-road motor vehicles in the United States.

  3. Design Considerations for a Launch Vehicle Development Flight Instrumentation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Martin L.; Crawford, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    When embarking into the design of a new launch vehicle, engineering models of expected vehicle performance are always generated. While many models are well established and understood, some models contain design features that are only marginally known. Unfortunately, these analytical models produce uncertainties in design margins. The best way to answer these analytical issues is with vehicle level testing. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration respond to these uncertainties by using a vehicle level system called the Development Flight Instrumentation, or DFI. This DFI system can be simple to implement, with only a few measurements, or it may be a sophisticated system with hundreds of measurement and video, without a recording capability. From experience with DFI systems, DFI never goes away. The system is renamed and allowed to continue, in most cases. Proper system design can aid the transition to future data requirements. This paper will discuss design features that need to be considered when developing a DFI system for a launch vehicle. It will briefly review the data acquisition units, sensors, multiplexers and recorders, telemetry components and harnessing. It will present a reasonable set of requirements which should be implemented in the beginning of the program in order to start the design. It will discuss a simplistic DFI architecture that could be the basis for the next NASA launch vehicle. This will be followed by a discussion of the "experiences gained" from a past DFI system implementation, such as the very successful Ares I-X test flight. Application of these design considerations may not work for every situation, but they may direct a path toward success or at least make one pause and ask the right questions.

  4. System Would Predictively Preempt Traffic Lights for Emergency Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelder, Aaron; Foster, Conrad

    2004-01-01

    Two electronic communication-and-control systems have been proposed as means of modifying the switching of traffic lights to give priority to emergency vehicles. Both systems would utilize the inductive loops already installed in the streets of many municipalities to detect vehicles for timing the switching of traffic lights. The proposed systems could be used alone or to augment other automated emergency traffic-light preemption systems that are already present in some municipalities, including systems that recognize flashing lights or siren sounds or that utilize information on the positions of emergency vehicles derived from the Global Positioning System (GPS). Systems that detect flashing lights and siren sounds are limited in range, cannot "see" or "hear" well around corners, and are highly vulnerable to noise. GPS-based systems are effective in rural areas and small cities, but are often ineffective in large cities because of frequent occultation of GPS satellite signals by large structures. In contrast, the proposed traffic-loop forward prediction system would be relatively invulnerable to noise, would not be subject to significant range limitations, and would function well in large cities -- even in such places as underneath bridges and in tunnels, where GPS-based systems do not work. One proposed system has been characterized as "car-active" because each participating emergency vehicle would be equipped with a computer and a radio transceiver that would communicate with stationary transceivers at the traffic loops. The other proposed system has been characterized as "car-passive" because a passive radio transponder would be installed on the underside of a participating vehicle.

  5. Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging Management with Dynamic Distribution System Tariff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Wu, Qiuwei; Østergaard, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    An electric vehicle (EV) charging schedule algorithm was proposed in this paper in order to charge EVs to meet EV users’ driving needs with the minimum EV charging cost and respect the local distribution system constraints. A day-ahead dynamic distribution system tariff scheme was proposed to avoid...

  6. A Review Of Design And Control Of Automated Guided Vehicle Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Le-Anh (Tuan); M.B.M. de Koster (René)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis paper presents a review on design and control of automated guided vehicle systems. We address most key related issues including guide-path design, estimating the number of vehicles, vehicle scheduling, idle-vehicle positioning, battery management, vehicle routing, and conflict

  7. Emissions Benefits From Renewable Fuels and Other Alternatives for Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajbabaei, Maryam

    There is a global effort to expand the use of alternative fuels due to their several benefits such as improving air quality with reducing some criteria emissions, reducing dependency on fossil fuels, and reducing greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide. This dissertation is focused on investigating the impact of two popular alternative fuels, biodiesel and natural gas (NG), on emissions from heavy-duty engines. Biodiesel is one of the most popular renewable fuels with diesel applications. Although biodiesel blends are reported to reduce particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and total hydrocarbon emissions; there is uncertainty on their impact on nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions. This dissertation evaluated the effect of biodiesel feedstock, biodiesel blend level, engine technology, and driving conditions on NOx emissions. The results showed that NOx emissions increase with 20% and higher biodiesel blends. Also, in this study some strategies were proposed and some fuel formulations were found for mitigating NOx emissions increases with biodiesel. The impact of 5% biodiesel on criteria emissions specifically NOx was also fully studied in this thesis. As a part of the results of this study, 5% animal-based biodiesel was certified for use in California based on California Air Resources Board emissions equivalent procedure. NG is one of the most prominent alternative fuels with larger reserves compared to crude oil. However, the quality of NG depends on both its source and the degree to which it is processed. The current study explored the impact of various NG fuels, ranging from low methane/high energy gases to high methane/low energy gases, on criteria and toxic emissions from NG engines with different combustion and aftertreatment technologies. The results showed stronger fuel effects for the lean-burn technology bus. Finally, this thesis investigated the impact of changing diesel fuel composition on the criteria emissions from a variety of heavy-duty engine

  8. Integration of Advanced Concepts and Vehicles Into the Next Generation Air Transportation System. Volume 1; Introduction, Key Messages, and Vehicle Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellweger, Andres; Resnick, Herbert; Stevens, Edward; Arkind, Kenneth; Cotton William B.

    2010-01-01

    Raytheon, in partnership with NASA, is leading the way in ensuring that the future air transportation continues to be a key driver of economic growth and stability and that this system provides an environmentally friendly, safe, and effective means of moving people and goods. A Raytheon-led team of industry and academic experts, under NASA contract NNA08BA47C, looked at the potential issues and impact of introducing four new classes of advanced aircraft into the next generation air transportation system -- known as NextGen. The study will help determine where NASA should further invest in research to support the safe introduction of these new air vehicles. Small uncrewed or unmanned aerial systems (SUAS), super heavy transports (SHT) including hybrid wing body versions (HWB), very light jets (VLJ), and supersonic business jets (SSBJ) are the four classes of aircraft that we studied. Understanding each vehicle's business purpose and strategy is critical to assessing the feasibility of new aircraft operations and their impact on NextGen's architecture. The Raytheon team used scenarios created by aviation experts that depict vehicles in year 2025 operations along with scripts or use cases to understand the issues presented by these new types of vehicles. The information was then mapped into the Joint Planning and Development Office's (JPDO s) Enterprise Architecture to show how the vehicles will fit into NextGen's Concept of Operations. The team also identified significant changes to the JPDO's Integrated Work Plan (IWP) to optimize the NextGen vision for these vehicles. Using a proven enterprise architecture approach and the JPDO s Joint Planning Environment (JPE) web site helped make the leap from architecture to planning efficient, manageable and achievable. Very Light Jets flying into busy hub airports -- Supersonic Business Jets needing to climb and descend rapidly to achieve the necessary altitude Super-heavy cargo planes requiring the shortest common flight

  9. A laboratory facility for electric vehicle propulsion system testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, N. B.

    1980-01-01

    The road load simulator facility located at the NASA Lewis Research Center enables a propulsion system or any of its components to be evaluated under a realistic vehicle inertia and road loads. The load is applied to the system under test according to the road load equation: F(net)=K1F1+K2F2V+K3 sq V+K4(dv/dt)+K5 sin theta. The coefficient of each term in the equation can be varied over a wide range with vehicle inertial representative of vehicles up to 7500 pounds simulated by means of flywheels. The required torque is applied by the flywheels, a hydroviscous absorber and clutch, and a drive motor integrated by a closed loop control system to produce a smooth, continuous load up to 150 horsepower.

  10. gPark: Vehicle Parking Management System Using Smart Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana E. Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in wearable technologies have opened new avenues for their applications in various fields. This paper presents the design, implementation, and testing results for a vehicle parking management system using smart Glass technology. The management system consists of four major interconnected applications. The most important one, running on the smart Glass, scans the vehicle number plate and extracts the related information in real time. The vehicle information is sent to the remote server for checking of any violation. The server sends the updates back to the Glass that allows the parking attendant to take further actions, if needed. The system was tested in real-life scenarios, and it was found that the detection accuracy up to 75% can be easily achieved with current hardware and software capabilities of the Google Glass.

  11. Sensor Systems for Vehicle Environment Perception in a Highway Intelligent Space System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Tang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A Highway Intelligent Space System (HISS is proposed to study vehicle environment perception in this paper. The nature of HISS is that a space sensors system using laser, ultrasonic or radar sensors are installed in a highway environment and communication technology is used to realize the information exchange between the HISS server and vehicles, which provides vehicles with the surrounding road information. Considering the high-speed feature of vehicles on highways, when vehicles will be passing a road ahead that is prone to accidents, the vehicle driving state should be predicted to ensure drivers have road environment perception information in advance, thereby ensuring vehicle driving safety and stability. In order to verify the accuracy and feasibility of the HISS, a traditional vehicle-mounted sensor system for environment perception is used to obtain the relative driving state. Furthermore, an inter-vehicle dynamics model is built and model predictive control approach is used to predict the driving state in the following period. Finally, the simulation results shows that using the HISS for environment perception can arrive at the same results detected by a traditional vehicle-mounted sensors system. Meanwhile, we can further draw the conclusion that using HISS to realize vehicle environment perception can ensure system stability, thereby demonstrating the method’s feasibility.

  12. Sensor systems for vehicle environment perception in a Highway Intelligent Space System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaofeng; Gao, Feng; Xu, Guoyan; Ding, Nenggen; Cai, Yao; Ma, Mingming; Liu, Jianxing

    2014-05-15

    A Highway Intelligent Space System (HISS) is proposed to study vehicle environment perception in this paper. The nature of HISS is that a space sensors system using laser, ultrasonic or radar sensors are installed in a highway environment and communication technology is used to realize the information exchange between the HISS server and vehicles, which provides vehicles with the surrounding road information. Considering the high-speed feature of vehicles on highways, when vehicles will be passing a road ahead that is prone to accidents, the vehicle driving state should be predicted to ensure drivers have road environment perception information in advance, thereby ensuring vehicle driving safety and stability. In order to verify the accuracy and feasibility of the HISS, a traditional vehicle-mounted sensor system for environment perception is used to obtain the relative driving state. Furthermore, an inter-vehicle dynamics model is built and model predictive control approach is used to predict the driving state in the following period. Finally, the simulation results shows that using the HISS for environment perception can arrive at the same results detected by a traditional vehicle-mounted sensors system. Meanwhile, we can further draw the conclusion that using HISS to realize vehicle environment perception can ensure system stability, thereby demonstrating the method's feasibility.

  13. Power Systems Evaluated for Solar Electric Propulsion Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Gefert, Leon P.

    2000-01-01

    Solar electric propulsion (SEP) mission architectures are applicable to a wide range NASA missions including the robotic exploration of the outer planets in the next decade and the human exploration of Mars within the next 2 decades. SEP enables architectures that are very mass efficient with reasonable power levels (1-MW class) aerobrake and cryogenic upper-stage transportation technologies are utilized. In this architecture, the efficient SEP stage transfers the payload from low Earth orbit (LEO) High Energy Elliptical Parking Orbit (HEEPO) within a period of 6 to 12 months. highthrust, cryogenic upper stage and payload then separate from the SEP vehicle for injection to the planetary target, allowing for fast heliocentric trip times. This mission architecture offers a potential reduction in mass to LEO in comparison to alternative all-chemical nuclear propulsion schemes. Mass reductions may allow launch vehicle downsizing enable missions that would have been grounded because of cost constraints. The preceding figure illustrates a conceptual SEP stage design for a human Mars mission. Researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field designed conceptual SEP vehicle, conceived the mission architecture to use this vehicle, and analyzed the vehicle s performance. This SEP stage has a dry mass of 35 metric tons (MT), 40 MT of xenon propellant, and a photovoltaic array that spans 110 m, providing power to a cluster of eight 100-kW Hall thrusters. The stage can transfer an 80-MT payload and upper stage to the desired HEEPO. Preliminary packaging studies show this space-station-class SEP vehicle meets the proposed "Magnum" launch vehicle and volume requirements with considerable margin. An SEP vehicle for outer planetary missions, such as the Europa Mapper Mission, would be dramatically smaller than human Mars mission SEP stage. In this mission architecture, the SEP power system with the payload to provide spacecraft power throughout the mission. Several

  14. Development of a DC propulsion system for an electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelledes, W. L.

    1984-01-01

    The suitability of the Eaton automatically shifted mechanical transaxle concept for use in a near-term dc powered electric vehicle is evaluated. A prototype dc propulsion system for a passenger electric vehicle was designed, fabricated, tested, installed in a modified Mercury Lynx vehicle and track tested at the contractor's site. The system consisted of a two-axis, three-speed, automatically-shifted mechanical transaxle, 15.2 Kw rated, separately excited traction motor, and a transistorized motor controller with a single chopper providing limited armature current below motor base speed and full range field control above base speed at up to twice rated motor current. The controller utilized a microprocessor to perform motor and vehicle speed monitoring and shift sequencing by means of solenoids applying hydraulic pressure to the transaxle clutches. Bench dynamometer and track testing was performed. Track testing showed best system efficiency for steady-state cruising speeds of 65-80 Km/Hz (40-50 mph). Test results include acceleration, steady speed and SAE J227A/D cycle energy consumption, braking tests and coast down to characterize the vehicle road load.

  15. Steering system of a vehicle, such as a snow removing machine for airfields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantalahti, Esko T.

    1991-12-01

    An improved steering system is disclosed for a vehicle comprising a cabin with front wheels, which are steered by a steering wheel, and a rearward portion carrying a drive unit and with driven rear wheels. The rearward portion is journalled about a vertical shaft to the forward portion of the vehicle, and a second separate steering mechanism is provided for steering the rearward portion. The second separate steering mechanism of the rearward portion comprises a control unit whereby it may be synchronized to operate in an opposite turning direction to that of the steering movements of the front wheels. The control unit is adapted to lock the rearward portion in a desired position, so that, for example, the vehicle can be driven diagonally with the side first. The second steering mechanism comprises a separate hydraulic system controlled from the control unit. Sensors are connected for sensing the steering angle of both the steering mechanisms, such that signals from the sensors may cause the steering of the rearward portion to follow the steering of the front wheels. The steering system of the invention is particularly applicable to snow removal machines used on airfields. In such machines, the front and rear wheel shafts are often 10-15 m distant from each other, but the invention enables easy and reliable linkage without the need for heavy shafts. The invention also enables a long snow-removing machine to turn on a very small radius, which speeds up movements and operation when clearing airfields.

  16. 36 CFR 1192.173 - Automated guideway transit vehicles and systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... other appropriate devices. (d) Light rail and rapid rail AGT vehicles and systems shall comply with... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems § 1192.173 Automated guideway transit vehicles and systems. (a...

