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Sample records for heavy petroleum residues

  1. Technological alternatives for the handling of high viscosity heavy crude oil and of petroleum residuals; Alternativas tecnologicas para el manejo de crudos pesados de alta viscosidad y residuales de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez S, Ramon; Peralta M, Maria Vita; Gonzalez Santalo, Jose M.; Herrera V, J. Ramon; Arriola M, Alejandro M.; Manzanares P, Emilio; Romo M, Cesar A.; Palacios L, Elvia M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    This work presents the technological capacity that, through the years, has been developed in emulsions of heavy oil in water preparations, as well as the potential application that this technology has in the electrical sector and the problem reduction during the extraction and handling of high viscosity heavy oils. Within this technological development it first appears the process for the formation of emulsions of residual petroleum within lots, followed by the preparation of emulsions in a continuous way within a laboratory model, and finally the production in greater scale in a pilot plant, including more and more adequate tense-actives for the formation of emulsions. Also experimental systems are presented to execute static stability and dynamic tests in different conditions, pumping tests for the handling of these emulsions and burning tests for their combustion. All of this with the purpose of consolidating the technology of residual petroleum emulsions as a profitable alternative that replaces the heavy fuel oil and to solve specific problems of the oil industry, among other benefits. [Spanish] Este trabajo exhibe la capacidad tecnologica que, a traves de los anos, se ha desarrollado en la preparacion de emulsiones de aceites pesados en agua; asi como el potencial de aplicacion que tiene dicha tecnologia en el sector electrico y la reduccion de problemas durante la extraccion y manejo de aceites pesados de alta viscosidad. Dentro de este desarrollo tecnologico figura primero el proceso para la formacion de emulsiones de residuales de petroleo dentro de lotes, seguido por la preparacion de emulsiones en continuo dentro de un laboratorio modelo, y finalmente la produccion a mayor escala en una planta piloto, incluyendo cada vez mas adecuados tenso-activos para la formacion de las emulsiones. Tambien se presentan sistemas experimentales para ejecutar pruebas de estabilidad estatica y dinamica en diferentes condiciones, pruebas de bombeo para el manejo de estas

  2. Caractérisation des huiles lourdes et des résidus pétroliers. Symposium international, Lyon, 25-27 juin 1984 Characterization of Heavy Crude Oils and Petroleum Residues. International Symposium, 25-27 June 1984

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorbon M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Ce symposium a permis aux chercheurs et ingénieurs qui étudient les bruts lourds et les résidus pétroliers de confronter les résultats de leurs travaux. II fut en particulier beaucoup question des asphaltènes et on a pu constater que de réels progrès avaient été réalisés en ce qui concerne la caractérisation de ces fractions. Furent également présentées les techniques d'analyse les plus aptes à fournir des informations sur ces produits ainsi que les manières spécifiques de les mettre en oeuvre. Enfin, on a vu comment l'analyse des produits lourds contribuait à la mise au point ou à l'optimisation des procédés de traitement de ces huiles. This symposium enabled research scientists and engineers working with heavy oils and petroleum residues to compare their findings. Much attention was paid to asphaltenes, and it could be seen that real progress had been made with regard to the characterization of such fractions. The analysis techniques best able to provide information were described along with the specific ways of implementing them. Then the topic of how the analysis of heavy products was contributing to the development or optimization of methods for processing such oils was discussed.

  3. associated petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals of an oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BARTH EKWUEME

    were analyzed for petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals, which may have been introduced to the soil as a result of the oil spillage that was incidence at the site. ... flora and fauna (Osuji et al., 2004). The present study examines the ... is located in the humid rainforest of the Niger Delta basin of Nigeria. It records a mean ...

  4. Study of sulfur and vanadium in heavy petroleum products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novelli, J.M.

    1982-10-01

    Sulfur compounds in heavy oil fractions (>450/sup 0/C) are studied in the first part of this work. After chemical oxidation by metachloroperbenzoic acid to obtain sulfones, sulfur compounds are analyzed by infrared spectroscopy for their qualitative and quantitative repartition. The method can be applied for the study of sulfur containing molecules before and after structural modifications of petroleum fractions by any chemical refining processes. In a second part vanadium is characterized in asphalt by physicochemical and chemical methods. 80% of the vanadium in a Boscan asphalt is under the form of porphyrins. Different associations are evidenced in petroleum fractions and metalloporphyrins, but the liaison between the vanadyl group and heterocondensate from asphalts is the more frequent.

  5. Petroleomics: advanced molecular probe for petroleum heavy ends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chang S; Hendrickson, Christopher L; Rodgers, Ryan P; McKenna, Amy M; Marshall, Alan G

    2011-04-01

    To look into complex mixtures of petroleum heavy ends at the molecular level, ultra high-resolution mass spectrometry, i.e. resolving power > 50,000, is needed to resolve overlapping components for accurate determination of molecular composition of individual components. Recent progress in Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) incorporated with soft ionization techniques adaptable to liquid chromatography enables analysis of petroleum high ends, i.e., heavy oils, residua and asphaltenes. FT-ICR MS at the Future Fuels Institute of Florida State University and the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL) routinely provides 1,000,000 resolving power at 400 Da, with root mean square (rms) mass measurement accuracy between 30 and 500 ppb for 5000-30,000 identified species in a single mass spectrum. Phase correction of the detected ion signal increases resolving power 40-100%, improving mass accuracy up to twofold. Overlapping ionic species that differ in mass by as little as one electron mass (548 µDa) can be resolved. A database of more than 100,000 components of different elemental composition has been generated at NHMFL. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. HYDRO-IMP technology for upgrading of heavy petroleum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Хорхе Анчита

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydroprocessing is one of the most important processes in petroleum refining industry, not only for upgrading of heavy oils but also for producing low-impurity content fuels and preparing feeds for various conversion processes. Experimental results obtained in pilot plant and semi-commercial scales for hydroprocessing of heavy oils are reported in this work. Mexican heavy crude oils (10, 13 and 16°API with high amount of impurities were used for all tests. Hydroprocessing was conducted at moderate reaction severity in two fixed-bed reactors in series. Removals of sulfur, metals and asphaltenes, as well as changes of API gravity and viscosity were monitored at different reaction conditions with time-on-stream. Upgraded oils with reduced amounts of impurities and increased API were obtained, keeping sediment formation below maximum allowable content. Removal of impurities was higher in semi-commercial scale compared with pilot plant test. Have been proved that the heavier the feed the greater the gain in product quality. For instance, 10°API crude can increase its gravity up to ~22°API (Δ°API = 12, while 16°API crude increases its gravity up to ~25°API (Δ°API = 9. Sediment formation was also kept below 0.05 wt % and no other problems (excessive reactor delta-P, plugging, etc. were observed during the test.

  7. 40 CFR 180.526 - Synthetic isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... hydrocarbons; tolerances for residues. 180.526 Section 180.526 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.526 Synthetic isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Synthetic isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons complying with 21 CFR 172.882 (a) and...

  8. HDHPLUS/SHP : heavy residue hydroconversion technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morel, F. [Axens, Rueil Malmaison (France)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation described an integrated refinery process that achieves nearly full conversion of heavy and refractory residues into ultra high quality and ultra low sulphur transportation fuels with a yield great than 100 volume per cent. The Axens, IFP and Intevep/PDVSA Alliance combined the HDHPLUS vacuum residue slurry technology with Sequential Hydro Processing (SHP) of primary hydrocracked products. Both technologies have undergone extensive testing at a refinery in Puerto La Cruz (RPLC), Venezuela to begin production of 50,000 BPSD in 2012. The demonstration unit at Intevep has been used to investigate production of effluent for the downstream SHP processing. This paper also reviewed the SHP bench unit operations at IFP's Lyon research center in France and disclosed the final product yields and qualities. The test results have shown the expected RPLC deep conversion commercial unit performances and fully secure its design basis. tabs., figs.

  9. A new heavy residue upgrading process to retrofit existing refineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghaedian, Maryam; Zarkesh, Jamshid [NIOC-Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (Russian Federation); Khadzhiev, S.; Kadiev, H. [Russian Academy of science (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-01

    Light crude oil reserves have declined and new fields being explored tend to be heavy oil, requiring processes to convert heavy residue to light products. The aim of this paper is to present the use of heavy residue hydroconversion (HRH) to upgrade heavy residues in existing refineries. A case study was carried out on a refinery with 250,000 barrel per day capacity, two cases were examined: the base case and the HRH case. Results showed that HRH provides higher IRR and NPV than the base case for the same investment. The heavy residue hydroconversion process was proved to be a feasible and reliable alternative which could eliminate residue while creating added value in existing refineries.

  10. Associated petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals of an oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The total extractable hydrocarbon content (THC) of 1.13×105±2.91 ×104 mg/kg of the affected soil revealed a high level of petroleum hydrocarbon ... aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with naphthalene which may actually be oxidized before many saturates which are the most prone to biodegradation and attenuation, while

  11. Analysis of heavy oils: Method development and application to Cerro Negro heavy petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbognani, L.; Hazos, M.; Sanchez, V. (INTEVEP, Filial de Petroleos de Venezuela, SA, Caracas (Venezuela)); Green, J.A.; Green, J.B.; Grigsby, R.D.; Pearson, C.D.; Reynolds, J.W.; Shay, J.Y.; Sturm, G.P. Jr.; Thomson, J.S.; Vogh, J.W.; Vrana, R.P.; Yu, S.K.T.; Diehl, B.H.; Grizzle, P.L.; Hirsch, D.E; Hornung, K.W.; Tang, S.Y.

    1989-12-01

    On March 6, 1980, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ministry of Energy and Mines of Venezuela (MEMV) entered into a joint agreement which included analysis of heavy crude oils from the Venezuelan Orinoco oil belt.The purpose of this report is to present compositional data and describe new analytical methods obtained from work on the Cerro Negro Orinoco belt crude oil since 1980. Most of the chapters focus on the methods rather than the resulting data on Cerro Negro oil, and results from other oils obtained during the verification of the method are included. In addition, published work on analysis of heavy oils, tar sand bitumens, and like materials is reviewed, and the overall state of the art in analytical methodology for heavy fossil liquids is assessed. The various phases of the work included: distillation and determination of routine'' physical/chemical properties (Chapter 1); preliminary separation of >200{degree}C distillates and the residue into acid, base, neutral, saturated hydrocarbon and neutral-aromatic concentrates (Chapter 2); further separation of acid, base, and neutral concentrates into subtypes (Chapters 3-5); and determination of the distribution of metal-containing compounds in all fractions (Chapter 6).

  12. Analysis of heavy oils: Method development and application to Cerro Negro heavy petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1989-12-01

    On March 6, 1980, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ministry of Energy and Mines of Venezuela (MEMV) entered into a joint agreement which included analysis of heavy crude oils from the Venezuelan Orinoco oil belt. The purpose of this report is to present compositional data and describe new analytical methods obtained from work on the Cerro Negro Orinoco belt crude oil since 1980. Most of the chapters focus on the methods rather than the resulting data on Cerro Negro oil, and results from other oils obtained during the verification of the method are included. In addition, published work on analysis of heavy oils, tar sand bitumens, and like materials is reviewed, and the overall state of the art in analytical methodology for heavy fossil liquids is assessed. The various phases of the work included: distillation and determination of routine'' physical/chemical properties (Chapter 1); preliminary separation of >200{degrees} C distillates and the residue into acid, base, neutral, saturated hydrocarbon and neutral-aromatic concentrates (Chapter 2); further separation of acid, base, and neutral concentrates into subtypes (Chapters 3--5); and determination of the distribution of metal-containing compounds in all fractions (Chapter 6).

  13. Separating petroleum residues through complex forming with TiC/sub 4/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khokhlova, G.P.; Plyusnin, A.N.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that TiC/sub 4/ may be used for quantitative isolation of alphaltenes from residual petroleum products, for concentrating lower molecular heteroatomic compounds and for total isolation of nitrogen compounds of a basic nature, and for fractionation of resinous asphaltene substances. With the action of TiC/sub 4/ a joint isolation of asphaltenes and basic nitrogen compounds occurs in the residual petroleum products. The degree of asphaltene extraction reaches 100 percent and that of the basic nitrogen compound, 90 to 98 percent. Hexane in this process is a more favorable solvent than benzene.

  14. Characterization of heavy crude oils and petroleum residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tissot, B.

    1984-01-01

    Proceedings of an international symposium held in Lyon in 1984, consisting of typescript versions of five plenary lectures and a large number of research papers in the areas of geochemical analysis, fractionation and characterization, and relations between structure and properties.

  15. Tolerance of Four Tropical Tree Species to Heavy Petroleum Contamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez-Hernandez, I.; Ochoa-Gaona, S.; Schroeder, R.H.A.; Rivera-Cruz, M.C.; Geissen, V.

    2013-01-01

    Four species of trees were selected to evaluate the tolerance to heavy crude oil contamination by means of a tolerance index integrating germination, height, biomass and survival as variables. Fresh seeds to Cedrela odorata (tropical cedar), Haematoxylum campechianum (tinto bush), Swietenia

  16. Levels of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and some Heavy Metals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    water bodies receiving effluents is emphasized in order to forestall cumulative effects of pollutants which may lead to sub-lethal consequences in the aquatic ... heavy metal pollution (Osibanjo and Ajayi, 1980,. Foulkes. 1990). Bioaccumulation in ... Soluble metallic soaps were hydrolyzed by acidification. Oils and solids or ...

  17. Analysis of Petroleum Products in Fire Debris Residues by Gas Chromatography: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Gurvinder Singh Bumbrah; Rajinder Kumar Sarin; Rakesh Mohan Sharma

    2017-01-01

    This review gives a brief overview of developments in the analysis of petroleum products (PP) in fire debris residues (FDR) by gas chromatography (GC). The review covers different aspects of analysis such as the substrates involved, isolation procedures, column and mobile phase used, and subsequent detection in tabular form. This paper covers detection of PP such as petrol, kerosene, and diesel in various types’ of samples of interest to fire debris analysts. Solid phase microextraction is mo...

  18. Remediation of soil co-contaminated with petroleum and heavy metals by the integration of electrokinetics and biostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhi-Yong; Huang, Wen-Hui; Xing, Ding-Feng; Zhang, Hong-Feng

    2013-09-15

    Successful remediation of soil co-contaminated with high levels of organics and heavy metals is a challenging task, because that metal pollutants in soil can partially or completely suppress normal heterotrophic microbial activity and thus hamper biodegradation of organics. In this study, the benefits of integrating electrokinetic (EK) remediation with biodegradation for decontaminating soil co-contaminated with crude oil and Pb were evaluated in laboratory-scale experiments lasting for 30 days. The treated soil contained 12,500 mg/kg of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and 450 mg/kg Pb. The amendments of EDTA and Tween 80, together with a regular refreshing of electrolyte showed the best performance to remediate this contaminated soil. An important function of EDTA-enhanced EK treatment was to eliminate heavy metal toxicity from the soil, thus activating microbial degradation of oil. Although Tween 80 reduced current, it could serve as a second substrate for enhancing microbial growth and biodegradation. It was found that oil biodegradation degree and microbial numbers increased toward the anode and cathode. Microbial metabolism was found to be beneficial to metal release from the soil matrix. Under the optimum conditions, the soil Pb and TPH removal percentages after 30 days of running reached 81.7% and 88.3%, respectively. After treatment, both the residual soil Pb and TPH concentrations met the requirement of the Chinese soil environmental quality standards. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Hydrogen Solubility in Heavy Undefined Petroleum Fractions Using Group Contributions Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilar-Cisneros Humberto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen solubility in heavy undefined petroleum fractions is estimated by taking as starting point a method of characterization based on functional groups [ Carreón-Calderón et al. (2012 Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 51, 14188-14198 ]. Such method provides properties entering into equations of states and molecular pseudostructures formed by non-integer numbers of functional groups. Using Vapor-Liquid Equilibria (VLE data from binary mixtures of known compounds, interaction parameters between hydrogen and the calculated functional groups were estimated. Besides, the incorporation of the hydrogen-carbon ratio of the undefined petroleum fractions into the method allows the corresponding hydrogen solubility to be properly estimated. This procedure was tested with seven undefined petroleum fractions from 27 to 6 API over wide ranges of pressure and temperature (323.15 to 623.15 K. The results seem to be in good agreement with experimental data (overall Relative Average Deviation, RAD < 15%.

  20. Molecular characterization of nickel and vanadium nonporphyrin compounds found in heavy crude petroleums and bitumens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fish, R.H.; Reynolds, J.G.; Gallegos, E.J.

    1986-11-01

    Pyridine/water extracts of selected crude petroleums were separated by polarity on a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) octadecylsilane column (ODS) into three fractions; low, moderate, and high polar. The moderate and low polar fractions were examined by electron impact mass spectroscopy (EIMS) to elucidate structural and behavioral characteristics of vanadyl petroporphyrin and metallo-nonporphyrin compounds. The EIMS results indicated vanadyl petroporphyrins in Cerro Negro and Wilmington moderate polar fractions and possibly in the Wilmington low polar fraction. These EIMS results showed the presence of petroporphyrins in the above-mentioned fractions, but no discrete information about the metallo-nonporphyrins. A highly polar nickel fraction from a Wilmington crude petroleum pyridine/water extract, separated on the ODS column, was further purified on a cyano normal phase column. This fraction had a nickel concentration of approximately 15,000 wppM, and was examined by EIMS mass spectroscopy. The spectral results indicated several homologous series structures possible for the binding sites of nickel. Further examination of the same fraction by positive ion fast atom bombardment mass spectroscopy, using a metal ion exchange technique, showed a substantially simplified spectrum and indicated the possibility of the nickel binding sites being small molecular weight naphthenic (carboxylic) acid salts. Gilsonite, a bitumen, was analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC with graphite furnace atomic absorption element specific detection, which indicated that the nickel is predominantly bound as metallopetroporphyrin, while a small portion eluted as a highly polar metallo-nonporphyrin fraction. These results are important in the identification of nonporphyrin metal-containing compounds in heavy crude petroleums and residua and could be beneficial for future petroleum exploration as metallobiomarkers. 21 refs., 11 figs.

  1. Evaluation of phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon and heavy metals with using Catharanthus roseus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Askary Mehrabadi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil pollution is an inevitable worldwide phenomenon in oil producing and consuming areas that stems from human error, accidental discharge and other sources. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytoremediation potential of vinca in petroleum-polluted soil. The experiment was laid out as a completely randomized design in 3 replications with different concentrations of crude oil (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4 % V/W in pot planting stage. At the end of the 70-day period, soil samples were analyzed for total hydrocarbons removal. Contents of pb, zn and Ni were measured by atomic absorption from the soils and the leaves. Statistical analysis of data were performed on the basis of duncan’s test and by using of SPSS16 software. In concentrations higher than 3 % no growth was observed. The growth parameters such as stem length, stem fresh and dry matter decreased progressively from 0.5-3 % crude oil in soil. The results showed heavy metal accumulation in plant leaves and reduction of them in the soil. Heavy metals containing zinc, lead and nickel in plant increased in different concentration of crude oil. Total hydrocarbons and heavy metals containing zinc, lead and nickel reduced were in planted contaminated soil. This study showed that Periwinkle was able to grow and survive in low concentrations of oil and reduced pollutants in the soil. Based upon these results, Catharanthus roseus can be used as phytoremediator of petroleum-contaminated soil in low concentrations.

  2. Comparison of processing characteristics of Mayan and Wilmington heavy residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, C.D.; Green, J.B.

    1989-04-01

    Wilmington 538 degrees C+ and Mayan 496 degrees C+ crude oil residues were hydrotreated at four temperature levels. The products from hydrotreating were gases and condensates in the overhead and heavy liquids and (at high temperatures) solids in the reactor. The heavy liquids were separated into acid-base-neutral (ABN) fractions by a unique nonaqueous ion exchange technique developed at NIPER. Nickel and vanadium complexes in the feeds, whole heavy liquid and ABN fractions were characterized by determining the total metal content, the porphyrinic metal content and the molecular weight distribution of the metal complexes by size exclusion chromatography/inductively coupled plasma. For both crudes, the metal complexes spanned a wide range of chemical behaviour and molecular weight. The resistance of the various classes of metal complexes to hydrodemetallization varied enormously and depended on the chemical type more than the hydrotreating temperature. Both nickel and vanadyl porphyrins were found to appear, in certain ABN fractions, in greater amounts after hydrotreating than before, thus suggesting that the presence of selected porphyrins may be masked by intermolecular interactions and/or attached functionalities and thus they are not detected as porphyrins by visible spectrometry. 20 refs., 5 figs., 10 tabs.

  3. Study on Colloidal Model of Petroleum Residues through the Attraction Potential between Colloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long-li Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The samples of DaGang atmospheric residue (DG-AR, Middle East atmospheric residue (ME-AR, TaHe atmospheric residue (TH-AR, and their thermal reaction samples were chosen for study. All the samples were fractioned into six components separately, including saturates plus light aromatics, heavy aromatics, light resins, middle resins, heavy resins, and asphaltenes. The dielectric permittivity of the solutions of these components was measured, and the dielectric permittivity values of the components can be determined by extrapolation, which increased steadily from saturates plus light aromatics to asphaltenes. Moreover, the Hamaker constants of the components were calculated from their dielectric permittivity values. The Van der Waals attractive potential energy between colloids corresponding to various models could be calculated from the fractional composition and the Hamaker constants of every component. It was assumed that the cores of colloidal particles were formed by asphaltenes and heavy resins mainly; the other fractions acted as dispersion medium. For the three serials of thermal reaction samples, the Van der Waals attraction potential energy between colloids for this kind of model was calculated. For TH-AR thermal reaction samples, the Van der Waals attraction potential energy presented the maximum as thermal reaction is going on, which was near to the end of coke induction period.

  4. Analysis of Petroleum Products in Fire Debris Residues by Gas Chromatography: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurvinder Singh Bumbrah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This review gives a brief overview of developments in the analysis of petroleum products (PP in fire debris residues (FDR by gas chromatography (GC. The review covers different aspects of analysis such as the substrates involved, isolation procedures, column and mobile phase used, and subsequent detection in tabular form. This paper covers detection of PP such as petrol, kerosene, and diesel in various types’ of samples of interest to fire debris analysts. Solid phase microextraction is most frequently used along with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS for the extraction and identification of PP from FDR. Chemometric tools should be used to improve the significance and reliability of results obtained from the analysis of FDR. However, the potential utility of portable GC-MS in fire debris analysis cannot be ignored, and its proper development and validation is required before using it for this purpose.

  5. Residual activity induced by heavy ions and beam-loss criteria for heavy-ion accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Strašík

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of FLUKA simulations of the residual activity induced by heavy ions in two target configurations representing: (1 a beam pipe of an accelerator and (2 a bulky accelerator structure like a magnet yoke or a coil. The target materials were stainless steel and copper representing the most common construction materials used for basic accelerator components. For these two materials, the inventory of the induced isotopes depends mainly on the target material and much less on the projectile species. Time evolution of the induced activity can be described by means of a generic curve that is independent from the projectile mass. Dependence of the induced residual activity on selected ion beam parameters was studied. The main goal of the study was establishing a scaling law expanding the existing proton beam-loss tolerance to heavy-ion beams. This scaling law enables specifying beam-loss criteria for projectile species from proton up to uranium at energies from 200  MeV/u up to 1  GeV/u.

  6. Heavy metal, trace element and petroleum hydrocarbon pollution in the Arabian Gulf: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afnan Mahmood Freije

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Arabian Gulf environmental status was assessed based on studies conducted in Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and United Arab Emirates (UAE during 1983–2011. This review examines all sorts of pollutions in the Arabian Gulf area over the last three decades. Approximately 50 published studies were reviewed in order to determine the pollution status in the Arabian Gulf regarding heavy metals and organic substances. Three types of environmental pollutions including marine and coastal, soil, and air were addressed in this review as well as sources of pollutants and their effect on biological systems, marine organisms, and human health. Emphasis is placed on marine pollution, particularly toxic metal, and petroleum hydrocarbon contaminations. Major parts of this review discuss the consequences of the 1991 Gulf War on the environment, and the substantial changes associated with the marine habitats. The effects of oil field fires in Kuwait following the 1991 Gulf War were evaluated through studies that investigated hydrocarbons concentration and trace metals in samples of near shore sediments, bivalves, and fish collected from Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, UAE, and Oman. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were discussed in biota (fish and various bivalves and coastal sediments from six countries in the Gulf. The review has revealed different concentrations of pollutants, low, moderately, and chronically contaminated areas from oil and metals. It has also outlined effective sustainable management measures and goals as a first step in the evaluation of coastal, marine, soil, and air environment in the Arabian Gulf area.

  7. Chemical reaction engineering studies on cocracking of petroleum vacuum residue with coal, plastics, and biomass (bagasse and petrocrop)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmaruzzaman, M.; Sharma, D.K. [Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies

    2007-07-01

    This article deals with the studies on cocracking of petroleum vacuum residue (XVR) with thermosetting plastic, I. e., bakelite (BL), Samla coal (SC), biomass, I. e., bagasse (BG) or C. procera (CL) and their binary, ternary, and quaternary mixtures in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The kinetic studies were performed using the Coats and Redfern kinetic modeling equation. The overall activation energies obtained were 25 kJ/mole for petroleum vacuum residue, 99 kJ/mole for polypropylene, 21 kJ/mole for coal, 23 kJ/mole for Calotropis procera, and 25 kJ/mole for the combination of these four materials. However, other models, such as van Krevelan et al. and Horowitz and Metzger have also been used in some cases to compare the results with those obtained by the Coats and Redfern kinetic models. In the present work, the effect of catalysts on the cracking of Basra vacuum residue (BVR) has also been reported.

  8. Recycling used palm oil and used engine oil to produce white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-abbas, Mustafa Hamid; Ibrahim, Wan Aini Wan; Sanagi, Mohd. Marsin

    2012-09-01

    Recycling waste materials produced in our daily life is considered as an additional resource of a wide range of materials and it conserves the environment. Used engine oil and used cooking oil are two oils disposed off in large quantities as a by-product of our daily life. This study aims at providing white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel from the disposed oils. Toxic organic materials suspected to be present in the used engine oil were separated using vacuum column chromatography to reduce the time needed for the separation process and to avoid solvent usage. The compounds separated were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and found to contain toxic aromatic carboxylic acids. Used cooking oils (thermally cracked from usage) were collected and separated by vacuum column chromatography. White bio oil produced was examined by GC-MS. The white bio oil consists of non-toxic hydrocarbons and is found to be a good alternative to white mineral oil which is significantly used in food industry, cosmetics and drugs with the risk of containing polycyclic aromatic compounds which are carcinogenic and toxic. Different portions of the used cooking oil and used engine were mixed to produce several blends for use as heavy oil fuels. White bio oil was used to produce bio petroleum diesel by blending it with petroleum diesel and kerosene. The bio petroleum diesel produced passed the PETRONAS flash point and viscosity specification test. The heat of combustion of the two blends of heavy fuel produced was measured and one of the blends was burned to demonstrate its burning ability. Higher heat of combustion was obtained from the blend containing greater proportion of used engine oil. This study has provided a successful recycled alternative for white bio oil, bio petroleum fuel and diesel which can be an energy source.

  9. Particulate matter emissions from a heavy duty vehicle fuelled by petroleum diesel and used cooking oil blends

    OpenAIRE

    Dizayi,; Li, HU; Hadavi,; Tomlin, AS

    2015-01-01

    Fuel characteristic and exhaust particulate emissions tests were carried out for a EURO5 compliant Heavy Duty Vehicle operating on both pure petroleum diesel (PD) and used cooking oil (C2G Ultra Biofuel) PD blends under real world driving conditions. Fuel tests showed that fuel temperature, substitution ratio and engine speed play a key role in determining the spray characteristics of the Ultra Biofuel blends. However, under real world operating conditions, the Bioltec fuel blending system wa...

  10. USE OF A LOW-COST TEMPLATE-FREE ZSM-5 FOR ATMOSPHERIC PETROLEUM RESIDUE PYROLYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius P. S. Caldeira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available To understand the physicochemical properties and catalytic activity during the pyrolysis of atmospheric petroleum residue, a template-free ZSM-5 zeolite was synthesized using a direct method without additional seeds or an organic structure director and compared with conventionally synthesized ZSM-5. The crystallinities of the two zeolites were evaluated by XRD and FTIR and were quite similar; however, structural analyses using SEM and argon physisorption revealed that the zeolites diverged in particle diameter and in the external surface area of the micropores. The synthesis procedure without a template incorporated additional aluminum into the crystalline network, according to ICP-AES and TPD NH3 experiments. The catalytic pyrolysis performed over the template-free ZSM-5 generated results comparable to those for pyrolysis performed over the conventional ZSM-5 according to its hydrocarbon distribution. The selectivity to aromatics compounds was exactly the same for both ZSM-5 zeolites, and these values stand out compared to thermal pyrolysis. The template-free ZSM-5 produced 20% of light hydrocarbons (C4-C6, where such compounds are olefins and paraffins of great interest to the petrochemical industry. Therefore, template-free ZSM-5 is promising for industrial use due to its lowered synthesis time, low-cost and significant distribution to light hydrocarbons.

  11. Monitoring of ground water quality and heavy metals in soil during large scale bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated waste in India: case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajoy Kumar Mandal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation using microbes has been well accepted as an environmentally friendly and economical treatment method for disposal of hazardous petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated waste (oily waste and this type of bioremediation has been successfully conducted in laboratory and on a pilot scale in various countries, including India. Presently there are no federal regulatory guidelines available in India for carrying out field-scale bioremediation of oily waste using microbes. The results of the present study describe the analysis of ground water quality as well as selected heavy metals in oily waste in some of the large-scale field case studies on bioremediation of oily waste (solid waste carried out at various oil installations in India. The results show that there was no contribution of oil and grease and selected heavy metals to the ground water in the nearby area due to adoption of this bioremediation process. The results further reveal that there were no changes in pH and EC of the groundwater due to bioremediation. In almost all cases the selected heavy metals in residual oily waste were within the permissible limits as per Schedule – II of Hazardous Waste Management, Handling and Transboundary Movement Act, Amendment 2008, (HWM Act 2008, by the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF, Government of India (GoI.

  12. The influence of dissolved petroleum hydrocarbon residues on natural phytoplankton biomass

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shailaja, M.S.

    on phytoplankton biomass varies depending on the nature rather than the quantity of petroleum hydrocarbons present. Culture studies with unialgal Nitzschia sp. in seawater collected from selected stations in the study area as well as in artificial seawater spiked...

  13. Pyrolysis and reutilization of plant residues after phytoremediation of heavy metals contaminated sediments: For heavy metals stabilization and dye adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiaomin; Huang, Danlian; Liu, Yunguo; Zeng, Guangming; Wang, Rongzhong; Wei, Jingjing; Huang, Chao; Xu, Piao; Wan, Jia; Zhang, Chen

    2018-01-05

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of pyrolysis on the stabilization of heavy metals in plant residues obtained after phytoremediation. Ramie residues, being collected after phytoremediation of metal contaminated sediments, were pyrolyzed at different temperatures (300-700 °C). Results indicated that pyrolysis was effective in the stabilization of Cd, Cr, Zn, Cu, and Pb in ramie residues by converting the acid-soluble fraction of metals into residual form and decreasing the TCLP-leachable metal contents. Meanwhile, the reutilization potential of using the pyrolysis products generated from ramie residues obtained after phytoremediation as sorbents was investigated. Adsorption experiments results revealed that the pyrolysis products presented excellent ability to adsorb methylene blue (MB) with a maximum adsorption capacity of 259.27 mg/g. This study demonstrated that pyrolysis could be used as an efficient alternative method for stabilizing heavy metals in plant residues obtained after phytoremediation, and their pyrolysis products could be reutilized for dye adsorption. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Spatial variation in Heavy Metal residue in Corchorus olitorious ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    the vegetable Corchorus olitorius (C.olitorius) leaves cultivated along a major road. Samples the vegetable, C. olitorius leaves) were ... also poses risk to animals and human health. High concentrations of heavy metals such as ... In many cities in the developing world, lack of access to land make other lands including ...

  15. Petroleum hydrocarbon residues in the marine environment of Bassein-Mumbai

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chouksey, M.K.; Kadam, A.N; Zingde, M.D.

    ) in sediment deposited prior to the first global commercial use of petroleum in core R5 represents the biogenic background. Based on the period of industrialisation and the horizon of PHc accumulation, a sedimentation rate of 0.2 and 1.0 cm y_1 respectively...

  16. Effects of operating conditions on compositional characteristics and reaction kinetics of liquid derived by delayed coking of nigerian petroleum residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Bello

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The thermal upgrading of Nigerian petroleum residue was studied at relatively low pressure in a delayed coking reactor system. In this work, the intent was to investigate the effects of process variables such as reaction temperature (200(0C to 600(0C, reaction time (0 to 120min, additive concentration loading and additive-to-residue ratio on the amounts and quality of organic liquid product (OLP. The liquid products derived from the delayed coking process were characterized by means of instrumental analysis of gas-liquid chromatography. Results obtained from the analyses of the OLP revealed an upward trend of the conversion process and the selectivity of the aromatic compounds with additive-to-residue ratio (ARR and increase in temperature. This led to maximum yield of 37.2% achieved with ARR of 5 compared to 31% achieved with ordinary thermal conversion. The selectivity for aromatic hydrocarbons was maximum at 83.1wt% the selectivity towards aromatics and aliphatic hydrocarbons were highest for methanol-potassium hydroxide and methanol respectively. In all additive system cases, maximum OLP was produced at an optimum reaction temperature of 370(0C in the delayed coking reactor and at higher residence time. The gaseous product consisted of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide and C1 - C6 hydrocarbons, which amounted to about 20 to 30 wt% of liquid distillate. The information obtained in this study show that the organic liquid products are amenable to characterization procedure and provided the basis for the identification of processes for upgrading Nigerian petroleum residue and such other starting materials such as bitumen or fossil fuel coal liquids.

  17. Validation of the target lipid model for toxicity assessment of residual petroleum constituents: monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Joy A; Di Toro, Dominic M

    2009-06-01

    A method is presented for developing scientifically defensible, numeric guidelines for residual petroleum-related constituents, specifically monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), in the water column. The guidelines are equivalent to a HC5 (i.e., hazard concentration to 5% of the tested species, or the concentration that protects 95% of the tested species). The model of toxicity used in this evaluation is the target lipid model (TLM) that was developed for assessing the toxicity of type I narcotic chemicals. An acute to chronic ratio is used for chronic expression and sublethal effects. The TLM is evaluated by comparing predicted and observed toxicity of these petroleum components. The methodology is capable of predicting both the acute and chronic toxicity of MAHs and PAHs in single exposures and in mixtures. For acute exposures, the TLM was able to predict the toxicity to within a factor of three to five. The use of toxic units was an effective metric for expressing the toxicity of mixtures. Within the uncertainty bounds, the TLM correctly predicted where sublethal effects of edemas, hemorrhaging, and other abnormalities were observed to occur in early life-stage exposure to PAHs. The computed HC5s were lower than no-observed-effect concentrations based on growth, reproduction, and mortality endpoints and sublethal effects. The methodology presented can be used by the oil spill community to compare residual concentrations of PAHs against defensible, numeric guidelines to assess potential ecological impacts.

  18. Impact of toxic heavy metals and pesticide residues in herbal products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nema S. Shaban

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have a long history of use in therapy throughout the world and still make an important part of traditional medicine. The World Health Organization (WHO estimates that 65%–80% of the world's populations depend on the herbal products as their primary form of health care. This review is conducted to provide a general idea about chemical contaminants such as heavy metals and pesticide residues as major common contaminants of the herbal medicine, which impose serious health risks to human health. Additionally, we aim to provide different analytical methods for analysis of heavy metals and pesticide residues in the herbal medicine.

  19. Evaluation of heavy metals in hazardous automobile shredder residue thermal residue and immobilization with novel nano-size calcium dispersed reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Hyeon; Truc, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Lee, Byeong-Kyu; Mitoma, Yoshiharu; Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy

    2015-10-15

    This study was conducted to synthesize and apply a nano-size calcium dispersed reagent as an immobilization material for heavy metal-contaminated automobile shredder residues (ASR) dust/thermal residues in dry condition. Simple mixing with a nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO4 dispersion mixture immobilized 95-100% of heavy metals in ASR dust/thermal residues (including bottom ash, cavity ash, boiler and bag filter ash). The quantity of heavy metals leached from thermal residues after treatment by nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO4 was lower than the Korean standard regulatory limit for hazardous waste landfills. The morphology and elemental composition of the nanometallic Ca/CaO-treated ASR residue were characterized by field emission scanning election microscopy combined with electron dispersive spectroscopy (FE-SEM/EDS). The results indicated that the amounts of heavy metals detectable on the ASR thermal residue surface decreased and the Ca/PO4 mass percent increased. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern analysis indicated that the main fraction of enclosed/bound materials on ASR residue included Ca/PO4- associated crystalline complexes, and that immobile Ca/PO4 salts remarkably inhibited the desorption of heavy metals from ASR residues. These results support the potential use of nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO4 as a simple, suitable and highly efficient material for the gentle immobilization of heavy metals in hazardous ASR thermal residue in dry condition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Effects of stabilization treatment on migration and transformation of heavy metals in mineral waste residues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shu-Hua; Chen, Zhi-Liang; Zhang, Tai-Ping; Pan, Wei-Bin; Peng, Xiao-Chun; Che, Rong; Ou, Ying-Juan; Lei, Guo-Jian; Zhou, Ding

    2014-04-01

    Different forms of heavy metals in soil will produce different environmental effects, and will directly influence the toxicity, migration and bioavailability of heavy metals. This study used lime, fly ash, dried sludge, peanut shells as stabilizers in the treatment of heavy metals in mineral waste residues. Morphological analyses of heavy metal, leaching experiments, potted plant experiments were carried out to analyze the migration and transformation of heavy metals. The results showed that after adding stabilizers, the pH of the acidic mineral waste residues increased to more than neutral, and the organic matter content increased significantly. The main existing forms of As, Pb, and Zn in the mineral waste residues were the residual. The contents of exchangeable and organic matter-bound As decreased by 65.6% and 87.7% respectively after adding fly ash, dried sludge and peanut shells. Adding lime, fly ash and peanut shells promoted the transformation of As from the Fe-Mn oxide-bound to the carbonate-bound, and adding lime and fly ash promoted the transformation of Pb and Zn from the exchangeable, Fe-Mn oxide-bound, organic matter-bound to the residual. After the early stage of the stabilization treatment, the contents of As, Pb and Zn in the leachate had varying degrees of decline, and adding peanut shells could reduce the contents of As, Pb and Zn in the leachate further. Among them, the content of As decreased most significantly after treatment with fly ash, dried sludge and peanut shells, with a decline of 57.4%. After treatment with lime, fly ash and peanut shells, the content of Zn decreased most significantly, by 24.9%. The addition of stabilizers was advantageous to the germination and growth of plants. The combination of fly ash, dried sludge and peanut shell produced the best effect, and the Vetiveria zizanioides germination rate reached 76% in the treated wasted mineral residues.

  1. Assessment of heavy metal residues in water, fish tissue and human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    www.ajol.info and www.bioline.org.br/ja. Assessment of heavy metal residues in water, fish tissue and human blood from Ubeji,. Warri, Delta State, Nigeria. 1. JOY F. AKINTUJOYE; 2CHIAKA I. ANUMUDU; *3HENRIETTA O. AWOBODE. 1Ecology and Environmental Biology Unit, Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan, ...

  2. Investigation of petroleum residues and microbial PLFA in Barataria Bay sediments one year after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, S.; Zimmerman, A. R.; Mahmoudi, N.; Silliman, B. R.; Slater, G. F.

    2012-12-01

    The Deepwater Horizon spill released crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico over a period of 3 months in 2010. Barataria Bay, Louisiana was among the most heavily impacted and extensively oil-contaminated coastlines. Studies conducted in the marshes show significant ecological and geologic effects from oil residues that reached the bay. Observation of the presence of an oil sheen associated with sediment disturbance raised the question as to whether petroleum residues were also present in the sediments of Barataria Bay. In order to address this question, six sediment cores were collected from non-oiled (#1 & 2) and oiled (#3-6) portions of Barataria Bay approximately one year after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Concentrations of n-alkanes, unresolved complex material (UCM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) were determined in these upper sediments. In addition, concentrations of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) were determined to assess variations in microbial community abundance. Alkane concentrations ranged from 134 to 747 ng/g with chain lengths from C12 to C35. Most cores showed an odd over even preference (carbon preference index of 1.2 to 4.3) with highest concentrations of long chain compounds between C24 and C35 (average chain length 29 to 39), consistent with a terrestrial carbon source such as plant waxes. Core #6 however, in the southwest portion of the bay, had the lowest concentrations of alkanes, and shorter n-alkane chain lengths overall. Despite this difference, the core maintains a relatively high carbon preference index and average chain length compared to that which would be expected from oil contaminated sediments. Measured PAH concentrations were highly variable ranging from undetectable to 436 ng/g. These values are several orders of magnitude lower than what is generally seen in highly contaminated sediments. Further, UCM concentrations were negligible in the cores from the oiled regions. These findings suggest only a minimal presence of

  3. Depletion of penicillin G residues in heavy sows after intramuscular injection. Part I: Tissue residue depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavy sows (n=126) were treated with penicillin G procaine at a 5x label dose (33,000 IU/kg) for 3 consecutive days by intramuscular (IM) injection using 3 separate patterns (treatments) of drug administration (42 sows per treatment). Treatments differed by pattern and maximum injection volume per s...

  4. Flow analysis of heavy metals in a pilot-scale incinerator for residues from waste electrical and electronic equipment dismantling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Yu-Yang; Feng, Yi-Jian; Cai, Si-Shi; Ding, Wei-Xu; Shen, Dong-Sheng, E-mail: shends@zju.edu.cn

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ni are enriched in bottom ash from WEEE dismantling residues. • The heavy metal residual fraction restricts transfer in the incinerator. • Pre-treatment to remove heavy metals from WEEE residues would reduce emissions. -- Abstract: The large amount of residues generated from dismantling waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) results in a considerable environmental burden. We used material flow analysis to investigate heavy metal behavior in an incineration plant in China used exclusively to incinerate residues from WEEE dismantling. The heavy metals tested were enriched in the bottom and fly ashes after incineration. However, the contents of heavy metals in the bottom ash, fly ash and exhaust gas do not have a significant correlation with that of the input waste. The evaporation and recondensation behavior of heavy metals caused their contents to differ with air pollution control equipment because of the temperature difference during gas venting. Among the heavy metals tested, Cd had the strongest tendency to transfer during incineration (T{sub Cd} = 69.5%) because it had the lowest melting point, followed by Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. The exchangeable and residual fractions of heavy metals increased substantially in the incineration products compared with that of the input residues. Although the mass of residues from WEEE dismantling can be reduced by 70% by incineration, the safe disposal of the metal-enriched bottom and fly ashes is still required.

