WorldWideScience

Sample records for heavy primary cosmic

  1. High-energy multiple muons and heavy primary cosmic-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, K.; Sato, T.; Takahashi, T.; Higashi, S.

    1985-01-01

    Three-dimensional simulations were carried out on high-energy multiple muons. On the lateral spread, the comparison with the deep underground observations indicates that the primary cosmic rays include heavy nuclei of high content. A method to determine the average mass number of primary particles in the energy around 10 to the 15th power eV is suggested.

  2. Observation of Heavy Cosmic-ray Primaries by Means of Screen-type X-ray Film

    OpenAIRE

    Ichimura, Masakatsu; Kamioka, Eiji; Kitazawa, Motoyasu; Kobayashi, Tadashi; Shibata, Toru; Koga, Masataka; Kuramata, Shuichi; Matsutani, Hideya; Murabayashi, Takayuki; Nanjyo, Hirotada; Watanabe, Zenjiro; Sugimoto, Hisahiko; Nakazawa, Kazuma; 市村, 雅一; 上岡, 英史

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the possibility of screen-type X-ray film for the observation of heavy cosmic-ray primaries. We investigate in detail the optical characteristics of the intensifying screen Gd_2O_2S : Tb, and perform a simulation calculation for three dimensional diffusion of scintillation light emitted from numerous δ-rays (knock-on electrons produced by a heavy primary) in the screen. On the basis of these theoretical speculations, we report the experimental results obtained recently by...

  3. Effects of secondary electrons from heavy primary cosmic rays in a MWPC hodoscope. [Multi-Wire Proportional Counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrickson, J. H.; Parnell, T. A.; Gregory, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    A multi-wire proportional counter hodoscope, efficient for both primary track recovery and reading out all wires set by secondary electrons, was flown in a balloon flight experiment covering the range of cosmic ray charge from 4 to 28 and kinetic energy T greater than 0.5 GeV/nucleon. Data on the secondary electron effects in the hodoscope is presented for primary nuclei between C and Fe and kinetic energies between 0.6 and 7.0 GeV/nucleon. The total number of affected anodes in the hodoscope is seen to increase linearly with the cosmic ray change, with a slope that depends strongly on energy over this limited primary energy range.

  4. DETECTION OF A CHANGE OF SLOPE IN THE SPECTRUM OF HEAVY MASS COSMIC RAYS PRIMARIES BY THE KASCADE-GRANDE EXPERIMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chiavassa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available KASCADE-Grande is an extensive air shower experiment devoted to the study of cosmic rays in the 1016 ÷ 1018 eV energy range. The array is composed by different detectors allowing independent measurements of the number of muons (Nμ and charged particles (Nch of extensive air showers (EAS. These two observables are then used to study the primary energy spectrum, separating the events in two samples, on the basis of the shower size ratio, corrected for attenuation in the atmosphere, lnNμ/ lnNch. The two samples represent the light and heavy mass groups of the primaries. In the studied energy range only the spectrum of heavy primaries shows a significant change of slope, the energy (estimated using the QGSJET II hadronic interaction model of this feature is in agreeement with the expectations of a rigidity dependent knee feature.

  5. Heavy particles at the LHC and in cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrukhin, A. A.; Bogdanov, A. G.

    2017-09-01

    Direct production of heavy particles and their indirect signatures, detected at the LHC as anomalous events, are considered. Analogous anomalous events at comparable c.m.s. energies were detected in cosmic-ray experiments several decades ago. All these exotic phenomena and processes can be interpreted from a common viewpoint by assuming the production of quark-gluon blobs with large orbital momenta which hinder the emission of light rather than heavy quarks including the top quarks. The prospects for testing this model in the LHC experiments are discussed.

  6. Kneelike structure in the spectrum of the heavy component of cosmic rays observed with KASCADE-Grande.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, W D; Arteaga-Velázquez, J C; Bekk, K; Bertaina, M; Blümer, J; Bozdog, H; Brancus, I M; Buchholz, P; Cantoni, E; Chiavassa, A; Cossavella, F; Daumiller, K; de Souza, V; Di Pierro, F; Doll, P; Engel, R; Engler, J; Finger, M; Fuhrmann, D; Ghia, P L; Gils, H J; Glasstetter, R; Grupen, C; Haungs, A; Heck, D; Hörandel, J R; Huber, D; Huege, T; Isar, P G; Kampert, K-H; Kang, D; Klages, H O; Link, K; Łuczak, P; Ludwig, M; Mathes, H J; Mayer, H J; Melissas, M; Milke, J; Mitrica, B; Morello, C; Navarra, G; Oehlschläger, J; Ostapchenko, S; Over, S; Palmieri, N; Petcu, M; Pierog, T; Rebel, H; Roth, M; Schieler, H; Schröder, F G; Sima, O; Toma, G; Trinchero, G C; Ulrich, H; Weindl, A; Wochele, J; Wommer, M; Zabierowski, J

    2011-10-21

    We report the observation of a steepening in the cosmic ray energy spectrum of heavy primary particles at about 8×10(16) eV. This structure is also seen in the all-particle energy spectrum, but is less significant. Whereas the "knee" of the cosmic ray spectrum at 3-5×10(15) eV was assigned to light primary masses by the KASCADE experiment, the new structure found by the KASCADE-Grande experiment is caused by heavy primaries. The result is obtained by independent measurements of the charged particle and muon components of the secondary particles of extensive air showers in the primary energy range of 10(16) to 10(18) eV. The data are analyzed on a single-event basis taking into account also the correlation of the two observables. © 2011 American Physical Society

  7. Coulomb explosion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons induced by heavy cosmic rays: carbon chains production rates

    OpenAIRE

    Chabot, Marin; Béroff, Karine; Dartois, Emmanuel; Pino, Thomas; Godard, Marie

    2017-01-01

    Cosmic Rays (CR) process the matter of the Interstellar Medium. Such energetic processing not only modifies the interstellar matter but also injects chemical species in the gas phase. In this work, we study the effect of the CR on the astrophysical polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). For events in which many electrons are stripped out from the PAH by interaction with a heavy cosmic ray particle, coulomb explosion takes place and carbon chains are produced. The fragments production rates o...

  8. Theoretical aspects of heavy-flavour production at ultra-high cosmic ray energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalves V. P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main theoretical aspects of heavy-flavour production at ultra-high cosmic ray energies are reviewed, with particular emphasis in the new dynamical effects which are expected to be present in the kinematical range probed by the IceCube and Pierre Auger Observatories. The gluon saturation effects for heavy quark production and the contribution of double parton scattering processes are analysed. Finally, the intrinsic heavy quark hypothesis is presented and some of its phenomenological implications at high energies are discussed.

  9. ‘Excess’ of primary cosmic ray electrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With the accurate cosmic ray (CR electron and positron spectra (denoted as Φe− and Φe+, respectively measured by AMS-02 Collaboration, the difference between the electron and positron fluxes (i.e., ΔΦ=Φe−−Φe+, dominated by the propagated primary electrons, can be reliably inferred. In the standard model, the spectrum of propagated primary CR electrons at energies ≥30GeV softens with the increase of energy. The absence of any evidence for such a continuous spectral softening in ΔΦ strongly suggests a significant ‘excess’ of primary CR electrons and at energies of 100–400GeV the identified excess component has a flux comparable to that of the observed positron excess. Middle-age but ‘nearby’ supernova remnants (e.g., Monogem and Geminga are favored sources for such an excess.

  10. Exploring Ultra-Heavy Cosmic Rays with the Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder (TIGER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Jason; Supertiger Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Elements heavier than iron are primarily synthesized by neutron capture. These elements can be accelerated as cosmic-rays and measuring their abundances at Earth can yield information about galactic cosmic-rays' sources, the acceleration processes and the composition of the universe beyond the boundaries of our solar system. The Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder (TIGER) and its larger successor SuperTIGER was designed to measure the abundance of these ultra-heavy cosmic rays between Z=10 and Z=60. These detectors utilize scintillators with a wavelength shifter bar and PMT readout system as well as aerogel and acrylic Cherenkov detectors to identify the charge and energy of a particle and utilize a scintillating fiber hodoscope to provide trajectory information. In this talk I will review the results from this highly successful program, give the status for the next SuperTIGER flight planned for a December 2017 launch from Antarctica, and discuss the future direction of the program.

  11. Heavy ion beam test results of the silicon charge detector for the CREAM cosmic ray balloon mission

    CERN Document Server

    Park, I H; Bok, J B; Ganel, O; Hahn, J H; Han, W; Hyun, H J; Kim, H J; Kim, M Y; Kim, Y J; Lee, J K; Lutz, L; Malinine, A; Min, K W; Nam, S W; Nam, W; Park, H; Park, N H; Seo, E S; Seon, K I; Sone, J H; Yang, J; Zinn, S Y

    2004-01-01

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) experiment is designed to measure cosmic ray elemental spectra to help understand the source and acceleration mechanisms of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. The payload is planned to launch in December 2004 from McMurdo Station, Antarctica as a balloon mission. A Silicon Charge Detector (SCD) was designed and constructed for the CREAM experiment to provide precision charge measurements of incident cosmic rays with a resolution of 0.2 charge unit or better. The SCD was exposed to heavy ion beams at CERN's H2 beam line in November 2003. The results reported here show the SCD performs as designed.

  12. Studying Heavy Ion Collisions Using Methods From Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaardhøje J. J.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We present and discuss a framework for studying the morphology of high-multiplicity events from relativistic heavy ion collisions using methods commonly employed in the analysis of the photons from the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB. The analysis is based on the decomposition of the distribution of the number density of (charged particles expressed in polar and azimuthal coordinates into a sum of spherical harmonic functions. We present an application of the method exploting relevant symmetries to the study of azimuthal correlations arizing from collective flow among charged particles produced in relativistic heavy ion collisions. We discuss perspectives for event-by- event analyses, which with increasing collision energy will eventually open entirely new dimensions in the study of ultrarelaticistic heavy ion reactions.

  13. A search for heavy long lived particles in high energy cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mincer, A.; Freudenreich, H.; Goodman, J. A.; Tonwar, S. C.; Yodh, G. B.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Berley, D.

    1985-01-01

    The results of an experimental search for energetic particles which arrive at sea level delayed with respect to the shower front, with an order of magnitude greater exposure than previous experiments are presented. The experiment was sensitive to showers from cosmic rays between 10 to the 5th power and 10 to the 7th power Gev per nucleus. No evidence for the existence of heavy long lived particles in air showers was found. An upper limit to the flux of these particles was set at the 90% confidence level of 1.4 x 10 to the minus 12th power cm(-2) sr(-1) s(-1).

  14. Coherent Effect In The Prefertial Acceleration Of Heavy Cosmic Ray Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, S. M.; Mahrous, A.; Amer, M.

    A coherent mechanism is developed for the preferential acceleration of relativistic heavy solar and galactic cosmic ray nuclei. In this mechanism bunches of high density relativistic electrons serve as vehicles for the acceleration of trapped positive ions over short distances to relativistic velocities. The pinch effect and the seeding of a number of stripped ions help to stabilize the electron beam which might break into small bunches. These positive ions would be trapped electrostatic in the beam's very deep potential well and would necessarily acquire the same velocity of the electrons on acceleration. For a perfect coherent mechanism, the radius of the beam L should be LFission reactions can not be ruled out. Gamma rays can be produced in this case as well as from nuclear reactions resulting from the collision of the extremely high energy nuclei with the ambient plasma in the solar or stellar atmospheres or in interstellar or intergalactic medium. The main principle of this mechanism has been applied in electron-ring accelerators. This mechanism is capable of explaining the observed preferential increase in the flux of relativistic heavy cosmic ray nuclei.

  15. Towards the energy spectrum and composition of primary cosmic rays in the knee region: methods and results at KASCADE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haungs, A. E-mail: haungs@ik3.fzk.de; Antoni, T.; Apel, W.D.; Badea, F.; Bekk, K.; Bernloehr, K.; Bluemer, H.; Bollmann, E.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I.M.; Buettner, C.; Chilingarian, A.; Daumiller, K.; Doll, P.; Engler, J.; Fessler, F.; Gils, H.J.; Glasstetter, R.; Haeusler, R.; Hafemann, W.; Heck, D.; Hoerandel, J.R.; Holst, T.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kempa, J.; Klages, H.O.; Knapp, J.; Martello, D.; Mathes, H.J.; Matussek, P.; Mayer, H.J.; Milke, J.; Muehlenberg, D.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Petcu, M.; Rebel, H.; Risse, M.; Roth, M.; Schatz, G.; Thouw, T.; Ulrich, H.; Vardanyan, A.; Vulpescu, B.; Weber, J.H.; Wentz, J.; Wiegert, T.; Wochele, J.; Zabierowski, J.; Zagromski, S

    2001-04-01

    KASCADE (KArlsruhe Shower Core and Array DEtector) is a multi-detector setup to observe the electromagnetic, muonic and hadronic air shower components simultaneously at primary energies in the region of the 'knee'. A large number of observables per single shower are registered. The main aims of the experiment are the determination of the primary energy spectrum around the 'knee' and the energy variation of the chemical composition. The measurements reveal an increasing mean mass of the primary cosmic rays above the observed kink, and a sharper knee for the light primary component than for the all-particle spectrum, and the absence of a knee for the heavy component between 1 and 10 PeV.

  16. Particle trajectories in seeds of Lactuca sativa and chromosome aberrations after exposure to cosmic heavy ions on cosmos biosatellites 8 and 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facius, R.; Scherer, K.; Reitz, G.; Bücker, H.; Nevzgodina, L. V.; Maximova, E. N.

    1994-10-01

    The potentially specific importance of the heavy ions of the galactic cosmic radiation for radiation protection in manned spaceflight continues to stimulate in situ, i.e., spaceflight experiments to investigate their radiobiological properties. Chromosome aberrations as an expression of a direct assault on the genome are of particular interest in view of cancerogenesis being the primary radiation risk for man in space. In such investigations the establishment of the geometrical correlation between heavy ions' trajectories and the location of radiation sensitive biological substructures is an essential task. The overall qualitative and quantitative precision achieved for the identification of particle trajectories in the order of 2~10 μm as well as the contributing sources of uncertainties are discussed. We describe how this was achieved for seeds of Lactuca sativa as biological test organisms, whose location and orientation had to be derived from contact photographies displaying their outlines and those of the holder plates only. The incidence of chromosome aberrations in cells exposed during the COSMOS 1887 (Biosatellite 8) and the COSMOS 2044 (Biosatellite 9) mission was determined for seeds hit by cosmic heavy ions. In those seeds the incidence of both single and multiple chromosome aberrations was enhanced. The results of the Biosatellite 9 experiment, however, are confounded by spaceflight effects unrelated to the passage of heavy ions.

  17. Cosmic ray composition studies through the Gerasimova-Zatsepin effects of heavy nuclei at LAAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyono, A.; Matsumoto, H.; Okei, K.; Tsuji, S.; Ohara, S.; Ochi, N.; Konishi, T.; Takahashi, N.; Yamamoto, I.; Nakatsuka, T.; Nakamura, T.; Ohmori, N.; Saitoh, K.

    2011-09-01

    Extensive air showers (EASs) originated from primary cosmic ray energies above 1015 eV have been measured at multiple EAS observatories deployed in Japan since Sept. 1996. The typical EAS array has been located at the rooftop of the buildings in the university campus, and has GPS-disciplined 10 MHz oscillator to provide the UTC time stamp for each EAS event within a few μs accuracies. Searching for simultaneous and parallel EAS events at multiple EAS observatories due to Gerasimova-Zatsepin (GZ) effects have been carried out by comparing EAS arrival time stamps and directions detected by several baseline combinations of EAS arrays. The EAS pairs whose time difference and angular distance were less than 5 ms and less than 15° respectively, were selected and their angular distances from the solar direction and the lunar direction were examined. The data were compared with numerical GZ probability as a function of arrival directions of cosmic ray nuclei. Consequently, significant excesses of these events in the solar direction as expected in the numerical prediction of GZ effects were not found. We however found that the deficiencies of EAS pairs in the lunar direction, but its deviation is not significant.

  18. The response of an RC line MWPC to primary cosmic rays. [Multi-Wire Proportional Counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, J. C.; Selig, W. J.; Austin, R. W.; Derrickson, J. H.; Parnell, T. A.

    1978-01-01

    A simple 50 x 50 sq cm MWPC plane was arranged as an RC-line and flown on a balloon flight with the MSFC-UAH Cosmic Ray experiment. Positions of primary cosmic ray tracks in the RC-line were determined by the risetime method and compared with the expected position as indicated by a best line fitted through four planes of the conventional MWPC hodoscope. Mean errors were estimated for sea-level muons, and CNO group and iron group particles. It is believed that the delta-rays accompanying the primaries degraded the position resolution. Measured standard deviations allowing for uncertainty in the true track position are of the order of 1 cm or less in the primary charge region between 7 and 26.

  19. Simulation studies and implementation of Linsley's EAS time structure method for the primary cosmic ray spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hiroki; Iyono, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Isao; Kohata, Masaki; Okei, Kazuhide; Tsuji, Shuhei; Nakatsuka, Takao; Ochi, Nobuaki

    2010-03-01

    A compact extensive air shower (EAS) array of eight plastic scintillators viewed by HAMAMATSU H7195 photomultiplier tubes covering a total area of 2 m2 is built in the rooftop of the Faculty of Technology building, Okayama University of Science, and operated since April 2006. We have installed a shift register system in our EAS array to record EAS particle arrival time within 5 μs. We have also performed detector simulations based on the database obtained from the AIRES simulator and developed the procedures to estimate the primary cosmic ray energy from Linsley's method. Applying this method to our EAS data and the simulation result, we derived the energy spectrum from 1016 to 1019.5 eV. Consequently, we obtained the power-law index of -3.2(+0.46 -0.8) in the primary energy range of 1016 to 1018.5 eV, and obtained that a change around 1018 eV appeared if not taking account of the zenith angle distribution of primary cosmic rays. We also showed the improvement of energy resolution by applying the restriction of zenith angle of primary cosmic rays in our simulation, as well as the potential of Linsley's method with a mini array.

  20. Linsley's EAS time structure method for the primary cosmic ray spectrum at LAAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyono, A.; Matsumoto, H.; Okei, K.; Tsuji, S.; Ohara, S.; Ochi, N.; Konishi, T.; Takahashi, N.; Yamamoto, I.; Nakatsuka, T.; Nakamura, T.; Ohmori, N.; Saito, K.

    2011-09-01

    We have installed a shift register system of extensive air show (EAS) particles in a compact EAS array built on the rooftop of the Faculty of Engineering building in the campus of Okayama University of Science and being operated since April 2006 as part of Large Area Air Shower (LAAS) experiments , in order to register each arrival time of EAS particles within 5 μs. Detector simulations based on the database obtained from one of the standard cosmic ray propagation simulator in the atmosphere (AIRES) have also been carried out and the procedures to estimate the primary cosmic ray energy from the Linsley's method have been developed and examined. Applying Linsley's method to the EAS data obtained by our EAS arrays and the simulation results, we derived the energy spectrum from 1016 eV to 1019.5 eV. Consequently, we obtained the power-law index of -3.2 (+0.46-0.8) in the primary energy range of 1016 eV to 1018.5 eV, and obtained that a change around 1018 eV appeared if not taking account of the zenith angle distribution of primary cosmic rays. We compared the obtained energy spectrum with other experimental data above 1016 eV energies, and showed the two components of power-law energy spectra well described our data. We also showed the improvement of energy resolution by applying the restriction of zenith angle of primary cosmic rays in our simulation results, as well as the potential of the Linsley's method with a compact EAS array.

  1. Longitudinal development of giant air showers and problem of estimating primary cosmic particle energy

    CERN Document Server

    Antonov, E E; Fedunin, E Y; Kirillov, A A; Roganova, T M; Fedorova, G F

    2002-01-01

    The attenuation length of the parameter rho sub 6 sub 0 sub 0 may differ as such as 40-50 % from the adopted one in experiments for the individual giant air showers. Thus the reliability of the experimental estimates of the primary-cosmic-particle energy in the region of superhigh energies may be doubtful. Cascade curves for electron and muon densities and similar cascade curves for total number of particles are built. Individual and mean cascade curves are approximated

  2. A possible gamma ray primary as the highest energy cosmic rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H A Kermani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Muon-electron ratio and median zenith angle of Extensive Air Shower (EAS is calculated for the energy range of 1019 to bigger than 1020 eV. The results are compared with the simulation work of Capdevielle et al [1]. The results show a good correspondence with proton primary composition up to energy level of 7×1019 eV. In higher energies above GZK cut off, a considerable increase is calculated in cosmic primary photons. In addition, event frequency distribution above energy 7×1019 eV shows increasing concentration towards super galactic plane.

  3. Measurement of the cosmic rays light component (p+He) primary spectrum with ARGO-YBJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panico, B., E-mail: beatrice.panico@roma2.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita Roma ' Tor Vergata' , Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, Roma (Italy); INFN, Sezione Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, Roma (Italy); Di Sciascio, G. [INFN, Sezione Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, Roma (Italy)

    2012-11-11

    The ARGO-YBJ experiment, located at the Yangbajing Cosmic Ray Laboratory (Tibet, 4300 m a.s.l., 606 g/cm{sup 2}) has an high segmentation that allows the detection of air showers with greater detail and lower energy threshold (a few hundred GeV) compared to other EAS arrays. The spectrum of the primary cosmic ray light (p+He) component in the energy range {approx}10-100TeV is measured selecting quasi-vertical showers ({theta}<15 Degree-Sign ) with the reconstructed core position located in a 40 Multiplication-Sign 40 m{sup 2} fiducial area. The results are compared with other measurements carried out with direct methods.

  4. Cosmic Ray Electron and Positron Excesses from a Fourth Generation Heavy Majorana Neutrino

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masina, Isabella; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Unexpected features in the energy spectra of cosmic rays electrons and positrons have been recently observed by PAMELA and Fermi-LAT satellite experiments, opening to the exciting possibility of an indirect manifestation of new physics. A TeV-scale fourth lepton family is a natural extension...

  5. The intergalactic propagation of ultrahigh energy cosmic ray nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, Dan; /Fermilab; Sarkar, Subir; /Oxford U., Theor. Phys.; Taylor, Andrew M.; /Oxford U.

    2006-08-01

    We investigate the propagation of ultra-high energy cosmic ray nuclei (A = 1-56) from cosmologically distant sources through the cosmic radiation backgrounds. Various models for the injected composition and spectrum and of the cosmic infrared background are studied using updated photodisintegration cross-sections. The observational data on the spectrum and the composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays are jointly consistent with a model where all of the injected primary cosmic rays are iron nuclei (or a mixture of heavy and light nuclei).

  6. A search on the source composition of primary cosmic nuclei of Z

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, D P; Dey, J; Fujii, M

    1999-01-01

    A study has been made on the elemental abundance of primary cosmic rays over Alice Springs obtained from the 32 hour exposed balloon borne plastic-emulsion chamber experiment. The long hour etched CR39 (doped with HCB 0.5) nuclear track detector exhibit 3298 etch pits whose measured diameter distribution yields a cosmic charge abundance in the range Z~10-28. The observed charge spectrum has been corrected to account for the loss of nuclei fluxes due to interactions and fragmentation during the time of propagation of cosmic nuclei in the Galaxy by using the standard diffusion equation with fitted partial cross-sections of Wilson et al. (1987). The estimated charge spectrum has been used to explore source composition of primary cosmic nuclei by adopting the steady state leaky box model. (14 refs).

  7. Difference method to search for the anisotropy of primary cosmic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlyuchenko, V. P.; Martirosov, R. M.; Nikolskaya, N. M.; Erlykin, A. D.

    2018-01-01

    The original difference method used in the search for an anisotropy of primary cosmic radiation at the knee region of its energy spectrum is considered. Its methodical features and properties are analyzed. It is shown that this method, in which properties of particle fluxes (rather than an intensity) are investigated, is stable against random experimental errors and allows one to separate anomalies connected with the laboratory coordinate system from anomalies in the celestial coordinate system. The method uses the multiple scattering of charged particles in the magnetic fields of the Galaxy to study the whole celestial sphere, including the regions outside the line of sight of the installation.

  8. The measurement of the cosmic ray primary energy spectrum at 10{sup 16}-10{sup 18} eV with the KASCADE-Grande experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantoni, Elena [Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario INAF, Torino (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, Torino (Italy); Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Apel, W.D.; Arteaga-Velazquez, J.C.; Bekk, K. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Bertaina, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, Torino (Italy); Bluemer, J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Bozdog, H. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Brancus, I.M. [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Buchholz, P. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Siegen (Germany); Chiavassa, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, Torino (Italy); Cossavella, F. [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Daumiller, K. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Souza, V. de [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Di Pierro, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, Torino (Italy); Doll, P.; Engel, R.; Engler, J.; Finger, M. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Fuhrmann, D. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Wuppertal (Germany); Ghia, P.L. [Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario INAF, Torino (Italy)

    2011-03-15

    The KASCADE-Grande experiment operates at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) in Germany. It's aim is the study of the primary cosmic radiation, through Extensive Air Shower detection, in the range 10{sup 16}-10{sup 18} eV. Here, measurements are of main interest to understand the high energy evolution of cosmic radiation: a change in the slope of the heavy primary spectrum is expected (as measured at lower energies for lighter primaries) as a possible confirmation of the predicted astrophysical mechanisms; moreover, in this range the transition from galactic to extragalactic radiation is supposed to take place and the observations could clarify the features of this transition, putting the basis for the interpretation of the data at the highest energies. For these tasks KASCADE-Grande fulfills very well the requirements, both concerning the acceptance and the experimental performances. The experiment is constituted by two co-operating arrays of detectors: the KASCADE array, with its 252 detectors in a dense grid of 200x200 m{sup 2} and the Grande array, made of 37 detectors arranged on a wider area of 700x700 m{sup 2}. The Grande array samples the total charged particles size of the air shower, while the KASCADE array provides the muon size In this contribution, KASCADE-Grande measurement of the cosmic ray primary energy spectrum is presented. The exploited technique, calibrated with simulations, combines the charged particles component and muon component on a shower by shower basis, performing the energy estimation of each primary event. Other techniques are also performed, for a better evaluation of systematics and a check of consistency of the hadronic interaction model used in simulations.

  9. Radiolysis of amino acids by heavy and energetic cosmic ray analogues in simulated space environments: α-glycine zwitterion form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portugal, Williamary; Pilling, Sergio; Boduch, Philippe; Rothard, Hermann; Andrade, Diana P. P.

    2014-07-01

    In this work, we studied the stability of the glycine molecule in the crystalline zwitterion form, known as α-glycine (+NH3CH2COO-), under the action of heavy cosmic ray analogues. The experiments were conducted in a high vacuum chamber at the heavy-ion accelerator Grand Accélérateur National d'Ions Lourds (GANIL), in Caen, France. The samples were bombarded at two temperatures (14 and 300 K) by 58Ni11+ ions of 46 MeV, up to a final fluence of 1013 ion cm-2. The chemical evolution of the sample was evaluated in situ using a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR). The bombardment at 14 K produced several daughter species, such as OCN-, CO, CO2 and CN-. The results also suggest the appearance of peptide bonds during irradiation, but this must be confirmed by further experiments. The half-life of glycine in the interstellar medium was estimated to be 7.8 × 103 yr (300 K) and 2.8 × 103 yr (14 K). In the Solar system, the values were 8.4 × 102 yr (300 K) and 3.6 × 103 yr (14 K). It is believed that glycine could be present in space environments that suffered aqueous changes, such as the interiors of comets, meteorites and planetesimals. This molecule is present in the proteins of all living beings. Therefore, studying its stability in these environments will provide further understanding of the role of this species in prebiotic chemistry on Earth.

  10. Electron and Positron Fluxes in Primary Cosmic Rays Measured with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilar, M; Alvino, A; Ambrosi, G; Andeen, K; Arruda, L; Attig, N; Azzarello, P; Bachlechner, A; Barao, F; Barrau, A; Barrin, L; Bartoloni, A; Basara, L; Battarbee, M; Battiston, R; Bazo, J; Becker, U; Behlmann, M; Beischer, B; Berdugo, J; Bertucci, B; Bigongiari, G; Bindi, V; Bizzaglia, S; Bizzarri, M; Boella, G; de Boer, W; Bollweg, K; Bonnivard, V; Borgia, B; Borsini, S; Boschini, M J; Bourquin, M; Burger, J; Cadoux, F; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Caroff, S; Casaus, J; Cascioli, V; Castellini, G; Cernuda, I; Cervelli, F; Chae, M J; Chang, Y H; Chen, A I; Chen, H; Cheng, G M; Chen, H S; Cheng, L; Chikanian, A; Chou, H Y; Choumilov, E; Choutko, V; Chung, C H; Clark, C; Clavero, R; Coignet, G; Consolandi, C; Contin, A; Corti, C; Coste, B; Cui, Z; Dai, M; Delgado, C; Della Torre, S; Demirköz, M B; Derome, L; Di Falco, S; Di Masso, L; Dimiccoli, F; Díaz, C; von Doetinchem, P; Du, W J; Duranti, M; D’Urso, D; Eline, A; Eppling, F J; Eronen, T; Fan, Y Y; Farnesini, L; Feng, J; Fiandrini, E; Fiasson, A; Finch, E; Fisher, P; Galaktionov, Y; Gallucci, G; García, B; García-López, R; Gast, H; Gebauer, I; Gervasi, M; Ghelfi, A; Gillard, W; Giovacchini, F; Goglov, P; Gong, J; Goy, C; Grabski, V; Grandi, D; Graziani, M; Guandalini, C; Guerri, I; Guo, K H; Habiby, M; Haino, S; Han, K C; He, Z H; Heil, M; Hoffman, J; Hsieh, T H; Huang, Z C; Huh, C; Incagli, M; Ionica, M; Jang, W Y; Jinchi, H; Kanishev, K; Kim, G N; Kim, K S; Kirn, Th; Kossakowski, R; Kounina, O; Kounine, A; Koutsenko, V; Krafczyk, M S; Kunz, S; La Vacca, G; Laudi, E; Laurenti, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lebedev, A; Lee, H T; Lee, S C; Leluc, C; Li, H L; Li, J Q; Li, Q; Li, Q; Li, T X; Li, W; Li, Y; Li, Z H; Li, Z Y; Lim, S; Lin, C H; Lipari, P; Lippert, T; Liu, D; Liu, H; Lomtadze, T; Lu, M J; Lu, Y S; Luebelsmeyer, K; Luo, F; Luo, J Z; Lv, S S; Majka, R; Malinin, A; Mañá, C; Marín, J; Martin, T; Martínez, G; Masi, N; Maurin, D; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Meng, Q; Mo, D C; Morescalchi, L; Mott, P; Müller, M; Ni, J Q; Nikonov, N; Nozzoli, F; Nunes, P; Obermeier, A; Oliva, A; Orcinha, M; Palmonari, F; Palomares, C; Paniccia, M; Papi, A; Pedreschi, E; Pensotti, S; Pereira, R; Pilo, F; Piluso, A; Pizzolotto, C; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Poireau, V; Postaci, E; Putze, A; Quadrani, L; Qi, X M; Rancoita, P G; Rapin, D; Ricol, J S; Rodríguez, I; Rosier-Lees, S; Rozhkov, A; Rozza, D; Sagdeev, R; Sandweiss, J; Saouter, P; Sbarra, C; Schael, S; Schmidt, S M; Schuckardt, D; Schulz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Scolieri, G; Seo, E S; Shan, B S; Shan, Y H; Shi, J Y; Shi, X Y; Shi, Y M; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Spada, F; Spinella, F; Sun, W; Sun, W H; Tacconi, M; Tang, C P; Tang, X W; Tang, Z C; Tao, L; Tescaro, D; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tomassetti, N; Torsti, J; Türkoğlu, C; Urban, T; Vagelli, V; Valente, E; Vannini, C; Valtonen, E; Vaurynovich, S; Vecchi, M; Velasco, M; Vialle, J P; Wang, L Q; Wang, Q L; Wang, R S; Wang, X; Wang, Z X; Weng, Z L; Whitman, K; Wienkenhöver, J; Wu, H; Xia, X; Xie, M; Xie, S; Xiong, R Q; Xin, G M; Xu, N S; Xu, W; Yan, Q; Yang, J; Yang, M; Ye, Q H; Yi, H; Yu, Y J; Yu, Z Q; Zeissler, S; Zhang, J H; Zhang, M T; Zhang, X B; Zhang, Z; Zheng, Z M; Zhuang, H L; Zhukov, V; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, N; Zuccon, P; Zurbach, C

    2014-01-01

    Precision measurements by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station of the primary cosmic-ray electron flux in the range 0.5 to 700 GeV and the positron flux in the range 0.5 to 500 GeV are presented. The electron flux and the positron flux each require a description beyond a single power-law spectrum. Both the electron flux and the positron flux change their behavior at ∼30  GeV but the fluxes are significantly different in their magnitude and energy dependence. Between 20 and 200 GeV the positron spectral index is significantly harder than the electron spectral index. The determination of the differing behavior of the spectral indices versus energy is a new observation and provides important information on the origins of cosmic-ray electrons and positrons.

  11. Anomalous Distributions of Primary Cosmic Rays as Evidence for Time-dependent Particle Acceleration in Supernova Remnants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yiran; Liu, Siming; Yuan, Qiang, E-mail: liusm@pmo.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2017-07-20

    Recent precise measurements of cosmic-ray (CR) spectra show that the energy distribution of protons is softer than those of heavier nuclei, and there are spectral hardenings for all nuclear compositions above ∼200 GV. Models proposed for these anomalies generally assume steady-state solutions of the particle acceleration process. We show that if the diffusion coefficient has a weak dependence on the particle rigidity near shock fronts of supernova remnants (SNRs), time-dependent solutions of the linear diffusive shock acceleration at two stages of SNR evolution can naturally account for these anomalies. The high-energy component of CRs is dominated by acceleration in the free expansion and adiabatic phases with enriched heavy elements and a high shock speed. The low-energy component may be attributed to acceleration by slow shocks propagating in dense molecular clouds with low metallicity in the radiative phase. Instead of a single power-law distribution, the spectra of time-dependent solutions soften gradually with the increase of energy, which may be responsible for the “knee” of CRs.

  12. Experimental simulation of radiation damage of polymers in space applications by cosmic-ray-type high energy heavy ions and the resulting changes in optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, U.H.; Ensinger, W., E-mail: ensinger@ca.tu-darmstadt.de

    2015-12-15

    Devices operating in space, e.g. in satellites, are being hit by cosmic rays. These include so-called HZE-ions, with High mass (Z) and energy (E). These highly energetic heavy ions penetrate deeply into the materials and deposit a large amount of energy, typically several keV per nm range. Serious damage is created. In space vehicles, polymers are used which are degraded under ion bombardment. HZE ion irradiation can experimentally be simulated in large scale accelerators. In the present study, the radiation damage of aliphatic vinyl- and fluoro-polymers by heavy ions with energies in the GeV range is described. The ions cause bond scission and create volatile small molecular species, leading to considerable mass loss of the polymers. Since hydrogen, oxygen and fluorine-containing molecules are created and these elements are depleted, the remaining material is carbon-richer than the original polymers and contains conjugated CC double bonds. This process is investigated by measuring the optical band gap with UV–Vis absorption spectrometry as a function of ion fluence. The results show how the optical band gaps shift from the UV into the Vis region upon ion irradiation for the different polymers.

  13. Scintillation Detector for the Measurement of Ultra-Heavy Cosmic Rays on the Super-TIGER Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Jason

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the design and construction of the scintillation detectors for the Super-TIGER experiment. Super-TIGER is a large-area (5.4sq m) balloon-borne experiment designed to measure the abundances of cosmic-ray nuclei between Z= 10 and Z=56. It is based on the successful TIGER experiment that flew in Antarctica in 2001 and 2003. Super-TIGER has three layers of scintillation detectors, two Cherenkov detectors and a scintillating fiber hodoscope. The scintillation detector employs four wavelength shifter bars surrounding the edges of the scintillator to collect the light from particles traversing the detector. PMTs are optically coupled at both ends of the bars for light collection. We report on laboratory performance of the scintillation counters using muons. In addition we discuss the design challenges and detector response over this broad charge range including the effect of scintilator saturation.

  14. Muon bundles from cosmic rays with ALICE arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Sitta, Mario

    ALICE, a general purpose experiment designed to investigate nucleus-nucleus collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), has also been used to detect atmospheric muons produced by cosmic-ray interactions in the atmosphere. In this contribution the analysis of the multiplicity distribution of the atmospheric muons detected by ALICE between 2010 and 2013 is presented, along with a comparison with Monte Carlo simulations. Special emphasis is given to the study of high-multiplicity events, i.e. those containing more than 100 reconstructed muons. Such high-multiplicity events demand primary cosmic rays with energy above $10^{16}$ eV. The frequency of these events can be successfully described by assuming a heavy mass composition of primary cosmic rays in this energy range, using the most recent interaction models to describe the development of the air shower resulting from the primary interaction.

  15. What is Centauro. [High-Z nuclear matter blob in primary cosmic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjorken, J.D.; McLerran, L.D.

    1979-01-01

    Another interpretation of the Centauro event is given in which the primary object initiating the collision is a glob of nuclear matter of very high density. The kinetics of this glob are described, and the experimental implications set forth. Among the latter are the horizontal air shower rate and the mean quark density on earth, both within experimental limits according to the glob interpretation. 7 references. (JFP)

  16. DETECTION OF OH{sup +} IN TRANSLUCENT INTERSTELLAR CLOUDS: NEW ELECTRONIC TRANSITIONS AND PROBING THE PRIMARY COSMIC RAY IONIZATION RATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, D.; Linnartz, H. [Sackler Laboratory for Astrophysics, Leiden Observatory, University of Leiden, PO Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Galazutdinov, G. A. [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Catolica del Norte, Av. Angamos 0610, Antofagasta (Chile); Krełowski, J., E-mail: zhao@strw.leidenuniv.nl [Center for Astronomy, Nicholas Copernicus University, Gagarina 11, Pl-87-100 Toruń (Poland)

    2015-06-01

    We present the detection of rotationally resolved electronic transitions in the OH{sup +} A{sup 3}Π–X{sup 3}Σ{sup −} (0, 0) and (1, 0) bands toward CD-32 4348, HD 63804, HD 78344, and HD 80077. These four translucent clouds have been studied in a recent Very Large Telescope/Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph observational run. In total, seven absorption features of OH{sup +} are detected, and six of them are identified here for the first time, providing a precise tool to trace OH{sup +} in translucent interstellar clouds. An improved set of line positions and oscillator strengths is compiled to support our data interpretation. A dedicated analysis of the observed features in individual targets yields an accurate determination of OH{sup +} column densities. The results are applied to estimate the primary cosmic ray ionization rate in the investigated translucent clouds, which yields a typical value of ∼1.0 × 10{sup −16} s{sup −1}. In addition, following this work, two of the new interstellar features recently reported by Bhatt and Cami, at ∼3572.65 and 3346.96 Å, can be identified as OH{sup +} absorption lines now.

  17. The Cosmic Microwave Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierpaoli, E.

    2011-03-01

    In these lectures I present the physical aspects of the Cosmic Microwave Background primary and secondary anisotropies; the characteristics of the CMB power spectra and their dependence on cosmological parameters. I also discuss the observational status and future perspectives.

  18. Study of the Solar Anisotropy for Cosmic Ray Primaries of about 200 GeV Energy with the L3+C Muon Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P; Aguilar-Benitez, M; van den Akker, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, J; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, Valery P; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Bahr, J; Baldew, S V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillere, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biglietti, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, G J; Bohm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, M; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A; Casaus, J; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Chamizo, M; Chiarusi, T; Chang, Y H; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; de la Cruz, B; Cucciarelli, S; van Dalen, J; de Asmundis, R; Deglon, P; Debreczeni, J; Degre, A; Dehmelt, K; Deiters, K; della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; DeNotaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Ding, L K; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, M; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Duda, M; Duran, I; Echenard, B; Eline, A; El Hage, A; El Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Extermann, P; Faber, G; Falagan, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, M; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, K; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Iouri; Ganguli, S N; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gataullin, M; Gentile, S; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grabosch, H J; Grenier, G; Grimm, O; Groenstege, H; Gruenewald, M W; Guida, M; Guo, Y N; Gupta, S; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Haller, Ch; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hayashi, Y; He, Z X; Hebbeker, T; Herve, Alain; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Hohlmann, M; Holzner, G; Hou, S R; Huo, A X; Hu, Y; Ito, N; Jin, B N; Jing, C L; Jones, Lawrence W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Kantserov, V; Kaur, M; Kawakami, S; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, W; Klimentov, A; Konig, A C; Kok, E; Korn, A; Kopal, M; Koutsenko, V; Kraber, M; Kuang, H H; Kraemer, R W; Kruger, A; Kuijpers, J; Kunin, A; Ladron de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Lei, Y; Leich, H; Leiste, R; Levtchenko, M; Levtchenko, P; Li, C; Li, L; Li, Z C; Likhoded, S; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, F L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lu, Y S; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma, W G; Ma, X H; Ma, Y Q; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Mana, C; Mans, J; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Meng, X W; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Mihul, A; van Mil, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Monteleoni, B; Muanza, y G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Nagy, S; Nahnhauer, R; Naumov, V A; Natale, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nisati, A; Novak, T; Kluge, Hannelies; Ofierzynski, R; Organtini, G; Pal, I; Palomares, C; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Parriaud, J -F; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, Thomas Cantzon; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, F; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pieri, M; Pioppi, M; Piroue, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pojidaev, V; Pothier, J; Prokofev, D; Quartieri, J; Qing, C R; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, Mohammad Azizur; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A; Ravindran, K C; Razis, P; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Rewiersma, P; Riemann, y S; Riles, Keith; Roe, B P; Rojkov, A; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosemann, C; Rosenbleck, C; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, Stefan; Rubio, J A; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Saidi, R; Sakharov, A; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sanchez, E; Schafer, C; Schegelsky, V; Schmitt, V; Schoeneich, B; Schopper, H; Schotanus, D J; Sciacca, C; Servoli, L; Shen, C Q; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A; Son, D; Souga, C; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stoyanov, B; Straessner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sulanke, H; Sultanov, G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillasi, Z; Tang, X W; Tarjan, P; Tauscher, L; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, Charles; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Toth, J; Trowitzsch, G; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Unger, M; Valente, E; Verkooijen, H; Van de Walle, R T; Vasquez, R; Veszpremi, V; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitsky, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, G; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopianov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Wadhwa, M; Wang, R G; Wang, Q; Wang, X L; Wang, X W; Wang, Z M; Weber, M; van Wijk, R; Wijnen, T A M; Wilkens, H; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Y P; Xu, J S; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, J; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Yang, X F; Yao, Z G; Yeh, S C; Yu, Z Q; Zalite, An; Zalite, Yu; Zhang, C; Zhang, F; Zhang, J; Zhang, S; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhou, S J; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zhuang, H L; Zhu, Q Q; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, B; Zoller, M; Zwart, A N M

    2008-01-01

    Primary cosmic rays experience multiple deflections in the nonuniform galactic and heliospheric magnetic fields which may generate anisotropies. A study of anisotropies in the energy range between 100 and 500 GeV is performed. This energy range is not yet well explored. The L3 detector at the CERN electron-positron collider, LEP, is used for a study of the angular distribution of atmospheric muons with energies above 20 GeV. This distribution is used to investigate the isotropy of the time-dependent intensity of the primary cosmic-ray flux with a Fourier analysis. A small deviation from isotropy at energies around 200 GeV is observed for the second harmonics at the solar frequency. No sidereal anisotropy is found at a level above 10^-4. The measurements have been performed in the years 1999 and 2000.

  19. Correlates of depression among heavy drinkers in Polish primary care clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manwell, Linda Baier; Czabala, Jan Czeslaw; Ignaczak, Marek; Mundt, Marlon P

    2004-01-01

    Depression and co-morbid substance abuse disorders are a major public health problem. Information is limited for patients attending Polish primary care clinics. This article addresses 30-day and lifetime prevalence of major depression in a heavy drinking population from 12 Polish primary care clinics. 277 heavy drinkers were interviewed by a researcher in each clinic. Heavy drinking was defined as more than 20 drinks per week for males, or more than 13 drinks per week for females, or consumption of more than four drinks five or more times in the previous 30 days, or two or more positive replies to the CAGE questions. Criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual were used to assess lifetime and past 30-day depression. 35% of women and men met criteria for depression in the 30 days prior to the interview. Lifetime rates were 45% for women and 52% for men. Men and women with a CAGE score of 4 were at higher risk for both 30-day (67%, OR = 3.85 [1.47, 10.08]) and lifetime (78%, OR = 3.28 [1.12, 9.66]) depression. Recreational drug users and patients reporting symptoms of anti-social personality disorders were at increased risk for lifetime depression. Subjects reporting symptoms of a childhood conduct disorder were at higher risk for 30-day depression. Depression among patients with substance abuse problems is a common problem. The rates are higher than for other countries and highlight the need for Polish primary care clinicians to routinely screen for depression in patients with substance use disorders.

  20. Release and systemic accumulation of heavy metals from preformed crowns used in restoration of primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodaira, Hiroe; Ohno, Kohachiro; Fukase, Naoko; Kuroda, Midori; Adachi, Shiki; Kikuchi, Motohiro; Asada, Yoshinobu

    2013-01-01

    Preformed crowns for restoration of primary teeth are used in various treatments and are essential for restoring the crowns of primary molars. However, there are concerns that mechanical, chemical, and thermal stimulation may cause release of components of such crowns. We examined systemic accumulation of heavy metals associated with preformed crowns (3M Stainless Steel Primary Molar Crowns) used in primary tooth restoration. The participants were 37 children who had visited the Pediatric Dental Clinic of Tsurumi University Dental Hospital. They were divided into two groups: 22 participants without a history of being fitted with a preformed crown for primary tooth restoration (controls), and 15 participants with preformed crowns for primary tooth restoration. Analysis of hair samples showed a significant difference in the level of the trace element Cr - an important component of the preformed crowns - between children with and without preformed crowns, but no significant differences in Fe or Ni levels. Levels of the trace elements Ni, Cr, and Fe were within allowable ranges, indicating that these minerals were not likely to be harmful.

  1. Investigation of energy spectrum and nuclear interactions of primary cosmic radiation; Badanie widma energetycznego i oddzialywan jadrowych pierwotnego promieniowania kosmicznego

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilczynski, H. [Dept. of High Energy Physics, The H. Niewodniczanski Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    In the paper the JACEE experiment data analysis: energy spectra in the energy range 10{sup 12} - 10{sup 15} eV of different nuclides in cosmic radiation and some aspects of nuclear interactions at energy above 10{sup 12} eV/nucleon is presented. The data were compared with results of theory of cosmic radiation acceleration by striking waves arises from supernova stars explosions. In the interactions of cosmic radiation nuclei the short-lived particles production has been observed what agrees with long-distance component of cascades initiated by cosmic radiation interactions. In one case an interaction with asymmetric photons emission were observed 72 refs, 33 figs, 4 tabs

  2. Limitations on space flight due to cosmic radiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CURTIS, H J

    1961-02-03

    These conclusions (10) may be summarized as follows: 1) Flight below the Van Allen belts seems reasonably safe without radiation shielding. 2) It is probably impractical to shield a rocket sufficiently to permit a man to remain in the inner Van Allen belt for more than about an hour, but it should be possible for him to go through it without serious harm. 3) Shielding for the outer Van Allen belt is possible but would have to be quite heavy if a stay of more than a few hours were contemplated. 4) The primary cosmic radiation is not intense enough to deliver a serious radiation dose, even for exposures of a few weeks, and the heavy cosmic ray primaries do not seem to present an unusual hazard.

  3. Exposure of Plastic Track Detectors to Relativistic Pb Beam for the Purpose of Providing Calibration for the DUBLIN-ESTEC Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment Which was Exposed for Sixty-Nine Months in Earth Orbit

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % WA100 \\\\ \\\\ Solid state nuclear track detectors which formed part of the Dublin-ESTEC ultra heavy~cosmic~ray experiment aboard LDEF (Long Duration Exposure Facility) and which was deployed in Earth orbit for sixty-nine months, will be exposed to relativistic Pb ions. The experiment was the largest of its kind ever undertaken in space and has successfully accumulated more than fifteen times the world sample of cosmic ray nuclei in the region above Z~=~70. The data include the first significant sample of cosmic ray actinide elements and is of major astrophysical importance. The total number of ultra heavy nuclei (Z~$>$~70) in the Dublin-ESTEC sample is $\\sim$~2800. \\\\ \\\\The exposure will be very simple. A stack of detectors (20.5~cm~x~26~cm x~3~cm in size) will be irradiated with a low density beam of Pb ions (a few hundred per cm$^2$ would be ideal, but a wide range of densities and areas could be tolerated). The response of the detectors to these ions of known charge and velocity will be measured and the da...

  4. Heavy metals in human primary teeth: some factors influencing the metal concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvinnereim, H M; Eide, R; Riise, T

    2000-06-08

    Human primary teeth have been used as indicators of heavy metal exposure for several decades, but the knowledge about the influence of factors such as tooth type and the presence of caries and roots on metal concentrations is limited. Samples of tooth powder from more than 1200 Norwegian primary teeth without fillings have been analyzed for lead, zinc and cadmium content, and 554 of them for mercury. The material represents all groups of tooth types (incisors, canines and molars), carious and non-carious teeth, and teeth with and without roots. Here we investigate how tooth group and the presence of caries and roots are related to metal concentrations in the teeth. We find that carious teeth have higher metal concentrations than non-carious teeth; the difference was statistically significant for lead, mercury and zinc. Teeth with roots have higher lead and zinc concentrations than teeth without roots. We find differences in metal concentrations between the tooth groups for lead, mercury and zinc. Significant, positive correlations are found between lead and the three other metals and between mercury and zinc. We conclude that metal concentrations in primary teeth are affected by the presence of caries and roots and by tooth group.

  5. Balloon Measurements of Cosmic Ray Muon Spectra in the Atmosphere along with those of Primary Protons and Helium Nuclei over Mid-Latitude

    CERN Document Server

    Bellotti, R; Circella, M; De Marzo, C; Golden, R L; Stochaj, S J; De Pascale, M P; Morselli, A; Picozza, P; Stephens, S A; Hof, M; Menn, W; Simon, M; Mitchell, J W; Ormes, J F; Streitmatter, R E; Finetti, N; Grimani, C; Papini, P; Piccardi, S; Spillantini, P; Basini, G; Ricci, M

    1999-01-01

    We report here the measurements of the energy spectra of atmospheric muons and of the cosmic ray primary proton and helium nuclei in a single experiment. These were carried out using the MASS superconducting spectrometer in a balloon flight experiment in 1991. The relevance of these results to the atmospheric neutrino anomaly is emphasized. In particular, this approach allows uncertainties caused by the level of solar modulation, the geomagnetic cut-off of the primaries and possible experimental systematics to be decoupled in the comparison of calculated fluxes of muons to measured muon fluxes. The muon observations cover the momentum and depth ranges of 0.3-40 GeV/c and 5-886 g/cmsquared, respectively. The proton and helium primary measurements cover the rigidity range from 3 to 100 GV, in which both the solar modulation and the geomagnetic cut-off affect the energy spectra at low energies.

  6. Cosmic Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Rachel

    2011-03-01

    In this series of lectures we review observational evidence for, and theoretical investigations into, cosmic acceleration and dark energy. The notes are in four sections. First I review the basic cosmological formalism to describe the expansion history of the universe and how distance measures are defined. The second section covers the evidence for cosmic acceleration from cosmic distance measurements. Section 3 discusses the theoretical avenues being considered to explain the cosmological observations. Section 4 discusses how the growth of inhomogeneities and large scale structure observations might help us pin down the theoretical origin of cosmic acceleration.

  7. Cosmic Rays in the 'Knee'-Region - Recent Results from KASCADE -

    OpenAIRE

    Kampert, K. -H.; Collaboration, KASCADE-Grande

    2004-01-01

    Recent results from the KASCADE experiment on measurements of cosmic rays in the energy range of the knee are presented. Emphasis is placed on energy spectra of individual mass groups as obtained from sophisticated unfolding procedures applied to the reconstructed electron and truncated muon numbers of EAS. The data show a knee-like structure in the energy spectra of light primaries (p, He, C) and an increasing dominance of heavy ones (A>20) towards higher energies. This basic result is robus...

  8. Cosmic vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernin, Artur D [P.K. Shternberg State Astronomical Institute at the M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2001-11-30

    Recent observational studies of distant supernovae have suggested the existence of cosmic vacuum whose energy density exceeds the total density of all the other energy components in the Universe. The vacuum produces the field of antigravity that causes the cosmological expansion to accelerate. It is this accelerated expansion that has been discovered in the observations. The discovery of cosmic vacuum radically changes our current understanding of the present state of the Universe. It also poses new challenges to both cosmology and fundamental physics. Why is the density of vacuum what it is? Why do the densities of the cosmic energy components differ in exact value but agree in order of magnitude? On the other hand, the discovery made at large cosmological distances of hundreds and thousands Mpc provides new insights into the dynamics of the nearby Universe, the motions of galaxies in the local volume of 10 - 20 Mpc where the cosmological expansion was originally discovered. (reviews of topical problems)

  9. Effects of heavy ion to the primary culture of mouse brain cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojima, Kumie; Nakadai, Taeko; Kohno, Yukio; Vazquez, Marcelo E.; Yasuda, Nakahiro; Nagaoka, Shunji

    2004-01-01

    To investigate effects of low dose heavy particle radiation to CNS system, we adopted mouse neonatal brain cells in culture being exposed to heavy ions by HIMAC at NIRS and NSRL at BNL. The applied dose varied from 0.05 Gy up to 2.0 Gy. The subsequent biological effects were evaluated by an induction of apoptosis and neuron survival focusing on the dependencies of the animal strains, SCID, B6, B6C3F1, C3H, used for brain cell culture, SCID was the most sensitive and C3H the least sensitive to particle radiation as evaluated by 10% apoptotic criterion. The LET dependency was compared with using SCID and B6 cells exposing to different ions (H, C, Ne, Si, Ar, and Fe). Although no detectable LET dependency was observed in the high LET (55-200 keV/micrometers) and low dose (brain local irradiation at carbon ion and iron ion.

  10. Cosmic Glows

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Douglas

    1999-01-01

    This is the obligatory Cosmic Microwave Background review. I discuss the current status of CMB anisotropies, together with some points on the related topic of the Far-Infrared Background. We have already learned a number of important things from CMB anisotropies. Models which are in good shape have: approximately flat geometry; cold dark-matter, plus something like a cosmological constant; roughly scale invariant adiabatic fluctuations; and close to Gaussian statistics. The constraints from t...

  11. ACORDE - A Cosmic Ray Detector for ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00247175; Pagliarone, C.

    2006-01-01

    ACORDE, the ALICE COsmic Ray DEtector is one of the ALICE detectors, presently under construction. It consists of an array of plastic scintillator counters placed on the three upper faces of the ALICE magnet. This array will act as Level 0 cosmic ray trigger and, together with other ALICE sub-detectors, will provide precise information on cosmic rays with primary energies around $10^{15-17}$ eV. In this paper we will describe the ACORDE detector, trigger design and electronics.

  12. High Statistics Measurement of the Positron Fraction in Primary Cosmic Rays of 0.5–500 GeV with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    CERN Document Server

    Accardo, L; Aisa, D; Alpat, B; Alvino, A; Ambrosi, G; Andeen, K; Arruda, L; Attig, N; Azzarello, P; Bachlechner, A; Barao, F; Barrau, A; Barrin, L; Bartoloni, A; Basara, L; Battarbee, M; Battiston, R; Bazo, J; Becker, U; Behlmann, M; Beischer, B; Berdugo, J; Bertucci, B; Bigongiari, G; Bindi, V; Bizzaglia, S; Bizzarri, M; Boella, G; de Boer, W; Bollweg, K; Bonnivard, V; Borgia, B; Borsini, S; Boschini, M J; Bourquin, M; Burger, J; Cadoux, F; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Caroff, S; Carosi, G; Casaus, J; Cascioli, V; Castellini, G; Cernuda, I; Cerreta, D; Cervelli, F; Chae, M J; Chang, Y H; Chen, A I; Chen, H; Cheng, G M; Chen, H S; Cheng, L; Chikanian, A; Chou, H Y; Choumilov, E; Choutko, V; Chung, C H; Cindolo, F; Clark, C; Clavero, R; Coignet, G; Consolandi, C; Contin, A; Corti, C; Coste, B; Cui, Z; Dai, M; Delgado, C; Della Torre, S; Demirköz, M B; Derome, L; Di Falco, S; Di Masso, L; Dimiccoli, F; Díaz, C; von Doetinchem, P; Du, W J; Duranti, M; D’Urso, D; Eline, A; Eppling, F J; Eronen, T; Fan, Y Y; Farnesini, L; Feng, J; Fiandrini, E; Fiasson, A; Finch, E; Fisher, P; Galaktionov, Y; Gallucci, G; García, B; García-López, R; Gast, H; Gebauer, I; Gervasi, M; Ghelfi, A; Gillard, W; Giovacchini, F; Goglov, P; Gong, J; Goy, C; Grabski, V; Grandi, D; Graziani, M; Guandalini, C; Guerri, I; Guo, K H; Haas, D; Habiby, M; Haino, S; Han, K C; He, Z H; Heil, M; Henning, R; Hoffman, J; Hsieh, T H; Huang, Z C; Huh, C; Incagli, M; Ionica, M; Jang, W Y; Jinchi, H; Kanishev, K; Kim, G N; Kim, K S; Kirn, Th; Kossakowski, R; Kounina, O; Kounine, A; Koutsenko, V; Krafczyk, M S; Kunz, S; La Vacca, G; Laudi, E; Laurenti, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lebedev, A; Lee, H T; Lee, S C; Leluc, C; Levi, G; Li, H L; Li, J Q; Li, Q; Li, Q; Li, T X; Li, W; Li, Y; Li, Z H; Li, Z Y; Lim, S; Lin, C H; Lipari, P; Lippert, T; Liu, D; Liu, H; Lolli, M; Lomtadze, T; Lu, M J; Lu, Y S; Luebelsmeyer, K; Luo, F; Luo, J Z; Lv, S S; Majka, R; Malinin, A; Mañá, C; Marín, J; Martin, T; Martínez, G; Masi, N; Massera, F; Maurin, D; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Meng, Q; Mo, D C; Monreal, B; Morescalchi, L; Mott, P; Müller, M; Ni, J Q; Nikonov, N; Nozzoli, F; Nunes, P; Obermeier, A; Oliva, A; Orcinha, M; Palmonari, F; Palomares, C; Paniccia, M; Papi, A; Pauluzzi, M; Pedreschi, E; Pensotti, S; Pereira, R; Pilastrini, R; Pilo, F; Piluso, A; Pizzolotto, C; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Poireau, V; Postaci, E; Putze, A; Quadrani, L; Qi, X M; Rancoita, P G; Rapin, D; Ricol, J S; Rodríguez, I; Rosier-Lees, S; Rossi, L; Rozhkov, A; Rozza, D; Rybka, G; Sagdeev, R; Sandweiss, J; Saouter, P; Sbarra, C; Schael, S; Schmidt, S M; Schuckardt, D; Schulz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Scolieri, G; Seo, E S; Shan, B S; Shan, Y H; Shi, J Y; Shi, X Y; Shi, Y M; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Spada, F; Spinella, F; Sun, W; Sun, W H; Tacconi, M; Tang, C P; Tang, X W; Tang, Z C; Tao, L; Tescaro, D; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tomassetti, N; Torsti, J; Türkoğlu, C; Urban, T; Vagelli, V; Valente, E; Vannini, C; Valtonen, E; Vaurynovich, S; Vecchi, M; Velasco, M; Vialle, J P; Vitale, V; Volpini, G; Wang, L Q; Wang, Q L; Wang, R S; Wang, X; Wang, Z X; Weng, Z L; Whitman, K; Wienkenhöver, J; Wu, H; Wu, K Y; Xia, X; Xie, M; Xie, S; Xiong, R Q; Xin, G M; Xu, N S; Xu, W; Yan, Q; Yang, J; Yang, M; Ye, Q H; Yi, H; Yu, Y J; Yu, Z Q; Zeissler, S; Zhang, J H; Zhang, M T; Zhang, X B; Zhang, Z; Zheng, Z M; Zhou, F; Zhuang, H L; Zhukov, V; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, N; Zuccon, P; Zurbach, C

    2014-01-01

    A precision measurement by AMS of the positron fraction in primary cosmic rays in the energy range from 0.5 to 500 GeV based on 10.9 million positron and electron events is presented. This measurement extends the energy range of our previous observation and increases its precision. The new results show, for the first time, that above ∼200  GeV the positron fraction no longer exhibits an increase with energy.

