Sample records for heavy truck aggressiveness

  1. Heavy Truck Engine Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Christopher


    The Heavy Duty Truck Engine Program at Cummins embodied three significant development phases. All phases of work strove to demonstrate a high level of diesel engine efficiency in the face of increasingly stringent emission requirements. Concurrently, aftertreatment system development and refinement was pursued in support of these efficiency demonstrations. The program's first phase focused on the demonstration in-vehicle of a high level of heavy duty diesel engine efficiency (45% Brake Thermal Efficiency) at a typical cruise condition while achieving composite emissions results which met the 2004 U.S. EPA legislated standards. With a combination of engine combustion calibration tuning and the development and application of Urea-based SCR and particulate aftertreatment, these demonstrations were successfully performed by Q4 of 2002. The second phase of the program directed efforts towards an in-vehicle demonstration of an engine system capable of meeting 2007 U.S. EPA legislated emissions requirements while achieving 45% Brake Thermal Efficiency at cruise conditions. Through further combustion optimization, the refinement of Cummins Cooled EGR architecture, the application of a high pressure common rail fuel system and the incorporation of optimized engine parasitics, Cummins Inc. successfully demonstrated these deliverables in Q2 of 2004. The program's final phase set a stretch goal of demonstrating 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency from a heavy duty diesel engine system capable of meeting 2010 U.S. EPA legislated emissions requirements. Cummins chose to pursue this goal through further combustion development and refinement of the Cooled EGR system architecture and also applied a Rankine cycle Waste Heat Recovery technique to convert otherwise wasted thermal energy to useful power. The engine and heat recovery system was demonstrated to achieve 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency while operating at a torque peak condition in second quarter, 2006. The 50% efficient

  2. Heavy truck rollover characterization (phase B). (United States)


    The Heavy Truck Rollover Characterization Study - Phase-B builds on the results of prior phases of research. Phases 1 and 2 (Funded by Federal Highway Administration) involved heavy truck rollover characterization for a tractor and box-trailer; and P...

  3. Gas fuelled heavy-duty trucks for municipal services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, A. (City of Helsinki Construction Services (Finland)); Hietanen, L. (Lassila and Tikanoja, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)); Nylund, N.-O. (TEC TransEnergy Consulting, Espoo (Finland))


    Helsinki City Public Works Department (HKR) and the environmental management company Lassila and Tikanoja joined forces to demonstrate the suitability of heavy-duty gas fuelled trucks for municipal services. HKR acquired two and Lassila and Tikanoja five Mercedes-Benz Econic trucks. HKR's trucks are equipped with interchangeable platforms, Lassila an Tikanoja's trucks with refuse collection equipment. The trucks are subjected to a two-year follow-up study to establish reliability, operational costs and exhaust emissions. Diesel trucks representing up-to-date technology are used as reference. If the gas fuelled trucks perform well, this can lead to increased numbers of natural gas trucks in municipal services, and in the long run to the introduction of biogas fuelled trucks. (orig.)

  4. The Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles III : Trucks, Buses and Trains

    CERN Document Server

    Orellano, Alexander


    This volume contains papers presented at the International conference “The Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles III: Trucks, Buses and Trains” held in Potsdam, Germany, September 12-17, 2010 by Engineering Conferences International (ECI). Leading scientists and engineers from industry, universities and research laboratories, including truck and high-speed train manufacturers and operators were brought together to discuss computer simulation and experimental techniques to be applied for the design of more efficient trucks, buses and high-speed trains in the future.   This conference was the third in the series after Monterey-Pacific Groove in 2002 and Lake Tahoe in 2007.  The presentations address different aspects of train aerodynamics (cross wind effects, underbody flow, tunnel aerodynamics and aeroacoustics, experimental techniques), truck aerodynamics (drag reduction, flow control, experimental and computational techniques) as well as computational fluid dynamics and bluff body, wake and jet flows.

  5. Evaluation of the ticketing aggressive cars and trucks (TACT) program in Pennsylvania (071408). (United States)


    The Pennsylvania State Police and Pennsylvania Department of Transportation implemented the "Ticketing Aggressive Cars and Trucks (TACT)" media and enforcement initiative on a portion of Interstate 81 in southern Pennsylvania, in late 2008. This repo...

  6. Model development for air conditioning system in heavy duty trucks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; van den Bosch, P.P.J.; Zhang, Quansheng; Li, Shengbo Eben; Deng, Kun


    This chapter presents a modelling approach for the air conditioning (AC) system in heavy duty trucks. The presented model entails two major elements: a mechanical compressor model and a thermal AC model. The compressor model describes the massflow of the refrigerant as well as the mechanical power

  7. The ethanol heavy-duty truck fleet demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This project was designed to test and demonstrate the use of a high- percentage ethanol-blended fuel in a fleet of heavy-duty, over-the- road trucks, paying particular attention to emissions, performance, and repair and maintenance costs. This project also represents the first public demonstration of the use of ethanol fuels as a viable alternative to conventional diesel fuel in heavy-duty engines.

  8. Heavy truck modeling for fuel consumption. Simulations and measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandberg, T.


    Fuel consumption for heavy trucks depends on many factors like roads, weather, and driver behavior that are hard for a manufacturer to influence. However, one design possibility is the power train configuration. Here a new simulation program for heavy trucks is created to find the configuration of the power train that gives the lowest fuel consumption for each transport task. For efficient simulations the model uses production code for speed and gear control, and it uses exchangeable data sets to allow simulation of the whole production range of engine types, on recorded road profiles from all over the world. Combined with a graphical user interface this application is called STARS (Scania Truck And Road Simulation). The forces of rolling resistance and air resistance in the model are validated through an experiment where the propeller shaft torque of a heavy truck is measured. It is found that the coefficient of rolling resistance is strongly dependent on tire temperature, not only on vehicle speed as expected. This led to the development of a new model for rolling resistance. The model includes the dynamic behavior of the tires and relates rolling resistance to tire temperature and vehicle speed. In another experiment the fuel consumption of a test truck in highway driving is measured. The altitude of the road is recorded with a barometer and used in the corresponding simulations. Despite of the limited accuracy of this equipment the simulation program manage to predict a level of fuel consumption only 2% lower than the real measurements. It is concluded that STARS is a good tool for predicting fuel consumption for trucks in highway driving and for comparing different power train configurations.

  9. Advanced vehicle dynamics of heavy trucks with the perspective of road safety (United States)

    Trigell, Annika Stensson; Rothhämel, Malte; Pauwelussen, Joop; Kural, Karel


    This paper presents state-of-the art within advanced vehicle dynamics of heavy trucks with the perspective of road safety. The most common accidents with heavy trucks involved are truck against passenger cars. Safety critical situations are for example loss of control (such as rollover and lateral stability) and a majority of these occur during speed when cornering. Other critical situations are avoidance manoeuvre and road edge recovery. The dynamic behaviour of heavy trucks have significant differences compared to passenger cars and as a consequence, successful application of vehicle dynamic functions for enhanced safety of trucks might differ from the functions in passenger cars. Here, the differences between vehicle dynamics of heavy trucks and passenger cars are clarified. Advanced vehicle dynamics solutions with the perspective of road safety of trucks are presented, beginning with the topic vehicle stability, followed by the steering system, the braking system and driver assistance systems that differ in some way from that of passenger cars as well.

  10. Idle emissions from medium heavy-duty diesel and gasoline trucks. (United States)

    Khan, A B M S; Clark, Nigel N; Gautam, Mridul; Wayne, W Scott; Thompson, Gregory J; Lyons, Donald W


    Idle emissions data from 19 medium heavy-duty diesel and gasoline trucks are presented in this paper. Emissions from these trucks were characterized using full-flow exhaust dilution as part of the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Project E-55/59. Idle emissions data were not available from dedicated measurements, but were extracted from the continuous emissions data on the low-speed transient mode of the medium heavy-duty truck (MHDTLO) cycle. The four gasoline trucks produced very low oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and negligible particulate matter (PM) during idle. However, carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbons (HCs) from these four trucks were approximately 285 and 153 g/hr on average, respectively. The gasoline trucks consumed substantially more fuel at an hourly rate (0.84 gal/hr) than their diesel counterparts (0.44 gal/hr) during idling. The diesel trucks, on the other hand, emitted higher NOx (79 g/hr) and comparatively higher PM (4.1 g/hr), on average, than the gasoline trucks (3.8 g/hr of NOx and 0.9 g/hr of PM, on average). Idle NOx emissions from diesel trucks were high for post-1992 model year engines, but no trends were observed for fuel consumption. Idle emissions and fuel consumption from the medium heavy-duty diesel trucks (MHDDTs) were marginally lower than those from the heavy heavy-duty diesel trucks (HHDDTs), previously reported in the literature.

  11. Work-related musculoskeletal discomfort among heavy truck drivers. (United States)

    Nazerian, Ramtin; Korhan, Orhan; Shakeri, Ehsan


    Heavy truck drivers are exposed to various psychological, psychosocial and physiological factors, some of which can cause musculoskeletal discomfort in different body regions. This study aims to investigate the correlation between different factors of musculoskeletal discomfort in heavy truck drivers. A cross-sectional study design was applied. A total of 384 participants were interviewed using an updated version of the Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire. While hypothesis testing was used to assess the association of different factors in musculoskeletal discomfort, logistic regression was applied to explore different correlations among questions of the survey. The results demonstrate that hours of exposure to vibration were associated with discomfort in the neck and shoulders (p  0.05. Fifty-seven percent of the drivers were suffering from discomfort in their lower back region. Moreover, seat comfort was found to be highly correlated with discomfort in the neck, shoulder and upper back areas. Additionally, with aging the likelihood of experiencing discomfort in the neck, upper back and knees is increased.

  12. Ticketing aggressive cars and trucks (TACT): How does it work on city streets? (United States)

    Telford, Russell; Cook, Lawrence J; Olson, Lenora M


    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of modifying the Ticking Aggressive Cars and Trucks (TACT) program, originally designed to work on state highways, within a metropolitan area to reduce unsafe interactions and their related crashes between drivers of large trucks and passenger vehicles. Using crash data, the driving behaviors most commonly associated with large truck and passenger vehicle crashes were identified. A public awareness campaign using media messaging and increased law enforcement was created targeting these associated behaviors. The frequency of these behaviors both before and after the public awareness campaign was determined through observation of traffic at 3 specific locations within the city. Each location had a sufficient volume of large truck and passenger traffic to observe frequent interactions. Pre- and postintervention data were compared using negative binomial regression with generalized estimating equations to evaluate whether the campaign was associated with a reduction in the identified driving behaviors. A comparison between crash data from before, during, and after the campaign and crashes during the same time periods in previous years did not show a significant difference (P =.081). The number of large trucks observed in traffic remained the same during pre- and postintervention periods (P =.625). The rates of negative interactions per 100 large trucks decreased for both large trucks and passenger vehicles after the intervention, with calculated rate ratios of 0.58 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48, 0.70) and 0.31 (95% CI, 0.20, 0.47). The greatest reduction was seen in passenger vehicles following too close, with a rate ratio of 0.21 (95% CI, 0.15, 0.30). Although designed for reducing crashes on highways, the TACT program can be an effective approach for improving driver behaviors on city streets.

  13. Co-simulation of heavy truck tire dynamics and electronic stability control systems (phase A). (United States)


    Electronic stability control (ESC) systems have been proven to be an effective means of preventing instability and loss of control on both passenger vehicles and heavy trucks. In addition, roll stability algorithms are an effective means of reducing ...

  14. Integrated vehicle-based safety systems (IVBSS) : heavy truck platform field operational test data analysis plan. (United States)


    This document presents the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institutes plan to perform : analysis of data collected from the heavy truck platform field operational test of the Integrated Vehicle- : Based Safety Systems (IVBSS) progra...

  15. Pathways to romantic relational aggression through adolescent peer aggression and heavy episodic drinking. (United States)

    Woodin, Erica M; Sukhawathanakul, Paweena; Caldeira, Valerie; Homel, Jacqueline; Leadbeater, Bonnie


    Adolescent peer aggression is a well-established correlate of romantic relational aggression; however, the mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. Heavy episodic drinking (or "binge" alcohol use) was examined as both a prior and concurrent mediator of this link in a sample of 282 12-18 year old interviewed four times over 6 years. Path analyses indicated that early peer relational and physical aggression each uniquely predicted later romantic relational aggression. Concurrent heavy episodic drinking fully mediated this effect for peer physical aggression only. These findings highlight two important mechanisms by which peer aggression may increase the risk of later romantic relational aggression: a direct pathway from peer relational aggression to romantic relational aggression and an indirect pathway through peer physical aggression and concurrent heavy episodic drinking. Prevention programs targeting romantic relational aggression in adolescence and young adulthood may benefit from interventions that target multiple domains of risky behavior, including the heavy concurrent use of alcohol. Aggr. Behav. 42:563-576, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Experimental Measurement of the Flow Field of Heavy Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred Browand; Charles Radovich


    Flat flaps that enclose the trailer base on the sides and top are known to reduce truck drag and reduce fuel consumption. Such flapped-truck geometries have been studied in laboratory wind tunnels and in field tests. A recent review of wind tunnel data for a variety of truck geometries and flow Reynolds numbers show roughly similar values of peak drag reduction, but differ in the determination of the optimum flap angle. Optimum angles lie in the range 12 degrees-20 degrees, and may be sensitive to Reynolds number and truck geometry. The present field test is undertaken to provide additional estimates of the magnitude of the savings to be expected on a typical truck for five flap angles 10, 13, 16, 19, and 22 degrees. The flaps are constructed from a fiberglass-epoxy-matrix material and are one-quarter of the base width in length (about 61 cm, or 2 feet). They are attached along the rear door hinge lines on either side of the trailer, so that no gap appears at the joint between the flap and the side of the trailer The flap angle is adjusted by means of two aluminum supports. The present test is performed on the NASA Crows Landing Flight Facility at the northern end of the San Joaquin valley in California. The main runway is approximately 2400 meters in length, and is aligned approximately in a north-south direction The test procedure is to make a series of runs starting at either end of the runway. All runs are initiated under computer control to accelerate the truck to a target speed of 60 mph (96 6 km/hr), to proceed at the target speed for a fixed distance, and to decelerate at the far end of the runway. During a run, the broadcast fuel rate, the engine rpm, forward speed, elapsed time--as well as several other parameters (10 in all)--are digitized at a rate of 100 digitizations per second. Various flapped-conditions are interspersed with the ''no flaps'' control, and are sequenced in a different order on different days. Approximately 310 runs

  17. Modeling mechanical restriction differences between car and heavy truck in two-lane cellular automata traffic flow model (United States)

    Li, Xin; Li, Xingang; Xiao, Yao; Jia, Bin


    Real traffic is heterogeneous with car and truck. Due to mechanical restrictions, the car and the truck have different limited deceleration capabilities, which are important factors in safety driving. This paper extends the single lane safety driving (SD) model with limited deceleration capability to two-lane SD model, in which car-truck heterogeneous traffic is considered. A car has a larger limited deceleration capability while a heavy truck has a smaller limited deceleration capability as a result of loaded goods. Then the safety driving conditions are different as the types of the following and the leading vehicles vary. In order to eliminate the well-known plug in heterogeneous two-lane traffic, it is assumed that heavy truck has active deceleration behavior when the heavy truck perceives the forming plug. The lane-changing decisions are also determined by the safety driving conditions. The fundamental diagram, spatiotemporal diagram, and lane-changing frequency were investigated to show the effect of mechanical restriction on heterogeneous traffic flow. It was shown that there would be still three traffic phases in heterogeneous traffic condition; the active deceleration of the heavy truck could well eliminate the plug; the lane-changing frequency was low in synchronized flow; the flow and velocity would decrease as the proportion of heavy truck grows or the limited deceleration capability of heavy truck drops; and the flow could be improved with lane control measures.

  18. On-line energy and battery thermal management for hybrid electric heavy-duty truck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, H.T.; Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.; Huisman, R.G.M.; Nevels, R.M.P.A.


    This paper discusses an integrated approach for energy and thermal management to minimize the fuel consumption of a hybrid electric heavy-duty truck. Conventional Energy Management Systems (EMS) operate separately from the Battery Thermal Management System (BTMS) in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs).

  19. Cost-effective energy management for hybrid electric heavy-duty truck including battery aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, H.T.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.; Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Huisman, R.G.M.


    Battery temperature has large impact on battery power capability and battery life time. In Hybrid Electric Heavy-duty trucks (HEVs), the high-voltage battery is normally equipped with an active Battery Thermal Management System (BTMS) guaranteeing a desired battery life time. Since the BTMS can

  20. Particulate matters from diesel heavy duty trucks exhaust versus cigarettes emissions: a new educational antismoking instrument. (United States)

    De Marco, Cinzia; Ruprecht, Ario Alberto; Pozzi, Paolo; Munarini, Elena; Ogliari, Anna Chiara; Mazza, Roberto; Boffi, Roberto


    Indoor smoking in public places and workplaces is forbidden in Italy since 2003, but some health concerns are arising from outdoor secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure for non-smokers. One of the biggest Italian Steel Manufacturer, with several factories in Italy and abroad, the Marcegaglia Group, recently introduced the outdoor smoking ban within the perimeter of all their factories. In order to encourage their smoker employees to quit, the Marcegaglia management decided to set up an educational framework by measuring the PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 emissions from heavy duty trucks and to compare them with the emissions of cigarettes in an indoor controlled environment under the same conditions. The exhaust pipe of two trucks powered by a diesel engine of about 13.000/14.000 cc(3) were connected with a flexible hose to a hole in the window of a container of 36 m(3) volume used as field office. The trucks operated idling for 8 min and then, after adequate office ventilation, a smoker smoked a cigarette. Particulate matter emission was thereafter analyzed. Cigarette pollution was much higher than the heavy duty truck one. Mean of the two tests was: PM1 truck 125.0(47.0), cigarettes 231.7(90.9) p = 0.002; PM2.5 truck 250.8(98.7), cigarettes 591.8(306.1) p = 0.006; PM10 truck 255.8(52.4), cigarettes 624.0(321.6) p = 0.002. Our findings may be important for policies that aim reducing outdoor SHS exposure. They may also help smokers to quit tobacco dependence by giving them an educational perspective that rebuts the common alibi that traffic pollution is more dangerous than cigarettes pollution.

  1. Combined Aero and Underhood Thermal Analysis for Heavy Duty Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vegendla, Prasad [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sofu, Tanju [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Saha, Rohit [Cummins Inc., Columbus, IN (United States); Madurai Kumar, Mahesh [Cummins Inc., Columbus, IN (United States); Hwang, L. K [Cummins Inc., Columbus, IN (United States)


    Aerodynamic analysis of the medium-duty delivery truck was performed to achieve vehicle design optimization. Three dimensional CFD simulations were carried out for several improved designs, with a detailed external component analysis of wheel covers, side skirts, roof fairings, and rounded trailer corners. The overall averaged aerodynamics drag reduction through the design modifications were shown up to 22.3% through aerodynamic considerations alone, which is equivalent to 11.16% fuel savings. The main identified fuel efficiencies were based on second generation devices, including wheel covers, side skirts, roof fairings, and rounded trailer corners. The important findings of this work were; (i) the optimum curvature radius of the rounded trailer edges found to be 125 mm, with an arc length of 196.3 mm, (ii) aerodynamic drag reduction increases with dropping clearance of side skirts between wheels and ground, and (iii) aerodynamic drag reduction increases with an extension of front bumper towards the ground.

  2. Experimental study on transportation safety of package in side collision of heavy duty truck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suga, M.; Sasaki, T.


    The accidents in road transportation of package may be collision, fall and fire. It is necessary to examine all cases very carefully because collision might be caused by other vehicle. Collisions are classified into head-on collision, rear-end collision, side collision. A lot of experiments and analyses are reported on head-on collision, so the behavior of vehicle and package may be predicted without difficulty. Rear-end collisions bring about less impact and may be applied corresponding to the head-on collisions. About side collisions, few experiments or analyses are reported, and most of them are about passenger cars not about trucks. So it becomes important to study the transportation safety of package carried on a heavy duty truck when hit on the side by another truck similar in size

  3. Field Measurement of Dynamic Compressive Stress Response of Pavement-Subgrade Induced by Moving Heavy-Duty Trucks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingshi An


    Full Text Available This paper presents the dynamic compressive stress response of pavement-subgrade induced by moving heavy-duty trucks. In order to study the distribution characteristic of dynamic pressure of pavement-subgrade in more detail, truck loadings, truck speeds, and dynamic pressure distributions at different depths were monitored under twenty-five working conditions on the section of Qiqihar-Nenjiang Highway in Heilongjiang Province, China. The effects of truck loading, truck speed, and depth on dynamic compressive stress response can be concluded as follows: (1 increasing truck loading will increase the dynamic pressure amplitude of subgrade-pavement and dominant frequencies are close to the characteristic frequencies caused by heavy-duty trucks at the speed of 70 km/h; (2 as truck speed increases, the dynamic pressure amplitudes of measuring points have an increasing tendency; the dynamic pressure spectrums are also significantly influenced by truck speed: the higher the truck speed, the wider the spectrum and the higher the dominant frequencies; (3 as depth increases, the dynamic pressure amplitudes of measuring points decrease rapidly. The influence of the front axle decreases gradually until disappearing and the compressive stress superposition phenomenon caused by rear double axles can be found with increasing depth.

  4. Study on heavy duty truck stability control by braking force control; Seidoryoku seigyo ni yoru truck no sharyo kyodo anteika ni taisuru ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, K; Shinjo, H; Harada, M; Ohata, K; Sakata, K [Mitsubishi Motors Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Now a days we are discussing about the vehicle stability control system which freely controls the braking force of each wheel to apply the yaw t and decelerate the vehicle. The system drastically improve the vehicle cornering performance and stabilize the vehicle behavior in its critical area. This paper discusses a point to notice in case of applying this technique for heavy duty trucks, and describes the possibility of the stabilization for vehicle cornering behavior about heavy duty truck. 3 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Dynamic simulation of collisions of heavy high-speed trucks with concrete barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Yoshito; Liu, Chunlu; Kusama, Ryuichi


    Real vehicle collision experiments on full-scale road safety barriers are important to determine the outcome of a vehicle versus barrier impact accident. However, such experiments require large investment of time and money. Numerical simulation has therefore been imperative as an alternative method for testing concrete barriers. In this research, spring subgrade models were first developed to simulate the ground boundary of concrete barriers. Both heavy trucks and concrete barriers were modeled using finite element methods (FEM) to simulate dynamic collision performances. Comparison of the results generated from computer simulations and on-site full-scale experiments demonstrated that the developed models could be applied to simulate the collision of heavy trucks with concrete barriers to provide the data to design new road safety barriers and analyze existing ones

  6. Effects of After-Treatment Control Technologies on Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Emissions (United States)

    Preble, C.; Dallmann, T. R.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Hering, S. V.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.


    Diesel engines are major emitters of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and the black carbon (BC) fraction of particulate matter (PM). Diesel particle filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems that target exhaust PM and NOx have recently become standard on new heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDT). There is concern that DPFs may increase ultrafine particle (UFP) and total particle number (PN) emissions while reducing PM mass emissions. Also, the deliberate catalytic oxidation of engine-out NO to NO2 in continuously regenerating DPFs may lead to increased tailpipe emission of NO2 and near-roadway concentrations that exceed the 1-hr national ambient air quality standard. Increased NO2 emissions can also promote formation of ozone and secondary PM. We report results from ongoing on-road studies of HDDT emissions at the Port of Oakland and the Caldecott Tunnel in California's San Francisco Bay Area. Emission factors (g pollutant per kg diesel) were linked via recorded license plates to each truck's engine model year and installed emission controls. At both sites, DPF use significantly increased the NO2/NOx emission ratio. DPFs also significantly increased NO2 emissions when installed as retrofits on older trucks with higher baseline NOx emissions. While SCR systems on new trucks effectively reduce total NOx emissions and mitigate these undesirable DPF-related NO2 emissions, they also lead to significant emission of N2O, a potent greenhouse gas. When expressed on a CO2-equivalent basis, the N2O emissions increase offsets the fuel economy gain (i.e., the CO2 emission reduction) associated with SCR use. At the Port, average NOx, BC and PN emission factors from new trucks equipped with DPF and SCR were 69 ± 15%, 92 ± 32% and 66 ± 35% lower, respectively, than modern trucks without these emission controls. In contrast, at the Tunnel, PN emissions from older trucks retrofit with DPFs were ~2 times greater than modern trucks without DPFs. The difference

  7. Design and Manufacture of Heavy Truck Braking Spray Device Based on PLCS7-200

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuojun SONG


    Full Text Available The braking effect is decreased rapidly in heavy truck when the temperature of braking friction plate reaches a certain value. The device measures the temperature of friction plate adopting a thermistor temperature sensor, put the temperature value into the PLC controller, compared with the selected temperature value, and the temperature of friction plate is controlled through controlling the open and close of electromagnetic valve of water supply. It has high stability, strong anti- interference ability and easy maintenance etc.

  8. Influences on Energy Savings of Heavy Trucks Using Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammert, Michael P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McAuliffe, Brian [National Research Council Canada; Lu, Xiao-Yun [University of California-Berkeley; Shladover, Steven [University of California-Berkeley; Surcel, Marius-Dorin [FPInnovations; Kailas, Aravind [Volvo Group


    An integrated adaptive cruise control (ACC) and cooperative ACC (CACC) was implemented and tested on three heavy-duty tractor-trailer trucks on a closed test track. The first truck was always in ACC mode, and the followers were in CACC mode using wireless vehicle-vehicle communication to augment their radar sensor data to enable safe and accurate vehicle following at short gaps. The fuel consumption for each truck in the CACC string was measured using the SAE J1321 procedure while travelling at 65 mph and loaded to a gross weight of 65,000 lb, demonstrating the effects of: inter-vehicle gaps (ranging from 3.0 s or 87 m to 0.14 s or 4 m, covering a much wider range than previously reported tests), cut-in and cut-out maneuvers by other vehicles, speed variations, the use of mismatched vehicles (standard trailers mixed with aerodynamic trailers with boat tails and side skirts), and the presence of a passenger vehicle ahead of the platoon. The results showed that energy savings generally increased in a non-linear fashion as the gap was reduced. The middle truck saved the most fuel at gaps shorter than 12 m and the trailing truck saved the most at longer gaps, while lead truck saved the least at all gaps. The cut-in and cut-out maneuvers had only a marginal effect on fuel consumption even when repeated every two miles. The presence of passenger-vehicle traffic had a measurable impact. The fuel-consumption savings on the curves was less than on the straight sections.

  9. Model based control for waste heat recovery rankine cycle system in heavy duty trucks


    Grelet, Vincent; Dufour, Pascal; Nadri, Madiha; Lemort, Vincent; Reiche, Thomas


    Driven by future emissions legislations and increase in fuel prices engine, gas heat recovering has recently attracted a lot of interest. In the past few years, a high number of studies have shown the interest of energy recovery Rankine based systems for heavy duty trucks engine compounding. Recent studies have brought a significant potential for such a system in a Heavy Duty (HD) vehicle, which can lead to a decrease in fuel consumption of about 5% [Wang et al. (2011)] and reduce engine emis...

  10. Affordable Rankine Cycle Waste Heat Recovery for Heavy Duty Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, Swami Nathan [Eaton Corporation


    Nearly 30% of fuel energy is not utilized and wasted in the engine exhaust. Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) based waste heat recovery (WHR) systems offer a promising approach on waste energy recovery and improving the efficiency of Heavy-Duty diesel engines. Major barriers in the ORC WHR system are the system cost and controversial waste heat recovery working fluids. More than 40% of the system cost is from the additional heat exchangers (recuperator, condenser and tail pipe boiler). The secondary working fluid loop designed in ORC system is either flammable or environmentally sensitive. The Eaton team investigated a novel approach to reduce the cost of implementing ORC based WHR systems to Heavy-Duty (HD) Diesel engines while utilizing safest working fluids. Affordable Rankine Cycle (ARC) concept aimed to define the next generation of waste energy recuperation with a cost optimized WHR system. ARC project used engine coolant as the working fluid. This approach reduced the need for a secondary working fluid circuit and subsequent complexity. A portion of the liquid phase engine coolant has been pressurized through a set of working fluid pumps and used to recover waste heat from the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and exhaust tail pipe exhaust energy. While absorbing heat, the mixture is partially vaporized but remains a wet binary mixture. The pressurized mixed-phase engine coolant mixture is then expanded through a fixed-volume ratio expander that is compatible with two-phase conditions. Heat rejection is accomplished through the engine radiator, avoiding the need for a separate condenser. The ARC system has been investigated for PACCAR’s MX-13 HD diesel engine.

  11. Fuel Economy Improvement Potential of a Heavy Duty Truck using V2x Communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaClair, Tim J [ORNL; Verma, Rajeev [Eaton Corporation; Norris, Sarah [Eaton Corporation; Cochran, Robert [Eaton Corporation


    In this paper, we introduce an intelligent driver assistance system to reduce fuel consumption in heavy duty vehicles irrespective of the driving style of the driver. We specifically study the potential of V2I and V2V communications to reduce fuel consumption in heavy duty trucks. Most ITS communications today are oriented towards vehicle safety, with communications strategies and hardware that tend to focus on low latency. This has resulted in technologies emerging with a relatively limited range for the communications. For fuel economy, it is expected that most benefits will be derived with greater communications distances, at the scale of many hundred meters or several kilometers, due to the large inertia of heavy duty vehicles. It may therefore be necessary to employ different communications strategies for ITS applications aimed at fuel economy and other environmental benefits than what is used for safety applications in order to achieve the greatest benefits.

  12. Estimating the supply and demand for commercial heavy truck parking on interstate highways : a case study of I-81 in Virginia. (United States)


    The increasing number of trucks traveling on Virginia highways has led to a growing demand for public rest areas and private truck stops. This study developed a methodology to determine the supply and demand for commercial heavy truck parking using I...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix X to Part 86 - Sampling Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Light-Duty Trucks (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Light-Duty Trucks X Appendix X to Part 86 Protection of... Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Light-Duty Trucks Table 1—Sampling...

  14. Exhaust Fine Particle and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions from Individual Heavy-Duty Trucks at the Port of Oakland (United States)

    Dallmann, T. R.; Harley, R. A.; Kirchstetter, T.


    Heavy-duty (HD) diesel trucks are a source of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions as well as primary fine particulate matter (PM2.5) that includes black carbon (BC) as a major component. Heavy-duty trucks contribute significantly to elevated levels of diesel particulate matter found near highways and in communities surrounding major freight-handling facilities. To reduce the air quality impact of diesel engine emissions, the California Air Resources Board has adopted new rules requiring the retrofit or replacement of in-use HD trucks. These rules take effect during 2010 at ports and railyards, and apply to all trucks operating in California by 2014. This study involves on-road measurements of PM2.5, BC, and NOx emission factor distributions from individual HD trucks driving into the Port of Oakland in the San Francisco Bay area. Measurements of exhaust plumes from individual trucks were made using a mobile laboratory equipped with fast time response (1 Hz) PM2.5, BC, NOx, and carbon dioxide (CO2) sensors. The mobile laboratory was stationed on an overpass above an arterial roadway that connects the Port to a nearby highway (I-880). The air sampling inlet was thereby located above the vertical exhaust pipes of HD diesel trucks passing by on the arterial roadway below. Fuel-specific PM2.5, BC, and NOx emission factors for individual trucks were calculated using a carbon balance method in which concentrations of these species in an exhaust plume are normalized to CO2 concentrations. Initial field sampling was conducted in November, 2009 prior to the implementation of new emission rules. Additional emission measurements were made at the same location during June 2010 and emission factor distributions and averages will be compared.


    A nontrivial portion of heavy-duty vehicle emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) occurs during idling. Regulators and the environmental community are interested in curtailing truck idling emissions, but current emissions models do not characterize them ac...

  16. Semivolatile organic compound emissions from heavy-duty trucks operating on diesel and bio-diesel fuel blends (United States)

    This study measured semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in particle matter (PM) emitted from three heavy-duty trucks equipped with modern after-treatment technologies. Emissions testing was conducted as described by the George et al. VOC study also presented as part of this se...

  17. Effects of Particle Filters and Selective Catalytic Reduction on In-Use Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Emissions (United States)

    Preble, C.; Cados, T.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.


    Heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDT) are a major source of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and black carbon (BC) in urban environments, contributing to persistent ozone and particulate matter air quality problems. Diesel particle filters (DPFs) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems that target PM and NOx emissions, respectively, have recently become standard equipment on new HDDT. DPFs can also be installed on older engines as a retrofit device. Previous work has shown that DPF and SCR systems can reduce NOx and BC emissions by up to 70% and 90%, respectively, compared to modern trucks without these after-treatment controls (Preble et al., ES&T 2015). DPFs can have the undesirable side-effect of increasing ultrafine particle (UFP) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions. While SCR systems can partially mitigate DPF-related NO2 increases, these systems can emit nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas. We report new results from a study of HDDT emissions conducted in fall 2015 at the Port of Oakland and Caldecott Tunnel in California's San Francisco Bay Area. We report pollutant emission factors (g kg-1) for emitted NOx, NO2, BC, PM2.5, UFP, and N2O on a truck-by-truck basis. Using a roadside license plate recognition system, we categorize each truck by its engine model year and installed after-treatment controls. From this, we develop emissions profiles for trucks with and without DPF and SCR. We evaluate the effectiveness of these devices as a function of their age to determine whether degradation is an issue. We also compare the emission profiles of trucks traveling at low speeds along a level, arterial road en route to the port and at high speeds up a 4% grade highway approaching the tunnel. Given the climate impacts of BC and N2O, we also examine the global warming potential of emissions from trucks with and without DPF and SCR.

  18. Battery Dimensioning and Life Cycle Costs Analysis for a Heavy-Duty Truck Considering the Requirements of Long-Haul Transportation


    Mareev, Ivan; Becker, Jan Nicolas; Sauer, Dirk Uwe


    The use of heavy-duty battery electric trucks for long-haul transportation is challenging because of the required high energy amounts and thus the high capacity of traction batteries. Furthermore a high capacity battery implies high initial costs for the electric vehicle. This study investigates the required battery capacity for battery electric trucks considering the requirements of long-haul transportation in Germany and compares the life cycle costs of battery electric trucks and conventio...

  19. Effect of turbulence intensity on PM emission of heavy duty diesel trucks - Wind tunnel studies (United States)

    Littera, D.; Cozzolini, A.; Besch, M.; Carder, D.; Gautam, M.


    Stringent emission regulations have forced drastic technological improvements in diesel aftertreatment systems, particularly in reducing Particulate Matter (PM) emissions. The formation and evolution of PM from modern engines are more sensitive to overall changes in the dilution process, such as rapidity of mixing, background PM present in the air. These technological advancements were made in controlled laboratory environments compliant with measurement standards (i.e. Code of Federal Regulation CFR in the USA) and are not fully representative of real-world emissions from these engines or vehicles. In light of this, a specifically designed and built wind tunnel by West Virginia University (WVU) is used for the study of the exhaust plume of a heavy-duty diesel vehicle, providing a better insight in the dilution process and the representative nanoparticles emissions in a real-world scenario. The subsonic environmental wind tunnel is capable of accommodating a full-sized heavy-duty truck and generating wind speeds in excess of 50mph. A three-dimensional gantry system allows spanning the test section and sample regions in the plume with accuracy of less than 5 mm. The gantry system is equipped with engine exhaust gas analyzers and PM sizing instruments. The investigation involves three different heavy-duty Class-8 diesel vehicles representative of three emission regulation standards, namely a US-EPA 2007 compliant, a US-EPA 2010 compliant, and a baseline vehicle without any aftertreatment technologies as a pre US-EPA 2007, respectively. The testing procedure includes three different vehicle speeds: idling, 20mph, and 35mph. The vehicles were tested on WVU's medium-duty chassis dynamometer, with the load applied to the truck reflecting the road load equation at the corresponding vehicle test speeds. Wind tunnel wind speed and vehicle speed were maintained in close proximity to one another during the entire test. Results show that the cross-sectional plume area

  20. Crash problem definition and safety benefits methodology for stability control for single-unit medium and heavy trucks and large-platform buses (United States)


    This report presents the findings of a comprehensive engineering analysis of electronic stability control (ESC) and roll stability control (RSC) systems for single-unit medium and heavy trucks and large-platform buses. This report details the applica...

  1. N2O and NO2 Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks with Advanced Emission Controls (United States)

    Preble, C.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.


    Diesel engines are the largest source of nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions nationally, and also a major contributor to the black carbon (BC) fraction of fine particulate matter (PM). Recently, diesel particle filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems that target exhaust PM and NOx have become standard equipment on new heavy-duty diesel trucks. However, the deliberate catalytic oxidation of engine-out nitric oxide (NO) to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in continuously regenerating DPFs leads to increased tailpipe emission of NO2. This is of potential concern due to the toxicity of NO2 and the resulting increases in atmospheric formation of other air pollutants such as ozone, nitric acid, and fine PM. While use of SCR reduces emissions of both NO and NO2, it may lead to increased emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas. Here we report results from on-road measurements of heavy-duty diesel truck emissions conducted at the Port of Oakland and the Caldecott Tunnel in the San Francisco Bay Area. Emission factors (g pollutant per kg of diesel) were linked via recorded license plates to individual truck attributes, including engine model year and installed emission control equipment. Between 2009 and 2013, the fraction of DPF-equipped trucks at the Port of Oakland increased from 2 to 99%, and median engine age decreased from 11 to 6 years. Over the same period, fleet-average emission factors for black carbon and NOx decreased by 76 ± 22% and 53 ± 8%, respectively. However, direct emissions of NO2 increased, and consequently the NO2/NOx emission ratio increased from 0.03 ± 0.02 to 0.18 ± 0.03. Older trucks retrofitted with DPFs emitted approximately 3.5 times more NO2 than newer trucks equipped with both DPF and SCR. Preliminary data from summer 2014 measurements at the Caldecott Tunnel suggest that some older trucks have negative emission factors for N2O, and that for newer trucks, N2O emission factors have changed sign and

  2. Impacts of Aging Emission Control Systems on In-Use Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Emission Rates (United States)

    Preble, C.; Cados, T.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.


    Heavy-duty diesel trucks are a major source of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and black carbon (BC) in urban environments, contributing to persistent ozone and particulate matter air quality problems. Recently, diesel particle filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems have become standard equipment on new trucks. Particle filters can also be installed as a retrofit on older engines. Prior work has shown that exhaust filters and SCR systems effectively reduce BC and NOx emission rates by up to 90 and 80%, respectively (Preble et al., ES&T 2015). There is concern, however, that DPFs may promote the formation of ultrafine particles (UFP) and increase tailpipe emissions of nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Additionally, urea-based SCR systems for NOx control may form nitrous oxide (N2O), an important contributor to stratospheric ozone depletion. The effectiveness of these emission controls has been thoroughly evaluated in the laboratory, but the long-term durability of in-use systems and their impacts on co-emitted species have not been well characterized. To evaluate the in-use performance of DPF and SCR systems, pollutant emissions from thousands of diesel trucks were measured over several years at the Port of Oakland and the Caldecott Tunnel in the San Francisco Bay Area. Pollutants present in the exhaust plumes of individual trucks were measured at high time resolution (≥1 Hz) as trucks passed under a mobile lab stationed on an overpass. Fuel-based emission factors (g pollutant emitted per kg fuel burned) were calculated for individual trucks and linked via recorded license plates to vehicle attributes, including engine model year and installed emission control systems. Use of DPFs reduced the BC emission rate by up to 95% at both locations. SCR systems were more effective at reducing NOx emissions under the uphill, highway driving conditions at the Caldecott Tunnel. The emission rates of co-emitted species NO2, UFP, and N2O depended on driving

  3. Influence of methane emissions and vehicle efficiency on the climate implications of heavy-duty natural gas trucks. (United States)

    Camuzeaux, Jonathan R; Alvarez, Ramón A; Brooks, Susanne A; Browne, Joshua B; Sterner, Thomas


    While natural gas produces lower carbon dioxide emissions than diesel during combustion, if enough methane is emitted across the fuel cycle, then switching a heavy-duty truck fleet from diesel to natural gas can produce net climate damages (more radiative forcing) for decades. Using the Technology Warming Potential methodology, we assess the climate implications of a diesel to natural gas switch in heavy-duty trucks. We consider spark ignition (SI) and high-pressure direct injection (HPDI) natural gas engines and compressed and liquefied natural gas. Given uncertainty surrounding several key assumptions and the potential for technology to evolve, results are evaluated for a range of inputs for well-to-pump natural gas loss rates, vehicle efficiency, and pump-to-wheels (in-use) methane emissions. Using reference case assumptions reflecting currently available data, we find that converting heavy-duty truck fleets leads to damages to the climate for several decades: around 70-90 years for the SI cases, and 50 years for the more efficient HPDI. Our range of results indicates that these fuel switches have the potential to produce climate benefits on all time frames, but combinations of significant well-to-wheels methane emissions reductions and natural gas vehicle efficiency improvements would be required.

  4. Optimal Sizing and Control Strategy Design for Heavy Hybrid Electric Truck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zou


    Full Text Available Due to the complexity of the hybrid powertrain, the control is highly involved to improve the collaborations of the different components. For the specific powertrain, the components' sizing just gives the possibility to propel the vehicle and the control will realize the function of the propulsion. Definitely the components' sizing also gives the constraints to the control design, which cause a close coupling between the sizing and control strategy design. This paper presents a parametric study focused on sizing of the powertrain components and optimization of the power split between the engine and electric motor for minimizing the fuel consumption. A framework is put forward to accomplish the optimal sizing and control design for a heavy parallel pre-AMT hybrid truck under the natural driving schedule. The iterative plant-controller combined optimization methodology is adopted to optimize the key parameters of the plant and control strategy simultaneously. A scalable powertrain model based on a bilevel optimization framework is built. Dynamic programming is applied to find the optimal control in the inner loop with a prescribed cycle. The parameters are optimized in the outer loop. The results are analysed and the optimal sizing and control strategy are achieved simultaneously.

  5. Simulations of Multi Combustion Modes Hydrogen Engines for Heavy Duty Trucks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto A. Boretti


    Full Text Available The paper presents the numerical study of a diesel direct injection heavy duty truck engine converted to hydrogen. The engine has a power turbine connected through a clutch and a continuously variable transmission to the crankshaft. The power turbine may be disconnected and by-passed when it is inefficient or inconvenient to use. The conversion is obtained by replacing the Diesel injector with a hydrogen injector and the glow plug with a jet ignition device. The hydrogen engine operates different modes of combustion depending on the relative phasing of the main injection and the jet ignition. The engine generally operates mostly in Diesel-like mode, with the most part of the main injection following the suitable creation in cylinder conditions by jet ignition. For medium-low loads, better efficienciy is obtained with the gasoline-like mode jet igniting the premixed homogeneous mixture at top dead centre. It’s permitted at higher loads or at very low loads for the excessive peak pressure or the mixture too lean to burn rapidly. The hydrogen engine has better efficiency than Diesel outputs and fuel conversion. Thanks to the larger rate of heat release, it has the opportunity to run closer to stoichiometry and the multi mode capabilities. The critical area for this engine development is found in the design of a hydrogen injector delivering the amount of fuel needed to the large volume cylinder within a Diesel-like injection time.

  6. Simulated Fuel Economy and Emissions Performance during City and Interstate Driving for a Heavy-Duty Hybrid Truck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daw, C. Stuart; Gao, Zhiming; Smith, David E.; Laclair, Tim J.; Pihl, Josh A.; Edwards, K. Dean


    We compare simulated fuel economy and emissions for both conventional and hybrid class 8 heavy-duty diesel trucks operating over multiple urban and highway driving cycles. Both light and heavy freight loads were considered, and all simulations included full aftertreatment for NOx and particulate emissions controls. The aftertreatment components included a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), urea-selective catalytic NOx reduction (SCR), and a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). Our simulated hybrid powertrain was configured with a pre-transmission parallel drive, with a single electric motor between the clutch and gearbox. A conventional HD truck with equivalent diesel engine and aftertreatment was also simulated for comparison. Our results indicate that hybridization can significantly increase HD fuel economy and improve emissions control in city driving. However, there is less potential hybridization benefit for HD highway driving. A major factor behind the reduced hybridization benefit for highway driving is that there are fewer opportunities to utilize regenerative breaking. Our aftertreatment simulations indicate that opportunities for passive DPF regeneration are much greater for both hybrid and conventional trucks during highway driving due to higher sustained exhaust temperatures. When passive DPF regeneration is extensively utilized, the fuel penalty for particulate control is virtually eliminated, except for the 0.4%-0.9% fuel penalty associated with the slightly higher exhaust backpressure.

  7. Heavy truck restrictions and air quality implications in São Paulo, Brazil. (United States)

    Pérez-Martínez, Pedro José; de Fátima Andrade, María; de Miranda, Regina Maura


    This study quantified the effects of traffic restrictions on diesel fuel heavy vehicles (HVs) on the air quality of the Bandeirantes corridor using hourly data obtained by continuous monitoring of traffic and air quality at sites located on this avenue. The study addressed the air quality of a city impacted by vehicular emissions and that PM 10 and NO X concentrations are mainly due to diesel burning. Data collection was split into two time periods, a period of no traffic constraint on HVs (Nov 2008 and 2009) and a period of constraint (Nov 2010, 2011 and 2012). We found that pollutants on this corridor, mainly PM 10 and NO X , decreased significantly during the period from 2008 to 2012 (28 and 43%, 15.8 and 86.9 ppb) as a direct consequence of HV traffic restrictions (a 72% reduction). Rebound effects in the form of increased traffic of light vehicles (LVs) during this time had impacts on the concentration levels, explaining the differences between rates of reduction in HV traffic and pollutants. Reductions in the number of trucks resulted in longer travel times and increased traffic congestion as a consequence of the modal shift towards LVs. We found that a 51% decrease in PM 10 (28.8 μg m -3 ) was due to a reduction in HV traffic (vehicle emissions were estimated to be 71% of total sources, 40.1 μg m -3 ). This percentage was partially offset by 10% more PM 10 emissions related to an increase in LV traffic, while other causes, such as climatic conditions, contributed to a 13% increase in PM 10 concentrations. The relationships analyzed in this research served to highlight the need to apply urban transport policies aimed at decreasing pollutant concentrations in São Paulo, especially in heavily congested urban corridors on working days. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Surrogate Plant Data Base : Volume 4. Appendix E : Medium and Heavy Truck Manufacturing (United States)


    This four volume report consists of a data base describing "surrogate" automobile and truck manufacturing plants developed as part of a methodology for evaluating capital investment requirements in new manufacturing facilities to build new fleets of ...

  9. Battery Dimensioning and Life Cycle Costs Analysis for a Heavy-Duty Truck Considering the Requirements of Long-Haul Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Mareev


    Full Text Available The use of heavy-duty battery electric trucks for long-haul transportation is challenging because of the required high energy amounts and thus the high capacity of traction batteries. Furthermore a high capacity battery implies high initial costs for the electric vehicle. This study investigates the required battery capacity for battery electric trucks considering the requirements of long-haul transportation in Germany and compares the life cycle costs of battery electric trucks and conventional diesel trucks in different transportation scenarios. The average consumption is simulated for different battery electric truck configurations on the main German highways and transportation scenarios incorporating battery charging during driver rest periods. The results show that in average case the required battery would restrict the payload to only 80% of a usual diesel truck payload that might be acceptable considering the statistical payload use. The life cycle costs in the examined scenarios also considering the charging infrastructure show that battery electric trucks can already perform on the same costs level as diesel trucks in certain scenarios.

  10. Aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonnaer, F.; Cima, M.; Arntz, A.R.; Cima, M.


    Aggression, violence and deviant behavior are terms frequently used interchangeable, but relate to different theoretical concepts. Therefore, this chapter starts with a definition of aggression. Furthermore, several theories regarding the development of aggression will be presented. According to

  11. The impact of hybrid engines on fuel consumption and emissions of heavy-duty trucks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, F; Vleugel, J.M.; Brebbia, CA; Sendra, J


    Overland transport of goods mainly goes by road. Road freight transport, trucking in particular, has a large share in the energy consumption, CO2-emissions and air pollution by human activities. This will become an even bigger issue with the expected massive growth of road freight

  12. Life-cycle implications of hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle technology for medium- and heavy-duty trucks (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Yeon; Elgowainy, Amgad; Kotz, Andrew; Vijayagopal, Ram; Marcinkoski, Jason


    This study provides a comprehensive and up-to-date life-cycle comparison of hydrogen fuel cell electric trucks (FCETs) and their conventional diesel counterparts in terms of energy use and air emissions, based on the ensemble of well-established methods, high-fidelity vehicle dynamic simulations, and real-world vehicle test data. For the centralized steam methane reforming (SMR) pathway, hydrogen FCETs reduce life-cycle or well-to-wheel (WTW) petroleum energy use by more than 98% compared to their diesel counterparts. The reduction in WTW air emissions for gaseous hydrogen (G.H2) FCETs ranges from 20 to 45% for greenhouse gases, 37-65% for VOC, 49-77% for CO, 62-83% for NOx, 19-43% for PM10, and 27-44% for PM2.5, depending on vehicle weight classes and truck types. With the current U.S. average electricity generation mix, FCETs tend to create more WTW SOx emissions than their diesel counterparts, mainly because of the upstream emissions related to electricity use for hydrogen compression/liquefaction. Compared to G.H2, liquid hydrogen (L.H2) FCETs generally provide smaller WTW emissions reductions. For both G.H2 and L.H2 pathways for FCETs, because of electricity consumption for compression and liquefaction, spatio-temporal variations of electricity generation can affect the WTW results. FCETs retain the WTW emission reduction benefits, even when considering aggressive diesel engine efficiency improvement.