  5. Développements récents dans le domaine de l'hydrotraitement des fractions lourdes Advances in the Hydrotreatment of Heavy Petroleum Feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquin Y.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'évolution du raffinage vers une utilisation des produits pétroliers pour les usages des transports et comme base pour la pétrochimie renforce l'intérêt pour les procédés de transformation des fractions lourdes du pétrole en fractions légères correspondant au marché actuel. Les problèmes posés par le raffinage des résidus de distillation sont semblables à ceux rencontrés pour le traitement des bruts lourds non conventionnels. Les méthodes qui sont actuellement envisagées peuvent être classées en 2 catégories : les méthodes de raffinage avec rejet de carbone comme la cokéfaction et le désasphaltage et les méthodes sans rejet de carbone comme la viscoréduction, l'hydroviscoréduction et l'hydrotraitement catalytique. Chacune de ces techniques est examinée en précisant les rendements en produits liquides qu'elle permet d'atteindre et les hydrotraitements complémentaires nécessaires pour obtenir des produits répondant aux spécifications du marché des produits pétroliers. Les progrès réalisés dans la conception des catalyseurs utilisés pour le traitement des produits lourds permet aujourd'hui d'envisager l'hydrotraitement direct des résidus sous vide de la majorité des bruts raffinés. The increasing use of refined petroleum products for transportation purposes and as petrochemical bases reinforces interest in processes for converting heavy fractions into light fractions suitable for today's market. The refining of distillation residues involves difficulties similar to unconventional heavy-crude processing. As of now methods may be classified in two categories: (i refining methods with carbon rejection such as coking and deasphalting processes, and (ii methods without carbon rejection such as visbreaking, hydrovisbreaking and catalytic hydrotreating. Each of these techniques is examined, taking into account the liquid-product yields it may reach, and the additional hydrotreatments necessary to meet market

  6. Size-exclusion chromatography of large molecules from coal liquids, petroleum residues, soots, biomass tars and humic substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herod, Alan A; Zhuo, Yuqun; Kandiyoti, Rafael

    2003-06-30

    Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) using 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) as eluent has been calibrated using various standard polymers and model compounds and applied to the analysis of extracts of coal, petroleum and kerogens, to petroleum vacuum residues, soots, biomass tars and humic substances. Three separate columns of different molecular mass (MM) ranges were used, with detection by UV absorption; an evaporative light scattering detector was used for samples with no UV absorption. Fractionation was useful to separate signal from the less abundant high-mass material, which was normally masked by the strong signal from the more abundant low-mass material in the absence of fractionation. Fractionation methods used to isolate high-mass materials before SEC analysis included planar chromatography, column chromatography and solvent solubility. The apparently large molecules were concentrated into the fractions not soluble in common solvents and were relatively immobile in planar chromatography. All samples and fractions contained some material excluded from the column porosity. Evidence from other techniques suggests that the excluded material is of different structures from that of the resolved material rather than consisting of aggregates of small molecules. We speculate that the excluded material may elute early because the structures of this material are three-dimensional rather than planar or near planar.

  7. Adsorption materials for removal of heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons from contaminated leachates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalmykova, Y.; Steenari, B.M. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Environmental Inorganic Chemistry, Goeteborg (Sweden); Stromvall, A.M. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Water Environment Transport, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, SE Goteborg (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    Adsorption function and capacities, for heavy metals and selected hydrocarbons, of several low-cost and alternative bio-sorption materials have been investigated. The materials studied were residual products from the forest industry (saw dust, pine bark and fiber ash) and natural materials (peat moss, shrimp shells and seaweed). Batch tests and column experiments were carried out with both artificial solutions and highly contaminated leachate from an industrial landfill. Fiber ashes and peat showed the highest sorption capacity for metals among the materials studied in comparative batch tests. In these tests, artificial single metal solutions in concentration ranges of 1?10 mg/l, and liquid to solid ratios of 20 and 200 were used. The fiber ash removed lead by 99%, copper by 100%, zinc by 99% and chromium by 82%. Peat removed lead by 98%, copper by 94%, zinc by 73% and chromium by 88%. Metal removal from the landfill leachates was also studied in batch tests, where lead was reduced by ash and peat by 99% and 96% respectively, copper by 100% and 92%, zinc by 95% and 33%, cadmium by 88% and 40%. A net release of Al, Cr, Ca, Ba and K from ash was observed, whereas the peat removed chromium by 66% and aluminium by 85%. The lower performance of the adsorbents for complex solutions as real leachates, suggests competitive sorption of ions although the mechanisms of sorption are not yet fully understood. In initial batch studies for organic pollutants, the adsorption for diesel oil by ash and peat was 98% and 97% respectively, 97% and 92 % for the n-alkane C16, and 91% for n-C{sub 12} for both materials. Bark adsorbed diesel oil by 83%, and the lower value could be explained by the larger particle size of the bark. Several column tests with peat, a peat-ash mixture and bark have been carried out to investigate the adsorbents' behavior and sorption capacity under flowing conditions. Both simulated contaminated groundwater and real landfill leachates were used as

  8. Separation of petroleum residues by complex-formation with TiCl/sub 4/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khokhlova, G.P.; Plyusnin, A.N.

    1983-01-01

    Titanium tetrachloride can be used for the quantitative separation of asphaltenes from residual oil products, for the concentration of hetero-atomic compounds of lower molecular weight, for the complete separation of nitrogen compounds of basic character and also for fractionation of resin-asphaltene substances. The action of TiCl/sub 4/ on residual oil products liberates asphaltenes as well as basic nitrogen compounds. The asphaltene recovery reaches 100%, and basic nitrogen compounds, 90-98%. Hexane is a more satisfactory solvent then benzene in this process.

  9. New heavy aggregate for offshore petroleum pipeline concrete coating Central West Sinai, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Abdou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the local materials used in concrete mix are studied in a manner that they can resist the aggressive marine environment and mechanical damage, which can occur at several stages during transportation, construction and installation of the pipelines. In earlier studies we succeeded in finding the Egyptian ilmenite ore adequate for concrete weight coating and already utilized for many pipeline projects in Egypt. According to the presence of about 30% titanium oxides in ilmenite composition which may be extracted to be used in others strategically fields, the object of this paper is to study and evaluate the mechanical, chemical and physical properties of another local hematite high density iron ore to be used in subsea concrete weight coating for offshore petroleum pipelines. The results indicate that the local material of Um Bogma hematite iron ore can substitute both imported iron ore and local ilmenite from Abu Ghalaga in this field to reduce the cost effective and increased economical value of local ores. Laboratory and field tests were conducted for the hematite ore forming a concrete mix, composed of hematite ore, cement and fresh water according to international concrete coating specification requirements, the ore produces a concrete mix with 190–195 pcf minimum dry density and compressive strength, after 28 days of hydration, varying from 40 to 45 N/mm2 (400–450 kg/cm2 which comply with the international standards and specifications of submarine petroleum pipeline coating. In addition, local hematite shows superior results than local ilmenite and achieves 190 pcf instead of 180 pcf in case of using ilmenite.

  10. Simultaneous application of chemical oxidation and extraction processes is effective at remediating soil Co-contaminated with petroleum and heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jong-Chan; Lee, Chadol; Lee, Jeung-Sun; Baek, Kitae

    2017-01-15

    Chemical extraction and oxidation processes to clean up heavy metals and hydrocarbon from soil have a higher remediation efficiency and take less time than other remediation processes. In batch extraction/oxidation process, 3% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and 0.1 M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) could remove approximately 70% of the petroleum and 60% of the Cu and Pb in the soil, respectively. In particular, petroleum was effectively oxidized by H2O2 without addition of any catalysts through dissolution of Fe oxides in natural soils. Furthermore, heavy metals bound to Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides could be extracted by metal-EDTA as well as Fe-EDTA complexation due to the high affinity of EDTA for metals. However, the strong binding of Fe-EDTA inhibited the oxidation of petroleum in the extraction-oxidation sequential process because Fe was removed during the extraction process with EDTA. The oxidation-extraction sequential process did not significantly enhance the extraction of heavy metals from soil, because a small portion of heavy metals remained bound to organic matter. Overall, simultaneous application of oxidation and extraction processes resulted in highly efficient removal of both contaminants; this approach can be used to remove co-contaminants from soil in a short amount of time at a reasonable cost. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Colloidal structure of heavy petroleum products; Structure colloidale des produits petroliers lourds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenistein, D.

    1998-12-11

    Asphaltenes, the heaviest components of petroleum products, are defined as insoluble in an alkane excess. Their aggregation state, which depends on the thermodynamic conditions (solvent composition, temperature) has been characterized using scattering techniques and viscosimetry. In a solvent (toluene) asphaltenes are stable aggregates. The shape of the scattering spectra, their sensitivity to concentration on the one hand the values of intrinsic viscosities on the other hand, are compatible with a structure of solvated fractal aggregates. The mass distribution of asphaltene aggregates has been evaluated using ultracentrifugation. An increasing addition of flocculant (heptane) induces the extension of asphaltene aggregation. When approaching the flocculation threshold, their structure can be compared to the predictions of the RLCA theoretical model. Crossing the flocculation threshold induces the two phase separation of the system. The flocculated phase of compact aggregates undergoes fast sedimentation if the medium viscosity allows it. The study of asphaltenes in their natural medium (the maltenes) enables to recognize the solvated structures of the non - flocculated asphaltenes in other fluids. (author) 140 refs.

  12. Reflectance properties and physiological responses of Salicornia virginica to heavy metal and petroleum contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Pablo H; Pushnik, James C; Lay, Mui; Ustin, Susan L

    2005-09-01

    Wetland ecosystems of California are located in highly populated areas and subject to high levels of contamination. Monitoring of wetlands to assess degrees of pollution damage requires periodic retrieval of information over large areas, which can be effectively accomplished by rapidly evolving remote sensing technologies. The biophysical principles of remote sensing of vegetation under stress need to be understood in order to correctly interpret the information obtained at the scale of canopies. To determine the potential to remotely characterize and monitor pollution, plants of Salicornia virginica, a major component of wetland communities in California, were treated with two metals and two crude oil types to study their sensitivity to pollutants and how this impacted their reflectance characteristics. Several growth and physiological parameters, as well as shoot reflectance were measured and correlated with symptoms and contamination levels. Significant differences between treatments were found in at least some of the measured parameters in all pollutants. Reflectance was sensitive to early stress levels only for cadmium and the lightweight petroleum. Pollutants that differ in their way of action also had different plant reflectance signatures. The high degree of correlation between reflectance features and stress indicators highlights the potential of using remote sensing to assess the type and degree of pollution damage.

  13. Contamination by heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons: a threat to mangroves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís dos Santos Alencar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The mangrove ecosystem is one of the most productive ecosystems on the planet with relevant ecological importance. It offers several services such as protection of the coastal region, immobilization of contaminants, as it is a food source and refuge for various organisms. However, mangroves are threatened by human activities. Oil spills in areas close to mangroves, for example, are potential sources for the entry of contaminants such as heavy metals and hydrocarbons. Among other sources of threat, we list industrial waste and sewage, mining and fertilizer use. When they reach the mangroves, these contaminants may cause several negative effects and affect its balance.

  14. Characteristics and heavy metal leaching of ash generated from incineration of automobile shredder residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwa Young

    2007-08-17

    Bottom and fly ash collected from automobile shredder residue (ASR) incinerator have been characterized in terms of particle size, compositions, and heavy metal leaching by the standard TCLP method. Two alternative methods were also examined for the treatment of heavy metals in ASR incinerator ash from the aspect of recycling into construction or lightweight aggregate material. It was remarkable that the concentration of Cu was very high compared to common MSWI bottom and fly ash, which was probably originated from copper wires contained in ASR. As a whole, the results of characterization of ASR fly ash were in good agreement with common MSWI fly ash in terms of particle size, pH, and water-soluble compounds. It was clearly found that heavy metals could be removed thoroughly or partly from ASR fly ash through acid washing with dilute HCl solution so that the remaining fly ash could be landfilled or used as construction material. It was also found that the amount of heavy metal leachability of lightweight aggregate pellet prepared with ASR incineration ash could be significantly decreased so that the application of it to lightweight aggregate would be possible without pre-treatment for the removal of heavy metals.

  15. Proximate analyses and predicting HHV of chars obtained from cocracking of petroleum vacuum residue with coal, plastics and biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmaruzzaman, M

    2008-07-01

    Higher heating value (HHV) and analysis of chars obtained from cocracking of petroleum vacuum residue (XVR) with coal (SC), biomass (BG, CL) and plastics (PP, PS, BL) are important which define the energy content and determine the clean and efficient use of these chars. The main aim of the present study is to analyze the char obtained from cocracking in terms of their proximate analysis data and determination of the HHV of the chars. The char obtained from XVR+PP cocracking showed a HHV of 32.84 MJ/kg, whereas that from CL cracking showed a HHV of 18.52 MJ/kg. The experimentally determined heating values of the char samples obtained from cocracking have been correlated with the theoretical equation based on proximate analysis data. There exists a variety of correlations for predicting HHV from proximate analysis of fuels. Based upon proximate analysis data, the models were tested. The best results show coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.965 and average absolute and bias error of 3.07% and 0.41%, respectively. The heating values obtained from the model were in good agreement with that obtained by experiment. Proximate analysis of the chars obtained from the cocracking of XVR with coal, biomass and plastics showed that there exists a definite interaction of the reactive species, when they were cocracked together.

  16. Reduction of heavy metals in residues from the dismantling of waste electrical and electronic equipment before incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yu-Yang; Feng, Yi-Jian; Cai, Si-Shi; Hu, Li-Fang; Shen, Dong-Sheng

    2014-05-15

    Residues disposal from the dismantling of waste electrical and electronic equipment are challenging because of the large waste volumes, degradation-resistance, low density and high heavy metal content. Incineration is advantageous for treating these residues but high heavy metal contents may exist in incinerator input and output streams. We have developed and studied a specialized heavy metal reduction process, which includes sieving and washing for treating residues before incineration. The preferable screen aperture for sieving was found to be 2.36mm (8 meshes) in this study; using this screen aperture resulted in the removal of approximately 47.2% Cu, 65.9% Zn, 26.5% Pb, 55.4% Ni and 58.8% Cd from the residues. Subsequent washing further reduces the heavy metal content in the residues larger than 2.36mm, with preferable conditions being 400rpm rotation speed, 5min washing duration and liquid-to-solid ratio of 25:1. The highest cumulative removal efficiencies of Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni and Cd after sieving and washing reached 81.1%, 61.4%, 75.8%, 97.2% and 72.7%, respectively. The combined sieving and washing process is environmentally friendly, can be used for the removal of heavy metals from the residues and has benefits in terms of heavy metal recycling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Catalytic selectivity and H-transfer in the hydroconversion of a petroleum residue using dispersed catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cebolla, V.L.; Membrado, L.; Vela, J.; Bacaud, R.; Rouleau, L. [Instituto de Carboquimica, Zaragoza (Spain). Dept. de Procesos Quimicos

    1995-09-01

    Hydroconversion of a deasphalted vacuum residue of a crude oil has been performed in the presence of various disposable, dispersed catalysts at low concentration (450 ppm of metal) under identical conditions: a plasma-prepared nickel-carbon catalyst, an oil-soluble molybdenum naphthenate, and a commercial nickel-molybdenum supported on alumina, in order to obtain some insight into their influence upon their mechanisms of hydrogen transfer, and to evaluate their selectivities toward the production of various hydrocarbon groups. For this last purpose, a quantitative, rapid and accurate method for hydrocarbon group type analysis has been used, based on an improved system of thin-layer chromatography with flame ionization detection. The catalysts significantly affect the quantitative distribution of hydrocarbon groups without producing new chemical families. The total hydrogen consumption is only slightly increased in the presence of these kind of catalysts. However, a different distribution of the hydrogen is achieved depending on the catalyst. Molybdenum naphthenate exhibits the higher hydrogen incorporation to its derived distillates, which in turn present significantly higher number-average molecular weight and percentage of saturates than those obtained with the other catalysts. For every catalyst studied, the more the incorporation of hydrogen in distillates, the less the production of coke and gas. Throughout this paper, the agreement between the data obtained from TLC-FID and hydrogen balance is evidenced and explained. 18 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Characterization of Flame Cut Heavy Steel: Modeling of Temperature History and Residual Stress Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokiaho, T.; Laitinen, A.; Santa-aho, S.; Isakov, M.; Peura, P.; Saarinen, T.; Lehtovaara, A.; Vippola, M.

    2017-12-01

    Heavy steel plates are used in demanding applications that require both high strength and hardness. An important step in the production of such components is cutting the plates with a cost-effective thermal cutting method such as flame cutting. Flame cutting is performed with a controlled flame and oxygen jet, which burns the steel and forms a cutting edge. However, the thermal cutting of heavy steel plates causes several problems. A heat-affected zone (HAZ) is generated at the cut edge due to the steep temperature gradient. Consequently, volume changes, hardness variations, and microstructural changes occur in the HAZ. In addition, residual stresses are formed at the cut edge during the process. In the worst case, unsuitable flame cutting practices generate cracks at the cut edge. The flame cutting of thick steel plate was modeled using the commercial finite element software ABAQUS. The results of modeling were verified by X-ray diffraction-based residual stress measurements and microstructural analysis. The model provides several outcomes, such as obtaining more information related to the formation of residual stresses and the temperature history during the flame cutting process. In addition, an extensive series of flame cut samples was designed with the assistance of the model.

  19. Characterization of Flame Cut Heavy Steel: Modeling of Temperature History and Residual Stress Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokiaho, T.; Laitinen, A.; Santa-aho, S.; Isakov, M.; Peura, P.; Saarinen, T.; Lehtovaara, A.; Vippola, M.

    2017-09-01

    Heavy steel plates are used in demanding applications that require both high strength and hardness. An important step in the production of such components is cutting the plates with a cost-effective thermal cutting method such as flame cutting. Flame cutting is performed with a controlled flame and oxygen jet, which burns the steel and forms a cutting edge. However, the thermal cutting of heavy steel plates causes several problems. A heat-affected zone (HAZ) is generated at the cut edge due to the steep temperature gradient. Consequently, volume changes, hardness variations, and microstructural changes occur in the HAZ. In addition, residual stresses are formed at the cut edge during the process. In the worst case, unsuitable flame cutting practices generate cracks at the cut edge. The flame cutting of thick steel plate was modeled using the commercial finite element software ABAQUS. The results of modeling were verified by X-ray diffraction-based residual stress measurements and microstructural analysis. The model provides several outcomes, such as obtaining more information related to the formation of residual stresses and the temperature history during the flame cutting process. In addition, an extensive series of flame cut samples was designed with the assistance of the model.

  20. The residual cognitive effects of heavy marijuana use in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, H G; Yurgelun-Todd, D

    1996-02-21

    To assess whether frequent marijuana use is associated with residual neuropsychological effects. Single-blind comparison of regular users vs infrequent users of marijuana. Two samples of college undergraduates: 65 heavy users, who had smoked marijuana a median of 29 days in the last 30 days (range, 22 to 30 days) and who also displayed cannabinoids in their urine, and 64 light users, who had smoked a median of 1 day in the last 30 days (range, 0 to 9 days) and who displayed no urinary cannabinoids. Subjects arrived at 2 PM on day 1 of their study visit, then remained at our center overnight under supervision. Neuropsychological tests were administered to all subjects starting at 9 AM on day 2. Thus, all subjects were abstinent from marijuana and other drugs for a minimum of 19 hours before testing. Subjects received a battery of standard neuropsychological tests to assess general intellectual functioning, abstraction ability, sustained attention, verbal fluency, and ability to learn and recall new verbal and visuospatial information. Heavy users displayed significantly greater impairment than light users on attention/executive functions, as evidenced particularly by greater perseverations on card sorting and reduced learning of word lists. These differences remained after controlling for potential confounding variables, such as estimated levels of premorbid cognitive functioning, and for use of alcohol and other substances in the two groups. Heavy marijuana use is associated with residual neuropsychological effects even after a day of supervised abstinence from the drug. However, the question remains open as to whether this impairment is due to a residue of drug in the brain, a withdrawal effect from the drug, or a frank neurotoxic effect of the drug. from marijuana

  1. Olive mill solid residues as heavy metal sorbent material: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnanelli, Francesca; Toro, Luigi; Vegliò, Francesco

    2002-01-01

    Biosorption of heavy metals is an innovative and alternative technology to remove these pollutants from aqueous solutions using inactive and dead biomasses such as agricultural and industrial wastes, algae and bacteria. In this study olive mill solid residue was used as heavy metal adsorbent material for its wide availability as agricultural waste and also for its cellulosic matrix, rich of potential metal binding active sites. Preliminary studies concerned with the removal of different heavy metals (Hg, Pb, Cu, Zn and Cd), the effect of pre-treatments by water and n-hexane and the regeneration possibility. Olive mill solid residue resulted able to remove heavy metals from aqueous solutions with an affinity series reflecting the hydrolytic properties of the metallic ions, but also a particular affinity for copper. It can be supposed that biosorption phenomenon occur by a general ion exchange mechanism combined with a specific complexation reaction for copper ions. Water pre-treatment is sufficient to reduce COD release in the effluent according to the law limit, while n-hexane pre-treatment strongly reduces also the adsorption properties of this material. Experimental isotherms obtained under different operating conditions were fitted using a non linear regression method for the estimation of the Langmuir parameters. Moreover a simple Scatchard plot analysis was performed for a preliminary investigation of the active sites, showing the presence of two different site affinities depending on the metal concentration, according to the previous hypothesis of two kinds of uptake mechanisms for copper biosorption. Regeneration tests gave good results in terms of yield of regeneration and also concentration ratios.

  2. Pyrolysis of petroleum residues while making use of the hydrogen potential of polymer waste; Pyrolyse von Erdoelrueckstaenden unter Nutzung des Wasserstoffpotentials von Polymerabfaellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klemens, I.; Butz, T.; Rahimian, I.; Linde, A. [Institut fuer Erdoel- und Erdgasforschung, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    The hydrogen potential contained in waste plastics is to be utilized optimally for cracking of petroleum residues. Homogeneous distribution of the plastic particles in the petroleum residue is to ensure short distances between the hydrogen donor and acceptor, a sufficently large reaction surface, and stable mixing for further processing. Apart from homogeneity, another factor of interest is the influence of mixed-in polymer particles on the colloidal stability of the petroleum residue and the physico-chemical properties of the mixtures. With a view to further processing, the mixtures were analyzed for high-temperature stability, flow characteristics, and reaction behaviour during pyrolysis. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel dieses Vorhabens ist es, das in den Kunststoffabfaellen vorhandene Wasserstoffpotential optimal fuer eine tiefergehende Spaltung der Erdoelrueckstaende nutzbar zu machen. Durch eine homogene Verteilung der Kunststoffpartikel im Erdoelrueckstand soll ein moeglichst kurzer Transportweg zwischen Wasserstoff-Donor und -Akkzeptor, eine ausreichend grosse Reaktionsoberflaeche und eine fuer weitere Verarbeitungsschritte notwendige stabile Mischung erreicht werden. Ebenso interessant wie die Homogenitaet solcher Gemische ist auch der Einfluss der eingemengten Polymerteilchen auf die Kolloidstabilitaet des Erdoelrueckstandes und die physikalisch-chemischen Eigenschaften der Mischungen. Im Hinblick auf eine technische Weiterverarbeitung werden die Gemische besonders auf ihre Stabilitaet bei erhoehten Temperaturen (Heisslagerstabilitaet), ihr Fliessverhalten sowie ihr Reaktionsverhalten waehrend der Pyrolyse untersucht. (orig.)

  3. Flow analysis of heavy metals in a pilot-scale incinerator for residues from waste electrical and electronic equipment dismantling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yu-Yang; Feng, Yi-Jian; Cai, Si-Shi; Ding, Wei-Xu; Shen, Dong-Sheng

    2013-10-15

    The large amount of residues generated from dismantling waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) results in a considerable environmental burden. We used material flow analysis to investigate heavy metal behavior in an incineration plant in China used exclusively to incinerate residues from WEEE dismantling. The heavy metals tested were enriched in the bottom and fly ashes after incineration. However, the contents of heavy metals in the bottom ash, fly ash and exhaust gas do not have a significant correlation with that of the input waste. The evaporation and recondensation behavior of heavy metals caused their contents to differ with air pollution control equipment because of the temperature difference during gas venting. Among the heavy metals tested, Cd had the strongest tendency to transfer during incineration (TCd=69.5%) because it had the lowest melting point, followed by Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. The exchangeable and residual fractions of heavy metals increased substantially in the incineration products compared with that of the input residues. Although the mass of residues from WEEE dismantling can be reduced by 70% by incineration, the safe disposal of the metal-enriched bottom and fly ashes is still required. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of liquid products obtained from co-cracking of petroleum vacuum residue with coal and biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmaruzzaman, M.; Sharma, D.K. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2008-01-15

    Co-processing of the petroleum vacuum residue (XVR) with coal and biomass (a Calotropis procera) has been performed in batch reactor under isothermal conditions at atmospheric pressure. The liquids obtained by co-processing have been characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), {sup 13}C NMR, gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and inductively coupled argon plasma (ICAP) analyses. FT-IR analysis showed that the liquid products derived from co-cracking of XVR + SC contained a few phenols, indicating that the higher hydrogen content of the XVR acted as a hydrogenation medium for the coal product in the co-cracking of the mixture. NMR analysis indicated that aromatic carbon contents decreased (about 10.8%) in the liquid products obtained from the co-cracking of XVR + SC compared to their theoretical average. GPC analysis showed that liquid products derived from co-cracking of XVR + SC are much more similar (having the almost same molecular weight distribution as XVR) to the liquid products from XVR than to the liquid products from coal, reflecting synergy in the co-cracking reaction. However, the liquid products derived from co-cracking of XVR + CL showed the liquids are comparatively more viscous than that of XVR indicating that there is a definite interaction when they are co-cracked together. It is also interesting that the liquid products obtained from co-cracking with coal and biomass contained less than 1 ppm of Ni and V, respectively. The detailed results obtained are being reported. (author)

  5. Reduction of heavy metals in residues from the dismantling of waste electrical and electronic equipment before incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Yu-Yang; Feng, Yi-Jian; Cai, Si-Shi [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Solid Waste Treatment and Recycling, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310012 (China); Hu, Li-Fang [College of Quality and Safety Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Shen, Dong-Sheng, E-mail: shends@zju.edu.cn [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Solid Waste Treatment and Recycling, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310012 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • The highest metal reduction occurs at a 2.36 mm sieving size. • Washing promotes heavy metal recycling without secondary pollution. • Sieving and washing are environmentally friendly pretreatments for WEEE wastes. - Abstract: Residues disposal from the dismantling of waste electrical and electronic equipment are challenging because of the large waste volumes, degradation-resistance, low density and high heavy metal content. Incineration is advantageous for treating these residues but high heavy metal contents may exist in incinerator input and output streams. We have developed and studied a specialized heavy metal reduction process, which includes sieving and washing for treating residues before incineration. The preferable screen aperture for sieving was found to be 2.36 mm (8 meshes) in this study; using this screen aperture resulted in the removal of approximately 47.2% Cu, 65.9% Zn, 26.5% Pb, 55.4% Ni and 58.8% Cd from the residues. Subsequent washing further reduces the heavy metal content in the residues larger than 2.36 mm, with preferable conditions being 400 rpm rotation speed, 5 min washing duration and liquid-to-solid ratio of 25:1. The highest cumulative removal efficiencies of Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni and Cd after sieving and washing reached 81.1%, 61.4%, 75.8%, 97.2% and 72.7%, respectively. The combined sieving and washing process is environmentally friendly, can be used for the removal of heavy metals from the residues and has benefits in terms of heavy metal recycling.

  6. Modeling and simulation of a pseudo-two-phase gas-liquid column reactor for thermal hydrocracking of petroleum heavy fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Matos

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a model to predict the behavior of velocity, gas holdup and local concentration fields in a pseudo-two-phase gas-liquid column reactor applied for thermal hydrocracking of petroleum heavy fractions. The model is based on the momentum and mass balances for the system, using an Eulerian-Eulerian approach. Using the k-epsilon model,fluid dynamics accounts for both laminar and turbulent flows, with discrete small bubbles (hydrogen flowing in a continuous pseudohomogeneous liquid phase (oil and catalyst particles. The petroleum is assumed to be a mixture of pseudocomponents, grouped by similar chemical structural properties, and the thermal hydrocracking is taken into account using a kinetic network based on these pseudocomponents.

  7. Monitoring heavy metals, residual agricultural chemicals and sulfites in traditional herbal decoctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, In-Sil; Lee, Jeong-Sook; Kim, Sung-Dan; Kim, Yun-Hee; Park, Hae-Won; Ryu, Hoe-Jin; Lee, Jib-Ho; Lee, Jeong-Mi; Jung, Kweon; Na, Cheol; Joung, Jin-Yong; Son, Chang-Gue

    2017-03-14

    Asian traditional herbal preparations are frequently considered for the contamination with undeclared toxic or hazardous substances. The aim of this study was to determine the toxic heavy metals, pesticides and sulfur dioxide in decoctions that is a common form of final utilization in Korea. A total of 155 decoctions composed of multi-ingredient traditional herbs were randomly sampled from Seoul in Korea between 2013 and 2014. For each decoction, the concentrations of four heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury), 33 pesticides and sulfur dioxide were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), mercury analyzer, gas chromatography/nitrogen phosphorous detector (GC/NPD), gas chromatography/micro electron capture detector (GC/μECD), and Monier-Williams method respectively. One hundred fifty-two of One hundred fifty-five decoctions (98.1%) contained one of three heavy metals (96.1% for As, 97.4% for Cd, and 90.3% for Pb, 0.0% for Hg). Their average concentrations (77.0 ± 79.7 ug/kg for As, 20.4 ± 23.7 ug/kg for Cd, and 68.8 ± 76.5 ug/kg for Pb) were approximately 20% of the maximum allowable limits of vegetable or ginseng beverage described in the Korean Food Standard Codex while their 95th percentile concentrations were below than the guideline for them. None of 33 pesticides was detected in 155 decoction samples, and only one sample showed over limit of detection for residual sulfites. This study support that the contained status of toxic heavy metals, pesticides and sulfur dioxide in herbal decoctions are currently within safe level in Korea, and provide a reference data for the further studies focused on the safety herbal preparations.

  8. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data.

  9. Development of a screening tool to prioritize testing for the carcinogenic hazard of residual aromatic extracts and related petroleum streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyak, Katy O; Kung, Ming H; Chen, Min; Aldous, Keith K; Freeman, James J

    2016-12-15

    Residual aromatic extracts (RAE) are petroleum substances with variable composition predominantly containing aromatic hydrocarbons with carbon numbers greater than C25. Because of the high boiling nature of RAEs, the aromatics present are high molecular weight, with most above the range of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). However, refinery distillations are imperfect; some PAHs and their heteroatom-containing analogs (collectively referred to as polycyclic aromatic content or PAC) may remain in the parent stream and be extracted into the RAE, and overall PAC content is related to the carcinogenic potential of an RAE. We describe here a real-time analytical chemistry-based tool to assess the carcinogenic hazard of RAE via the development of a functional relationship between carcinogenicity and boiling point. Samples representative of steps along the RAE manufacturing process were obtained from five refineries to evaluate relationships between mutagenicity index (MI), PAC ring content and gas chromatographic distillation (GCD) curves. As expected, a positive linear relationship between MI and PAC ring content occurred, most specifically for 3-6 ring PAC (R2=0.68). A negative correlation was found between MI and temperature at 5% vaporization by GCD (R2=0.72), indicating that samples with greater amounts of lower boiling constituents were more likely to be carcinogenic. The inverse relationship between boiling range and carcinogenicity was further demonstrated by fractionation of select RAE samples (MI=0.50+0.07; PAC=1.70+0.51wt%; n=5) into low and high boiling fractions, where lower boiling fractions were both more carcinogenic than the higher boiling fractions (MI=2.36±0.55 and 0.17±0.11, respectively) and enriched in 3-6 ring PACs (5.20+0.70wt% and 0.97+0.35wt%, respectively). The criteria defining carcinogenicity was established as 479°C for the 5% vaporization points by GCD, with an approximate 95% probability of a future sample having an

  10. Chromatographic separation of heavy organic residues; TLC-FID: A useful monitoring tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, J.V. (Metz Univ., 57 (France). Lab. de Spectrometrie de Masse et Chimie Laser); Krzton, A. (Inst. of Coal Chemistry, Gliwice (Poland)); Cebolla, V. (CSIC, Inst. de Carboquimica, Zaragoza (Spain)); Swistek, M. (Metz Univ., 57 (France). Lab. de Spectrometrie de Masse et Chimie Laser)

    1993-11-01

    The determination of the relationships between the chemical composition and the thermal behaviour of heavy organic residues is of great importance considering their industrial applications. Due to the complexity of these products, a primary simplificative chromatographic step is generally needed. For this goal extrography is one of the most widely method used. Extrography combines extractive and chromatographic processes resulting in chemically selective separation. Nevertheless, preliminary experiments are often necessary to optimize the experimental conditions in order to reach the desired separation. Application of thin layer chromatography coupled with flame ionization detector (TLC-FID) to this objective seems evident but has not been yet described. In this work we discuss the use of TLC-FID to monitor the extrographic analysis of a binder coal tar pitch. (orig.)

  11. Straightening Regulation Optimization on the Residual Stress Induced by the Compound Roll Straightening in the Heavy Rail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Song

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Residual stress is very important to the straightened quality of rail, this paper adopts explicit dynamics FEM to study on residual stress. We established compound roller model and calculated the residual value of heavy rail through 9 roller horizontal straightening and 8 roller vertical straightening. The reductions of straightening rollers are taken as the main effective factor to the residual stress in the straightening process. We adopt orthogonal calculation method to obtain the main effective factor to residual stress. On the base of assurance of the straightness, we obtained the optimal regulation in which the residual stress is the smallest, so the paper makes the important theoretical and actual sense to formulate the rational straightening regulation and improve the straightening quality of rail.

  12. CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulators and thermal cracking of heavy oil and ultraheavy residues using microreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardini, Andre L.; Bineli, Aulus R.R.; Viadana, Adriana M.; Maciel, Maria Regina Wolf; Maciel Filho, Rubens [State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). School of Chemical Engineering; Medina, Lilian C.; Gomes, Alexandre de O. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES); Barros, Ricardo S. [University Foundation Jose Bonifacio (FUJB), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, the design of microreactor with microfluidics channels has been carried out in Computer Aided Design Software (CAD) and constructed in rapid prototyping system to be used in chemical reaction processing of the heavy oil fractions. The flow pattern properties of microreactor (fluid dynamics, mixing behavior) have been considered through CFD (computational fluid dynamics) simulations. CFD calculations are also used to study the design and specification of new microreactor developments. The potential advantages of using a microreactor include better control of reaction conditions, improved safety and portability. A more detailed crude assay of the raw national oil, whose importance was evidenced by PETROBRAS/CENPES allows establishing the optimum strategies and processing conditions, aiming at a maximum utilization of the heavy oil fractions, towards valuable products. These residues are able to be processed in microreactor, in which conventional process like as hydrotreating, catalytic and thermal cracking may be carried out in a much more intensified fashion. The whole process development involves a prior thermal study to define the possible operating conditions for a particular task, the microreactor design through computational fluid dynamics and construction using rapid prototyping. This gives high flexibility for process development, shorter time, and costumer/task oriented process/product development. (author)

  13. Recovery of Trace and Heavy Metals from Coal Combustion Residues for Reuse and Safe Disposal: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashvani; Samadder, Sukha Ranjan; Elumalai, Suresh Pandian

    2016-09-01

    The safe disposal of coal combustion residues (CCRs) will remain a major public issue as long as coal is used as a fuel for energy production. Both dry and wet disposal methods of CCRs create serious environmental problems. The dry disposal method creates air pollution initially, and the wet disposal method creates water pollution as a result of the presence of trace and heavy metals. These leached heavy metals from fly ash may become more hazardous when they form toxic compounds such as arsenic sulfite (As2S3) and lead nitrate (N2O6Pb). The available studies on trace and heavy metals present in CCRs cannot ensure environmentally safe utilization. In this work, a novel approach has been offered for the retrieval of trace and heavy metals from CCRs. If the proposed method becomes successful, then the recovered trace and heavy metals may become a resource and environmentally safe use of CCRs may be possible.

  14. Decontamination of organochlorine pesticides residue and heavy metal in Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch by SFE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chunjie; Bai, Lu; Ou, Yingfu; Li, Dan; Xin, Chunhong

    2009-01-01

    A method involving the simultaneous extraction and decontamination of 12 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and seven heavy metals (HM) from Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch was established using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). A gas chromatography (GC) method with electron capture detection was employed for the determination of the OCPs. The quantitative determination of active constituents (iridoid glycoside and catalpol) in Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch was detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). An atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) was designed for the determination of seven HM, including lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), and mercury (Hg) in Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch. Recovery of the determination of the 12 organochlorine pesticides in Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch sample was 85.9%-101.4% by GC, and relative standard deviation (RSD) was 1.9%-6.0%. Catalpol determination with HPLC in a Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch sample was 0.2486 and 0.2559 mg/mL before and after decontaminating OCPs by SFE, respectively. Those were 0.2486 and 0.2632 mg/mL before and after decontaminating HM by SFE, respectively. After a series of experiments to optimize the final SFE, the following conditions were used to determine the OCPs: pure CO(2), extraction pressure of 15 Mpa, extraction temperature of 60 degrees C, extraction time of 30 min, flow rate at 35 kg/h, and the final SFE conditions of HM was pure CO(2), extraction pressure of 18 Mpa, extraction temperature of 50 degrees C, extraction time of 20 min, modifier at 2.5 mL/50 g. The SFE was used to remove the 12 OCP residues and seven HM residues from Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch with less residue left and negligible loss of the active constituent catalpol.

  15. Effects of thermal treatment on mineralogy and heavy metal behavior in iron oxide stabilized air pollution control residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette Abildgaard; Bender-Koch, C.; Starckpoole, M. M.

    2000-01-01

    Stabilization of air pollution control residues by coprecipitation with ferrous iron and subsequent thermal treatment (at 600 and 900 °C) has been examined as a means to reduce heavy metal leaching and to improve product stability. Changes in mineralogy and metal binding were analyzed using various...

  16. Characterization of liquid products from the co-cracking of ternary and quaternary mixture of petroleum vacuum residue, polypropylene, Samla coal and Calotropis Procera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Ahmaruzzaman; D.K. Sharma [Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies

    2008-08-15

    The co-cracking of the petroleum vacuum residue (XVR) with polypropylene (PP), Samla coal (SC) and Calotropis procera (CL) has been carried out in a batch reactor under isothermal conditions at atmospheric pressure. The liquids obtained by co-cracking have been characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), {sup 13}C NMR, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and inductively coupled argon plasma analyses. It was found that the liquid products obtained from the co-cracking of ternary and quaternary mixtures of the petroleum vacuum residue with polypropylene, coal and C. procera contained less than 1 ppm of Ni and V. The HPLC analyses indicates that the liquids obtained from the cracking of ternary mixture of XVR+PP+CL were mainly aliphatic in nature (saturates content 87.4%). NMR analyses showed that the aromatic carbon contents decreased (15.0%) in the liquid products derived from the co-cracking of quaternary mixtures of XVR+PP+SC+CL compared to their theoretical averages (taking the averages of aromatic carbon contents of the liquids from XVR, PP, SC and CL individually). The overall results indicated that there exists a definite interaction of reactive species when XVR, PP, SC and CL were co-cracked together. 27 refs., 5 tabs.

  17. Review of preliminary results of the project `Co-cracking of plastics and petroleum residues`; Uebersicht zu den ersten Ergebnissen des Projektes Cocracking von Kunststoffen und Erdoelrueckstand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhmann, R.; Koepsel, R.F.; Kuchling, T.; Simanjenkov, V. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Energieverfahrenstechnik und Chemieingenieurwesen

    1998-09-01

    Coprocessing of petroleum residues and plastics is a promising technology, although some problems concerning waste plastics must be clarified prior to its implementation. In general, it can be stated that with a careful choice of operating parameter combinations, oil yields will be higher than for thermal treatment of petroleum residues alone (e.g. a 35% yield increase is achieved by adding 25% of plastics, which is a disproportionately high increase). Waste plastics thus become a valuable material for processing. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das untersuchte Coprocessing von VR und Kunststoffen ist ein erfolgversprechender Weg der Kunststoffverwertung und des tiefen Crackens von Erdoelrueckstand. Die Klaerung der mit Altkunststoffen verbundenen Fragen bedarf weiterer Untersuchungen. Allgemein kann festgestellt werden, dass bei entsprechenden Parameterkombinationen bessere Oelausbeuten erzielt werden als bei der thermischen Behandlung von reinem VR. Ein Beispiel dafuer ist in der Abbildung 10 dargestellt. Durch eine 25%-ige Erhoehung der Einsatzstoffmasse durch Kunststoffzugabe wird eine im Vergleich zu reinem VR um ca. 36% hoehere Oelausbeute erzielt, was einer ueberproportionalen Erhoehung entspricht. Altkunststoff wird bei diesem Prozess unter Nutzung des Wasserstoff-potentials von Polymeren zu einem wertvollen Einsatzstoff. (orig.)

  18. Residues from combustion of heavy oils, orimulsion, biomass, peat and municipal waste in connection with power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovsenius, G. (Elforsk AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the quantities of slag and ash in 1990 from combustion of heavy oils, orimulsion, biomass, peat and municipal waste in connection with power production for the following countries: United Kingdom, Ireland, France, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Austria, Denmark, Switzerland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Germany, Netherlands, Belgium, Norway, Sweden and Finland. Residues from combustion of municipal waste account for more than 90% of the quantities and for 97-99 % of the heavy metals in connection with power production from the fuels covered in this paper.

  19. Assessment of heavy metal and petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in the Sultanate of Oman with emphasis on harbours, marinas, terminals and ports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupp, Barry P; Fowler, Scott W; Dobretsov, Sergey; van der Wiele, Henk; Al-Ghafri, Ahmed

    2017-08-15

    The assessment here includes data on levels of contaminants (petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals) in sediments and biomonitor organisms, including the eulittoral rock oyster Saccostrea cucullata and subtidal biomonitors, the barnacle Balanus trigonus and the antipatharian coral Antipathes sp., at harbours, marinas, terminals and large ports along the coastline of Oman. TBT levels in harbour and port sediments up to a maximum of 100ppb TBT dry weight are highlighted. Oysters contained concentrations up to 367ppm mg TPH/kg dry weight. The maximum levels of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were found in the subtidal sediments and barnacles at the oil tanker loading Single Buoy Mooring stations in Mina Al Fahal. In general, the levels of most of the contaminants analysed are at low to moderate concentrations compared to those in highly contaminated sites such as shipyards and dry docks, but continued monitoring is recommended especially during any dredging campaigns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Bioremediation of soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum, pesticides, chlorophenols and heavy metals by composting: Applications, microbes and future research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Xu, Piao; Zeng, Guangming; Yang, Chunping; Huang, Danlian; Zhang, Jiachao

    2015-11-01

    Increasing soil pollution problems have caused world-wide concerns. Large numbers of contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), petroleum and related products, pesticides, chlorophenols and heavy metals enter the soil, posing a huge threat to human health and natural ecosystem. Chemical and physical technologies for soil remediation are either incompetent or too costly. Composting or compost addition can simultaneously increase soil organic matter content and soil fertility besides bioremediation, and thus is believed to be one of the most cost-effective methods for soil remediation. This paper reviews the application of composting/compost for soil bioremediation, and further provides a critical view on the effects of this technology on microbial aspects in contaminated soils. This review also discusses the future research needs for contaminated soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Increasing the strength of metallurgical coke by adding modified petroleum coke to the coking batch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.I. Stukov; V.S. Zagainov; Y.B. Kukolev; N.S. Andreichikov; P.V. Shtark; A.V. Vishnyakov; V.A. Antonova; S.N. Soboleva [Eastern Coal-Chemistry Institute, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2009-08-15

    Box-coking data show the possibility of increasing the yield and strength of metallurgical coke by introducing a coking additive in the batch. Specifically, this additive is a product of slow coking of heavy petroleum residues, characterized by excellent thermoplastic properties: clinkering properties and plastic temperature range. A Russian patent has been obtained for the coking additive.