  13. Experimental aspects of cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Sommers, P

    2006-01-01

    High-energy cosmic rays are detected as extensive air showers, and properties of the primary cosmic rays are deduced from measurements of those air showers. The physics of air showers is reviewed here in order to explain how the measurement techniques work. The Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory (near this school in Malargue) is used to illustrate the experimental methods. The Auger Observatory combines a surface array of water Cherenkov detectors with atmospheric uorescence detectors. This `hybrid' measurement technique provides high resolution and measurement cross-checks. In conjunction with a complementary site in the northern hemisphere, the Auger Observatory expects to map the arrival directions over the full sky as well as measuring the cosmic-ray energy spectrum and statistical properties of the mass distribution.

  14. Cosmic impacts, cosmic catastrophes. II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, C.R.; Morrison, D. (Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ (USA) NASA, Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (USA))

    1990-02-01

    The role of extraterrestrial impacts in shaping the earth's history is discussed, arguing that cosmic impacts represent just one example of a general shift in thinking that has made the idea of catastrophes respectable in science. The origins of this view are presented and current catastrophic theory is discussed in the context of modern debate on the geological formation of the earth. Various conflicting theories are reviewed and prominent participants in the ongoing scientific controversy concerning catastrophism are introduced.

  15. Cosmic strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachaspati, Tanmay; Pogosian, Levon; Steer, Danièle A.

    2015-06-01

    "Strings" are solutions of certain field theories, whose energy is concentrated along an infinite line. Strings exist in many field theories motivated by particle physics, and this suggests that they may exist in the universe -- hence the name "cosmic strings". String solutions are also present in condensed matter systems where they are called "vortices". In cosmological applications, strings are generally curved, dynamical, and may form closed loops. The energy of a string remains concentrated along a time-dependent curve for a duration that is very long compared to the dynamical time of the string.

  16. One century of cosmic rays – A particle physicist's view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutton Christine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments on cosmic rays and the elementary particles share a common history that dates back to the 19th century. Following the discovery of radioactivity in the 1890s, the paths of the two fields intertwined, especially during the decades after the discovery of cosmic rays. Experiments demonstrated that the primary cosmic rays are positively charged particles, while other studies of cosmic rays revealed various new sub-atomic particles, including the first antiparticle. Techniques developed in common led to the birth of neutrino astronomy in 1987 and the first observation of a cosmic γ-ray source by a ground-based cosmic-ray telescope in 1989.

  17. Study of high muon multiplicity cosmic ray events with ALICE at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario

    2015-01-01

    ALICE is one of four large experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Located 52 meters undergroundwith 28meters of overburden rock, it has also been used to detect atmosphericmuons produced by cosmic-ray interactions in the upper atmosphere. We present the muon multiplicity distribution of these cosmic-ray events and their comparison with Monte Carlo simulation. This analysis exploits the large size and excellent tracking capability of the ALICE Time Projection Chamber. A special emphasis is given to the study of high multiplicity events containing more than 100 reconstructed muons and corresponding to a muon areal density larger than 5.9 m$^{−2}$. The measured rate of these events shows that they stem from primary cosmic-rays with energies above 10$^{16}$ eV. The frequency of these events can be successfully described by assuming a heavy mass composition of primary cosmic-rays in this energy range and using the most recent hadronic interaction models to simulate the development of the resulting air sh...

  18. Research in cosmic and gamma ray astrophysics: Cosmic physics portion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Edward C.; Mewaldt, Richard A.; Schindler, Stephen

    1993-01-01

    Research in particle astrophysics at the Space Radiation Laboratory (SRL) of the California Institute of Technology is supported under NASA Grant NAGW-1919. A three-year proposal for continuation of support was submitted a year ago and put into effect 1 October 1992. This report is the combined progress report and continuation application called for under the Federal Demonstration Project. Gamma-ray Astrophysics at SRL is separately supported under NAGW-1919 and will be separately summarized and proposed. This report will document progress and plans for our particle spectroscopy activities and for related data analysis, calibration, and community service activities. A bibliography and a budget will be attached as appendices. The Caltech SRL research program includes a heavy emphasis on elemental and isotopic spectroscopy of energetic particles in the cosmic radiation; in solar, interplanetary, and anomalous 'cosmic' radiation; and in planetary magnetospheres as discussed.

  19. L3 + Cosmics Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    %RE4 %title\\\\ \\\\The L3+C experiment takes advantage of the unique properties of the L3 muon spectrometer to get an accurate measurement of cosmic ray muons 30 m underground. A new muon trigger, readout and DAQ system have been installed, as well as a scintillator array covering the upper surfaces of the L3 magnet for timing purposes. The acceptance amounts to 200 $m^2 sr$. The data are collected independently in parallel with L3 running. In spring 2000 a scintillator array will be installed on the roof of the SX hall in order to estimate the primary energy of air showers associated with events observed in L3+C.\\\\ \\\\The cosmic ray muon momentum spectrum, the zenith angular dependence and the charge ratio are measured with high accuracy between 20 and 2000 GeV/c. The results will provide new information about the primary composition, the shower development in the atmosphere, and the inclusive pion and kaon (production-) cross sections (specifically the "$\\pi$/K ratio") at high energies. These data will also hel...

  20. Cosmic ray physics with ACORDE at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagliarone, C [Universita degli Studi di Cassino and INFN Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo, 3 - Pisa (Italy); Fernandez-Tellez, A [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (BUAP), Puebla (Mexico)], E-mail: pagliarone@fnal.gov

    2008-05-15

    The use of large underground high-energy physics experiments, for comic ray studies, have been used, in the past, at CERN, in order to measure, precisely, the inclusive cosmic ray flux in the energy range from 2{center_dot}10{sup 10} to 2{center_dot} 10{sup 12} eV. ACORDE, ALICE Cosmic Rays DEtector, will act as Level 0 cosmic ray trigger and, together with other ALICE apparatus, will provide precise information on cosmic rays with primary energies around 10{sup 15} to 10{sup 17} eV. This paper reviews the main detector features, the present status, commissioning and integration with other apparatus. Finally, we discuss the ACORDE-ALICE cosmic ray physics program.

  1. Cosmic Ray Physics with ACORDE at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Pagliarone, C.

    2008-01-01

    The use of large underground high-energy physics experiments, for comic ray studies, have been used, in the past, at CERN, in order to measure, precisely, the inclusive cosmic ray flux in the energy range from 2x10^10 - 2x10^12 eV. ACORDE, ALICE Cosmic Rays DEtector, will act as Level 0 cosmic ray trigger and, together with other ALICE apparatus, will provide precise information on cosmic rays with primary energies around 10^15 - 10^17 eV. This paper reviews the main detector features, the present status, commissioning and integration with other apparatus. Finally, we discuss the ACORDE-ALICE cosmic ray physics program.

  2. High energy physics in cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Lawrence W. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2013-02-07

    In the first half-century of cosmic ray physics, the primary research focus was on elementary particles; the positron, pi-mesons, mu-mesons, and hyperons were discovered in cosmic rays. Much of this research was carried out at mountain elevations; Pic du Midi in the Pyrenees, Mt. Chacaltaya in Bolivia, and Mt. Evans/Echo Lake in Colorado, among other sites. In the 1960s, claims of the observation of free quarks, and satellite measurements of a significant rise in p-p cross sections, plus the delay in initiating accelerator construction programs for energies above 100 GeV, motivated the Michigan-Wisconsin group to undertake a serious cosmic ray program at Echo Lake. Subsequently, with the succession of higher energy accelerators and colliders at CERN and Fermilab, cosmic ray research has increasingly focused on cosmology and astrophysics, although some groups continue to study cosmic ray particle interactions in emulsion chambers.

  3. ALICE Cosmic Ray Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Fernandez Tellez, A; Martinez Hernandez, M; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, M

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE underground cavern provides an ideal place for the detection of high energy atmospheric muons coming from cosmic ray showers. ACORDE detects cosmic ray showers by triggering the arrival of muons to the top of the ALICE magnet.

  4. Cosmic Dawn with WFIRST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, James

    Central objectives: WFIRST-AFTA has tremendous potential for studying the epoch of "Cosmic Dawn" the period encompassing the formation of the first galaxies and quasars, and their impact on the surrounding universe through cosmological reionization. Our goal is to ensure that this potential is realized through the middle stages of mission planning, culminating in designs for both WFIRST and its core surveys that meet the core objectives in dark energy and exoplanet science, while maximizing the complementary Cosmic Dawn science. Methods: We will consider a combined approach to studying Cosmic Dawn using a judicious mixture of guest investigator data analysis of the primary WFIRST surveys, and a specifically designed Guest Observer program to complement those surveys. The Guest Observer program will serve primarily to obtain deep field observations, with particular attention to the capabilities of WFIRST for spectroscopic deep fields using the WFI grism. We will bring to bear our years of experience with slitless spectroscopy on the Hubble Space Telescope, along with an expectation of JWST slitless grism spectroscopy. We will use this experience to examine the implications of WFIRST’s grism resolution and wavelength coverage for deep field observations, and if appropriate, to suggest potential modifications of these parameters to optimize the science return on WFIRST. We have assembled a team of experts specializing in (1) Lyman Break Galaxies at redshifts higher than 7 (2) Quasars at high redshifts (3) Lyman-alpha galaxies as probes of reionization (4) Theoretical simulations of high-redshift galaxies (5) Simulations of grism observations (6) post-processing analysis to find emission line galaxies and high redshift galaxies (7) JWST observations and calibrations. With this team we intend to do end-to-end simulations starting with halo populations and expected spectra of high redshift galaxies and finally extracting what we can learn about (a) reionization

  5. Supernovae and cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Woltjer, L

    1978-01-01

    The energetic requirements for cosmic-ray acceleration are evaluated and the abundances of various elements, electrons, and positrons, are reviewed. Various models for cosmic-ray production involving different aspects of the supernova process are evaluated. The difficulties in theories which make pulsars the main source of cosmic rays are stressed. (4 refs).

  6. The cosmic ray primary spectrum in the transition region between direct and indirect measurements (10 TeV - 10 PeV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertaina, M; Navarra, G [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita di Torino and INFN, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Battistoni, G [INFN Milano and Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milano (Italy); Muraro, S [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita and INFN Milano, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milano (Italy); Stamerra, A [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Pisa and INFN, Via Buonarroti 2, 56010 Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: bertaina@to.infn.it

    2008-07-15

    The cosmic ray spectrum between 10 TeV and 10 PeV is a key region to understand the origin and the acceleration processes of the galactic radiation. Around 100 TeV measurements performed by balloons and air shower arrays partially overlap. The experimental results recently obtained by both techniques are summarized. The picture that comes out from a common interpretation of the data is a steeper proton spectrum compared to the helium and CNO groups with a dominance of the helium component in the knee region. The agreeement on the proton spectrum by balloons and air shower arrays is remarkable.

  7. Final Report for NA-22/DTRA Cosmic Ray Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurtz, Ron E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chapline, George F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Glenn, Andrew M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Nakae, Les F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pawelczak, Iwona A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sheets, Steven A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-07-21

    The primary objective of this project was to better understand the time-correlations between the muons and neutrons produced as a result of high energy primary cosmic ray particles hitting the atmosphere, and investigate whether these time correlations might be useful in connection with the detection of special nuclear materials. During the course of this project we did observe weak correlations between secondary cosmic ray muons and cosmic ray induced fast neutrons. We also observed strong correlations between tertiary neutrons produced in a Pb pile by secondary cosmic rays and minimum ionizing particles produced in association with the tertiary neutrons.

  8. CrossRef Antiproton Flux, Antiproton-to-Proton Flux Ratio, and Properties of Elementary Particle Fluxes in Primary Cosmic Rays Measured with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilar, M; Alpat, B; Ambrosi, G; Arruda, L; Attig, N; Aupetit, S; Azzarello, P; Bachlechner, A; Barao, F; Barrau, A; Barrin, L; Bartoloni, A; Basara, L; Başeǧmez-du Pree, S; Battarbee, M; Battiston, R; Bazo, J; Becker, U; Behlmann, M; Beischer, B; Berdugo, J; Bertucci, B; Bindi, V; Boella, G; de Boer, W; Bollweg, K; Bonnivard, V; Borgia, B; Boschini, M  J; Bourquin, M; Bueno, E  F; Burger, J; Cadoux, F; Cai, X  D; Capell, M; Caroff, S; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cernuda, I; Cervelli, F; Chae, M  J; Chang, Y  H; Chen, A  I; Chen, G  M; Chen, H  S; Cheng, L; Chou, H  Y; Choumilov, E; Choutko, V; Chung, C  H; Clark, C; Clavero, R; Coignet, G; Consolandi, C; Contin, A; Corti, C; Coste, B; Creus, W; Crispoltoni, M; Cui, Z; Dai, Y  M; Delgado, C; Della Torre, S; Demirköz, M  B; Derome, L; Di Falco, S; Dimiccoli, F; Díaz, C; von Doetinchem, P; Dong, F; Donnini, F; Duranti, M; D'Urso, D; Egorov, A; Eline, A; Eronen, T; Feng, J; Fiandrini, E; Finch, E; Fisher, P; Formato, V; Galaktionov, Y; Gallucci, G; García, B; García-López, R  J; Gargiulo, C; Gast, H; Gebauer, I; Gervasi, M; Ghelfi, A; Giovacchini, F; Goglov, P; Gómez-Coral, D  M; Gong, J; Goy, C; Grabski, V; Grandi, D; Graziani, M; Guerri, I; Guo, K  H; Habiby, M; Haino, S; Han, K  C; He, Z  H; Heil, M; Hoffman, J; Hsieh, T  H; Huang, H; Huang, Z  C; Huh, C; Incagli, M; Ionica, M; Jang, W  Y; Jinchi, H; Kang, S  C; Kanishev, K; Kim, G  N; Kim, K  S; Kirn, Th; Konak, C; Kounina, O; Kounine, A; Koutsenko, V; Krafczyk, M  S; La Vacca, G; Laudi, E; Laurenti, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lebedev, A; Lee, H  T; Lee, S  C; Leluc, C; Li, H  S; Li, J  Q; Li, Q; Li, T  X; Li, W; Li, Z  H; Li, Z  Y; Lim, S; Lin, C  H; Lipari, P; Lippert, T; Liu, D; Liu, Hu; Lu, S  Q; Lu, Y  S; Luebelsmeyer, K; Luo, F; Luo, J  Z; Lv, S  S; Majka, R; Mañá, C; Marín, J; Martin, T; Martínez, G; Masi, N; Maurin, D; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Meng, Q; Mo, D  C; Morescalchi, L; Mott, P; Nelson, T; Ni, J  Q; Nikonov, N; Nozzoli, F; Nunes, P; Oliva, A; Orcinha, M; Palmonari, F; Palomares, C; Paniccia, M; Pauluzzi, M; Pensotti, S; Pereira, R; Picot-Clemente, N; Pilo, F; Pizzolotto, C; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Poireau, V; Putze, A; Quadrani, L; Qi, X  M; Qin, X; Qu, Z  Y; Räihä, T; Rancoita, P  G; Rapin, D; Ricol, J  S; Rodríguez, I; Rosier-Lees, S; Rozhkov, A; Rozza, D; Sagdeev, R; Sandweiss, J; Saouter, P; Schael, S; Schmidt, S  M; Schulz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Seo, E  S; Shan, B  S; Shi, J  Y; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Song, J  W; Sun, W  H; Tacconi, M; Tang, X  W; Tang, Z  C; Tao, L; Tescaro, D; Ting, Samuel C  C; Ting, S  M; Tomassetti, N; Torsti, J; Türkoğlu, C; Urban, T; Vagelli, V; Valente, E; Vannini, C; Valtonen, E; Vázquez Acosta, M; Vecchi, M; Velasco, M; Vialle, J  P; Vitale, V; Vitillo, S; Wang, L  Q; Wang, N  H; Wang, Q  L; Wang, X; Wang, X  Q; Wang, Z  X; Wei, C  C; Weng, Z  L; Whitman, K; Wienkenhöver, J; Willenbrock, M; Wu, H; Wu, X; Xia, X; Xiong, R  Q; Xu, W; Yan, Q; Yang, J; Yang, M; Yang, Y; Yi, H; Yu, Y  J; Yu, Z  Q; Zeissler, S; Zhang, C; Zhang, J; Zhang, J  H; Zhang, S  D; Zhang, S  W; Zhang, Z; Zheng, Z  M; Zhu, Z  Q; Zhuang, H  L; Zhukov, V; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, N; Zuccon, P

    2016-01-01

    A precision measurement by AMS of the antiproton flux and the antiproton-to-proton flux ratio in primary cosmic rays in the absolute rigidity range from 1 to 450 GV is presented based on 3.49×105 antiproton events and 2.42×109 proton events. The fluxes and flux ratios of charged elementary particles in cosmic rays are also presented. In the absolute rigidity range ∼60 to ∼500  GV, the antiproton p¯, proton p, and positron e+ fluxes are found to have nearly identical rigidity dependence and the electron e− flux exhibits a different rigidity dependence. Below 60 GV, the (p¯/p), (p¯/e+), and (p/e+) flux ratios each reaches a maximum. From ∼60 to ∼500  GV, the (p¯/p), (p¯/e+), and (p/e+) flux ratios show no rigidity dependence. These are new observations of the properties of elementary particles in the cosmos.

  9. Cosmic Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    neutrons, liberating a little energy and creating complexity. Then, the expanding universe cooled some more, and neutrons and protons, no longer kept apart by immense temperatures, found themselves unstable and formed helium nuclei. Then, a little more cooling, and atomic nuclei and electrons were no longer kept apart, and the universe became transparent. Then a little more cooling, and the next instability began: gravitation pulled matter together across cosmic distances to form stars and galaxies. This instability is described as a "negative heat capadty" in which extracting energy from a gravitating system makes it hotter -- clearly the 2nd law of thermodynamics does not apply here! (This is the physicist's part of the answer to e e cummings' question: what is the wonder that's keeping the stars apart?) Then, the next instability is that hydrogen and helium nuclei can fuse together to release energy and make stars burn for billions of years. And then at the end of the fuel source, stars become unstable and explode and liberate the chemical elements back into space. And because of that, on planets like Earth, sustained energy flows support the development of additional instabilities and all kinds of complex patterns. Gravitational instability pulls the densest materials into the core of the Earth, leaving a thin skin of water and air, and makes the interior churn incessantly as heat flows outwards. And the heat from the sun, received mostly near the equator and flowing towards the poles, supports the complex atmospheric and oceanic circulations. And because or that, the physical Earth is full of natural chemical laboratories, concentrating elements here, mixing them there, raising and lowering temperatures, ceaselessly experimenting with uncountable events where new instabilities can arise. At least one of them was the new experiment called life. Now that we know that there are at least as many planets as there are stars, it is hard to imagine that nature's ceasess

  10. Key scientific problems from Cosmic Ray History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Dorman

    2016-07-01

    -1911, before CR were discovered). 8. Moreover, in the 1930s it was shown by investigations of West-East CR asymmetry that the largest part of primary CR must be positive energetic particles. Later, in the 1940s - 1950s, it was established by direct measurements at high altitudes on balloons and rockets that the most part of cosmic rays are energetic protons, about 10% He nuclei, 1% more heavy nuclei, 1% energetic electrons, and only about 1% energetic gamma rays. Nevertheless, the name 'cosmic rays' (for short, CR) continues to be used up to now (sometimes they are called astroparticles). 9. The importance of CR for fundamental science was understood in the 1930s - 1950s, when has been discovered the first antiparticle predicted by the Quantum Electrodynamics - positron (in 1932), and then muons (1937), pions, K+, K0 mesons (in 1947), Λ0, Ξ-, Σ+ hyperons (accordingly in 1951, 1952, 1953). Cosmic rays became considered as very important natural source of high and very high energies. 10. In 1940s-1950s formatted also geophysical and astrophysical aspects of CR research. In 1936, the Nobel Prize in Physics received Victor Hess for CR discovery and Charles Anderson for discovery of positrons in CR. Later, many other great scientists in CR research received Nobel Prizes.

  11. Long-lived staus from cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlers, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Illana, J.I.; Masip, M. [Granada Univ. (Spain). CAFPE y Dept. de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos; Meloni, D. [Univ. degli Studi di Roma La Spienza (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; INFN, Roma (Italy)

    2007-05-15

    The collision of a high energy cosmic ray with a nucleon in the upper atmosphere could produce long-lived heavy particles. Such particles would be very penetrating, since the energy loss in matter scales as the inverse mass, and could reach a neutrino telescope like IceCube from large zenith angles. Here we study this possibility and focus on the long-lived stau of SUSY models with a gravitino LSP. The signal would be a pair of muon-like parallel tracks separated by 50 meters along the detector. We evaluate the background of muon pairs and show that any events from zenith angles above 80. could be explained by the production of these heavy particles by cosmic rays. (orig.)

  12. The cosmic dust rate across the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioannini, L.; Matteucci, F.; Calura, F.

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the evolution of interstellar dust in the Universe by means of chemical evolution models of galaxies of different morphological types, reproducing the main observed features of present-day galaxies. We adopt the most updated prescriptions for dust production from supernovae and asymptotic giant branch stars as well as for dust accretion and destruction processes. Then, we study the cosmic dust rate in the framework of three different cosmological scenarios for galaxy formation: (I) a pure luminosity scenario, (II) a number density evolution scenario, as suggested by the classical hierarchical clustering scenario and (III) an alternative scenario, in which both spirals and ellipticals are allowed to evolve in number on an observationally motivated basis. Our results give predictions about the evolution of the dust content in different galaxies as well as the cosmic dust rate as a function of redshift. Concerning the cosmic dust rate, the best scenario is the alternative one, which predicts a peak at 2 < z < 3 and reproduces the cosmic star formation rate. We compute the evolution of the comoving dust density parameter Ωdust and find agreement with data for z < 0.5 in the framework of DE and alternative scenarios. Finally, the evolution of the average cosmic metallicity is presented and it shows a quite fast increase in each scenario, reaching the solar value at the present time, although most of the heavy elements are incorporated into solid grains, and therefore not observable in the gas phase.

  13. High energy cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Stanev, Todor

    2010-01-01

    Offers an accessible text and reference (a cosmic-ray manual) for graduate students entering the field and high-energy astrophysicists will find this an accessible cosmic-ray manual Easy to read for the general astronomer, the first part describes the standard model of cosmic rays based on our understanding of modern particle physics. Presents the acceleration scenario in some detail in supernovae explosions as well as in the passage of cosmic rays through the Galaxy. Compares experimental data in the atmosphere as well as underground are compared with theoretical models

  14. Origin of the spectral upturn in the cosmic-ray C /Fe and O /Fe ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassetti, Nicola

    2015-09-01

    The observed spectrum of Galactic cosmic rays has several exciting features such as the rise in the positron fraction above ˜10 GeV of energy and the spectral hardening of protons and helium at ≳300 GeV /n ucleon of energy. The ATIC-2 experiment has recently reported an unexpected spectral upturn in the elemental ratios involving iron, such as the C /Fe or O /Fe ratios, at energy ≳50 GeV per nucleon. It is recognized that the observed positron excess can be explained by pion production processes during diffusive shock acceleration of cosmic-ray hadrons in nearby sources. Recently, it was suggested that a scenario with nearby source dominating the GeV-TeV spectrum may be connected with the change of slope observed in protons and nuclei, which would be interpreted as a flux transition between the local component and the large-scale distribution of Galactic sources. Here I show that, under a two-component scenario with nearby source, the shape of the spectral transition is expected to be slightly different for heavy nuclei, such as iron, because their propagation range is spatially limited by inelastic collisions with the interstellar matter. This enables a prediction for the primary/primary ratios between light and heavy nuclei. From this effect, a spectral upturn is predicted in the C /Fe and O /Fe ratios in good accordance with the ATIC-2 data.

  15. Photons as Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays ?

    CERN Document Server

    Kalashev, O E; Semikoz, D V; Tkachev, Igor I

    2001-01-01

    We study spectra of the Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays assuming primaries are protons and photons, and that their sources are extragalactic. We assume power low for the injection spectra and take into account the influence of cosmic microwave, infrared, optical and radio backgrounds as well as extragalactic magnetic fields on propagation of primaries. Our additional free parameters are the maximum energy of injected particles and the distance to the nearest source. We find a parameter range where the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin cut-off is avoided.

  16. Maria Montessori's Cosmic Vision, Cosmic Plan, and Cosmic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazzini, Camillo

    2013-01-01

    This classic position of the breadth of Cosmic Education begins with a way of seeing the human's interaction with the world, continues on to the grandeur in scale of time and space of that vision, then brings the interdependency of life where each growing human becomes a participating adult. Mr. Grazzini confronts the laws of human nature in…

  17. Preliminary results from the heavy ions in space experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, James H., Jr.; Beahm, Lorraine P.; Tylka, Allan J.

    1992-01-01

    The Heavy Ions In Space (HIIS) experiment has two primary objectives: (1) to measure the elemental composition of ultraheavy galactic cosmic rays, beginning in the tin-barium region of the periodic table; and (2) to study heavy ions which arrive at LDEF below the geomagnetic cutoff, either because they are not fully stripped of electrons or because their source is within the magnetosphere. Both of these objectives have practical as well as astrophysical consequences. In particular, the high atomic number of the ultraheavy galactic cosmic rays puts them among the most intensely ionizing particles in Nature. They are therefore capable of upsetting electronic components normally considered immune to such effects. The below cutoff heavy ions are intensely ionizing because of their low velocity. They can be a significant source of microelectronic anomalies in low inclination orbits, where Earth's magnetic field protects satellites from most particles from interplanetary space. The HIIS results will lead to significantly improved estimates of the intensely ionizing radiation environment.

  18. A study on the application of CRUDTRAN code in primary systems of domestic pressurized heavy-water reactors for prediction of radiation source term

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jong Soon; Cho, Hoon Jo; Jung, Min Young; Lee, Sang Heon [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    The importance of developing a source-term assessment technology has been emphasized owing to the decommissioning of Kori nuclear power plant (NPP) Unit 1 and the increase of deteriorated NPPs. We analyzed the behavioral mechanism of corrosion products in the primary system of a pressurized heavy-water reactor-type NPP. In addition, to check the possibility of applying the CRUDTRAN code to a Canadian Deuterium Uranium Reactor (CANDU)-type NPP, the type was assessed using collected domestic onsite data. With the assessment results, it was possible to predict trends according to operating cycles. Values estimated using the code were similar to the measured values. The results of this study are expected to be used to manage the radiation exposures of operators in high-radiation areas and to predict decommissioning processes in the primary system.

  19. Cosmic Ray Propagation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalenko, I. V.

    2004-01-01

    Astrophysics of cosmic rays and gamma rays depends very much on the quality of the data, which become increasingly accurate each year and therefore more constraining. While direct measurements of cosmic rays are possible in only one location on the outskirts of the Milky Way, the Galactic diffuse gamma-ray emission provides insights into the spectra of cosmic rays in distant locations, therefore complementing the local cosmic-ray studies. This connection, however, requires extensive modeling and is yet to be explored in detail. The GUST mission, which is scheduled for launch in 2007 and is capable of measuring gamma-rays in the range 20 MeV - 300 GeV, will change the status quo dramatically. Galactic diffuse gamma-ray emission gathered by GUST will require adequate theoretical models. The efforts will be rewarded by the wealth of information on cosmic ray spectra and fluxes in remote locations. In its turn, a detailed cosmic ray propagation model will provide a reliable basis for other studies such as search for dark matter signals in cosmic rays and diffuse gamma rays, spectrum and origin of the extragalactic gamma-ray emission, theories of nucleosynthesis and evolution of elements etc. In this talk, I will discuss what we can learn studying the cosmic ray propagation and diffuse gamma-ray emission.

  20. High energy cosmic rays

    OpenAIRE

    Gelmini, Graciela B.

    2009-01-01

    I review here some of the physics we are learning and expect to learn in the near future through the observation of cosmic rays. The study of cosmic rays involves a combination of data from accelerators, ground arrays, atmospheric fluorescence detectors and balloon and satellite experiments. I will discuss the data of the Pierre Auger Observatory, PAMELA, ATIC and FST among other experiments.

  1. Cosmic Rays in Thunderstorms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitink, Stijn; Scholten, Olaf; van den Berg, Ad; Ebert, Ute

    2013-01-01

    Cosmic Rays in Thunderstorms Cosmic rays are protons and heavier nuclei that constantly bombard the Earth's atmosphere with energies spanning a vast range from 109 to 1021 eV. At typical altitudes up to 10-20 km they initiate large particle cascades, called extensive air showers, that contain

  2. Attitudes and Learning through Practice Are Key to Delivering Brief Interventions for Heavy Drinking in Primary Health Care: Analyses from the ODHIN Five Country Cluster Randomized Factorial Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Anderson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we test path models that study the interrelations between primary health care provider attitudes towards working with drinkers, their screening and brief advice activity, and their receipt of training and support and financial reimbursement. Study participants were 756 primary health care providers from 120 primary health care units (PHCUs in different locations throughout Catalonia, England, The Netherlands, Poland, and Sweden. Our interventions were training and support and financial reimbursement to providers. Our design was a randomized factorial trial with baseline measurement period, 12-week implementation period, and 9-month follow-up measurement period. Our outcome measures were: attitudes of individual providers in working with drinkers as measured by the Short Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Perception Questionnaire; and the proportion of consulting adult patients (age 18+ years who screened positive and were given advice to reduce their alcohol consumption (intervention activity. We found that more positive attitudes were associated with higher intervention activity, and higher intervention activity was then associated with more positive attitudes. Training and support was associated with both positive changes in attitudes and higher intervention activity. Financial reimbursement was associated with more positive attitudes through its impact on higher intervention activity. We conclude that improving primary health care providers’ screening and brief advice activity for heavy drinking requires a combination of training and support and on-the-job experience of actually delivering screening and brief advice activity.

  3. Attitudes and Learning through Practice Are Key to Delivering Brief Interventions for Heavy Drinking in Primary Health Care: Analyses from the ODHIN Five Country Cluster Randomized Factorial Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter; Kaner, Eileen; Keurhorst, Myrna; Bendtsen, Preben; Steenkiste, Ben van; Reynolds, Jillian; Segura, Lidia; Wojnar, Marcin; Kłoda, Karolina; Parkinson, Kathryn; Drummond, Colin; Okulicz-Kozaryn, Katarzyna; Mierzecki, Artur; Laurant, Miranda; Newbury-Birch, Dorothy; Gual, Antoni

    2017-01-26

    In this paper, we test path models that study the interrelations between primary health care provider attitudes towards working with drinkers, their screening and brief advice activity, and their receipt of training and support and financial reimbursement. Study participants were 756 primary health care providers from 120 primary health care units (PHCUs) in different locations throughout Catalonia, England, The Netherlands, Poland, and Sweden. Our interventions were training and support and financial reimbursement to providers. Our design was a randomized factorial trial with baseline measurement period, 12-week implementation period, and 9-month follow-up measurement period. Our outcome measures were: attitudes of individual providers in working with drinkers as measured by the Short Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Perception Questionnaire; and the proportion of consulting adult patients (age 18+ years) who screened positive and were given advice to reduce their alcohol consumption (intervention activity). We found that more positive attitudes were associated with higher intervention activity, and higher intervention activity was then associated with more positive attitudes. Training and support was associated with both positive changes in attitudes and higher intervention activity. Financial reimbursement was associated with more positive attitudes through its impact on higher intervention activity. We conclude that improving primary health care providers' screening and brief advice activity for heavy drinking requires a combination of training and support and on-the-job experience of actually delivering screening and brief advice activity.

  4. Very heavy dark Skyrmions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Rainer

    2017-12-01

    A dark sector with a solitonic component provides a means to circumvent the problem of generically low annihilation cross sections of very heavy dark matter particles. At the same time, enhanced annihilation cross sections are necessary for indirect detection of very heavy dark matter components beyond 100 TeV. Non-thermally produced dark matter in this mass range could therefore contribute to the cosmic γ -ray and neutrino flux above 100 TeV, and massive Skyrmions provide an interesting framework for the discussion of these scenarios. Therefore a Higgs portal and a neutrino portal for very heavy Skyrmion dark matter are discussed. The Higgs portal model demonstrates a dark mediator bottleneck, where limitations on particle annihilation cross sections will prevent a signal from the potentially large soliton annihilation cross sections. This problem can be avoided in models where the dark mediator decays. This is illustrated by the neutrino portal for Skyrmion dark matter.

  5. The Cosmic Ray Lepton Puzzle

    CERN Document Server

    Brun, Pierre; Cirelli, Marco; Moulin, Emmanuel; Glicenstein, Jean-Francois; Iocco, Fabio; Pieri, Lidia

    2010-01-01

    Recent measurements of cosmic ray electrons and positrons by PAMELA, ATIC, Fermi and HESS have revealed interesting excesses and features in the GeV-TeV range. Many possible explanations have been suggested, invoking one or more nearby primary sources such as pulsars and supernova remnants, or dark matter. Based on the output of the TANGO in PARIS --Testing Astroparticle with the New GeV/TeV Observations in Positrons And electRons : Identifying the Sources-- workshop held in Paris in May 2009, we review here the latest experimental results and we discuss some virtues and drawbacks of the many theoretical interpretations proposed so far.

  6. Comparison of DSM-IV and DSM-5 criteria for alcohol use disorders in VA primary care patients with frequent heavy drinking enrolled in a trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Traci; Lapham, Gwen; Chavez, Laura J; Lee, Amy K; Williams, Emily C; Richards, Julie E; Greenberg, Diane; Rubinsky, Anna; Berger, Douglas; Hawkins, Eric J; Merrill, Joseph O; Bradley, Katharine A

    2017-07-18

    Criteria for alcohol use disorders (AUD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5) were intended to result in a similar prevalence of AUD as DSM-IV. We evaluated the prevalence of AUD using DSM-5 and DSM-IV criteria, and compared characteristics of patients who met criteria for: neither DSM-5 nor DSM-IV AUD, DSM-5 alone, DSM-IV alone, or both, among Veterans Administration (VA) outpatients in the Considering Healthier drinking Options In primary CarE (CHOICE) trial. VA primary care patients who reported frequent heavy drinking and enrolled in the CHOICE trial were interviewed at baseline using the DSM-IV Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for AUD, as well as questions about socio-demographics, mental health, alcohol craving, and substance use. We compared characteristics across 4 mutually exclusive groups based on DSM-5 and DSM-IV criteria. Of 304 participants, 13.8% met criteria for neither DSM-5 nor DSM-IV AUD; 12.8% met criteria for DSM-5 alone, and 73.0% met criteria for both DSM-IV and DSM-5. Only 1 patient (0.3%) met criteria for DSM-IV AUD alone. Patients meeting both DSM-5 and DSM-IV criteria had more negative drinking consequences, mental health symptoms and self-reported readiness to change compared with those meeting DSM-5 criteria alone or neither DSM-5 nor DSM-IV criteria. In this sample of primary care patients with frequent heavy drinking, DSM-5 identified 13% more patients with AUD than DSM-IV. This group had a lower mental health symptom burden and less self-reported readiness to change compared to those meeting criteria for both DSM-IV and DSM-5 AUD. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01400581. 2011 February 17.

  7. Ultrarelativistic heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugh, H.G.

    1980-12-01

    Studies with ultrarelativistic heavy ions combine aspects of cosmic ray physics, particle physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics and cosmogenesis. The leading theoretical concerns are the behavior of matter at very high-energy density and flux, the general behavior of space time in collisions, relativistic nuclear theory, and quantum chromodynamics. The field has developed over a period of more than thirty years, since the first observation of heavy nuclei in cosmic rays and the major developments of understanding of high-energy collisions made by Fermi and Landau in the early fifties. In the late sixties the discovery of the parton content of nucleons was rapidly followed by a great extension of high-energy collision phenomenology at the CERN ISR and subsequent confirmation of the QCD theory. In parallel the study of p-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at very high energies, especially at the CERN PS, Fermilab and the Bevalac, and in cosmic rays demonstrated that studies involving the nucleus opened up a new dimension in studies of the hadronic interaction. It is now at a high level of interest on an international scale, with major new accelerators being proposed to dedicate to this kind of study.

  8. Light scattering by cosmic particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovenier, J.W.; Min, M.

    2008-01-01

    We define cosmic particles as particles outside the Earth. Two types of cosmic particles can be distinguished, namely liquid and solid particles. The solid particles are often called grains or cosmic dust particles. Cosmic particles occur in a great variety of astronomical objects and environments.

  9. A study on stack configuration of continuous electrodeionization for removal of heavy metal ions from the primary coolant of a nuclear power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Kyeong-Ho; Song, Jung-Hoon; Moon, Seung-Hyeon

    2004-04-01

    This study investigated the production of high-purity water in the primary coolant of a nuclear power plant via the continuous electrodeionization (CEDI) process, using ion exchange resins as ion-conducting media between ion exchange membranes. The effectiveness of this method was examined with respect to the removal of heavy metals. The study was carried out on a laboratory scale with an effective area of 20 cm(2). The CEDI system was operated with a layered bed of cation exchange resins, anion exchange resins, and mixed-bed ion exchange resins. The stack configuration was designed to prevent a reaction between metal ions and hydroxide ions. The CEDI operation with the layered bed removed more than 99% of the ions at 30% of the current efficiency. The results showed that, with an inlet conductivity of 40 microScm(-1), a linear velocity of 4.17 cms(-1), and an applied current density of 17 mAcm(-2), the CEDI process yielded an outlet conductivity of 0.5 microScm(-1), thereby preventing the precipitation of metal ions. This study therefore successfully demonstrated the feasibility of the CEDI operation for the removal of heavy metals at a very low concentration.

  10. Water radiolysis with heavy ions of energies up to 28 GeV-2: Extension of primary yield measurements to very high LET values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Shinichi [Department of Quantum Engineering and Systems Science, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Katsumura, Yosuke [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)], E-mail: katsu@n.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Lin Mingzhang [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Muroya, Yusa [Nuclear Professional School, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Maeyama, Takuya [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Murakami, Takeshi [Research Center of Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2008-10-15

    Measurements of primary g-values (at {approx}10{sup -7} s after the initial ionizing event) of e{sub aq}{sup -}, {sup {center_dot}}OH and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} were extended to the very high linear energy transfer (LET) region ({approx}700 eV/nm) near the Bragg peak. Heavy ions ({sup 4}He{sup 2+}, {sup 12}C{sup 6+}, {sup 20}Ne{sup 10+}, {sup 28}Si{sup 14+}, {sup 40}Ar{sup 18+} and {sup 56}Fe{sup 26+}) of energies up to 28 GeV were provided by the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) in Chiba, Japan. Energies of the ions were decreased down to about 10 MeV/u for {sup 4}He{sup 2+} using an energy absorber made of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) plates in order to vary the LET values. Beam was visualized after passing through the energy absorber using agarose gel of aqueous solution containing methyl viologen and sodium formate in order to determine how long ions can penetrate into water. Based on the information of the penetration depth of ions in samples, much attention was paid to dose correction and LET evaluation. The obtained data were plotted as a function of (Z{sub eff}/{beta}){sup 2} also instead of LET in order to discuss effects of physical track structures on product yields, resulted in better universality.

  11. Cosmic Dust Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Since May 1981, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has used aircraft to collect cosmic dust (CD) particles from Earth's stratosphere. Specially...

  12. The Cosmic Labyrinth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, M.

    2011-06-01

    This paper discusses the intertwined relationship between the terrestrial and celestial using the labyrinth as a metaphor referencing sources from art, gardens and Australian Indigenous culture. Including the Morning Star with the labyrinthine mortuary ritual in Arnhem Land, the cosmic plan garden at Auschwitz and Marea Atkinson's art project undertaken at the Villa Garzoni garden in Italy to create The Cosmic Labyrinth installation exhibited at Palazzo Franchetti, Venice, during the sixth conference on the Inspiration of Astronomical Phenomena.

  13. Cosmic-Ray Extremely Distributed Observatory: a global cosmic ray detection framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushchov, O.; Homola, P.; Dhital, N.; Bratek, Ł.; Poznański, P.; Wibig, T.; Zamora-Saa, J.; Almeida Cheminant, K.; Alvarez Castillo, D.; Góra, D.; Jagoda, P.; Jałocha, J.; Jarvis, J. F.; Kasztelan, M.; Kopański, K.; Krupiński, M.; Michałek, M.; Nazari, V.; Smelcerz, K.; Smolek, K.; Stasielak, J.; Sułek, M.

    2017-12-01

    The main objective of the Cosmic-Ray Extremely Distributed Observatory (CREDO) is the detection and analysis of extended cosmic ray phenomena, so-called super-preshowers (SPS), using existing as well as new infrastructure (cosmic-ray observatories, educational detectors, single detectors etc.). The search for ensembles of cosmic ray events initiated by SPS is yet an untouched ground, in contrast to the current state-of-the-art analysis, which is focused on the detection of single cosmic ray events. Theoretical explanation of SPS could be given either within classical (e.g., photon-photon interaction) or exotic (e.g., Super Heavy Dark Matter decay or annihilation) scenarios, thus detection of SPS would provide a better understanding of particle physics, high energy astrophysics and cosmology. The ensembles of cosmic rays can be classified based on the spatial and temporal extent of particles constituting the ensemble. Some classes of SPS are predicted to have huge spatial distribution, a unique signature detectable only with a facility of the global size. Since development and commissioning of a completely new facility with such requirements is economically unwarranted and time-consuming, the global analysis goals are achievable when all types of existing detectors are merged into a worldwide network. The idea to use the instruments in operation is based on a novel trigger algorithm: in parallel to looking for neighbour surface detectors receiving the signal simultaneously, one should also look for spatially isolated stations clustered in a small time window. On the other hand, CREDO strategy is also aimed at an active engagement of a large number of participants, who will contribute to the project by using common electronic devices (e.g., smartphones), capable of detecting cosmic rays. It will help not only in expanding the geographical spread of CREDO, but also in managing a large manpower necessary for a more efficient crowd-sourced pattern recognition scheme to

  14. Cosmic Divergence, Weak Cosmic Convergence, and Fixed Points at Infinity

    OpenAIRE

    Ryu, Ernest K.

    2017-01-01

    To characterize the asymptotic behavior of fixed-point iterations of non-expansive operators with no fixed points, Bauschke et al. [Fixed Point Theory Appl. (2016)] recently studied cosmic convergence and conjectured that cosmic convergence always holds. This paper presents a cosmically divergent counter example, which disproves this conjecture. This paper also demonstrates, with a counter example, that cosmic convergence can be weak in infinite dimensions. Finally, this paper shows positive ...

  15. Cosmic Rays and Climate

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkby, Jasper

    2007-01-01

    Among the most puzzling questions in climate change is that of solar-climate variability, which has attracted the attention of scientists for more than two centuries. Until recently, even the existence of solar-climate variability has been controversial—perhaps because the observations had largely involved correlations between climate and the sunspot cycle that had persisted for only a few decades. Over the last few years, however, diverse reconstructions of past climate change have revealed clear associations with cosmic ray variations recorded in cosmogenic isotope archives, providing persuasive evidence for solar or cosmic ray forcing of the climate. However, despite the increasing evidence of its importance, solar-climate variability is likely to remain controversial until a physical mechanism is established. Although this remains a mystery, observations suggest that cloud cover may be influenced by cosmic rays, which are modulated by the solar wind and, on longer time scales, by the geomagnetic fiel...

  16. The cosmic ray spectrum and composition measured by KASCADE-Grande between 10{sup 16} eV and 10{sup 18} eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertaina, M., E-mail: bertaina@to.infn.it [Department of Physics, University of Torino and INFN, Torino (Italy); Apel, W.D. [Institut für Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Arteaga-Velázquez, J.C. [Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Morelia (Mexico); Bekk, K. [Institut für Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Blümer, J. [Institut für Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Institut für Experimentelle Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Bozdog, H. [Institut für Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Brancus, I.M. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Cantoni, E. [Department of Physics, University of Torino and INFN, Torino (Italy); Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, INAF Torino (Italy); Chiavassa, A. [Department of Physics, University of Torino and INFN, Torino (Italy); Cossavella, F. [Institut für Experimentelle Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Daumiller, K. [Institut für Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Souza, V. de [Universidade São Paulo, Instituto de Física de São Carlos (Brazil); and others

    2014-11-15

    The shape and composition of the primary spectrum of cosmic rays are key elements to understand the origin, acceleration and propagation of the Galactic cosmic rays. Besides the well known knee and ankle features, the recent results of KASCADE-Grande indicate that the measured energy spectrum exhibits also a less pronounced but still clear deviation from a single power law between the knee and the ankle, with a spectral hardening at 2 × 10{sup 16} eV and a steepening at 10{sup 17} eV. The average mass composition gets heavier after the knee till 10{sup 17} eV where a bending of the heavy component is observed. An indication of a hardening of the light component just above 10{sup 17} eV has been measured as well. In this paper the major results obtained so far by the KASCADE-Grande experiment are reviewed.

  17. Hunting for Cosmic-Ray Origins with SuperTIGER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-11-01

    Illustration of cosmic-ray nuclei impacting Earths atmosphere and decaying into lighter particles. [ESA]The SuperTIGER (Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder) experiment flew over Antarctica for 55 days, collecting millions of galactic cosmic rays. What can it tell us about the origins of these high-energy particles?High-Energy ImpactsGalactic cosmic rays are immensely high-energy protons and atomic nuclei that impact our atmosphere, originating from outside of our solar system. Where do they come from, and how are they accelerated? These are both open topics of research.One of the leading theories is that cosmic-ray source material is primarily a mixture of material that has been ejected from massive stars either from supernovae or in stellar wind outflows and normal interstellar medium (ISM). This material is then accelerated to cosmic-ray energies by supernova shocks.Number of nuclei of each element detected by SuperTIGER. Note the change of scale between the two plots (click for a closer look)! [Murphy et al. 2016]How can we test this model? An important step is understanding the composition of galactic cosmic rays: what elemental nuclei are they made up of? If abundances are similar to solar-system abundances, then the material is likely mostly ISM. If the abundances of rarer heavy elements are high, however, then the material is more likely to have come from massive stars in star-forming regions.Balloon-Borne DetectionsEnter SuperTIGER, an experiment designed to collect cosmic rays and measure the abundances of the rare heavy elements those with atomic number between iron (Z=26) and zirconium (Z=40).The path that SuperTIGER took over Antarctica during its flight, with a different color denoting each circuit around the pole. Note where it got stuck in an eddy over the Transarctic Mountains at the end of its second circuit! [Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility]To gather galactic cosmic rays, the detector must be above the Earths atmosphere; interactions with

  18. Cosmic Sum Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    T. Frandsen, Mads; Masina, Isabella; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    We introduce new sum rules allowing to determine universal properties of the unknown component of the cosmic rays and show how it can be used to predict the positron fraction at energies not yet explored by current experiments and to constrain specific models.......We introduce new sum rules allowing to determine universal properties of the unknown component of the cosmic rays and show how it can be used to predict the positron fraction at energies not yet explored by current experiments and to constrain specific models....

  19. Cosmic Humanity: Utopia, Realities, Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey Krichevsky

    2017-01-01

    The philosophical foundations of the theory and practice of the creation of cosmic humanity as a process of the evolution of human civilization, the emergence into space, with the prospect of resettlement outside the Earth are considered. There is a connection between myths, fantasies, ideas, concepts and projects aimed at the exploration of outer space, the creation of cosmic humanity. A new and voluminous definition of cosmic humanity in the evolutionary paradigm is given. Cosmic humanity i...

  20. Our Cosmic Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Donna L.

    2005-01-01

    To help students understand the connection that Earth and the solar system have with the cosmic cycles of stellar evolution, and to give students an appreciation of the beauty and elegance of celestial phenomena, the Chandra X-Ray Center (CXC) educational website contains a stellar evolution module that is available free to teachers. In this…

  1. Simulating Cosmic Reionisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pawlik, Andreas Heinz

    2009-01-01

    The first stars formed a few hundred million years after the Big Bang, when the Universe was only a small fraction of its present age. Their radiation transformed the previously cold and neutral hydrogen that filled intergalactic space into the hot and ionised cosmic plasma that is observed today.

  2. Cosmic rays and climate

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Inside the new chamber the CLOUD team will be able to recreate the conditions of any part of the atmosphere, from the polar stratosphere to the low level tropics (top). The new chamber safely in position in the East hall. Once carefully cleaned the chamber will be turned sideways onto its legs ready for the beam of 'cosmic rays' (bottom).

  3. Stable laws and cosmic ray physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genolini, Y.; Salati, P.; Serpico, P. D.; Taillet, R.

    2017-04-01

    Context. In the new "precision era" for cosmic ray astrophysics, scientists making theoretical predictions cannot content themselves with average trends, but need to correctly take into account intrinsic uncertainties. The space-time discreteness of the cosmic ray sources, together with a substantial ignorance of their precise epochs and locations (with the possible exception of the most recent and close ones) play an important role in this sense. Aims: We elaborate a statistical theory to deal with this problem, relating the composite probability P(Ψ) to obtain a flux Ψ at the Earth and the single-source probability p(ψ) to contribute with a flux ψ. The main difficulty arises from the fact that p(ψ) is a "heavy tail" distribution, characterized by power-law or broken power-law behavior up to very large fluxes, for which the central limit theorem does not hold, and leading to distributions different from Gaussian. The functional form of the distribution for the aggregated flux is nonetheless unchanged by its own convolution, that is, it belongs to the so-called stable laws class. Methods: We analytically discuss the regime of validity of the stable laws associated with the distributions arising in cosmic ray astrophysics, as well as the limitations to the treatment imposed by causal considerations and partial source catalog knowledge. We validate our results with extensive Monte Carlo simulations, for different regimes of propagation parameters and energies. Results: We find that relatively simple recipes provide a satisfactory description of the probability P(Ψ). We also find that a naive Gaussian fit to simulation results would underestimate the probability of very large fluxes, that is, several times above the average, while overestimating the probability of relatively milder excursions. At large energies, large flux fluctuations are prevented by causal considerations, while at low energies, a partial knowledge of the recent and nearby population of

  4. Tracing the cosmic web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libeskind, Noam I.; van de Weygaert, Rien; Cautun, Marius; Falck, Bridget; Tempel, Elmo; Abel, Tom; Alpaslan, Mehmet; Aragón-Calvo, Miguel A.; Forero-Romero, Jaime E.; Gonzalez, Roberto; Gottlöber, Stefan; Hahn, Oliver; Hellwing, Wojciech A.; Hoffman, Yehuda; Jones, Bernard J. T.; Kitaura, Francisco; Knebe, Alexander; Manti, Serena; Neyrinck, Mark; Nuza, Sebastián E.; Padilla, Nelson; Platen, Erwin; Ramachandra, Nesar; Robotham, Aaron; Saar, Enn; Shandarin, Sergei; Steinmetz, Matthias; Stoica, Radu S.; Sousbie, Thierry; Yepes, Gustavo

    2018-01-01

    The cosmic web is one of the most striking features of the distribution of galaxies and dark matter on the largest scales in the Universe. It is composed of dense regions packed full of galaxies, long filamentary bridges, flattened sheets and vast low-density voids. The study of the cosmic web has focused primarily on the identification of such features, and on understanding the environmental effects on galaxy formation and halo assembly. As such, a variety of different methods have been devised to classify the cosmic web - depending on the data at hand, be it numerical simulations, large sky surveys or other. In this paper, we bring 12 of these methods together and apply them to the same data set in order to understand how they compare. In general, these cosmic-web classifiers have been designed with different cosmological goals in mind, and to study different questions. Therefore, one would not a priori expect agreement between different techniques; however, many of these methods do converge on the identification of specific features. In this paper, we study the agreements and disparities of the different methods. For example, each method finds that knots inhabit higher density regions than filaments, etc. and that voids have the lowest densities. For a given web environment, we find a substantial overlap in the density range assigned by each web classification scheme. We also compare classifications on a halo-by-halo basis; for example, we find that 9 of 12 methods classify around a third of group-mass haloes (i.e. Mhalo ∼ 1013.5 h-1 M⊙) as being in filaments. Lastly, so that any future cosmic-web classification scheme can be compared to the 12 methods used here, we have made all the data used in this paper public.

  5. Cosmic ray energetics and mass (CREAM) calibrating a cosmic ray calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Ganel, O; Ahn, S H; Alford, R; Kim, K C; Lee, M H; Liu, L; Lutz, L; Malinin, A; Schindhelm, E; Wang, J Z; Wu, J; Beatty, J J; Coutu, S; Minnick, S A; Nutter, S; Duvernois, M A; Choi, M J; Kim, H J; Kim, S K; Park, I H; Swordy, S P

    2002-01-01

    CREAM is slated to fly as the first NASA ultra long duration balloon (ULDB) payload in late 2003. On this 60-plus-day flight CREAM is expected to collect more direct high-energy cosmic ray events than the current world total. With three such flights CREAM is expected to have a proton energy reach above 5*10/sup 14/ eV, probing near 100 Te V for the predicted kink in the cosmic-ray proton spectrum. With a transition radiation detector (TRD) above a sampling tungsten /scintillator calorimeter, an in-flight cross-calibration of the absolute energy scale becomes possible with heavy ions. We report on results from a 2001 beam test of the calorimeter in an SPS beam at the European High Energy Physics lab (CERN) and on the planned in- flight calibration. (7 refs).

  6. Potential health risks of heavy metals in cultivated topsoil and grain, including correlations with human primary liver, lung and gastric cancer, in Anhui province, Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qihong; Wang, Ying; Cao, Ye; Chen, Anguo; Ren, Min; Ge, Yongsheng; Yu, Zongfan; Wan, Shengyun; Hu, Anla; Bo, Qingli; Ruan, Liang; Chen, Hang; Qin, Shuyang; Chen, Wenjun; Hu, Chuanlai; Tao, Fangbiao; Xu, Dexiang; Xu, Jing; Wen, Longping; Li, Li

    2014-02-01

    Environmental exposure to heavy metals is a well-known risk factor for cancers. To evaluate potential health risks of heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Pb, As and Hg) and Se in cultivated topsoil and grains, we investigated the concentrations of Hg, As and Se using atomic fluorescence spectrometry and Cr, Cd and Pb using inductive coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP-MS). We also analyzed human cancer tissues for heavy metals. Potential health risks for local residents were evaluated by calculating the hazard index (HI) and the total carcinogenic risk (TCR) for soil heavy metals and the target hazard quotient (THQ) and the carcinogenic risk (CR) for grain heavy metals. A bioconcentration factor (BCF) was applied to quantify the bioaccumulation of heavy metals. Our results demonstrated that the mean concentrations of heavy metals in soil were all within the safety limits set by FAO/WHO and Chinese regulations; however, the mean concentrations of Cr and Hg in grain exceeded the safety limits. HI and TCR for soil heavy metals were all within acceptable levels, but the THQ for four grain heavy metals exceeded the target value of 1 (Cr, 2.64; Pb, 1.41; As, 1.24; Hg, 1.07; Cd, 0.39). The grain CR for Cr, Pb and As exceeded the accepted risk level of 10(-6). BCF values indicated that the bioaccumulation capacity decreased in the following sequence: Hg>Se>Cd>Cr>Pb>As. We also observed statistically significant correlations of topsoil Pb concentration with human gastric cancer and grain Hg with human liver cancer. Therefore, long-term low dose exposure of heavy metals may play a key role in tumorigenesis, and it may not be necessary to accumulate a high concentration of heavy metals in the human body for those metals to induce tumorigenesis. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Identifying Galactic Cosmic Ray Origins With Super-TIGER

    Science.gov (United States)

    deNolfo, Georgia; Binns, W. R.; Israel, M. H.; Christian, E. R.; Mitchell, J. W.; Hams, T.; Link, J. T.; Sasaki, M.; Labrador, A. W.; Mewaldt, R. A.; hide

    2009-01-01

    Super-TIGER (Super Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder) is a new long-duration balloon-borne instrument designed to test and clarify an emerging model of cosmic-ray origins and models for atomic processes by which nuclei are selected for acceleration. A sensitive test of the origin of cosmic rays is the measurement of ultra heavy elemental abundances (Z > or equal 30). Super-TIGER is a large-area (5 sq m) instrument designed to measure the elements in the interval 30 TIGER builds on the heritage of the smaller TIGER, which produced the first well-resolved measurements of elemental abundances of the elements Ga-31, Ge-32, and Se-34. We present the Super-TIGER design, schedule, and progress to date, and discuss the relevance of UH measurements to cosmic-ray origins.

  8. Dark cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Ping-Kai, E-mail: pingkai.hu@physics.ucla.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Kusenko, Alexander, E-mail: kusenko@ucla.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), UTIAS, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Takhistov, Volodymyr, E-mail: vtakhist@physics.ucla.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-4575 (United States)

    2017-05-10

    If dark matter particles have an electric charge, as in models of millicharged dark matter, such particles should be accelerated in the same astrophysical accelerators that produce ordinary cosmic rays, and their spectra should have a predictable rigidity dependence. Depending on the charge, the resulting “dark cosmic rays” can be detected as muon-like or neutrino-like events in Super-Kamiokande, IceCube, and other detectors. We present new limits and propose several new analyses, in particular, for the Super-Kamiokande experiment, which can probe a previously unexplored portion of the millicharged dark matter parameter space. Most of our results are fairly general and apply to a broad class of dark matter models.

  9. Dark cosmic rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Kai Hu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available If dark matter particles have an electric charge, as in models of millicharged dark matter, such particles should be accelerated in the same astrophysical accelerators that produce ordinary cosmic rays, and their spectra should have a predictable rigidity dependence. Depending on the charge, the resulting “dark cosmic rays” can be detected as muon-like or neutrino-like events in Super-Kamiokande, IceCube, and other detectors. We present new limits and propose several new analyses, in particular, for the Super-Kamiokande experiment, which can probe a previously unexplored portion of the millicharged dark matter parameter space. Most of our results are fairly general and apply to a broad class of dark matter models.

  10. The Cosmic Causal Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simen Braeck

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to provide a better understanding of rotating universe models, and in particular the Gödel universe, we discuss the relationship between cosmic rotation and perfect inertial dragging. In this connection, the concept of causal mass is defined in a cosmological context, and discussed in relation to the cosmic inertial dragging effect. Then, we calculate the mass inside the particle horizon of the flat ΛCDM-model integrated along the past light cone. The calculation shows that the Schwarzschild radius of this mass is around three times the radius of the particle horizon. This indicates that there is close to perfect inertial dragging in our universe. Hence, the calculation provides an explanation for the observation that the swinging plane of a Foucault pendulum follows the stars.