  13. Lithium-Ion Battery Cell Cycling and Usage Analysis in a Heavy-Duty Truck Field Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pontus Svens


    Full Text Available This paper presents results from a field test performed on commercial power-optimized lithium-ion battery cells cycled on three heavy-duty trucks. The goal with this study was to age battery cells in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV environment and find suitable methods for identifying cell ageing. The battery cells were cycled on in-house developed equipment intended for testing on conventional vehicles by emulating an HEV environment. A hybrid strategy that allows battery usage to vary within certain limits depending on driving patterns was used. This concept allows unobtrusive and low-cost testing of battery cells under realistic conditions. Each truck was equipped with one cell cycling equipment and two battery cells. One cell per vehicle was cycled during the test period while a reference cell on each vehicle experienced the same environmental conditions without being cycled. Differential voltage analysis and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used to identify ageing of the tested battery cells. Analysis of driving patterns and battery usage was performed from collected vehicle data and battery cell data.

  14. Program Guide for Diesel Engine Mechanics 8742000 (IN47.060500) and Heavy Duty Truck and Bus Mechanics DIM0991 (IN47.060501). (United States)

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Coll. of Education.

    This competency-based program guide provides course content information and procedures for secondary schools, postsecondary vocational schools, and community colleges in Florida that conduct programs in diesel engine mechanics and heavy duty truck and bus mechanics. The first section is on legal authority, which applies to all vocational education…

  15. Statistical description of heavy truck accidents on representative segments of interstate highway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, W.F.; Davidson, C.A.; Foley, J.T.


    Any quantitative analysis of the risk of transportation accidents requires the use of many different statistical distributions. Included among these are the types of accidents which occur and the severity of these when they do occur. Several previous studies have derived this type of information for truck traffic over U. S. highways in general; these data are not necessarily applicable for the anticipated LMFBR spent fuel cask routes. This report presents data for highway segments representative of the specific LMFBR cask routes which are anticipated. These data are based upon a detailed record-by-record review of filed reports for accidents which occurred along the specified route segments

  16. "Demonstrating Masculinity" Via Intimate Partner Aggression: The Moderating Effect of Heavy Episodic Drinking. (United States)

    Lisco, Claire G; Leone, Ruschelle M; Gallagher, Kathryn E; Parrott, Dominic J


    The aim of the present study was to examine the mediational effect of masculine gender role stress on the relation between adherence to dimensions of a hegemonic masculinity and male-to-female intimate partner physical aggression. Men's history of heavy episodic drinking was also examined as a moderator of the proposed mediation effect. A sample of 392 heterosexual men from the southeastern United States who had been in an intimate relationship within the past year completed measures of hegemonic masculine norms (i.e., status, toughness, and antifemininity), masculine gender role stress, alcohol use patterns, and intimate partner physical aggression. Results indicated that the indirect effects of adherence to the antifemininity and toughness norms on physical aggression toward female intimate partners via masculine gender role stress were significant and marginal, respectively. A significant indirect effect of status was not detected. Moreover, subsequent analyses revealed that the indirect effects of antifemininity and toughness were significant only among men with a history of heavy episodic drinking. These findings suggest that heavy episodic drinking exacerbates a gender-relevant stress pathway for intimate partner aggression among men who adhere to specific norms of masculinity. Overall, results suggest that the proximal effect of heavy episodic drinking focuses men's attention on gender-based schemas associated with antifemininity and toughness, which facilitates partner-directed aggression as a means to demonstrate these aspects of their masculinity. Implications for the intersection between men's adherence to specific norms of hegemonic masculinity, cognitive appraisal of gender relevant situations, and characteristic patterns of alcohol consumption are discussed.

  17. “Demonstrating Masculinity” Via Intimate Partner Aggression: The Moderating Effect of Heavy Episodic Drinking (United States)

    Lisco, Claire G.; Leone, Ruschelle M.; Gallagher, Kathryn E.; Parrott, Dominic J.


    The aim of the present study was to examine the mediational effect of masculine gender role stress on the relation between adherence to dimensions of a hegemonic masculinity and male-to-female intimate partner physical aggression. Men’s history of heavy episodic drinking was also examined as a moderator of the proposed mediation effect. A sample of 392 heterosexual men from the southeastern United States who had been in an intimate relationship within the past year completed measures of hegemonic masculine norms (i.e., status, toughness, and antifemininity), masculine gender role stress, alcohol use patterns, and intimate partner physical aggression. Results indicated that the indirect effects of adherence to the antifemininity and toughness norms on physical aggression toward female intimate partners via masculine gender role stress were significant and marginal, respectively. A significant indirect effect of status was not detected. Moreover, subsequent analyses revealed that the indirect effects of antifemininity and toughness were significant only among men with a history of heavy episodic drinking. These findings suggest that heavy episodic drinking exacerbates a gender-relevant stress pathway for intimate partner aggression among men who adhere to specific norms of masculinity. Overall, results suggest that the proximal effect of heavy episodic drinking focuses men’s attention on gender-based schemas associated with antifemininity and toughness, which facilitates partner-directed aggression as a means to demonstrate these aspects of their masculinity. Implications for the intersection between men’s adherence to specific norms of hegemonic masculinity, cognitive appraisal of gender relevant situations, and characteristic patterns of alcohol consumption are discussed. PMID:26456996

  18. Evaluating the effects of heavy sugar cane truck operations on repair cost of low volume highways : technical summary report. (United States)


    Current Louisiana state laws allow truck operators hauling certain agricultural commodities to purchase : overweight permits and haul at gross vehicle weights (GVW) in excess of the legislated GVW limit of : 80,000 lb. For instance, sugar cane trucke...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Zabolotsky


    Full Text Available The paper provides an analysis that shows application of pump-controlled steering hydraulic drives. Dynamic model of steering hydraulic drive of open-cast BelAZ-75131 dump truck developed at BNTU and also mathematical models for circuit consisting of a metering pump and a turning cylinder and a flow amplifier and a turning cylinder with due account of compressibility and resistance of service drain line. It is noted that on the basis of the given methodology a multi-variant dynamic calculation has been carried out, drive dynamics has been analyzed at various design and component parameters of a metering pump and a flow amplifier, rational values of these parameters has been selected for design development. The paper also gives an algorithm scheme for the solution of the derived equation systems.

  20. Development and experimental testing of a hybrid Stirling engine-adsorption chiller auxiliary power unit for heavy trucks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flannery, Barry; Lattin, Robert; Finckh, Oliver; Berresheim, Harald; Monaghan, Rory F.D.


    Highlights: • Free-piston Stirling engine for truck APU. • Waste heat driven adsorption chiller for cab air conditioning. • Reduced-order model comparing proposed system to existing technology. • Experimental test data from prototype test rig. - Abstract: This paper identifies the key technical requirements for a heavy truck auxiliary power unit (APU) and explores a potential alternative technology for use in a next-generation APU which could eliminate key problems related to emissions, noise and maintenance experienced today by conventional diesel engine-vapour compression APUs. The potential performance of a novel hybrid Stirling engine-adsorption chiller concept is investigated and benchmarked against the incumbent technology using a reduced-order model based on experimental data. Experimental results from a Stirling-adsorption system (SAS) prototype test rig are also presented which highlight system integration dynamics and overall performance. The adsorption chiller achieved an average COP of 0.42 ± 0.06 and 2.3 ± 0.1 kW_t of cooling capacity at the baseline test condition. The prototype SAS test rig demonstrates that there appear to be no major technology barriers remaining that would prevent adoption of the SAS concept in a next-generation APU. Such a system could offer a reduction of exhaust emissions, greenhouse gases (GHG), ozone-depleting substances, noise, low maintenance and the potential for fuel flexibility and higher reliability. Preliminary modelling results indicate that the proposed system could offer superior overall electrical and cooling efficiencies compared to incumbent APUs and demonstrate a payback period of 4.6 years.

  1. Exhaust particle and NOx emission performance of an SCR heavy duty truck operating in real-world conditions (United States)

    Saari, Sampo; Karjalainen, Panu; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Pirjola, Liisa; Matilainen, Pekka; Keskinen, Jorma; Rönkkö, Topi


    Particle and NOx emissions of an SCR equipped HDD truck were studied in real-world driving conditions using the "Sniffer" mobile laboratory. Real-time CO2 measurement enables emission factor calculation for NOx and particles. In this study, we compared three different emission factor calculation methods and characterised their suitability for real-world chasing experiments. The particle number emission was bimodal and dominated by the nucleation mode particles (diameter below 23 nm) having emission factor up to 1 × 1015 #/kgfuel whereas emission factor for soot (diameter above 23 nm that is consistent with the PMP standard) was typically 1 × 1014 #/kgfuel. The effect of thermodenuder on the exhaust particles indicated that the nucleation particles consisted mainly of volatile compounds, but sometimes there also existed a non-volatile core. The nucleation mode particles are not controlled by current regulations in Europe. However, these particles consistently form under atmospheric dilution in the plume of the truck and constitute a health risk for the human population that is exposed to those. Average NOx emission was 3.55 g/kWh during the test, whereas the Euro IV emission limit over transient testing is 3.5 g NOx/kWh. The on-road emission performance of the vehicle was very close to the expected levels, confirming the successful operation of the SCR system of the tested vehicle. Heavy driving conditions such as uphill driving increased both the NOx and particle number emission factors whereas the emission factor for soot particle number remains rather constant.

  2. Designing Optimal LNG Station Network for U.S. Heavy-Duty Freight Trucks using Temporally and Spatially Explicit Supply Chain Optimization (United States)

    Lee, Allen

    The recent natural gas boom has opened much discussion about the potential of natural gas and specifically Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) in the United States transportation sector. The switch from diesel to natural gas vehicles would reduce foreign dependence on oil, spur domestic economic growth, and potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions. LNG provides the most potential for the medium to heavy-duty vehicle market partially due to unstable oil prices and stagnant natural gas prices. As long as the abundance of unconventional gas in the United States remains cheap, fuel switching to natural gas could provide significant cost savings for long haul freight industry. Amid a growing LNG station network and ever increasing demand for freight movement, LNG heavy-duty truck sales are less than anticipated and the industry as a whole is less economic than expected. In spite of much existing and mature natural gas infrastructure, the supply chain for LNG is different and requires explicit and careful planning. This thesis proposes research to explore the claim that the largest obstacle to widespread LNG market penetration is sub-optimal infrastructure planning. No other study we are aware of has explicitly explored the LNG transportation fuel supply chain for heavy-duty freight trucks. This thesis presents a novel methodology that links a network infrastructure optimization model (represents supply side) with a vehicle stock and economic payback model (represents demand side). The model characterizes both a temporal and spatial optimization model of future LNG transportation fuel supply chains in the United States. The principal research goal is to assess the economic feasibility of the current LNG transportation fuel industry and to determine an optimal pathway to achieve ubiquitous commercialization of LNG vehicles in the heavy-duty transport sector. The results indicate that LNG is not economic as a heavy-duty truck fuel until 2030 under current market conditions

  3. Driving an Industry: Medium and Heavy Duty Fuel Cell Electric Truck Component Sizing


    Marcinkoski, J.; Vijayagopal, R.; Kast, J.; Duran, A.


    Medium and heavy duty (MD and HD respectively) vehicles are responsible for 26 percent of the total U.S. transportation petroleum consumption [1]. Hydrogen fuel cells have demonstrated value as part of a portfolio of strategies for reducing petroleum use and emissions from MD and HD vehicles [2] [3], but their performance and range capabilities, and associated component sizing remain less clear when compared to other powertrains. This paper examines the suitability of converting a representat...

  4. The Role of Heavy Alcohol Use in the Developmental Process of Desistance in Dating Aggression during Adolescence (United States)

    Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A.; Bauer, Daniel J.; Ennett, Susan T.


    The current study examined the role of heavy alcohol use in the developmental process of desistance in physical dating aggression during adolescence. Using longitudinal data spanning grades 8 through 12 we tested the hypotheses that (a) higher levels of early heavy alcohol use would be associated with decreased deceleration from dating aggression…

  5. Thermal/structural analysis of radiators for heavy-duty trucks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Shaolin; Cheng, Changrui; Li Xianchang; Michaelides, Efstathios E.


    A thermal/structural coupling approach is applied to analyze thermal performance and predict the thermal stress of a radiator for heavy-duty transportation cooling systems. Bench test and field test data show that non-uniform temperature gradient and dynamic pressure loads may induce large thermal stress on the radiator. A finite element analysis (FEA) tool is used to predict the strains and displacement of radiator based on the solid wall temperature, wall-based fluid film heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop. These are obtained from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. A 3D simulation of turbulent flow and coupled heat transfer between the working fluids poses a major difficulty because the range of length scales involved in heavy-duty radiators varies from few millimeters of the fin pitch and/or tube cross-section to several meters for the overall size of the radiator. It is very computational expensive, if not impossible, to directly simulate the turbulent heat transfer between fins and the thermal boundary layer in each tube. In order to overcome the computational difficulties, a dual porous zone (DPZ) method is applied, in which fins in the air side and turbulators in the water side are treated as porous region. The parameters involved in the DPZ method are tuned based on experimental data in prior. A distinguished advantage of the porous medium method is its effectiveness of modeling wide-range characteristic scale problems. A parametric study of the impact of flow rate on the heat transfer coefficient is presented. The FEA results predict the maximum value of stress/strain and target locations for possible structural failure and the results obtained are consistent with experimental observations. The results demonstrate that the coupling thermal/structural analysis is a powerful tool applied to heavy-duty cooling product design to improve the radiator thermal performance, durability and reliability under rigid working environment.

  6. Fleet Evaluation and Factory Installation of Aerodynamic Heavy Duty Truck Trailers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Jason; Salari, Kambiz; Ortega, Jason; Brown, Andrea


    The purpose of DE-EE0001552 was to develop and deploy a combination of trailer aerodynamic devices and low rolling resistance tires that reduce fuel consumption of a class 8 heavy duty tractor-trailer combination vehicle by 15%. There were 3 phases of the project: Phase 1 – Perform SAE Typed 2 track tests with multiple device combinations. Phase 2 – Conduct a fleet evaluation with selected device combination. Phase 3 – Develop the devices required to manufacture the aerodynamic trailer. All 3 phases have been completed. There is an abundance of available trailer devices on the market, and fleets and owner operators have awareness of them and are purchasing them. The products developed in conjunction with this project are at least in their second round of refinement. The fleet test undertaken showed an improvement of 5.5 – 7.8% fuel economy with the devices (This does not include tire contribution).

  7. Papers on vehicle size : cars and trucks (United States)


    The four papers in this volume describe analyses of car size : trends and truck occupant injuries and fatalities. All four were : written between June 1985 and December 1987. The topics : addressed include where heavy truck accidents occur, injury an...

  8. Technical and economic study of Stirling and Rankine cycle bottoming systems for heavy truck diesel engines (United States)

    Kubo, I.


    Bottoming cycle concepts for heavy duty transport engine applications were studied. In particular, the following tasks were performed: (1) conceptual design and cost data development for Stirling systems; (2) life-cycle cost evaluation of three bottoming systems - organic Rankine, steam Rankine, and Stirling cycles; and (3) assessment of future directions in waste heat utilization research. Variables considered for the second task were initial capital investments, fuel savings, depreciation tax benefits, salvage values, and service/maintenance costs. The study shows that none of the three bottoming systems studied are even marginally attractive. Manufacturing costs have to be reduced by at least 65%. As a new approach, an integrated Rankine/Diesel system was proposed. It utilizes one of the diesel cylinders as an expander and capitalizes on the in-cylinder heat energy. The concept eliminates the need for the power transmission device and a sophisticated control system, and reduces the size of the exhaust evaporator. Results of an economic evaluation indicate that the system has the potential to become an attractive package for end users.

  9. The role of heavy episodic drinking and hostile sexism in men's sexual aggression toward female intimate partners. (United States)

    Lisco, Claire G; Parrott, Dominic J; Tharp, Andra Teten


    Research indicates that men's heavy episodic drinking is a significant risk factor for their perpetration of sexual aggression toward intimate partners. The aim of this investigation was to examine how hostile sexism (i.e., antipathy toward women) and benevolent sexism (i.e., subjectively positive, yet patriarchal, views of women) influence the relation between men's heavy episodic drinking and their perpetration of sexual aggression toward intimate partners. Participants were 205 heterosexual drinking men who completed self-report measures of quantity of alcohol consumption during the past 12 months, hostile sexism, and sexual aggression toward an intimate partner during the past 12 months. Men's heavy episodic drinking was positively associated with sexual aggression perpetration toward intimate partners amongst men who endorsed high, but not low, levels of hostile sexism. No such interactive effect emerged for men's endorsement of benevolent sexism. These results have important implications for understanding cumulative risk factors for the perpetration of sexual aggression toward intimates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Reducing alcohol-related aggression: Effects of a self-awareness manipulation and locus of control in heavy drinking males. (United States)

    Purvis, Danielle M; Gallagher, Kathryn E; Parrott, Dominic J


    Alcohol Myopia Theory (AMT; Steele & Josephs, 1990) purports that alcohol facilitates aggression by narrowing attentional focus onto salient and instigatory cues common to conflict situations. However, few tests of its counterintuitive prediction - that alcohol may decrease aggression when inhibitory cues are most salient - have been conducted. The present study examined whether an AMT-inspired self-awareness intervention manipulation would reduce heavy drinking men's intoxicated aggression toward women and also examined whether a relevant individual variable, locus of control, would moderate this effect. Participants were 102 intoxicated male heavy drinkers who completed a self-report measure of locus of control and completed the Taylor Aggression Paradigm (Taylor, 1967). In this task, participants administered electric shocks to, and received electric shocks from, a fictitious female opponent while exposed to an environment saturated with or devoid of self-awareness cues. Results indicated that the self-awareness manipulation was associated with less alcohol-related aggression toward the female confederate for men who reported an internal, but not an external, locus of control. Findings support AMT as a theoretical framework to inform preventative interventions for alcohol-related aggression and highlight the importance of individual differences in receptivity to such interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. South Coast Air Quality Management District Truck Testing | Transportation (United States)

    Research | NREL South Coast Air Quality Management District Truck Evaluation South Coast Air Quality Management District Truck Evaluation Photo of heavy-duty truck cab. Electric drayage truck Cargo Transportation project, conducted in partnership with the South Coast Air Quality Management

  12. Barroom Aggression Among Australian Men: Associations With Heavy Episodic Drinking, Conformity to Masculine Norms, and Personal and Perceived Peer Approval of Barroom Aggression. (United States)

    Miller, Peter; Zinkiewicz, Lucy; Hayley, Alexa; Sonderlund, Anders; Litherland, Steven; Medew-Ewen, Tess; Wells, Samantha; Graham, Kathryn


    Research suggests that heavy episodic drinking (HED), perceived peer norms, and personal approval of aggression influence male barroom aggression (MBA). Qualitative research suggests that conformity to hegemonic masculine gender norms also influences MBA; however, quantitative research on the direct and indirect influence of masculinity on MBA is limited. This study tested the relationships between HED, conformity to masculine gender norms, and personal approval and peer approval of MBA on MBA perpetration, as well as the indirect effect of masculine norms on MBA via HED. A convenience sample of Australian men (N = 322; mean age = 21.05 years, SD = 1.95; 76.9% university students) completed an online questionnaire, assessing HED and MBA over the previous year, and subscales of the Beliefs and Attitudes Towards Male Alcohol-Related Aggression Inventory and Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory-46. Negative binomial regression analyses found that, overall, HED, male peer approval, and personal approval of MBA directly predicted increased risk of verbal and physical MBA perpetration. Greater conformity to specific masculine norms also increased (Power Over Women) and decreased (Emotional Control, Heterosexual Self-Presentation) risk of MBA perpetration. The masculine norms Risk Taking, Playboy, and Emotional Control were found to be indirect predictors of MBA via HED. Risk of MBA perpetration is increased primarily by HED as a direct, but also mediating, predictor. Personal and male peer approval of MBA, and specific masculine norms, further increase this risk whereas other masculine norms appear protective.

  13. Comparison of Cooling System Designs for an Exhaust Heat Recovery System Using an Organic Rankine Cycle on a Heavy Duty Truck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Stanzel


    Full Text Available A complex simulation model of a heavy duty truck, including an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC based waste heat recovery system and a vehicle cooling system, was applied to determine the system fuel economy potential in a typical drive cycle. Measures to increase the system performance were investigated and a comparison between two different cooling system designs was derived. The base design, which was realized on a Mercedes-Benz Actros vehicle revealed a fuel efficiency benefit of 2.6%, while a more complicated design would generate 3.1%. Furthermore, fully transient simulation results were performed and are compared to steady state simulation results. It is shown that steady state simulation can produce comparable results if averaged road data are used as boundary conditions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Syafwansyah Effendi


    Full Text Available Failure Mode and Efect Analysis (FMEA adalah jenis desain dan teknologi untuk menganalisis keandalan pencegahan, yang merupakan formula yang sistematis terstruktur untuk mengidentifikasi modus kerusakan yang potensial dalam desain atau manufaktur, kemudian mempelajari pengaruh kerusakan pada sistem, kemudian mengambil langkah-langkah yang diperlukan untuk mengkoreksi dan sebagai metode pencegahan sementara yang mengarah pada masalah dalam sistam keandalan. Secara tradisional, menggunakan teknologi dari FMEA adalah untuk memperbaiki keputusan dalam urutan dari besar Risk Priority Number (RPN ke yang lebih kecil State of art permasalahan yang mendasar dari RPN Failure and Efect Analysis adalah bagaimana menerapkannya dalam cakupan cukup luas dalam berbagai bidang sebagai alat atau metode yang bermanfaat untuk membantu menjustifikasi pengambilan suatu keputusan dalam menentukan keandalan suatu sistem. Dari penelitian-penelitian yang sudah dilakukan penerapan Model ini banyak dilakukan di lingkungan industri, dan belum ada yang mengapilikasikannya dalam menganalisa mode kegagalan sistem pada peralatan Berat terutama yang dioperasikan disektor pertambangan. Sehingga pada penelitian ini, adalah perlu untuk menguji apakah ada Perbedaan Dalam Risk Priority Number Failure Mode and Effects Analysis Pada Unit Sistem Alat Berat Heavy Duty Truck HD 785-7. Data diambil dari data History Preventive Maintanance pada sebuah perusahaan tambang di Kalimantan Selatan, selama periode 5 tahun. Unit yang diuji nilai RPN dan sistem adalah Mine Truck Heavy Duty Truck HD 785-7 sebagai sampel diambil 10 unit. Dari data tersebut nilai RPN dihitung masing-masing sistem. Selanjutnya data olahan tersebut di uji dengan uji ANOVA, dengan menggunakan uji F selanjutnya ilakukan analisis untuk setiap kelompok rata-rata atau pasangan rata-rata. Pengujian data dengan menggunakan uji Posteriori (Post Hoc uji Tukey HSD dan Duncan untuk melihat sistem yang mana dari 15 sistem yang rata

  15. Ride comfort optimization of a multi-axle heavy motorized wheel dump truck based on virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bian Gong


    Full Text Available The optimization of hydro-pneumatic suspension parameters of a multi-axle heavy motorized wheel dump truck is carried out based on virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging model in this article. The root mean square of vertical vibration acceleration, in the center of sprung mass, is assigned as the optimization objective. The constraints are the natural frequency, the working stroke, and the dynamic load of wheels. The suspension structure for the truck is the adjustable hydro-pneumatic suspension with ideal vehicle nonlinear characteristics, integrated with elastic and damping elements. Also, the hydraulic systems of two adjacent hydro-pneumatic suspension are interconnected. Considering the high complexity of the engineering model, a novel kind of meta-model called virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging is proposed in this article. The interpolation principle and the construction of virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging model were elucidated. Being different from traditional Kriging, virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging combines the respective advantages of actual test and Computer Aided Engineering simulation. Based on the virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging model, the optimization results, obtained by experimental verification, showed significant improvement in the ride comfort by 12.48% for front suspension and 11.79% for rear suspension. Compared with traditional Kriging, the optimization effect was improved by 3.05% and 3.38% respectively. Virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging provides an effective way to approach the optimal solution for the optimization of high-complexity engineering problems.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This document was prepared in support of the ''Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain; Nye County, Nevada''. Specifically, the document evaluates potential socioeconomic impacts resulting from the various rail corridor and heavy haul truck route implementing alternatives, one of which would be selected to transport the nation's commercial and defense spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste to the proposed repository

  17. Trucks involved in fatal accidents codebook 2008. (United States)


    This report provides documentation for UMTRIs file of Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents : (TIFA), 2008, including distributions of the code values for each variable in the file. The 2008 : TIFA file is a census of all medium and heavy trucks invo...

  18. Luggage truck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhuis, E.J.; Luttekes, E.; Rijsenbrij, J.C.


    The present invention relates to a luggage truck (2) comprising a loading space for luggage and provided with a conveyor belt (14) disposed in the loading space for the supply and removal of luggage, which conveyor belt is at the same time a storage unit for the luggage, wherein the conveyor belts

  19. Truck side guard specifications : recommended standard (United States)


    This document is intended to be used by (1) public or private medium/heavy-duty truck fleets considering adding side guards; (2) jurisdictions or customers that require side guards through policy or procurement; (3) manufacturers of side guards; and ...

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions from heavy-duty natural gas, hybrid, and conventional diesel on-road trucks during freight transport (United States)

    Quiros, David C.; Smith, Jeremy; Thiruvengadam, Arvind; Huai, Tao; Hu, Shaohua


    Heavy-duty on-road vehicles account for 70% of all freight transport and 20% of transportation-sector greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the United States. This study measured three prevalent GHG emissions - carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) - from seven heavy-duty vehicles, fueled by diesel and compressed natural gas (CNG), and compliant to the MY 2007 or 2010 U.S. EPA emission standards, while operated over six routes used for freight movement in California. Total combined (tractor, trailer, and payload) weights were 68,000 ± 1000 lbs. for the seven vehicles. Using the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) radiative forcing values for a 100-year time horizon, N2O emissions accounted for 2.6-8.3% of total tailpipe CO2 equivalent emissions (CO2-eq) for diesel vehicles equipped with Diesel Oxidation Catalyst, Diesel Particulate Filter, and Selective Catalytic Reduction system (DOC + DPF + SCR), and CH4 emissions accounted for 1.4-5.9% of CO2-eq emissions from the CNG-powered vehicle with a three-way catalyst (TWC). N2O emissions from diesel vehicles equipped with SCR (0.17-0.30 g/mi) were an order of magnitude higher than diesel vehicles without SCR (0.013-0.023 g/mi) during highway operation. For the vehicles selected in this test program, we measured 11-22% lower CO2-eq emissions from a hybrid compared to conventional diesel vehicles during transport over lower-speed routes of the freight transport system, but 20-27% higher CO2-eq emissions during higher-speed routes. Similarly, a CNG vehicle emitted up to 15% lower CO2-eq compared to conventional diesel vehicles over more neutral-grade highway routes, but emitted up to 12% greater CO2-eq emissions over routes with higher engine loads.

  1. Impact of biodiesel and renewable diesel on emissions of regulated pollutants and greenhouse gases on a 2000 heavy duty diesel truck (United States)

    Na, Kwangsam; Biswas, Subhasis; Robertson, William; Sahay, Keshav; Okamoto, Robert; Mitchell, Alexander; Lemieux, Sharon


    As part of a broad evaluation of the environmental impacts of biodiesel and renewable diesel as alternative motor fuels and fuel blends in California, the California Air Resources Board's (CARB) Heavy-duty Diesel Emission Testing Laboratory conducted chassis dynamometer exhaust emission measurements on in-use heavy-heavy-duty diesel trucks (HHDDT). The results presented here detail the impact of biodiesel and renewable diesel fuels and fuel blends as compared to CARB ULSD on particulate matter (PM), regulated gases, and two greenhouse gases emissions from a HHDDT with a 2000 C15 Caterpillar engine with no exhaust after treatment devices. This vehicle was tested over the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) and the cruise portion of the California HHDDT driving schedule. Three neat blend stocks (soy-based and animal-based fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) biodiesels, and a renewable diesel) and CARB-certified ultra-low sulfur diesel (CARB ULSD) along with their 20% and 50% blends (blended with CARB ULSD) were tested. The effects of blend level on emission characteristics were discussed on g·km-1 basis. The results showed that PM, total hydrocarbon (THC), and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were dependent on driving cycles, showing higher emissions for the UDDS cycles with medium load than the highway cruise cycle with high load on per km basis. When comparing CARB ULSD to biodiesels and renewable diesel blends, it was observed that the PM, THC, and CO emissions decreased with increasing blend levels regardless of the driving cycles. Note that biodiesel blends showed higher degree of emission reductions for PM, THC, and CO than renewable diesel blends. Both biodiesels and renewable diesel blends effectively reduced PM emissions, mainly due to reduction in elemental carbon emissions (EC), however no readily apparent reductions in organic carbon (OC) emissions were observed. When compared to CARB ULSD, soy- and animal-based biodiesel blends showed statistically

  2. The open-pit truck dispatching method based on the completion of production target and the truck flow saturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, J.; Sun, X. [Northeastern University, Shenyang (China)


    To address current problems in the 'modular dispatch' dynamic programming system widely used in open-pit truck real-time dispatching, two concepts for meeting production targets and truck flow saturation were proposed. Using truck flow programming and taking into account stochastic factors and transportation distance, truck real-time dispatching was optimised. The method is applicable to both shovel-truck match and mismatching and also to empty and heavy truck dispatching. In an open-pit mine the production efficiency could be increased by between 8% and 18%. 6 refs.

  3. Waste Management's LNG Truck Fleet: Final Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K. [Battelle (US); Norton, P. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (US); Clark, N. [West Virginia University (US)


    Waste Management, Inc., began operating a fleet of heavy-duty LNG refuse trucks at its Washington, Pennsylvania, facility. The objective of the project was to provide transportation professionals with quantitative, unbiased information on the cost, maintenance, operational, and emissions characteristics of LNG as one alternative to conventional diesel for heavy-duty trucking applications.

  4. Lift truck safety review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.


    This report presents safety information about powered industrial trucks. The basic lift truck, the counterbalanced sit down rider truck, is the primary focus of the report. Lift truck engineering is briefly described, then a hazard analysis is performed on the lift truck. Case histories and accident statistics are also given. Rules and regulations about lift trucks, such as the US Occupational Safety an Health Administration laws and the Underwriter's Laboratories standards, are discussed. Safety issues with lift trucks are reviewed, and lift truck safety and reliability are discussed. Some quantitative reliability values are given

  5. Lift truck safety review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, L.C.


    This report presents safety information about powered industrial trucks. The basic lift truck, the counterbalanced sit down rider truck, is the primary focus of the report. Lift truck engineering is briefly described, then a hazard analysis is performed on the lift truck. Case histories and accident statistics are also given. Rules and regulations about lift trucks, such as the US Occupational Safety an Health Administration laws and the Underwriter`s Laboratories standards, are discussed. Safety issues with lift trucks are reviewed, and lift truck safety and reliability are discussed. Some quantitative reliability values are given.

  6. Technologies for simulation improvement of NOx and PM emissions and fuel consumption of future diesel engines for heavy-duty trucks; Shorai no ogatasha diesel engine ni okeru NOx, PM, nenryo shohi no kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoda, M.; Shimokawa, K.; Uchida, N.; Tsuji, Y.; Yokotaa, H.; Hosoya, M. [Hino Motors, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Future diesel engines for heavy-duty trucks are required to have significantly low NO{sub x} and PM emissions and fuel consumption characteristics. In order to improve these characteristics, various technologies including high pressure fuel injection systems, combustion optimization. high boost pressure turbocharging, EGR homogeneous charge compression ignition combined with multiple injections, and aftertreatment are discussed. As each technology has a number of challenges to overcome, it will take long before engines with these technologies are commercially available. In this paper, the research activities accomplished to date are reported. (author)

  7. Raley's LNG Truck Site Final Data Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Raley's is a 120-store grocery chain with headquarters in Sacramento, California, that has been operating eight heavy-duty LNG trucks (Kenworth T800 trucks with Cummins L10-300G engines) and two LNG yard tractors (Ottawa trucks with Cummins B5.9G engines) since April 1997. This report describes the results of data collection and evaluation of the eight heavy-duty LNG trucks compared to similar heavy-duty diesel trucks operating at Raley's. The data collection and evaluation are a part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Alternative Fuel Truck Evaluation Project.

  8. Truck Thermoacoustic Generator and Chiller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keolian, Robert


    This Final Report describes the accomplishments of the US Department of Energy (DOE) cooperative agreement project DE-FC26-04NT42113 - Truck Thermoacoustic Generator and Chiller - whose goal is to design, fabricate and test a thermoacoustic piezoelectric generator and chiller system for use on over-the-road heavy-duty-diesel trucks, driven alternatively by the waste heat of the main diesel engine exhaust or by a burner integrated into the thermoacoustic system. The thermoacoustic system would utilize engine exhaust waste heat to generate electricity and cab air conditioning, and would also function as an auxiliary power unit (APU) for idle reduction. The unit was to be tested in Volvo engine performance and endurance test cells and then integrated onto a Class 8 over-the-road heavy-duty-diesel truck for further testing on the road. The project has been a collaboration of The Pennsylvania State University Applied Research Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Clean Power Resources Inc., and Volvo Powertrain (Mack Trucks Inc.). Cost share funding was provided by Applied Research Laboratory, and by Clean Power Resources Inc via its grant from Innovation Works - funding that was derived from the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Los Alamos received its funding separately through DOE Field Work Proposal 04EE09.

  9. Contributions of Diesel Truck Emissions to Indoor Elemental Carbon Concentrations in Home Proximate to Ambassador Bridge (United States)

    Ambassador Bridge, connecting Detroit, Michigan and Windsor, Ontario, is the busiest international commercial vehicle crossing in North America, with a large percentage of heavy duty diesel trucks. This study seeks to examine the contribution of diesel truck traffic across Ambass...

  10. Truck shovel users group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, J. [Surface Mining Association for Research and Technology, AB (Canada)


    The Truck Shovel Users Group (TSUG) was developed as part of the Surface Mining Association for Research and Technology (SMART), an association of companies that meet to coordinate technology developments for the mining industry. The TSUG meet regularly to discuss equipment upgrades, maintenance planning systems, and repair techniques. The group strives to maximize the value of its assets through increased safety, equipment performance and productivity. This presentation provided administrative details about the TSUG including contact details and admission costs. It was concluded that members of the group must be employed by companies that use heavy mining equipment, and must also be willing to host meetings, make presentations, and support the common goals of the group. tabs., figs.

  11. Case Study: Natural Gas Regional Transport Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughlin, M.; Burnham, A.


    Learn about Ryder System, Inc.'s experience in deploying nearly 200 CNG and LNG heavy-duty trucks and construction and operation of L/CNG stations using ARRA funds. Using natural gas in its fleet, Ryder mitigated the effects of volatile fuel pricing and reduced lifecycle GHGs by 20% and petroleum by 99%.

  12. Kogi Truck Culture


    Choy, Vivian


    Food trucks have become a large phenomenon in many parts of Southern California. In fact, the University of California, Los Angeles had begun permitting several food trucks to park on campus for hungry students, in response to the closure of the Bombshelter, a major campus food court. These trucks’ budding popularity has been spurred by the notable Kogi Trucks, which began its business serving those in Los Angeles. To explore the heart of this Kogi hype, I took two trips to the intersectio...

  13. Numerical Evaluation ofThe Performance ofA Compression Ignition Cng Engine For Heavy DutyTrucksWithAn Optimum Speed PowerTurbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto A. Boretti


    Full Text Available The turbocharged direct injection lean burn Diesel engine is the most efficient engine now in production for transport applications. CNG is an alternative fuel with a better carbon to hydrogen ratio therefore permitting reduced carbon dioxide emissions. It is injected in gaseous form for a much cleaner combustion almost cancelling some of the emissions of the Diesel and it permits a much better energy security within Australia. The paper discusses the best options currently available to convert Diesel engine platforms to CNG, with particular emphasis to the use of these CNG engines within Australia where the refuelling network is scarce. This option is determined in the dual fuel operation with a double injector design that couples a second CNG injector to the Diesel injector. This configuration permits the operation Diesel only or Diesel pilot and CNG main depending on the availability of refuelling stations where the vehicle operates. Results of engine performance simulations are performed for a straight six cylinder 13 litres truck engine with a novel power turbine connected to the crankshaft through a constant variable transmission that may be by-passed when non helpful to increase the fuel economy of the vehicle or when damaging the performances of the after treatment system.

  14. UPS CNG Truck Fleet Start Up Experience: Alternative Fuel Truck Evaluation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walkowicz, K.


    UPS operates 140 Freightliner Custom Chassis compressed natural gas (CNG)-powered vehicles with Cummins B5.9G engines. Fifteen are participating in the Alternative Fuel Truck Evaluation Project being funded by DOE's Office of Transportation Technologies and the Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies

  15. Dynamics of dump truck entrance onto the hoist platform of a mine inclined elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nosyrev, B.A.; Popov, Yu.V.; Mukhutdinov, Sh.D. (Sverdlovskii Gornyi Institut (USSR))


    Analyzes the feasibility of transporting heavy-duty dump trucks along slopes on special platforms in coal surface mines. The platforms are hoisted by winches. Theoretical problems associated with hoisting a loaded platform upwards are analyzed. Problems associated with truck travel in the platform area, its exact positioning and mechanical vibrations of the platform caused by truck movement are discussed. Vibrations of the platform with a loaded truck and vibration amplitudes are analyzed. Five states of the system are evaluated. Methods for prevention of excessive vibrations by optimization of platform design and use of flexible elements are evaluated. Optimum speed of truck movement for platform entering is recommended.

  16. The Myth - Food Truck


    Otálora Salgado, Esteban


    Food truck de comida típica colombiana fusión que espera solucionar la percepción que se tiene acerca de la comida callejera. Para ello, se ha realizado un estudio donde se identifica el problema y se plantea como solución la creación de un food truck que cumpla con todos los estándares de calidad y a su vez innove.

  17. Effects of Variation in Truck Factor on Pavement Performance in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Chaudry


    Full Text Available Seasonal variation coupled with heavy axle loading is the key factor in rapid road deterioration in Pakistan. The serviceability loss is further accelerated by the fact that truck drivers and owners consider overloading as a profitable practice unaware of the adverse effects of this practice. Weigh-in-motion data from two stations located between two major cities of Pakistan (Peshawar and Rawalpindi on Grand Trunk Road (N-5 were collected and analyzed. Analysis of variance and comparison of actual and designed truck factor were performed to identify the most damaging axle truck type. It was found that axle truck type 3 (single/tandem axle is most damaging among all truck types. The actual truck factor for axle truck type 3 is 6.4 times greater than design truck factor. Regression expressions of different forms were also investigated to determine the relationship between truck factor and gross vehicular weight for the specified truck types. An optimum generalization strategy was used to prevent over-generalization and ensure accuracy. For data analysis, 75% of data was used to develop regression models and remaining 25% was to validate those models. The results show that the polynomial expressions performed best and provide a robust relationship that can be employed by the highway authorities to estimate truck factor from gross vehicular weight with a high degree of confidence. It was also observed that damaging effect of various types of trucks was very severe and quite high.

  18. A heavy load for heavy ions

    CERN Multimedia


    On 25 September, the two large coils for the dipole magnet of ALICE, the LHC experiment dedicated to heavy ions, arrived at Point 2 on two heavy load trucks after a 1200 km journey from their assembly in Vannes, France.

  19. Trucks involved in fatal accidents codebook 2010 (Version October 22, 2012). (United States)


    This report provides documentation for UMTRIs file of Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents : (TIFA), 2010, including distributions of the code values for each variable in the file. The 2010 : TIFA file is a census of all medium and heavy trucks invo...

  20. Truckstop - and Truck - Electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skip Yeakel


    The conclusions of this paper are: 0.5-1.5 G/H and/or BUSG/Y-how much time and money will it take to quantify and WHY BOTHER TO DO SO? No shortage of things to do re truckstop-+ truck - electrification; Better that government and industry should put many eggs in lots of baskets vs. all in one or few; Best concepts will surface as most viable; Economic appeal better than regulation or brute force; Launch Ground Freight Partnership and give it a chance to work; Demonstration is an effective means to educate, and learn from, customers-learning is a two way street; Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD 3) are all important but only deployment gets results; TSE can start small in numbers of spaces to accommodate economically inspired growth but upfront plans should be made for expansion if meaningful idle reduction is to follow via TE; 110VAC 15A service/ parking space is minimal-if infrastructure starts like this, upfront plans must be made to increase capacity; Increased electrification of truckstop and truck alike will result in much better life on the road; Improved sleep will improve driver alertness and safety; Reduced idling will significantly reduce fuel use and emissions; Universal appeal for DOD, DOE, DOT, EPA, OEMs, and users alike; Clean coal, gas, hydro, nuclear, or wind energy sources are all distinctly American means by which to generate electricity; Nothing can compete with diesel fuel to serve mobile truck needs; stationary trucks are like power plants-they don't move and should NOT be powered by petroleum products whenever possible; Use American fueled power plants-electricity-to serve truck idling needs wherever practical to do so; encourage economic aspect; Create and reward industry initiatives to reduce fuel use; Eliminate FET on new trucks, provide tax credits (non highway fuel use and investment), provide incentives based on results; Encourage newer/ cleaner truck use; solicit BAAs with mandatory OEM/ fleet participation/ lead

  1. Biodiesel and Cold Temperature Effects on Speciated Mobile Source Air Toxics from Modern Diesel Trucks (United States)

    Speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with a particular focus on mobile source air toxics (MSATs) were measured in diesel exhaust from three heavy-duty trucks equipped with modern aftertreatment technologies. Emissions testing was conducted on a temperature controlled chass...

  2. Biodiesel and Cold Temperature Effect on Speciated Mobile Source Air Toxics from Modern Diesel Trucks (United States)

    Speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with a particular focus on mobile source air toxics (MSATs) were measured in diesel exhaust from three heavy-duty trucks equipped with modern aftertreatment technologies. Emissions testing was conducted on a temperature controlled chass...

  3. SVOC emissions from diesel trucks operating on biodiesel fuels (United States)

    This study measured semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in particle matter (PM) emitted from three heavy-duty trucks equipped with modern after-treatment technologies. Emissions testing was conducted as described by the George et al. VOC study also presented as part of this se...

  4. Haulage Truck Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series. (United States)

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    This training outline for haulage truck operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

  5. ANFO truck burn trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen von, B.; Contestabile, E. [Natural Resources Canada, CANMET Canadian Explosives Research Laboratory, Ottawa, ON (Canada)


    This report describes the investigation of a tractor-trailer explosion. A truck loaded with 18,000 kg of commercial explosives, of which 13,000 kg was ammonium nitrate with fuel oil (ANFO), caught fire when it struck a rockcut near Walden, Ontario on August 5, 1998. The fire resulted in the detonation of the load. The Canadian Explosives Research Laboratory (CERL) conducted a test program to examine the suitability of existing explosive transportation regulations. Unconfined burns of ANFO were performed. The accident was recreated in two burn trials in an attempt to identify the mechanism that led from fire to detonation. Two full-scale tests were conducted using complete tractor-trailers, each in a jack-knifed position with most of the explosives placed on the ground in front of the trailer. ANFO was used in the first test to determine its response to thermal stimulus and the likelihood of detonation or explosion. The second test involved ANFO, a slurry and an emulsion. Thermocouples and video cameras were used to observe the burning characteristics of the explosives, the truck and its components. The explosives burned steadily for 80 minutes in each test. Many truck components, such as tires, spring brake chambers and the fuel tank ruptured violently due to the heat. Although no detonation occurred in the test trials, it was concluded that under favourable conditions, many truck components, might produce fragments with enough energy to initiate heat-sensitized explosives. It was suggested that a fragment impact caused the detonation at Walden. 4 refs., 7 tabs., 8 figs.

  6. Fuel Cell-Powered Lift Truck Fleet Deployment Projects Final Technical Report May 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingler, James J [GENCO Infrastructure Solutions, Inc.


    The overall objectives of this project were to evaluate the performance, operability and safety of fork lift trucks powered by fuel cells in large distribution centers. This was accomplished by replacing the batteries in over 350 lift trucks with fuel cells at five distribution centers operated by GENCO. The annual cost savings of lift trucks powered by fuel cell power units was between $2,400 and $5,300 per truck compared to battery powered lift trucks, excluding DOE contributions. The greatest savings were in fueling labor costs where a fuel cell powered lift truck could be fueled in a few minutes per day compared to over an hour for battery powered lift trucks which required removal and replacement of batteries. Lift truck operators where generally very satisfied with the performance of the fuel cell power units, primarily because there was no reduction in power over the duration of a shift as experienced with battery powered lift trucks. The operators also appreciated the fast and easy fueling compared to the effort and potential risk of injury associated with switching heavy batteries in and out of lift trucks. There were no safety issues with the fueling or operation of the fuel cells. Although maintenance costs for the fuel cells were higher than for batteries, these costs are expected to decrease significantly in the next generation of fuel cells, making them even more cost effective.

  7. Active Suspension of Truck Seat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Kawana


    Full Text Available The driver’s seat of a heavy duty truck is usually mounted on a spring–damper assembly anchored to the cab floor. To improve riding comfort, this study investigated the effects of mounting a computer-controlled actuator in parallel with the traditional spring–damper assembly. A dynamic model of the seat is represented by a two degree-of-freedom system, including a cushion. In this paper, a control system is designed, using optimal control theory, which minimizes rms vertical acceleration at a point representing the driver’s hip point. In this system, accelerations of the hip point, the seat frame and the cab floor are picked up and integrated to obtain the state variables to be fed back and fed forward to the actuator through a digital computer. The actuator is constructed with electric servo-motor and ball-screw mechanism. The experimental study was carried out on a shaker, which simulates the vibrations of the cab floor in actual service. Results were obtained for both a dummy and a real human body. The vibration test produced rms accelerations of the seat and the hip point of about 1.0 m/s2 without the actuator, while the rms accelerations were suppressed to about 0.5 m/s2 at a rms input voltage to the servo-motor of 1.0 V.

  8. Vehicle to vehicle communications for trucks. (United States)


    The trucking industry is a critical component of American commerce. The American : Trucking Association estimates that over 80 percent of U.S. communities depend : exclusively on trucking for delivery of their goods and commodities

  9. An analysis of the lifestyle risk factors for long-distance truck drivers / Barend Koortzen von Wielligh


    Von Wielligh, Barend Koortzen


    The Road Freight Industry accounts for 1 to 5 percent of most countries GDP (AECOM International Development, 2011). According to e-Natis there was 321 056 Trucks (Heavy load Vehicle GVM > 3500 kg) in South Africa by November 2009 (Arrive Alive, 2009). This relative big industry, according to the statistics, influences most other industries value chains. Vehicles are driven by trucks drivers, making driving trucks their living. These drivers have their own lifestyles and ways that they go abo...

  10. Mitigating Wind Induced Truck Crashes (United States)


    Dangerous weather and high wind in particular, is a common contributing factor in truck crashes. High wind speeds have been documented as a perennial cause of truck crashes in Kansas and other Great Plains states. The possibility of reducing such cra...

  11. Electric urban delivery trucks: energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and cost-effectiveness. (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Yeon; Thomas, Valerie M; Brown, Marilyn A


    We compare electric and diesel urban delivery trucks in terms of life-cycle energy consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and total cost of ownership (TCO). The relative benefits of electric trucks depend heavily on vehicle efficiency associated with drive cycle, diesel fuel price, travel demand, electric drive battery replacement and price, electricity generation and transmission efficiency, electric truck recharging infrastructure, and purchase price. For a drive cycle with frequent stops and low average speed such as the New York City Cycle (NYCC), electric trucks emit 42-61% less GHGs and consume 32-54% less energy than diesel trucks, depending upon vehicle efficiency cases. Over an array of possible conditions, the median TCO of electric trucks is 22% less than that of diesel trucks on the NYCC. For a drive cycle with less frequent stops and high average speed such as the City-Suburban Heavy Vehicle Cycle (CSHVC), electric trucks emit 19-43% less GHGs and consume 5-34% less energy, but cost 1% more than diesel counterparts. Considering current and projected U.S. regional electricity generation mixes, for the baseline case, the energy use and GHG emissions ratios of electric to diesel trucks range from 48 to 82% and 25 to 89%, respectively.

  12. Naturalistic drive cycle synthesis for pickup trucks. (United States)

    Liu, Zifan; Ivanco, Andrej; Filipi, Zoran


    Future pick-up trucks are meeting much stricter fuel economy and exhaust emission standards. Design tradeoffs will have to be carefully evaluated to satisfy consumer expectations within the regulatory and cost constraints. Boundary conditions will obviously be critical for decision making: thus, the understanding of how customers are driving in naturalistic settings is indispensable. Federal driving schedules, while critical for certification, do not capture the richness of naturalistic cycles, particularly the aggressive maneuvers that often shape consumer perception of performance. While there are databases with large number of drive cycles, applying all of them directly in the design process is impractical. Therefore, representative drive cycles that capture the essence of the naturalistic driving should be synthesized from naturalistic driving data. Naturalistic drive cycles are firstly categorized by investigating their micro-trip components, defined as driving activities between successive stops. Micro-trips are expected to characterize underlying local traffic conditions, and separate different driving patterns. Next, the transitions from one vehicle state to another vehicle state in each cycle category are captured with Transition Probability Matrix (TPM). Candidate drive cycles can subsequently be synthesized using Markov Chain based on TPMs for each category. Finally, representative synthetic drive cycles are selected through assessment of significant cycle metrics to identify the ones with smallest errors. This paper provides a framework for synthesis of representative drive cycles from naturalistic driving data, which can subsequently be used for efficient optimization of design or control of pick-up truck powertrains. Manufacturers will benefit from representative drive cycles in several aspects, including quick assessments of vehicle performance and energy consumption in simulations, component sizing and design, optimization of control strategies, and

  13. Assessing crash risk considering vehicle interactions with trucks using point detector data. (United States)

    Hyun, Kyung Kate; Jeong, Kyungsoo; Tok, Andre; Ritchie, Stephen G


    Trucks have distinct driving characteristics in general traffic streams such as lower speeds and limitations in acceleration and deceleration. As a consequence, vehicles keep longer headways or frequently change lane when they follow a truck, which is expected to increase crash risk. This study introduces several traffic measures at the individual vehicle level to capture vehicle interactions between trucks and non-trucks and analyzed how the measures affect crash risk under different traffic conditions. The traffic measures were developed using headways obtained from Inductive Loop Detectors (ILDs). In addition, a truck detection algorithm using a Gaussian Mixture (GM) model was developed to identify trucks and to estimate truck exposure from ILD data. Using the identified vehicle types from the GM model, vehicle interaction metrics were categorized into three groups based on the combination of leading and following vehicle types. The effects of the proposed traffic measures on crash risk were modeled in two different cases of prior- and non-crash using a case-control approach utilizing a conditional logistic regression. Results showed that the vehicle interactions between the leading and following vehicle types were highly associated with crash risk, and further showed different impacts on crash risk by traffic conditions. Specifically, crashes were more likely to occur when a truck following a non-truck had shorter average headway but greater headway variance in heavy traffic while a non-truck following a truck had greater headway variance in light traffic. This study obtained meaningful conclusions that vehicle interactions involved with trucks were significantly related to the crash likelihood rather than the measures that estimate average traffic condition such as total volume or average headway of the traffic stream. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 49 CFR 399.207 - Truck and truck-tractor access requirements. (United States)


    .... Exception. If air and electrical connections necessary to couple or uncouple a truck-tractor from a trailer... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Truck and truck-tractor access requirements. 399... Vehicles § 399.207 Truck and truck-tractor access requirements. (a) General rule. Any person entering or...

