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Sample records for heavy metals present

  1. ' HEAVY METALS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    exposed fish were about 3-5 times higher than the concentrations detected in control fish. ... The outcome effect 15 impairment of carbohydrate metabolism, which caused fish ..... of pesticides, heavy metal, detergent and petroleum.

  2. Soil heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherameti, Irena [Jena Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Allgemeine Botanik und Pflanzenphysiologie; Varma, Ajit (eds.) [Amity Univ., Uttar Pradesh (India). Amity Inst. of Microbial Technology; Amity Science, Technology and Innovation Foundation, Noida, UP (India)

    2010-07-01

    Human activities have dramatically changed the composition and organisation of soils. Industrial and urban wastes, agricultural application and also mining activities resulted in an increased concentration of heavy metals in soils. How plants and soil microorganisms cope with this situation and the sophisticated techniques developed for survival in contaminated soils is discussed in this volume. The topics presented include: the general role of heavy metals in biological soil systems; the relation of inorganic and organic pollutions; heavy metal, salt tolerance and combined effects with salinity; effects on abuscular mycorrhizal and on saprophytic soil fungi; heavy metal resistance by streptomycetes; trace element determination of environmental samples; the use of microbiological communities as indicators; phytostabilization of lead polluted sites by native plants; effects of soil earthworms on removal of heavy metals and the remediation of heavy metal contaminated tropical land. (orig.)

  3. Effect of Heavy Metal Present in Cement Dust on Soil and Plants of Nokha (Bikaner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.(Mrs.Suruchi Gupta

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In Nokha(Bikaner cement industries emittes cement dust in nearby farmers fields. In these industries cement dust emitted contains traces of hexavalent chromium and lead well above permissible limit in area under investigation. However, cadmium and nickel were found below limits prescribed. To analyse heavy metals viz, Cr+6, lead, Cadmium and nickel one hundred and twenty samples were collected from four directions on surface and 20 cm depth, and analyzed on atomic absorption spectrophotometer. From the above study it is clear that in case of Sarvottam cement works only lead content was higher in all directions and depths than other two plants. At tiger and Nokha cement works contamination of lead was more over limited in the first 1 km except in east direction. Mobility of lead was relatively more on top soil than 20cm depth. Hexavalent chromium content in south western direction was more for Nokha cement. Whereas, it was more in east direction in case of tiger cement. This indicated influence of prevailing direction of wind on distribution of heavy metals present in cement dust.Heavy metal toxicity results in reduction in plant height, burning of leaf margins and tip, slow leaf growth and over all wilting of Prosopis cineraria, Pearlmillet and clusterbean plants, when this metal deposits in Human body results in genetic disorders. Electrostatic precipitator can be installed to reduce the cement dust emission.

  4. Heavy metal jako subkultura

    OpenAIRE

    KOUTNÁ, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with heavy metal subculture. Its aim is to introduce the most important branches and to show broadness of heavy metal. This bachelor thesis describes development and history, briefly shows Czech heavy metal history alongside with the biggest and most popular Czech heavy metal festivals. It shows the most dressing concerns of society against this style.

  5. Effect of Heavy Metal Present in Cement Dust on Soil and Plants of Nokha (Bikaner)

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.(Mrs).Suruchi Gupta; Sarika Sharma

    2013-01-01

    In Nokha(Bikaner) cement industries emittes cement dust in nearby farmers fields. In these industries cement dust emitted contains traces of hexavalent chromium and lead well above permissible limit in area under investigation. However, cadmium and nickel were found below limits prescribed. To analyse heavy metals viz, Cr+6, lead, Cadmium and nickel one hundred and twenty samples were collected from four directions on surface and 20 cm depth, and analyzed on atomic absorption spectrophotomete...