  11. Cosmic rays and climate

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    The current understanding of climate change in the industrial age is that it is predominantly caused by anthropogenic greenhouse gases, with relatively small natural contributions due to solar irradiance and volcanoes. However, palaeoclimatic reconstructions show that the climate has frequently varied on 100-year time scales during the Holocene (last 10 kyr) by amounts comparable to the present warming - and yet the mechanism or mechanisms are not understood. Some of these reconstructions show clear associations with solar variability, which is recorded in the light radio-isotope archives that measure past variations of cosmic ray intensity. However, despite the increasing evidence of its importance, solar-climate variability is likely to remain controversial until a physical mechanism is established. Estimated changes of solar irradiance on these time scales appear to be too small to account for the climate observations. This raises the question of whether cosmic rays may directly affect the climate, provi...

  12. Measuring the Cosmic Particle Radiation from electrons to actinides - HNX/TIGERISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, John

    2017-01-01

    The Heavy Nuclei eXplorer (HNX) mission will measure the abundances of nuclei from Carbon (Z =6) to Curium (Z =96) in the cosmic radiation with the resolution to identify the atomic number of each detected nucleus. HNX will measure a significant number of actinides. HNX utilizes two high-precision instruments, the Extremely-heavy Cosmic-ray Composition Observer (ECCO) and the Cosmic-Ray Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder (CosmicTIGER), located in a SpaceX DragonLab capsule orbiting the Earth. This talk will discuss the motivating science, the HNX mission, the design and performance of the HNX instruments, and another new instrument, TIGERISS (Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder on the ISS), that will be proposed as an intermediate between SuperTIGER and HNX.

  13. Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropies

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Wayne; Dodelson,Scott

    2001-01-01

    Cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature anisotropies have and will continue to revolutionize our understanding of cosmology. The recent discovery of the previously predicted acoustic peaks in the power spectrum has established a working cosmological model: a critical density universe consisting of mainly dark matter and dark energy, which formed its structure through gravitational instability from quantum fluctuations during an inflationary epoch. Future observations should test this mo...

  14. Carl Sagan's Cosmic Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, Carl; Agel, Jerome

    2000-08-01

    Foreword Freeman Dyson; Personal reflections Ann Druyan; Preface; Part I. Cosmic Perspective: 1. A transitional animal; 2. The Unicorn of Cetus; 3. A message from earth; 4. A message to earth; 5. Experiments in utopias; 6. Chauvinism; 7. Space exploration as a human enterprise I. The scientific interest; 8. Space exploration as a human enterprise II. The public interest; 9. Space exploration as a human enterprise III. The historical interest; Part II. The Solar System: 10. On teaching the first grade; 11. 'The ancient and legendary Gods of old'; 12. The Venus detective story; 13. Venus is hell; 14. Science and 'intelligence'; 15. The moons of Barsoom; 16. The mountains of Mars I. Observations from earth; 17. The mountains of Mars II. Observations from space; 18. The canals of Mars; 19. The lost pictures of Mars; 20. The Ice Age and the cauldron; 21. Beginnings and ends of the Earth; 22. Terraforming the plants; 23. The exploration and utlization of the solar system; Part III. Beyond the Solar System: 24. Some of my best friends are dolphins; 25. 'Hello, central casting? Send me twenty extraterrestrials'; 26. The cosmic connection; 27. Extraterrestrial life: an idea whose time has come; 28. Has the Earth been visited?; 29. A search strategy for detecting extraterrestrial intelligence; 30. If we succeed 31. Cables, drums, and seashells; 32. The night freight to the stars; 33. Astroengineering; 34. Twenty questions: a classification of cosmic civilisations; 35. Galactic cultural exchanges; 36. A passage to elsewhere; 37. Starfolk I. A Fable; 38. Starfolk II. A future; 39. Starfolk III. The cosmic Cheshire cats; Epilog David Morrison; Index.

  15. Cosmic Rays in Thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitink, Stijn; Scholten, Olaf; van den Berg, Ad; Ebert, Ute

    2013-04-01

    Cosmic Rays in Thunderstorms Cosmic rays are protons and heavier nuclei that constantly bombard the Earth's atmosphere with energies spanning a vast range from 109 to 1021 eV. At typical altitudes up to 10-20 km they initiate large particle cascades, called extensive air showers, that contain millions to billions of secondary particles depending on their initial energy. These particles include electrons, positrons, hadrons and muons, and are concentrated in a compact particle front that propagates at relativistic speed. In addition, the shower leaves behind a trail of lower energy electrons from ionization of air molecules. Under thunderstorm conditions these electrons contribute to the electrical and ionization processes in the cloud. When the local electric field is strong enough the secondary electrons can create relativistic electron run-away avalanches [1] or even non-relativistic avalanches. Cosmic rays could even trigger lightning inception. Conversely, strong electric fields also influence the development of the air shower [2]. Extensive air showers emit a short (tens of nanoseconds) radio pulse due to deflection of the shower particles in the Earth's magnetic field [3]. Antenna arrays, such as AERA, LOFAR and LOPES detect these pulses in a frequency window of roughly 10-100 MHz. These systems are also sensitive to the radiation from discharges associated to thunderstorms, and provide a means to study the interaction of cosmic ray air showers and the electrical processes in thunderstorms [4]. In this presentation we discuss the involved radiation mechanisms and present analyses of thunderstorm data from air shower arrays [1] A. Gurevich et al., Phys. Lett. A 165, 463 (1992) [2] S. Buitink et al., Astropart. Phys. 33, 1 (2010) [3] H. Falcke et al., Nature 435, 313 (2005) [4] S. Buitink et al., Astron. & Astrophys. 467, 385 (2007)

  16. Cosmic transparency and acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holanda, R. F. L.; Pereira, S. H.; Jain, Deepak

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, by considering an absorption probability independent of photon wavelength, we show that current type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and gamma-ray burst (GRB) observations plus high-redshift measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation temperature support cosmic acceleration regardless of the transparent-universe assumption. Two flat scenarios are considered in our analyses: the Λ CDM model and a kinematic model. We consider τ (z )=2 ln (1 +z )ɛ, where τ (z ) denotes the opacity between an observer at z =0 and a source at z . This choice is equivalent to deforming the cosmic distance duality relation as DLDA-1=(1 +z )2+ɛ and, if the absorption probability is independent of photon wavelength, the CMB temperature evolution law is TCMB(z )=T0(1 +z )1+2 ɛ /3. By marginalizing on the ɛ parameter, our analyses rule out a decelerating universe at 99.99% C.L. for all scenarios considered. Interestingly, by considering only SNe Ia and GRBs observations, we obtain that a decelerated universe—indicated by ΩΛ≤0.33 and q0>0 —is ruled out around 1.5 σ C.L. and 2 σ C.L., respectively, regardless of the transparent-universe assumption.

  17. Heavy Chain Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heavy chain produced: Alpha Gamma Mu Alpha Heavy Chain Disease Alpha heavy chain disease (IgA heavy chain ... disease or lead to a remission. Gamma Heavy Chain Disease Gamma heavy chain disease (IgG heavy chain ...

  18. CONSTRAINTS ON THE SOURCE OF ULTRA-HIGH-ENERGY COSMIC RAYS USING ANISOTROPY VERSUS CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ruo-Yu; Wang, Xiang-Yu [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Taylor, Andrew M. [Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Lemoine, Martin [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS, UPMC, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Waxman, Eli, E-mail: lemoine@iap.fr [Physics Faculty, Weizmann Institute, P.O. Box 26, Rehovot 7600 (Israel)

    2013-10-20

    The joint analysis of anisotropy signals and chemical composition of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays offers strong potential for shedding light on the sources of these particles. Following up on an earlier idea, this paper studies the anisotropies produced by protons of energy >E/Z, assuming that anisotropies at energy >E have been produced by nuclei of charge Z, which share the same magnetic rigidity. We calculate the number of secondary protons produced through photodisintegration of the primary heavy nuclei. Making the extreme assumption that the source does not inject any proton, we find that the source(s) responsible for anisotropies such as reported by the Pierre Auger Observatory should lie closer than ∼20-30, 80-100, and 180-200 Mpc if the anisotropy signal is mainly composed of oxygen, silicon, and iron nuclei, respectively. A violation of this constraint would otherwise result in the secondary protons forming a more significant anisotropy signal at lower energies. Even if the source were located closer than this distance, it would require an extraordinary metallicity ∼> 120, 1600, and 1100 times solar metallicity in the acceleration zone of the source, for oxygen, silicon, and iron, respectively, to ensure that the concomitantly injected protons do not produce a more significant low-energy anisotropy. This offers interesting prospects for constraining the nature and the source of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays with the increase in statistics expected from next-generation detectors.

  19. Canny Algorithm, Cosmic Strings and the Cosmic Microwave Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danos, Rebecca J.; Brandenberger, Robert H.

    We describe a new code to search for signatures of cosmic strings in cosmic microwave anisotropy maps. The code implements the Canny algorithm, an edge detection algorithm designed to search for the lines of large gradients in maps. Such a gradient signature which is coherent in position-space is produced by cosmic strings via the Kaiser-Stebbins effect. We test the power of our new code to set limits on the tension of the cosmic strings by analyzing simulated data, with and without cosmic strings. We compare maps with a pure Gaussian scale-invariant power spectrum with maps which have a contribution of a distribution of cosmic strings obeying a scaling solution. The maps have angular scale and angular resolution comparable to what current and future ground-based small-scale cosmic microwave anisotropy experiments will achieve. We present tests of the codes, indicate the limits on the string tension which could be set with the current code, and describe various ways to refine the analysis. Our results indicate that when applied to the data of ongoing cosmic microwave experiments such as the South Pole Telescope project, the sensitivity of our method to the presence of cosmic strings will be more than an order of magnitude better than the limits from existing analyses.

  20. Background to Dark Matter Searches from Galactic Cosmic Rays

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Just as searches for BSM physics at the LHC necessitate a careful audit of SM backgrounds, the search for signals of dark matter in cosmic rays must contend with production of secondaries like e+ and pbar through cosmic ray propagation in the Galaxy. The theoretical framework for calculating this has however not been directly calibrated at the high energies being explored by AMS-02 and there may be surprises in store. In particular a nearby source where cosmic rays are being accelerated stochastically can naturally generate a e+ fraction rising with energy as is observed. The test of this is the expected correlated rise in other secondary/primary ratios e.g. B/C and pbar/p. Such a nearby cosmic accelerator should also be detectable through the concomitant flux of neutrinos and its discovery would be (nearly!) as exciting as that of dark matter.

  1. Energetic Processing of Interstellar Silicate Grains by Cosmic Rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bringa, E M; Kucheyev, S O; Loeffler, M J; Baragiola, R A; Tielens, A G Q M; Dai, Z R; Graham, G; Bajt, S; Bradley, J; Dukes, C A; Felter, T E; Torres, D F; van Breugel, W

    2007-03-28

    While a significant fraction of silicate dust in stellar winds has a crystalline structure, in the interstellar medium nearly all of it is amorphous. One possible explanation for this observation is the amorphization of crystalline silicates by relatively 'low' energy, heavy ion cosmic rays. Here we present the results of multiple laboratory experiments showing that single-crystal synthetic forsterite (Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) amorphizes when irradiated by 10 MeV Xe{sup ++} ions at large enough fluences. Using modeling, we extrapolate these results to show that 0.1-5.0 GeV heavy ion cosmic rays can rapidly ({approx}70 Million yrs) amorphize crystalline silicate grains ejected by stars into the interstellar medium.

  2. Analysis of the calibration results obtained with Liulin-4J spectrometer-dosimeter on protons and heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchihori, Yukio E-mail: uchihori@nirs.go.jp; Kitamura, Hisashi; Fujitaka, Kazunobu; Dachev, T.P.Tsvetan P.; Tomov, B.T.Borislav T.; Dimitrov, P.G.Plamen G.; Matviichuk, Yura

    2002-04-01

    We are developing a portable dosimeter (Liulin-4J) based on a silicon semiconductor detector for use in measuring the absorbed dose from primary or secondary cosmic rays to astronauts and airplane crews. The dosimeter can measure not only the flux and dose rate, but also the deposited energy spectrum for silicon in per unit time. In order to calibrate the dosimeter, we have carried out exposures at the NIRS cyclotron and HIMAC heavy ion synchrotron facilities. We obtained a detector response function for using in measuring energy deposition and LET.

  3. Cosmic Education: Formation of a Planetary and Cosmic Personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazaluk Oleg

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The major stages of development of cosmic pedagogy have been researched. Based on the achievements of the modern neurosciences as well as of psychology, cosmology, and philosophy, the authors provide their reasoning for the cosmic education and its outlooks for the educational systems of the world. Through the studies of how important human mind is for the Earth and the cosmos and by researching the evolution of human mind within the structure of the Universe, the authors create a more advanced scientific and philosophic basis for the cosmic education where the subject is a comprehensive process of formation and directed progress of both an individual mind and a conglomerate of minds called the "psychospace". The cosmic education researches the permanent progress of the intelligent matter of the Earth. The purpose of the cosmic education has been determined as formation of a planetary and cosmic personality. According to the authors, a planetary and cosmic personality is a harmony of mind, soul, and body, and such harmony is directed to use the internal creative potential of mind to the benefit of the intelligent matter of the entire Earth and the cosmos. The properties of such a planetary and cosmic personality are being improved continuously; they are a sample (the ideal of the cosmic pedagogy and the image of a human being of the future. Through the usage of the entire potential and art of upbringing and educating, the cosmic pedagogy is called to embody the major properties of the image of a human being of the future in the new generations of minds and to form a planetary and cosmic personality capable of self-actualization to the benefit of the permanent progress of the intelligent matter.

  4. Cosmic baldness and stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panchapakesan, N.; Lohiya, D.

    1985-04-01

    The stability of the de Sitter metric and the relevance of the initial state of a domain which approaches a de Sitter universe asymptotically are investigated analytically, adapting the one-dimensional wave equation with effective potential derived by Khanal and Panchapakesan (1981), for the perturbations of the de Sitter-Schwarzschild metric, to the de Sitter case. It is demonstrated that initial nonspherical perturbations do not increase exponentially with time but rather decay, the frozen modes exponentially and the backscattered perturbations of finite angular momentum l as t to the -(2l - l). It is concluded that the cosmic horizon is stable and has no hair. 14 references.

  5. Hydrology and Cosmic radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mie

    with the discretization of many catchment scale models. Within the neutron detector footprint hydrogen is also present in atmospheric water vapor, snow, canopy interception, biomass, litter and soil organic matter. The uncertainty of the cosmic-ray neutron soil moisture estimates is larger at field locations featured...... of vegetation. A slight increase in ground level thermal neutron intensity was provided with canopy interception. The change is for the surveyed field location within the measurement uncertainty when hourly time scales are regarded. Yet, canopy interception quantification may be possible at field locations...

  6. Cosmic Background Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidharth, B. G.; Valluri, S. R.

    2015-08-01

    It is shown that a collection of photons with nearly the same frequency exhibits a "condensation" type of phenomenon corresponding to a peak intensity. The observed cosmic background radiation can be explained from this standpoint. We have obtained analogous results by extremization of the occupation number for photons with the use of the Lambert W function. Some of the interesting applications of this function are briefly discussed in the context of graphene which exhibits an interesting two dimensional structure with several characteristic properties and diverse practical applications.

  7. Garden of cosmic speculation

    CERN Document Server

    Jencks, Charles

    2005-01-01

    This book tells the story of one of the most important gardens in Europe, created by the architectural critic and designer Charles Jencks and his late wife, the landscape architect and author Maggie Keswick. The Garden of Cosmic Speculation is a landscape that celebrates the new sciences of complexity and chaos theory and consists of a series of metaphors exploring the origins, the destiny and the substance of the Universe. The book is illustrated with year-round photography, bringing the garden's many dimensions vividly to life.

  8. Discovery of cosmic fractals

    CERN Document Server

    Baryshev, Yuri

    2002-01-01

    This is the first book to present the fascinating new results on the largest fractal structures in the universe. It guides the reader, in a simple way, to the frontiers of astronomy, explaining how fractals appear in cosmic physics, from our solar system to the megafractals in deep space. It also offers a personal view of the history of the idea of self-similarity and of cosmological principles, from Plato's ideal architecture of the heavens to Mandelbrot's fractals in the modern physical cosmos. In addition, this invaluable book presents the great fractal debate in astronomy (after Luciano Pi

  9. The Cosmic Background Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulkis, Samuel; Lubin, Philip M.; Meyer, Stephan S.; Silverberg, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (CBE), NASA's cosmological satellite which will observe a radiative relic of the big bang, is discussed. The major questions connected to the big bang theory which may be clarified using the CBE are reviewed. The satellite instruments and experiments are described, including the Differential Microwave Radiometer, which measures the difference between microwave radiation emitted from two points on the sky, the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer, which compares the spectrum of radiation from the sky at wavelengths from 100 microns to one cm with that from an internal blackbody, and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment, which searches for the radiation from the earliest generation of stars.

  10. Investigation of the zenith angle dependence of cosmic-ray muons ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Angular distribution of cosmic-ray muons at sea level has been investigated using the Geant4 simulation package. The model used in the simulations was tested by comparing the simulation results with the measurements made using the Berkeley Lab cosmic ray detector. Primary particles' energy and fluxes were obtained ...

  11. Galactic Cosmic Ray Event-Based Risk Model (GERM) Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Plante, Ianik; Ponomarev, Artem L.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.

    2013-01-01

    This software describes the transport and energy deposition of the passage of galactic cosmic rays in astronaut tissues during space travel, or heavy ion beams in patients in cancer therapy. Space radiation risk is a probability distribution, and time-dependent biological events must be accounted for physical description of space radiation transport in tissues and cells. A stochastic model can calculate the probability density directly without unverified assumptions about shape of probability density function. The prior art of transport codes calculates the average flux and dose of particles behind spacecraft and tissue shielding. Because of the signaling times for activation and relaxation in the cell and tissue, transport code must describe temporal and microspatial density of functions to correlate DNA and oxidative damage with non-targeted effects of signals, bystander, etc. These are absolutely ignored or impossible in the prior art. The GERM code provides scientists data interpretation of experiments; modeling of beam line, shielding of target samples, and sample holders; and estimation of basic physical and biological outputs of their experiments. For mono-energetic ion beams, basic physical and biological properties are calculated for a selected ion type, such as kinetic energy, mass, charge number, absorbed dose, or fluence. Evaluated quantities are linear energy transfer (LET), range (R), absorption and fragmentation cross-sections, and the probability of nuclear interactions after 1 or 5 cm of water equivalent material. In addition, a set of biophysical properties is evaluated, such as the Poisson distribution for a specified cellular area, cell survival curves, and DNA damage yields per cell. Also, the GERM code calculates the radiation transport of the beam line for either a fixed number of user-specified depths or at multiple positions along the Bragg curve of the particle in a selected material. The GERM code makes the numerical estimates of basic

  12. Nuclear Physics in Space: What We Can Learn From Cosmic Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalenko, Igor V.

    2004-01-01

    Studies and discoveries in cosmic-ray physics and generally in Astrophysics provide a fertile ground for research in many areas of Particle Physics and Cosmology, such as the search for dark matter, antimatter, new particles, and exotic physics, studies of the nucleosynthesis, origin of Galactic and extragalactic gamma-ray diffuse emission, formation of the large scale structure of the universe etc. In several years new missions are planned for cosmic-ray experiments, which will tremendously increase the quality and accuracy of cosmic-ray data. On the other hand, direct measurements of cosmic rays are possible in only one location on the outskirts of the Milky Way galaxy and present only a snapshot of very dynamic processes. It has been recently realized that direct information about the fluxes and spectra of cosmic rays in distant locations is provided by the Galactic diffuse gamma-rays, therefore, complementing the local cosmic-ray studies. A wealth of information is also contained in the isotopic abundances of cosmic rays, therefore, accurate evaluation of the isotopic production cross sections is of primary importance for Astrophysics of cosmic rays, studies of the galactic chemical evolution, and Cosmology. In this talk, I will show new results obtained with GALPROP, the most advanced numerical model for cosmic-ray propagation, which includes in a self-consistent way all cosmic-ray species (stable and long-lived radioactive isotopes from H to Ni, antiprotons, positrons and electrons, gamma rays and synchrotron radiation), and all relevant processes and reactions.

  13. The Enigma of Cosmic Rays–

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 10. The Enigma of Cosmic Rays – 1. Biman Nath. General Article Volume 12 Issue 10 October 2007 pp 6-17. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/012/10/0006-0017. Keywords. Cosmic ...

  14. Testing Cosmic Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuss, David

    2010-01-01

    The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) has provided a wealth of information about the history and physics of the early Universe. Much progress has been made on uncovering the emerging Standard Model of Cosmology by such experiments as COBE and WMAP, and ESA's Planck Surveyor will likely increase our knowledge even more. Despite the success of this model, mysteries remain. Currently understood physics does not offer a compelling explanation for the homogeneity, flatness, and the origin of structure in the Universe. Cosmic Inflation, a brief epoch of exponential expansion, has been posted to explain these observations. If inflation is a reality, it is expected to produce a background spectrum of gravitational waves that will leave a small polarized imprint on the CMB. Discovery of this signal would give the first direct evidence for inflation and provide a window into physics at scales beyond those accessible to terrestrial particle accelerators. I will briefly review aspects of the Standard Model of Cosmology and discuss our current efforts to design and deploy experiments to measure the polarization of the CMB with the precision required to test inflation.

  15. George's cosmic treasure hunt

    CERN Document Server

    Hawking, Lucy; Parsons, Gary

    2009-01-01

    George and Annie explore the galaxy in this cosmic adventure from Stephen Hawking and Lucy Hawking, complete with essays from Professor Hawking about the latest in space travel. George is heartbroken when he learns that his friend Annie and her father are moving to the US. Eric has a new job working for the space program, looking for signs of life in the Universe. Eric leaves George with a gift—a book called The User’s Guide to the Universe. But Annie and Eric haven’t been gone for very long when Annie believes that she is being contacted by aliens, who have a terrible warning for her. George joins her in the US to help her with her quest—and before he knows it, he, Annie, Cosmos, and Annie’s annoying cousin Emmett have been swept up in a cosmic treasure hunt, spanning the whole galaxy and beyond. Lucy Hawking's own experiences in zero-gravity flight and interviews with astronauts at Cape Kennedy and the Johnson Space Center lend the book a sense of realism and excitement that is sure to fire up ima...

  16. Evolution Of Cosmic Strings

    CERN Document Server

    Vanchurin, V

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of finite loops and infinite strings as a part of a complete cosmic string network. We give dynamical arguments showing that the structures on infinite strings should obey a scaling law. We perform a simulation of the network which uses functional forms for the string position and thus is exact to the limits of computer arithmetic. The effective box size of our simulation is at least two orders of magnitude larger than what was previously reached. Our results confirm that the wiggles on the strings obey a scaling law described by universal power spectrum. The average distance between long strings also scales accurately with the time. Production functions of string loops do not show scaling. With low intercommutation probability p the true scaling régime is not reached until very late cosmic times, which makes it difficult to simulate such evolutions. Via the expansion of the box technique, we were able to reach scaling with a wide range of p. The physical correlation ...

  17. Cosmic ray muon study with the NEVOD-DECOR experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra San Martin, Oscar

    2017-06-01

    The experiment NEVOV-DECOR, which is desinged to study the cosmic muons at very inclined directions, is running under the collaboration of the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Moscow, Russia, and the Instituto Nazionale di Astrofisica and the Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino, Italy. The main purpose of this experiment is to study the characteristics of the high multiplicity muons in muon bundles and their angular distributions. The result has shown the observation of the second knee at 1017 eV in the primary cosmic ray spectrum. In addition, we found that the number of high energy muons in EAS is more than 30% of what is predicted by the Monte Carlo models. This effect was found also by other experiments like Auger, but at primary cosmic ray energies higher than 1018 eV. We will present and discuss the main results of these investigations.

  18. Do cosmic ray air showers initiate lightning?: A statistical analysis of cosmic ray air showers and lightning mapping array data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, B. M.; Dwyer, J. R.; Winner, L. H.; Uman, M. A.; Jordan, D. M.; Kotovsky, D. A.; Caicedo, J. A.; Wilkes, R. A.; Carvalho, F. L.; Pilkey, J. T.; Ngin, T. K.; Gamerota, W. R.; Rassoul, H. K.

    2017-08-01

    It has been argued in the technical literature, and widely reported in the popular press, that cosmic ray air showers (CRASs) can initiate lightning via a mechanism known as relativistic runaway electron avalanche (RREA), where large numbers of high-energy and low-energy electrons can, somehow, cause the local atmosphere in a thundercloud to transition to a conducting state. In response to this claim, other researchers have published simulations showing that the electron density produced by RREA is far too small to be able to affect the conductivity in the cloud sufficiently to initiate lightning. In this paper, we compare 74 days of cosmic ray air shower data collected in north central Florida during 2013-2015, the recorded CRASs having primary energies on the order of 1016 eV to 1018 eV and zenith angles less than 38°, with Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) data, and we show that there is no evidence that the detected cosmic ray air showers initiated lightning. Furthermore, we show that the average probability of any of our detected cosmic ray air showers to initiate a lightning flash can be no more than 5%. If all lightning flashes were initiated by cosmic ray air showers, then about 1.6% of detected CRASs would initiate lightning; therefore, we do not have enough data to exclude the possibility that lightning flashes could be initiated by cosmic ray air showers.

  19. The cosmic-ray experiment KASCADE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoni, T.; Apel, W.D.; Badea, F.; Bekk, K.; Bercuci, A.; Bluemer, H.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I.M.; Buettner, C.; Chilingarian, A.; Daumiller, K.; Doll, P.; Engler, J. E-mail: engler@ik.fzk.de; Fessler, F.; Gils, H.J.; Glasstetter, R.; Haeusler, R.; Haungs, A.; Heck, D.; Hoerandel, J.R.; Iwan, A.; Kampert, K.-H.; Klages, H.O.; Maier, G.; Mathes, H.J.; Mayer, H.J.; Milke, J.; Mueller, M.; Obenland, R.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Ostapchenko, S.; Petcu, M.; Rebel, H.; Risse, M.; Roth, M.; Schatz, G.; Schieler, H.; Scholz, J.; Thouw, T.; Ulrich, H.; Vardanyan, A.; Weber, J.; Weindl, A.; Wentz, J.; Wochele, J.; Zabierowski, J.; Zagromski, S

    2003-11-11

    KASCADE has been designed to measure air showers of primary cosmic-ray energies in the PeV region and to investigate the knee phenomenon in the all-particle energy spectrum. Several observations are measured simultaneously for each event by different detector systems. The experiment started to take data in 1996 and has been completed and extended since then. The individual detector systems and their performances are described. Also, the experience in long-term operation of the experiment and the interplay between different components is outlined.

  20. Precision Measurement of the ($e^+ + e^−$) Flux in Primary Cosmic Rays from 0.5 GeV to 1 TeV with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilar, M; Alpat, B; Alvino, A; Ambrosi, G; Andeen, K; Arruda, L; Attig, N; Azzarello, P; Bachlechner, A; Barao, F; Barrau, A; Barrin, L; Bartoloni, A; Basara, L; Battarbee, M; Battiston, R; Bazo, J; Becker, U; Behlmann, M; Beischer, B; Berdugo, J; Bertucci, B; Bigongiari, G; Bindi, V; Bizzaglia, S; Bizzarri, M; Boella, G; de Boer, W; Bollweg, K; Bonnivard, V; Borgia, B; Borsini, S; Boschini, M J; Bourquin, M; Burger, J; Cadoux, F; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Caroff, S; Casaus, J; Cascioli, V; Castellini, G; Cernuda, I; Cervelli, F; Chae, M J; Chang, Y H; Chen, A I; Chen, H; Cheng, G M; Chen, H S; Cheng, L; Chikanian, A; Chou, H Y; Choumilov, E; Choutko, V; Chung, C H; Clark, C; Clavero, R; Coignet, G; Consolandi, C; Contin, A; Corti, C; Coste, B; Crispoltoni, M; Cui, Z; Dai, M; Delgado, C; Della Torre, S; Demirköz, M B; Derome, L; Di Falco, S; Di Masso, L; Dimiccoli, F; Díaz, C; von Doetinchem, P; Donnini, F; Du, W J; Duranti, M; D’Urso, D; Eline, A; Eppling, F J; Eronen, T; Fan, Y Y; Farnesini, L; Feng, J; Fiandrini, E; Fiasson, A; Finch, E; Fisher, P; Galaktionov, Y; Gallucci, G; García, B; García-López, R; Gargiulo, C; Gast, H; Gebauer, I; Gervasi, M; Ghelfi, A; Gillard, W; Giovacchini, F; Goglov, P; Gong, J; Goy, C; Grabski, V; Grandi, D; Graziani, M; Guandalini, C; Guerri, I; Guo, K H; Habiby, M; Haino, S; Han, K C; He, Z H; Heil, M; Hoffman, J; Hsieh, T H; Huang, Z C; Huh, C; Incagli, M; Ionica, M; Jang, W Y; Jinchi, H; Kanishev, K; Kim, G N; Kim, K S; Kirn, Th; Kossakowski, R; Kounina, O; Kounine, A; Koutsenko, V; Krafczyk, M S; Kunz, S; La Vacca, G; Laudi, E; Laurenti, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lebedev, A; Lee, H T; Lee, S C; Leluc, C; Li, H L; Li, J Q; Li, Q; Li, Q; Li, T X; Li, W; Li, Y; Li, Z H; Li, Z Y; Lim, S; Lin, C H; Lipari, P; Lippert, T; Liu, D; Liu, H; Lomtadze, T; Lu, M J; Lu, Y S; Luebelsmeyer, K; Luo, F; Luo, J Z; Lv, S S; Majka, R; Malinin, A; Mañá, C; Marín, J; Martin, T; Martínez, G; Masi, N; Maurin, D; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Meng, Q; Mo, D C; Morescalchi, L; Mott, P; Müller, M; Ni, J Q; Nikonov, N; Nozzoli, F; Nunes, P; Obermeier, A; Oliva, A; Orcinha, M; Palmonari, F; Palomares, C; Paniccia, M; Papi, A; Pauluzzi, M; Pedreschi, E; Pensotti, S; Pereira, R; Pilo, F; Piluso, A; Pizzolotto, C; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Poireau, V; Postaci, E; Putze, A; Quadrani, L; Qi, X M; Räihä, T; Rancoita, P G; Rapin, D; Ricol, J S; Rodríguez, I; Rosier-Lees, S; Rozhkov, A; Rozza, D; Sagdeev, R; Sandweiss, J; Saouter, P; Sbarra, C; Schael, S; Schmidt, S M; Schuckardt, D; Schulz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Scolieri, G; Seo, E S; Shan, B S; Shan, Y H; Shi, J Y; Shi, X Y; Shi, Y M; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Spada, F; Spinella, F; Sun, W; Sun, W H; Tacconi, M; Tang, C P; Tang, X W; Tang, Z C; Tao, L; Tescaro, D; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tomassetti, N; Torsti, J; Türkoğlu, C; Urban, T; Vagelli, V; Valente, E; Vannini, C; Valtonen, E; Vaurynovich, S; Vecchi, M; Velasco, M; Vialle, J P; Wang, L Q; Wang, Q L; Wang, R S; Wang, X; Wang, Z X; Weng, Z L; Whitman, K; Wienkenhöver, J; Wu, H; Xia, X; Xie, M; Xie, S; Xiong, R Q; Xin, G M; Xu, N S; Xu, W; Yan, Q; Yang, J; Yang, M; Ye, Q H; Yi, H; Yu, Y J; Yu, Z Q; Zeissler, S; Zhang, J H; Zhang, M T; Zhang, X B; Zhang, Z; Zheng, Z M; Zhuang, H L; Zhukov, V; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, N; Zuccon, P; Zurbach, C

    2014-01-01

    We present a measurement of the cosmic ray ($e^+ + e^−$) flux in the range 0.5 GeV to 1 TeV based on the analysis of 10.6 million ($e^+ + e^−$) events collected by AMS. The statistics and the resolution of AMS provide a precision measurement of the flux. The flux is smooth and reveals new and distinct information. Above 30.2 GeV, the flux can be described by a single power law with a spectral index γ=−3.170±0.008(stat+syst)±0.008(energy scale).

  1. Cosmic ray synergies

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    In laboratories, cosmic rays have been the subject of scientific research for many years. A more recent development is their appearance in schools, as educational tools. A recent workshop at CERN, organised by ASPERA in collaboration with EPPOG and EPPCN, had the goal of bringing together ideas and initiatives with a view to setting up a future common project.   Presentation at the workshop on 15 October. In research, as in education, you can sometimes get things done more rapidly and easily by joining forces. For roughly the past decade, physicists have been taking their particle detectors to secondary schools. “The challenge now is to bring all of these existing projects together in a network,” says Arnaud Marsollier, in charge of communication for the ASPERA network and organiser of the workshop. The workshop held on Friday, 15 October was attended by representatives of major European educational projects and members of the European Particle Physics Communication Network...

  2. Our cosmic habitat

    CERN Document Server

    Rees, Martin

    2001-01-01

    Our universe seems strangely 'biophilic,' or hospitable to life. Is this providence or coincidence? According to Martin Rees, the answer depends on the answer to another question, the one posed by Einstein's famous remark: 'What interests me most is whether God could have made the world differently.' This highly engaging book centres on the fascinating consequences of the answer being 'yes'. Rees explores the notion that our universe is just part of a vast 'multiverse,' or ensemble of universes, in which most of the other universes are lifeless. What we call the laws of nature would then be local by laws, imposed in the aftermath of our own Big Bang. In this scenario, our cosmic habitat would be a special, possibly unique universe where the prevailing laws of physics allowed life to emerge.

  3. Cosmic magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Kronberg, Philipp P

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic fields are important in the Universe and their effects contain the key to many astrophysical phenomena that are otherwise impossible to understand. This book presents an up-to-date overview of this fast-growing topic and its interconnections to plasma processes, astroparticle physics, high energy astrophysics, and cosmic evolution. The phenomenology and impact of magnetic fields are described in diverse astrophysical contexts within the Universe, from galaxies to the filaments and voids of the intergalactic medium, and out to the largest redshifts. The presentation of mathematical formulae is accessible and is designed to add insight into the broad range of topics discussed. Written for graduate students and researchers in astrophysics and related disciplines, this volume will inspire readers to devise new ways of thinking about magnetic fields in space on galaxy scales and beyond.

  4. Cosmic axion searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, B. E.

    1988-02-01

    Axions may have been created in the big bang and condensed into galactic halos to constitute the ``dark'' matter implied by galactic rotation curves. Experimental efforts are underway to detect these cosmic axions by conversion in the presence of an applied magnetic field to microwave photons which may be trapped by a resonant cavity. Present limits on abundance and coupling are less than three orders of magnitude higher than the values expected for all dark matter being axions; only a small part of the available phase space has been searched so far. Possible detector improvements and related laser production experiments are also discussed. The other members of the collaboration are: S. De Panfilis, A.C. Melissinos, J.T. Rogers, Y.K. Semertzidis and W.U. Wuensch, University of Rochester; H.J. Halama and A.G. Prodell, Brookhaven National Laboratory; and W.B. Fowler and F.A. Nezrick, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory.

  5. Cosmic magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez Almeida, Jorge

    2018-01-01

    Magnetic fields pervade the universe and play an important role in many astrophysical processes. However, they require specialised observational tools, and are challenging to model and understand. This volume provides a unified view of magnetic fields across astrophysical and cosmological contexts, drawing together disparate topics that are rarely covered together. Written by the lecturers of the XXV Canary Islands Winter School, it offers a self-contained introduction to cosmic magnetic fields on a range of scales. The connections between the behaviours of magnetic fields in these varying contexts are particularly emphasised, from the relatively small and close ranges of the Sun, planets and stars, to galaxies and clusters of galaxies, as well as on cosmological scales. Aimed at young researchers and graduate students, this up-to-date review uniquely brings together a subject often tackled by disconnected communities, conveying the latest advances as well as highlighting the limits of our current understandi...

  6. Cosmic Ray Antimatter

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade, space-born experiments have delivered new measurements of high energy cosmic-ray (CR) antiprotons and positrons, opening new frontiers in energy reach and precision. While being a promising discovery tool for new physics or exotic astrophysical phenomena, an irreducible background of antimatter comes from CR collisions with interstellar matter in the Galaxy. Understanding this irreducible source or constraining it from first principles is an interesting challenge: a game of hide-and-seek where the objective is to identify the laws of basic particle physics among the forest of astrophysical uncertainties. I describe an attempt to obtain such understanding, combining information from a zoo of CR species including massive nuclei and relativistic radioisotopes. I show that: (i) CR antiprotons most likely come from CR-gas collisions; (ii) positron data is consistent with, and suggestive of the same astrophysical production mechanism responsible for antiprotons and dominated by proton-proton c...

  7. Microphysics of cosmic plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Bykov, Andrei; Cargill, Peter; Dendy, Richard; Wit, Thierry; Raymond, John

    2014-01-01

    This title presents a review of the detailed aspects of the physical processes that underlie the observed properties, structures and dynamics of cosmic plasmas. An assessment of the status of understanding of microscale processes in all astrophysical collisionless plasmas is provided. The topics discussed include  turbulence in astrophysical and solar system plasmas as a phenomenological description of their dynamic properties on all scales; observational, theoretical and modelling aspects of collisionless magnetic reconnection; the formation and dynamics of shock waves; and a review and assessment of microprocesses, such as the hierarchy of plasma instabilities, non-local and non-diffusive transport processes and ionisation and radiation processes.  In addition, some of the lessons that have been learned from the extensive existing knowledge of laboratory plasmas as applied to astrophysical problems are also covered.   This volume is aimed at graduate students and researchers active in the areas of cosmi...

  8. The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, James C.; Froning, Cynthia S.; Osterman, Steve; Ebbets, Dennis; Heap, Sara H.; Leitherer, Claus; Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Savage, Blair D.; Sembach, Kenneth; Shull, J. Michael; hide

    2010-01-01

    The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) is a moderate-resolution spectrograph with unprecedented sensitivity that was installed into the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in May 2009, during HST Servicing Mission 4 (STS-125). We present the design philosophy and summarize the key characteristics of the instrument that will be of interest to potential observers. For faint targets, with flux F(sub lambda) approximates 1.0 X 10(exp -14) ergs/s/cm2/Angstrom, COS can achieve comparable signal to noise (when compared to STIS echelle modes) in 1-2% of the observing time. This has led to a significant increase in the total data volume and data quality available to the community. For example, in the first 20 months of science operation (September 2009 - June 2011) the cumulative redshift pathlength of extragalactic sight lines sampled by COS is 9 times that sampled at moderate resolution in 19 previous years of Hubble observations. COS programs have observed 214 distinct lines of sight suitable for study of the intergalactic medium as of June 2011. COS has measured, for the first time with high reliability, broad Lya absorbers and Ne VIII in the intergalactic medium, and observed the HeII reionization epoch along multiple sightlines. COS has detected the first CO emission and absorption in the UV spectra of low-mass circumstellar disks at the epoch of giant planet formation, and detected multiple ionization states of metals in extra-solar planetary atmospheres. In the coming years, COS will continue its census of intergalactic gas, probe galactic and cosmic structure, and explore physics in our solar system and Galaxy.

  9. Spectrum and Charge Ratio of Vertical Cosmic Ray Muons up to Momenta of 2.5 TeV/c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmelling, M.; /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst.; Hashim, N.O.; /Kenyatta U. Coll.; Grupen, C.; /Siegen U.; Luitz, S.; /SLAC; Maciuc, F.; /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst.; Mailov, A.; /Siegen U.; Muller, A.-S.; /Karlsruhe, Inst. Technol.; Sander, H.-G.; /Mainz U., Inst. Phys.; Schmeling, S.; /CERN; Tcaciuc, R.; /Siegen U.; Wachsmuth, H.; /CERN; Zuber, K.; /Dresden, Tech. U.

    2012-09-14

    The ALEPH detector at LEP has been used to measure the momentum spectrum and charge ratio of vertical cosmic ray muons underground. The sea-level cosmic ray muon spectrum for momenta up to 2.5 TeV/c has been obtained by correcting for the overburden of 320 meter water equivalent (mwe). The results are compared with Monte Carlo models for air shower development in the atmosphere. From the analysis of the spectrum the total flux and the spectral index of the cosmic ray primaries is inferred. The charge ratio suggests a dominantly light composition of cosmic ray primaries with energies up to 10{sup 15} eV.

  10. Spectrum and Charge Ratio of Vertical Cosmic Ray Muons up to Momenta of 2.5 TeV/c

    CERN Document Server

    Schmelling, M; Grupen, C; Luitz, S; Maciuc, F; Mailov, A; Müller, A -S; Sander, H -G; Schmeling, S; Tcaciuc, R; Wachsmuth, H; Zuber, K

    2013-01-01

    The ALEPH detector at LEP has been used to measure the momentum spectrum and charge ratio of vertical cosmic ray muons underground. The sea-level cosmic ray muon spectrum for momenta up to 2.5 TeV/c has been obtained by correcting for the overburden of 320 meter water equivalent (mwe). The results are compared with Monte Carlo models for air shower development in the atmosphere. From the analysis of the spectrum the total flux and the spectral index of the cosmic ray primaries is inferred. The charge ratio suggests a dominantly light composition of cosmic ray primaries with energies up to 10^15 eV.

  11. Test particle trajectories near cosmic strings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present a detailed analysis of the motion of test particle in the gravitational field of cosmic strings in different situations using the Hamilton–Jacobi (H–J) formalism. We have discussed the trajectories near static cosmic string, cosmic string in Brans–Dicke theory and cosmic string in dilaton gravity.

  12. Propagation Model for Cosmic Ray Species in the Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor); Moskalenko, I. V.; Jones, F. C.; Ptuskin, V. S.; Strong, A. W.; Mashnik, S. G.

    2002-01-01

    During the last decade there have been a number of space and balloon experiments with improved sensivity and statistics, which impose stricter constraints on cosmic ray propagation models. Propagation is the main issue in the interpretation of such data as antiproton and positron fluxes in cosmic rays, and diffuse gamma-ray emission. We develop a new propagation model that reproduces measurements of secondary antiprotons as well as primary and secondary nuclei. We will present results of our calculation of CR propagation in the Galaxy for this model using the GALPROP code.

  13. CALET: a calorimeter for cosmic-ray measurements in space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Nicola, E-mail: mori@fi.infn.it

    2013-06-15

    The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) instrument is scheduled for a launch in 2014 and attached to the Exposed Facility of the Japanese Experimental Module (JEM-EF) on the International Space Station. Its main objective is to perform precise measurements of the electron+positron spectrum in cosmic rays at energies up to some TeV, searching for signals from dark matter and/or contributions from nearby astrophysical sources like pulsars. Other scientific goals include the investigation of heavy ions spectra up to Fe, elemental abundance of trans-iron nuclei and a measurement of the diffuse γ ray emission with high energy resolution. The instrument is now under construction, and consists of a charge detection device (CHD) composed of two layers of plastic scintillators, a finely-segmented sampling calorimeter (IMC) and a deep, homogeneous calorimeter (TASC) made of PbWO scintillating bars. The good containment of electromagnetic showers (total depth ∼3X{sub 0}(IMC)+27X{sub 0}(TASC)=30X{sub 0}) together with the homogeneity of TASC give an energy resolution for electrons and γ rays about 2%. CHD can discriminate the charge of primary particles with a resolution between 15% and 30% up to Fe. The finely-segmented IMC, made by tungsten layers and 1mm-wide scintillating fibers, can provide detailed information about the start and early development of particle showers. Lateral and longitudinal shower-development information from TASC, together with informations from IMC, can be used to achieve an electron/proton rejection power about 10{sup 5}. High-statistics for collected data will be achieved by means of the planned 5-years exposure time together with a geometrical factor of 0.12 m{sup 2} sr. Furthermore, a Gamma-Ray Burst monitor will complement the main detector. In this paper the status of the mission, the design and expected performance of the instrument will be detailed.

  14. Comparing Cosmic Microwave Background Datasets

    OpenAIRE

    Knox, L.; Bond, J..R.; Jaffe, A. H.; Segal, M; Charbonneau, D

    1998-01-01

    To extract reliable cosmic parameters from cosmic microwave background datasets, it is essential to show that the data are not contaminated by residual non-cosmological signals. We describe general statistical approaches to this problem, with an emphasis on the case in which there are two datasets that can be checked for consistency. A first visual step is the Wiener filter mapping from one set of data onto the pixel basis of another. For more quantitative analyses we develop and apply both B...

  15. Cosmic rays and Earth's climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    During the last solar cycle the Earth's cloud cover underwent a modulation in phase with the cosmic ray flux. Assuming that there is a causal relationship between the two, it is expected and found that the Earth's temperature follows more closely decade variations in cosmic ray flux than other...... solar activity parameters. If the relationship is real the state of the Heliosphere affects the Earth's climate....

  16. Cosmic microwave background, where next?

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    Ground-based, balloon-borne and space-based experiments will observe the Cosmic Microwave Background in greater details to address open questions about the origin and the evolution of the Universe. In particular, detailed observations the polarization pattern of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation have the potential to directly probe physics at the GUT scale and illuminate aspects of the physics of the very early Universe.

  17. On Measuring Cosmic Ray Energy Spectra with the Rapidity Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashindzhagyan, G.; Adams, J.; Chilingarian, A.; Drury, L.; Egorov, N.; Golubkov, S.; Korotkova, N.; Panasyuk, M.; Podorozhnyi, D.; Procqureur, J.

    2000-01-01

    An important goal of cosmic ray research is to measure the elemental energy spectra of galactic cosmic rays up to 10(exp 16) eV. This goal cannot be achieved with an ionization calorimeter because the required instrument is too massive for space flight. An alternate method will be presented. This method is based on measuring the primary particle energy by determining the angular distribution of secondaries produced in a target layer. The proposed technique can be used over a wide range of energies (10 (exp 11) -10 (exp 16) eV) and gives an energy resolution of 60% or better. Based on this technique, a conceptual design for a new instrument (KLEM) will be presented. Due to its light weight, this instrument can have a large aperture enabling the direct measurement of cosmic rays to 1016 eV.

  18. Program Annual Technology Report: Cosmic Origins Program Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thai; Neff, Susan

    2017-01-01

    What is the Cosmic Origins (COR) Program? From ancient times, humans have looked up at the night sky and wondered: Are we alone? How did the universe come to be? How does the universe work? COR focuses on the second question. Scientists investigating this broad theme seek to understand the origin and evolution of the universe from the Big Bang to the present day, determining how the expanding universe grew into a grand cosmic web of dark matter enmeshed with galaxies and pristine gas, forming, merging, and evolving over time. COR also seeks to understand how stars and planets form from clouds in these galaxies to create the heavy elements that are essential to life, starting with the first generation of stars to seed the universe, and continuing through the birth and eventual death of all subsequent generations of stars. The COR Programs purview includes the majority of the field known as astronomy.

  19. The Cosmic Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longair, Malcolm S.

    2013-04-01

    Part I. Stars and Stellar Evolution up to the Second World War: 1. The legacy of the nineteenth century; 2. The classification of stellar spectra; 3. Stellar structure and evolution; 4. The end points of stellar evolution; Part II. The Large-Scale Structure of the Universe, 1900-1939: 5. The Galaxy and the nature of spiral nebulae; 6. The origins of astrophysical cosmology; Part III. The Opening up of the Electromagnetic Spectrum: 7. The opening up of the electromagnetic spectrum and the new astronomies; Part IV. The Astrophysics of Stars and Galaxies since 1945: 8. Stars and stellar evolution; 9. The physics of the interstellar medium; 10. The physics of galaxies and clusters of galaxies; 11. High-energy astrophysics; Part V. Astrophysical Cosmology since 1945: 12. Astrophysical cosmology; 13. The determination of cosmological parameters; 14. The evolution of galaxies and active galaxies with cosmic epoch; 15. The origin of galaxies and the large-scale structure of the Universe; 16. The very early Universe; References; Name index; Object index; Subject index.

  20. Illustrated cosmic monopole

    CERN Document Server

    Seagrave, Wyken

    2015-01-01

    Truly bizarre, utterly unique I've never read a novel quite like this before. The author takes you on an exciting adventure full of unforgettable and vivid imagery. Solidly written with each character's personality shining through. If you find physics fascinating you will not be disappointed by the author's keen intellect and clear understanding of this most challenging (for me anyway) scientific subject. This is not a novel I will forget anytime soon, I would highly recommend it. Andrewly Very imaginative tale Anybody interested in a very imaginative and engrossing sci fi story needs to check this one out. I have been reading sci fi for decades and this story has elements that surprise me which is very unusual considering the number of novels and stories I have over the years. ric freeman Summary of the story The cosmic monopole has been wandering the Universe since it was created in the Big Bang. Its existence is fundamental to the way the Universe works. It is finally trapped by the powerful magnetic f...

  1. Cosmic string loop microlensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Jolyon K.; Chernoff, David F.

    2014-06-01

    Cosmic superstring loops within the galaxy microlens background point sources lying close to the observer-string line of sight. For suitable alignments, multiple paths coexist and the (achromatic) flux enhancement is a factor of two. We explore this unique type of lensing by numerically solving for geodesics that extend from source to observer as they pass near an oscillating string. We characterize the duration of the flux doubling and the scale of the image splitting. We probe and confirm the existence of a variety of fundamental effects predicted from previous analyses of the static infinite straight string: the deficit angle, the Kaiser-Stebbins effect, and the scale of the impact parameter required to produce microlensing. Our quantitative results for dynamical loops vary by O(1) factors with respect to estimates based on infinite straight strings for a given impact parameter. A number of new features are identified in the computed microlensing solutions. Our results suggest that optical microlensing can offer a new and potentially powerful methodology for searches for superstring loop relics of the inflationary era.

  2. Standard Cosmic Ray Energetics and Light Element Production

    CERN Document Server

    Fields, B D; Cassé, M; Vangioni-Flam, E; Fields, Brian D.; Olive, Keith A.; Casse, Michel; Vangioni-Flam, Elisabeth

    2001-01-01

    The recent observations of Be and B in metal poor stars has led to a reassessment of the origin of the light elements in the early Galaxy. At low it is metallicity ([O/H] < -1.75), it is necessary to introduce a production mechanism which is independent of the interstellar metallicity (primary). At higher metallicities, existing data might indicate that secondary production is dominant. In this paper, we focus on the secondary process, related to the standard Galactic cosmic rays, and we examine the cosmic ray energy requirements for both present and past epochs. We find the power input to maintain the present-day Galactic cosmic ray flux is about 1.5e41 erg/s = 5e50 erg/century. This implies that, if supernovae are the sites of cosmic ray acceleration, the fraction of explosion energy going to accelerated particles is about 30%, a value which we obtain consistently both from considering the present cosmic ray flux and confinement and from the present 9Be and 6Li abundances. Using the abundances of 9Be (an...

  3. Attitudes and Learning through Practice Are Key to Delivering Brief Interventions for Heavy Drinking in Primary Health Care: Analyses from the ODHIN Five Country Cluster Randomized Factorial Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, P.; Kaner, E.; Keurhorst, M.N.; Bendtsen, P.; Steenkiste, B.V.; Reynolds, J.; Segura, L.; Wojnar, M.; Kloda, K.; Parkinson, K.; Drummond, C.; Okulicz-Kozaryn, K.; Mierzecki, A.; Laurant, M.G.; Newbury-Birch, D.; Gual, A.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we test path models that study the interrelations between primary health care provider attitudes towards working with drinkers, their screening and brief advice activity, and their receipt of training and support and financial reimbursement. Study participants were 756 primary health

  4. Nearest Cosmic Mirage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Discovery of quadruply lensed quasar with Einstein ring Summary Using the ESO 3.6-m telescope at La Silla (Chile), an international team of astronomers [1] has discovered a complex cosmic mirage in the southern constellation Crater (The Cup). This "gravitational lens" system consists of (at least) four images of the same quasar as well as a ring-shaped image of the galaxy in which the quasar resides - known as an "Einstein ring". The more nearby lensing galaxy that causes this intriguing optical illusion is also well visible. The team obtained spectra of these objects with the new EMMI camera mounted on the ESO 3.5-m New Technology Telescope (NTT), also at the La Silla observatory. They find that the lensed quasar [2] is located at a distance of 6,300 million light-years (its "redshift" is z = 0.66 [3]) while the lensing elliptical galaxy is rougly halfway between the quasar and us, at a distance of 3,500 million light-years (z = 0.3). The system has been designated RXS J1131-1231 - it is the closest gravitationally lensed quasar discovered so far . PR Photo 20a/03 : Image of the gravitational lens system RXS J1131-1231 (ESO 3.6m Telescope). PR Photo 20b/03 : Spectra of two lensed images of the source quasar and the lensing galaxy. Cosmic mirages The physical principle behind a "gravitational lens" (also known as a "cosmic mirage") has been known since 1916 as a consequence of Albert Einstein's Theory of General Relativity . The gravitational field of a massive object curves the local geometry of the Universe, so light rays passing close to the object are bent (like a "straight line" on the surface of the Earth is necessarily curved because of the curvature of the Earth's surface). This effect was first observed by astronomers in 1919 during a total solar eclipse. Accurate positional measurements of stars seen in the dark sky near the eclipsed Sun indicated an apparent displacement in the direction opposite to the Sun, about as much as predicted by Einstein

  5. Hot Spot Cosmic Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-11-01

    length of more than 3 million light-years, or no less than one-and-a-half times the distance from the Milky Way to the Andromeda galaxy, this structure is indeed gigantic. The region where the jets collide with the intergalactic medium are known as " hot spots ". Superposing the intensity contours of the radio emission from the southern "hot spot" on a near-infrared J-band (wavelength 1.25 µm) VLT ISAAC image ("b") shows three distinct emitting areas; they are even better visible on the I-band (0.9 µm) FORS1 image ("c"). This emission is obviously associated with the shock front visible on the radio image. This is one of the first times it has been possible to obtain an optical/near-IR image of synchrotron emission from such an intergalactic shock and, thanks to the sensitivity and image sharpness of the VLT, the most detailed view of its kind so far . The central area (with the strongest emission) is where the plasma jet from the galaxy centre hits the intergalactic medium. The light from the two other "knots", some 10 - 15,000 light-years away from the central "hot spot", is also interpreted as synchrotron emission. However, in view of the large distance, the astronomers are convinced that it must be caused by electrons accelerated in secondary processes at those sites . The new images thus confirm that electrons are being continuously accelerated in these "knots" - hence called "cosmic accelerators" - far from the galaxy and the main jets, and in nearly empty space. The exact physical circumstances of this effect are not well known and will be the subject of further investigations. The present VLT-images of the "hot spots" near 3C 445 may not have the same public appeal as some of those beautiful images that have been produced by the same instruments during the past years. But they are not less valuable - their unusual importance is of a different kind, as they now herald the advent of fundamentally new insights into the mysteries of this class of remote and active

  6. Radioresistance of Adenine to Cosmic Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignoli Muniz, Gabriel S.; Mejía, Christian F.; Martinez, Rafael; Auge, Basile; Rothard, Hermann; Domaracka, Alicja; Boduch, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    The presence of nucleobases in carbonaceous meteorites on Earth is an indication of the existence of this class of molecules in outer space. However, space is permeated by ionizing radiation, which can have damaging effects on these molecules. Adenine is a purine nucleobase that amalgamates important biomolecules such as DNA, RNA, and ATP. Adenine has a unique importance in biochemistry and therefore life. The aim of this work was to study the effects of cosmic ray analogues on solid adenine and estimate its survival when exposed to corpuscular radiation. Adenine films were irradiated at GANIL (Caen, France) and GSI (Darmstadt, Germany) by 820 MeV Kr33+, 190 MeV Ca10+, 92 MeV Xe23+, and 12 MeV C4+ ion beams at low temperature. The evolution of adenine molecules under heavy ion irradiation was studied by IR absorption spectroscopy as a function of projectile fluence. It was found that the adenine destruction cross section (σd) follows an electronic stopping power (Se) power law under the form: CSen; C is a constant, and the exponential n is a dimensionless quantity. Using the equation above to fit our results, we determined σd = 4 × 10-17 Se1.17, with Se in kiloelectronvolts per micrometer (keV μm-1). New IR absorption bands arise under irradiation of adenine and can be attributed to HCN, CN-, C2H4N4, CH3CN, and (CH3)3CNC. These findings may help to understand the stability and chemistry related to complex organic molecules in space. The half-life of solid adenine exposed to the simulated interstellar medium cosmic ray flux was estimated as (10 ± 8) × 106 years.

  7. Cosmic logic: a computational model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanchurin, Vitaly

    2016-02-01

    We initiate a formal study of logical inferences in context of the measure problem in cosmology or what we call cosmic logic. We describe a simple computational model of cosmic logic suitable for analysis of, for example, discretized cosmological systems. The construction is based on a particular model of computation, developed by Alan Turing, with cosmic observers (CO), cosmic measures (CM) and cosmic symmetries (CS) described by Turing machines. CO machines always start with a blank tape and CM machines take CO's Turing number (also known as description number or Gödel number) as input and output the corresponding probability. Similarly, CS machines take CO's Turing number as input, but output either one if the CO machines are in the same equivalence class or zero otherwise. We argue that CS machines are more fundamental than CM machines and, thus, should be used as building blocks in constructing CM machines. We prove the non-computability of a CS machine which discriminates between two classes of CO machines: mortal that halts in finite time and immortal that runs forever. In context of eternal inflation this result implies that it is impossible to construct CM machines to compute probabilities on the set of all CO machines using cut-off prescriptions. The cut-off measures can still be used if the set is reduced to include only machines which halt after a finite and predetermined number of steps.

  8. Electromagnetic dissociation effects in galactic heavy-ion fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, J. W.; Townsend, L. W.

    1986-01-01

    Methods for calculating cross sections for the breakup of galactic heavy ions by the Coulomb fields of the interacting nuclei are presented. By using the Weizsacker-Williams method of virtual quanta, estimates of electromagnetic dissociation cross sections for a variety of reactions applicable to galactic cosmic ray shielding studies are presented and compared with other predictions and with available experimental data.

  9. Heavy metal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    niloticus after exposure to sublethal concentrations of heavy metals such as copper, lead and zinc for a 12-week period, using static renewable toxicity tests. The concentrations of the metals accumulated in the tissue of exposed fish were about 3-5 times higher than the concentrations detected in control fish.

  10. Menorrhagia (Heavy Menstrual Bleeding)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menorrhagia (heavy menstrual bleeding) Overview Menorrhagia is the medical term for menstrual periods with abnormally heavy or prolonged bleeding. Although heavy menstrual bleeding is a common concern, ...

  11. The limits of cosmic shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitching, Thomas D.; Alsing, Justin; Heavens, Alan F.; Jimenez, Raul; McEwen, Jason D.; Verde, Licia

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we discuss the commonly used limiting cases, or approximations, for two-point cosmic-shear statistics. We discuss the most prominent assumptions in this statistic: the flat-sky (small angle limit), the Limber (Bessel-to-delta function limit) and the Hankel transform (large ℓ-mode limit) approximations; that the vast majority of cosmic-shear results to date have used simultaneously. We find that the combined effect of these approximations can suppress power by ≳ 1 per cent on scales of ℓ ≲ 40. A fully non-approximated cosmic-shear study should use a spherical-sky, non-Limber-approximated power spectrum analysis and a transform involving Wigner small-d matrices in place of the Hankel transform. These effects, unaccounted for, would constitute at least 11 per cent of the total budget for systematic effects for a power spectrum analysis of a Euclid-like experiment; but they are unnecessary.