  15. Subjective aggression during alcohol and cannabis intoxication before and after aggression exposure. (United States)

    De Sousa Fernandes Perna, E B; Theunissen, E L; Kuypers, K P C; Toennes, S W; Ramaekers, J G


    Alcohol and cannabis use have been implicated in aggression. Alcohol consumption is known to facilitate aggression, whereas a causal link between cannabis and aggression has not been clearly demonstrated. This study investigated the acute effects of alcohol and cannabis on subjective aggression in alcohol and cannabis users, respectively, following aggression exposure. Drug-free controls served as a reference. It was hypothesized that aggression exposure would increase subjective aggression in alcohol users during alcohol intoxication, whereas it was expected to decrease subjective aggression in cannabis users during cannabis intoxication. Heavy alcohol (n = 20) and regular cannabis users (n = 21), and controls (n = 20) were included in a mixed factorial study. Alcohol and cannabis users received single doses of alcohol and placebo or cannabis and placebo, respectively. Subjective aggression was assessed before and after aggression exposure consisting of administrations of the point-subtraction aggression paradigm (PSAP) and the single category implicit association test (SC-IAT). Testosterone and cortisol levels in response to alcohol/cannabis treatment and aggression exposure were recorded as secondary outcome measures. Subjective aggression significantly increased following aggression exposure in all groups while being sober. Alcohol intoxication increased subjective aggression whereas cannabis decreased the subjective aggression following aggression exposure. Aggressive responses during the PSAP increased following alcohol and decreased following cannabis relative to placebo. Changes in aggressive feeling or response were not correlated to the neuroendocrine response to treatments. It is concluded that alcohol facilitates feelings of aggression whereas cannabis diminishes aggressive feelings in heavy alcohol and regular cannabis users, respectively.

  16. Aggressive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didden, H.C.M.; Lindsay, W.R.; Lang, R.B.; Sigafoos, J.; Deb, S.; Wiersma, J.; Peters-Scheffer, N.C.; Marschik, P.B.; O'Reilly, M.F.; Lancioni, G.E.; Singh, N.N.


    Aggressive behavior is common in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs), and it is most often targeted for intervention. Psychological, contextual, and biological risk factors may contribute to the risk of aggressive behavior. Risk factors are gender (males), level of

  17. Signaling aggression. (United States)

    van Staaden, Moira J; Searcy, William A; Hanlon, Roger T


    From psychological and sociological standpoints, aggression is regarded as intentional behavior aimed at inflicting pain and manifested by hostility and attacking behaviors. In contrast, biologists define aggression as behavior associated with attack or escalation toward attack, omitting any stipulation about intentions and goals. Certain animal signals are strongly associated with escalation toward attack and have the same function as physical attack in intimidating opponents and winning contests, and ethologists therefore consider them an integral part of aggressive behavior. Aggressive signals have been molded by evolution to make them ever more effective in mediating interactions between the contestants. Early theoretical analyses of aggressive signaling suggested that signals could never be honest about fighting ability or aggressive intentions because weak individuals would exaggerate such signals whenever they were effective in influencing the behavior of opponents. More recent game theory models, however, demonstrate that given the right costs and constraints, aggressive signals are both reliable about strength and intentions and effective in influencing contest outcomes. Here, we review the role of signaling in lieu of physical violence, considering threat displays from an ethological perspective as an adaptive outcome of evolutionary selection pressures. Fighting prowess is conveyed by performance signals whose production is constrained by physical ability and thus limited to just some individuals, whereas aggressive intent is encoded in strategic signals that all signalers are able to produce. We illustrate recent advances in the study of aggressive signaling with case studies of charismatic taxa that employ a range of sensory modalities, viz. visual and chemical signaling in cephalopod behavior, and indicators of aggressive intent in the territorial calls of songbirds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Alternative-fueled truck demonstration natural gas program: Caterpillar G3406LE development and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In 1990, the California Energy Commission, the South Coast Air Quality Management District, and the Southern California Gas Company joined together to sponsor the development and demonstration of compressed natural gas engines for Class 8 heavy-duty line-haul trucking applications. This program became part of an overall Alternative-Fueled Truck Demonstration Program, with the goal of advancing the technological development of alternative-fueled engines. The demonstration showed natural gas to be a technically viable fuel for Class 8 truck engines.

  19. Implementation of exclusive truck facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fekpe, E. [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States). Transportation Market Sector


    This paper discussed the issue of highway congestion, safety, and efficiency in freight movement on highways, with particular reference to the challenge of supporting increasing capacity demand from truck traffic. Innovative and practical solutions are needed to address the growing need for more efficient freight movement while maintaining acceptable levels of safety on highways. The concept of exclusive truck facilities (ETFs) is becoming an attractive option as a feasible strategy to help stabilize traffic flow, reduce congestion, improve safety, enhance transportation system management, improve access to freight facilities, and improve efficiency in freight movement along corridors of national importance. ETFs can either be truck only lanes or truckways. Passenger cars may not use ETFs. However, the use of ETFs could involve high costs of construction, maintenance, and acquisition of additional right of way. A cost-benefit analysis was performed for alternative ETF configurations under different traffic and site characteristics. A set of criteria was then proposed for identifying suitable locations for exclusive truck lanes. It was proposed that ETFs are economically feasible at locations with traffic volume of 100,000 vehicles per day or more and with a truck volume of at least 25 per cent of the traffic. In addition, the rate of truck-involved fatal crashes and level of service should be used to prioritize preliminary candidate locations that satisfy the traffic criteria. Consideration should also be given to the existence of freight terminals, ports, processing centers or regional distribution centres that are close to highways. 11 refs., 1 tab.

  20. French intensive truck garden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, T D


    The French Intensive approach to truck gardening has the potential to provide substantially higher yields and lower per acre costs than do conventional farming techniques. It was the intent of this grant to show that there is the potential to accomplish the gains that the French Intensive method has to offer. It is obvious that locally grown food can greatly reduce transportation energy costs but when there is the consideration of higher efficiencies there will also be energy cost reductions due to lower fertilizer and pesticide useage. As with any farming technique, there is a substantial time interval for complete soil recovery after there have been made substantial soil modifications. There were major crop improvements even though there was such a short time since the soil had been greatly disturbed. It was also the intent of this grant to accomplish two other major objectives: first, the garden was managed under organic techniques which meant that there were no chemical fertilizers or synthetic pesticides to be used. Second, the garden was constructed so that a handicapped person in a wheelchair could manage and have a higher degree of self sufficiency with the garden. As an overall result, I would say that the garden has taken the first step of success and each year should become better.

  1. Electronic Aggression

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Aggression is no longer limited to the school yard. New forms of electronic media, such as blogs, instant messaging, chat rooms, email, text messaging, and the internet are providing new arenas for youth violence to occur.

  2. Analysis of major trends in U.S. commercial trucking, 1977-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertram, K. M.; Santini, D .J.; Vyas, A. D.


    This report focuses on various major long-range (1977-2002) and intermediate-range (1982-2002) U.S. commercial trucking trends. The primary sources of data for this period were the U.S. Bureau of the Census Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey and Truck Inventory and Use Survey. In addition, selected 1977-2002 data from the U.S. Department of Energy/Energy Information Administration and from the U.S. Department of Transportation/Federal Highway Administration's Highway Statistics were used. The report analyzes (1) overall gasoline and diesel fuel consumption patterns by passenger vehicles and trucks and (2) the population changes and fuels used by all commercial truck classes by selected truck type (single unit or combination), during specified time periods, with cargo-hauling commercial trucks given special emphasis. It also assesses trends in selected vehicle miles traveled, gallons per vehicle miles traveled, and gallons per cargo ton-mile traveled, as well as the effect of cargo tons per truck on fuel consumption. In addition, the report examines long-range trends for related factors (e.g., long-haul mileages driven by heavy trucks) and their impacts on reducing fuel consumption per cargo-ton-mile and the relative shares of total commercial fuel use among truck classes. It identifies the effects of these trends on U.S. petroleum consumption. The report also discusses basic engineering design and performance, national legislation on interstate highway construction, national demographic trends (e.g., suburbanization), and changes in U.S. corporate operations requirements, and it highlights their impacts on both the long-distance hauling and shorter-distance urban and suburban delivery markets of the commercial trucking industry.

  3. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2010. (United States)


    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and : property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2010. Selected crash statistics on passenger : vehicles are also presen...

  4. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2012. (United States)


    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2012. Selected crash statistics on passenger vehicles are also presented ...

  5. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2013. (United States)


    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2013. Selected crash statistics on passenger vehicles are also presented ...

  6. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2009. (United States)


    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and : property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2009. Selected crash statistics on passenger : vehicles are also presen...

  7. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2011. (United States)


    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and : property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2011. Selected crash statistics on passenger : vehicles are also presen...

  8. Naturalistic Study of Truck Following Behavior (United States)


    Volpe conducted the Naturalistic study of truck following behavior to gain a better understanding of how trucks follow other vehicles in the real world, with the ultimate goal of supporting the Federal Highway Administration in the development of aut...

  9. Commercial truck parking and other safety issues. (United States)


    Commercial truck parking is a safety issue, since trucks are involved in approximately 10% of all fatal accidents on interstates and : parkways in Kentucky. Drivers experience schedule demands and long hours on the road, yet they cannot easily determ...

  10. Norcal Prototype LNG Truck Fleet: Final Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    U.S. DOE and National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluated Norcal Waste Systems liquefied natural gas (LNG) waste transfer trucks. Trucks had prototype Cummins Westport ISXG engines. Report gives final evaluation results.

  11. Trucks involved in fatal accidents factbook 2008. (United States)


    This document presents aggregate statistics on trucks involved in traffic accidents in 2008. The : statistics are derived from the Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents (TIFA) file, compiled by the : University of Michigan Transportation Research Instit...

  12. Trucks involved in fatal accidents factbook 2007. (United States)


    This document presents aggregate statistics on trucks involved in traffic accidents in 2007. The : statistics are derived from the Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents (TIFA) file, compiled by the : University of Michigan Transportation Research Instit...

  13. Aerodynamics Research Revolutionizes Truck Design (United States)


    During the 1970s and 1980s, researchers at Dryden Flight Research Center conducted numerous tests to refine the shape of trucks to reduce aerodynamic drag and improved efficiency. During the 1980s and 1990s, a team based at Langley Research Center explored controlling drag and the flow of air around a moving body. Aeroserve Technologies Ltd., of Ottawa, Canada, with its subsidiary, Airtab LLC, in Loveland, Colorado, applied the research from Dryden and Langley to the development of the Airtab vortex generator. Airtabs create two counter-rotating vortices to reduce wind resistance and aerodynamic drag of trucks, trailers, recreational vehicles, and many other vehicles.

  14. Truck acceleration behavior study and acceleration lane length recommendations for metered on-ramps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangchuan Yang


    Full Text Available This paper investigated the actual truck acceleration capability at metered on-ramps. Truck acceleration performance data were collected through a video-based data collection method. A piecewise constant acceleration model was employed to capture truck acceleration characteristics. It was found that the existing acceleration length will affect truck drivers’ acceleration behavior. At the taper type ramp that has limited acceleration distance, acceleration profile indicated a decreasing trend with distance. While for the ramp with an auxiliary lane that has sufficient acceleration distance, it was found that the acceleration behavior is to have a high acceleration rate in the beginning, then acceleration rate decrease with speed increase, and high acceleration rate again as drivers approach the merging area. Field data show that the truck acceleration performance data documented in the ITE’s (Institute of Transportation Engineers “Traffic Engineering Handbook” are much lower than the field collected data. Also, based on the regression analysis of speed versus distance profiles, it was found that the AASHTO’s (American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials Green Book acceleration length design guidance is insufficient to accommodate trucks at metered on-ramps. The required acceleration lengths for medium and heavy trucks are approximately 1.3 and 1.6 times of the Green Book design guideline, respectively.

  15. Fuel Cell Hydroge Manifold for Lift Trucks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinzadeh, Elham

    . Battery driven lift trucks are being used more and more in different companies to reduce their emissions. However, battery driven lift trucks need long time to recharge and may be out of work for a long time. Fuel cell driven lift trucks diminish this problem and are therefore getting more attention...

  16. Weather delay costs to trucking. (United States)


    Estimates of the nations freight sector of transportation range to upwards of $600 billion of total gross domestic product with 70 percent of total value and 60 percent of total weight moving by truck. Weather-related delays can add significantly ...

  17. A tough truck for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia


    One of the mobile support structures that will be used to manoeuvre and assemble components of the ATLAS detector in its cavern was put through its paces at the end of July and passed its load tests with flying colours. The tests, which involved the surveyors taking measurements to detect any load-induced mechanical deformations, were carried out in Building 191. "The "truck" has been subjected to static tests with loads of up to 1250 tonnes and can carry and transport on air cushions a nominal load of up to 1000 tonnes at a top speed of 30 cm per minute," explains project leader Tommi Nyman. "It took two weeks to assemble the truck's components, the last of which arrived at CERN on 24 June. It then took a further 20 days to load the truck up for the test." The 8.5 metre-high truck will be used for final assembly of some of the ATLAS components, including the calorimeters, in cavern UX15. This powerful device is the result of a collaboration between CERN and the Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear ...

  18. Liquefied Natural Gas for Trucks and Buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James Wegrzyn; Michael Gurevich


    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is being developed as a heavy vehicle fuel. The reason for developing LNG is to reduce our dependency on imported oil by eliminating technical and costs barriers associated with its usage. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a program, currently in its third year, to develop and advance cost-effective technologies for operating and refueling natural gas-fueled heavy vehicles (Class 7-8 trucks). The objectives of the DOE Natural Gas Vehicle Systems Program are to achieve market penetration by reducing vehicle conversion and fuel costs, to increase consumer acceptance by improving the reliability and efficiency, and to improve air quality by reducing tailpipe emissions. One way to reduce fuel costs is to develop new supplies of cheap natural gas. Significant progress is being made towards developing more energy-efficient, low-cost, small-scale natural gas liquefiers for exploiting alternative sources of natural gas such as from landfill and remote gas sites. In particular, the DOE program provides funds for research and development in the areas of; natural gas clean up, LNG production, advanced vehicle onboard storage tanks, improved fuel delivery systems and LNG market strategies. In general, the program seeks to integrate the individual components being developed into complete systems, and then demonstrate the technology to establish technical and economic feasibility. The paper also reviews the importance of cryogenics in designing LNG fuel delivery systems

  19. Cummins L10G in Kenworth truck 'viable today'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    As the culmination of five years of developmental work by Cummins Engines, BC Research Inc., and BC Gas Utility Ltd., a T800 Kenworth truck was outfitted with a new Cummins L10G natural gas engine, and two lightweight fully -wrapped Dynetek cylinders; it was pronounced to be 'a viable clean truck today'. The L10G spark-ignited engine operates at a relatively high peak efficiency of 37 per cent and is commercially available to meet the current California Air Resources Board heavy duty vehicle emission standards without the use of a catalytic converter. The L10G engine produces no particulate emissions, a very significant advantage, in view of the fact that particulate emissions have been identified as major contributors to respiratory ailments

  20. Evaluación de la eficiencia energética de vehículos pesados en el ciclo // Evaluation of the heavy duty trucks energy efficiency in the modified drive cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Pérez-Gálvez


    Full Text Available ResumenEn este trabajo, se presenta la reformulación de un ciclo teórico que consta de los elementosbásicos de un ciclo de viaje real con condiciones prefijadas de movimiento y operación. En lamodificación se tomaron en cuenta los siguientes elementos: frecuencia de rotación mínima enmovimiento estable; eficiencia de la transmisión variable con la velocidad, la carga y la marchaconectada; un nuevo criterio de frecuencia de rotación del motor para el cambio de marchas; elfrenado con el motor embragado y; nuevas expresiones de cuantificación del consumo decombustible. Obteniéndose nuevos modelos matemáticos para la determinación de los indicadoresdel consumo de combustible de vehículos pesados de transmisión mecánica. Se presenta además,un indicador “Coeficiente de Efectividad del Trabajo del Automóvil” (CETA que describe laeficiencia energética durante el periodo de impulso, expresada a través del grado deaprovechamiento de la energía del automóvil para llevar hasta determinada velocidad la masa de lacarga útil.Palabras claves: ciclo de viaje, consumo de combustible, evaluación vehicular, modelos matemáticos._________________________________________________________________AbstractIn this paper, the new formulation of a theoretical drive cycle is presented. It is integrated by stagesof a real drive cycle with the prefix settings of movement and operation. In the cycle modificationthe following approaches are taken account: minimal rotation frequency in stable movement; thetransmission efficiency is variable with the speed, the weight, and the gear ratio; a new rotationfrequency for gear shifting; a motor braking stage and; a group of new equations for the fuelconsumption. New mathematical models were obtained for the fuel consumption indicators of theheavy duty trucks with manual transmission. Furthermore, the indicator Automobile WorkEffectiveness Coefficient is presented. It describes the energy efficiency in the

  1. Electronic Aggression

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Aggression is no longer limited to the school yard. New forms of electronic media, such as blogs, instant messaging, chat rooms, email, text messaging, and the internet are providing new arenas for youth violence to occur.  Created: 11/20/2007 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division of Violence Prevention.   Date Released: 11/28/2007.

  2. Computations for Truck Sliding with TRUCK 3.1 Code (United States)


    16 REFERENCES 1. L u. \\Villiam N.. Hobbs. Norman P. and Atkinson, Michael. TRUCK 3.1-An Improrcd Digital (’oiputtr Program for Calculating the Response...for Operations and Plans ATIN: Technical Libary Director of Chemical & Nuear Operations Dpartnt of the AIW Waskbington, DC 20310 1 Cocaeder US Ay...Lawrenoe Livermore Lab. ATIN: Code 2124, Tedhnical ATTN: Tech Info Dept L-3 Reports Libary P.O. Be 808 Monterey, CA 93940 Livermore, CA 94550 AFSC

  3. Powershift transmission for dump trucks; Neues Lastschaltgetriebe fuer Dump Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebholz, Wolfgang; Geis, Joerg; Riedhammer, Michael [ZF Friedrichshafen AG, Friedrichshafen (Germany)


    Articulated dumpers (also called dump trucks) are used in many locations where large quantities of earth, spoil, gravel or other materials have to be moved on construction sites or in quarries. ZF has developed a new transmission with eight forward and four reverse gears up to production standard specifically for use in these vehicles. The integrated primary retarder is continuously controllable and provides maximum braking torque of up to 1800 Nm. (orig.)

  4. Plug-In Hybrid Urban Delivery Truck Technology Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyasato, Matt [South Coast Air Quality Management District Building Corporation, Diamond Bar, CA (United States); Impllitti, Joseph [South Coast Air Quality Management District Building Corporation, Diamond Bar, CA (United States); Pascal, Amar [South Coast Air Quality Management District Building Corporation, Diamond Bar, CA (United States)


    The I-710 and CA-60 highways are key transportation corridors in the Southern California region that are heavily used on a daily basis by heavy duty drayage trucks that transport the cargo from the ports to the inland transportation terminals. These terminals, which include store/warehouses, inland-railways, are anywhere from 5 to 50 miles in distance from the ports. The concentrated operation of these drayage vehicles in these corridors has had and will continue to have a significant impact on the air quality in this region whereby significantly impacting the quality of life in the communities surrounding these corridors. To reduce these negative impacts it is critical that zero and near-zero emission technologies be developed and deployed in the region. A potential local market size of up to 46,000 trucks exists in the South Coast Air Basin, based on near- dock drayage trucks and trucks operating on the I-710 freeway. The South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD), California Air Resources Board (CARB) and Southern California Association of Governments (SCAG) — the agencies responsible for preparing the State Implementation Plan required under the federal Clean Air Act — have stated that to attain federal air quality standards the region will need to transition to broad use of zero and near zero emission energy sources in cars, trucks and other equipment (Southern California Association of Governments et al, 2011). SCAQMD partnered with Volvo Trucks to develop, build and demonstrate a prototype Class 8 heavy-duty plug-in hybrid drayage truck with significantly reduced emissions and fuel use. Volvo’s approach leveraged the group’s global knowledge and experience in designing and deploying electromobility products. The proprietary hybrid driveline selected for this proof of concept was integrated with multiple enhancements to the complete vehicle in order to maximize the emission and energy impact of electrification. A detailed review of all

  5. Integrated online energy and battery life management for hybrid long haulage truck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, H.T.; Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.; Huisman, R.G.M.


    Battery lifetime management plays an important role for successful commercializing hybrid electric vehicles. This paper aims at integrating the battery lifetime management into the energy management system of a heavy-duty hybrid electric truck. The developed strategy called Integrated Energy

  6. Truck transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, M.M.; Wilmot, E.L.


    Analytical models in RADTRAN II are used to calculate risks to population subgroups such as people along transport routes, people at stops, and crewman. The stops model, which calculates the dose to persons adjacent to the transport vehicle while it is stopped, frequently provides the largest contribution to incident-free radiological impacts. Components such as distances from the vehicle containing radioactive material to nearby people at stops, stop duration, and number of crew members are required for the stops model as well as other incident-free models. To provide supporting data for RADTRAN II based on operational experience, selected truck shipments of radioactive material were observed from origin to destination. Other important aspects of this program were to correlate package size to effective shipment transport index (TI) using radiological surveys and to characterize population distributions and proximities of people to the shipment at a generic truck stop

  7. Solar hydrogen for urban trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provenzano, J.: Scott, P.B.; Zweig, R. [Clean Air Now, Northridge, CA (United States)


    The Clean Air Now (CAN) Solar Hydrogen Project, located at Xerox Corp., El Segundo, California, includes solar photovoltaic powered hydrogen generation, compression, storage and end use. Three modified Ford Ranger trucks use the hydrogen fuel. The stand-alone electrolyzer and hydrogen dispensing system are solely powered by a photovoltaic array. A variable frequency DC-AC converter steps up the voltage to drive the 15 horsepower compressor motor. On site storage is available for up to 14,000 standard cubic feet (SCF) of solar hydrogen, and up to 80,000 SCF of commercial hydrogen. The project is 3 miles from Los Angeles International airport. The engine conversions are bored to 2.9 liter displacement and are supercharged. Performance is similar to that of the Ranger gasoline powered truck. Fuel is stored in carbon composite tanks (just behind the driver`s cab) at pressures up to 3600 psi. Truck range is 144 miles, given 3600 psi of hydrogen. The engine operates in lean burn mode, with nil CO and HC emissions. NO{sub x} emissions vary with load and rpm in the range from 10 to 100 ppm, yielding total emissions at a small fraction of the ULEV standard. Two trucks have been converted for the Xerox fleet, and one for the City of West Hollywood. A public outreach program, done in conjunction with the local public schools and the Department of Energy, introduces the local public to the advantages of hydrogen fuel technologies. The Clean Air Now program demonstrates that hydrogen powered fleet development is an appropriate, safe, and effective strategy for improvement of urban air quality, energy security and avoidance of global warming impact. Continued technology development and cost reduction promises to make such implementation market competitive.

  8. Sexual behavior among truck drivers. (United States)

    Singh, Rajiv Kumar; Joshi, Hari Shankar


    A cross-sectional study was conducted on Lucknow highway in Bareilly district of Uttar Pradesh to study the knowledge of truck drivers about HIV transmission and prevention and to study the sexual behaviour of these drivers with reference to HIV/AIDS. Age, marital status, education, income, drinking alcohol, length of stay away from home, knowledge about transmission and prevention of HIV, and HIV-prone behavior of truck drivers were studied. Chi-square, mean, and SD were calculated. In all, 289 (97.6%) drivers had heard about HIV/AIDS. Only 242 (81.8%) were aware of HIV transmission by heterosexual route. Misconceptions such as HIV transmission by mosquito bites, living in same room, shaking hands, and sharing food were found. Out of 174 (58.8%) who visited Commercial Sex Workers (CSW), 146 (83.9%) used a condom. 38 (12.8%) visited more than 5 CSW in the last 3 months. Time away from home on the road, marital status, alcohol use, and income class were associated with visiting CSW. High-risk behavior was established in the study population. Safe sex and use of condoms need to be promoted among the truck drivers and better condom availability needs to be assured on highways.

  9. Heavy Vehicle Technologies Program Retrospective and Outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James J. Eberhardt


    OHVT Mission is to conduct, in collaboration with our heavy vehicle industry partners and their suppliers, a customer-focused national program to research and develop technologies that will enable trucks and other heavy vehicles to be more energy efficient and able to use alternative fuels while simultaneously reducing emissions

  10. Determinants of fuel consumption in mining trucks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dindarloo, Saeid R.; Siami-Irdemoosa, Elnaz


    Analysis of fuel consumption in a large surface mine, during more than 5000 cycles of material transportation, revealed considerable variability in the data. Truck fuel estimation based on the mining truck manufacturers' manuals/estimates is not capable of capturing this variability in the fuel consumption data. Partial least squares regression and autoregressive integrated moving average methods were employed to examine the effect of cyclic activities on fuel consumption, and to recommend relevant remedies for consumption reduction. Proper modifications of the operation can result in improved cycle times. Consequently, minimizing some cyclic activities would enhance energy efficiency. The truck “empty idle time” was a major contributor to unnecessary fuel consumption. Since the truck queues at shovels are a major component of the “empty idle time”, decisions should be reviewed to reduce the truck queues at loading points. Improved dispatching strategies, optimal muck pile shape and size distribution, and improved shovel/loader operator skills are effective preventive measures to minimize truck flow bottlenecks at loading points, and thus to improve energy efficiency at mines. - Highlights: • A large fleet of mining trucks consumes considerable amounts of energy. • Current energy models do not consider the effect of site-specific mining conditions. • A new methodology based on material handling cyclic activities is proposed. • Fuel consumption rates in different truck operating modes are determined. • The new model is compared with the truck manufacturer's energy consumption guideline.

  11. Benefit of energy absorption by the truck in a frontal car-to-truck collision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coo, P.J.A. de; Adalian, C.


    EEVC Working Group 14 is investigating the effect of fixing energy absorbing front underrun protection systems (eaFUPS) to trucks instead of rigid devices in order to reduce the injury severity to car occupants in car-to-truck frontal collisions. Three car-to-truck crash tests with cars from

  12. Modelling Truck Weigh Stations’ Locations based on Truck Traffic Flow and Overweight Violation: A Case Study in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirsad Kulović


    Full Text Available The number of registered commercial freight vehicles is constantly increasing, increasing therefore as well the traffic load on the roads in Bosnia and Herzegovina. A significant part of freight vehicles moving along the main and regional roads are overloaded and cause significant damage to road infrastructure, affect road safety and result in an increase of emissions of harmful gases for people and the environment. The overloading rate is extremely high, in particular with 5-axle trucks representing 58.7%. The research showed that the increased overload level ranges from 10-20% of the maximum permissible weight. The importance of load limits was recognized early in the history of road development. This interrelation led directly to limitations on vehicle loads, and laws were enacted in many countries to establish the maximum allowable motor vehicle sizes and weights. Strict enforcement of motor vehicle size and weight laws is a step toward reducing motor vehicle size and weight violations, heavy truck accidents, and, even more, improving road maintenance, rehabilitation expenditures and road safety. Thus, based on the applied model the objective of this paper is to evaluate and optimize the locations of truck weigh stations on the road network of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  13. Developing a GPS-based truck freight performance measure platform. (United States)


    Although trucks move the largest volume and value of goods in urban areas, relatively little is known about their travel : patterns and how the roadway network performs for trucks. Global positioning systems (GPS) used by trucking : companies to mana...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix Xii to Part 86 - Tables for Production Compliance Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Heavy-Duty Vehicles... (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tables for Production Compliance Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Heavy-Duty Vehicles, Including Light-Duty Trucks XII Appendix XII to... Appendix XII to Part 86—Tables for Production Compliance Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Heavy-Duty...

  15. The General Aggression Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, Johnie J.; Anderson, Craig A.; Bushman, Brad J.

    The General Aggression Model (GAM) is a comprehensive, integrative, framework for understanding aggression. It considers the role of social, cognitive, personality, developmental, and biological factors on aggression. Proximate processes of GAM detail how person and situation factors influence

  16. Truck drivers as stakeholders in cooperative driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, F.; Terken, J.M.B.; Aarts, E.; de Ruyter, B.; Markopoulos, P.; van Loenen, E.; Wichert, R.; Schouten, B.; Terken, J.M.B.; van Kranenburg, R.; Den Ouden, E.; O'Hare, G.


    Cooperative driving for trucks has been claimed to bring substantial benefits for society and fleet owners because of better throughput and reduced fuel consumption, but benefits for truck drivers are questionable. While most work on cooperative driving focuses on the technology, the current paper

  17. Trusted Truck(R) II (phase A). (United States)


    The Trusted Truck Program was initiated in 2003 as a joint effort by NTRCI, Volvo and UT. The vision of the Trusted Truck program is to develop a secure and "trusted" transport solution from pickup to delivery. The program's objective is to incre...

  18. Fuel Cell Powered Lift Truck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulden, Steve [Sysco Food Service, Houston, TX (United States)


    This project, entitled “Recovery Act: Fuel Cell-Powered Lift Truck Sysco (Houston) Fleet Deployment”, was in response to DOE funding opportunity announcement DE-PS36-08GO98009, Topic 7B, which promotes the deployment of fuel cell powered material handling equipment in large, multi-shift distribution centers. This project promoted large-volume commercialdeployments and helped to create a market pull for material handling equipment (MHE) powered fuel cell systems. Specific outcomes and benefits involved the proliferation of fuel cell systems in 5-to 20-kW lift trucks at a high-profile, real-world site that demonstrated the benefits of fuel cell technology and served as a focal point for other nascent customers. The project allowed for the creation of expertise in providing service and support for MHE fuel cell powered systems, growth of existing product manufacturing expertise, and promoted existing fuel cell system and component companies. The project also stimulated other MHE fleet conversions helping to speed the adoption of fuel cell systems and hydrogen fueling technology. This document also contains the lessons learned during the project in order to communicate the successes and difficulties experienced, which could potentially assist others planning similar projects.

  19. Perpetration of Alcohol-Related Aggression by Male and Female College Students: An Examination of Overt and Relational Aggression. (United States)

    Robertson, Kirsten; Forbes, Sarah; Thyne, Maree


    Existing literature exemplifies the relationship between alcohol and overt aggression, especially for adult males. Less clear is the relationship between alcohol and aggression among male and female college students, in particular, the nature of this aggression and the co-occurrence of drinking and aggression on the same day (temporal proximity). This study examines the chronic and temporal nature of males' and females' alcohol-related aggression among college students. Two hundred fourteen students completed a web-based 7-day event-level survey measuring alcohol consumption and perpetration of physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger, and relational aggression over 4 weeks, resulting in 4,256 observations (days). The global analysis revealed students who are heavy drinkers are more likely to perpetrate all four forms of aggression, whereas the event-level analysis revealed that specific forms of aggression are associated with drinking at the time, while other forms were not linked to drinking occasions. Cross-tabulation revealed males and females were more likely to use verbal and physical aggression when drinking. For females, drinking was also associated with relational aggression and anger. Despite often being overlooked in research on aggression during emerging adulthood, relational aggression was prevalent. Discrepancies between the global and temporal analysis revealed factors other than alcohol might explain the relationship between chronic alcohol consumption and specific forms of aggression. This is one of the first event-level studies to show the temporal relationship between alcohol and relational aggression. The distinctions in the current study, exemplifying the diversity of alcohol-related aggression, are critical for understanding aggressive behavior, potential gender differences, and for developing interventions. The temporal relationship between alcohol and aggression suggests health interventions should target drinking and aggression

  20. Optimization of shovel-truck system for surface mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ercelebi, S.G.; Bascetin, A. [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Mining Engineering Department


    In surface mining operations, truck haulage is the largest item in the operating costs, constituting 50 to 60% of the total. In order to reduce this cost, it is necessary to allocate and dispatch the trucks efficiently. This paper describes shovel and truck operation models and optimization approaches for the allocation and dispatching of trucks under various operating conditions. Closed queuing network theory is employed for the allocation of trucks and linear programming for the purpose of truck dispatching to shovels. A case study was applied for the Orhaneli open Pit Coal Mine in Turkey. This approach would provide the capability of estimating system performance measures (mine throughput, mean number of trucks, mean waiting time, etc.) for planning purposes when the truck fleet is composed of identical trucks. A computational study is presented to show how choosing the optimum number of trucks and optimum dispatching policy affect the cost of moving material in a truck-shovel system.

  1. Toy Trucks in Video Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Nakamura, Nanami; Larsen, Rainer Rye


    discovered that using scale-models like toy trucks has a strongly encouraging effect on developers/designers to collaboratively make sense of field videos. In our analysis of such scale-model sessions, we found some quite fundamental patterns of how participants utilise objects; the participants build shared......Video fieldstudies of people who could be potential users is widespread in design projects. How to analyse such video is, however, often challenging, as it is time consuming and requires a trained eye to unlock experiential knowledge in people’s practices. In our work with industrialists, we have...... narratives by moving the objects around, they name them to handle the complexity, they experience what happens in the video through their hands, and they use the video together with objects to create alternative narratives, and thus alternative solutions to the problems they observe. In this paper we claim...

  2. Real world efficiency of retrofit partial-flow diesel particulate filters for trucks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Asch, R.; Verbeek, R.; Ligterink, N.; Kadijk, G.


    In 2006 the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM) introduced an incentive scheme for retrofitting diesel particulate filters on Euro II and Euro III trucks. This scheme involves both partial flow and full flow diesel particulate filters (also called semi-open or open respectively wall-flow or closed filters). In the period 2007 till January 2009 about 15,000 partial flow filters and 8,000 full flow diesel particulate filters were installed. The minimum filtration efficiency requirement for the partial flow diesel particulate filters is 50% during the type approval test. In 2008 an engine dynamometer test programme was conducted to measure the filtration efficiency of retrofit open particulates filters of heavy trucks. This led to somewhat disappointing results with average filtration efficiencies in the range of 5-20% during city and national motorway driving conditions up to 20-40% during long distance motorway driving. This result leads to two main questions: (1) Is this result also representative for medium heavy trucks used for delivery, and (2) do similar efficiencies show up also in tests on entire vehicles, tested under conditions as close as possible to their real world usage profile. To this end, an additional measurement programme was defined, which is reported here. The objective of the study reported here is to determine the real world filtration efficiency of retrofit partial flow particulate filters for a number of trucks under different driving conditions such as city and motorway driving. The emphasis should be on medium heavy trucks typically used for national delivery.

  3. 19 CFR 123.41 - Truck shipments transiting Canada. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Truck shipments transiting Canada. 123.41 Section... OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO United States and Canada In-Transit Truck Procedures § 123.41 Truck shipments transiting Canada. (a) Manifest required. Trucks with merchandise...



    Liu, Jianghong


    The concept of aggression is important to nursing because further knowledge of aggression can help generate a better theoretical model to drive more effective intervention and prevention approaches. This paper outlines a conceptual analysis of aggression. First, the different forms of aggression are reviewed, including the clinical classification and the stimulus-based classification. Then the manifestations and measurement of aggression are described. Finally, the causes and consequences of ...


    Class 2b-8 vocational truck manufacturers and Class 7/8 tractor manufacturers would be subject to vehicle-based fuel economy and emission standards that would use a truck simulation model to evaluate the impact of the truck tires and/or tractor cab design on vehicle compliance with any new standards. The EPA has created a model called “GHG Emissions Model (GEM)”, which is specifically tailored to predict truck GHG emissions. As the model is designed for the express purpose of vehicle compliance demonstration, it is less configurable than similar commercial products and its only outputs are GHG emissions and fuel consumption. This approach gives a simple and compact tool for vehicle compliance without the overhead and costs of a more sophisticated model. Evaluation of both fuel consumption and CO2 emissions from heavy-duty highway vehicles through a whole-vehicle operation simulation model.

  6. Heavy vehicle propulsion system materials program semiannual progress report for April 1999 through September 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.R.


    The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1-3 trucks to realize a 35% fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7-8 trucks.

  7. Heavy Duty Diesel Truck and Bus Hybrid Powertrain Study (United States)


    Electric Vehicles to supply battery modules for Smith’s lineup of zero-emission, all-electric commercial vehicles (CVs). A123 expects to begin...hybrids may have generally improved reliability compared to conventional diesel vehicles, their maintenance procedures are specialized. Hybrid

  8. U24 : heavy truck rollover characterization (phase C). (United States)


    The effect of changes in the suspension of a cargo tank semitrailer on its roll stability was studied in experiments and modeling. Three configurations were considered: a typical design; a design with a wider track; and a design with wider track and ...

  9. Large Truck Crash Causation Study (LTCCS) (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Large Truck* Crash Causation Study (LTCCS) is based on a three-year data collection project conducted by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA)...

  10. Acceptance test procedure for core sample trucks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smalley, J.L.


    The purpose of this Acceptance Test Procedure is to provide instruction and documentation for acceptance testing of the rotary mode core sample trucks, HO-68K-4600 and HO-68K-4647. The rotary mode core sample trucks were based upon the design of the second core sample truck (HO-68K-4345) which was constructed to implement rotary mode sampling of the waste tanks at Hanford. Acceptance testing of the rotary mode core sample trucks will verify that the design requirements have been met. All testing will be non-radioactive and stand-in materials shall be used to simulate waste tank conditions. Compressed air will be substituted for nitrogen during the majority of testing, with nitrogen being used only for flow characterization

  11. Slow speed object detection for haul trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Caterpillar integrates radar technology with its current camera based system. Caterpillar has developed the Integrated Object Detection System, a slow speed object detection system for mining haul trucks. Object detection is a system that aids the truck operator's awareness of their surroundings. The system consists of a color touch screen display along with medium- and short-range radar as well as cameras, harnesses and mounting hardware. It is integrated into the truck's Work Area Vision System (WAVS). After field testing in 2007, system commercialization began in 2008. Prototype systems are in operation in Australia, Utah and Arizona and the Integrated Object Detection System will be available in the fourth quarter of 2009 and on production trucks 785C, 789C, 793D and 797B. The article is adapted from a presentation by Mark Richards of Caterpillar to the Haulage & Loading 2009 conference, May, held in Phoenix, AZ. 1 fig., 5 photos.

  12. Temperature effects on particulate emissions from DPF-equipped diesel trucks operating on conventional and biodiesel fuels (United States)

    Two diesel trucks equipped with a particulate filter (DPF) were tested at two ambient temperatures (70oF and 20oF), fuels (ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and biodiesel (B20)) and operating loads (a heavy and light weight). The test procedure included three driving cycles, a cold ...

  13. Clean Diesel Engine Component Improvement Program Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsner, N. B. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Bass, J. C. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Ghamaty, S. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Krommenhoek, D. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Kushch, A. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Snowden, D. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Marchetti, S. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)


    Hi-Z Technology, Inc. (Hi-Z) is currently developing four different auxiliary generator designs that are used to convert a portion (5 to 20%) of the waste heat from vehicle engines exhaust directly to electricity. The four designs range from 200 Watts to 10 kW. The furthest along is the 1 kW Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator (DTTEG) for heavy duty Class 8 Diesel trucks, which, under this program, has been subjected to 543,000 equivalent miles of bouncing and jarring on PACCAR's test track. Test experience on an earlier version of the DTTEG on the same track showed the need for design modifications incorporated in DTTEG Mod 2, such as a heavy duty shock mounting system and reinforcement of the electrical leads mounting system, the thermocouple mounting system and the thermoelectric module restraints. The conclusion of the 543,000 mile test also pointed the way for an upgrading to heavy duty hose or flex connections for the internal coolant connections for the TEG, and consideration of a separate lower temperature cooling loop with its own radiator. Fuel savings of up to $750 per year and a three to five year payback are believed to be possible with the 5 % efficiency modules. The economics are expected to improve considerably to approach a two year payback when the 5 kW to 10 kW generators make it to the market in a few years with a higher efficiency (20%) thermoelectric module system called Quantum Wells, which are currently under development by Hi-Z. Ultimately, as automation takes over to reduce material and labor costs in the high volume production of QW modules, a one year payback for the 5 kW to10 kW generator appears possible. This was one of the stated goals at the beginning of the project. At some future point in time, with the DTTEG becoming standard equipment on all trucks and automobiles, fuel savings from the 25% conversion of exhaust heat to useable electricity nationwide equates to a 10% reduction in the 12 to 15 million barrels per day of

  14. Driving R&D for the Next Generation Work Truck; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melendez, M.


    Improvements in medium- and heavy-duty work truck energy efficiency can dramatically reduce the use of petroleum-based fuels and the emissions of greenhouse gases. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is working with industry partners to develop fuel-saving, high-performance vehicle technologies, while examining fleet operational practices that can simulateneously improve fuel economy, decrease emissions, and support bottom-line goals.

  15. Exploring Telematics Big Data for Truck Platooning Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammert, Michael P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bugbee, Bruce [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hou, Yi [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Muratori, Matteo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Holden, Jacob [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Duran, Adam W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mack, Andrea [Montana State University; Swaney, Eric [Volvo Group


    NREL completed a temporal and geospatial analysis of telematics data to estimate the fraction of platoonable miles traveled by class 8 tractor trailers currently in operation. This paper discusses the value and limitations of very large but low time-resolution data sets, and the fuel consumption reduction opportunities from large scale adoption of platooning technology for class 8 highway vehicles in the US based on telematics data. The telematics data set consist of about 57,000 unique vehicles traveling over 210 million miles combined during a two-week period. 75% of the total fuel consumption result from vehicles operating in top gear, suggesting heavy highway utilization. The data is at a one-hour resolution, resulting in a significant fraction of data be uncategorizable, yet significant value can still be extracted from the remaining data. Multiple analysis methods to estimate platoonable miles are discussed. Results indicate that 63% of total miles driven at known hourly-average speeds happens at speeds amenable to platooning. When also considering availability of nearby partner vehicles, results indicate 55.7% of all classifiable miles driven were platoonable. Analysis also address the availability of numerous partners enabling platoons greater than 2 trucks and the percentage of trucks that would be required to be equipped with platooning equipment to realize more than 50% of the possible savings.

  16. Diesel Engine Light Truck Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Diesel Engine Light Truck Application (DELTA) program consists of two major contracts with the Department of Energy (DOE). The first one under DE-FC05-97-OR22606, starting from 1997, was completed in 2001, and consequently, a final report was submitted to DOE in 2003. The second part of the contract was under DE-FC05-02OR22909, covering the program progress from 2002 to 2007. This report is the final report of the second part of the program under contract DE-FC05-02OR22909. During the course of this contract, the program work scope and objectives were significantly changed. From 2002 to 2004, the DELTA program continued working on light-duty engine development with the 4.0L V6 DELTA engine, following the accomplishments made from the first part of the program under DE-FC05-97-OR22606. The program work scope in 2005-2007 was changed to the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) soot layer characterization and substrate material assessment. This final report will cover two major technical tasks. (1) Continuation of the DELTA engine development to demonstrate production-viable diesel engine technologies and to demonstrate emissions compliance with significant fuel economy advantages, covering progress made from 2002 to 2004. (2) DPF soot layer characterization and substrate material assessment from 2005-2007.

  17. Feasibility of landfill gas as a liquefied natural gas fuel source for refuse trucks. (United States)

    Zietsman, Josias; Bari, Muhammad Ehsanul; Rand, Aaron J; Gokhale, Bhushan; Lord, Dominique; Kumar, Sunil


    The purpose of this paper is to develop a methodology to evaluate the feasibility of using landfill gas (LFG) as a liquefied natural gas (LNG) fuel source for heavy-duty refuse trucks operating on landfills. Using LFG as a vehicle fuel can make the landfills more self-sustaining, reduce their dependence on fossil fuels, and reduce emissions and greenhouse gases. Acrion Technologies Inc. in association with Mack Trucks Inc. developed a technology to generate LNG from LFG using the CO2 WASH process. A successful application of this process was performed at the Eco Complex in Burlington County, PA. During this application two LNG refuse trucks were operated for 600 hr each using LNG produced from gases from the landfill. The methodology developed in this paper can evaluate the feasibility of three LFG options: doing nothing, electricity generation, and producing LNG to fuel refuse trucks. The methodology involved the modeling of several components: LFG generation, energy recovery processes, fleet operations, economic feasibility, and decision-making. The economic feasibility considers factors such as capital, maintenance, operational, and fuel costs, emissions and tax benefits, and the sale of products such as surplus LNG and food-grade carbon dioxide (CO2). Texas was used as a case study. The 96 landfills in Texas were prioritized and 17 landfills were identified that showed potential for converting LFG to LNG for use as a refuse truck fuel. The methodology was applied to a pilot landfill in El Paso, TX. The analysis showed that converting LFG to LNG to fuel refuse trucks proved to be the most feasible option and that the methodology can be applied for any landfill that considers this option.

  18. Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Enevoldsen, I.

    of heavier trucks moving at larger speeds, and partly because the authorities want to permit transportation of special heavy goods at a larger part of the road net. These needs will in many cases cause the strengthening of the bridges becomes necessary. In order to keep the expenses of such strengthening...

  19. Business plan for Gourmet Food Truck in Helsinki


    Mulmi, Mukesh


    This thesis work is about food truck and food truck industry in Finland. In Finland, Culinary scenes are booming and growing but, the food truck concept is new to Finland. Food truck industry is very young and currently, there is a hype for food truck and people are admiring new cuisines. Author himself is working as a cook. And he is passionate about food and restaurant industry. The main purpose of the thesis was to explore more about food truck industry in Finland and create the busine...

  20. Aggression in Psychiatric Wards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidhjelm, Jacob; Sestoft, Dorte; Skovgaard, Lene Theil


    Health care workers are often exposed to violence and aggression in psychiatric settings. Short-term risk assessments, such as the Brøset Violence Checklist (BVC), are strong predictors of such aggression and may enable staff to take preventive measures against aggression. This study evaluated...

  1. Role of sensory and cognitive conspicuity in the prevention of collisions between motorcycles and trucks at T-intersections. (United States)

    Law, Teik Hua; Ghanbari, Mahshid; Hamid, Hussain; Abdul-Halin, Alfian; Ng, Choy Peng


    Motorcyclists are particularly vulnerable to injury in crashes with heavy vehicles due to substantial differences in vehicle mass, the degree of protection and speed. There is a considerable difference in height between motorcycles and trucks; motorcycles are viewed by truck drivers from downward angles, and shorter distances between them mean steeper downward angles. Hence, we anticipated that the effects of motorcycle conspicuity treatments would be different for truck drivers. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the effects of motorcycle conspicuity treatments on the identification and detection of motorcycles by truck drivers. Two complementary experiments were performed; the first experiment assessed the impact of motorcycle sensory conspicuity on the ability of un-alerted truck drivers to detect motorcycles, and the second experiment assessed the motorcycle cognitive conspicuity to alerted truck drivers. The sensory conspicuity was measured in terms of motorcycle detection rates by un-alerted truck drivers when they were not anticipating a motorcycle within a realistic driving scene, while the cognitive conspicuity was determined by the time taken by alerted truck drivers to actively search for a motorcycle. In the first experiment, the participants were presented with 10 pictures and were instructed to report the kinds of vehicles that were presented in the pictures. Each picture was shown to the participants for 600ms. In the second experiment, the participants were presented with the same set of pictures and were instructed to respond by clicking the right button on a mouse as soon as they detected a motorcycle in the picture. The results indicate that the motorcycle detection rate increases, and the response time to search for a motorcycle decreases, as the distance between the targeted motorcycle and the viewer decreases. This is true regardless of the type of conspicuity treatment used. The use of daytime running headlights (DRH) was found to

  2. Idling Reduction for Long-Haul Trucks: An Economic Comparison of On-Board and Wayside Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, Linda [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Weikersheimer, Patricia [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    Reducing the idling of long-haul heavy-duty trucks has long been recognized as a particularly low-hanging fruit of fuel efficiency and emissions reduction. The displacement of about 10 hours of diesel idling every day, for most days of the year, for as many as a million long-haul trucks has very clear benefits. This report considers the costs and return on investment (ROI) for idling reduction (IR) equipment for both truck owners and electrified parking space (EPS) equipment owners. For the truck owners, the key variables examined are idling hours to be displaced (generally 1,000 to 2,000 hours per year) and the price of fuel ($0 to $5/gal). The ideal IR option would provide complete services in varied climates in any location and offer the best ROI on trucks that log many idling hours. For trucks that have fewer idling hours, options with a fixed cost per hour (i.e., EPS) might be most attractive if they were available to all, or even most, truck drivers. EPS, however, is particularly cost effective for trucks on prescribed routes with a need for regular, extended stops at terminals. (EPS is also called truck stop electrification, or TSE.) The analysis shows that all IR options save money when fuel costs more than $2/gal. For trucks requiring bunk heat, a simple heater (plug-in or diesel) is almost always the most costeffective way to provide heat, even if the truck is equipped with an auxiliary power unit (APU) or is parked at a single-system EPS location. For trucks requiring bunk air-conditioning, the use of single-system EPS is most cost effective for those logging fewer idling hours. Even for trucks with higher idling hours, the cost of EPS may be about the same as that for on-board air-conditioning. Clearly, trucks’ locations and seasonal factors—and the availability of EPS— are significant in the choice of “best fit” IR equipment for truck owners. This report also considers costs and payback for owners of EPS infrastructure. An industry that 5

  3. Impact of overweight vehicles (with heavy axle loads) on bridge deck deterioration. (United States)


    Bridge deck slabs develop compressive stresses from global flexural deformation and locally from high-level : wheel loads when it is subjected to overweight trucks. This study quantified the impact of overweight vehicles : with heavy axle loads on br...