  2. Fate of heavy metals in vertical subsurface flow constructed wetlands treating secondary treated petroleum refinery wastewater in Kaduna, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Hassana Ibrahim; van Bruggen, J J A; Lens, P N L

    2018-01-02

    This study examined the performance of pilot-scale vertical subsurface flow constructed wetlands (VSF-CWs) planted with three indigenous plants, i.e. Typha latifolia, Cyperus alternifolius, and Cynodon dactylon, in removing heavy metals from secondary treated refinery wastewater under tropical conditions. The T. latifolia-planted VSF-CW had the best heavy metal removal performance, followed by the Cyperus alternifolius-planted VSF-CW and then the Cynodon dactylon-planted VSF-CW. The data indicated that Cu, Cr, Zn, Pb, Cd, and Fe were accumulated in the plants at all the three VSF-CWs. However, the accumulation of the heavy metals in the plants accounted for only a rather small fraction (0.09-16%) of the overall heavy metal removal by the wetlands. The plant roots accumulated the highest amount of heavy metals, followed by the leaves, and then the stem. Cr and Fe were mainly retained in the roots of T. latifolia, Cyperus alternifolius, and Cynodon dactylon (TF Cr and Fe were only partially transported to the leaves of these plants. This study showed that VSF-CWs planted with T. latifolia, Cyperus Alternifolius, and Cynodon dactylon can be used for the large-scale removal of heavy metals from secondary refinery wastewater.

  3. Hydrogen and energy recovery by gasification of petroleum coke from heavy crude refining; Recuperacion de hidrogeno y energia mediante gasificacion de coques de petroleo provenientes de refinacion de crudos pesados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paniagua-Rodriguez, J.C [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Jimenez-Garcia, G. [Instituto Tecnologico del Valle de Morelia, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Maya-Yescas, R. [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: rmayay@umich.mx

    2013-03-15

    Heavy oils exhibit high yields to bottom-of barrel products (low commercial value); depending on the metals content and on carbon residue the upgrading of bottoms could follow either hydroprocessing or carbon rejection. In particular the Mexican Maya, which is the most refined crude in Mexico, is upgraded by carbon rejection via delayed coking of vacuum residue. In order to obtain acceptable economic profit, it is necessary to transform that carbon (mainly petroleum coke) into useful higher added value products. Coke gasification could be used to obtain hydrogen and/or energy (preferable electrical), via the reaction of coke molecules with oxygen, carbon dioxide and water. Departing from the empiric formulas of five petroleum cokes, a kinetic scheme that consists of three linearly independent stoichiometric equations was recently developed; by including the enthalpy of each reaction and considering the gasification reactor as adiabatic, it is possible to predict product stream composition and high pressure steam that could be generated by the process. [Spanish] Los crudos pesados exhiben rendimientos altos a productos de-fondo-de-barril (de bajo valor comercial); dependiendo del contenido de metales y del residuo carbonoso, la mejora de fondos puede llevarse a cabo por hidrotratamiento o rechazo de carbon. En particular el crudo Maya, que es el mas refinado en Mexico, se mejora via rechazo de carbon por coquizacion retardada del residuo de vacio. A fin de obtener ganancias aceptables, es necesario transformar ese carbon (coque de petroleo, principalmente) en producto util de alto valor agregado. La gasificacion de coque puede usarse para obtener hidrogeno y/o energia (electrica de preferencia), via la reaccion de moleculas de coque con oxigeno, dioxido de carbono y agua. Recientemente se desarrollo un esquema cinetico que consiste de tres reacciones linealmente independientes, partiendo de las formulas empiricas de cinco coques de petroleo; incluyendo la entalpia

  4. Use of a new type of mixer - settler for the treatment of residual water contaminated with crude petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulo, J.B.A. [UFRN, Natal, Program of Masters degree on Chem. Eng. (Brazil); Hadjiev, D. [Universite de Bretagne Sud, Procedes de Traitement des Effluents et des Dechets, 56 - Lorient (France)

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this work is to assess the separation efficiency in the case of dispersions and/or emulsions of the crude oil in water, using a new type of mixer-settler design called MDIF (Misturador Decantador a Inversao de Fascs/ Phase Inversion Mixer-Settler). The principle of phase inversion is used to decrease the distance between the drops of the disperse phase and the interface between the liquid phases involved in the process. The new equipment has shown advantages over the conventional extractors/separators for hydro-metallurgic applications. In this work, a real system has been studied which is commonly present in the petroleum industry. The first results show that the equipment presents a separation efficiency of practically 100% for concentrations in oil from 2000 to 4600 ppm. (authors)

  5. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in five sections: Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. The feature article is entitled ``The Second Oxygenated Gasoline Season.`` 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  6. Petroleum marketing monthly, July 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  7. Evaluation of ground calcite/water heavy media cyclone suspensions for production of residual plastic concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gent, Malcolm; Sierra, Héctor Muñiz; Menéndez, Mario; de Cos Juez, Francisco Javier

    2018-01-01

    Viable recycled residual plastic (RP) product(s) must be of sufficient quality to be reusable as a plastic or source of hydrocarbons or fuel. The varied composition and large volumes of such wastes usually requires a low cost, high through-put recycling method(s) to eliminate contaminants. Cyclone separation of plastics by density is proposed as a potential method of achieving separations of specific types of plastics. Three ground calcite separation medias of different grain size distributions were tested in a cylindrical cyclone to evaluate density separations at 1.09, 1.18 and 1.27 g/cm3. The differences in separation recoveries obtained with these medias by density offsets produced due to displacement of separation media solid particles within the cyclone caused by centrifugal settling is evaluated. The separation density at which 50% of the material of that density is recovered was found to increase from 0.010 to 0.026 g/cm3 as the separation media density increased from 1.09 to 1.27 g/cm3. All separation medias were found to have significantly low Ep95values of 0.012-0.033 g/cm3. It is also demonstrated that the presence of an excess content of 75%) resulted in reduced separation efficiencies. It is shown that the optimum separations were achieved when the media density offset was 0.03-0.04 g/cm3. It is shown that effective heavy media cyclone separations of RP denser than 1.0 g/cm3 can produce three sets of mixed plastics containing: PS and ABS/SAN at densities of >1.0-1.09 g/cm3; PC, PMMA at a density of 1.09-1.18 g/cm3; and PVC and PET at a density of >1.27 g/cm3. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Uptake of Heavy Metal Residues from Sewerage Sludge in the Milk of Goat and Cattle during Summer Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Aslam, Ijaz Javed*, Faqir Hussain Khan and Zia-ur-Rahman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Uptake of different heavy metal residues including cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, nickel (Ni, led (Pb, arsenic (As, and mercury (Hg were determined in goat and cattle milk collected from two areas, each consisted of three sites. Area 1 was selected in the North-East and Area 2 in the North-West of Faisalabad city along the main sewerage drains. Levels of Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, As and Hg in the milk of goat and cattle were higher than the most reported values in the literature. The levels of heavy metal residues in the milk of cattle from Area 1 were higher than those present in cattle milk from Area 2. However, in case of goat milk the residual values from Area 1 and Area 2 were non-significantly different. It was concluded that the levels of Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, As and Hg in the milk of goat and cattle were higher than reported values in the literature.

  9. Prevalence of veterinary drug residues and heavy metals in catfish nuggets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seafood, including catfish, can sometimes become contaminated with chemicals and heavy metals at levels which would harm human health. Seafood safety has been increasing concerns to the consumers in the United States and limited availability of domestic fresh products in retail stores have been rais...

  10. Evaluation of Spatial Resolution for Heavy Ion CT System Based on the Measurement of Residual Range Distribution With HIMAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraishi, H.; Nishimura, K.; Abe, S.; Satoh, H.; Hara, S.; Hara, H.; Takahashi, Y.; Mogaki, T.; Kawai, R.; Yokoyama, K.; Yasuda, N.; Tomida, T.; Ohno, Y.; Kanai, T.

    2009-10-01

    We report experimental results from a heavy ion CT system based on the measurement of residual range distribution using an X-ray intensifying screen and a charged coupled device (CCD) camera system. This technique was first investigated by Zygmanski (2000) for proton beams, and they reported that the spatial resolution was significantly degraded by multiple Coulomb scattering (MCS) effects in the irradiated medium. Experiments were done on the spatial resolution phantom by using helium and carbon beams accelerated up to 120 MeV/u and 230 MeV/u by the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC), installed in the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) in Japan, using a high performance intensified CCD (ICCD) camera. We show that the MCS blurring effect can be significantly reduced in the reconstructed image by using a carbon beam with this technique. Our results suggest that heavier particles such as carbon would be more useful if this technique is envisioned as a clinical tool to obtain data that would aid proton and/or heavy ion treatment planning.

  11. Gender differences in residual effect of prior drop jumps on oxygen uptake during heavy cycling exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neringa Baranauskienė

    2017-12-01

    Conclusions: Prior eccentric–concentric exercise of thigh muscles (100 drop jumps accelerates VO2 kinetics at the start and increases VO2 during steady state of heavy cycling only in the male group. So, prior exercise of such type has a higher negative impact on cycling economy in men than in women and this might be related to greater muscle damage and fatigue in physically active male persons after plyometric exercise.

  12. New technology for the emulsification of petroleum residuals in water; Nueva tecnologia para la emulsificacion de residuales del petroleo en agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peralta, M. Vita; Arriola, Alejandro M.; Sanchez S, Ramon; Manzanares P, Emilio; Romo M, Cesar A.; Yery de Coss P, R. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    It turns out of interest to Comision Federal de Electricidad and Petroleos Mexicanos to reduce costs of fuel oil, reducing the viscosity of the residues petroleum of high vacuum distillation emulsifying these with water. The parameters that define the characteristics of the emulsions are mainly the relation of their components, viscosity, size and drop distribution and its stability. The experimental work began producing emulsions in form of lots, using samples of approximately 500 milliliters of vacuum residue. In this first stage, at different concentrations, were examined eight different surfactants, as well as combinations among them, also seven different stabilizers were used. With these tests it has been managed to identify the concentrations, as well as the most adequate relations of surfactants and stabilizers for the production of emulsions of vacuum residues in water. The size and drop distribution has been determined by means of an optical LEICA microscope, model DMLS, that has adapted a photographic system in which an emulsion photo is obtained and, later, a system of analysis of images is used for obtaining of the values of the diameter of the drops present in the emulsion. Finally, by means of statistical software the average size of the particles is obtained, as well as the drop size distribution. The tests results of emulsions that remain fluid are shown and an example of the microstructure of an emulsion of vacuum residue-in-water is given. As well as an example of histogram of the drop size distribution of an emulsion of vacuum distillation-in-water, and another one of the viscosity in function of temperature at different cut efforts in one emulsion of vacuum distillate residue-in-water. [Spanish] Resulta de interes para la Comision Federal de Electricidad y Petroleos Mexicanos reducir costos del combustoleo, reduciendo la viscosidad de los residuos de vacio emulsionando estos en agua. Los parametros que definen las caracteristicas de las

  13. Heavy metal and chlorinated hydrocarbon residues in California sea loins (Zalophus californianus californianus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhler, D.R.; Claeys, R.R.; Mate, B.R.

    1975-12-01

    Samples of various tissues and organs from healthy California sea lions (Zalophus californianus californianus) and sick animals (apparently with leptospirosis) collected along the central Oregon coast in 1970, 1971, and 1973 were analyzed for total mercury, methylmercury, cadmium, and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Maximum mercury concentrations of 74 to 170 ppM occurred in sea lion liver, but only 1.6 to 3.7 percent of this was present as methylmercury. Cadmium was concentrated primarily in the kidney which contained 7.2 to 12.0 ppM of the metal. Chlorinated hydrocarbon residues in sea lion fat ranged between 253 to 475 ppM DDE, and 21.2 and 34.1 ppM PCB. Although mercury, cadmium, and chlorinated hydrocarbon residues in some of the sick sea lions were significantly higher than those present in healthy animals, it is not possible to relate these differences to the onset of leptospirosis.

  14. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum product sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  15. The long term release of heavy metals from combustion residues and slags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, J.N.

    1996-12-31

    This treatise details methodology which may be used to construct a model of the geochemical evolution in a waste repository and the changes in leachate composition over time. The pH and Eh of the leachant, as well as major complexing anions control the leaching of heavy metals over very long times due to solubility constraints. The pH and the Eh of the leachate changes when the buffering capacity of the waste has been exhausted. It is possible that the altered pH and Eh conditions in the leachate at later times may allow leaching of heavy metals at considerably higher concentrations than those present earlier during the leaching process. The model developed requires data which may be obtained from simple laboratory experiments in order to describe the reactive properties of the waste. Because of the complexity of the real system, the model uses `generalised` minerals which react with the inflowing oxygen and acidity to buffer the pH and Eh of the leachant. In this way, the chemistry of the leachant may be modelled without the need for a detailed geochemical description of the waste material. The model is intended to be simple and flexible enough that it may be adapted to different waste types with reasonable ease. The results obtained indicate that the redox and the pH-buffering characteristics of the waste are very important in determining the leaching of trace metals. The results also illustrate the strong influence that diffusional transport of CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} may have upon the long term leaching behaviour. The model predictions have not, as yet, been reconciled with field leachate measurements. This will form a major part of the continued work with this project 38 refs, 63 figs, 11 tabs

  16. Petroleum Marketing Annual, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-18

    This report contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for us by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 13 figs., 51 tabs.

  17. Degradability of n-alkanes during ex situ natural bioremediation of soil contaminated by heavy residual fuel oil (mazut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ramadan Mohamed Muftah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that during biodegradation of oil in natural geological conditions, or oil pollutants in the environment, a degradation of hydrocarbons occurs according to the well defined sequence. For example, the major changes during the degradation process of n-alkanes occur in the second, slight and third, moderate level (on the biodegradation scale from 1 to 10. According to previous research, in the fourth, heavy level, when intensive changes of phenanthrene and its methyl isomers begin, n-alkanes have already been completely removed. In this paper, the ex situ natural bioremediation (unstimulated bioremediation, without addition of biomass, nutrient substances and biosurfactant of soil contaminated with heavy residual fuel oil (mazut was conducted during the period of 6 months. Low abundance of n-alkanes in the fraction of total saturated hydrocarbons in the initial sample (identification was possible only after concentration by urea adduction technique showed that the investigated oil pollutant was at the boundary between the third and the fourth biodegradation level. During the experiment, an intense degradation of phenanthrene and its methyl-, dimethyl-and trimethyl-isomers was not followed by the removal of the remaining n-alkanes. The abundance of n-alkanes remained at the initial low level, even at end of the experiment when the pollutant reached one of the highest biodegradation levels. These results showed that the unstimulated biodegradation of some hydrocarbons, despite of their high biodegradability, do not proceed completely to the end, even at final degradation stages. In the condition of the reduced availability of some hydrocarbons, microorganisms tend to opt for less biodegradable but more accessible hydrocarbons.

  18. Petroleum marketing monthly, December 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-14

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  19. Petroleum marketing monthly, February 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-25

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  20. Petroleum marketing monthly, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  1. Petroleum marketing monthly, November 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-09

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed costs of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  2. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals and chloride from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash and air pollution control residue in suspension - test of a new two compartment experimental cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Magro, Cátia; Guedes, Paula

    2015-01-01

    heavy metal leaching except when the pH was reduced to a level below 8 for the fly ash. On the other hand, Cr leaching increased by the electrodialytic treatment. Cl leaching from the MSWI residues was less dependent on experimental conditions and was reduced in all experiments compared to the initial......Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues such as fly ash and air pollution control (APC) residues are classified as hazardous waste and disposed of, although they contain potential resources. The most problematic elements in MSWI residues are leachable heavy metals and salts. For reuse...... of MSWI residues in for instance concrete, the aim of remediation should be reduction of the heavy metal leaching, while at the same time keeping the alkaline pH, so the residue can replace cement. In this study a MSWI residues were subjected to electrodialytic remediation under various experimental...

  3. The Effects of Heavy Metals and Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons on Soil Bacterial Activity and Functional Diversity in the Upper Silesia Industrial Region (Poland)

    OpenAIRE

    Klimek, Beata; Sitarz, Anna; Choczy?ski, Maciej; Nikli?ska, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Various inorganic and organic pollutants in industrial soils may adversely affect soil microorganisms and terrestrial ecosystem functioning. The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between the microbial activity, microbial biomass, and functional diversity of soil bacteria and the metals and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region (Poland). We collected soil samples in pine-dominated forest stands and analyzed them according to a range of soil ...

  4. Ecological and health risks assessment and spatial distribution of residual heavy metals in the soil of an e-waste circular economy park in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Gao, Guanghai; Geng, Jinyao; Li, Yao; Wang, Yingying

    2018-04-01

    Ziya Circular Economy Park is the biggest e-waste recycle park in North China before 2011, its function was then transformed in response to regulations and rules. In this paper, investigation was conducted to research the residual concentrations of 14 analytes (12 heavy metals and 2 non-metals) in the surface soil of Ziya Circular Economy Park and surrounding area. Both ecological and health assessments were evaluated using GI (geo-accumulation index) and NPI (Nemerow pollution index), and associated health risk was assessed by using USEPA model. According to the ecological risk assessment, Cu, Sb, Cd, Zn and Co were seriously enriched in the soil of the studied area. The health risk assessment proposed by USEPA indicated no significant health risks to the population. Soil properties, such as pH and organic matter, were found to correlate with the enrichment of heavy metals. Arsenic concentrations in the soil were found positively correlated to dead bacteria concentrations. Spatial distribution of heavy metals revealed that Ziya Circular Economy Park was the dominant pollution source in the studied area. Findings in this study suggest that enough attention should be payed to the heavy metal pollution in Ziya Circular Economy Park. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. FRACTURED PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas Firoozabadi

    1999-06-11

    The four chapters that are described in this report cover a variety of subjects that not only give insight into the understanding of multiphase flow in fractured porous media, but they provide also major contribution towards the understanding of flow processes with in-situ phase formation. In the following, a summary of all the chapters will be provided. Chapter I addresses issues related to water injection in water-wet fractured porous media. There are two parts in this chapter. Part I covers extensive set of measurements for water injection in water-wet fractured porous media. Both single matrix block and multiple matrix blocks tests are covered. There are two major findings from these experiments: (1) co-current imbibition can be more efficient than counter-current imbibition due to lower residual oil saturation and higher oil mobility, and (2) tight fractured porous media can be more efficient than a permeable porous media when subjected to water injection. These findings are directly related to the type of tests one can perform in the laboratory and to decide on the fate of water injection in fractured reservoirs. Part II of Chapter I presents modeling of water injection in water-wet fractured media by modifying the Buckley-Leverett Theory. A major element of the new model is the multiplication of the transfer flux by the fractured saturation with a power of 1/2. This simple model can account for both co-current and counter-current imbibition and computationally it is very efficient. It can be orders of magnitude faster than a conventional dual-porosity model. Part II also presents the results of water injection tests in very tight rocks of some 0.01 md permeability. Oil recovery from water imbibition tests from such at tight rock can be as high as 25 percent. Chapter II discusses solution gas-drive for cold production from heavy-oil reservoirs. The impetus for this work is the study of new gas phase formation from in-situ process which can be significantly

  6. Application of multivariate heavy-tailed distributions to residuals in the estimation of genetic parameters of growth traits in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, S O; Kizilkaya, K; Garrick, D J; Fernando, R L; Pollak, E J; De Donato, M; Hussain, T; Imumorin, I G

    2013-04-01

    Assumptions of normality in most animal breeding applications may make inferences vulnerable to the presence of outliers. Heavy-tail densities are viable alternatives to normal distributions and provide robustness against unusual or outlying observations when used to model the densities of residual effects. Our objective is to compare estimates of genetic parameters by fitting multivariate normal (MN) or heavy-tail distributions [multivariate Student's t (MSt) and multivariate slash (MS)] for residuals in data of body birth weight (BBW), weaning (WW), and yearling (YW) weight traits in beef cattle. A total of 17,019 weight records for BBW, WW, and YW from 1998 through 2010 from a large commercial cow/calf operation in the sand hills of Nebraska were analyzed. Models included fixed effects of contemporary group and sire breed whereas animal and maternal effects were random and the degrees of freedom (v) was treated as unknown for MSt and MS. Model comparisons using deviance information criteria (DIC) favored MSt over MS and MN models, respectively. The posterior means [and 95% posterior probability intervals (PPI)] of v for the MSt and MS models were 5.28 (4.80, 5.85) and 1.88 (1.76, 2.00), respectively. Smaller values of posterior densities of v for MSt and MS models confirm that the assumption of normally distributed residuals is not adequate for the analysis of BBW, WW, and YW datasets. Posterior mean (PM) and posterior median (PD) estimates of direct and maternal genetic variances were the same and posterior densities of these parameters were found to be symmetric. The 95% PPI estimates from MN and MSt models for BBW did not overlap, which indicates significant difference between PM estimates from MN or MSt models. The observed antagonistic relationship between additive direct and additive maternal effects indicated that genetic evaluation and selection strategies will be sensitive to the assumed model for residuals.

  7. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1998, with data for June 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  8. Petroleum marketing monthly, February 1999 with data for November 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in six sections: Initial Estimates; Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  9. Petroleum marketing monthly, October 1998, with data for July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Summary statistics; Crude oil prices; Prices of petroleum products; Volumes of petroleum products; and Prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  10. Petroleum marketing monthly, May 1998, with data for February 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides Information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  11. Petroleum marketing monthly: August 1998, with data for May 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  12. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1998, with data from March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  13. Petroleum marketing monthly, July 1998 with data for April 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  14. Petroleum marketing monthly, December 1998 with data for September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  15. Petroleum marketing monthly, March 1999 with data for December 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  16. Petroleum marketing monthly, July 1999, with data for April 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: initial estimates; summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 70 tabs.

  17. Petroleum marketing monthly, November 1998, with data for August 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Summary statistics; Crude oil prices; Prices of petroleum products; Volumes of petroleum products; and Prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  18. Petroleum marketing monthly, January 1999 with data for October 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  19. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1999, with data for March 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Initial Estimates; Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  20. Petroleum marketing monthly, May 1999, with data for February 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Initial Estimates; Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  1. Heavy metal residues in Sooty Tern tissues from the Gulf of Mexico and north central Pacific Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoneburner, D.L.; Harrison, C.S.

    1981-05-01

    The comparison of mean cadmium, mercury, and selenium concentrations in the eggs, feathers, and body tissues of breeding sooty tern from Dry Tortugas, Fla., and Lisianski Island, Ha., supports the hypothesis that a physiological mechanism exists that functions in the detoxification of heavy metals. The data, collected from two geographically isolated populations of the pelagic bird, indicate that the mechanism responds in a uniform manner to widely different environmental levels of heavy metals. The mechanism may have evolved in response to natural fluxes of metal concentrations in the marine ecosystem and not in response to recent injections of metal-laden industrial wastes.

  2. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-14

    This document designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and for the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  3. Study on molecular modelling of the selectivity of catalysts for heavy petroleum fractions hydrocracking; Etude sur molecule modele des parametres regissant la selectivite des catalyseurs d'hydrocraquage des charges lourdes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, L.

    2000-10-19

    Hydrocracking is a catalytic petroleum refining process that is commonly applied to upgrade the heavier fractions obtained from the distillation of crude oils. Nowadays the European demand for good quality middle distillates (kerosene and gas-oil) is high and one important goal for the refining is to transform selectively feedstocks into middle distillates. To understand how this transformation occurs, studies on model compounds have been investigated. Numerous studies have been devoted to paraffin hydrocracking. However theses molecules do not fully represent heavy petroleum fraction. Taking into account that the trend in the future will be to treat heavier feedstocks containing a large quantity of PNA (Polynuclear Aromatic hydrocarbons), the understanding of their transformation under hydrocracking conditions is a key point. In this study, we studied hydrocracking of phenanthrene over platinum on acid solids catalysts. Our main aim was to compare hydrocracking catalysts in term of catalytic activity and selectivity toward primary products thanks to our model reaction and to correlate these catalytic performances with acid solid properties and especially to rationalize the effects due to the acidity and the porosity of the acid solids. Catalytic experiments emphasised an effect of the porous structure on the selectivities. The acidity of the catalysts seemed to impose the catalytic activity but did not permit to explain the selectivities. This 'effect of the structure' has been clarified with the simulation of intermediate products adsorption and diffusion in the studied structures thanks to a molecular modelling study. Indeed, the selectivities obtained during phenanthrene hydrocracking have been linked up with the intermediate products adsorption energies in the structures. The results of this study permit to propose that the key-step for selectivities determination is the physical desorption of the primary products. (author)

  4. Petroleum coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    The dossier summarizes the health, safety and environment data currently available on petroleum coke. This is one in a series of 11 product dossiers on the major groups of petroluem products, which are being prepared by CONCAWE to provide, for each major product group, comprehensive information covering: Product description, uses and typical properties; Toxicology, health aspects and fire, explosion and environmental hazards; Recommended exposure limits; Advice on handling, emergency treatment and disposal; Entries in the European Inventory of Existing Commercial Chemical Substances (EINECS) which cover these groups. (Copyright (c) CONCAWE, Brussels, October 1993.)

  5. Dual mechanochemical immobilization of heavy metals and decomposition of halogenated compounds in automobile shredder residue using a nano-sized metallic calcium reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy; Lee, Byoung Ho; Mitoma, Yoshiharu; Simion, Cristian

    2016-11-01

    Simultaneous immobilization of heavy metals and decomposition of halogenated organic compounds in different fractions of automobile shredder residue (ASR) were achieved with a nano-sized metallic calcium through a 60-min ball milling treatment. Heavy metal (HM) immobilization and chlorinated/brominated compound (CBC) decomposition efficiencies both reached 90-100 %, after ball milling with nanometallic calcium/calcium oxide (Ca/CaO) dispersion, regardless of ASR particle size (1.0, 0.45-1.0, and 0.250 mm). Concentrations of leachable HMs substantially decreased to a level lower than the regulatory standard limits (Co and Cd 0.3 mg L(-1); Cr 1.5 mg L(-1); Fe, Pb, and Zn 3.0 mg L(-1); Mn and Ni 1 mg L(-1)) proposed by the Korean hazardous waste elution standard regulatory threshold. Scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) element maps/spectra showed that while the amounts of HMs and CBCs detectable in ASR significantly decreased, the calcium mass percentage increased. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) patterns indicate that the main fraction of enclosed/bound materials on ASR includes Ca-associated crystalline complexes that remarkably inhibit HM desorption and simultaneously transform dangerous CBCs into harmless compounds. The use of a nanometallic Ca/CaO mixture in a mechanochemical process to treat hazardous ASR (dry conditions) is an innovative approach to remediate cross-contaminated residues with heavy metals and halogenated compounds.

  6. The Effects of Heavy Metals and Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons on Soil Bacterial Activity and Functional Diversity in the Upper Silesia Industrial Region (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Beata; Sitarz, Anna; Choczyński, Maciej; Niklińska, Maria

    Various inorganic and organic pollutants in industrial soils may adversely affect soil microorganisms and terrestrial ecosystem functioning. The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between the microbial activity, microbial biomass, and functional diversity of soil bacteria and the metals and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region (Poland). We collected soil samples in pine-dominated forest stands and analyzed them according to a range of soil physicochemical properties, including metal content (cadmium, lead, and zinc) and TPH content. Metal concentrations were normalized to their toxicity to soil microorganisms and integrated in a toxicity index (TI). Soil microbial activity measured as soil respiration rate, microbial biomass measured as substrate-induced respiration rate, and the bacterial catabolic activity (area under the curve, AUC) assessed using Biolog® ECO plates were negatively related to TPH pollution as shown in multiple regressions. The canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) showed that both TPH and TI affected the community-level physiological profiles (CLPPs) of soil bacteria and the pollutants' effects were much stronger than the effects of other soil properties, including nutrient content.

  7. Thermal Treatment of Iron Oxide Stabilized APC Residues from Waste Incineration and the Effect on Heavy Metal Binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette Abildgaard; Stackpoole, M.; Bender-Koch, C.

    2000-01-01

    Iron oxide stabilized APC residues from MSWI were heat treated at 600°C and 900°C. The thermal treatments resulted in a change in product stability by forcing a transformation in the mineralogical structures of the products. The treatments, moreover, simulated somewhat the natural aging processes...

  8. Experimental signature of entrance channel effect in heavy mass region via evaporation residue cross section and spin distribution measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shidling, P. D.; Madhavan, N.; Ramamurthy, V. S.; Nath, S.; Badiger, N. M.; Pal, Santanu; Sinha, A. K.; Jhingan, A.; Muralithar, S.; Sugathan, P.; Kailas, S.; Behera, B. R.; Singh, R.; Varier, K. M.; Radhakrishna, M. C.

    2008-01-01

    Evaporation residue (ER) cross sections and gamma multiplicity distributions have been measured for (16)O + (184)W and (19)F + (181)Ta systems in the excitation energy range of 50-90 MeV, leading to the same compound nucleus (200)Pb*. Comparison of experimental results of both the systems shows that

  9. Petroleum geophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The book is compiled from a series of e-learning modules. GeoCLASS is an e-learning system with contents from petroleum geophysics. It is the result of collaboration between professors at the University of Bergen and the University of Oslo, and its material has been used as curriculum in master program courses at these universities for several years. Using a unique feature to GeoCLASS, these advanced scientific topics are presented on multiple levels. The introductions open the door to this vast pool of knowledge, accessible even for high school students. Enter the door, and you enter the modules. Various levels of content are presented, and the more advanced levels can be shielded from the regular user, and only accessed by those with particular interest. The chapters in the book are: Elastic waves; Survey planning; Seismic acquisition; Basic seismic signal theory and processing; Seismic imaging; Seismic attributes; Rock physics; Reservoir monitoring. (AG)

  10. Petroleum hydrocarbon concentration in sediments along northern west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ram, A.; Kadam, A.N.

    Gas chromatography revealed that nonpolar material extracted from surface sediments collected along the northern west coast of India was originated from petroleum hydrocarbon residue. Petroleum hydrocarbon levels as determinEd. by fluorescence...

  11. Control of the Kanzawa Spider Mite, Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida and Pink Tea Rust Mite, Acaphylla theavagrans Kadono and the Residual Effect of Spraying Petroleum Oil Emulsifiable Concentrate just before the Sprouting of the First Crop of Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Tetsuya; Sakaida, Teruki; Nakazono, Kentaro; Nitabaru, Yuichi

    Petroleum oil emulsifiable concentrate (POEC) is a commercial acaricide used for the control of Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida in the autumn/winter season. Further, the damage of bacterial shoot blight increases if POEC is sprayed at this time of the year. It is thought that the occurrence of bacterial shoot blight doesn't increase if POEC is sprayed just before the sprouting of the first crop of tea. However, it is suspected that spraying of POEC at this time results in the formation of an oily film that floats on the surface of tea infusion. In this study, we examined the efficiency of spraying POEC at this time of the year in controlling the growth of T. kanzawai and Acaphylla theavagrans Kadono and the residual effect. We obtained the following results: (1) spraying POEC before sprouting of the first crop of tea resulted in effective control of the density of T. kanzawai and A. theavagrans for 1 month or longer, and (2) the oily film was not observed on the surface of the tea infusion. These results indicate that POEC can serve as one of the important control agents of mites when sprayed just before the sprouting of the first crop of tea.

  12. Analysis of petroleum oily sludge producing in petroleum field of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Cicero de Souza; Lima, Regineide Oliveira; Silva, Edjane Fabiula Buriti da; Castro, Kesia Kelly Vieira de; Chiavone Filho, Osvaldo; Araujo, Antonio Souza de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    In exploration and production of petroleum is generated solid waste different and components other. The petroleum oily sludge is a complex mix of components different (water, oil and solid). The petroleum oily sludge generally has other residues and is formed during production and operations, transport, storage and petroleum refining (atmospheric residue, vacuum residue and catalytic cracking residue). However, according to its origin, the compositions can be found quite varied for sludge. Observing the process steps production and refining is possible to locate its main sources and percentage contributions in terms of waste generation. The elemental analysis was performed with oily sludge from region and it showed different composition. For carbon element and hydrogen, small differences was observed, but for was observed greater differences for Oxygen element. The sludge has different inorganic and organic composition. The sludge from oil water separator (OWS) 2 showed a greater amount of oil (94.88%), this may indicate a residue of aggregate high for petroleum industry. In analysis of Saturates, Aromatics, Resins and Asphaltenes (SARA), the sludge from unloading showed amount high of saturates. The inorganic material separated from sludge was characterized and sludge from OWS 2 had high amount sulfur (41.57%). The sludge analyzed showed organic components high values, so it can be treated and reprocessed in process units petroleum industry. The analysis thermal degradation had a better setting for treated oily sludge. (author)

  13. ETBP (Extended True Boiling Point) curve extension of extra heavy crudes; Extensao da curva PEV (Ponto de Ebulicao Verdadeiro) de petroleos extrapesados por destilacao molecular e ampliacao da caracterizacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Rodrigo S.; Batistella, Cesar B.; Maciel, Maria Regina W.; Maciel Filho, Rubens [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica; Medina, Lilian C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    For the determination of the TBP (True Boiling Point) Curve, which defines the yield of petroleum products, the ASTM D2892 method for petroleum distillation and ASTM D5236 method for vacuum distillation of heavy hydrocarbons were applied. Furthermore, from these distillations, cuts that are submitted to several analyses to determine its physical-chemical properties are obtained, and all this information generates the evaluation of petroleum. For heavy petroleum, these conventional methods have been limited, since the total distilled percentage determined for temperatures up to 565 deg C (maximum reached with ASTM D5236 method) is lower for these oils, reducing the points of the curve, limiting its information. To improve this data set for heavy oils, a methodology for the extension of TBP curve through molecular distillation was established. It was possible to reach values up to 700 deg C, representing a considerable progress for the extension of TBP curve. The objective of this work is to present the results of Extended TBP curve for a heavy petroleum and characterization carried out through the cuts and residues obtained in molecular distillation of the residue 'Zeta' 400 deg C+ (fancy name), made by ASTM D2892 method. (author)

  14. Thermodynamic study of adsorptive desulfurization of heavy naphthenic petroleum distillates; Estudo termodinamico da dessulfurizacao adsortiva de destilados naftenicos pesados de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Suzy; Moreira, Alexandre Marques; Souza, Selene M.A. Guelli Ulson de; Brandao, Heloisa Lima; Souza, Antonio Augusto Ulson de [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Environmental concern can be easily observed by the many studies that have been made in the area of development of alternatives and cleaner energy sources. However, oil is still the main energy source of world and, as such, there is great effort in making the oil derivatives cleaner. Many researches are being done in order to remove impurities from oil, such as sulphur. This paper presents the study of the removal of sulfur organic compounds of heavy distillated oil by adsorption process with activated carbon. It obtained the concentration of the fluid phase in equilibrium with the adsorbent phase, to the temperatures of 50, 100 and 150 deg C. The tests were conducted in a batch system, with three types of trade oils. The analyses were done in an analyzer of total sulphur Oxford LAB-X 3000, to obtain the efficiency of the sulphur removal process using activated carbon. The largest adsorptive capacities were found in the temperature of 150 deg C, featuring an endothermic adsorptive phenomenon. The light oils had greater adsorptive capacity at all temperatures that can be explained by the presence of inhibitors or by selectivity to the size of the sulphide compound's chain. (author)

  15. Petroleum Marketing Monthly, January 1991. [Contains Glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-09

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 55 tabs.

  16. Petroleum marketing monthly, December 1992. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-14

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  17. Characterization of CRUDE OILS and petroleum products: (i) elution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some physical and chemical properties of samples of light, medium and heavy Nigerian crude oils and petroleum products including gasoline, kerosene and engine oil have been measured and are reported in this paper. The crude oils and petroleum products have also been characterized by fractional distillation and ...

  18. Bubble column reactor fluid dynamic study at pilot plant scale for residue and extra heavy crude oil upgrading technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardella, R.; Medina, H. [Infrastructure and Upgrading Department PDVSA-Intevep (Venezuela); Zacarias, L.; Paiva, M. [Refining Department. PDVSA-Intevep (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    Bubble column reactors are used in several applications because of their simplicity and low cost; a new technology was developed to convert extra heavy crude oil into upgraded crude using a bubble column reactor. To design this kind of reactor, a lot of parameters like flow regime, gas hold up and dispersion coefficient have to be taken into account. This study aimed at determining the fluid dynamic behaviour of a bubble column working under Aquaconversion operating conditions. Experiments were undertaken on air-tap water and air-light oil systems under atmospheric conditions with various gas superficial velocities and liquid flowrates. Results showed that gas hold up increases with superficial gas velocity but is independent of liquid flowrate and that both systems tested work at the same flow regimes. This paper showed that under the experimental conditions used, this reactor tends to be a complete mixing reactor.

  19. Pesticide residues, heavy metals, and DNA damage in sentinel oysters Crassostrea gigas from Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Boucard, Celia; Anguiano-Vega, Gerardo; Mercier, Laurence; Rojas del Castillo, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Pesticides and heavy metals were analyzed in sentinel Crassostrea gigas oysters placed in six aquaculture sites close to a contaminated agricultural region. Each site was sampled twice. Tests revealed the presence of organochlorine (OC) pesticides in the oysters at concentrations varying from 31.8 to 72.5 μg/kg for gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH); from 1.2 to 3.1 μg/kg for dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (4,4-DDE); from 1.6 to 2.3 μg/kg for endosulfan I; and from 1.4 to 41.2 μg/kg for endosulfan II, as well as heavy metals in concentrations that exceeded Mexican tolerance levels (405.5 to 987.8 μg/g for zinc; 4.2 to 7.3 μg/g for cadmium; and 7.2 to 9.9 μg/g for lead). Significant levels of DNA damage in oyster hemocytes were also detected. There was a significant, positive correlation between genotoxic damage and concentration of nickel or the presence of endosulfan II. Cellular viability evaluated by cytotoxic analyses was found to be high at 80%. Marked inhibition in activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE ) and induction of glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity was noted. Data demonstrated a significant relation between AChE activity inhibition and presence of endosulfan II, γ-HCH, copper, lead, and 4,4-DDE, as well as between AChE and GST activity at different sites.

  20. Heavy metal water pollution associated with the use of sewage sludge compost and limestone outcrop residue for soil restoration: effect of saline irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gimeno, Ana; Navarro-Pedreño, Jose; Gómez, Ignacio; Belén Almedro-Candel, María; Jordán, Manuel M.; Bech, Jaume

    2015-04-01

    The use of composted sewage sludge and limestone outcrop residue in soil restoration and technosol making can influence the mobility of heavy metals into groundwater. The use of compost from organic residues is a common practice in soil and land rehabilitation, technosol making, and quarry restoration (Jordán et al. 2008). Compost amendments may improve the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soils (Jordão et al. 2006; Iovieno et al. 2009). However, the use of compost and biosolids may have some negative effects on the environment (Karaca 2004; Navarro-Pedreño et al. 2004). This experiment analyzed the water pollution under an experimental design based on the use of columns (0-30 cm) formed by both wastes. Two waters of different quality (saline and non-saline) were used for irrigation. The presence of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the leachates was checked under controlled conditions inside a greenhouse (mean values: 20°±5°C and around 60% relative humidity). Sixteen 30-cm tall columns made of PVC pipe with internal diameters of 10.5 cm were prepared. The columns were filled with one of these materials: either sewage sludge compost (SW) or limestone outcrop residue (LR), fraction (water (NS) and the others were so with saline water (S) from the beginning of the experiment. Four treatments combining the quality of the irrigation water (saline and non-saline) and wastes were studied: SW-NS, SW-S, LR-NS, and LR-S. After 24 hours of irrigation on the first day of each week, the leachates were taken and analyzed the heavy metal content (AAS-ES espectometer). The environmental risk due to the presence of heavy metals associated with the use of these materials was very low in general (under 0.1 mg/L). The use of sewage sludge favoured the presence of these metals in the lecheates and no effect was observed in the case of limestone residue. The presence of metals in SW was the main source (although the composition was under the UE

  1. Characterization of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Decomposing Fungi Isolated from Mangrove Rhizosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuni Gofar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was done to obtain the isolates of soil borne fungi isolated from mangrove rhizosphere which were capable of degrading petroleum hydrocarbon compounds. The soil samples were collected from South Sumatra mangrove forest which was contaminated by petroleum. The isolates obtained were selected based on their ability to survive, to grow and to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in medium containing petroleum residue. There were 3 isolates of soil borne hydrocarbonoclastic fungi which were able to degrade petroleum in vitro. The 3 isolates were identified as Aspergillus fumigates, A. parasiticus, and Chrysonilia sitophila. C. sitophila was the best isolate to decrease total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH from medium containing 5-20% petroleum residue.

  2. Petroleum marketing monthly with data for January 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This publication provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. Statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales are presented. Data on crude oil include the domestic purchase price, the free on board and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oils and sales of petroleum products are presented in five sections: (1) summary statistics, (2) crude oil prices, (3) prices of petroleum products, (4) volumes of petroleum products, and (5) prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 50 tabs.

  3. Removal of mixed heavy metal ions in wastewater by zeolite 4A and residual products from recycled coal fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, K S; Chao, C Y H; Kot, S C

    2005-12-09

    The removal performance and the selectivity sequence of mixed metal ions (Co(2+), Cr(3+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+) and Ni(2+)) in aqueous solution were investigated by adsorption process on pure and chamfered-edge zeolite 4A prepared from coal fly ash (CFA), commercial grade zeolite 4A and the residual products recycled from CFA. The pure zeolite 4A (prepared from CFA) was synthesized under a novel temperature step-change method with reduced synthesis time. Batch method was employed to study the influential parameters such as initial metal ions concentration, adsorbent dose, contact time and initial pH of the solution on the adsorption process. The experimental data were well fitted by the pseudo-second-order kinetics model (for Co(2+), Cr(3+), Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) ions) and the pseudo-first-order kinetics model (for Ni(2+) ions). The equilibrium data were well fitted by the Langmuir model and showed the affinity order: Cu(2+) > Cr(3+) > Zn(2+) > Co(2+) > Ni(2+) (CFA prepared and commercial grade zeolite 4A). The adsorption process was found to be pH and concentration dependent. The sorption rate and sorption capacity of metal ions could be significantly improved by increasing pH value. The removal mechanism of metal ions was by adsorption and ion exchange processes. Compared to commercial grade zeolite 4A, the CFA prepared adsorbents could be alternative materials for the treatment of wastewater.