  6. Classification of heavy metal ions present in multi-frequency multi-electrode potable water data using evolutionary algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkra, Rashmi; Kumar, Prashant; Bansod, Baban K. S.; Bagchi, Sudeshna; Sharma, Pooja; Krishna, C. Rama

    2016-12-01

    Access to potable water for the common people is one of the most challenging tasks in the present era. Contamination of drinking water has become a serious problem due to various anthropogenic and geogenic events. The paper demonstrates the application of evolutionary algorithms, viz., particle swan optimization and genetic algorithm to 24 water samples containing eight different heavy metal ions (Cd, Cu, Co, Pb, Zn, Ar, Cr and Ni) for the optimal estimation of electrode and frequency to classify the heavy metal ions. The work has been carried out on multi-variate data, viz., single electrode multi-frequency, single frequency multi-electrode and multi-frequency multi-electrode water samples. The electrodes used are platinum, gold, silver nanoparticles and glassy carbon electrodes. Various hazardous metal ions present in the water samples have been optimally classified and validated by the application of Davis Bouldin index. Such studies are useful in the segregation of hazardous heavy metal ions found in water resources, thereby quantifying the degree of water quality.

  7. Giant voltage controlled magnetic anisotropy in heavy metal/ferromagnet/insulator junctions (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kioussis, Nicholas

    2016-10-01

    The realization of the MeRAM is based on the voltage control of the interfacial magnetocrystalline anisotropy (MCA) of heavy-metal/ferromagnet/insulator (HM/FM/I) nanojunctions, where the non-magnetic HM contact electrode (Ta, Pd, Pt, Au) has strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC). Employing ab initio electronic structure calculations we have investigated the effect of electric-field (E-field) and epitaxial strain on the MCA of Ta/FeCo/MgO heterostructure. We predict that uniaxial strain leads to a wide range of interesting voltage behavior of the MCA ranging from linear behavior with positive or negative magnetoelectronic coefficient, to non-monotonic ⋁-shape or inverse-⋀-shape E-field dependence with asymmetric magnetoelectronic coefficients. The calculations reveal that under a 4% compressive strain on MgO reaches the giant value of 1126 fJ/(V.m). The underlying mechanism is the synergistic effects of strain and E-field on the orbital characters, the energy level shifts of the SOC d-states, and the dielectric constant of MgO. These results demonstrate for the first time the feasibility of highly sensitive E-field-controlled MCA through strain engineering, which in turn open a viable pathway towards tailoring magnetoelectric properties for spintronic applications. * nick.kioussis@csun.edu This research was supported by NSF Grant No. ERC-TANMS-1160504

  8. Heavy Metal Fluoride Glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    i 2N E ihhhhh1112h MEmhhhhEEEohhhhE I.’....momo 111111111’-20 LA ’Ll2. AFWL-TR-86-37 AFWL-TR- 86-37 oT C ,l C ’-’ N HEAVY METAL FLUORIDE GLASSES 0nI...Secwrit CkasmfcationJ HEAVY METAL FLUORIDE GLASSES 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Reisfield, Renata; and Eyal, Mrek 13. TYPE OF REPORT 113b. TIME COVERED 114...glasses containing about 50 mole% of ZrF4 [which can be replaced by HfF 4 or TIF 4 (Refs. 1-3) or heavy metal fluorides based on PbF2 and on 3d-group

  9. Effects of heavy metals/metalloids present in fly ash from coal fired thermal power plant on photosynthetic parameters of Mangifera indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelima Meravi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work heavy metals/metalloids present in the fly ash emitted from a coal fired thermal power plant was estimated. The effects of heavy metals/metalloids present in the ash on various photosynthetic parameters (fluorescence, Fv/Fm, fluorescence quenching coefficients, relative electron transport rate, photosynthetic active radiation, ETR-Factor absorptance of photons by photosynthetic pigments etc. were estimated. Heavy metals/metalloids were estimated using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS, 7000 Shimadzu for Fe, Zn, Pb, Cd, Mo, Cu, Cr, Co and Ni and the standard solution was prepared using standard metal solution of Inorganic Ventures. Various photosynthetic parameters were estimated using JUNIOR-PAM, Chlorophyll Fluorometer, Heinz Walz GmbH, Germany. It was clear from the observed value of Fv/Fm (0.717 that the heavy metals/metalloids present in the fly have negative effects on plants because for a healthy plant Fv/Fm should not be less than 0.75. Similarly other parameters were also adversely affected by the presence of heavy metals/metalloids present in the fly ash that were deposited on the plants leaves. Therefore, the issue of fly ash emitted from thermal power plants need to be addressed in a proper way.