  12. Cosmic rays, clouds, and climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, N.; Svensmark, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    A correlation between a global average of low cloud cover and the flux of cosmic rays incident in the atmosphere has been observed during the last solar cycle. The ionising potential of Earth bound cosmic rays are modulated by the state of the heliosphere, while clouds play an important role...... between cosmic ray flux and low cloud top temperature. The temperature of a cloud depends on the radiation properties determined by its droplet distribution. Low clouds are warm (> 273 K) and therefore consist of liquid water droplets. At typical atmospheric supersaturations (similar to1%) a liquid cloud...... drop will only form in the presence of an aerosol, which acts as a condensation site. The droplet distribution of a cloud will then depend on the number of aerosols activated as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and the level of super saturation. Based on observational evidence it is argued...

  13. Cosmic Ray Energetics and Mass

    CERN Multimedia

    Baylon cardiel, J L; Wallace, K C; Anderson, T B; Copley, M

    The cosmic-ray energetics and mass (CREAM) investigation is designed to measure cosmic-ray composition to the supernova energy scale of 10$^{15}$ eV in a series of ultra long duration balloon (ULDB) flights. The first flight is planned to be launched from Antarctica in December 2004. The goal is to observe cosmic-ray spectral features and/or abundance changes that might signify a limit to supernova acceleration. The particle ($\\{Z}$) measurements will be made with a timing-based charge detector and a pixelated silicon charge detector to minimize the effect of backscatter from the calorimeter. The particle energy measurements will be made with a transition radiation detector (TRD) for $\\{Z}$ > 3 and a sampling tungsten/scintillator calorimeter for $\\{Z}$ $\\geq$1 particles, allowing inflight cross calibration of the two detectors. The status of the payload construction and flight preparation are reported in this paper.

  14. Cosmic Rays and Global Warming

    OpenAIRE

    Sloan, T.; Wolfendale, A W

    2007-01-01

    It has been claimed by others that observed temporal correlations of terrestrial cloud cover with `the cosmic ray intensity' are causal. The possibility arises, therefore, of a connection between cosmic rays and Global Warming. If true, the implications would be very great. We have examined this claim to look for evidence to corroborate it. So far we have not found any and so our tentative conclusions are to doubt it. Such correlations as appear are more likely to be due to the small variatio...

  15. Cosmic string in gravity's rainbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Davood; Upadhyay, Sudhaker; Myrzakulov, Yerlan; Myrzakulov, Ratbay

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we study the various cylindrical solutions (cosmic strings) in gravity's rainbow scenario. In particular, we calculate the gravitational field equations corresponding to energy-dependent background. Further, we discuss the possible Kasner, quasi-Kasner and non-Kasner exact solutions of the field equations. In this framework, we find that quasi-Kasner solutions cannot be realized in gravity's rainbow. Assuming only time-dependent metric functions, we also analyse the time-dependent vacuum cosmic strings in gravity's rainbow, which are completely different than the other GR solutions.

  16. Cosmic Humanity: Utopia, Realities, Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Krichevsky

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The philosophical foundations of the theory and practice of the creation of cosmic humanity as a process of the evolution of human civilization, the emergence into space, with the prospect of resettlement outside the Earth are considered. There is a connection between myths, fantasies, ideas, concepts and projects aimed at the exploration of outer space, the creation of cosmic humanity. A new and voluminous definition of cosmic humanity in the evolutionary paradigm is given. Cosmic humanity is (essence and 4 stages of evolution: 1. Humanity living on Earth, sensing, knowing, understanding its cosmic origin, relationship with the cosmos and cosmic destiny. 2. Humanity living on Earth, leading aerospace activity for the purposes of exploration and use of aerospace space (Heaven, Space for survival and development. 3. Humanity living on Earth and outside the Earth — in the solar system, preserving the Earth and mastering the Cosmos for survival and development. 4. Humanity, settled and living in the Cosmos. Now humanity is in the process of transition from the second to the third stage. In the process of this evolution, a complex transformation of man and society takes place. The problem-semantic field of cosmic humanity is described and its general model is presented. The meta-goal-setting is the justification of cosmic humanity with the application of the anthropic principle and its “active” super (post anthropic supplement: “Cosmic humanity has an evolutionary purpose to actively manage evolution: change man, humanity and the universe.” The evolution of the “cosmic dream”, goals and technologies of space activities is formalized in the form of a conceptual model. Challenges and negative trends are considered in connection with the crisis of space activity, criticism and attempts to limit the flights of people into space. The prototype of cosmic humanity, its basis and acting model is the cosmonauts’ community. The main

  17. WINDS, CLUMPS, AND INTERACTING COSMIC RAYS IN M82

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoast-Hull, Tova M.; Everett, John E.; Zweibel, Ellen G. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI (United States); Gallagher, J. S. III, E-mail: yoasthull@wisc.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI (United States)

    2013-05-01

    We construct a family of models for the evolution of energetic particles in the starburst galaxy M82 and compare them to observations to test the calorimeter assumption that all cosmic ray energy is radiated in the starburst region. Assuming constant cosmic ray acceleration efficiency with Milky Way parameters, we calculate the cosmic-ray proton and primary and secondary electron/positron populations as a function of energy. Cosmic rays are injected with Galactic energy distributions and electron-to-proton ratio via Type II supernovae at the observed rate of 0.07 yr{sup -1}. From the cosmic ray spectra, we predict the radio synchrotron and {gamma}-ray spectra. To more accurately model the radio spectrum, we incorporate a multiphase interstellar medium in the starburst region of M82. Our model interstellar medium is highly fragmented with compact dense molecular clouds and dense photoionized gas, both embedded in a hot, low density medium in overall pressure equilibrium. The spectra predicted by this one-zone model are compared to the observed radio and {gamma}-ray spectra of M82. {chi}{sup 2} tests are used with radio and {gamma}-ray observations and a range of model predictions to find the best-fit parameters. The best-fit model yields constraints on key parameters in the starburst zone of M82, including a magnetic field strength of {approx}250 {mu}G and a wind advection speed in the range of 300-700 km s{sup -1}. We find that M82 is a good electron calorimeter but not an ideal cosmic-ray proton calorimeter and discuss the implications of our results for the astrophysics of the far-infrared-radio correlation in starburst galaxies.

  18. Chandra Discovers Cosmic Cannonball

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    One of the fastest moving stars ever seen has been discovered with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This cosmic cannonball is challenging theories to explain its blistering speed. Astronomers used Chandra to observe a neutron star, known as RX J0822-4300, over a period of about five years. During that span, three Chandra observations clearly show the neutron star moving away from the center of the Puppis A supernova remnant. This remnant is the stellar debris field created during the same explosion in which the neutron star was created about 3700 years ago. Chandra X-ray Image of RX J0822-4300 in Puppis A Chandra X-ray Image of RX J0822-4300 in Puppis A By combining how far it has moved across the sky with its distance from Earth, astronomers determined the neutron star is moving at over 3 million miles per hour. At this rate, RX J0822-4300 is destined to escape from the Milky Way after millions of years, even though it has only traveled about 20 light years so far. "This star is moving at 3 million miles an hour, but it's so far away that the apparent motion we see in five years is less than the height of the numerals in the date on a penny, seen from the length of a football field," said Frank Winkler of Middlebury College in Vermont. "It's remarkable, and a real testament to the power of Chandra, that such a tiny motion can be measured." Labeled Image of RX J0822-4300 in Puppis A Labeled Image of RX J0822-4300 in Puppis A "Just after it was born, this neutron star got a one-way ticket out of the Galaxy," said co-author Robert Petre of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. "Astronomers have seen other stars being flung out of the Milky Way, but few as fast as this." So-called hypervelocity stars have been previously discovered shooting out of the Milky Way with speeds around one million miles per hour. One key difference between RX J0822-4300 and these other reported galactic escapees is the source of their speed. The hypervelocity stars are

  19. Voids and the Cosmic Web: cosmic depression & spatial complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Weygaert, Rien; Shandarin, S.; Saar, E.; Einasto, J.

    2016-01-01

    Voids form a prominent aspect of the Megaparsec distribution of galaxies and matter. Not only do theyrepresent a key constituent of the Cosmic Web, they also are one of the cleanest probesand measures of global cosmological parameters. The shape and evolution of voids are highly sensitive tothe

  20. The Spine of the Cosmic Web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aragón-Calvo, Miguel A.; Platen, Erwin; Weygaert, Rien van de; Szalay, Alexander S.

    2008-01-01

    We present a new concept, the Spine of the Cosmic Web, for the topological analysis of the Cosmic Web and the identification of its filaments and walls. Based on the watershed segmentation of the cosmic density field, the method invokes the local properties of the regions adjacent to the critical

  1. Some properties of Cosmic String Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouby, Johanna

    2011-07-01

    Cosmic strings are linear concentrations of energy of macroscopic size. Since cosmic superstrings can form junctions, observing them would give some support to string theory. In the following, we study the lensing cosmic string junctions create, the shift in photons' wavelength passing through (leading to the Kaiser-Stebbins effect), and the gravitational radiation they emit.

  2. Cosmic-ray neutron sensing for soil moisture measurements in cropped fields

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera Villarreyes, Carlos Andres

    2013-01-01

    This cumulative dissertation explored the use of the detection of natural background of fast neutrons, the so-called cosmic-ray neutron sensing (CRS) approach to measure field-scale soil moisture in cropped fields. Primary cosmic rays penetrate the top atmosphere and interact with atmospheric particles. Such interaction results on a cascade of high-energy neutrons, which continue traveling through the atmospheric column. Finally, neutrons penetrate the soil surface and a second cascade is pro...

  3. Cosmic multi-muon bundles measured at DELPHI

    CERN Document Server

    Travnicek, Petr

    2002-01-01

    The DELPHI detector at LEP, located 100 $m$ underground, has been used to detect the multi-muon bundles by cathode readout of its hadron calorimeter and its tracking detectors (TPC, muon chambers). The experimental apparatus allows us to study muon bundles originating from primary cosmic particles with energies in the interval $10^{14}$ - $10^{17} eV$. The cosmic events registered during the years 1999 and 2000 correspond roughly to $1.6 10^6 s$ of effective run time. The aim of the work is to compare the measured muon multiplicity distributions and predictions of high energy interaction models for different types of primary particles and also to determine the absolute flux of events in certain muon multiplicity range. The presentation describes the current status of the analysis.

  4. Cosmic Censorship for Gowdy Spacetimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Ringström

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the complexity of Einstein’s equations, it is often natural to study a question of interest in the framework of a restricted class of solutions. One way to impose a restriction is to consider solutions satisfying a given symmetry condition. There are many possible choices, but the present article is concerned with one particular choice, which we shall refer to as Gowdy symmetry. We begin by explaining the origin and meaning of this symmetry type, which has been used as a simplifying assumption in various contexts, some of which we shall mention. Nevertheless, the subject of interest here is strong cosmic censorship. Consequently, after having described what the Gowdy class of spacetimes is, we describe, as seen from the perspective of a mathematician, what is meant by strong cosmic censorship. The existing results on cosmic censorship are based on a detailed analysis of the asymptotic behavior of solutions. This analysis is in part motivated by conjectures, such as the BKL conjecture, which we shall therefore briefly describe. However, the emphasis of the article is on the mathematical analysis of the asymptotics, due to its central importance in the proof and in the hope that it might be of relevance more generally. The article ends with a description of the results that have been obtained concerning strong cosmic censorship in the class of Gowdy spacetimes.

  5. Cosmic Censorship for Gowdy Spacetimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringström, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Due to the complexity of Einstein's equations, it is often natural to study a question of interest in the framework of a restricted class of solutions. One way to impose a restriction is to consider solutions satisfying a given symmetry condition. There are many possible choices, but the present article is concerned with one particular choice, which we shall refer to as Gowdy symmetry. We begin by explaining the origin and meaning of this symmetry type, which has been used as a simplifying assumption in various contexts, some of which we shall mention. Nevertheless, the subject of interest here is strong cosmic censorship. Consequently, after having described what the Gowdy class of spacetimes is, we describe, as seen from the perspective of a mathematician, what is meant by strong cosmic censorship. The existing results on cosmic censorship are based on a detailed analysis of the asymptotic behavior of solutions. This analysis is in part motivated by conjectures, such as the BKL conjecture, which we shall therefore briefly describe. However, the emphasis of the article is on the mathematical analysis of the asymptotics, due to its central importance in the proof and in the hope that it might be of relevance more generally. The article ends with a description of the results that have been obtained concerning strong cosmic censorship in the class of Gowdy spacetimes.

  6. Davis Meeting on Cosmic Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Kaloper, N; Knox, L; Cosmic Inflation

    2003-01-01

    The Davis Meeting on Cosmic Inflation marked an exciting milestone on the road to precision cosmology. This is the index page for the proceedings of the conference. Individual proceedings contributions, when they appear on this archive, are linked from this page.

  7. Evolution of the cosmic web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cautun, Marius; van de Weygaert, Rien; Jones, Bernard J. T.; Frenk, Carlos S.

    The cosmic web is the largest scale manifestation of the anisotropic gravitational collapse of matter. It represents the transitional stage between linear and non-linear structures and contains easily accessible information about the early phases of structure formation processes. Here we investigate

  8. Clusters and the Cosmic Web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weygaert, R. van de

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: We discuss the intimate relationship between the filamentary features and the rare dense compact cluster nodes in this network, via the large scale tidal field going along with them, following the cosmic web theory developed Bond et al. The Megaparsec scale tidal shear pattern is

  9. Lookback Time: Observing Cosmic History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, Mike; Wachowiak, Dale

    1989-01-01

    The difference in time between the emission and reception of light is called the "lookback" time. This article explores implications of lookback time and explains some of the puzzling questions posed by the scientific observation of cosmic history. Provides several pictures and diagrams. (YP)

  10. Art and the Cosmic Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Whitney H.; Aiello, Monica Petty; Macdonald, Reeves; Asplund, Shari

    2014-01-01

    The interdisciplinary unit described in this article utilizes "Art and the Cosmic Connection," a free program conceived of by artists Monica and Tyler Aiello and developed by the artists, scientists, and educators through NASA's Discovery and New Frontiers Programs, to inspire learners to explore mysterious worlds in our solar…

  11. Cosmology with the cosmic web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forero-Romero, J. E.

    2017-07-01

    This talk summarizes different algorithms that can be used to trace the cosmic web both in simulations and observations. We present different applications in galaxy formation and cosmology. To finalize, we show how the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) could be a good place to apply these techniques.

  12. Model for Cumulative Solar Heavy Ion Energy and LET Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xapsos, Mike; Barth, Janet; Stauffer, Craig; Jordan, Tom; Mewaldt, Richard

    2007-01-01

    A probabilistic model of cumulative solar heavy ion energy and lineary energy transfer (LET) spectra is developed for spacecraft design applications. Spectra are given as a function of confidence level, mission time period during solar maximum and shielding thickness. It is shown that long-term solar heavy ion fluxes exceed galactic cosmic ray fluxes during solar maximum for shielding levels of interest. Cumulative solar heavy ion fluences should therefore be accounted for in single event effects rate calculations and in the planning of space missions.

  13. Radiographic Images Produced by Cosmic-Ray Muons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, Rubén

    2006-09-01

    An application of high energy physics instrumentation is to look for structure or different densities (materials) hidden in a matrix (tons) of material. By tracing muons produced by primary Cosmic Rays, it has been possible to generate a kind of radiographs which shows the inner structure of dense containers, monuments or mountains. In this paper I review the basics principles of such techniques with emphasis in the Sun Pyramid project, carried out by IFUNAM in collaboration with Instituto Nacioanal de Antropologia e Historia.

  14. Limits on quark nugget dark matter from cosmic ray detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawson Kyle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this talk is to highlight the potential role of large scale cosmic ray detectors in constraining the presence of certain classes of high mass dark matter candidates. These models are not easily constrained by conventional dark matter searches due to their very small flux, and thus, alternative detection techniques must be considered. I will begin with a brief review of heavy compact composite dark matter and some motivation for considering this class of models. In particular I will describe a model in which the dark matter consists of heavy “nuggets” of quarks and antiquarks, and highlight its relation to baryogenesis. As this form of dark matter is based in known physics its properties, as established by arguments from nuclear physics and electrodynamics, are strongly constrained. Based on these properties I will give a primarily qualitative description of the nuggets' interaction with visible matter and of the consequences of the passage of a dark matter nugget through the earth's atmosphere. From the general scales and properties of these events I argue that they may be detectable using cosmic ray observatories and that the largest of these observatories are likely to impose the strongest known constraints on this class of dark matter candidates.

  15. Parametrized energy spectrum of cosmic-ray protons with kinetic energies down to 1 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, L. C.

    1985-01-01

    A new estimation of the interstellar proton spectrum is made in which the source term of primary protons is taken from shock acceleration theory and the cosmic ray propagation calculation is based on a proposed nonuniform galactic disk model.

  16. Forming Stars From the Cosmic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-09-01

    Scientists have recently identified a connection between metal-poor regions in a set of dwarf galaxies and bursts of star-formation activity within them. These observations provide long-awaited evidence supporting predictions of how stars formed in the early universe and in dwarf galaxies today. Metal-Poor Clues: The primary driver of star formation over cosmic history is thought to be the accretion onto galaxies of cold gas streaming from the cosmic web. The best way to confirm this model would be to observe a cloud of cosmic gas flowing into an otherwise-quiescent galaxy and launching a wave of star formation. But because cold gas doesnt emit much radiation, its difficult to detect directly.Now, a team of scientists have found a clever way around this problem: they searched galaxies for a correlation between areas of active star formation and metal-poor regions. Why? Because metal-poor regions could be a smoking gun indicating a recently accreted cloud of cold gas from the cosmic web. Impacting Clouds: Distribution of metallicity along the major axis of one of the target galaxies. The red bar in the top image shows the position of the spectrograph slit along the galaxy, with the arrow showing the direction of growing distance in the plot below. The plot shows the metallicity variation (red symbols) and star-formation rate (blue line) along the galaxys major axis. The metallicity drop coincides with the brightest knot of the galaxy. [Snchez Almeida et al. 2015]The authors of this study, led by Jorge Snchez Almeida (Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias and University of La Laguna, Spain), used the Great Canary Telescope to obtain high-quality spectra of ten dwarf galaxies with especially low average metallicities. They aligned the spectrograph slit along the major axes of the galaxies in order to measure abundances as a function of position within each galaxy.The team found that, in nine out of the ten cases, the galaxies displayed sharp drops (by factors of 310

  17. On the spectrum of stable secondary nuclei in cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasi, P.

    2017-10-01

    The ratio of the fluxes of secondary and primary nuclei in cosmic rays has long been used as an indicator of the grammage traversed in the journey of cosmic ray particles throughout the Galaxy. The basic idea is that primary particles are accelerated in astrophysical sources, such as supernova remnant shocks and eventually propagate in the Galactic volume, occasionally interacting with gas, mainly in the disc of the Galaxy, and there they produce secondary nuclei through spallation. At sufficiently high energy, typically ≳100 GeV/n, the ratio of fluxes of the secondary nucleus to that of the main primary nucleus is found to scale as Ek^{-δ }, where Ek is the energy per nucleon (a conserved quantity in spallation reactions) and δ identifies the energy dependence of the diffusion coefficient. The same shock waves that may be responsible for cosmic ray acceleration in the first place also pick up any other charged particle in the upstream, provided being above threshold for injection. The secondary nuclei produced by spallation in the interstellar medium are no exception, hence they also get accelerated. This effect is unavoidable, only its strength may be subject of debate. We compute the spectrum of secondary elements such as boron and lithium taking into account shock reacceleration and compare our predictions with the recent observations of the B/C ratio and preliminary measurements of the boron and lithium flux. Both these sets of data seem to confirm that reacceleration of secondary nuclei indeed plays an important role, thereby affecting the validity of those scaling rules that are often used in cosmic ray physics.

  18. Quantum cosmic models and thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F; Rozas-Fernandez, Alberto [Colina de los Chopos, Centro de Fisica ' Miguel A Catalan' , Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones CientIficas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: p.gonzalezdiaz@imaff.cfmac.csic.es, E-mail: a.rozas@cfmac.csic.es

    2008-09-07

    The current accelerating phase of the evolution of the universe is considered by constructing the most economical cosmic models that use just general relativity and some dominating quantum effects associated with the probabilistic description of quantum physics. Two such models are explicitly analyzed. They are based on the existence of a sub-quantum potential and correspond to a generalization of the spatially flat exponential model of de Sitter space. The thermodynamics of these two cosmic solutions is discussed, using the second principle as a guide to choose which among the two is more feasible. The paper also discusses the relativistic physics on which the models are based, their holographic description, some implications from the classical energy conditions and an interpretation of dark energy in terms of the entangled energy of the universe.

  19. Aerosols Produced by Cosmic Rays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker

    , it will be possible to develop the experiment to cover additional processes involved in the route to cloud droplet formation. The experiment will be conducted at the Danish National Space Center where a clean room facility has been provided. It comprises a 7 m3 reaction chamber across which an electric field......Satellite observations have shown that the Earth’s cloud cover is strongly correlated with the galactic cosmic ray flux. While this correlation is indicative of a possible physical connection, there is currently no confirmation that a physical mechanism exists. We are therefore setting up...... mechanism linking cosmic rays to clouds and climate is currently speculative, there have been various suggestions of the role atmospheric ions may play; these involve any one of a number of processes from the nucleation of aerosols up to the collection processes of cloud droplets. We have chosen to start...

  20. Evolution of the Cosmic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einasto, J.

    2017-07-01

    In the evolution of the cosmic web dark energy plays an important role. To understand the role of dark energy we investigate the evolution of superclusters in four cosmological models: standard model SCDM, conventional model LCDM, open model OCDM, and a hyper-dark-energy model HCDM. Numerical simulations of the evolution are performed in a box of size 1024 Mpc/h. Model superclusters are compared with superclusters found for Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Superclusters are searched using density fields. LCDM superclusters have properties, very close to properties of observed SDSS superclusters. Standard model SCDM has about 2 times more superclusters than other models, but SCDM superclusters are smaller and have lower luminosities. Superclusters as principal structural elements of the cosmic web are present at all cosmological epochs.

  1. Electromagnetic field and cosmic censorship

    CERN Document Server

    Düztaş, Koray

    2013-01-01

    We construct a gedanken experiment in which an extremal Kerr black hole interacts with a test electromagnetic field. Using Teukolsky's solutions for electromagnetic perturbations in Kerr spacetime, and the conservation laws imposed by the energy momentum tensor of the electromagnetic field and the Killing vectors of the spacetime, we prove that this interaction cannot convert the black hole into a naked singularity, thus cosmic censorship conjecture is not violated in this case.

  2. Cosmic Visions Dark Energy: Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodelson, Scott [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Slosar, Anze [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Heitmann, Katrin [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hirata, Chris [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Honscheid, Klaus [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Roodman, Aaron [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Seljak, Uros [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-05-02

    A strong instrumentation and detector R&D program has enabled the current generation of cosmic frontier surveys. A small investment in R&D will continue to pay dividends and enable new probes to investigate the accelerated expansion of the universe. Instrumentation and detector R&D provide critical training opportunities for future generations of experimentalists, skills that are important across the entire DOE HEP program.

  3. Supernovae Rates: A Cosmic History

    OpenAIRE

    Yungelson, L. R.; Livio, M.

    1999-01-01

    We discuss the cosmic history of supernovae on the basis of various assumptions and recent data on the star formation history. We show that supernova rates as a function of redshift can be used to place significant constraints on progenitor models, on the star formation history, and on the importance of dust obscuration. We demonstrate that it is unlikely that the current observational indications for the existence of a cosmological constant are merely an artifact of the dominance of differen...

  4. Cosmic Visions Dark Energy: Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodelson, Scott [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Heitmann, Katrin [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Hirata, Chris [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Honscheid, Klaus [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Roodman, Aaron [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Seljak, Uroš [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Slosar, Anže [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Trodden, Mark [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2016-04-26

    A strong instrumentation and detector R&D program has enabled the current generation of cosmic frontier surveys. A small investment in R&D will continue to pay dividends and enable new probes to investigate the accelerated expansion of the universe. Instrumentation and detector R&D provide critical training opportunities for future generations of experimentalists, skills that are important across the entire Department of Energy High Energy Physics program.

  5. Studying Cosmic Dawn with WFIRST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, James; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Jansen, Rolf A.; Windhorst, Rogier; Tilvi, Vithal; Finkelstein, Steven; Wold, Isak; Papovich, Casey; Fan, Xiaohui; Mellema, Garrelt; Zackrisson, Erik; Jensen, Hannes; T

    2018-01-01

    Our understanding of Cosmic Dawn can be revolutionized using WFIRST's combination of wide-field, sensitive, high resolution near-infrared imaging and spectroscopy. Guest investigator studies of WFIRST's high latitude imaging survey and supernova search fields will yield orders of magnitude increases in our samples of Lyman break galaxies from z=7 to z>12. The high latitude spectrsocopic survey will enable an unprecedented search for z>7 quasars. Guest observer deep fields can extend these studies to flux levels of Hubble's deepest fields, over regions measured in square degrees. The resulting census of luminous objects in the Cosmic Dawn will provide key insights into the sources of the ultraviolet photons that powered reionization. Moreover, because WFIRST has a wide field (slitless) spectroscopic capability, it can be used to search for Lyman alpha emitting galaxies over the full history of reionization. By comparing the Lyman alpha galaxy statistics to those of continuum sources, we can directly probe the transparency of the intergalactic gas and chart reionization history.Our team is planning for both Guest Investigator and Guest Observer applications of WFIRST to studying Cosmic Dawn, and welcomes dialog with other interested members of the community.

  6. Cosmic Radiation Detection and Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez Chavez, Juan; Troncoso, Maria

    Cosmic rays consist of high-energy particles accelerated from remote supernova remnant explosions and travel vast distances throughout the universe. Upon arriving at earth, the majority of these particles ionize gases in the upper atmosphere, while others interact with gas molecules in the troposphere and producing secondary cosmic rays, which are the main focus of this research. To observe these secondary cosmic rays, a detector telescope was designed and equipped with two silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). Each SiPM is coupled to a bundle of 4 wavelength shifting optical fibers that are embedded inside a plastic scintillator sheet. The SiPM signals were amplified using a fast preamplifier with coincidence between detectors established using a binary logic gate. The coincidence events were recorded with two devices; a digital counter and an Arduino micro-controller. For detailed analysis of the SiPM waveforms, a DRS4 sensory digitizer captured the waveforms for offline analysis with the CERN software package Physics Analysis Workstation in a Linux environment. Results from our experiments would be presented. Hartnell College STEM Internship Program.

  7. Cosmic Rays Near Proxima Centauri B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struminsky Alexei; Sadovski Andrei; Belov Anatoly

    2017-10-01

    Cosmic rays are an important factor of space weather determining radiation conditions near the Earth and it seems to be essential to clarify radiation conditions near extrasolar planets too. Last year a terrestrial planet candidate was discovered in an orbit around Proxima Centauri. Here we present our estimates on parameters of stellar wind from the Parker model, possible fluxes and fluencies of galactic and stellar cosmic rays based on the available data of the Proxima Centauri activity and its magnetic field. We found that galactic cosmic rays will be practically absent near Proxima b up to energies of 1 TeV due to the modulation by the stellar wind. Stellar cosmic rays may be accelerated in Proxima Centauri events, which are able to permanently maintain density of stellar cosmic rays in the astrosphere comparable to low energy cosmic ray density in the heliosphere. Maximal proton intensities in extreme Proxima events should be by 3-4 orders more than in solar events.

  8. Cosmic ray physics goes to school

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    With the help of a CERN physicist, German Schools bring the Largest Cosmic Ray Detector in Europe one step closer to reality   Eric Berthier and Robert Porret (CERN, ST/HM), Frej Torp and Christian Antfolk from the Polytechnics Arcada in Finland, and Karsten Eggert, physicist at CERN who initiated this project, during the installation of cosmic ray detectors in the Pays de Gex, at point 4. Niina Patrikainen and Frej Torp, Finnish students from Rovaniemi and Arcada Polytechnics, installing cosmic ray counters at the Fachhochschule in Duesseldorf. The science of cosmic ray detection is growing, literally. Cosmic rays, energetic particles from space, strike our planet all the time. They collide with the air molecules in our upper atmosphere and initiate large showers of elementary particles (mainly electrons, photons, hadrons and muons) which rain down upon the earth. The shower size and the particle density in the showers reflect the initial energy of the cosmic ray particle, a detail which makes d...

  9. Ground detectors for the study of cosmic ray showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, H [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, BUAP, Puebla, Pue., 72000 (Mexico); Villasenor, L [Instituto de Fisica y Matematicas, UMSNH, Morelia, Michoacan, 58040 (Mexico)], E-mail: villasen@ifm.umich.mx

    2008-06-01

    We describe the work that we have done over the last decade to design and construct instruments to measure properties of cosmic rays in Mexico. We describe the detection of decaying and crossing muons in a water Cherenkov detector and discuss an application of these results to calibrate water Cherenkov detectors. We also describe a technique to separate isolated isolated muons and electrons in water Cherenkov detector. Next we describe the design and performance of a hybrid extensive air shower detector array built on the Campus of the University of Puebla (19 deg. N, 90 deg. W, 800 g/cm{sup 2}) to measure the energy, arrival direction and composition of primary cosmic rays with energies around 1 PeV.

  10. Insights into the Galactic Cosmic-ray Source from the TIGER Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Jason T.; Barbier, L. M.; Binns, W. R.; Christian, E. R.; Cummings, J. R.; Geier, S.; Israel, M. H.; Lodders, K.; Mewaldt,R. A.; Mitchell, J. W.; hide

    2009-01-01

    We report results from 50 days of data accumulated in two Antarctic flights of the Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder (TIGER). With a detector system composed of scintillators, Cherenkov detectors, and scintillating optical fibers, TIGER has a geometrical acceptance of 1.7 sq m sr and a charge resolution of 0.23 cu at Iron. TIGER has obtained abundance measurements of some of the rare galactic cosmic rays heavier than iron, including Zn, Ga, Ge, Se, and Sr, as well as the more abundant lighter elements (down to Si). The heavy elements have long been recognized as important probes of the nature of the galactic cosmic-ray source and accelerator. After accounting for fragmentation of cosmic-ray nuclei as they propagate through the Galaxy and the atmosphere above the detector system, the TIGER source abundances are consistent with a source that is a mixture of about 20% ejecta from massive stars and 80% interstellar medium with solar system composition. This result supports a model of cosmic-ray origin in OB associations previously inferred from ACE-CRIS data of more abundant lighter elements. These TIGER data also support a cosmic-ray acceleration model in which elements present in interstellar grains are accelerated preferentially compared with those found in interstellar gas.

  11. Numerical simulations unravel the cosmic web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Lidz, Adam; Hernquist, Lars

    2008-01-04

    The universe is permeated by a network of filaments, sheets, and knots collectively forming a "cosmic web." The discovery of the cosmic web, especially through its signature of absorption of light from distant sources by neutral hydrogen in the intervening intergalactic medium, exemplifies the interplay between theory and experiment that drives science and is one of the great examples in which numerical simulations have played a key and decisive role. We recount the milestones in our understanding of cosmic structure; summarize its impact on astronomy, cosmology, and physics; and look ahead by outlining the challenges faced as we prepare to probe the cosmic web at new wavelengths.

  12. Deuterium and He-3 in cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, S. A.

    1989-01-01

    Observation of a large flux of antiprotons in cosmic rays prompted many to postulate new ideas relating to the origin and propagation of cosmic rays in the Galaxy, within the framework of the secondary hypothesis. Under this hypothesis, cosmic rays traverse a large amount of matter either in the source region or in the interstellar space. As a result, large amounts of deuterium and He-3 are also produced as a consequence of spallation of helium and heavier nuclei. In this paper, the spectra of these isotopes are derived, using various models for the propagation of cosmic rays and compare with the existing observations.

  13. High Energy Cosmic Electrons: Messengers from Nearby Cosmic Ray Sources or Dark Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseev, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the recent discoveries by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) and the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on board the Fermi Gamma-Ray Telescope in reference to high energy cosmic electrons, and whether their source is cosmic rays or dark matter. Specific interest is devoted to Cosmic Ray electrons anisotropy,

  14. Heavy flavour in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Pillot, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Open heavy flavours and heavy quarkonium states are expected to provide essential informa- tion on the properties of the strongly interacting system fo rmed in the early stages of heavy-ion collisions at very high energy density. Such probes are espe cially promising at LHC energies where heavy quarks (both c and b) are copiously produced. The ALICE detector shall measure the production of open heavy flavours and heavy quarkonium st ates in both proton-proton and heavy-ion collisions at the LHC. The expected performances of ALICE for heavy flavour physics is discussed based on the results of simulation studies on a s election of benchmark channels

  15. About cosmic gamma ray lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Roland

    2017-06-01

    Gamma ray lines from cosmic sources convey the action of nuclear reactions in cosmic sites and their impacts on astrophysical objects. Gamma rays at characteristic energies result from nuclear transitions following radioactive decays or high-energy collisions with excitation of nuclei. The gamma-ray line from the annihilation of positrons at 511 keV falls into the same energy window, although of different origin. We present here the concepts of cosmic gamma ray spectrometry and the corresponding instruments and missions, followed by a discussion of recent results and the challenges and open issues for the future. Among the lessons learned are the diffuse radioactive afterglow of massive-star nucleosynthesis in 26Al and 60Fe gamma rays, which is now being exploited towards the cycle of matter driven by massive stars and their supernovae; large interstellar cavities and superbubbles have been recognised to be of key importance here. Also, constraints on the complex processes making stars explode as either thermonuclear or core-collapse supernovae are being illuminated by gamma-ray lines, in this case from shortlived radioactivities from 56Ni and 44Ti decays. In particular, the three-dimensionality and asphericities that have recently been recognised as important are enlightened in different ways through such gamma-ray line spectroscopy. Finally, the distribution of positron annihilation gamma ray emission with its puzzling bulge-dominated intensity disctribution is measured through spatially-resolved spectra, which indicate that annihilation conditions may differ in different parts of our Galaxy. But it is now understood that a variety of sources may feed positrons into the interstellar medium, and their characteristics largely get lost during slowing down and propagation of positrons before annihilation; a recent microquasar flare was caught as an opportunity to see positrons annihilate at a source.

  16. International Conference on Cosmic Rays

    CERN Multimedia

    W.O. LOCK

    1964-01-01

    Towards the end of last year the 8th International conference on cosmic rays, held under the auspices of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (I.U.P.A.P.) and the Department of Atomic Energy of the Government of India, was held at Jaipur, India. Among the participants was W.O. Lock, head of CERN's Emulsion Group, who gave an invited talk on recent work in the field of what is normally known as high-energy physics — though in the context of this conference such energies seem quite low. In this article, Dr. Lock gives a general review of the conference and of the subjects discussed.

  17. Cosmic polarimetry in magnetoactive plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    Polarimetry of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) represents one of the possible diagnostics aimed at testing large-scale magnetism at the epoch of the photon decoupling. The propagation of electromagnetic disturbances in a magnetized plasma leads naturally to a B-mode polarization whose angular power spectrum is hereby computed both analytically and numerically. Combined analyses of all the publicly available data on the B-mode polarization are presented, for the first time, in the light of the magnetized $\\Lambda$CDM scenario. Novel constraints on pre-equality magnetism are also derived in view of the current and expected sensitivities to the B-mode polarization.

  18. Gravitational entropy of cosmic expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Sussman, Roberto A

    2014-01-01

    We apply a recent proposal to define "gravitational entropy" to the expansion of cosmic voids within the framework of non-perturbative General Relativity. By considering CDM void configurations compatible with basic observational constraints, we show that this entropy grows from post-inflationary conditions towards a final asymptotic value in a late time fully non-linear regime described by the Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) dust models. A qualitatively analogous behavior occurs if we assume a positive cosmological constant consistent with a $\\Lambda$-CDM background model. However, the $\\Lambda$ term introduces a significant suppression of entropy growth with the terminal equilibrium value reached at a much faster rate.

  19. Falsifying Paradigms for Cosmic Acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huterer, Dragan [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, 450 Church St, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Consistency relations between growth of structure and expansion history observables exist for any physical explanation of cosmic acceleration. We perform MCMC likelihood exploration of these relations, using future SNAP supernova and Planck CMB data to derive the expected variation in the growth and distance functions and the Hubble parameter under different classes of models for dark energy - a cosmological constant, scalar field quintessence, or a general smooth component, allowing at the same time for nonzero curvature and early dark energy. For each class we identify tight redshift-dependent predictions.

  20. The Spine of the Cosmic Web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aragón-Calvo, Miguel A.; Platen, Erwin; van de Weygaert, Rien; Szalay, Alexander S.

    2010-01-01

    We present the SpineWeb framework for the topological analysis of the Cosmic Web and the identification of its walls, filaments, and cluster nodes. Based on the watershed segmentation of the cosmic density field, the SpineWeb method invokes the local adjacency properties of the boundaries between

  1. Precision measurements of cosmic ray air showers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huege, T.; Bray, J. D.; Buitink, S.; Dallier, R.; Ekers, R. D.; Falcke, H.; James, C. W.; Martin, L.; Revenu, B.; Scholten, O.; Schröder, F. G.

    2014-01-01

    Supplemented with suitable buffering techniques, the low-frequency part of the SKA can be used as an ultra-precise detector for cosmic-ray air showers at very high energies. This would enable a wealth of scientific applications: the physics of the transition from Galactic to extragalactic cosmic

  2. NEXUS: tracing the cosmic web connection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cautun, Marius; van de Weygaert, Rien; Jones, Bernard J. T.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the NEXUS algorithm for the identification of cosmic web environments: clusters, filaments, walls and voids. This is a multiscale and automatic morphological analysis tool that identifies all the cosmic structures in a scale free way, without preference for a certain size or shape. We

  3. DNDO Report: Predicting Solar Modulation Potentials for Modeling Cosmic Background Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behne, Patrick Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-08

    The modeling of the detectability of special nuclear material (SNM) at ports and border crossings requires accurate knowledge of the background radiation at those locations. Background radiation originates from two main sources, cosmic and terrestrial. Cosmic background is produced by high-energy galactic cosmic rays (GCR) entering the atmosphere and inducing a cascade of particles that eventually impact the earth’s surface. The solar modulation potential represents one of the primary inputs to modeling cosmic background radiation. Usosokin et al. formally define solar modulation potential as “the mean energy loss [per unit charge] of a cosmic ray particle inside the heliosphere…” Modulation potential, a function of elevation, location, and time, shares an inverse relationship with cosmic background radiation. As a result, radiation detector thresholds require adjustment to account for differing background levels, caused partly by differing solar modulations. Failure to do so can result in higher rates of false positives and failed detection of SNM for low and high levels of solar modulation potential, respectively. This study focuses on solar modulation’s time dependence, and seeks the best method to predict modulation for future dates using Python. To address the task of predicting future solar modulation, we utilize both non-linear least squares sinusoidal curve fitting and cubic spline interpolation. This material will be published in transactions of the ANS winter meeting of November, 2016.

  4. Cosmic perspectives in space physics

    CERN Document Server

    Biswas, Sukumar

    2000-01-01

    In the early years of the twentieth century, Victor Hess of Germany flew instruments in balloons and so discovered in 1912 that an extra-~errestial radiation of unknown origin is incident on the earth with an almost constant intensity at all times. These penetrating non­ solar radiations which were called Cosmic Rays by Millikan, USA, opened the new frontier of space physics and many leading scientists were attracted to it. At the end of World War II a number of space vehicles, e.g. stratospheric balloons, rockets and satellites were developed. In 1950 and onwards, these vehicles enabled spectacular advances in space physics and space astrophysics. New horizons were opened in the explorations of cosmic rays, the earth's magnetosphere, the Sun and the heliosphere, the moon and the planets. Using space-borne instruments, exciting discoveries were made of stars, and galaxies in the infra-red, ultra violet, x-ray and gamma-ray wavelengths. In this text book these fascinating new findings are presented in depth a...

  5. Solar Modulation of Cosmic Rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius S. Potgieter

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This is an overview of the solar modulation of cosmic rays in the heliosphere. It is a broad topic with numerous intriguing aspects so that a research framework has to be chosen to concentrate on. The review focuses on the basic paradigms and departure points without presenting advanced theoretical or observational details for which there exists a large number of comprehensive reviews. Instead, emphasis is placed on numerical modeling which has played an increasingly significant role as computational resources have become more abundant. A main theme is the progress that has been made over the years. The emphasis is on the global features of CR modulation and on the causes of the observed 11-year and 22-year cycles and charge-sign dependent modulation. Illustrative examples of some of the theoretical and observational milestones are presented, without attempting to review all details or every contribution made in this field of research. Controversial aspects are discussed where appropriate, with accompanying challenges and future prospects. The year 2012 was the centennial celebration of the discovery of cosmic rays so that several general reviews were dedicated to historical aspects so that such developments are briefly presented only in a few cases.

  6. The Cosmic V-Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomarède, Daniel; Hoffman, Yehuda; Courtois, Hélène M.; Tully, R. Brent

    2017-08-01

    The network of filaments with embedded clusters surrounding voids, which has been seen in maps derived from redshift surveys and reproduced in simulations, has been referred to as the cosmic web. A complementary description is provided by considering the shear in the velocity field of galaxies. The eigenvalues of the shear provide information regarding whether or not a region is collapsing in three dimensions, which is the condition for a knot, expanding in three dimensions, which is the condition for a void, or in the intermediate condition of a filament or sheet. The structures that are quantitatively defined by the eigenvalues can be approximated by iso-contours that provide a visual representation of the cosmic velocity (V) web. The current application is based on radial peculiar velocities from the Cosmicflows-2 collection of distances. The three-dimensional velocity field is constructed using the Wiener filter methodology in the linear approximation. Eigenvalues of the velocity shear are calculated at each point on a grid. Here, knots and filaments are visualized across a local domain of diameter ˜ 0.1c.

  7. Cosmic radioactivity and INTEGRAL results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, Roland [Max Planck Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, D-85748 Garching, Germany and Excellence Cluster Origin and Evolution of the Universe' , D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2014-05-02

    Gamma-ray lines from radioactive decay of unstable isotopes co-produced by nucleosynthesis in massive stars and supernova have been measured since more than thirty years. Over the past ten years, INTEGRAL complemented the first sky survey made by COMPTEL. The {sup 26}A1 isotope with 1 My decay time had been first direct proof of currently-ongoing nucleosynthesis in our Galaxy. This has now become a tool to study the ∼My history of specific source regions, such as massive-star groups and associations in nearby regions which can be discriminated from the galactic-plane background, and the inner Galaxy, where Doppler shifted lines add to the astronomical information about bar and spiral structure. Recent findings suggest that superbubbles show a remarkable asymmetry, on average, in the spiral arms of our galaxy. {sup 60}Fe is co-produced by the sources of {sup 26}A1, and the isotopic ratio from their nucleosynthesis encodes stellar-structure information. Annihilation gamma-rays from positrons in interstellar space show a puzzling bright and extended source region central to our Galaxy, but also may be partly related to nucleosynthesis. {sup 56}Ni and {sup 44}Ti isotope gamma-rays have been used to constrain supernova explosion mechanisms. Here we report latest results using the accumulated multi-year database of INTEGRAL observations, and discuss their astrophysical interpretations, connecting to other traces of cosmic radioactivity and to other cosmic messengers.

  8. Primordial anisotropies from cosmic strings during inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazayeri, Sadra; Sadr, Alireza Vafaei; Firouzjahi, Hassan

    2017-07-01

    In this work, we study the imprint of an individual primordial cosmic string within a Hubble patch on the inflationary power spectrum. A straight cosmic string induces two distinct contributions to the curvature perturbations power spectrum. The first type of correction respects the translation invariance while violating isotropy. This generates quadrupolar statistical anisotropy in cosmic microwave background maps, which is constrained by the Planck data. The second contribution breaks both homogeneity and isotropy, generating a dipolar power asymmetry in the variance of temperature fluctuations with its amplitude falling on small scales. We show that the strongest constraint on the tension of primordial cosmic strings is obtained from the quadrupolar anisotropy and argue that the mass scale of the underlying theory responsible for the formation of the string cannot be much higher than the grand unified theory scale. The predictions for the diagonal and off-diagonal components of the cosmic microwave background angular power spectrum induced by the string are presented.

  9. Spectrum and charge ratio of vertical cosmic ray muons up to momenta of 2.5 TeV/c

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelling, M.; Hashim, N. O.; Grupen, C.; Luitz, S.; Maciuc, F.; Mailov, A.; Müller, A.-S.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmeling, S.; Tcaciuc, R.; Wachsmuth, H.; Ziegler, T.; Zuber, K.

    2013-09-01

    The ALEPH detector at LEP has been used to measure the momentum spectrum and charge ratio of vertical cosmic ray muons underground. The sea-level cosmic ray muon spectrum for momenta up to 2.5 TeV/c has been obtained by correcting for the overburden of 320 m water equivalent (mwe). The results are compared with Monte Carlo models for air shower development in the atmosphere. From the analysis of the spectrum the total flux and the spectral index of the cosmic ray primaries is inferred. The charge ratio suggests a dominantly light composition of cosmic ray primaries with energies in the energy range between 103 and 105 GeV.

  10. Minimal model for extragalactic cosmic rays and neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachelrieß, M.; Kalashev, O.; Ostapchenko, S.; Semikoz, D. V.

    2017-10-01

    We aim to explain in a unified way the experimental data on ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) and neutrinos, using a single source class and obeying limits on the extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray background. If UHECRs only interact hadronically with gas around their sources, the resulting diffuse cosmic-ray (CR) flux can be matched well to the observed one, providing at the same time large neutrino fluxes. Since the required fraction of heavy nuclei is, however, rather large, the maxima of air showers in the Earth's atmosphere induced by UHECRs with energies E ≳3 ×1018 eV would be too high. Therefore, additional photohadronic interactions of UHECRs close to the accelerator have to be present, in order to modify the nuclear composition of CRs in a relatively narrow energy interval. We thus include both photon and gas backgrounds and combine the resulting CR spectra with the high-energy part of the Galactic CR fluxes predicted by the escape model. As result, we find a good description of experimental data on the total CR flux, the mean shower maximum depth Xmax and its width r m s (Xmax) in the whole energy range above E ≃1017 eV . The predicted high-energy neutrino flux matches IceCube measurements, while the contribution to the extragalactic diffuse gamma ray background is of order 30%.

  11. PROTECTION FROM COSMIC RADIATION IN LONG-TERM MANNED SPACEFLIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Durante

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Current space programs are shifting toward planetary exploration, and in particular towards human missions to the moon and Mars. Space radiation, comprised of energetic protons and heavy nuclei, has been shown to produce distinct biological damage compared to radiation on Earth, leading to large uncertainties in the projection of health risks. Even if uncertainties in risk assessment will be reduced in the next few years, there is little doubt that appropriate countermeasures have to be taken to reduce the exposure or the biological damage produced by cosmic radiation. In addition, it is necessary to provide effective countermeasures against solar particle events, which can produce acute effects, even life threatening, for inadequately protected crews. Unfortunately, passive (bulk shielding is currently unable to provide adequate protection, because cosmic rays have very high energy and nuclear fragmentation in the absorbers produce light fragments. Material science could provide new materials with better shielding properties for space radiation. Active (magnetic shielding could be an interesting alternative, pending technical improvements.

  12. A Quark Matter Contribution to the Cosmic Ray Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawson Kyle

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available I will describe a possible dark matter model in which the dark matter is composed of heavy “nuggets” of standard model quarks and antiquarks bound in a high density phase of QCD. If objects of this type are formed early in the universe's history they may provide the observed dark matter content. In this scenario the nuggets are dark not because of their fundamentally weak interactions but because of the incredibly small number density required to explain the observed mass density of the dark matter. The correspondingly small flux of these objects through the earth renders them invisible to conventional high sensitivity dark matter searches intended to detect weakly interacting particles with a flux many orders of magnitude larger. Instead the greatest search potential for dark matter models of this form may come from the largest scale cosmic ray detectors. I will briefly describe the properties of quark nugget dark matter and then use these properties in order to predict the signal they would produce in a variety of cosmic ray detectors.

  13. End of the cosmic neutrino energy spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Anchordoqui

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There may be a high-energy cutoff of neutrino events in IceCube data. In particular, IceCube does not observe either continuum events above 2 PeV, or the Standard Model Glashow-resonance events expected at 6.3 PeV. There are also no higher energy neutrino signatures in the ANITA and Auger experiments. This absence of high-energy neutrino events motivates a fundamental restriction on neutrino energies above a few PeV. We postulate a simple scenario to terminate the neutrino spectrum that is Lorentz-invariance violating, but with a limiting neutrino velocity that is always smaller than the speed of light. If the limiting velocity of the neutrino applies also to its associated charged lepton, then a significant consequence is that the two-body decay modes of the charged pion are forbidden above two times the maximum neutrino energy, while the radiative decay modes are suppressed at higher energies. Such stabilized pions may serve as cosmic ray primaries.

  14. Cosmic-Ray Modulation Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraal, H.

    2013-06-01

    The temporal variation of the cosmic-ray intensity in the heliosphere is called cosmic-ray modulation. The main periodicity is the response to the 11-year solar activity cycle. Other variations include a 27-day solar rotation variation, a diurnal variation, and irregular variations such as Forbush decreases. General awareness of the importance of this cosmic-ray modulation has greatly increased in the last two decades, mainly in communities studying cosmogenic nuclides, upper atmospheric physics and climate, helio-climatology, and space weather, where corrections need to be made for these modulation effects. Parameterized descriptions of the modulation are even used in archeology and in planning the flight paths of commercial passenger jets. The qualitative, physical part of the modulation is generally well-understood in these communities. The mathematical formalism that is most often used to quantify it is the so-called Force-Field approach, but the origins of this approach are somewhat obscure and it is not always used correct. This is mainly because the theory was developed over more than 40 years, and all its aspects are not collated in a single document. This paper contains a formal mathematical description intended for these wider communities. It consists of four parts: (1) a description of the relations between four indicators of "energy", namely energy, speed, momentum and rigidity, (2) the various ways of how to count particles, (3) the description of particle motion with transport equations, and (4) the solution of such equations, and what these solutions mean. Part (4) was previously described in Caballero-Lopez and Moraal (J. Geophys. Res, 109: A05105, doi: 10.1029/2003JA010358, 2004). Therefore, the details are not all repeated here. The style of this paper is not to be rigorous. It rather tries to capture the relevant tools to do modulation studies, to show how seemingly unrelated results are, in fact, related to one another, and to point out the

  15. Space Weather Observations by GNSS Radio Occultation: From FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC to FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xinan; Schreiner, William S; Pedatella, Nicholas; Anthes, Richard A; Mannucci, Anthony J; Straus, Paul R; Liu, Jann-Yenq

    2014-11-01

    The joint Taiwan-United States FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate) mission, hereafter called COSMIC, is the first satellite constellation dedicated to remotely sense Earth's atmosphere and ionosphere using a technique called Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (RO). The occultations yield abundant information about neutral atmospheric temperature and moisture as well as space weather estimates of slant total electron content, electron density profiles, and an amplitude scintillation index, S4. With the success of COSMIC, the United States and Taiwan are moving forward with a follow-on RO mission named FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2 (COSMIC-2), which will ultimately place 12 satellites in orbit with two launches in 2016 and 2019. COSMIC-2 satellites will carry an advanced Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) RO receiver that will track both GPS and Russian Global Navigation Satellite System signals, with capability for eventually tracking other GNSS signals from the Chinese BeiDou and European Galileo system, as well as secondary space weather payloads to measure low-latitude plasma drifts and scintillation at multiple frequencies. COSMIC-2 will provide 4-6 times (10-15X in the low latitudes) the number of atmospheric and ionospheric observations that were tracked with COSMIC and will also improve the quality of the observations. In this article we focus on COSMIC/COSMIC-2 measurements of key ionospheric parameters.

  16. Space Weather Observations by GNSS Radio Occultation: From FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC to FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xinan; Schreiner, William S.; Pedatella, Nicholas; Anthes, Richard A.; Mannucci, Anthony J.; Straus, Paul R.; Liu, Jann-Yenq

    2014-11-01

    The joint Taiwan-United States FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate) mission, hereafter called COSMIC, is the first satellite constellation dedicated to remotely sense Earth's atmosphere and ionosphere using a technique called Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (RO). The occultations yield abundant information about neutral atmospheric temperature and moisture as well as space weather estimates of slant total electron content, electron density profiles, and an amplitude scintillation index, S4. With the success of COSMIC, the United States and Taiwan are moving forward with a follow-on RO mission named FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2 (COSMIC-2), which will ultimately place 12 satellites in orbit with two launches in 2016 and 2019. COSMIC-2 satellites will carry an advanced Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) RO receiver that will track both GPS and Russian Global Navigation Satellite System signals, with capability for eventually tracking other GNSS signals from the Chinese BeiDou and European Galileo system, as well as secondary space weather payloads to measure low-latitude plasma drifts and scintillation at multiple frequencies. COSMIC-2 will provide 4-6 times (10-15X in the low latitudes) the number of atmospheric and ionospheric observations that were tracked with COSMIC and will also improve the quality of the observations. In this article we focus on COSMIC/COSMIC-2 measurements of key ionospheric parameters.

  17. Performance of the CMS Cathode Strip Chambers with Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, S; Sirunyan, A M; Adam, W; Arnold, B; Bergauer, H; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Eichberger, M; Erö, J; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hammer, J; Hänsel, S; Hoch, M; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kasieczka, G; Kastner, K; Krammer, M; Liko, D; Magrans de Abril, I; Mikulec, I; Mittermayr, F; Neuherz, B; Oberegger, M; Padrta, M; Pernicka, M; Rohringer, H; Schmid, S; Schöfbeck, R; Schreiner, T; Stark, R; Steininger, H; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Teischinger, F; Themel, T; Uhl, D; Wagner, P; Waltenberger, W; Walzel, G; Widl, E; Wulz, C E; Chekhovsky, V; Dvornikov, O; Emeliantchik, I; Litomin, A; Makarenko, V; Marfin, I; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Solin, A; Stefanovitch, R; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Tikhonov, A; Fedorov, A; Karneyeu, A; Korzhik, M; Panov, V; Zuyeuski, R; Kuchinsky, P; Beaumont, W; Benucci, L; Cardaci, M; De Wolf, E A; Delmeire, E; Druzhkin, D; Hashemi, M; Janssen, X; Maes, T; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Rougny, R; Selvaggi, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Adler, V; Beauceron, S; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; De Weirdt, S; Devroede, O; Heyninck, J; Kalogeropoulos, A; Maes, J; Maes, M; Mozer, M U; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Villella, I; Bouhali, O; Chabert, E C; Charaf, O; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dero, V; Elgammal, S; Gay, A P R; Hammad, G H; Marage, P E; Rugovac, S; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wickens, J; Grunewald, M; Klein, B; Marinov, A; Ryckbosch, D; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Vanelderen, L; Verwilligen, P; Basegmez, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, J; Delaere, C; Demin, P; Favart, D; Giammanco, A; Grégoire, G; Lemaitre, V; Militaru, O; Ovyn, S; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Schul, N; Beliy, N; Daubie, E; Alves, G A; Pol, M E; Souza, M H G; Carvalho, W; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Mundim, L; Oguri, V; Santoro, A; Silva Do Amaral, S M; Sznajder, A; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Ferreira Dias, M A; Gregores, E M; Novaes, S F; Abadjiev, K; Anguelov, T; Damgov, J; Darmenov, N; 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    2010-01-01

    The Cathode Strip Chambers (CSCs) constitute the primary muon tracking device in the CMS endcaps. Their performance has been evaluated using data taken during a cosmic ray run in fall 2008. Measured noise levels are low, with the number of noisy channels well below 1%. Coordinate resolution was measured for all types of chambers, and fall in the range 47 microns to 243 microns. The efficiencies for local charged track triggers, for hit and for segments reconstruction were measured, and are above 99%. The timing resolution per layer is approximately 5 ns.

  18. Instrumentation for the measurement of cosmic-ray anisotropy /Arkan/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashitkov, V. D.; Klimakov, A. P.; Kokoulin, R. P.; Petrukhin, A. A.; Shestakov, V. V.

    1981-07-01

    An ionization-calorimeter and hodoscope for the investigation of the anisotropy of cosmic-ray muons is described. The aperture of the setup makes it possible to search for the local anisotropy of primary charged particles with energies exceeding 10 to the 11th eV in the deflection band from -30 to +50 deg. The hodoscope makes it possible to study the time-correlated arrival of particles in the millisecond range. The autonomous operation of the hodoscopic detectors assures a statistical accuracy for the measurement of muon flux density of 1.5% for one hour of registration.

  19. Method for registration of solar cosmic rays by detecting neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, A. V.; Mordovskoy, M. V., E-mail: mvmordovsk@mail.ru; Skorkin, V. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    We consider a method of detecting the ionizing component of solar cosmic rays (SCRs) with energy from tens of MeV to tens of GeV by measuring the energy loss of SCR protons and light nuclei in scintillators and the multiplicity of the local neutron generation in a converter. Scintillation detectors based on stilbene, lithium glass, and solid-state photomultiplier tubes are capable of detecting fast neutrons with a temporal resolution of 10 ns and rejecting the gamma-ray background in the measuring system. The method will allow investigating the nucleon components of primary SCRs in circumterrestrial space.

  20. Cosmic Ray Production in Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, A. M.; Ellison, D. C.; Marcowith, A.; Osipov, S. M.

    2018-02-01

    We give a brief review of the origin and acceleration of cosmic rays (CRs), emphasizing the production of CRs at different stages of supernova evolution by the first-order Fermi shock acceleration mechanism. We suggest that supernovae with trans-relativistic outflows, despite being rather rare, may accelerate CRs to energies above 10^{18} eV over the first year of their evolution. Supernovae in young compact clusters of massive stars, and interaction powered superluminous supernovae, may accelerate CRs well above the PeV regime. We discuss the acceleration of the bulk of the galactic CRs in isolated supernova remnants and re-acceleration of escaped CRs by the multiple shocks present in superbubbles produced by associations of OB stars. The effects of magnetic field amplification by CR driven instabilities, as well as superdiffusive CR transport, are discussed for nonthermal radiation produced by nonlinear shocks of all speeds including trans-relativistic ones.

  1. Cosmic backreaction and Gauss's law

    CERN Document Server

    Fleury, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Cosmic backreaction refers to the general question of whether a homogeneous and isotropic cosmological model is able to predict the correct expansion dynamics of our inhomogeneous Universe. One aspect of this issue concerns the validity of the continuous approximation: does a system of point masses expand the same way as a fluid does? This article shows that it is not exactly the case in Newtonian gravity, although the associated corrections vanish in an infinite Universe. It turns out that Gauss's law is a key ingredient for such corrections to vanish. Backreaction therefore generically arises in alternative theories of gravitation, which threatens the trustworthiness of their cosmological tests. This phenomenon is illustrated with a toy-model of massive gravity.

  2. SLAC Cosmic Ray Telescope Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Va' vra, J.

    2010-02-15

    SLAC does not have a test beam for the HEP detector development at present. We have therefore created a cosmic ray telescope (CRT) facility, which is presently being used to test the FDIRC prototype. We have used it in the past to debug this prototype with the original SLAC electronics before going to the ESA test beam. Presently, it is used to test a new waveform digitizing electronics developed by the University of Hawaii, and we are also planning to incorporate the new Orsay TDC/ADC electronics. As a next step, we plan to put in a full size DIRC bar box with a new focusing optics, and test it together with a final SuberB electronics. The CRT is located in building 121 at SLAC. We anticipate more users to join in the future. This purpose of this note is to provide an introductory manual for newcomers.