  4. Quantification of heavy metals from residual waste and ashes from the treatment plant of residual water Reciclagua and,effects for the health of those workers which manipulate those residuals; Cuantificacion de metales pesados de lodo residual y cenizas de la planta tratadora de aguas residuales Reciclagua y efectos a la salud de los trabajadores que manipulan los residuos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero D, J.J

    2004-07-01

    concentrations greater than 0.5% in weight, as long as the analysis of plasma emission spectroscopy very low concentrations are identified already that this method causes the destruction of the sample achieving the identification of all the present elements. With the obtained results we are able to compare the concentrations of the metals before and after the leaching and we calculate by this way the percentage of efficiency for each one of the variables that were managed in the development of the study, obtaining the extraction of those toxic, and valuable metals, present in the muds until of 100%. Based on the results we can mention that the workers are exposed to aerosols and powders of these toxic residuals which contain heavy metals. (Author)

  5. Bacterial Utilization of Petroleum in Liquid and Simulated Soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbial utilization of the oil in the soil as assessed by the weight of extracted residual oil indicated that the extents of oil removal in the stimulated and/or bioaugmented soils were significantly high in relation to unsupplemented and uninoculated controls. Keywords: Bacterial utilization, Petroleum in liquid, Petroleum in soil, ...

  6. Influence of partial replacement of soya bean meal by faba beans or peas in heavy pigs diet on meat quality, residual anti-nutritional factors and phytoestrogen content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatta, Domenico; Russo, Claudia; Giuliotti, Lorella; Mannari, Claudio; Picciarelli, Piero; Lombardi, Lara; Giovannini, Luca; Ceccarelli, Nello; Mariotti, Lorenzo

    2013-06-01

    The study evaluated the partial substitution of soybean meal by faba beans (18%) or peas (20%) as additional protein sources in diets destined for typical Italian heavy pig production. It compared animal performances, meat quality, the presence of residual anti-nutritional factors (ANF) and phytoestrogens in plasma and meat and the possible effects on pig health, by evaluating oxidative, inflammatory and pro-atherogenic markers. The results showed that the productive performances, expressed as body weight and feed conversion ratio, of pigs fed with faba bean and pea diets were similar to those of pigs fed only the soybean meal. Meat quality of pigs fed with the three diets was similar in colour, water-holding capacity, tenderness and chemical composition. Despite the higher levels of phytoestrogen in the plasma of pigs fed only the soybean meal, phytoestrogen concentration in the muscle was equivalent to that of animals fed diets with faba beans, whereas pigs fed a diet with peas showed a lower concentration. Inflammation and pro-atherogenic parameters did not show significant differences among the three diets. Overall, the partial substitution of soybean meal by faba beans appears more interesting than with peas, particularly in relation to the higher amount of polyphenols in the diet and the highest concentration of phytoestrogens found in the plasma and muscle of animals, while the pyrimidine anti-nutritional compounds present in the diet did not appear to accumulate and had no effect on the growth performance of animals.

  7. Petroleum hydrocarbon concentration in surface sediments in continental shelf region along the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ram, A.; Kadam, A.N.

    Gas chromatography revealed that nonpolar material extracted from surface sediments collected along the northern west coast of India was originated from petroleum hydrocarbon residue. Petroleum hydrocarbon levels as determinEd. by fluorescence...

  8. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1997 with data for June 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  9. Petroleum marketing monthly, October 1997 with data for July 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  10. Petroleum marketing monthly, March 1998, with data for December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  11. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1997 with data for March 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  12. Petroleum marketing monthly, November 1997 with data for August 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  13. Petroleum marketing monthly, February 1997 with data for November 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  14. Petroleum marketing monthly, January 1998 with data for October 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  15. Petroleum marketing monthly, May 1997 with data for February 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  16. Petroleum marketing monthly, April 1997 with data for January 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  17. Petroleum marketing monthly, January 1996 with data for October 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-04

    The Petroleum Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane.

  18. Petroleum supply monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  19. Processing German petroleum: (comparative tests of several oils found in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupfer, H.; Leonhardt, P.; Kroenig, W.

    1943-02-05

    Topping residues from several German petroleum types were processed in a 10-liter oven at both 600 and 250 atm, using coke catalysts. Tables in the article gave the data comparisons. Tests on three types of petroleum (Wietze-heavy, Nienhagen, and Reitbrook) were conducted at 350/sup 0/ and 325/sup 0/C. Notable was the nearly complete decomposition of asphalt in most of the test runs. The best yields were obtained with the Wietze products, but the same conditions did not produce similar results with the other products. It was found that, as with bituminous coals, when lower pressure was used, the oil yield had a higher content of hydrogen; this was traced back to low reaction temperature since some processing tests for an oil yield were run at 325/sup 0/C instead of 350/sup 0/C. Tests using Reitbrook oil, with molybdenum-coke catalyst at this same temperature, resulted in a better yield. Octane numbers of gasoline made using iron catalyst were higher than those of gasoline made using molybdenum catalyst. None of the oils satisfied the specifications for fuel oil. Undiluted sludges from the oils were not filterable on technical scale. Composition of hydrocarbon vaporization was, in comparison to coal, lower in ethane, but higher in butane. Isobutane yield from processed petroleum appeared to be variable. In comparison to processing coal, the petroleum substances had to be preheated more strongly at 250 atm, nearly to the oven operating temperature. Also, coking was discovered. It was traced back to procedural problems. Nevertheless, there seemed to be no unsurmountable difficulties associated with hydrogenating the various petroleum types. 16 tables

  20. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1996: With data for March 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-04

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o. b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  1. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1995 with data for June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-31

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the fob and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  2. Petroleum marketing monthly with data for May 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  3. Petroleum marketing monthly with data for September 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures and accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  4. Petroleum marketing monthly, April 1999, with data for January 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly. 56 tabs.

  5. Petroleum marketing monthly, May 1996 with data for February 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-02

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  6. Canadian petroleum history bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cass, D.

    2003-09-27

    The Petroleum History Bibliography includes a list of more than 2,000 publications that record the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. The list includes books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles, company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry, humour, and an author index. It was created over a period of several years to help with projects at the Petroleum History Society. It is an ongoing piece of work, and as such, invites comments and additions.

  7. Petroleum marketing monthly, October 1991. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-10

    This report is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiner's acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 55 tabs.

  8. Residue processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieg, W.; Rank, V.

    1942-10-15

    In the first stage of coal hydrogenation, the liquid phase, light and heavy oils were produced; the latter containing the nonliquefied parts of the coal, the coal ash, and the catalyst substances. It was the problem of residue processing to extract from these so-called let-down oils that which could be used as pasting oils for the coal. The object was to obtain a maximum oil extraction and a complete removal of the solids, because of the latter were returned to the process they would needlessly burden the reaction space. Separation of solids in residue processing could be accomplished by filtration, centrifugation, extraction, distillation, or low-temperature carbonization (L.T.C.). Filtration or centrifugation was most suitable since a maximum oil yield could be expected from it, since only a small portion of the let-down oil contained in the filtration or centrifugation residue had to be thermally treated. The most satisfactory centrifuge at this time was the Laval, which delivered liquid centrifuge residue and centrifuge oil continuously. By comparison, the semi-continuous centrifuges delivered plastic residues which were difficult to handle. Various apparatus such as the spiral screw kiln and the ball kiln were used for low-temperature carbonization of centrifuge residues. Both were based on the idea of carbonization in thin layers. Efforts were also being made to produce electrode carbon and briquette binder as by-products of the liquid coal phase.

  9. Uptake and elimination kinetics of heavy metals by earthworm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Earthworm inoculation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil is thought to catalyze the bioremediation. Most bioremediation studies focus on the petroleum hydrocarbon content and not on the heavy metals. Here, the uptake kinetics of heavy metals by earthworm in used engine oil contaminated soil was investigated.

  10. Petroleum systems of Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doust, H.; Noble, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Indonesia contains many Tertiary basins, several of which have proven to be very prolific producers of oil and gas. The geology and petroleum systems of these productive basins are reviewed, summarized and updated according to the most recent developments. We have linked the recognized petroleum

  11. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographical regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US.

  12. Petroleum supply annual 1996: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1996 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Capacity; each with final annual data. The summary statistics section show 16 years of data depicting the balance between supply, disposition and ending stocks for various commodities including crude oil, motor gasoline, distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, jet fuel propane/propylene, and liquefied petroleum gases. The detailed statistics section provide 1996 detailed statistics on supply and disposition, refinery operations, imports and exports, stocks, and transportation of crude oil and petroleum products. The refinery capacity contain listings of refineries and associated crude oil distillation and downstream capacities by State, as of January 1, 1997, as well as summaries of corporate refinery capacities and refinery storage capacities. In addition, refinery receipts of crude oil by method of transportation for 1996 are provided. Also included are fuels consumed at refineries, and lists of shutdowns, sales, reactivations, and mergers during 1995 and 1996. 16 figs., 59 tabs.

  13. Petroleum marketing monthly with data for April 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This publication provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free on board price and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The data provided are compiled from six Energy Information Administration survey forms. 50 tabs.

  14. Petroleum marketing monthly, December 1996 with data for September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This report provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  15. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  16. Petroleum Vapor Intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    One type of vapor intrusion is PVI, in which vapors from petroleum hydrocarbons such as gasoline, diesel, or jet fuel enter a building. Intrusion of contaminant vapors into indoor spaces is of concern.

  17. The Petroleum handbook

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1983-01-01

    ..., mechanical, photocopying, recording or other­ wise, without the prior written permission of the copyright owners, Shell International Petroleum Company Limited, Shell Centre, London SEI 7NA, U...

  18. Heavy fuel and LPG; Fioul et GPL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippon, A. [Chambre Syndicale du raffinage, UFIP, 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper analyzes the impact of new French combustion and environment regulations on the market of heavy fuels and on refining. The economical context of the petroleum and heavy fuels market is recalled first and then the future evolution of this market and the future impact of new pollution regulations on the refining industry are briefly analyzed. (J.S.)

  19. (17) ACCUMULATION OF HEAVY METAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adeyinka Odunsi

    The mean metal content of cassava leaf indicated that all the metals were higher in the leaf at high ... components of petroleum hydrocarbons ..... Atmos. Environ. 40: 5929-5941. Onder, S., Dursun, S., Gezgin, S. and. Demirbas, A. (2007). Determination. Accumulation of heavy metal pollutants on soil microbial population.

  20. Assessment of groundwater quality around a petroleum tank farm, in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water Quality Index (WQI) revealed very poor water, suggesting that the heavy vehicular movements and gas flaring at the Petroleum Tank Farm impacted negatively on ... Improved energy efficiency performance of all utilities such as in means of transport and behavioural changes to reduce green house gases through the ...

  1. Petroleum Hydrocarbons Contamination Profile of Ochani Stream in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination profile, heavy metals and some physicochemical parameters were investigated in Ochani Stream site in Ejamah Ebubu, Eleme Local Government Area of Rivers State. The results show that a major crude oil spillage occurred at Ejamah Ebubu, Rivers State, Nigeria approximately 30 ...

  2. Petroleum Hydrocarbons Contamination Profile of Ochani Stream in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    ABSTRACT: Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination profile, heavy metals and some physicochemical ... Ground water contamination by crude oil therefore is becoming an increasing sensitive issue in Nigeria because most of the water supply is derived from shallow and ..... patches of weathered, partially degraded oil on the.

  3. Predicting petroleum phototoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernersson, Ann-Sofie

    2003-03-01

    Phototoxicity to Daphnia magna was studied on 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 22 petroleum products (ranging from diesel to crude oil). The phototoxicity ranking of pure PAHs was about the same as found in another study on fish gill cells in vitro (Toxicology 127 (1998) 143), suggesting that the relative acute phototoxicity does not differ significantly between different species. Most petroleum products were found to be phototoxic, although the results differ somewhat between test methods (preparation of water-accommodated fractions or petroleum ether dissolved oil slurries). The degree of phototoxicity of a sample is related to both the source and the refining process of the crude oil. The best chemical predictors found were the concentrations of eight phototoxic parent PAHs. An even simpler analytical technique suggested for initial screening would be direct measurements of "total PAH," where samples having more than 3% PAH should be studied further.

  4. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-26

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  5. A combination of solvent extraction and freeze thaw for oil recovery from petroleum refinery wastewater treatment pond sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guangji; Li, Jianbing; Hou, Haobo

    2015-01-01

    A combination of solvent extraction and freeze thaw was examined for recovering oil from the high-moisture petroleum refinery wastewater treatment pond sludge. Five solvents including cyclohexane (CHX), dichloromethane (DCM), methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), ethyl acetate (EA), and 2-propanol (2-Pro) were examined. It was found that these solvents except 2-Pro showed a promising oil recovery rate of about 40%, but the recycling of DCM solvent after oil extraction was quite low. Three solvents (CHX, MEK and EA) were then selected for examining the effect of freeze/thaw treatment on improving the quality of recovered oil. This treatment increased the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content in recovered oil from about 40% to 60% for both MEK and EA extractions, but little effect was observed for CHX extraction. Although the solid residue after oil recovery had a significantly decreased TPH content, a high concentration of heavy metals was observed, indicating that this residue may require proper management. In general, the combination of solvent extraction with freeze/thaw is effective for high-moisture oily hazardous waste treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of the Prestige oil spill on marsh soils: Relationship between heavy metal, sulfide and total petroleum hydrocarbon contents at the Villarrube and Lires marshes (Galicia, Spain); Impacto de la marea negra del Prestige en suelos de marisma: relacion entre los contenidos de metales pesados, sulfuros e hidrocarburos en las marismas de Villarrube y Lires (Galicia, Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, L.; Marcet, P.; Covelo, E.F.; Vega, F.A. [Department of Vegetable Biology and Soil Science, Vigo (Spain); Fernandez-Feal, L.; Fernandez-Feal, C. [Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de la Coruna, Ferrol (Spain)

    2004-09-15

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of the Prestige oil spill on the total petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metal contents of soils in two marshes (Lires and Villarrube, Galicia, Spain) and the relationship between their oxidation-reduction potential and the solubility of heavy metals with sulfide and sulfate contents. Soil samples were taken from polluted and unpolluted areas and their petroleum hydrocarbon contents, heavy metal contents and other chemical characteristics were measured. The soils affected by the oil spill show remarkable contents of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and V. The Lires marsh soils are more affected by fuel oil than Villarrube marsh. The effects of the contaminating agents on the soils reach distances of up to 500 m from the coastline. In the first 400 m, there are important spatial variations because the fuel oil penetrated into the soils through tidal action and not directly. The Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and V contents of polluted soils were between 50 and 200 times higher than those of their unpolluted counterparts and the background concentrations in Galician coastal sediments. In the case of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and V, their origin through the fuel oil was corroborated by the high correlation (r > 0.90) between the concentrations of these metals and the total petroleum hydrocarbon content of the polluted soils, which shows the combined addition of these metals through the fuel oil. [Spanish] Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron determinar el efecto de la marea negra del buque tanque Prestige en el contenido total de hidrocarburos y de metales pesados en suelos de dos marismas (Lires y Villarrube, Galicia, Espana) y la relacion entre el potencial de oxidacion-reduccion y la solubilidad de los metales pesados con los contenidos de sulfuros y de sulfatos. Se tomaron muestras de suelos de las zonas contaminadas y no contaminadas y se determinaron diversas caracteristicas quimicas, el contenido total de hidrocarburos y de metales pesados. Los

  7. Computer simulation of deasphalting vacuum residues in a pilot unit; Simulacao computacional de desasfaltacao de residuo de vacuo realizada em unidade piloto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Concha, Viktor Oswaldo Cardenas; Quirino, Filipe Augusto Barral; Koroisgi, Erika Tomie; Rivarola, Florencia Wisnivesky Rocca; Maciel, Maria Regina Wolf; Maciel Filho, Rubens [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica; Medina, Lilian Carmen; Barros, Ricardo Soares de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    In the context of the national petroleum industry, it is interesting to keep the production of the paraffinic lubricant oil type I, which implies in the identification of new loads to ensure the feeding of the existing units. Therefore, it is important to carry out carefully the characterization of the oils, defining its potential for fuel, asphalt and lubricant. Aiming to introduce in the characterization and evaluation of petroleum for lubricant, carried out by PETROBRAS/CENPES, information of basic oils, more similar to industrial oils, was built up in the Laboratory of Process Separation Development - LDPS of UNICAMP/FEQ, a deasphalting pilot unit. In this work, the deasphalting process of a vacuum residue of Brazilian petroleum is simulated, using Aspen Plus{sup R} simulator, in order to remove asphaltenes, resins and other heavy components of vacuum residue. The simulations were carried out considering the configuration of the pilot plant, evaluating the extraction in near-critical operational condition applied to a petroleum, using propane as the solvent. The extraction efficiency and the solvent power were evaluated considering variations in temperature, pressure and in the solvent/feed ratio in order to obtain yields with more efficiency in the production of deasphalted oil (DAO), what means more asphaltene removal. (author)

  8. Phytochemical properties of some solvent fractions of petroleum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leaves of the African Mistletoe (Loranthus micranthus Linn) on Kola acuminata in Nsukka, Eastern Nigeria were studied. The chloroform (A), ethyl acetate (B) and ethyl acetate residue (C) fractions of crude petroleum ether extract of L. micranthus Linn were subjected to phytochemical and antimicrobial evaluation.

  9. Characterization of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Post-Burn Crude Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the Niger delta, crude oil spilled soils are burned as a means of decontaminating the impacted soils. Gas chromatography - flame ionization detector (GCFID) analyses were performed on oil residues extracted from burnt spilled oil soil samples to facilitate detailed chemical composition and characterization of petroleum ...

  10. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  11. Petroleum Supply Monthly, August 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) district movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  12. Petroleum supply monthly, May 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-27

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum supply annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  13. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-28

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  14. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-15

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  15. Petroleum Supply Monthly, July 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-28

    Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  16. Heavy metals, salts and organic residues in old solid urban waste landfills and surface waters in their discharge areas: determinants for restoring their impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, J; Hernández, A J

    2012-03-01

    This study was designed to determine the state of polluted soils in the main landfills of the Community of Madrid (central Spain), as part of a continuous assessment of the impacts of urban solid waste (USW) landfills that were capped with a layer of soil 20 years ago. Our analysis of this problem has been highly conditioned by the constant re-use of many of the USW landfills, since they have never been the target of any specific restoration plan. Our periodical analysis of cover soils and soils from discharge areas of the landfills indicates soil pollution has worsened over the years. Here, we examined heavy metal, salts, and organic compounds in soil and surface water samples taken from 15 landfills in the Madrid region. Impacts of the landfill soil covers on nematode and plant diversity were also evaluated. These analyses continue to reveal the presence of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Cd) in soils, and salts (sulphates, chlorides and nitrates) in soils and surface waters. In addition, non-agricultural organic compounds, mainly aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons, often appeared in very high concentrations, and high levels of insecticides such as gamma-HCH (lindane) were also detected in soils. Around 50% of the water samples collected showed chemical demand of oxygen (CDO) values in excess of 150 mg/l. Traces of phenolic compounds were detected in some landfills, some of which exhibited high levels of 2-chlorophenol and pentachlorophenol. All these factors are conditioning both the revegetation of the landfill systems and the remediation of their slopes and terrestrial ecosystems arising in their discharge areas. This work updates the current situation and discusses risks for the health of the ecosystems, humans, domestic animals and wildlife living close to these landfills. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Residual concentrations of micropollutants in benthic mussels in the coastal areas of Bohai Sea, North China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Wenxin [Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes Simulation and Analysis, College of Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)]. E-mail: wxliu@urban.pku.edu.cn; Chen Jianglin [North China Sea Branch of State Oceanic Administration (SOA), Qingdao 266033 (China); Lin Xiumei [Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes Simulation and Analysis, College of Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Fan Yongsheng [Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes Simulation and Analysis, College of Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Tao Shu [Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes Simulation and Analysis, College of Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2007-03-15

    Studies of heavy metals and organic pollutants in different benthic mussel species from Bohai Sea show that concentrations of Cd in mussels commonly exceed national biological quality standards. In addition, a site located in Laizhou Bay exhibits higher average concentrations of As, Hg and Pb with respect to the other sites. Residual levels of petroleum hydrocarbons at several sites in Liaodong Bay also exceed quality guidelines. Contents and compositional characteristics of DDT and its metabolites in mussels suggest the probability of recent inputs and potential ecological risks to the local benthic environment. - Residual Cd contents of mussels at many sites in Bohai Sea exceed national marine biological quality standard and compositions of DDT metabolites indicate recent inputs and potential risk.

  18. Petroleum resources assessment 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    This report consists of two articles. (1) Petroleum resources assessment of the Okinawa Trough: The hydrocarbon potential has been evaluated for the Tertiary strata in the northwestern margin of the Okinawa Trough on the basis of the pale-ontological, petrological, geochemical data from two wells (Nikkan 8-9 and JDZ 7-3), and geophysical data. (2) Petroliferous basin analysis in Jinju area (2): Petroleum geological studies such as stratigraphy, sedimentology, petrology and organic geochemistry were carried out in the Gyeongsang Supergroup, Junju area. Based on lithofacies and rock color, the sequence can be divided into seven formations which can be organized into two groups (Sindong Group: Nagdong, Hasandong and Jinju formations in ascending order; Hayang Group: Chilgog, Silla Conglomerate, Haman and Jindong formations). (author). 57 refs.

  19. Origin of petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganz, H.

    1988-01-01

    When porphyrines which are derivated from chlorophyll and can be directly traced back to plant organisms, were discovered to be one component of petroleum it became slowly clearer that petroleum was the product of a transformation process of organic substances under the earth's surface and that this took place in rock layer which were deposited at the bottom of a sea or lake in earlier epochs of the earth. The author describes the origin and accumulation of organic material, the diagenesis into sedimentary rocks; the formation of kerogen and its classification into several types, which is very important for its exploration; determination of the type and maturity of kerogen; means of infrared spectroscopy. Migration and formation of depsosits, exploration and the consequences of extraction are described.

  20. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve program was set into motion by the 1975 Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA). By 1990, 590 million barrels of oil had been placed in storage. Salt domes along the Gulf Coast offered ideal storage. Both sweet'' and sour'' crude oil have been acquired using various purchase options. Drawdown, sale, and distribution of the oil would proceed according to guidelines set by EPCA in the event of a severe energy supply disruption. (SM)

  1. Comparative assessment of structural-mechanical properties of heavy oils of timano-pechorskaya province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. К. Кондрашева

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical properties of heavy oils of Yaregskoe and Usinskoe deposits and the residues of atmospheric distillation of petroleum (fuel oil recovered from them are presented. The group composition of oil and the residues of its atmospheric distillation (fuel oil is determined. When using X-ray fluorescence energy dispersive spectrometer, the content of metals in the products is determined. A conclusion is drawn about the distribution of metals in the initial oil and fuel oil. On the basis of rheological characteristics, the type of liquids is determined in accordance with Newton's law, as well as the presence of an anomaly in the viscosity of the studied media at different temperatures. The energy values of the thixotropy of heavy oils of Usinskoe and Yaregskoe deposits, as well as the activation energy of the viscous flow of all media studied, are obtained. The phase transition of atmospheric residues at 60 °C is discovered. Dependences of the enthalpy and entropy of the viscous flow of the studied hydrocarbon media are obtained with an increase in temperature from 10 to 140 °C. The dependences of the oil molecules and atmospheric residues jumping frequency on viscosity are obtained for the first time.

  2. Evaluation of some heavy metals residues in batteries and deep litter rearing systems in Japanese quail meat and offal in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali M. Ahmed

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The main objectives of this study were for comparing the effect of batteries and deep litter rearing systems of domesticated Japanese quail, Coturnix coturnix japonica, on the concentration levels of cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc from the quail meat and offal in Ismailia, Egypt. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 quail meat and their offal samples were randomly collected from two main quail rearing systems: Battery (Group I and deep litter system (Group II for determination of concentration levels of cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. In addition, 80 water and feed samples were randomly collected from water and feeders of both systems in the Food Hygiene Laboratory, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University for heavy metals determination. Results: The mean concentration levels of cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in Group I were 0.010, 0.027, 1.137, and 0.516 ppm and for Group II were 0.093, 0.832, 0.601, and 1.651 ppm, respectively. The mean concentration levels of cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in quail feed in Group I were 1.114, 1.606, 5.822, and 35.11 ppm and for Group II were 3.010, 2.576, 5.852, and 23.616 ppm, respectively. The mean concentration levels of cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in quail meat for Group I were 0.058, 5.902, 10.244, and 290 ppm and for Group II were 0.086, 6.092, 0.136, and 1.280 ppm, respectively. The mean concentration levels of cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc for liver samples in Group I were 0.15, 8.32, 1.05, and 3.41 ppm and for Group II were 0.13, 8.88, 0.95, and 4.21 ppm, respectively. The mean concentration levels of cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in kidney samples for the Group I were 0.24, 4.21, 1.96, and 4.03 ppm and for Group II were 0.20, 5.00, 1.56, and 3.78 ppm, respectively. Kidney had the highest concentration levels of heavy metals followed by liver then muscles. The highest concentration levels of copper were observed in liver samples. The order of the levels of these trace

  3. Reactivity of Athabasca residue and of its SARA fractions during residue hydroconversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verstraete, J.; Danial-Fortain, P.; Gauthier, T.; Merdrignac, I. [IFP-Lyon, Vermaison (France); Budzinski, H. [Bordeaux Univ. (France). ISM-LPTC, UMR CNRS

    2009-07-01

    Residue conversion processes are becoming increasingly important because of the declining market for residual fuel oil and a greater demand for middle distillates. Ebullated-bed hydroconversion is a commercially proven technology for converting heavy feedstocks with high amounts of impurities. The process enables the conversion of atmospheric or vacuum residues at temperatures up to 440 degrees C, and at liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) conditions in the range of 0.15 to 0.5 per hour. A 540 degrees C conversion of up to 80 weight per cent can be achieved under these conditions. This paper reported on a research study conducted at IFP Lyon in which the residue hydroconversion in a large-scale ebullated bed bench unit was investigated to determine the impact of operating conditions and feed properties on yield and product qualities. Hydrogen was added to the feed in the bench units to keep a high hydrogen partial pressure and favour the catalytic hydroconversion reactions. In a typical test, the reactor was fed with 50 g of feedstock and 0.45 g of crushed equilibrium industrial NiMo catalyst, pressurized hydrogen and quickly heated at the reaction temperature. This paper also discussed the conversion of Athabasca bitumen residue in the large-scale pilot plant and also in the small scale batch reactor. The effect of operating temperature and space velocity was examined. The reactivity of the saturates, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes (SARA) fractions of the bitumen was studied separately in order to better understand the conversion mechanisms and reactivities. The Athabasca bitumen feed and SARA fractions were also analyzed in terms of standard petroleum analysis, SARA fractionation, elemental analysis, size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and 13C NMR. Hydroconversion experiments were conducted in the batch unit at different reaction temperatures and reaction times. A comparison of small-scale batch results with those obtained with the continuous large-scale bench

  4. Future petroleum energy resources of the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbrandt, T.S.

    2002-01-01

    and gas endowment estimates. Whereas petroleum resources in the world appear to be significant, certain countries such as the United States may run into import deficits, particularly oil imports from Mexico and natural gas from both Canada and Mexico. The new assessment has been used as the reference supply case in energy supply models by the International Energy Agency and the Energy Information Agency of the Department of Energy. Climate energy modeling groups such as those at Stanford University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and others have also used USGS estimates in global climate models. Many of these models using the USGS estimates converge on potential oil shortfalls in 2036-2040. However, recent articles using the USGS (2000) estimates suggest peaking of oil in 2020-2035 and peaking of non-OPEC (Organization of Petroleum-Exporting Countries) oil in 2015-2020. Such a short time framework places greater emphasis on a transition to increased use of natural gas; i.e., a methane economy. Natural gas in turn may experience similar supply concerns in the 2050-2060 time frame according to some authors. Coal resources are considerable and provide significant petroleum potential either by extracting natural gas from them, by directly converting them into petroleum products, or by utilizing them to generate electricity, thereby reducing natural gas and oil requirements by fuel substitution. Non-conventional oil and gas are quite common in petroleum provinces of the world and represent a significant resources yet to be fully studied and developed. Seventeen non-conventional AU including coal-bed methane, basin-center gas, continuous oil, and gas hydrate occurrences have been preliminarily identified for future assessment. Initial efforts to assess heavy oil deposits and other non-conventional oil and gas deposits also are under way.

  5. Microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varjani, Sunita J

    2017-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants are recalcitrant compounds and are classified as priority pollutants. Cleaning up of these pollutants from environment is a real world problem. Bioremediation has become a major method employed in restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted environments that makes use of natural microbial biodegradation activity. Petroleum hydrocarbons utilizing microorganisms are ubiquitously distributed in environment. They naturally biodegrade pollutants and thereby remove them from the environment. Removal of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants from environment by applying oleophilic microorganisms (individual isolate/consortium of microorganisms) is ecofriendly and economic. Microbial biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants employs the enzyme catalytic activities of microorganisms to enhance the rate of pollutants degradation. This article provides an overview about bioremediation for petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants. It also includes explanation about hydrocarbon metabolism in microorganisms with a special focus on new insights obtained during past couple of years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Landfilling of waste incineration residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas; Cai, Zuansi

    2002-01-01

    Residues from waste incineration are bottom ashes and air-pollution-control (APC) residues including fly ashes. The leaching of heavy metals and salts from the ashes is substantial and a wide spectrum of leaching tests and corresponding criteria have been introduced to regulate the landfilling...

  7. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world, in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  8. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-28

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures ih the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas - - the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided firom other sources.

  9. Petroleum resources assessment (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This report consists of 2 subjects. 1) Petroleum resources assessment on the western part of the Kunsan Basin: Palynomorphs including spores, pollen and organic-walled microfossils and calcareous microfossils such as ostracods, charophytes and gastropods were studied for the biostratigraphic work of Kachi-1 and IIH-1Xa wells. Based on available well data, the rifting probably began in the Cretaceous time had continued until Paleocene. It is considered that compressional force immediately after rifting event deformed sedimentary sections. During the period of Paleocene to middle Miocene, the sediments were deposited in stable environment without particular tectonic event. 2) Petroliferous basin analysis in Taegu area (II): The Nakdong and Jinju formations contain abundant black shales, and thermal maturity of the organic matter reached at the final stage of dry gas generation. These formations also contain thick sandstones which can act as a petroleum reservoir. However, reservoir quality of the sandstones is poor (porosity: < 5%; permeability: < 0.001 md). In these sandstones, secondary pores such as dissolution pores and micropores can act as a tight gas reservoir. (author). 56 refs., 24 tabs., 68 figs.

  10. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report is published for the use of Members of Congress, Federal agencies, State agencies, industry, and the general public. Publication of this report is in keeping with responsibilities given the Energy Information Administration in Public Law 95-91. The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  11. Facts 2010 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  12. Facts 2011 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-15

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  13. Petroleum: An energy profile, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This report prepared by the Energy Information Administration covers the following topics: petroleum production and end-use sectors; resources and reserves; exploration and production; LPG sources and processing; motor gasoline octane enhancement; constructing pipelines; the strategic petroleum reserve; imports and exports; marketing; district descriptions and maps; and refinery processes and facilities. 33 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Job Prospects for Petroleum Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basta, Nicholas

    1988-01-01

    Describes petroleum engineering as one area in industry where job opportunities are few but where the worst of the declines has been seen. Discusses the causes of the decline. Lists several areas where petroleum engineers have found alternatives including environmental projects, water supply projects, and computer applications. (CW)

  15. BOOK REVIEW "PETROLEUM PRODUCTION ENGINEERING"

    OpenAIRE

    Sonja Koščak Kolin

    2016-01-01

    Here is given the review of the book „Petroleum Production Engineering“ written by Marin Čikeš, Ph. D., a retired Full Professor of the Faculty of Mining, Geology and Petroleum Engineering of the University of Zagreb. The book was published in the year 2015, as a university textbook (Manualia universitatis studiorum Zagrabiensis).

  16. La conversion des résidus et huiles lourdes : au carrefour du thermique et du catalytique Conversion of Residues and Heavy Oils At the Crossroads of Thermal Cracking and Catalytic Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Page J. F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article passe en revue les diverses familles de procédés de conversion des résidus et huiles lourdes. Tous les résultats semblent converger pour accréditer l'idée que dans tous ces procédés, y compris les procédés dits catalytiques, l'essentiel de la conversion des espèces de poids moléculaire élevé, résines et asphaltènes, procède par mécanisme radicalaire : la clef de la conversion profonde, c'est paradoxalement la maîtrise de la condensation radicalaire de ces espèces. Hydrogène seul, hydrogène en présence de solvant donneur, d'additifs ou encore mieux de catalyseurs, sont les armes dont dispose tout raffineur pour affirmer cette maîtrise, dans la mesure où il ne tient pas à fabriquer du coke. Tous ces procédés de conversion des résidus donnent par ailleurs naissance à des produits craqués dont la nature et la distribution rappellent celles des produits de première distillation du pétrole brut dont est issu le résidu soumis au craquage. This article reviews the different families of conversion processes for residues and heavy oils. All the results seem to converge to support the idea that in all these processes, including so-called catalytic processes, most of the conversion of high-molecular-weight species (resins and asphaltenes operates by a radical mechanism. The key to in-depth conversion is, paradoxically, the mastery of the radical condensation of these species. Hydrogen alone, hydrogen in the presence of a donor solvent, of additives or, better yet, of catalysts, are the arms at the disposal of all refiners to assert this mastery, to the extent that they do not want to manufacture coke. All such conversion processes for residues also give rise to cracked products whose nature and distribution recall those of first-distillation products of crude oil, from which the residue comes that is subjected to cracking.

  17. Petroleum production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Economides, M.J.; Hill, A.D.; Ehlig-Economides, C.

    1994-12-31

    Petroleum production engineering attempts to maximize production in two connected systems, the reservoir and the artificial structures related to a well field. Determining whether it is economically feasible to drill a discovered source requires a familiarity with a variety of topics and theories. This book devotes the first six chapters to these concepts, including production from undersaturated oil reserves, production from two-phase reservoirs, production from natural gas reservoirs, skin effects, and gravel pack completions. The second part of the production engineer`s mission is maximization of output in the artificial structures, which include the well, bottomhole, and wellhead assemblies, and the surface gathering, separation, and storage facilities. This general system is discussed throughout the remainder of the book. Chapter topics include wellbore flow performance, forecast of well production, well test design and data acquisition, matrix acidizing, hydraulic fracturing for well simulation, gas lift, and systems analysis.

  18. Petroleum systems of the Eastern Venezuelan basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talukdar, S.C. (DGSI, The Woodlands, TX (United States))

    1991-03-01

    The Eastern Venezuelan basin (area 165,000 km{sup 2}) is well known for its Orinoco Heavy Oil belt and many large accumulations of medium and light oils and gas in the Maturin and Guarico subbasins. A single petroleum system is responsible for all the oil accumulations in the Orinoco Oil belt and the maturin subbasin and the majority of oil deposits in the Guarico subbasin. Source rocks for the system are the calcareous shales and limestones of Upper Cretaceous Querecual and San Antonio formations. Geologic reconstruction and basin modeling have shown the development of huge generating areas along the northern parts of the Guarico and Maturin subbasins during early stages of foreland basin development in lower/middle Miocene times. Expelled oils migrated southward and updip for long distances (150-300 km) along undistributed homoclinal surfaces successively through the Upper Cretaceous, Oligocene, and Miocene sandstone carrier beds under progressively younger Tertiary marine shales. The oils finally accumulated in Miocene sandstone stratigraphic traps. Biodegradation of originally mature medium to light oils in shallow lower/middle Miocene reservoirs formed the heavy and extra-heavy oils of the Orinoco Oil belt. The oils in the Maturin and Guarico subbasins are found in structural traps within many different reservoirs. They are mainly mature and medium to light gravity oils but some heavy oils were formed in shallow reservoirs by biodegradation and in deep reservoirs by deasphaltenation. The Cretaceous sourced oils generated during upper Miocene-Recent times migrated vertically along thrusts and faults that caused disruptions of regional carrier beds and seals and accumulated into different stratigraphic and structural levels.

  19. Facts 2009 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Contents: Foreword; The petroleum sector; Norwegian resource management; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology; Environmental considerations; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  20. Logistics aspects of petroleum pipeline operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Pienaar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper identifies, assesses and describes the logistics aspects of the commercial operation of petroleum pipelines. The nature of petroleum-product supply chains, in which pipelines play a role, is outlined and the types of petroleum pipeline systems are described. An outline is presented of the nature of the logistics activities of petroleum pipeline operations. The reasons for the cost efficiency of petroleum pipeline operations are given. The relative modal service effectiveness of petroleum pipeline transport, based on the most pertinent service performance measures, is offered. The segments in the petroleum-products supply chain where pipelines can play an efficient and effective role are identified.

  1. Dermal uptake of petroleum substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakasa, Ivone; Kezic, Sanja; Boogaard, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Petroleum products are complex substances comprising varying amounts of linear and branched alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics which may penetrate the skin at different rates. For proper interpretation of toxic hazard data, understanding their percutaneous absorption is of paramount

  2. Heavy Chain Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heavy chain produced: Alpha Gamma Mu Alpha Heavy Chain Disease Alpha heavy chain disease (IgA heavy chain ... disease or lead to a remission. Gamma Heavy Chain Disease Gamma heavy chain disease (IgG heavy chain ...

  3. Quantification of compositional changes of petroleum hydrocarbons by GC/FID and GC/MS during a long-term bioremediation experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine S.; Arvin, Erik; Svensmark, Bo

    2000-01-01

    Samples from a long-term bioremediation experiment contaminated with two crude oils, Arabian Heavy and Gullfax, was used to analyze the compositional change of petroleum hydrocarbons. A time course of five different homologous series of petroleum hydrocarbons were analysed by GC/FID and GC...

  4. Petroleum refining method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bembel' , V.M.; Plyusnin, A.N.; Safonov, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    Current methods (Sp) for refining petroleum products (NP) and for removing nitrogen, tar, and polycyclic ArU's by means of complex chelation formed with chloride metal in the presence of organic solvents, are examined. These methods are designed to simplify such processes while at the same time preventing the formation of harmful impurities by employing chloride metals from the groups: Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, and Mn. These chloride metals act in the role of an organic solvent when using alkaline carbonate, dimethylsulphide, dimethylformamide, or fural but do not mix with oil. Currently employed methods are carried out as follows. A chelation solution is prepared in a compatible solvent with a chelation content of 0.01-0.2 gram-molecules per liter. Following this, the solution is mixed with NP at a volume of 0.5 parts extractant to 5 parts NP during a period of 5-25 minutes. Depending on the vicosity of the NP, mixing is done at a temperature of 20-80 degrees. Following the mixing and separation with either a settling or centrifuging phase, the light fraction (clear NP) is routed for catalytic refinement while the extract is mixed with water (at a temperature of 10 - 90 degrees) until it is completely dissolved and following which the nitrogen, pitch, and polyacrylide materials in the NP float to the surface.

  5. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. Word oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  6. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-27

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  7. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  8. Residual effects of prolonged heavy cannabis use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amsterdam JGC; van der Laan JW; Slangen JL; LGM

    1996-01-01

    Recente literatuur werd geraadpleegd om na te gaan of langdurig gebruik van van grote hoeveelheden cannabis (dagelijks gebruik gedurende minimaal 6 maanden) leidt tot aanhoudende cognitieve effecten en effecten op het immuunsysteem. Het resultaat van deze studie is weergegeven in het huidige

  9. Fe(CO)5-catalyzed coprocessing of coal and heavy oil vacuum residue using syngas-water as a hydrogen source; Fe(CO)5 shokubai ni yoru gosei gas-mizu wo suisogen to suru sekitan-jushitsuyu no coprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hata, K.; Wada, K.; Mitsudo, T. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Improvement in efficiency and profitability of hydrogenation reaction of heavy hydrocarbon resources is the most important matter to be done. In this study, coprocessing of coal and heavy oil vacuum residue was conducted using syngas-water as a hydrogen source. For the investigation of effect of the reaction temperature during the coprocessing of Wandoan coal and Arabian heavy vacuum residue using Fe(CO)5 as a catalyst, the conversion, 66.0% was obtained at 425{degree}C. For the investigation of effect of reaction time, the yield of light fractions further increased during the two stage reaction at 400{degree}C for 60 minutes and at 425{degree}C for 60 minutes. Finally, almost 100% of THF-soluble matter was obtained through the reaction using 2 mmol of Fe(CO)5 catalyst at 400{degree}C for 60 minutes, and hydrogenation of heavy oil was proceeded simultaneously. When comparing coprocessing reactions using three kinds of hydrogen sources, i.e., hydrogen, CO-water, and syngas-water, the conversion yield and oil yield obtained by using syngas-water were similar to those obtained by using hydrogen, which demonstrated the effectiveness of syngas-water. 2 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Characterization of residual oils for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson Antonio Canesin

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The obtained results suggesting that it is possible to take advantage of these residues for biodiesel production as the obtained products were approved according to the rules established by the National Association of Petroleum (ANP; the bovine samples were the exception regarding moisture and acidity.

  11. A review of methods for the demetallization of residual fuel oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Mohammad Farhat; Abbas, Saeed [H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry, International Center for Chemical, Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan)

    2006-07-15

    Crude oils typically contain trace amounts of metals with vanadium and nickel being the most common. Usually they are in an oil-soluble form and in conventional refining processes they become concentrated in the residual fuel oil fractions. The deleterious effects of metals in petroleum have been known for some time. The metals not only contaminate the products, the metal chelates also cause poisoning and fouling of catalyst and corrode equipments. The metals also tend to form particulate emissions in the sub-micron range. This review presents discussion of methods for the removal of metals from the heavy oils and residuum fractions. These methods include physical, chemical and catalytic treatment processes. (author)

  12. Characterization of fast-pyrolysis bio-oil distillation residues and their potential applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    A typical petroleum refinery makes use of the vacuum gas oil by cracking the large molecular weight compounds into light fuel hydrocarbons. For various types of fast pyrolysis bio-oil, successful analogous methods for processing heavy fractions could expedite integration into a petroleum refinery fo...

  13. Petroleum resources assessment (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    On the basis of diverse microfossils such as foraminifers, ostracods, micromulluscs, fossil spores and pollen and calcareous nannofossils derived from 14 drill holes, the sediments are divided into two part, the upper marine part and the lower nonmarine one. Marine part is subdivided into 4 foraminiferal zones and 3 nannofossil zones of Plio-Pleistocene age. In the lower part ranging from Oligocene to Late Miocene 4 palynomoph assemblages are established, which reflect climatic changes fluctuating between subtropical and cool temperate. Some fine sediments occurring in the South Sea continental shelf are rich in organic matter to be hydrocarbon source rock. The organic matter is mainly compared to type 3. However, lower part of the Geobuk-1 and Okdom-1 shows more oil prone geochemical characteristics than other wells. The kerosene is mixture type 1 and type 3 organic matter. The main oil generation zone located between 2,500 m and 3,000 m and gas generation zone from 3,500 m to 4,000 m approximately. Hydrocarbon accumulation could be expected in the trap formed in the period earlier than 10 Ma. as the hydrocarbon started to be expelled at 10 Ma. according to the modeling. Approximately 13,000 Line-km of multichannel seismic data integrated with 14 wells and gravity and magnetic data were analyzed to investigate the structural and stratigraphic evolution of southern part of offshore Korea. The northeast-southwest trending Taiwan-Sinzi Uplift Belt separates the area into two regions with different tectonic features, northwestern and southwestern regions. The potential hydrocarbon traps associated with anticline, tilted fault block, fault, unconformity, and rollover structure exist. This project is consisted of two main subjects. 1) Petroleum resources assessment on the continental shelf basin of the south sea. 2) Petroliferous basin analysis in Taegu area (1). (author). refs., tabs., figs.