  17. Analysis, testing and verification of the behavior of composite pavements under Florida conditions using a heavy vehicle simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia Gutierrez, Patricio Enrique

    Whitetopping (WT) is a rehabilitation method to resurface deteriorated asphalt pavements. While some of these composite pavements have performed very well carrying heavy load, other have shown poor performance with early cracking. With the objective of analyzing the applicability of WT pavements under Florida conditions, a total of nine full-scale WT test sections were constructed and tested using a Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS) in the APT facility at the FDOT Material Research Park. The test sections were instrumented to monitor both strain and temperature. A 3-D finite element model was developed to analyze the WT test sections. The model was calibrated and verified using measured FWD deflections and HVS load-induced strains from the test sections. The model was then used to evaluate the potential performance of these test sections under critical temperature-load condition in Florida. Six of the WT pavement test sections had a bonded concrete-asphalt interface by milling, cleaning and spraying with water the asphalt surface. This method produced excellent bonding at the interface, with shear strength of 195 to 220 psi. Three of the test sections were intended to have an unbonded concrete-asphalt interface by applying a debonding agent in the asphalt surface. However, shear strengths between 119 and 135 psi and a careful analysis of the strain and the temperature data indicated a partial bond condition. The computer model was able to satisfactorily model the behavior of the composite pavement by mainly considering material properties from standard laboratory tests and calibrating the spring elements used to model the interface. Reasonable matches between the measured and the calculated strains were achieved when a temperature-dependent AC elastic modulus was included in the analytical model. The expected numbers of repetitions of the 24-kip single axle loads at critical thermal condition were computed for the nine test sections based on maximum tensile stresses

  18. System for cooling hybrid vehicle electronics, method for cooling hybrid vehicle electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    France, David M.; Yu, Wenhua; Singh, Dileep; Zhao, Weihuan

    2017-11-21

    The invention provides a single radiator cooling system for use in hybrid electric vehicles, the system comprising a surface in thermal communication with electronics, and subcooled boiling fluid contacting the surface. The invention also provides a single radiator method for simultaneously cooling electronics and an internal combustion engine in a hybrid electric vehicle, the method comprising separating a coolant fluid into a first portion and a second portion; directing the first portion to the electronics and the second portion to the internal combustion engine for a time sufficient to maintain the temperature of the electronics at or below 175.degree. C.; combining the first and second portion to reestablish the coolant fluid; and treating the reestablished coolant fluid to the single radiator for a time sufficient to decrease the temperature of the reestablished coolant fluid to the temperature it had before separation.

  19. Tethered Vehicle Control and Tracking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, David D. (Inventor); Aull, Mark J. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A kite system includes a kite and a ground station. The ground station includes a sensor that can be utilized to determine an angular position and velocity of the kite relative to the ground station. A controller utilizes a fuzzy logic control system to autonomously fly the kite. The system may include a ground station having powered winding units that generate power as the lines to the kite are unreeled. The control system may be configured to fly the kite in a crosswind trajectory to increase line tension for power generation. The sensors for determining the position of the kite are preferably ground-based.

  20. Aspects of the dynamics of heavy-quark systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, M.E.

    1983-12-01

    The analysis of bound states composed of heavy quarks and antiquarks has provided a window into the structure of the strong interactions. These systems contain our best evidence that the quarks from which the hadrons are built are ordinary fermions which obey the Dirac equation and which couple to electromagnetism just as electrons do. However, the heavy-quark systems which have been studied to date, the systems of c- anti c and b- anti b bound states, seem to be bound by forces which bear no obvious relation to the gluons which we expect are the fundamental mediators of the strong interactions. The essential difficulty in understanding this connection arises from the fact that the c- anti c and b- anti b systems occupy an intermediate regime in the behavior of the gauge theory. At very small distances the q- anti q potential is expected to become a Coulomb potential, directly reflecting one-gluon exchange. At very large distances, the potential should be proportional to the q- anti q separation, reflecting the formation of confining strings of color flux. For a proper understanding, one would need to see precisely how the collective behavior of gluons modifies and alters single gluon effects. We seem very far from such a detailed understanding. It is possible, however, to gain some insight into the nature of this intermediate regime by considering the behavior of q- anti q systems from a broad perspective, assembling a variety of distinct aspects of these systems which are sensitive to the properties of gauge theories at intermediate distances. 46 references.

  1. Design of a recovery system for a reentry vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Eckroth, Wulf; Garrard, William L.; Miller, Norman

    Engineers are often required to design decelerator systems which are deployed in cross-wind orientations. If the system is not designed to minimize 'line sail', damage to the parachutes could result. A Reentry Vehicle Analysis Code (RVAC) and an accompanying graphics animation software program (DISPLAY) are presented in this paper. These computer codes allow the user to quickly apply the Purvis line sail modeling technique to any vehicle and then observe the relative motion of the vehicle, nose cap, suspension lines, pilot and drogue bags and canopies on a computer screen. Data files are created which allow plots of velocities, spacial positions, and dynamic pressures versus time to be generated. The code is an important tool for the design engineer because it integrates two degrees of freedom (DOF) line sail equations with a three DOF model of the reentry body and jettisoned nose cap to provide an animated output.

  2. Design of a recovery system for a reentry vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Eckroth, Wulf; Garrard, William L.; Miller, Norman

    1993-01-01

    Engineers are often required to design decelerator systems which are deployed in cross-wind orientations. If the system is not designed to minimize 'line sail', damage to the parachutes could result. A Reentry Vehicle Analysis Code (RVAC) and an accompanying graphics animation software program (DISPLAY) are presented in this paper. These computer codes allow the user to quickly apply the Purvis line sail modeling technique to any vehicle and then observe the relative motion of the vehicle, nose cap, suspension lines, pilot and drogue bags and canopies on a computer screen. Data files are created which allow plots of velocities, spacial positions, and dynamic pressures versus time to be generated. The code is an important tool for the design engineer because it integrates two degrees of freedom (DOF) line sail equations with a three DOF model of the reentry body and jettisoned nose cap to provide an animated output.

  3. Research study: Space vehicle control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likins, P. W.; Longman, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    From the control point of view, spacecraft are classified into two main groups: those for which the spacecraft is fully defined before the control system is designed; and those for which the control system must be specified before certain interchangeable parts of a multi-purpose spacecraft are selected for future missions. Consideration is given to both classes of problems.

  4. Impact of Horizontal Curves and Percentage of Heavy Vehicles on Right Lane Capacity at Multi-lane Highways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohamed Semeida

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present research, the influence of road geometric properties and traffic characteristics on the right lane capacity value is explored for horizontal curves. The non-traditional procedure (artificial neural networks - ANNs, is adopted for modelling. The research utilizes 78 horizontal curves that provide the traffic and road geometry data, of which55 curves are classified as four-lane and the rest as six-lane ones. Two types of models are introduced to explore the right lane capacity as capacity at curves, and the capacity loss between curves and tangents. The results show that, for horizontal curves, the most effective variables affecting both road types are the percentage of heavy vehicles in traffic composition (HV followed by radius of curve (R, and the lane width (LW. Furthermore, the capacity loss is also highly affected by R followed by HV. The derived outcomes present a remarkable move towards the beginning of an Egyptian highway design guide.

  5. Integrating Sensory/Actuation Systems in Agricultural Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmi, Luis; Gonzalez-de-Soto, Mariano; Pajares, Gonzalo; Gonzalez-de-Santos, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, there have been major advances in the development of new and more powerful perception systems for agriculture, such as computer-vision and global positioning systems. Due to these advances, the automation of agricultural tasks has received an important stimulus, especially in the area of selective weed control where high precision is essential for the proper use of resources and the implementation of more efficient treatments. Such autonomous agricultural systems incorporate and integrate perception systems for acquiring information from the environment, decision-making systems for interpreting and analyzing such information, and actuation systems that are responsible for performing the agricultural operations. These systems consist of different sensors, actuators, and computers that work synchronously in a specific architecture for the intended purpose. The main contribution of this paper is the selection, arrangement, integration, and synchronization of these systems to form a whole autonomous vehicle for agricultural applications. This type of vehicle has attracted growing interest, not only for researchers but also for manufacturers and farmers. The experimental results demonstrate the success and performance of the integrated system in guidance and weed control tasks in a maize field, indicating its utility and efficiency. The whole system is sufficiently flexible for use in other agricultural tasks with little effort and is another important contribution in the field of autonomous agricultural vehicles. PMID:24577525

  6. Integrating Sensory/Actuation Systems in Agricultural Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Emmi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there have been major advances in the development of new and more powerful perception systems for agriculture, such as computer-vision and global positioning systems. Due to these advances, the automation of agricultural tasks has received an important stimulus, especially in the area of selective weed control where high precision is essential for the proper use of resources and the implementation of more efficient treatments. Such autonomous agricultural systems incorporate and integrate perception systems for acquiring information from the environment, decision-making systems for interpreting and analyzing such information, and actuation systems that are responsible for performing the agricultural operations. These systems consist of different sensors, actuators, and computers that work synchronously in a specific architecture for the intended purpose. The main contribution of this paper is the selection, arrangement, integration, and synchronization of these systems to form a whole autonomous vehicle for agricultural applications. This type of vehicle has attracted growing interest, not only for researchers but also for manufacturers and farmers. The experimental results demonstrate the success and performance of the integrated system in guidance and weed control tasks in a maize field, indicating its utility and efficiency. The whole system is sufficiently flexible for use in other agricultural tasks with little effort and is another important contribution in the field of autonomous agricultural vehicles.

  7. Requirements towards an ecologically based heavy vehicle charge for road haulage; Anforderungen an eine umweltorientierte Schwerverkehrsabgabe fuer den Strassengueterverkehr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothengatter, W.; Doll, K.

    2001-10-01

    The report investigates the consequences of introducing a kilometre-based road user charge for heavy goods vehicles with a gross weight over 12 tons on the German inter-urban road network in 2003. Starting from the calculations of average road infrastructure costs presented by the Government Commission for Infrastructure Financing in September 2000, toll levels of 0.25 DM exclusively on the motorway network and 0.40 DM on the entire inter-urban road network are used for the scenario development. In the latter case an additional improvement of railway service supply is considered. In all pricing scenarios charges are differentiated by vehicle weight (12 t-18 t, >18 t) and by emission standard (Pre-Euro - Euro-5). The effects of the resulting three pricing scenarios investigated embrace the shift of traffic to the secondary road network, productivity increase within the transport sector, effects on the fleet structure and the reactions of shippers with respect to transport demand, modal choice and location choice. For these purpose, different models, data sources and current experiences, mainly from Switzerland, have been applied. The results are expressed in changes of the vehicle mileage and the development of an environmental cost indicator by mode, road type, vehicle weight and emission factor in 2010. The study concludes, that due to the application of efficiency measures, increased cost burdens of the hauliers can be partly compensated. Thus, the estimated shift of demand from road to rail is found to be rather modest. In case of a charge of 0.40 DM on the entire road network, combined with an improved rail supply the demand for rail transport is estimated to increase by 14%, while road traffic decreases by only 3.3%. In case only the motorways are priced, a shift of vehicle mileage of 4% to the secondary network is calculated. Very positive conclusions are drawn on the possibility of increasing the share of clean lorries by a differentiation of tariffs by

  8. Posture estimation system for underground mine vehicles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hlophe, K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available International Conference of CAD/CAM, Robotics & Factories of the Future Conference, 13-16 July 2010, Pretoria, South Africa derivative of the work done at Olivetti Research Lab under the banner of the Active Badge [1], the DOLPHIN [2][3], which... of current indoor positioning systems, Vilniaus Gedimino Technikos Universitetas - Geodesy and Cartography, 2009. [2] Fukuju T., Minami M., Morikawa H., Aoyama T., Dolphin: An autonomous indoor positioning system in ubiquitous computing environment, Proc...

  9. A Noise-Insensitive Semi-Active Air Suspension for Heavy-Duty Vehicles with an Integrated Fuzzy-Wheelbase Preview Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengchao Xie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Semi-active air suspension is increasingly used on heavy-duty vehicles due to its capabilities of consuming less power and low cost and providing better ride quality. In this study, a new low cost but effective approach, fuzzy-wheelbase preview controller with wavelet denoising filter (FPW, is developed for semi-active air suspension system. A semi-active suspension system with a rolling lobe air spring is firstly modeled and a novel front axle vertical acceleration-based road prediction model is constructed. By adopting a sensor on the front axle, the road prediction model can predict more reliable road information for the rear wheel. After filtering useless signal noise, the proposed FPW can generate a noise-insensitive control damping force. Simulation results show that the ride quality, the road holding, the handling capability, the road friendliness, and the comprehensive performance of the semi-active air suspension with FPW outperform those with the traditional active suspension with PID-wheelbase preview controller (APP. It can also be seen that, with the addition of the wavelet filter, the impact of sensor noise on the suspension performance can be minimized.

  10. Propulsion system research and development for electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1980-01-01

    An approach to propulsion subsystem technology is presented. Various tests of component reliability are described to aid in the production of better quality vehicles. component characterization work is described to provide engineering data to manufacturers on component performance and on important component propulsion system interactions.

  11. Mechanical Design of a Manipulation System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keemink, A.Q.L.; Fumagalli, M.; Stramigioli, S.; Carloni, R.

    In this paper, we present the mechanical design and modeling of a manipulation system for unmanned aerial vehicles, which have to physically interact with environments and perform ultrasonic non-destructive testing experiments and other versatile tasks at unreachable locations for humans. The

  12. Traffic control and intelligent vehicle highway systems: a survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baskar, L.D.; Schutter, B. de; Hellendoorn, J.; Papp, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Traffic congestion in highway networks is one of the main issues to be addressed by today's traffic management schemes. Automation combined with the increasing market penetration of on-line communication, navigation and advanced driver assistance systems will ultimately result in intelligent vehicle

  13. Space vehicle electromechanical system and helical antenna winding fixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Stephen; Dallmann, Nicholas; Guenther, David; Enemark, Donald; Seitz, Daniel; Martinez, John; Storms, Steven

    2017-12-26

    A space vehicle electromechanical system may employ an architecture that enables convenient and practical testing, reset, and retesting of solar panel and antenna deployment on the ground. A helical antenna winding fixture may facilitate winding and binding of the helical antenna.

  14. Volvo Trucks field operational test : evaluation of advanced safety systems for heavy truck tractors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-02-15

    The Intelligent Vehicle Initiative (IVI) was established by the United States Department of Transportation as an integral part of the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) program. By reducing the probability of motor vehicle collisions, the IVI wa...

  15. Overview of Particle and Heavy Ion Transport Code System PHITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tatsuhiko; Niita, Koji; Matsuda, Norihiro; Hashimoto, Shintaro; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Furuta, Takuya; Noda, Shusaku; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Iwase, Hiroshi; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Fukahori, Tokio; Okumura, Keisuke; Kai, Tetsuya; Chiba, Satoshi; Sihver, Lembit

    2014-06-01

    A general purpose Monte Carlo Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System, PHITS, is being developed through the collaboration of several institutes in Japan and Europe. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency is responsible for managing the entire project. PHITS can deal with the transport of nearly all particles, including neutrons, protons, heavy ions, photons, and electrons, over wide energy ranges using various nuclear reaction models and data libraries. It is written in Fortran language and can be executed on almost all computers. All components of PHITS such as its source, executable and data-library files are assembled in one package and then distributed to many countries via the Research organization for Information Science and Technology, the Data Bank of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development's Nuclear Energy Agency, and the Radiation Safety Information Computational Center. More than 1,000 researchers have been registered as PHITS users, and they apply the code to various research and development fields such as nuclear technology, accelerator design, medical physics, and cosmic-ray research. This paper briefly summarizes the physics models implemented in PHITS, and introduces some important functions useful for specific applications, such as an event generator mode and beam transport functions.