  10. Biosolids and heavy metals in soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Maria Lucia Azevedo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of sewage sludge or biosolids on soils has been widespread in agricultural areas. However, depending on their characteristics, they may cause increase in heavy metal concentration of treated soils. In general, domestic biosolids have lower heavy metal contents than industrial ones. Origin and treatment method of biosolids may markedly influence their characteristics. The legislation that controls the levels of heavy metal contents in biosolids and the maximum concentrations in soils is still controversial. In the long-term, heavy metal behavior after the and of biosolid application is still unknown. In soils, heavy metals may be adsorbed via specific or non-specific adsorption reactions. Iron oxides and organic matter are the most important soil constituents retaining heavy metals. The pH, CEC and the presence of competing ions also affect heavy metal adsorption and speciation in soils. In solution, heavy metals can be present either as free-ions or complexed with organic and inorganic ligands. Generally, free-ions are more relevant in environmental pollution studies since they are readily bioavailable. Some computer models can estimate heavy metal activity in solution and their ionic speciation. Thermodynamic data (thermodynamic stability constant, total metal and ligand concentrations are used by the GEOCHEM-PC program. This program allows studying heavy metal behavior in solution and the effect of changes in the conditions, such as pH and ionic strength and the application of organic and inorganic ligands caused by soil fertilization.

  11. The Heavy Metal Subculture and Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Steven; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Assessed relationship between heavy metal music and suicide with data on heavy metal magazine subscriptions and youth suicide in 50 states. Found that, controlling for other predictors of suicide, greater strength of metal subculture, higher youth suicide rate, suggests that music perhaps nurtures suicidal tendencies already present in subculture.…

  12. Hard rock, heavy metal, metal

    OpenAIRE

    Hein, Fabien

    2011-01-01

    Le terme générique metal désigne une multitude de genres et de sous-genres musicaux issus de l’appariement du hard rock et du heavy metal. Il résulte d’une agrégation sémantique consécutive de l’érosion et de l’interpénétration de ces termes au cours des années 1980. Leurs modèles canoniques, respectivement représentés par les groupes Led Zeppelin et Black Sabbath, se sont progressivement dilués sous l’effet d’une filiation particulièrement effervescente et féconde : black, thrash, doom, prog...

  13. Heavy Metal Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löbling, Lisa

    2017-07-01

    The metal enrichment in the cosmic circuit of matter is dominated by the yields of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) nucleosynthesis, that are blown back into the interstellar medium just before these stars die as white dwarfs. To establish constraints on AGB processes, spectral analyses of hot post-AGB stars are mandatory. These show that such stars are heavy metal factories due to the AGB s-process. The Virtual Observatory service TheoSSA offers access to synthetic stellar spectra calculated with our Tübingen non-local thermodynamic equilibrium model-atmosphere package that are suitable for the analysis of hot post-AGB stars.

  14. Effects of heavy metals on the Ca(2+)-ATPase activity present in gill cell plasma-membrane of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viarengo, A; Mancinelli, G; Pertica, M; Fabbri, R; Orunesu, M

    1993-11-01

    1. Heavy metals (Hg2+, Cu2+, Cd2+, Zn2+, Pb2+) at micromolar concentrations strongly inhibit the Ca(2+)-ATPase activity present in the plasma-membrane obtained from the gill cells of Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam. Heavy metals act through inhibition of the formation of the phosphorylated intermediate. 2. All the heavy metals tested inhibit the Ca(2+)-ATPase activity, the effect following the order: Hg2+ > Pb2+ > Cu2+ > Cd2+ > Zn2+; the simultaneous addition of different heavy metals causes a summatory inhibition of the enzyme activity; addition to the reaction mixture of GSH at a final concentration of 0.5 mM, reverses inhibitory effects of heavy metals. 3. The inhibitory effects of Cu2+ on Ca(2+)-ATPase are highly enhanced by addition of ascorbate to the reaction mixture. In the presence of ascorbate (100 microM), copper strongly stimulates the lipid peroxidation damage of the gill plasma-membranes, a result that may explain the high copper cytotoxicity.