  14. Biological Remediation of Petroleum Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhad, Ramesh Chander; Gupta, Rishi

    Large volumes of hazardous wastes are generated in the form of oily sludges and contaminated soils during crude oil transportation and processing. Although many physical, chemical and biological treatment technologies are available for petroleum contaminants petroleum contaminants in soil, biological methods have been considered the most cost-effective. Practical biological remediation methods typically involve direct use of the microbes naturally occurring in the contaminated environment and/or cultured indigenous or modified microorganisms. Environmental and nutritional factors, including the properties of the soil, the chemical structure of the hydrocarbon(s), oxygen, water, nutrient availability, pH, temperature, and contaminant bioavailability, can significantly affect the rate and the extent of hydrocarbon biodegradation hydrocarbon biodegradation by microorganisms in contaminated soils. This chapter concisely discusses the major aspects of bioremediation of petroleum contaminants.

  15. Petroleum 1996 - issues and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Increasingly, users of the Energy Information Administration`s petroleum data and analytical reports have expressed an interest in a recurring report that takes a broad view of the petroleum sector. What is sought is some perspective on the complex interrelationships that comprise an industry and markets accounting for 40 percent of the energy consumed in the United States and ranging from the drilling rig in the oil field to the pump at the local gasoline station. This report comprehensively examines historical trends, and selectively focuses on major issues and the events they represent. It analyzes different dimensions of the industry and related markets in terms of how they relate to a common theme, in this case, the volatility in petroleum markets.

  16. Investigation and development of heavy oil upgrading catalysts. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.K.; Lee, I.C.; Yoon, W.L.; Lee, H.T.; Chung, H.; Hwang, Y.J.; Park, S.H. [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    This study aimed at the domestic development of HDS catalysts which are most fundamental and wide-used in the petroleum refinery. In this year, some experimental works were conducted for developing the effective utilization technology of the novel dispersed-catalysts in the hydro-desulfurization of heavy oils, and improving the reaction performance of alumina-supported Mo-based hydro-treating catalysts conventionally used in most of refineries. First, it was experimentally proved that the dispersed catalysts of Co-Mo could be employed for the hydro-desulfurization of a heavy atmospheric residual oil excluding the catalyst deactivation. The utilization of a carbon-expanded reactor in combination with this dispersed catalyst system exhibited an enhanced reaction performance and provided an efficient way for the separation and recovery of the dispersed catalytic component from oils. Second, the tungsten-incorporated WCoMo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst revealed the improved catalytic performance in the various hydro-treating reactions and in the initial deactivation rates for the high pressure hydro-treatment of a heavy oil as compared with the commercial CoMo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. This new experimental finding for the promoting role of the monomeric WO{sub 3} species in CoMo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst may be generally applicable to the Mo-based alumina-sulfide phase, higher catalytic activity, and more extended service life. (author). 101 refs., 33 figs., 18 tabs.

  17. Association models for petroleum applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    Thermodynamics plays an important role in many applications in the petroleum industry, both upstream and downstream, ranging from flow assurance, (enhanced) oil recovery and control of chemicals to meet production and environmental regulations. There are many different applications in the oil & gas...... industry, thus thermodynamic data (phase behaviour, densities, speed of sound, etc) are needed to study a very diverse range of compounds in addition to the petroleum ones (CO2, H2S, water, alcohols, glycols, mercaptans, mercury, asphaltenes, waxes, polymers, electrolytes, biofuels, etc) within a very...

  18. Residuation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S; Sneddon, I N; Stark, M

    1972-01-01

    Residuation Theory aims to contribute to literature in the field of ordered algebraic structures, especially on the subject of residual mappings. The book is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 focuses on ordered sets; directed sets; semilattices; lattices; and complete lattices. Chapter 2 tackles Baer rings; Baer semigroups; Foulis semigroups; residual mappings; the notion of involution; and Boolean algebras. Chapter 3 covers residuated groupoids and semigroups; group homomorphic and isotone homomorphic Boolean images of ordered semigroups; Dubreil-Jacotin and Brouwer semigroups; and loli

  19. Petroleum Resins: Separation, Character, and Role in Petroleum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Ivar; Speight, James

    2001-01-01

    In petroleum science, the term resin generally implies material that has been eluted from various solid adsorbents, whereas the term maltenes (or petrolenes) indicates a mixture of the resins and oils obtained as filtrates from the asphaltene precipitation. Thus, after the asphaltenes are precipi......In petroleum science, the term resin generally implies material that has been eluted from various solid adsorbents, whereas the term maltenes (or petrolenes) indicates a mixture of the resins and oils obtained as filtrates from the asphaltene precipitation. Thus, after the asphaltenes...... are precipitated, adsorbents are added to the n-pentane solutions of the resins and oils, by which process the resins are adsorbed and subsequently recovered by the use of a more polar solvent, and the oils remain in solution. The resin fraction plays an important role in the stability of petroleum and prevents...... of the fact that the resin fraction is extremely important to the stability of petroleum, there is surprisingly little work reported on the characteristics of the resins. This article summarizes the work that has been carried out in determining the character and properties of the resin constituents...

  20. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH): ToxFAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... state: This map displays locations where Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) is known to be present. On This ... get more information? ToxFAQs TM for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) ( Hidrocarburos Totales de Petróleo (TPH) ) August 1999 ...

  1. Fact sheet. Norwegian petroleum activity 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westgaard, T. [ed.

    1996-02-01

    The present report from the Royal Ministry of Industry and Energy deals with the Norwegian petroleum activity. Main topics are as follow: Historical overview; state organisation of petroleum activities; the economic impact of Norwegian oil and gas; state revenues; mainland activities; petroleum resources; production; marketing situation for petroleum products; environmental aspects; the legal and licence framework; licensing rounds; exploration; fields in production; fields under development; discoveries with development plan under consideration; transportation systems; licence interests; company interests. 36 refs., 24 figs., 15 tabs.

  2. The Second Colloquium on Petroleum Engineering Education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willhite, G.P.; Forney, R.H.

    1993-11-30

    This paper describes findings from the Second Colloquium on Petroleum engineering Education. The purpose of this colloquium was to provide a forum for petroleum engineering educators and representatives from industry and government to explore critical issues facing petroleum engineering education as we move into the 21st Century. It was expected that the colloquium would identify areas where changes are needed in petroleum engineering education, to best prepare students for careers in the oil and gas industry or other, related industries.

  3. Petroleum supply annual 1995: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The {ital Petroleum Supply Annual} contains information on supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. It reflects data collected from the petroleum industry during 1995 through monthly surveys, and it is divided into 2 volumes. This volume contains three sections: summary statistics, detailed statistics, and selected refinery statistics, each with final annual data. (The other volume contains final statistics for each month and replaces data previously published in the {ital Petroleum Supply Monthly}).

  4. Electroremediation of air pollution control residues in a continuous reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ferreira, Célia M. D.; Hansen, Henrik K.

    2010-01-01

    were made with raw residue, water-washed residue, acid washed residue and acid-treated residue with emphasis on reduction of heavy metal mobility. Main results indicate that the reactor successfully removes toxic elements lead, copper, cadmium and zinc from the feed stream, suggesting......Air pollution control (APC) residue from municipal solid waste incineration is considered hazardous waste due to its alkalinity and high content of salts and mobile heavy metals. Various solutions for the handling of APC-residue exist, however most commercial solutions involve landfilling. A demand...

  5. PETROLEUM BIOREFINING FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John J. Kilbane II

    2002-03-01

    The objective of this project was to isolate and characterize thermophilic bacterial cultures that can be used for the selective removal of nitrogen, sulfur, and/or metals in the biorefining of petroleum. The project was completed on schedule and no major difficulties were encountered. Significant progress was made on multiple topics relevant to the development of a petroleum biorefining process capable of operating at thermophilic temperatures. New cultures capable of selectively cleaving C-N or C-S bonds in molecules relevant to petroleum were obtained, and the genes encoding the enzymes for these unique biochemical reactions were cloned and sequenced. Genetic tools were developed that enable the use of Thermus thermophilus as a host to express any gene of interest, and information was obtained regarding the optimum conditions for the growth of T. thermophilus. The development of a practical biorefining process still requires further research and the future research needs identified in this project include the development of new enzymes and pathways for the selective cleavage of C-N or C-S bonds that have higher specific activities, increased substrate range, and are capable of functioning at thermophilic temperatures. Additionally, there is a need for process engineering research to determine the maximum yield of biomass and cloned gene products that can be obtained in fed-batch cultures using T. thermophilus, and to determine the best configuration for a process employing biocatalysts to treat petroleum.

  6. BOTANICAL DIVERSITY AND HEAVY METAL CONTENT IN THE RESIDUE MATRIX AND PLANTS AT THE MORAVIA DUMP IN MEDELLÍN, COLOMBIA DIVERSIDAD BOTÁNICA Y CONTENIDO DE METALES PESADOS EN LA MATRIZ DE RESIDUOS Y LAS PLANTAS EN EL BASURERO DE MORAVIA EN MEDELLÍN, COLOMBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Solange Sanchez Pinzón; Álvaro Cogollo Pacheco; Catalina Arroyave Quiceno; Rubén Darío Torrenegra Guerrero; Ángel Maria Giraldo Mejía; Rolando Barahona Rosales

    2010-01-01

    . Floristic characterization, plant tissue and residue matrix (RM) analysis were conducted to establish the extent of heavy metal (HM) pollution of the Moravia dump at Medellín, Colombia, a site that was inhabited by more than 17000 people since 1984. More than 65 plant species (28 families) were identified, most of which were herbaceous. Content of HM in the (RM) was determined in 14 different RM samples varied greatly among them, reaching 121 and 9600 mg/kg of Hg and Pb respectively. Mean c...

  7. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1991. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-30

    Data presented in this report describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importer, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics 14 figs., 56 tabs.

  8. Application of PETROTOX in chemical risk assessments of petroleum stream substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, M.; McWhinney, R.; Stieglitz, T. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    The toxicity of complex petroleum mixtures to various aquatic organisms has been estimated using a tool developed by Conservation of Clean Air and Water in Europe (CONCAWE). The PETROTOX spreadsheet uses the Target Lipid Model (TLM) and toxic unit theory to provide acute or chronic toxic loadings or dose response data. The model chooses the appropriate chemical composition and corresponding physical/chemical data from a database to match an input of the boiling range of each distillation fraction and the hydrocarbon class. A user-defined version (PETROTOX-UDM) requires the physical/chemical properties to be input by the user for each chemical component of the petroleum mixture. This newly developed model can be readily used for fuel oils and other heavy petroleum streams. However, limitations of the chemical database make the PETROTOX-UDM model best suited for naphthas, gasolines and other light petroleum streams. The feasibility of using PETROTOX models for chemical risk assessments of petroleum stream substances is currently under investigation by Environment Canada. Preliminary results suggest that the model can reasonably predict toxic loadings of fuels in the order of magnitude range for species of interest. As such, it may be useful for assessment processes as a predictor for petroleum mixtures that lack data on aquatic toxicity.

  9. Feasibility of high-resolution continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry in flame and furnace for sulphur determination in petroleum products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalewska, Zofia, E-mail: zofia.kowalewska@obr.pl

    2011-07-15

    For the first time, high-resolution molecular absorption spectrometry with a high-intensity xenon lamp as radiation source has been applied for the determination of sulphur in crude oil and petroleum products. The samples were analysed as xylene solutions using vaporisation in acetylene-air flame or in an electrothermally heated graphite furnace. The sensitive rotational lines of the CS molecule, belonging to the {Delta}{nu} = 0 vibrational sequence within the electronic transition X{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +} {yields} A{sup 1}{Pi}, were applied. For graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry, the Pd + Mg organic modifier was selected. Strong interactions with Pd atoms enable easier decomposition of sulphur-containing compounds, likely through the temporal formation of Pd{sub x}S{sub y} molecules. At the 258.056 nm line, with the wavelength range covering central pixel {+-} 5 pixels and with application of interactive background correction, the detection limit was 14 ng in graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry and 18 mg kg{sup -1} in flame molecular absorption spectrometry. Meanwhile, application of 2-points background correction found a characteristic mass of 12 ng in graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry and a characteristic concentration of 104 mg kg{sup -1} in flame molecular absorption spectrometry. The range of application of the proposed methods turned out to be significantly limited by the properties of the sulphur compounds of interest. In the case of volatile sulphur compounds, which can be present in light petroleum products, severe difficulties were encountered. On the contrary, heavy oils and residues from distillation as well as crude oil could be analysed using both flame and graphite furnace vaporisation. The good accuracy of the proposed methods for these samples was confirmed by their mutual consistency and the results from analysis of reference samples (certified reference materials and home reference materials with

  10. Characterisation and management of concrete grinding residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Matt; Gupta, Nautasha; Watts, Ben; Chadik, Paul A; Ferraro, Christopher; Townsend, Timothy G

    2018-02-01

    Concrete grinding residue is the waste product resulting from the grinding, cutting, and resurfacing of concrete pavement. Potential beneficial applications for concrete grinding residue include use as a soil amendment and as a construction material, including as an additive to Portland cement concrete. Concrete grinding residue exhibits a high pH, and though not hazardous, it is sufficiently elevated that precautions need to be taken around aquatic ecosystems. Best management practices and state regulations focus on reducing the impact on such aquatic environment. Heavy metals are present in concrete grinding residue, but concentrations are of the same magnitude as typically recycled concrete residuals. The chemical composition of concrete grinding residue makes it a useful product for some soil amendment purposes at appropriate land application rates. The presence of unreacted concrete in concrete grinding residue was examined for potential use as partial replacement of cement in new concrete. Testing of Florida concrete grinding residue revealed no dramatic reactivity or improvement in mortar strength.

  11. Combining stable carbon isotope analysis and petroleum-fingerprinting to evaluate petroleum contamination in the Yanchang oilfield located on loess plateau in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiping; Liang, Jidong; Wang, Jinxing; Gao, Sha

    2018-01-01

    This study evaluated petroleum contamination in the Yanchang (Shaanxi Yanchang Petroleum (Group) Co., Ltd.) oilfield, located in the loess plateau region of northern Shaanxi, China. Surface soil and sediment samples were collected from the wasteland, farmland, and riverbed in this area to assess the following parameters: total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and carbon isotope ratios (δ13C). The results showed that TPH and PAH levels in the study area were 907-3447 mg/kg and 103.59-563.50 μg/kg, respectively, significantly higher than the control samples (TPH 224 mg/kg, PAHs below method quantification limit, MQL). Tests using δ13C to detect modified TPH (2238.66 to 6639.42 mg/kg) in the wastelands adjacent to the oil wells revealed more significant contamination than tests using extraction gravimetric analysis. In addition, "chemical fingerprint" indicators, such as low to high molecular weight (LMW/HMW) hydrocarbons, carbon preference index (CPI), and pristine/phytane (Pr/Ph), further confirmed the presence of heavy petroleum contamination and weathering. This has resulted in a nutrient imbalance and unsuitable pH and moisture conditions for microbial metabolic activities. This study evaluates petroleum contamination, which can inform contamination remediation on a case by case basis.

  12. Effect of catalyst deactivation on vacuum residue hydrocracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda S. Ahmed

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated deactivation tests of the pre-sulfided Mo–W/SiO2–Al2O3 commercial catalyst were performed using heavy vacuum petroleum feedstock. High reaction temperature employed in the accelerated catalyst aging resulted in large amounts of carbonaceous deposition with high aromaticity, which was found to be the principal deactivation cause. The effect of catalyst deactivation on hydrocracking of vacuum residue was studied. Experiments were carried out in a batch reactor at 60 bar, feed to catalyst ratio 10:1 and temperature 425 °C. The duration time for a cycle-run was 4 h. On increasing the interval duration times from 4 to 20 h (i.e. five cycles, the quality of the hydrocracked products was decreased. In each cycle-run, a fresh feedstock was used with the same sulfide catalyst. The quality of distillate products, such as hydrodesulfurization (HDS was decreased from 61.50% to 39.52%, while asphaltene contents of the total liquid product were increased from 2.7% to 5.2% and their boiling ranges were increased during these duration times due to the successive catalyst deactivation during the 5 cycle-runs, caused by successive adsorption of coke formation.

  13. Catalytic combustion of residual fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulzan, D. L.; Tacina, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    A noble metal catalytic reactor was tested using two grades of petroleum derived residual fuels at specified inlet air temperatures, pressures, and reference velocities. Combustion efficiencies greater than 99.5 percent were obtained. Steady state operation of the catalytic reactor required inlet air temperatures of at least 800 K. At lower inlet air temperatures, upstream burning in the premixing zone occurred which was probably caused by fuel deposition and accumulation on the premixing zone walls. Increasing the inlet air temperature prevented this occurrence. Both residual fuels contained about 0.5 percent nitrogen by weight. NO sub x emissions ranged from 50 to 110 ppm by volume at 15 percent excess O2. Conversion of fuel-bound nitrogen to NO sub x ranged from 25 to 50 percent.

  14. [National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research] monthly progress report for June 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    Accomplishments for this period are described briefly under tasks for: Energy Production Research; Fuels Research; and Supplemental Government Program. Energy Production Research includes: reservoir assessment and characterization; TORIS research support; development of improved microbial flooding methods; surfactant flooding methods; development of improved alkaline flooding methods; mobility control and sweep improvement in chemical flooding; gas flood performance prediction improvement; mobility control, profile modification, and sweep improvement in gas flooding; three-phase relative permeability research; thermal processes for light oil recovery; thermal processes for heavy oil recovery; and imaging techniques applied to the study of fluid in porous media. Fuels research includes; development of analytical methodology for analysis of heavy crudes; and thermochemistry and thermophysical properties of organic nitrogen- and diheteroatom-containing compounds. Supplemental Government Program includes: microbial-enhanced waterflooding field project; feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the midcontinent region--Oklahoma, Kansas, and Missouri; surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding field project; development of methods for mapping distribution of clays in petroleum reservoirs; summary of geological and production characteristics of class 1, unstructured, deltaic reservoirs; third international reservoir characterization technical conference; process-engineering property measurements on heavy petroleum components; development and application of petroleum production technologies; upgrade BPO crude oil data base; simulation analysis of steam-foam projects; and analysis of the U. S. oil resource base and estimate of future recoverable oil.

  15. (National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research) monthly progress report for June 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    Accomplishments for this period are described briefly under tasks for: Energy Production Research; Fuels Research; and Supplemental Government Program. Energy Production Research includes: reservoir assessment and characterization; TORIS research support; development of improved microbial flooding methods; surfactant flooding methods; development of improved alkaline flooding methods; mobility control and sweep improvement in chemical flooding; gas flood performance prediction improvement; mobility control, profile modification, and sweep improvement in gas flooding; three-phase relative permeability research; thermal processes for light oil recovery; thermal processes for heavy oil recovery; and imaging techniques applied to the study of fluid in porous media. Fuels research includes; development of analytical methodology for analysis of heavy crudes; and thermochemistry and thermophysical properties of organic nitrogen- and diheteroatom-containing compounds. Supplemental Government Program includes: microbial-enhanced waterflooding field project; feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the midcontinent region--Oklahoma, Kansas, and Missouri; surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding field project; development of methods for mapping distribution of clays in petroleum reservoirs; summary of geological and production characteristics of class 1, unstructured, deltaic reservoirs; third international reservoir characterization technical conference; process-engineering property measurements on heavy petroleum components; development and application of petroleum production technologies; upgrade BPO crude oil data base; simulation analysis of steam-foam projects; and analysis of the U. S. oil resource base and estimate of future recoverable oil.

  16. Flow of microemulsion through soil columns contaminated with asphaltic residue; Fluxo de microemulsoes atraves do solo contaminado com residuos asfalticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Marcia C.K.; Oliveira, Jose F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE); Oliveira, Roberto C.G.; Gonzalez, Gazpar [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    2004-07-01

    Nowadays, soil contamination with nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) such as petroleum hydrocarbons is a major environmental problem. Significant efforts have been devoted to the development of processes to remediate sites contaminated with NAPLs. Unfortunately, most of the developed processes proved to be inefficient to remove the organic heavy fraction present in the NAPLs. Nevertheless, in our preliminary bench scale tests it was observed that, due to their high solubilization capacity and stability, microemulsions are able to remove organic heavy fractions like asphaltenes and resins, typically present in crude oils. The present work was dimensioned to evaluate, under up-flow condition, the performance of different microemulsions specially designed to remove asphaltenes fractions from soils using a column test set-up. The contaminant residual concentration was quantified by UV spectroscopy and the microemulsion efficiency determined using mass balance. The results showed that the microemulsions tested have a high capacity for removing asphaltenes fractions from contaminated soils. It was also observed that the predominant removal mechanism, solubilization or mobilization, depends essentially on the microemulsion's chemical formulation. Finally it was verified that microemulsion's formulations based on natural solvents compounds are also efficient for removing asphaltic residues. (author)

  17. PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF PETROLEUM BITUMEN PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Belova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The world production petroleum bitumen for road construction is considered. The problems and prospects of the bitumen production in the world and Russia are shown.At present leading positions on Russian bitumen market occupy the companies Gazprom Oil, Rosneft and Lukoyl. They cover nearly 80% of total volume of bitumen production in the RF.In world road construction practice the residual road oil bitumen is basically used, from which more than 80% of motor roads are built in the west.The significant quality growth of oil bitumen was the result of the appearance of modified and polymeric-bitumen bindings(PBB. Amongst block polymer of the styrene (SBC - styrene block copolymer, used in road construction, the main modifier for production of polymer-modified bitumen in the world is butadiene styrene thermoelastolayer SBS (SBS - styrene butadiene styrene.In 2014 at Moscow NPZ the installation on production PMB of new generation G-Way Styrelf is launched. The installation was built by the joint-venture Gazprom Oil" and French concern Total and is considered to produce 60 thousand tons of PMB and 7 thousand tons of bitumen emulsion per annum. The production is realized in accordance with technology Styrelf, designed by concern Total and adapted to Russian climatic conditions. The Russian bitumen is in demand on foreign market as well. 

  18. Canadian Petroleum Products Inst. annual report, 1991. Canadian Petroleum Products Inst. , rapport annuel 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) was created in 1989 as a nonprofit association of Canadian refiners and marketers of petroleum products. In 1991, the Atlantic Petroleum Association, the Quebec Petroleum Association, the Ontario Petroleum Association, the Canada West Petroleum Association, and the Petroleum Association for Conservation of the Canadian Environment (PACE) were integrated into the CPPI. The objective of the CPPI is to serve and represent the refining and marketing sectors of the petroleum industry with respect to environment, health and safety, and business issues. An industry overview is provided, as well as highlights of environmental achievements and challenges, and economics and operations for the year. Lists of CPPI publications, standing committees, and officers are also included. 9 figs.

  19. World Total Petroleum System Summary Result Data, 2000 World Petroleum Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This shapefile includes arcs and polygons that describe U.S. Geological Survey delineated Total Petroleum Systems of the World. Each petroleum system is defined as a...

  20. Petroleum Prices, Taxation and Subsidies in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    The current Indian system of effectively subsidised petroleum product prices has significant implications for the emergence of India as a major global energy consumer, for the integrity of India's Central Government budget and for investment in India's growing oil and petroleum sector. This paper is part one of a broader study that looks at the current system of petroleum pricing and the macroeconomic, microeconomic, regional and global effects of this system.

  1. Heavy metal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    niloticus after exposure to sublethal concentrations of heavy metals such as copper, lead and zinc for a 12-week period, using static renewable toxicity tests. The concentrations of the metals accumulated in the tissue of exposed fish were about 3-5 times higher than the concentrations detected in control fish.

  2. Menorrhagia (Heavy Menstrual Bleeding)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menorrhagia (heavy menstrual bleeding) Overview Menorrhagia is the medical term for menstrual periods with abnormally heavy or prolonged bleeding. Although heavy menstrual bleeding is a common concern, ...

  3. Composition of carbonization residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupfer; Leonhardt

    1943-11-30

    This report gave a record of the composition of several samples of residues from carbonization of various hydrogenation residue from processing some type of coal or tar in the Bergius process. These included Silesian bituminous coal processed at 600 atm. with iron catalyst, in one case to produce gasoline and middle oil and in another case to produce heavy oil excess, Scholven coal processed at 250 atm. with tin oxalate and chlorine catalyst, Bruex tar processed in a 10-liter oven using iron catalyst, and a pitch mixture from Welheim processed in a 10-liter over using iron catalyst. The values gathered were compared with a few corresponding values estimated for Boehlen tar and Gelsenberg coal based on several assumptions outlined in the report. The data recorded included percentage of ash in the dry residue and percentage of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine, total sulfur, and volatile sulfur. The percentage of ash varied from 21.43% in the case of Bruex tar to 53.15% in the case of one of the Silesian coals. Percentage of carbon varied from 44.0% in the case of Scholven coal to 78.03% in the case of Bruex tar. Percentage of total sulfur varied from 2.28% for Bruex tar to a recorded 5.65% for one of the Silesian coals and an estimated 6% for Boehlen tar. 1 table.

  4. Petroleum supply annual 1994. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-22

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1994 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1994, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Below is a description of each section in Volume 1 of the PSA.

  5. Petroleum supply annual 1993. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1993 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1993, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Below is a description of each section in Volume 1 of the PSA.

  6. Petroleum supply annual, 1997. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1997 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1997, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. 16 figs., 48 tabs.

  7. Petroleum fingerprinting with organic markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostettler, Frances D.; Lorenson, T.D.; Bekins, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    Petroleum fingerprinting is an invaluable tool in forensic geochemistry. This article summarizes applications of fingerprinting in several oil spills and natural oil seepages that we have studied during the last 25 years. It shows how each unique chemical fingerprint can be used to correlate or differentiate oils. Fingerprints can provide information about processes in the environment that impact oils such as weathering and microbial degradation. They can be used to evaluate organic matter that contributed to oils, and classify oils with regard to the geological framework of their source, such as evaluating geological facies, age, lithology, and depositional environment.

  8. Development of a cost-effective CO2 adsorbent from petroleum coke via KOH activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eunji; Choi, Seung Wan; Hong, Seok-Min; Shin, Sangcheol; Lee, Ki Bong

    2018-01-01

    The capture of CO2 via adsorption is considered an effective technology for decreasing global warming issues; hence, adsorbents for CO2 capture have been actively developed. Taking into account cost-effectiveness and environmental concerns, the development of CO2 adsorbents from waste materials is attracting considerable attention. In this study, petroleum coke (PC), which is the carbon residue remaining after heavy oil upgrading, was used to produce high-value-added porous carbon for CO2 capture. Porous carbon materials were prepared by KOH activation using different weight ratios of KOH/PC (1:1, 2:1, 3:1, and 4:1) and activation temperatures (600, 700, and 800 °C). The specific surface area and total pore volume of resulting porous carbon materials increased with KOH amount, reaching up to 2433 m2/g and 1.11 cm3/g, respectively. The sample prepared under moderate conditions with a KOH/PC weight ratio of 2:1 and activation temperature of 700 °C exhibited the highest CO2 adsorption uptake of 3.68 mmol/g at 25 °C and 1 bar. Interestingly, CO2 adsorption uptake was linearly correlated with the volume of micropores less than 0.8 nm, indicating that narrow micropore volume is crucial for CO2 adsorption. The prepared porous carbon materials also exhibited good selectivity for CO2 over N2, rapid adsorption, facile regeneration, and stable adsorption-desorption cyclic performance, demonstrating potential as a candidate for CO2 capture.

  9. The PTRC : a world leader in enhanced heavy oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristoff, B.; Knudsen, R.; Asghari, K. [Petroleum Technology Research Centre, Regina, SK (Canada); Pappas, E.S. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The Petroleum Technology Research Centre (PTRC) fosters knowledge and progressive technologies to enhance the recovery of petroleum. This paper discussed the PTRC's leadership in enhanced heavy oil recovery, with particular reference to core research program such as heavy oil (post) cold flow; enhanced waterflooding; miscible/immiscible solvent injection; and near-wellbore conformance control. Other projects that were presented included a joint implementation of vapour extraction project (JIVE); and the IEA greenhouse gas (GHG) Weyburn-Midale carbon dioxide monitoring and storage project. The JIVE project will develop, demonstrate and evaluate solvent vapour extraction processes for enhanced oil recovery in heavy oil reservoirs. The GHG Weyburn-Midale project, launched in 2000, studies carbon dioxide injection and storage in partially depleted oil reservoirs. It was concluded that the PTRC continues to develop technologies to meet the world's energy requirements while mitigating both immediate and long-term environmental impacts. 4 figs.

  10. Insights into the Deep Biosphere from Petroleum Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larter, S.; Adams, J. J.; Huang, H.; Bennett, B.

    2008-12-01

    Petroleum reservoirs provide a unique and direct portal into the deep biosphere enabling microbiological and geochemical studies of microorganisms, carbon cycling processes, microbial reaction kinetics and the spatial distribution of the organisms. Detailed mapping of oil fluid property and chemical composition shows that microbially and geologically induced oil compositional gradients are ubiquitous at regional to sub-reservoir scales (1 m to 105 m) in heavy and super heavy oil deposits of the Alberta basin. Some oil columns shows a cascading series of gradients in one through three ring alkylaromatic hydrocarbons with increasingly deeper locations of complete compound removal related to increasing resistance of degrading hydrocarbon component to biodegradation and decreasing component diffusivity. Similar compositional profiles have been seen in other heavy oilfields around the globe. Vertical 1D compositional diffusion models coupling oil charge, diffusive mixing and the effects of geological barriers can match observed gradients when the active biodegradation zone extends across the oil-water transition zone and well into the oil column. We observe steepening compositional gradients at the base of the oil column coincident with up to 10-15 m thick, downward increasing water saturation zones, thicker than a capillary pressure controlled oil-water transition zone. These "burnout zones" possess the hallmarks of a vertically extensive bio-reactor with increased concentrations of biogeochemical parameters of microbial processes and commonly an immobile and probably discontinuous oil phase. In this zone and across an oilfield, the relative biodegradation susceptibility of different hydrocarbon components varies greatly, indicating a suite of biodegradation reaction pathways dependent in part on local mass transport controls. 1D models show that the top of the degradation zone is coincident with complete depletion of reactive components, when oil charge is active

  11. [National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research] monthly progress report for July 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    Brief progress reports are presented under the following tasks: energy production research; fuels research; and supplemental Government programs. Energy production research includes: reservoir assessment and characterization; TORIS research support; development of improved microbial flooding methods; development of improved chemical flooding methods; development of improved alkaline flooding methods; mobility control and sweep improvement in chemical flooding; gas flood performance prediction improvement; mobility control, profile modification, and sweep improvement in gas flooding; three-phase relative permeability research; thermal processes for light oil recovery; thermal processes for heavy oil recovery; and imaging techniques applied to the study of fluids in porous media. Fuels research covers; development of analytical methodology for analysis of heavy crudes; and thermochemistry and thermophysical properties of organic nitrogen- and diheteroatom-containing compounds. Supplemental Government program includes: microbial-enhanced waterflooding field project; feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Midcontinent region: Oklahoma, Kansas, and Missouri; surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding field project; process-engineering property measurements on heavy petroleum components; development and application of petroleum production technologies; upgrade PBO crude oil database; simulation analysis of steam-foam projects; DOE education initiative project; technology transfer to independent producers; compilation and analysis of outcrop data from the Muddy and Almond formations; implementation of oil and gas technology transfer initiative; horizontal well production from fractured reservoirs; chemical EOR workshop; and organization of UNITAR 6th International conference of Heavy Crude and Tar Sands.

  12. Facts 2011 - The Norwegian petroleum sector; Fakta 2011 - norsk petroleumsverksemd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-15

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  13. Facts 2010 - The Norwegian petroleum sector; Fakta 2010 - norsk petroleumsverksemd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  14. Petroleum biotechnology: Technology trends for the future

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-17

    Jun 17, 2009 ... Key words: Technology prospective, biotechnology, petroleum, oil industry, biorefining. ... 2654 Afr. J. Biotechnol. Table 1. Current and future research on petroleum biotechnology and correlated areas. Impact. Industry sector. Today Near future ..... gene cluster can be induced with a carbazole addition to.

  15. Canadian Petroleum Products Inst. annual report, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) was created in 1989 as a nonprofit association of Canadian refiners and marketers of petroleum products. In 1991, the Atlantic Petroleum Association, the Quebec Petroleum Association, the Ontario Petroleum Association, the Canada West Petroleum Association, and the Petroleum Association for Conservation of the Canadian Environment (PACE) were integrated into the CPPI. The objective of the CPPI is to serve and represent the refining and marketing sectors of the petroleum industry with respect to environment, health and safety, and business issues. A report is presented of the year's activities arranged by regional division. Major developments include a used oil management plan, creation of two new oil spill response centers in Nova Scotia and Quebec, CPPI's intervention in the Public Review Panel on Tanker Safety and Marine Spill Response, participation in the federal government's Green Plan, and member reviews of a number of operational issues such as lowering benzene emission levels, reducing sulfur content of diesel fuel, and minimizing pollutant levels at fuel transfer sites. Lists of CPPI publications, standing committees, and officers are also included.

  16. Petroleum supply annual 1993. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This publication contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1993 through annual and monthly surveys. This second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1993.

  17. Technology Roadmap for the Petroleum Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2000-02-01

    The petroleum refining industry defined a detailed R&D roadmap, Technology Roadmap for the Petroleum Industry, to identify high-priority areas for technology R&D. Those priorities helped ITP target cost-shared solicitations and guide development of a balanced R&D portfolio to yield useful results in the near, mid, and long-term.

  18. Methanisation plant for heating petroleum in petroleum deposits. Methanisierungsanlage zur Erwaermung von Erdoel in Erdoellagerstaetten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froehling, W.; Schwarzkopp, F.; Stoll, R.D.; Kugeler, K.; Lindenmayr, G.

    1992-05-07

    A methanisation plant for heating a heat carrier is provided for a central underground device for tertiary petroleum supply which is injected into a petroleum deposit to supply petroleum. While the steam reforming reactor which acts as generator for a synthetic gas containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen, which can be methanized, is installed above ground, the methanising reactor is situated underground in the area of the petroleum deposit. An accessible pit is provided to accomodate the methanising reactor, which is situated nearly at the level of and adjacent to the petroleum deposit and can be reached via an accessible shaft. The heat carrier pipes start from the methanising reactor and are laid according to the extent of the deposit. Injection openings distributed over the petroleum deposit are situated in the heat carrier pipes, for supplying the heat carrier to the petroleum deposit.

  19. Analysis of petroleum product prices in Pan Pacific regions. ; Supply and demand, price, and business development. Kantaiheiyo chiiki no sekiyu seihin kakaku no bunseki. ; Jukyu to kakaku jigyo tenkai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takei, N. (The Institute of Energy Economics, Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-04-01

    This paper analyzes petroleum product prices in the Pan Pacific regions and summarizes correlation of demand and supply with prices. The paper, as a first analytic report, describes demand and supply, prices and business development. Considerations are given on trends in petroleum product prices from the aspect of spread (price difference). Spread is classified largely into price difference in crude oil and products, price difference in one merchandise due to different locations of transaction, and price difference due to calendar spreads. An advantage in the spread is easiness in assorting specific characteristics of particular merchandises, and conversely its problem is ambiguity in describing what causes the spread fluctuation. Observing the change in spreads between crude oil and products may lead to a conclusion that values have been rising in high sulfur and heavy gravity oils since 1991. High sulfur fuel oil (HSFO) value is on the rise in Singapore, but its reason cannot be known from what the demand and supply statics to date tells. One of the causes for value decline in low sulfur waxy residue (LSWR) lies in the Japanese import duty allotment system. Net back margin is decreasing worldwide, but its explanation is not available. This decrease is braking the movements of new installation and expansion of refining facilities. 22 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Application of Advanced Materials in Petroleum Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gufan; Di, Weina; Wang, Minsheng

    With the background of increasing requirements on the petroleum engineering technology from more high demanding exploration targets, global oil companies and oil service companies are making more efforts on both R&D and application of new petroleum engineering technology. Advanced materials always have a decisive role in the functionality of a new product. Technology transplantation has become the important means of innovation in oil and gas industry. Here, we mainly discuss the properties and scope of application of several advanced materials. Based on the material requirements in petroleum engineering, we provide several candidates for downhole electronics protection, drilling fluid additives, downhole tools, etc. Based on the analysis of petroleum engineering technology characteristics, this paper made analysis and research on such advanced materials as new insulation materials, functional gradient materials, self-healing polymers, and introduced their application prospect in petroleum engineering in terms of specific characteristics.

  1. EVALUATION OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS ELUTION FROM SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Piekutin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents studies on oil removal from soil by means of water elution with a help of shaking out the contaminants from the soil. The tests were performed on simulated soil samples contaminated with a mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons. The study consisted in recording the time influence and the number of elution cycles to remove contaminants from the soil. The samples were then subject to the determination of petroleum hydrocarbons, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene. Due to adding various concentrations of petroleum into particular soil samples and applying different shaking times, it was possible to find out the impact of petroleum content and sample shaking duration on the course and possibility of petroleum substances removal by means of elution process.

  2. Detection of Gunshot Residues Using Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Taudte, Regina Verena; Beavis, Alison; Blanes, Lucas; Cole, Nerida; Doble, Philip; Roux, Claude

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, forensic scientists have become increasingly interested in the detection and interpretation of organic gunshot residues (OGSR) due to the increasing use of lead- and heavy metal-free ammunition. This has also been prompted by the identification of gunshot residue- (GSR-) like particles in environmental and occupational samples. Various techniques have been investigated for their ability to detect OGSR. Mass spectrometry (MS) coupled to a chromatographic system is a powerful t...

  3. Assessing microbial uptake of petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater systems using natural abundance radiocarbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahad, Jason M E; Burns, Leanne; Mancini, Silvia; Slater, Greg F

    2010-07-01

    Carbon sources utilized by the active microbial communities in shallow groundwater systems underlying three petroleum service stations were characterized using natural abundance radiocarbon ((14)C). Total organic carbon (TOC) Delta(14)C values ranged from -314 to -972 per thousand and petroleum-extracted residues (EXT-RES) ranged from -293 to -971 per thousand. Phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs)-biomarkers for active microbial populations-ranged from -405 to -885 per thousand and a comparison of these values with potential carbon sources pointed to significant microbial assimilation of (14)C-free fossil carbon. The most (14)C-depleted PLFAs were found in the samples with the highest concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs). A radiocarbon mass balance indicated up to 43% of the carbon in microbial PLFAs was derived from TPHs, providing direct evidence for biodegradation at two of three sites. At lower levels of TPHs Delta(14)C values of PLFAs were generally similar to or more enriched than all other carbon in the system indicating microbial utilization of a more (14)C-enriched carbon source and no resolvable evidence for microbial incorporation of petroleum-derived carbon. Results from this study suggest that it is possible to delineate petroleum biodegradation in groundwater systems using these techniques even in complex situations where there exists a wide range in the ages of natural organic matter (i.e., EXT-RES).

  4. Composite Petroleum System and Advantageous Exploration Targets in the Kongquehe Area of Tarim Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Dazhen; Xing, Weixin; Lin, Wenji; Kong, Fanjun; Li, Danmei; Xu, Hao; Tao, Shu; Gao, Guanfeng

    Guided by the description methods and evaluation routine for composite petroleum system in superimposed basins, the composite characteristics of the petroleum systems in the Kongquehe area of the Tarim basin was studied and the geological evolution processes of hydrocarbon from source to trap was revealed. The petroleum systems in the Kongquehe area, mainly through fault composite linkage combined with unconformity surface composite linkage, constitute the Cambrian € (!)-Lower Ordovician O 1 (!)-Carboniferous C (*)-Triassic T (*)-Jurassic J (*) + Cambrian € (!)-Lower Ordovician O 1 (*)-Silurian S (*)-Devonian D (*)-Jurassic J (*) modified composite petroleum systems (*). There are three critical periods for composite petroleum system, such as the end of Devonian for forming tectonic framework and paleoreservoir, the end of Jurassic and Cretaceous for hydrocarbon transformation, redistribution, and adjustment. The research area may be classified into three types — destroyed dissipation zone, transformed adjustment zone, and deeply-buried preservation zone, amongst which the latter two zones are favorable for hydrocarbon accumulation. Especially, the Upper Paleozoic and Mesozoic faulted anticline traps of the Longkou anticline and the Weimake-Kaiping anticline and the residual Lower Paleozoic fault paleo-anticline traps in the transformed adjustment zone are the best prospecting targets.

  5. Soil bioremediation approaches for petroleum hydrocarbon polluted environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Koshlaf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing industrialisation, continued population growth and heavy demand and reliance on petrochemical products have led to unprecedented economic growth and development. However, inevitably this dependence on fossil fuels has resulted in serious environmental issues over recent decades. The eco-toxicity and the potential health implications that petroleum hydrocarbons pose for both environmental and human health have led to increased interest in developing environmental biotechnology-based methodologies to detoxify environments impacted by petrogenic compounds. Different approaches have been applied for remediating polluted sites with petroleum derivatives. Bioremediation represents an environmentally sustainable and economical emerging technology for maximizing the metabolism of organic pollutants and minimizing the ecological effects of oil spills. Bioremediation relies on microbial metabolic activities in the presence of optimal ecological factors and necessary nutrients to transform organic pollutants such as petrogenic hydrocarbons. Although, biodegradation often takes longer than traditional remediation methods, the complete degradation of the contaminant is often accomplished. Hydrocarbon biodegradation in soil is determined by a number of environmental and biological factors varying from site to site such as the pH of the soil, temperature, oxygen availability and nutrient content, the growth and survival of hydrocarbon-degrading microbes and bioavailability of pollutants to microbial attack. In this review we have attempted to broaden the perspectives of scientists working in bioremediation. We focus on the most common bioremediation technologies currently used for soil remediation and the mechanisms underlying the degradation of petrogenic hydrocarbons by microorganisms.

  6. How to access and exploit natural resources sustainably: petroleum biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Angela; Andrade, Luiza; Velenturf, Anne; Christgen, Beate; Gray, Neil D; Head, Ian M

    2017-09-01

    As we transition from fossil fuel reliance to a new energy future, innovative microbial biotechnologies may offer new routes to maximize recovery from conventional and unconventional energy assets; as well as contributing to reduced emission pathways and new technologies for carbon capture and utilization. Here we discuss the role of microbiology in petroleum biotechnologies in relation to addressing UN Sustainable Development Goal 12 (ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns), with a focus on microbially-mediated energy recovery from unconventionals (heavy oil to methane), shale gas and fracking, bioelectrochemical systems for the production of electricity from fossil fuel resources, and innovations in synthetic biology. Furthermore, using wastes to support a more sustainable approach to fossil fuel extraction processes is considered as we undertake the move towards a more circular global economy. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research 1989 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-01

    Research programs on reservoir rocks petroleum, and enhanced recovery are briefly presented. Topics include: Geotechnology; reservoir assessment and characterization; TORIS Research Support; three phase relative permeability; static pore structure analysis of reservoir rocks; effects of pore structure on oil/contaminants ganglia distribution; development of improved microbial flooding methods; development of improved surfactant flooding systems; development of improved alkaline flooding methods; development of improved mobility-control methods; gas miscible displacement; development of improved immiscible gas displacement methodology; thermal processes for light oil recovery; thermal processes for heavy oil recovery; an application of natural isotopes in groundwater for solving environmental problems; processing and thermodynamics research; thermochemistry and thermophysical properties of organic nitrogen- and diheteroatom-containing compounds; in situ hydrogenation; and fuel chemistry.