  4. Impact of left lane truck restriction strategies on multilane highways in Louisiana : a literature review. (United States)


    Truck lane restriction strategies (TLRS) are a means of managing truck traffic on highways by prohibiting trucks from using certain lanes to minimize interaction between trucks and other vehicles. The purpose of this study is to review the literature...

  5. Shock and vibration environments for a large shipping container during truck transport (Part II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnuson, C.E.


    Purpose of this study was to obtain vibration and shock data during truck shipment of heavy cargo. These data were for use in determining any trends of vibration and shock environments with increased cargo weight. The new data were obtained on a ''piggyback'' basis during truck transport of 249 100N (56,000-pound) cargo which consisted of a spent fuel container and its supporting structure. The truck was driven from Mercury, Nevada, to Albuquerque, New Mexico. The routes traveled were US 95 from Mercury, Nevada, to Las Vegas, Nevada; US 93 from Las Vegas to Kingman, Arizona; and I-40/US 66 from Kingman to Albuquerque, New Mexico. Speeds varied from very slow to 88 km/hr (55 mph). A comparison of data from similar experiments with cargo weights varying from no-load to this load shows that the zero-to-peak acceleration amplitude levels of vibration are highest when trucks carry relatively light loads. This is true for the longitudinal and vertical axes of the vehicles in most frequency bands and for the transverse axis above 700 Hz. The shock response acceleration amplitudes for heavier cargo weights were less severe above 3 Hz in the vertical axis and higher between 8 and 20 Hz in the transverse axis. The highest acceleration amplitude of shock response in the longitudinal axis below about 20 Hz was produced in a trailer having a spring suspension system and carrying the 249 100N (56,000 pounds) load

  6. Relational aggression in marriage. (United States)

    Carroll, Jason S; Nelson, David A; Yorgason, Jeremy B; Harper, James M; Ashton, Ruth Hagmann; Jensen, Alexander C


    Drawing from developmental theories of relational aggression, this article reports on a study designed to identify if spouses use relationally aggressive tactics when dealing with conflict in their marriage and the association of these behaviors with marital outcomes. Using a sample of 336 married couples (672 spouses), results revealed that the majority of couples reported that relationally aggressive behaviors, such as social sabotage and love withdrawal, were a part of their marital dynamics, at least to some degree. Gender comparisons of partner reports of their spouse's behavior revealed that wives were significantly more likely to be relationally aggressive than husbands. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that relational aggression is associated with lower levels of marital quality and greater marital instability for both husbands and wives. Implications are drawn for the use of relational aggression theory in the future study of couple conflict and marital aggression. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Hearing regulates Drosophila aggression. (United States)

    Versteven, Marijke; Vanden Broeck, Lies; Geurten, Bart; Zwarts, Liesbeth; Decraecker, Lisse; Beelen, Melissa; Göpfert, Martin C; Heinrich, Ralf; Callaerts, Patrick


    Aggression is a universal social behavior important for the acquisition of food, mates, territory, and social status. Aggression in Drosophila is context-dependent and can thus be expected to involve inputs from multiple sensory modalities. Here, we use mechanical disruption and genetic approaches in Drosophila melanogaster to identify hearing as an important sensory modality in the context of intermale aggressive behavior. We demonstrate that neuronal silencing and targeted knockdown of hearing genes in the fly's auditory organ elicit abnormal aggression. Further, we show that exposure to courtship or aggression song has opposite effects on aggression. Our data define the importance of hearing in the control of Drosophila intermale aggression and open perspectives to decipher how hearing and other sensory modalities are integrated at the neural circuit level.

  8. Development of Auto-Stacking Warehouse Truck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Hsien Hsia


    Full Text Available Warehouse automation is a very important issue for the promotion of traditional industries. For the production of larger and stackable products, it is usually necessary to operate a fork-lifter for the stacking and storage of the products by a skilled person. The general autonomous warehouse-truck does not have the ability of stacking objects. In this paper, we develop a prototype of auto-stacking warehouse-truck that can work without direct operation by a skill person. With command made by an RFID card, the stacker truck can take the packaged product to the warehouse on the prior-planned route and store it in a stacking way in the designated storage area, or deliver the product to the shipping area or into the container from the storage area. It can significantly reduce the manpower requirements of the skilled-person of forklift technician and improve the safety of the warehousing area.

  9. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2008. (United States)


    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and : property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2008. Selected crash statistics on passenger : vehicles are also presen...

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Truck Transports Capitol Christmas (United States)

    Tree Biodiesel Truck Transports Capitol Christmas Tree to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Truck Transports Capitol Christmas Tree on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Truck Transports Capitol Christmas Tree on Twitter Bookmark Alternative

  11. Hennepin County`s experience with heavy-duty ethanol vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    From November 1993 to October 1996, Hennepin County, which includes Minneapolis, field-tested two heavy-duty snowplow/road maintenance trucks fueled by ethanol. The overall objective of this program was to collect data from original equipment manufacturer alternative fuel heavy-duty trucks, along with comparable data from a similarly configured diesel-powered vehicle, to establish economic, emissions, performance, and durability data for the alternative fuel technology. These ethanol trucks, along with an identical third truck equipped with a diesel engine, were operated year round to maintain the Hennepin county roads. In winter, the trucks were run in 8-hour shifts plowing and hauling snow from urban and suburban roads. For the rest of the year, the three trucks were used to repair and maintain these same roads. As a result of this project, a considerable amount of data was collected on E95 fuel use, as well as maintenance, repair, emissions, and operational characteristics. Maintenance and repair costs of the E95 trucks were considerably higher primarily due to fuel filter and fuel pump issues. From an emissions standpoint, the E95 trucks emitted less particulate matter and fewer oxides of nitrogen but more carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons. Overall, the E95 trucks operated as well as the diesel, as long as the fuel filters were changed frequently. This project was a success in that E95, a domestically produced fuel from a renewable energy source, was used in a heavy-duty truck application and performed the same rigorous tasks as the diesel counterparts. The drawbacks to E95 as a heavy-duty fuel take the form of higher operational costs, higher fuel costs, shorter range, and the lack of over-the-road infrastructure.

  12. The General Aggression Model. (United States)

    Allen, Johnie J; Anderson, Craig A; Bushman, Brad J


    The General Aggression Model (GAM) is a comprehensive, integrative, framework for understanding aggression. It considers the role of social, cognitive, personality, developmental, and biological factors on aggression. Proximate processes of GAM detail how person and situation factors influence cognitions, feelings, and arousal, which in turn affect appraisal and decision processes, which in turn influence aggressive or nonaggressive behavioral outcomes. Each cycle of the proximate processes serves as a learning trial that affects the development and accessibility of aggressive knowledge structures. Distal processes of GAM detail how biological and persistent environmental factors can influence personality through changes in knowledge structures. GAM has been applied to understand aggression in many contexts including media violence effects, domestic violence, intergroup violence, temperature effects, pain effects, and the effects of global climate change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Light Duty Truck Characteristics, Historical Data Base (United States)


    The report is a collection of data concerning physical, operating, performance, and market characteristics of light duty trucks for the model years 1972 and 1975 thru 1977. The data is stored on tape in DOT/TSC DEC System 10 computer system. Informat...

  14. Light Truck Characteristics, Historical Data Base (United States)


    The report is a description of the data about the physical, operating performance, and market characteristics of light trucks for the model years 1955 through 1977, which is stored on tape in DOT/TSC DEC System 10 computer system. Vehicles are report...

  15. INTRALOG, intelligent autonomous truck applications in Logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MSc Berry Gerrits; Dr. Frans Tillema; MMC A.F. Spruijt; MSc Leo Buning


    INTRALOG is a project, to better use of materials, there by leading to improvements for People (better safety, lower physical work load), Planet (lower emissions and energy/ fuel con started September 2015, in which Automated Guided Truck Applications will be developed. Automated systems typically

  16. Using Extractive FTIR to Measure N2O from Medium Heavy Duty Vehicles Powered with Diesel and Biodiesel Fuels (United States)

    A Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer was used to measure N2O and other pollutant gases during an evaluation of two medium heavy-duty diesel trucks equipped with a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF). The emissions of these trucks were characterized under a variety of oper...

  17. CAFE compliance by light trucks: economic impacts of clean diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teotia, A.; Vyas, A.; Cuenca, R.; Stodolsky, F.


    With the popularity of light trucks increasing in the United States, their share of the US light vehicle market had doubled between 1980 and 1996, climbing from 20 to 40%. By 1996, annual energy consumption for light trucks had risen to 5.97 x 10 15 Btu [5.97 quadrillion Btu, or ''quad'', or 6.30 x 10 18 joule (J)], compared to 7.94 quad (8.38 x 10 18 J) for cars. In recent years (since 1995), the fuel economy of US-manufactured light trucks (almost 99% of which use gasoline engines) has been below the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards. This paper analyzes a strategy to reduce the CAFE shortfalls by adopting the new, highly energy-efficient clean diesel engine. Research on such engines has been funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies, under its Light Truck Clean Diesel Engine Program. A clean diesel engine market penetration trajectory is developed, representing an industry response to meet the CAFE standards. Whether the engine will be produced inside the country or imported remains uncertain, so two cases are defined. Values of exports/imports of clean diesel engines/trucks under these cases are estimated. The macroeconomic benefits are estimated by using a model of the US economy developed by Standard and Poor's Data Resources, Inc. On the basis of gains in the gross domestic product projected under the alternative cases, domestic production of the clean diesel engine is favored over importing it. (author)

  18. Optical strain measurement for fault detection in haul-truck tires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotchon, A; Nobes, D S; Lipsett, M G


    Tire condition is integral to the safe operation of heavy machinery, such as ultra-class haul trucks. A new approach to haul truck tire monitoring is being investigated based on optical strain measurement, which has the advantage of providing quantitative information from sensors that do not contact the tire. A laboratory-scale apparatus has been constructed to monitor a tire as it is subjected to various loads and pressures. Digital image correlation is used to calculate the deformation in the tire. Using this method, damage resulting from a horizontal and vertical cut created on the tire surface could be detected. A three-dimensional surface reconstruction of the tire was created to assist in the characterization of more complex damage types such as wear and fatigue. In addition to providing information for a possible industrial scale damage detection system, this apparatus will also further the understanding of damage mechanisms in tires.

  19. NIOSH national survey of long-haul truck drivers: Injury and safety (United States)

    Chen, Guang X.; Sieber, W. Karl; Lincoln, Jennifer E.; Birdsey, Jan; Hitchcock, Edward M.; Nakata, Akinori; Robinson, Cynthia F.; Collins, James W.; Sweeney, Marie H.


    Approximately 1,701,500 people were employed as heavy and tractor-trailer truck drivers in the United States in 2012. The majority of them were long-haul truck drivers (LHTDs). There are limited data on occupational injury and safety in LHTDs, which prompted a targeted national survey. The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health conducted a nationally representative survey of 1265 LHTDs at 32 truck stops across the contiguous United States in 2010. Data were collected on truck crashes, near misses, moving violations, work-related injuries, work environment, safety climate, driver training, job satisfaction, and driving behaviors. Results suggested that an estimated 2.6% of LHTDs reported a truck crash in 2010, 35% reported at least one crash while working as an LHTD, 24% reported at least one near miss in the previous 7 days, 17% reported at least one moving violation ticket and 4.7% reported a non-crash injury involving days away from work in the previous 12 months. The majority (68%) of non-crash injuries among company drivers were not reported to employers. An estimate of 73% of LHTDs (16% often and 58% sometimes) perceived their delivery schedules unrealistically tight; 24% often continued driving despite fatigue, bad weather, or heavy traffic because they needed to deliver or pick up a load at a given time; 4.5% often drove 10 miles per hours or more over the speed limit; 6.0% never wore a seatbelt; 36% were often frustrated by other drivers on the road; 35% often had to wait for access to a loading dock; 37% reported being noncompliant with hours-of-service rules (10% often and 27% sometimes); 38% of LHTDs perceived their entry-level training inadequate; and 15% did not feel that safety of workers was a high priority with their management. This survey brings to light a number of important safety issues for further research and interventions, e.g., high prevalence of truck crashes, injury underreporting, unrealistically tight delivery schedules

  20. The perception of aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, G; Dassen, T; Moorer, P


    Several academic and clinical disciplines are involved in clarifying the concept of aggression by formulating operational and descriptive definitions. In the present paper the validity of the definitions of aggression, reported by nurses in an earlier qualitative study, is examined, using a survey

  1. 2015 E-Truck Task Force: Key Barriers Affecting E-Truck Adoption, Industry and Policy Implications, and Recommendations to Move the Market Forward


    Brotherton, Tom; Gilde, Alycia; Tomic, Jasna


    CALSTART’s E-Truck Task Force (ETTF) produced a report outlining the markets for electric drive trucks (E-Trucks), the prime barriers facing their success and provided key findings and recommendations to support expanding E-Truck adoption. Four key findings have been identified by the E-Truck Task Force as barriers currently affecting the growth and viability of E-Truck sales

  2. Alcohol, aggression, and violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Škrila


    Full Text Available Background: The association between alcohol and aggression has long been recognized, but the systematic research to understand the causal basis for this relationship and the processes that underlie it has only been undertaken in the past 25 years. In the article the most important mechanisms, by which alcohol affects behavior, are explained. Aggression in persons with alcohol dependence and the connection between antisocial (dissocial personality disorder, alcohol and aggression are described. In addition different forms of aggression or violence, that have been committed under the influence of alcohol, such as inter-partner violence, sexual assault, child abuse, crime and traffic accidents are described.Conclusions: The research findings can be used in the prevention and treatment of alcohol-related aggression.

  3. Medium Truck Duty Cycle Data from Real-World Driving Environments: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL; Siekmann, Adam [ORNL; Thomas, Neil [ORNL; LaClair, Tim J [ORNL; Barker, Alan M [ORNL; Knee, Helmut E [ORNL


    Since the early part of the 20th century, the US trucking industry has provided a safe and economical means of moving commodities across the country. At present, nearly 80% of US domestic freight movement involves the use of trucks. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is spearheading a number of research efforts to improve heavy vehicle fuel efficiencies. This includes research in engine technologies (including hybrid and fuel cell technologies), lightweight materials, advanced fuels, and parasitic loss reductions. In addition, DOE is developing advanced tools and models to support heavy vehicle research and is leading the 21st Century Truck Partnership and the SuperTruck development effort. Both of these efforts have the common goal of decreasing the fuel consumption of heavy vehicles. In the case of SuperTruck, a goal of improving the overall freight efficiency of a combination tractor-trailer has been established. This Medium Truck Duty Cycle (MTDC) project is a critical element in DOE s vision for improved heavy vehicle energy efficiency; it is unique in that there is no other existing national database of characteristic duty cycles for medium trucks based on collecting data from Class 6 and 7 vehicles. It involves the collection of real-world data on medium trucks for various situational characteristics (e.g., rural/urban, freeway/arterial, congested/free-flowing, good/bad weather) and looks at the unique nature of medium trucks drive cycles (stop-and-go delivery, power takeoff, idle time, short-radius trips). This research provides a rich source of data that can contribute to the development of new tools for FE and modeling, provide DOE a sound basis upon which to make technology investment decisions, and provide a national archive of real-world-based medium-truck operational data to support energy efficiency research. The MTDC project involved a two-part field operational test (FOT). For the Part-1 FOT, three vehicles each from two vocations (urban transit and

  4. Full-scale locomotive dynamic crash testing and correlations : locomotive consist colliding with steel coil truck at grade crossing (test 3). (United States)


    This report presents the test results and finite element correlations of a full-scale dynamic collision between a locomotive and a highway truck loaded with two heavy steel coils. The locomotive consist was moving at 58 miles per hour before it struc...

  5. IEA implementing agreement for hybrid and electric vehicle technologies and programmes, Annex VII hybrid vehicles : Topic 13, assessment of the energy consumption of hybrid trucks using ADVISOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eelkema, J.; Winkel, R.G.; Geraets, R.; Verbakel, M.J.L.


    This topic report focuses on the possible benefits of the application of a hybrid powertrain in heavy-duty vehicles. The main objective is to assess whether a significant reduction in fuel consumption is feasible. An average Dutch distribution truck with a conventional driveline will be compared to

  6. Feasibility of using cone penetrometer truck (CPT) to install time domain reflectometry (TDR) and fiber optic slope failure detectors in pavement structures. (United States)


    A new method of cable installation using a heavy-duty Cone Penetration Test : (CPT) truck was developed and practiced successfully in this study. The coaxial and fiber : optic cables were pushed along with the cone rods by the hydraulic system integr...

  7. Dump truck-related deaths in construction, 1992-2007. (United States)

    McCann, Michael; Cheng, Mei-Tai


    Dump trucks are universally used in construction and other industries to haul materials to the location and to remove waste materials. The source for dump truck-related fatality data was the Bureau of Labor Statistics Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) Research File. From 1992 to 2007, 829 construction workers were killed in dump truck-related incidents nationwide. Of those, 336 were dump truck operators with 215 deaths occurring in street and highway incidents. Another 343 deaths involved workers on foot, three-quarters struck by dump trucks. Sixty-four of the construction workers killed were maintaining dump trucks, 22 when caught between the truck frame and a falling dump truck bed. Of the 86 other deaths, 55 involved streets and highways. Recommendations include: (i) improving the reporting of seat belt usage in fatality reports; (ii) requiring use of seat belts; (iii) requiring the use of backup alarms, spotters, or other methods to alert dump truck operators to workers in their blind spots; (iv) prohibiting direct dumping at river banks and embankments; (v) using cameras or radar to enforce stopping at railway crossings; and (xi) enforcing worker safety practices (e.g., lockout/tagout procedures on elevated dump truck beds). Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Prospects of development of land driverless trucks (United States)

    Bakhmutov, S.; Saykin, A.; Endachev, D.; Evgrafov, V.; Shagurin, A.; Kulikov, I.; Fedoseev, K.


    The paper is dedicated to the problem of creation and efficient use of driverless trucks. It also contains general analysis of foreign experience and development trends. The concept of FSUE “NAMI” for development of a platoon of driverless trucks for cargo transportation between specialized terminals on public roads is provided. A road train with virtual couplings where the lead vehicle has a driver and the rest are driverless is proposed as a base for the driverless platoon. The platoon is formed by such road trains, which ensures extended functional features, including the possibility to form platoons of road trains from different logistics centers and with different destinations, quick reforming of the platoon in the logistics centers, possibility to split the platoon when driving on public roads, higher precision of control over the platoon during driving, etc. It is also shown that in order to improve the efficiency of cargo transportation, driverless cargo platforms (trucks) shall be designed without a cabin. The paper also considers the ways to reduce the price of driverless trucks by creating a special road infrastructure, which will allow transfer of the most expensive subsystems of driverless vehicles to such infrastructure. Upon that, the following subsystems will remain within the driverless chassis: navigation, communication, chassis control and ADAS. It is noted that creation of such infrastructure will require high investments, therefore, gradual implementation of such systems is seen as rational. It is shown that the most appropriate area for these purposes is transregional cargo transportation. It is noted that the economic reasons for implementation of the proposed concept are as follows: significant reduction of the number of drivers; significant simplification of the driverless platform control system and reduction of the price of subsystems; no need for the driver’s cabin within the driverless platform; fuel economy when driving within a

  9. Shock and vibration environments for large shipping containers on rail cars and trucks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnuson, C.F.; Wilson, L.T.


    The purpose of this study was to provide definitions of shock and vibration environment to which fissile material shipping containers may be exposed during normal shipment by truck and rail cars. The definitions of vibration, shock superimposed on vibration and rail coupling shock result from existing data. The dependence of shock environment, from rail coupling operations, on parameters like cargo weight and shock attenuation couplers was also studied using spring-mass models. These studies show that for rail cars equipped with standard draft gear, the cargo response decreases with increased cargo weight until the springs bottom out. For rail cars equipped with shock attenuation couplers, cargo weight has little effect on cargo response. The study also shows the importance of matching couplers and tiedown stiffnesses to decrease the cargo response. Vibration and shock data samples have been obtained during truck shipment of heavy cargo and the data will be presented in subsequent reports. Similar data need to be obtained for rail shipment of heavy cargo and during rail coupling operations with heavy cargo

  10. Investigation on occupant injury severity in rear-end crashes involving trucks as the front vehicle in Beijing area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Yuan


    Conclusion: All the abovementioned significant factors should be improved, such as the conditions of lighting and the layout of lanes on roads. Two of the most common driver factors are drivers' age and drivers' original residence. Young drivers and outsiders have a higher injury severity. Therefore it is imperative to enhance the safety education and management on the young drivers who steer heavy duty truck from other cities to Beijing on weekdays.

  11. Reducing truck emissions at container terminals in a low carbon economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Gang; GOVINDAN, Kannan; Golias, Mihalis M.


    This study proposes a methodology to optimize truck arrival patterns to reduce emissions from idling truck engines at marine container terminals. A bi-objective model is developed minimizing both truck waiting times and truck arrival pattern change. The truck waiting time is estimated via...... a queueing network. Based on the waiting time, truck idling emissions are estimated. The proposed methodology is evaluated with a case study, where truck arrival rates vary over time. We propose a Genetic Algorithm based heuristic to solve the resulting problem. Result shows that, a small shift of truck...... arrivals can significantly reduce truck emissions, especially at the gate....

  12. Adaptive Virtual Tow Bar and Transition of Control : A truck driving simulator study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilschut, E.S.; Willemsen, D.M.C.; Hogema, J.H.; Martens, M.H.


    Background : Truck platooning, with trucks being virtually connected, is getting more and more attention. Truck platooning offers the potential for substantial fuel savings while allowing the truck driver in the platoon to take a rest. However, at the current state of technology, truck drivers are


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Kaselyova


    Full Text Available Purpose: Design of experiment (DOE represent very powerful tool for process improvement vastly supported by six sigma methodology. This approach is mostly used by large and manufacturing orientated companies. Presented research is focused on use of DOE in truck company, which is medium size and service orientated. Such study has several purposes. Firstly, detailed description of improvement effort based on DOE can be used as a methodological framework for companies similar to researched one. Secondly, it provides example of successfully implemented low cost design of experiment practise. Moreover, performed experiment identifies key factors, which influence the lifetime of truck tyres.Design/methodology: The research in this paper is based on experiment conducted in Slovakian Truck Company. It provides detailed case study of whole improvement effort, together with problem formulation, design creation and analysis, as well as the results interpretation. The company wants to improve lifetime of the truck tyres. Next to fuel consumption, consumption of tyres and their replacement represent according to them, one of most costly processes in company. Improvement effort was made through the use of PDCA cycle. It start with analysis of current state of tyres consumption. The variability of tyres consumption based on years and types was investigated. Then the causes of tyres replacement were identified and screening DOE was conducted. After a screening design, the full factorial design of experiment was used to identify main drivers of tyres deterioration and breakdowns. Based on result of DOE, the corrective action were propose and implement.Findings: Based on performed experiment our research describes process of tyres use and replacement. It defines main reasons for tyre breakdown and identify main drivers which influence truck tyres lifetime. Moreover it formulates corrective action to prolong tyres lifetime.Originality: The study represents full

  14. System for selection of radiation source transfer trucks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimoto, Yoshinori; Ito, Kojiro.


    A device for selection of trucks each of which load and transfer a radiation source to an irradiation room above a water pool is installed at the end of a pair of rails fixed to the bottom of the pool. This device is equipped with a number of laterally shiftable rail pairs which may be brought into successive alignment with the fixed rails and is adapted to receive, carry and fix a truck on each rail pair. If one of said trucks is selected for irradiation in a desired irradiation room, the rail pair carrying this truck is shifted to align and couple with the fixed rail pair whereupon the truck is driven and transferred to a position on the fixed rails below the desired room and elevated thereinto. Accordingly, a plurality of trucks can optionally be shunted on a line of fixed rails without unloading the respective radiation sources. (Ohno, Y.)

  15. Potential air toxics hot spots in truck terminals and cabs. (United States)

    Smith, Thomas J; Davis, Mary E; Hart, Jaime E; Blicharz, Andrew; Laden, Francine; Garshick, Eric


    loading dock and mechanic shop. Finally, we conducted a detailed descriptive analysis of the real-time data collected in the yard and in truck cabs during the six repeat site visits, which included more than 50 12-hour sessions at each sampling location. The real-time yard monitoring results suggested that under some conditions there was a clear upwind-to-downwind trend indicating a terminal contribution, which was not apparent in the integrated sampling data alone. They also suggested a nonlinear relationship with wind speed: calm conditions (wind speed 10 mph) favored dilution and dispersal (more so for VOCs than for PM). Finally, an analysis of the real-time data for driver exposures in trucks with a global positioning system (GPS) matched with geographic information system (GIS) data suggested a clear influence of traffic and industrial sources along a given route with peaks in driver exposures. These peaks were largely associated with traffic, major intersections, idling at the terminals, and pickup and delivery (P&D) periods. However, VOCs and PM2.5 had different exposure patterns: VOCs exposures increased when the vehicle was stopped, and PM2.5 exposures increased during travel in traffic. All three types of testing sites--upwind and downwind fence-line locations and inside truck cabs while in heavy traffic--met the established definition for a hot spot by having periods with concentrations of pollutants that exceeded the EPA's screening values. Most frequently, the pollutants with concentrations exceeding the screening values were formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and EC (which serves as a marker for diesel particulate); less frequently they were 1,3-butadiene and benzene. In the case of the downwind location of a single truck terminal without an aggregation of other sources, high concentrations of VOCs and PM were infrequent. Using structural equation modeling, a model was developed that could identify combinations of conditions and factors likely to produce hot spots

  16. Genetics of aggression. (United States)

    Anholt, Robert R H; Mackay, Trudy F C


    Aggression mediates competition for food, mating partners, and habitats and, among social animals, establishes stable dominance hierarchies. In humans, abnormal aggression is a hallmark of neuropsychiatric disorders and can be elicited by environmental factors acting on an underlying genetic susceptibility. Identifying the genetic architecture that predisposes to aggressive behavior in people is challenging because of difficulties in quantifying the phenotype, genetic heterogeneity, and uncontrolled environmental conditions. Studies on mice have identified single-gene mutations that result in hyperaggression, contingent on genetic background. These studies can be complemented by systems genetics approaches in Drosophila melanogaster, in which mutational analyses together with genome-wide transcript analyses, artificial selection studies, and genome-wide analysis of epistasis have revealed that a large segment of the genome contributes to the manifestation of aggressive behavior with widespread epistatic interactions. Comparative genomic analyses based on the principle of evolutionary conservation are needed to enable a complete dissection of the neurogenetic underpinnings of this universal fitness trait.

  17. Heavy leptons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.H.L.


    The possibility that a new lepton may exist is discussed under the headings; theoretical reasons for the introduction of heavy leptons, classification of heavy leptons (ortho and paraleptons), discrimination between different types of lepton, decays of charged heavy leptons, production of charged heavy leptons (in e + e - storage rings, neutrino production, photoproduction, and hadroproduction), neutral heavy leptons, and hadroleptons. (U.K.)

  18. Improving truck safety: Potential of weigh-in-motion technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Jacob


    Full Text Available Trucks exceeding the legal mass limits increase the risk of traffic accidents and damage to the infrastructure. They also result in unfair competition between transport modes and companies. It is therefore important to ensure truck compliance to weight regulation. New technologies are being developed for more efficient overload screening and enforcement. Weigh-in-Motion (WIM technologies allow trucks to be weighed in the traffic flow, without any disruption to operations. Much progress has been made recently to improve and implement WIM systems, which can contribute to safer and more efficient operation of trucks.

  19. Determinants of Aggressive Tax Avoidance


    Herbert, Tanja


    This thesis consists of three essays examining determinants of aggressive tax avoidance. The first essay “Measuring the Aggressive Part of International Tax Avoidance”, co-authored with Prof. Dr. Michael Overesch, proposes a new measure that isolates the additional or even aggressive part in international tax avoidance and analyzes the determinants of aggressive tax avoidance of multinational enterprises. The second essay “Capital Injections and Aggressive Tax Planning - Can Banks Have It All...

  20. Market Innovation in the Transport and Heavy Vehicle Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgström, Benedikte; Agndal, Henrik; Cui, Lianguang

    The purpose is to better understand the interrelatedness of new business models in the truck market and developments in the road transport sector. Based on a three year research project in cooperation with a European heavy vehicle manufacturer, we describe short cases showing some of the business...

  1. Vehicle test report: Battronic pickup truck (United States)

    Price, T. W.; Shain, T. W.; Freeman, R. J.; Pompa, M. F.


    An electric pickup truck was tested to characterize certain parameters and to provide baseline data that can be used for the comparison of improved batteries that may be incorporated into the vehicle at a later time. The vehicle tests were concentrated on the electrical drive subsystem; i.e., the batteries, controller, and motor. The tests included coastdowns to characterize the road load and range evaluations for both cyclic and constant speed conditions. A qualitative evaluation of the vehicle's performance was made by comparing its constant speed range performance with other vehicles.

  2. Modernization of dump truck onboard system (United States)

    Semenov, M. A.; Bolshunova, O. M.; Korzhev, A. A.; Kamyshyan, A. M.


    The review of the only automated dispatch system for the career dump trucks, which is presented in the domestic market, was made. A method for upgrading the loading control system and technological weighing process of the career dump was proposed. The cargo weight during loading is determined by the gas pressure in the suspension cylinders at the time of the oscillation ending and at the start of the vibration smoothing process; the smoothing speed correction is performed. The error of the cargo weighting is 2.5-3%, and of the technological weighing process during driving - 1%, which corresponds to the error level of the steady-state weighting means.

  3. Cummins Light Truck Diesel Engine Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John H. Stang


    The Automotive Market in the United States is moving in the direction of more Light Trucks and fewer Small Cars. The customers for these vehicles have not changed, only their purchase decisions. Cummins has studied the requirements of this emerging market. Design and development of an engine system that will meet these customer needs has started. The engine system is a difficult one, since the combined requirements of a very fuel-efficient commercial diesel, and the performance and sociability requirements of a gasoline engine are needed. Results of early testing are presented which show that the diesel is possibly a good solution

  4. Truck Roll Stability Data Collection and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, SS


    The principal objective of this project was to collect and analyze vehicle and highway data that are relevant to the problem of truck rollover crashes, and in particular to the subset of rollover crashes that are caused by the driver error of entering a curve at a speed too great to allow safe completion of the turn. The data are of two sorts--vehicle dynamic performance data, and highway geometry data as revealed by vehicle behavior in normal driving. Vehicle dynamic performance data are relevant because the roll stability of a tractor trailer depends both on inherent physical characteristics of the vehicle and on the weight and distribution of the particular cargo that is being carried. Highway geometric data are relevant because the set of crashes of primary interest to this study are caused by lateral acceleration demand in a curve that exceeds the instantaneous roll stability of the vehicle. An analysis of data quality requires an evaluation of the equipment used to collect the data because the reliability and accuracy of both the equipment and the data could profoundly affect the safety of the driver and other highway users. Therefore, a concomitant objective was an evaluation of the performance of the set of data-collection equipment on the truck and trailer. The objective concerning evaluation of the equipment was accomplished, but the results were not entirely positive. Significant engineering apparently remains to be done before a reliable system can be fielded. Problems were identified with the trailer to tractor fiber optic connector used for this test. In an over-the-road environment, the communication between the trailer instrumentation and the tractor must be dependable. In addition, the computer in the truck must be able to withstand the rigors of the road. The major objective--data collection and analysis--was also accomplished. Using data collected by instruments on the truck, a ''bad-curve'' database can be generated. Using

  5. Oxytocin and Aggression. (United States)

    de Jong, Trynke R; Neumann, Inga D


    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has a solid reputation as a facilitator of social interactions such as parental and pair bonding, trust, and empathy. The many results supporting a pro-social role of OT have generated the hypothesis that impairments in the endogenous OT system may lead to antisocial behavior, most notably social withdrawal or pathological aggression. If this is indeed the case, administration of exogenous OT could be the "serenic" treatment that psychiatrists have for decades been searching for.In the present review, we list and discuss the evidence for an endogenous "hypo-oxytocinergic state" underlying aggressive and antisocial behavior, derived from both animal and human studies. We furthermore examine the reported effects of synthetic OT administration on aggression in rodents and humans.Although the scientific findings listed in this review support, in broad lines, the link between a down-regulated or impaired OT system activity and increased aggression, the anti-aggressive effects of synthetic OT are less straightforward and require further research. The rather complex picture that emerges adds to the ongoing debate questioning the unidirectional pro-social role of OT, as well as the strength of the effects of intranasal OT administration in humans.

  6. Adolescents’ Aggression to Parents: Longitudinal Links with Parents’ Physical Aggression (United States)

    Margolin, Gayla; Baucom, Brian R.


    Purpose To investigate whether parents’ previous physical aggression (PPA) exhibited during early adolescence is associated with adolescents’ subsequent parent-directed aggression even beyond parents’ concurrent physical aggression (CPA); to investigate whether adolescents’ emotion dysregulation and attitudes condoning child-to-parent aggression moderate associations. Methods Adolescents (N = 93) and their parents participated in a prospective, longitudinal study. Adolescents and parents reported at waves 1–3 on four types of parents’ PPA (mother-to-adolescent, father-to-adolescent, mother-to-father, father-to-mother). Wave 3 assessments also included adolescents’ emotion dysregulation, attitudes condoning aggression, and externalizing behaviors. At waves 4 and 5, adolescents and parents reported on adolescents’ parent-directed physical aggression, property damage, and verbal aggression, and on parents’ CPA Results Parents’ PPA emerged as a significant indicator of adolescents’ parent-directed physical aggression (odds ratio [OR]: 1.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0–1.55; p = .047), property damage (OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.1–1.5, p = .002), and verbal aggression (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.15–1.6, p controlling for adolescents’ sex, externalizing behaviors, and family income. When controlling for parents’ CPA, previous mother-to-adolescent aggression still predicted adolescents’ parent-directed physical aggression (OR: 5.56, 95% CI: 1.82–17.0, p = .003), and father-to-mother aggression predicted adolescents’ parent-directed verbal aggression (OR: 1.86, 95% CI: 1.0–3.3, p = .036). Emotion dysregulation and attitudes condoning aggression did not produce direct or moderated effects. Conclusions Adolescents’ parent-directed aggression deserves greater attention in discourse about lasting, adverse effects of even minor forms of parents’ physical aggression. Future research should investigate parent-directed aggression as an early

  7. Adolescents' aggression to parents: longitudinal links with parents' physical aggression. (United States)

    Margolin, Gayla; Baucom, Brian R


    To investigate whether parents' previous physical aggression (PPA) exhibited during early adolescence is associated with adolescents' subsequent parent-directed aggression even beyond parents' concurrent physical aggression (CPA) and to investigate whether adolescents' emotion dysregulation and attitudes condoning child-to-parent aggression moderate associations. Adolescents (N = 93) and their parents participated in a prospective longitudinal study. Adolescents and parents reported at waves 1-3 on four types of parents' PPA (mother to adolescent, father to adolescent, mother to father, and father to mother). Wave 3 assessments also included adolescents' emotion dysregulation, attitudes condoning aggression, and externalizing behaviors. At waves 4 and 5, adolescents and parents reported on adolescents' parent-directed physical aggression, property damage, and verbal aggression and on parents' CPA. Parents' PPA emerged as a significant indicator of adolescents' parent-directed physical aggression (odds ratio [OR]: 1.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0-1.55; p = .047), property damage (OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.1-1.5, p = .002), and verbal aggression (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.15-1.6, p controlling for adolescents' sex, externalizing behaviors, and family income. When controlling for parents' CPA, previous mother-to-adolescent aggression still predicted adolescents' parent-directed physical aggression (OR: 5.56, 95% CI: 1.82-17.0, p = .003), and father-to-mother aggression predicted adolescents' parent-directed verbal aggression (OR: 1.86, 95% CI: 1.0-3.3, p = .036). Emotion dysregulation and attitudes condoning aggression did not produce direct or moderated the effects. Adolescents' parent-directed aggression deserves greater attention in discourse about lasting, adverse effects of even minor forms of parents' physical aggression. Future research should investigate parent-directed aggression as an early signal of aggression into adulthood. Copyright © 2014 Society for

  8. Truck Route Choice Modeling using Large Streams of GPS Data (United States)


    The primary goal of this research was to use large streams of truck-GPS data to analyze travel routes (or paths) chosen by freight trucks to travel between different origin and destination (OD) location pairs in metropolitan regions of Florida. Two s...

  9. Optimising Shovel-Truck Fuel Consumption using Stochastic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimising the fuel consumption and truck waiting time can result in significant fuel savings. The paper demonstrates that stochastic simulation is an effective tool for optimising the utilisation of fossil-based fuels in mining and related industries. Keywords: Stochastic, Simulation Modelling, Mining, Optimisation, Shovel-Truck ...

  10. 76 FR 56868 - Pilot Project on NAFTA Trucking Provisions (United States)


    ...-0097] Pilot Project on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration... that have applied to participate in the Agency's long- haul pilot program to test and demonstrate the... proceed with the initiation of a U.S.-Mexico cross-border long-haul trucking pilot program to test and...

  11. 77 FR 12356 - Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions (United States)


    ...-0097] Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration... that applied to participate in the Agency's long-haul pilot program to test and demonstrate the ability... cross-border long-haul trucking pilot program to test and demonstrate the ability of Mexico-domiciled...

  12. 78 FR 25525 - Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions (United States)


    ...-0097] Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration..., which applied to participate in the Agency's long-haul pilot program to test and demonstrate the ability... long-haul trucking pilot program to test and demonstrate the ability of Mexico-domiciled motor carriers...

  13. 77 FR 40938 - Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions (United States)


    ...-0097] Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration... Morales Guevara (DBA Fletes Morales) which applied to participate in the Agency's long-haul pilot program...] its intent to proceed with the initiation of a U.S.-Mexico cross-border long-haul trucking pilot...

  14. 77 FR 27837 - Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions (United States)


    ...-0097] Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration... carriers that applied to participate in the Agency's long- haul pilot program to test and demonstrate the... intent to proceed with the initiation of a U.S.-Mexico cross-border long-haul trucking pilot program to...

  15. 78 FR 24293 - Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions (United States)


    ...-0097] Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration... in the Agency's long-haul pilot program to test and demonstrate the ability of Mexico- domiciled... cross-border long-haul trucking pilot program to test and demonstrate the ability of Mexico-domiciled...

  16. 76 FR 56272 - Pilot Project on NAFTA Trucking Provisions (United States)


    ...-0097] Pilot Project on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration... that have applied to participate in the Agency's long- haul pilot program to test and demonstrate the... cross-border long-haul trucking pilot program to test and demonstrate the ability of Mexico-domiciled...

  17. 76 FR 73765 - Pilot Project on NAFTA Trucking Provisions (United States)


    ...-0097] Pilot Project on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration... that have applied to participate in the Agency's long- haul pilot program to test and demonstrate the... proceed with the initiation of a U.S.-Mexico cross-border long-haul trucking pilot program to test and...

  18. design and fabrication of a multipurpose railroad hand truck

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    the guide rail was constructed using 50mm by 50mm mild steel angle bar. The hand truck is ... material handling management, a company's operational performance may ... pose a health risk especially where the hand truck has to be used ...

  19. A Cognitive Analysis of Truck Drivers’ Right-hand Turns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sieker, Tobias Grønborg; G. Skulason, Thorgeir; Sletting, Kristian


    This paper presents an investigation of truck drivers’ performance during right-hand turns performed in intersections with traffic lights in order to elicit the truck drivers’ domain, decision-making processes, and the strategies used while executing the turn. To gain knowledge about this, a truc...

  20. 49 CFR 215.119 - Defective freight car truck. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective freight car truck. 215.119 Section 215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.119 Defective freight car truck. A railroad may not place or continue in service a...

  1. Optimising Shovel-Truck Fuel Consumption using Stochastic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 2, 2017 ... J. Bansah. 1University of Mines and Technology, P. O. Box 237, Tarkwa, Ghana. 2Missouri S&T .... of dump trucks which could be mixed fleets or same fleets. .... another portraying the reality of trucks moving from a shovel to a ...

  2. Activity Recognition and Localization on a Truck Parking Lot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andersson, M.; Patino, L.; Burghouts, G.J.; Flizikowski, A.; Evans, M.; Gustafsson, D.; Petersson, H.; Schutte, K.; Ferryman, J.


    In this paper we present a set of activity recognition and localization algorithms that together assemble a large amount of information about activities on a parking lot. The aim is to detect and recognize events that may pose a threat to truck drivers and trucks. The algorithms perform zone-based

  3. Truck-based mobile wireless sensor networks for the experimental observation of vehicle–bridge interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Junhee; Lynch, Jerome P; Lee, Jong-Jae; Lee, Chang-Geun


    Heavy vehicles driving over a bridge create a complex dynamic phenomenon known as vehicle–bridge interaction. In recent years, interest in vehicle–bridge interaction has grown because a deeper understanding of the phenomena can lead to improvements in bridge design methods while enhancing the accuracy of structural health monitoring techniques. The mobility of wireless sensors can be leveraged to directly monitor the dynamic coupling between the moving vehicle and the bridge. In this study, a mobile wireless sensor network is proposed for installation on a heavy truck to capture the vertical acceleration, horizontal acceleration and gyroscopic pitching of the truck as it crosses a bridge. The vehicle-based wireless monitoring system is designed to interact with a static, permanent wireless monitoring system installed on the bridge. Specifically, the mobile wireless sensors time-synchronize with the bridge's wireless sensors before transferring the vehicle response data. Vertical acceleration and gyroscopic pitching measurements of the vehicle are combined with bridge accelerations to create a time-synchronized vehicle–bridge response dataset. In addition to observing the vehicle vibrations, Kalman filtering is adopted to accurately track the vehicle position using the measured horizontal acceleration of the vehicle and positioning information derived from piezoelectric strip sensors installed on the bridge deck as part of the bridge monitoring system. Using the Geumdang Bridge (Korea), extensive field testing of the proposed vehicle–bridge wireless monitoring system is conducted. Experimental results verify the reliability of the wireless system and the accuracy of the vehicle positioning algorithm

  4. Aggression at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgh, Annie

    Very few international and no Danish studies investigating the consequences of exposure to both physical and psychological aggression at work have been published. The aim of the present thesis is therefore to investigate the prevalence and consequences of different forms of physical...... and psychological aggression. Four papers are included in the thesis and they address the prevalence and long-term consequences of physical and psychological aggression in the form of nasty teasing and violence and/or threats of violence and short-term consequences of bullying at work including physiological stress...... response in victims. It was also an aim of the thesis to study whether aspects of the work environment, social climate and personal dispositions would mediate potential relationships between exposure to bullying, nasty teasing or violence and different health effects and stress reactions.      The study...

  5. Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Enevoldsen, I.

    of heavier trucks moving at larger speeds, and partly because the authorities want to permit transportation of special heavy goods at a larger part of the road net. These needs will in many cases cause the strengthening of the bridges becomes necessary. In order to keep the expenses of such strengthening...... the results obtained using the numerical models given in details in "Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges : dynamic modelling of vehicles and bridges". The models are established using a ordinary vehicle which consists of a 48 t Scania with a 3 axle tractor and a 3 axle trailer, joined in a flexible hinge...

  6. Determinación de cargas dinámicas de camiones pesados que transitan en un puente basado en algoritmos genéticos e instrumentación Genetic algorithms and instrumentation determination of dynamic loads of heavy trucks over a bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Muñoz


    Full Text Available Esta investigación determina las cargas por eje de los camiones que circulan por un puente ubicado en una de las vías principales de Colombia, utilizando la técnica de control BWIM (Bridge Weight in Motion, no empleada antes en el País. Nuestro grupo de investigación implementó la Metodología de los Algoritmos genéticos, instrumentación y monitoreo, para el Puente denominado Boquerón en la vía Bogotá - Villavicencio, Colombia. Para ese fin, se instrumentaron cuatro vigas con un sistema electrónico de medición de tráfico en cada carril, además de un sistema de adquisición de datos y ensayos de laboratorio. Desarrollamos la calibración de su modelo estructural y la generación de funciones matemáticas para hacer converger líneas de influencias de cargas con pruebas experimentales y así determinar las cargas en movimiento de los camiones. En adición, se desarrolló una herramienta computacional, capaz de representar con aceptable precisión las cargas en movimiento.This research determines the axle loads of trucks traveling on a bridge located in one of the most important corridors of Colombia, using the technique of control BWIM (Bridge Weight in Motion, not used before in the country. Our research group developed a Genetic Algorithm based in a trial test, implementation and monitoring to the bridge called Boquerón of Colombian Highways (Bogota - Villavicencio. For such an effort, four girders were monitored by data acquisition electronics joined by an electronic traffic log device by lane accompanied of laboratory testing for materials. Model calibration was performed by mathematical approach of in-situ influence lines compared to those obtained by modeling, giving as outcome loads of moving trucks over the bridge. In addition, we developed a computational tool, able to represent with reasonable accuracy the moving loads.

  7. Effect of Weight and Roadway Grade on the Fuel Economy of Class-8 Frieght Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Davidson, Diane [ORNL


    In 2006-08, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, in collaboration with several industry partners, collected real-world performance and situational data for long-haul operations of Class-8 trucks from a fleet engaged in normal freight operations. Such data and information are useful to support Class-8 modeling of combination truck performance, technology evaluation efforts for energy efficiency, and to provide a means of accounting for real-world driving performance within combination truck research and analyses. The present study used the real-world information collected in that project to analyze the effects that vehicle speed and vehicle weight have on the fuel efficiency of Class-8 trucks. The analysis focused on two type of terrains, flat (roadway grades ranging from -1% to 1%) and mild uphill terrains (roadway grades ranging from 1% to 3%), which together covered more than 70% of the miles logged in the 2006-08 project (note: almost 2/3 of the distance traveled on mild uphill terrains was on terrains with 1% to 2% grades). In the flat-terrain case, the results of the study showed that for light and medium loads, fuel efficiency decreases considerably as speed increases. For medium-heavy and heavy loads (total vehicle weight larger than 65,000 lb), fuel efficiency tends to increase as the vehicle speed increases from 55 mph up to about 58-60 mph. For speeds higher than 60 mph, fuel efficiency decreases at an almost constant rate with increasing speed. At any given speed, fuel efficiency decreases and vehicle weight increases, although the relationship between fuel efficiency and vehicle weight is not linear, especially for vehicle weights above 65,000 lb. The analysis of the information collected while the vehicles were traveling on mild upslope terrains showed that the fuel efficiency of Class-8 trucks decreases abruptly with vehicle weight ranging from light loads up to medium-heavy loads. After that, increases in the vehicle weight only decrease fuel

  8. Development of offroad unmanned dump truck navigation system. Dump truck mujin soko system no kaihatsu ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horii, Z [Nittetsu Mining Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    A large offroad unmanned dump truck navigation system has been developed, and is in practical operation mounted on dump trucks at Torigatayama Limestone Quarry of Nittetsu Mining Company. The system functions in a manual dump truck navigation mode, wireless navigation mode, and unmanned control mode. The unmanned control mode further includes a mode to navigate the truck on a predetermined course with its data having been input in a computer and a mode that when the truck was moved on a course under a wireless control, the computer learns the course and drives the truck autonomously thereafter. The safety measures are divided into the hardware safety function to detect abnormalities in brakes and other vehicle parts, and the software safety functions of data communications, sensor action check, and prevention of collision of trucks with each other. The system has resulted in a productivity of average one-way travel distance of 345 m, and average unmanned navigation cycle time of 9 minutes and 26 seconds for a transportation efficiency of 541 t/hour/truck, having reached at least the manned operation level. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  9. 75 FR 76518 - Volvo Trucks North America and Mack Trucks, Inc., Receipt of Petition for Decision of... (United States)


    ... manufactured from March 1, 2007 through December 11, 2009. A total of 1,916 affected Volvo trucks were... trucks were manufactured from March 1, 2007, through December 11, 2009. A total 1,287 affected Mack... that their petition, to exempt them from providing recall notification of noncompliance as required by...

  10. Diet, Nutrition, and Aggression. (United States)

    Fishbein, Diana H.; Pease, Susan E.


    Examines the theoretical and methodological issues related to diet and aggressive behavior. Clinical evidence indicates that, for some persons, diet may be associated with, or exacerbate, such conditions as learning disability, poor impulse control, intellectual deficits, a tendency toward violence, hyperactivity, and alcoholism and/or drug abuse,…

  11. Aggression Against Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriy Tyushka


    Full Text Available Review Essay: Of Thomas D. Grant. Aggression Against Ukraine: Territory, Responsibility, and International Law. Palgrave Macmillan, 2015. xxx, 283 pp. Treaties and Other International Texts. Cases. Municipal Instruments and Other State Documents. Abbreviations. Notes. Bibliography. Index. $105.50, cloth.