  3. Statistical Physics for Cosmic Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Gabrielli, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    The physics of scale-invariant and complex systems is a novel interdisciplinary field. Its ideas allow us to look at natural phenomena in a radically new and original way, eventually leading to unifying concepts independent of the detailed structure of the systems. The objective is the study of complex, scale-invariant, and more general stochastic structures that appear both in space and time in a vast variety of natural phenomena, which exhibit new types of collective behaviors, and the fostering of their understanding. This book has been conceived as a methodological monograph in which the main methods of modern statistical physics for cosmological structures and density fields (galaxies, Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation, etc.) are presented in detail. The main purpose is to present clearly, to a workable level, these methods, with a certain mathematical accuracy, providing also some paradigmatic examples of applications. This should result in a new and more general framework for the statistical analys...

  4. Cosmic backreaction and Gauss's law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Pierre

    2017-06-01

    Cosmic backreaction refers to the general question of whether a homogeneous and isotropic cosmological model is able to predict the correct expansion dynamics of our inhomogeneous Universe. One aspect of this issue concerns the validity of the continuous approximation: does a system of point masses expand the same way as a fluid does? This article shows that it is not exactly the case in Newtonian gravity, although the associated corrections vanish in an infinite Universe. It turns out that Gauss's law is a key ingredient for such corrections to vanish. Backreaction, therefore, generically arises in alternative theories of gravitation, which threatens the trustworthiness of their cosmological tests. This phenomenon is illustrated with a toy model of massive gravity.

  5. Cosmic ray transport in astrophysical plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlickeiser, R. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Lehrstuhl IV: Weltraum- & Astrophysik, Ruhr-Universität, Bochum (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    Since the development of satellite space technology about 50 years ago the solar heliosphere is explored almost routinely by several spacecrafts carrying detectors for measuring the properties of the interplanetary medium including energetic charged particles (cosmic rays), solar wind particle densities, and electromagnetic fields. In 2012, the Voyager 1 spacecraft has even left what could be described as the heliospheric modulation region, as indicated by the sudden disappearance of low energy heliospheric cosmic ray particles. With the available in-situ measurements of interplanetary turbulent electromagnetic fields and of the momentum spectra of different cosmic ray species in different interplanetary environments, the heliosphere is the best cosmic laboratory to test our understanding of the transport and acceleration of cosmic rays in space plasmas. I review both the historical development and the current state of various cosmic ray transport equations. Similarities and differences to transport theories for terrestrial fusion plasmas are highlighted. Any progress in cosmic ray transport requires a detailed understanding of the electromagnetic turbulence that is responsible for the scattering and acceleration of these particles.

  6. RELICS of the Cosmic Dawn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradac, Marusa; Coe, Dan; Huang, Kuang-Han; Salmon, Brett; Hoag, Austin; Bradley, Larry; Ryan, Russell; Dawson, Will; Zitrin, Adi; Jones, Christine; Sharon, Keren; Trentu, Michele; Stark, Daniel; Bouwens, Rychard; Oesch, Pascal; Lam, Daniel; Patricia Carasco Nunez, Daniela; Paterno-Mahler, Rachel; Strait, Victoria

    2017-10-01

    When did galaxies start forming stars? What is the role of distant galaxies in galaxy formation models and epoch of reionization? Recent observations indicate at least two critical puzzles in these studies. (1) First galaxies might have started forming stars earlier than previously thought (still unclear what is their star formation history and whether these galaxies can reionize the Universe. Accurate knowledge of stellar masses, ages, and star formation rates at this epoch requires measuring both rest-frame UV and optical light, which only Spitzer and HST can probe at z 6-11 for a large enough sample of typical galaxies. To address this cosmic puzzle, we propose Spitzer imaging of the fields behind the most powerful cosmic telescopes selected using HST, Spitzer, and Planck data from the RELICS and SRELICS programs (Reionization Lensing Cluster Survey; 41 clusters, 190 HST orbits, 550 Spitzer hours). This proposal will be a valuable Legacy complement to the existing IRAC deep surveys, and it will open up a new parameter space by probing the ordinary yet magnified population with much improved sample variance. The program will allow us to study stellar properties of a large number, 20 galaxies at z 6-11. Deep Spitzer data will be crucial to unambiguously measure their stellar properties (age, SFR, M*). Finally this proposal is a unique opportunity to establish the presence (or absence) of an unusually early established stellar population, as was recently observed in MACS1149JD at z 9. If confirmed, this result will require a paradigm shift in our understanding of the earliest star formation.

  7. Cosmic Convergence: Art and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Elizabeth A.; Zisholtz, E.; Hilton, H.

    2010-01-01

    The I.P. Stanback Museum and Planetarium is a major educational and teaching resource for South Carolina State University, K-12 schools, other universities and the community of Orangeburg and well beyond. The concept of creating a museum with a planetarium on the campus of SC State was ahead of its time. Today scholars are writing about the unity of creative disciplines. Through its integration of the arts, humanities and sciences, the Stanback, the only art museum with a planetarium at any of the Historically Black Colleges and Universities and one of the few in the nation, stands in the forefront of modern thinking. Cosmic Convergence: Art and Science, opening at the I.P. Stanback Museum and Planetarium in February 2010, will feature the works of Mildred Thompson (1936-2003), a prominent African American artist who worked in the media of painting, drawing, print making, sculpture, and photography. Thompson’s artwork shows the strong influences of her interest in physics, astronomy, and metaphysics as well as music and spiritualism. “My work in the visual arts is, and has always been, a continuous search for understanding. It is an expression of purpose and reflects a personal interpretation of the Universe.” Cosmic Convergence will explore the meeting of Art and Science through Mildred Thompson's work and the scientific basis of that work. The paintings and sculptures of the exhibit will be combined with astronomical images showing both the reality and interpretation of the surrounding Universe. Support for this work was provided by the NSF PAARE program to South Carolina State University under award AST-0750814.

  8. Fresh Insights on Cosmic-ray Propagation from the New AMS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassetti, Nicola; Feng, Jie; Oliva, Alberto

    2017-12-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) experiment has released new measurements of primary and secondary nuclei in cosmic rays at the TeV energy scale. Using these data, we present new results based on a global Bayesian analysis of our two halo model of CR transport.

  9. Cosmic Rays Variations and Human Physiological State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, S.

    2009-12-01

    It was obtained in our previous investigations that geomagnetic activity as an indirect indicator of solar activity correlates with some human physiological and psycho-physiological parameters. A lot of studies indicate that other parameters of space weather like cosmic rays Forbush decreases affect myocardial infarction, brain stroke, car accidents, etc. The purpose of that work was to study the effect of cosmic rays variations on human physiological status. It was established that the decrease in cosmic rays intensity was related to an increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and reported subjective psycho-physiological complaints in healthy volunteers.

  10. Cosmic Rays in the Galactic Center Region

    OpenAIRE

    Rhode, Wolfgang; Ensslin, Torsten A.; Biermann, Peter L.

    1998-01-01

    EGRET data on the Gamma ray emission from the inner Galaxy have shown a rather flat spectrum, extending to about 50 GeV. It is usually assumed that these gamma-rays arise from the interactions of cosmic ray nuclei with ambient matter. Cosmic Ray particles have been observed up to 3 10^20 eV, with many arguments suggesting, that up to about 3 10^18 eV they are of Galactic origin. Cosmic ray particles get injected by supernova explosions. Their injected spectrum is steepened by diffusive losses...

  11. Structure formation cosmic rays: Identifying observational constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Prodanović T.; Fields B.D.

    2005-01-01

    Shocks that arise from baryonic in-fall and merger events during the structure formation are believed to be a source of cosmic rays. These "structure formation cosmic rays" (SFCRs) would essentially be primordial in composition, namely, mostly made of protons and alpha particles. However, very little is known about this population of cosmic rays. One way to test the level of its presence is to look at the products of hadronic reactions between SFCRs and the ISM. A perfect probe of these react...

  12. High-energy cosmic-ray acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Bustamante, M; de Paula, W; Duarte Chavez, J A; Gago, A M; Hakobyan, H; Jez, P; Monroy Montañez, J A; Ortiz Velasquez, A; Padilla Cabal, F; Pino Rozas, M; Rodriguez Patarroyo, D J; Romeo, G L; Saldaña-Salazar , U J; Velasquez, M; von Steinkirch, M

    2010-01-01

    We briefly review the basics of ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray acceleration. The Hillas criterion is introduced as a geometrical criterion that must be fulfilled by potential acceleration sites, and energy losses are taken into account in order to obtain a more realistic scenario. The different available acceleration mechanisms are presented, with special emphasis on Fermi shock acceleration and its prediction of a power-law cosmic-ray energy spectrum. We conclude that first-order Fermi acceleration, though not entirely satisfactory, is the most promising mechanism for explaining the ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray flux.

  13. Particle Acceleration in Cosmic Sites - Astrophysics Issues in our Understanding of Cosmic Rays

    OpenAIRE

    Diehl, R. L.

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory experiments to explore plasma conditions and stimulated particle acceleration can illuminate aspects of the cosmic particle acceleration process. Here we discuss the cosmic-ray candidate source object variety, and what has been learned about their particle-acceleration characteristics. We identify open issues as discussed among astrophysicists. -- The cosmic ray differential intensity spectrum is a rather smooth power-law spectrum, with two kinks at the "knee" (~10^15 eV) and at th...

  14. Analytical Model for Estimating the Zenith Angle Dependence of Terrestrial Cosmic Ray Fluxes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuhiko Sato

    Full Text Available A new model called "PHITS-based Analytical Radiation Model in the Atmosphere (PARMA version 4.0" was developed to facilitate instantaneous estimation of not only omnidirectional but also angular differential energy spectra of cosmic ray fluxes anywhere in Earth's atmosphere at nearly any given time. It consists of its previous version, PARMA3.0, for calculating the omnidirectional fluxes and several mathematical functions proposed in this study for expressing their zenith-angle dependences. The numerical values of the parameters used in these functions were fitted to reproduce the results of the extensive air shower simulation performed by Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS. The angular distributions of ground-level muons at large zenith angles were specially determined by introducing an optional function developed on the basis of experimental data. The accuracy of PARMA4.0 was closely verified using multiple sets of experimental data obtained under various global conditions. This extension enlarges the model's applicability to more areas of research, including design of cosmic-ray detectors, muon radiography, soil moisture monitoring, and cosmic-ray shielding calculation. PARMA4.0 is available freely and is easy to use, as implemented in the open-access EXcel-based Program for Calculating Atmospheric Cosmic-ray Spectrum (EXPACS.

  15. A heavy load for heavy ions

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 25 September, the two large coils for the dipole magnet of ALICE, the LHC experiment dedicated to heavy ions, arrived at Point 2 on two heavy load trucks after a 1200 km journey from their assembly in Vannes, France.

  16. Comparing cosmic web classifiers using information theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Florent; Lavaux, Guilhem; Jasche, Jens; Wandelt, Benjamin

    2016-08-01

    We introduce a decision scheme for optimally choosing a classifier, which segments the cosmic web into different structure types (voids, sheets, filaments, and clusters). Our framework, based on information theory, accounts for the design aims of different classes of possible applications: (i) parameter inference, (ii) model selection, and (iii) prediction of new observations. As an illustration, we use cosmographic maps of web-types in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to assess the relative performance of the classifiers T-WEB, DIVA and ORIGAMI for: (i) analyzing the morphology of the cosmic web, (ii) discriminating dark energy models, and (iii) predicting galaxy colors. Our study substantiates a data-supported connection between cosmic web analysis and information theory, and paves the path towards principled design of analysis procedures for the next generation of galaxy surveys. We have made the cosmic web maps, galaxy catalog, and analysis scripts used in this work publicly available.

  17. Knotlike cosmic strings in the early universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yi-shi; Liu, Xin

    2004-02-01

    In this paper, the knotlike cosmic strings in the Riemann-Cartan space-time of the early universe are discussed. It has been revealed that the cosmic strings can just originate from the zero points of the complex scalar quintessence field. In these strings we mainly study the knotlike configurations. Based on the integral of Chern-Simons 3-form a topological invariant for knotlike cosmic strings is constructed, and it is shown that this invariant is just the total sum of all the self-linking and linking numbers of the knots family. Furthermore, it is also pointed out that this invariant is preserved in the branch processes during the evolution of cosmic strings.

  18. Physical effects of massless cosmic strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fursaev, D. V.

    2017-11-01

    We study massless cosmic strings, which are one-dimensional objects moving with the speed of light. Perturbations of velocities of test bodies and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background generated by massless cosmic strings are analyzed. These phenomena are analogous to the string wake effect and the Kaiser-Stebbins effect for standard (massive) cosmic strings. There are two regimes depending on the energy E of a massless string per unit length. At low energies, E G /c4≪1 , massless and massive strings act similarly. At high energies, E G /c4˜1 , massless string effects are quite different. Our work provides a method to describe different physical phenomena on spacetimes of massless strings which take into account the presence of a parabolic holonomy.

  19. Critical decisions on Cosmic Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    Eddington had two aims, both remarkable and very pertinent to front-line astronomical interests. The first was to look for Earth-like planets outside our solar system - one of the key goals in the search to understand how life came to be, how it is that we live where we do in the universe and whether there are other potential life-supporting environments 'out there'. At the same time it was going to follow the path that the ESA-NASA mission SOHO had taken with the Sun of using astroseismology to look 'inside' stars. In the longer term, the loss of this one mission will not stop ESA and the scientific community pursuing the grand quests to which it would have contributed. The loss of the BepiColombo lander is also hard to take scientifically. ESA, in conjunction with the Japanese space agency, JAXA, will still put two orbiters around Mercury but the ‘ground truth’ provided by the lander is a big loss. However, to land on a planet so near the Sun is no small matter and was a bridge too far in present circumstances, and this chance for Europe to be first has probably been lost. The origins of the problems were recognised at the ESA Council meeting held in June. Several sudden demands on finance occurred in the spring, the most obvious and public being the unforeseen Ariane 5 grounding in January, delaying the launches of Rosetta and Smart-1. A temporary loan of EUR 100 million was granted, but must be paid back out of present resources by the end of 2006. ESA's SPC was therefore caught in a vice. Immediate mission starts had to be severely limited and the overall envelope of the programme contained. With this week’s decisions, the SPC has brought the scope of the Cosmic Vision programme down to a level that necessarily reflects the financial conditions rather than the ambitions of the scientific community. A long and painful discussion during the SPC meeting resulted in the conclusion that only one new mission can be started at this time, namely LISA Pathfinder

  20. The Spine of the Cosmic Web

    OpenAIRE

    Aragón-Calvo, Miguel A.; Platen, Erwin; van de Weygaert, Rien; Szalay, Alexander S.

    2008-01-01

    We present the SpineWeb framework for the topological analysis of the Cosmic Web and the identification of its walls, filaments and cluster nodes. Based on the watershed segmentation of the cosmic density field, the SpineWeb method invokes the local adjacency properties of the boundaries between the watershed basins to trace the critical points in the density field and the separatrices defined by them. The separatrices are classified into walls and the spine, the network of filaments and node...

  1. Numerical Simulations Unravel the Cosmic Web

    OpenAIRE

    Faucher-Giguere, C. -A.; Lidz, A.; Hernquist, L.

    2008-01-01

    The universe is permeated by a network of filaments, sheets, and knots collectively forming a "cosmic web.'' The discovery of the cosmic web, especially through its signature of absorption of light from distant sources by neutral hydrogen in the intergalactic medium, exemplifies the interplay between theory and experiment that drives science, and is one of the great examples in which numerical simulations have played a key and decisive role. We recount the milestones in our understanding of c...

  2. The cosmic history of star formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, James S

    2011-07-08

    Major advances in observational astronomy over the past 20 years have revolutionized our view of cosmic history, transforming our understanding of how the hot, smooth, early universe evolved into the complex and beautiful universe of stars and galaxies in which we now live. I describe how astronomers have used a range of complementary techniques to map out the rise and fall of star formation over 95% of cosmic time, back to the current observational frontier only ~500 million years after the Big Bang.

  3. The New Physics of Cosmic Redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Hebel, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Light rays received on earth from distant stars show redshift, being attributed conventionally to the well-known Doppler-effect of wave dynamics. The present study concludes that cosmic redshift rather is an effect of the quantum mechanical propagation of photons as explained by Nobel Laureate Richard FEYNMAN in his book on QED {2}. This alternative physics of cosmic redshift is fundamentally different from the conventional velocity argument and can therefore do without the controversial big bang idea.

  4. Cosmic string catalysis of skyrmion decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Ruth; Davis, Anne-Christine; Brandenberger, Robert

    1988-01-01

    The Callan-Witten picture is developed for monopole catalyzed skyrmion decay in order to analyze the corresponding cosmic string scenario. It is discovered that cosmic strings (both ordinary and superconducting) can catalyze proton decay, but that this catalysis only occurs on the scale of the core of the string. In order to do this we have to develop a vortex model for the superconducting string. An argument is also given for the difference in the enhancement factors for monopoles and strings.

  5. International Workshop on Cosmic Structure and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    The workshop will focus on recent advances in the fields of the cosmic microwave background, anomalies, and topology, large scale structure, baryon acoustic oscillations, dark matter, the intergalactic medium, Hydrogen 21cm cosmology, and other topics. We will have invited talks, contributed talks, and discussion sessions. The proceedings of the workshop will be published by the Proceedings of Science. Conference website: http://www.physik.uni-bielefeld.de/igs/cosmology2009/cosmic-ws09.html

  6. MCNP6 Cosmic-Source Option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinney, Gregg W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Armstrong, Hirotatsu [Los Alamos National Laboratory; James, Michael R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Clem, John [University of Delaware, BRI; Goldhagen, Paul [DHS, National Urban Security Technology Laboratory

    2012-06-19

    MCNP is a Monte Carlo radiation transport code that has been under development for over half a century. Over the last decade, the development team of a high-energy offshoot of MCNP, called MCNPX, has implemented several physics and algorithm improvements important for modeling galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) interactions with matter. In this presentation, we discuss the latest of these improvements, a new Cosmic-Source option, that has been implemented in MCNP6.

  7. Heavy Menstrual Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can cause heavy bleeding. • Medications—Blood thinners and aspirin can cause heavy menstrual bleeding. The copper intrauterine ... on the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and other pelvic structures. Endometrium: The lining of the uterus. Fibroids: Growths, ...

  8. Cosmology with cosmic shear observations: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbinger, Martin

    2015-07-01

    Cosmic shear is the distortion of images of distant galaxies due to weak gravitational lensing by the large-scale structure in the Universe. Such images are coherently deformed by the tidal field of matter inhomogeneities along the line of sight. By measuring galaxy shape correlations, we can study the properties and evolution of structure on large scales as well as the geometry of the Universe. Thus, cosmic shear has become a powerful probe into the nature of dark matter and the origin of the current accelerated expansion of the Universe. Over the last years, cosmic shear has evolved into a reliable and robust cosmological probe, providing measurements of the expansion history of the Universe and the growth of its structure. We review here the principles of weak gravitational lensing and show how cosmic shear is interpreted in a cosmological context. Then we give an overview of weak-lensing measurements, and present the main observational cosmic-shear results since it was discovered 15 years ago, as well as the implications for cosmology. We then conclude with an outlook on the various future surveys and missions, for which cosmic shear is one of the main science drivers, and discuss promising new weak cosmological lensing techniques for future observations.

  9. Research Concerning Detection of Cosmic Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Maxwell; Cunningham, John; Kuhlmann, Steve; Spinka, Hal; Underwood, Dave; Hammergren, Mark

    2010-02-01

    Throughout my academic career at Loyola I have carried out research with the Loyola University Cosmic Event Detection System concerning the possibility of detection of ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) based on radio meteor scattering methods. This research was furthered through summer internships and research fellowships at Adler Planetarium Chicago and Stony Brook University in New York. At Adler Planetarium we used a helium balloon carrying a Geiger counter and other equipment to record the cosmic ray flux at various points in the atmosphere. The results clearly show the flux depends on the atmospheric density. At Stony Brook University I studied their advanced system for detecting cosmic rays in similar manner to radio meteor scattering principles. Research there focused on detection algorithms and also on the possibility of utilizing Digital Tv (DTv) signals for further research. Through the research a solid understanding of cosmic rays was formed including topics such as origins and energy scales of cosmic rays, both of which pose unanswered questions. )

  10. Evidence for a mixed mass composition at the 'ankle' in the cosmic-ray spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anastasi, G. A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andrada, B.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Arsene, N.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Balaceanu, A.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Biteau, J.; Blaess, S. G.; Blanco, A.; Blazek, J.; Bleve, C.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Borodai, N.; Botti, A. M.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bretz, T.; Bridgeman, A.; Briechle, F. L.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Cancio, A.; Canfora, F.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Dallier, R.; D'Amico, S.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Jong, S. J.; De Mauro, G.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; Debatin, J.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, R. C.; Dova, M. T.; Dundovic, A.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fratu, O.; Freire, M. M.; Fujii, T.; Fuster, A.; García, B.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gaté, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Gherghel-Lascu, A.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Głas, D.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Golup, G.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; González, N.; Gookin, B.; Gordon, J.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Hasankiadeh, Q.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Hulsman, J.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Johnsen, J. A.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Kuempel, D.; Kukec Mezek, G.; Kunka, N.; Kuotb Awad, A.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Lebrun, P.; Legumina, R.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopes, L.; López, R.; López Casado, A.; Luce, Q.; Lucero, A.; Malacari, M.; Mallamaci, M.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Mockler, D.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafá, M.; Müller, G.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, S.; Naranjo, I.; Navas, S.; Nellen, L.; Neuser, J.; Nguyen, P. H.; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, H.; Núñez, L. A.; Ochilo, L.; Oikonomou, F.; Olinto, A.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pedreira, F.; Pȩkala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Peña-Rodriguez, J.; Pereira, L. A. S.; Perrone, L.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Ramos-Pollant, R.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Reinert, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Rogozin, D.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sanabria Gomez, J. D.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santos, E. M.; Santos, E.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sarmiento-Cano, C.; Sato, R.; Scarso, C.; Schauer, M.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schmidt, D.; Scholten, O.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sigl, G.; Silli, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sonntag, S.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Stanca, D.; Stanič, S.; Stasielak, J.; Strafella, F.; Suarez, F.; Suarez Durán, M.; Sudholz, T.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tepe, A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Torri, M.; Travnicek, P.; Trini, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valbuena-Delgado, A.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van Bodegom, P.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Villaseñor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weindl, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyński, H.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yang, L.; Yelos, D.; Younk, P.; Yushkov, A.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zepeda, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zong, Z.; Zuccarello, F.

    2016-11-01

    We report a first measurement for ultrahigh energy cosmic rays of the correlation between the depth of shower maximum and the signal in the water Cherenkov stations of air-showers registered simultaneously by the fluorescence and the surface detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory. Such a correlation measurement is a unique feature of a hybrid air-shower observatory with sensitivity to both the electromagnetic and muonic components. It allows an accurate determination of the spread of primary masses in the cosmic-ray flux. Up till now, constraints on the spread of primary masses have been dominated by systematic uncertainties. The present correlation measurement is not affected by systematics in the measurement of the depth of shower maximum or the signal in the water Cherenkov stations. The analysis relies on general characteristics of air showers and is thus robust also with respect to uncertainties in hadronic event generators. The observed correlation in the energy range around the 'ankle' at lg ⁡ (E /eV) = 18.5- 19.0 differs significantly from expectations for pure primary cosmic-ray compositions. A light composition made up of proton and helium only is equally inconsistent with observations. The data are explained well by a mixed composition including nuclei with mass A > 4. Scenarios such as the proton dip model, with almost pure compositions, are thus disfavored as the sole explanation of the ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray flux at Earth.

  11. Axions and high-energy cosmic rays: Can the relic axion density be measured?

    CERN Document Server

    Espriu, D; Renau, A; 10.1088/1475-7516/2011/08/002

    2011-01-01

    In a previous work we investigated the propagation of fast moving charged particles in a spatially constant but slowly time dependent pseudoscalar background, such as the one provided by cold relic axions. The background induces cosmic rays to radiate in the low-energy spectrum. While the energy loss caused by this mechanism on the primary cosmic rays is negligible, we investigate the hypothetical detection of the photons radiated and how they could provide an indirect way of verifying the cosmological relevance of axions. Assuming that the cosmic ray flux is of the form J(E)~ E^-g we find that the energy radiated follows a distribution k^-((g-1)/2) for proton primaries, identical to the Galaxy synchrotron radiation that is the main background, and k^-(g/2) for electron primaries, which in spite of this sharper decay provide the dominant contribution in the low-energy spectrum. We discuss possible ways to detect this small diffuse contribution. Local detection in the vicinity of powerful cosmic rays emitters ...

  12. Anisotropy in the Arrival Directions of Ultrahigh-Energy Cosmic Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaseñor, Luis

    2017-06-01

    In this article we illustrate, in an interactive way, the analysis and visualization of anisotropy properties in the arrival directions of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays detected by the Telescope Array and the Pierre Auger experiments by using data released by both collaborations. We describe the use of several programs that we have written in Python and Julia languages for this purpose. We also discuss the potential sources and analyse the effect of correcting the arrival directions to take into account the deflections of the cosmic rays by the magnetic field of our galaxy for one specific model of the galactic magnetic field under several assumptions about the composition of the primary cosmic rays.

  13. Further considerations of cosmic ray modulation of infra-red radiation in the atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Aplin, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Understanding effects of ionisation in the lower atmosphere is a new interdisciplinary area, crossing traditionally distinct scientific boundaries. Following the paper of Erlykin et al. (Astropart. Phys. 57--58 (2014) 26--29) we develop the interpretation of observed changes in long-wave (LW) radiation (Aplin and Lockwood, Env. Res. Letts. 8, 015026 (2013)), by taking account of cosmic ray ionisation yields and atmospheric radiative transfer. To demonstrate this, we show that the thermal structure of the whole atmosphere needs to be considered along with the vertical profile of ionisation. Allowing for ionisation by all components of a cosmic ray shower and not just by the muons, reveals that the effect we have detected is certainly not inconsistent with laboratory observations of the LW absorption cross section. The analysis presented here, although very different from that of Erlykin et al., does come to the same conclusion that the events detected were not caused by individual cosmic ray primaries -- not b...

  14. Constraints on Galactic Cosmic-Ray Origins from Elemental and Isotopic Composition Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, W. R.; Christian, E. R.; Cummings, A. C.; deNolfo, G. A.; Israel, M. H.; Leske, R. A.; Mewaldt, R. A,; Stone, E. C.; vonRosevinge, T. T.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.

    2013-01-01

    The most recent measurements by the Cosmic Ray Isotope Spectrometer (CRIS) aboard the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) satellite of ultra-heavy cosmic ray isotopic and elemental abundances will be presented. A range of isotope and element ratios, most importantly Ne-22/Ne-20, Fe-58/Fe-56, and Ga-31/Ge -32 show that the composition is consistent with source material that is a mix of approx 80% ISM (with Solar System abundances) and 20% outflow/ejecta from massive stars. In addition, our data show that the ordering of refractory and volatile elements with atomic mass is greatly improved when compared to an approx 80%/20% mix rather than pure ISM, that the refractory and volatile elements have similar slopes, and that refractory elements are preferentially accelerated by a factor of approx 4. We conclude that these data are consistent with an OB association origin of GCRs.

  15. Cosmic Visions Dark Energy. Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodelson, Scott [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Heitmann, Katrin [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Hirata, Chris [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Honscheid, Klaus [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Roodman, Aaron [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Seljak, Uroš [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Slosar, Anže [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Trodden, Mark [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2016-04-26

    Cosmic surveys provide crucial information about high energy physics including strong evidence for dark energy, dark matter, and inflation. Ongoing and upcoming surveys will start to identify the underlying physics of these new phenomena, including tight constraints on the equation of state of dark energy, the viability of modified gravity, the existence of extra light species, the masses of the neutrinos, and the potential of the field that drove inflation. Even after the Stage IV experiments, DESI and LSST, complete their surveys, there will still be much information left in the sky. This additional information will enable us to understand the physics underlying the dark universe at an even deeper level and, in case Stage IV surveys find hints for physics beyond the current Standard Model of Cosmology, to revolutionize our current view of the universe. There are many ideas for how best to supplement and aid DESI and LSST in order to access some of this remaining information and how surveys beyond Stage IV can fully exploit this regime. These ideas flow to potential projects that could start construction in the 2020's.

  16. Cosmic Visions Dark Energy: Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodelson, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Slosar, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Heitmann, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hirata, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Honscheid, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Roodman, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Seljak, U. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trodden, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-04-26

    Cosmic surveys provide crucial information about high energy physics including strong evidence for dark energy, dark matter, and inflation. Ongoing and upcoming surveys will start to identify the underlying physics of these new phenomena, including tight constraints on the equation of state of dark energy, the viability of modified gravity, the existence of extra light species, the masses of the neutrinos, and the potential of the field that drove inflation. Even after the Stage IV experiments, DESI and LSST, complete their surveys, there will still be much information left in the sky. This additional information will enable us to understand the physics underlying the dark universe at an even deeper level and, in case Stage IV surveys find hints for physics beyond the current Standard Model of Cosmology, to revolutionize our current view of the universe. There are many ideas for how best to supplement and aid DESI and LSST in order to access some of this remaining information and how surveys beyond Stage IV can fully exploit this regime. These ideas flow to potential projects that could start construction in the 2020's.

  17. IMF Prediction with Cosmic Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieber, J. W.; Evenson, P. A.; Kuwabara, T.; Pei, C.

    2013-12-01

    Cosmic rays impacting Earth have passed through and interacted with the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) surrounding Earth, and in some sense they carry information on the three-dimensional structure of that field. This work uses neutron monitor data in an effort to extract that information and use it to predict the future behavior of the IMF, especially the north-south component (Bz) which is so crucial in determining geomagnetic activity. We consider 161 events from a published list of interplanetary coronal mass ejections and compare hourly averages of the predicted field with the actual field measured later. We find that the percentage of events with 'good' predictions of Bz (in the sense of having a positive correlation between the prediction and the subsequent measurement) varies from about 85% for predictions 1 hour into the future to about 60% for predictions 4 hours into the future. We present several ideas for how the method might be improved in future implementations. Supported by NASA grant NNX08AQ01G and NSF grant ANT-0739620.

  18. A theory of Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Dar, Arnon; Dar, Arnon; Rújula, Alvaro De

    2008-01-01

    We present a theory of non-solar cosmic rays (CRs) based on a single type of CR source at all energies. The total luminosity of the Galaxy, the broken power-law spectra with their observed slopes, the position of the `knee(s)' and `ankle', and the CR composition and its variation with energy are all predicted in terms of very simple and completely `standard' physics. The source of CRs is extremely `economical': it has only one parameter to be fitted to the ensemble of all of the mentioned data. All other inputs are `priors', that is, theoretical or observational items of information independent of the properties of the source of CRs, and chosen to lie in their pre-established ranges. The theory is part of a `unified view of high-energy astrophysics' --based on the `Cannonball' model of the relativistic ejecta of accreting black holes and neutron stars. If correct, this model is only lacking a satisfactory theoretical understanding of the `cannon' that emits the cannonballs in catastrophic processes of accreti...

  19. Expanding cosmic horizons of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Nalin C.; Narlikar, J. V.; Wickramasinghe, J. T.; Wainwright, Milton

    2003-02-01

    The conceptual boundaries of life are rapidly expanding far beyond the confines of our planet to encompass an ever-widening region of the universe. Complex organic molecules in interstellar dust and comets appear most plausibly to be biologically derived, or at least closely related spectroscopically and structurally to such material. A de novo origin of life from non-living material is reckoned to have so minuscule a probability that its occurrence once in the universe can be considered miracle enough. The widespread distribution of similar material (e.g with the characteristics of the diffuse infrared bands and 2175 absorption features) throughout the galaxy and in external galaxies adds weight to the theory of panspermia, where it is supposed that the components of life at a generic level are readily transferred from one place to another. Spectroscopic evidence consistent with life extends to redshifts z=0.5, and from elemental abundance studies alone (e.g, of C, O and metals) in distant galaxies the possibility of cosmic life extends to redshifts as high as z=3.

  20. Measurement of the Charge Ratio of Cosmic Muons using CMS Data

    CERN Document Server

    Aldaya, M

    2008-01-01

    We have performed the measurement of the cosmic ray muon charge ratio, as a function of the muon momentum, using data collected by the CMS experiment, exploiting the capabilities of the muon barrel drift tube (DT) chambers. The cosmic muon charge ratio is defined as the ratio of the number of positive- to negative-charge muons. Cosmic ray muons result from the interaction of high-energy cosmic-ray particles (mainly protons and nuclei), entering the upper layers of the atmosphere, with air nuclei. Since these collisions favour positive meson production, there is an asymmetry in the charge composition and more positive muons are expected. The data samples were collected at the \\textit{Magnet Test and Cosmic Challenge} (MTCC). While the MTCC itself was a crucial milestone in the CMS detector construction, not having physics studies among its primary goals, it provided the first opportunity to obtain physics results and test the full analysis chain using real data in CMS before the LHC startup, together with a co...

  1. Bruno Rossi and Cosmic Rays: From Earth laboratories to Physics in Space

    CERN Document Server

    Bonolis, Luisa

    2011-01-01

    Rossi's career paralleled the evolution of cosmic-ray physics. Starting from the early 1930s his pioneering work on the nature and behavior of cosmic rays led to fundamental contributions in the field of experimental cosmic-ray physics and laid the foundation for high-energy particle physics. After the war, under his leadership the Cosmic Ray group at MIT investigated the properties of the primary cosmic rays elucidating the processes involved in their propagation through the atmosphere, and measuring the unstable particles generated in the interactions with matter. When accelerators came to dominate particle physics, Rossi's attention focused on the new opportunities for exploratory investigations made possible by the availability of space vehicles. He initiated a research program which led to the first in situ measurements of the density, speed and direction of the solar wind at the boundary of Earth's magnetosphere and inspired the search for extra-solar X-ray sources resulting in the detection of what rev...

  2. EUSO: using high energy cosmic rays and neutrinos as messengers from the unknown universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Scarsi

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Exploiting the earth atmosphere as a giant detector for the incoming extraterrestrial fl ux of high energy cosmic rays and cosmic neutrinos, the mission «EUSO-Extreme Universe Space Observatory» is devoted to the exploration of the domain of the highest energy processes occurring in the universe up to its accessible boundaries. The observable is provided by the air nitrogen fl uorescence light emitted in the UV band 300-400 nm by the extensive air showers produced by the cascading processes of the primary cosmic radiation particles interacting with the atmosphere. The EUSO telescope is based on a double Fresnel lens optics (diameter 2.5 m coupled to a highly pixelized focal surface composed multianode PMTs; the image at the earth surface is detailed at 1 km2 over a total of several hundred thousand of km2. EUSO will fl y on the International Space Station accommodated as external payload of the European Space Agency Columbus module. The mission is scheduled to last 3 years, with the start of operations foreseen for 2007/8. The expectations are of a collection rate of a thousand events/year for cosmic rays at E > 1020 eV together with tens/hundreds of cosmic neutrinos at energy above about 4 ¥ 1019 eV. EUSO is the result of the collaborative effort of several institutions in Europe, Japan and USA and it is conceived within the science program sponsored by various space agencies coordinated by ESA.

  3. COSMIC-RAY POSITRONS FROM MILLISECOND PULSARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venter, C.; Kopp, A.; Büsching, I. [Centre for Space Research, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Harding, A. K. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Gonthier, P. L. [Hope College, Department of Physics, Holland, MI (United States)

    2015-07-10

    Observations by the Fermi Large Area Telescope of γ-ray millisecond pulsar (MSP) light curves imply copious pair production in their magnetospheres, and not exclusively in those of younger pulsars. Such pair cascades may be a primary source of Galactic electrons and positrons, contributing to the observed enhancement in positron flux above ∼10 GeV. Fermi has also uncovered many new MSPs, impacting Galactic stellar population models. We investigate the contribution of Galactic MSPs to the flux of terrestrial cosmic-ray electrons and positrons. Our population synthesis code predicts the source properties of present-day MSPs. We simulate their pair spectra invoking an offset-dipole magnetic field. We also consider positrons and electrons that have been further accelerated to energies of several TeV by strong intrabinary shocks in black widow (BW) and redback (RB) systems. Since MSPs are not surrounded by pulsar wind nebulae or supernova shells, we assume that the pairs freely escape and undergo losses only in the intergalactic medium. We compute the transported pair spectra at Earth, following their diffusion and energy loss through the Galaxy. The predicted particle flux increases for non-zero offsets of the magnetic polar caps. Pair cascades from the magnetospheres of MSPs are only modest contributors around a few tens of GeV to the lepton fluxes measured by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, PAMELA, and Fermi, after which this component cuts off. The contribution by BWs and RBs may, however, reach levels of a few tens of percent at tens of TeV, depending on model parameters.

  4. High energy nucleonic component of cosmic rays at mountain altitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Stora, Raymond Félix

    The diffusion equations describing the unidimensional propagation of .the high energy nucleonic component of cosmic rays throughout the atmosphere are sol"V'ed under two assumptions: (l) The nucleon-nucleon collisions are described according to Fermi's therlnOdynamical model involving completely inelastic pion and.nucleon-antinucleon pair production. (2) A somewhat opposite assumption is made assuming partially elastic collisions without nucleon-anti.nucleon pair production. Due to the present inaccuracy of experiments, we are able to derive only tentati v.e conclusions. The values computed under both hypotheses for the absorption mean free path and the charged to neutral particles ratio are found in acceptable ranges when compared to experimental data. The diffeential energy spectrum at a given depth is always found steeper than the primary, and steeper than indicated by experimental values if the primary is taken proportional to the 2.5 inverse power of energy.

  5. Detailed analysis of observed antiprotons in cosmic rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Davoudifar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the origin of antiprotons observed in cosmic rays (above the atmosphere is analyzed in details. We have considered the origin of the primaries, (which their interactions with the interstellar medium is one of the most important sources of antiprotons is a supernova type II then used a diffusion model for their propagation. We have used the latest parameterization for antiproton production cross section in pp collisions (instead of well known parameterization introduced by Tan et al. as well as our calculated residence time for primaries. The resulted intensity shows the secondary antiprotons produced in pp collisions in the galaxy, have a high population as one can not consider an excess for extragalactic antiprotons. Also there is a high degree of uncertainty in different parameters.

  6. Cosmic Education: The Child's Discovery of a Global Vision and a Cosmic Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Susan Mayclin

    2015-01-01

    Susan Mayclin Stephenson tackles a large subject, Cosmic Education, which Montessori defined as a "unifying global and universal view[s] of the past, present and future." Stephenson takes the reader from birth to the end of the elementary age with examples of how the child grows into an understanding of Cosmic Education through their…

  7. The Interaction of Cosmic Rays with Diffuse Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, John E.; Zweibel, Ellen G.

    2011-10-01

    We study the change in cosmic-ray pressure, the change in cosmic-ray density, and the level of cosmic-ray-induced heating via Alfvén-wave damping when cosmic rays move from a hot ionized plasma to a cool cloud embedded in that plasma. The general analysis method outlined here can apply to diffuse clouds in either the ionized interstellar medium or in galactic winds. We introduce a general-purpose model of cosmic-ray diffusion building upon the hydrodynamic approximation for cosmic rays (from McKenzie & Völk and Breitschwerdt and collaborators). Our improved method self-consistently derives the cosmic-ray flux and diffusivity under the assumption that the streaming instability is the dominant mechanism for setting the cosmic-ray flux and diffusion. We find that, as expected, cosmic rays do not couple to gas within cool clouds (cosmic rays exert no forces inside of cool clouds), that the cosmic-ray density does not increase within clouds (it may decrease slightly in general, and decrease by an order of magnitude in some cases), and that cosmic-ray heating (via Alfvén-wave damping and not collisional effects as for ~10 MeV cosmic rays) is only important under the conditions of relatively strong (10 μG) magnetic fields or high cosmic-ray pressure (~10-11 erg cm-3).

  8. Analytical Model for Estimating Terrestrial Cosmic Ray Fluxes Nearly Anytime and Anywhere in the World: Extension of PARMA/EXPACS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuhiko Sato

    Full Text Available By extending our previously established model, here we present a new model called "PHITS-based Analytical Radiation Model in the Atmosphere (PARMA version 3.0," which can instantaneously estimate terrestrial cosmic ray fluxes of neutrons, protons, ions with charge up to 28 (Ni, muons, electrons, positrons, and photons nearly anytime and anywhere in the Earth's atmosphere. The model comprises numerous analytical functions with parameters whose numerical values were fitted to reproduce the results of the extensive air shower (EAS simulation performed by Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS. The accuracy of the EAS simulation was well verified using various experimental data, while that of PARMA3.0 was confirmed by the high R2 values of the fit. The models to be used for estimating radiation doses due to cosmic ray exposure, cosmic ray induced ionization rates, and count rates of neutron monitors were validated by investigating their capability to reproduce those quantities measured under various conditions. PARMA3.0 is available freely and is easy to use, as implemented in an open-access software program EXcel-based Program for Calculating Atmospheric Cosmic ray Spectrum (EXPACS. Because of these features, the new version of PARMA/EXPACS can be an important tool in various research fields such as geosciences, cosmic ray physics, and radiation research.

  9. Bayesian Cosmic Web Reconstruction: BARCODE for Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, E. G. Patrick; van de Weygaert, Rien; Kitaura, Francisco; Cautun, Marius

    2016-10-01

    We describe the Bayesian \\barcode\\ formalism that has been designed towards the reconstruction of the Cosmic Web in a given volume on the basis of the sampled galaxy cluster distribution. Based on the realization that the massive compact clusters are responsible for the major share of the large scale tidal force field shaping the anisotropic and in particular filamentary features in the Cosmic Web. Given the nonlinearity of the constraints imposed by the cluster configurations, we resort to a state-of-the-art constrained reconstruction technique to find a proper statistically sampled realization of the original initial density and velocity field in the same cosmic region. Ultimately, the subsequent gravitational evolution of these initial conditions towards the implied Cosmic Web configuration can be followed on the basis of a proper analytical model or an N-body computer simulation. The BARCODE formalism includes an implicit treatment for redshift space distortions. This enables a direct reconstruction on the basis of observational data, without the need for a correction of redshift space artifacts. In this contribution we provide a general overview of the the Cosmic Web connection with clusters and a description of the Bayesian BARCODE formalism. We conclude with a presentation of its successful workings with respect to test runs based on a simulated large scale matter distribution, in physical space as well as in redshift space.

  10. Xenia: A Probe of Cosmic Chemical Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Piro, L.

    2008-01-01

    Xenia is a concept study for a medium-size astrophysical cosmology mission addressing the Cosmic Origins key objective of NASA's Science Plan. The fundamental goal of this objective is to understand the formation and evolution of structures on various scales from the early Universe to the present time (stars, galaxies and the cosmic web). Xenia will use X-and y-ray monitoring and wide field X-ray imaging and high-resolution spectroscopy to collect essential information from three major tracers of these cosmic structures: the Warm Hot Intergalactic Medium (WHIM), Galaxy Clusters and Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). Our goal is to trace the chemo-dynamical history of the ubiquitous warm hot diffuse baryon component in the Universe residing in cosmic filaments and clusters of galaxies up to its formation epoch (at z =0-2) and to map star formation and galaxy metal enrichment into the re-ionization era beyond z 6. The concept of Xenia (Greek for "hospitality") evolved in parallel with the Explorer of Diffuse Emission and GRB Explosions (EDGE), a mission proposed by a multinational collaboration to the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015. Xenia incorporates the European and Japanese collaborators into a U.S. led mission that builds on the scientific objectives and technological readiness of EDGE.

  11. LHCf sheds new light on cosmic rays

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    The energy spectrum of the single photon obtained using data from the LHCf experiment has turned out to be very different from that predicted by the theoretical models used until now to describe the interactions between very high-energy cosmic rays and the earth's atmosphere. The consequences of this discrepancy for cosmic ray studies could be significant.   Artistic impression of cosmic rays entering Earth's atmosphere. (Credit: Asimmetrie/Infn). It took physicists by surprise when analysis of the data collected by the two LHCf calorimeters in 2010 showed that high-energy cosmic rays don't interact with the atmosphere in the manner predicted by theory. The LHCf detectors, set up 140 metres either side of the ATLAS interaction point, are dedicated to the study of the secondary particles emitted at very small angles during proton-proton collisions in the LHC, with energies comparable to cosmic rays entering the earth's atmosphere at 2.5x1016 eV. The aim of the experiment is to r...

  12. A demonstration device for cosmic rays telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Salvatore

    2018-01-01

    We describe a hands-on accurate demonstrator for cosmic rays realized by six high school students. The main aim is to show the relevance and the functioning of the principal parts of a cosmic ray telescope (muon detector), with the help of two large sized wooden artefacts. The first one points out how cosmic rays can be tracked in a muon telescope, while the other one shows the key avalanche process of electronic ionization that effectively allows muon detection through a photomultiplier. Incoming cosmic rays are visualized in terms of laser beams, whose 3D trajectory is highlighted by turning on LEDs on two orthogonal matrices. Instead the avalanche ionization process is demonstrated through the avalanche falling off glass marbles on an inclined plane, finally turning on a LED. A pictured poster accompanying the demonstrator is as effective in assisting cosmic ray demonstration and its detection. The success of the demonstrator has been fully proven by the general public during a science festival, in which the corresponding project won the Honorable Mention in a dedicated competition.

  13. Galactic Cosmic Rays and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagnoli, G. Cini

    SH.3.6.14 Galactic Cosmic Rays and the Environment G. Cini Castagnoli, G. Bonino, P. Della Monica, C. Taricco Istituto di Cosmogeofisica, CNR, Corso Fiume 4, 10133 Torino, Italy and Dipartimento di Fisica Generale, Università di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino Recently Svensmark and Friis-Christensen (1997) reported an indication that the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) modulated by the solar wind may contribute to the variations in the formation of clouds, which in turn should follow the 11 y solar cycle. On the other hand experiments, conducted in vitro, on the variations of δ3C in symbiont bearing 1 foraminifera have shown that the carbon isotope fractionation from sea water, of the calcite of their shells, depends mainly on the photosynthetic activity (primary productivity) of the symbionts and therefore from the illumination level of their habitat. We have measured and analyzed (Cini Castagnoli et al., 1999) the δ3C profile of G. ruber in an Ionian sea 1 shallow water core very precisely dated. This allows us to acquire information on the ambient light level (connected to the solar irradiance modulation and to the cloud coverage) of the Gallipoli terrace in the past Millenium. The record (1205-1975 AD) of 200 points with time resolution 3.87 years shows a highly significant 11 y cyclicity covariant with Sunspots of amplitude 0.04 ‰ . A test for determining the δ3C-irradiance relation has been 1 13 performed by studying variations of δ C and the percentage annual number of rainy days during the last century in this region. Our results agree with the expectations on the basis of experiments performed in vitro on G. sacculifer ( on G. ruber is not available). The amplitude of the 11 y δ3C signal turns out to be of the order of 1.5 W/m2. This value seems to be 1 quite high (although of the same order) to be directly induced solely by changes in the solar constant, if in past times they were similar to those measured in space during solar cycles 22-23. The

  14. Active galactic nuclei, neutrinos, and interacting cosmic rays in NGC 253 and NGC 1068

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoast-Hull, Tova M.; Zweibel, Ellen G. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Gallagher III, J. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Everett, John E., E-mail: yoasthull@wisc.edu [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics, Northwestern University, IL 60208 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    The galaxies M82, NGC 253, NGC 1068, and NGC 4945 have been detected in γ-rays by Fermi. Previously, we developed and tested a model for cosmic-ray interactions in the starburst galaxy M82. Now, we aim to explore the differences between starburst and active galactic nucleus (AGN) environments by applying our self-consistent model to the starburst galaxy NGC 253 and the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1068. Assuming a constant cosmic-ray acceleration efficiency by supernova remnants with Milky Way parameters, we calculate the cosmic-ray proton and primary and secondary electron/positron populations, predict the radio and γ-ray spectra, and compare with published measurements. We find that our models easily fit the observed γ-ray spectrum for NGC 253 while constraining the cosmic-ray source spectral index and acceleration efficiency. However, we encountered difficultly modeling the observed radio data and constraining the speed of the galactic wind and the magnetic field strength, unless the gas mass is less than currently preferred values. Additionally, our starburst model consistently underestimates the observed γ-ray flux and overestimates the radio flux for NGC 1068; these issues would be resolved if the AGN is the primary source of γ-rays. We discuss the implications of these results and make predictions for the neutrino fluxes for both galaxies.

  15. The water Cherenkov detector array for studies of cosmic rays at the University of Puebla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotzomi, J. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, BUAP, Puebla Pue. 72570 (Mexico); Moreno, E. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, BUAP, Puebla Pue. 72570 (Mexico); Murrieta, T. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, BUAP, Puebla Pue. 72570 (Mexico); Palma, B. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, BUAP, Puebla Pue. 72570 (Mexico); Perez, E. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, BUAP, Puebla Pue. 72570 (Mexico); Salazar, H. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, BUAP, Puebla Pue. 72570 (Mexico)]. E-mail: hsalazar@fcfm.buap.mx; Villasenor, L. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, BUAP, Puebla Pue. 72570 (Mexico)

    2005-11-11

    We describe the design and performance of a hybrid extensive air shower detector array built on the Campus of the University of Puebla (19{sup -}bar N, 90{sup -}bar W, 800g/cm{sup 2}) to measure the energy, arrival direction and composition of primary cosmic rays with energies around 1PeV, i.e., around the knee of the cosmic ray spectrum. The array consists of 3 water Cherenkov detectors of 1.86m{sup 2} cross-section and 12 liquid scintillator detectors of 1m{sup 2} distributed in a square grid with a detector spacing of 20m over an area of 4000m{sup 2}. We discuss the calibration and stability of the array for both sets of detectors and report on preliminary measurements and reconstruction of the lateral distributions for the electromagnetic (EM) and muonic components of extensive air showers. We also discuss how the hybrid character of the array can be used to measure mass composition of the primary cosmic rays by estimating the relative contents of muons with respect to the EM component of extensive air showers. This facility is also used to train students interested in the field of cosmic rays.

  16. Cosmic ray-driven winds in the Galactic environment and the cosmic ray spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, S.; Blasi, P.; Morlino, G.

    2017-09-01

    Cosmic rays escaping the Galaxy exert a force on the interstellar medium directed away from the Galactic disc. If this force is larger than the gravitational pull due to the mass embedded in the Galaxy, then galactic winds may be launched. Such outflows may have important implications for the history of star formation of the host galaxy, and in turn affect in a crucial way the transport of cosmic rays, both due to advection with the wind and to the excitation of waves by the same cosmic rays, through streaming instability. The possibility to launch cosmic ray-induced winds and the properties of such winds depend on environmental conditions, such as the density and temperature of the plasma at the base of the wind and the gravitational potential, especially the one contributed by the dark matter halo. In this paper, we make a critical assessment of the possibility to launch cosmic ray-induced winds for a Milky Way-like galaxy and how the properties of the wind depend upon the conditions at the base of the wind. Special attention is devoted to the implications of different conditions for wind launching on the spectrum of cosmic rays observed at different locations in the disc of the galaxy. We also comment on how cosmic ray-induced winds compare with recent observations of Oxygen absorption lines in quasar spectra and emission lines from blank sky, as measured by XMM-Newton/EPIC-MOS.

  17. Excited cosmic strings with superconducting currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Betti; Michel, Florent; Peter, Patrick

    2017-12-01

    We present a detailed analysis of excited cosmic string solutions that possess superconducting currents. These currents can be excited inside the string core, and—if the condensate is large enough—can lead to the excitations of the Higgs field. Next to the case with global unbroken symmetry, we discuss also the effects of the gauging of this symmetry and show that excited condensates persist when coupled to an electromagnetic field. The space-time of such strings is also constructed by solving the Einstein equations numerically and we show how the local scalar curvature is modified by the excitation. We consider the relevance of our results on the cosmic string network evolution as well as observations of primordial gravitational waves and cosmic rays.

  18. Does electromagnetic radiation accelerate galactic cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, D.

    1977-01-01

    The 'reactor' theories of Tsytovich and collaborators (1973) of cosmic-ray acceleration by electromagnetic radiation are examined in the context of galactic cosmic rays. It is shown that any isotropic synchrotron or Compton reactors with reasonable astrophysical parameters can yield particles with a maximum relativistic factor of only about 10,000. If they are to produce particles with higher relativistic factors, the losses due to inverse Compton scattering of the electromagnetic radiation in them outweigh the acceleration, and this violates the assumptions of the theory. This is a critical restriction in the context of galactic cosmic rays, which have a power-law spectrum extending up to a relativistic factor of 1 million.

  19. Cosmic dust in modern ferromanganese nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anufriev, G. S.

    2017-03-01

    This work is about the identification of modern cosmic dust that had survived heating during its high-velocity passage through the Earth's atmosphere from 3He isotope concentrations in marine (Gulf of Finland) ferromanganese nodules (FMNs). The measured bulk composition of helium includes components of various origins, enabling the determination of the age (1800 years) of the shallow-water Baltic FMNs and the average time of exposure (8 × 107 years) of cosmic dust particles during their existence in space. The concentration of cosmic dust per gram of FMN material is found to be 0.036 μg. The contribution of solar-wind helium to the Earth's atmospheric helium is found to be small. The experiments are conducted by the stepheating method in vacuo with the subsequent mass-spectrometric analysis of the helium released from the samples.

  20. Particles and cosmology learning from cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John R.

    1999-01-01

    The density budget of the Universe is reviewed, and then specific particle candidates for non-bayonic dark matter are introduced, with emphasis on the relevance of cosmic-ray physics. The sizes of the neutrino masses indicated by recent atmospheric and solar neutrino experiments may be too small to contribute much hot dark matter. My favoured candidate for the dominant cold dark matter is the lightest supersymmetric particle, which probably weighs between about 50 GeV and about 600 GeV. Strategies to search for it via cosmic rays due to annihilations in the halo, Sun and Earth, or via direct scattering experiments, are mentioned. Possible superheavy relic particles are also discussed, in particular metastable string- or M-theory cryptons, that may be responsible for the ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. Finally, it is speculated that a non-zero contribution to the cosmological vacuum energy might result from incomplete relaxation of the quantum-gravitational vacuum.

  1. The Probe of Inflation and Cosmic Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanany, Shaul; Inflation Probe Mission Study Team

    2018-01-01

    The Probe of Inflation and Cosmic Origins will map the polarization of the cosmic microwave background over the entire sky with unprecedented sensitivity. It will search for gravity wave signals from the inflationary epoch, thus probing quantum gravity and constraining the energy scale of inflation; it will test the standard model of particle physics by measuring the number of light particles in the Universe and the mass of the neutrino; it will elucidate the nature of dark matter and search for new forms of matter in the early Universe; it will constrain star formation history over cosmic time; and it will determine the mechanisms of structure formation from galaxy cluster to stellar scales. I will review the status of design of this probe-scale mission.

  2. Cosmic-ray physics at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M.

    2017-06-01

    Accelerator experiments located underground are suitable for the study of atmospheric muons. The use of high-energy collider detectors for cosmic-ray physics was pioneered during the era of the Large Electron-Positron (LEP) collider at CERN by ALEPH, DELPHI and L3 collaborations. A development of these programs is possible at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), where experiments like ALICE and CMS will operate for many years, with the possibility of recording a large amount of cosmic-ray data. In this proceedings, a review of the results obtained by LEP and LHC experiments is presented. This material was discussed along two sessions during the VI School on Cosmic-ray Physics and Astrophysics held at the Mesoamerican Center for Theoretical Physics (MCTP) located in Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas, Mexico.

  3. PRECISE COSMIC RAYS MEASUREMENTS WITH PAMELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bruno

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The PAMELA experiment was launched on board the Resurs-DK1 satellite on June 15th 2006. The apparatus was designed to conduct precision studies of charged cosmic radiation over a wide energy range, from tens of MeV up to several hundred GeV, with unprecedented statistics. In five years of continuous data taking in space, PAMELA accurately measured the energy spectra of cosmic ray antiprotons and positrons, as well as protons, electrons and light nuclei, sometimes providing data in unexplored energetic regions. These important results have shed new light in several astrophysical fields like: an indirect search for Dark Matter, a search for cosmological antimatter (anti-Helium, and the validation of acceleration, transport and secondary production models of cosmic rays in the Galaxy. Some of the most important items of Solar and Magnetospheric physics were also investigated. Here we present the most recent results obtained by the PAMELA experiment.

  4. Handbook of cosmic hazards and planetary defense

    CERN Document Server

    Allahdadi, Firooz

    2015-01-01

    Covers in a comprehensive fashion all aspects of cosmic hazards and possible strategies for contending with these threats through a comprehensive planetary defense strategy. This handbook brings together in a single reference work a rich blend of information about the various types of cosmic threats that are posed to human civilization by asteroids, comets, bolides, meteors, solar flares and coronal mass ejections, cosmic radiation and other types of threats that are only recently beginning to be understood and studied, such as investigation of the “cracks” in the protective shield provided by the Van Allen belts and the geomagnetosphere, of matter-antimatter collisions, orbital debris and radiological or biological contamination. Some areas that are addressed involve areas about which there is a good deal of information that has been collected for many decades by multiple space missions run by many different space agencies, observatories and scientific researchers. Other areas involving research and ...

  5. Consistency relation for cosmic magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, R. K.; Sloth, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    to be extremely useful to test some recent calculations in the literature. Apart from primordial non-Gaussianity induced by the curvature perturbations, such a cross correlation might provide a new observational probe of inflation and can in principle reveal the primordial nature of cosmic magnetic fields. DOI......If cosmic magnetic fields are indeed produced during inflation, they are likely to be correlated with the scalar metric perturbations that are responsible for the cosmic microwave background anisotropies and large scale structure. Within an archetypical model of inflationary magnetogenesis, we show...... that there exists a new simple consistency relation for the non-Gaussian cross correlation function of the scalar metric perturbation with two powers of the magnetic field in the squeezed limit where the momentum of the metric perturbation vanishes. We emphasize that such a consistency relation turns out...

  6. Kriging interpolating cosmic velocity field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yu; Zhang, Jun; Jing, Yipeng; Zhang, Pengjie

    2015-10-01

    Volume-weighted statistics of large-scale peculiar velocity is preferred by peculiar velocity cosmology, since it is free of the uncertainties of galaxy density bias entangled in observed number density-weighted statistics. However, measuring the volume-weighted velocity statistics from galaxy (halo/simulation particle) velocity data is challenging. Therefore, the exploration of velocity assignment methods with well-controlled sampling artifacts is of great importance. For the first time, we apply the Kriging interpolation to obtain the volume-weighted velocity field. Kriging is a minimum variance estimator. It predicts the most likely velocity for each place based on the velocity at other places. We test the performance of Kriging quantified by the E-mode velocity power spectrum from simulations. Dependences on the variogram prior used in Kriging, the number nk of the nearby particles to interpolate, and the density nP of the observed sample are investigated. First, we find that Kriging induces 1% and 3% systematics at k ˜0.1 h Mpc-1 when nP˜6 ×1 0-2(h-1 Mpc )-3 and nP˜6 ×1 0-3(h-1 Mpc )-3 , respectively. The deviation increases for decreasing nP and increasing k . When nP≲6 ×1 0-4(h-1 Mpc )-3 , a smoothing effect dominates small scales, causing significant underestimation of the velocity power spectrum. Second, increasing nk helps to recover small-scale power. However, for nP≲6 ×1 0-4(h-1 Mpc )-3 cases, the recovery is limited. Finally, Kriging is more sensitive to the variogram prior for a lower sample density. The most straightforward application of Kriging on the cosmic velocity field does not show obvious advantages over the nearest-particle method [Y. Zheng, P. Zhang, Y. Jing, W. Lin, and J. Pan, Phys. Rev. D 88, 103510 (2013)] and could not be directly applied to cosmology so far. However, whether potential improvements may be achieved by more delicate versions of Kriging is worth further investigation.