  15. Poisoning of domestic animals with heavy metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velev Romel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The term heavy metal refers to a metal that has a relatively high density and is toxic for animal and human organism at low concentrations. Heavy metals are natural components of the Earth's crust. They cannot be degraded or destroyed. To a small extent they enter animal organism via food, drinking water and air. Some heavy metals (e.g cooper, iron, chromium, zinc are essential in very low concentrations for the survival of all forms of life. These are described as essential trace elements. However, when they are present in greater quantities, like the heavy metals lead, cadmium and mercury which are already toxic in very low concentrations, they can cause metabolic anomalies or poisoning. Heavy metal poisoning of domestic animals could result, for instance, from drinking-water contamination, high ambient air concentrations near emission sources, or intake via the food chain. Heavy metals are dangerous because they tend to bioaccumulate in a biological organism over time. Manifestation of toxicity of individual heavy metals varies considerably, depending on dose and time of exposure, species, gender and environmental and nutritional factors. Large differences exist between the effects of a single exposure to a high concentration, and chronic exposures to lower doses. The aim of this work is to present the source of poisoning and toxicity of some heavy metals (lead, mercury, cadmium, thallium, arsenic, as well as new data about effects of those heavy metals on the health of domestic animals. .

  16. Bioremoval of heavy metals by bacterial biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, Mahendra; Liakopoulou-Kyriakides, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals are among the most common pollutants found in the environment. Health problems due to the heavy metal pollution become a major concern throughout the world, and therefore, various treatment technologies such as reverse osmosis, ion exchange, solvent extraction, chemical precipitation, and adsorption are adopted to reduce or eliminate their concentration in the environment. Biosorption is a cost-effective and environmental friendly technique, and it can be used for detoxification of heavy metals in industrial effluents as an alternative treatment technology. Biosorption characteristics of various bacterial species are reviewed here with respect to the results reported so far. The role of physical, chemical, and biological modification of bacterial cells for heavy metal removal is presented. The paper evaluates the different kinetic, equilibrium, and thermodynamic models used in bacterial sorption of heavy metals. Biomass characterization and sorption mechanisms as well as elution of metal ions and regeneration of biomass are also discussed.

  17. Disorders of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woimant, France; Trocello, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals and trace elements play an important role in relation to the physiology and pathology of the nervous system. Neurologic diseases related to disorders of metabolism of copper and iron are reviewed. Copper disorders are divided into two classes: ATP7A- or ATP7B-related inherited copper transport disorders (Menkes disease, occipital horn syndrome, ATP7A-related distal motor neuropathy, and Wilson disease) and acquired diseases associated with copper deficiency or copper excess. Iron brain disorders are divided into genetic neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA, neuroferritinopathy, and aceruloplasminemia), genetic systemic iron accumulation with neurologic features (hemochromatosis), and acquired diseases associated with iron excess (superficial siderosis) or iron deficiency (restless leg syndrome). The main features of cadmium, lead, aluminum, mercury, and manganese toxicity are summarized.

  18. Failure Engineered Heavy Metal Penetrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    ARMY RESEARCH LABORATORY Failure Engineered Heavy Metal Penetrators, Phase I, SBIR ARL-CR-5· R. Cavalieri, W. Tiarn, and D. Nicholson prepared...REPORT DATE S. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED December 1992 Final Report-1/1/92 - 7/31/92 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE FAILURE ENGINEERED HEAVY METAL PENETRATORS

  19. Heavy metals and soil microbes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giller, K.E.; Witter, E.; McGrath, S.

    2009-01-01

    The discovery in the early 1980s that soil microorganisms, and in particular the symbiotic bacteria Rhizobium, were highly sensitive to heavy metals initiated a new line of research. This has given us important insights into a range of topics: ecotoxicology, bioavailability of heavy metals, the role

  20. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in soils along major roadside ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    Key words: Heavy metal contamination, roadside soils, enrichment factors, contamination factor, pollution load index ... The objectives of the present work were to: (1) Assess heavy metal ..... the basis of Varimax orthogonal rotation with Kaiser.

  1. Heavy Metal Pumps in Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, J.F.

    2000-10-01

    The long term goal of the funded research is to understand how heavy metals are taken up from the soil and translocated throughout the plant. The potential application of this research is to create plants with better heavy metal uptake systems and thereby improve the ability of these plants to help clean up toxic metals from soils. A rate limiting step is using plant for bioremediation is the normally poor capacity of plants to concentrate toxic metals. Our interest in metal ion transport systems includes those for essential mineral nutrients such as molybdenum, copper, iron, manganese, as well as toxic metals such as cerium, mercury, cesium, cadmium, arsenic and selenium. Understanding the pathways by which toxic metals accumulate in plants will enable the engineering of plants to exclude toxic metals and create healthier food sources, or to extract toxic metals from the soil as a strategy to clean up polluted lands and water.