  12. Relational Aggression among Students (United States)

    Young, Ellie L.; Nelson, David A.; Hottle, America B.; Warburton, Brittney; Young, Bryan K.


    "Relational aggression" refers to harm within relationships caused by covert bullying or manipulative behavior. Examples include isolating a youth from his or her group of friends (social exclusion), threatening to stop talking to a friend (the silent treatment), or spreading gossip and rumors by email. This type of bullying tends to be…

  13. Early childhood aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes


    In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results

  14. Witz, Lust und Aggression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rösing, Lilian Munk


    Artiklen beskæftiger sig med forholdet mellem vits, lyst og aggression med udgangspunkt i lysten ved aggressiv litterær humor, eksemplificeret ved tekststeder fra Shakespeares Hamlet. Der argumenteres for, at aggressionen eller angrebet er et fælles centralt aspekt ved Sigmund Freuds og Friedrich...

  15. The company they keep: drinking group attitudes and male bar aggression. (United States)

    Dumas, Tara M; Graham, Kathryn; Wells, Samantha


    The purpose of this study was to assess (a) similarities in self-reported bar-aggression-related attitudes and behaviors among members of young male groups recruited on their way to bars and (b) group-level variables associated with individual members' self-reported likelihood of perpetrating physical bar aggression in the past year, controlling for individual attitudes. Young, male, natural drinking groups recruited on their way to a bar district Thursday, Friday, and Saturday nights (n = 167, 53 groups) completed an online survey that measured whether they had perpetrated physical aggression at a bar in the past year and constructs associated with bar aggression, including attitudes toward male bar aggression and frequency of heavy episodic drinking in the past year. Intraclass correlations and chi-square tests demonstrated significant within-group similarity on bar-aggression-related attitudes and behaviors (ps bar aggression were significantly associated with individuals' likelihood of perpetrating physical bar aggression, controlling for individual attitudes (p bar aggression was nonsignificant in the full model. This study suggests that the most important group influence on young men's bar aggression is the attitudes of other group members. These attitudes were associated with group members' likelihood of engaging in bar aggression over and above individuals' own attitudes. A better understanding of how group attitudes and behavior affect the behavior of individual group members is needed to inform aggression-prevention programming.

  16. Relational Aggression and Physical Aggression among Adolescent Cook Islands Students (United States)

    Page, Angela; Smith, Lisa F.


    Both physical and relational aggression are characterised by the intent to harm another. Physical aggression includes direct behaviours such as hitting or kicking; relational aggression involves behaviours designed to damage relationships, such as excluding others, spreading rumours, and delivering threats and verbal abuse. This study extended…

  17. Parents' Aggressive Influences and Children's Aggressive Problem Solutions with Peers (United States)

    Duman, Sarah; Margolin, Gayla


    This study examined children's aggressive and assertive solutions to hypothetical peer scenarios in relation to parents' responses to similar hypothetical social scenarios and parents' actual marital aggression. The study included 118 children ages 9 to 10 years old and their mothers and fathers. Children's aggressive solutions correlated with…

  18. Alcohol involvement in aggression between intimate partners in New Zealand: a national cross-sectional study (United States)

    Kypri, Kypros; Bell, Melanie L; Cousins, Kimberly


    Objectives To examine the role of alcohol at the time of aggressive incidents between intimate partners in the general population by gender, by estimating (1) prevalence and severity of aggression, and drinking at the time, (2) associations of drinking at the time of the aggression with reported severity, anger and fear, and (3) association of usual drinking patterns with partner aggression. Design A national survey of 18–70-year-olds using an electoral roll sample obtained self-reported alcohol consumption, partner's alcohol consumption and details of the most severe partner aggression by the respondent and towards the respondent in the past 2 years. The mean scores for associated severity, anger and fear were analysed by gender and alcohol involvement. Multinomial models estimated associations of drinking patterns with aggression to and from the respondent. Results The response rate was 49% (n=1925). Men and women reported similar prevalence of victimisation and perpetration of aggression (11–15%). Alcohol was involved in more than 25% of incidents, and reported more by women than by men, particularly male-only drinking when the respondent was the victim. Women reported greater severity, anger and fear with victimisation than men, and drinking was associated with greater reported severity. Heavy episodic drinking by respondents was associated with a threefold increase in victimisation and doubling of perpetration of aggression involving alcohol. Heavy episodic drinking by either partner was also associated with drinking being involved in reported aggression. Conclusions The experience of intimate-partner aggression in a cross-section of households differs by gender and the involvement of alcohol, and ‘counts’ of aggressive acts in a population-based survey do not reflect the reality of gender differences. Heavy episodic drinking patterns are associated with more aggression involving alcohol within relationships, and alcohol involvement is associated

  19. Truck Drivers' Use of the Internet: A Mobile Health Lifeline. (United States)

    Heaton, Karen; Combs, Bryan; Griffin, Russell


    Because of their social isolation, irregular and unpredictable schedules, limited access to health care, and long periods of travel, long-haul truckers may benefit from the use of mobile health applications on Internet-capable devices. The purpose of this study was to determine Internet access and usage among a sample of long-haul truck drivers. In this cross-sectional study, truck drivers completed a pencil and paper survey with questions on demographics, work and health histories, and Internet access and usage for both personal and job reasons. A total of 106 truck drivers were recruited from trucking industry trade shows, by word of mouth, and directly from trucking companies. Overall, the truck drivers' use of the Internet was limited. Their usage for personal and job-related reasons differed. Social connectivity and access to health and wellness information were important during personal usage time. Job-related Internet use was highly practical, and applied to seeking information for directions and maps, fuel stops and pricing, and communicating with employers or transmitting documents. Age and experience were associated with Internet use. Younger, less-experienced drivers used the Internet more than older, experienced drivers. Targeted mobile health messaging may be a useful tool to inform truck drivers of health conditions and plans, and may provide links to primary care providers needing to monitor or notify drivers of diagnostic results or treatment plans.

  20. Factors Affecting Accidents Risks among Truck Drivers In Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elshamly Ahmed Fathalla


    Full Text Available Egypt is ranked among the countries with the highest rates of road accidents. According to the American Chamber of Commerce more than 96% of Egypt's goods are transported by trucks and due to their large volume and excessive weight, the severity and number of truck accident fatalities are much higher than other vehicles in Egypt. The present study aims at identifying truck driver's behavior and its influence on crash involvement. Due to the shortage in recording accident data and the inaccurate road accident audit, data was collected from several governorates in Egypt through questionnaire. Questionnaire forms were filled out through personal interviews with truck drivers. The total number of respondents was 643. The final analysis was made on the 615 questionnaires with complete answers. The data was analyzed and logistic regression was applied to accident related data to examine the contributing factors affecting accident occurrence of truck drivers. Results showed that fatigue in terms of driving hours (continuous and total and lack of sleep, drug use during driving, and driver obesity are the most influencing factors on the occurrence of truck accidents in Egypt. The findings of this research highlight the important role human factors have on the risk of crash involvement amongst Egypt's truck drivers and the need to improve their work conditions.

  1. CETA truck and EVA restraint system (United States)

    Beals, David C.; Merson, Wayne R.


    The Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) experiment is an extravehicular activity (EVA) Space Transportation System (STS) based flight experiment which will explore various modes of transporting astronauts and light equipment for Space Station Freedom (SSF). The basic elements of CETA are: (1) two 25 foot long sections of monorail, which will be EVA assembled in the STS cargo bay to become a single 50 ft. rail called the track; (2) a wheeled baseplate called the truck which rolls along the track and can accept three cart concepts; and (3) the three carts which are designated manual, electric, and mechanical. The three carts serve as the astronaut restraint and locomotive interfaces with the track. The manual cart is powered by the astronaut grasping the track's handrail and pulling himself along. The electric cart is operated by an astronaut turning a generator which powers the electric motor and drives the cart. The mechanical cart is driven by a Bendix type transmission and is similar in concept to a man-propelled railroad cart. During launch and landing, the truck is attached to the deployable track by means of EVA removable restraint bolts and held in position by a system of retractable shims. These shims are positioned on the exterior of the rail for launch and landing and rotate out of the way for the duration of the experiment. The shims are held in position by strips of Velcro nap, which rub against the sides of the shim and exert a tailored force. The amount of force required to rotate the shims was a major EVA concern, along with operational repeatability and extreme temperature effects. The restraint system was tested in a thermal-vac and vibration environment and was shown to meet all of the initial design requirements. Using design inputs from the astronauts who will perform the EVA, CETA evolved through an iterative design process and represented a cooperative effort.

  2. Modeling truck traffic volume growth congestion. (United States)


    Modeling of the statewide transportation system is an important element in understanding issues and programming of funds to thwart potential congestion. As Alabama grows its manufacturing economy, the number of heavy vehicles traversing its highways ...



    Dr. Ramakrishna Bandaru*, Prof. H. Venkateshwarlu


    Food Truck business is a very famous and a growing business in today’s time. Over the decade, every country in the world has been following the trend of the mobile food business. The silent feature of the food truck business is ‘customer reach and satisfaction’. Along with the increase in people living standards, ‘food on wheel’ business made a popular. According to IBIS World report, the food truck industry in the world has grown an average of 9.3% per year over the last five years. Slowly,...

  4. Projection of light-truck population to year 2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The recent growth in the number of light trucks is a matter of considerable interest in that it may have far-reaching implications for gasoline consumption. This paper forecasts the number of light trucks in the years to 2025. The forecast is based on economic scenarios developed by SRI International. Except for the case of the most-dismal economic forecast, the number of light trucks is predicted to increase monotonically and to show the greatest rate of increase between 1973 and 1980.

  5. Aggression and self-esteem


    Fleischmann, Otakar


    In the research we focus on problems of self-esteem and aggress. The aim was to discover and describe if by university students an important relation between self-esteem and aggress exists, if there are some differences in self-esteem and aggress between women and men and individuals with pedagogical and non-pedagogical professional polarization. The self-esteem was followed on different levels- general, low, medium and high level as well as aggress levels. Besides general aggress we followed...

  6. Heavy Chain Diseases (United States)

    ... of heavy chain produced: Alpha Gamma Mu Alpha Heavy Chain Disease Alpha heavy chain disease (IgA heavy ... the disease or lead to a remission. Gamma Heavy Chain Disease Gamma heavy chain disease (IgG heavy ...

  7. The heavy-duty vehicle future in the United States: A parametric analysis of technology and policy tradeoffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askin, Amanda C.; Barter, Garrett E.; West, Todd H.; Manley, Dawn K.


    We present a parametric analysis of factors that can influence advanced fuel and technology deployments in U.S. Class 7–8 trucks through 2050. The analysis focuses on the competition between traditional diesel trucks, natural gas vehicles (NGVs), and ultra-efficient powertrains. Underlying the study is a vehicle choice and stock model of the U.S. heavy-duty vehicle market. The model is segmented by vehicle class, body type, powertrain, fleet size, and operational type. We find that conventional diesel trucks will dominate the market through 2050, but NGVs could have significant market penetration depending on key technological and economic uncertainties. Compressed natural gas trucks conducting urban trips in fleets that can support private infrastructure are economically viable now and will continue to gain market share. Ultra-efficient diesel trucks, exemplified by the U.S. Department of Energy's SuperTruck program, are the preferred alternative in the long haul segment, but could compete with liquefied natural gas (LNG) trucks if the fuel price differential between LNG and diesel increases. However, the greatest impact in reducing petroleum consumption and pollutant emissions is had by investing in efficiency technologies that benefit all powertrains, especially the conventional diesels that comprise the majority of the stock, instead of incentivizing specific alternatives. -- Highlights: •We present a parametric analysis of factors U.S. Class 7–8 trucks through 2050. •Conventional diesels will be more than 70% of U.S. heavy-duty vehicles through 2050. •CNG trucks are well suited to large, urban fleets with private refueling. •Ultra-efficient long haul diesel trucks are preferred over LNG at current fuel prices

  8. Light trucks and highway fatalities : the role of network effects. (United States)


    Light trucks, such as sport utility vehicles (SUVs) : and pickups, impose greater risks of injury and : death on other motorists than do cars, while at the : same time providing their occupants with increased : protection against these risks relative...

  9. Commercial truck platooning demonstration in Texas – level 2 automation. (United States)


    Through this project, the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) funded the creation of a comprehensive truck platooning demonstration in Texas, serving as a proactive effort in assessing innovative operational strategies to position TxDOT as a l...

  10. Market capitalization of the trucking industry sector, 2005 (United States)


    This report focuses on the market valuation of the overall trucking industry sector and each segment within it. In the past, while the focus has been on stock price appreciation or depreciation, this report emphasizes market capitalization returns. S...

  11. Crash risk factors for interstate large trucks in North Carolina. (United States)

    Teoh, Eric R; Carter, Daniel L; Smith, Sarah; McCartt, Anne T


    Provide an updated examination of risk factors for large truck involvements in crashes resulting in injury or death. A matched case-control study was conducted in North Carolina of large trucks operated by interstate carriers. Cases were defined as trucks involved in crashes resulting in fatal or non-fatal injury, and one control truck was matched on the basis of location, weekday, time of day, and truck type. The matched-pair odds ratio provided an estimate of the effect of various driver, vehicle, or carrier factors. Out-of-service (OOS) brake violations tripled the risk of crashing; any OOS vehicle defect increased crash risk by 362%. Higher historical crash rates (fatal, injury, or all crashes) of the carrier were associated with increased risk of crashing. Operating on a short-haul exemption increased crash risk by 383%. Antilock braking systems reduced crash risk by 65%. All of these results were statistically significant at the 95% confidence level. Other safety technologies also showed estimated benefits, although not statistically significant. With the exception of the finding that short-haul exemption is associated with increased crash risk, results largely bolster what is currently known about large truck crash risk and reinforce current enforcement practices. Results also suggest vehicle safety technologies can be important in lowering crash risk. This means that as safety technology continues to penetrate the fleet, whether from voluntary usage or government mandates, reductions in large truck crashes may be achieved. Practical application: Results imply that increased enforcement and use of crash avoidance technologies can improve the large truck crash problem. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Aggregate Planning For Trucking Operation in Cikarang Dry Port

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Puspita Sari Utami


    Full Text Available Abstract. Cikarang Dry Port currently is the only dry port in Indonesia. This Dry Port has a role to connect or extend the Sea Port to the industrial areas located far from Sea Port. Thus, it creates a value added and also reduce costs. One of the operations done in Cikarang Dry Port is trucking operation. This research aims to examine the planning of 2014 trucking activity in Cikarang Dry Port to determine the right number of the truck that will be best occupied to manage all demands. The analysis begins with demand forecasting by using a moving average method of 12 months or one year period in 2013 which will be used as main information to develop the plans. There are three plans developed in this research. Based on the three plans, Plan A with minimum trucking plan with subcontracting is the most profitable which gives the highest profitability of Rp. 374,984,625. Recommendation for this research is using the current minimum number of 39 trucks rent with additional subcontracting when the demand is exceeding the capacity, thus, Cikarang Dry Port can occupy all demands and gain more profits. Keywords: Aggregate Planning; Scheduling; Trucking Operation; Moving Average; Cikarang Dry Port

  13. The Aggregate Planning For Trucking Operation in Cikarang Dry Port

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Puspita Sari Utami


    Full Text Available Abstract. Cikarang Dry Port currently is the only dry port in Indonesia. This Dry Port has a role to connect or extend the Sea Port to the industrial areas located far from Sea Port. Thus, it creates a value added and also reduce costs. One of the operations done in Cikarang Dry Port is trucking operation. This research aims to examine the planning of 2014 trucking activity in Cikarang Dry Port to determine the right number of the truck that will be best occupied to manage all demands. The analysis begins with demand forecasting by using a moving average method of 12 months or one year period in 2013 which will be used as main information to develop the plans. There are three plans developed in this research. Based on the three plans, Plan A with minimum trucking plan with subcontracting is the most profitable which gives the highest profitability of Rp. 374,984,625. Recommendation for this research is using the current minimum number of 39 trucks rent with additional subcontracting when the demand is exceeding the capacity, thus, Cikarang Dry Port can occupy all demands and gain more profits.Keywords: Aggregate Planning; Scheduling; Trucking Operation; Moving Average; Cikarang Dry Port

  14. Application of Chaos Theory in Trucks' Overloading Enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Mahmoudabadi


    Full Text Available Trucks' overloading is considered as one of the most substantial concerns in road transport due to a possible road surface damage, as well as, are less reliable performance of trucks' braking system. Sufficient human resource and adequate time scheduling are to be planned for surveying trucks' overloading; hence, it seems required to prepare an all-around model to be able to predict the number of overloaded vehicles. In the present research work, the concept of chaos theory has been utilized to predict the ratio of trucks which might be guessed overloaded. The largest Lyapunov exponent is utilized to determine the presence of chaos using experimental data and concluded that the ratio of overloaded trucks reflects chaotic behavior. The prediction based on chaos theory is compared with the results of simple smoothing and moving average methods according to the well-known criterion of mean square errors. The results have also revealed that the chaotic prediction model would act more capably comparing the analogous methods including simple smoothing and moving average to predict the ratio of passing trucks to be possibly overloaded.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Morte


    Full Text Available Performance appraisal increasingly assumes a more important role in any organizational environment. In the trucking industry, drivers are the company's image and for this reason it is important to develop and increase their performance and commitment to the company's goals. This paper aims to create a performance appraisal model for trucking drivers, based on a multi-criteria decision aid methodology. The PROMETHEE and MMASSI methodologies were adapted using the criteria used for performance appraisal by the trucking company studied. The appraisal involved all the truck drivers, their supervisors and the company's Managing Director. The final output is a ranking of the drivers, based on their performance, for each one of the scenarios used. The results are to be used as a decision-making tool to allocate drivers to the domestic haul service.

  16. Adaptation of topology optimization on truck-structure; Kinshitsukaho ni yoru iso saitekika shuho no truck kozo eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachibana, H; Kojima, A; Chiba, S [Mitsubishi Motors Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    An optimization using the homogenization method has been applied to a truck-structure on the concept design stage. A truck-structure is grouped into 3 classes (thin plate structure , thick plate structure and solid structure), then example, effectiveness and method for the application for the purpose of weight reduction , high rigidity and high eigen-frequency are introduced. 3 refs., 24 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Truck accident involving unirradiated nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.W.; Fischer, L.E.


    In the early morning of Dec. 16, 1991, a severe accident occurred when a passenger vehicle traveling in the wrong direction collided with a tractor trailer carrying 24 nuclear fuel assemblies in 12 containers on Interstate 1-91 in Springfield, Massachusetts. This paper documents the mechanical circumstances of the accident and the physical environment to which the containers were exposed and the response of the containers and their contents. The accident involved four impacts where the truck was struck by the car, impacted on the center guardrail, impacted on the outer concrete barrier and came to rest against the center guardrail. The impacts were followed by a fire that began in the engine compartment, spread to the.tractor and cab, and eventually spread to the trailer and payload. The fire lasted for about three hours and the packages were involved in the fire for about two hours. As a result of the fire, the tractor-trailer was completely destroyed and the packages were exposed to flames with temperatures between 1300 degrees F and 1800 degrees F. The fuel assemblies remained intact during the accident and there was no release of any radioactive material during the accident. This was a very severe accident; however, the injuries were minor and at no time was the public health and safety at risk

  18. Truck accident involving unirradiated nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.W.; Fischer, L.E.


    In the early morning of Dec. 16, 1991, a severe accident occurred when a passenger vehicle traveling in the wrong direction collided with a tractor trailer carrying 24 unirradiated nuclear fuel assemblies in 12 containers on Interstate I-91 in Springfield, Massachusetts. This paper documents the mechanical circumstances of the accident and assesses the physical environment to which the containers were exposed and the response of the containers and their contents. The accident involved four impacts where the truck was struck by the car, impacted on the center guardrail, impacted on the outer concrete barrier and came to rest against the center guardrail. The impacts were followed by a fire that began in the engine compartment, spread to the tractor and cab, and eventually spread to the trailer and payload. The fire lasted for about three hours and the packages were involved in the fire for about two hours. As a result of the fire, the tractor-trailer was completely destroyed and the packages were exposed to flames with temperatures between 1,300 F and 1,800 F. The fuel assemblies remained intact during the accident and there was no release of any radioactive material during the accident. This was a very severe accident; however, the injuries were minor and at no time was the public health and safety at risk


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Socorro Lacerda Lima


    Full Text Available On the context of Tupinambá war, bodies, trophies, women, children, names, words, identities, aggressions, offenses, and a lot more richness material that from the changing elements moving on permanently among enemy groups. But on the contrary, the potlatch held on the American northwest, where the alliance establishes a mutual relation of favors between not enemy groups. On the context of Tupi war, the changing system is based exactly in a hostile relation among opposite groups. The aim of the present article is to establish a parallel between anthropophagic complexes of Tupinambá Indians and established potlatch on the American’s northwest societies analyzed by Marcel Mauss.

  20. Heavy baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koerner, J.G.


    We review the experimental and theoretical status of baryons containing one heavy quark. The charm and bottom baryon states are classified and their mass spectra are listed. The appropriate theoretical framework for the description of heavy baryons is the Heavy Quark Effective Theory, whose general ideas and methods are introduced and illustrated in specific examples. We present simple covariant expressions for the spin wave functions of heavy baryons including p-wave baryons. The covariant spin wave functions are used to determine the Heavy Quark Symmetry structure of flavour-changing current-induced transitions between heavy baryons as well as one-pion and one-photon transitions between heavy baryons of the same flavour. We discuss 1/m Q corrections to the current-induced transitions as well as the structure of heavy to light baryon transitions. Whenever possible we attempt to present numbers to compare with experiment by making use of further model-dependent assumptions as e.g. the constituent picture for light quarks. We highlight recent advances in the theoretical understanding of the inclusive decays of hadrons containing one heavy quark including polarization. For exclusive semileptonic decays we discuss rates, angular decay distributions and polarization effects. We provide an update of the experimental and theoretical status of lifetimes of heavy baryons and of exclusive nonleptonic two body decays of charm baryons. (orig.)

  1. Health promotion in the trucking setting: Understanding Dutch truck drivers' road to healthy lifestyle changes. (United States)

    Boeijinga, Anniek; Hoeken, Hans; Sanders, José


    The working environment, the nature of the work, and the characteristics of truck drivers as a social group typically pose great challenges for the truck drivers' health and health promotion activities aiming to improve it. The purpose was to obtain a better understanding of (a) Dutch truck drivers' perceptions of health and lifestyle themes, and (b) the challenges they experience in their pursuit of a more healthy lifestyle, as a guiding framework for the development of health interventions targeting this occupational group. In this qualitative study, we conducted and analyzed 20 semi-structured interviews and seven cases of participant observations with Dutch truck drivers. Grounded theory was used to analyze the data. Our findings illustrate that Dutch truck drivers wish to improve their lifestyle but have unproductive associations with concepts of healthy living as well as a tendency to downplay their health risks. In addition, they experience barriers within their work and personal environment that prevent them from translating their intentions into actual lifestyle changes. Based on the insights derived from the interviews, we discuss recommendations for the development of more effective health promotion interventions for truck drivers.

  2. Simulation Study of the Effect of Decreasing Truck Traffic Flow on Safety on Almeria-Barcelona Corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadashova, B.


    In this paper the effect of truck traffic on road safety has been analyzed through simulation study. The main objective of the study is to quantify the effect of the decreasing average annual daily traffic of heavy duty vehicles (trucks) on road safety. As the road safety indicators the frequency road accidents is considered. The data used in the study were collected from one of the most crowded routes in Spain which connects Almeria (south-east) with Barcelona (northeast). The observed data covers year 2010 and were classified into 2 road types: dual carriageways and toll roads. The estimation was carried out using negative binomial model and Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation. Using the estimation results new traffic scenarios were proposed where the traffic flow is assumed to change its values. A total of 33 scenarios were proposed and new accidents data were generated through MCMC sampling. The comparison of the simulated and observed accident data shows that the effect of decreasing truck traffic flow could meliorate road safety in the route. The simulation tool could be applied to evaluate the effects of freight modal shift from road to rail. (Author)

  3. The nature of human aggression. (United States)

    Archer, John


    Human aggression is viewed from four explanatory perspectives, derived from the ethological tradition. The first consists of its adaptive value, which can be seen throughout the animal kingdom, involving resource competition and protection of the self and offspring, which has been viewed from a cost-benefit perspective. The second concerns the phylogenetic origin of aggression, which in humans involves brain mechanisms that are associated with anger and inhibition, the emotional expression of anger, and how aggressive actions are manifest. The third concerns the origin of aggression in development and its subsequent modification through experience. An evolutionary approach to development yields conclusions that are contrary to the influential social learning perspective, notably that physical aggression occurs early in life, and its subsequent development is characterized by learned inhibition. The fourth explanation concerns the motivational mechanisms controlling aggression: approached from an evolutionary background, these mechanisms range from the inflexible reflex-like responses to those incorporating rational decision-making.

  4. Truck drivers' opinion on road safety in Tanzania--a questionnaire study. (United States)

    Kircher, Katja; Andersson, Jan


    Even though the traffic fatality risk (fatalities per 100,000 inhabitants) in Tanzania is quite low, the fatality rate (fatalities per 10,000 vehicles) is one of the highest in the world. With increasing vehicle density this means that the number of people dying in traffic will increase dramatically in the near future. Therefore, it is important to implement measures to increase traffic safety as soon as possible, and in order to be able to do this in an efficient way, it is important to investigate where the main problems lie. Within the European Union (EU) project ASSET-Road a questionnaire study on road safety was conducted with 250 truck drivers in Tanzania. The study was done to increase the knowledge about the situation of the Tanzanian truckers, who are the most frequent road users in the country. The drivers were interviewed in 3 different towns in southern Tanzania, and participation was voluntary. The questionnaire treated demographics, the state of the drivers' vehicles, the frequency of breakdowns, and the maintenance of the vehicles. Further questions concerned driver behavior, crash involvement, crash risk, and crash mitigation. The drivers who participated in the study were predominantly male and their average age was 36 years. Truck drivers reported driving 10.6 h without a break on average, with several drivers reporting that they had to drive 24 h without rest. Around 40 percent of the trucks did not have any seat belts installed, with a larger share of older trucks lacking belts. Most of the drivers who had seat belts reported using them, however. Almost 40 percent of the drivers reported being involved in at least one crash, and 45 percent of those drivers had experienced fatal crashes. This underlines that the crash frequency per vehicle is very high, and the results are often severe, especially when heavy vehicles are involved. When asked what the 3 most common crash causations were, driver-related causes were named frequently. Drivers were

  5. The Effects of Television Violence and Early Harsh Discipline on Children's Social Cognitions and Peer-Directed Aggression. (United States)

    Frazier, Stacy L.; And Others

    This study examined the additive and interactive effects of television viewing and harsh, physical discipline on children's social information processing and subsequent aggression; and the effects of heavy viewing versus permission to view violent content on children's social cognitions and aggression. Participating were 535 children and their…

  6. Induction Machine with Improved Operating Performances for Electric Trucks. A FEM-Based Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The paper presents a study concerning the performance developed by induction motors destined for motorization of heavy electric vehicles such as trucks. Taking into consideration the imposed restrictions, one presents, in a comparative manner, the main geometrical parameters which come of the classical design algorithms. A special attention is dedicated to the winding design, since it has to ensure two synchronous speeds corresponding to 16 and 8 poles, respectively. Moreover, the influence of the rotor slots shape for the improvement of the start-up is analyzed. Finally, a FEM-based study (approach based on finite element method is performed to put in view specific torque and slip values such as rated, start-up and pull-out ones.

  7. Heavy flavors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, B.; Gilman, F.J.; Gottschalk, T.D.


    A range of issues pertaining to heavy flavors at the SSC is examined including heavy flavor production by gluon-gluon fusion and by shower evolution of gluon jets, flavor tagging, reconstruction of Higgs and W bosons, and the study of rare decays and CP violation in the B meson system. A specific detector for doing heavy flavor physics and tuned to this latter study at the SSC, the TASTER, is described. 36 refs., 10 figs

  8. Demonstration of fleet trucks fueled with PV hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provenzano, J.; Scott, P.B.; Zweig, R.


    The Clean Air Now (CAN) Solar Hydrogen Project has been installed at the Xerox Corporation, El Segundo, California site. Three Ford Ranger trucks have been converted to use hydrogen fuel. The ''stand- alone'' electrolyzer and hydrogen dispensing system is powered by a photovoltaic array with no connection to the power grid. A variable frequency DC/AC converter steps up the voltage to drive the 15 hp motor for the hydrogen compressor. Up to 400 standard cubic meters (SCM) of solar hydrogen is stored, and storage of up to 2300 SCM of commercial hydrogen is collocated. As the hydrogen storage is within 5km of Los Angeles International Airport, pilot operation of a hydrogen fuel cell bus for airport shuttle service has been demonstrated with fueling at the CAN facility. The truck engine conversions are bored to 2.91 displacement, use a Roots type supercharger and CVI (constant volume injection) fuel induction to allow performance similar to that of the gasoline powered truck. Truck fuel storage is done with carbon composite tanks at pressures up to 24.8 MPa (3600 psi). Two tanks are located just behind the driver's cab, and take up nearly half of the truck bed space. The truck highway range is approximately 140 miles. The engine operates in lean burn mode, with nil emissions of CO and HC. NO x emissions vary with load and rpm in the range from 10 to 100 ppm, yielding total emissions at a small fraction of the ULEV standard. Two Xerox fleet trucks have been converted, and one for the City of West Hollywood. The Clean Air Now Program demonstrates that hydrogen powered fleet development is an appropriate safe, and effective strategy for improvement of urban air quality. It further demonstrates that continued technological development and cost reduction will make such implementation competitive. (Author)

  9. Energy Efficiency in Heavy Vehicle Tires, Drivetrains, and Braking Systems; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter J. Blau


    This document was prepared to support the primary goals of the Department of Energy, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies. These were recently stated as follows: ''Develop by 2004 the enabling technologies for a class 7-8 truck with a fuel efficiency of 10 mpg (at 65 mph) which will meet prevailing emission standards. For Class 3-6 trucks operating on an urban driving cycle, develop by 2004 commercially viable vehicles that achieve at least double the fuel economy of comparable current vehicles (1999), and as a research goal, reduce criteria pollutants to 30% below EPA standards. Develop by 2004 the diesel engine enabling technologies to support large-scale industry dieselization of Class 1 and 2 trucks, achieving a 35% fuel efficiency improvement over comparable gasoline-fueled trucks, while meeting applicable emissions standards.'' The enabling technologies for improving the fuel efficiency of trucks, include not only engine technologies but also technologies involved with lowering the rolling resistance of tires, reducing vehicle aerodynamic drag, improving thermal management, and reducing parasitic frictional losses in drive train components. Opportunities also exist for making better use of the energy that might ordinarily be dissipated during vehicle braking. Braking systems must be included in this evaluation since safety in truck operations is vital, and braking requirements are greater for vehicles having lowered resistance to rolling. The Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies has initiated a program to improve the aerodynamics of heavy vehicles through wind tunnel testing, computational modeling, and on-road evaluations. That activity is described in a separate multi-year plan; therefore, emphasis in this document will be on tires, drive trains, and braking systems. Recent, dramatic fluctuations in diesel fuel prices have emphasized the importance of effecting savings in truck fuel economy by implementing new component designs and materials

  10. Heavy metal emissions for Danish road transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winther, M.; Slentoe, E.


    This report presents new heavy metal emission factors for cars, vans, trucks, buses, mopeds and motorcycles for each of the emission sources fuel consumption, engine oil, tyre wear, brake wear and road abrasion. The emission components covered are Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Mercury (Hg), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb), Selenium (Se) and Zinc (Zn), all of them relevant for emission reporting to the UNECE CLRTAP (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Convention on Long Range Transboundary Pollutants) convention. The report also presents a new Danish inventory for the year 2007. The following emissions in total TSP (in brackets) are calculated for the year 2007: As (8 kg), Cd (48 kg), Cr (197 kg), Cu (51 779 kg), Hg (28 kg), Ni (158 kg), Pb (6 989 kg), Se (33 kg) and Zn (28 556 kg). Per vehicle type cars are the most important source of emission for all heavy metal species, followed by vans, trucks, buses and 2-wheelers. By using the detailed emission factors and inventory calculation methods established in the present project, estimates of heavy metal emissions can be made for other years than 2007. (author)

  11. Measuring Timber Truck Loads With Image Processing In Paper Mills (United States)

    Silva, M. Santos; Carvalho, Fernando D.; Rodrigues, F. Carvalho; Goncalves, Ana N. R.


    The raw material for the paper industry is wood. To have an exact account of the stock of piled sawn tree trunks every truck load entering the plant's stockyard must be measured as to the amount of wood being brought in. Weighting down the trucks has its own problems, mainly, due to the high capacity of the tree trunks to absorb water. This problem is further enhanced when calculations must be made to arrive at the mass of sawn tree trunks which must go into the process of producing a certain quantity of paper pulp. The method presented here is based on two fixed cameras which take the image of the truck load. One takes a view of the trunks in order to get information on the average length of the tree trunks. The other obtains a side view which is digitised and by just discriminating against a grey level the area covered by the tree trunk cross section is measured. A simple arithmetic operation gives the volume of wood in the trunk. The same computer, a PC, will register the trucks particulars is almost independent of weather the wood is wet or dry and it serves trucks of any size.

  12. Acceptance test report for core sample trucks 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, J.E.


    The purpose of this Acceptance Test Report is to provide documentation for the acceptance testing of the rotary mode core sample trucks 3 and 4, designated as HO-68K-4600 and HO-68K-4647, respectively. This report conforms to the guidelines established in WHC-IP-1026, ''Engineering Practice Guidelines,'' Appendix M, ''Acceptance Test Procedures and Reports.'' Rotary mode core sample trucks 3 and 4 were based upon the design of the second core sample truck (HO-68K-4345) which was constructed to implement rotary mode sampling of the waste tanks at Hanford. Successful completion of acceptance testing on June 30, 1995 verified that all design requirements were met. This report is divided into four sections, beginning with general information. Acceptance testing was performed on trucks 3 and 4 during the months of March through June, 1995. All testing was performed at the ''Rock Slinger'' test site in the 200 West area. The sequence of testing was determined by equipment availability, and the initial revision of the Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) was used for both trucks. Testing was directed by ICF-KH, with the support of WHC Characterization Equipment Engineering and Characterization Project Operations. Testing was completed per the ATP without discrepancies or deviations, except as noted

  13. Aggression in children and youth towards crime.




    This thesis deals with aggressive children and youth, which leads to crime. It deals with the causes of aggression, factors that influence aggression, but also the type of aggression. The practical part contains specific case studies of individuals whose aggression was one of the causes of crime.

  14. The Effects of Pornography on Aggressive Behavior. (United States)

    Stacy, Lauri L.

    This document reviews existing empirical research on the effect of pornography on aggressive behavior. Two types of pornography are distinguished: aggressive pornography and non-aggressive pornography. Conclusions drawn from the research review are presented, including: (1) aggressive pornograpy consistently increases aggressive attitudes and…

  15. Marginal abatement cost curves for Heavy Duty Vehicles. Background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroten, A.; Warringa, G.; Bles, M.


    Cost curves were calculated for CO2 abatement technologies for Heavy Duty Vehicles. These curves were elaborated for eight different vehicle categories (six categories of truck and two subcategories), as well as for an 'average' truck and bus. Given that cost curves depend very much on underlying assumptions, the MACH model (Marginal Abatement Costs of Heavy duty vehicles) was developed. This model allows users to enter their own assumptions with respect to parameters like fuel prices and cost and lifetime of individual technologies, with the model then generating new cost curves for the various vehicle categories. This background report contains a description of the model and a summary of the results of several model runs.

  16. Longitudinal heritability of childhood aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porsch, R.M.P.; Middeldorp, C.M.; Cherny, S.S.; Krapohl, E.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Loukola, A.; Korhonen, T.; Pulkkinen, L.; Corley, R.P.; Rhee, S.; Kaprio, J.; Rose, R.; Hewitt, J.K.; Sham, P.; Plomin, R.; Boomsma, D.I.; Bartels, M.


    The genetic and environmental contributions to the variation and longitudinal stability in childhood aggressive behavior were assessed in two large twin cohorts, the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR), and the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS; United Kingdom). In NTR, maternal ratings on aggression

  17. [Neurochemistry of impulsiveness and aggression]. (United States)

    Vetulani, Jerzy


    Aggression is the most frequent social reaction among animals and men, and plays an important role in survival of the fittest. The change of social conditions in the course of development of human civilisation rendered some forms of aggression counter-adaptive, but the neurobiological mechanism of expression of aggression have not fundamentally changed in the last stages of human evolution. The two different kinds of aggression: emotional, serving mainly as a threat, and rational, predatory, serving for the attainment of goal in the most effective way, have different anatomical and neurobiological background and reciprocally inhibit each other. Aggression is modulated by several neurotransmitter and hormonal systems, of which the key role is seemingly played by testosterone, a hormone involved in domination behaviour, and serotonin, whose deficit results in increased impulsiveness.

  18. False memories for aggressive acts. (United States)

    Laney, Cara; Takarangi, Melanie K T


    Can people develop false memories for committing aggressive acts? How does this process compare to developing false memories for victimhood? In the current research we used a simple false feedback procedure to implant false memories for committing aggressive acts (causing a black eye or spreading malicious gossip) or for victimhood (receiving a black eye). We then compared these false memories to other subjects' true memories for equivalent events. False aggressive memories were all too easy to implant, particularly in the minds of individuals with a proclivity towards aggression. Once implanted, the false memories were indistinguishable from true memories for the same events, on several dimensions, including emotional content. Implications for aggression-related memory more generally as well as false confessions are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Aggressiveness and intelligence in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Munique de Souza Siqueira


    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyse the aggressiveness and intelligence in adolescence, and to verify if exists association through these variables. The aggressiveness is inherent in human nature and collaborates in the construction of personality by influencing the behaviors positively or negatively. Intelligence refers to the cognitive skill that every individual has and contributes to the establishment of social relations. As a teenager the aggressiveness and the intelligence become more evident due to change in this phase of development. The sample of 35 adolescents of both sexes participated in this survey. The instruments used were the batch of reasoning tests – BPR-5 and the Aggressiveness scale for children and young people. The results indicated that there is no relationship between aggression and intelligence. However, based on the literature these variables interrelate. Therefore, it is suggested that this research be expanded with the use of other psychological instruments.

  20. Supplying of Assembly Lines Using Train of Trucks (United States)

    Čujan, Zdeněk; Fedorko, Gabriel


    The typical supply system conceptions, i.e. the concepts "Just-in-time" (JIT) and "Just-in-sequence" (JIS) are very important factors with regard to a fluent operation of the assembly lines. Therefore the contemporary intra plant transport systems are being replaced by a new kind of the transportation technology, namely by means of the trains of trucks. The trains of trucks are used in two possible operational modes: either with a driver or without driver (fully automated). The trucks of the logistic trains are also cheaper and they are able to carry a larger volume and mass of the material at once. There are reduced in this way not only the investment costs, but also the operational expenses.

  1. Safety climate and the distracted driving experiences of truck drivers. (United States)

    Swedler, David I; Pollack, Keshia M; Agnew, Jacqueline


    For truck drivers, distracted driving is a workplace behavior that increases occupational injury risk. We propose safety climate as an appropriate lens through which researchers can examine occupational distracted driving. Using a mixed methods study design, we surveyed truck drivers using the Safety Climate Questionnaire (SCQ) complemented by semi-structured interviews of experts on distracted driving and truck safety. Safety climate was assessed by using the entire SCQ as an overall climate score, followed by factor analysis that identified the following safety climate factors: Communications and Procedures; Management Commitment; and Work Pressure. In multivariate regression, the overall safety climate scale was associated with having ever experienced a crash and/or distraction-involved swerving. Interview participants described how these SCQ constructs could affect occupational distracted driving. To reduce distraction-related crashes in their organizations, management can adhere to safe policies and procedures, invest in engineering controls, and develop safer communication procedures. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Trans fat consumption and aggression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice A Golomb

    Full Text Available Dietary trans fatty acids (dTFA are primarily synthetic compounds that have been introduced only recently; little is known about their behavioral effects. dTFA inhibit production of omega-3 fatty acids, which experimentally have been shown to reduce aggression. Potential behavioral effects of dTFA merit investigation. We sought to determine whether dTFA are associated with aggression/irritability. METHODOLGY/PRINICPAL FINDINGS: We capitalized on baseline dietary and behavioral assessments in an existing clinical trial to analyze the relationship of dTFA to aggression. Of 1,018 broadly sampled baseline subjects, the 945 adult men and women who brought a completed dietary survey to their baseline visit are the target of this analysis. Subjects (seen 1999-2004 were not on lipid medications, and were without LDL-cholesterol extremes, diabetes, HIV, cancer or heart disease. Outcomes assessed adverse behaviors with impact on others: Overt Aggression Scale Modified-aggression subscale (primary behavioral endpoint; Life History of Aggression; Conflict Tactics Scale; and self-rated impatience and irritability. The association of dTFA to aggression was analyzed via regression and ordinal logit, unadjusted and adjusted for potential confounders (sex, age, education, alcohol, and smoking. Additional analyses stratified on sex, age, and ethnicity, and examined the prospective association. Greater dTFA were strongly significantly associated with greater aggression, with dTFA more consistently predictive than other assessed aggression predictors. The relationship was upheld with adjustment for confounders, was preserved across sex, age, and ethnicity strata, and held cross-sectionally and prospectively.This study provides the first evidence linking dTFA with behavioral irritability and aggression. While confounding is always a concern in observational studies, factors including strength and consistency of association, biological gradient, temporality, and

  3. Comparison of life cycle greenhouse gases from natural gas pathways for medium and heavy-duty vehicles. (United States)

    Tong, Fan; Jaramillo, Paulina; Azevedo, Inês M L


    The low-cost and abundant supply of shale gas in the United States has increased the interest in using natural gas for transportation. We compare the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from different natural gas pathways for medium and heavy-duty vehicles (MHDVs). For Class 8 tractor-trailers and refuse trucks, none of the natural gas pathways provide emissions reductions per unit of freight-distance moved compared to diesel trucks. When compared to the petroleum-based fuels currently used in these vehicles, CNG and centrally produced LNG increase emissions by 0-3% and 2-13%, respectively, for Class 8 trucks. Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) powered with natural gas-produced electricity are the only fuel-technology combination that achieves emission reductions for Class 8 transit buses (31% reduction compared to the petroleum-fueled vehicles). For non-Class 8 trucks (pick-up trucks, parcel delivery trucks, and box trucks), BEVs reduce emissions significantly (31-40%) compared to their diesel or gasoline counterparts. CNG and propane achieve relatively smaller emissions reductions (0-6% and 19%, respectively, compared to the petroleum-based fuels), while other natural gas pathways increase emissions for non-Class 8 MHDVs. While using natural gas to fuel electric vehicles could achieve large emission reductions for medium-duty trucks, the results suggest there are no great opportunities to achieve large emission reductions for Class 8 trucks through natural gas pathways with current technologies. There are strategies to reduce the carbon footprint of using natural gas for MHDVs, ranging from increasing vehicle fuel efficiency, reducing life cycle methane leakage rate, to achieving the same payloads and cargo volumes as conventional diesel trucks.

  4. 40 CFR 86.005-10 - Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. (United States)


    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.005-10 Section 86.005-10 Protection of... AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions for Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks and Heavy-Duty Engines, and for 1985 and Later...

  5. Could Expanded Freight Rail Reduce Air Pollution from Trucks? (United States)

    Bickford, E. E.; Holloway, T.; Johnston, M.


    Cars, trucks and trains are a significant source of emissions that impact both climate and air quality on regional to global scales. Diesel vehicles, most used for freight transport, account for 42% of on-road nitrogen oxide emissions, 58% of on-road fine particulate emissions, and 21% of on-road carbon dioxide emissions. With freight tonnage projected to increase 28% by 2018, and freight trucks the fastest growing source of transportation emissions, we evaluate the potential for increased rail capacity to reduce the environmental impacts of trucks. Most widely available mobile source emissions inventories contain insufficient spatial detail to quantify realistic emission scenario options, and none to date have been linked with commodity flow information in a manner appropriate to consider the true potential of rail substitution. To support a truck-to-rail analysis, and other policy assessments requiring roadway-by-roadway analysis, we have developed a freight emissions inventory for the Upper Midwest based on the Federal Highway Administration’s Freight Analysis Framework version 2.2 and the Environmental Protection Agency’s on-road emissions model, Mobile6.2. Using a Geographical Information System (GIS), we developed emissions scenarios for truck-to-rail modal shifts where 95% of freight tonnage on trips longer than 400 miles is shifted off of trucks and onto railways. Scenarios will be analyzed with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) regional model to assess air quality impacts of associated changes. By using well-respected transportation data and realistic assumptions, results from this study have the potential to inform decisions on transportation sustainability, carbon management, public health, and air quality.

  6. Roadmap and technical white papers for the 21st century truck partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None


    21st Century Truck Partnership will support the development and implementation of technologies that will cut fuel use and emissions and enhance safety, affordability, and performance of trucks and buses.

  7. 27 CFR 24.229 - Tank car and tank truck requirements. (United States)


    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.229 Tank car and tank truck requirements. Railroad tank cars and tank trucks used to transport spirits for use in wine production will be constructed...

  8. Estimation and analysis of multifactor productivity in truck transportation : 1987 - 2003 (United States)


    The analysis has three objectives: 1) to estimate multifactor : productivity (MFP) in truck transportation during : 1987-2003; 2) to examine changes in multifactor productivity : in U.S. truck transportation, over time, and : to compare these changes...

  9. Managing truck arrivals with time windows to alleviate gate congestion at container terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, G.; Govindan, Kannan; Yang, Z.


    Long truck queues at gates often limit the efficiency of a container terminal and generate serious air pollution. To reduce the gate congestion, this paper proposes a method called'vessel dependent time windows (VDTWs)' to control truck arrivals, which involves partitioning truck entries into gro......Long truck queues at gates often limit the efficiency of a container terminal and generate serious air pollution. To reduce the gate congestion, this paper proposes a method called'vessel dependent time windows (VDTWs)' to control truck arrivals, which involves partitioning truck entries...... into groups and assigning different time windows to the groups. The proposed VDTWs method includes three steps: (1) predicting truck arrivals based on the time window assignment, (2) estimating the queue length of trucks, and (3) optimizing the arrangement of time windows to minimize the total cost...

  10. Factors affecting driver alertness during the operation of haul trucks in the South African mining industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schutte, PC


    Full Text Available In view of the seriousness of haul trucks accidents, SIMRAC initiated research to identify factors affecting haul truck driver alertness during mining operations. The information obtained during the risk analysis was used to identify possible...

  11. 76 FR 59166 - Navistar Truck Development and Technology Center, a Subsidiary of Navistar International... (United States)


    ... Development and Technology Center, a Subsidiary of Navistar International Corporation Truck Division, Fort... International Corporation, Truck Division, Fort Wayne, Indiana (subject firm). The negative determination was... is a headcount reduction across the nation, made possible by the Global Outsourcing. * * * '' The...

  12. Aggressive Erotica and Violence against Women. (United States)

    Donnerstein, Edward


    Examines the effects of aggressive-erotic stimuli on male aggression toward females. Male subjects' deliveries of electric shocks to males or females after viewing either a neutral, erotic, or aggressive-erotic film were measured. (Author/SS)

  13. Optimization of Front Axle Suspension System of Articulated Dump Truck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Thomas Heegaard; Christensen, Brian B.; Mouritsen, Ole Ø.


    that has been subjected to comfort improvement is a two axle articulated dump truck. The comfort has been in terms of whole body vibration exposure and the overall improvement has been made possible by adding front axle suspension. However, a hydraulic stabilizing system between the tractor and trailer...... to evaluate the whole body vibrations. By use of a multibody simulation model of the dump truck the whole body vibration exposure has been computed using the predefined work cycle as model input. The design parameters comprise the components of the hydraulic subsystem of the suspension, i.e., the size...

  14. Customer expectations and current offers from food trucks in Helsinki


    Nguyen, An


    The aim of this thesis is to determine whether there is a gap between what customers expect and what the food trucks in Helsinki offers in term of diversity of products, price, time and location of service. Do the current offers match with what customers would like to have? The food truck concept has a long history and since 2008 became an international phenomenon. However, it is still relatively young in Helsinki. There are concerted efforts from different parties included the city’s au...

  15. Disruption management for truck appointment system at a container terminal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, N.; Chen, Gang; Jin, Z.


    -appointed arrivals at a container terminal that is running an appointment system. Second, we propose some response strategies to cope with different levels of disruptions, and evaluate their resilience ability with two Key Performance Indicators (KPIs): total waiting time of on-time trucks and total idling emissions...... of all trucks, in order to balance the service quality to punctual arrivals and green performance of the whole system. Third, we conduct a sensitivity analysis using a discrete event simulation to understand the performance of the proposed strategies. Considering both KPIs, the best strategy in most......-crane moving distance, especially when the first KPI is given lower weight than the second one....

  16. Impact of Platon ETC system on intercity trucking cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pogotovkina Natalya


    Full Text Available In 2015 Platon ETC System, a system of charging trucks with gross vehicle weight exceeding 12 tons, was implemented in Russia. The payment is collected as a compensation fo0 the damage caused to the federal public roads. Platon system is an additional source of financing for the road sector. However, its implementation made the carriers face the increasing costs. This paper presents the first results of the system functioning and the problems, associated with it. We consider the foreign systems of truck charging. The results of calculations, which show the effect of the toll collection on the prime cost of road freight transportation, are also presented.

  17. US Department of Energy workshop on future fuel technology for heavy vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The objective of the workshop described in this report was to develop consensus on a program strategy for use of alternative fuels in heavy vehicles. Participants represented fuel providers, additive suppliers, the trucking industry, engine manufacturers, and government or national laboratory staff. Breakout sessions were co-facilitated by national laboratory staff and industry representatives.