  16. Empirical membrane lifetime model for heavy duty fuel cell systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macauley, Natalia; Watson, Mark; Lauritzen, Michael; Knights, Shanna; Wang, G. Gary; Kjeang, Erik

    2016-12-01

    Heavy duty fuel cells used in transportation system applications such as transit buses expose the fuel cell membranes to conditions that can lead to lifetime-limiting membrane failure via combined chemical and mechanical degradation. Highly durable membranes and reliable predictive models are therefore needed in order to achieve the ultimate heavy duty fuel cell lifetime target of 25,000 h. In the present work, an empirical membrane lifetime model was developed based on laboratory data from a suite of accelerated membrane durability tests. The model considers the effects of cell voltage, temperature, oxygen concentration, humidity cycling, humidity level, and platinum in the membrane using inverse power law and exponential relationships within the framework of a general log-linear Weibull life-stress statistical distribution. The obtained model is capable of extrapolating the membrane lifetime from accelerated test conditions to use level conditions during field operation. Based on typical conditions for the Whistler, British Columbia fuel cell transit bus fleet, the model predicts a stack lifetime of 17,500 h and a membrane leak initiation time of 9200 h. Validation performed with the aid of a field operated stack confirmed the initial goal of the model to predict membrane lifetime within 20% of the actual operating time.

  17. Electric Vehicles in Power Systems with 50% Wind Power Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jacob; Foosnæs, Anders; Xu, Zhao

    2009-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) provide a unique opportunity to reduce the CO2-emissions from the transport sector. At the same time, EVs have the potential to play an important role in an economic and reliable operation of an electricity system with high penetration of renewable energy. EVs...... will be an important balancing measure to enable the Danish government’s energy strategy, which implies 50% wind power penetration in the electric power system. An EV will be a storage device for smoothing power fluctuations from renewable resources especially wind power and provide valuable system services...... for a reliable power system operation. Cost-benefit analysis shows that intelligent bidirectional charging – vehicle to grid (V2G) – provides a socio-economic profit of 150 million Euro/year in the Danish electric power system in 2025 assuming that 15% of the Danish road transport need is supplied by electricity...

  18. An Integrated Heavy Fuel Piston Engine Ducted Fan Propulsion Unit for Personal Air Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed PAVE propulsion system technology demonstration combines an innovative high-speed aero-diesel engine with a novel ducted fan assembly resulting in a low...

  19. 49 CFR 571.135 - Standard No. 135; Light vehicle brake systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... is conducted with no electrical power supplied to the vehicle's propulsion motor(s), but with the RBS... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard No. 135; Light vehicle brake systems. 571... Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.135 Standard No. 135; Light vehicle brake systems. S1. Scope...

  20. Intelligent Unmanned Vehicle Systems Suitable For Individual or Cooperative Missions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew O. Anderson; Mark D. McKay; Derek C. Wadsworth

    2007-04-01

    The Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been researching autonomous unmanned vehicle systems for the past several years. Areas of research have included unmanned ground and aerial vehicles used for hazardous and remote operations as well as teamed together for advanced payloads and mission execution. Areas of application include aerial particulate sampling, cooperative remote radiological sampling, and persistent surveillance including real-time mosaic and geo-referenced imagery in addition to high resolution still imagery. Both fixed-wing and rotary airframes are used possessing capabilities spanning remote control to fully autonomous operation. Patented INL-developed auto steering technology is taken advantage of to provide autonomous parallel path swathing with either manned or unmanned ground vehicles. Aerial look-ahead imagery is utilized to provide a common operating picture for the ground and air vehicle during cooperative missions. This paper will discuss the various robotic vehicles, including sensor integration, used to achieve these missions and anticipated cost and labor savings.

  1. Systems design analysis applied to launch vehicle configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, R.; Verderaime, V.

    1993-01-01

    As emphasis shifts from optimum-performance aerospace systems to least lift-cycle costs, systems designs must seek, adapt, and innovate cost improvement techniques in design through operations. The systems design process of concept, definition, and design was assessed for the types and flow of total quality management techniques that may be applicable in a launch vehicle systems design analysis. Techniques discussed are task ordering, quality leverage, concurrent engineering, Pareto's principle, robustness, quality function deployment, criteria, and others. These cost oriented techniques are as applicable to aerospace systems design analysis as to any large commercial system.

  2. How to Close the Loop of Platinum from Heavy Vehicles Catalytic Converters? : Framework to Evaluate the Impact of Several Promising Action Levers

    OpenAIRE

    Saidani, Michael; Yannou, Bernard; Leroy, Yann; Cluzel, François

    2017-01-01

    International audience; The issue of recovering platinum from catalytic converter of heavy vehicles, arises for economic (high valuable component due to the non-negligible presence of platinum that costs around 30 €/g), environmental (low platinum concentration in mines (below 10 g/t) required large consumption of energy), social (ore mining conditions are increasingly drastic) and geostrategic (more than 90% of platinum stock is located in South Africa and Russia) reasons. Even if some margi...

  3. An energetic analysis in a heavy commercial vehicle with regard to thermal recuperation measures; Energetische Analyse im schweren Nutzfahrzeug im Hinblick auf thermische Rekuperationsmassnahmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernath, Michael; Wachtmeister, Georg [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Verbrennungskraftmaschinen; Swoboda, Jan; Karl, Christian [MAN Trucks and Bus AG, Muenchen (Germany); Sterzenbach, Marcel [Modelon GmbH, Gilching (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    Due to the expected end of fossil resources and the associated increase in price, the spent fuel energy in vehicles needs to be used more efficiently in future. Today's commercial vehicles emit more than 50% of the fuel energy as waste heat into the environment. Two thirds are lost through the engine cooling system and one third through the exhaust gas system. Thermal heat recuperation is a potential solution to increase the total efficiency of a commercial vehicle. In order to achieve optimum recuperation of the waste heat, a detailed energy balance of the vehicle needs to be established together with the analysis of back coupling effects. Simulation tools are used to control the complex interactions between vehicle and cooling system, efficiently. In this case, a simulation model for longitudinal vehicle dynamics is coupled with a 1D-model, which describes the heat and mass flows in the cooling system. Based on this the most profitable sources for heat recuperation are identified and quantified with an energy analysis. Furthermore analysing the total vehicle system helps to observe back coupling effects of the heat recuperation system. These include particularly the additional heat flow in the cooling system and the increased exhaust gas back pressure. A transient analysis of the vehicle with the recuperation system can predict the maximum achievable fuel saving potentials. The analysis of the total vehicle system allows a comprehensive contemplation and evaluation of the implemented measures. The understanding of the total vehicle system is enhanced and conclusions can be drawn on the potentials of considered approaches for heat recuperation. This approach is the first step towards the optimal utilization of thermal recuperation in commercial vehicles. (orig.)

  4. Heavy metals effects on proteolytic system in sunflower leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Liliana B; Zawoznik, Myriam S; Tomaro, María L; Gallego, Susana M

    2008-06-01

    Plant proteolytic system includes proteases, mainly localized inside the organelles, and the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in both, the cytoplasm and the nucleus. It was recently demonstrated that under severe Cd stress sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) proteasome activity is reduced and this results in accumulation of oxidized proteins. In order to test if under other heavy metal stresses sunflower proteolytic system undergoes similar changes, an hydroponic experiment was carried out. Ten days old sunflower plants were transferred to hydroponic culture solutions devoid (control) or containing 100 microM of AlCl(3), CoCl(2), CuCl(2), CrCl(3), HgCl(2), NiCl(2), PbCl(2) or ZnCl(2) and analyzed for protein oxidative damage and proteolytic activities. After 4 days of metal treatment, only Co(2+), Cu(2+), Hg(2+), and Ni(2+) were found to increase carbonyl groups content. Except for Al(3+) and Zn(2+), all metals tested significantly reduced all proteasome activities (chymotrypsin-like, trypsin-like and PGPH) and acid and neutral proteases activities. The effect on basic proteases was more variable. Abundance of 20S protein after metal treatments was similar to that obtained for control samples. Co(2+), Cu(2+), Hg(2+), Ni(2+), Cr(3+), and Pb(2+) induced accumulation of ubiquitin conjugated proteins. It is concluded that heavy metal effects on proteolytic system cannot be generalized; however, impairment of proteasome functionality and decreased proteases activities seem to be a common feature involved in metal toxicity to plants.

  5. AC propulsion system for an electric vehicle, phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slicker, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    A second-generation prototype ac propulsion system for a passenger electric vehicle was designed, fabricated, tested, installed in a modified Mercury Lynx vehicle and track tested at the Contractor's site. The system consisted of a Phase 2, 18.7 kw rated ac induction traction motor, a 192-volt, battery powered, pulse-width-modulated, transistorized inverter packaged for under rear seat installation, a 2-axis, 2-speed, automatically-shifted mechanical transaxle and a microprocessor-based powertrain/vehicle controller. A diagnostics computer to assist tuning and fault finding was fabricated. Dc-to-mechanical-system efficiency varied from 78% to 82% as axle speed/torque ranged from 159 rpm/788 nm to 65 rpm/328 nm. Track test efficiency results suggest that the ac system will be equal or superior to dc systems when driving urban cycles. Additional short-term work is being performed under a third contract phase (AC-3) to raise transaxle efficiency to predicted levels, and to improve starting and shifting characteristics. However, the long-term challenge to the system's viability remains inverter cost. A final report on the Phase 2 system, describing Phase 3 modifications, will be issued at the conclusion of AC-3.

  6. Machine-Vision Systems Selection for Agricultural Vehicles: A Guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Pajares

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Machine vision systems are becoming increasingly common onboard agricultural vehicles (autonomous and non-autonomous for different tasks. This paper provides guidelines for selecting machine-vision systems for optimum performance, considering the adverse conditions on these outdoor environments with high variability on the illumination, irregular terrain conditions or different plant growth states, among others. In this regard, three main topics have been conveniently addressed for the best selection: (a spectral bands (visible and infrared; (b imaging sensors and optical systems (including intrinsic parameters and (c geometric visual system arrangement (considering extrinsic parameters and stereovision systems. A general overview, with detailed description and technical support, is provided for each topic with illustrative examples focused on specific applications in agriculture, although they could be applied in different contexts other than agricultural. A case study is provided as a result of research in the RHEA (Robot Fleets for Highly Effective Agriculture and Forestry Management project for effective weed control in maize fields (wide-rows crops, funded by the European Union, where the machine vision system onboard the autonomous vehicles was the most important part of the full perception system, where machine vision was the most relevant. Details and results about crop row detection, weed patches identification, autonomous vehicle guidance and obstacle detection are provided together with a review of methods and approaches on these topics.

  7. Optimal Vibration Control for Tracked Vehicle Suspension Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Jun Liang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Technique of optimal vibration control with exponential decay rate and simulation for vehicle active suspension systems is developed. Mechanical model and dynamic system for a class of tracked vehicle suspension vibration control is established and the corresponding system of state space form is described. In order to prolong the working life of suspension system and improve ride comfort, based on the active suspension vibration control devices and using optimal control approach, an optimal vibration controller with exponential decay rate is designed. Numerical simulations are carried out, and the control effects of the ordinary optimal controller and the proposed controller are compared. Numerical simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  8. Evaluating the effectiveness of active vehicle safety systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eunbi; Oh, Cheol

    2017-03-01

    Advanced vehicle safety systems have been widely introduced in transportation systems and are expected to enhance traffic safety. However, these technologies mainly focus on assisting individual vehicles that are equipped with them, and less effort has been made to identify the effect of vehicular technologies on the traffic stream. This study proposed a methodology to assess the effectiveness of active vehicle safety systems (AVSSs), which represent a promising technology to prevent traffic crashes and mitigate injury severity. The proposed AVSS consists of longitudinal and lateral vehicle control systems, which corresponds to the Level 2 vehicle automation presented by the National Highway Safety Administration (NHTSA). The effectiveness evaluation for the proposed technology was conducted in terms of crash potential reduction and congestion mitigation. A microscopic traffic simulator, VISSIM, was used to simulate freeway traffic stream and collect vehicle-maneuvering data. In addition, an external application program interface, VISSIM's COM-interface, was used to implement the AVSS. A surrogate safety assessment model (SSAM) was used to derive indirect safety measures to evaluate the effectiveness of the AVSS. A 16.7-km freeway stretch between the Nakdong and Seonsan interchanges on Korean freeway 45 was selected for the simulation experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of AVSS. A total of five simulation runs for each evaluation scenario were conducted. For the non-incident conditions, the rear-end and lane-change conflicts were reduced by 78.8% and 17.3%, respectively, under the level of service (LOS) D traffic conditions. In addition, the average delay was reduced by 55.5%. However, the system's effectiveness was weakened in the LOS A-C categories. Under incident traffic conditions, the number of rear-end conflicts was reduced by approximately 9.7%. Vehicle delays were reduced by approximately 43.9% with 100% of market penetration rate (MPR). These results

  9. Demonstration of Heavy Hybrid Diesel Fleet Vehicles Final Report Version 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-29

    conventional engine and the battery pack. It is integrated together with the APGEN’s inverter software and electric P (ePTO) software that controls...Transfer Case Oil Check Level Baseline, 6-Months Brake Pads Thickness Baseline, 6-Months *HEV Sub-System Cases: Power Electronics Carrier, Inverter ...light illumination during regenerative braking events. Chassis supplier representatives provided classroom instruction covering primary maintenance

  10. A Hydraulic Blowdown Servo System For Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Anping; Deng, Tao

    2016-07-01

    This paper introduced a hydraulic blowdown servo system developed for a solid launch vehicle of the family of Chinese Long March Vehicles. It's the thrust vector control (TVC) system for the first stage. This system is a cold gas blowdown hydraulic servo system and consist of gas vessel, hydraulic reservoir, servo actuator, digital control unit (DCU), electric explosion valve, and pressure regulator etc. A brief description of the main assemblies and characteristics follows. a) Gas vessel is a resin/carbon fiber composite over wrapped pressure vessel with a titanium liner, The volume of the vessel is about 30 liters. b) Hydraulic reservoir is a titanium alloy piston type reservoir with a magnetostrictive sensor as the fluid level indicator. The volume of the reservoir is about 30 liters. c) Servo actuator is a equal area linear piston actuator with a 2-stage low null leakage servo valve and a linear variable differential transducer (LVDT) feedback the piston position, Its stall force is about 120kN. d) Digital control unit (DCU) is a compact digital controller based on digital signal processor (DSP), and deployed dual redundant 1553B digital busses to communicate with the on board computer. e) Electric explosion valve is a normally closed valve to confine the high pressure helium gas. f) Pressure regulator is a spring-loaded poppet pressure valve, and regulates the gas pressure from about 60MPa to about 24MPa. g) The whole system is mounted in the aft skirt of the vehicle. h) This system delivers approximately 40kW hydraulic power, by contrast, the total mass is less than 190kg. the power mass ratio is about 0.21. Have finished the development and the system test. Bench and motor static firing tests verified that all of the performances have met the design requirements. This servo system is complaint to use of the solid launch vehicle.

  11. An electric vehicle driving behavior model in the traffic system with a wireless charging lane

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jia; Huang, Hai-Jun; Yang, Hai; Tang, Tie-Qiao

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a car-following model is proposed to study each EV's (electric vehicle) motion behavior near the WCL (wireless charging lane) and a lane-changing rule is designed to describe the EV's lane-changing behavior. Then, the car-following model and lane-changing rule are used to explore each EV's micro driving behavior in a two-lane system with a WCL. Finally, the impacts of the WCL on each EV's motion behavior are investigated. The numerical results show that each EV should run slowly on the WCL if it needs charge of electricity, that the EV's lane-changing behavior has great effects on the whole system, that the delay time caused by the WCL turns more prominent when the traffic turns heavy, and that lane-changing frequently occurs near the WCL (especially at the downstream of the WCL).