  2. Selectivity sequences and sorption capacities of phosphatic clay and humus rich soil towards the heavy metals present in zinc mine tailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Pranav Kumar; Seth, Chandra Shekhar; Misra, Virendra

    2007-08-25

    Sorption efficacy of phosphatic clay and humus rich soil alone and on combination were tested towards heavy metals present in zinc mine tailing (Zawar Zinc Mine), Udaipur (India). Characterization of the zinc mine tailing sample indicated the presence of Pb, Cu, Zn and Mn in the concentration of 637, 186, 720 and 577microg(-1), respectively. For sorption efficacy, the zinc mine tailing soil were properly amended with phosphatic clay and humus rich soil separately and in combination and leachability study was performed by batch experiment at different pH range from 3 to 9. The data showed that the percent leachability of heavy metal in non-amended soil was 75-90%. After amendment with phosphatic clay percent leachability of heavy metals became 35-45%. Further, the addition of humus soil to phosphatic clay decreased the percent leachability up to 5-15% at all tested pH. Column leachability experiment was performed to evaluate the rate of leachability. The shape of cumulative curves of Pb, Cu, Zn and Mn showed an increase in its concavity in following order: PbCu>Zn>Mn. Further, Langmuir isotherms applied for the sorption studies indicated that phosphatic clay in the presence of humus soil had high affinity for Pb followed by Cu, Zn and Mn, with sorption capacities (b) 139.94, 97.02, 83.32 and 67.58microgg(-1), respectively.

  3. Multiple heavy metal removal using an entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gola, Deepak; Dey, Priyadarshini; Bhattacharya, Arghya; Mishra, Abhishek; Malik, Anushree; Namburath, Maneesh; Ahammad, Shaikh Ziauddin

    2016-10-01

    Towards the development of a potential remediation technology for multiple heavy metals [Zn(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), Cr(VI) and Ni(II)] from contaminated water, present study examined the growth kinetics and heavy metal removal ability of Beauveria bassiana in individual and multi metals. The specific growth rate of B. bassiana varied from 0.025h(-1) to 0.039h(-1) in presence of individual/multi heavy metals. FTIR analysis indicated the involvement of different surface functional groups in biosorption of different metals, while cellular changes in fungus was reflected by various microscopic (SEM, AFM and TEM) analysis. TEM studies proved removal of heavy metals via sorption and accumulation processes, whereas AFM studies revealed increase in cell surface roughness in fungal cells exposed to heavy metals. Present study delivers first report on the mechanism of bioremediation of heavy metals when present individually as well as multi metal mixture by entomopathogenic fungi.

  4. Radical formation by heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beuter, W.

    1982-09-01

    Certain reduced heavy metal ions can convert oxygen to a ''reactive oxygen species'' by donation of an electron. The reactive oxygen then attacks structures susceptible to oxidation, in particular unsaturated fatty acids, and peroxidizes them in a radical reaction. This process is inhibited by the presence of vitamin E and by other means. Peroxidized lipids decay forming free radicals in the process which themselves can peroxidise neighbouring lipids in a radical chain reaction. This decay is, moreover, catalysed by reduced heavy metal ions but on the other hand retarded by selenium-containing glutathione peroxidase. Radical formation by heavy metals is considerably involved in (i) the production of parenteral iron poisoning of the piglet (ii) haemolytic crisis occurring in ruminants through chronic copper poisoning (iii) the production of lead poisoning in ruminants and other animals. These types of poisonings are made worse by a deficiency of vitamin E and/or selenium. Factors which increase the bio-availability of the free heavy metal ion or reduce the redox potential thereof can aid radical formation as well as factors which lead to a reduction of the heavy metal ion e.g. cysteine, ascorbic acid or glucose.