  8. Assessment of the horizontal transfer of functional genes as a suitable approach for evaluation of the bioremediation potential of petroleum-contaminated sites: a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Aiyoub; Ince, Bahar; Aydin, Sevcan; Ince, Orhan

    2017-06-01

    Petroleum sludge contains recalcitrant residuals. These compounds because of being toxic to humans and other organism are of the major concerns. Therefore, petroleum sludge should be safely disposed. Physicochemical methods which are used by this sector are mostly expensive and need complex devices. Bioremediation methods because of being eco-friendly and cost-effective overcome most of the limitations of physicochemical treatments. Microbial strains capable to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons are practically present in all soils and sediments and their population density increases in contact with contaminants. Bacterial strains cannot degrade alone all kinds of petroleum hydrocarbons, rather microbial consortium should collaborate with each other for degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures. Horizontal transfer of functional genes between bacteria plays an important role in increasing the metabolic potential of the microbial community. Therefore, selecting a suitable degrading gene and tracking its horizontal transfer would be a useful approach to evaluate the bioremediation process and to assess the bioremediation potential of contaminated sites.

  9. MICROBIAL REMOVAL OF HEAVY METALS FROM WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Koc-Jurczyk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Industrialization and urbanization result in increase of heavy metals released into the environment (soil, lakes, rivers, seas, oceans, groundwater. Studies on biosorption of heavy metals are aimed to specify types of microorganisms which could efficiently bind metals. This approach has a very important significance for both slowing down metals exploitation by recovery, and also reduction of environmental pollution by decrease of their excessive concentration. Recent studies have reported about the capabilities of fungi, algae, yeasts, bacteria, waste and agricultural residues or materials containing chitosan derived from crustacean shells as a biosorbents. Biohydrometallurgy could be considered as a new “green” technology of heavy metals removal from wastewater.

  10. In search for French petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naudin, Y.

    1980-04-01

    In 25 yr, domestic oil production in France has dropped from 3 million tons to 1.2 million tons. The search for domestic oil is now being accelerated: one billion francs has been budgeted for 1980. The accent also will be on improved recovery techniques and on offshore technology. In known areas, the government will encourage competitive work by the private sector; in new, high risk areas, the government will take the lead. Suitable incentives for the private sector have been approved. In the area of increasing the recovery factor, the accent is on heavy oil recovery in Alsace, an enhanced recovery pilot in the Paris basin, new drilling technology, installation of a heavy oil treating platform, a pilot of in situ combustion of oil shale in the Paris Basin, and studies of aboveground oil recovery from oil shale.

  11. Norwegian Petroleum Activity 97. Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report is the official governmental review of the offshore operations on the Norwegian Continental Shelf in 1996. It covers the following topics: (1) Summary, (2) Historical overview, (3) State organization of petroleum activities, (4) The economic impact of Norwegian oil and gas, (5) State revenues, (6) Mainland activities, (7) Petroleum resources, (8) Production, (9) Marketing situation for petroleum products, (10) Environmental aspects, (11) The legal and license framework, (12) Licensing rounds, (13) Exploration, (14) Fields in production, (15) Fields under development, (16) Discoveries with development plan under consideration, (17) Transportation systems, (18) License interests, (19) Company interests, (20) White papers, (21) Useful postal addresses. 24 figs., 16 tabs.

  12. Strategic Petroleum Reserve: Annual/quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-16

    Section 165 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94-163), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to submit annual and quarterly reports to the President and the Congress on activities of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. This report combines the fourth quarter 1993 Quarterly Report with the 1993 Annual Report. Key activities described include appropriations; life extension planning; expansion planning; Strategic Petroleum Reserve oil acquisition; the oil stabilization program; and the refined petroleum product reserve test programs. Sections of this report also describe the program mission; the storage facility development program; environmental compliance; budget and finance; and drawdown and distribution.

  13. Petroleum supply annual 1998: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The ``Petroleum Supply Annual`` (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1998 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1998, and replaces data previously published in the PSA. The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. 16 figs., 59 tabs.

  14. Growth of four tropical tree species in petroleum-contaminated soil and effects of crude oil contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Hernández, I; Ochoa-Gaona, S; Adams, R H; Rivera-Cruz, M C; Pérez-Hernández, V; Jarquín-Sánchez, A; Geissen, V; Martínez-Zurimendi, P

    2017-01-01

    Under greenhouse conditions, we evaluated establishment of four tree species and their capacity to degrade crude oil recently incorporated into the soil; the species were as follows: Cedrela odorata (tropical cedar), Haematoxylum campechianum (tinto bush), Swietenia macrophylla (mahogany), and Tabebuia rosea (macuilis). Three-month-old plants were planted in soil with three treatments of heavy petroleum and a control (C0 0 mg kg-1; C1 18,000 mg kg-1; C2 31,700 mg kg-1; C3 47,100 mg kg-1) with four repetitions per treatment and species; the experiment was carried out for 245 days. Height and biomass of all species significantly diminished as petroleum concentration increased, although plant survival was not affected. The quantity of colony-forming units (CFU) of rhizospheric bacteria varied among tree species and treatments; petroleum stimulated bacterial CFU for S. macrophylla. The number of fungi CFU for S. macrophylla and T. rosea was significantly greater in C0 than in soil with petroleum, but among species and among different concentrations, no significant differences were found. The greatest percentage of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) degradation was found in C1 for soil without plants (45 %). Differences from the remaining treatments (petroleum concentrations in soil and plant species) were not significant (P microorganisms, addition of fertilizers, and mixture of tree and grasses are recommended.

  15. Do we have to fear a forth petroleum crash?; Doit-on craindre un quatrieme choc petrolier?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jestin-Fleury, N. [Commissariat General du Plan (France)

    1998-05-01

    This paper analyses the worldwide energy scenarios for the forecasting of petroleum supply and demand in the year 2020: competition with natural gas industry, oil reserves, resources, production, development of new technologies, investments, fields development, drop of production costs, exploitation of tar sands, extra-heavy crudes, bituminous shales, reduction of the petroleum consumption in the transportation sector (development of LPG and electric powered vehicles, chemical conversion of natural gas, fuel cells), increase of the OPEC countries production, evolution of nuclear energy and economical impact of a serious fight against greenhouse gases emission and climate changes. (J.S.)

  16. Petroleum and health care: evaluating and managing health care's vulnerability to petroleum supply shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Jeremy; Bednarz, Daniel; Bae, Jaeyong; Pierce, Jessica

    2011-09-01

    Petroleum is used widely in health care-primarily as a transport fuel and feedstock for pharmaceuticals, plastics, and medical supplies-and few substitutes for it are available. This dependence theoretically makes health care vulnerable to petroleum supply shifts, but this vulnerability has not been empirically assessed. We quantify key aspects of petroleum use in health care and explore historical associations between petroleum supply shocks and health care prices. These analyses confirm that petroleum products are intrinsic to modern health care and that petroleum supply shifts can affect health care prices. In anticipation of future supply contractions lasting longer than previous shifts and potentially disrupting health care delivery, we propose an adaptive management approach and outline its application to the example of emergency medical services.

  17. 21 CFR 178.3530 - Isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons, synthetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons, synthetic... hydrocarbons, synthetic. Isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons, synthetic, may be safely used in the production... isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons, produced by synthesis from petroleum gases consist of a mixture of liquid...

  18. Facts 2009 - The Norwegian petroleum sector; Fakta 2009 - norsk petroleumsverksemd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Contents: Foreword; The petroleum sector; Norwegian resource management; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology; Environmental considerations; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  19. National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research monthly progress report, May 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    Accomplishments for the month of May are described briefly under tasks for: Energy Production Research; Fuels Research; and Supplemental Government Program. Energy Production Research includes: reservoir assessment and characterization; TORIS research support; development of improved microbial flooding methods; development of improved chemical flooding methods; development of improved alkaline flooding methods; mobility control and sweep improvement in chemical flooding; gas flood performance prediction improvement; mobility control, profile modification, and sweep improvement in gas flooding; three-phase relative permeability research; thermal processes for light oil recovery; thermal processes for heavy oil recovery; and imaging techniques applied to the study of fluids in porous media. Fuels Research covers: development of analytical methodology for analysis of heavy crudes; and thermochemistry and thermophysical properties of organic nitrogen- and diheteratom-containing compounds. Supplemental Government Program covers: microbial-enhanced waterflooding field project; feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the midcontinent region--Oklahoma, Kansas, and Missouri; surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding field project; process-engineering property measurements on heavy petroleum components; development and application of petroleum production technologies; upgrade BPO crude oil data base; simulation analysis of steam-foam projects; DOE education initiative project; field application of foams for oil production symposium; technology transfer to independent producers; compilation and analysis of outcrop data from the Muddy and Almond formations; implementation of oil and gas technology transfer initiative; horizontal well production from fractured reservoirs; and chemical EOR workshop.

  20. [National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research] monthly progress report, January 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    Accomplishments for the month of January are briefly described for the following tasks: energy production research; fuels research; and supplemental government programs. Energy production research includes: reservoir assessment and characterization; TORI research support; development of improved microbial flooding methods; development of improved chemical flooding methods; development of improved alkaline flooding methods; mobility control and sweep improvement in chemical flooding; gas flood performance prediction improvement; mobility control, profile modifications, and sweep improvement in gas flooding; three-phase relative permeability research; thermal processes for light oil recovery; thermal processes for heavy oil recovery; and imaging techniques applied to the study of fluid in porous media. Fuel research includes: development of analytical methodology for analysis of heavy crudes; and thermochemistry and thermophysical properties of organic nitrogen and diheteroatom containing compounds. supplemental Government program includes: microbial-enhanced waterflooding field project; feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the midcontinent region--Oklahoma, Kansas, and Missouri; surfactant- enhanced alkaline flooding field project; process-engineering property measurements on heavy petroleum components; development and application of petroleum production technologies; upgrade BPO crude oil data base; simulation analysis of steam-foam projects; DOE education initiative project; field application of foams for oil production symposium; technology transfer to independent producers; and compilations and analysis of outcrop data from the Muddy and Almond formations.

  1. [National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research], monthly progress report for March 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    Accomplishments for the month of April are described briefly under tasks for: Energy Production Research; Fuels Research; and Supplemental Government Program. Energy Production Research includes: reservoir assessment and characterization; TORIS research support; development of improved microbial flooding methods; development of improved chemical flooding methods; development of improved alkaline flooding methods; mobility control and sweep improvement in chemical flooding; gas flood performance prediction improvement; mobility control, profile modification, and sweep improvement in gas flooding; three-phase relative permeability research; thermal processes for light oil recovery; thermal processes for heavy oil recovery; and imaging techniques applied to the study of fluids in porous media. Fuels Research includes: development of analytical methodology for analysis of heavy crudes; and thermochemistry and thermophysical properties of organic nigrogen- and diheteroatom-containing compounds. Supplemental Government Program includes: microbial-enhanced waterflooding field project; feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the midcontinent region--Oklahoma, Kansas, and Missouri; surfactant- enhanced alkaline flooding field project; process- engineering property measurements on heavy petroleum components; development and application of petroleum production technologies; upgrade BPO crude oil data base; simulation analysis of steam-foam projects; DOE education initiative project; field application of foams of oil production symposium; technology transfer to independent producers; compilations and analysis of outcrop data from the Muddy and Almond formations; and horizontal well production from fractured reservoirs.

  2. Spectrometric studies of additives to petroleum-based lubricating oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Przybylski, Z.; Borkowska, A.

    1981-01-01

    Results are presented for a study of Zn dialkyl dithiophosphates (ZDP) of the formula ((RO)(R'O)P(S)S)/sub 2/Zn (R and R' = identical or different C/sub 3/-C/sub 4/ alkyl or C/sub 6/-C/sub 16/ aryl groups) by the method of negative ion mass spectrometry (MS). ZDP serve as multifunctional additives to oils, particularly motor oils. The known methods (GC, spectrophotometry, and positive ion mass spectrometry) give more or less detailed characteristics of the R and R' groups in ZDP, but do not give the possibility to identify the ZDP containing different R and R'. In the Institute of Petroleum Technology in Krakow, with the use of negative ion MS, ZDP analysis, successfully used earlier for the study of petroleum carboxylic acids and synthetic sulfonic acids, was developed. The mass spectra of ZDP contain one group of peaks for the ((RO)/sub 2/PS/sub 2/)/sup -/ ion and a very weak line corresponding to the ((RO)/sub 2/PS)/sup -/ ion; the method offers the possibility to determine the type of substituents in ZDP (including two different residues) without preliminary conversion of them into simpler compounds and without removal of the oil base, which sometimes even facilitates registration of mass spectra.

  3. Petroleum supply annual 1994, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1994 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1994, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary.

  4. Petroleum Jelly: Safe for a Dry Nose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2007;22:1613. Hadda V, et al. Lipoid pneumonia: An overview. Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine. 2010;4:799. July 08, 2016 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/petroleum-jelly/expert-answers/ ...

  5. Mycoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted soil by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , copper, and zinc) after 62 days of incubation with P. pulmonarius suggested that the mushroom is a good agent ... Our results suggest that P. pulmonarius can be used to clean soils polluted with moderate level of petroleum products mixture.

  6. Petroleum supply annual 1996: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1996 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Capacity; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1996, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary. 35 tabs.

  7. Petroleum supply annual, 1997. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1997 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1997, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary. 35 tabs.

  8. Petroleum supply annual 1998: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1998 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. This second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1998, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary. 35 tabs.

  9. Petroleum supply annual 1995: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1995 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and selected Refinery Statistics each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1995, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary.

  10. Guam Transportation Petroleum-Use Reduction Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.

    2013-04-01

    The island of Guam has set a goal to reduce petroleum use 20% by 2020. Because transportation is responsible for one-third of on-island petroleum use, the Guam Energy Task Force (GETF), a collaboration between the U.S. Department of Energy and numerous Guam-based agencies and organizations, devised a specific plan by which to meet the 20% goal within the transportation sector. This report lays out GETF's plan.

  11. Natural analogs in the petroleum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, J.R. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This article describes the use of natural analogues in petroleum exploration and includes numerous geologic model descriptions which have historically been used in the prediction of geometries and location of oil and gas accumulations. These geologic models have been passed down to and used by succeeding generations of petroleum geologists. Some examples of these geologic models include the Allan fault-plane model, porosity prediction, basin modelling, prediction of basin compartmentalization, and diagenesis.

  12. Environment 2002. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The Ministry of Petroleum and Energy produces an annual environmental review in cooperation with the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. The purpose of this publication is threefold: (1) to increase knowledge about the environmental aspects of Norwegian oil and gas activities, (2) to take a more detailed look at a specific topic which particularly concerns both the industry and the authorities, and identify the challenges and options faced, (3) to emphasise the governments goal of ensuring that Norway reconciles its role as a large energy producer with a pioneering position on environmental issues. This year's edition focuses on the topic of ''oil and fish - common sea''. Both the petroleum and fishing industries depend on the waters off Norway. Ever since petroleum activities began on the Norwegian continental shelf more than 30 years ago, the authorities have been keen to ensure that these two sectors can work in the same sea areas. What challenges and opportunities face the petroleum industry over discharges to the sea and living marine resources? How can the authorities ensure that this sector is able to coexist with the fisheries? These and similar questions about the relationship between the petroleum and fishing industries in their shared seas are covered in section two of this publication. Environment 2002 also incorporates a factual section, which covers the status of emissions/discharges, environmental impacts and measures to reduce discharges to the sea and emissions to the air from petroleum activities. The MPE hopes that a publication of this kind can enhance basic knowledge about petroleum activities and environmental issues.

  13. Frontier petroleum basins of Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith, J.F. Jr.; Perez, V.E.

    1989-03-01

    The frontier basins of Colombia with hydrocarbon potential are numerous, have varying geological histories, and are in different stages of exploration development. In this paper, sedimentary or structural basins are classified as frontier petroleum basins if commercial discoveries of hydrocarbons are lacking, if the basin has not attained a high degree of exploration development, or if a new play concept has been perceived or developed for a portion of a mature exploration basin. Using these criteria for classification, the authors discuss the Cauca-Patia Choco-Pacifico, and Lower Magdalena basin complexes; the Cordillera Oriental foreland basin; and the Cesar-Rancheria, Sabana, and Amazonas basins. A comprehensive geological and structural setting of each of these frontier basins will be presented. The depositional and tectonic evolution of the basins will be highlighted, and the play concepts for each will be inventoried, catalogued, and categorized as to whether they are theoretical or established. The discussion of the available plays in each of these basins will include the main play concept elements of reservoirs traps, seals, source rocks, maturation, and timing. When detailed data permit, the reservoir and trap geometry will be presented.

  14. Single-sheet identification method of heavy charged particles using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An attempt has been made to examine the suitability of the single-sheet particle identification technique in CR-39 and CN-85 polycarbonate by plotting track cone length vs. residual range for different heavy ions in these detectors. So, the maximum etchable ranges of heavy ions such as 93Nb, 86Kr and 4He in CR-39 and ...

  15. Assessment of heavy metal contamination in raw milk for human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of heavy metals in various farm inputs, including feed, fertilizer, water and environment leads to excretion of the residues in animals' milk. Because consumption of milk contaminated with heavy metals poses serious threats to consumers' health, a study was conducted in 2012 – 2013 in Pakistan to evaluate ...

  16. Heavy flavour in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Pillot, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Open heavy flavours and heavy quarkonium states are expected to provide essential informa- tion on the properties of the strongly interacting system fo rmed in the early stages of heavy-ion collisions at very high energy density. Such probes are espe cially promising at LHC energies where heavy quarks (both c and b) are copiously produced. The ALICE detector shall measure the production of open heavy flavours and heavy quarkonium st ates in both proton-proton and heavy-ion collisions at the LHC. The expected performances of ALICE for heavy flavour physics is discussed based on the results of simulation studies on a s election of benchmark channels

  17. Combustion of Drops and Sprays of Heavy Fuel Oils and Their Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    cracking of the non-volatile residue. The resulting carbonaceous residue, termed as cenosphere , burned heterogeneously by a 7 surface reaction. It was...found [7-9] that the cenospheres formed by eva- poration at low temperatures were large, fragile, and thin-walled while those formed from droplets...fuels giving rise to cenospheres should contain components which could not be volatilized, that is, residual components from coal, tar, and petroleum

  18. New residual stress detector using angle resolved Barkhausen noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Katsuhiko; Imae, Kazuhito; Nittono, Osamu; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Yamada, Koji

    2005-12-01

    A new possibility of residual stress detector is proposed for iron based materials through measurement of angle resolved Barkhausen noise which is known as phenomena of dynamic magnetic process. It is important for keeping safety of our society to early detect metal fatigue, therefore the convenient residual stress detector will be available especially for machines including any robots given heavy loads.

  19. Density and viscosity modeling and characterization of heavy oils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cisneros, Sergio; Andersen, Simon Ivar; Creek, J

    2005-01-01

    Viscosity and density are key properties for the evaluation, simulation, and development of petroleum reservoirs. Previously, the friction theory (f-theory) was shown to be capable of delivering simple and accurate viscosity models for petroleum reservoir fluids with molecular weights up to similar...... to 200 g/mol and viscosities up to similar to 10 mPa s, under usual reservoir conditions. As a basis, the f-theory approach requires a compositional characterization procedure that is used in conjunction with a van der Waals type of equation of state (EOS). This is achieved using simple cubic EOSs, which...... are widely used within the oil industry. Further work also established the basis for extending the approach to heavy oils. Thus, in this work, the extended f-theory approach is further discussed with the study and modeling of a wider set of representative heavy reservoir fluids with viscosities up...

  20. Experimental diagenesis of quartz with petroleum; Diagenese experimentale du quartz en presence d'hydrocarbures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teinturier, St.

    2002-11-01

    Quartz cementation has a great impact on petroleum reservoir quality by controlling the porosity and thus the gas or oil storage. However, the possible cementation of quartz during petroleum emplacement is still debated. In most cases, the reconstitution and the understanding of diagenetic processes is based on fluid inclusions studies. However, many questions concerning the representativeness and the reading of the fluid inclusions still remains misunderstood. The experiments were carried out in a silica{+-}water{+-}salts{+-}oil{+-}gas system with the objective to simulate the siliceous diagenesis of natural petroleum reservoirs and to better understand the mechanisms of fluid inclusions formation and quartz cementation in a water and/or petroleum system. Calibration curves have been established using Raman micro-spectroscopy and synthetic reference inclusions to calculate the methane content of aqueous inclusions in the H{sub 2}O-CH{sub 4}-NaCl system. A quantitative procedure for FT-IR micro-spectrometry has been developed to obtain, from individual petroleum fluid inclusions, mole % concentrations of methane, alkanes and carbon dioxide as constraints to thermodynamic modelling. Synthetic aqueous inclusions were created within quartz micro-fractures, with methane (from 150 deg C-200 bar), with petroleum (from 184 deg C-163 bar) and inside quartz overgrowth with the presence of hydrocarbons (from 277 deg C-300 bar). Synthetic petroleum inclusions were created with different water/oil ratios (W/O) within quartz micro-fractures (0petroleum inclusions is representative to their parent oil composition up to 250 deg C and 212 bars. At 350 deg C-400 bar, cracking processes have been observed as well inside petroleum inclusions as for its residual parent oil in the autoclave. Moreover, the presence of water has modified the PVTX properties of

  1. An Additive-Multiplicative Restricted Mean Residual Life Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansourvar, Zahra; Martinussen, Torben; Scheike, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    The mean residual life measures the expected remaining life of a subject who has survived up to a particular time. When survival time distribution is highly skewed or heavy tailed, the restricted mean residual life must be considered. In this paper, we propose an additive-multiplicative restricted...... mean residual life model to study the association between the restricted mean residual life function and potential regression covariates in the presence of right censoring. This model extends the proportional mean residual life model using an additive model as its covariate dependent baseline...

  2. Sources, vertical fluxes and accumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments from the Mandovi Estuary, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Veerasingam, S.; Vethamony, P.; ManiMurali, R.; Babu, M.T.

    –69. Benson, N.U., Essien, J.P., Ebong, G.A., and Williams, A.B. (2008). Petroleum hydrocarbons and limiting nutrients in Macura reptantia, Procambarus clarkia and benthic sediment from Qua Iboe estuary, Nigeria. Environmentalist, 28, 275–282. Bouloubassi... contamination in estuaries. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 20, 3–22. Chouksey, M.K., Kadam, A.N., and Zingde, M.D. (2004). Petroleum hydrocarbon residues in the marine environment of Bassein–Mumbai. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 49, 637–647. Da Silva...

  3. Petroleum supply monthly with data from January 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  4. Petroleum supply monthly with data for March 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  5. Petroleum supply monthly, May 1998, with data for March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  6. Surfactant biocatalyst for remediation of recalcitrant organics and heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigmon, Robin L [North Augusta, SC; Story, Sandra [Greenville, SC; Altman, Denis [Evans, GA; Berry, Christopher J [Aiken, SC

    2009-01-06

    Novel strains of isolated and purified bacteria have been identified which have the ability to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons including a variety of PAHs. Several isolates also exhibit the ability to produce a biosurfactant. The combination of the biosurfactant-producing ability along with the ability to degrade PAHs enhances the efficiency with which PAHs may be degraded. Additionally, the biosurfactant also provides an additional ability to bind heavy metal ions for removal from a soil or aquatic environment.

  7. Gold processing residue from Jacobina Basin: chemical and physical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Luiz Rogério Pinho de Andrade; Bernardez, Letícia Alonso; Barbosa, Luís Alberto Dantas

    2007-01-01

    p. 848-852 Gold processing residues or tailings are found in several areas in the Itapicuru River region (Bahia, Brazil), and previous studies indicated significant heavy metals content in the river sediments. The present work focused on an artisanal gold processing residue found in a site from this region. Samples were taken from the processing residue heaps and used to perform a physical and chemical characterization study using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, neutron...

  8. Dynamic changes in microbial activity and community structure during biodegradation of petroleum compounds: a laboratory experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Zhang, Ying; Kravchenko, Irina; Xu, Hui; Zhang, Cheng-gang

    2007-01-01

    With 110-d incubation experiment in laboratory, the responses of microbial quantity, soil enzymatic activity, and bacterial community structure to different amounts of diesel fuel amendments were studied to reveal whether certain biological and biochemical characteristics could serve as reliable indicators of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in meadow-brown soil, and use these indicators to evaluate the actual ecological impacts of 50-year petroleum-refining wastewater irrigation on soil function in Shenfu irrigation area. Results showed that amendments of or =5000 mg/kg diesel fuel. The sharp decrease in urease activity was recommended as the most sensitive biochemical indicator of heavy diesel fuel contamination. The shifts in community structure to a community documented by Sphingomonadaceae within alpha-subgroup of Proteobacteria could be served as a sensitive and precise indicator of diesel fuel contamination. Based on the results described in this paper, the soil function in Shenfu irrigation area was disturbed to some extent.

  9. Petroleum pollutant degradation by surface water microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antić, Malisa P; Jovancićević, Branimir S; Ilić, Mila; Vrvić, Miroslav M; Schwarzbauer, Jan

    2006-09-01

    It is well known that the composition of petroleum or some of its processing products changes in the environment mostly under the influence of microorganisms. A series of experiments was conducted in order to define the optimum conditions for an efficient biodegradation of petroleum pollutant, or bioremediation of different segments of the environment. The aim of these investigations was to show to what extent the hydrocarbons of a petroleum pollutant are degraded by microbial cultures which were isolated as dominant microorganisms from a surface water of a wastewater canal of an oil refinery and a nitrogen plant. Biodegradation experiments were conducted on one paraffinic, and one naphthenic type of petroleum during a three month period under aerobic conditions, varying the following parameters: Inorganic (Kp) or an organic medium (Bh) with or without exposition to light. Microorganisms were analyzed in a surface water sample from a canal (Pancevo, Serbia), into which wastewater from an oil refinery and a nitrogen plant is released. The consortia of microorganisms were isolated from the water sample (most abundant species: Phormidium foveolarum--filamentous Cyanobacteria, blue-green algae and Achanthes minutissima, diatoms, algae). The simulation experiments of biodegradation were conducted with the biomass suspension and crude oils Sirakovo (Sir, paraffinic type) and Velebit (Ve, naphthenic type). After a three month period, organic substance was extracted by means of chloroform. In the extracts, the content of saturated hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols and fatty acids was determined (the group composition). n-Alkanes and isoprenoid aliphatic alkanes, pristane and phytane, in the aliphatic fractions, were analyzed using gas chromatography (GC). Total isoprenoid aliphatic alkanes and polycyclic alkanes of sterane and triterpane types were analyzed by GC-MS. Paraffinic type petroleums have a significant loss of saturated hydrocarbons. For naphthenic

  10. Canadian Petroleum Products Institute 1996 annual review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) is an association of Canadian companies involved in the downstream sector of the petroleum industry which includes refining, distributing and marketing of petroleum products. CPPI`s mandate includes: (1) establishing environmental policies, (2) establishing working relationships with governments to develop public policy, (3) developing guidelines for the safe handling of petroleum products, and (4) providing information about the petroleum industry to the public. Canada`s 19 refineries processed an average of 1.5 million barrels of crude oil per day in 1996. Domestic sources of crude made up 61 per cent of crude oil processed in 1996. Total exports during the year amounted to 105 million barrels. Some of the issues that the CPPI focused on during 1996 included the controversy over the future of the octane enhancing fuel additive MMT, fuel quality standards for transportation fuels and reformulated fuels, gasoline pricing, air quality and workplace safety. CPPI members` participation in the Voluntary Challenge and Registry (VCR) program towards reducing greenhouse gas emissions was also discussed. The industry was also actively involved in seeking to improve its refinery wastewater discharges.

  11. The installation IGCC power plans in the petroleum refinement: international experiences and lessons for Mexico; La instalacion de plantas IGCC en la refinacion de petroleo: experiencias internacionales y lecciones para Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Joel [Ecole du Petrole et des Moteurs, Institut Franzais du Petrole, (France)

    2004-06-15

    In this work, are presented the technical and economic elements of the international experience for the installation of IGCC power plants in the petroleum refinement and the lessons for Mexico in the installation of this technology in PEMEX Refinacion are analyzed. The construction of IGCC power plants in the petroleum refinement has grown 14.3 % at worldwide level as of 1996, in which there was already an installed capacity of 160 MW. At the end of 2003 an installed capacity of 2,500 MW was reached. The growth in the installation of IGCC power plants fundamentally appears in Europe, being Italy and Spain leader countries in the construction of this technology in the petroleum refinement. However, countries like Holland, Japan, Singapore and the United States count on IGCC power plants for electricity and hydrogen generation, which take advantage of low value fuels such as vacuum tower residues, petroleum coke, asphalt, liquid fuels, among others. In Mexico, the installation IGCC power plants in the petroleum refinement is null, nevertheless Petroleos Mexicanos counts with the approval of the government for the installation of cogeneration power plants in its facilities. This approval would allow PEMEX to carry out projects for the installation IGCC power plants, specifically in PEMEX Refinacion, for the generation of electricity and hydrogen from the advantage of heavy residues of low economic value. The opportunity that the installation IGCC power plants in the petroleum refinement offers is directed towards the commercialization of the electricity and hydrogen, which would impel PEMEX Refinacion to enter the competition of the electrical market in Mexico. [Spanish] En este trabajo, se presentan los elementos tecnicos y economicos de la experiencia internacional para la instalacion de plantas IGCC en la refinacion de petroleo y se analizan las lecciones para Mexico en la instalacion de esta tecnologia en PEMEX Refinacion. La construccion de plantas IGCC en la

  12. Petroleum supply monthly, with data from June 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The Petroleum Supply Division (PSD) of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) collects and published information on petroleum supply and disposition in the United States. The information is collected through a series of surveys that make up the Petroleum Supply Reporting System (PSRS). The PSRS data are published in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM), and Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). This report presents information on crude oil production, crude oil imports and exports, refinery operations, natural gas processing, transportation, and oxygenate data.

  13. Petroleum supply monthly with data for June 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    Data presented in this publication describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United states and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the U.S. The report includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Both summary and detailed statistics are presented. 16 figs., 56 tabs.

  14. Coagulation-Sedimentation-Extraction Pretreatment Methods for The Removal of Suspended Solids and Residual Oil From Palm Oil Mill Effluent (Pome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Latif Ahmad, Norliza Ibrahim , Suzylawati Ismail and Subhash Bhatia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Suspended solids and residual oil removal in a liquid are relevant to numerous research areas and industry. The suspended solid cannot be removed completely by plain settling. Large and heavy particles can settle out readily, but smaller and lighter particles settle very slowly or in some cases do not settle at all. Because of this, it requires efficient physical-chemical pretreatment methods.   Our current research is to study the pretreatment methods in the removal of suspended solids and residual oil content in POME. Preliminary analysis shows that POME contains 40,000 mg/L suspended solid and 4,000 mg/L oil and grease content that relatively very high compared to the maximum allowable limit by the Malaysian Department of Environment which are only 400 mg/L and 50 mg/L respectively. The methods chosen were coagulation-sedimentation method for suspended solids removal and solvent extraction for residual oil removal.  Jar test apparatus was used as the standard procedure for bench-scale testing and alum was used as the coagulant. Parameters studied were alum dosage, mixing time, mixing speed, sedimentation time and pH. For removal of residual oil, six different organic solvents; n-hexane, n-heptane, benzene, petroleum ether, pentane and petroleum benzene were used. For every solvent the effect of solvent ratio, mixing time, mixing speed and pH were analyzed. The results show that the optimum conditions in removal of suspended solid from POME were at pH 4.11, sedimentation time of 100 minutes and 150 rpm mixing speed with 1.5 hr mixing time. N-hexane give the best performance in extracting residual oil from POME with solvent to POME ratio of 6:10. It was estimated about 0.54 grams of oil and grease can be extracted with optimum variables at pH 4, mixing speed of 200 rpm, and 20 minutes mixing time.  Key Words: palm oil mill effluent, coagulation, suspended solid, residual oil, solvent extraction.

  15. SUPRI heavy oil research program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, K.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Castanier, L.M.

    1991-12-01

    The 14th Annual Report of the SUPRI Heavy Oil Research Program includes discussion of the following topics: (1) A Study of End Effects in Displacement Experiments; (2) Cat Scan Status Report; (3) Modifying In-situ Combustion with Metallic Additives; (4) Kinetics of Combustion; (5) Study of Residual Oil Saturation for Steam Injection and Fuel Concentration for In-Situ Combustion; (6) Analysis of Transient Foam Flow in 1-D Porous Media with Computed Tomography; (7) Steam-Foam Studies in the Presence of Residual Oil; (8) Microvisualization of Foam Flow in a Porous Medium; (9) Three- Dimensional Laboratory Steam Injection Model; (10) Saturation Evaluation Following Water Flooding; (11) Numerical Simulation of Well-to-Well Tracer Flow Test with Nonunity Mobility Ratio.

  16. Petroleum and natural gas in Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    Presentations made at the 7th Annual Illinois Energy Conference are compiled and reported. Specific topics include: Illinois petroleum and natural gas supply; energy use patterns for Illinois and the nation; impacts of the National Energy Act on the natural gas industry; natural gas for North America; natural gas supply under the Natural Gas Policy; US access to international oil; deregulation and its impact on the US petroleum supply; the US Energy Policy; petroleum pricing and taxation policies in Illinois; the high cost of energy and its impact on the poor; impact of increased fuel prices on Illinois' industrial future; energy prices and inflation; opportunities for energy conservation in transportaton; overview of energy and synfuels from biomass and wastes; an inventory of energy potential from biomass in Illinois; problems and potential of alcohol from agriculture; liquid and gaseous fuels from coal; and alternatives to liquid and gaseous fuels.

  17. Economics and regulation of petroleum futures markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    Because the futures market in petroleum products is a relatively recent phenomenon, the implications of public policies formulated for that market have not yet been fully explored. To provide the Office of Competition of the Department of Energy (DOE) with sufficient information to assess policy alternatives, Resource Planning Associates, Inc. (RPA) was asked to analyze the development of the futures market in No. 2 oil, assess the potential for futures markets in other petroleum products, and identify policy alternatives available to DOE. To perform this analysis, the criteria for a viable futures market was established first. Then, the experience to date with the 18-month-old futures market in No. 2 oil was examined, and the potential for viable futures markets in No. 6 oil, gasoline, jet fuel, and crude oil was assessed. Finally, how existing DOE regulations and prospective actions might affect petroleum futures market development was investigated.

  18. Canadian petroleum history bibliography. Release update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cass, D.

    2010-01-07

    The petroleum history bibliography was created over several years as a record dedicated to preserving the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. It comprises a list of more than 5000 publications, including books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles and stories of the many companies that have come and gone. It aims to include all publications and audio visual products from the Social Sciences and Humanities on company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry and humour. An author index is included. Most government documents are excluded as they are accessible through Library and Archives Canada. This bibliography is an ongoing piece of work, and welcomes any additions relating to the study and preservation of Canadian petroleum industry history.

  19. Unconventional petroleum: a current awareness bulletin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grissom, M.C. (ed.)

    1983-10-30

    The summaries in this bulletin cover both secondary and tertiary recovery of petroleum and the following topics under Oil Shales and Tar Sands: reserves and exploration; site geology and hydrology; drilling, fracturing, and mining; oil production, recovery, and refining; properties and composition; direct uses and by-products; health and safety; marketing and economics; waste research and management; environmental aspects; and regulations. These summaries and older citations to information on petroleum, oil shales, and tar sands back to the 1960's are available for on-line searching and retrieval on the Energy Data Base using the DOE/RECON system or commercial on-line retrieval systems. Retrospective searches can be made on any aspect of petroleum, oil shales, or tar sands, or customized profiles can be developed to provide current information for each user's needs.

  20. Canadian Petroleum Products Institute: Annual report 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Annual report of the Institute, which represents the refining and marketing sectors of the petroleum industry on environmental, health, safety, and business issues affecting the industry and Canadian society. The report describes the Institute; gives highlights for the year; describes the recipient of the first CPPI Chairman's Award, Dr. Linton Kulak; provides a general policy and guiding principles for environment, health, and safety; describes the environmental achievements and challenges of the Canadian petroleum industry; and describes industry economics and operations. A list of 1991 publications is also included.

  1. [Canadian Petroleum Products Institute]: Annual review, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-01-01

    The CPPI was created as a non-profit association of Canadian refiners and marketers of petroleum products. The Institute represents a membership of Canadian companies involved in refining, transporting and marketing of petroleum products. These companies supply domestic and industrial consumers with products ranging from gasoline and diesel fuel to asphalt. The Institute conducts research to develop industry policy on environmental, health, safety and business issues. This report covers industry operations, industry economics and financial performance, environmental protection and safety, awards, and publications.

  2. Canadian Petroleum Products Institute: Annual report 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The CPPI was created as a non-profit association of Canadian refiners and marketers of petroleum products. The Institute represents a membership of Canadian companies involved in refining, transporting and marketing of petroleum products. These companies supply domestic and industrial consumers with products ranging from gasoline and diesel fuel to asphalt. The Institute conducts research to develop industry policy on environmental, health, safety and business issues. This report covers industry operations, industry economics and financial performance, environmental protection and safety, awards, and publications.

  3. Strategic petroleum reserve data acquisition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merillat, P D; Bauer, A G

    1980-10-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve Data Acquisition System is a general purpose, digital data acquisition system designed for field use in the DOE's Strategic Petroleum Reserve testing and monitoring program. The system is computer driven, under the control of an operator. The system is designed to allow the operator to perform pre-test system configuration; test monitoring and control; and post test analysis. This document is a system description and an operator users manual. Topics covered include: configuration and running on-line tests, software documentation, and maintenance programming information.

  4. Petroleum contaminated soil in Oman: evaluation of bioremediation treatment and potential for reuse in hot asphalt mix concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamrah, Ahmad; Al-Futaisi, Ahmed; Hassan, Hossam; Al-Oraimi, Salem

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a study that aims at evaluating the leaching characteristics of petroleum contaminated soils as well as their application in hot mix asphalt concrete. Soil samples are environmentally characterized in terms of their total heavy metals and hydrocarbon compounds and leachability. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) present in the PCS before and after treatment was determined to be 6.8% and 5.3% by dry weight, indicating a reduction of 1% in the TPH of PCS due to the current treatment employed. Results of the total heavy metal analysis on soils indicate that the concentrations of heavy metals are lower when extraction of the soil samples is carried out using hexane in comparison to TCE. The results show that the clean soils present in the vicinity of contaminated sites contain heavy metals in the following decreasing order: nickel (Ni), followed by chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and vanadium (V). The current treatment practice employed for remediation of the contaminated soil reduces the concentrations of nickel and chromium, but increases the concentrations of all remaining heavy metals.

  5. HIDROKONVERSI KATALITIK RESIDU MINYAK BUMI: PENGARUH TEMPERATUR DAN WAKTU REAKSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartiniati Hartiniati

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Uji terhadap proses hidro-konversi katalitik residu petroleum dari unit refinery Plaju, Palembang dilakukan dengan menggunakan reaktor-batch berpengaduk (autoclave 1 liter pada kondisi standar: tekanan awal hidrogen 12 MPa dan rasio sulfur terhadap besi = 2.0. Studi dilakukan untuk melihat pengaruh perubahan temperatur dari 430, 450, dan 470oC serta waktu reaksi 30, 60, 90 menit terhadap distribusi produk dan jumlah konsumsi hidrogen. Hasil studi menunjukkan bahwa produk minyak, CO, CO2 dan hidrokarbon naik secara signifikan dengan naiknya temperatur dan waktu reaksi, namun sebaliknya produk cair bawah (liquid bottom cenderung turun. Pada kajian ini juga ditemukan bahwa konsumsi hidrogen naik dengan bertambahnya produk minyak, sehingga penggunaan hidrogen lebih efisien. Dengan demikian disimpulkan bahwa proses hidro-konversi katalitik dapat diterapkan pada residue petroleum untuk meningkatkan nilai tambah/kualitasnya. 

  6. The microbiology of hydorcarbon degradation in subsurface petroleum reservoirs: perspectives and prospects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roling, W.F.M.; Head, I.M.; Larter, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    The majority of the Earth's petroleum resource is partly biodegraded. This is of considerable practical significance and can limit economic exploitation of petroleum reserves and lead to problems during petroleum production. Knowledge of the microorganisms present in petroleum reservoirs, their

  7. Petroleum supply monthly with data from October 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This publication provides information on the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United states and major geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports, exports, PAD district movements, and inventories by major suppliers of petroleum products.

  8. Occupational Exposure to Chlorinated and Petroleum Solvents and Mycosis Fungoides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, Maria M; Olsen, Jorn; Villeneuve, Sara

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the potential association between occupational exposure to chlorinated and petroleum solvents and mycosis fungoides (MF).......To evaluate the potential association between occupational exposure to chlorinated and petroleum solvents and mycosis fungoides (MF)....

  9. Seismic Lines in National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska, NPR-A

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a part of U.S. Geological Survey Central Region Energy Resources Team National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska, Legacy Data Archive. The National Petroleum...

  10. Petroleum supply monthly, November 1996 with data for September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    Data presented in this report describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products fin the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  11. Petroleum supply monthly with data for December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This report presents statistical data on the production, imports, exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States.

  12. Petroleum supply monthly: September 1996, with data for July 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    Data presented in this report describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 56 tabs.

  13. Petroleum supply monthly, December 1998 with data for October 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. 82 tabs.

  14. Total Petroleum Systems of northern Afghanistan (tpsafg.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This shapefile includes polygons that describe U.S. Geological Survey delineated Total Petroleum Systems of northern Afghanistan. Each petroleum system is defined as...

  15. Evaluation of heavy metals in the soils of urban and peri-urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high concentration of Cd, Ni and Zn could be associated with tyre wear and combustion of petroleum from the heavy traffic prevalent in this part of the city. The Industrial source pollution stream was found to be less polluted in Mn and Fe which are even less than the control site. There is also continuous accumulation of ...