  12. Optimization and Control of Cyber-Physical Vehicle Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Justin M; Atkins, Ella M

    2015-09-11

    A cyber-physical system (CPS) is composed of tightly-integrated computation, communication and physical elements. Medical devices, buildings, mobile devices, robots, transportation and energy systems can benefit from CPS co-design and optimization techniques. Cyber-physical vehicle systems (CPVSs) are rapidly advancing due to progress in real-time computing, control and artificial intelligence. Multidisciplinary or multi-objective design optimization maximizes CPS efficiency, capability and safety, while online regulation enables the vehicle to be responsive to disturbances, modeling errors and uncertainties. CPVS optimization occurs at design-time and at run-time. This paper surveys the run-time cooperative optimization or co-optimization of cyber and physical systems, which have historically been considered separately. A run-time CPVS is also cooperatively regulated or co-regulated when cyber and physical resources are utilized in a manner that is responsive to both cyber and physical system requirements. This paper surveys research that considers both cyber and physical resources in co-optimization and co-regulation schemes with applications to mobile robotic and vehicle systems. Time-varying sampling patterns, sensor scheduling, anytime control, feedback scheduling, task and motion planning and resource sharing are examined.

  13. Optimization and Control of Cyber-Physical Vehicle Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Justin M.; Atkins, Ella M.

    2015-01-01

    A cyber-physical system (CPS) is composed of tightly-integrated computation, communication and physical elements. Medical devices, buildings, mobile devices, robots, transportation and energy systems can benefit from CPS co-design and optimization techniques. Cyber-physical vehicle systems (CPVSs) are rapidly advancing due to progress in real-time computing, control and artificial intelligence. Multidisciplinary or multi-objective design optimization maximizes CPS efficiency, capability and safety, while online regulation enables the vehicle to be responsive to disturbances, modeling errors and uncertainties. CPVS optimization occurs at design-time and at run-time. This paper surveys the run-time cooperative optimization or co-optimization of cyber and physical systems, which have historically been considered separately. A run-time CPVS is also cooperatively regulated or co-regulated when cyber and physical resources are utilized in a manner that is responsive to both cyber and physical system requirements. This paper surveys research that considers both cyber and physical resources in co-optimization and co-regulation schemes with applications to mobile robotic and vehicle systems. Time-varying sampling patterns, sensor scheduling, anytime control, feedback scheduling, task and motion planning and resource sharing are examined. PMID:26378541

  14. Optimization and Control of Cyber-Physical Vehicle Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin M. Bradley

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A cyber-physical system (CPS is composed of tightly-integrated computation, communication and physical elements. Medical devices, buildings, mobile devices, robots, transportation and energy systems can benefit from CPS co-design and optimization techniques. Cyber-physical vehicle systems (CPVSs are rapidly advancing due to progress in real-time computing, control and artificial intelligence. Multidisciplinary or multi-objective design optimization maximizes CPS efficiency, capability and safety, while online regulation enables the vehicle to be responsive to disturbances, modeling errors and uncertainties. CPVS optimization occurs at design-time and at run-time. This paper surveys the run-time cooperative optimization or co-optimization of cyber and physical systems, which have historically been considered separately. A run-time CPVS is also cooperatively regulated or co-regulated when cyber and physical resources are utilized in a manner that is responsive to both cyber and physical system requirements. This paper surveys research that considers both cyber and physical resources in co-optimization and co-regulation schemes with applications to mobile robotic and vehicle systems. Time-varying sampling patterns, sensor scheduling, anytime control, feedback scheduling, task and motion planning and resource sharing are examined.

  15. ATHLETE: A Limbed Vehicle for Solar System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian H.

    2012-01-01

    As part of the Human-Robot Systems project funded by NASA, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory has developed a vehicle called ATHLETE: the All-Terrain Hex-Limbed Extra-Terrestrial Explorer. Each vehicle is based on six wheels at the ends of six multi-degree-of-freedom limbs. Because each limb has enough degrees of freedom for use as a general-purpose leg, the wheels can be locked and used as feet to walk out of excessively soft or other extreme terrain. Since the vehicle has this alternative mode of traversing through or at least out of extreme terrain, the wheels and wheel actuators can be sized for nominal terrain. There are substantial mass savings in the wheel and wheel actuators associated with designing for nominal instead of extreme terrain. These mass savings are comparable-to or larger-than the extra mass associated with the articulated limbs. As a result, the entire mobility system, including wheels and limbs, can be about 25% lighter than a conventional mobility chassis. A side benefit of this approach is that each limb has sufficient degrees-of-freedom to use as a general-purpose manipulator (hence the name "limb" instead of "leg"). Our prototype ATHLETE vehicles have quick-disconnect tool adapters on the limbs that allow tools to be drawn out of a "tool belt" and maneuvered by the limb.

  16. Modelling of structural flexiblity in multibody railroad vehicle systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona, José L.; Sugiyama, Hiroyuki; Shabana, Ahmed A.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a review of recent research investigations on the computer modelling of flexible bodies in railroad vehicle systems. The paper will also discuss the influence of the structural flexibility of various components, including the wheelset, the truck frames, tracks, pantograph/catenary systems, and car bodies, on the dynamics of railroad vehicles. While several formulations and computer techniques for modelling structural flexibility are discussed in this paper, a special attention is paid to the floating frame of reference formulation which is widely used and leads to reduced-order finite-element models for flexible bodies by employing component modes synthesis techniques. Other formulations and numerical methods such as semi-analytical approaches, absolute nodal coordinate formulation, finite-segment method, boundary elements method, and discrete elements method are also discussed. This investigation is motivated by the fact that the structural flexibility can have a significant effect on the overall dynamics of railroad vehicles, ride comfort, vibration suppression and noise level reduction, lateral stability, track response to vehicle forces, stress analysis, wheel-rail contact forces, wear and crashworthiness.

  17. SCR systems for heavy duty trucks: progress towards meeting EURO 4 emissions standards in 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, W.; Huethwohl, G.; Maurer, B. [PUREM Abgassysteme GMBH und Co. KG, Unna (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    SCR technology was used with diesel engines starting mid of the 80s. First applications were stationary operating generator-sets. In 1991 a joint development between DaimlerChrysler, MAN, IVECO and Siemens was started to use SCR technology for the reduction of heavy duty trucks. Several fleet tests demonstrated the durability of the systems. The efficient NO{sub x} reduction of the catalyst allows an engine calibration for low fuel consumption. DaimlerChrysler decided to use the SCR technology on every heavy duty truck and bus in Europe and many other truck manufacturers will introduce SCR technology to fulfil the 2005 emission regulation. The truck manufacturers in Europe agreed to use aqueous solution of Urea as reducing agent. The product is called AdBlue. AdBlue is a non toxic, non smelling liquid. The consumption is about 5% of the diesel fuel consumption to reduce the NO{sub x} emissions. A small AdBlue tank has to be installed to the vehicle. With an electronically controlled dosing system the AdBlue is injected into the exhaust. The dosing system is simple and durable. It has proven its durability during winter and summer testing as well as in fleet tests. An insight is given to some of the extreme testing procedures which the systems and components are exposed to. The infrastructure for AdBlue is under evaluation in Europe by Urea Producers and Mineral Oil companies to be readily available in time. Urea is one of the most common chemical products in the world and the production and the distribution very much experienced. However, a pure grade is needed for automotive application and requires special attention. (orig.)

  18. A Study of Vehicle Detection and Counting System Based on Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang XU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available About the video image processing's vehicle detection and counting system research, which has video vehicle detection, vehicle targets' image processing, and vehicle counting function. Vehicle detection is the use of inter-frame difference method and vehicle shadow segmentation techniques for vehicle testing. Image processing functions is the use of color image gray processing, image segmentation, mathematical morphology analysis and image fills, etc. on target detection to be processed, and then the target vehicle extraction. Counting function is to count the detected vehicle. The system is the use of inter-frame video difference method to detect vehicle and the use of the method of adding frame to vehicle and boundary comparison method to complete the counting function, with high recognition rate, fast, and easy operation. The purpose of this paper is to enhance traffic management modernization and automation levels. According to this study, it can provide a reference for the future development of related applications.

  19. Impact of heavy metals on the female reproductive system

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Rzymski; Katarzyna Tomczyk; Pawel Rzymski; Barbara Poniedziałek; Tomasz Opala; Maciej Wilczak

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. It has been recognized that environmental pollution can affect the quality of health of the human population. Heavy metals are among the group of highly emitted contaminants and their adverse effect of living organisms has been widely studied in recent decades. Lifestyle and quality of the ambient environment are among these factors which can mainly contribute to the heavy metals exposure in humans. Objective. A review of literature linking heavy metals and the female repr...

  20. Hopf Bifurcation Characteristics of Dual-Front Axle Self-Excited Shimmy System for Heavy Truck considering Dry Friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daogao Wei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiaxle steering is widely used in commercial vehicles. However, the mechanism of the self-excited shimmy produced by the multiaxle steering system is not clear until now. This study takes a dual-front axle heavy truck as sample vehicle and considers the influences of mid-shift transmission and dry friction to develop a 9 DOF dynamics model based on Lagrange’s equation. Based on the Hopf bifurcation theorem and center manifold theory, the study shows that dual-front axle shimmy is a self-excited vibration produced from Hopf bifurcation. The numerical method is adopted to determine how the size of dry friction torque influences the Hopf bifurcation characteristics of the system and to analyze the speed range of limit cycles and numerical characteristics of the shimmy system. The consistency of results of the qualitative and numerical methods shows that qualitative methods can predict the bifurcation characteristics of shimmy systems. The influences of the main system parameters on the shimmy system are also discussed. Improving the steering transition rod stiffness and dry friction torque and selecting a smaller pneumatic trail and caster angle can reduce the self-excited shimmy, reduce tire wear, and improve the driving stability of vehicles.

  1. Determination of single particle mass spectral signatures from heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions for PM 2.5 source apportionment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Laura G.; Suess, David T.; Prather, Kimberly A.

    The size and chemical composition of individual diesel exhaust particles were measured in order to determine unique mass spectral signatures that can be used to identify particle sources in future ambient studies. The exhaust emissions from seven in-use heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) operating on a chassis dynamometer were passed through a dilution tunnel and residence chamber and analyzed in real time by aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ATOFMS). Seven distinct particle types describe the majority of particles emitted by HDDVs and were emitted by all seven vehicles. The dominant chemical types originated from unburned lubricant oil, and the contributions of the various types varied with particle size and driving conditions. A comparison of light-duty vehicle (LDV) exhaust particles with the HDDV signatures provide insight into the challenges associated with developing an accurate source apportionment technique and possible ways of how they may be overcome.

  2. A Microcontroller Based Car-Safety System Implementing Drowsiness Detection And Vehicle-Vehicle Distance Detection In Parallel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragyaditya Das.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Accidents due to drowsiness can be controlled and prevented with the help of eye blink sensor using IR rays. It consists of IR transmitter and an IR receiver. The transmitter transmits IR rays into the eye. If the eye is shut then the output is high. If the eye is open then the output is low. This output is interfaced with an alarm inside and outside the vehicle. This module can be connected to the braking system of the vehicle and can be used to reduce the speed of the vehicle. The alarm inside the vehicle will go on for a period of time until the driver is back to his senses. If the driver is unable to take control of the vehicle after that stipulated amount of time then the alarm outside the vehicle will go on to warn and tell others to help the driver.

  3. System Design and Implementation of Smart Dashboard for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Sheng Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the development of automobile focuses on the chassis structure and motion control. However, due to the concept of smart and safe vehicle, the integrated dashboard becomes a necessary issue. The proposed system can not only represent the conventional dashboard in a digital form but also endow the system with an intelligent guidance. The statuses such as speed, battery SOC, braking, mileage, and the activation of TCS and ABS can be seen and monitored in all driving scenarios. For example, the current modern electric vehicles face the danger of self-ignition problem when the over load problem is consisted. Basically, these severe conditions can be eliminated by a guard of smart interface. Consequently, under a proper design, the presented system can assist the driver to maintain the energy efficiency, steering stability, and so on. Then the operation procedure can be simplified and hence driver can concentrate more on steering.

  4. Development of portable measuring system for testing of electrical vehicle's heat energy recovery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvajcz, K.; Váradiné Szarka, A.

    2016-11-01

    Nowadays the consumer society applies a huge amount of energy in many fields including transportation sector. Internal combustion vehicles contribute substantially to the air pollution. An alternative solution for reducing energy consumption is replacing the internal combustion vehicles by electrical or hybrid vehicles. Today one of the biggest disadvantages of the electrical vehicles is the finite capacity of batteries. The research topic presented in this paper is the „Energy Harvesting”, and development of energy recovery system for electrical vehicles which largely contributes in increasing the driving range. At the current phase of the research efficiency analysis of the heat energy recovery devices are investigated in real driving circumstances. Computer based mobile and wireless measurement system for the analysis was developed, tested and installed in a real vehicle. Driving tests were performed and analysed in different circumstances.

  5. Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Program for Passenger Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovovic, Vladimir [Gentherm Incorporated, Azusa, CA (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Gentherm began work in October 2011 to develop a Thermoelectric Waste Energy Recovery System for passenger vehicle applications. Partners in this program were BMW and Tenneco. Tenneco, in the role of TIER 1 supplier, developed the system-level packaging of the thermoelectric power generator. As the OEM, BMW Group demonstrated the TEG system in their vehicle in the final program phase. Gentherm demonstrated the performance of the TEG in medium duty and heavy duty vehicles. Technology developed and demonstrated in this program showed potential to reduce fuel consumption in medium and heavy duty vehicles. In light duty vehicles it showed more modest potential.

  6. Legacy Vehicle Fuel System Testing with Intermediate Ethanol Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, G. W.; Hoff, C. J.; Borton, Z.; Ratcliff, M. A.

    2012-03-01

    The effects of E10 and E17 on legacy fuel system components from three common mid-1990s vintage vehicle models (Ford, GM, and Toyota) were studied. The fuel systems comprised a fuel sending unit with pump, a fuel rail and integrated pressure regulator, and the fuel injectors. The fuel system components were characterized and then installed and tested in sample aging test rigs to simulate the exposure and operation of the fuel system components in an operating vehicle. The fuel injectors were cycled with varying pulse widths during pump operation. Operational performance, such as fuel flow and pressure, was monitored during the aging tests. Both of the Toyota fuel pumps demonstrated some degradation in performance during testing. Six injectors were tested in each aging rig. The Ford and GM injectors showed little change over the aging tests. Overall, based on the results of both the fuel pump testing and the fuel injector testing, no major failures were observed that could be attributed to E17 exposure. The unknown fuel component histories add a large uncertainty to the aging tests. Acquiring fuel system components from operational legacy vehicles would reduce the uncertainty.

  7. Performance of an Automated-Mixed-Traffic-Vehicle /AMTV/ System. [urban people mover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, T. K. C.; Chon, K.

    1978-01-01

    This study analyzes the operation and evaluates the expected performance of a proposed automatic guideway transit system which uses low-speed Automated Mixed Traffic Vehicles (AMTV's). Vehicle scheduling and headway control policies are evaluated with a transit system simulation model. The effect of mixed-traffic interference on the average vehicle speed is examined with a vehicle-pedestrian interface model. Control parameters regulating vehicle speed are evaluated for safe stopping and passenger comfort.