  18. Recurrent Aggressive Angiomyxoma*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suelene Suassuna Silvestre de Alencar


    Full Text Available Introduction: aggressive angiomyxoma is a highly aggressive, rare neoplasm of the mesen- chymal tissue with a high recurrence rate. It represents an important differential diagnosis of pelvic tumors in women of reproductive age. This study aims to describe a case of ag- gressive angiomyxoma.Case report: woman, 37 years old, complained about a bulge on the right perianal region, and anal itching and burning, bleeding, tenesmus and incontinence. The proctologic examina- tion confirmed the perianal bulge and extrinsic compression of the posterior wall of the rectum. Computed tomography (CT of the pelvis showed a well-defined pelvic mass ex- tending to the right rectal area. Exploratory laparotomy showed a mass of fibro elastic con- sistency adjacent to the pelvic organs and closely attached to the distal rectum, and per- formed a resection of the pelvic tumor afterward. Anatomopathological analysis revealed an aggressive angiomyxoma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the pelvis showed signs of recurrence in the pelvic cavity on the right side of the rectum. A surgical procedure was performed to resect the lesion. After an asymptomatic period, the MRI showed solid growths located in the right ischiorectal fossa. A new surgical procedure identified only retention cysts in the pelvis and right ischiorectal fossa, only lysis of adhesions was per- formed. The patient is currently undergoing follow-up without disease recurrence. Resumo: Introdução: o angiomixoma agressivo é uma rara neoplasia do tecido mesenquimal de gran- de agressividade e alta taxa de recorrência. Representa um importante diagnóstico diferen- cial de tumorações pélvicas de mulheres em idade reprodutiva. Este estudo objetiva relatar um caso de angiomixoma agressivo.Relato de caso: mulher, 37 anos, com queixa de abaulamento em região perianal direita, além de prurido e ardor anal, sangramento, tenesmo e incontinência anal. Exame procto- lógico confirmou o abaulamento

  19. Real-time pedestrian detection in a Truck's blind spot camera


    Van Beeck, Kristof; Goedemé, Toon


    In this paper we present a multi-pedestrian detection and tracking framework targeting a specific application: detecting vulnerable road users in a truck's blind spot zone. Research indicates that existing non-vision based safety solutions are not able to handle this problem completely. Therefore we aim to develop an active safety system which warns the truck driver if pedestrians are present in the truck's blind spot zone. Our system solely uses the vision input from the truck's blind spot c...

  20. Aggression Can be Contagious: Longitudinal Associations between Proactive Aggression and Reactive Aggression Among Young Twins (United States)

    Dickson, Daniel J.; Richmond, Ashley; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Laursen, Brett; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel


    The present study examined sibling influence over reactive and proactive aggression in a sample of 452 same-sex twins (113 male dyads, 113 female dyads). Between and within siblings influence processes were examined as a function of relative levels of parental coercion and hostility to test the hypothesis that aggression contagion between twins occurs only among dyads who experience parental coerciveness. Teacher reports of reactive and proactive aggression were collected for each twin in kindergarten (M = 6.04 years; SD = 0.27) and in first grade (M = 7.08 years; SD = 0.27). Families were divided into relatively low, average, and relatively high parental coercion-hostility groups on the basis of maternal reports collected when the children were 5 years old. In families with relatively high levels of parental coercion-hostility, there was evidence of between-sibling influence, such that one twin’s reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin’s reactive aggression from ages 6 to 7, and one twin’s proactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin’s proactive aggression from ages 6 to 7. There was also evidence of within-sibling influence such that a child’s level of reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the same child’s proactive aggression at age 7, regardless of parental coercion-hostility. The findings provide new information about the etiology of reactive and proactive aggression and individual differences in their developmental interplay. PMID:25683448

  1. Planning of Truck Platoons: a Literature Review and Directions for Future Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Kishore Bhoopalam (Anirudh); N.A.H. Agatz (Niels); R.A. Zuidwijk (Rob)


    textabstractA truck platoon is a set of virtually linked trucks that drive closely behind one another using automated driving technology. Benefits of truck platooning include cost savings, reduced emissions, and more efficient utilization of road capacity. To fully reap these benefits in the initial

  2. 75 FR 56651 - ITS Joint Program Office; Trucking Industry Mobility & Technology Coalition Annual Meeting (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ITS Joint Program Office; Trucking Industry Mobility & Technology... Transportation. ACTION: Notice. The Trucking Industry Mobility & Technology Coalition (TIMTC) Annual [[Page 56652...: Beating Gridlock with a Smart Grid; U.S. DOT Truck Technology Initiatives; and State and Federal...

  3. Scheduling Trucks in a Cross-Dock with Mixed Service Mode Dock Doors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodnar, Peter; Azadeh, Kaveh; Koster, René de


    The problem considered in this paper is how to schedule inbound and outbound trucks subject to time windows at a multidoor cross-dock. Dock doors can either be dedicated to inbound or outbound trucks or be capable of handling both truck types. In addition, loads are allowed to be temporarily...

  4. 49 CFR 230.100 - Defects in tender truck axles and journals. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defects in tender truck axles and journals. 230... Steam Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.100 Defects in tender truck axles and journals. (a... wheel seats that is more than 1/8 of an inch in depth. (b) Tender truck journal condemning defects...

  5. Aggressive behavior prevention in a dance duet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Gant


    Full Text Available Purpose: to study the features of aggression and the main directions of prevention of aggressive forms of behavior, among athletes engaged in sports dancing in the preliminary basic training. Material & Methods: analysis of scientific and methodological literature, "Personal aggressiveness and conflictness". Results: a theoretical analysis of the problem of aggressive behavior in sports dance duets. Level of aggressiveness of athletes of sports dances at the stage of preliminary basic training is determined. Reasons for the formation of aggressive behavior among young athletes are revealed. Areas of preventive and psychocorrectional work with aggressive athletes are singled out. Conclusion: a high level of aggression was detected in 19 (31,67% of the study participants. Determinants of aggressive behavior in sport ballroom pair appear particularly family upbringing style and pedagogical activity of the trainer. Correction of aggressive behavior of young athletes should have a complex systemic character and take into account the main characterological features of aggressive athletes.

  6. Design and Validation Testing of TruckScan to Assay Large Sacks of Fukushima Radioactive Debris on a Truck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Atsuo [Canberra-Japan (Japan); Bronson, Frazier [Canberra Industries Inc. (United States)


    As a result of the March 2011 earthquake and resulting tsunami in Japan, there was a serious accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. This accident has contaminated soil and vegetation in a wide area around the plant. Decontamination projects over the last 4 years have resulted in large numbers of 1 cubic meter canvas bags of debris, commonly called Super Sacks [SS]. These are currently stored nearby where they were generated, but starting in 2015, they will be moved to various Interim Storage Facilities [ISF]. Trucks will typically carry 8-20 of these SSs. When the trucks arrive at the ISF they need to be rapidly sorted into groups according to radioactivity level, for efficient subsequent processing. Canberra Industries, Inc. [CI] has designed a new truck monitoring system 'TruckScan' for use at these ISFs. The TruckScan system must measure the entire truck loaded with multiple closely packed SSs, and generate a nuclide specific assay report showing the radioactivity in each individual SS. The Canberra-Japan office, along with Obayashi Corporation have performed validation testing to demonstrate to the regulatory authorities that the proposed technique was sufficiently accurate. These validation tests were conducted at a temporary storage area in Fukushima prefecture. Decontaminated waste of various representative types and of various levels of radioactivity was gathered and mixed to create homogeneous volumes. These volumes were sampled multiple times and assayed with laboratory HPGe detectors to determine the reference concentration of each pile. Multiple SSs were loaded from each pile. Some of the SSs were filled 50% full, others 75% full, and others 100% full, to represent the typical loading configuration of the existing SSs in the field. The content of the SSs are either sand, soil, or vegetation with densities ranging from 0.3 g/cc - 1.6 g/cc. These SSs with known concentrations of Cs-134 and Cs-137 were then loaded onto trucks in

  7. Design and Validation Testing of TruckScan to Assay Large Sacks of Fukushima Radioactive Debris on a Truck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Atsuo; Bronson, Frazier


    As a result of the March 2011 earthquake and resulting tsunami in Japan, there was a serious accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. This accident has contaminated soil and vegetation in a wide area around the plant. Decontamination projects over the last 4 years have resulted in large numbers of 1 cubic meter canvas bags of debris, commonly called Super Sacks [SS]. These are currently stored nearby where they were generated, but starting in 2015, they will be moved to various Interim Storage Facilities [ISF]. Trucks will typically carry 8-20 of these SSs. When the trucks arrive at the ISF they need to be rapidly sorted into groups according to radioactivity level, for efficient subsequent processing. Canberra Industries, Inc. [CI] has designed a new truck monitoring system 'TruckScan' for use at these ISFs. The TruckScan system must measure the entire truck loaded with multiple closely packed SSs, and generate a nuclide specific assay report showing the radioactivity in each individual SS. The Canberra-Japan office, along with Obayashi Corporation have performed validation testing to demonstrate to the regulatory authorities that the proposed technique was sufficiently accurate. These validation tests were conducted at a temporary storage area in Fukushima prefecture. Decontaminated waste of various representative types and of various levels of radioactivity was gathered and mixed to create homogeneous volumes. These volumes were sampled multiple times and assayed with laboratory HPGe detectors to determine the reference concentration of each pile. Multiple SSs were loaded from each pile. Some of the SSs were filled 50% full, others 75% full, and others 100% full, to represent the typical loading configuration of the existing SSs in the field. The content of the SSs are either sand, soil, or vegetation with densities ranging from 0.3 g/cc - 1.6 g/cc. These SSs with known concentrations of Cs-134 and Cs-137 were then loaded onto trucks in

  8. The GREET Model Expansion for Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Hao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Burnham, Andrew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hang, Wen [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vyas, Anant [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    Heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) account for a significant portion of the U.S. transportation sector’s fuel consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and air pollutant emissions. In our most recent efforts, we expanded the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREETTM) model to include life-cycle analysis of HDVs. In particular, the GREET expansion includes the fuel consumption, GHG emissions, and air pollutant emissions of a variety of conventional (i.e., diesel and/or gasoline) HDV types, including Class 8b combination long-haul freight trucks, Class 8b combination short-haul freight trucks, Class 8b dump trucks, Class 8a refuse trucks, Class 8a transit buses, Class 8a intercity buses, Class 6 school buses, Class 6 single-unit delivery trucks, Class 4 single-unit delivery trucks, and Class 2b heavy-duty pickup trucks and vans. These vehicle types were selected to represent the diversity in the U.S. HDV market, and specific weight classes and body types were chosen on the basis of their fuel consumption using the 2002 Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey (VIUS) database. VIUS was also used to estimate the fuel consumption and payload carried for most of the HDV types. In addition, fuel economy projections from the U.S. Energy Information Administration, transit databases, and the literature were examined. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s latest Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator was employed to generate tailpipe air pollutant emissions of diesel and gasoline HDV types.

  9. Analysis of frame structure of medium and small truck crane (United States)

    Cao, Fuyi; Li, Jinlong; Cui, Mengkai


    Truck crane is an important part of hoisting machinery. Frame, as the support component of the quality of truck crane, determines the safety of crane jib load and the rationality of structural design. In this paper, the truck crane frame is a box structure, the three-dimensional model is established in CATIA software, and imported into Hyperworks software for finite element analysis. On the base of doing constraints and loads for the finite element model of the frame, the finite element static analysis is carried out. And the static stress test verifies whether the finite element model and the frame structure design are reasonable; then the free modal analysis of the frame and the analysis of the first 8 - order modal vibration deformation are carried out. The analysis results show that the maximum stress value of the frame is greater than the yield limit value of the material, and the low-order modal value is close to the excitation frequency value, which needs to be improved to provide theoretical reference for the structural design of the truck crane frame.

  10. Development of the New Light-Duty Hybrid Truck


    Yamaguchi, Koichi


    Hino Motors, Ltd., developed the new light-duty hybrid truck whose traction motor, inverter, and traction battery were completely redesigned for maximizing output and efficiency. It also succeeds in balancing low fuel economy and low exhaust emissions by utilizing a combination of a new hybrid system control with a specially developed diesel engine.

  11. TITAN Legal Weight Truck cask preliminary design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Preliminary Design of the TITAN Legal Weight Truck (LWT) Cask System and Ancillary Equipment is presented in this document. The scope of the document includes the LWT cask with fuel baskets; impact limiters, and lifting and tiedown features; the cask support system for transportation; intermodal transfer skid; personnel barrier; and cask lifting yoke assembly. 75 figs., 48 tabs

  12. 78 FR 26106 - Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No FMCSA-2011-0097] Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The FMCSA published a document in the Federal Register of...

  13. Presenting a conceptual pattern of HSE performance of oil trucks. (United States)

    Ghaleh, Sahar; Omidvari, Manouchehr; Nassiri, Parvin; Momeni, Mansour; Lavasani, Seyed Mohammadreza Miri


    Accidents are among the main problems in the oil product supply chain. The most important effective factors in these events are the kind of trucks used and their health, safety, and environment (HSE) condition. The aim of this study was to present a conceptual pattern of the HSE performance of oil trucks in oil industries. In this study, 20 truck models (with fixed tanks), in use over different periods of time, were investigated. In this regard, the criteria and sub-criteria were first determined in two parts-carrier and tank-and weighted by fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP). The results showed that the most important sub-criteria regarding the HSE factors of the carrier were resistance and strength of the front and rear shields, the brake system, and the ventilation system. The most important sub-criteria regarding the HSE factors of the tank were tank shell thickness and a good tank design shape with respect to portable material. It should be noted that the weight of the criteria with each other and sub-criteria with each other are not equal. This issue is important for decision-making. The main reason for the use of trucks with the lowest score in developing countries is the lack of attention by managers to safety issues and international standards and agreements such as the ADR.

  14. U10 : Trusted Truck(R) II (phase B). (United States)


    Phase B of the Trusted Truck II project built on the system developed in Phase A (or Year 1). For the implementation portion of the project, systems were added to the trailer to provide additional diagnostic trailer data that can be sent to the TTM...

  15. 29 CFR 1910.180 - Crawler locomotive and truck cranes. (United States)


    ... the shaft or spindle with which or about which a wheel rotates. On truck- and wheel-mounted cranes it... and ropes. Cranes designed for railway and automobile wreck clearances are excepted. The requirements..., 1971, shall meet the design specifications of the American National Standard Safety Code for Crawler...

  16. ISAF'S Afghan Truck Drivers: The Overlooked Counterinsurgency Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myron Varouhakis


    Full Text Available A yearlong U.S. Army field study in Afghanistan examined the demographics and threat perceptions of one of the most-at-risk populations, that of Afghan truck drivers working for NATO’s International Security Assistance Force Afghanistan (ISAF. The study collected data from 766 Afghan truck drivers at the U.S.-operated Kandahar Airfield in ISAF’s Regional Command South. The findings show a wide diversity in age of the Afghan drivers as well as in terms of their home province. The findings also show that although all Afghan truck drivers had acute awareness and understanding of the high risks and dangers of the job, they all noted that the attractive salary and scarcity of jobs were dominant reasons for staying on the job. Findings also reveal a strong resentment among the Afghan truck drivers about their treatment by ISAF soldiers, as for the lack of protection for them and their families after the 2014 departure of NATO forces. The findings can provide significant insights and enhance the understanding of scholars, counterinsurgency strategists, policymakers, and military planners about “Host Country Nationals” as an important population of the human terrain.

  17. Risking Aggression: Reply to Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Borer


    Full Text Available In his paper, “Is There an ‘Anomalous’ Section of the Laffer Curve?”, Walter Block describes some situations in which it appears that a libertarian should violate the non-aggression principle. To rectify this, Block proposes a different perspective on libertarianism which he calls punishment theory. This paper argues that no new theory is needed, as the non-aggression principle can be used to resolve theapparent conundrums.

  18. Risking Aggression: Reply to Block


    Kris Borer


    In his paper, “Is There an ‘Anomalous’ Section of the Laffer Curve?”, Walter Block describes some situations in which it appears that a libertarian should violate the non-aggression principle. To rectify this, Block proposes a different perspective on libertarianism which he calls punishment theory. This paper argues that no new theory is needed, as the non-aggression principle can be used to resolve theapparent conundrums.

  19. Mathematical Model of Age Aggression


    Golovinski, P. A.


    We formulate a mathematical model of competition for resources between representatives of different age groups. A nonlinear kinetic integral-differential equation of the age aggression describes the process of redistribution of resources. It is shown that the equation of the age aggression has a stationary solution, in the absence of age-dependency in the interaction of different age groups. A numerical simulation of the evolution of resources for different initial distributions has done. It ...

  20. Evaluating sustainability of truck weight regulations: A system dynamics view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Liu


    Full Text Available Purpose: Targeting the problem of overload trucking in Highway Transportation of iron ore from Caofeidian to Tangshan (HTCT, this paper aims to assess long-term effects of alternative Truck Weight Regulation (TWR policies on sustainability of HTCT. Design/methodology/approach: A system dynamics model was established for policy evaluation. The model, composed of six interrelating modules, is able to simulate policies effects on trucking issues such as freight flow, truck traffic flow, pavement performance, highway transport capacity and trucking time, and further on the Cumulative Economic Cost (CEC including transport cost and time cost of freight owners and the Cumulative Social Cost (CSC including pavement maintenance cost, green house gas emission cost, air pollutants emission cost and traffic accidents cost, so the effects of TWR policies on sustainability of HTCT could be evaluated. Findings: According to different values of overload ratio which a TWR policy allows, alternative TWR policies are classified into three types, which are The Rigid Policy (TRP, The Moderate Policy (TMP and The Tolerant Policy (TTP. Results show that the best policy for sustainability of HTCT depends on the importance of CSC which is expected by the local government. To be specific, (1 if CSC is considered much less important than CEC, the local government should continue implementing the current TTP with the maximum overload ratio; (2 if CSC is considered much more important than CEC, then TRP is recommended; and (3 if CSC is considered slightly more important than CES, TMP with overload ratio of 80% is the best. Practical implications: Conclusions of this paper may help the local government design appropriate TWR policies to achieve sustainability of HTCT. Originality/value: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first effort to evaluate TWR policies on sustainability of regional freight transportation based on system dynamics modeling.

  1. 77 FR 20480 - Volvo Trucks North America and Mack Trucks, Inc., Grant of Petition for Decision of... (United States)


    ... GU model trucks that were built with certain Meritor WABCO Vehicle Control Systems (Meritor WABCO... equipment requirements for motor vehicles equipped with air brake systems. Paragraph S5.3.4.1(a) of FMVSS No... vehicle's braking performance. The tests and analyses were performed by an independent test lab, Link...

  2. Adolescents' Social Reasoning about Relational Aggression (United States)

    Goldstein, Sara E.; Tisak, Marie S.


    We examined early adolescents' reasoning about relational aggression, and the links that their reasoning has to their own relationally aggressive behavior. Thinking about relational aggression was compared to thinking about physical aggression, conventional violations, and personal behavior. In individual interviews, adolescents (N = 103) rated…

  3. Do Teachers Misbehave? Aggression in School Teams (United States)

    Ben Sasson, Dvora; Somech, Anit


    Purpose: Despite growing research on school aggression, significant gaps remain in the authors' knowledge of team aggression, since most studies have mainly explored aggression on the part of students. The purpose of this paper is to focus on understanding the phenomenon of workplace aggression in school teams. Specifically, the purpose of the…

  4. Lifecycle-analysis for heavy vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaines, L.


    Various alternative fuels and improved engine and vehicle systems have been proposed in order to reduce emissions and energy use associated with heavy vehicles (predominantly trucks). For example, oil companies have proposed improved methods for converting natural gas to zero-aromatics, zero-sulfur diesel fuel via the Fischer-Tropsch process. Major heavy-duty diesel engine companies are working on ways to simultaneously reduce particulate-matter and NOX emissions. The trend in heavy vehicles is toward use of lightweight materials, tires with lower rolling resistance, and treatments to reduce aerodynamic drag. In this paper, we compare the Mecycle energy use and emissions from trucks using selected alternatives, such as Fisher-Tropsch diesel fuel and advanced fuel-efficient engines. We consider heavy-duty, Class 8 tractor-semitrailer combinations for this analysis. The total life cycle includes production and recycling of the vehicle itself, extraction, processing, and transportation of the fuel itself, and vehicle operation and maintenance. Energy use is considered in toto, as well as those portions that are imported, domestic, and renewable. Emissions of interest include greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants. Angonne's Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model is used to generate per-vehicle fuel cycle impacts. Energy use and emissions for materials manufacturing and vehicle disposal are estimated by means of materials information from Argonne studies. We conclude that there are trade-offs among impacts. For example, the lowest fossil energy use does not necessarily result in lowest total energy use, and lower tailpipe emissions may not necessarily result in lower lifecycle emissions of all criteria pollutants

  5. A battery-fuel cell hybrid auxiliary power unit for trucks: Analysis of direct and indirect hybrid configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsun, Remzi Can; Krupp, Carsten; Baltzer, Sidney; Gnörich, Bruno; Peters, Ralf; Stolten, Detlef


    Highlights: • A battery-fuel cell hybrid auxiliary power unit for heavy duty vehicles is reported. • Comparison of direct and indirect hybrids using representative load profiles. • Evaluation based on validated fuel cell system and battery models. • Indirect hybrid with constant fuel cell load yields 29.3% hybrid system efficiency. • Fuel cell should be pre-heated using waste heat from the diesel engine during drive. - Abstract: The idling operation of engines in heavy duty vehicles to cover electricity demand during layovers entails significant fuel consumption and corresponding emissions. Indeed, this mode of operation is highly inefficient and a noteworthy contributor to the transportation sector’s aggregate carbon dioxide emissions. Here, a potential solution to this wasteful practice is outlined in the form of a hybrid battery-fuel cell system for application as an auxiliary power unit for trucks. Drawing on experimentally-validated fuel cell and battery models, several possible hybrid concepts are evaluated and direct and indirect hybrid configurations analyzed using a representative load profile. The results indicate that a direct hybrid configuration is only applicable if the load demand profile does not deviate strongly from the assumed profile. Operation of an indirect hybrid with a constant fuel cell load yields the greatest hybrid system efficiency, at 29.3%, while battery size could be reduced by 87% if the fuel cell is operated at the highest dynamics. Maximum efficiency in truck applications can be achieved by pre-heating the system prior to operation using exhaust heat from the motor, which increased system efficiency from 25.3% to 28.1%, including start-up. These findings confirm that hybrid systems could offer enormous fuel savings and constitute a sizeable step on the path toward energy-efficient and environmentally-friendly heavy duty vehicles that does not necessitate a fuel switch.

  6. Heavy flavours

    CERN Document Server

    Buras, Andrzej J


    This volume is a collection of review articles on the most outstanding topics in heavy flavour physics. All the authors have made significant contributions to this field. The book reviews in detail the theoretical structure of heavy flavour physics and confronts the Standard Model and some of its extensions with existing experimental data.This new edition covers new trends and ideas and includes the latest experimental information. Compared to the previous edition interesting new activities are included and some of the key contributions are updated. Particular attention is paid to the discover

  7. Aggression in Women: Behavior, Brain and Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F. Denson


    Full Text Available We review the literature on aggression in women with an emphasis on laboratory experimentation and hormonal and brain mechanisms. Women tend to engage in more indirect forms of aggression (e.g., spreading rumors than other types of aggression. In laboratory studies, women are less aggressive than men, but provocation attenuates this difference. In the real world, women are just as likely to aggress against their romantic partner as men are, but men cause more serious physical and psychological harm. A very small minority of women are also sexually violent. Women are susceptible to alcohol-related aggression, but this type of aggression may be limited to women high in trait aggression. Fear of being harmed is a robust inhibitor of direct aggression in women. There are too few studies and most are underpowered to detect unique neural mechanisms associated with aggression in women. Testosterone shows the same small, positive relationship with aggression in women as in men. The role of cortisol is unclear, although some evidence suggests that women who are high in testosterone and low in cortisol show heightened aggression. Under some circumstances, oxytocin may increase aggression by enhancing reactivity to provocation and simultaneously lowering perceptions of danger that normally inhibit many women from retaliating. There is some evidence that high levels of estradiol and progesterone are associated with low levels of aggression. We highlight that more gender-specific theory-driven hypothesis testing is needed with larger samples of women and aggression paradigms relevant to women.

  8. [Therapeutic Aggressiveness and Liquid Oncology]. (United States)

    Barón Duarte, F J; Rodríguez Calvo, M S; Amor Pan, J R


    Aggressiveness criteria proposed in the scientific literature a decade ago provide a quality judgment and are a reference in the care of patients with advanced cancer, but their use is not generalized in the evaluation of Oncology Services. In this paper we analyze the therapeutic aggressiveness, according to standard criteria, in 1.001 patients with advanced cancer who died in our Institution between 2010 and 2013. The results seem to show that aggressiveness at the end of life is present more frequently than experts recommend. About 25% of patients fulfill at least one criterion of aggressiveness. This result could be explained by a liquid Oncology which does not prioritize the patient as a moral subject in the clinical appointment. Medical care is oriented to necessities and must be articulated in a model focused on dignity and communication. Its implementation through Advanced Care Planning, consideration of patient's values and preferences, and Limitation of therapeutic effort are ways to reduce aggressiveness and improve clinical practice at the end of life. We need to encourage synergic and proactive attitudes, adding the best of cancer research with the best clinical care for the benefit of human being, moral subject and main goal of Medicine.

  9. Heavy quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoze, V.A.


    We discuss the results accumulated during the last five years in heavy quark physics and try to draw a simple general picture of the present situation. The survey is based on a unified point of view resulting from quantum chromodynamics. (orig.)

  10. Heavy vehicle propulsion system materials program: Semiannual progress report, April 1996--September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.R.


    The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1-3 trucks to realize a 35% fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7-8 trucks. The Office of Transportation Technologies, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OTT OHVT) has an active program to develop the technology for advanced LE-55 diesel engines with 55% efficiency and low emissions levels of 2.0 g/bhp-h NO{sub x} and 0.05 g/bhp-h particulates. The goal is also for the LE-55 engine to run on natural gas with efficiency approaching that of diesel fuel. The LE-55 program is being completed in FY 1997 and, after approximately 10 years of effort, has largely met the program goals of 55% efficiency and low emissions. However, the commercialization of the LE-55 technology requires more durable materials than those that have been used to demonstrate the goals. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials will, in concert with the heavy duty diesel engine companies, develop the durable materials required to commercialize the LE-55 technologies. OTT OHVT also recognizes a significant opportunity for reduction in petroleum consumption by dieselization of pickup trucks, vans, and sport utility vehicles. Application of the diesel engine to class 1, 2, and 3 trucks is expected to yield a 35% increase in fuel economy per vehicle. The foremost barrier to diesel use in this market is emission control. Once an engine is made certifiable, subsequent challenges will be in cost; noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH); and performance. Separate abstracts have been submitted to the database for contributions to this report.

  11. Operations experience with the NAC-1 legal weight truck cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viebrock, J.M.; Hoffman, C.C.


    The first three years of operation of Nuclear Assurance Corporation's (NAC) four (4) NAC-1 Casks have demonstrated that shipments of spent fuel, fuel rods and other highly irradiated reactor components can be moved routinely by legal weight truck transport. Shipments of these materials have involved some 800,000 miles of highway travel and cask handling at some fifteen different nuclear facilities. This paper presents details on NAC's operations experience with these casks including cask description, cask handling (loading and unloading), pre-shipment testing, facility turnaround and transit times, operator exposure, transport vehicles and shipper/carrier/cask owner responsibilities, actual experience with regard to facility interfacing requirements and operational procedures. Cask and equipment utilization is discussed together with the methods used to control operation costs and to improve the economics of truck transport

  12. Antecedents of Truck Drivers’ Job Satisfaction and Retention Proneness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prockl, Günter; Teller, Christoph; Kotzab, Herbert


    is statistically significant. Financial and nonfinancial job properties affect satisfaction with one's employer whereas the former shows a lower impact compared to the latter. Satisfaction with the job and one's employer impacts retention proneness. The contribution of this study was to (1) add...... to the understanding of the factors that predict retention of truck drivers in relationship to job satisfaction and (2) highlight the different roles of financial and nonfinancial job properties in this specific work context.......The aim of this study was to (1) explore the antecedents of truck drivers’ job satisfaction, (2) identify the impact of financial and nonfinancial job properties on satisfaction with the job and with one's employer, and (3) the drivers’ proneness to retaining their jobs. Based on the extant...

  13. Real-Time Dispatch of Petroleum Tank Trucks


    Gerald G. Brown; Glenn W. Graves


    A highly automated, real-time dispatch system is described which uses embedded optimization routines to replace extensive manual operations and to reduce substantially operating costs for a nation-wide fleet of petroleum tank trucks. The system is currently used in daily operations by the Order Entry and Dispatch segment of the Chevron U.S.A. Marketing System. Refined petroleum products valued at several billion dollars per year are dispatched from more than 80 bulk terminals on a fleet excee...

  14. Real-Time Dispatch of Petroleum Tank Trucks


    Brown, Gerald G.; Graves, Glenn W.


    Management Science, 27, 1, pp. 19-32. (1982 International Management Science Achievement Award Finalist). A highly automated, real-time dispatch system is described which uses embedded optimization routines to replace extensive manual operations and to reduce substantially operating costs for a nation-wide fleet of petroleum tank trucks. The system is currently used in daily operations by the Order Entry and Dispatch segment of the Chevron U.S.A. Marketing System. Refined petroleum produ...

  15. Business plan of a food truck in Saint Petersburg


    Zavyalova, Ekaterina


    The purpose of the thesis was to investigate how to write a proper business plan and then implement gained knowledge in creating a business plan of a food truck in Saint Petersburg. A business plan serves as a guide for an entrepreneur in the process of company establishment and enables to gain funding from potential investors. The primary objective was to study essential components of a business plan. The theoretical framework comprises of core issues on company establishment and desc...

  16. TITAN Legal Weight Truck cask preliminary design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Preliminary Design of the TITAN Legal Weight Truck (LWT) Cask System and Ancillary Equipment is presented in this document. The scope of this document includes the LWT cask with fuel baskets, impact limiters, and lifting and tiedown features; the cask support system for transportation; intermodal transfer skid; personnel barrier; and cask lifting yoke assembly. The results of the tradeoff studies and evaluations that were performed during the preliminary design are presented in Appendix A to this report. 51 figs., 17 tabs

  17. Hydraulic Hybrid Parcel Delivery Truck Deployment, Testing & Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallo, Jean-Baptiste [Calstart Incorporated, Pasadena, CA (United States)


    Although hydraulic hybrid systems have shown promise over the last few years, commercial deployment of these systems has primarily been limited to Class 8 refuse trucks. In 2005, the Hybrid Truck Users Forum initiated the Parcel Delivery Working Group including the largest parcel delivery fleets in North America. The goal of the working group was to evaluate and accelerate commercialization of hydraulic hybrid technology for parcel delivery vehicles. FedEx Ground, Purolator and United Parcel Service (UPS) took delivery of the world’s first commercially available hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery trucks in early 2012. The vehicle chassis includes a Parker Hannifin hydraulic hybrid drive system, integrated and assembled by Freightliner Custom Chassis Corp., with a body installed by Morgan Olson. With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, CALSTART and its project partners assessed the performance, reliability, maintainability and fleet acceptance of three pre-production Class 6 hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery vehicles using information and data from in-use data collection and on-road testing. This document reports on the deployment of these vehicles operated by FedEx Ground, Purolator and UPS. The results presented provide a comprehensive overview of the performance of commercial hydraulic hybrid vehicles in parcel delivery applications. This project also informs fleets and manufacturers on the overall performance of hydraulic hybrid vehicles, provides insights on how the technology can be both improved and more effectively used. The key findings and recommendations of this project fall into four major categories: -Performance, -Fleet deployment, -Maintenance, -Business case. Hydraulic hybrid technology is relatively new to the market, as commercial vehicles have been introduced only in the past few years in refuse and parcel delivery applications. Successful demonstration could pave the way for additional purchases of hydraulic hybrid vehicles throughout the

  18. Definition and Evaluation of Bus and Truck Automation Operations Concepts


    Tsao, H.-S. Jacob; Botha, Jan L.


    Traffic congestion will continue to worsen and likely worsen at a faster rate than ever. People throughput and freight throughput have become critical issues for California and the rest of the nation. PATH has been funding a one-year research project entitled "Definition and Evaluation of Bus and Truck Automation Operations Concepts," proposed by the authors. This report summarizes the results of the research project achieved during the first six months. During those six months, we reviewed l...

  19. Keep on Trucking: An Entrepreneurial Approach to Intratheater Airlift (United States)


    yet they must all remain effective in order to stay in business.50 Figure 3. Commercial Distribution Example: Walmart 10 As one of’s largest corporations, Walmart provides a good example of an entrepreneurial logistics system (Figure 3). Like the deployed Air Force component, a fleet owner, a distributor, and a retail location operator.51 While Walmart uses trucks, the AMD schedules aircraft as the primary delivery

  20. Social Information Processing, Experiences of Aggression in Social Contexts, and Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents


    Lösel, Friedrich; Bliesener, Thomas; Bender, Doris


    This study examines social information processing and experiences of aggression in social contexts as predictors of different forms of aggressive behavior. A sample of 102 boys (aggressive, average, competent, and victimized students) was investigated with a prospective design in Grade 7/8 and again in Grade 9/10. Results show an aggressive-impulsive response repertoire strongly predicted self-reported and teacher-reported physical aggression, verbal aggression, violent offenses, general aggr...

  1. Aggressive behaviour in sport: An application of the Aggression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is well established in literature that aggressive behaviour continues to be prevalent in many sporting activities despite the potential positive contribution that sport has made to athletes, society, universities and economies. The main aim of this study was to assess the application of an adapted version of the original ...

  2. Coordinating decentralized optimization of truck and shovel mining operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, R.; Fraser Forbes, J. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering; San Yip, W. [Suncor Energy, Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)


    Canada's oil sands contain the largest known reserve of oil in the world. Oil sands mining uses 3 functional processes, ore hauling, overburden removal and mechanical maintenance. The industry relies mainly on truck-and-shovel technology in its open-pit mining operations which contributes greatly to the overall mining operation cost. Coordination between operating units is crucial for achieving an enterprise-wide optimal operation level. Some of the challenges facing the industry include multiple or conflicting objectives such as minimizing the use of raw materials and energy while maximizing production. The large sets of constraints that define the feasible domain pose as challenge, as does the uncertainty in system parameters. One solution lies in assigning truck resources to various activities. This fully decentralized approach would treat the optimization of ore production, waste removal and equipment maintenance independently. It was emphasized that mine-wide optimal operation can only be achieved by coordinating ore hauling and overburden removal processes. For that reason, this presentation proposed a coordination approach for a decentralized optimization system. The approach is based on the Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition and auction-based methods that have been previously used to decompose large-scale optimization problems. The treatment of discrete variables and coordinator design was described and the method was illustrated with a simple truck and shovel mining simulation study. The approach can be applied to a wide range of applications such as coordinating decentralized optimal control systems and scheduling. 16 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  3. Image processing system for the measurement of timber truck loads (United States)

    Carvalho, Fernando D.; Correia, Bento A. B.; Davies, Roger; Rodrigues, Fernando C.; Freitas, Jose C. A.


    The paper industry uses wood as its raw material. To know the quantity of wood in the pile of sawn tree trunks, every truck load entering the plant is measured to determine its volume. The objective of this procedure is to know the solid volume of wood stocked in the plant. Weighing the tree trunks has its own problems, due to their high capacity for absorbing water. Image processing techniques were used to evaluate the volume of a truck load of logs of wood. The system is based on a PC equipped with an image processing board using data flow processors. Three cameras allow image acquisition of the sides and rear of the truck. The lateral images contain information about the sectional area of the logs, and the rear image contains information about the length of the logs. The machine vision system and the implemented algorithms are described. The results being obtained with the industrial prototype that is now installed in a paper mill are also presented.

  4. Upgrades for truck transportation of SNM in the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, B.H.; Kornilovich, E.


    The goal of this project is the rapid reduction of risk to truck transportation of SNM in Russia. Enhanced protection is being accomplished by cooperation between the US Department of Energy, MINATOM of Russia, the Russian Ministry of Defense, and various Russian Institutes. This program provides an integrated program of specialized trucks that are equipped with hardened overpack (SNM vault) containers, alarm and communications systems, and armored cabs. Armored escort vehicles are also provided to increase the survivability of the guards escorting convoys. Only indigenous Russian equipment, modified and/or manufactured by Designing Bureau for Motor Vehicle Transport Equipment (KBATO), is provided under this program. The US will not provide assistance in the truck transportation arena without a commitment from the Russian facility to provide heavily armed escorts for SNM movement. Each site conducts a detailed transportation needs assessment study that is used as the basis for prioritizing assistance. The Siberian Chemical Combine (Tomsk-7) was the initial site of cooperation. The designs used at Tomsk-7 are serving as the baseline for all future vehicles modified under this program. In FY98, many vehicles systems have been ordered for various institutes. Many additional systems will be ordered in FY99

  5. Truck bomb and insider threats to nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, D.


    In the nuclear field, two the these weak links in the security chain are the truck bomb threat and the insider threat. The risks associated with terrorist use of vehicular bombs against nuclear targets surfaced (actually, resurfaced) followed the terrorist attacks on the US Embassy annex and the Marine compound in Leb Concern was expressed that similar attacks against nuclear facilities could result in substantial damage and release of radioactivity. Since the current regulations of the NRC require licensees to protect only against attacks on foot (and even then, only against very small attacking forces), shortly after the Lebanon bombings, that agency commenced an urgent rulemaking to require its licensees to protect against truck bombs. Inexplicably, that rulemaking was called off after research results indicated that the truck bomb threat to nuclear facilities was even more serious than previously thought. Even were nuclear facilities adequately protected against external attack, be the aim theft or sabotage, the greatest security risk to these sites - the threat of action by insiders - would remain. The traditional methods of protecting against the insider threat - such as the two-person rule, strict compartmentalization of vital areas, and design features that make damage to two or more redundant systems by one individual difficult - are generally expensive and have encountered substantial resistance from the nuclear industry, which has restrained the NRC from requiring them

  6. Modeling and Control of a Parallel Waste Heat Recovery System for Euro-VI Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feru, E.; Willems, F.P.T.; Jager, B. de; Steinbuch, M.


    This paper presents the modeling and control of a waste heat recovery system for a Euro-VI heavy-duty truck engine. The considered waste heat recovery system consists of two parallel evaporators with expander and pumps mechanically coupled to the engine crankshaft. Compared to previous work, the

  7. Modeling and control of a parallel waste heat recovery system for Euro-VI heavy-duty diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feru, E.; Willems, F.P.T.; Jager, de A.G.; Steinbuch, M.


    This paper presents the modeling and control of a waste heat recovery systemfor a Euro-VI heavy-duty truck engine. The considered waste heat recovery system consists of two parallel evaporators with expander and pumps mechanically coupled to the engine crankshaft. Compared to previous work, the

  8. 77 FR 50502 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; In-Use Heavy-Duty Vehicles (As... (United States)


    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL 9716-9] California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; In- Use Heavy-Duty Vehicles (As Applicable to Yard Trucks and Two-Engine Sweepers); Opportunity... control of emissions from new nonroad engines which are used in construction equipment or vehicles or used...

  9. Heavy flavours: theory summary


    Corcella, Gennaro


    I summarize the theory talks given in the Heavy Flavours Working Group. In particular, I discuss heavy-flavour parton distribution functions, threshold resummation for heavy-quark production, progress in fragmentation functions, quarkonium production, heavy-meson hadroproduction.

  10. Strategic Materials in the Automobile: A Comprehensive Assessment of Strategic and Minor Metals Use in Passenger Cars and Light Trucks. (United States)

    Field, Frank R; Wallington, Timothy J; Everson, Mark; Kirchain, Randolph E


    A comprehensive component-level assessment of several strategic and minor metals (SaMMs), including copper, manganese, magnesium, nickel, tin, niobium, light rare earth elements (LREEs; lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, and samarium), cobalt, silver, tungsten, heavy rare earth elements (yttrium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium, and lutetium), and gold, use in the 2013 model year Ford Fiesta, Focus, Fusion, and F-150 is presented. Representative material contents in cars and light-duty trucks are estimated using comprehensive, component-level data reported by suppliers. Statistical methods are used to accommodate possible errors within the database and provide estimate bounds. Results indicate that there is a high degree of variability in SaMM use and that SaMMs are concentrated in electrical, drivetrain, and suspension subsystems. Results suggest that trucks contain greater amounts of aluminum, nickel, niobium, and silver and significantly greater amounts of magnesium, manganese, gold, and LREEs. We find tin and tungsten use in automobiles to be 3-5 times higher than reported by previous studies which have focused on automotive electronics. Automotive use of strategic and minor metals is substantial, with 2013 vehicle production in the United States, Canada, EU15, and Japan alone accounting for approximately 20% of global production of Mg and Ta and approximately 5% of Al, Cu, and Sn. The data and analysis provide researchers, recyclers, and decision-makers additional insight into the vehicle content of strategic and minor metals of current interest.

  11. Design sensitivity analysis for heavy-duty hybrid electric trucks with a waste heat recovery system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbruggen, F.J.R.; Hofman, T.

    One general trend aiming to improve the development of hybrid electric powertrains is the reduction of production cost of powertrains by developing powertrain components that can be used for multiple vehicle segments. The development of these kind of modular powertrain components requires knowledge

  12. Reducing Auxiliary Energy Consumption of Heavy Trucks by Onboard Prediction and Real-time Optimization


    Khodabakhshian, Mohammad; Feng, Lei; Börjesson, Stefan; Lindgärde, Olof; Wikander, Jan


    The electric engine cooling system, where the coolant pump and the radiator fan are driven by electric motors, admits advanced control methods to decrease auxiliary energy consumption. Recent publications show the fuel saving potential of optimal control strategies for the electric cooling system through offline simulations. These strategies often assume full knowledge of the drive cycle and compute the optimal control sequence by expensive global optimization methods. In reality, the full dr...

  13. A distributed optimization approach to energy management for a heavy-duty truck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn, Constantijn; Donkers, Tijs; Weiland, Siep; Kessels, John


    Energy management systems (EMS) aim at minimizing the vehicle fuel consumption and tailpipe emissions under the wide range of driving conditions. Classical energy management systems for hybrid vehicles control the powersplit between the internal combustion engine (ICE) and the electric motor (EM)

  14. Liquefied natural gas as a transportation fuel for heavy-duty trucks: Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document contains Volume 1 of a three-volume manual designed for use with a 2- to 3-day liquefied natural gas (LNG) training course. Transportation and off-road agricultural, mining, construction, and industrial applications are discussed. This volume provides a brief introduction to the physics and chemistry of LNG; an overview of several ongoing LNG projects, economic considerations, LNG fuel station technology, LNG vehicles, and a summary of federal government programs that encourage conversion to LNG.

  15. 77 FR 75257 - Proposed Collection of Information: Medium- and Heavy-Duty Truck Fleet Survey (United States)


    ... standards. Data with this level of detail, especially the combined vehicle build and usage statistics, are... comments. Fax: 1 (202) 493-2251. Mail or Hand Delivery: Docket Management Facility, U.S. Department of... emissions technologies, and usage. The survey is part of a larger coordinated research program aimed at...

  16. Co-simulation of heavy truck tire dynamics and electronic stability control systems (phase B). (United States)


    In the past decade, electronic stability controls (ESC) have become increasingly common on vehicles operating in the United States. The acceptance of this technology has progressed to the point where all new passenger vehicles sold in the US are requ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Hurski


    Full Text Available A model of the straight course of movement of the mobile machine with a traction electric motor DC. Traffic management controller provides a closed classical scheme with feedback. The mathematical model of the electric DC motor with the energy dissipation in the rotor bearings. Design scheme of mobile machines include speed dial controller, traction electric motor, gearbox, transmission and progressively moving mass on the elastic­dissipative wheel. The results of the simulation of the machine in the form of temporary processes of change control signals, voltage and current in the windings of the motor and traction power developed on the wheel.

  18. Scheduling trucks in cross docking systems with temporary storage and dock repeat truck holding pattern using genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Ghobadian


    Full Text Available Cross docking is one of the most important issues in management of supply chains. In cross docking, different items delivered to a warehouse by inbound trucks are directly arranged and reorganized based on customer demands, routed and loaded into outbound trucks for delivery purposes to customers without virtually keeping them at the warehouse. If any item is kept in storage, it is normally for a short amount of time, say less than 24 hours. In this paper, we consider a special case of cross docking where there is temporary storage and implements genetic algorithm to solve the resulted problem for some realistic test problems. In our method, we first use some heuristics as initial solutions and then improve the final solution using genetic algorithm. The performance of the proposed model is compared with alternative solution strategy, the GRASP method.

  19. Heavy weights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The paper mentions the important thing that it was for the country, exporting the first shipping of crude de Castilla to a company of asphalts in United States. It was not a common sale, as those that it carries out the company with the crude of Cusiana or Cano Limon. The new of this shipping is that it was the first successful test of marketing the Colombian heavy crude in the exterior, since previously it was almost considered a curse to find heavy crude by the difficulties of its transport. Today it can be taken to any refinery of the world and the best test is that, after almost a year of efforts to overcome the barriers of the transport, the company achieved its conduction from the Castilla Field, in proximities to Villavicencio, until the Covenas Port, in the Caribbean Colombian coast

  20. Heavy ions

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Antinori, Federico


    Colliding two heavy nuclei at ultrarelativistic energies allows to create in the laboratory a bulk system with huge density, pressure and temperature and to study its properties. It is estimated that in Pb-Pb collisions at CERN-SPS we reach over an appreciable volume an energy density which exceeds by more than a factor 20 that of normal nuclear matter. At such densities, the hadrons are so closely packed that they interpenetrate; novel physics phenomena are expected to appear. QCD predicts that under such conditions a phase transition from a system composed of colourless hadrons to a Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) should occur. A rich ultrarelativistic heavy-ion physics programme is under way both at BNL-AGS and at CERN-SPS since 1986. The results obtained so far have led CERN to officially announce evidence for a new state of matter last year. A long-range programme of heavy-ion physics at higher energies is under way (BNL-RHIC) and in preparation (CERN-LHC). These lectures are meant as an introduction to the phy...

  1. Heavy ions

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit


    Colliding two heavy nuclei at ultrarelativistic energies allows to create in the laboratory a bulk system with huge density, pressure and temperature and to study its properties. It is estimated that in Pb-Pb collisions at CERN-SPS we reach over an appreciable volume an energy density which exceeds by more than a factor 20 that of normal nuclear matter. At such densities, the hadrons are so closely packed that they interpenetrate; novel physics phenomena are expected to appear. QCD predicts that under such conditions a phase transition from a system composed of colourless hadrons to a Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) should occur. A rich ultrarelativistic heavy-ion physics programme is under way both at BNL-AGS and at CERN-SPS since 1986. The results obtained so far have led CERN to officially announce evidence for a new state of matter last year. A long-range programme of heavy-ion physics at higher energies is under way (BNL-RHIC) and in preparation (CERN-LHC). These lectures are meant as an introduction to the phy...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to reduce idle times of mining trucks and shovels in an open-pit coal mine. A heuristic algorithm for making dispatching decisions in conditions of dynamic allocation of trucks is developed. Priority parameters for choosing the shovel after the end-of-truck unloading are introduced. Also, an algorithm for searching for the optimal priority parameters to satisfy the required efficiency criterion is developed. This algorithm is based on a simulation model of a shovel-truck system. The proposed approach is applicable in terms of the group of shovels with a common dump point in various open-pit coal mines. The importance of this work lies in the fact that the proposed model takes into account the random factors related with the duration of loading and dumping, truck movement, repair of shovels and haul trucks, as well as the duration of periods between repairs.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... weight loss (86.8%), skin nodules (86.4%) and diarrhoea (55.3%). Virtually, all occupational groups were affected, with students, civil servants and businessmen topping the list. Key Words: Atypical Aggressive Kaposi's sarcoma, HIV infection. African Journal Of Clinical And Experimental Microbiology Jan 2004 Vol.5 No.1 ...

  4. Aggressive angiomyxoma of the thigh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffernan, E.J.; Alkubaidan, F.O.; Munk, P.L. [Vancouver General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vancouver, BC (Canada); University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Hayes, M.M. [BC Cancer Agency, Department of Pathology, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Clarkson, P.W. [BC Cancer Agency, Department of Surgery, Radiation Oncology and Developmental Radiotherapeutics, Vancouver, BC (Canada)


    Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare tumour that typically occurs in the perineum in women of reproductive age. A small number of cases occurring in men have been reported, all of which were located in the low pelvis, perineum or scrotum. While benign, the tumour is locally infiltrative and consequently has a high rate of local recurrence following surgery; therefore, accurate pre-operative diagnosis is important. The characteristic location of these tumours in the low pelvis or perineum has led to speculation that aggressive angiomyxomas arise from a mesenchymal cell that is unique to the perineum. We describe a case of aggressive angiomyxoma arising in the thigh of a 54-year-old man, which we believe is the first reported instance of this rare neoplasm occurring remote from the pelvis or perineum in a male patient. Cross-sectional imaging demonstrated a well-defined mass that had low density on CT and high intensity on fluid-sensitive MR sequences. Biopsy was non-diagnostic and excision was performed. At histological analysis, the tumour exhibited the characteristic features of aggressive angiomyxoma, with bland spindle cells and large, hyalinised blood vessels in a hypocellular myxoid matrix. Extensive immunohistochemical staining further supported the diagnosis. While the imaging features of these tumours are non-specific and suggestive of myxoid neoplasms, the diagnosis should be considered whenever biopsy of a myxoid-appearing mass yields hypocellular, non-diagnostic material, despite adequate sampling. (orig.)