  16. Gas Hydrate Petroleum System Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, T. S.

    2012-12-01

    In a gas hydrate petroleum system, the individual factors that contribute to the formation of gas hydrate accumulations, such as (1) gas hydrate pressure-temperature stability conditions, (2) gas source, (3) gas migration, and (4) the growth of the gas hydrate in suitable host sediment can identified and quantified. The study of know and inferred gas hydrate accumulations reveal the occurrence of concentrated gas hydrate is mostly controlled by the presence of fractures and/or coarser grained sediments. Field studies have concluded that hydrate grows preferentially in coarse-grained sediments because lower capillary pressures in these sediments permit the migration of gas and nucleation of hydrate. Due to the relatively distal nature of the deep marine geologic settings, the overall abundance of sand within the shallow geologic section is usually low. However, drilling projects in the offshore of Japan, Korea, and in the Gulf of Mexico has revealed the occurrence of significant hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs. The 1999/2000 Japan Nankai Trough drilling confirmed occurrence of hydrate-bearing sand-rich intervals (interpreted as turbidite fan deposits). Gas hydrate was determined to fill the pore spaces in these deposits, reaching saturations up to 80% in some layers. A multi-well drilling program titled "METI Toaki-oki to Kumano-nada" also identified sand-rich reservoirs with pore-filling hydrate. The recovered hydrate-bearing sand layers were described as very-fine- to fine-grained turbidite sand layers measuring from several centimeters up to a meter thick. However, the gross thickness of the hydrate-bearing sand layers were up to 50 m. In 2010, the Republic of Korea conducted the Second Ulleung Basin Gas Hydrate (UBGH2) Drilling Expedition. Seismic data clearly showed the development of a thick, potential basin wide, sedimentary sections characterized by mostly debris flows. The downhole LWD logs and core data from Site UBGH2-5 reveal that each debris flows is

  17. Characterization of coal- and petroleum-derived binder pitches and the interaction of pitch/coke mixtures in pre-baked carbon anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriyapraphadilok, Uthaiporn

    Carbon anodes are manufactured from calcined petroleum coke (i.e. sponge coke) and recycled anode butts as fillers, and coal tar pitch (SCTP) as the binder. During the manufacturing of carbon anodes, coal tar pitch is mixed with calcined petroleum coke. The mix of binder, filler and some additives is heated to about 50°C above the softening point of the pitch, typically 160°C. This temperature is sufficient to enable the pitch to wet the coke particles. The mix is then either extruded, vibrated, or pressed to form a green anode. The binding between coke and pitch is very important to the anode properties. There are different binder pitches used in this work, which were standard coal tar pitch (SCTP-2), petroleum pitch (PP-1), gasification pitch (GP-115), coal-extract pitch (WVU-5), and co-coking pitches (HTCCP and OXCCP). Petroleum pitch is a residue produced from heat-treatment and distillation of petroleum fractions. Production of coal-extract pitch involves a prehydrogenation of coal followed by extraction using a dipolar solvent. Gasification pitches are distilled by-product tars produced from the coal gasification process. Co-coking pitch was developed in this work and was obtained from the liquid distillate of co-coking process of coal and heavy petroleum residue. Understanding of composition and structures of pitches from different sources and processes would lead to greater understanding of the binding properties of pitch in carbon anodes and was one of the main focuses in this study. Characterization of pitches by using different techniques including gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/mass spectrometry (MALDI/MS), 1H and 13C solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and 13C solid-state NMR yield important chemistry and structural information. The binding, or in other words the interactions in the pitch/coke mixture, is another interest in this

  18. The petroleum industry in 2003; L'industrie petroliere en 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This 2004 edition of the petroleum industry activities presents results and data concerning the crude oil prices evolution, the petroleum exploration and production in france and in the world, the para-petroleum industry, the hydrocarbons supplies, the refining, the quality evolution of the substitution products and fuels, the internal transports of petroleum products, the petroleum products storage, the petroleum products consumption, the petroleum products prices and taxation, the petroleum products distribution. (A.L.B.)

  19. REDUCING POWER PRODUCTION COSTS BY UTILIZING PETROLEUM COKE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin C. Galbreath; Donald L. Toman; Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    1999-09-01

    Petroleum coke, a byproduct of the petroleum-refining process, is an attractive primary or supplemental fuel for power production primarily because of a progressive and predictable increase in the production volumes of petroleum coke (1, 2). Petroleum coke is most commonly blended with coal in proportions suitable to meet sulfur emission compliance. Petroleum coke is generally less reactive than coal; therefore, the cofiring of petroleum coke with coal typically improves ignition, flame stability, and carbon loss relative to the combustion of petroleum coke alone. Although petroleum coke is a desirable fuel for producing relatively inexpensive electrical power, concerns about the effects of petroleum coke blending on combustion and pollution control processes exist in the coal-fired utility industry (3). The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) completed a 2-year technical assessment of petroleum coke as a supplemental fuel. A survey questionnaire was sent to seven electric utility companies that are currently cofiring coal and petroleum coke in an effort to solicit specific suggestions on research needs and fuel selections. An example of the letter and survey questionnaire is presented in Appendix A. Interest was expressed by most utilities in evaluating the effects of petroleum coke blending on grindability, combustion reactivity, fouling, slagging, and fly ash emissions control. Unexpectedly, concern over corrosion was not expressed by the utilities contacted. Although all seven utilities responded to the question, only two utilities, Northern States Power Company (NSP) and Ameren, sent fuels to the EERC for evaluation. Both utilities sent subbituminous coals from the Power River Basin and petroleum shot coke samples. Petroleum shot coke is produced unintentionally during operational upsets in the petroleum refining process. This report evaluates the effects of petroleum shot coke blending on grindability, fuel reactivity, fouling/slagging, and

  20. Synthetic Fuels and Biofuels: Questionable Replacements for Petroleum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-31

    Stability of Petroleum and Fischer-Tropsch Derived Fuels and Soy- Biofuel Blends. Fuel Gravimetric Solids in mg/100 mL fuel 100 mL Petroleum...Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6180--08-9168 Synthetic Fuels and Biofuels : Questionable Replacements for Petroleum...18. NUMBER OF PAGES 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Synthetic Fuels and Biofuels : Questionable Replacements for Petroleum Heather D. Willauer, George W

  1. Inhibition of retrogressive reactions in coal/petroleum co-processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schobert, H.H.; Tomic, J.

    1992-01-01

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of the reactions occurring at the onset of coke formation during the co-processing of coals with petroleum residua. The specific objectives include examination of chemical components, or groups of components, in coals and petroleum feedstocks to quantify and rank the effects of these components in retarding or enhancement of coke formation. The work involves bench scale reactions in microautoclaves, supplemented by studies of the carbonaceous residues by such techniques as diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. During this reporting period work focused on identification of mechanisms of coke formation. The objective of this task is to identify those compounds or components which are specifically responsible for initiating coke formation.

  2. Transportation challenges of retailing petroleum products in Akure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transportation is crucial for the distribution and retailing of petroleum products for consumption. However, the transportation of petroleum products is faced with varying degree of challenges. To this end, this study examines transportation challenges facing efficient retailing of petroleum products in Akure. The study collected ...

  3. The Nigerian petroleum downstream sector and product pricing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research has been designed to explore critically the history of the downstream petroleum sector and the trend of pricing of Nigeria's petroleum products - looking closely at the contentious issue of subsidy and formulate a statistical model for the appropriate pricing of locally produced petroleum products.

  4. 21 CFR 172.884 - Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. 172.884... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.884 Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons may be safely used in food, in accordance with the following prescribed conditions...

  5. 21 CFR 178.3650 - Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. 178.3650... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3650 Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons may be safely used, as a component of nonfood articles intended for use in...

  6. 21 CFR 573.740 - Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. 573.740... ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.740 Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons complying with § 172.884(a) and (b) of this chapter may be safely used in an amount not in excess...

  7. Petroleum Technology: From Refinery To Home, Business, and Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewell, John A.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the application of petroleum technology and presents activities designed to raise students' awareness of the importance of petroleum-based products in their lives. Includes a handout designed to help students understand the refining processes in which the crude oil from the drill site is transformed into nearly 6,000 petroleum-based…

  8. 10 CFR 490.804 - Eligible reductions in petroleum consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible reductions in petroleum consumption. 490.804... Alternative Compliance § 490.804 Eligible reductions in petroleum consumption. (a) Motor vehicles. Demonstrated reductions in petroleum consumption during the model year for which a waiver is requested that are...

  9. Screening and characterization of petroleum-degrading bacterium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in 250 ml flask, shaking at 150 r/min and 32°C, petroleum-degrading rate was 75 to 77%. The petroleum-degrading bacterium might be a useful resource for bioremediation of oil-contaminated soils and biotreatment of oil wastewater. Key words: Petroleum-degrading bacterium, screening, Bacillus cereus, bioremediation.

  10. Petroleum supply monthly, March 1999, with data for January 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four petroleum supply publications produced by the Petroleum Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  11. Petroleum Potentials and Well Log Evaluation from Niger Delta Basin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has being shown that the Niger Delta Basin has spectacularly maintained a thick sedimentary apron and certain petroleum geological features favourable for petroleum generation. This study reports the petroleum potential and well log evaluation of logs in three wells to characterize the reservoir sand bodies. The well log ...

  12. Canadian Petroleum Products Inst. annual report, 1992. Canadian Petroleum Products Inst. , rapport annuel 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) was created in 1989 as a nonprofit association of Canadian refiners and marketers of petroleum products. The objective of the CPPI is to serve and represent the refining and marketing sectors of the petroleum industry with respect to environment, health and safety, and business issues. CPPI conducts research to develop industry policy on a wide variety of environmental, health, safety and business issues. Key activities include: developing guidelines for the safe handling of petroleum products, establishing environmental policies, managing a national environmental protection network of over 100 centers across Canada; providing information on industry activities to the public; and developing working partnerships with government and public interest groups to address issues of common concern. An overview is provided of industry operations, economics and financial performance, and environmental protection and safety. Lists of CPPI publications, awards, standing committees, and officers are also included. 9 figs.

  13. Petroleum-collecting and dispersing chemicals for cleaning sea surface from thin petroleum slicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. H. Asadov,

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Monoethylolamide, diethylolamide and triethanolamine ester synthesized by us based on fish oil and their phosphate derivatives being surface-active and ecologically safe possess a high capacity of petroleum collecting and dispersing. When introducing phosphate group, a tendency to replacement of petroleum slick dispersing by its collection (accumulation into a spot is observed. Efficiency of the chemicals change depends on the type and concentration of ions in the water. Such salts as NaCl, KI, KBr, and MgSO4 positively influence petroleum-collecting activity whereas K2CO3 and NaHCO3 cause petroleum dispersing. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v28i2.5

  14. Biosurfactants: Promising Molecules for Petroleum Biotechnology Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DARNE GERMANO DE ALMEIDA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The growing global demand for sustainable technologies that improves the efficiency of petrochemical processes in the oil industry has driven advances in petroleum biotechnology in recent years. Petroleum industry uses substantial amounts of petrochemical-based synthetic surfactants in its activities as mobilizing agents to increase the availability or recovery of hydrocarbons as well as many other applications related to extraction, treatment, cleaning and transportation. However, biosurfactants have several potential applications for use across the oil processing chain and in the formulations of petrochemical products such as emulsifying/demulsifying agents, anticorrosive, biocides for sulphate-reducing bacteria, fuel formulation, extraction of bitumen from tar sands and many other innovative applications. Due to their versatility and proven efficiency, biosurfactants are often presented as valuable versatile tools that can transform and modernise petroleum biotechnology in an attempt to provide a true picture of state of the art and directions or use in the oil industry. We believe that biosurfactants are going to have a significant role in many future applications in the oil industries and in this review therefore, we highlight recent important relevant applications, patents disclosures and potential future applications for biosurfactants in petroleum and related industries.

  15. Effect of petroleum products on mangrove seedlings

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.; Untawale, A.G.

    The effect of petrol, diesel and motor oil was studied on the fruits of Rhizophora mucronata and Avicennia officinalis. The former species was found to be more resistant to these petroleum products than the latter, in which more toxic effect were...

  16. 77 FR 2714 - National Petroleum Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY National Petroleum Council AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of Renewal.... The Council will provide advice and recommendations to the Secretary of Energy on matters relating to...

  17. Online Petroleum Industry Bibliographic Databases: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Margaret B.

    This paper discusses the present status of the bibliographic database industry, reviews the development of online databases of interest to the petroleum industry, and considers future developments in online searching and their effect on libraries and information centers. Three groups of databases are described: (1) databases developed by the…

  18. Importance of soil physical characteristics for petroleum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Public PCs

    Petroleum and petrochemical hydrocarbons for some places are serious sources of environmental pollutants. To remediate these contaminants, phytoremediation, a relatively low cost and an environmental friendly technique is recommended more widely, now more than ever. Successful and effective applying of ...

  19. Facts 2000. The Norwegian Petroleum Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    Petroleum production on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS) in the North Sea, the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea totalled 2.7 bn scm oil equivalents (oe) up to 1998. Per December 1999, remaining reserves totalled 1.5 bn scm of oil, 1.2 bn scm oe gas and 0.2 bn scm oe of NGL/condensate. Twenty-eight exploration wells were completed or temporarily abandoned on the NCS in 1999. By 31 December 1999, 967 exploration wells had been completed or temporarily abandoned off Norway. Discoveries totalled 45-60 mill scm of oil and 45-70 bn scm of gas. Governmental approval was given in 1999 for the Tune, Borg and Sygna developments. Investment in exploration, field development and pipeline transport totalled about NOK 67 bn in 1998. Oil and gas production in 1999 was roughly on the par with 1998, while NGL/condensate sales rose by 19 per cent. The Balder, Gullfaks South, Jotun, Oseberg East, Visund and Aasgard projects came on stream during 1999. It is estimated that, with the present production rate, Norway's remaining discovered oil resources will last for 17 years, and gas, 93 years. The estimated value of Norwegian petroleum export in 1999 was NOK 168 bn, which is about 36% of the country's total earnings from foreign sales. Published by the Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum and Energy, the book is a major source of information on the Norwegian offshore petroleum activities.

  20. Biosurfactants: Promising Molecules for Petroleum Biotechnology Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Almeida, Darne G.; Soares Da Silva, Rita de Cássia F.; Luna, Juliana M.; Rufino, Raquel D.; Santos, Valdemir A.; Banat, Ibrahim M.; Sarubbo, Leonie A.

    2016-01-01

    The growing global demand for sustainable technologies that improves the efficiency of petrochemical processes in the oil industry has driven advances in petroleum biotechnology in recent years. Petroleum industry uses substantial amounts of petrochemical-based synthetic surfactants in its activities as mobilizing agents to increase the availability or recovery of hydrocarbons as well as many other applications related to extraction, treatment, cleaning, and transportation. However, biosurfactants have several potential applications for use across the oil processing chain and in the formulations of petrochemical products such as emulsifying/demulsifying agents, anticorrosive, biocides for sulfate-reducing bacteria, fuel formulation, extraction of bitumen from tar sands, and many other innovative applications. Due to their versatility and proven efficiency, biosurfactants are often presented as valuable versatile tools that can transform and modernize petroleum biotechnology in an attempt to provide a true picture of state of the art and directions or use in the oil industry. We believe that biosurfactants are going to have a significant role in many future applications in the oil industries and in this review therefore, we highlight recent important relevant applications, patents disclosures and potential future applications for biosurfactants in petroleum and related industries. PMID:27843439

  1. Assessment Of Shell Petroleum Development Company Extension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed Shell Petroleum Development Company Extension Services in Etche Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. Data were gathered form four categories of respondents drawn from the Company\\'s staff and the communities. A total of 180 respondents participated in the study. means scores and ...

  2. assessment of shell petroleum development company extension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. The study assessed Shell Petroleum DeVelopment Company Extension. Services in Etche Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. Data were gathered form four categories of respondents drawn from the. Company's staff and the communities. A total of 180 respondents participated in the study. means ...

  3. Petroleum habitat of East Siberia, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, J.W. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

    1994-03-01

    East Siberia comprises three petroleum provinces - Lena-Tunguska, Lena-Vilyuy, and Yenisey-Anabar - that occupy the area of the Siberian craton. Petroleum has been generated and has accumulated in Precambrian rifts beneath the sedimentary basins and, more importantly, within the section of the basin itself. The platformal deposits of the basins extend beneath overthrusts on the east and south and are covered by sedimentary rocks of the West Siberian province on the west. Permafrost and gas hydrate deposits are present throughout most of East Siberia. In the Lena-Tunguska province, rifts that developed during Riphean time are filled by thick sedimentary rocks, in which petroleum deposits have formed. In Early Cambrian time a barrier reef extended across the East Siberian craton from southeast to northwest. A lagoon to the west of this reef was the site of thick rhythmic salt deposits, which are the main seals for petroleum in the province. The sedimentary sections of the platform cover ranges in age from Late Proterozoic to Permian. More than 25 oil and gas fields have been discovered in the province, all in Riphean through Lower Cambrian rocks. 17 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Petroleum hydrocarbon degrading capability of freshwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Petroleum hydrocarbon degrading capability and growth profile of indigenous filamentous freshwater fungi from four (4) different streams were determined in vitro. The result indicated that the streams under investigation contained an average heterotrophic fungal count of 5.55 0.25x105 cfu ml-1 while the mean count of ...

  5. Remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted systems: Exploiting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The irrepressible quest for a cheap source of energy to meet the extensive global industrialization demand has expanded the frontiers of petroleum hydrocarbon exploration. These exploration activities amongst others often result in pollution of the environment, thus creating serious imbalance in the biotic and abiotic ...

  6. BIOREMEDIATION OF A PETROLEUM-HYDROCARBON

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES OBE

    an accelerated biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a polluted agricultural soil and implies ... biodegradation. Obahiagbon and Erhabor [4] compared with the effectiveness of treating refinery wastewater with pseudomonas and that of using Fusarium, and found the latter ... the study were to determine the effects.

  7. Cardiotoxicity induced by inhalation of petroleum products

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-07-17

    Jul 17, 2015 ... designed to investigate the effect of petroleum products on cardiac tissue architecture and creatine kinase (CK- MB). Forty male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to diesel, ... Creatine is a nitrogenous organic acid that occurs naturally in vertebrates and helps to supply energy to all cells in the body, ...

  8. Chromatographic techniques for petroleum and related products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barman, B.N.; Cebolla, V.L.; Membrado, L. [Equilon Enterprises LLC, Houston, TX (USA)

    2000-07-01

    Recent developments in chromatographic techniques for the separation and quantitative characterization of petroleum and related products are highlighted. Specifically, scope, applicability and versatility of individual techniques such as gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, supercritical fluid chromatography, thin-layer chromatography, and size-exclusion chromatography are discussed in some detail.

  9. National retail petroleum site census 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-06-15

    The retail gasoline industry provides automotive fuels and related goods and services for consumers. Through this infrastructure of retail gas stations, the public interacts with the broader petroleum industry, which encompasses the upstream (crude oil and development), as well as other elements of the downstream (product refining and marketing) sector. This document presented a national retail petroleum site survey. The purpose of the survey was to develop an understanding of the makeup of the petroleum marketing industry, specifically with respect to the retailing of automotive fuels. The results of the survey are also expected to provide perspectives on the markets in which petroleum producers operate. The report provided an overview of the survey and retail gasoline outlet representation. The report also discussed throughput efficiency; brands and marketers; as well as outlet features and offerings. It was concluded that the provision of goods or services other than gasoline is of vital importance to the competitiveness and viability of retail gasoline outlets, since the gross margin on gasoline itself is generally not sufficient to provide for the operating costs and reasonable return on the operation of these facilities. tabs., figs., appendices.

  10. Dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons in the Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Topgi, R.S.; Noronha, R.J.; Fondekar, S.P.

    Mean dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons, measured using UV-spectrophotometry, at 0 and 10m were 51 plus or minus 1 and 55 plus or minus 1.2 mu g/litre respectively; range of variation being between 28 and 83 mu g/litre. Very little difference...

  11. Petroleum and Political Change in Mexico,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    major spokesman on petroleum issues, Heberto Castillo. As a subcontractor and a hiring agent for PEmEXP the ZL2L1ES1 union has control over growing...quotations and concomitant discussion, see Jos6 Cabrera Parra, "Ningbn Capital Externo en Pemex: Reserva Para 100 ARos,1i 1jrpjjin’, July 319 1979, p. 1

  12. Strategic petroleum reserve planning and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiby, P.N.

    1996-06-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) is a government-owned stockpile of crude oil intended to serve as a buffer against possible oil market disruptions. The overall purpose of this project is to develop and apply improved models and tools for SPR management. Current project efforts emphasize developing new modeling tools to explicitly and flexibly portray oil market uncertainty and SPR planning risk.

  13. A heavy load for heavy ions

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 25 September, the two large coils for the dipole magnet of ALICE, the LHC experiment dedicated to heavy ions, arrived at Point 2 on two heavy load trucks after a 1200 km journey from their assembly in Vannes, France.

  14. Facts 2002. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The petroleum sector is highly significant for the Norwegian economy. Its share of gross domestic product, exports and total government revenues has been substantial over the past two decades, reaching a particularly high level in 2000 and 2001. The principal reason why revenues were so high in these two years is a combination of high oil prices, a strong USD against the NOK and historically high petroleum production. The share of petroleum investment in total capital spending in the Norwegian economy was at its highest in the early 1990s. Total investment in the petroleum sector has been above NOK 40 bn every year since 1992, and peaked in 1998 at roughly NOK 80 bn. Capital spending declined to around NOK 56.9 bn in 2001. The government's most important revenue sources in recent years have been cash flow from the state's direct financial interest (SDFI) and from taxes. Production of crude oil has averaged around three mill barrels per day since 1996. The figure for 2001 was 3.1 mill barrels. Including natural gas liquids (NGL) and condensate raises the 2001 average to 3.4 mill barrels oe per day. At 53 mill scm oe, gas production was also high in 2001. Oil production is expected to remain more or less unchanged over the next few years, and then to go into a gradual decline. Gas output, on the other hand, should expand substantially over the coming decade and is expected to be increasingly significant in Norwegian petroleum output in future. The petroleum sector is also a substantial player internationally. Norway ranks as the world's sixth largest producer and third largest net exporter of oil. It is also the world's third largest exporter of pipeline gas, and Norwegian foreign sales of this commodity accounted for about two per cent of global consumption in 2001. Roughly 10 per cent of west European gas consumption is covered from Norway. Several changes were made to state participation in the petroleum sector during 2001. The government sold

  15. Synthetic Petroleum for Department of Defense Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-11-01

    indeed, this would be necessary if the stock were to be further processed by catalytic cracking because of the catalyst poison- ing effect of...primary distillation step followed by hydrotreatlng of each fraction except the heavy fuel oil and catalytic reforming of the heavy naphtha fraction as...N) in the naphtha and distillate hydrotreaters. Catalytic reforming uses noble metal catalysts that require the pro- hydrotreating of the heavy

  16. Fact Sheet 1999. Norwegian Petroleum Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breivik, Jan

    1999-10-01

    As discussed in this publication, petroleum resources in the order of 9.5 billion (bn) standard cubic metres (scm) oil equivalents (oe) have been discovered on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS), 77 per cent in the North Sea, 19 per cent in the Norwegian Sea and four per cent in the Barents Sea. By the end of 1998, remaining reserves on the NCS totalled 1.6 bn scm of oil, 1.2 bn scm oe gas and 160 mill scm oe of natural gas liquids. Thirty-two exploration wells, including 21 wildcats and 11 for appraisal, were completed or temporarily abandoned on the NCS in 1998. 939 exploration wells had been completed or temporarily abandoned off Norway. In 1998 governmental approval was given for the Huldra, Snorre B phase II, Gullfaks satellites phase II and Yme Beta West. Norwegian offshore petroleum production in 1998 totalled 222.5 scm oe, including 168.9 mill scm oe of oil, 43.6 mill scm oe of gas and 10 mill scm oe of NGL/condensate. Oil production declined by 4 per cent compared with 1997, while gas sales rose by 2 per cent. The estimated value of Norwegian petroleum exports in 1998 was NOK 123 bn, or about 30 per cent of the country`s total earnings from foreign sales. Petroleum production and pipeline transport accounted for 12 per cent of Norway`s gross national product. Net government revenues from taxes and royalties on petroleum operations is put at 27.6 billion NOK. The publication also includes a list of white papers and a list of useful postal addresses. 23 figs., 14 tabs.

  17. Heavy Menstrual Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can cause heavy bleeding. • Medications—Blood thinners and aspirin can cause heavy menstrual bleeding. The copper intrauterine ... on the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and other pelvic structures. Endometrium: The lining of the uterus. Fibroids: Growths, ...

  18. Electrodialytic remediation of air pollution control residues in bench scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ferreira, Celia; Hansen, Henrik K.

    2008-01-01

    Air pollution control (APC) residue from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is considered a hazardous waste due to its alkalinity and high content of salts and mobile heavy metals. Various solutions for the handling of APC-residue exist in different regions; however, most commercial....... A system resembling conventional electrodialysis was designed and adjusted to fit the high solids content feed solution (10% APC residue, 90% water). Experiments were made in bench scale with raw residue (natural pH > 12), water pre-residue (natural pH > 12), acid pre-washed residue (pH 10), and acid......-treated residue (pH 2). Our results show that the soluble fraction of the toxic elements Pb, Cu, Cd and Zn was removed from the feed solution and concentrated in the concentrate solution. Furthermore, the leaching (leaching test at L/S 2) of these elements was substantially reduced during treatment (fig. 1...

  19. BIODEGRADATION OF PETROLEUM-WASTE BY BIOSURFACTANT-PRODUCING BACTERIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R; Grazyna A. Plaza, G; Kamlesh Jangid, K; Krystyna Lukasik, K; Grzegorz Nalecz-Jawecki, G; Topher Berry, T

    2007-05-16

    The degradation of petroleum waste by mixed bacterial cultures which produce biosurfactants: Ralstonia pickettii SRS (BP-20), Alcaligenes piechaudii SRS (CZOR L-1B), Bacillus subtilis (1'- 1a), Bacillus sp. (T-1) and Bacillus sp. (T'-1) was investigated. The total petroleum hydrocarbons were degraded substantially (91 %) by the mixed bacterial culture in 30 days (reaching up to 29 % in the first 72 h). Similarly, the toxicity of the biodegraded petroleum waste decreased 3 times after 30 days as compared to raw petroleum waste. Thus, the mixed bacterial strains effectively clean-up the petroleum waste and they can be used in other bioremediation processes.

  20. Petroleum industry 1996; L`industrie petroliere 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    A survey on petroleum industry activities in France and in the world in 1996 is presented. The different parts and themes of the study are: evolution of the petroleum market (international and French markets, supply and demand, prices, mark-up and taxation in France and in Europe); activities in the petroleum industries (exploration and production, maritime transportation, inland transportation and storage, refining, quality of petroleum products and substitution fuels, oil distribution); environment and safety (refining, distribution and evolution of products, pipeline and maritime transportation, exploration and production); situation of the sector`s companies (oil groups, para-petroleum French industry, scientific and technical research)

  1. Petroleum supply monthly with data for September 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    Data presented in this document describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. This document contains information on oil production, imports, exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). When aggregated, the data reported by the various petroleum sectors in this report approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the U.S.

  2. Application of high-temperature simulated distillation to the residuum oil supercritical extraction process in petroleum refining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raia; Villalanti; Subramanian; Williams

    2000-01-01

    The gas chromatographic method of high-temperature simulated distillation (HTSD) is described, and the results are presented for the application of HTSD to the characterization of petroleum refinery feed and products from solvent deasphalting operations. Results are presented for refinery residual feed, deasphalted oil, and asphaltene fractions from the residual oil supercritical extraction process. Asphaltene removal from petroleum residuum using solvent deasphalting results in the improved quality and high recovery of deasphalted oil product for use as lube oil, fluid catalytic cracking, or hydrocracker feedstocks. The HTSD procedure presented here proves valuable for characterizing the fractions from the deasphalting process to obtain the percentage yield with boiling point data over the range from approximately 36 degrees C (97 degrees F) to 733 degrees C (1352 degrees F), which covers the boiling range of n-paraffins of carbon number C5 to C108.

  3. Biodesulfurization of Petroleum Distillates—Current Status, Opportunities and Future Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olawumi O. Sadare

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur oxide (SO2 and hydrogen sulfide (H2S are considered as one of the major air pollutants in the world today. In addition, high sulfur levels in petroleum distillates can promote the deactivation of catalysts through poisoning in fluidized catalytic cracking (FCC during hydrocracking of the heavy distillates to lighter ones. The presence of high sulfur-containing compounds in the process streams could cause corrosion of piping and fittings and equipment, thereby damaging the pipelines and leading to air emissions of sulfur-containing compounds, which are undesirable for mankind and his environment. In many cases, a large quantity of SOx is released into the atmosphere when petroleum distillates that contain substantial amount of sulphur-containing compounds are used as fuel and combust. In this article, a short overview of different desulfurization methods that are employed to remove sulfur from petroleum distillates is provided. In particular, the review concentrates on biodesulfurization technique. In addition, this article intends to provide its readers current status of biodesulfurization (BDS. It critically analyses the trend in the development of the technology to showcase its strength and weakness that could pave a way for future opportunities. Approaches that are suitable to remediate sulfur-contaminated environment are discussed as well. Lastly, speculations on future directions or opportunities that require exploration are provided as a way of provoking the thoughts of researchers in this field.

  4. Petroleum supply monthly, May 1995 with data for March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-25

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  5. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1995 with data for April 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-28

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  6. Petroleum supply monthly with data from April 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  7. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1995 with data for May 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-27

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  8. Petroleum supply monthly, September 1995 with data for July 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-27

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  9. Petroleum supply monthly, with data for August 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  10. Petroleum Supply Monthly, September 1998, with data for July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-28

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the suppiy and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics

  11. Petroleum supply monthly - with data for May 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. This document contains a glossary.

  12. Petroleum supply monthly, March 1995 with data for January 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-30

    Data presented in this report for March 1995, describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  13. Treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted environment through bioremediation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kriti; Chandra, Subhash

    2014-01-01

    Bioremediation play key role in the treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated environment. Exposure of petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment occurs either due to human activities or accidentally and cause environmental pollution. Petroleum hydrocarbon cause many toxic compounds which are potent immunotoxicants and carcinogenic to human being. Remedial methods for the treatment of petroleum contaminated environment include various physiochemical and biological methods. Due to the negative consequences caused by the physiochemical methods, the bioremediation technology is widely adapted and considered as one of the best technology for the treatment of petroleum contaminated environment. Bioremediation utilizes the natural ability of microorganism to degrade the hazardous compound into simpler and non hazardous form. This paper provides a review on the role of bioremediation in the treatment of petroleum contaminated environment, discuss various hazardous effects of petroleum hydrocarbon, various factors influencing biodegradation, role of various enzymes in biodegradation and genetic engineering in bioremediation.

  14. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1995 with data for June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-25

    Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  15. Photoenhanced Toxicity of Petroleum to Aquatic Invertebrates and Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Mace G

    2017-07-01

    Photoenhanced toxicity is a distinct mechanism of petroleum toxicity that is mediated by the interaction of solar radiation with specific polycyclic aromatic compounds in oil. Phototoxicity is observed as a twofold to greater than 1000-fold increase in chemical toxicity to aquatic organisms that also have been exposed to light sources containing sufficient quantity and quality of ultraviolet radiation (UV). When tested under natural sunlight or laboratory sources of UV, fresh, and weathered middle distillates, crudes and heavy oils can exhibit photoenhanced toxicity. These same products do not exhibit phototoxicity in standard test protocols because of low UV irradiance in laboratory lighting. Fresh, estuarine, and marine waters have been shown to have sufficient solar radiation exposure to elicit photoenhanced toxicity, and a diversity of aquatic invertebrate and fish species can exhibit photoenhanced toxicity when exposed to combinations of oil and UV. Risks of photoenhanced toxicity will be greatest to early life stages of aquatic organisms that are translucent to UV and that inhabit the photic zone of the water column and intertidal areas exposed to oil.

  16. Molecular Biological Analysis of Microorganisms in Petroleum Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, J.; Son, H. A.; Im, K. C.; Back, K. H.; Kim, H. T.

    2014-12-01

    Microorganisms in petroleum reservoirs were analyzed to examine the potential to apply for microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). Genomic DNA (16S rDNA) were extracted from two heavy oil samples from Canadian oil sand and six light oil samples from the Salin fore-arc basin in Myanmar, and amplified using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. The microbes were identified by cloning the PCR products and pyrosequencing. Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria were common in both Canadian and Myanmar samples. Staphylococcus and Streptococcus belonging to the Firmicutes phylum are abundant in oil sands, while Propionibacteria belonging to the Actinobacteria phylum and Coprothermobacter, Streptococcus, and Clostridia belonging to the Frimicutes phylum are contained in Myanmar samples. Streptococcus is known to use crude oil as nutrient, and produce organic acid, bio-gas and polysaccharide that could reduce oil viscosity, improve permeability by dissolving carbonate cement from pores throat, and reduce interfacial tension between oil and rock/water surface. Clostridia produce acids and gases by methanogenesis that could improve oil recovery.

  17. [STATE OF THE SOIL IN THE TERRITORY OF THE CITY WITH THE DEVELOPED PETROLEUM-REFINING INDUSTRY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezin, I I; Suchkov, V V

    2015-01-01

    In 2013-2014, there was performed the study of the soil in the territory of the city of Novokuibyshevsk. The concentrations of heavy metals and petroleum products on the territory of the industrial zone of the city of Novokuibyshevsk were determined. The evaluation of concentrations ofanthropogenic toxicants was carried out in Novokuibyshevsk by means of laboratory monitoring of environmental pollution. The obtained values were compared with the MPC or in the absence of MPC--with tentatively permissible concentrations (TPC) of chemicals in soil background concentrations in the Volga region of Samara region, as well as with previous studies of the soil of the city of Novokuibyshevsk in 2005. The studies revealed that in 2014, if compared with 2005, concentrations of heavy metals in soil on the territory of the industrial zone of the city of Novokuibyshevsk and within the city border decreased. There were obtained significant differences in the soil content ofcadmium, copper, lead, Nickel and zinc in 2005 and 2013-2014. Unlike the content of salts of heavy metals, the content of petroleum products in the soil over the past 9 years had tended to increase. The maximum concentration of petroleum products was detected in the industrial zone of CHP-1. The number of samples with extremely high pollution rised from 4% to 8%, with high pollution--from 10% to 12%. Also, an increase in the number of samples with the level of 2-20 background values accounted from 56% to 66%. The gain in concentrations of petroleum in the soil on the territory of the city of Novokuibyshevsk was associated not only with the activity of the enterprises of oil refining and petrochemical industry, but also with the elevating number of road transport.

  18. The petroleum industry in 2002; L'industrie petroliere en 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This document presents the petroleum industry situation in 2002 on the following topics: the evolution of the crude oil prices, the world petroleum exploration and production, the french petroleum exploration and production, the para-petroleum industry, the supplies in hydrocarbons, the refining, the evolution of the products quality and the substitution fuels, the internal transportation of petroleum products, the petroleum products storage and the crisis management, the petroleum products consumption, the taxation of the petroleum products, the prices of the petroleum products, the distribution of the petroleum products. (A.L.B.)

  19. Survival Mediated Heavy Element Capture Cross Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveland, Walter; Yao, Larry

    2017-11-01

    Formally, the cross section for producing a heavy evaporation residue, σEVR, in a fusion reaction can be written as where E is the center of mass energy, and T is the probability of the colliding nuclei to overcome the potential barrier in the entrance channel and reach the contact point. PCN is the probability that the projectile-target system will evolve from the contact point to the compound nucleus. Wsur is the probability that the compound nucleus will decay to produce an evaporation residue rather than fissioning. However, one must remember that the Wsur term effectively sets the allowed values of the spin, which in turn, restricts the values of the capture and fusion cross sections. We point out the implications of this fact for capture cross sections for heavy element formation reactions.

  20. Fertilidade e contaminação por metais pesados e microrganismos fecais de um solo sob pastagem pela aplicação de lama residual urbana Soil fertility and contamination by heavy metals and faecal microorganisms as affected by biosolids application in pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Serrão

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Em vastas áreas do Alentejo, os solos sob pastagem natural apresentam baixa fertilidade. A aplicação de lama residual urbana (LRU veicula matéria orgânica (M.O. e nutrientes para o solo, mas também pode introduzir metais pesados e bactérias de origem fecal, pelo que é conveniente monitorizar o solo após a adição destes resíduos. Comparam-se as fertilizações orgânica com LRU e a mineral, nos efeitos em alguns índices de fertilidade e contaminação metálica e fecal de um solo derivado de xistos e grauvaques, no Alentejo, no 1º ano de um campo experimental com pastagens. O campo, com um esquema experimentalem “split-plot”, foi constituído por seis talhões de 0,5 ha, correspondentes a três tratamentos de fertilização (nula, mineral e orgânica, com LRU, em dois tipos de pastagem, natural e semeada. Aplicaram-se cerca de 13 t/ha de uma mistura de LRU das ETARs de tratamento secundário de Alvito e de Vila Nova de Baronia, com teores apreciáveis de M.O., N e Ca. A adubação incluiu N, P, K, Zn e Mo. Determinaram-se os valores de pH (H2O e os teores de M.O. total, N total, P e K “assimiláveis”, catiões de troca e de Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb e Zn extraíveis por água régia, em amostras de terra (fracção In wide areas of Alentejo, soils under natural pasture have low fertility. Urban biosolids (UB application introduce organic matter (O.M. and nutrients in the soil, but it can also add heavy metals and bacteria of faecal origin. Thus, soil monitoring after the application of these residues is required. Organic with UB and mineral fertilisations were compared regarding their effects on some fertility and metallic and faecal pollution indicators of a soil derived from schists and grauwacks, in the 1st year of a field experiment with pastures. The experimental layout was a split-plot design, with six plots of 0.5 ha, referring to three fertilisation treatments (“nil”, mineral, and organic, with UB, in natural and sown

  1. Electrodialytically treated MSWI APC residue as substitute for cement in mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Geiker, Mette Rica; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) are considered hazardous waste and need pretreatment prior to possible reuse. Here, two MSWI APC residues, from which the most mobile fraction of heavy metals and salts has been removed by carbonation and/or elect......Air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) are considered hazardous waste and need pretreatment prior to possible reuse. Here, two MSWI APC residues, from which the most mobile fraction of heavy metals and salts has been removed by carbonation and....../or electrodialytic remediation, were used in Portland cement mortar. Mortar bars with 15 % weight replacement of cement by APC residues showed compressive strengths up to 40 MPa after 28/32 days. Heavy metal and salt leaching from both crushed and monolithic mortars with APC residues was generally similar...

  2. Pulse steroid therapy in adult respiratory distress syndrome following petroleum naphtha ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamijo, Y; Soma, K; Asari, Y; Ohwada, T

    2000-01-01

    A suicide attempt by a 23-year-old woman involved ingestion of 1000 mL of petroleum naphtha. Early chemical pneumonitis was complicated by life-threatening, diffuse interstitial lung consolidation with pneumatoceles. Pulse steroid therapy beginning on day 17 was associated with remarkable resolution of interstitial consolidation, although an enlarging secondarily infected pneumatocele ruptured to produce a bronchopleural fistula. Thoracic surgery and antibiotic therapy resulted in improvement of the patient's respiratory condition, and she was discharged with no residual respiratory symptoms. High-dose corticosteroid therapy appears to be a useful addition to aggressive supportive treatment in late adult respiratory distress syndrome following hydrocarbon ingestion.

  3. Recent development in the treatment of oily sludge from petroleum industry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guangji; Li, Jianbing; Zeng, Guangming

    2013-10-15

    Oily sludge is one of the most significant solid wastes generated in the petroleum industry. It is a complex emulsion of various petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs), water, heavy metals, and solid particles. Due to its hazardous nature and increased generation quantities around the world, the effective treatment of oily sludge has attracted widespread attention. In this review, the origin, characteristics, and environmental impacts of oily sludge were introduced. Many methods have been investigated for dealing with PHCs in oily sludge either through oil recovery or sludge disposal, but little attention has been paid to handle its various heavy metals. These methods were discussed by dividing them into oil recovery and sludge disposal approaches. It was recognized that no single specific process can be considered as a panacea since each method is associated with different advantages and limitations. Future efforts should focus on the improvement of current technologies and the combination of oil recovery with sludge disposal in order to comply with both resource reuse recommendations and environmental regulations. The comprehensive examination of oily sludge treatment methods will help researchers and practitioners to have a good understanding of both recent developments and future research directions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Fly ashes from coal and petroleum coke combustion: current and innovative potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Aixa; Navia, Rodrigo; Moreno, Natalia

    2009-12-01

    Coal fly ashes (CFA) are generated in large amounts worldwide. Current combustion technologies allow the burning of fuels with high sulfur content such as petroleum coke, generating non-CFA, such as petroleum coke fly ash (PCFA), mainly from fluidized bed combustion processes. The disposal of CFA and PCFA fly ashes can have severe impacts in the environment such as a potential groundwater contamination by the leaching of heavy metals and/or particulate matter emissions; making it necessary to treat or reuse them. At present CFA are utilized in several applications fields such as cement and concrete production, agriculture and soil stabilization. However, their reuse is restricted by the quality parameters of the end-product or requirements defined by the production process. Therefore, secondary material markets can use a limited amount of CFA, which implies the necessity of new markets for the unused CFA. Some potential future utilization options reviewed herein are zeolite synthesis and valuable metals extraction. In comparison to CFA, PCFA are characterized by a high Ca content, suggesting a possible use as neutralizers of acid wastewaters from mining operations, opening a new potential application area for PCFA that could solve contamination problems in emergent and mining countries such as Chile. However, this potential application may be limited by PCFA heavy metals leaching, mainly V and Ni, which are present in PCFA in high concentrations.

  5. Toxicology of petroleum naphtha distillate vapors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, F W

    1976-12-01

    A unique opportunity was presented to observe the potentially toxic effects of an acute exposure to the vapors of petroleum naphtha distillate on a relatively large number of individuals. The immediate manifestation in all was dyspnea. The action on motor vehicle combustion suggested that some of this could have been due to oxygen deprivation; however, all individuals were dyspneic for several minutes after exposure. A few were cyanotic for several minutes after exposure. All were excited. Tremulousness and mild nausea followed the initial symptoms but were of brief duration. One individual manifested numerous premature ventricular contractions. Since his exposure was brief and since none of the others showed similar findings, it is unlikely that the exposure was causal. The central nervous system depression described in acute exposure cases of the intact (not distillate) petroleum naphtha fumes was not observed in any of this series. There were no delayed manifestations or complications.

  6. Natural gas and petroleum, the loveless revenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mabro, R. [Oxford Institute for Energy Studies (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    With the notable exception of the United States of America, petroleum and natural gas reserves are the government property. The exploitation of these resources can be carried out by or shared with a private company in agreement with the government, on the condition of land leasing, joint venture participation, or payment of specific taxes. This paper gives an historical review of worldwide petroleum and natural gas exploitation systems in use from the end of the nineteenth century to now. Nationalization, land leasing, production sharing contracts, foreign investments are discussed and illustrated with the examples of Arab and Middle East countries, Indonesia, Venezuela and USSR in their historical socio-economical and political contexts. The key of success lies in the adaptability of negotiations and in the establishment of mutual confidence agreements. (J.S.).

  7. India's Downstream Petroleum Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This study provides a holistic examination of pricing and investment dynamics in India's downstream petroleum sector. It analyses the current pricing practices, highlights the tremendous fiscal cost of current pricing and regulatory arrangements, and examines the sectoral investment dynamics. It also looks at potential paths towards market-based reform along which the Indian government may move, while at the same time protecting energy market access for India's large poor population.