  8. Visualization Component of Vehicle Health Decision Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Joseph; Turmon, Michael; Stough, Timothy; Siegel, Herbert; Walter, patrick; Kurt, Cindy

    2008-01-01

    The visualization front-end of a Decision Support System (DSS) also includes an analysis engine linked to vehicle telemetry, and a database of learned models for known behaviors. Because the display is graphical rather than text-based, the summarization it provides has a greater information density on one screen for evaluation by a flight controller.This tool provides a system-level visualization of the state of a vehicle, and drill-down capability for more details and interfaces to separate analysis algorithms and sensor data streams. The system-level view is a 3D rendering of the vehicle, with sensors represented as icons, tied to appropriate positions within the vehicle body and colored to indicate sensor state (e.g., normal, warning, anomalous state, etc.). The sensor data is received via an Information Sharing Protocol (ISP) client that connects to an external server for real-time telemetry. Users can interactively pan, zoom, and rotate this 3D view, as well as select sensors for a detail plot of the associated time series data. Subsets of the plotted data can be selected and sent to an external analysis engine to either search for a similar time series in an historical database, or to detect anomalous events. The system overview and plotting capabilities are completely general in that they can be applied to any vehicle instrumented with a collection of sensors. This visualization component can interface with the ISP for data streams used by NASA s Mission Control Center at Johnson Space Center. In addition, it can connect to, and display results from, separate analysis engine components that identify anomalies or that search for past instances of similar behavior. This software supports NASA's Software, Intelligent Systems, and Modeling element in the Exploration Systems Research and Technology Program by augmenting the capability of human flight controllers to make correct decisions, thus increasing safety and reliability. It was designed specifically as a

  9. Contraction of radiator length in heavy vehicles using cerium oxide nanofluid by enhancing heat transfer performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramalingam Senthil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this present investigation, heat transfer performance of CeO2-ethylene glycol as coolants in heat pipes are analyzed. Various concentrations of 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25, 1.5, and 2.0 vol.% with different volumetric flow 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 3.5, and 4.0 lpm at a temperature of 40°C, are investigated experimentally and the results are numerically analyzed by means of cross tube heat exchanger and horizontal flow with twist plate insert. The results are scrutinized to evaluate the best concentration which will reduce the size of the existing radiator length. The results demonstrated that, for 0.75 vol.% combination of CeO2-ethylene glycol resulted in increase of heat transfer coefficient compared to the combination of water-ethylene glycol. Increase in volumetric flow rate of the coolant increase the heat transfer coefficient results in the contraction of radiator length. Replacing the original coolant with the proposed combination, it is estimated that the size of the radiator, inventory of the fluid, and pumping power is reduced, thus, making this nanofluid an energy efficient fluid for the engine cooling system.

  10. Vision-based pedestrian protection systems for intelligent vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Geronimo, David

    2013-01-01

    Pedestrian Protection Systems (PPSs) are on-board systems aimed at detecting and tracking people in the surroundings of a vehicle in order to avoid potentially dangerous situations. These systems, together with other Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) such as lane departure warning or adaptive cruise control, are one of the most promising ways to improve traffic safety. By the use of computer vision, cameras working either in the visible or infra-red spectra have been demonstrated as a reliable sensor to perform this task. Nevertheless, the variability of human's appearance, not only in

  11. A GAUGE-INVARIANT MULTIPOLE EXPANSION SCHEME FOR HEAVY-QUARK SYSTEMS IN QUANTUM CHROMODYNAMICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shizuya, Ken-ichi

    1980-09-01

    Separation of short-distance and long-distance dynamics for heavy quark-antiquark systems interacting with color gluons is investigated through a classification of gluons according to their ranges. A gauge-invariant double-multipole expansion scheme is constructed which takes into account color fluctuation of heavy-quark systems. Hadronic transitions between heavy quark-antiquark bound states as well as the static quark-antiquark potential are studied within this framework.

  12. Vehicle height and posture control of the electronic air suspension system using the hybrid system approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoqiang; Cai, Yingfeng; Chen, Long; Liu, Yanling; Wang, Shaohua

    2016-03-01

    The electronic air suspension (EAS) system can improve ride comfort, fuel economy and handling safety of vehicles by adjusting vehicle height. This paper describes the development of a novel controller using the hybrid system approach to adjust the vehicle height (height control) and to regulate the roll and pitch angles of the vehicle body during the height adjustment process (posture control). The vehicle height adjustment system of EAS poses challenging hybrid control problems, since it features different discrete modes of operation, where each mode has an associated linear continuous-time dynamic. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to the modelling and controller design problem for the vehicle height adjustment system of EAS. The system model is described firstly in the hybrid system description language (HYSDEL) to obtain a mixed logical dynamical (MLD) hybrid model. For the resulting model, a hybrid model predictive controller is tuned to improve the vehicle height and posture tracking accuracy and to achieve the on-off statuses direct control of solenoid valves. The effectiveness and performance of the proposed approach are demonstrated by simulations and actual vehicle tests.

  13. An angle-sensitive detection system for scattered heavy ions

    CERN Document Server

    Ganz, R E; Bär, R; Bethge, Klaus; Bokemeyer, H; Folger, H; Samek, M; Salabura, P; Schwalm, D; Stiebing, K E

    1999-01-01

    A compact detection system for heavy ions scattered in collisions at the Coulomb barrier is presented. This system, consisting of four identical, low-pressure Parallel Plate Avalanche Counter (PPAC) modules with two sensitive layers each, was built to operate in an ultra-high-vacuum environment inside the EPoS II solenoid spectrometer at GSI Darmstadt. The detector covers polar angles between 20 deg. and 70 deg. with respect to the beam axis, and about 80% of 2 pi in azimuthal angle. Segmented cathodes and a delay-line read-out allow for a determination of both angles with a precision of delta THETA approx 0.7 deg. in polar and delta PHI approx 1.5 deg. in azimuthal angle, respectively. The system has been proven to be capable of handling instantaneous rates of up to 5x10 sup 5 detected ions per second per module. It neither exhibits the degradation of detection efficiency nor loss in resolution over a 500 h period of a 6 MeV/u sup 2 sup 3 sup 8 U+ sup 1 sup 8 sup 1 Ta measurement at average luminosities of 8...

  14. Security credentials management system (SCMS) design and analysis for the connected vehicle system : draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    This report presents an analysis by Booz Allen Hamilton (Booz Allen) of the technical design for the Security Credentials Management System (SCMS) intended to support communications security for the connected vehicle system. The SCMS technical design...

  15. Proposed Rule and Related Materials for Heavy-Duty Highway Program: Revisions for Emergency Vehicles and SCR Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    May 23, 2012, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking with revisions related to emissions controls on diesel-powered emergency vehicles and revisions related to scheduled maintenance intervals for diesel engines and vehicles using Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR)

  16. Dynamic interactions between hypersonic vehicle aerodynamics and propulsion system performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flandro, G. A.; Roach, R. L.; Buschek, H.

    1992-01-01

    Described here is the development of a flexible simulation model for scramjet hypersonic propulsion systems. The primary goal is determination of sensitivity of the thrust vector and other system parameters to angle of attack changes of the vehicle. Such information is crucial in design and analysis of control system performance for hypersonic vehicles. The code is also intended to be a key element in carrying out dynamic interaction studies involving the influence of vehicle vibrations on propulsion system/control system coupling and flight stability. Simple models are employed to represent the various processes comprising the propulsion system. A method of characteristics (MOC) approach is used to solve the forebody and external nozzle flow fields. This results in a very fast computational algorithm capable of carrying out the vast number of simulation computations needed in guidance, stability, and control studies. The three-dimensional fore- and aft body (nozzle) geometry is characterized by the centerline profiles as represented by a series of coordinate points and body cross-section curvature. The engine module geometry is represented by an adjustable vertical grid to accommodate variations of the field parameters throughout the inlet and combustor. The scramjet inlet is modeled as a two-dimensional supersonic flow containing adjustable sidewall wedges and multiple fuel injection struts. The inlet geometry including the sidewall wedge angles, the number of injection struts, their sweepback relative to the vehicle reference line, and strut cross-section are user selectable. Combustion is currently represented by a Rayleigh line calculation including corrections for variable gas properties; improved models are being developed for this important element of the propulsion flow field. The program generates (1) variation of thrust magnitude and direction with angle of attack, (2) pitching moment and line of action of the thrust vector, (3) pressure and temperature

  17. FY2013 Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing R&D Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-02-01

    FY 2013 annual report focuses on the following areas: vehicle modeling and simulation, component and systems evaluations, laboratory and field evaluations, codes and standards, industry projects, and vehicle systems optimization.

  18. Evaluation of Hydrogen Storage System Characteristics for Light-Duty Vehicle Applications (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, M.; Day, K.; Brooker, A.

    2010-05-01

    This poster presentation demonstrates an approach to evaluate trade-offs among hydrogen storage system characteristic across several vehicle configurations and estimates the sensitivity of hydrogen storage system improvements on vehicle viability.

  19. Vehicle Propulsion Systems Introduction to Modeling and Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Guzzella, Lino

    2013-01-01

    This text provides an introduction to the mathematical modeling and subsequent optimization of vehicle propulsion systems and their supervisory control algorithms. Automobiles are responsible for a substantial part of the world's consumption of primary energy, mostly fossil liquid hydrocarbons and the reduction of the fuel consumption of these vehicles has become a top priority. Increasing concerns over fossil fuel consumption and the associated environmental impacts have motivated many groups in industry and academia to propose new propulsion systems and to explore new optimization methodologies. This third edition has been prepared to include many of these developments. In the third edition, exercises are included at the end of each chapter and the solutions are available on the web.

  20. Real-time Vehicle Reidentification System for Freeway Performance Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Jeng, Shin-Ting

    2007-01-01

    Computational resources in the traffic operation field as well as the bandwidth of field communication links, are often quite limited. Accordingly, for real-time implementation of Advanced Transportation Management and Information Systems (ATMIS) strategies, such as vehicle reidentification, there is strong interest in development of field-based techniques and models that can perform satisfactorily while minimizing computational and communication requirements in the field. The ILD (Inductive ...

  1. Design of Propulsion System for a Fuel Cell Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a design method of propulsion systems for fuel cell vehicles complying with the 42V PowerNet standard. The method is based on field measurements during several weeks. Several cases of combining energy storage devices to a common bus voltage are investigated, and the total mass......, volume, cost and efficiency of the propulsion system are compared. It is concluded that the number of energy storage devices and their connecting to the common bus have a significant affect of the mass, volume, cost and efficiency of the propulsion system....

  2. Visual tracking strategies for intelligent vehicle highway systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher E.; Papanikolopoulos, Nikolaos P.; Brandt, Scott A.; Richards, Charles

    1995-01-01

    The complexity and congestion of current transportation systems often produce traffic situations that jeopardize the safety of the people involved. These situations vary from maintaining a safe distance behind a leading vehicle to safely allowing a pedestrian to cross a busy street. Environmental sensing plays a critical role in virtually all of these situations. Of the sensors available, vision sensors provide information that is richer and more complete than other sensors, making them a logical choice for a multisensor transportation system. In this paper we present robust techniques for intelligent vehicle-highway applications where computer vision plays a crucial role. In particular, we demonstrate that the controlled active vision framework can be utilized to provide a visual sensing modality to a traffic advisory system in order to increase the overall safety margin in a variety of common traffic situations. We have selected two application examples, vehicle tracking and pedestrian tracking, to demonstrate that the framework can provide precisely the type of information required to effectively manage the given situation.

  3. The Crystal Collimation System Of The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Fliller, R P

    2004-01-01

    Crystal Channeling occurs when an ion enters a crystal with a small angle with respect to the crystal planes. The electrostatic interaction between the incoming ion and the lattice causes the ion to follow the crystal planes. By mechanically bending a crystal, it is possible to use a crystal to deflect ions. One novel use of a bent crystal is to use it to channel beam halo particles into a downstream collimator. By deflecting the halo particles into a collimator with a crystal it may be possible to improve the collimation efficiency as compared to a conventional two stage collimation system. A bent crystal was installed in the counterclockwise ring of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) prior to the FY2001 run to be used as the first stage of a two stage collimation system. We present a model and simulations to the predict crystal channeling efficiency. The simulations and model predict a channeling efficiency between 59% and 74% depending on the choice of optics. Attempts to reduce backgrounds in RHIC...

  4. A Customized Vision System for Tracking Humans Wearing Reflective Safety Clothing from Industrial Vehicles and Machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosberger, Rafael; Andreasson, Henrik; Lilienthal, Achim J.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a novel approach for vision-based detection and tracking of humans wearing high-visibility clothing with retro-reflective markers. Addressing industrial applications where heavy vehicles operate in the vicinity of humans, we deploy a customized stereo camera setup with active illumination that allows for efficient detection of the reflective patterns created by the worker's safety garments. After segmenting reflective objects from the image background, the interest regions are described with local image feature descriptors and classified in order to discriminate safety garments from other reflective objects in the scene. In a final step, the trajectories of the detected humans are estimated in 3D space relative to the camera. We evaluate our tracking system in two industrial real-world work environments on several challenging video sequences. The experimental results indicate accurate tracking performance and good robustness towards partial occlusions, body pose variation, and a wide range of different illumination conditions. PMID:25264956

  5. Comparative analysis of aluminum-air battery propulsion systems for passenger vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, J. D.; Behrin, E.; Kong, M. K.; Whisler, D. J.

    1980-02-01

    Three electric propulsion systems using an aluminum air battery were analyzed and compared to the internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle. The engine and fuel systems of a representative five passenger highway vehicle were replaced conceptually by each of the three electric propulsion systems. The electrical vehicles were constrained by the computer simulation to be equivalent to the ICE vehicle in range and acceleration performance. The vehicle masses and aluminum consumption rates were then calculated for the electric vehicles and these data were used as figures of merit. The Al-air vehicles analyzed were (1) an Al-air battery only electric vehicle; (2) an Al-air battery combined with a nickel zinc secondary battery for power leveling and regenerative braking; and (3) an Al-air battery combined with a flywheel for power leveling and regenerative braking. All three electric systems compared favorably with the ICE vehicle.

  6. 77 FR 22637 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Accelerator Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ..., in the case of an electric drive system, attenuate the electric current driving the vehicle... advancement of engine technology, and to better regulate advanced vehicle propulsion systems, improved... new test procedures that can be applied to a variety of vehicle propulsion systems. C. Applicability...

  7. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Bridge Response due to Modular Combination Vehicle Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Bang, R.

    2004-01-01

    paper investigates the dynamic amplification of a minor Danish highway bridge due to passage of such modular combination vehicle systems. A simulation model for a typical Danish highway bridge and the two different vehicles is established. The two different vehicles are a standard 48.8 ton articulated...... vehicle and a 60 ton vehicle consisting of a lorry and semi-trailer carried by a dolly. The dynamic parameters of the vehicles and the modal parameters of the bridge are estimated from measurements obtained for different passage situations of the two vehicles. Results show a good agreement between...... simulated and measured bridge acceleration response and dynamic amplification factors....

  8. Modeling thermal effects in braking systems of railway vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Miloš S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The modeling of thermal effects has become increasingly important in product design in different transport means, road vehicles, airplanes, railway vehicles, and so forth. The thermal analysis is a very important stage in the study of braking systems, especially of railway vehicles, where it is necessary to brake huge masses, because the thermal load of a braked railway wheel prevails compared to other types of loads. In the braking phase, kinetic energy transforms into thermal energy resulting in intense heating and high temperature states of railway wheels. Thus induced thermal loads determine thermomechanical behavior of the structure of railway wheels. In cases of thermal overloads, which mainly occur as a result of long-term braking on down-grade railroads, the generation of stresses and deformations occurs, whose consequences are the appearance of cracks on the rim of a wheel and the final total wheel defect. The importance to precisely determine the temperature distribution caused by the transfer process of the heat generated during braking due to the friction on contact surfaces of the braking system makes it a challenging research task. Therefore, the thermal analysis of a block-braked solid railway wheel of a 444 class locomotive of the national railway operator Serbian Railways is processed in detail in this paper, using analytical and numerical modeling of thermal effects during long-term braking for maintaining a constant speed on a down-grade railroad.