  7. The renaissance of radio detection of cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huege, Tim, E-mail: tim.huege@kit.edu [IKP, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe, (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Nearly 50 years ago, the first radio signals from cosmic ray air showers were detected. After many successful studies, however, research ceased not even 10 years later. Only a decade ago, the field was revived with the application of powerful digital signal processing techniques. Since then, the detection technique has matured, and we are now in a phase of transition from small-scale experiments accessing energies below 1018 eV to experiments with a reach for energies beyond 1019 eV. We have demonstrated that air shower radio signals carry information on both the energy and the mass of the primary particle, and current experiments are in the process of quantifying the precision with which this information can be accessed. All of this rests on solid understanding of the radio emission processes, which can be interpreted as a coherent superposition of geomagnetic emission, Askaryan charge-excess radiation, and Cherenkov-like coherence effects arising in the density gradient of the atmosphere. In this article, I highlight the “state of the art” of radio detection of cosmic rays and briefly discuss its perspectives for the next few years. (author)

  8. The Renaissance of Radio Detection of Cosmic Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huege, Tim

    2014-10-01

    Nearly 50 years ago, the first radio signals from cosmic ray air showers were detected. After many successful studies, however, research ceased not even 10 years later. Only a decade ago, the field was revived with the application of powerful digital signal processing techniques. Since then, the detection technique has matured, and we are now in a phase of transition from small-scale experiments accessing energies below 10 18 eV to experiments with a reach for energies beyond 10 19 eV. We have demonstrated that air shower radio signals carry information on both the energy and the mass of the primary particle, and current experiments are in the process of quantifying the precision with which this information can be accessed. All of this rests on solid understanding of the radio emission processes which can be interpreted as a coherent superposition of geomagnetic emission, Askaryan charge-excess radiation, and Cherenkov-like coherence effects arising in the density gradient of the atmosphere. In this article, I highlight the "state of the art" of radio detection of cosmic rays and briefly discuss its perspectives for the next few years.

  9. Statistical Methods for Investigating the Cosmic Ray Energy Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hague, J.D.; Becker, B.R.; Gold, M.S.; Matthews, J.A.J.; Urbář, J.

    The cosmic ray energy spectrum is well known to follow a power-law over many orders of magnitude. The question of whether the spectrum exhibits a cut-off is of primary importance. Following our Astro. Part. Phys. publication (astro-ph/0610865), we describe two statistical tests and apply them to the AGASA and preliminary (ICRC-2005) Auger Cosmic Ray Energy spectra in an attempt to find deviation from a pure power-law. The first test is constructed from the probability distribution for the maximum event of a sample drawn from a power-law. The second employs the TP-statistic, a function defined to deviate from zero when the sample deviates from the power-law form, regardless of the value of the power index. The AGASA data show no significant deviation from a power-law when subjected to both tests. Applying these tests to the Auger spectrum suggests deviation from a power-law. We also discuss the application of these tests to un-binned data thus showing a statistical advantage in un-binned verses binned analysis.

  10. Heavy quark masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Massimo

    1990-01-01

    In the large quark mass limit, an argument which identifies the mass of the heavy-light pseudoscalar or scalar bound state with the renormalized mass of the heavy quark is given. The following equation is discussed: m(sub Q) = m(sub B), where m(sub Q) and m(sub B) are respectively the mass of the heavy quark and the mass of the pseudoscalar bound state.

  11. On horizons and the Cosmic Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, George F. R.

    2006-07-01

    Susskind claims in his recent book The Cosmic Landscape that evidence for the existence and nature of ‘pocket universes’ in a multiverse would be available in the detailed nature of the Cosmic Blackbody Background Radiation that constantly bathes all parts of our observable universe. I point out that acceptance of the complex chain of argument involved does not imply possible experimental verification of multiverses at the present time. Rather this claim relates only to theoretically possible observations in the very far future of the universe.

  12. Cosmic Origins Program Annual Technology Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Bruce Thai; Neff, Susan Gale

    2016-01-01

    What is the Cosmic Origins (COR) Program? From ancient times, humans have looked up at the night sky and wondered: Are we alone? How did the universe come to be? How does the universe work? COR focuses on the second question. Scientists investigating this broad theme seek to understand the origin and evolution of the universe from the Big Bang to the present day, determining how the expanding universe grew into a grand cosmic web of dark matter enmeshed with galaxies and pristine gas, forming, merging, and evolving over time.

  13. Cosmic Ray Mass Measurements with LOFAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitink, Stijn; Bonardi, Antonio; Corstanje, Arthur; Enriquez, J. Emilio; Falcke, Heino; Hörandel, Jörg R.; Mitra, Pragati; Mulrey, Katie; Nelles, Anna; Rachen, Jörg Paul; Rossetto, Laura; Schellart, Pim; Scholten, Olaf; Thoudam, Satyendra; Trinh, Gia; ter Veen, Sander; Winchen, Tobias

    2017-03-01

    In the dense core of LOFAR individual air showers are detected by hundreds of dipole antennas simultaneously. We reconstruct Xmax by using a hybrid technique that combines a two-dimensional fit of the radio profile to CoREAS simulations and a one-dimensional fit of the particle density distribution. For high-quality detections, the statistical uncertainty on Xmax is smaller than 20 g/cm2. We present results of cosmic-ray mass analysis in the energy regime of 1017 - 1017.5 eV. This range is of particular interest as it may harbor the transition from a Galactic to an extragalactic origin of cosmic rays.

  14. Thin shells joining local cosmic string geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eiroa, Ernesto F. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria Pabellon I, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Rubin de Celis, Emilio; Simeone, Claudio [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria Pabellon I, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ciudad Universitaria Pabellon I, IFIBA-CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2016-10-15

    In this article we present a theoretical construction of spacetimes with a thin shell that joins two different local cosmic string geometries. We study two types of global manifolds, one representing spacetimes with a thin shell surrounding a cosmic string or an empty region with Minkowski metric, and the other corresponding to wormholes which are not symmetric across the throat located at the shell. We analyze the stability of the static configurations under perturbations preserving the cylindrical symmetry. For both types of geometries we find that the static configurations can be stable for suitable values of the parameters. (orig.)

  15. Portable cosmic muon telescope for environmental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnaföldi, Gergely Gábor; Hamar, Gergő; Melegh, Hunor Gergely; Oláh, László; Surányi, Gergely; Varga, Dezső

    2012-10-01

    A portable, low power consumption cosmic muon tracking system based on Close Cathode MWPC technology is presented, which is designed for operation in highly humid environmental conditions such as underground caves, tunnels, or cellars. The system measures the angular distribution of cosmic muons with resolution of 10 mrad, allowing for a tomographic mapping of the soil density above the detector unit. The size of the detector, 0.1 m2 of total sensitive surface, was designed to fulfill the requirement of transport through humanly passable natural cave tunnels. First results from the Ariadne Cave System in Pilis Mountains, Hungary are shown, which constrains the necessary data taking time for meaningful tomographic mapping.

  16. Structure formation cosmic rays: Identifying observational constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodanović T.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Shocks that arise from baryonic in-fall and merger events during the structure formation are believed to be a source of cosmic rays. These "structure formation cosmic rays" (SFCRs would essentially be primordial in composition, namely, mostly made of protons and alpha particles. However, very little is known about this population of cosmic rays. One way to test the level of its presence is to look at the products of hadronic reactions between SFCRs and the ISM. A perfect probe of these reactions would be Li. The rare isotope Li is produced only by cosmic rays, dominantly in αα → 6Li fusion reactions with the ISM helium. Consequently, this nuclide provides a unique diagnostic of the history of cosmic rays. Exactly because of this unique property is Li affected most by the presence of an additional cosmic ray population. In turn, this could have profound consequences for the Big-Bang nucleosynthesis: cosmic rays created during cosmic structure formation would lead to pre-Galactic Li production, which would act as a "contaminant" to the primordial 7Li content of metalpoor halo stars. Given the already existing problem of establishing the concordance between Li observed in halo stars and primordial 7Li as predicted by the WMAP, it is crucial to set limits to the level of this "contamination". However, the history of SFCRs is not very well known. Thus we propose a few model-independent ways of testing the SFCR species and their history, as well as the existing lithium problem: 1 we establish the connection between gamma-ray and Li production, which enables us to place constraints on the SFCR-made lithium by using the observed Extragalactic Gamma-Ray Background (EGRB; 2 we propose a new site for testing the primordial and SFCR-made lithium, namely, low-metalicity High-Velocity Clouds (HVCs, which retain the pre-Galactic composition without any significant depletion. Although using one method alone may not give us strong constraints, using them in

  17. Search for Antihelium in the Cosmic Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Streitmatter, R.E.; Barbier, L.M.; Christian, E.R.

    1996-01-01

    The balloon-borne Isotope Matter-Antimatter Experiment (IMAX) was flown from Lynn Lake, Manitoba Canada on July 16-17, 1992. Sixteen hours of data were taken. Measurements of multiple dE/dX, rigidity, and time of flight were used to search for antihelium in the cosmic radiation. A report on the r......The balloon-borne Isotope Matter-Antimatter Experiment (IMAX) was flown from Lynn Lake, Manitoba Canada on July 16-17, 1992. Sixteen hours of data were taken. Measurements of multiple dE/dX, rigidity, and time of flight were used to search for antihelium in the cosmic radiation. A report...

  18. Cosmic strings in Brane World models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slagter, Reinoud Jan

    2013-02-01

    On a warped 5-dimensional axially symmetric space time an exact solution is found of a bulk scalar field with a cosmological constant. It turns out that from the effective field equations on the brane, where a U(1) scalar-gauge field is present, no signs of the features of a cosmic string with an asymptotically conical space time is found as in the 4D counterpart model. This is caused by the projection of the bulk Weyl tensor on the brane. This could explain why we do not observe cosmic strings.

  19. Heavy resistance training and lymphedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomquist, Kira; Karlsmark, Tonny; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2014-01-01

    and 31 December 2011 participated in a structured telephone interview. The average follow-up time was 14 months (range 4-26). A clinical diagnosis of BCRL reported by the participant was the primary outcome. RESULTS: A total of 27.5% reported that they had been diagnosed with BCRL by a clinician....... This was true for 44.4% with axillary node dissection. No statistically significant association between strength gains during the exercise intervention, and the development of BCRL was observed, nor was self-reported participation in progressive resistance training with heavy loads up to three months post...

  20. Heavy metal bioaccumulation and biomarkers of oxidative stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human activities can have dramatic effects on animal populations around urban areas with heavy metal contamination being a primary cause of harm. Amphibians, as residents of aquatic systems and with their semi-permeable skin are especially susceptible to heavy metal contamination. To better understand the effect of ...

  1. Pilot study of ultra-high energy Cosmic rays through their Space – Atmospheric interactions – COSAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isar Paula Gina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred years after the discovery of cosmic rays, the study of charged ultra-high energy cosmic rays remains a vital activity in fundamental physics. While primary cosmic rays could not be measured directly until it was possible to get the detectors high in the atmosphere using balloons or spacecraft, nowadays very energetic cosmic rays are detected indirectly by ground-based experiments measuring their Extensive Air Showers (EAS induced Cherenkov and fluorescent light, or radio waves. Moreover, all cosmic ray measurements (performed either from space or ground rely on accurate understandings of atmospheric phenomena. The concept of the COSAT project is the inter-link between Astroparticle Physics, Remote Sensing and Atmospheric Environment, willing to investigate the energetic cosmic rays physical processes using the atmosphere as a detector in order to identify potential scientific niches in the field of space sciences. A short introduction on the current status and perspectives of the national partnership COSAT project will be given.

  2. Production of heavy water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, Larry S.; Brown, Sam W.; Phillips, Michael R.

    2017-06-06

    Disclosed are methods and apparatuses for producing heavy water. In one embodiment, a catalyst is treated with high purity air or a mixture of gaseous nitrogen and oxygen with gaseous deuterium all together flowing over the catalyst to produce the heavy water. In an alternate embodiment, the deuterium is combusted to form the heavy water. In an alternate embodiment, gaseous deuterium and gaseous oxygen is flowed into a fuel cell to produce the heavy water. In various embodiments, the deuterium may be produced by a thermal decomposition and distillation process that involves heating solid lithium deuteride to form liquid lithium deuteride and then extracting the gaseous deuterium from the liquid lithium deuteride.

  3. Cosmic Ballet or Devil's Mask?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    Stars like our Sun are members of galaxies, and most galaxies are themselves members of clusters of galaxies. In these, they move around among each other in a mostly slow and graceful ballet. But every now and then, two or more of the members may get too close for comfort - the movements become hectic, sometimes indeed dramatic, as when galaxies end up colliding. ESO PR Photo 12/04 shows an example of such a cosmic tango. This is the superb triple system NGC 6769-71, located in the southern Pavo constellation (the Peacock) at a distance of 190 million light-years. This composite image was obtained on April 1, 2004, the day of the Fifth Anniversary of ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT). It was taken in the imaging mode of the VIsible Multi-Object Spectrograph (VIMOS) on Melipal, one of the four 8.2-m Unit Telescopes of the VLT at the Paranal Observatory (Chile). The two upper galaxies, NGC 6769 (upper right) and NGC 6770 (upper left), are of equal brightness and size, while NGC 6771 (below) is about half as bright and slightly smaller. All three galaxies possess a central bulge of similar brightness. They consist of elderly, reddish stars and that of NGC 6771 is remarkable for its "boxy" shape, a rare occurrence among galaxies. Gravitational interaction in a small galaxy group NGC 6769 is a spiral galaxy with very tightly wound spiral arms, while NGC 6770 has two major spiral arms, one of which is rather straight and points towards the outer disc of NGC 6769. NGC 6770 is also peculiar in that it presents two comparatively straight dark lanes and a fainter arc that curves towards the third galaxy, NGC 6771 (below). It is also obvious from this new VLT photo that stars and gas have been stripped off NGC 6769 and NGC 6770, starting to form a common envelope around them, in the shape of a Devil's Mask. There is also a weak hint of a tenuous bridge between NGC 6769 and NGC 6771. All of these features testify to strong gravitational interaction between the three galaxies

  4. Lateral distribution of cosmic ray muons underground. Results from the CosmoALEPH experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tcaciuc, R.

    2006-07-01

    The CosmoALEPH experiment, located underground at the LEP e{sup +}e{sup -} storage ring at CERN at a depth of 320 m water equivalent, was used to study the chemical composition of primary cosmic rays up to 10 PeV energies from the measurement of high energy muons, created in extensive air showers by interactions of primary nuclei in the atmosphere. The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) and the Hadron Calorimeter of the ALEPH detector and six scintillator stations located at distances up to 1 km from each other were used to analyse the decoherence curve, multiplicity and transverse momentum distributions of energetic cosmic muons. The experimental data were compared with predictions from different Monte Carlo (MC) models and mass composition approaches. From a comparison between the measured decoherence distribution with CosmoALEPH and the MC predicted decoherence curves for proton, helium and iron, a primary composition of (77{+-}11) % protons and (23{+-}11) % iron nuclei with a {chi}{sup 2}-probability of 84 % was determined, based on the predictions of the VENUS model with the constant mass composition approach. The analysis of the decoherence curve, with consideration of correlations between the measured CosmoALEPH parameters, leads to a composition of (88{+-}8) % protons and (12{+-}8) % iron nuclei for cosmic rays with a {chi}{sup 2} -probability of 53 %. The absolute comparison between the measured multiplicity and transverse momentum distributions in the TPC and those predicted by different Monte Carlo models results also in a dominant light composition. The experimental data are in a good agreement with MC data lying between proton and helium primaries. The results obtained for the primary composition of cosmic rays up to the knee region are consistent with the results from other experiments. (orig.)

  5. What is your Cosmic Connection to the Elements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor); Lochner, James; Rohrbach, Gail; Cochrane, Kim

    2003-01-01

    This information and activity booklet describes the roles of the Big Bang, types of stars, supernovae, cosmic ray interactions, and radioactive decay in the formation of the elements. The booklet includes instructions for the following classroom activities, intended for students in Grades 9-12: Grandma's Apple Pie; Cosmic Shuffle; Nickel-odeon; Kinesthetic Big Bang; Elemental Haiku; Cosmic Ray Collisions; Cosmic Abundances; and What's Out There.

  6. Cosmic Rays Astrophysics: The Discipline, Its Scope, and Its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghouty, A. F.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation gives an overview of the discipline surrounding cosmic ray astrophysics. It includes information on recent assertions surrounding cosmic rays, exposure levels, and a short history with specific information on the origin, acceleration, transport, and modulation of cosmic rays.

  7. Search for correlations of GRB and cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jędrzejczak, K.; Kasztelan, M.; Mankiewicz, L.; Molak, M.; Nawrocki, K.; Piotrowski, L. W.; Sokołowski, M.; Szabelska, B.; Szabelski, J.; Wibig, T.; Wolfendale, A. W.; Wrochna, G.

    2007-06-01

    It is possible that violent processes resulting in Gamma Ray Bursts produce also high energy photons and cosmic rays. The possible correlations of very short GRB with, e.g., CMB, cosmic rays is briefly discussed. We have also begun preparation of the experiment correlating in real time data from Maze cosmic ray detector and Pi of the Sky robotic telescope.

  8. Cosmic Ray investigations on peak Musala in Bulgaria: A memoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavlakov, S.

    2009-11-01

    A very brief historical description of the Bulgarian Cosmic Ray investigations, in the Cosmic Ray Station on peak Musala (2925 m.a.s.l.) is presented. Difficulties of the high mountain measurements that time are mentioned, together with the hard emotional and successful work done by a small staff of young Bulgarian cosmic ray scientists.

  9. Impact of Cosmic Ray Transport on Galactic Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Ryan; Ruszkowski, Mateusz; Yang, Hsiang-Yi Karen; Gould Zweibel, Ellen

    2017-08-01

    Despite playing a fundamental role in galaxy evolution, the physical mechanisms responsible for driving galactic winds remain unclear. The role of cosmic rays generated by supernovae and young stars has very recently begun to receive significant attention due to the realization that cosmic rays can efficiently accelerate galactic winds. Microscopic cosmic ray transport processes are fundamental for determining the efficiency of cosmic ray wind driving. Previous studies focused on modeling of cosmic ray transport either via constant diffusion coefficient or via streaming proportional to the Alfv{é}n speed. However, in predominantly neutral gas, cosmic rays can propagate faster than in the ionized medium and the effective transport can be substantially larger, i.e., cosmic rays are decoupled from the gas. We perform three-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamical simulations of patches of galactic disks including the effects of cosmic rays. Our simulations include the decoupling of cosmic rays in the neutral ISM phases. We find that, compared to the ordinary diffusive cosmic ray transport case, accounting for the decoupling leads to significantly different wind properties such as the cosmic ray spatial distribution, wind speed, density, and temperature. These results have implications for the magnetization of the circumgalactic medium and the pollution of the circumgalactic medium with cosmic rays.

  10. Heavy and Thermal Oil Recovery Production Mechanisms, SUPRI TR-127

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovscek, Anthony R.; Brigham, William E.; Castanier, Louis M.

    2001-09-07

    The program spans a spectrum of topics and is divided into five categories: (i) multiphase flow and rock properties, (ii) hot fluid injection, (iii) primary heavy-oil production, (iv) reservoir definition, and (v) in-situ combustion.

  11. Inflation Fossils in Cosmic Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamionkowski, Marc

    The agreement of the predictions of inflation with increasingly precise cosmic microwave background (CMB) and large-scale-structure (LSS) data is remarkable. The notion that such a simple early-Universe scenario, based on still-mysterious ultra-high-energy physics, can explain such a wealth of precise data is simply amazing. An active ongoing program of research is afoot to seek the CMB polarization signatures of inflationary gravitational waves and measure the primordial bispectrum in order to learn about inflation. Still, there is far more that can be done to probe inflationary physics, and no stone should be left unturned in this quest. Here we propose a multi-component program of theoretical research that includes model building, new CMB/LSS tests, a potentially powerful new survey strategy, and the investigation of a new observational avenue for large-scale structure. We propose to broaden the circle of ideas to empirically probe inflation. To begin, the hemispherical power asymmetry seen in WMAP and Planck is truly striking. While it may simply be an unusual statistical fluke, a more tantalizing possibility is that it is a remnant of the pre-inflationary Universe. We propose to develop and study several physical models for this asymmetry and work out other testable predictions of these models. Only by pursuing other signatures of whatever new physics may be responsible for this asymmetry will we be able to infer if it is truly a window to new physics. We also plan to develop departures from statistical isotropy (SI) as a test of inflationary models. We have recently shown that single-field slow-roll inflation generically predicts a quadrupolar departure from SI in primordial perturbations, albeit a very small one. The power quadrupole is expected, however, to be significantly larger in more general inflationary models. We propose to calculate these power quadrupoles so that new constraints to the power quadrupole from CMB and LSS data can be applied to test

  12. Astronomers Unveiling Life's Cosmic Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Processes that laid the foundation for life on Earth -- star and planet formation and the production of complex organic molecules in interstellar space -- are yielding their secrets to astronomers armed with powerful new research tools, and even better tools soon will be available. Astronomers described three important developments at a symposium on the "Cosmic Cradle of Life" at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Chicago, IL. Chemistry Cycle The Cosmic Chemistry Cycle CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF Full Size Image Files Chemical Cycle Graphic (above image, JPEG, 129K) Graphic With Text Blocks (JPEG, 165K) High-Res TIFF (44.2M) High-Res TIFF With Text Blocks (44.2M) In one development, a team of astrochemists released a major new resource for seeking complex interstellar molecules that are the precursors to life. The chemical data released by Anthony Remijan of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and his university colleagues is part of the Prebiotic Interstellar Molecule Survey, or PRIMOS, a project studying a star-forming region near the center of our Milky Way Galaxy. PRIMOS is an effort of the National Science Foundation's Center for Chemistry of the Universe, started at the University of Virginia (UVa) in October 2008, and led by UVa Professor Brooks H. Pate. The data, produced by the NSF's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia, came from more than 45 individual observations totalling more than nine GigaBytes of data and over 1.4 million individual frequency channels. Scientists can search the GBT data for specific radio frequencies, called spectral lines -- telltale "fingerprints" -- naturally emitted by molecules in interstellar space. "We've identified more than 720 spectral lines in this collection, and about 240 of those are from unknown molecules," Remijan said. He added, "We're making available to all scientists the best collection of data below 50 GHz ever produced for

  13. Cosmic R-string in thermal history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamada, Kohei [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kobayashi, Tatsuo [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Ohashi, Keisuke [Osaka City Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mathematics and Physics; Ookouchi, Yutaka [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kyoto Univ. (Japan). The Hakubi Center for Advanced Research

    2013-03-15

    We study stabilization of an unstable cosmic string associated with spontaneously broken U(1){sub R} symmetry, which otherwise causes a dangerous roll-over process. We demonstrate that in a gauge mediation model, messengers can receive enough corrections from the thermal plasma of the supersymmetric standard model particles to stabilize the unstable modes of the string.

  14. Anomalies of the Cosmic Microwave Background

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Anders Kirstejn

    The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) is the faint afterglow of the extreme conditions that existed shortly after Big Bang. The temperature of the CMB radiation across the sky is extremely uniform, yet tiny anisotropies are present, and have with recent satellite missions been mapped to very high...

  15. Search for cosmic neutrinos with ANTARES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogazzi, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    A time integrated search for cosmic neutrinos is discussed in this thesis using four years of data collected by the ANTARES experiment. No statistically significant signal was found, therefore upper limits on the neutrino flux were derived. Limits for specific models of RX J1713.7-3946, Vela X and

  16. Alpha Shape Topology of the Cosmic Web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weygaert, Rien van de; Platen, Erwin; Vegter, Gert; Eldering, Bob; Kruithof, Nico

    2010-01-01

    We study the topology of the Megaparsec Cosmic Web on the basis of the Alpha Shapes of the galaxy distribution. The simplicial complexes of the alpha shapes are used to determine the set of Betti numbers (βk, k = 1, . . . , D), which represent a complete characterization of the topology of a

  17. Alpha Shape Topology of the Cosmic Web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weygaert, Rien van de; Vegter, Gert; Platen, Erwin; Kruithof, Nico; Eldering, Bob

    2010-01-01

    Abstract—We study the topology of the Megaparsec Cosmic Web on the basis of the Alpha Shapes of the galaxy distribution. The simplicial complexes of the alpha shapes are used to determine the set of Betti numbers (k; k = 1; : : : ;D), which represent a complete characterization of the topology of a

  18. Bayesian Cosmic Web Reconstruction: BARCODE for Clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patrick Bos, E. G.; van de Weygaert, Rien; Kitaura, Francisco; Cautun, Marius

    2016-01-01

    We describe the Bayesian \\barcode\\ formalism that has been designed towards the reconstruction of the Cosmic Web in a given volume on the basis of the sampled galaxy cluster distribution. Based on the realization that the massive compact clusters are responsible for the major share of the large

  19. Cosmic Rays above 1019 eV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, A. A.

    A brief overview of the methods of detection of ultra high-energy cosmic rays is given along with a description of data on energy spectrum, arrival directions and mass composition of the particles. The enigma presented is emphasised and the explanations currently in vogue are summarised. New instruments being developed are described along with the prospects for neutrino and photon detection.

  20. Wave diffraction by a cosmic string

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-Núñez, Isabel [Departament de Física Quàntica i Astrofísica, Facultat de Física, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Facultat de Física, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Bulashenko, Oleg, E-mail: oleg.bulashenko@ub.edu [Departament de Física Quàntica i Astrofísica, Facultat de Física, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-08-26

    We show that if a cosmic string exists, it may be identified through characteristic diffraction pattern in the energy spectrum of the observed signal. In particular, if the string is on the line of sight, the wave field is shown to fit the Cornu spiral. We suggest a simple procedure, based on Keller's geometrical theory of diffraction, which allows to explain wave effects in conical spacetime of a cosmic string in terms of interference of four characteristic rays. Our results are supposed to be valid for scalar massless waves, including gravitational waves, electromagnetic waves, or even sound in case of condensed matter systems with analogous topological defects. - Highlights: • Gravitational waves could help us to reveal cosmic strings – topological defects of early Universe. • Wave diffraction in conical spacetime of a cosmic string is solved analytically. • The Cornu spiral is shown to appear when the string is on the line of sight. • For a string located within our galaxy, the highest amplification would occur at a frequency range of LIGO detector.

  1. Probes of Cosmic Star Formation History

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I summarize X-ray diagnostic studies of cosmic star formation history in terms of evolutionary schemes for X-ray binary evolution in normal galaxies with evolving star formation. Deep X-ray imaging studies by Chandra and XMM-Newton are now beginning to constrain both the X-ray luminosity evolution of galaxies and the ...

  2. Cosmic Rays Accelerated at Cosmological Shock Waves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Based on hydrodynamic numerical simulations and diffusive shock acceleration model, we calculated the ratio of cosmic ray (CR) to thermal energy. We found that the CR fraction can be less than ∼ 0.1 in the intracluster medium, while it would be of order unity in the warm-hot intergalactic medium.

  3. Tracking performance with cosmic rays in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Cerati, G B

    2008-01-01

    The CMS Tracker is the biggest all-silicon detector in the world and is designed to be extremely efficient and accurate even in a very hostile environment such as that close to the CMS collision point. It consists of an inner pixel detector, made of three barrel layers (48M pixels) and four forward disks (16M pixels), and an outer micro-strip detector, divided in two barrel sub-detectors, TIB and TOB, and two endcap sub-detectors, TID and TEC, for a total of 9.6M strips. The commissioning of the CMS Tracker detector has been initially carried out at the Tracker Integration Facility at CERN (TIF), where cosmic ray data were collected for the strip detector only, and is still ongoing at the CMS site (LHC Point 5). Here the Strip and Pixel detectors have been installed in the experiment and are taking part to the cosmic global-runs. After an overview of the tracking algorithms for cosmic-ray data reconstruction, the resulting tracking performance on cosmic data both at TIF and at P5 are presented. The excellent ...

  4. Quasar Mass Functions Across Cosmic Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    I present mass functions of actively accreting black holes detected in different quasar surveys which in concert cover a wide range of cosmic history. I briefly address what we learn from these mass functions. I summarize the motivation for such a study and the methods by which we determine black...

  5. The Enigma of Cosmic Rays–2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 11. The Enigma of Cosmic Rays - 2. Biman Nath. General Article Volume 12 Issue 11 November 2007 pp 44-53. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/012/11/0044-0053. Keywords.

  6. Numerical likelihood analysis of cosmic ray anisotropies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos Hojvat et al.

    2003-07-02

    A numerical likelihood approach to the determination of cosmic ray anisotropies is presented which offers many advantages over other approaches. It allows a wide range of statistically meaningful hypotheses to be compared even when full sky coverage is unavailable, can be readily extended in order to include measurement errors, and makes maximum unbiased use of all available information.

  7. Could the cosmic acceleration be transient?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Antonio C.C.; Lima, J.A.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IAG/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas

    2011-07-01

    Full text: The possibility of a transient cosmic acceleration appears in several theoretical scenarios and is theoretically interesting because it solves some difficulties inherent to eternally accelerating universes (like {Lambda}CDM). On the observational side, some authors, using a dynamical Ansatz for the dark energy equation of state, have suggested that the cosmic acceleration have already peaked and that we are currently witnessing its slowing down. Here, a possible slowing down of the cosmic expansion is investigated through a cosmographic approach. By expanding the luminous distance to fourth order and fitting the SNe Ia data from the most recent compilations (Union, Constitution and Union 2), the marginal likelihood distribution for the deceleration parameter today indicates that there is a considerable probability for q{sub 0} > 0. Also in contrast to the prediction of the {Lambda}CDM model, the cosmographic q(z) reconstruction suggests that the cosmic acceleration could already have peaked and be presently slowing down, what would imply that the recent accelerated expansion of the Universe is a transient phenomenon. It is also shown that to describe a transient acceleration the luminous distance needs to be expanded at least to fourth order. The present cosmographic results depend neither on the validity of general relativity nor on the matter-energy contents of the Universe. (author)

  8. Nuclear War from a Cosmic Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Tegmark, Max

    2015-01-01

    I discuss the impact of computer progress on nuclear war policy, both by enabling more accurate nuclear winter simulations and by affecting the probability of war starting accidentally. I argue that from a cosmic perspective, humanity's track record of risk mitigation is inexcusably pathetic, jeopardizing the potential for life to flourish for billions of years.

  9. Low cloud properties influenced by cosmic rays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Nigel; Svensmark, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    The influence of solar variability on climate is currently uncertain. Recent observations have indicated a possible mechanism via the influence of solar modulated cosmic rays on global cloud cover. Surprisingly the influence of solar variability is strongest in low clouds (less than or equal to3 km...

  10. Cosmic emergy based ecological systems modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H.; Chen, G. Q.; Ji, X.

    2010-09-01

    Ecological systems modelling based on the unified biophysical measure of cosmic emergy in terms of embodied cosmic exergy is illustrated in this paper with ecological accounting, simulation and scenario analysis, by a case study for the regional socio-economic ecosystem associated with the municipality of Beijing. An urbanized regional ecosystem model with eight subsystems of natural support, agriculture, urban production, population, finance, land area, potential environmental impact, and culture is representatively presented in exergy circuit language with 12 state variables governing by corresponding ecodynamic equations, and 60 flows and auxiliary variables. To characterize the regional socio-economy as an ecosystem, a series of ecological indicators based on cosmic emergy are devised. For a systematic ecological account, cosmic exergy transformities are provided for various dimensions including climate flows, natural resources, industrial products, cultural products, population with educational hierarchy, and environmental emissions. For the urban ecosystem of Beijing in the period from 1990 to 2005, ecological accounting is carried out and characterized in full details. Taking 2000 as the starting point, systems modelling is realized to predict the urban evolution in a one hundred time horizon. For systems regulation, scenario analyses with essential policy-making implications are made to illustrate the long term systems effects of the expected water diversion and rise in energy price.

  11. Multiscale phenomenology of the cosmic web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aragón-Calvo, Miguel A.; van de Weygaert, Rien; Jones, Bernard J. T.

    2010-01-01

    We analyse the structure and connectivity of the distinct morphologies that define the cosmic web. With the help of our multiscale morphology filter (MMF), we dissect the matter distribution of a cosmological Lambda cold dark matter N-body computer simulation into cluster, filaments and walls. The

  12. High energy interactions of cosmic ray particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L. W.

    1986-01-01

    The highlights of seven sessions of the Conference dealing with high energy interactions of cosmic rays are discussed. High energy cross section measurements; particle production-models of experiments; nuclei and nuclear matter; nucleus-nucleus collision; searches for magnetic monopoles; and studies of nucleon decay are covered.

  13. Underground cosmic-ray experiment EMMA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuusiniemi, P.; Bezrukov, L.; Enqvist, T.

    2013-01-01

    EMMA (Experiment with MultiMuon Array) is a new approach to study the composition of cosmic rays at the knee region (1 – 10 PeV). The array will measure the multiplicity and lateral distribution of the high-energy muon component of an air shower and its arrival direction on an event-by-event basis...

  14. Charge ratio of cosmic pions in the atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, D P; Sarkar, K

    1977-01-01

    The CERN intersecting storage ring data on pp to pi /sup +or-/+X inclusive reactions can be represented by a single scaling variable eta =2p/sub T//sup 2/x/(c ln(s/s/sub 0/)), for 0.075cosmic pion spectrum at the top of the atmosphere has been estimated using this new type of scaling variable and the primary nucleon spectrum of Grigorov et al. (1971) has been used as a hadron source at the top of the atmosphere. (11 refs).

  15. Detection and imaging of atmospheric radio flashes from cosmic ray air showers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcke, H; Apel, W D; Badea, A F; Bähren, L; Bekk, K; Bercuci, A; Bertaina, M; Biermann, P L; Blümer, J; Bozdog, H; Brancus, I M; Buitink, S; Brüggemann, M; Buchholz, P; Butcher, H; Chiavassa, A; Daumiller, K; de Bruyn, A G; de Vos, C M; Di Pierro, F; Doll, P; Engel, R; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Glasstetter, R; Grupen, C; Haungs, A; Heck, D; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Huege, T; Kampert, K-H; Kant, G W; Klein, U; Kolotaev, Y; Koopman, Y; Krömer, O; Kuijpers, J; Lafebre, S; Maier, G; Mathes, H J; Mayer, H J; Milke, J; Mitrica, B; Morello, C; Navarra, G; Nehls, S; Nigl, A; Obenland, R; Oehlschläger, J; Ostapchenko, S; Over, S; Pepping, H J; Petcu, M; Petrovic, J; Plewnia, S; Rebel, H; Risse, A; Roth, M; Schieler, H; Schoonderbeek, G; Sima, O; Stümpert, M; Toma, G; Trinchero, G C; Ulrich, H; Valchierotti, S; van Buren, J; van Cappellen, W; Walkowiak, W; Weindl, A; Wijnholds, S; Wochele, J; Zabierowski, J; Zensus, J A; Zimmermann, D

    2005-05-19

    The nature of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) at energies >10(20) eV remains a mystery. They are likely to be of extragalactic origin, but should be absorbed within approximately 50 Mpc through interactions with the cosmic microwave background. As there are no sufficiently powerful accelerators within this distance from the Galaxy, explanations for UHECRs range from unusual astrophysical sources to exotic string physics. Also unclear is whether UHECRs consist of protons, heavy nuclei, neutrinos or gamma-rays. To resolve these questions, larger detectors with higher duty cycles and which combine multiple detection techniques are needed. Radio emission from UHECRs, on the other hand, is unaffected by attenuation, has a high duty cycle, gives calorimetric measurements and provides high directional accuracy. Here we report the detection of radio flashes from cosmic-ray air showers using low-cost digital radio receivers. We show that the radiation can be understood in terms of the geosynchrotron effect. Our results show that it should be possible to determine the nature and composition of UHECRs with combined radio and particle detectors, and to detect the ultrahigh-energy neutrinos expected from flavour mixing.

  16. CMB temperature bispectrum induced by cosmic strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindmarsh, Mark; Ringeval, Christophe; Suyama, Teruaki

    2009-10-01

    The cosmic microwave background (CMB) bispectrum of the temperature anisotropies induced by a network of cosmic strings is derived for small angular scales, under the assumption that the principal cause of temperature fluctuations is the Gott-Kaiser-Stebbins effect. We provide analytical expressions for all isosceles triangle configurations in Fourier space. Their overall amplitude is amplified as the inverse cube of the angle and diverges for flat triangles. The isosceles configurations generically lead to a negative bispectrum with a power-law decay ℓ-6 for large multipole ℓ. However, collapsed triangles are found to be associated with a positive bispectrum whereas the squeezed triangles still exhibit negative values. We then compare our analytical estimates to a direct computation of the bispectrum from a set of 300 statistically independent temperature maps obtained from Nambu-Goto cosmic string simulations in a Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universe. We find good agreement for the overall amplitude, the power-law behavior, and the angle dependency of the various triangle configurations. At ℓ˜500 the cosmic string Gott-Kaiser-Stebbins effect contributes approximately the same equilateral CMB bispectrum amplitude as an inflationary model with |fNLloc|≃103, if the strings contribute about 10% of the temperature power spectrum at ℓ=10. Current bounds on fNL are not derived using cosmic string bispectrum templates, and so our fNL estimate cannot be used to derive bounds on strings. However it does suggest that string bispectrum templates should be included in the search of CMB non-Gaussianities.

  17. Clusters of Galaxies and the Cosmic Web with Square Kilometre Array

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    100 s of kpc. The primary models for the in situ generation of Cosmic Ray electrons (CRes) are based on (re-)acceleration of electrons via shocks and .... 100 s and near-cluster peripheries shocks of Mach numbers of a few (1.5–4) are ...... Venkatesan, T. C. A., Batuski, D. J., Hanisch, R. J., Burns, J. O. 1994, ApJ, 436, 67.

  18. Alteration of the Carbon and Nitrogen Isotopic Composition in the Martian Surface Rocks Due to Cosmic Ray Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, A. A.; Pavlov, A. K.; Ostryakov, V. M.; Vasilyev, G. I.; Mahaffy, P.; Steele, A.

    2014-01-01

    C-13/C-12 and N-15/N-14 isotopic ratios are pivotal for our understanding of the Martian carbon cycle, history of the Martian atmospheric escape, and origin of the organic compounds on Mars. Here we demonstrate that the carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of the surface rocks on Mars can be significantly altered by the continuous exposure of Martian surface to cosmic rays. Cosmic rays can effectively produce C-13 and N-15 isotopes via spallation nuclear reactions on oxygen atoms in various Martian rocks. We calculate that in the top meter of the Martian rocks, the rates of production of both C-13 and N-15 due to galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) exposure can vary within 1.5-6 atoms/cm3/s depending on rocks' depth and chemical composition. We also find that the average solar cosmic rays can produce carbon and nitrogen isotopes at a rate comparable to GCRs in the top 5-10 cm of the Martian rocks. We demonstrate that if the total carbon content in a surface Martian rock is biological" C-13/C-12 ratio would be effectively erased by cosmic rays over 3.5 billion years of exposure. We found that for the rocks with relatively short exposure ages (e.g., 100 million years), cosmogenic changes in N-15/N-14 ratio are still very significant. We also show that a short exposure to cosmic rays of Allan Hills 84001 while on Mars can explain its high-temperature heavy nitrogen isotopic composition (N-15/N-14). Applications to Martian meteorites and the current Mars Science Laboratory mission are discussed.

  19. The cosmic-ray energy spectrum above 1016 eV measured with the LOFAR radboud air shower array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoudam, S.; Buitink, S.; Corstanje, A.; Enriquez, J. E.; Falcke, H.; Hörandel, J. R.; Nelles, A.; Rachen, J. P.; Rossetto, L.; Schellart, P.; Scholten, O.; Ter Veen, S.; Trinh, T. N G; Van Kessel, L.

    2015-01-01

    The LOFAR Radboud Air Shower Array (LORA) is an array of 20 plastic scintillation detectors installed in the center of the LOFAR radio telescope in the Netherlands to measure extensive air showers induced by cosmic rays in the Earth's atmosphere. The primary goals of LORA are to trigger the read-out

  20. Search for Antimatter with the AMS Cosmic Ray Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristinziani, Markus

    2003-03-24

    Antimatter search results of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) detector are presented. About 10{sup 8} triggers were collected in the 1998 precursor flight onboard space shuttle Discovery. This ten day mission exposed the detector on a 51.7{sup o} orbit at an altitude around 350km. Identification of charged cosmic rays is achieved by multiple energy loss and time-of-flight measurements. Bending inside the 0.15T magnetic volume yields a measurement of the absolute value of the particle's rigidity. The supplemental knowledge of the sense of traversal identifies the sign of the charge. In the rigidity range 1 < R < 140 GV no antinucleus at any rigidity was detected, while 2.86 x 10{sup 6} helium and 1.65 x 10{sup 5} heavy nuclei were precisely measured. Hence, upper limits on the flux ratio {bar Z}/Z are given. Different prior assumptions on the antimatter spectrum are considered and corresponding limits are given.

  1. AMS of heavy radionuclides at ANTARES: status and plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, A.M.; Fink, D.; Hotchkis, M.A.C.; Lawson, E.M.; Tuniz, C. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Long-lived radioisotopes are produced in the environment by cosmic ray interactions, natural radioactivity and through the use of nuclear technologies. Detection of trace amounts of anthropogenic isotopes by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is a means of monitoring the safe operation of nuclear facilities and the presence of nuclear activities, however for heavy isotopes such measurements are difficult. This paper discusses the approach taken at ANTARES in developing AMS measurement capability for the actinides and summarises the current status of the project. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  2. All-Particle Cosmic Ray Energy Spectrum Measured with 26 Icetop Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Altmann, D.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; hide

    2013-01-01

    We report on a measurement of the cosmic ray energy spectrum with the IceTop air shower array, thesurface component of the IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the South Pole. The data used in this analysiswere taken between June and October, 2007, with 26 surface stations operational at that time, corresponding to about one third of the final array. The fiducial area used in this analysis was 0.122 square kilometers.The analysis investigated the energy spectrum from 1 to 100 PeV measured for three different zenithangle ranges between 0 and 46. Because of the isotropy of cosmic rays in this energy range the spectrafrom all zenith angle intervals have to agree. The cosmic-ray energy spectrum was determined under differentassumptions on the primary mass composition. Good agreement of spectra in the three zenithangle ranges was found for the assumption of pure proton and a simple two-component model. Forzenith angles theta less than 30 deg., where the mass dependence is smallest, the knee in the cosmic ray energy spectrumwas observed at about 4 PeV, with a spectral index above the knee of about -3.1. Moreover, an indicationof a flattening of the spectrum above 22 PeV was observed.

  3. Search for Cosmic-Ray Antiproton Origins and for Cosmological Antimatter with BESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, A.; Mitchell, J. W.; Yoshimura, K.; Abe, K.; Fuke, H.; Haino, S.; Hams, T.; Hasegawa, M.; Horikoshi, A.; Itazaki, A.; hide

    2011-01-01

    The balloon-borne experiment with a superconducting spectrometer (BESS) has performed cosmic-ray observations as a US-Japan cooperative space science program, and has provided fundamental data on cosmic rays to study elementary particle phenomena in the early Universe. The BESS experiment has measured the energy spectra of cosmic-ray antiprotons to investigate signatures of possible exotic origins such as dark matter candidates or primordial black holes. and searched for heavier antinuclei that might reach Earth from antimatter domains formed in the early Universe. The apex of the BESS program was reached with the Antarctic flight of BESS-Polar II, during the 2007- 2008 Austral Summer, that obtained over 4.7 billion cosmic-ray events from 24.5 days of observation. The flight took place at the expected solar minimum, when the sensitivity of the low-energy antiproton measurements to a primary source is greatest. Here, we report the scientific restults, focusing on the long-duration flights of BESS-Polar I (2004) and BESS-Polar II (2007-2008).

  4. Muon reconstruction performance using cosmic rays in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Calderon, Alicia

    2009-01-01

    After the incident with the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in September 2008, the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) collaboration invested a considerable effort in further refining the understanding of the detector using cosmic muon data. About 300 million cosmic events were recorded with the CMS detector fully operational and the central solenoid switched on at the nominal value of 3.8 Tesla. The resulting data set provides ample statistics to study in great detail the detector performance and allows to analyze properties of cosmic rays. We present recent results on detector performance from the cosmic muon analysis activities and compare cosmic data to dedicated cosmic Monte Carlo samples. These results demonstrate the readiness of the CMS detector to do physics analysis with muons, and the study of cosmic muon properties provides interesting links to astrophysics.

  5. Satellite Constellations for Space Weather and Ionospheric Studies: Overview of the COSMIC and COSMIC-2 Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, W. S.; Pedatella, N. M.; Weiss, J.

    2016-12-01

    Measurements from constellations of low Earth orbiting (LEO) satellites are proving highly useful for ionospheric science and space weather studies. The Constellation Observing System for Meteorology Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC), a joint US/Taiwan mission launched in April 2006, is a six micro-satellite constellation carrying Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (RO) receivers. COSMIC has collected a large amount of useful data from these scientific payloads and is still currently collecting up to 1,000 RO measurement events per day on average. The GPS RO dual-frequency L-band phase and amplitude measurements can be used to observe absolute Total Electron Content (TEC) and scintillation on lines of sight between the LEO and GPS satellites, and electron density profiles via the RO method. The large number and complete global and local time coverage of COSMIC data are allowing scientists to observe ionospheric and plasmaspheric phenomena that are difficult to see with other instruments. The success of COSMIC has prompted U.S. agencies and Taiwan to execute a COSMIC follow-on mission (called COSMIC-2) that will put twelve satellites with GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) RO payloads into orbit on two launches in the 2017-20 time frame. The first launch in 2017 will place six satellites in a 520-km altitude 24 deg inclination orbit, which is ideal for low latitude ionospheric research and space weather forecasting. The planned second launch (not currently funded) places six additional satellites in a 750 km 72 deg inclination orbit to provide global coverage and increased sampling density. COSMIC-2 will make use of an advanced radio occultation receiver with an innovative beam-forming antenna design, and is expected to produce at least 10,000 high-quality atmospheric and ionospheric profiles per day from GPS and GLONASS signals to support operational weather prediction, climate monitoring, and space weather forecasting. Each COSMIC-2 spacecraft

  6. Energetic feedback in galaxies: Processing of interstellar silicate grains by cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bringa, E M; Kucheyev, S O; Loeffler, M J; Baragiola, R A; Tielens, A G W M; Dai, Z R; Graham, G; Bajt, S; Bradley, J P; Dukes, C A; Felter, T E; Torres, D F; van Breugel, W

    2006-05-10

    The formation and evolution of stars and galaxies is a complex process that involves the cooling and collapse of dense interstellar clouds as well as energetic feedback on these clouds. Interstellar dust grains are central to the radiative transfer, thermal balance, and molecular processes in these clouds and can provide an important diagnostic. Hence, the effects of energetic processing of interstellar dust may have significant consequences. r This may be studied in our own Galaxy, where observations have shown that an appreciable fraction of silicates formed in the outflows from red giants and supergiants have a crystalline structure. Yet, the fraction of crystalline silicates in the interstellar medium is very small, pointing towards an efficient crystalline crystalline-to to-amorphous conversion process. Here we report experimental and modeling results that show that relatively ''low'' energy (0.1 - 5.0 GeV) heavy ion cosmic rays can rapidly ({approx}70 Million yrs) amorphize crystalline silicate grains ejected by stars into the interstellar medium. The implications of this are briefly discussed. We also examine the effects of cosmic ray processing of silicates in the solar system and in stellar debris disks. In the latter systems, cosmic ray processing may play a role for grains trapped in resonance with planetary companions. We speculate that energetic processing of interstellar dust is likely to be even more important in s star forming galaxies, which have higher cosmic ray fluxes due to tar their much larger star formation rates and their emerging active black holes with associated jets.

  7. Scaling violation in fragmentation region at energies above 10-15 eV based on the data on cosmic ray hadron component

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The ratio of intensity of energetic hadrons, having no visible accompaniment, to the total flux of hadrons of the same energy at 4380m above sea level is given. The ratio is much more than expected for scaling model with proton primaries. This result could not be explained by complex chemical composition of primary cosmic ray and indicates the scaling violation in fragmentation region.

  8. MEASUREMENT OF THE ISOTOPIC COMPOSITION OF HYDROGEN AND HELIUM NUCLEI IN COSMIC RAYS WITH THE PAMELA EXPERIMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adriani, O.; Bongi, M. [Department of Physics, University of Florence, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Barbarino, G. C. [Department of Physics, University of Naples ' ' Federico II' ' , I-80126 Naples (Italy); Bazilevskaya, G. A. [Lebedev Physical Institute, RU-119991, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bellotti, R.; Bruno, A. [Department of Physics, University of Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Boezio, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Carbone, R. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Bogomolov, E. A. [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, RU-194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Borisov, S.; Casolino, M.; De Pascale, M. P. [INFN, Sezione di Rome ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , I-00133 Rome (Italy); Bottai, S. [INFN, Sezione di Florence, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Cafagna, F. [INFN, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Campana, D. [INFN, Sezione di Naples, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Carlson, P. [KTH, Department of Physics, and the Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, AlbaNova University Centre, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Castellini, G. [IFAC, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Danilchenko, I. A. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, RU-115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); De Santis, C. [Department of Physics, University of Rome ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , I-00133 Rome (Italy); and others

    2013-06-10

    The satellite-borne experiment PAMELA has been used to make new measurements of cosmic ray H and He isotopes. The isotopic composition was measured between 100 and 600 MeV/n for hydrogen and between 100 and 900 MeV/n for helium isotopes over the 23rd solar minimum from 2006 July to 2007 December. The energy spectrum of these components carries fundamental information regarding the propagation of cosmic rays in the galaxy which are competitive with those obtained from other secondary to primary measurements such as B/C.

  9. Heavy Flavour Production

    OpenAIRE

    Nason, P; Ridolfi, G.; Frixione, S.

    1995-01-01

    We review the status of heavy flavour production in QCD. Comparison of experimental and theoretical results for top and bottom production are given. Selected topics in charm production are also discussed.

  10. Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 4. Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution - Development of Chronological Records and Geochemical Monitoring. Rohit Shrivastav. General Article Volume 6 Issue 4 April 2001 pp 62-68 ...

  11. Heavy Quarks: Summary Report

    CERN Document Server

    Baines, J.; Behnke, O.; Bracinik, J.; Cacciari, M.; Corradi, M.; Dainese, A.; Diglio, S.; Eskola, K.J.; Eynck, T.O.; Geiser, A.; Grindhammer, G.; Jung, H.; Kniehl, B.A.; Kolhinen, V.J.; Kretzer, S.; Kutak, K.; Laenen, Eric; Lagouri, Th.; Lipatov, A.V.; Maltoni, F.; Martin, A.D.; Meyer, A.; Morsch, A.; Motyka, L.; Peters, K.; Petrucci, F.; Piskounova, O.I.; Ranieri, R.; Ruiz, H.; Ryskin, M.G.; Schienbein, I.; Smith, J.; Smizanska, M.; Spiesberger, H.; Tonazzo, A.; Uwer, U.; Verducci, M.; Vogt, R.; Weiser, C.; Zotov, N.P.; Lagouri, Th.

    2006-01-01

    The present status of the heavy-quark production theory is critically reviewed in the first contribution. The second contribution summarises the present heavy flavour data from HERA and gives an outlook of what can be expected from HERA-II. The potential of the LHC experiments for charm and beauty physics is reviewed in the 3rd contribution. Then the relevance of saturation and small-x effects to heavy quark production at HERA and at the LHC are discussed. The non-perturbative aspects of heavy-quark fragmentation and their relevance to HERA and LHC are discussed in the next contribution. Finally, a comparison of different theoretical predictions for HERA and LHC based on different approaches is presented.

  12. The COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Interaction Code (COSMIC for use in data assimilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Shuttleworth

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil moisture status in land surface models (LSMs can be updated by assimilating cosmic-ray neutron intensity measured in air above the surface. This requires a fast and accurate model to calculate the neutron intensity from the profiles of soil moisture modeled by the LSM. The existing Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX model is sufficiently accurate but too slow to be practical in the context of data assimilation. Consequently an alternative and efficient model is needed which can be calibrated accurately to reproduce the calculations made by MCNPX and used to substitute for MCNPX during data assimilation. This paper describes the construction and calibration of such a model, COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Interaction Code (COSMIC, which is simple, physically based and analytic, and which, because it runs at least 50 000 times faster than MCNPX, is appropriate in data assimilation applications. The model includes simple descriptions of (a degradation of the incoming high-energy neutron flux with soil depth, (b creation of fast neutrons at each depth in the soil, and (c scattering of the resulting fast neutrons before they reach the soil surface, all of which processes may have parameterized dependency on the chemistry and moisture content of the soil. The site-to-site variability in the parameters used in COSMIC is explored for 42 sample sites in the COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System (COSMOS, and the comparative performance of COSMIC relative to MCNPX when applied to represent interactions between cosmic-ray neutrons and moist soil is explored. At an example site in Arizona, fast-neutron counts calculated by COSMIC from the average soil moisture profile given by an independent network of point measurements in the COSMOS probe footprint are similar to the fast-neutron intensity measured by the COSMOS probe. It was demonstrated that, when used within a data assimilation framework to assimilate COSMOS probe counts into the Noah land surface

  13. Multi-messenger aspects of cosmic neutrinos*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahlers Markus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent observation of TeV-PeV neutrinos by IceCube has opened a new window to the high-energy Universe. I will discuss this signal in the context of multi-messenger astronomy. For extragalactic source scenarios the corresponding gamma-rays are not directly observable due to interactions with the cosmic radiation backgrounds. Nevertheless, the isotropic sub-TeV gamma ray background observed by Fermi-LAT contains indirect information from secondary emission produced in electromagnetic cascades. On the other hand, observation of PeV gamma rays would provide a smoking-gun signal for Galactic emission. Interestingly, the overall energy density of the observed neutrino flux is close to a theoretical limit for neutrino production in ultra-high energy cosmic ray sources and might indicate a common origin of these phenomena. I will highlight various multi-messenger relations and their implications for neutrino source scenarios.

  14. A Detector for Cosmic Microwave Background Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollack, E.; Cao, N.; Chuss, D.; Hsieh, W.-T.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Stevenson, T.; U-yen, K.

    2008-01-01

    We present preliminary design and development work on polarized detectors intended to enable Cosmic Microwave Background polarization measurements that will probe the first moments of the universe. The ultimate measurement will be challenging, requiring background-limited detectors and good control of systematic errors. Toward this end, we are integrating the beam control of HE-11 feedhorns with the sensitivity of transition-edge sensors. The coupling between these two devices is achieved via waveguide probe antennas and superconducting microstrip lines. This implementation allows band-pass filters to be incorporated on the detector chip. We believe that a large collection of single-mode polarized detectors will eventually be required for the reliable detection of the weak polarized signature that is expected to result from gravitational waves produced by cosmic inflation. This focal plane prototype is an important step along the path to this detection, resulting in a capability that will enable various future high performance instrument concepts.

  15. The glacial cycles and cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkby, Jasper; Müller, R A

    2004-01-01

    The cause of the glacial cycles remains a mystery. The origin is widely accepted to be astronomical since paleoclimatic archives contain strong spectral components that match the frequencies of Earth's orbital modulation. Milankovitch insolation theory contains similar frequencies and has become established as the standard model of the glacial cycles. However, high precision paleoclimatic data have revealed serious discrepancies with the Milankovitch model that fundamentally challenge its validity and re-open the question of what causes the glacial cycles. We propose here that the ice ages are initially driven not by insolation cycles but by cosmic ray changes, probably through their effect on clouds. This conclusion is based on a wide range of evidence, including results presented here on speleothem growth in caves in Austria and Oman, and on a record of cosmic ray flux over the past 220 kyr obtained from the 10Be composition of deep-ocean sediments.

  16. Solar cosmic rays fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Miroshnichenko, Leonty

    2015-01-01

    The book summarizes the results of solar cosmic ray (SCR) investigations since 1942. The present monograph, unlike the reviews published earlier, treats the problem in self-contained form, in all its associations—from fundamental astrophysical aspects to geophysical, aeronautical and cosmonautical applications. It includes a large amount of new data, accumulated during the last several decades of space research. As a result of the "information burst" in space physics, there are a lot of new interesting theoretical concepts, models and ideas that deserve attention. The author gives an extensive bibliography, which covers non-partially the main achievements and failures in this field. The book will be helpful for a wide audience of space physicists and it will be relevant to graduate and postgraduate courses. The book will serve as a reference work for researchers and students in solar physics and astrophysical plasma physics, as well as in cosmic rays physics, astroparticle physics, space science, solar-terr...

  17. Cosmic Muon Detection for Geophysical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Oláh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A portable cosmic muon detector has been developed for environmental, geophysical, or industrial applications. The device is a tracking detector based on the Close Cathode Chamber, an MWPC-like technology, allowing operation in natural underground caves or artificial tunnels, far from laboratory conditions. The compact, low power consumption system with sensitive surface of 0.1 m2 measures the angular distribution of cosmic muons with a resolution of 10 mrad, allowing for a detailed mapping of the rock thickness above the muon detector. Demonstration of applicability of the muon telescope (REGARD Muontomograph for civil engineering and measurements in artificial underground tunnels or caverns are presented.

  18. Cosmic Ray Diffusion with Magnetic Focusing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkov, Mikhail

    The cosmic ray transport along the mean magnetic field, controlled by fast pitch-angle scattering on magnetic fluctuations, has been long considered to be largely diffusive. On the other hand, long-scale variations in the mean field add a convective aspect to the transport due to the magnetic mirror force. The Chapman-Enskog approach is applied to the pitch-angle averaged spatial transport. Its convective part is shown to arise only due to this magnetic focusing effect. No “telegrapher” (mirror force independent) term emerges in any order of expansion, contrary to recent claims in the literature. Implications of the obtained transport equation for the spectra of cosmic rays accelerated in strong shocks and anomalous CR transport in Heliosphere are considered.

  19. Cosmic Gauge-Field Dark Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devulder, Christopher; Caldwell, Robert

    2017-01-01

    We present a cosmological model in which dark energy consists of a cosmic gauge field. At early times it behaves like radiation; at late times it drives cosmic acceleration. By varying the number of fields, their coupling strength and handedness, a wide range of behavior is shown to emerge. Joint constraints on the model from SNe, BAO and CMB data are presented. We discuss the possibility that the gauge field may seed a spectrum of primordial gravitational waves with a distinct imprint on the power spectrum, as well as act like a dissipative medium for high frequency gravitational waves. We show that this model could have an impact on the B-mode polarization pattern in the CMB, as well as future probes that use standard sirens to constrain the energy budget of the Universe.

  20. CMB temperature trispectrum of cosmic strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindmarsh, Mark; Ringeval, Christophe; Suyama, Teruaki

    2010-03-01

    We provide an analytical expression for the trispectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature anisotropies induced by cosmic strings. Our result is derived for the small angular scales under the assumption that the temperature anisotropy is induced by the Gott-Kaiser-Stebbins effect. The trispectrum is predicted to decay with a noninteger power-law exponent ℓ-ρ with 6<ρ<7, depending on the string microstructure, and thus on the string model. For Nambu-Goto strings, this exponent is related to the string mean square velocity and the loop distribution function. We then explore two classes of wave number configuration in Fourier space, the kite and trapezium quadrilaterals. The trispectrum can be of any sign and appears to be strongly enhanced for all squeezed quadrilaterals.