  8. Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallgren, Paul

    2009-03-30

    Bioremediation has been widely applied in the restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated. Parameters that may affect the rate and efficiency of biodegradation include temperature, moisture, salinity, nutrient availability, microbial species, and type and concentration of contaminants. Other factors can also affect the success of the bioremediation treatment of contaminants, such as climatic conditions, soil type, soil permeability, contaminant distribution and concentration, and drainage. Western Research Institute in conjunction with TechLink Environmental, Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted laboratory studies to evaluate major parameters that contribute to the bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated drill cuttings using land farming and to develop a biotreatment cell to expedite biodegradation of hydrocarbons. Physical characteristics such as soil texture, hydraulic conductivity, and water retention were determined for the petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil. Soil texture was determined to be loamy sand to sand, and high hydraulic conductivity and low water retention was observed. Temperature appeared to have the greatest influence on biodegradation rates where high temperatures (>50 C) favored biodegradation. High nitrogen content in the form of ammonium enhanced biodegradation as well did the presence of water near field water holding capacity. Urea was not a good source of nitrogen and has detrimental effects for bioremediation for this site soil. Artificial sea water had little effect on biodegradation rates, but biodegradation rates decreased after increasing the concentrations of salts. Biotreatment cell (biocell) tests demonstrated hydrocarbon biodegradation can be enhanced substantially when utilizing a leachate recirculation design where a 72% reduction of hydrocarbon concentration was observed with a 72-h period at a treatment temperature of 50 C. Overall, this study demonstrates the investigation of the effects of

  9. The petroleum industry in 2005; L'industrie petroliere en 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This document provides information on the petroleum industry for the year 2005. It discusses the world gas and petroleum markets, the world and french petroleum exploration and production, the petroleum and byproducts industry in France, the hydrocarbons supplying, the refining in France, the evolution of the products and fuels substitution quality, the internal transports of petroleum products, the storage consumption and taxes of petroleum products, the prices and distribution of the petroleum products. (A.L.B.)

  10. Third World perspective on free petroleum trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-11-27

    It is ironic that just a few years after the two international oil-market disruptions of the 1970s, characterized by tension over supply security, today some industrialized countries are fearful of over-abundance of supply. They say it threatens their own petroleum industries' ability to survive. In the US, despite government-agency positions against protectionism from petroleum imports, the issue is still hot. This issue reviews several recent papers by energy experts from some of the countries the protectionists are most worried about. What most of them have in common is a need to use for first time their indigenous supplies of natural gas and oil. This issue also presents tabular data on the following: (1) U.S. natural gas spot prices as of Nov. 27, 1985; (2) Venezuela's refined petroleum-product export prices as of Nov. 6, 1985; (3) refining netback data for the U.S. Gulf and Wests Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore, with prices as of Nov. 22, 1985; (4) the fuel price/tax series for various 1984-85 dates for countries of the Western Hemisphere.

  11. Accelerated biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Owen; Singh, Ajay; Van Hamme, J

    2003-05-01

    Conventional landfarming approaches to bioremediation of refinery and other petroleum sludges are not acceptable environmentally and are banned in most North American jurisdictions. While initial bioreactor-based systems for treatment of these sludges required batch-cycle process-times of 1-3 months, an accelerated process has now been developed which can be completed in 10-12 days. In this process, up to 99% of total petroleum hydrocarbons are degraded and the sludges are converted from hazardous to non-hazardous according to the United States EPA's toxicity characteristic leachate procedure criteria. Understanding and exploiting mechanisms to improve hydrocarbon accession to the degrading microorganisms was a key development component of the process. Contrasting physiological mechanisms were observed for different component organisms of the mixed culture with respect to their associations with the hydrocarbon substrate; and the beneficial effects of using surfactants were demonstrated. The mixed culture used in the process exhibited a capacity for high-rate degradation of volatile organic carbons and the potential use of the culture as a liquid biofilter was demonstrated. The culture was also effective as an inoculant for the bioaugmentation of total petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil and as a de-emulsifier of oilfield emulsions and could transform some other environmental contaminants which are not predominant components of crude oil.

  12. Removal of petroleum hydrocarbons from contaminated groundwater by the combined technique of adsorption onto perlite followed by the O3/H2O2 process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussavi, Gholamreza; Bagheri, Amir

    2012-09-01

    Groundwater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons was treated using a combined system of adsorption onto powdered expanded perlite (PEP) followed by the O3/H2O2 process. The pretreatment investigations indicated a high capacity for PEP to remove petroleum hydrocarbons from the contaminated water. An experimental total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) adsorption capacity of 275 mg/g PEP was obtained at the natural pH of water. The experimental data fit best with the Freundlich isotherm model and pseudo-second-order adsorption model. The second phase of the experiment evaluated the performance of the O3/H2O2 process in the removal of residual TPH from pretreated water and compared the results with that of raw water. The O3/H202 process attained a maximum TPH removal rate for the pretreated water after 70 min, when 93% of the residual TPH in the effluent of the adsorption system was removed. Overall, the combination of adsorption onto PEP for 100 min and the subsequent treatment with the O3/H2O2 process for 70min eliminated over 99% of the TPH of highly petroleum-contaminated groundwater, with initial values of 162 mg/L. Therefore, we can conclude that the developed treatment system is an appropriate method of remediation for petroleum-contaminated waters.

  13. Determination of the specific heat petroleum derivates; Determinacao do calor especifico de derivados ultrapesados de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballesteros Hernandez, Julie A.; Zuniga Linan, Lamia; Jardini, Andre; Maciel, Maria Regina Wolf; Maciel Filho, Rubens Maciel [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica; Medina, Lilian Carmen [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    In the development of the specific mathematical modeling for heavy and ultra heavy petroleum fractions in a molecular distiller is very important the definition of physical and chemical parameters as density and specific heat of the mixture, the enthalpy of vaporization, among others, since they are used in the energy balance. Information on these properties and their variation with temperature are found in the open literature for mixture with few components (simple mixtures). However, for multicomponent solutions consisting of complex mixtures such as oil and its heavy and ultraheavy fractions, available data are few, or are limited to low temperatures. The specific heat is an important property in the energy balance. This property can be measured by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), which gives results with great sensitivity and accuracy. This paper presents the variation of specific heat with the temperature of ultra-heavy oil fractions in the range from 80 deg to 350 deg C . Through the study of this variation, the equation nowadays used can be adjusted, in order to determine the specific heat. New values of the constants are determined, so that the equation can be used for these complex products, optimizing the estimative of Cp and so no experimental data are always necessary for simulations. (author)

  14. Detection of gunshot residues using mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taudte, Regina Verena; Beavis, Alison; Blanes, Lucas; Cole, Nerida; Doble, Philip; Roux, Claude

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, forensic scientists have become increasingly interested in the detection and interpretation of organic gunshot residues (OGSR) due to the increasing use of lead- and heavy metal-free ammunition. This has also been prompted by the identification of gunshot residue- (GSR-) like particles in environmental and occupational samples. Various techniques have been investigated for their ability to detect OGSR. Mass spectrometry (MS) coupled to a chromatographic system is a powerful tool due to its high selectivity and sensitivity. Further, modern MS instruments can detect and identify a number of explosives and additives which may require different ionization techniques. Finally, MS has been applied to the analysis of both OGSR and inorganic gunshot residue (IGSR), although the "gold standard" for analysis is scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray microscopy (SEM-EDX). This review presents an overview of the technical attributes of currently available MS and ionization techniques and their reported applications to GSR analysis.

  15. Permeable bio-reactive barriers to address petroleum hydrocarbon contamination at subantarctic Macquarie Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidman, Benjamin L; Terry, Deborah; Wilkins, Dan; Spedding, Tim; Gras, Sally L; Snape, Ian; Stevens, Geoffrey W; Mumford, Kathryn A

    2017-05-01

    A reliance on diesel generated power and a history of imperfect fuel management have created a legacy of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination at subantarctic Macquarie Island. Increasing environmental awareness and advances in contaminant characterisation and remediation technology have fostered an impetus to reduce the environmental risk associated with legacy sites. A funnel and gate permeable bio-reactive barrier (PRB) was installed in 2014 to address the migration of Special Antarctic Blend diesel from a spill that occurred in 2002, as well as older spills and residual contaminants in the soil at the Main Power House. The PRB gate comprised of granular activated carbon and natural clinoptilolite zeolite. Petroleum hydrocarbons migrating in the soil water were successfully captured on the reactive materials, with concentrations at the outflow of the barrier recorded as being below reporting limits. The nutrient and iron concentrations delivered to the barrier demonstrated high temporal variability with significant iron precipitation observed across the bed. The surface of the granular activated carbon was largely free from cell attachment while natural zeolite demonstrated patchy biofilm formation after 15 months following PRB installation. This study illustrates the importance of informed material selection at field scale to ensure that adsorption and biodegradation processes are utilised to manage the environmental risk associated with petroleum hydrocarbon spills. This study reports the first installation of a permeable bio-reactive barrier in the subantarctic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Petroleum system of Northwest Java basin based on gravity data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widianto, E.

    2018-01-01

    Energy management in the upstream oil and gas sector becomes very important for the country’s energy security. The renewal of energy resources and reserves becomes necessary and is a must. In the oil and gas industry, gravity data is usually used only for regional surveys, but with the development of instrumentation technology and gravity software development, this method can be used for assessing oil and gas survey stages from exploration to production. This study was conducted to evaluate aspects of petroleum system and exploration play concept in the part of Northwest Java Basin, covering source rock deposition regions (source kitchen area, migration direction), development of reservoirs, structural and stratigraphic trap, based on gravity data. This study uses data from Bouguer gravity anomaly map by filtering process to produce a residual map depicting sedimentation basin configuration. The mapping generated 20 sedimentary basins in Java Island with the total hydrocarbon resources of 113 BBOE (Billion Barrel of Oil Equivalent). The petroleum system analysis was conducted in the Northwest Basin section. The final map produced illustrates the condition of petroleum system and play concept that can be used as exploration direction, expectedly reducing the risk of drilling failure.

  17. 21 CFR 172.250 - Petroleum naphtha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., under ultraviolet light to detect any residual fluorescent contamination. As a precautionary measure, it...-milliliter, and 2,000-milliliter capacity, equipped with tetrafluoroethylene polymer stopcocks. Erlenmeyer...

  18. [Plant biotests of soil and water, polluted with petroleum and petroleum products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petukhov, V N; Fomchenkov, V M; Chugunov, V A; Kholodenko, V P

    2000-01-01

    Reactiona of higher plants (mustard, oat, rye, salad, dill and barley) and microalgae (Euglena gracilis) on the contamination of soil and water with petroleum and oil products was studied. The germination of seeds was analyzed. The length of sprouts, dry biomass and length of plant roots, as well as the optical density of micro-algal broth culture were determined. Negative effects of soil and water contamination with petroleum and oil products on plant and microalgal parameters examined was shown. After biological destruction of contaminants by an association of destructor strains (Acinetobacter sp., Mycobacterium flavescens and Rhodoccocus sp.), the toxicity of contaminated mediums decreased. The data suggest that the integral toxicity of soil and water contaminated with petroleum and oil products and toxicity change during biodestruction of these pollutants can be analyzed by using plant test organisms.

  19. DIAGNOSTIC TEST FOR GARCH MODELS BASED ON ABSOLUTE RESIDUAL AUTOCORRELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhat Iqbal

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the asymptotic distribution of the absolute residual autocorrelations from generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedastic (GARCH models is derived. The correct asymptotic standard errors for the absolute residual autocorrelations are also obtained and based on these results, a diagnostic test for checking the adequacy of GARCH-type models are developed. Our results do not depend on the existence of higher moments and is therefore robust under heavy-tailed distributions.

  20. Application of enhanced gas chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry for monitoring petroleum weathering and forensic source fingerprinting in samples impacted by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Puspa L; Wong, Roberto L; Overton, Edward B

    2017-10-01

    Accurate characterization of petroleum hydrocarbons in complex and weathered oil residues is analytically challenging. This is primarily due to chemical compositional complexity of both the oil residues and environmental matrices, and the lack of instrumental selectivity due to co-elution of interferences with the target analytes. To overcome these analytical selectivity issues, we used an enhanced resolution gas chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) mode (GC/MS/MS-MRM) to eliminate interferences within the ion chromatograms of target analytes found in environmental samples. This new GC/MS/MS-MRM method was developed and used for forensic fingerprinting of deep-water and marsh sediment samples containing oily residues from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. The results showed that the GC/MS/MS-MRM method increases selectivity, eliminates interferences, and provides more accurate quantitation and characterization of trace levels of alkyl-PAHs and biomarker compounds, from weathered oil residues in complex sample matrices. The higher selectivity of the new method, even at low detection limits, provides greater insights on isomer and homolog compositional patterns and the extent of oil weathering under various environmental conditions. The method also provides flat chromatographic baselines for accurate and unambiguous calculation of petroleum forensic biomarker compound ratios. Thus, this GC/MS/MS-MRM method can be a reliable analytical strategy for more accurate and selective trace level analyses in petroleum forensic studies, and for tacking continuous weathering of oil residues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Heavy quark masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Massimo

    1990-01-01

    In the large quark mass limit, an argument which identifies the mass of the heavy-light pseudoscalar or scalar bound state with the renormalized mass of the heavy quark is given. The following equation is discussed: m(sub Q) = m(sub B), where m(sub Q) and m(sub B) are respectively the mass of the heavy quark and the mass of the pseudoscalar bound state.

  2. Stabilization of APC residues from waste incineration with ferrous sulfate on a semi-industrial scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtorp, Kasper; Jensen, Dorthe Lærke; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2002-01-01

    A stabilization method for air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) involving mixing of the residue with water and FeSO4 has been demonstrated on a semi-industrial scale on three types of APC residues: a semidy (SD) APC residue, a fly ash (FA), and an FA...... mixed with sludge (FAS) from a wet flue gas cleaning system. The process was performed in batches of 165-175 kg residue. It generates a wastewater that is highly saline but has a low content of heavy metals such as Cd, Cr, and Pb. The stabilized and raw residues have been subject to a range of leaching...

  3. Production of heavy water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, Larry S.; Brown, Sam W.; Phillips, Michael R.

    2017-06-06

    Disclosed are methods and apparatuses for producing heavy water. In one embodiment, a catalyst is treated with high purity air or a mixture of gaseous nitrogen and oxygen with gaseous deuterium all together flowing over the catalyst to produce the heavy water. In an alternate embodiment, the deuterium is combusted to form the heavy water. In an alternate embodiment, gaseous deuterium and gaseous oxygen is flowed into a fuel cell to produce the heavy water. In various embodiments, the deuterium may be produced by a thermal decomposition and distillation process that involves heating solid lithium deuteride to form liquid lithium deuteride and then extracting the gaseous deuterium from the liquid lithium deuteride.

  4. Applications of aerospace technology to petroleum extraction and reservoir engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L. D.; Back, L. H.; Berdahl, C. M.; Collins, E. E., Jr.; Gordon, P. G.; Houseman, J.; Humphrey, M. F.; Hsu, G. C.; Ham, J. D.; Marte, J. E.; hide

    1977-01-01

    Through contacts with the petroleum industry, the petroleum service industry, universities and government agencies, important petroleum extraction problems were identified. For each problem, areas of aerospace technology that might aid in its solution were also identified, where possible. Some of the problems were selected for further consideration. Work on these problems led to the formulation of specific concepts as candidate for development. Each concept is addressed to the solution of specific extraction problems and makes use of specific areas of aerospace technology.

  5. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1999, with data for May 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four petroleum supply publications produced by the Petroleum Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The Detail Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas--the US (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided from other sources.

  6. Preparation of Northern Mid-Continent Petroleum Atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerhard, Lee C.; Carr, Timothy R.; Watney, W. Lynn

    2003-02-24

    This report covers the fourth year of the Digital Petroleum Atlas (DPA) Project. The DPA is a longterm effort to develop a new methodology for efficient and timely access to the latest petroleum data and technology for the domestic oil and gas industry, research organizations and local governmental units. The DPA is a new and evolving approach to generating and publishing petroleum reservoir, field, play and basin studies.

  7. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1998, with data for February 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas--the US (50 States and District of Columbia), 5 PAD Districts and 12 Refining Districts. 16 figs., 56 tabs.

  8. 76 FR 57105 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... 49-51 percent of U.S. petroleum consumption. World crude oil production is highly concentrated... alone account for about 12 percent of all U.S. oil consumption.\\9\\ \\9\\ In 2009 Source: EIA Annual Energy... Heavy-Duty National Program that will reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fuel consumption for on-road...

  9. BOTANICAL DIVERSITY AND HEAVY METAL CONTENT IN THE RESIDUE MATRIX AND PLANTS AT THE MORAVIA DUMP IN MEDELLÍN, COLOMBIA DIVERSIDAD BOTÁNICA Y CONTENIDO DE METALES PESADOS EN LA MATRIZ DE RESIDUOS Y LAS PLANTAS EN EL BASURERO DE MORAVIA EN MEDELLÍN, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Solange Sanchez Pinzón

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available . Floristic characterization, plant tissue and residue matrix (RM analysis were conducted to establish the extent of heavy metal (HM pollution of the Moravia dump at Medellín, Colombia, a site that was inhabited by more than 17000 people since 1984. More than 65 plant species (28 families were identified, most of which were herbaceous. Content of HM in the (RM was determined in 14 different RM samples varied greatly among them, reaching 121 and 9600 mg/kg of Hg and Pb respectively. Mean content of HM (mg/kg in the RM had the following pattern: Pb > Ni > Cr > Hg > Cd. Uptake of HM from the RM to plants was evident in most sampled species, with concentrations of Pb, Cr, and Hg reaching maximum values of 1.0, 123.7, 263.7 mg/kg of Hg, Pb and Cr respectively. However, Lepidium virginicum excluded, estimated bioconcentration factors were not greater than 1.0. Given their adaptation, Bidens pilosa, Urochloa maxima and L. virginicum, appear to be suitable for the revegetation of Moravia. Twenty-four years after its closure, HM content in Moravia continue to be high and the local flora actively takes up HM. Since other studies have shown that in Moravia there is still production of lixiviates and that there is an active heavy metal transference to the local Moravia fauna, it is imperative to implement adequate control measures in order to control HM contamination at this site.Con el fin de establecer el nivel de contaminación por metales pesados (MP, se llevó a cabo una caracterización florística y análisis de la matriz de residuos (MR y muestras de tejidos vegetales en el morro de basuras de Moravia en Medellín, un antiguo botadero de basuras habitado desde 1984 por más de 17.000 personas. Se identificaron más de 65 especies vegetales, la mayoría de ellas herbáceas, agrupadas en 28 familias. El contenido de MP en 14 diferentes muestras de MR varió considerablemente, yendo de 121 y 9.600 mg/kg de Hg y Pb, respectivamente. El contenido

  10. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1997 with data from May 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  11. Marks on the petroleum fiscality; Reperes sur la fiscalite petroliere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-02-15

    This document offers some marks on the petroleum fiscality in France: the taxes as the 'accises' and the 'TVA', the part of the taxes in the sale price at the service station, the comparison with other countries of Europe, the tax revenues and the Government budget. It provides also marks on the fuels prices formation (margins), the world petroleum markets (supply and demand) and the part of the petroleum companies on the petroleum market. (A.L.B.)

  12. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1997 with data for November 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  13. Petroleum supply monthly, May 1999, with data for March 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary supplies of petroleum products in the US (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 72 tabs.

  14. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1999, with data for February 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 72 tabs.

  15. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1999, with data for April 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  16. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1998, with data for August 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. A feature article, Accuracy of petroleum supply data, is also included. 72 tabs.

  17. Petroleum supply monthly, February 1998 with data from December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  18. Petroleum supply monthly: July 1998, with data for May 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 56 tabs.

  19. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1998 with data for April 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  20. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1999 with data for November 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 82 tabs.

  1. Petroleum supply monthly, November 1998, with data for September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the Unites States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 72 tabs.

  2. Petroleum supply monthly, December 1997 with data from October 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregates, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  3. Petroleum supply monthly, February 1999, with data for December 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  4. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1998, with data for June 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 fig., 66 tabs.

  5. U.S. Virgin Islands Transportation Petroleum Reduction Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.

    2011-09-01

    This NREL technical report determines a way for USVI to meet its petroleum reduction goal in the transportation sector. It does so first by estimating current petroleum use and key statistics and characteristics of USVI transportation. It then breaks the goal down into subordinate goals and estimates the petroleum impacts of these goals with a wedge analysis. These goals focus on reducing vehicle miles, improving fuel economy, improving traffic flow, using electric vehicles, using biodiesel and renewable diesel, and using 10% ethanol in gasoline. The final section of the report suggests specific projects to achieve the goals, and ranks the projects according to cost, petroleum reduction, time frame, and popularity.

  6. Petroleum supply monthly, December 1995: With data for October 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas--the US (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. 16 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Petroleum supply monthly, May 1996 with data from March 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  8. Applied Geophysics Opportunities in the Petroleum Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olgaard, D. L.; Tikku, A.; Roberts, J. C.; Martinez, A.

    2012-12-01

    Meeting the increasing global demand for energy over the next several decades presents daunting challenges to engineers and scientists, including geoscientists of all disciplines. Many opportunities exist for geophysicists to find and produce oil and gas in a safe, environmentally responsible and affordable manner. Successful oil and gas exploration involves a 'Plates to Pores' approach that integrates multi-scale data from satellites, marine and land seismic and non-seismic field surveys, lab experiments, and even electron microscopy. The petroleum industry is at the forefront of using high performance computing to develop innovative methods to process and analyze large volumes of seismic data and perform realistic numerical modeling, such as finite element fluid flow and rock deformation simulations. Challenging and rewarding jobs in exploration, production and research exist for students with BS/BA, MS and PhD degrees. Geophysics students interested in careers in the petroleum industry should have a broad foundation in science, math and fundamental geosciences at the BS/BA level, as well as mastery of the scientific method, usually gained through thesis work at MS and PhD levels. Field geology or geophysics experience is also valuable. Other personal attributes typical for geoscientists to be successful in industry include a passion for solving complex geoscience problems, the flexibility to work on a variety of assignments throughout a career and skills such as teamwork, communication, integration and leadership. In this presentation we will give examples of research, exploration and production opportunities for geophysicists in petroleum companies and compare and contrast careers in academia vs. industry.

  9. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 754 - Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... found in the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, (1990 Edition) Statistical... Petroleum Reserves Production Act. 2 Natural gas and liquefied natural gas (LNG), and synthetic natural gas... authorization from the U.S. Department of Energy. ...

  10. Fact 2004. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gooderham, Rolf E. (ed.)

    2004-07-01

    The oil and gas sector is Norway's largest industry by value creation and has been a key driving force in Norwegian economic development for several decades. Developments in the petroleum industry are crucial for the future progress of Norwegian society and will remain so. While the petroleum sector has so far been characterised by growth, we can now see the beginning of a gradual reduction in the level of activity. This will have significant spin-offs for other industries and consequences for the Norwegian economy as a whole. Thus, it is important to ensure that profitable petroleum activities are pursued in order to moderate the pace of decline. This publication provides a broad picture of Norway's petroleum activities, and covers most aspects of the industry. It presents useful information and statistics on the sector both for those already familiar with this business and for readers who know less about it. Since petroleum production began on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS) in 1971, a total of 3.8 bn standard cubic metres of oil equivalent (scm oe) has been produced. This corresponds to just under 30 per cent of the original recoverable reserves, and so substantial oil and gas resources remain. The government's Report no 38 (2001-2002) to the Storting (the Norwegian Parliament) described a long-term scenario for the NCS in which estimates for recoverable reserves from the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate are recovered. It is very important to ensure that the long-term scenario is achieved based on due consideration of environmental and safety issues. Norway's role as a major energy producer must be reconciled with the ambition to be a pioneer in the environmental area. This goal has always characterized government policy towards the petroleum industry. The strong focus on the environment has created a positive trend in safeguarding environmental concerns on the NCS. Production of oil and natural gas liquids averaged 3.3 mill barrels a

  11. Reliability techniques in the petroleum industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, H. L.

    1971-01-01

    Quantitative reliability evaluation methods used in the Apollo Spacecraft Program are translated into petroleum industry requirements with emphasis on offsetting reliability demonstration costs and limited production runs. Described are the qualitative disciplines applicable, the definitions and criteria that accompany the disciplines, and the generic application of these disciplines to the chemical industry. The disciplines are then translated into proposed definitions and criteria for the industry, into a base-line reliability plan that includes these disciplines, and into application notes to aid in adapting the base-line plan to a specific operation.

  12. Technology management for heavy oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, R. [Wascana Energy Inc., Regina, AB (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    The framework for investment in research and development (R&D) at a medium-sized Canadian petroleum company is described. The importance of R&D is illustrated by a graph showing the strong positive correlation between R&D intensity and sales for companies in the mainstream oil and gas sector in the USA. Strong R&D efforts also help to maintain market share and enhance corporate ability to transfer technology into its operations. Three ways of structuring, developing, and transferring technology are outlined: using in-house R&D facilities, which is too costly for medium-sized firms; having a central group responsible for funding third-party R&D, transferring technology into the company, and being aware of technology activities within and outside the company; and complete decentralizing of R&D, in which operations decides how, when, and what to spend on R&D. For the medium-sized company, the second option is considered the best choice. Essential R&D administration practices for such a company are reviewed, including corporate support, an updated technology strategy, central funding with a separate budget from operations, a portfolio of R&D projects and ideas, collaboration with other organizations, and effective communication of R&D activity and results to the company. At the company studied, Wascana Energy, R&D is being focused on three priority areas: production technology, enhanced recovery, and heavy oil upgrading. It is estimated that the monetary benefits of R&D in these three areas could be as much as $100 million. The evaluation of R&D performance is then discussed and critical factors for R&D success are listed. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Microbial activity and soil organic matter decay in roadside soils polluted with petroleum hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykhailova, Larysa; Fischer, Thomas; Iurchenko, Valentina

    2015-04-01

    It has been demonstrated previously that hydrocarbon addition to soil provokes soil organic matter priming (Zyakun et al., 2011). It has further been shown that petroleum hydrocarbons deposit to roadside soils bound to fine mineral particles and together with vehicle spray (Mykhailova et al., 2014), and that hydrocarbon concentrations decrease to safe levels within the first 15 m from the road, reaching background concentrations at 60-100 m distance (Mykhailova et al., 2013). It was the aim of this study to (I) identify the bioavailability of different petroleum hydrocarbon fractions to degradation and to (II) identify the native (i.e. pedogenic) C fraction affected by hydrocarbon-mediated soil organic matter priming during decay. To address this aim, we collected soil samples at distances from 1 to 100 m (sampling depth 15 cm) near the Traktorostroiteley avenue and the Pushkinskaya street in Kharkov, as well as near the country road M18 near Kharkov, Ukraine. The roads have been under exploitation for several decades, so microbial adaptation to enhanced hydrocarbon levels and full expression of effects could be assumed. The following C fractions were quantified using 13C-CP/MAS-NMR: Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lignin, Aliphates, Carbonyl/Carboxyl as well as black carbon according to Nelson and Baldock (2005). Petroleum hydrocarbons were determind after hexane extraction using GC-MS and divided into a light fraction (chain-length C27, Mykhailova et al., 2013). Potential soil respiration was determined every 48 h by trapping of CO2 evolving from 20 g soil in NaOH at 20 ° C and at 60% of the maximum water holding capacity and titration after a total incubation period of 4 weeks in the lab. It was found that soil respiration positively correlated with the ratio of the light fraction to the sum of medium and heavy fractions of petroleum hydrocarbons, which indicates higher biodegradation primarily of the light petroleum hydrocarbon fraction. Further, soil respiration was

  14. Anomaly Detection Based on Sensor Data in Petroleum Industry Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, Luis; Sanchez-Pi, Nayat; Molina, José Manuel; Garcia, Ana Cristina Bicharra

    2015-01-01

    Anomaly detection is the problem of finding patterns in data that do not conform to an a priori expected behavior. This is related to the problem in which some samples are distant, in terms of a given metric, from the rest of the dataset, where these anomalous samples are indicated as outliers. Anomaly detection has recently attracted the attention of the research community, because of its relevance in real-world applications, like intrusion detection, fraud detection, fault detection and system health monitoring, among many others. Anomalies themselves can have a positive or negative nature, depending on their context and interpretation. However, in either case, it is important for decision makers to be able to detect them in order to take appropriate actions. The petroleum industry is one of the application contexts where these problems are present. The correct detection of such types of unusual information empowers the decision maker with the capacity to act on the system in order to correctly avoid, correct or react to the situations associated with them. In that application context, heavy extraction machines for pumping and generation operations, like turbomachines, are intensively monitored by hundreds of sensors each that send measurements with a high frequency for damage prevention. In this paper, we propose a combination of yet another segmentation algorithm (YASA), a novel fast and high quality segmentation algorithm, with a one-class support vector machine approach for efficient anomaly detection in turbomachines. The proposal is meant for dealing with the aforementioned task and to cope with the lack of labeled training data. As a result, we perform a series of empirical studies comparing our approach to other methods applied to benchmark problems and a real-life application related to oil platform turbomachinery anomaly detection. PMID:25633599

  15. Anomaly detection based on sensor data in petroleum industry applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, Luis; Sanchez-Pi, Nayat; Molina, José Manuel; Garcia, Ana Cristina Bicharra

    2015-01-27

    Anomaly detection is the problem of finding patterns in data that do not conform to an a priori expected behavior. This is related to the problem in which some samples are distant, in terms of a given metric, from the rest of the dataset, where these anomalous samples are indicated as outliers. Anomaly detection has recently attracted the attention of the research community, because of its relevance in real-world applications, like intrusion detection, fraud detection, fault detection and system health monitoring, among many others. Anomalies themselves can have a positive or negative nature, depending on their context and interpretation. However, in either case, it is important for decision makers to be able to detect them in order to take appropriate actions. The petroleum industry is one of the application contexts where these problems are present. The correct detection of such types of unusual information empowers the decision maker with the capacity to act on the system in order to correctly avoid, correct or react to the situations associated with them. In that application context, heavy extraction machines for pumping and generation operations, like turbomachines, are intensively monitored by hundreds of sensors each that send measurements with a high frequency for damage prevention. In this paper, we propose a combination of yet another segmentation algorithm (YASA), a novel fast and high quality segmentation algorithm, with a one-class support vector machine approach for efficient anomaly detection in turbomachines. The proposal is meant for dealing with the aforementioned task and to cope with the lack of labeled training data. As a result, we perform a series of empirical studies comparing our approach to other methods applied to benchmark problems and a real-life application related to oil platform turbomachinery anomaly detection.

  16. Anomaly Detection Based on Sensor Data in Petroleum Industry Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Martí

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anomaly detection is the problem of finding patterns in data that do not conform to an a priori expected behavior. This is related to the problem in which some samples are distant, in terms of a given metric, from the rest of the dataset, where these anomalous samples are indicated as outliers. Anomaly detection has recently attracted the attention of the research community, because of its relevance in real-world applications, like intrusion detection, fraud detection, fault detection and system health monitoring, among many others. Anomalies themselves can have a positive or negative nature, depending on their context and interpretation. However, in either case, it is important for decision makers to be able to detect them in order to take appropriate actions. The petroleum industry is one of the application contexts where these problems are present. The correct detection of such types of unusual information empowers the decision maker with the capacity to act on the system in order to correctly avoid, correct or react to the situations associated with them. In that application context, heavy extraction machines for pumping and generation operations, like turbomachines, are intensively monitored by hundreds of sensors each that send measurements with a high frequency for damage prevention. In this paper, we propose a combination of yet another segmentation algorithm (YASA, a novel fast and high quality segmentation algorithm, with a one-class support vector machine approach for efficient anomaly detection in turbomachines. The proposal is meant for dealing with the aforementioned task and to cope with the lack of labeled training data. As a result, we perform a series of empirical studies comparing our approach to other methods applied to benchmark problems and a real-life application related to oil platform turbomachinery anomaly detection.

  17. Native title: Its effects on petroleum exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vickery, E. [Minter Ellison Baker O`Loughlin, Adelaide, SA (Australia)

    1995-12-31

    The existence of native title in Australia was recognised by the High Court in its historic Mabo No.2 judgement on 3 June 1992. Native title is a shorthand expression used to describe those activities pursued by native peoples in connection with their traditional lands, in accordance with traditional law and custom. It could be extinguished in many ways, and once extinguished cannot be revived. Following an intense public debate, the Commonwealth enacted the Native Title Act (NTA) which, for most purposes, commenced on 1 January 1994. The NTA recognizes and protects native title, enabling its future extinguishment in only limited cases, principally by government acquisition for public purposes which are actually fulfilled. This paper discusses the meaning and application of the NTA and the Racial Discrimination Act, 1975 (RDA) together with their impact on onshore and offshore petroleum activities. It concludes that access to land and security of title are important to petroleum exploration and that exploration companies need to be aware of the conflicts between statutory exploration rights and the rights of native title holders as owners of the land. 1 photo.

  18. Modeling and forecasting petroleum futures volatility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadorsky, Perry [York Univ., Schulich School of Business, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-15

    Forecasts of oil price volatility are important inputs into macroeconometric models, financial market risk assessment calculations like value at risk, and option pricing formulas for futures contracts. This paper uses several different univariate and multivariate statistical models to estimate forecasts of daily volatility in petroleum futures price returns. The out-of-sample forecasts are evaluated using forecast accuracy tests and market timing tests. The TGARCH model fits well for heating oil and natural gas volatility and the GARCH model fits well for crude oil and unleaded gasoline volatility. Simple moving average models seem to fit well in some cases provided the correct order is chosen. Despite the increased complexity, models like state space, vector autoregression and bivariate GARCH do not perform as well as the single equation GARCH model. Most models out perform a random walk and there is evidence of market timing. Parametric and non-parametric value at risk measures are calculated and compared. Non-parametric models outperform the parametric models in terms of number of exceedences in backtests. These results are useful for anyone needing forecasts of petroleum futures volatility. (author)

  19. International petroleum statistics report, July 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report is published for the use of Members of Congress, Federal agencies, State agencies, industry, and the general public. The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1990, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years and annually for the three years prior to that. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1998; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1998; and OECD trade from 1988 through 1998. 4 figs., 44 tabs.

  20. Latin American petroleum sector at crossroads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, B.

    1992-07-06

    This paper reports that Latin America's petroleum industry stands at a precarious crossroads of change. Fundamental changes of democratization, privatization, and economic reform that have marked South America's petroleum sectors since the late 1980s are seeping into other Latin American regions. An unprecedented return of capital that had fled the region in the 1980s - Latin America's lost decade - is under way in full force. That demonstrates the improved credibility of the region's economic reform programs, reports the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). Even as those reform efforts marked progress in South America in 1991, however, that progress has been threatened in 1992 by political scandal, government crisis, and environmental controversy. Just as the fitful transition to capitalism in the former U.S.S.R. has threatened to collapse the former Soviet republics into chaos because of its economic fallout, so has economic reform in such nations as Brazil, Peru, and Venezuela stumbled. On the other hand, privatization continues apace in Argentina and Mexico. Those Latin American nations and others caught in the rising tide of privatization pulled by an increasingly market oriented global economy continue to avow their commitment to economic reform.

  1. International petroleum statistics report, March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report is published for the use of Members of Congress, Federal agencies, State agencies, industry, and the general public. The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1996; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1996; and OECD trade from 1986 through 1996.

  2. Kinetics of petroleum oil biodegradation by a consortium of three protozoan isolates (Aspidisca sp., Trachelophyllum sp. and Peranema sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kachieng’a

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum oil is a complex mixture of substances, the majority of which are hydrocarbons; the latter represent an extremely important and heterogeneous group of compounds that find their way into water resources by anthropogenic or natural ways. The majority of toxic hydrocarbon components of petroleum are biodegradable, where bioremediation using microbial species has become an integral process for the restoration of oil-polluted areas. In this study, three bioremediation processes, namely natural attenuation, nutrient supplementation by adding glucose and biostimulation by adding Tween® 80, were carried out in various petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in polluted water media using a consortium of three protozoan isolates (Aspidisca sp., Trachelophyllum sp. and Peranema sp.. A first-order kinetics model was fitted to the biodegradation data to evaluate the biodegradation rate and to determine the corresponding half-life time. First-order kinetics satisfactorily described the biodegradation of the petroleum-based contaminants under abiotic conditions. The results showed an increase in the percentage removal of petroleum oil at the lower petroleum concentrations and a gradual percentage decrease in removing petroleum oil residues occurred when there was an increase in the initial concentrations of the petroleum oil: 39%, 27%, 22%, 12%, 10% for various petroleum oil concentrations of 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 mg/L, respectively. A similar trend was also observed in the glucose-supplemented culture media where the reduction was 45% and 78% for petroleum concentrations of 250 mg/L and 50 mg/L, respectively. Biodegradation of between 33 and 90% was achieved at a Tween® 80 concentration of between 50 mg/L and 250 mg/L. The degradation rate constants for the natural attenuation process ranged between ≥0 to ≤0.50, ≥0 to ≤0.35, ≥0 to ≤0.25, ≥0 to ≤ 0.14 and ≥ 0 to ≤0.11 for petroleum oil concentrations varying from 50, 100, 150

  3. Children with health impairments by heavy metals in an e-waste recycling area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeng, Xiang; Xu, Xijin; Boezen, H. Marike; Huo, Xia

    E-waste recycling has become a global environmental health issue. Pernicious chemicals escape into the environment due to informal and nonstandard e-waste recycling activities involving manual dismantling, open burning to recover heavy metals and open dumping of residual fractions. Heavy metals

  4. HEAVY AND THERMAL OIL RECOVERY PRODUCTION MECHANISMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony R. Kovscek; Louis M. Castanier

    2002-09-30

    The Stanford University Petroleum Research Institute (SUPRI-A) conducts a broad spectrum of research intended to help improve the recovery efficiency from difficult to produce reservoirs including heavy oil and fractured low permeability systems. Our scope of work is relevant across near-, mid-, and long-term time frames. The primary functions of the group are to conduct direction-setting research, transfer research results to industry, and educate and train students for careers in industry. Presently, research in SUPRI-A is divided into 5 main project areas. These projects and their goals include: (1) Multiphase flow and rock properties--to develop better understanding of the physics of displacement in porous media through experiment and theory. This category includes work on imbibition, flow in fractured media, and the effect of temperature on relative permeability and capillary pressure. (2) Hot fluid injection--to improve the application of nonconventional wells for enhanced oil recovery and elucidate the mechanisms of steamdrive in low permeability, fractured porous media. (3) Mechanisms of primary heavy oil recovery--to develop a mechanistic understanding of so-called ''foamy oil'' and its associated physical chemistry. (4) In-situ combustion--to evaluate the effect of different reservoir parameters on the insitu combustion process. (5) Reservoir definition--to develop and improve techniques for evaluating formation properties from production information. What follows is a report on activities for the past year. Significant progress was made in all areas.

  5. Petroleum industry in 2004; L'industrie petroliere en 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document presents a detailed outlook of the petroleum industry in the world and more particularly in France in 2005: evolution of crude oil prices; petroleum exploration and production in the world and in France; the French para-petroleum and petroleum industry; the oil supplies; the refining activities; the evolution of products quality and the substitution fuels; the domestic transports, the storage and consumption of petroleum products; the fiscality, prices and distribution of petroleum products. (J.S.)

  6. Sonographic assessment of petroleum-induced hepatotoxicity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Exposure to petroleum products has been shown to have significant adverse effects on the liver which can manifest either as morphological or physiological changes. Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the effects of chronic exposure to some petroleum products on the liver of exposed workers using ...

  7. 21 CFR 172.882 - Synthetic isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Synthetic isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons. 172... hydrocarbons. Synthetic isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons may be safely used in food, in accordance with the... liquid hydrocarbons meeting the following specifications: Boiling point 93-260 °C as determined by ASTM...

  8. Impacts of petroleum hydrocarbons on fish communities of river ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of petroleum activities on the fish community of River Areba, a small rainforest river, in Niger Delta, Southern Nigeria were studied for one year, January to December, 2002. Two stations within the river stretch were studied; one close to the area of petroleum activities was marked as station 1 while the other 5.30 ...

  9. Cardiotoxicity induced by inhalation of petroleum products | Azeez ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exposure to petroleum products has been associated with high blood pressure. This study was designed to investigate the effect of petroleum products on cardiac tissue architecture and creatine kinase (CK- MB). Forty male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to diesel, kerosene and petrol by inhalation for eight weeks.

  10. The para-petroleum industry; L'industrie parapetroliere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The para-petroleum industry includes societies that realize studies and installations for the deposits exploitation. This document presents the situation of the para-petroleum industry in 2001, the world investment growth of the activity, the french societies financial results and an inventory of the main operations in the amalgamation domain. (A.L.B.)

  11. Isotopic Composition of Xenon in Petroleum from the Shell ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have measured the abundance and isotopic composition of xenon in petroleum samples from the Shell Bullwinkle Field off the coast of Louisiana. We used an oxidation and purification procedure designed to insure complete extraction and clean up of xenon from the petroleum. The xenon isotopic composition was ...

  12. Vermiremediation of Soils Contaminated with Mixture of Petroleum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    spilled in soils of mechanic workshops where different forms of petroleum products can migrate into same soil at same time or at different time. Vermiremediation data may contribute in recovering such soils which may have been abandoned or degraded due to contamination from petroleum products. Therefore, the aim of ...

  13. Effect of petroleum hydrocarbon pollution on the nutritional value of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of petroleum hydrocarbon pollution on the nutritional value of two varieties of ripe edible guava (Psidium guajava) fruits harvested from a petroleum hydrocarbon–polluted locality, Umudike, in Egbema were investigated. The results obtained were compared to identical guava fruits from an unpolluted area of ...

  14. Exchange rates, petroleum prices and price determination in Sierra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined the effects of monetary environment, exchange rate movement and petroleum prices on domestic prices in Sierra Leone by estimating a hybrid model of inflation. The empirical results showed that petroleum product prices, exchange rate as well as monetary factors determined inflation in Sierra Leone ...

  15. Optimal Scheduling of Petroleum Products Distribution in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is applied to the situation in the downstream petroleum sector in order to determine an efficient and equitable distribution of three blends of petroleum products, namely; Premium motor spirit (PMS) Dual purpose kerosene (DPK) and Automotive Gasoline (AGO). For effective distribution, three refineries and ...

  16. 40 CFR 1065.720 - Liquefied petroleum gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas. 1065.720... CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration Standards § 1065.720 Liquefied petroleum gas. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section...

  17. Probabilistic assessment methodology for continuous-type petroleum accumulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovelli, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    The analytic resource assessment method, called ACCESS (Analytic Cell-based Continuous Energy Spreadsheet System), was developed to calculate estimates of petroleum resources for the geologic assessment model, called FORSPAN, in continuous-type petroleum accumulations. The ACCESS method is based upon mathematical equations derived from probability theory in the form of a computer spreadsheet system. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Petroleum supply monthly with data for February 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    Data presented in this report describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describes production, imports, exports, PAD distruct movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products.

  19. Petroleum and international policy; Petrole et politique internationale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pertuzio, A

    2002-07-01

    To illustrate the relation between the petroleum and the international policy, the author presents the place of the petroleum industry in the international relations by an analysis of the historical aspects, the states and international organizations interventions and the prices evolution. (A.L.B.)

  20. Petroleum supply monthly: April 1996, with data from February 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    Data presented in this report describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the report present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas--the US (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD districts, and 12 Refining Districts. A future article gives a summer 1996 gasoline assessment. 16 figs., 66 tabs.