  5. Quantitative Effects of Vehicle Parameters on Fuel Consumption for Heavy-Duty Vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lijuan; Kelly, Kenneth; Walkowicz, Kevin; Duran, Adam


    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Fleet Test and Evaluations team recently conducted chassis dynamometer tests of a class 8 conventional regional delivery truck over the Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT), West Virginia University City (WVU City), and Composite International Truck Local and Commuter Cycle (CILCC) drive cycles. A quantitative study was conducted by analyzing the impacts of various factors on fuel consumption (FC) and fuel economy (FE) by modeling and simulating the truck using NREL's Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim). Factors used in this study included vehicle weight, and the coefficients of rolling resistance and aerodynamic drag. The simulation results from a single parametric study revealed that FC was approximately a linear function of the weight, coefficient of aerodynamic drag, and rolling resistance over various drive cycles. Among these parameters, the truck weight had the largest effect on FC. The study of the impact of two technologies on FE suggested that, depending on the circumstances, it may be more cost effective to reduce one parameter (such as coefficient of aerodynamic drag) to increase fuel economy, or it may be more beneficial to reduce another (such as the coefficient of rolling resistance). It also provided a convenient way to estimate FE by interpolating within the parameter values and extrapolating outside of them. The simulation results indicated that the FC could be reduced from 38.70 L/100 km, 50.72 L/100 km, and 38.42 L/100 km in the baseline truck to 26.78 L/100 km, 43.14 L/100 km and 29.84 L/100 km over the HHDDT, WVU City and CILCC drive cycles, respectively, when the U.S. Department of Energy's three targeted new technologies were applied simultaneously.

  6. Whole-body Vibration Exposure Intervention among Professional Bus and Truck Drivers: A Laboratory Evaluation of Seat-suspension Designs. (United States)

    Blood, Ryan P; Yost, Michael G; Camp, Janice E; Ching, Randal P


    Long-term exposure to seated whole-body vibration (WBV) is one of the leading risk factors for the development of low back disorders. Professional bus and truck drivers are regularly exposed to continuous WBV, since they spend the majority of their working hours driving heavy vehicles. This study measured WBV exposures among professional bus and truck drivers and evaluated the effects of seat-suspension designs using simulated field-collected data on a vibration table. WBV exposures were measured and compared across three different seat designs: an air-ride bus seat, an air-ride truck seat, and an electromagnetically active (EM-active) seat. Air-ride seats use a compressed-air bladder to attenuate vibrations, and they have been in operation throughout the transportation industry for many years. The EM-active seat is a relatively new design that incorporates a microprocessor-controlled actuator to dampen vibration. The vibration table simulated seven WBV exposure scenarios: four segments of vertical vibration and three scenarios that used field-collected driving data on different road surfaces-a city street, a freeway, and a section of rough roadway. The field scenarios used tri-axial WBV data that had been collected at the seat pan and at the driver's sternum, in accordance with ISO 2631-1 and 2631-5. This study found that WBV was significantly greater in the vertical direction (z-axis) than in the lateral directions (x-and y-axes) for each of the three road types and each of the three types of seats. Quantitative comparisons of the results showed that the floor-to-seat-pan transmissibility was significantly lower for the EM-active seat than for either the air-ride bus seat or the air-ride truck seat, across all three road types. This study also demonstrated that seat-suspension designs have a significant effect on the vibrations transmitted to vehicle operators, and the study's results may prove useful in designing future seat suspensions.

  7. Relationship between boys' normative beliefs about aggression and their physical, verbal, and indirect aggressive behaviors. (United States)

    Lim, Si Huan; Ang, Rebecca P


    This study examined the contribution of general normative beliefs about aggression and specific normative beliefs about retaliatory aggression in predicting physical, verbal, and indirect aggressive behaviors. Two hundred and forty-nine Grade 4 and Grade 5 boys completed the Normative Beliefs about Aggression Scale (NOBAGS) and provided self-reports on the frequency of their physical, verbal, and indirect aggressive behaviors. A series of hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that general normative beliefs about aggression contributed significantly in predicting all three types of aggressive behaviors. When general normative beliefs about aggression were controlled for, specific normative beliefs about retaliatory aggression against males but not specific normative beliefs about retaliatory aggression against females, contributed significantly to predict physical, verbal, and indirect aggressive behaviors. Implications for intervention programs are discussed.

  8. The appeal of violent video games to lower educated aggressive adolescent boys from two countries. (United States)

    Lemmens, Jeroen S; Bushman, Brad J; Konijn, Elly A


    The objective of this study was to test the effect of individual differences on appeal and use of video games. Participants were 299 adolescent boys from lower and higher secondary schools in the Netherlands and Belgium. In general, boys were most attracted to violent video games. Boys that scored higher in trait aggressiveness and lower in empathy were especially attracted to violent games and spent more time playing video games than did boys lower in trait aggressiveness. Lower educated boys showed more appreciation for both violent and nonviolent games and spent more time playing them than did higher educated boys. The present study showed that aggressive and less empathic boys were most attracted to violent games. The fact that heavy users of violent games show less empathy and higher aggressiveness suggests the possibility of desensitization. Other studies have shown that playing violent games increases aggressiveness and decreases empathy. These results combined suggest the possibility of a violence cycle. Aggressive individuals are attracted to violent games. Playing violent games increases aggressiveness and decreases empathy, which in turn leads to increased appreciation and use of violent games.

  9. Planning of Truck Platoons: a Literature Review and Directions for Future Research


    Kishore Bhoopalam, Anirudh; Agatz, Niels; Zuidwijk, Rob


    textabstractA truck platoon is a set of virtually linked trucks that drive closely behind one another using automated driving technology. Benefits of truck platooning include cost savings, reduced emissions, and more efficient utilization of road capacity. To fully reap these benefits in the initial phases requires careful planning of platoons based on trucks’ itineraries and time schedules. This paper provides a framework to classify various new transportation planning problems that arise in...

  10. A concept analysis of relational aggression. (United States)

    Gomes, M M


    The purpose of this article is to conduct a concept analysis of the phenomenon of relational aggression. With the increases in violence among our youth, the topic of aggression, and more specifically relational aggression, has gained an increasing interest. Discussion of relational aggression is imperative because it lends credence to a type of aggression not readily studied in previous decades. A new understanding of relational aggression will aide in future nursing and multidisciplinary research studies and will guide health promotion interventions to alleviate the consequences of relational aggression for adolescent girls. Therefore, with an increased knowledge about the consequences of relational aggression the nurse can provide appropriate nursing interventions to combat the detriment associated with it.

  11. 4. Relational Aggression in Adolescents at Selected

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    relational aggression and the psychological well- being of perpetrators. ... Difficulties Questionnaire - Youth version. Results: Results from ... INTRODUCTION: School bullying and aggression among children and ... social isolation and lower self esteem than their peers. .... significant moderate positive relationship between.

  12. Psychological features of aggression in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    .O. Kuznetsova


    Full Text Available We present the results of empirical study of the psychological characteristics of aggression and frustration response in adolescents with different types of socialization. We describe the qualitative and quantitative aspects of aggression in adolescence. We show the nature of the relationship of a aggressiveness features with type of socialization in adolescents. The described study involved 125 male adolescents aged 13-14 years, enrolled in the VIII grade (56 cadets and 69 students. We used methods of testing, survey, subjective scaling. In cadets, we found elevated rates of aggression and hostility, the prevalence of physical aggression, high scores on Irritation, Verbal aggression and Suspicion, as well as the prevalence in situations of frustration of extrapunitive reactions with “fixation on self-defense”. In the group of students of secondary school, the levels of aggression and hostility an on upper limit of test norms, impunitive reactions, indirect aggression, guilt, constructive reaction with “fixation on meeting needs” prevail.

  13. An innovative food truck chain, strategic planning inspired from the lean start up methodology


    Peñate, Paul Tavares


    Mestardo em Marketing Suportada pela abordagem Lean , o Projecto apresenta um modelo de negócios de uma nova marca de Food Truck, inicialmente a ser lançada na Bélgca. Foodies’TruckZ é a marca sugerida para um novo modelo de negócio de Food Truck que procura inovar alavancando economias de escala, sobretudo em Marketing, e através de uma frota co-propriedade das carinhas food truck. Neste modelo de negócio a partilha no investimento do camião, na comunicação e outros aspectos de marketing ...

  14. Was It Really Worth Pain? Refurbishment of Mercedes-Benz Trucks by Botswana Defence Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rangobana, Samuel A; Alkebaisi, Hussain K


    .... Logistics statistics, for refurbished trucks returned to user units, are also gathered from the asset management software database, Mincom Ellipse, in use by the Botswana Defence Force Mechanical...

  15. Logistics of in-wood chipping and trucking of chips; Palstahaketuksen logistinen ketju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuuja, J. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Faculty of Forestry; Asikainen, A. [Metsaeosaamiskeskus, Joensuu (Finland). Joensuu Science Park


    In this study a in wood chipper and truck transport of chips were modelled and studied by discrete-event simulation. The input data, which included stand characteristics and information about transport distances was compiled by GRASS-program. This data based on the inventory done by Forestry Center TAPIO. With the model various transport alternatives were compared and the effect of work condition factors were studied. It was find out, that a long distance transport with interchangeable container truck gives better productivity than a truck with a trailer. This results from shorter loading time for the interchangeable container truck

  16. Logistics of in-wood chipping and trucking of chips; Palstahaketuksen logistinen ketju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuuja, J [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Faculty of Forestry; Asikainen, A [Metsaeosaamiskeskus, Joensuu (Finland). Joensuu Science Park


    In this study a in wood chipper and truck transport of chips were modelled and studied by discrete-event simulation. The input data, which included stand characteristics and information about transport distances was compiled by GRASS-program. This data based on the inventory done by Forestry Center TAPIO. With the model various transport alternatives were compared and the effect of work condition factors were studied. It was find out, that a long distance transport with interchangeable container truck gives better productivity than a truck with a trailer. This results from shorter loading time for the interchangeable container truck

  17. From provocation to aggression: the neural network


    Repple, J.; Pawliczek, C.M.; Voss, B.; Siegel, S.; Schneider, F.; Kohn, N.; Habel, U.


    Background In-vivo observations of neural processes during human aggressive behavior are difficult to obtain, limiting the number of studies in this area. To address this gap, the present study implemented a social reactive aggression paradigm in 29 healthy men, employing non-violent provocation in a two-player game to elicit aggressive behavior in fMRI settings. Results Participants responded more aggressively after high provocation reflected in taking more money from their opponents. Compar...

  18. Heavy vehicle propulsion system materials program semiannual progress report for April 1998 thru September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.R.


    The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1--3 trucks to realize a 35{percent} fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7--8 trucks. The Office of Transportation Technologies, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OTT OHVT) has an active program to develop the technology for advanced LE-55 diesel engines with 55{percent} efficiency and low emissions levels of 2.0 g/bhp-h NO{sub x} and 0.05 g/bhp-h particulates. The goal is also for the LE-55 engine to run on natural gas with efficiency approaching that of diesel fuel. The LE-55 program is being completed in FY 1997 and, after approximately 10 years of effort, has largely met the program goals of 55{percent} efficiency and low emissions. However, the commercialization of the LE-55 technology requires more durable materials than those that have been used to demonstrate the goals. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials will, in concert with the heavy-duty diesel engine companies, develop the durable materials required to commercialize the LE-55 technologies.

  19. Aggressive priming online: Facebook adverts can prime aggressive cognitions


    Buchanan, Tom


    Through the process of priming, incidental stimuli in our environments can influence our thoughts, feelings and behavior. This may be true of incidental stimuli in online environments, such as adverts on websites. Two experiments (N=325, N=331) showed that the mere presence of advertisements with violent content on a simulated Facebook page induced higher levels of aggression-related cognition in comparison to non-violent adverts (d=0.56 , d=0.71). In a subsequent word recognition task, parti...

  20. Genetic contributions to subtypes of aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligthart, R.S.L.; Bartels, M.; Hoekstra, R.A.; Hudziak, J.; Boomsma, D.I.


    Boys and girls may display different styles of aggression. The aim of this study was to identify subtypes of aggression within the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) aggression scale, and determine their characteristics for both sexes. Maternal CBCL ratings of 7449 7-year-old twin pairs were analyzed

  1. Relational Aggression among Middle School Girls (United States)

    Dallape, Aprille


    The purpose of this study was to examine the correlates that define relational aggression among middle school girls, the relationships among these factors, and the association between the correlates of relational aggression and the type of relational aggression (e.g., verbal, withdrawal) exhibited among middle school girls. The findings of this…

  2. Treating Comorbid Anxiety and Aggression in Children (United States)

    Levy, Karyn; Hunt, Caroline; Heriot, Sandra


    Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention that targeted both anxious and aggressive behaviors in children with anxiety disorders and comorbid aggression by parent report. Method: The effects of a cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention targeting comorbid anxiety and aggression problems were compared…

  3. Male teachers' experiences of own aggression

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    male teachers' own aggression in the Gert Sibande district in Mpumalanga province .... aggression is viewed as a response to a perceived threat. ... sive behaviour develops through emulating the aggressive actions or behaviour others ..... them (the young teachers) it is more acceptable that the children talk softly and move.

  4. Psychiatric nurses' experiences with inpatient aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, H.; Bowers, L.; Oud, N.; Jansen, G.


    Using a survey instrument, the experiences of psychiatric nurses with inpatient aggression were investigated in East London, U.K. On this "Perceptions of Prevalence Of Aggression Scale" (POPAS), annual experiences with 15 types of disruptive and aggressive behavior were rated anonymously. Staff

  5. Aggression in adolescents: characteristics and treatment. (United States)

    Ristić-Dimitrijević, Radmila; Lazić, Dijana; Nenadović, Milutin; Djokić-Pjescić, Katarina; Klidonas, Nikolaos; Stefanović, Vesna


    Vulnerability of young people and frustration of their basic biological, emotional, cognitive and social needs can induce a series of psycho-pathological manifestations, including aggression. Aim of this study is to examine the manifestations of aggressiveness in young people and to establish the difference between aggressive responses of two age groups; adolescents aged 16-19 years and older adolescents aged 20-26 years. The sample consists of 100 young people aged 16-19 years (46 adolescents) and 20-26 years (54 adolescents). For the purposes of this study, we have constructed a questionnaire in which we entered the data obtained on the basis of a standard psychiatric examination, auto- and hetero-anamnesis data, and data obtained using the standard battery of psychological tests. Statistically significant association was found between verbal aggression and physical aggression (p = 0.002), verbal aggression and suicide attempts (p = 0.02), verbal aggression and substance abuse (p = 0.009), verbal aggression and low frustration tolerance (LFT) (p = 0.007), suicide attempt and LFT (p = 0.052). The younger group was significantly more verbally aggressive compared to the older group (p = 0.01). Verbal aggression, which was significantly associated with physical aggression, suicide attempts, substance abuse and LFT, indicates the need for timely interventions for the prevention of more serious and malignant forms of aggression.

  6. Normative beliefs about aggression and cyber aggression among young adults: a longitudinal investigation. (United States)

    Wright, Michelle F; Li, Yan


    This longitudinal study examined normative beliefs about aggression (e.g., face-to-face, cyber) in relation to the engagement in cyber aggression 6 months later among 126 (69 women) young adults. Participants completed electronically administered measures assessing their normative beliefs, face-to-face and cyber aggression at Time 1, and cyber aggression 6 months later (Time 2). We found that men reported more cyber relational and verbal aggression when compared to women. After controlling for each other, Time 1 face-to-face relational aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression, whereas Time 1 face-to-face verbal aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber verbal aggression. Normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression was positively related to both forms of cyber aggression 6 months later, after controlling for normative beliefs about face-to-face aggression. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction between Time 1 cyber relational aggression and normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression was found. Follow-up analysis showed that Time 1 cyber relational aggression was more strongly related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression when young adults held higher normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression. A similar two-way interaction was found for cyber verbal aggression such that the association between Time 1 and Time 2 cyber verbal aggression was stronger at higher levels of normative beliefs about cyber verbal aggression. Results are discussed in terms of the social cognitive and behavioral mechanisms associated with the engagement of cyber aggression. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Heavy quark effective theory and heavy baryon transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, F.


    The heavy quark effective theory (HQET) is applied to study the weak decay of heavy mesons and heavy baryons and to predict the form factors for heavy to heavy and heavy to light transitions. 28 refs, 10 figs, 2 tabs

  8. Normative Beliefs and Relational Aggression: An Investigation of the Cognitive Bases of Adolescent Aggressive Behavior (United States)

    Werner, Nicole E.; Nixon, Charisse L.


    The relations between normative beliefs about different forms of aggression and corresponding aggressive behaviors were investigated in 2 studies of adolescents. In Study 1, we revised an instrument designed to assess normative beliefs about aggression to include beliefs about the acceptability of relational aggression, and we examined the…

  9. Aggression By Whom–Aggression Toward Whom: Behavioral Predictors of Same- and Other-Gender Aggression in Early Childhood (United States)

    Hanish, Laura D.; Sallquist, Julie; DiDonato, Matthew; Fabes, Richard A.; Martin, Carol Lynn


    This study assessed girls’ and boys’ dominance-related behaviors (aggressive, commanding, submissive, and neutral behaviors) as they naturally occurred during interactions with male and female peers and evaluated the possibility that such behaviors elicit aggression from peers. Using a focal observational procedure, young girls’ and boys’ (N = 170; 54% boys) naturally occurring dominance-related behaviors and male and female peers’ aggressive responses to those behaviors were recorded multiple times each week across the academic year. Findings suggested that same-gender aggression occurred at similar rates as other-gender aggression once tendencies toward gender segregated play were controlled. Additionally, there were both gender-based similarities and differences in children’s use of dominance-related behaviors in peer interactions and as antecedents for peers’ aggression. The findings have implications for the literatures on aggression and gendered peer interactions. PMID:22369337

  10. Neurogenetics of aggressive behavior: studies in rodents. (United States)

    Takahashi, Aki; Miczek, Klaus A


    Aggressive behavior is observed in many animal species, such as insects, fish, lizards, frogs, and most mammals including humans. This wide range of conservation underscores the importance of aggressive behavior in the animals' survival and fitness, and the likely heritability of this behavior. Although typical patterns of aggressive behavior differ between species, there are several concordances in the neurobiology of aggression among rodents, primates, and humans. Studies with rodent models may eventually help us to understand the neurogenetic architecture of aggression in humans. However, it is important to recognize the difference between the ecological and ethological significance of aggressive behavior (species-typical aggression) and maladaptive violence (escalated aggression) when applying the findings of aggression research using animal models to human or veterinary medicine. Well-studied rodent models for aggressive behavior in the laboratory setting include the mouse (Mus musculus), rat (Rattus norvegicus), hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), and prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). The neural circuits of rodent aggression have been gradually elucidated by several techniques, e.g., immunohistochemistry of immediate-early gene (c-Fos) expression, intracranial drug microinjection, in vivo microdialysis, and optogenetics techniques. Also, evidence accumulated from the analysis of gene-knockout mice shows the involvement of several genes in aggression. Here, we review the brain circuits that have been implicated in aggression, such as the hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex (PFC), dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), nucleus accumbens (NAc), and olfactory system. We then discuss the roles of glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), excitatory and inhibitory amino acids in the brain, as well as their receptors, in controlling aggressive behavior, focusing mainly on recent findings. At the end of this chapter, we discuss how genes can be identified that underlie individual

  11. Aberrant Behaviors and Road Accidents among Iranian Truck Drivers, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Houshang Mehrparvar


    Full Text Available structural dimensions of which as well as technologic failures such as road quality, and tech-nical faults of automobiles, need to be assessed in detail. Iran has the first order in the world for deadly road accidents. This study was designed to assess the association between aberrant behaviors of truck drivers and the incidence of road accidents in Yazd, center of Iran, in 2010.Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 300 truck drivers in Yazd. We used 3 questionnaires, including one for demographic data, Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ, and one for drivers' self-evaluation of the of their driving.Results: Five types of the behavior had the highest frequency: Misjudge speed of oncoming vehicle when overtaking.; Deliberately disregard the speed limits late at night or very early in the morning.; Ignore 'give way' signs, and narrowly avoid colliding with traffic having right of way.; Stuck behind a slow-moving vehicle on a two-lane highway, you are driven by frustration to try to overtake in risky circumstances.; Drive with only 'half-an-eye' on the road while looking at a map, changing a cassette or radio channel, etc. The more the driver's driv-ing was influenced by emotional and mental states the more deliberate violations and slips.Conclusion: Among truck drivers, safety has not developed sufficiently, and because of the dangers of road accidents both for the drivers and other people and its economic losses, the importance of the presenting some solutions is completely obvious.

  12. Recovery Act--Class 8 Truck Freight Efficiency Improvement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trucks, Daimler [Daimler Trucks North America Llc, Portland, OR (United States)


    Daimler Trucks North America completed a five year, $79.6M project to develop and demonstrate a concept vehicle with at least 50% freight efficiency improvement over a weighted average of several drive cycles relative to a 2009 best-in-class baseline vehicle. DTNA chose a very fuel efficient baseline vehicle, the 2009 Freightliner Cascadia with a DD15 engine, yet successfully demonstrated a 115% freight efficiency improvement. DTNA learned a great deal about the various technologies that were incorporated into Super Truck and those that, through down-selection, were discarded. Some of the technologies competed with each other for efficiency, and notably some of the technologies complemented each other. For example, we found that Super Truck’s improved aerodynamic drag resulted in improved fuel savings from eCoast, relative to a similar vehicle with worse aerodynamic drag. However, some technologies were in direct competition with each other, namely the predictive technologies which use GPS and 3D digital maps to efficiently manage the vehicles kinetic energy through controls and software, versus hybrid which is a much costlier technology that essentially targets the same inefficiency. Furthermore, the benefits of a comprehensive, integrated powertrain/vehicle approach was proven, in which vast improvements in vehicle efficiency (e.g. lower aero drag and driveline losses) enabled engine strategies such as downrating and downspeeding. The joint engine and vehicle developments proved to be a multiplier-effect which resulted in large freight efficiency improvements. Although a large number of technologies made the selection process and were used on the Super Truck demonstrator vehicle, some of the technologies proved not feasible for series production.

  13. Psychoactive substance use by truck drivers: a systematic review. (United States)

    Girotto, Edmarlon; Mesas, Arthur Eumann; de Andrade, Selma Maffei; Birolim, Marcela Maria


    The aim of this study was to summarise the scientific evidence on the prevalence of psychoactive substance use and on the factors associated with their intake among truck drivers. A systematic review was performed in the databases PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library Online, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences, and Cochrane and 36 cross-sectional studies were identified with quantitative results about the use of psychoactive substances by truck drivers. Out of these, 28 were carried out in countries with large land areas and 23 obtained their information through self-reporting. The most frequently studied substances were alcohol (n=25), amphetamines (n=17), marijuana (n=16) and cocaine (n=13). The prevalence of the use of these substances greatly varied: alcohol (0.1-91.0%); amphetamines (0.2-82.5%), marijuana (0.2-29.9%), cocaine (0.1-8.3%). The frequency of substance use was lower in studies that investigated the presence of these substances in biological samples than in those based on self-reported use. In 12 studies that evaluated factors associated with the intake of psychoactive substances, the following stood out: younger age, higher income, longer trips, alcohol consumption, driving in the night shift, travelling interstate routes, long or short sleep, fewer hours of rest, little experience of the driver, connection with small and medium sized companies, income below levels determined by labour agreements, productivity-based earnings and prior involvement in accidents. The frequency of psychoactive substance use by truck drivers seems to be high, although that greatly varies according to the type of substance and the method of collecting the information. The use of these substances was mainly associated with indicators of poor working conditions.

  14. Assessing tether anchor labeling and usability in pickup trucks. (United States)

    Klinich, Kathleen D; Manary, Miriam A; Malik, Laura A; Flannagan, Carol A; Jermakian, Jessica S


    The objective of this study was to investigate vehicle factors associated with child restraint tether use and misuse in pickup trucks and evaluate 4 labeling interventions designed to educate consumers on proper tether use. Volunteer testing was performed with 24 subjects and 4 different pickup trucks. Each subject performed 8 child restraint installations among the 4 pickups using 2 forward-facing restraints: a Britax Marathon G4.1 and an Evenflo Triumph. Vehicles were selected to represent 4 different implementations of tether anchors among pickups: plastic loop routers (Chevrolet Silverado), webbing routers (Ram), back wall anchors (Nissan Frontier), and webbing routers plus metal anchors (Toyota Tundra). Interventions included a diagram label, Quick Response (QR) Code linked to video instruction, coordinating text label, and contrasting text tag. Subjects used the child restraint tether in 93% of trials. However, tether use was completely correct in only 9% of trials. An installation was considered functional if the subject attached the tether to a tether anchor and had a tight installation (ignoring routing and head restraint position); 28% of subjects achieved a functional installation. The most common installation error was attaching the tether hook to the anchor/router directly behind the child restraint (near the top of the seatback) rather than placing the tether through the router and attaching it to the anchor in the adjacent seating position. The Nissan Frontier, with the anchor located on the back wall of the cab, had the highest rate of correct installations but also had the highest rate of attaching the tether to components other than the tether anchor (seat adjustor, child restraint storage hook, around head restraint). None of the labeling interventions had a significant effect on correct installation; not a single subject scanned the QR Code to access the video instruction. Subjects with the most successful installations spent extensive time

  15. Implicit cognitive aggression among young male prisoners: Association with dispositional and current aggression.


    Ireland, Jane Louise; Adams, Christine


    The current study explores associations between implicit and explicit aggression in young adult male prisoners, seeking to apply the Reflection-Impulsive Model and indicate parity with elements of the General Aggression Model and Social Cognition. Implicit cognitive aggressive processing is not an area that has been examined among prisoners. Two hundred and sixty two prisoners completed an implicit cognitive aggression measure (PUZZLE Test) and explicit aggression measures, covering current b...

  16. Social intelligence, empathy, and aggressive behavior: Is a stereotype of aggressive individual as socially incompetent inaccurate?


    Marina Vidmar; Andreja Avsec


    In the present research, which was carried out on 187 high school students (86 girls and 101 boys), we examined to what extent different aspects of social intelligence contribute to indirect and direct aggression and to what extent empathy can act as a mitigator of aggression. We used The Aggression Questionnaire to measure physical aggression, IAS-A (which includes Social Exclusion, Use of Malicious Humour and Guilt Induction sub-scales) to measure indirect aggression, TSIS (which includes S...

  17. Discourses of aggression in forensic mental health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berring, Lene Lauge; Pedersen, Liselotte; Buus, Niels


    aggression is communicated in forensic mental health nursing records. The aim of the study was to gain insight into the discursive practices used by forensic mental health nursing staff when they record observed aggressive incidents. Textual accounts were extracted from the Staff Observation Aggression Scale......Managing aggression in mental health hospitals is an important and challenging task for clinical nursing staff. A majority of studies focus on the perspective of clinicians, and research mainly depicts aggression by referring to patient-related factors. This qualitative study investigates how...

  18. Human-directed aggression in the cat. (United States)

    Curtis, Terry Marie


    Feline aggression-between cats or directed at humans-is, after inappropriate elimination and urine-marking behaviors, the second most common reason cats are seen by behavioral specialists. For diagnosis and treatment it is important to determine the motivation for the aggression. The more common causes for human-directed aggression in cats include play, fear, petting intolerance, and redirected aggression. Other causes include pain and maternal behavior. Sexually motivated and status related aggression are much more rare. Treatment includes a combination of behavioral modification, environmental modification, and, in some cases, medication.

  19. Imaging features of aggressive angiomyxoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeyadevan, N.N.; Sohaib, S.A.A.; Thomas, J.M.; Jeyarajah, A.; Shepherd, J.H.; Fisher, C.


    AIM: To describe the imaging features of aggressive angiomyxoma in a rare benign mesenchymal tumour most frequently arising from the perineum in young female patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of patients with aggressive angiomyxoma who were referred to our hospital. The imaging features were correlated with clinical information and pathology in all patients. RESULTS: Four CT and five MR studies were available for five patients (all women, mean age 39, range 24-55). Three patients had recurrent tumour at follow-up. CT and MR imaging demonstrated a well-defined mass-displacing adjacent structures. The tumour was of low attenuation relative to muscle on CT. On MR, the tumour was isointense relative to muscle on T1-weighted image, hyperintense on T2-weighted image and enhanced avidly after gadolinium contrast with a characteristic 'swirled' internal pattern. MR imaging demonstrates the extent of the tumour and its relation to the pelvic floor. Recurrent tumour has a similar appearance to the primary lesion. CONCLUSION: The MR appearances of aggressive angiomyxomas are characteristic, and the diagnosis should be considered in any young woman presenting with a well-defined mass arising from the perineum. Jeyadevan, N. N. etal. (2003). Clinical Radiology58, 157--162

  20. Drivers’ Age, Gender, Driving Experience, and Aggressiveness as Predictors of Aggressive Driving Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perepjolkina Viktorija


    Full Text Available Recent years have seen a growing interest in the problem of aggressive driving. In the presentstudy two demographic variables (gender and age, two non-psychological driving-experiencerelated variables (annual mileage and legal driving experience in years and aggressiveness asa personality trait (including behavioural and affective components as psychological variableof individual differences were examined as potential predictors of aggressive driving. The aimof the study was to find out the best predictors of aggressive driving behaviour. The study wasbased on an online survey, and 228 vehicle drivers in Latvia participated in it. The questionnaireincluded eight-item Aggressive Driving Scale (Bone & Mowen, 2006, short Latvian versionof the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (AQ; Buss & Perry, 1992, and questions gainingdemographic and driving experience information. Gender, age and annual mileage predictedaggressive driving: being male, young and with higher annual driving exposure were associatedwith higher scores on aggressive driving. Dispositional aggressiveness due to anger componentwas a significant predictor of aggressive diving score. Physical aggression and hostility wereunrelated to aggressive driving. Altogether, the predictors explained a total of 28% of thevariance in aggressive driving behaviour. Findings show that dispositional aggressiveness,especially the anger component, as well as male gender, young age and higher annual mileagehas a predictive validity in relation to aggressive driving. There is a need to extend the scope ofpotential dispositional predictors pertinent to driving aggression.

  1. A novel cascade organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system for waste heat recovery of truck diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Tao; Zhuge, Weilin; Zhang, Yangjun; Zhang, Lei


    Highlights: • A confluent cascade expansion ORC (CCE-ORC) system is proposed. • Cyclopentane is considered as the most suitable fluid for this system. • The CCE-ORC system performance under full operating conditions is analyzed. • The BSFC of diesel engine can be reduced by 9.2% with the CCE-ORC system. • Performance comparison of CCE-ORC and dual-loop ORC is conducted. - Abstract: Waste heat recovery (WHR) of engines has attracted increasingly more concerns recently, as it can improve engine thermal efficiency and help truck manufacturers meet the restrictions of CO_2 emission. The organic Rankine cycle (ORC) has been considered as the most potential technology of WHR. To take full advantage of waste heat energy, the waste heat in both exhaust gases and the coolant need to be recovered; however, conventional multi-source ORC systems are too complex for vehicle applications. This paper proposed a confluent cascade expansion ORC (CCE-ORC) system for engine waste heat recovery, which has simpler architecture, a smaller volume and higher efficiency compared with conventional dual-loop ORC systems. Cyclopentane is analyzed to be regarded as the most suitable working fluid for this novel system. A thermodynamic simulation method is established for this system, and off-design performance of main components and the working fluid side pressure drop in the condenser have been taken into consideration. System performance simulations under full engine operating conditions are conducted for the application of this system on a heavy-duty truck diesel engine. Results show that the engine peak thermal efficiency can be improved from 45.3% to 49.5% where the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) decreases from 185.6 g/(kW h) to 169.9 g/(kW h). The average BSFC in the frequently operating region can decrease by 9.2% from 187.9 g/(kW h) to 172.2 g/(kW h). Compared with the conventional dual-loop ORC system, the CCE-ORC system can generate 8% more net power, while the

  2. Cruel intentions on television and in real life: can viewing indirect aggression increase viewers' subsequent indirect aggression? (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M; Archer, John; Eslea, Mike


    Numerous studies have shown that viewing violence in the media can influence an individual's subsequent aggression, but none have examined the effect of viewing indirect aggression. This study examines the immediate effect of viewing indirect and direct aggression on subsequent indirect aggression among 199 children ages 11 to 14 years. They were shown an indirect, direct, or no-aggression video and their subsequent indirect aggression was measured by negative evaluation of a confederate and responses to a vignette. Participants viewing indirect or direct aggression gave a more negative evaluation of and less money to a confederate than participants viewing no-aggression. Participants viewing indirect aggression gave less money to the confederate than those viewing direct aggression. Participants viewing indirect aggression gave more indirectly aggressive responses to an ambiguous situation and participants viewing direct aggression gave more directly aggressive responses. This study provides the first evidence that viewing indirect aggression in the media can have an immediate impact on subsequent aggression.

  3. The application of smart phone, weight-mile truck data to support freight-modeling, performance measures and planning. (United States)


    Oregon is one of the few states that currently charge a commercial truck weight-mile tax (WMT). The Oregon Department of : Transportation (ODOT) has developed a data-collection system Truck Road Use Electronics (TRUE) to simplify WMT : collec...

  4. 76 FR 22154 - Powered Industrial Trucks Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB... (United States)


    ... manufacturer, paragraph (a)(5) mandates that employers provide a marker on the trucks that identifies the... markers required by paragraphs (a)(3) through (a)(5) remain affixed to trucks and are legible. Paragraphs... . Therefore, OSHA cautions commenters about submitting personal information such as social security numbers...

  5. Analytical solution to energy management guaranteeing battery life for hybrid trucks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, H.T.; Kessels, J.T.B.A.; van den Bosch, P.P.J.; Huisman, R.G.M.


    This paper considers a parallel hybrid electric truck where the tractive force delivered to the wheels can be provided by a conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) and/or a motor generator (MG). This hybrid truck is equipped with a clutch system that is capable of decoupling the ICE and the MG

  6. Research on tractive power of KZC-5 rear dump truck in underground mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Zeyong


    The tractive power of KZC-5 rear dump truck in underground mine is studied in this paper. The principles and ways of defining the power are discussed. It is proved that the power of KZC-5 rear dump truck in underground mine is reasonable in the industrial scale test

  7. 27 CFR 24.230 - Examination of tank car or tank truck. (United States)


    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.230 Examination of tank car or tank truck. Upon arrival of a tank car or tank truck at the bonded wine premises, the proprietor shall... calibration chart is available at the bonded wine premises, the spirits may be gauged by volume in the tank...

  8. Risk of commercial truck fires in the United States : an exploratory data analysis (United States)


    Large trucks are involved in only 8 percent of fatal crashes per year, but 17 percent of fatal fires. The scope of the current body of research is limited. Studies have treated truck fires generally as a subset of vehicle fires or in their own right ...

  9. 76 FR 63988 - Pilot Project on NAFTA Trucking Provisions; Pre-Authorization Safety Audits (United States)


    ...-0097] Pilot Project on NAFTA Trucking Provisions; Pre-Authorization Safety Audits AGENCY: Federal Motor... motor carriers that applied to participate in the Agency's long-haul pilot program to test and... intent to proceed with the initiation of a United States- Mexico cross-border long-haul trucking pilot...

  10. 49 CFR 230.108 - Steam locomotive leading and trailing trucks. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam locomotive leading and trailing trucks. 230... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.108 Steam locomotive leading...

  11. Locomotor diseases among male long-haul truck drivers and other professional drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker; Kaerlev, Linda; Tüchsen, Finn


    -249) and for other truck drivers (SHR: 130, 95% CI: 108-156) compared to bus drivers (SHR: 110, 95% CI: 79-149). All drivers had high SHR for lesions of the ulnar nerve (SHR: 159, 95% CI: 119-207), especially bus drivers (SHR: 197, 95% CI: 116-311). Long-haul truck drivers had high SHRs for synovitis and bursitis...

  12. A Comparative Study of Back Pain among Taxi and Truck Drivers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data was analyzed using SSPSS version 20. Descriptive and analytical statistics to analyze and present data. The prevalence of back pain in Port Harcourt for taxi drivers was 70.4% and 71.4% for truck drivers. The prevalence among truck drivers was due to age ,sitting position and shock absorbers. However variables like ...

  13. The Impact of Wireless Technology on Loading Trucks at an Auto Parts Distribution Center (United States)

    Goomas, David T.


    An intervention was introduced for truck loaders that used wireless vehicle mount computers that included auditory, visual feedback, and immediate data delivery. The implementation reliably reduced pallets from being loaded out of sequence for all outbound trucks in multistop routes. The role of the organizational behavior management (OBM)…

  14. Impact of trucking network flow on preferred biorefinery locations in the southern United States (United States)

    Timothy M. Young; Lee D. Han; James H. Perdue; Stephanie R. Hargrove; Frank M. Guess; Xia Huang; Chung-Hao Chen


    The impact of the trucking transportation network flow was modeled for the southern United States. The study addresses a gap in existing research by applying a Bayesian logistic regression and Geographic Information System (GIS) geospatial analysis to predict biorefinery site locations. A one-way trucking cost assuming a 128.8 km (80-mile) haul distance was estimated...

  15. Structural evaluation for the core sampling trucks, RMCS operations, 200 Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.A.


    This report evaluates the structural adequacy and the integrity of the existing core sampling trucks to withstand impact should the trucks drop off the ramp, either onto the soft ground or onto a non-yielding surface due to operational error, wind, or earthquake. The report also addresses if the allowable tank dome load will be exceeded by the addition of the impact load

  16. 76 FR 68220 - Navistar Truck Development and Technology Center; a Subsidiary of Navistar International... (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-75,151; TA-W-75,151A] Navistar... Renaissance and Alpha Personnel, Inc. Fort Wayne, IN; Navistar Truck Reliability Center, a Subsidiary of... Reliability Center, a Subsidiary of Navistar International Corporation, Truck Division, 3033 Wayne Trace, Fort...

  17. Investigation of RADTRAN Stop Model input parameters for truck stops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griego, N.R.; Smith, J.D.; Neuhauser, K.S.


    RADTRAN is a computer code for estimating the risks and consequences as transport of radioactive materials (RAM). RADTRAN was developed and is maintained by Sandia National Laboratories for the US Department of Energy (DOE). For incident-free transportation, the dose to persons exposed while the shipment is stopped is frequently a major percentage of the overall dose. This dose is referred to as Stop Dose and is calculated by the Stop Model. Because stop dose is a significant portion of the overall dose associated with RAM transport, the values used as input for the Stop Model are important. Therefore, an investigation of typical values for RADTRAN Stop Parameters for truck stops was performed. The resulting data from these investigations were analyzed to provide mean values, standard deviations, and histograms. Hence, the mean values can be used when an analyst does not have a basis for selecting other input values for the Stop Model. In addition, the histograms and their characteristics can be used to guide statistical sampling techniques to measure sensitivity of the RADTRAN calculated Stop Dose to the uncertainties in the stop model input parameters. This paper discusses the details and presents the results of the investigation of stop model input parameters at truck stops

  18. Conformity checking of LPG Transportation Trucks by Modelling and Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallab Maryam


    Full Text Available LPG Loading /unloading site is considered as a dangerous environment of significant risk, especially during LPG transfer operations. These risks may cause catastrophic dangers such as BLEVE (Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapour Explosion, UVCE (Unconfined Vapour Cloud Explosion, etc. The site consists of a tank (RST containing LPG and threetransfer posts. Two posts allow loading of small carrier tankers 6 tons. The other one transfer post transfer LPG contained injumbo tankers 20 tons inside the tank. The industrial site at risks chooses to demonstrate the need for a modelling-simulation approach. The aim is to check first compliance and authorization of the truck when it enters the site for loading /unloading, to verify the authorization to make the transfer, and then, to identify the driver and his training to ensure that the transfer operations are going to take place without incident. Sometimes, it may happen that Consignment Operator (CO is busy orabsent and thus the driver operates alone without being authorized, in this case the site risks a loss of control due to a lack of resources. The modelling-simulation will be done using multi-agent systems that will present the drivers, trucks, PO and loading unloading posts as agents in order to have a model facilitating this checking.

  19. Study of trends in the trucking market in modern conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The article analyzes the features of the transport services market in accordance with its segmentation from the position of statistics on the field of automotive freight. The tendencies of development dynamics and road trucking transport market structure, and particularly the impact of transportation logistics market, including foreign trade cargo traffic of road transport, on the basic trends and the impact of logistics infrastructure development for aggregate indicators of development of transport communications, the size and dynamics of development, market compatibility on investment attractiveness. Balance of consumer, wholesale and logistics market in Ukraine, having similar development trends are established. Market logistics of trucking transport services have a steady trend of development in an objective decline in growth. The necessity of modernization policies in the transport sector at the state level as a software-oriented transport sector investment resources of the economy, taking into account that the share of road transport in the transport system of the country demonstrates the dynamic development with a positive trend in demand for transportation of goods.

  20. Haul truck tire dynamics due to tire condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzabi, R Vaghar; Nobes, D S; Lipsett, M G


    Pneumatic tires are costly components on large off-road haul trucks used in surface mining operations. Tires are prone to damage during operation, and these events can lead to injuries to personnel, loss of equipment, and reduced productivity. Damage rates have significant variability, due to operating conditions and a range of tire fault modes. Currently, monitoring of tire condition is done by physical inspection; and the mean time between inspections is often longer than the mean time between incipient failure and functional failure of the tire. Options for new condition monitoring methods include off-board thermal imaging and camera-based optical methods for detecting abnormal deformation and surface features, as well as on-board sensors to detect tire faults during vehicle operation. Physics-based modeling of tire dynamics can provide a good understanding of the tire behavior, and give insight into observability requirements for improved monitoring systems. This paper describes a model to simulate the dynamics of haul truck tires when a fault is present to determine the effects of physical parameter changes that relate to faults. To simulate the dynamics, a lumped mass 'quarter-vehicle' model has been used to determine the response of the system to a road profile when a failure changes the original properties of the tire. The result is a model of tire vertical displacement that can be used to detect a fault, which will be tested under field conditions in time-varying conditions.

  1. Haul truck tire dynamics due to tire condition (United States)

    Vaghar Anzabi, R.; Nobes, D. S.; Lipsett, M. G.


    Pneumatic tires are costly components on large off-road haul trucks used in surface mining operations. Tires are prone to damage during operation, and these events can lead to injuries to personnel, loss of equipment, and reduced productivity. Damage rates have significant variability, due to operating conditions and a range of tire fault modes. Currently, monitoring of tire condition is done by physical inspection; and the mean time between inspections is often longer than the mean time between incipient failure and functional failure of the tire. Options for new condition monitoring methods include off-board thermal imaging and camera-based optical methods for detecting abnormal deformation and surface features, as well as on-board sensors to detect tire faults during vehicle operation. Physics-based modeling of tire dynamics can provide a good understanding of the tire behavior, and give insight into observability requirements for improved monitoring systems. This paper describes a model to simulate the dynamics of haul truck tires when a fault is present to determine the effects of physical parameter changes that relate to faults. To simulate the dynamics, a lumped mass 'quarter-vehicle' model has been used to determine the response of the system to a road profile when a failure changes the original properties of the tire. The result is a model of tire vertical displacement that can be used to detect a fault, which will be tested under field conditions in time-varying conditions.

  2. Urban risks of truck transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, G.S.; Neuhauser, K.S.


    Truck transport of radioactive material (RAM), e.g., spent nuclear fuel (SNF), normally maximizes use of Interstate highways, which are safer and more efficient for truck transport in general. In the estimation of transportation risks, population bordering a route is a direct factor in determining consequences and an indirect factor in determining exposure times, accident probabilities and severities, and other parameters. Proposals to transport RAM may draw intense resistance from stakeholders based on concern for population concentrations along urban segments but the length of a route segment is also a determinative factor in estimating the transport risks. To quantify the relative importance of these two factors, a potential route for transport of SNF (strict use of Interstate highways) was selected and compared with a modified version that bypassed urban areas. The RADTRAN 4 code for transportation risk assessment, which was developed at Sandia National Laboratories, was used in the present study to assess the relative risks of SNF transportation for alternative routes. The results suggest that emphasis on Interstate highways minimizes total route and urban segment risks

  3. Truck Drivers And Risk Of STDs Including HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bansal R.K


    Full Text Available Research Question: Whether long distance truck drivers are at a higher risk of contracting and transmitting STDs including HIV? Objectives: i To study the degree of knowledge of HIV and AIDS among long- distance truck drivers. ii Assess their sexual behaviour including condom use. iii Explore their prevailing social influences and substance abuse patterns. iv Explore their treatment seeking bahaviour as regards STDs. v Deduce their risk of contracting and transmitting STDs including HIV. Study Design: Cross- sectional interview. Setting: Transport Nagar, Indore (M.P Participants: 210 senior drivers (First drivers and 210 junior drivers (Second drivers. Study Variables: Extra-Marital sexual intercourse, condom usage, past and present history of STDs, treatment and counseling, substance abuse, social â€" cultural milieu. Outcome Variables: Risk of contraction of STDs. Statistical Analysis: Univariate analysis. Results: 94% of the drivers were totally ignorant about AIDS. 82.9% and 43.8 % of the senior and junior drivers had a history of extra- marital sex and of these only 2 regularly used condoms. 13.8% and 3.3 % of the senior and junior drivers had a past or present history suggestive of STD infection. Alcohol and Opium were regularly used by them. Conclusion: The studied drivers are at a high risk of contracting and transmitting STDs including HIV.

  4. Scrotal neoplasia: would truck drivers be at greater risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Seabra


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze how scrotal neoplasias have been managed during the past decade and to question possible factors or professions associated to its presence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated every case reported from 1995 to 2005 at our hospital. We described the clinical scenario, complementary exams, treatments and outcomes. We also tried to verify if there was any risk, predisposing factors or professions that would explain the cancer origin. RESULTS: Six cases were reviewed. Out of these, three patients were truck drivers. Five of them showed restricted lesions without inguinal lymph nodes enlargement. Histologically, six patients presented squamous carcinoma, with two of them having the verrucous type. The median age of patients was 52 years old (31 to 89. The five patients who are still alive had their lesions completely removed with safety margin and primary closure. CONCLUSIONS: We have noticed that the scrotal carcinoma behavior is similar to that of the penis, where removal of the lesion and study of the regional lymph nodes help to increase the patient survival rate. The outstanding fact was that three out of six patients were truck drivers, raising the hypothesis that such profession, maybe due to the contact or attrition with the diesel exhaust expelled by the engine or to sexual promiscuity, would imply in a larger risk of developing this rare neoplasia.

  5. Aggression

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, Robert; Brennan, Patricia


    Genes interact with the environment, experience, and biology of the brain to shape an animal's behavior. This latest volume in Advances in Genetics, organized according to the most widely used model organisms, describes the latest genetic discoveries in relation to neural circuit development and activity. Explores the latest topics in neural circuits and behavior research in zebrafish, drosophila, C.elegans, and mouse models Includes methods for testing with ethical, legal, and social implications Critically analyzes future prospects.

  6. A Longitudinal Investigation of Heavy Drinking and Physical Dating Violence in Men and Women


    Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Fromme, Kim


    Examinations of heavy drinking and dating violence have typically focused on either female victimization or male perpetration; yet recent findings indicate that mutual aggression is the most common pattern of dating violence. The current study investigated the relation between heavy drinking and dating violence for both men and women. Participants (N = 2,247) completed surveys that assessed their heavy drinking and dating violence frequency across the first three years of college. Findings in...

  7. The Production Measurement Model of Open Pit Mine Based on Truck Operation Diagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Xiao-Yu


    Full Text Available Conventional production measurement of truck dispatching system in open pit mine has not been effectively expressed by a mathematical model, which brings a negative effect on the subsequent data mining and a compatibility issue to apply the production measurement with fixed assignment of truck. In this study, based on the proposed concept that truck is not only the carrier of transport material, but also act as the bridges and linkages between the loading sites and the unloading sites, a new truck operation diagram was established, which was further developed to a basic data matrix and a production measurement model. The new model allowed to calculatethe production measurement of the transport, loading, unloading, material and etc, respectively, as well as with any calculation in combination of more than one factor as needed.It solved the compatibility issue between conventional production measurement and the production measurement of fixed assignment of truck with good practical results.

  8. Technology Roadmap for the 21st Century Truck Program, a government-industry research partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The 21st Century Truck Program has been established as a government-industry research partnership to support the development and implementation of commercially viable technologies that will dramatically cut fuel use and emissions of commercial trucks and buses while enhancing their safety and affordability as well as maintaining or enhancing performance. The innovations resulting from this program will reduce dependence on foreign oil, improve our nation's air quality, provide advanced technology for military vehicles, and enhance the competitiveness of the U.S. truck and bus industry while ensuring safe and affordable freight and bus transportation for the nation's economy. This Technology Roadmap for the 21st Century Truck Program has been prepared to guide the development of the technical advancements that will enable the needed improvements in commercial truck fuel economy, emissions, and safety.

  9. Modeling and Design of Hybrid PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Lift Trucks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinzadeh, Elham

    driven lift trucks are being used more and more in different companies to reduce their emissions. However, battery driven lift trucks need a long time to recharge and thus may be out of work for a long time. Fuel cell driven lift trucks diminish this problem and are therefore getting more attention...... in a fork-lift truck. In order for the ejector to operate in the largest possible range of load, different approaches (with fixed nozzle and variable nozzle ejectors) have been investigated. Different geometries have been studied in order to optimize the ejector. The optimization is carried out not only...... a virtual fork-lift system. This investigation examines important performance metrics, such as hydrogen consumption and battery SOC as a function of the fuel cell and battery size, control strategy, drive cycle, and load variation for a fork-lift truck system. This study can be used as a benchmark...