  1. THE LOCAL GROUP IN THE COSMIC WEB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forero-Romero, J. E. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de los Andes, Cra. 1 No. 18A-10, Edificio Ip, Bogotá (Colombia); González, R., E-mail: je.forero@uniandes.edu.co, E-mail: regonzar@astro.puc.cl [Instituto de Astrofísica, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, Santiago (Chile)

    2015-01-20

    We explore the characteristics of the cosmic web around Local-Group (LG)-like pairs using a cosmological simulation in the ΛCDM cosmology. We use the Hessian of the gravitational potential to classify regions on scales of ∼2 Mpc as a peak, sheet, filament, or void. The sample of LG counterparts is represented by two samples of halo pairs. The first is a general sample composed of pairs with similar masses and isolation criteria as observed for the LG. The second is a subset with additional observed kinematic constraints such as relative pair velocity and separation. We find that the pairs in the LG sample with all constraints are: (1) preferentially located in filaments and sheets, (2) located in a narrow range of local overdensity 0 < δ < 2, web ellipticity 0.1 < e < 1.0, and prolateness –0.4 < p < 0.4, (3) strongly aligned with the cosmic web. The alignments are such that the pair orbital angular momentum tends to be perpendicular to the smallest tidal eigenvector, e-hat {sub 3}, which lies along the filament direction or the sheet plane. A stronger alignment is present for the vector linking the two halos with the vector e-hat {sub 3}. Additionally, we fail to find a strong correlation between the spin of each halo in the pair with the cosmic web. All of these trends are expected to a great extent from the selection of LG total mass in the general sample. Applied to the observed LG, there is a potential conflict between the alignments of the different satellite planes and the numerical evidence for satellite accretion along filaments; the direction defined by e-hat {sub 3}. This highlights the relevance of achieving a precise characterization for the location of the LG in the cosmic web in the cosmological context provided by ΛCDM.

  2. Cosmic strings and baryon decay catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Ruth; Perkins, W. B.; Davis, A.-C.; Brandenberger, R. H.

    1989-01-01

    Cosmic strings, like monopoles, can catalyze proton decay. For integer charged fermions, the cross section for catalysis is not amplified, unlike in the case of monopoles. The catalysis processes are reviewed both in the free quark and skyrmion pictures and the implications for baryogenesis are discussed. A computation of the cross section for monopole catalyzed skyrmion decay is presented using classical physics. Also discussed are some effects which can screen catalysis processes.

  3. The Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Grygar, Jiří; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 798, Oct (2015), s. 172-213 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14AR005; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Pierre Auger Observatory * high energy cosmic rays * hybrid observatory * water Cherenkov detectors * air fluorescence detectors Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.200, year: 2015

  4. Fundamentals of Aerospace Medicine: Cosmic Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagshaw, Michael; Cucionotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    Cosmic rays were discovered in 1911 by the Austrian physicist, Victor Hess. The planet earth is continuously bathed in high-energy galactic cosmic ionizing radiation (GCR), emanating from outside the solar system, and sporadically exposed to bursts of energetic particles from the sun referred to as solar particle events (SPEs). The main source of GCR is believed to be supernovae (exploding stars), while occasionally a disturbance in the sun's atmosphere (solar flare or coronal mass ejection) leads to a surge of radiation particles with sufficient energy to penetrate the earth's magnetic field and enter the atmosphere. The inhabitants of planet earth gain protection from the effects of cosmic radiation from the earth s magnetic field and the atmosphere, as well as from the sun's magnetic field and solar wind. These protective effects extend to the occupants of aircraft flying within the earth s atmosphere, although the effects can be complex for aircraft flying at high altitudes and high latitudes. Travellers in space do not have the benefit of this protection and are exposed to an ionizing radiation field very different in magnitude and quality from the exposure of individuals flying in commercial airliners. The higher amounts and distinct types of radiation qualities in space lead to a large need for understanding the biological effects of space radiation. It is recognized that although there are many overlaps between the aviation and the space environments, there are large differences in radiation dosimetry, risks and protection for airline crew members, passengers and astronauts. These differences impact the application of radiation protection principles of risk justification, limitation, and the principle of as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). This chapter accordingly is divided into three major sections, the first dealing with the basic physics and health risks, the second with the commercial airline experience, and the third with the aspects of cosmic

  5. Energy estimation of cosmic rays with the Engineering Radio Array of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anastasi, G. A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Arsene, N.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Avila, G.; Awal, N.; Badescu, A. M.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blaess, S. G.; Blanco, A.; Blanco, M.; Blazek, J.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bretz, T.; Bridgeman, A.; Brogueira, P.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Jong, S. J.; De Mauro, G.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dorofeev, A.; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q.; dos Anjos, R. C.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fratu, O.; Freire, M. M.; Fujii, T.; García, B.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Gherghel-Lascu, A.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Głas, D.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Golup, G.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; González, N.; Gookin, B.; Gordon, J.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Hartmann, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Johnsen, J. A.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Kuempel, D.; Kukec Mezek, G.; Kunka, N.; Kuotb Awad, A. W.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopes, L.; López, R.; López Casado, A.; Louedec, K.; Lucero, A.; Malacari, M.; Mallamaci, M.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Meissner, R.; Mello, V. B. B.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Müller, S.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nguyen, P. H.; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, L.; Núñez, L. A.; Ochilo, L.; Oikonomou, F.; Olinto, A.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; PÈ©kala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrov, Y.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Reinert, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Rogozin, D.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sanabria Gomez, J. D.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sarmiento-Cano, C.; Sato, R.; Scarso, C.; Schauer, M.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schmidt, D.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sonntag, S.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanca, D.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suarez Durán, M.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tepe, A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trini, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van Bodegom, P.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vasquez, R.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Welling, C.; Werner, F.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyński, H.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yang, L.; Yapici, T.; Yushkov, A.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zepeda, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zuccarello, F.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) is part of the Pierre Auger Observatory and is used to detect the radio emission of cosmic-ray air showers. These observations are compared to the data of the surface detector stations of the Observatory, which provide well-calibrated information on the cosmic-ray energies and arrival directions. The response of the radio stations in the 30-80 MHz regime has been thoroughly calibrated to enable the reconstruction of the incoming electric field. For the latter, the energy deposit per area is determined from the radio pulses at each observer position and is interpolated using a two-dimensional function that takes into account signal asymmetries due to interference between the geomagnetic and charge-excess emission components. The spatial integral over the signal distribution gives a direct measurement of the energy transferred from the primary cosmic ray into radio emission in the AERA frequency range. We measure 15.8 MeV of radiation energy for a 1 EeV air shower arriving perpendicularly to the geomagnetic field. This radiation energy—corrected for geometrical effects—is used as a cosmic-ray energy estimator. Performing an absolute energy calibration against the surface-detector information, we observe that this radio-energy estimator scales quadratically with the cosmic-ray energy as expected for coherent emission. We find an energy resolution of the radio reconstruction of 22% for the data set and 17% for a high-quality subset containing only events with at least five radio stations with signal.

  6. Cosmic antimatter; L`antimatiere cosmique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarle, G.; Swordy, S. [Michigan Universite (United States)]|[Chicago Universite (United States)

    1998-06-01

    In 1928 Paul Dirac forecasted the existence of antimatter and 4 years later Carl Anderson detected the first antiparticle: the positron in a cloud chamber while studying cosmic radiation. Antiprotons were more difficult to find but in 1955 physicists from Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory got some in a particle accelerator. In 1995 a team from the CERN synthesized atoms of anti-hydrogen by binding positrons to antiprotons in a particle accelerator. Astrophysicists have built more and more complex detectors to study cosmic rays. The detector HEAT (high energy antimatter telescope) has been designed to study positrons above the atmosphere. This detector has been launched for the first time in 1994 and has measured cosmic radiation for 32 hours at an altitude of 37000 meters. The results were challenging: whereas the number of low energy positrons detected agrees with the theory, the number of high energy positrons is too important. It suggests the existence of unknown sources of positrons somewhere in the universe. The massive particles that interact weakly (WIMP) could be such sources. This article draws the history of the quest for antimatter and its implications in cosmology, the detector HEAT is described. (A.C.) 4 refs.

  7. Theory Summary: Very High Energy Cosmic Rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Subir

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a summary of ISVHECRI 2012 from a theorist’s perspective. A hundred years after their discovery, there is renewed interest in very high energy cosmic raysand their interactions which can provide unique information on new physics well beyond the Standard Model if only we knew how to unambiguously decipher the experimental data. While the observational situation has improved dramatically on the past decade with regard to both improved statistics and better understood systematics, the long standing questions regarding the origin of cosmic rays remain only partially answered, while further questions have been raised by new data. A recent development discussed at this Symposium is the advent of forward physics data from several experiments at the LHC, which have broadly vindicated the air shower simulation Monte Carlos currently in use and reduced their uncertainties further. Nevertheless there is still a major extrapolation required to interpret the highest energy air showers observed which appear to be undergoing a puzzling change in their elemental composition, even casting doubt on whether the much vaunted GZK cutoff has indeedbeen observed. The situation is further compounded by the apparent disagreement between Auger and Telescope Array data. A crucial diagnostic will be provided by the detection of the accompanying ultra-high energy cosmic neutrinos — two intriguing events have recently been recorded by IceCube.

  8. Apparent cosmic acceleration from Type Ia supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, Lawrence H.; Heinesen, Asta; Wiltshire, David L.

    2017-11-01

    Parameters that quantify the acceleration of cosmic expansion are conventionally determined within the standard Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) model, which fixes spatial curvature to be homogeneous. Generic averages of Einstein's equations in inhomogeneous cosmology lead to models with non-rigidly evolving average spatial curvature, and different parametrizations of apparent cosmic acceleration. The timescape cosmology is a viable example of such a model without dark energy. Using the largest available supernova data set, the JLA catalogue, we find that the timescape model fits the luminosity distance-redshift data with a likelihood that is statistically indistinguishable from the standard spatially flat Λ cold dark matter cosmology by Bayesian comparison. In the timescape case cosmic acceleration is non-zero but has a marginal amplitude, with best-fitting apparent deceleration parameter, q_{0}=-0.043^{+0.004}_{-0.000}. Systematic issues regarding standardization of supernova light curves are analysed. Cuts of data at the statistical homogeneity scale affect light-curve parameter fits independent of cosmology. A cosmological model dependence of empirical changes to the mean colour parameter is also found. Irrespective of which model ultimately fits better, we argue that as a competitive model with a non-FLRW expansion history, the timescape model may prove a useful diagnostic tool for disentangling selection effects and astrophysical systematics from the underlying expansion history.

  9. Dirac Born Infeld (DBI) Cosmic Strings

    CERN Document Server

    Babichev, Eugeny; Caprini, Chiara; Martin, Jerome; Steer, Daniele A

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by brane physics, we consider the non-linear Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) extension of the Abelian-Higgs model and study the corresponding cosmic string configurations. The model is defined by a potential term, assumed to be of the mexican hat form, and a DBI action for the kinetic terms. We show that it is a continuous deformation of the Abelian-Higgs model, with a single deformation parameter depending on a dimensionless combination of the scalar coupling constant, the vacuum expectation value of the scalar field at infinity, and the brane tension. By means of numerical calculations, we investigate the profiles of the corresponding DBI-cosmic strings and prove that they have a core which is narrower than that of Abelian-Higgs strings. We also show that the corresponding action is smaller than in the standard case suggesting that their formation could be favoured in brane models. Moreover we show that the DBI-cosmic string solutions are non-pathological everywhere in parameter space. Finally, in the lim...

  10. Universal Cosmic Absolute and Modern Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostro, Ludwik

    The official Sciences, especially all natural sciences, respect in their researches the principle of methodic naturalism i.e. they consider all phenomena as entirely natural and therefore in their scientific explanations they do never adduce or cite supernatural entities and forces. The purpose of this paper is to show that Modern Science has its own self-existent, self-acting, and self-sufficient Natural All-in Being or Omni-Being i.e. the entire Nature as a Whole that justifies the scientific methodic naturalism. Since this Natural All-in Being is one and only It should be considered as the own scientifically justified Natural Absolute of Science and should be called, in my opinion, the Universal Cosmic Absolute of Modern Science. It will be also shown that the Universal Cosmic Absolute is ontologically enormously stratified and is in its ultimate i.e. in its most fundamental stratum trans-reistic and trans-personal. It means that in its basic stratum. It is neither a Thing or a Person although It contains in Itself all things and persons with all other sentient and conscious individuals as well, On the turn of the 20th century the Science has begun to look for a theory of everything, for a final theory, for a master theory. In my opinion the natural Universal Cosmic Absolute will constitute in such a theory the radical all penetrating Ultimate Basic Reality and will substitute step by step the traditional supernatural personal Absolute.

  11. Lagrangian methods of cosmic web classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, J. D.; Faltenbacher, A.; Johnson, M. S. T.

    2016-05-01

    The cosmic web defines the large-scale distribution of matter we see in the Universe today. Classifying the cosmic web into voids, sheets, filaments and nodes allows one to explore structure formation and the role environmental factors have on halo and galaxy properties. While existing studies of cosmic web classification concentrate on grid-based methods, this work explores a Lagrangian approach where the V-web algorithm proposed by Hoffman et al. is implemented with techniques borrowed from smoothed particle hydrodynamics. The Lagrangian approach allows one to classify individual objects (e.g. particles or haloes) based on properties of their nearest neighbours in an adaptive manner. It can be applied directly to a halo sample which dramatically reduces computational cost and potentially allows an application of this classification scheme to observed galaxy samples. Finally, the Lagrangian nature admits a straightforward inclusion of the Hubble flow negating the necessity of a visually defined threshold value which is commonly employed by grid-based classification methods.

  12. The Cosmic Dust Experiment of AIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, A.; James, D.; Horanyi, M.

    2008-12-01

    The Cosmic Dust Experiment (CDE) onboard the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) mission is a dust impact experiment designed to monitor the variability of the cosmic dust in ux. The instrument consists of fourteen permanently polarized thin plastic film sensors that generate an electrical signal when an impacting dust particle penetrates them. The total surface area is about 0.1 square meters and the detection threshold is about a micron in particle radius. The variability of these small grains is assumed to follow the variability of the dominant 100 micron radius particles, hence the measured flux can be used in correlation studies with various Noctilucent Cloud (NLC) activity indexes. CDE has been observing the cosmic dust influx since June 2007. In this talk, we present the first nine months of reduced data, focusing on the observed temporal and spatial variability of the dust influx. Data collected after February 2008 show increased levels of background noise and preliminary work on reducing this data will also be presented.

  13. Cosmic Ray Data in TRT Barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Hance

    "I had a great day in August when I went into SR1," said Daniel Froidevaux, former project leader of the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker, "not only had all SCT barrels arrived at CERN, but there were cosmic ray tracks seen in the TRT!" Daniel's excitement was mirrored by the rest of the TRT collaboration when, on July 29, the first cosmic ray tracks were seen in the barrel. Along with many others in the community, Daniel was quick to point out that this is the cumulative result of years of R&D, test beam work, and an intense installation and integration schedule. Indeed, the cosmic ray readout is only possible through the coordination of many efforts, from detector mechanics to module assembly, power and high voltage control, cooling, gas systems, electronics and cabling, data acquisition, and monitoring. "Many people have worked very hard on the the TRT, some of them for more than 10 years," said Brig Williams, the leader of the UPenn group responsible for much of the TRT front end electronics. He ...

  14. Cosmic Radiation Dose Measurements from the RaD-X Flight Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Christopher J.; Gronoff, Guillaume P.; Norman, Ryan B.; Hayes, Bryan M.; Lusby, Terry C.; Straume, Tore; Tobiska, W. Kent; Hands, Alex; Ryden, Keith; Benton, Eric; hide

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X) stratospheric balloon flight mission obtained measurements for improving the understanding of cosmic radiation transport in the atmosphere and human exposure to this ionizing radiation field in the aircraft environment. The value of dosimetric measurements from the balloon platform is that they can be used to characterize cosmic ray primaries, the ultimate source of aviation radiation exposure. In addition, radiation detectors were flown to assess their potential application to long-term, continuous monitoring of the aircraft radiation environment. The RaD-X balloon was successfully launched from Fort Sumner, New Mexico (34.5 degrees North, 104.2 degrees West) on 25 September 2015. Over 18 hours of flight data were obtained from each of the four different science instruments at altitudes above 20 kilometers. The RaD-X balloon flight was supplemented by contemporaneous aircraft measurements. Flight-averaged dosimetric quantities are reported at seven altitudes to provide benchmark measurements for improving aviation radiation models. The altitude range of the flight data extends from commercial aircraft altitudes to above the Pfotzer maximum where the dosimetric quantities are influenced by cosmic ray primaries. The RaD-X balloon flight observed an absence of the Pfotzer maximum in the measurements of dose equivalent rate.

  15. Practical Applications of Cosmic Ray Science: Spacecraft, Aircraft, Ground Based Computation and Control Systems and Human Health and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, William; Koontz, Steve; Normand, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we review the discovery of cosmic ray effects on the performance and reliability of microelectronic systems as well as on human health and safety, as well as the development of the engineering and health science tools used to evaluate and mitigate cosmic ray effects in earth surface, atmospheric flight, and space flight environments. Three twentieth century technological developments, 1) high altitude commercial and military aircraft; 2) manned and unmanned spacecraft; and 3) increasingly complex and sensitive solid state micro-electronics systems, have driven an ongoing evolution of basic cosmic ray science into a set of practical engineering tools (e.g. ground based test methods as well as high energy particle transport and reaction codes) needed to design, test, and verify the safety and reliability of modern complex electronic systems as well as effects on human health and safety. The effects of primary cosmic ray particles, and secondary particle showers produced by nuclear reactions with spacecraft materials, can determine the design and verification processes (as well as the total dollar cost) for manned and unmanned spacecraft avionics systems. Similar considerations apply to commercial and military aircraft operating at high latitudes and altitudes near the atmospheric Pfotzer maximum. Even ground based computational and controls systems can be negatively affected by secondary particle showers at the Earth's surface, especially if the net target area of the sensitive electronic system components is large. Accumulation of both primary cosmic ray and secondary cosmic ray induced particle shower radiation dose is an important health and safety consideration for commercial or military air crews operating at high altitude/latitude and is also one of the most important factors presently limiting manned space flight operations beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO).

  16. The basis for cosmic ray feedback: Written on the wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweibel, Ellen G.

    2017-05-01

    Star formation and supermassive black hole growth in galaxies appear to be self-limiting. The mechanisms for self-regulation are known as feedback. Cosmic rays, the relativistic particle component of interstellar and intergalactic plasma, are among the agents of feedback. Because cosmic rays are virtually collisionless in the plasma environments of interest, their interaction with the ambient medium is primarily mediated by large scale magnetic fields and kinetic scale plasma waves. Because kinetic scales are much smaller than global scales, this interaction is most conveniently described by fluid models. In this paper, I discuss the kinetic theory and the classical theory of cosmic ray hydrodynamics (CCRH) which follows from assuming cosmic rays interact only with self-excited waves. I generalize CCRH to generalized cosmic ray hydrodynamics, which accommodates interactions with extrinsic turbulence, present examples of cosmic ray feedback, and assess where progress is needed.

  17. A Bayesian framework for cosmic string searches in CMB maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuca, Razvan; Hernández, Oscar F.

    2017-08-01

    There exists various proposals to detect cosmic strings from Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) or 21 cm temperature maps. Current proposals do not aim to find the location of strings on sky maps, all of these approaches can be thought of as a statistic on a sky map. We propose a Bayesian interpretation of cosmic string detection and within that framework, we derive a connection between estimates of cosmic string locations and cosmic string tension Gμ. We use this Bayesian framework to develop a machine learning framework for detecting strings from sky maps and outline how to implement this framework with neural networks. The neural network we trained was able to detect and locate cosmic strings on noiseless CMB temperature map down to a string tension of Gμ=5 ×10-9 and when analyzing a CMB temperature map that does not contain strings, the neural network gives a 0.95 probability that Gμ<=2.3×10-9.

  18. Hydroponics reducing effluent's heavy metals discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rababah, Abdellah; Al-Shuha, Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the capacity of Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) to control effluent's heavy metals discharge. A commercial hydroponic system was adapted to irrigate lettuces with primary treated wastewater for studying the potential heavy metals removal. A second commercial hydroponic system was used to irrigate the same type of lettuces with nutrient solution and this system was used as a control. Results showed that lettuces grew well when irrigated with primary treated effluent in the commercial hydroponic system. The NFT-plant system heavy metals removal efficiency varied amongst the different elements, The system's removal efficiency for Cr was more than 92%, Ni more than 85%, in addition to more than 60% reduction of B, Pb, and Zn. Nonetheless, the NFT-plants system removal efficiencies for As, Cd and Cu were lower than 30%. Results show that lettuces accumulated heavy metals in leaves at concentrations higher than the maximum acceptable European and Australian levels. Therefore, non-edible plants such as flowers or pyrethrum are recommended as value added crops for the proposed NFT.

  19. Cold Accretion from the Cosmic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    The cosmic web is a vast, foam-like network of filaments and voids stretching throughout the universe. How did the first galaxies form within the cosmic web, at the intersections of filaments? New observations of a protodisk a galaxy in the early stages of formation may provide a clue.Models for Galaxy FormationNarrowband image of the candidate protodisk (marked with a white ellipse) and filaments (outlined in white). [Adapted from Martin et al. 2016]The standard model for galaxy formation, known as the hot accretion model, argues that galaxies form out of collapsing, virialized gas that forms a hot halo and then slowly cools, fueling star and galaxy formation at its center.But what if galaxies are actually formed from cool gas? In this contrasting picture, the cold accretion model, cool (temperature of ~104 K) unshocked gas from cosmic web filaments flows directly onto galactic disks forming at the filamentary intersections. The narrow streams of cold gas deliver fuel for star formation.A signature of the cold accretion model is that the streams of cold gas form a disk as the gas spirals inward, sinking toward the central protogalaxy. Detecting these cold-flow disks could be strong evidence in support of this model and last year, a team of authors reported just such a detection! This year theyre back again with a second object that may provide confirmation of cold accretion from the cosmic web.A Candidate ProtodiskThe team, led by Christopher Martin (California Institute of Technology), made the discovery using the Palomar Cosmic Web Imager, an instrument designed to observe faint emission from the intergalactic medium. Martin and collaborators found a large (R 100 kpc, more than six times the radius of the Milky Way), rotating structure of hydrogen gas, illuminated by the nearby quasi-stellar object QSO HS1549+1919. The system is located at a redshift of z~2.8.The authors testthree potential kinematic models of the candidate protodisk and filaments. In (a) two

  20. Cosmic Strings and Their Induced Non-Gaussianities in the Cosmic Microwave Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Ringeval

    2010-01-01

    small fraction of the CMB angular power spectrum, cosmic strings could actually be the main source of its non-Gaussianities. In this paper, after having reviewed the basic cosmological properties of a string network, we present the signatures Nambu-Goto cosmic strings would induce in various observables ranging from the one-point function of the temperature anisotropies to the bispectrum and trispectrum. It is shown that string imprints are significantly different than those expected from the primordial type of non-Gaussianity and could therefore be easily distinguished.

  1. BL Lacertae are sources of the observed ultra-high energy cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Tinyakov, Peter G

    2001-01-01

    We calculate angular correlation function between ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) observed by Yakutsk and AGASA experiments, and most powerful BL Lacertae objects (quasars with jets directed along the line of sight). We find significant correlation at 2.5 degrees with the probability of chance coincidence 2 x 10^{-5} and conclude that some of BL Lacertae are sources of the observed UHECR. We also see correlations at 10 degrees with the probability of coincidence 3 x 10^{-4}. A natural interpretation of this result is the existence of neutral and charged components of cosmic rays at highest energies, with charged primaries being deflected in extragalactic magnetic fields (EGMF) by an angle of order 10 degrees. The magnitude of EGMF deduced from here is of order 10^{-9} G assuming correlation length 1 Mpc.

  2. Compressed sensing reconstruction of a string signal from interferometric observations of the cosmic microwave background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiaux, Y.; Puy, G.; Vandergheynst, P.

    2010-03-01

    We propose an algorithm for the reconstruction of the signal induced by cosmic strings in the cosmic microwave background (CMB), from radio-interferometric data at arcminute resolution. Radio interferometry provides incomplete and noisy Fourier measurements of the string signal, which exhibits sparse or compressible magnitude of the gradient due to the Kaiser-Stebbins effect. In this context, the versatile framework of compressed sensing naturally applies for solving the corresponding inverse problem. Our algorithm notably takes advantage of a model of the prior statistical distribution of the signal fitted on the basis of realistic simulations. Enhanced performance relative to the standard CLEAN algorithm is demonstrated by simulated observations under noise conditions including primary and secondary CMB anisotropies.

  3. Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays: Old Physics or New Physics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, F. W.

    2004-01-01

    We consider the advantages of and the problems associated with hypotheses to explain the origin of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays (UHECR: E greater than 10 EeV) and the "trans-GZK" cosmic rays (TGZK: E greater than 100 EeV) both through "old physics" (acceleration in cosmic sources) and "new physics" (new particles, topological defects, fat neutrino cross sections, Lorentz invariance violation).

  4. Spectrum and mass composition of cosmic rays in the energy range 1015–1018 eV derived from the Yakutsk array data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabourov A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A spectrum of cosmic rays within energy range 1015 − 3 × 1017 eV was derived from the data of the small Cherenkov setup, which is a part of the Yakutsk complex EAS array. In this, work a new series of observation is covered. These observations lasted from 2000 till 2010 and resulted in increased number of registered events within interval 1016–1018 eV, which in turn made it possible to reproduce cosmic ray spectrum in this energy domain with better precision. A sign of a thin structure is observed in the shape of the spectrum. It could be related to the escape of heavy nuclei from our Galaxy. Cosmic ray mass composition was obtained for the energy region 1016–1018 eV. A joint analysis of spectrum and mass composition of cosmic rays was performed. Obtained results are considered in the context of theoretical computations that were performed with the use of hypothesis of galactic and meta-galactic origin of cosmic rays.

  5. Cosmic ray charged component variations at sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charakhchyan, T. N.; Okhlopkov, V. P.; Krasotkin, A. F.; Svirzhevskij, N. S.; Charakhchyan, L. A.

    Results of measuring the cosmic ray charged component using devices installed at the Olen'ya station (the Murmansk region), in Dolgoprudny town (the Moscow region), and in Mirny (Antarctic continent) are investigated. The analysis has shown that apart from solar origin and seasonal variations there are annual variations of cosmic ray charged component. By results of comparing annual variations of the charged component on the Earth surface to data of neutron and muon components a conclusion is made that annual variations of the charge component on the Earth surface appear to be a manifestation of cosmic ray zonal modulation and are not connected with variations of galactic cosmic rays.

  6. Tycho's Remnant Provides Shocking Evidence for Cosmic Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    Astronomers have found compelling evidence that a supernova shock wave has produced a large amount of cosmic rays, particles of mysterious origin that constantly bombard the Earth. This discovery, made with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, supports theoretical arguments that shock waves from stellar explosions may be a primary source of cosmic rays. This finding is important for understanding the origin of cosmic rays, which are atomic nuclei that strike the Earth's atmosphere with very high energies. Scientists believe that some are produced by flares on the Sun, and others by similar events on other stars, or pulsars or black hole accretion disks. But, one of the prime suspects has been supernova shock waves. Now, a team of astronomers has used Chandra observations of Tycho's supernova remnant to strengthen the case for this explanation. "With only a single object involved we can't state with confidence that supernova shock waves are the primary source of cosmic rays," said John P. Hughes of Rutgers University in Piscataway, New Jersey, and coauthor of a report to be published in an upcoming issue of The Astrophysical Journal. "What we have done is present solid evidence that the shock wave in at least one supernova remnant has accelerated nuclei to cosmic ray energies." In the year 1572, the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe observed and studied the sudden appearance of a bright "new star" in the constellation Cassiopeia. Now known as Tycho's supernova remnant, the event created a sensation in Tycho's time because it exploded the myth that stars never change. Four centuries later, the Chandra results on Tycho's remnant show that some modern ideas of the aftermath of supernova explosions may have to be revised. The report by Hughes and colleagues demonstrates that the shock wave produced by the explosive disruption of the star behaves in a way that cannot be explained by the standard theory. The supernova debris is observed to expand at a speed of about six million

  7. Heavy-Load Lifting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomquist, Kira; Oturai, Peter; Steele, Megan L

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Despite a paucity of evidence, prevention guidelines typically advise avoidance of heavy lifting in an effort to protect against breast cancer-related lymphedema. This study compared acute responses in arm swelling and related symptoms after low- and heavy-load resistance exercise among...... women at risk of lymphedema while receiving adjuvant taxane-based chemotherapy. METHODS: This is a randomized, cross-over equivalence trial. Women receiving adjuvant taxane-based chemotherapy for breast cancer who had undergone axillary lymph node dissection (n=21) participated in low- (60-65% 1...... repetition maximum (RM), two sets of 15-20 repetitions) and heavy-load (85-90% 1RM, three sets of 5-8 repetition) upper-extremity resistance exercise separated by a one-week wash-out period. Swelling was determined by bioimpedance spectroscopy and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, with breast cancer...

  8. A Shifting Shield Provides Protection Against Cosmic Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-12-01

    The Sun plays an important role in protecting us from cosmic rays, energetic particles that pelt us from outside our solar system. But can we predict when and how it will provide the most protection, and use this to minimize the damage to both pilotedand roboticspace missions?The Challenge of Cosmic RaysSpacecraft outside of Earths atmosphere and magnetic field are at risk of damage from cosmic rays. [ESA]Galactic cosmic rays are high-energy, charged particles that originate from astrophysical processes like supernovae or even distant active galactic nuclei outside of our solar system.One reason to care about the cosmic rays arriving near Earth is because these particles can provide a significant challenge for space missions traveling above Earths protective atmosphere and magnetic field. Since impacts from cosmic rays can damage human DNA, this risk poses a major barrier to plans for interplanetary travel by crewed spacecraft. And roboticmissions arent safe either: cosmic rays can flip bits, wreaking havoc on spacecraft electronics as well.The magnetic field carried by the solar wind provides a protective shield, deflecting galactic cosmic rays from our solar system. [Walt Feimer/NASA GSFCs Conceptual Image Lab]Shielded by the SunConveniently, we do have some broader protection against galactic cosmic rays: a built-in shield provided by the Sun. The interplanetary magnetic field, which is embedded in the solar wind, deflects low-energy cosmic rays from us at the outer reaches of our solar system, decreasing the flux of these cosmic rays that reach us at Earth.This shield, however, isnt stationary; instead, it moves and changes as the strength and direction of the solar wind moves and changes. This results in a much lower cosmic-ray flux at Earth when solar activity is high i.e., at the peak of the 11-year solar cycle than when solar activity is low. This visible change in local cosmic-ray flux with solar activity is known as solar modulation of the cosmic ray flux

  9. Heavy exotic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yizhuang; Zahed, Ismail

    We briefly review the formation of pion-mediated heavy-light exotic molecules with both charm and bottom, under the general structures of chiral and heavy quark symmetries. The charm isosinglet exotic molecules with JPC = 1++ binds, which we identify as the reported neutral X(3872). The bottom isotriplet exotic with JPC = 1+1 binds, and is identified as a mixed state of the reported charged exotics Zb+(10610) and Zb-(10650). The bound bottom isosinglet molecule with JPC = 1++ is a possible neutral Xb(10532) to be observed.

  10. Peak-peak correlations in the cosmic background radiation from cosmic strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahed, M. Sadegh; Javanmardi, B.; Sheth, Ravi K.

    2013-10-01

    We examine the two-point correlation function of local maxima in temperature fluctuations at the last scattering surface when this stochastic field is modified by the additional fluctuations produced by straight cosmic strings via the Kaiser-Stebbins effect. We demonstrate that one can detect the imprint of cosmic strings with tension Gμ ≳ 1.2 × 10-8 on noiseless 1 arcmin resolution cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps at 95 per cent confidence interval. Including the effects of foregrounds and anticipated systematic errors increases the lower bound to Gμ ≳ 9.0 × 10-8 at 2σ confidence level. Smearing by beams of the order of 4 arcmin degrades the bound further to Gμ ≳ 1.6 × 10-7. Our results indicate that two-point statistics are more powerful than one-point statistics (e.g. number counts) for identifying the non-Gaussianity in the CMB due to straight cosmic strings.

  11. Cosmically-Poetic and Poetical Visions with the Emphasys on Anthology "The Cosmic Flower"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetković, Nikola

    2005-10-01

    It is considered first the tradition to sing to cosmos, with the emphasys of the folk one, Njegos etc. Than the development from the section "Few poetry" in the journal Vasiona (Universe) to the anthology The cosmic flower is presented. In the final part, this anthology is analyzed with a pozitive estimate of its value and significance.

  12. Turning Around along the Cosmic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jounghun; Yepes, Gustavo

    2016-12-01

    A bound violation designates a case in which the turnaround radius of a bound object exceeds the upper limit imposed by the spherical collapse model based on the standard ΛCDM paradigm. Given that the turnaround radius of a bound object is a stochastic quantity and that the spherical model overly simplifies the true gravitational collapse, which actually proceeds anisotropically along the cosmic web, the rarity of the occurrence of a bound violation may depend on the web environment. Assuming a Planck cosmology, we numerically construct the bound-zone peculiar velocity profiles along the cosmic web (filaments and sheets) around the isolated groups with virial mass {M}{{v}}≥slant 3× {10}13 {h}-1 {M}⊙ identified in the Small MultiDark Planck simulations and determine the radial distances at which their peculiar velocities equal the Hubble expansion speed as the turnaround radii of the groups. It is found that although the average turnaround radii of the isolated groups are well below the spherical bound limit on all mass scales, the bound violations are not forbidden for individual groups, and the cosmic web has an effect of reducing the rarity of the occurrence of a bound violation. Explaining that the spherical bound limit on the turnaround radius in fact represents the threshold distance up to which the intervention of the external gravitational field in the bound-zone peculiar velocity profiles around the nonisolated groups stays negligible, we discuss the possibility of using the threshold distance scale to constrain locally the equation of state of dark energy.

  13. The Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Eun-Suk; Iss-Cream Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The balloon-borne Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) experiment was flown for 161 days in six flights over Antarctica, the longest known exposure for a single balloon project. Elemental spectra were measured for Z = 1- 26 nuclei over a wide energy range from 1010 to >1014 eV. Building on the success of those balloon flights, one of the two balloon payloads was transformed for exposure on the International Space Station (ISS) Japanese Experiment Module Exposed Facility (JEM-EF). This ISS-CREAM instrument is configured with redundant and complementary particle detectors. The four layers of its finely segmented Silicon Charge Detector provide precise charge measurements, and its ionization calorimeter provides energy measurements. In addition, scintillator-based Top and Bottom Counting Detectors and the Boronated Scintillator Detector distinguish electrons from nuclei. An order of magnitude increase in data collecting power is expected to reach the highest energies practical with direct measurements. Following completion of its qualification tests at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, the ISS-CREAM payload was delivered to NASA Kennedy Space Center in August 2015 to await its launch to the ISS. While waiting for ISS-CREAM to launch, the other balloon payload including a Transition Radiation Detector, which is too large for the JEM-EF envelope, has been prepared for another Antarctic balloon flight in 2016. This so-called Boron And Carbon Cosmic rays in the Upper Stratosphere (BACCUS) payload will investigate cosmic ray propagation history. The overall project status and future plans will be presented.

  14. The Local Group in the Cosmic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forero-Romero, J. E.; González, R.

    2015-01-01

    We explore the characteristics of the cosmic web around Local-Group (LG)-like pairs using a cosmological simulation in the ΛCDM cosmology. We use the Hessian of the gravitational potential to classify regions on scales of ~2 Mpc as a peak, sheet, filament, or void. The sample of LG counterparts is represented by two samples of halo pairs. The first is a general sample composed of pairs with similar masses and isolation criteria as observed for the LG. The second is a subset with additional observed kinematic constraints such as relative pair velocity and separation. We find that the pairs in the LG sample with all constraints are: (1) preferentially located in filaments and sheets, (2) located in a narrow range of local overdensity 0 web ellipticity 0.1 1.0, and prolateness -0.4 web. The alignments are such that the pair orbital angular momentum tends to be perpendicular to the smallest tidal eigenvector, \\hat{e}_3, which lies along the filament direction or the sheet plane. A stronger alignment is present for the vector linking the two halos with the vector \\hat{e}_3. Additionally, we fail to find a strong correlation between the spin of each halo in the pair with the cosmic web. All of these trends are expected to a great extent from the selection of LG total mass in the general sample. Applied to the observed LG, there is a potential conflict between the alignments of the different satellite planes and the numerical evidence for satellite accretion along filaments; the direction defined by \\hat{e}_3. This highlights the relevance of achieving a precise characterization for the location of the LG in the cosmic web in the cosmological context provided by ΛCDM.

  15. New insights from cosmic gamma rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Diehl

    2016-04-01

    The measurement of gamma rays from cosmic sources at ~MeV energies is one of the key tools for nuclear astrophysics, in its study of nuclear reactions and their impacts on objects and phenomena throughout the universe. Gamma rays trace nuclear processes most directly, as they originate from nuclear transitions following radioactive decays or high-energy collisions with excitation of nuclei. Additionally, the unique gamma-ray signature from the annihilation of positrons falls into this astronomical window and is discussed here: Cosmic positrons are often produced from β-decays, thus also of nuclear physics origins. The nuclear reactions leading to radioactive isotopes occur inside stars and stellar explosions, which therefore constitute the main objects of such studies. In recent years, both thermonuclear and core-collapse supernova radioactivities have been measured though 56Ni, 56Co, and 44Ti lines, and a beginning has thus been made to complement conventional supernova observations with such measurements of the prime energy sources of supernova light created in their deep interiors. The diffuse radioactive afterglow of massive-star nucleosynthesis in gamma rays is now being exploited towards astrophysical studies on how massive stars feed back their energy and ejecta into interstellar gas, as part of the cosmic cycle of matter through generations of stars enriching the interstellar gas and stars with metals. Large interstellar cavities and superbubbles have been recognised to be the dominating structures where new massive-star ejecta are injected, from 26Al gamma-ray spectroscopy. Also, constraints on the complex interiors of stars derive from the ratio of 60Fe/26Al gamma rays. Finally, the puzzling bulge-dominated intensity distribution of positron annihilation gamma rays is measured in greater detail, but still not understood; a recent microquasar flare provided evidence that such objects may be prime sources for positrons in interstellar space, rather than

  16. Practical Applications of Cosmic Ray Science: Spacecraft, Aircraft, Ground-Based Computation and Control Systems, and Human Health and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, William; Koontz, Steve; Normand, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Three twentieth century technological developments, 1) high altitude commercial and military aircraft; 2) manned and unmanned spacecraft; and 3) increasingly complex and sensitive solid state micro-electronics systems, have driven an ongoing evolution of basic cosmic ray science into a set of practical engineering tools needed to design, test, and verify the safety and reliability of modern complex technological systems. The effects of primary cosmic ray particles and secondary particle showers produced by nuclear reactions with the atmosphere, can determine the design and verification processes (as well as the total dollar cost) for manned and unmanned spacecraft avionics systems. Similar considerations apply to commercial and military aircraft operating at high latitudes and altitudes near the atmospheric Pfotzer maximum. Even ground based computational and controls systems can be negatively affected by secondary particle showers at the Earth s surface, especially if the net target area of the sensitive electronic system components is large. Finally, accumulation of both primary cosmic ray and secondary cosmic ray induced particle shower radiation dose is an important health and safety consideration for commercial or military air crews operating at high altitude/latitude and is also one of the most important factors presently limiting manned space flight operations beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO). In this paper we review the discovery of cosmic ray effects on the performance and reliability of microelectronic systems as well as human health and the development of the engineering and health science tools used to evaluate and mitigate cosmic ray effects in ground-based atmospheric flight, and space flight environments. Ground test methods applied to microelectronic components and systems are used in combinations with radiation transport and reaction codes to predict the performance of microelectronic systems in their operating environments. Similar radiation transport

  17. The cosmic cocktail three parts dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Freese, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    The ordinary atoms that make up the known universe-from our bodies and the air we breathe to the planets and stars-constitute only 5 percent of all matter and energy in the cosmos. The rest is known as dark matter and dark energy, because their precise identities are unknown. The Cosmic Cocktail is the inside story of the epic quest to solve one of the most compelling enigmas of modern science - what is the universe made of? - told by one of today's foremost pioneers in the study of dark matter. Blending cutting-edge science with her own behind-the-scenes insights as a leading researcher in the

  18. A CMB/Dark Energy Cosmic Duality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enqvist, Kari; Sloth, Martin Snoager

    2004-01-01

    We investigate a possible connection between the suppression of the power at low multipoles in the CMB spectrum and the late time acceleration. We show that, assuming a cosmic IR/UV duality between the UV cutoff and a global infrared cutoff given by the size of the future event horizon, the equat......, the equation of state of the dark energy can be related to the apparent cutoff in the CMB spectrum. The present limits on the equation of state of dark energy are shown to imply an IR cutoff in the CMB multipole interval of 9>l>8.5....

  19. Artificial neural network in cosmic landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junyu

    2017-12-01

    In this paper we propose that artificial neural network, the basis of machine learning, is useful to generate the inflationary landscape from a cosmological point of view. Traditional numerical simulations of a global cosmic landscape typically need an exponential complexity when the number of fields is large. However, a basic application of artificial neural network could solve the problem based on the universal approximation theorem of the multilayer perceptron. A toy model in inflation with multiple light fields is investigated numerically as an example of such an application.

  20. Cosmic-Ray Airshower Timing Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvernois, M. A.

    A new, small-scale, detector utilizing the finite thickness of air-shower "pancakes" has been developed and operated on the roof of the physics building at the University of Minnesota. (MR. CRATE = Minnesota Rooftop CosmicRay Air-shower Timing Experiment) The work started before the author was aware of the extensive work of Linsley and others with such detectors. The experiment will be expanded to three detectors operating in coincidence to look at showers from 1017 to 1019 eV and develop techniques for using a compact array in coincidence with underground detectors. Preliminary results and design will be discussed.

  1. Cloud chamber photographs of the cosmic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Rochester, George Dixon

    1952-01-01

    Cloud Chamber Photographs of the Cosmic Radiation focuses on cloud chamber and photographic emulsion wherein the tracks of individual subatomic particles of high energy are studied. The publication first offers information on the technical features of operation and electrons and cascade showers. Discussions focus on the relationship in time and space of counter-controlled tracks; techniques of internal control of the cloud chamber; cascade processes with artificially-produced electrons and photons; and nuclear interaction associated with an extensive shower. The manuscript then elaborates on

  2. Cosmic inhomogeneities and averaged cosmological dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranjape, Aseem; Singh, T P

    2008-10-31

    If general relativity (GR) describes the expansion of the Universe, the observed cosmic acceleration implies the existence of a "dark energy." However, while the Universe is on average homogeneous on large scales, it is inhomogeneous on smaller scales. While GR governs the dynamics of the inhomogeneous Universe, the averaged homogeneous Universe obeys modified Einstein equations. Can such modifications alone explain the acceleration? For a simple generic model with realistic initial conditions, we show the answer to be "no." Averaging effects negligibly influence the cosmological dynamics.

  3. Correlation between cosmic rays and ozone depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Q-B

    2009-03-20

    This Letter reports reliable satellite data in the period of 1980-2007 covering two full 11-yr cosmic ray (CR) cycles, clearly showing the correlation between CRs and ozone depletion, especially the polar ozone loss (hole) over Antarctica. The results provide strong evidence of the physical mechanism that the CR-driven electron-induced reaction of halogenated molecules plays the dominant role in causing the ozone hole. Moreover, this mechanism predicts one of the severest ozone losses in 2008-2009 and probably another large hole around 2019-2020, according to the 11-yr CR cycle.

  4. Green River Community College Cosmic Ray Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roma, Andrea; Harrington, Crissy; Isic, Mirela; Adams, Andrew; Draper, Ron

    2008-05-01

    The Washington Area Large scale Time coincidence Array (WALTA) researches high-energy cosmic ray and has placed particle detector arrays around the Seattle area to increase the accuracy of muon information. Green River Community College is one of the schools in collaboration with WALTA and offers its students under-graduate research by working with the particle detector arrays, data collecting and reporting. The student's work ranges from polishing scintillators and planning the physical setup of detector components to solving data acquisition problems.

  5. Thin shells joining local cosmic string geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Eiroa, Ernesto F; Simeone, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    In this article we present a theoretical construction of spacetimes with a thin shell that joins two different local cosmic string geometries. We study two types of global manifolds, one representing spacetimes with a standard thin shell and the other corresponding to wormholes which are not symmetric across the throat located at the shell. We analyze the stability of the static configurations under perturbations preserving the cylindrical symmetry. For both types of geometries we find that the static configurations can be stable for suitable values of the parameters.

  6. Cosmic Origin and Theology of the Revelation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guijarro, José Francisco

    2007-04-01

    All along cultural history man has asked himself about the origin of man, the origin of life ante the origin of the cosmos. Regarding the question about the origin of the cosmos, any theological research must settle before any other goal the question of its language: what we understand as scientific, mythical or theological language. The biblical texts on Creation are analyzed in their historical, cultural and theological context. It is concluded that the fundamental religious meanings of the biblical texts are not in opposition to scientific interpretation of cosmic origin.

  7. Alcohol gains access to appetitive learning through adolescent heavy drinking

    OpenAIRE

    DiLeo, Alyssa; Wright, Kristina M.; Mangone, Elizabeth; McDannald, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent heavy alcohol drinking increases the risk for alcohol use disorders in adulthood, yet mechanisms conferring increased risk are not well understood. We propose that adolescent alcohol drinking shapes alcohol’s aversive or appetitive properties in adulthood. Alcohol normally drives aversive learning and alcohol-predictive cues are avoided. We hypothesize that through adolescent heavy drinking alcohol gains access to appetitive learning. A primary consequence is that alcohol-predictiv...

  8. Testing of models of VVH particle sources and propagation. [very heavy nuclei in cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanford, G. E., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    For comparisons between theoretical and observed charge spectra of the VVH particles to be meaningful, at least two conditions must be met. First, charge resolution must be adequate to separate important groups of nuclei, and there should be no significant systematic errors in the charge scale developed. Second, there must be adequate rejection of slower particles of smaller Z, which have been observed in several flights. Within these conditions, it has been shown that observed features of the charge spectrum are not accidents of the analysis but reflect real variations in the relative abundances that must be explained by any successful model.

  9. Human health risk assessment of heavy metals in urban stormwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yukun; Egodawatta, Prasanna; McGree, James; Liu, An; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2016-07-01

    Toxic chemical pollutants such as heavy metals (HMs) are commonly present in urban stormwater. These pollutants can pose a significant risk to human health and hence a significant barrier for urban stormwater reuse. The primary aim of this study was to develop an approach for quantitatively assessing the risk to human health due to the presence of HMs in stormwater. This approach will lead to informed decision making in relation to risk management of urban stormwater reuse, enabling efficient implementation of appropriate treatment strategies. In this study, risks to human health from heavy metals were assessed as hazard index (HI) and quantified as a function of traffic and land use related parameters. Traffic and land use are the primary factors influencing heavy metal loads in the urban environment. The risks posed by heavy metals associated with total solids and fine solids (metal does not pose a significant risk, the presence of multiple heavy metals could be detrimental to human health. These findings suggest that stormwater guidelines should consider the combined risk from multiple heavy metals rather than the threshold concentration of an individual species. Furthermore, it was found that risk to human health from heavy metals in stormwater is significantly influenced by traffic volume and the risk associated with stormwater from industrial areas is generally higher than that from commercial and residential areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    acute toxicity and sublethal chronic action the devastating effects that the accumulation - ... surrounding waters. The results showed a programmes of heavy metals in aquatic strong and positive correlation (r = 0.97) ecosystems. between amounts of metals in the aquatic ...... Chemical composition of agricultural waste.

  11. Heavy chain only antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, Seyed Moein; Rahbarizadeh, Fatemeh; Ahmadvand, Davoud

    2013-01-01

    Unlike conventional antibodies, heavy chain only antibodies derived from camel contain a single variable domain (VHH) and two constant domains (CH2 and CH3). Cloned and isolated VHHs possess unique properties that enable them to excel conventional therapeutic antibodies and their smaller antigen...

  12. Heavy liquid bubble chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1965-01-01

    The CERN Heavy liquid bubble chamber being installed in the north experimental hall at the PS. On the left, the 1180 litre body; in the centre the magnet, which can produce a field of 26 800 gauss; on the right the expansion mechanism.

  13. Origin of the high energy cosmic neutrino background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dado, Shlomo; Dar, Arnon

    2014-11-07

    The diffuse background of very high energy extraterrestrial neutrinos recently discovered with IceCube is compatible with that expected from cosmic ray interactions in the Galactic interstellar medium plus that expected from hadronic interactions near the source and in the intergalactic medium of the cosmic rays which have been accelerated by the jets that produce gamma ray bursts.

  14. Observations of cosmic gamma ray bursts with WATCH on EURECA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Søren; Lund, N.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.

    1995-01-01

    19 Cosmic Gamma-Ray Bursts were detected by the WATCH wide field X-ray monitor during the 11 months flight of EURECA. The identification of the bursts were complicated by a high frequency of background of events caused by high energy cosmic ray interactions in the detector and by low energy, trap...

  15. Plasmoid impacts on neutron stars and highest energy cosmic rays

    OpenAIRE

    Litwin, C.; Rosner, R.

    2001-01-01

    Particle acceleration by electrostatic polarization fields that arise in plasmas streaming across magnetic fields is discussed as a possible acceleration mechanism of highest-energy cosmic rays. Specifically, plasmoids arising in planetoid impacts onto neutron star magnetospheres are considered. We find that such impacts at plausible rates may account for the observed flux and energy spectrum of the highest energy cosmic rays.

  16. Precision measurements of cosmic ray air showers with the SKA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huege, T.; Bray, J.; Buitink, S.; Dallier, R.; Ekers, R. D.; Falcke, H. D. E.; James, C. W.; Martin, L.; Revenu, B.; Scholten, O.; Schroeder, F.

    2014-01-01

    Supplemented with suitable buffering techniques, the low-frequency part of the SKA can be used as an ultra-precise detector for cosmic-ray air showers at very high energies. This would enable a wealth of scientific applications: the physics of the transition from Galactic to extragalactic cosmic

  17. Supernova Remnants as the Sources of Galactic Cosmic Rays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, J.

    2013-01-01

    The origin of cosmic rays holds still manymysteries hundred years after they were first discovered. Supernova remnants have for long been the most likely sources of Galactic cosmic rays. I discuss here some recent evidence that suggests that supernova remnants can indeed efficiently accelerate

  18. Energy distribution of cosmic rays in the Earth's atmosphere and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cosmic rays cause significant damage to the electronic equipments of the aircrafts. In this paper, we have investigated the accumulation of the deposited energy of cosmic rays on the Earth's atmosphere, especially in the aircraft area. In fact, if a high-energy neutron or proton interacts with a nanodevice having only a few ...

  19. Detecting cosmic rays with the LOFAR radio telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, P.; Nelles, A.; Buitink, S.; Corstanje, A.; Enrizuez, J.E.; Falcke, H.; Frieswijk, W.; Hörandel, J.R.; Horneffer, A.; James, J.W.; Krause, M.; Mevius, M.; Scholten, O.; ter Veen, S.; Thoudam, S.; van den Akker, M.; Alexov, A.; Anderson, J.; Avruch, I.M.; Bähren, L.; Beck, R.; Bell, M.E.; Bennema, P.; Bentum, Marinus Jan

    2013-01-01

    The low frequency array (LOFAR), is the first radio telescope designed with the capability to measure radio emission from cosmic-ray induced air showers in parallel with interferometric observations. In the first ~2 years of observing, 405 cosmic-ray events in the energy range of 1016−1018 eV have

  20. The observability of jets in cosmic air showers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montanus, J.M.C.

    2017-01-01

    When a cosmic ray enters the atmosphere of the Earth it initiates a cosmic air shower. The evolution of the shower size along atmospheric depth is called the longitudinal profile. Existing longitudinal profiles can be related to the level of accuracy of the underlying model. The lateral density of

  1. Cosmic Rays in the Disk and Halo of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogiel, V. A.; Breitschwerdt, D.

    2012-09-01

    We give a review of cosmic ray propagation models. It is shown that the development of the theory of cosmic ray origin leads inevitably to the conclusion that cosmic ray propagation in the Galaxy is determined by effective particle scattering, which is described by spatial diffusion. The Galactic Disk is surrounded by an extended halo, in which cosmic rays are confined before escaping into intergalactic space. For a long time cosmic ray convective outflow from the Galaxy (galactic wind) was believed to be insignificant. However, investigations of hydrodynamic stability and an analysis of ISM dynamics (including cosmic rays) showed that a galactic wind was emanating near the disk, and accelerating towards the halo, reaching its maximum velocity far away from the disk. Therefore convective cosmic ray transport should be important in galactic halos. Recent analysis of the gamma-ray emissivity in the Galactic disk of EGRET data, which showed that cosmic rays are more or less uniformly distributed in the radial direction of the disk, as well as the interpretation of soft X-ray emission in galactic halos, give convincing evidence of the existence of a galactic wind in star forming galaxies.

  2. A Bitter Pill: The Cosmic Lithium Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Brian

    2014-03-01

    Primordial nucleosynthesis describes the production of the lightest nuclides in the first three minutes of cosmic time. We will discuss the transformative influence of the WMAP and Planck determinations of the cosmic baryon density. Coupled with nucleosynthesis theory, these measurements make tight predictions for the primordial light element abundances: deuterium observations agree spectacularly with these predictions, helium observations are in good agreement, but lithium observations (in ancient halo stars) are significantly discrepant-this is the ``lithium problem.'' Over the past decade, the lithium discrepancy has become more severe, and very recently the solution space has shrunk. A solution due to new nuclear resonances has now been essentially ruled out experimentally. Stellar evolution solutions remain viable but must be finely tuned. Observational systematics are now being probed by qualitatively new methods of lithium observation. Finally, new physics solutions are now strongly constrained by the combination of the precision baryon determination by Planck, and the need to match the D/H abundances now measured to unprecedented precision at high redshift. Supported in part by NSF grant PHY-1214082.

  3. Simulating Cosmic Reionization and Its Observable Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Paul

    2017-01-01

    I summarize recent progress in modelling the epoch of reionization by large- scale simulations of cosmic structure formation, radiative transfer and their interplay, which trace the ionization fronts that swept across the IGM, to predict observable signatures. Reionization by starlight from early galaxies affected their evolution, impacting reionization, itself, and imprinting the galaxies with a memory of reionization. Star formation suppression, e.g., may explain the observed underabundance of Local Group dwarfs relative to N-body predictions for Cold Dark Matter. I describe CoDa (''Cosmic Dawn''), the first fully-coupled radiation-hydrodynamical simulation of reionization and galaxy formation in the Local Universe, in a volume large enough to model reionization globally but with enough resolving power to follow all the atomic-cooling galactic halos in that volume. A 90 Mpc box was simulated from a constrained realization of primordial fluctuations, chosen to reproduce present-day features of the Local Group, including the Milky Way and M31, and the local universe beyond, including the Virgo cluster. The new RAMSES-CUDATON hybrid CPU-GPU code took 11 days to perform this simulation on the Titan supercomputer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, with 4096-cubed N-body particles for the dark matter and 4096-cubed cells for the atomic gas and ionizing radiation.

  4. Disentangling the Cosmic Web with Lagrangian Submanifold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandarin, Sergei F.; Medvedev, Mikhail V.

    2016-10-01

    The Cosmic Web is a complicated highly-entangled geometrical object. Remarkably it has formed from practically Gaussian initial conditions, which may be regarded as the simplest departure from exactly uniform universe in purely deterministic mapping. The full complexity of the web is revealed neither in configuration no velocity spaces considered separately. It can be fully appreciated only in six-dimensional (6D) phase space. However, studies of the phase space is complicated by the fact that every projection of it on a three-dimensional (3D) space is multivalued and contained caustics. In addition phase space is not a metric space that complicates studies of geometry. We suggest to use Lagrangian submanifold i.e., x = x(q), where both x and q are 3D vectors instead of the phase space for studies the complexity of cosmic web in cosmological N-body dark matter simulations. Being fully equivalent in dynamical sense to the phase space it has an advantage of being a single valued and also metric space.

  5. Dark matter and cosmic web story

    CERN Document Server

    Einasto, Jaan

    2014-01-01

    The concepts of dark matter and the cosmic web are some of the most significant developments in cosmology in the past century. They have decisively changed the classical cosmological paradigm, which was first elaborated upon during the first half of the 20th century but ran into serious problems in the second half. Today, they are integral parts of modern cosmology, which explains everything from the Big Bang to inflation to the large scale structure of the Universe. Dark Matter and Cosmic Web Story describes the contributions that led to a paradigm shift from the Eastern point of view. It describes the problems with the classical view, the attempts to solve them, the difficulties encountered by those solutions, and the conferences where the merits of the new concepts were debated. Amidst the science, the story of scientific work in a small country occupied by the Soviet Union and the tumultuous events that led to its breakup are detailed as well. This book is accompanied by a website which contains addit...

  6. DWARF GALAXIES AND THE COSMIC WEB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benitez-Llambay, Alejandro; Abadi, Mario G. [Observatorio Astronomico, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba X5000BGR (Argentina); Navarro, Julio F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8P 5C2 (Canada); Gottloeber, Stefan; Steinmetz, Matthias [Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Yepes, Gustavo [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Hoffman, Yehuda [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    2013-02-01

    We use a cosmological simulation of the formation of the Local Group of Galaxies to identify a mechanism that enables the removal of baryons from low-mass halos without appealing to feedback or reionization. As the Local Group forms, matter bound to it develops a network of filaments and pancakes. This moving web of gas and dark matter drifts and sweeps a large volume, overtaking many halos in the process. The dark matter content of these halos is unaffected but their gas can be efficiently removed by ram pressure. The loss of gas is especially pronounced in low-mass halos due to their lower binding energy and has a dramatic effect on the star formation history of affected systems. This 'cosmic web stripping' may help to explain the scarcity of dwarf galaxies compared with the numerous low-mass halos expected in {Lambda}CDM and the large diversity of star formation histories and morphologies characteristic of faint galaxies. Although our results are based on a single high-resolution simulation, it is likely that the hydrodynamical interaction of dwarf galaxies with the cosmic web is a crucial ingredient so far missing from galaxy formation models.

  7. The intergalactic medium in the cosmic web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejos, Nicolas

    2016-10-01

    The intergalactic medium (IGM) accounts for >~ 90% of baryons at all epochs and yet its three dimensional distribution in the cosmic web remains mostly unknown. This is so because the only feasible way to observe the bulk of the IGM is through intervening absorption line systems in the spectra of bright background sources, which limits its characterization to being one-dimensional. Still, an averaged three dimensional picture can be obtained by combining and cross-matching multiple one-dimensional IGM information with three-dimensional galaxy surveys. Here, we present our recent and current efforts to map and characterize the IGM in the cosmic web using galaxies as tracers of the underlying mass distribution. In particular, we summarize our results on: (i) IGM around star-forming and non-star-forming galaxies; (ii) IGM within and around galaxy voids; and (iii) IGM in intercluster filaments. With these datasets, we can directly test the modern paradigm of structure formation and evolution of baryonic matter in the Universe.