  9. Production and exploitation of thermoelectric air conditioning systems for vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudnik, Vladimir [Conditioner Ltd, Gagarin (Russian Federation); Skipidarov, Sergey [SCTB NORD, Moskau (Russian Federation); Rapp, Axel [Quick-Ohm Kupper und Co. GmbH, Wuppertal-Cronenberg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In the paper more than 10-year experience of thermoelectric devices batch manufacturing is described for the field of their obvious advantages. This field of application includes thermoelectric air conditioning systems which have shown their competitive advantage when used in vehicles of elevated vibration where compressor equipment application is difficult because of leakage of refrigerant. Energy characteristics of air conditioners for tractors, excavators, tanks, locomotive driver's cabins and cranes are described. Thermoelectric (TE) air conditioners mechanical test data as well as operation experience in vehicles are presented. It is shown that consumption of tellurium, which is a strategic component for thermoelectric materials manufacturing, may be lowered to 40 grams per 1 kW of cooling. (orig.)

  10. Forming the Calculated Dynamic Transmission Systems of Wheeled Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Fominykh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To calculate dynamic loading of transmission parts of wheeled vehicles, it is necessary to build up the appropriate calculated dynamic systems and determine their inertial, elastic, and damping parameters.The initial point of this process is to form an initial dynamic system. Hereafter, to cut the time of computations there is a need to reduce the number of masses of this system, and sometimes simplify its structure. The main requirement to be fulfilled in this case is that the calculated dynamical system is to be equivalent to the initial one (in terms of similarity of the vibrational process characteristics in these systems, i.e., the frequencies and modes of oscillations of both systems, their amplitude-frequency characteristics. This is possible when the energy characteristics of the corresponding systems are equal, i.e. their kinetic and potential energies, dissipative functions, and external force energies.Usually, when forming the initial and calculated dynamic systems, all types of friction are reduced to a linearly viscous one. However, it disables us to investigate the motion of these systems if there is an arbitrary, in particular, poly-harmonic action (for example, on the side of the internal combustion engine, since in this case the linear friction coefficients given will depend on the frequency and amplitude of the oscillations.The paper is aimed at determining the equivalent parameters of calculated dynamic systems of wheeled vehicles, including the dissipative parameters for the general case of friction.On the basis of energy principles, the expressions are obtained to determine the equivalent inertial, elastic, and damping parameters of the calculated dynamical systems of wheeled vehicles when the structure is changed and the number of masses of the system is decreased. The presented technique enables us to investigate the motion of these systems under arbitrary, including poly-harmonic, action on the system, using the

  11. Lean NOx Trap Modeling in Vehicle Systems Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; Chakravarthy, Veerathu K [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Conklin, Jim [ORNL

    2010-09-01

    A one-dimensional model for simulating lean NOx trap (LNT) performance is developed and validated using both steady state cycling data and transient data from FTP testing cycles. The model consists of the conservation equations for chemical species and energy in the bulk flow, energy of the solid walls, O2 storage and NOx storage (in the form of nitrites and nitrates). Nitrites and nitrates are formed by diffusion of NO and NO2, respectively, into sorbent particles (assumed to be hemi-spherical in shape) along with O2 and their formation rates are controlled by chemical kinetics as well as solid-phase diffusion rates of NOx species. The model also accounts for thermal aging and sulfation of LNTs. Empirical correlations are developed on the basis of published experimental data to capture these effects. These empirical correlations depend on total mileage for which the LNT has been in use, the mileage accumulated since the last desulfation event in addition to the freshly degreened catalyst characteristics. The model has been used in studies of vehicle systems (integration, performance etc.) including hybrid powertrain configurations. Since the engines in hybrid vehicles turn on and off multiple number of times during single drive cycles, the exhaust systems may encounter multiple cold start transients. Accurate modeling of catalyst warm-up and cooling is, therefore, very important to simulate LNT performance in such vehicles. For this purpose, the convective heat loss from the LNT to the ambient is modeled using a Nusselt number correlation that includes effects of both forced convection and natural convection (with later being important when vehicle is stationary). Using the model, the fuel penalty associated with operating LNTs on small diesel engine powered car during FTP drive cycles is estimated.

  12. Electric vehicles batteries thermal management systems employing phase change materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianniciello, Lucia; Biwolé, Pascal Henry; Achard, Patrick

    2018-02-01

    Battery thermal management is necessary for electric vehicles (EVs), especially for Li-ion batteries, due to the heat dissipation effects on those batteries. Usually, air or coolant circuits are employed as thermal management systems in Li-ion batteries. However, those systems are expensive in terms of investment and operating costs. Phase change materials (PCMs) may represent an alternative which could be cheaper and easier to operate. In fact, PCMs can be used as passive or semi-passive systems, enabling the global system to sustain near-autonomous operations. This article presents the previous developments introducing PCMs for EVs battery cooling. Different systems are reviewed and solutions are proposed to enhance PCMs efficiency in those systems.

  13. Inducibility of a molecular bioreporter system by heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimowski, L.; Rayms-Keller, A.; Olson, K.E.; Yang, R.S.H.; Tessari, J.; Carlson, J.; Beaty, B. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1996-02-01

    The authors have developed a molecular bioreporter model for detecting an invertebrate response to heavy metals in streams. The bioreporter system, pMt2-luc, utilizes a Drosophila melanogaster metallothionein promoter to regulate luciferase expression in stably transformed mosquito cells.The LucC5 clone, which was isolated from pMt2-luc transformed, hygromycin-resistant C6/36 (Aedes albopictus) cells, demonstrated a 12-fold increase in luciferase-specific activity 48 h after exposure to 13 ppm copper (Cu). In addition to Cu, exposure of LucC5 cells to 19 ppm lead (Pb) or 3 ppm mercury (Hg) for 48 h induced luciferase expression threefold and fourfold, respectively. Exposures of up to 30 ppm arsenic (As), 8 ppm cadmium (Cd), 7 ppm chromium (Cr), or 5 ppm nickel (Ni) had no effect on luciferase induction. LucC5 cells exposed to metal mixtures of 13 ppm Cu and 19 ppm Pb yielded an additive response with a 14-fold increase in luciferase expression. When organic chemicals such as phenol (3 ppm) were mixed with 13 ppm Cu, 19 ppm Pb, or 3 ppm Hg a significant reduction in luciferase activity was noted. Additionally, atomic absorption spectroscopy suggested that two of the metals, Cu and Pb, show marked differences in accumulation within the LucC5 cell line.

  14. Crew emergency return vehicle - Electrical power system design study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcy, E. C.; Barrera, T. P.

    1989-01-01

    A crew emergency return vehicle (CERV) is proposed to perform the lifeboat function for the manned Space Station Freedom. This escape module will be permanently docked to Freedom and, on demand, will be capable of safely returning the crew to earth. The unique requirements that the CERV imposes on its power source are presented, power source options are examined, and a baseline system is selected. It consists of an active Li-BCX DD-cell modular battery system and was chosen for the maturity of its man-rated design and its low development costs.

  15. Vehicle emission factors of solid nanoparticles in the laboratory and on the road using Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barouch eGiechaskiel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Emission inventories are used to quantify sources and identify trends in the emissions of air pollutants. They use vehicle-specific emission factors that are typically determined in the laboratory, through remote-sensing, vehicle chasing experiments and, more recently, on-board Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS. Although PEMS is widely applied to measure gaseous pollutants, their application to Solid Particle Number (SPN emissions is new. In this paper, we discuss the current status of determining SPN emission factors both on the chassis dynamometer and on-road using PEMS-SPN. First, we determine the influence of the measurement equipment, ambient temperature, driving style and cycle characteristics, and the extra mass of the PEMS equipment on the SPN emissions. Afterward, we present the SPN emissions under type-approval conditions as well as on the road of two heavy-duty diesel vehicles equipped with Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF (one Euro VI, two light-duty diesel vehicles equipped with DPF, one light-duty vehicle equipped with a Port Fuel Injection engine (PFI, and seven Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI passenger cars (two Euro 6. We find that cold-start and strong accelerations tend to substantially increase SPN emissions. The two heavy-duty vehicles showed emissions around 2×10^13 p/km (Euro V truck and 6×10^10 p/km (Euro VI truck, respectively. One of the DPF-equipped light-duty vehicles showed emissions of 8×10^11 p/km, while the other one had one order of magnitude lower emissions. The PFI car had SPN emissions slightly higher than 1×10^12 p/km. The emissions of GDI cars spanned approximately from 8×10^11 p/km to 8×10^12 p/km. For the cars without DPF, the SPN emissions remained within a factor of two of the laboratory results. This factor was on average around 0.8 for the Euro 6 and 1.6 for the Euro 5 GDIs. The DPF equipped vehicles showed a difference of almost one order of magnitude between laboratory and on-road tests

  16. Microcontroller-based Vehicle Security System with Tracking Capability using GSM and GPS Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engr. Orven F. Mendoza

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The security of vehicles is ext remely essential for vehicle owners especially to those whose hard - earned income was used to avail of one or simply, its loss would mean inconveniences to family and work. With these, it becomes the major problem of every vehicle owner. This thesis, Microc ontroller - based Vehicle Security System with Tracking Capability using GSM and GPS Technologies, is a system that can be used to increase vehicle security, as it can track location of missing vehicle, and help authorities have credible evidence that the ve hicle is stolen. The project uses the Global System for Mobile (GSM and the Global Positioning System (GPS technology, which includes the use of GPS receiver module, GSM module, and microcontroller as its primary components. It also uses a vibration sens or that senses vehicle movement and a buzzer that sends an alarm when sensors are triggered. A confirmation message is sent to the vehicle owner of the vehicle by the device. The system also features capability of tracking the location of the vehicle with the help of the GPS receiver which gives data to the location of the vehicle by way of coordinates. These coordinates provide exact location of the motor vehicle. The SMS message that the vehicle owner will send to the device attached to the vehicle should follow correct format of limitation for successful use and the use of the four character password followed by the command. The command is for power switching or activating automatically the key switch, engine and alarm. If not observed, the device would not work. The project is deemed to provide vehicle owners the security of their vehicle. The system will not only ensure vehicle security but also lessen the threats on vehicles.

  17. Synthesis of the unmanned aerial vehicle remote control augmentation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomczyk, Andrzej, E-mail: A.Tomczyk@prz.edu.pl [Department of Avionics and Control Systems, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Aeronautics, Rzeszów University of Technology, Al. Powstañców Warszawy 12, 35-959 Rzeszów (Poland)

    2014-12-10

    Medium size Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) usually flies as an autonomous aircraft including automatic take-off and landing phases. However in the case of the on-board control system failure, the remote steering is using as an emergency procedure. In this reason, remote manual control of unmanned aerial vehicle is used more often during take-of and landing phases. Depends on UAV take-off mass and speed (total energy) the potential crash can be very danger for airplane and environment. So, handling qualities of UAV is important from pilot-operator point of view. In many cases the dynamic properties of remote controlling UAV are not suitable for obtaining the desired properties of the handling qualities. In this case the control augmentation system (CAS) should be applied. Because the potential failure of the on-board control system, the better solution is that the CAS algorithms are placed on the ground station computers. The method of UAV handling qualities shaping in the case of basic control system failure is presented in this paper. The main idea of this method is that UAV reaction on the operator steering signals should be similar - almost the same - as reaction of the 'ideal' remote control aircraft. The model following method was used for controller parameters calculations. The numerical example concerns the medium size MP-02A UAV applied as an aerial observer system.

  18. A Malaysian Vehicle License Plate Localization and Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganapathy Velappa

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Technological intelligence is a highly sought after commodity even in traffic-based systems. These intelligent systems do not only help in traffic monitoring but also in commuter safety, law enforcement and commercial applications. In this paper, a license plate localization and recognition system for vehicles in Malaysia is proposed. This system is developed based on digital images and can be easily applied to commercial car park systems for the use of documenting access of parking services, secure usage of parking houses and also to prevent car theft issues. The proposed license plate localization algorithm is based on a combination of morphological processes with a modified Hough Transform approach and the recognition of the license plates is achieved by the implementation of the feed-forward backpropagation artificial neural network. Experimental results show an average of 95% successful license plate localization and recognition in a total of 589 images captured from a complex outdoor environment.

  19. Sensor network based vehicle classification and license plate identification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frigo, Janette Rose [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brennan, Sean M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rosten, Edward J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Raby, Eric Y [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kulathumani, Vinod K [WEST VIRGINIA UNIV.

    2009-01-01

    Typically, for energy efficiency and scalability purposes, sensor networks have been used in the context of environmental and traffic monitoring applications in which operations at the sensor level are not computationally intensive. But increasingly, sensor network applications require data and compute intensive sensors such video cameras and microphones. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of two such systems: a vehicle classifier based on acoustic signals and a license plate identification system using a camera. The systems are implemented in an energy-efficient manner to the extent possible using commercially available hardware, the Mica motes and the Stargate platform. Our experience in designing these systems leads us to consider an alternate more flexible, modular, low-power mote architecture that uses a combination of FPGAs, specialized embedded processing units and sensor data acquisition systems.

  20. Human-inspired sound environment recognition system for assistive vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Vidal, Eduardo; Fredes Zarricueta, Ernesto; Auat Cheein, Fernando

    2015-02-01

    Objective. The human auditory system acquires environmental information under sound stimuli faster than visual or touch systems, which in turn, allows for faster human responses to such stimuli. It also complements senses such as sight, where direct line-of-view is necessary to identify objects, in the environment recognition process. This work focuses on implementing human reaction to sound stimuli and environment recognition on assistive robotic devices, such as robotic wheelchairs or robotized cars. These vehicles need environment information to ensure safe navigation. Approach. In the field of environment recognition, range sensors (such as LiDAR and ultrasonic systems) and artificial vision devices are widely used; however, these sensors depend on environment constraints (such as lighting variability or color of objects), and sound can provide important information for the characterization of an environment. In this work, we propose a sound-based approach to enhance the environment recognition process, mainly for cases that compromise human integrity, according to the International Classification of Functioning (ICF). Our proposal is based on a neural network implementation that is able to classify up to 15 different environments, each selected according to the ICF considerations on environment factors in the community-based physical activities of people with disabilities. Main results. The accuracy rates in environment classification ranges from 84% to 93%. This classification is later used to constrain assistive vehicle navigation in order to protect the user during daily activities. This work also includes real-time outdoor experimentation (performed on an assistive vehicle) by seven volunteers with different disabilities (but without cognitive impairment and experienced in the use of wheelchairs), statistical validation, comparison with previously published work, and a discussion section where the pros and cons of our system are evaluated. Significance

  1. Advanced Electric Systems and Aerodynamics for Efficiency Improvements in Heavy Duty Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Slone; Jeffrey Birkel

    2007-10-31

    The Advanced Electric Systems and Aerodynamics for Efficiency Improvements in Heavy Duty Trucks program (DE-FC26-04NT42189), commonly referred to as the AES program, focused on areas that will primarily benefit fuel economy and improve heat rejection while driving over the road. The AES program objectives were to: (1) Analyze, design, build, and test a cooling system that provided a minimum of 10 percent greater heat rejection in the same frontal area with no increase in parasitic fan load. (2) Realize fuel savings with advanced power management and acceleration assist by utilizing an integrated starter/generator (ISG) and energy storage devices. (3) Quantify the effect of aerodynamic drag due to the frontal shape mandated by the area required for the cooling system. The program effort consisted of modeling and designing components for optimum fuel efficiency, completing fabrication of necessary components, integrating these components into the chassis test bed, completing controls programming, and performance testing the system both on a chassis dynamometer and on the road. Emission control measures for heavy-duty engines have resulted in increased engine heat loads, thus introducing added parasitic engine cooling loads. Truck electrification, in the form of thermal management, offers technological solutions to mitigate or even neutralize the effects of this trend. Thermal control offers opportunities to avoid increases in cooling system frontal area and forestall reduced fuel economy brought about by additional aerodynamic vehicle drag. This project explored such thermal concepts by installing a 2007 engine that is compliant with current regulations and bears additional heat rejection associated with meeting these regulations. This newer engine replaced the 2002 engine from a previous project that generated less heat rejection. Advanced power management, utilizing a continuously optimized and controlled power flow between electric components, can offer additional

  2. 77 FR 47043 - Work Group on Measuring Systems for Electric Vehicle Fueling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Work Group on Measuring Systems for Electric Vehicle Fueling... devices and systems used to assess charges to consumers for electric vehicle fuel. There is no cost for... residential and business locations and those used to measure and sell electricity dispensed as a vehicle fuel...