  10. Occupational Hydrofluoric Acid Injury from Car and Truck Washing--Washington State, 2001-2013. (United States)

    Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn K; Eckert, Carly M; Anderson, Naomi J; Bonauto, David K


    Exposure to hydrofluoric acid (HF) causes corrosive chemical burns and potentially fatal systemic toxicity. Car and truck wash cleaning products, rust removers, and aluminum brighteners often contain HF because it is efficient in breaking down roadway matter. The death of a truck wash worker from ingestion of an HF-based wash product and 48 occupational HF burn cases associated with car and truck washing in Washington State during 2001-2013 are summarized in this report. Among seven hospitalized workers, two required surgery, and all but one worker returned to the job. Among 48 injured workers, job titles were primarily auto detailer, car wash worker, truck wash worker, and truck driver. Because HF exposure can result in potentially severe health outcomes, efforts to identify less hazardous alternatives to HF-based industrial wash products are warranted.

  11. Heavy Menstrual Bleeding (Menorrhagia) (United States)

    ... Us Information For… Media Policy Makers Blood Disorders Heavy Menstrual Bleeding Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... It can also be bleeding that is very heavy. How do you know if you have heavy ...

  12. Longitudinal Relations between Beliefs Supporting Aggression,Anger Regulation, and Dating Aggression among Early Adolescents. (United States)

    Sullivan, Terri N; Garthe, Rachel C; Goncy, Elizabeth A; Carlson, Megan M; Behrhorst, Kathryn L


    Dating aggression occurs frequently in early to mid-adolescence and has negative repercussions for psychosocial adjustment and physical health. The patterns of behavior learned during this developmental timeframe may persist in future dating relationships, underscoring the need to identify risk factors for this outcome. The current study examined longitudinal relations between beliefs supporting aggression, anger regulation, and dating aggression. Participants were 176 middle school students in sixth, seventh, and eighth grade (50 % female; 82 % African American). No direct effects were found between beliefs supporting reactive or proactive aggression and dating aggression. Beliefs supporting reactive aggression predicted increased rates of anger dysregulation, and beliefs supporting proactive aggression led to subsequent increases in anger inhibition. Anger dysregulation and inhibition were associated with higher frequencies of dating aggression. An indirect effect was found for the relation between beliefs supporting reactive aggression and dating aggression via anger dysregulation. Another indirect effect emerged for the relation between beliefs supporting proactive aggression and dating aggression through anger inhibition. The study's findings suggested that beliefs supporting proactive and reactive aggression were differentially related to emotion regulation processes, and identified anger dysregulation and inhibition as risk factors for dating aggression among adolescents.

  13. Vehicle to Grid regulation services of electric delivery trucks: Economic and environmental benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yang; Noori, Mehdi; Tatari, Omer


    Highlights: • Potential net present revenues of electric truck based V2G regulation services are investigated. • GHG emission mitigation of V2G regulation services provided by electric trucks are quantified. • The total cost of ownership and the life-cycle GHG emissions of electric trucks are also analyzed. • V2G regulation services for electric trucks could yield considerable revenues and GHG emission savings. - Abstract: Concerns regarding the fuel costs and climate change impacts associated with petroleum combustion are among the main driving factors for the adoption of electric vehicles. Future commercial delivery truck fleets may include Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) and Extended Range Electric Vehicles (EREVs); in addition to savings on fuel and maintenance costs, the introduction of these grid accessible electric vehicles will also provide fleet owners with possible Vehicle to Grid (V2G) opportunities. This study investigates the potential net present revenues and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission mitigation of V2G regulation services provided by electric trucks in a typical fleet. The total cost of ownership and the life-cycle GHG emissions of electric trucks are also analyzed and compared to those of traditional diesel trucks. To account for uncertainties, possible ranges for key parameters are considered instead of only considering fixed single data values for each parameter. The results of this research indicate that providing V2G regulation services for electric trucks could yield considerable additional revenues ($20,000–50,000) and significant GHG emission savings (approximately 300 ton CO_2) compared to conventional diesel trucks.

  14. Aggressive and acute periodontal diseases. (United States)

    Albandar, Jasim M


    Inflammatory periodontal diseases are highly prevalent, although most of these diseases develop and progress slowly, often unnoticed by the affected individual. However, a subgroup of these diseases include aggressive and acute forms that have a relatively low prevalence but show a rapid-course, high rate of progression leading to severe destruction of the periodontal tissues, or cause systemic symptoms that often require urgent attention from healthcare providers. Aggressive periodontitis is an early-onset, destructive disease that shows a high rate of periodontal progression and distinctive clinical features. A contemporary case definition of this disease is presented. Population studies show that the disease is more prevalent in certain geographic regions and ethnic groups. Aggressive periodontitis is an infectious disease, and recent data show that in affected subjects the subgingival microbiota is composed of a mixed microbial infection, with a wide heterogeneity in the types and proportions of microorganisms recovered. Furthermore, there are significant differences in the microbiota of the disease among different geographic regions and ethnicities. There is also evidence that the Aggregatibacter actinomycetemycomitans-JP2 clone may play an important role in the development of the disease in certain populations. The host response plays an important role in the susceptibility to aggressive periodontitis, where the immune response may be complex and involve multiple mechanisms. Also, genetic factors seem to play an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease, but the mechanisms of increased susceptibility are complex and not yet fully understood. The available data suggest that aggressive periodontitis is caused by mutations either in a few major genes or in multiple small-effect genes, and there is also evidence of gene-gene and gene-environment interaction effects. Diagnostic methods for this disease, based on a specific microbiologic, immunologic or

  15. Heavy flavour in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Pillot, Philippe


    Open heavy flavours and heavy quarkonium states are expected to provide essential informa- tion on the properties of the strongly interacting system fo rmed in the early stages of heavy-ion collisions at very high energy density. Such probes are espe cially promising at LHC energies where heavy quarks (both c and b) are copiously produced. The ALICE detector shall measure the production of open heavy flavours and heavy quarkonium st ates in both proton-proton and heavy-ion collisions at the LHC. The expected performances of ALICE for heavy flavour physics is discussed based on the results of simulation studies on a s election of benchmark channels

  16. The passive-aggressive organization. (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert S; Norton, David P


    Passive-aggressive organizations are friendly places to work: People are congenial, conflict is rare, and consensus is easy to reach. But, at the end of the day, even the best proposals fail to gain traction, and a company can go nowhere so imperturbably that it's easy to pretend everything is fine. Such companies are not necessarily saddled with mulishly passive-aggressive employees. Rather, they are filled with mostly well-intentioned people who are the victirms of flawed processes and policies. Commonly, a growing company's halfhearted or poorly thought-out attempts to decentralize give rise to multiple layers of managers, whose authority for making decisions becomes increasingly unclear. Some managers, as a result, hang back, while others won't own up to the calls they've made, inviting colleagues to second-guess or overturn the decisions. In such organizations, information does not circulate freely, and that makes it difficult for workers to understand the impact of their actions on company performance and for managers to correctly appraise employees' value to the organization. A failure to accurately match incentives to performance stifles initiative, and people do just enough to get by. Breaking free from this pattern is hard; a long history of seeing corporate initiatives ignored and then fade away tends to make people cynical. Often it's best to bring in an outsider to signal that this time things will be different. He or she will need to address every obstacle all at once: clarify decision rights; see to it that decisions stick; and reward people for sharing information and adding value, not for successfully negotiating corporate politics. If those steps are not taken, it's only a matter of time before the diseased elements of a passive-aggressive organization overwhelm the remaining healthy ones and drive the company into financial distress.

  17. Aggressive surgical management of craniopharyngiomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manmohan Singh


    Full Text Available Surgical treatment of craniopharyngiomas is challenging and despite advancements it continues to pose a challenge. Proponents of subtotal resection in conjunction with radiotherapy argue that this less aggressive approach can yield appropriate results with the lower morbidity. On the contrary, other argument is that gross total resection is superior. Though surgical management of craniopharyngioma is challenging due to its location and important surrounding neurovascular structures, optimal surgical results can be expected following radical surgical excision. Radical excision of craniopharyngiomas is associated with excellent long-term recurrence free survival. Radiation induced long-term complications can be altogether avoided by excising these tumors completely.

  18. Truck Rollover Characterization for Class-8 Tractor-Trailers Utilizing Standard Dual Tires and New-Generation Single Tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capps, Gary [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). National Transportation Research Center; Knee, Bill [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). National Transportation Research Center; Franzese, Oscar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). National Transportation Research Center; Pollock, Paul [Dana Corporation, Kalamazoo, MI (United States). Commercial Vehicle Systems Division; Coleman, Daniel [Dana Corporation, Kalamazoo, MI (United States). Commercial Vehicle Systems Division; Janajreh, Ibrahim [Michelin Americas Research and Development Corporation, Greenville, SC (United States); Haas, Steven [Michelin Americas Research and Development Corporation, Greenville, SC (United States); Frey, Norm [Michelin Americas Research and Development Corporation, Greenville, SC (United States); Law, Harry [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Fluor Daniel Engineering Innovation Building; Johnson, Eric [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Fluor Daniel Engineering Innovation Building; Lawson, Robert [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Fluor Daniel Engineering Innovation Building; Petrolino, Joe [National Transportation Research Center, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Rice, Dave [National Transportation Research Center, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)


    The Heavy Truck Rollover Characterization Project is a major research effort conducted by the National Transportation Research Center, Inc. (NTRCI) in partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Dana Corporation (Dana), Michelin Americas Research and Development Corporation (Michelin) and Clemson University (Clemson), under the NTRCIs Heavy Vehicle Safety Research Center (HVSRC) for the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). ORNL provided the day-to-day management of the project. The expertise mix of this team coupled with complementary research needs and interests, and a positive can-do attitude provided an extremely positive experimental research opportunity for all involved. Furthermore, this team supplied significant and valuable resources that provided a strong positive benchmark regarding the ability to conduct research within a public-private partnership. The work conducted by this team focused on initial efforts to generate data and information on heavy truck rollover not currently available in the industry. It reflects efforts within Phases 1 and 2 of a longer-term four-phase research program. A 1999 Peterbilt 379 class-8 tractor and 2004 Wabash dry freight van trailer were the test vehicles utilized in this effort. Both were instrumented with a number of sensors to capture the dynamics of the tractor and trailer as it engaged in various testing maneuvers that included: an evasive maneuver, swept sine, constant radius, and a run-off-the-road maneuver. The run-off-the-road maneuver was discontinued because the test track could not safety accommodate such a maneuver. These maneuvers were carried out utilizing both standard dual tires and new-generation dual tires in six test series. Two test series also included the use of a wider-slider suspension. Outriggers were placed on the test vehicle to assure that an actual rollover would not occur, however, the tests were designed to generate lift-off of tires during the tests. One of the main objectives

  19. Sleep deprivation suppresses aggression in Drosophila (United States)

    Kayser, Matthew S; Mainwaring, Benjamin; Yue, Zhifeng; Sehgal, Amita


    Sleep disturbances negatively impact numerous functions and have been linked to aggression and violence. However, a clear effect of sleep deprivation on aggressive behaviors remains unclear. We find that acute sleep deprivation profoundly suppresses aggressive behaviors in the fruit fly, while other social behaviors are unaffected. This suppression is recovered following post-deprivation sleep rebound, and occurs regardless of the approach to achieve sleep loss. Genetic and pharmacologic approaches suggest octopamine signaling transmits changes in aggression upon sleep deprivation, and reduced aggression places sleep-deprived flies at a competitive disadvantage for obtaining a reproductive partner. These findings demonstrate an interaction between two phylogenetically conserved behaviors, and suggest that previous sleep experiences strongly modulate aggression with consequences for reproductive fitness. DOI: PMID:26216041


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Godzhaev


    Full Text Available Now improvement of technological design specification of trucks tires develops very much. In modern mechanical engineering polyamide and kapron cords for tires of line-haul trucks and buses are replaced with all-metal ones (AMC even more often. It was defined that at increase in AMC tires production their technical characteristics were investigated insufficiently. In this regard there were carried out bench tests to compare the main operational indicators of domestic (JSC Nizhnekamskshina production and foreign tires with an all-metal cord: 315/60R22.5 the NF-201 model with 315/60r22.5 the XZA2 ENERGY Michelin model (steering; 315/60R22.5 the NR-201 model with 315/60R22.5 the XDA2+ ENERGY Michelin model (drive; 315/80R22.5 the NF-201 model with 315/80R22.5 the 3D Michelin XZE X MultiWay model (steering; 315/80R22.5 the NR-201 model with 315/80R22.5 the 3D XDE X MultiWay model (drive. The laboratory researches were carried out for the purpose of an assessment of the universal, load, damping (hysteresis and other characteristics of tires with use of the universal functional SIB-1M test-bench. It was established that Michelin AMC tires of steering low-profile 315/60R22.5 XZA2 ENERGY models have the best indicators on power heterogeneity - 0.47-0.89 percent. The high-profile AMC tires of drive wheels 315/80R22.5 of the NR-201 model of JSC Nizhnekamskshina have the worst indicators. However, all the tested tires correspond to GOST 5513-97on this indicator. It was noted that Nizhnekamsk AMC tires of the size 315/60R22.5 are flush with AMC tires Michelin on set of operational indicators, except power heterogeneity, and last one of Michelin tires is lower than Nizhnekamsk ones by 2-3 times. It was suggested to conduct further researches on definition of optimum operational tires indicators because of an intensive use of KAMAZ trucks in agricultural production

  1. Aggression and Brain Asymmetries: A Theoretical Review


    Rohlfs , Paloma; Ramirez, J. Martin


    The relationship between aggression and brain asymmetries has not been studied enough. The association between both concepts can be approached from two different perspectives. One perspective points to brain asymmetries underlying the emotion of anger and consequently aggression in normal people. Another one is concerned with the existence of brain asymmetries in aggressive people (e.g., in the case of suicides or psychopathies). Research on emotional processing points out the confusion betw...

  2. [Lorenz was right, or does aggressive energy accumulate?]. (United States)

    Kudriavtseva, N N


    Evidence supporting the fact that inherited mechanisms of regulation of aggressive behavior as a result of a repeated experience of aggression ending in victories are transformed into pathological mechanisms based on accumulation of neurochemical shifts in the brain, enhancing aggressiveness, and forming aggressive motivation in aggressive winners. This confirms the concept by Lorenz on the existence of a mechanism (but not instinct) of a spontaneous accumulation of aggressive energy that needs a discharge and formation of permanent attraction to manifestation of aggression.

  3. Stress analysis of jacks, frame and bearing connections, and drill rod for core sampler truck No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziada, H.H.


    This analysis evaluates the structural design adequacy of several components and connections for the rotary mode core sampler truck (RMCST) No. 2. This analysis was requested by the Characterization Equipment Group (WHC 1994a). The components addressed in this report are listed below: front jack assembly and connection to the truck chassis; rear jack assembly and connection to the truck chassis; center outrigger jacks and connection to the truck chassis; lower frame assembly and connection to the truck chassis; bolt connections for bearing plate assembly (for path of maximum load); traverse slide brackets and mounting of the traverse jack cylinders; and drill rod (failure loads)

  4. Exposure to nature counteracts aggression after depletion. (United States)

    Wang, Yan; She, Yihan; Colarelli, Stephen M; Fang, Yuan; Meng, Hui; Chen, Qiuju; Zhang, Xin; Zhu, Hongwei


    Acts of self-control are more likely to fail after previous exertion of self-control, known as the ego depletion effect. Research has shown that depleted participants behave more aggressively than non-depleted participants, especially after being provoked. Although exposure to nature (e.g., a walk in the park) has been predicted to replenish resources common to executive functioning and self-control, the extent to which exposure to nature may counteract the depletion effect on aggression has yet to be determined. The present study investigated the effects of exposure to nature on aggression following depletion. Aggression was measured by the intensity of noise blasts participants delivered to an ostensible opponent in a competition reaction-time task. As predicted, an interaction occurred between depletion and environmental manipulations for provoked aggression. Specifically, depleted participants behaved more aggressively in response to provocation than non-depleted participants in the urban condition. However, provoked aggression did not differ between depleted and non-depleted participants in the natural condition. Moreover, within the depletion condition, participants in the natural condition had lower levels of provoked aggression than participants in the urban condition. This study suggests that a brief period of nature exposure may restore self-control and help depleted people regain control over aggressive urges. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Gibbon Aggression During Introductions: An International Survey. (United States)

    Harl, Heather; Stevens, Lisa; Margulis, Susan W; Petersen, Jay


    Little is known regarding the prevalence of aggression seen during introductions of captive gibbons (Hylobatidae). In this study, an online survey was developed to quantify and collect contextual details regarding the frequency and types of aggression seen during introductions of captive gibbons (Hylobatidae). Nineteen percent of institutions (17 institutions) reported observing aggression, and 6 of these institutions recorded multiple instances of aggression, though a vast majority of these cases resulted in mild injuries or none at all. The female was the primary aggressor in 23% of cases, the male was the primary aggressor in 58% of cases, and both were the primary aggressor in 1 case. Although these aggressive interactions were often not associated with a known cause, 27% of cases were associated with food displacement. In most cases, management changes, including trying new pairings, greatly reduced situational aggression, suggesting that individual personalities may play a factor in aggression. These data begin to explain the extent of aggression observed in captive gibbons; future studies will address possible correlations with aggression and introduction techniques.

  6. Genetic background of aggressive behaviour in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Stanisław Proskura


    Full Text Available The background of aggression is very complicated and the basis of its occurrence has not been well explained yet. It is thought that tendency to aggressiveness is an effect of both environmental and genetic factors. Aggression is a very undesirable behavioural trait in dogs living with humans. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between two polymorphisms: DRD4 intron II VNTR and C/T substitution in exon I HTR2B genes and aggressive behaviour in dogs. The VNTR polymorphism in the DRD4 gene was detected by agarose gel electrophoresis following PCR amplification, whereas C/T substitution in the HTR2B gene was analysed using amplification created restriction site-polymerase chain reaction (ACRS-PCR. A total of 121 dogs of several breeds were analyzed. All animals were classified based on a veterinary interview and observation in two groups: aggressive (n = 21 and non-aggressive (n = 100. Significant differences in DRD4 genotype frequencies between aggressive and non-aggressive dogs were observed (P DRD4 gene with the occurrence of aggressive behaviour in dogs. Moreover, the findings give good justification for further research aimed at evaluation of the possibility of using this genetic marker in Marker-assisted Selection.

  7. Psychophysiology of proactive and reactive relational aggression. (United States)

    Murray-Close, Dianna; Holterman, Leigh Ann; Breslend, Nicole L; Sullivan, Alexandra


    This study investigated the joint effects of parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system reactivity to social and non-social stressors on proactive (i.e., goal-directed, unemotional) and reactive (i.e., emotional, impulsive) functions of relational aggression. Two hundred and forty-seven (M age =18.77years) participants completed a series of stressor tasks while their sympathetic arousal (i.e., skin conductance) and parasympathetic arousal (i.e., respiratory sinus arrhythmia) were assessed. Participants also provided self-reports of their aggressive behavior. In the standardized social stressor only, physiological reactivity was related to aggression, such that respiratory sinus arrhythmia augmentation predicted proactive relational aggression whereas heightened skin conductance reactivity predicted reactive relational aggression. Finally, in the context of low skin conductance reactivity, respiratory sinus arrhythmia augmentation was related to heightened proactive and reactive aggression, whereas respiratory sinus arrhythmia withdrawal was protective. Results suggest that the benefits hypothesized to accompany respiratory sinus arrhythmia withdrawal may only occur among individuals with low "fight or flight" stress responses. Findings extend research on the physiological indicators of aggression to relational aggression, and highlight the importance of assessing functions of aggression, as well as physiological reactivity to multiple stressors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Physical aggressive resident behavior during hygienic care. (United States)

    Farrell Miller, M


    Management of aggressive behavior has been identified as a concern for nursing staff who provide institutional care for cognitively impaired elderly. The Omnibus Reconciliation Act (OBRA '87) mandates a trial reduction in the use of chemical and physical restraints, and the development of nursing interventions for the management of behavioral disorders of institutionalized cognitively impaired elderly. Most skilled nursing facilities, however, are limited in their ability to provide environmental and behavioral programs to manage aggressive patient behavior. For the purposes of this study, physically aggressive behavior was identified as threatened or actual aggressive patient contact which has taken place between a patient and a member of the nursing staff. This study explored the nursing staff's responses to patient physical aggression and the effects that physical aggression had on them and on nursing practice from the perspective of the nursing staff. Nursing staff employed on one Dementia Special Care Unit (DSCU) were invited to participate. Interviews with nursing staff were analyzed using qualitative descriptive methods described by Miles and Huberman (1994). Nursing staff reported that they were subjected to aggressive patient behaviors ranging from verbal threats to actual physical violence. Nursing staff reported that showering a resident was the activity of daily living most likely to provoke patient to staff physical aggression. The findings revealed geropsychiatric nursing practices for the management of physically aggressive residents, and offered recommendations for improving the safety of nursing staff and residents on a secured DSCU.

  9. Aggression and coexistence in female caribou (United States)

    Weckerly, Floyd W.; Ricca, Mark A.


    Female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are highly gregarious, yet there has been little study of the behavioral mechanisms that foster coexistence. Quantifying patterns of aggression between male and female, particularly in the only cervid taxa where both sexes grow antlers, should provide insight into these mechanisms. We asked if patterns of aggression by male and female caribou followed the pattern typically noted in other polygynous cervids, in which males display higher frequencies and intensity of aggression. From June to August in 2011 and 2012, we measured the frequency and intensity of aggression across a range of group sizes through focal animal sampling of 170 caribou (64 males and 106 females) on Adak Island in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. Males in same-sex and mixed-sex groups and females in mixed-sex groups had higher frequencies of aggression than females in same-sex groups. Group size did not influence frequency of aggression. Males displayed more intense aggression than females. Frequent aggression in mixed-sex groups probably reflects lower tolerance of males for animals in close proximity. Female caribou were less aggressive and more gregarious than males, as in other polygynous cervid species.

  10. [Motives and interpersonal functions of aggression]. (United States)

    Ohbuchi, K


    In this review, the author theoretically and empirically examined motives and interpersonal functions of aggression. A factor-analysis of Averill's questionnaire items on anger revealed that motives involved in aggressive responses were clustered into two groups: the hostile and the instrumental. It was also clarified that an individual is likely to engage in aggression particularly when some hostile motives are evoked. Concerning the interpersonal functions, the author proposed that aggression might serve four principal goals. (1) Aggression can be generated as an avoidance response to an aversive stimulus, such as frustration, annoyance, or pain, and so on. It depends on the severity of the stimulus. It was however emphasized that aggression is also mediated by social cognition, such as an attribution of intent to a harm-doer. (2) Aggression can be used as a means of coercing the other person into doing something. An individual is likely to use such a power strategy if he/she is lacking in self-confidence or a perspective for influencing the target person by more peaceful strategies. (3) Aggression can be interpreted as a punishment when it is directed toward a transgressor. In this case, aggression is motivated by restoration of a social justice, and thus its intensity is determined by the perceived moral responsibility of the transgressor. Further, it was indicated that aggression is intensified if it is justified as a sanctional conduct against the immoral. (4) Aggression can be also evoked when an individual's social identity is threatened. It was suggested that impression management motives are involved in aggression by an unexpected finding that the presence of audience or the identifiability rather facilitated retaliative aggression. The aggression-inhibition effect of apology was also explained in terms of impression management. In conclusion, it was presented that aggression is a behavioral strategy as an attempt to resolve interpersonal conflicts

  11. Video media-induced aggressiveness in children. (United States)

    Cardwell, Michael Steven


    Transmission of aggressive behaviors to children through modeling by adults has long been a commonly held psychological concept; however, with the advent of technological innovations during the last 30 years, video media-television, movies, video games, and the Internet-has become the primary model for transmitting aggressiveness to children. This review explores the acquisition of aggressive behaviors by children through modeling behaviors in violent video media. The impact of aggressive behaviors on the child, the family, and society is addressed. Suggestive action plans to curb this societal ill are presented.

  12. Design and analysis of truck body for increasing the payload capacity (United States)

    Vamshi Krishna, K.; Yugandhar Reddy, K.; Venugopal, K.; Ravi, K.


    Truck industry is a major source of transportation in India. With an average truck travelling about 300 kilometers per day [1], every kilogram of truck weight is of concern to the industry in order to get the best out of the truck. The main objective of this project is to increase the payload capacity of automotive truck body. Every kilogram of increased vehicle weight will decrease the vehicle payload capacity in turn increasing the manufacturing cost and reducing the fuel economy by increase the fuel consumption. With the intension of weight reduction, standard truck body has been designed and analyzed in ANSYS software. C-cross section beams were used instead of conventional rectangular box sections to reduce the weight of the body. Light-weight Aluminum alloy Al 6061 T6 is used to increase the payload capacity. The strength of the Truck platform is monitored in terms of deformation and stress concentration. These parameters will be obtained in structural analysis test condition environment. For reducing the stress concentration the concept of beams of uniform strength is used. Accordingly necessary modifications are done so that the optimized model has a better stress distribution and much lesser weight compared to the conventional model. The results obtained by analyzing the modified model are compared with the standard model.

  13. Development of Diesel Engine Operated Forklift Truck for Explosive Gas Atmospheres (United States)

    Vishwakarma, Rajendra Kumar; Singh, Arvind Kumar; Ahirwal, Bhagirath; Sinha, Amalendu


    For the present study, a prototype diesel engine operated Forklift truck of 2 t capacity is developed for explosive gas atmosphere. The parts of the Forklift truck are assessed against risk of ignition of the explosive gases, vapors or mist grouped in Gr. IIA and having ignition temperature more than 200°C. Identification of possible sources of ignition and their control or prevention is the main objective of this work. The design transformation of a standard Forklift truck into a special Forklift truck is made on prototype basis. The safety parameters of the improved Forklift truck are discussed in this paper. The specially designed Forklift truck is useful in industries where explosive atmospheres may present during normal working conditions and risk of explosion is a concern during handling or transportation of materials. This indigenous diesel engine based Forklift truck for explosive gas atmosphere classified as Zone 1 and Zone 2 area and gas group IIA is developed first time in India in association with the Industry.

  14. The effect of the descent technique and truck cabin layout on the landing impact forces. (United States)

    Patenaude, S; Marchand, D; Samperi, S; Bélanger, M


    The majority of injuries to truckers are caused by falls during the descent from the cab of the truck. Several studies have shown that the techniques used to descend from the truck and the layout of the truck's cabin are the principal cause of injury. The goal of the present study was to measure the effects of the descent techniques used by the trucker and the layout of the truck's cabin on the impact forces absorbed by the lower limbs and the back. Kinematic data, obtained with the aid of a video camera, were combined with the force platform data to allow for calculation of the lower limb and L5-S1 torques as well as L5-S1 compressive forces. The trucker descended from two different conventional tractor cabin layouts. Each trucker descended from cabin using either "facing the truck" (FT) or "back to the truck" (BT) techniques. The results demonstrate that the BT technique produces greater ground impact forces than the FT technique, particularly when the truck does not have a handrail. The BT technique also causes an increase in the compressive forces exerted on the back. In conclusion, the use of the FT technique along with the aids (i.e., handrails and all the steps) help lower the landing impact forces as well as the lumbosacral compressive forces.

  15. Aggression-related brain function assessed with the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm in fMRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibsted, Anine P; Cunha-Bang, Sofi da; Carré, Justin M


    The Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP) measures aggressive behavior in response to provocations. The aim of the study was to implement the PSAP in a functional neuroimaging environment (fMRI) and evaluate aggression-related brain reactivity including response to provocations and associa......The Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP) measures aggressive behavior in response to provocations. The aim of the study was to implement the PSAP in a functional neuroimaging environment (fMRI) and evaluate aggression-related brain reactivity including response to provocations...... and associations with aggression within the paradigm. Twenty healthy participants completed two 12-min PSAP sessions within the scanner. We evaluated brain responses to aggressive behavior (removing points from an opponent), provocations (point subtractions by the opponent), and winning points. Our results showed...... with the involvement of these brain regions in emotional and impulsive behavior. Striatal reactivity may suggest an involvement of reward during winning and stealing points....

  16. Legal weight truck cask model impact limiter response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinert, N.M.; Shappert, L.B.


    Dynamic and quasi-static quarter-scale model testing was performed to supplement the analytical case presented in the Nuclear Assurance Corporation Legal Weight Truck (NAC LWT) cask transport licensing application. Four successive drop tests from 9.0 meters (30 feet) onto an unyielding surface and one 1.0-meter (40-inch) drop onto a scale mild steel pin 3.8 centimeters (1.5 inches) in diameter, corroborated the impact limiter design and structural analyses presented in the licensing application. Quantitative measurements, made during drop testing, support the impact limiter analyses. High-speed photography of the tests confirm that only a small amount of energy is elastically stored in the aluminum honeycomb and that oblique drop slapdown is not significant. The qualitative conclusion is that the limiter protected LWT cask will not sustain permanent structural damage and containment will be maintained, subsequent to a hypothetical accident, as shown by structural analyses

  17. Hood of the truck statistics for food animal practitioners. (United States)

    Slenning, Barrett D


    This article offers some tips on working with statistics and develops four relatively simple procedures to deal with most kinds of data with which veterinarians work. The criterion for a procedure to be a "Hood of the Truck Statistics" (HOT Stats) technique is that it must be simple enough to be done with pencil, paper, and a calculator. The goal of HOT Stats is to have the tools available to run quick analyses in only a few minutes so that decisions can be made in a timely fashion. The discipline allows us to move away from the all-too-common guess work about effects and differences we perceive following a change in treatment or management. The techniques allow us to move toward making more defensible, credible, and more quantifiably "risk-aware" real-time recommendations to our clients.

  18. Burnup credit applications in a high-capacity truck cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boshoven, J.K.


    General Atomics (GA) has designed two legal weight truck (LWT) casks, the GA-4 and GA-9, to carry four pressurized-water-reactor (PWR) and nine boiling-water-reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies, respectively. GA plans to submit applications for certification to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the two casks in mid-1993. GA will include burnup credit analysis in the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) for the GA-4 Cask. By including burnup credit in the criticality safety analysis for PWR fuels with initial enrichments above 3% U-235, public and occupation risks are reduced and cost savings are realized. The GA approach to burnup credit analysis incorporates the information produced in the US Department of Energy Burnup Credit Program. This paper describes the application of burnup credit to the criticality control design of the GA-4 Cask

  19. Waste management (Truck and rail shipments to Hanford)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, J.P.; Culbertson, R.C.


    As part of the physical decommissioning of the Shippingport Atomic Power Station, Shippingport, PA, a large volume of Low Specific Activity (LSA) radioactive waste was accumulated. The waste, which consisted primarily of radioactive reactor plant components, piping, contaminated asbestos, tanks, building rubble, sludge and ion exchange resins was packaged and prepared for shipment. The waste was transported by truck and rail from Shippingport, PA, to the Department of Energy burial ground at Hanford, Washington, a journey of 2,329 miles. This presentation will discuss the successful management of over 2,600 packages weighing in excess of 3,600 tons of radioactive waste from the cradle-to-the-grave, that is from the time it was generated during the decommissioning process until its final burial at the Hanford, Washington burial site. 1 tab

  20. Noise Pollution Aspects of Barge, Railroad, and Truck Transportation, (United States)


    dBA Trolley 88 dBA 82 dBA 78 dBA 72 dBA Truck 87 dBA 81 dBA 76 dBA 74 dBA Bus 81 dBA 76 dBA 72 dBA 68 dBA Automobile 78 dBA 74 dBA 65 dBA 63 dBA I NO...Environmlent~al Prot~ect~ion Agency, Background Document/linvironment~al Explanat~ion f~or Proposed Int~erstate Rail Carriler Noise Emission Regulat~ions (1974...2). By way of comparison only 0.1 percent automobiles produced this noise level at 70 miles per hour (Figure E-1). Bus and motorcycle noise levels (at

  1. The dynamics of the three-piece-freight truck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Fujie


    and dynamical contact relations between wheels and rails, the nonlinear suspensions and the nonlinear dry friction damping. For low speeds of the truck the kinematic and dynamical nonlinearities might be linearized, but the very strongly nonlinear suspensions and the dry friction damping can not be linearized...... be numerically simulated. Its applications are illustrated in two simple systems. One is an oscillator with a Coulomb dry friction damper in chapter 2 and the other one is the wedge damper in chapter 3. In the mechanical system it is possible that the degrees of freedom will vary with the different friction...... are derived. Chapter 8 provides the numerical methods for the simulation of the system, the discussion focuses on the differential algebraic equations(DAEs) with discontinuous characteristics caused by the two-dimensional friction. In chapter 9 the numerical investigation is provided. The four general...

  2. A Clinical Trial on Weight Loss among Truck Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MS Thiese


    Full Text Available Background: The high prevalence of obesity among commercial truck drivers may be related to sedentary nature of the job, lack of healthy eating choices, and lack of exercise. There may be a link between obesity and crash risk, therefore an intervention to reduce obesity in this population is needed. Objective: To assess feasibility of a 12-week weight loss intervention for truck drivers with a weight loss goal of 10% of initial body weight. Methods: Drivers were selected based on age (≥21 years and body mass index (≥30 kg/m2. The drivers participated in a before-after clinical trial. The intervention included a 12-week program that provided information on healthy diet and increasing exercise, and telephone-based coaching using SMART goals. Outcomes included change from baseline in reported energy intake, measured weight, waist, hip, and neck circumference, blood pressure, and point of care capillary blood lipids and hemoglobin A1c. Exit interviews were conducted to gain insight into driver opinions on the program features and usefulness. This study was registered with the NIH Clinical Trials Registry, number NCT02348983. Results: 12 of 13 drivers completed the study. Weight loss was statistically significant (p=0.03. Reported energy (p=0.005, total fat consumption (p=0.04, and saturated fat consumption (p=0.02 intake were also lower after the 12-week intervention. Drivers attributed their weight loss to health coaching and suggested a longer intervention so that they could reach their goal and become accustomed to the changes. Conclusion: This weight loss intervention is feasible for this difficult population. Additional research is needed to compare this intervention with a control group.

  3. Development of a lightweight electric urban delivery truck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, G.; Martin, R.; Vader, S. [Unicell Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada)


    A study was conducted to develop a lightweight urban parcel delivery vehicle that features a composite material, monocoque low-floor body and a zero-emission electric drive system. The long-term goal of project was to produce a vehicle with an energy efficiency that was nearly 90 per cent better than a conventional delivery vehicle. The objectives of the development phase were to complete the structural design of the composite, monocoque low-floor body. Electric drive options were explored to confirm the feasibility in terms of vehicle range, zero emissions and energy efficiency. This involved characterization of the vehicle duty cycle, development of a computer model of the electric powertrain, and simulations to confirm the vehicle's power and energy requirements. The design of the prototype was validated through testing in accordance with recognized vehicle performance tests and an in-service trial by Purolator Courier Ltd., a major Canadian courier service. Testing of the QuickSider delivery truck included vehicle dynamics, energy consumption, safety compliance, and in-service evaluation. No unacceptable stresses, deflections or resonances were identified in the structure. The vehicle's performance was found to be consistent with design expectations. Dynamometer tests have indicated that the ZEV range of the prototype is greater than the targeted 120 km. The overall energy efficiency of the vehicle was 50 per cent, as compared 11 per cent for a conventional diesel delivery truck. It was concluded that an overall energy efficiency of 75 per cent is achievable in production vehicles if improvements are made to the battery system, drive train, regenerative braking and auxiliary systems. 29 figs., 2 appendices.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Costa da Cruz


    Full Text Available The automotive business in Brazil achieved 10% of the industry revenue and 6% of the formal employment by 2008. The commercial vehicle segment concentrated so far eight truck makers that experienced their best market figures in 2008, the economy crisis in 2009, and an extraordinary recovery in 2010. Government tax reduction programs as well as special financing incentives were undoubtedly decisive to re-stimulate the business during the crisis. Positive Brazilian perspectives with the boom in the agricultural, oil and gas, mining and infrastructure activities plus the coming sports events call the attention of new players that are quickly implementing different business strategies to become part of the game. New emission regulations starting from 2012 also bring uncertainties, challenges and opportunities. With the growing globalization and market concentration it's critical for any industry understand and minimize the forces of competitive pressures. The main goal of this paper, therefore, is to contribute to the academy with an alternative approach of strategic and behavioral analysis of rivalry and competition different than the five forces model of Porter. Ford, Iveco, MAN, Mercedes-Benz, Scania and Volvo were assessed from 2008 to 2010 within three main performance indicators – unit sales, gross revenues and operating profits – supporting the elaboration of the competitive pressure systems mapping model of D'aveni, including a hypothetical future scenario with a new entrant and the potential impacts in the system. Main findings and results portray the asymmetrical strategic behavior of competitors and the temporary dynamic stability in the Brazilian truck industry.

  5. Heavy metal jako subkultura


    KOUTNÁ, Daniela


    This bachelor thesis deals with heavy metal subculture. Its aim is to introduce the most important branches and to show broadness of heavy metal. This bachelor thesis describes development and history, briefly shows Czech heavy metal history alongside with the biggest and most popular Czech heavy metal festivals. It shows the most dressing concerns of society against this style.

  6. The design and implementation of a garbage truck fleet management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen, C. H.


    Full Text Available In recent years, the improvement of cloud computing and mobile computing techniques has led to the availability of a variety of mobile applications (‘apps’ in the app store. For instance, a garbage truck app that can provide the immediate location of a garbage truck, the location of collection points, and forecasted arrival times of garbage trucks would be useful for mobile users. Since the power consumption of apps on mobile devices if of concern to mobile users, an optimised power-saving mechanism for updating messages, which is based on location information, for a proposed garbage truck fleet management system (GTFMS is proposed and implemented in this paper. The GTFMS is a three- component system that includes the on-board units on garbage trucks, a fleet management system, and a garbage truck app. In this study, an arrival time forecasting method is designed and implemented in the fleet management system, so that the garbage truck app can retrieve the forecasted arrival time via web services. A message updating event is then triggered that reports the location of garbage truck and the forecasted arrival time. In experiments conducted on case studies, the results showed that the mean accuracy of predicted arrival time by the proposed method is about 81.45 per cent. As for power consumption, the cost of traditional mobile apps is 2,880 times that of the mechanism proposed in this study. Consequently, the GTFMS can provide the precise forecasted arrival time of garbage trucks to mobile users, while consuming less power.

  7. Aggression in children with behavioural/emotional difficulties: seeing aggression on television and video games


    Mitrofan, O.; Paul, M.; Weich, S.; Spencer, N.


    Background: Mental health professionals are often asked to give advice about managing children’s aggression.\\ud Good quality evidence on contributory environmental factors such as seeing aggression on television and in video\\ud games is relatively lacking, although societal and professional concerns are high. This study investigated possible\\ud associations between seeing aggression in such media and the aggressive behaviour of children attending\\ud specialist outpatient child and adolescent ...

  8. Multiyear Program Plan: Reducing Friction and Wear in Heavy Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.R. Fessler; G.R. Fenske


    As described in its multiyear program plan for 1998-2000, the Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) envisions the development of a fuel-flexible, energy-efficient, near-zero-emissions, heavy-duty U.S. diesel engine technology devolving into all truck classes as a real and viable strategy for reducing energy requirements for commercial transport services and the rapidly growing multipurpose vehicle market (pickups, vans, and sport utility vehicles). Implementation of the OHVT program plan will have significant national benefits in energy savings, cleaner air, more jobs, and increased gross domestic product (GDP). Successful implementation will reduce the petroleum consumption of Class 1-8 trucks by 1.4 million barrels of oil per day by 2020 and over 1.8 million by 2030, amounting to a reduction in highway petroleum consumption of 13.2% and 18.6%, respectively. All types of regulated emissions will be reduced, that is, 20% drop in PM10 emissions (41,000 metric tons per year) by 203 0, 17% reduction in CO2 greenhouse gases (205 million metric tons per year), 7% reduction in NOx, 20% reduction in NMHC, and 30% reduction in CO. An increase of 15,000 jobs by 2020 is expected, as is an increase of $24 billion in GDP. The strategy of OHVT is to focus primarily on the diesel engine since it has numerous advantages. It has the highest efficiency of any engine today, 45% versus 30% for production gasoline engines; and it can be made more efficient at least to 55% and possibly up to 63%. It is the engine of choice for heavy vehicles (trucks), because it offers power, efficiency, durability, and reliability and is used extensively in rail, marine, and off-road applications. Its emission can be ultra-low to near zero, and the production infrastructure is already in place. The primary goals of OHVT are as follows: (1) Develop by 2002 the diesel-engine enabling technologies to support large-scale industry dieselization of light trucks, achieving a 35% fuel efficiency

  9. Beyond the Positive Reinforcement of Aggression: Peers' Acceptance of Aggression Promotes Aggression via External Control Beliefs (United States)

    Jung, Janis; Krahé, Barbara; Busching, Robert


    Being surrounded by peers who are accepting of aggression is a significant predictor of the development and persistence of aggression in childhood and adolescence. Whereas past research has focused on social reinforcement mechanisms as the underlying processes, the present longitudinal study analysed the role of external control beliefs as an…

  10. Media depictions of physical and relational aggression: connections with aggression in young adults' romantic relationships. (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, David A; Graham-Kevan, Nicola; Tew, Emily; Meng, K Nathan; Olsen, Joseph A


    Various studies have found that viewing physical or relational aggression in the media can impact subsequent engagement in aggressive behavior. However, this has rarely been examined in the context of relationships. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to examine the connection between viewing various types of aggression in the media and perpetration of aggression against a romantic partner. A total of 369 young adults completed a variety of questionnaires asking for their perpetration of various forms of relationship aggression. Participants' exposure to both physical and relational aggression in the media was also assessed. As a whole, we found a relationship between viewing aggression in the media and perpetration of aggression; however, this depended on the sex of the participant and the type of aggression measured. Specifically, exposure to physical violence in the media was related to engagement in physical aggression against their partner only for men. However, exposure to relational aggression in the media was related to romantic relational aggression for both men and women.

  11. Behavioural strategies of aggressive and non-aggressive male mice in response to inescapable shock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benus, R.F.; Bohus, B.; Koolhaas, J.M.; Oortmerssen, G.A. van


    The effect of exposure to inescapable long-duration shocks of moderate intensity on intershock activity and on subsequent escape or avoidance performance was studied in aggressive and non-aggressive male mice. The activity of the non-aggressive mice was severely suppressed during the inescapable

  12. Competitive Aggression without Interaction: Effects of Competitive versus Cooperative Instructions on Aggressive Behavior in Video Games. (United States)

    Anderson, Craig A.; Morrow, Melissa


    Extended and tested Deutsch's theory of competition effects. Predicted that people view competitive situations as inherently more aggressive than cooperative ones. Predicted that leading people to think of an aggressive situation in competitive terms would increase aggressive behavior. Increase of kill ratio occurred in absence of changes in…

  13. Relational and Overt Aggression in Urban India: Associations with Peer Relations and Best Friends' Aggression (United States)

    Bowker, Julie C.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Raja, Radhi


    This study explored the associations between relational and overt aggression and social status, and tested whether the peer correlates of aggression vary as a function of best friends' aggression during early adolescence in urban India. One hundred and ninety-four young adolescents from primarily middle-to-upper-class families in Surat, India…

  14. Role Stress and Aggression among Young Adults: The Moderating Influences of Gender and Adolescent Aggression (United States)

    Liu, Ruth X.; Kaplan, Howard B.


    Using data provided by a panel of non-Hispanic white respondents, this study explored whether aggressive response to severe role stress during early adulthood depends on gender and on an adolescent history of aggression. Logistic regression analysis yielded these findings: Men who reported aggression during early adolescence were significantly…

  15. Multistage Mechanical Transmissions with Automatic Control for Advanced Trucks and Buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blokhin Aleksandr


    Full Text Available The study considers the basic trends of development of modern mechanical transmissions of trucks and buses. It provides the developed various series of multispeed transmissions with automatic control and a number of transmissions from 6 to 16 for trucks and buses. The paper shows the basic parameters of the standard series of new transmissions received on the basis of innovative technical solutions. It provides the results of experimental studies of 16-speed transmissions on a special test stand and on the road as part of a truck transmission. Theoretical and experimental data on the gear change time are compared.

  16. "Blurred lines?" Sexual aggression and barroom culture. (United States)

    Graham, Kathryn; Bernards, Sharon; Wayne Osgood, D; Abbey, Antonia; Parks, Michael; Flynn, Andrea; Dumas, Tara; Wells, Samantha


    Meeting potential sexual/romantic partners for mutual pleasure is one of the main reasons young adults go to bars. However, not all sexual contacts are positive and consensual, and aggression related to sexual advances is a common experience. Sometimes such aggression is related to misperceptions in making and receiving sexual advances while other times aggression reflects intentional harassment or other sexually aggressive acts. This study uses objective observational research to assess quantitatively gender of initiators and targets and the extent that sexual aggression involves intentional aggression by the initiator, the nature of responses by targets, and the role of third parties and intoxication. We analyzed 258 aggressive incidents involving sexual advances observed as part of a larger study on aggression in large capacity bars and clubs, using variables collected as part of the original research (gender, intoxication, intent) and variables coded from narrative descriptions (invasiveness, persistence, targets' responses, role of third parties). Hierarchical linear modeling analyses were used to account for nesting of incidents in evening and bars. Ninety percent of incidents involved male initiators and female targets, with almost all incidents involving intentional or probably intentional aggression. Targets mostly responded nonaggressively, usually using evasion. Staff rarely intervened; patron third parties intervened in 21% of incidents, usually to help the target but sometimes to encourage the initiator. initiators' level of invasiveness was related to intoxication of the targets, but not their own intoxication, suggesting intoxicated women were being targeted. Sexual aggression is a major problem in bars often reflecting intentional sexual invasiveness and unwanted persistence rather than misperceptions in sexual advances. Prevention needs to focus on addressing masculinity norms of male patrons and staff who support sexual aggression and better

  17. Lithium in the treatment of aggression. (United States)

    Sheard, M H


    Lithium has become a widely accepted treatment for manic-depressive psychosis. It is dramatically effective for many cases of mania and is useful in the prevention of manic and depressive episodes. Hyperaggressiveness and hypersexuality are frequent components of manic-depressive illness and abate under the influence of lithium. A brief review is presented of the behavioral and biochemical pharmacology of lithium. This documents the inhibitory role which lithium can play in several examples of animal aggressive behavior including pain-elicited aggression, mouse killing in rats, isolation-induced aggression in mice, p-chlorophenylalanine-induced aggression in rats, and hypothalamically induced aggression in cats. The use of lithium to control human aggressive behavior has resulted in controversial findings. In epileptic conditions, improvement has been reported in interseizure aggressivity, but other reports indicate the possibility of increased seizures. Improvement in aggressive behavior in childhood has occasionally been reported as well as in emotionally unstable character disorders in young female patients. Te was a single blind study and the other a large but uncontrolled study. Both studies reported an improvement in aggressiveness as indicated by fewer recorded reports (tickets) for fighting. The final study reported is a study of 12 male delinquents age 16 to 23. They received lithium or placebo for 4 months inside an institution and then a trial of lithium for 1 to 12 months on an outpatient basis. Analysis of results in terms of the number of aggressive antisocial acts showed fewer serious aggressive episodes when the lithium level was between 0.6 and 1 meq/liter than when it was between 0.0 and 0.6 meq/liter. These results must be viewed with caution and are only suggestive since the study was not double blind.

  18. Heavy vehicle propulsion system materials program semi-annual progress report for October 1997 through March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.R.


    The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1--3 trucks to realize a 35{percent} fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7--8 trucks. The Office of Transportation Technologies, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OTT OHVT) has an active program to develop the technology for advanced LE-55 diesel engines with 55{percent} efficiency and low emissions levels of 2.0 g/bhp-h NO{sub x} and 0.05 g/bhp-h particulates. The goal is also for the LE-55 engine to run on natural gas with efficiency approaching that of diesel fuel. The LE-55 program is being completed in FY 1997 and, after approximately 10 years of effort, has largely met the program goals of 55{percent} efficiency and low emissions. However, the commercialization of the LE-55 technology requires more durable materials than those that have been used to demonstrate the goals. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials will, in concert with the heavy-duty diesel engine companies, develop the durable materials required to commercialize the LE-55 technologies.

  19. Deuterium and heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasaru, G.; Ursu, D.; Mihaila, A.; Szentgyorgyi, P.


    This bibliography on deuterium and heavy water contains 3763 references (1932-1974) from 43 sources of information. An author index and a subject index are given. The latter contains a list of 136 subjects, arranged in 13 main topics: abundance of deuterium , catalysts, catalytic exchange, chemical equilibria, chemical kinetics, deuterium and heavy water analysis, deuterium and heavy water properties, deuterium and heavy water separation, exchange reactions, general review, heavy water as moderator, isotope effects, synthesis of deuterium compounds

  20. The association between adolescent entry into the trucking industry and risk of HIV among long-distance truck drivers in India. (United States)

    Mishra, Ram Manohar; Dube, Madhulika; Saggurti, Niranjan; Pandey, Arvind; Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Ramesh, Sowmya


    This study examines the relationship between entry into the trucking industry during adolescence and both sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among long-distance truck drivers in India. Data were sourced from a cross-sectional survey (sample size: 2066) undertaken in 2007 among long-distance truck drivers. The survey spread across major transshipment locations covering the bulk of India's transport volume along four routes. Participants were interviewed about sexual behaviors and were tested for HIV and STIs. The present authors constructed two synthetic cohorts based on the participants' duration of employment in the trucking industry: (1) low (duration ≤ 6 years) and (2) high experience (duration ≥ 7 years). Based on age at entry into the trucking industry, participants were termed as either adolescent (age at entry 4.0%, respectively; adjusted OR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.2-3.1) and syphilis (5.7% versus 3.5%, respectively; adjusted OR: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.1-3.1). These results suggest the need for focused behavioral change programs in HIV prevention interventions for adolescent truckers in India and elsewhere.