  8. Featured Image: The Cosmic Velocity Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-09-01

    You may have heard of the cosmic web, a network of filaments, clusters and voids that describes the three-dimensional distribution of matter in our universe. But have you ever considered the idea of a cosmic velocity web? In a new study led by Daniel Pomarde (IRFU CEA-Saclay, France), a team of scientists has built a detailed 3D view of the flows in our universe, showing in particular motions along filaments and in collapsing knots. In the image above (click for the full view), surfaces of knots (red) are embedded within surfaces of filaments (grey). The rainbow lines show the flow motion, revealing acceleration (redder tones) toward knots and retardation (bluer tones) beyond them. You can learn more about Pomarde and collaborators work and see their unusual and intriguing visualizationsin the video they produced, below. Check out the original paper for more information.CitationDaniel Pomarde et al 2017 ApJ 845 55. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aa7f78

  9. Finnish CMS-TOB cosmic rack

    CERN Document Server

    Mäenpää, T; Anttila, E; Onnela, A; Lampén, T; Luukka, P; Karimäki, V; Tuominiemi, J

    2007-01-01

    We present a cosmic rack, the FinnCRack. This device is a silicon strip detector-based telescope that measures tracks of cosmic particles. The FinnCRack is constructed using components of the Tracker Outer Barrel (TOB) of the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC. The device is part of the TOB integration and verification effort together with its sister telescope, the CERN CRack. Both CRacks mimick a six degree slice of the TOB barrel structure. The FinnCRack is intended to (a) serve as a platform for TOB software development, both analysis and online software such as run control; (b) be used for noise and cluster shape studies; (c) act as a reference tracker in detector studies; and (d) provide a testbed for track-based alignment testing and development. The construction and setup of the FinnCRack have been documented in detail—the entire chain from connecting cables to physics data analysis—and the operation guide was tested in practice. Both these actions serve the purpose of training and attracting future HE...

  10. The Vainshtein mechanism in the cosmic web

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falck, Bridget; Koyama, Kazuya [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Zhao, Gong-bo [National Astronomy Observatories, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing, 100012 (China); Li, Baojiu, E-mail: bridget.falck@port.ac.uk, E-mail: kazuya.koyama@port.ac.uk, E-mail: gong-bo.zhao@port.ac.uk, E-mail: baojiu.li@durham.ac.uk [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Physics Department, University of Durham, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    We investigate the dependence of the Vainshtein screening mechanism on the cosmic web morphology of both dark matter particles and halos as determined by ORIGAMI. Unlike chameleon and symmetron screening, which come into effect in regions of high density, Vainshtein screening instead depends on the dimensionality of the system, and screened bodies can still feel external fields. ORIGAMI is well-suited to this problem because it defines morphologies according to the dimensionality of the collapsing structure and does not depend on a smoothing scale or density threshold parameter. We find that halo particles are screened while filament, wall, and void particles are unscreened, and this is independent of the particle density. However, after separating halos according to their large scale cosmic web environment, we find no difference in the screening properties of halos in filaments versus halos in clusters. We find that the fifth force enhancement of dark matter particles in halos is greatest well outside the virial radius. We confirm the theoretical expectation that even if the internal field is suppressed by the Vainshtein mechanism, the object still feels the fifth force generated by the external fields, by measuring peculiar velocities and velocity dispersions of halos. Finally, we investigate the morphology and gravity model dependence of halo spins, concentrations, and shapes.

  11. An Origami Approximation to the Cosmic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyrinck, Mark C.

    2016-10-01

    The powerful Lagrangian view of structure formation was essentially introduced to cosmology by Zel'dovich. In the current cosmological paradigm, a dark-matter-sheet 3D manifold, inhabiting 6D position-velocity phase space, was flat (with vanishing velocity) at the big bang. Afterward, gravity stretched and bunched the sheet together in different places, forming a cosmic web when projected to the position coordinates. Here, I explain some properties of an origami approximation, in which the sheet does not stretch or contract (an assumption that is false in general), but is allowed to fold. Even without stretching, the sheet can form an idealized cosmic web, with convex polyhedral voids separated by straight walls and filaments, joined by convex polyhedral nodes. The nodes form in `polygonal' or `polyhedral' collapse, somewhat like spherical/ellipsoidal collapse, except incorporating simultaneous filament and wall formation. The origami approximation allows phase-space geometries of nodes, filaments, and walls to be more easily understood, and may aid in understanding spin correlations between nearby galaxies. This contribution explores kinematic origami-approximation models giving velocity fields for the first time.

  12. Characterising Radio Emissions in Cosmic Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. O.

    2014-02-01

    A growing number of radio studies probe galaxy clusters into the low-power regime in which star formation is the dominant source of radio emission. However, at the time of writing no comparably deep observations have focused exclusively on the radio populations of cosmic filaments. This thesis describes the ATCA 2.1 GHz observations and subsequent analysis of two such regions - labelled Zone 1 (between clusters A3158 and A3125/A3128) and Zone 2 (between A3135 and A3145) - in the Horologium-Reticulum Supercluster (HRS). Source count profiles of both populations are discussed and a radio luminosity function for Zone 1 is generated. While the source counts of Zone 2 appear to be consistent with expected values, Zone 1 exhibits an excess of counts across a wide flux range (1 mJy< S_1.4 < 200 mJy). An excess in radio activity at the lower extent of this range (log P_1.4 < 22.5; within the SF-dominated regime) is also suggested by the radio luminosity function for that region, and brief colour analysis suggests that such an excess is indeed predominantly associated with a starforming population. The differences between the two filamentary zones is attributed to cosmic variation. The regions are both small (~ 1 degree square), and are significantly separated in the HRS. Further radio observations of filaments are required and the results combined into a larger sample size in order to arrive at a generalised model filamentary population.

  13. Cosmics in the LHCb Outer Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel

    2010-01-01

    The LHCb experiment at the Large Hadron Collider studies the decay of B mesons to test the description of CP violation in the Standard Model and to search for new physics. The decay $B_s \\to \\mu^+ \\mu^-$ has been identified as very promising in the search for new physics. An excellent invariant mass resolution is required to suppress backgrounds to this decay. This in turn requires a momentum resolution of dp/p = 0.4%. The Outer Tracker is part of the LHCb tracking system and has been commissioned with cosmic muons. The noise in the Outer Tracker is shown to be less than 0.05%. To use drift time information in the reconstruction of cosmic tracks, the event time must be known. Four methods to obtain the event time are studied and compared. It is shown that the event time can be obtained with a resolution better than 2.6 ns. Using drift time information, tracks are reconstructed with a resolution of 344 $\\mu$m. Knowledge of the event time enables the calibration of electronic time offsets and the r(t)– relati...

  14. A Portable Classroom Cosmic Ray Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matis, Howard

    2012-03-01

    Normally, one has to work at an accelerator to demonstrate the principles of particle physics. We have developed a portable cosmic ray detector, the Berkeley Lab Detector, that can bring high energy physics experimentation into the classroom. The detector, which is powered by either batteries or AC power, consists of two scintillator paddles with a printed circuit board. The printed circuit board takes the analog signals from the paddles, compares them, and determines whether the pulses arrived at the same time. It has a visual display and a computer output. The output is compatible with commonly found probes in high schools and colleges. A bright high school student can assemble it. Teachers and students have used a working detector on six of the world's continents. These activities have included cross country trips, science projects, and classroom demonstrations. A complete description can be found at the web site: cosmic.lbl.gov. Besides, basic particle physics, the detector can be used to teach statistics and also to provide an opportunity where students have to determine how much data are taken. In this presentation, we will demonstrate the detector and describe some of the projects that teachers and students have completed with it.

  15. Cu Hybrid 4 Channel Cosmic Ray Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas Torres, F. J.; Hernández Morquecho, M. A.; Arceo, L.; Félix, J.

    2017-10-01

    There are, in the universe, several sources that produce very energetic cosmic rays that interact with the Earth´s atmosphere and create new low energy particles. To detect them there are different methods, according to the interaction with a medium such as the ionization of a material and Cerenkov radiation, among others. In this work a hybrid cosmic ray detector of 4 channels was designed, built and tested at the Laboratorio de Partículas Elementales of the Universidad de Guanajuato. A Copper bar was used as detection material, both smaller area faces have an ionization and a Cerenkov radiation detection channel. To detect the Cerenkov radiation, Hamamatsu silicon photodiodes were used, and for the ionization channels an RC circuit was developed to measure the signal. The ionization channels were tested simultaneously, observing the analogic signal on an oscilloscope. The RC circuit and discriminator were designed to be on the same board; with the discriminator we can digitize the analogic signal. Details of the design, construction and testing of the ionization channel are presented.

  16. Massive gravity wrapped in the cosmic web

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Junsup; Lee, Jounghun [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, FPRD, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Li, Baojiu, E-mail: jsshim@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: jounghun@astro.snu.ac.kr [Institute of Computational Cosmology, Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-20

    We study how the filamentary pattern of the cosmic web changes if the true gravity deviates from general relativity (GR) on a large scale. The f(R) gravity, whose strength is controlled to satisfy the current observational constraints on the cluster scale, is adopted as our fiducial model and a large, high-resolution N-body simulation is utilized for this study. By applying the minimal spanning tree algorithm to the halo catalogs from the simulation at various epochs, we identify the main stems of the rich superclusters located in the most prominent filamentary section of the cosmic web and determine their spatial extents per member cluster to be the degree of their straightness. It is found that the f(R) gravity has the effect of significantly bending the superclusters and that the effect becomes stronger as the universe evolves. Even in the case where the deviation from GR is too small to be detectable by any other observables, the degree of the supercluster straightness exhibits a conspicuous difference between the f(R) and the GR models. Our results also imply that the supercluster straightness could be a useful discriminator of f(R) gravity from the coupled dark energy since it is shown to evolve differently between the two models. As a final conclusion, the degree of the straightness of the rich superclusters should provide a powerful cosmological test of large scale gravity.

  17. Cosmic-ray source of runaway electrons in thundercloud electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babich, L. P.; Bochkov, E. I.; Kutsyk, I. M.

    2008-12-01

    To increase an accuracy of numerical simulations of the high-altitude and high-energy electric phenomena in thunderstorm atmosphere basing on the electric breakdown combining the cosmic-ray effects and relativistic runaway electron (RE) avalanches it is necessary to have accurate source of seed REs produced by cosmic rays. We calculated the source using the Monte-Carlo technique. Actually a number of secondary electrons was calculated with energies above the runaway threshold depending on the field overvoltage relative to the minimum of the drag force affecting electrons. The cosmic radiation propagation through the atmosphere was simulated based on simplified model of the nuclear cascade: a cosmic proton was assumed to completely lose its energy in the first interaction with air nuclei, producing 15 pions with equal energies. The flux of primary radiation was divided into 20 angular groups containing equal number of particles. In view of the lack of the experimental data on the RE source it is impossible to directly estimate the accuracy of the obtained source. Therefore the model reliability was verified by comparing results of secondary radiation calculations with known experimental altitude variations in the secondary cosmic rays and their spectra. The source was calculated as the specific generation rate of the secondary electrons by cosmic radiation dependent on electric field overvoltage and the altitude above the Earth's surface. It is recommended as a source of relativistic runaway electron avalanches in numerical simulations of electric discharges in atmosphere controlled by REs in thunderstorm fields and their emissions: optical, gamma and neutrons. The source already was used to simulate the high-altitude discharge and its emissions. In particular, the calculated gamma-ray pulses (photon numbers and spectra, pulse duration) agree with detected terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs). Conclusions of the published analyses (Cummer and Lyons, 2005; Cummer et

  18. Use of Silicon Photomultiplier in LBL Cosmic Tay Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osornio, Leo

    2012-10-01

    During a summer internship program at Hartnell Community College our team successfully constructed two complementary cosmic ray experiments. The first employed NIM electronic modules the second constructed as per specifications of a circuit board designed by the Berkeley Lab Cosmic Ray Telescope Project (http://cosmic.lbl.gov/). During the following summer at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we worked on optimizing the performance of a group of Berkeley Lab Detector and developed tools to measure its performance. The next phase was exploring whether Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) can be used to replace the phototube of the Berkeley Detector. Data will be presented from both summers including the dependence of the cosmic ray flux on the separation and polar angle of scintillator paddles, as well as the results from our SiPM tests. Finally, I will include prospects for curriculum development using the cosmic ray experiments.

  19. Cosmic Rays in Magnetospheres of the Earth and other Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Dorman, Lev

    2009-01-01

    This monograph describes the behaviour of cosmic rays in the magnetosphere of the Earth and of some other planets. Recently this has become an important topic both theoretically, because it is closely connected with the physics of the Earth’s magnetosphere, and practically, since cosmic rays determine a significant part of space weather effects on satellites and aircraft. The book contains eight chapters, dealing with – The history of the discovery of geomagnetic effects caused by cosmic rays and their importance for the determination of the nature of cosmic rays or gamma rays – The first explanations of geomagnetic effects within the framework of the dipole approximation of the Earth’s magnetic field – Trajectory computations of cutoff rigidities, transmittance functions, asymptotic directions, and acceptance cones in the real geomagnetic field taking into account higher harmonics – Cosmic ray latitude-longitude surveys on ships, trains, tracks, planes, balloons and satellites for determining the...

  20. Beam Measurements of a CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets) Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkby, Jasper

    2001-01-01

    A striking correlation has recently been observed between global cloud cover and the flux of incident cosmic rays. The effect of natural variations in the cosmic ray flux is large, causing estimated changes in the Earth's energy radiation balance that are comparable to those attributed to greenhouse gases from the burning of fossil fuels since the Industrial Revolution. However a direct link between cosmic rays and cloud formation has not been unambiguously established. We therefore propose to experimentally measure cloud (water droplet) formation under controlled conditions in a test beam at CERN with a CLOUD chamber, duplicating the conditions prevailing in the troposphere. These data, which have never been previously obtained, will allow a detailed understanding of the possible effects of cosmic rays on clouds and confirm, or otherwise, a direct link between cosmic rays, global cloud cover and the Earth's climate. The measurements will, in turn, allow more reliable calculations to be made of the residual e...

  1. Progress in high-energy cosmic ray physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollerach, S.; Roulet, E.

    2018-01-01

    We review some of the recent progress in our knowledge about high-energy cosmic rays, with an emphasis on the interpretation of the different observational results. We discuss the effects that are relevant to shape the cosmic ray spectrum and the explanations proposed to account for its features and for the observed changes in composition. The physics of air-showers is summarized and we also present the results obtained on the proton-air cross section and on the muon content of the showers. We discuss the cosmic ray propagation through magnetic fields, the effects of diffusion and of magnetic lensing, the cosmic ray interactions with background radiation fields and the production of secondary neutrinos and photons. We also consider the cosmic ray anisotropies, both at large and small angular scales, presenting the results obtained from the TeV up to the highest energies and discuss the models proposed to explain their origin.

  2. The place of the Local Group in the cosmic web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forero-Romero, Jaime E.; González, Roberto

    2016-10-01

    We use the Bolshoi Simulation to find the most probable location of the Local Group (LG) in the cosmic web. Our LG simulacra are pairs of halos with isolation and kinematic properties consistent with observations. The cosmic web is defined using a tidal tensor approach. We find that the LG's preferred location is regions with a dark matter overdensity close to the cosmic average. This makes filaments and sheets the preferred environment. We also find a strong alignment between the LG and the cosmic web. The orbital angular momentum is preferentially perpendicular to the smallest tidal eigenvector, while the vector connecting the two halos is strongly aligned along the the smallest tidal eigenvector and perpendicular to the largest tidal eigenvector; the pair lies and moves along filaments and sheets. We do not find any evidence for an alignment between the spin of each halo in the pair and the cosmic web.

  3. Influence of the Atmospheric Mass on the High Energy Cosmic Ray Muons during a Solar Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Maghrabi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rate of the detected cosmic ray muons depends on the atmospheric mass, height of pion production level, and temperature. Corrections for the changes in these parameters are importance to know the properties of the primary cosmic rays. In this paper, the effect of atmospheric mass, represented here by the atmospheric pressure, on the cosmic ray was studied using data from the KACST muon detector during the 2002–2012 period. The analysis was conducted by calculating the barometric coefficient (α using regression analysis between the two parameters. The variation of α over different time scales was investigated. The results revealed a seasonal cycle of α with a maximum in September and a minimum in March. Data from Adelaide muon detector were used, and different monthly variation was found. The barometric coefficient displays considerable variability at the interannual scale. Study of the annual variations of α indicated cyclic variation with maximums between 2008 and 2009 and minimums between 2002 and 2003. This variable tendency is found to be anticorrelated with the solar activity, represented by the sunspot number. This finding was compared with the annual trend of α for the Adelaide muon detector for the same period of time, and a similar trend was found.

  4. Galactic Cosmic-Ray Energy Spectra and Composition during the 2009-2010 Solar Minimum Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lave, K. A.; Wiedenbeck, Mark E.; Binns, W. R.; Christian, E. R.; Cummings, A. C.; Davis, A. J.; deNolfo, G. A.; Israel, M. H..; Leske, R. A.; Mewaldt, R. A.; hide

    2013-01-01

    We report new measurements of the elemental energy spectra and composition of galactic cosmic rays during the 2009-2010 solar minimum period using observations from the Cosmic Ray Isotope Spectrometer (CRIS) onboard the Advanced Composition Explorer. This period of time exhibited record-setting cosmic-ray intensities and very low levels of solar activity. Results are given for particles with nuclear charge 5 energy range approx. 50-550 MeV / nucleon. Several recent improvements have been made to the earlier CRIS data analysis, and therefore updates of our previous observations for the 1997-1998 solar minimum and 2001-2003 solar maximum are also given here. For most species, the reported intensities changed by less than approx. 7%, and the relative abundances changed by less than approx. 4%. Compared with the 1997-1998 solar minimum relative abundances, the 2009-2010 abundances differ by less than 2sigma, with a trend of fewer secondary species observed in the more recent time period. The new 2009-2010 data are also compared with results of a simple "leaky-box" galactic transport model combined with a spherically symmetric solar modulation model. We demonstrate that this model is able to give reasonable fits to the energy spectra and the secondary-to-primary ratios B/C and (Sc+Ti+V)/Fe. These results are also shown to be comparable to a GALPROP numerical model that includes the effects of diffusive reacceleration in the interstellar medium.

  5. LOCALIZED STARBURSTS IN DWARF GALAXIES PRODUCED BY THE IMPACT OF LOW-METALLICITY COSMIC GAS CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez Almeida, J.; Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Filho, M. E. [Instituto Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Elmegreen, B. G. [IBM Research Division, T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Elmegreen, D. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, NY 12604 (United States); Pérez-Montero, E.; Vílchez, J. M. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, CSIC, Granada (Spain); Amorín, R. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); Ascasibar, Y. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Papaderos, P., E-mail: jos@iac.es [Centro de Astrofísica da Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal)

    2015-09-10

    Models of galaxy formation predict that gas accretion from the cosmic web is a primary driver of star formation over cosmic history. Except in very dense environments where galaxy mergers are also important, model galaxies feed from cold streams of gas from the web that penetrate their dark matter halos. Although these predictions are unambiguous, the observational support has been indirect so far. Here, we report spectroscopic evidence for this process in extremely metal-poor galaxies (XMPs) of the local universe, taking the form of localized starbursts associated with gas having low metallicity. Detailed abundance analyses based on Gran Telescopio Canarias optical spectra of 10 XMPs show that the galaxy hosts have metallicities around 60% solar, on average, while the large star-forming regions that dominate their integrated light have low metallicities of some 6% solar. Because gas mixes azimuthally in a rotation timescale (a few hundred Myr), the observed metallicity inhomogeneities are only possible if the metal-poor gas fell onto the disk recently. We analyze several possibilities for the origin of the metal-poor gas, favoring the metal-poor gas infall predicted by numerical models. If this interpretation is correct, XMPs trace the cosmic web gas in their surroundings, making them probes to examine its properties.

  6. A Study of Cosmic Ray Secondaries Induced by the Mir Space Station Using AMS-01

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilar, M.; Allaby, J.; Alpat, B.; Ambrosi, G.; Anderhub, H.; Ao, L.; Arefiev, A.; Azzarello, P.; Babucci, E.; Baldini, L.; Basile, M.; Barancourt, D.; Barao, F.; Barbier, G.; Barreira, G.; Battiston, R.; Becker, R.; Becker, U.; Bellagamba, L.; Bene, P.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Biland, A.; Bizzaglia, S.; Blasko, S.; Boella, G.; Boschini, M.; Bourquin, M.; Brocco, L.; Bruni, G.; Buenerd, M.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Cai, X.D.; Camps, C.; Cannarsa, P.; Capell, M.; Carosi, G.; Casadei, D.; Casaus, J.; Castellini, G.; Cecchi, C.; Chang, Y.H.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chen, Z.G.; Chernoplekov, N.A.; Chiueh, T.H.; Cho, K.; Choi, M.J.; Choi, Y.Y.; Chuang, Y.L.; Cindolo, F.; Commichau, V.; Contin, A.; Cortina-Gil, E.; Cristinziani, M.; da Cunha, J.P.; Dai, T.S.; Delgado, C.; Demirkoz, Bilge; Deus, J.D.; Dinu, N.; Djambazov, L.; D'Antone, I.; Dong, Z.R.; Emonet, P.; Engelberg, J.; Eppling, F.J.; Eronen, T.; Esposito, G.; Extermann, P.; Favier, J.; Fiandrini, E.; Fisher, P.H.; Fluegge, G.; Fouque, N.; Galaktionov, Iouri; Gervasi, M.; Giusti, P.; Grandi, D.; Grimm, O.; Gu, W.Q.; Hangarter, K.; Hasan, A.; Henning, R.; Hermel, V.; Hofer, H.; Huang, M.A.; Hungerford, W.; Ionica, M.; Ionica, R.; Jongmanns, M.; Karlamaa, K.; Karpinski, W.; Kenney, G.; Kenny, J.; Kim, D.H.; Kim, G.N.; Kim, K.S.; Kim, M.Y.; Klimentov, A.; Kossakowski, R.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraeber, M.; Laborie, G.; Laitinen, T.; Lamanna, G.; Lanciotti, E.; Laurenti, G.; Lebedev, A.; Lechanoine-Leluc, C.; Lee, M.W.; Lee, S.C.; Levi, G.; Levtchenko, P.; Liu, C.L.; Liu, H.T.; Lopes, I.; Lu, G.; Lu, Y.S.; Lubelsmeyer, K.; Luckey, David; Lustermann, W.; Mana, C.; Margotti, A.; Mayet, F.; McNeil, R.R.; Meillon, B.; Menichelli, M.; Mihul, A.; Monreal, B.; Mourao, A.; Mujunen, A.; Palmonari, F.; Papi, A.; Park, H.B.; Park, W.H.; Pauluzzi, M.; Pauss, F.; Perrin, E.; Pesci, A.; Pevsner, A.; Pimenta, M.; Plyaskin, V.; Pojidaev, V.; Pohl, M.; Postolache, V.; Produit, N.; Rancoita, P.G.; Rapin, D.; Raupach, F.; Ren, D.; Ren, Z.; Ribordy, M.; Richeux, J.P.; Riihonen, E.; Ritakari, J.; Ro, S.; Roeser, U.; Rossin, C.; Sagdeev, R.; Santos, D.; Sartorelli, G.; Sbarra, C.; Schael, S.; Schultz von Dratzig, A.; Schwering, G.; Scolieri, G.; Seo, E.S.; Shin, J.W.; Shoumilov, E.; Shoutko, V.; Siedling, R.; Son, D.; Song, T.; Steuer, M.; Sun, G.S.; Suter, H.; Tang, X.W.; Ting, Samuel C.C.; Ting, S.M.; Tornikoski, M.; Torsti, J.; Trumper, J.; Ulbricht, J.; Urpo, S.; Valtonen, E.; Vandenhirtz, J.; Velcea, F.; Velikhov, E.; Verlaat, B.; Vetlitsky, I.; Vezzu, F.; Vialle, J.P.; Viertel, G.; Vite, Davide F.; Von Gunten, H.; Waldemeier Wicki, S.; Wallraff, W.; Wang, B.C.; Wang, J.Z.; Wang, Y.H.; Wiik, K.; Williams, C.; Wu, S.X.; Xia, P.C.; Yan, J.L.; Yan, L.G.; Yang, C.G.; Yang, J.; Yang, M.; Ye, S.W.; Yeh, P.; Xu, Z.Z.; Zhang, H.Y.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhao, D.X.; Zhu, G.Y.; Zhu, W.Z.; Zhuang, H.L.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Zuccon, P.

    2004-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02) is a high energy particle physics experiment that will study cosmic rays in the $\\sim 100 \\mathrm{MeV}$ to $1 \\mathrm{TeV}$ range and will be installed on the International Space Station (ISS) for at least 3 years. A first version of AMS-02, AMS-01, flew aboard the space shuttle \\emph{Discovery} from June 2 to June 12, 1998, and collected $10^8$ cosmic ray triggers. Part of the \\emph{Mir} space station was within the AMS-01 field of view during the four day \\emph{Mir} docking phase of this flight. We have reconstructed an image of this part of the \\emph{Mir} space station using secondary $\\pi^-$ and $\\mu^-$ emissions from primary cosmic rays interacting with \\emph{Mir}. This is the first time this reconstruction was performed in AMS-01, and it is important for understanding potential backgrounds during the 3 year AMS-02 mission.

  7. Snowmass Cosmic Frontiers 6 (CF6) Working Group Summary --The Bright Side of the Cosmic Frontier: Cosmic Probes of Fundamental Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Beatty, J.J.; Olinto, A.; Sinnis, G.; Abeysekara, A.U.; Anchordoqui, L.A.; Aramaki, T.; Belz, J.; Buckley, J.H.; Byrum, K.; Cameron, R.; Chen, Mu-Chun; Clark, K.; Connolly, A.; Cowen, D.F.; DeYoung, T.; von Doetinchem, P.; Dumm, J.; Errando, M.; Farrar, G.; Ferrer, F.; Fortson, L.; Funk, S.; Grant, D.; Griffiths, S.; Gross, A.; Hailey, C.; Hogan, C.; Holder, J.; Humensky, B.; Kaaret, P.; Klein, S.R.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Krings, K.; Krizmanic, J.; Kusenko, A.; Linnemann, J.T.; MacGibbon, J.H.; Matthews, J.; McCann, A.; Mitchell, J.; Mukherjee, R.; Nitz, D.; Ong, R.A.; Orr, M.; Otte, N.; Paul, T.; Resconi, E.; Sanchez-Conde, M.A.; Sokolsky, P.; Stecker, F.; Stump, D.; Taboada, I.; Thomson, G.B.; Tollefson, K.; Ukwatta, T.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vassileiv, V.V.; Weiler, T.J.; Williams, D.A.; Weinstein, A.; Wood, M.; Zitzer, B.

    2013-01-01

    Report of the CF6 Working Group at Snowmass 2013. Topics addressed include ultra-high energy cosmic rays, neutrinos, gamma rays, baryogenesis, and experiments probing the fundamental nature of spacetime.

  8. Comparison of Model Calculations of Biological Damage from Exposure to Heavy Ions with Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Wu, Honglu; Hada, Megumi; Cucinotta, Francis

    The space environment consists of a varying field of radiation particles including high-energy ions, with spacecraft shielding material providing the major protection to astronauts from harmful exposure. Unlike low-LET g or X rays, the presence of shielding does not always reduce the radiation risks for energetic charged-particle exposure. Dose delivered by the charged particle increases sharply at the Bragg peak. However, the Bragg curve does not necessarily represent the biological damage along the particle path since biological effects are influenced by the track structures of both primary and secondary particles. Therefore, the ‘‘biological Bragg curve’’ is dependent on the energy and the type of the primary particle and may vary for different biological end points. Measurements of the induction of micronuclei (MN) have made across the Bragg curve in human fibroblasts exposed to energetic silicon and iron ions in vitro at two different energies, 300 MeV/nucleon and 1 GeV/nucleon. Although the data did not reveal an increased yield of MN at the location of the Bragg peak, the increased inhibition of cell progression, which is related to cell death, was found at the Bragg peak location. These results are compared to the calculations of biological damage using a stochastic Monte-Carlo track structure model, Galactic Cosmic Ray Event-based Risk Model (GERM) code (Cucinotta et al., 2011). The GERM code estimates the basic physical properties along the passage of heavy ions in tissue and shielding materials, by which the experimental set-up can be interpreted. The code can also be used to describe the biophysical events of interest in radiobiology, cancer therapy, and space exploration. The calculation has shown that the severely damaged cells at the Bragg peak are more likely to go through reproductive death, the so called “overkill”. F. A. Cucinotta, I. Plante, A. L. Ponomarev, and M. Y. Kim, Nuclear Interactions in Heavy Ion Transport and Event

  9. HEAVY AND THERMAL OIL RECOVERY PRODUCTION MECHANISMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony R. Kovscek

    2002-07-01

    This technical progress report describes work performed from April 1 through June 30, 2002, for the project ''Heavy and Thermal Oil Recovery Production Mechanisms.'' We investigate a broad spectrum of topics related to thermal and heavy-oil recovery. Significant results were obtained in the areas of multiphase flow and rock properties, hot-fluid injection, improved primary heavy oil recovery, and reservoir definition. The research tools and techniques used are varied and span from pore-level imaging of multiphase fluid flow to definition of reservoir-scale features through streamline-based history-matching techniques. Briefly, experiments were conducted to image at the pore level matrix-to-fracture production of oil from a fractured porous medium. This project is ongoing. A simulation studied was completed in the area of recovery processes during steam injection into fractured porous media. We continued to study experimentally heavy-oil production mechanisms from relatively low permeability rocks under conditions of high pressure and high temperature. High temperature significantly increased oil recovery rate and decreased residual oil saturation. Also in the area of imaging production processes in laboratory-scale cores, we use CT to study the process of gas-phase formation during solution gas drive in viscous oils. Results from recent experiments are reported here. Finally, a project was completed that uses the producing water-oil ratio to define reservoir heterogeneity and integrate production history into a reservoir model using streamline properties.

  10. Lorentz invariance violation and chemical composition of ultra high energy cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saveliev, Andrey; Sigl, Guenter [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Maccione, Luca [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group

    2010-12-15

    Motivated by experimental indications of a significant presence of heavy nuclei in the cosmic ray flux at ultra high energies (>or similar 10{sup 19} eV), we consider the effects of Planck scale suppressed Lorentz Invariance Violation (LIV) on the propagation of cosmic ray nuclei. In particular we focus on LIV effects on the photodisintegration of nuclei onto the background radiation fields. After a general discussion of the behavior of the relevant quantities, we apply our formalism to a simplified model where the LIV parameters of the various nuclei are assumed to kinematically result from a single LIV parameter for the constituent nucleons, {eta}, and we derive constraints on {eta}. Assuming a nucleus of a particular species to be actually present at 10{sup 20} eV the following constraints can be placed: -3 x 10{sup -2}

  11. Redshift remapping and cosmic acceleration in dark-matter-dominated cosmological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtak, Radosław; Prada, Francisco

    2017-10-01

    The standard relation between the cosmological redshift and cosmic scalefactor underlies cosmological inference from virtually all kinds of cosmological observations, leading to the emergence of the Λ cold-dark-matter (ΛCDM) cosmological model. This relation is not a fundamental theory and thus observational determination of this function (redshift remapping) should be regarded as an insightful alternative to holding its standard form in analyses of cosmological data. Here we present non-parametric reconstructions of redshift remapping in dark-matter-dominated models and constraints on cosmological parameters from a joint analysis of all primary cosmological probes including the local measurement of the Hubble constant, Type Ia supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO), Planck observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation (temperature power spectrum) and cosmic chronometers. The reconstructed redshift remapping points to an additional boost of redshift operating in late epoch of cosmic evolution, but affecting both low-redshift observations and the CMB. The model predicts a significant difference between the actual Hubble constant, h = 0.48 ± 0.02, and its local determination, hobs = 0.73 ± 0.02. The ratio of these two values coincides closely with the maximum expansion rate inside voids formed in the corresponding open cosmological model with Ωm = 0.87 ± 0.03, whereas the actual value of the Hubble constant implies the age of the Universe that is compatible with the Planck ΛCDM cosmology. The model with redshift remapping provides excellent fits to all data and eliminates recently reported tensions between the PlanckΛCDM cosmology, the local determination of the Hubble constant and the BAO measurements from the Ly α forest of high-redshift quasars.

  12. Cosmic-Ray Moisture Probe on North Slope of Alaska Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desilets, Darin [Hydroinnova LLC

    2016-06-15

    In September of 2014 a wide-area snow monitoring device was installed at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Barrow, Alaska Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility site. The device is special in that it uses measurements of cosmic-ray neutrons as a proxy for snow water equivalent (SWE) depth. A unique characteristic of the technology is that it integrates over a wide area (as much as 40 ha), in contrast to conventional ground-based technologies, which essentially give point samples. Conventional point-scale technologies are problematic in the Arctic, both because extreme weather conditions are taxing on equipment, and because point measurements can fail to accurately characterize the average SWE over a larger area, even when excellent precision is obtained. The sensor installed in Barrow is, by far, the northernmost of a constellation of sites that makeup the U.S. COsmic ray Soil Moisture Observing System (COSMOS). The sensor is used for SWE measurements in winter and soil moisture measurements in summer. The ability of this type of sensor to operate in the Arctic had not been verified until now. The cosmic-ray sensor was installed on a tripod located approximately 150 m south of the ARM User Facility (Figure 1), and within boundaries of land managed by the ARM Facility. The sensor consists of both “bare” and “moderated” channels, where the moderated channel is the primary output used to calculate SWE. A QDL2100 data logger with pressure sensor was located inside of the User Facility, and a Campbell CS215 temperature and humidity sensor was attached to a rail on the upper deck of the User Facility, to enable near-real-time absolute humidity corrections to the data. The cosmic-ray sensors are connected to the data logger using an armored Cat5e cable that lies on top of the tundra. Data are retrieved hourly via Iridium satellite link.

  13. Formation of unsaturated hydrocarbons in interstellar ice analogues by cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilling, S.; Andrade, D. P. P.; da Silveira, E. F.; Rothard, H.; Domaracka, A.; Boduch, P.

    2012-07-01

    The formation of C=C and C≡C bonds from the processing of pure c-C6H12 (cyclohexane) and mixed H2O:NH3:c-C6H12 (1:0.3:0.7) ices by highly charged and energetic ions (219-MeV 16O7 + and 632-MeV 58Ni24 +) is studied. The experiments simulate the physical chemistry induced by medium-mass and heavy-ion cosmic rays in interstellar ice analogues. The measurements were performed inside a high vacuum chamber at the heavy-ion accelerator Grand Accelératéur National d'Ions Lourds (GANIL) in Caen, France. The gas samples were deposited on to a polished CsI substrate previously cooled to 13 K. In situ analysis was performed by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometry at different ion fluences. Dissociation cross-section of cyclohexane and its half-life in astrophysical environments were determined. A comparison between spectra of bombarded ices and young stellar sources indicates that the initial composition of grains in these environments should contain a mixture of H2O, NH3, CO (or CO2), simple alkanes and CH3OH. Several species containing double or triple bounds were identified in the radiochemical products, such as hexene, cyclohexene, benzene, OCN-, CO, CO2, as well as several aliphatic and aromatic alkenes and alkynes. The results suggest an alternative scenario for the production of unsaturated hydrocarbons and possibly aromatic rings (via dehydrogenation processes) in interstellar ices induced by cosmic ray bombardment.

  14. Star formation rates of spiral galaxies in the Cosmic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpaslan, Mehmet; Marcum, Pamela M.; Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA)

    2016-01-01

    We look for shifts in stellar mass and star formation rate along filaments in the cosmic web by examining the stellar masses and UV-derived star formation rates of 1,799 ungrouped and unpaired spiral galaxies from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey that reside in filaments. We devise multiple distance metrics to characterise the complex geometry of filaments, and find that galaxies closer to the orthogonal core of a filament have higher stellar masses than their counterparts near the periphery of filaments, on the edges of voids. We also find that these peripheral galaxies have higher specific star formations at a given mass. Our results suggest a model in which gas accretion from voids onto filaments is primarily in an orthogonal direction. While the star formation rates of spiral galaxies in filaments are susceptible to their locations, we find that the global star formation rates of galaxies in different large scale environments are similar to each other. The primary discriminant in star formation rates is therefore the stellar mass of each spiral galaxy, as opposed to its large scale environment.

  15. A generalization to the Rastall theory and cosmic eras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moradpour, H. [Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Heydarzade, Y.; Darabi, F. [Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Department of Physics, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salako, Ines G. [Universite de Porto-Novo, Institut de Mathematiques et de Sciences Physiques (IMSP), 01 BP 613, Porto-Novo (Benin); Universite d' Agriculture de Ketou, Departement de Physique, BP 13, Ketou (Benin); African Institute for Mathematical Sciences(AIMS), Muizenberg (South Africa)

    2017-04-15

    A generalized version for the Rastall theory is proposed showing the agreement with the cosmic accelerating expansion. In this regard, a coupling between geometry and the pressureless matter fields is derived which may play the role of dark energy, responsible for the current accelerating expansion phase. Moreover, our study also shows that the radiation field may not be coupled to the geometry in a non-minimal way which represents that the ordinary energy-momentum conservation law is respected by the radiation source. It is also shown that the primary inflationary era may be justified by the ability of the geometry to couple to the energy-momentum source in an empty flat FRW universe. In fact, this ability is independent of the existence of the energy-momentum source and may compel the empty flat FRW universe to expand exponentially. Finally, we consider a flat FRW universe field by a spatially homogeneous scalar field evolving in potential V(φ), and study the results of applying the slow-roll approximation to the system which may lead to an inflationary phase for the universe expansion. (orig.)

  16. Detecting heavy quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benenson, G.; Chau, L.L.; Ludlam, T.; Paige, F.E.; Platner, E.D.; Protopopescu, S.D.; Rehak, P.

    1983-01-01

    In this exercise we examine the performance of a detector specifically configured to tag heavy quark (HQ) jets through direct observations of D-meson decays with a high resolution vertex detector. To optimize the performance of such a detector, we assume the small diamond beam crossing configuration as described in the 1978 ISABELLE proposal, giving a luminosity of 10/sup 32/ cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/. Because of the very large backgrounds from light quark (LQ) jets, most triggering schemes at this luminosity require high P/sub perpendicular to/ leptons and inevitably give missing neutrinos. If alternative triggering schemes could be found, then one can hope to find and calculate the mass of objects decaying to heavy quarks. A scheme using the high resolution detector will also be discussed in detail. The study was carried out with events generated by the ISAJET Monte Carlo and a computer simulation of the described detector system. (WHK)

  17. Robustness of cosmic neutrino background detection in the cosmic microwave background

    CERN Document Server

    Audren, Benjamin; Cuesta, Antonio J; Gontcho, Satya Gontcho A; Lesgourgues, Julien; Niro, Viviana; Pellejero-Ibanez, Marcos; Pérez-Ràfols, Ignasi; Poulin, Vivian; Tram, Thomas; Tramonte, Denis; Verde, Licia

    2015-01-01

    The existence of a cosmic neutrino background can be probed indirectly by CMB experiments, not only by measuring the background density of radiation in the universe, but also by searching for the typical signatures of the fluctuations of free-streaming species in the temperature and polarisation power spectrum. Previous studies have already proposed a rather generic parametrisation of these fluctuations, that could help to discriminate between the signature of ordinary free-streaming neutrinos, or of more exotic dark radiation models. Current data are compatible with standard values of these parameters, which seems to bring further evidence for the existence of a cosmic neutrino background. In this work, we investigate the robustness of this conclusion under various assumptions. We generalise the definition of an effective sound speed and viscosity speed to the case of massive neutrinos or other dark radiation components experiencing a non-relativistic transition. We show that current bounds on these effectiv...

  18. Utah Heavy Oil Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Bauman; S. Burian; M. Deo; E. Eddings; R. Gani; R. Goel; C.K. Huang; M. Hogue; R. Keiter; L. Li; J. Ruple; T. Ring; P. Rose; M. Skliar; P.J. Smith; J.P. Spinti; P. Tiwari; J. Wilkey; K. Uchitel

    2009-10-20

    The Utah Heavy Oil Program (UHOP) was established in June 2006 to provide multidisciplinary research support to federal and state constituents for addressing the wide-ranging issues surrounding the creation of an industry for unconventional oil production in the United States. Additionally, UHOP was to serve as an on-going source of unbiased information to the nation surrounding technical, economic, legal and environmental aspects of developing heavy oil, oil sands, and oil shale resources. UHOP fulGilled its role by completing three tasks. First, in response to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 Section 369(p), UHOP published an update report to the 1987 technical and economic assessment of domestic heavy oil resources that was prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The UHOP report, entitled 'A Technical, Economic, and Legal Assessment of North American Heavy Oil, Oil Sands, and Oil Shale Resources' was published in electronic and hard copy form in October 2007. Second, UHOP developed of a comprehensive, publicly accessible online repository of unconventional oil resources in North America based on the DSpace software platform. An interactive map was also developed as a source of geospatial information and as a means to interact with the repository from a geospatial setting. All documents uploaded to the repository are fully searchable by author, title, and keywords. Third, UHOP sponsored Give research projects related to unconventional fuels development. Two projects looked at issues associated with oil shale production, including oil shale pyrolysis kinetics, resource heterogeneity, and reservoir simulation. One project evaluated in situ production from Utah oil sands. Another project focused on water availability and produced water treatments. The last project considered commercial oil shale leasing from a policy, environmental, and economic perspective.

  19. Resource Letter: TACMB-1: The theory of anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Martin; Cohn, J. D.

    2002-02-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on the theory of anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. Journal articles, web pages, and books are cited for the following topics: discovery, cosmological origin, early work, recombination, general CMB anisotropy references, primary CMB anisotropies (numerical, analytical work), secondary effects, Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect(s), lensing, reionization, polarization, gravity waves, defects, topology, origin of fluctuations, development of fluctuations, inflation and other ties to particle physics, parameter estimation, recent constraints, web resources, foregrounds, observations and observational issues, and Gaussianity.

  20. Calculation of the radiation environment caused by galactic cosmic rays for determining air crew exposure

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrari, A; Rancati, T

    2001-01-01

    The spectra of secondary particles resulting from interactions of primary galactic cosmic rays with the nuclei in the atmosphere have been calculated using the Monte Carlo transport code FLUKA. The simulations have been carried out at solar minimum and solar maximum activity, for several values of the vertical geomagnetic cut-off. The effective dose rate and the ambient dose equivalent rate as a function of geomagnetic cut-off and altitude have been obtained using appropriate sets of conversion coefficients. The calculated results are discussed and compared with experimental data and other calculations. A simple method is proposed to calculate the radiation exposure at aircraft altitudes. (55 refs).

  1. Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Antiprotons and Gamma-rays in the Galaxy: a New Diffusion Model

    OpenAIRE

    Evoli, C.; Gaggero, D.; Grasso, D.; Maccione, L.

    2008-01-01

    We model the transport of cosmic ray nuclei in the Galaxy by means of a new numerical code. Differently from previous numerical models we account for a generic spatial distribution of the diffusion coefficient. We found that in the case of radially uniform diffusion, the main secondary/primary ratios (B/C, N/O and sub-Fe/Fe) and the modulated antiproton spectrum match consistently the available observations. Convection and re-acceleration do not seem to be required in the en...

  2. Lateral distribution of cosmic ray muons underground: Results from the CosmoALEPH experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Tcaciuc, Rodica

    2006-01-01

    The CosmoALEPH experiment, located underground at the LEP e + e − storage ring at CERN at a depth of 320 m water equivalent, was used to study the chemical composition of primary cosmic rays up to 10 PeV e nergies from the measurement of high energy muons, created in extensive a ir showers by interactions of primary nuclei in the atmosphere. The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) and the Hadron Calorimete r of the ALEPH detector and six scintillator stations located at dis tances up to 1 km from each other were used to analyse the decoherence curve, m ultiplicity and transverse momentum distributions of energetic cosmic muo ns. The experimental data were compared with predictions from d ifferent Monte Carlo (MC) models and mass composition approaches. From a comparison between the measured decoherence distrib ution with CosmoALEPH and the MC predicted decoherence curves for prot on, helium and iron, a primary composition of (77 ± 11) % protons and (23 ± 11) % iron nuclei with a χ 2 - probability of 84 % was d...

  3. Wavelet-Bayesian inference of cosmic strings embedded in the cosmic microwave background

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, J. D.; Feeney, S. M.; Peiris, H. V.; Wiaux, Y.; Ringeval, C.; Bouchet, F. R.

    2017-12-01

    Cosmic strings are a well-motivated extension to the standard cosmological model and could induce a subdominant component in the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), in addition to the standard inflationary component. The detection of strings, while observationally challenging, would provide a direct probe of physics at very high-energy scales. We develop a framework for cosmic string inference from observations of the CMB made over the celestial sphere, performing a Bayesian analysis in wavelet space where the string-induced CMB component has distinct statistical properties to the standard inflationary component. Our wavelet-Bayesian framework provides a principled approach to compute the posterior distribution of the string tension Gμ and the Bayesian evidence ratio comparing the string model to the standard inflationary model. Furthermore, we present a technique to recover an estimate of any string-induced CMB map embedded in observational data. Using Planck-like simulations, we demonstrate the application of our framework and evaluate its performance. The method is sensitive to Gμ ˜ 5 × 10-7 for Nambu-Goto string simulations that include an integrated Sachs-Wolfe contribution only and do not include any recombination effects, before any parameters of the analysis are optimized. The sensitivity of the method compares favourably with other techniques applied to the same simulations.

  4. Heavy oil markets and investments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrest, Jackie [CERA North America (United States)

    2011-07-01

    With the depletion of traditional energy resources and the rising demand for energy, the exploitation of heavy oil resources is increasing. The aim of this paper is to present the heavy oil sector and to show which are the factors influencing heavy oil growth and production. A large part of heavy oil reserves lies in the Americas, with about 45% of the world's reserves in Latin America and over 35% in North America. The development of the heavy oil sector is dependent on economic, technological and environmental factors; greenhouse gas policies have important impacts on the development of the heavy oil industry as well as downstream market access. This presentation highlighted the great potential that North and South America have in terms of heavy oil but that the development of this sector will depend on several factors.

  5. Statistical reconstruction for cosmic ray muon tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Larry J; Blanpied, Gary S; Borozdin, Konstantin N; Fraser, Andrew M; Hengartner, Nicolas W; Klimenko, Alexei V; Morris, Christopher L; Orum, Chris; Sossong, Michael J

    2007-08-01

    Highly penetrating cosmic ray muons constantly shower the earth at a rate of about 1 muon per cm2 per minute. We have developed a technique which exploits the multiple Coulomb scattering of these particles to perform nondestructive inspection without the use of artificial radiation. In prior work [1]-[3], we have described heuristic methods for processing muon data to create reconstructed images. In this paper, we present a maximum likelihood/expectation maximization tomographic reconstruction algorithm designed for the technique. This algorithm borrows much from techniques used in medical imaging, particularly emission tomography, but the statistics of muon scattering dictates differences. We describe the statistical model for multiple scattering, derive the reconstruction algorithm, and present simulated examples. We also propose methods to improve the robustness of the algorithm to experimental errors and events departing from the statistical model.

  6. Light Scattering Tools for Cosmic Dust Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'in, V. B.; Voshchinnikov, N. V.; Farafonov, V. G.; Henning, Th.; Perelman, A. Ya.

    Because cosmic dust grains vary significantly in both morphology and chemical composition, it is necessary to develop different light scattering tools to analyze their scattering properties and to reconcile these properties with observations. We present a set of recently developed tools which includes a database of optical constants of materials of astronomical interest, exact and approximate methods and numerical codes using various models of a non-spherical inhomogeneous scatterer, a database of optical properties of non-spherical particles, a new approach to find a solution of ill-posed inverse problems in optics, and an original polarized radiation-transfer code applicable to 3D media populated by aligned non-spherical scatterers.

  7. Origins fourteen billion years of cosmic evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Tyson, Neil deGrasse

    2004-01-01

    Origins explores cosmic science's stunning new insights into the formation and evolution of our universe--of the cosmos, of galaxies and galaxy clusters, of stars within galaxies, of planets that orbit those stars, and of different forms of life that take us back to the first three seconds and forward through three billion years of life on Earth to today's search for life on other planets. Drawing on the current cross-pollination of geology, biology and astrophysics, Origins explains the thrilling daily breakthroughs in our knowledge of the universe from dark energy to life on Mars to the mysteries of space and time. Distilling complex science in clear and lively prose, co-authors Neil deGrasse Tyson and Donald Goldsmith conduct a galvanising tour of the cosmos revealing what the universe has been up to while turning part of itself into us.

  8. On the cosmic microwave background radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Filardo Bassalo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we will try to give a pale idea to the reader of what could be the Cosmic Microwave Background (RCFM that, according to the traditional Big Bang model, was generated by a primordial explosion. With this purpose we find it very important to present a brief historical summary of how the Microcosm, based on the Standard Model of Elementary Particle Physics (MPPE, and the Macrocosm, based on the Standard Big Bang Model (MPBB, have evolved over time. In addition, in the final part of the article we will analyze the two physical processes presented in the literature that seek to explain the RCFM: Bariogenesis and Plasma Quark-Gluon.

  9. Current Observational Constraints on Cosmic Doomsday

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yun

    2004-09-14

    In a broad class of dark energy models, the universe may collapse within a finite time t{sub c}. Here we study a representative model of dark energy with a linear potential, V({phi})=V{sub 0}(1 + {alpha}{phi}). This model is the simplest doomsday model, in which the universe collapses rather quickly after it stops expanding. Observational data from type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), cosmic microwave background anisotropy (CMB), and large scale structure (LSS) are complementary in constraining dark energy models. Using the new SN Ia data (Riess sample), the CMB data from WMAP, and the LSS data from 2dF, we find that the collapse time of the universe is t{sub c} {approx}> 42 (24) gigayears from today at 68% (95%) confidence.

  10. Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization and Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuss, David T.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) offer a means to explore the universe at a very early epoch. Specifically, if the universe went through a brief period of exponential expansion called inflation as current data suggest, gravitational waves from this period would polarize the CMB in a specific pattern. At GSFC, we are currently working towards two experiments that work in concert to measure this polarization pattern in search of evidence for inflation. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) will measure the polarization at frequencies between 40 and 150 GHz from the Atacama Desert in Chile. The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) is a balloon-borne experiment that will make similar measurements at frequencies between 200 and 600 GHz.

  11. Collisionless Dynamics and the Cosmic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Oliver

    2016-10-01

    I review the nature of three-dimensional collapse in the Zeldovich approximation, how it relates to the underlying nature of the three-dimensional Lagrangian manifold and naturally gives rise to a hierarchical structure formation scenario that progresses through collapse from voids to pancakes, filaments and then halos. I then discuss how variations of the Zeldovich approximation (based on the gravitational or the velocity potential) have been used to define classifications of the cosmic large-scale structure into dynamically distinct parts. Finally, I turn to recent efforts to devise new approaches relying on tessellations of the Lagrangian manifold to follow the fine-grained dynamics of the dark matter fluid into the highly non-linear regime and both extract the maximum amount of information from existing simulations as well as devise new simulation techniques for cold collisionless dynamics.

  12. Model-independent tests of cosmic gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Eric V

    2011-12-28

    Gravitation governs the expansion and fate of the universe, and the growth of large-scale structure within it, but has not been tested in detail on these cosmic scales. The observed acceleration of the expansion may provide signs of gravitational laws beyond general relativity (GR). Since the form of any such extension is not clear, from either theory or data, we adopt a model-independent approach to parametrizing deviations to the Einstein framework. We explore the phase space dynamics of two key post-GR functions and derive a classification scheme, and an absolute criterion on accuracy necessary for distinguishing classes of gravity models. Future surveys will be able to constrain the post-GR functions' amplitudes and forms to the required precision, and hence reveal new aspects of gravitation.

  13. Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Dova, M.T.

    2015-05-22

    The origin of the ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) with energies above E > 10 17 eV, is still unknown. The discovery of their sources will reveal the engines of the most energetic astrophysical accelerators in the universe. This is a written version of a series of lectures devoted to UHECR at the 2013 CERN-Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics. We present anintroduction to acceleration mechanisms of charged particles to the highest energies in astrophysical objects, their propagation from the sources to Earth, and the experimental techniques for their detection. We also discuss some of the relevant observational results from Telescope Array and Pierre Auger Observatory. These experiments deal with particle interactions at energies orders of magnitude higher than achieved in terrestrial accelerators.

  14. Qigong meets quantum physics experiencing cosmic oneness

    CERN Document Server

    Bock-Möbius, Imke

    2012-01-01

    Quantum physicists have reached a point commonly only attained by mystics: they understand something with amazing clarity yet can only talk about it in parables and metaphors. In this context, qigong with its Daoist background is a powerful way to integrate these apparently opposing ways of apperception and understanding. It allows us to realise cosmic oneness in the activities of daily life. This book succeeds in presenting both an easily accessible outline of quantum physics and also an appreciation of mysticism beyond vagueness and obscurity. From here it describes the physical and mental movements of qigong as a way of integrating body and mind, head and heart, detailing specific exercises and outlining their rationale and effects.

  15. The search for our cosmic ancestry

    CERN Document Server

    Wickramasinghe, Chandra

    2015-01-01

    The idea that life is a cosmic, rather than a purely terrestrial phenomenon, has progressed from scientific heresy to mainstream science within the short timespan of a few decades. The theory of cometary panspermia developed by Fred Hoyle and the present author in the 1970's has been vindicated by a spate of new discoveries in astronomy and biology, and also with startling new evidence of microbial fossils in meteorites and micrometeorites. The recent Kepler Telescope searches for exoplanets have indicated the presence of over 100 billion habitable planets separated by only a few light years, thus making panspermia and the transfer of microbial life between such planets an inevitable fact. The book presents a comprehensive and up-to-date account of the Hoyle-Wickramasinghe theory of cometary panspermia in a manner accessible to a wide general readership.

  16. Annual modulation of cosmic relic neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdi, Benjamin R.; Lisanti, Mariangela; Spitz, Joshua; Formaggio, Joseph A.

    2014-08-01

    The cosmic neutrino background (CνB), produced about one second after the big bang, permeates the Universe today. New technological advancements make neutrino capture on beta-decaying nuclei (NCB) a clear path forward towards the detection of the CνB. We show that gravitational focusing by the Sun causes the expected neutrino capture rate to modulate annually. The amplitude and phase of the modulation depend on the phase-space distribution of the local neutrino background, which is perturbed by structure formation. These results also apply to searches for sterile neutrinos at NCB experiments. Gravitational focusing is the only source of modulation for neutrino capture experiments, in contrast to dark-matter direct-detection searches where the Earth's time-dependent velocity relative to the Sun also plays a role.

  17. Cosmic Ray Streaming in Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Joshua; Gould Zweibel, Ellen; Oh, Siang P.

    2017-08-01

    The origin of diffuse radio emission in galaxy clusters remains an open question in astrophysics. This emission indicates the presence of cluster-wide magnetic fields and high energy cosmic ray (CR) electrons. I will discuss how the properties of the observed radio emission in clusters are shaped by different CR transport processes, namely CR streaming. Recent work has shown that fast streaming may turn off radio emission on relatively short time scales - a full treatment of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wave damping shows that streaming may be even faster than previously thought in high β environments. I will briefly introduce the physics behind CR transport, and present simple numerical simulations of the Coma cluster that predict radio emission, as well as other observable signatures such as gamma radiation that can differentiate between models for the source of the CR electrons.

  18. Measuring the Velocity of Cosmic Photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Gerardo Arturo

    2018-01-01

    The position of the JWST in space—close to the L2 point at a distance of 1.5 million kilometers from Earth—allows us a unique chance to measure the speed of cosmic photons through a double detection in two different telescopes. The speed of cosmic photons has been considered constant as a matter of principle, but in the same way, the energy lost by these photons could have a contribution due to a different nature such as dark matter. In this work, an experiment to measure the speed of photons is proposed based on the detection on two different telescopes located at a considerable distance. Some of the most important results of this experiment could be variations of the speed of light as it passes through dark matter and, as a consequence, the ability to map dark matter in the universe. Although JWST is not in the direction to measure the difference in time of 5 seconds, the fact that it can move up to a 50 arc degree angle will allow us to measure a difference in detection between 3 to 4.5 seconds. The observations needed to do this experiment should come from the detection of gamma ray bursts and then, the simultaneous detection by the sudden pointing of JWST plus a secondary telescope—on ground or in space—to catch the afterglow of the GRB in longer wavelengths. The new technology in telescopes will allow us to catch a difference in magnitude between both telescopes or even to measure single photon detection in time in order to accomplish the purpose of the experiment.

  19. Cosmic Radiation and Cataracts in Airline Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafnsson, V.; Olafsdottir, E.; Hrafnkelsson, J.; de Angelis, G.; Sasaki, H.; Arnarson, A.; Jonasson, F.

    Nuclear cataracts have been associated with ionising radiation exposure in previous studies. A population based case-control study on airline pilots has been performed to investigate whether employment as a commercial pilot and consequent exposure to cosmic radiation were associated to lens opacification, when adjusted for known risk factors for cataracts. Cases of opacification of the ocular lens were found in surveys among pilots and a random sample of the Icelandic population. Altogether 445 male subjects underwent a detailed eye examination and answered a questionnaire. Information from the airline company on the 79 pilots employment time, annual hours flown per aircraft type, the timetables and the flight profiles made calculation of individual cumulated radiation dose (mSv) possible. Lens opacification were classified and graded according to WHO simplified cataracts grading system using slit lamp. The odds ratio from logistic regression of nuclear cataracts risk among cases and controls was 3.02 (95% CI 1.44 to 6.35) for pilots compared with non-pilots, adjusted for age, smoking and sunbathing habits, whereas that of cortical cataracts risk among cases and controls was lower than unity (non significant) for pilots compared with non-pilots in a logistic regression analysis adjusted for same factors. Length of employment as a pilot and cumulated radiation dose (mSv) were significantly related to the risk of nuclear cataracts. So the association between radiation exposure of pilots and the risk of nuclear cataracts, adjusted for age, smoking and sunbathing habits, indicates that cosmic radiation may be cause of nuclear cataract among commercial pilots.

  20. Cosmoglobalistics: Interrelation of Global and Cosmic Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursul Tatiana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper develops the concept antropogeocosmizm, emanating from the fact that the main purpose of space activity in the short term is the historical use of space to solve global problems and in the long term socio-natural transition to the sustainable development of the planet. In this study based on the ideological origins and formation of a new direction and globalization, exploring the relationship of global and cosmic factors, the impact of the latter on the development of global processes and systems, the problem of space on the planet and escalating global processes in space. It is about the relationship of space and planetary processes, the transformation of the global response to space activities (and their interaction, and global development in the cosmic evolution. Taken as the position that global studies examining global processes and systems, and global processes are understood by the natural, social and socio-natural processes unfolding on planet Earth and have evolutionary significance. It is shown that global processes and issues affecting the world at large, is to some extent a manifestation of the global-space character of the contradictions associated with the expansion of spatial boundaries of human activity, including the conquest of space. Special attention is paid to the potential global catastrophes and geospatial software security. Considering the introduction of a substantive field cosmoglobalistiks natural processes, prospects globally exoplanet space research, as well as "global methodology" search for extraterrestrial intelligence. We consider the discovery of dark matter forms that give rise to a very substantial transformation attitude and stimulate the formation of global-cosmological research, which will consider mainly the global characteristics of matter, manifested in three main fragments of the Universe.