  3. 49 CFR 571.303 - Standard No. 303; Fuel system integrity of compressed natural gas vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... compressed natural gas vehicles. 571.303 Section 571.303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... system integrity of compressed natural gas vehicles. S1. Scope. This standard specifies requirements for the integrity of motor vehicle fuel systems using compressed natural gas (CNG), including the CNG fuel...

  4. 49 CFR 38.179 - Trams, and similar vehicles, and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trams, and similar vehicles, and systems 38.179 Section 38.179 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems § 38.179...

  5. 49 CFR 38.173 - Automated guideway transit vehicles and systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automated guideway transit vehicles and systems. 38.173 Section 38.173 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems § 38...

  6. 75 FR 15620 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AK62 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... that amended the Federal motor vehicle safety standard for air brake systems by requiring substantial... 37122) amending Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 121, Air Brake Systems, to require...

  7. Vibration Isolation for Parallel Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The M. Nguyen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, several types of hybrid vehicles have been developed in order to improve the fuel economy and to reduce the pollution. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV have shown a significant improvement in fuel efficiency for small and medium-sized passenger vehicles and SUVs. HEV has several limitations when applied to heavy vehicles; one is that larger vehicles demand more power, which requires significantly larger battery capacities. As an alternative solution, hydraulic hybrid technology has been found effective for heavy duty vehicle because of its high power density. The mechanical batteries used in hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHV can be charged and discharged remarkably faster than chemical batteries. This feature is essential for heavy vehicle hybridization. One of the main problems that should be solved for the successful commercialization of HHV is the excessive noise and vibration involving with the hydraulic systems. This study focuses on using magnetorheological (MR technology to reduce the noise and vibration transmissibility from the hydraulic system to the vehicle body. In order to study the noise and vibration of HHV, a hydraulic hybrid subsystem in parallel design is analyzed. This research shows that the MR elements play an important role in reducing the transmitted noise and vibration to the vehicle body. Additionally, locations and orientations of the isolation system also affect the efficiency of the noise and vibration mitigation. In simulations, a skyhook control algorithm is used to achieve the highest possible effectiveness of the MR isolation system.

  8. Measurements of electric and magnetic fields, in heavy vehicles parking space, in the vicinity of a power station with 150kv to 20kv transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkanatsios, Stavros; Grigorescu, S.; Pliatsios, A.; Gkanatsiou, M.; Panagiotou, E.; Boukouvala, E.; Gavros, K.; Mitropoulos, D.

    2016-11-01

    The present paper investigates the electric and magnetic fields of extremely low frequencies in substations which step down voltage in Kozani, which is a city of about 65.000 inhabitants. In the substation, apart from the presence of voltage distribution transformers there are also power cables of 150 kV generated in pillars as well as power cables of 20 kV and 380V for the power supply of the city. Pillars with high, medium and low voltage power cables cross the parking space of heavy vehicles.

  9. Commercial vehicle fleet management and information systems. Technical memorandum 2 : summary of case study interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The FHWA has commissioned the Commercial Vehicle Fleet Management and Information Systems study to determine if there are fleet management needs that the public sector can address through the development of ITS for commercial vehicle operations. As p...

  10. Literature review on recent international activity in cooperative vehicle-highway automation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    This literature review supports the report, Recent International Activity in Cooperative VehicleHighway Automation Systems. It : reviews the published literature in English dating from 2007 or later about non-U.S.-based work on cooperative vehicle...

  11. Evaluating effectiveness of real-time advanced traveler information systems using a small test vehicle fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    ADVANCE was an in-vehicle advanced traveler information system (ATIS) providing route guidance in real time that operated in the northwestern portion and northwest suburbs of Chicago, Illinois. It used probe vehicles to generate dynamically travel ti...

  12. Intelligent transportation systems field operational test cross-cutting study : commercial vehicle administrative processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Commercial Vehicle Administrative (CVO) Processes Cross-Cutting report summarizes and interprets the results of several Field Operational Tests (FOTs) conducted to evaluate systems that increase the efficiency of commercial vehicle administrative pro...

  13. Alkali metal and ammonium chlorides in water and heavy water (binary systems)

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen-Adad, R

    1991-01-01

    This volume surveys the data available in the literature for solid-fluid solubility equilibria plus selected solid-liquid-vapour equilibria, for binary systems containing alkali and ammonium chlorides in water or heavy water. Solubilities covered are lithium chloride, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, rubidium chloride, caesium chloride and ammonium chloride in water and heavy water.

  14. Virginia Connected Vehicle Test Bed System Performance (V2I System Performance)

    OpenAIRE

    Viray, Reginald; Sarkar, Abhijit; Doerzaph, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    This project identified vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication system limitations on the Northern Virginia Connected Vehicle Test Bed. Real-world historical data were analyzed to determine wireless Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) coverage gaps and overlaps. In addition, a simulated scalability test was run to determine the effects of network congestion on the system. The results from the real-world historical data showed that significant loss of signal occurred due to obstru...

  15. Vehicle and cargo container inspection system for drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbinski, Victor V.; Orphan, Victor J.

    1999-06-01

    A vehicle and cargo container inspection system has been developed which uses gamma-ray radiography to produce digital images useful for detection of drugs and other contraband. The system is comprised of a 1 Ci Cs137 gamma-ray source collimated into a fan beam which is aligned with a linear array of NaI gamma-ray detectors located on the opposite side of the container. The NaI detectors are operated in the pulse-counting mode. A digital image of the vehicle or container is obtained by moving the aligned source and detector array relative to the object. Systems have been demonstrated in which the object is stationary (source and detector array move on parallel tracks) and in which the object moves past a stationary source and detector array. Scanning speeds of ˜30 cm/s with a pixel size (at the object) of ˜1 cm have been achieved. Faster scanning speeds of ˜2 m/s have been demonstrated on railcars with more modest spatial resolution (4 cm pixels). Digital radiographic images are generated from the detector count rates. These images, recorded on a PC-based data acquisition and display system, are shown from several applications: 1) inspection of trucks and containers at a border crossing, 2) inspection of railcars at a border crossing, 3) inspection of outbound cargo containers for stolen automobiles, and 4) inspection of trucks and cars for terrorist bombs.

  16. Gas Turbine Heavy Hybrid Powertrain Variants. Opportunities and Potential for Systems Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chambon, Paul H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Widespread use of alternative hybrid powertrains is currently inevitable, and many opportunities for substantial progress remain. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) have attracted considerable attention due to their potential to reduce petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in the transportation sector. This capability is mainly attributed to (a) the potential for downsizing the engine, (b) the potential for recovering energy during braking and thus recharging the energy storage unit, and (c) the ability to minimize the operation of the engine outside of its most efficient brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) regime. Hybridization of the Class 8, heavy-duty (HD) powertrain is inherently challenging due to the expected long-haul driving requirements and limited opportunities for regenerative braking. The objective of this project is to develop control strategies aiming at optimizing the operation of a Class 8 HEV that features a micro-turbine as the heat engine. The micro-turbine application shows promise in fuel efficiency, even when compared to current diesel engines, and can meet regulated exhaust emissions levels with no exhaust after-treatment system. Both parallel and series HEV variants will be examined to understand the merits of each approach of the micro-turbine to MD advanced powertrain applications. These powertrain configurations enable new paradigms in operational efficiency, particularly in the Class 8 truck fleet. The successful development of these HEV variants will require a thorough technical understanding of the complex interactions between various energy sources and energy consumption components, for various operating modes. PACCAR will be integrating the first generation of their series HEV powertrain with a Brayton Energy micro-turbine into a Class 8 HD truck tractor that has both regional haul and local pick-up and delivery (P&D) components to its drive cycle. The vehicle will be deployed into fleet operation for a demonstration

  17. Designing for sustainability - mobility systems based on electrical vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergård, Bent; Hansen, Ole Erik

    2013-01-01

    in interaction with public authorities and transportation companies), configuring the electric car sharing system as an element in an alternative mobility service system, and designing the technical and organizational system The concluding discussion falls into two parts: an assessment of the design process......-design, concerned with design as meta-level processes of regime transformation and the constructive configuration of design spaces. The case study examines an attempt to integrate electric vehicles in the Danish mobility systems. It maps the framework conditions and contemporary (competing) strategies....../projects, but focuses on a specific car-sharing project (‘Cleardrive’), with the objective to examine the early and constitutive stages of the design-process. It is conducted as an intensive study tracing elements of interpretation, interaction and intervention, which have been part of the project formation process...

  18. Solar thermionic bimodal propulsion and power system for different vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillov, E. Ya.; Ogloblin, B. G.; Klimov, A. V.; Shumov, D. P.

    1997-01-01

    The search of ways to decrease the per-unit cost of space vehicles injection into high operational orbits and to increase their power-to-weight ratio at the present time is centered on the promising propulsion systems with high specific impulse and with high specific electric power. Such system makes it possible to decrease significantly the propellant mass, as well as on the promising power systems. While SV injects from LEO to final operational orbit, the SPPS must heat hydrogen to temperatures required by specific impulse and generate auxiliary electric power. This paper deals with a solar power and propulsion system with a thermionic energy conversion. The SPPS performance data are given.

  19. Stop and Restart Effects on Modern Vehicle Starting System Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windover, Paul R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Owens, Russell J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Levinson, Terry M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Laughlin, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gaines, Linda [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Many drivers of personal and commercial vehicles believe that turning the vehicle off and on frequently instead of idling will cause premature wear of the starter system (starter motor and starter battery). As a result, they are concerned that the replacement cost of the starter motor and/or battery due to increased manual engine cycling would be more than the cumulative cost of the fuel saved by not idling unnecessarily. A number of variables play a role in addressing this complex concern, including the number of starting cycles per day, the time between starting cycles, the intended design life of the starting system, the amount of fuel used to restart an engine, and the cumulative cost of the saved fuel. Qualitative and quantitative information from a variety of sources was used to develop a life-cycle economic model to evaluate the cost and quantify the realistic factors that are related to the permissible frequency of starter motor cycles for the average vehicle to economically minimize engine idle time. Annual cost savings can be calculated depending on shutdown duration and the number of shutdown cycles per day. Analysis shows that cost savings are realized by eliminating idling exceeding one minute by shutting down the engine and restarting it. For a typical motorist, the damage to starting system components resulting from additional daily start cycles will be negligible. Overall, it was found that starter life is mostly dependent on the total number of start cycles, while battery life is more dependent on ensuring a full charge between start events.

  20. Durability study of a vehicle-scale hydrogen storage system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Terry Alan; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Behrens, Richard, Jr.

    2010-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a vehicle-scale demonstration hydrogen storage system as part of a Work for Others project funded by General Motors. This Demonstration System was developed based on the properties and characteristics of sodium alanates which are complex metal hydrides. The technology resulting from this program was developed to enable heat and mass management during refueling and hydrogen delivery to an automotive system. During this program the Demonstration System was subjected to repeated hydriding and dehydriding cycles to enable comparison of the vehicle-scale system performance to small-scale sample data. This paper describes the experimental results of life-cycle studies of the Demonstration System. Two of the four hydrogen storage modules of the Demonstration System were used for this study. A well-controlled and repeatable sorption cycle was defined for the repeated cycling, which began after the system had already been cycled forty-one times. After the first nine repeated cycles, a significant hydrogen storage capacity loss was observed. It was suspected that the sodium alanates had been affected either morphologically or by contamination. The mechanisms leading to this initial degradation were investigated and results indicated that water and/or air contamination of the hydrogen supply may have lead to oxidation of the hydride and possibly kinetic deactivation. Subsequent cycles showed continued capacity loss indicating that the mechanism of degradation was gradual and transport or kinetically limited. A materials analysis was then conducted using established methods including treatment with carbon dioxide to react with sodium oxides that may have formed. The module tubes were sectioned to examine chemical composition and morphology as a function of axial position. The results will be discussed.

  1. Development of quick charging system for electric vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anegawa, Takafumi

    2010-09-15

    Despite low environmental impact and high energy efficiency, electric vehicles (EV) have not been widely accepted. The lack of charging infrastructure is one reason. Since lithium-ion battery has high energy density and low internal resistance that allows quick charging, the convenience of EV may be greatly improved if charging infrastructure is prepared adequately. TEPCO aims for EV spread to reduce CO2 emissions and to increase demand for electric power, and has developed quick charging system for fleet-use EV to improve the convenience of EV. And based on research results, we will propose desirable characteristics of quick charger for public use.

  2. Improvement the DTC system for electric vehicles induction motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-phase squirrel-cage induction motor is used as a propulsion system of an electric vehicle (EV. Two different control methods have been designed. The first is based on the conventional DTC Scheme adapted for three level inverter. The second is based on the application of fuzzy logic controller to the DTC scheme. The motor is controlled at different operating conditions using a FLC based DTC technique. In the simulation the novel proposed technique reduces the torque and current ripples. The EV dynamics are taken into account.

  3. Systems analysis of Mars solar electric propulsion vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, J. M.; Curtis, H. B.; Kenny, B. H.; Sefcik, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    Mission performance, mass, initial power, and cost are determined for solar electric propulsion vehicles across a range of payload masses, reference powers, and mission trajectories. Thick radiation shielding is added to arrays using indium phosphide or III-V multijunction solar cells to reduce the damage incurred through the radiation belts. Special assessments of power management and distribution systems, atmospheric drag, and energy storage are made. It is determined that atmospheric drag is of no great concern and that the energy storage used in countering drag is unnecessary. A scheme to package the arrays, masts, and ion thrusters into a single fairing is presented.

  4. Stress-oriented driver assistance system for electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, Georgia; Tsotoulidis, Savvas; Mitronikas, Epaminondas; Lymberopoulos, Dimitrios

    2014-01-01

    Stress is physiological and physical reaction that appears in highly demanding situations and affects human's perception and reaction capability. Occurrence of stress events within highly dynamic road environment could lead to life-threatening situation. With the perspective of safety and comfort driving provision to anxious drivers, in this paper a stress-oriented Driver Assistance System (DAS) is proposed. The DAS deployed on Electric Vehicle. This novel DAS customizes driving command signal in respect to road context, when stress is detected. The effectiveness of this novel DAS is verified by simulation in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment.

  5. Polymers for hydrogen infrastructure and vehicle fuel systems :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, Rachel Reina; Simmons, Kevin L.; San Marchi, Christopher W.

    2013-10-01

    This document addresses polymer materials for use in hydrogen service. Section 1 summarizes the applications of polymers in hydrogen infrastructure and vehicle fuel systems and identifies polymers used in these applications. Section 2 reviews the properties of polymer materials exposed to hydrogen and/or high-pressure environments, using information obtained from published, peer-reviewed literature. The effect of high pressure on physical and mechanical properties of polymers is emphasized in this section along with a summary of hydrogen transport through polymers. Section 3 identifies areas in which fuller characterization is needed in order to assess material suitability for hydrogen service.

  6. Sustained small oscillations in nonlinear control systems. [launch vehicle dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, J. H.; Gunderson, R. W.; Hahn, H.

    1975-01-01

    Some results of bifurcation theory were used to study the existence of small-amplitude periodic behavior in launch vehicle dynamics, assuming that nonlinearity exists as a cubic term in the rudder response. The analysis follows closely Sattinger's (1973) approach to the theory of periodic bifurcations. The conditions under which a bifurcating branch of orbitally stable periodic solutions will exist are determined. It is shown that in more complicated cases, the conditions under which the system matrix has a pair of simple purely imaginary eigenvalues can be determined with the aid of linear stability techniques.

  7. Systems analysis of Mars solar electric propulsion vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickman, J.M.; Curtis, H.B.; Kenny, B.H.; Sefcik, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Mission performance, mass, initial power, and cost are determined for solar electric propulsion vehicles across a range of payload masses, reference powers, and mission trajectories. Thick radiation shielding is added to arrays using indium phosphide or III-V multijunction solar cells to reduce the damage incurred through the radiation belts. Special assessments of power management and distribution systems, atmospheric drag, and energy storage are made. It is determined that atmospheric drag is of no great concern and that the energy storage used in countering drag is unnecessary. A scheme to package the arrays, masts, and ion thrusters into a single fairing is presented. 19 refs.

  8. Design of Heavy Metals Monitoring System in Water Based on WSN and GPRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Lin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to realize the real-time monitoring of heavy metals in water environment, a new type of heavy metal monitoring system was developed. The system was composed of monitoring terminal, gateway, GPRS network and upper computer monitoring center. The system detected the heavy metal ion concentrations by ion-selective electrode array and came into the system error automatic compensation method in the detection process. The collecting data was transported to the monitoring center through the cooperation between the wireless sensor network constituted by CC2530 and General Packet Radio Service network. The test result shows that the system can increased precision dramatically and strengthens the real-time transmission capacity effectively. The system is reliable in transmission, high real-time performance, flexible in networking and can be applied to continuous remote monitoring of heavy metals pollution.

  9. Modeling and Prototyping of Automatic Clutch System for Light Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, S.; Jothi Prakash, V. M.; Vishal, S.

    2017-03-01

    Nowadays, recycling or regenerating the waste in to something useful is appreciated all around the globe. It reduces greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to global climate change. This study deals with provision of the automatic clutch mechanism in vehicles to facilitate the smooth changing of gears. This study proposed to use the exhaust gases which are normally expelled out as a waste from the turbocharger to actuate the clutch mechanism in vehicles to facilitate the smooth changing of gears. At present, clutches are operated automatically by using an air compressor in the four wheelers. In this study, a conceptual design is proposed in which the clutch is operated by the exhaust gas from the turbocharger and this will remove the usage of air compressor in the existing system. With this system, usage of air compressor is eliminated and the riders need not to operate the clutch manually. This work involved in development, analysation and validation of the conceptual design through simulation software. Then the developed conceptual design of an automatic pneumatic clutch system is tested with proto type.

  10. Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Potable Water System Verification Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Laurie; DeVera, Jean; Vega, Leticia; Adam, Nik; Steele, John; Gazda, Daniel; Roberts, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), also known as Orion, will ferry a crew of up to six astronauts to the International Space Station (ISS), or a crew of up to four astronauts to the moon. The first launch of CEV is scheduled for approximately 2014. A stored water system on the CEV will supply the crew with potable water for various purposes: drinking and food rehydration, hygiene, medical needs, sublimation, and various contingency situations. The current baseline biocide for the stored water system is ionic silver, similar in composition to the biocide used to maintain quality of the water transferred from the Orbiter to the ISS and stored in Contingency Water Containers (CWCs). In the CEV water system, the ionic silver biocide is expected to be depleted from solution due to ionic silver plating onto the surfaces of the materials within the CEV water system, thus negating its effectiveness as a biocide. Since the biocide depletion is expected to occur within a short amount of time after loading the water into the CEV water tanks at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), an additional microbial control is a 0.1 micron point of use filter that will be used at the outlet of the Potable Water Dispenser (PWD). Because this may be the first time NASA is considering a stored water system for longterm missions that does not maintain a residual biocide, a team of experts in materials compatibility, biofilms and point of use filters, surface treatment and coatings, and biocides has been created to pinpoint concerns and perform testing to help alleviate those concerns related to the CEV water system. Results from the test plans laid out in the paper presented to SAE last year (Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Potable Water System Verification Coordination, 2008012083) will be detailed in this paper. Additionally, recommendations for the CEV verification will be described for risk mitigation in meeting the physicochemical and microbiological requirements on the CEV PWS.

  11. Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) for Aerospace Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroth, Edmund C.; Pallix, Joan

    2006-01-01

    To achieve NASA's ambitious Integrated Space Transportation Program objectives, aerospace systems will implement a variety of new concept in health management. System level integration of IVHM technologies for real-time control and system maintenance will have significant impact on system safety and lifecycle costs. IVHM technologies will enhance the safety and success of complex missions despite component failures, degraded performance, operator errors, and environment uncertainty. IVHM also has the potential to reduce, or even eliminate many of the costly inspections and operations activities required by current and future aerospace systems. This presentation will describe the array of NASA programs participating in the development of IVHM technologies for NASA missions. Future vehicle systems will use models of the system, its environment, and other intelligent agents with which they may interact. IVHM will be incorporated into future mission planners, reasoning engines, and adaptive control systems that can recommend or execute commands enabling the system to respond intelligently in real time. In the past, software errors and/or faulty sensors have been identified as significant contributors to mission failures. This presentation will also address the development and utilization of highly dependable sohare and sensor technologies, which are key components to ensure the reliability of IVHM systems.

  12. Modelling of an advanced charging system for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan Jaafar, Abdul; Rahman, Ataur; Mohiuddin, A. K. M.; Rashid, Mahbubur

    2017-03-01

    Climate Change is recognized as one of the greatest environmental problem facing the World today and it has long been appreciated by governments that reducing the impact of the internal combustion (IC) engine powered motor vehicle has an important part to play in addressing this threat. In Malaysia, IC engine powered motor vehicle accounts almost 90% of the national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The need to reduce the emission is paramount, as Malaysia has pledged to reduce 40% of CO2 intensity by 2020 from 2005 level by 25% of improvement in average fuel consumption. The introduction of electric vehicles (EVs) is one of the initiatives. However in terms of percentage, the electric vehicles have not been commonly used by people nowadays and one of the reasons is lack in charging infrastructure especially when cars are on the road. The aim of this study is to simulate and model an advanced charging system for the charging infrastructure of EVs/HEVs all over the nation with slow charging mode with charging current 25 A, medium charging mode with charging current 50 A and fast charging mode with charging current 100 A. The slow charging mode is proposed for residence, medium charging mode for office parking lots, and fast charging mode is called fast charging track for charging station on road. With three modes charger topology, consumers could choose a suitable mode for their car based on their need. The simulation and experiment of advanced charging system has been conducted on a scale down battery pack of nominal voltage of 3.75 V and capacity of 1020 mAh. Result shows that the battery could be charging less than 1 hour with fast charging mode. However, due to limitation of Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) power grid, the maximum 50 A current is considered to be the optimized passive mode for the EV’s battery charging system. The developed advanced charger prototype performance has been compared with the simulation result and conventional charger performance, the

  13. Prototyping low-cost and flexible vehicle diagnostic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol GARCÍA-VALLS

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic systems are software and hardware-based equipment that interoperate with an external monitored system. Traditionally, they have been expensive equipment running test algorithms to monitor physical properties of, e.g., vehicles, or civil infrastructure equipment, among others. As computer hardware is increasingly powerful (whereas its cost and size is decreasing and communication software becomes easier to program and more run-time efficient, new scenarios are enabled that yield to lower cost monitoring solutions. This paper presents a low cost approach towards the development of a diagnostic systems relying on a modular component-based approach and running on a resource limited embedded computer. Results on a prototype implementation are shown that validate the presented design, its flexibility, performance, and communication latency.

  14. Stochastic transport in complex systems from molecules to vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Schadschneider, Andreas; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2011-01-01

    What is common between a motor protein, an ant and a vehicle? Each can be modelled as a"self-propelled particle"whose forward movement can be hindered by another in front of it. Traffic flow of such interacting driven"particles"has become an active area of interdisciplinary research involving physics, civil engineering and computer science. We present a unified pedagogical introduction to the analytical and computational methods which are currently used for studying such complex systems far from equilibrium. We also review a number of applications ranging from intra-cellular molecular motor transport in living systems to ant trails and vehicular traffic. Researchers working on complex systems, in general, and on classical stochastic transport, in particular, will find the pedagogical style, scholarly critical overview and extensive list of references extremely useful.

  15. Advanced electric propulsion system concept for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynard, A. E.; Forbes, F. E.

    1979-01-01

    Seventeen propulsion system concepts for electric vehicles were compared to determine the differences in components and battery pack to achieve the basic performance level. Design tradeoffs were made for selected configurations to find the optimum component characteristics required to meet all performance goals. The anticipated performance when using nickel-zinc batteries rather than the standard lead-acid batteries was also evaluated. The two systems selected for the final conceptual design studies included a system with a flywheel energy storage unit and a basic system that did not have a flywheel. The flywheel system meets the range requirement with either lead-acid or nickel-zinc batteries and also the acceleration of zero to 89 km/hr in 15 s. The basic system can also meet the required performance with a fully charged battery, but, when the battery approaches 20 to 30 percent depth of discharge, maximum acceleration capability gradually degrades. The flywheel system has an estimated life-cycle cost of $0.041/km using lead-acid batteries. The basic system has a life-cycle cost of $0.06/km. The basic system, using batteries meeting ISOA goals, would have a life-cycle cost of $0.043/km.

  16. Aerospace Sensor Systems: From Sensor Development To Vehicle Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary W.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of years of sensor system development and application for aerospace systems. The emphasis of this work is on developing advanced capabilities for measurement and control of aeropropulsion and crew vehicle systems as well as monitoring the safety of those systems. Specific areas of work include chemical species sensors, thin film thermocouples and strain gages, heat flux gages, fuel gages, SiC based electronic devices and sensors, space qualified electronics, and MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) as well as integrated and multifunctional sensor systems. Each sensor type has its own technical challenges related to integration and reliability in a given application. The general approach has been to develop base sensor technology using microfabrication techniques, integrate sensors with "smart" hardware and software, and demonstrate those systems in a range of aerospace applications. Descriptions of the sensor elements, their integration into sensors systems, and examples of sensor system applications will be discussed. Finally, suggestions related to the future of sensor technology will be given. It is concluded that smart micro/nano sensor technology can revolutionize aerospace applications, but significant challenges exist in maturing the technology and demonstrating its value in real-life applications.

  17. Size and morphology of fine particle emissions from heavy-duty vehicles; Raskaan ajoneuvokannan hiukkaspaeaestoen koko ja morfologia - HD-PM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lappi, M. [VTT Processes, Espoo (Finland); Ristimaeki, J. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Institute of Physics

    2004-07-01

    Exhaust fine and ultra fine particle numbers, particle sizes, mass, shape, structure and density were studied from Euro II - EEV emission level heavy-duty vehicles. For total particle emission factors city buses were run on dynamic conditions simulating city bus driving. The new heavy-duty chassis dynamometer of VTT was used. Vehicles were a comprehensive sample of current city bus fleet, the type approved emission level of which was Euro II - Euro III. Also cleaner engines of Euro IV to EEV targeted emission level were included: CRT, CNG, DPF. Particle emissions of these buses were extremely low; numbers 1/100 - 1/1000 and masses 1/10 - 1/100 of those of the predominating techniques. Morphological properties of fine particle populations that represent majority of particle size distribution (Da < 500 nm) are being analyzed by image processing (Matlab) from electron microscopical images (SEM, ESEM and TEM) as a function of particle size. Particles from different formation conditions (engine load, dilution conditions) were analyzed. Particle size independent sampling method for diluted exhaust was developed. Density and fractal dimension analysis was based on matching electrical mobility and aerodynamic size distributions (ELPI and SMPS). The effect of varying dilution conditions (RH, T, Dr) was studied. The first research period was September 2002 - December 2003, and a continuation is being funded until August 2005. The study is financially supported by Tekes, VTT, Dekati Oy and FinnKatalyt Oy. (orig.)

  18. [Investigation and analysis of heavy metal pollution related to soil-Panax notoginseng system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu; Mi, Yan-Hua; Lin, Xin; Liu, Da-Hui; Zeng, Min; Chen, Xiao-Yan

    2014-07-01

    In this study, five heavy metals contamination of soil and different parts of Panax notoginseng in the plantation area was investigated. Analysis of heavy metals correlation between the planting soil and P. notoginseng; and the absorption and accumulation characteristics and translocation of soil heavy metals by P. notoginseng plants was revealed. Through field investigation and laboratory analytical methods, analysis of China's 30 different soil P. notoginseng origin and content of heavy metals in five different parts of the P. notoginseng plant content of heavy metals. The results revealed that the soil heavy metals should not be neglected in the plantation area Referring to the national soil quality standards (GB15608-1995), the excessive degree of soil heavy metals pollution showed Hg > As > Cd > Cr in the plantation area, and Pb content of soil was in the scope of the standard. Refer to 'Green Industry Standards for Import and Export of Medical Plants and Preparations', the excessive degree of heavy metals content of P. notoginseng plants showed As > Pb > Cr > Cd, and Hg content of plants was in the scope of the standard. Concentrations of five heavy metals of underground parts of P. notoginseng plants are higher than aboveground, and heavy metals elements are more concentrated in the root, followed by the rhizome of P. notoginseng plants. Heavy metal accumulation characteristics of the different parts of the P. notoginseng of the overall performance is the root > the rhizome > the root tuber > leaves > stems. From the point of view BCF value analysis of various parts of the P. notoginseng plants to absorb heavy metals in soil, BCF values of all samples were less than 1, description P. notoginseng not belong Hyperaccumulator. From the view of transportation and related analysis of the soil-P. notoginseng systems, the rhizome of P. notoginseng and the content of As and Cr in soil was significantly correlated, the root of P. notoginseng and the content of Cd in

  19. 76 FR 55829 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AL02 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control Systems AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... changes to a new Federal motor vehicle safety standard requiring light vehicles to be equipped with...

  20. 78 FR 9623 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AL11 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... published a final rule that amended the Federal motor vehicle safety standard for air brake systems by... published a final rule in the Federal Register amending Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No...