  5. Phytochelatins: peptides involved in heavy metal detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Rama; Rai, J P N

    2010-03-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs) are enzymatically synthesized peptides known to involve in heavy metal detoxification and accumulation, which have been measured in plants grown at high heavy metal concentrations, but few studies have examined the response of plants even at lower environmentally relevant metal concentrations. Recently, genes encoding the enzyme PC synthase have been identified in plants and other species enabling molecular biological studies to untangle the mechanisms underlying PC synthesis and its regulation. The present paper embodies review on recent advances in structure of PCs, their biosynthetic regulation, roles in heavy metal detoxification and/or accumulation, and PC synthase gene expression for better understanding of mechanism involved and to improve phytoremediation efficiency of plants for wider application.

  6. (17) ACCUMULATION OF HEAVY METAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adeyinka Odunsi

    Acute toxicity of heavy metals is a rare phenomenon in nature but the intake of sub-‐lethal doses over an extended ... protein (14-40 %), potassium, iron, calcium, sodium .... Lead and chromium were not ..... combined treatments of nickel and.

  7. Heavy metals in Mindhola river estuary, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Rokade, M.A; Mandalia, A

    The heavy metal concentrations are studied along the Mindhola river estuary. Surface and bottom water samples were collected using Niskin Sampler. The sediment samples were collected using a Van Veen grab. The heavy metal concentration is estimated...

  8. Heavy metals in MSW incineration fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2003-01-01

    Incineration is a common solution for dealing with the increasing amount of municipal solid waste (MSW). During the process, the heavy metals initially present in the waste go through several transformations, ending up in combustion products, such as fly ash. This article deals with some issues r...

  9. Electrodialytic decontamination of heavy metal polluted soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Henrik K.; Karlsmose, Bodil

    1996-01-01

    Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted soil is a newly developed method, which combines the electrokinetic mevement of ions in soil with the principle of electrodialytis. The method has been proven to work in laboratory scale and at present two types of pilot plant tests are made....

  10. Advances in Understanding How Heavy Metal Pollution Triggers Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wenzhen; Yang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    With the development of industrialization and urbanization, heavy metals contamination has become a major environmental problem. Numerous investigations have revealed an association between heavy metal exposure and the incidence and mortality of gastric cancer. The mechanisms of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury, chromium, and arsenic) contamination leading to gastric cancer are concluded in this review. There are four main potential mechanisms: (1) Heavy metals disrupt the gastric mucosal barrier by decreasing mucosal thickness, mucus content, and basal acid output, thereby affecting the function of E-cadherin and inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) damage. (2) Heavy metals directly or indirectly induce ROS generation and cause gastric mucosal and DNA lesions, which subsequently alter gene regulation, signal transduction, and cell growth, ultimately leading to carcinogenesis. Exposure to heavy metals also enhances gastric cancer cell invasion and metastasis. (3) Heavy metals inhibit DNA damage repair or cause inefficient lesion repair. (4) Heavy metals may induce other gene abnormalities. In addition, heavy metals can induce the expression of proinflammatory chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) and microRNAs, which promotes tumorigenesis. The present review is an effort to underline the human health problem caused by heavy metal with recent development in order to garner a broader perspective.

  11. Advances in Understanding How Heavy Metal Pollution Triggers Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhen Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of industrialization and urbanization, heavy metals contamination has become a major environmental problem. Numerous investigations have revealed an association between heavy metal exposure and the incidence and mortality of gastric cancer. The mechanisms of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury, chromium, and arsenic contamination leading to gastric cancer are concluded in this review. There are four main potential mechanisms: (1 Heavy metals disrupt the gastric mucosal barrier by decreasing mucosal thickness, mucus content, and basal acid output, thereby affecting the function of E-cadherin and inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS damage. (2 Heavy metals directly or indirectly induce ROS generation and cause gastric mucosal and DNA lesions, which subsequently alter gene regulation, signal transduction, and cell growth, ultimately leading to carcinogenesis. Exposure to heavy metals also enhances gastric cancer cell invasion and metastasis. (3 Heavy metals inhibit DNA damage repair or cause inefficient lesion repair. (4 Heavy metals may induce other gene abnormalities. In addition, heavy metals can induce the expression of proinflammatory chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8 and microRNAs, which promotes tumorigenesis. The present review is an effort to underline the human health problem caused by heavy metal with recent development in order to garner a broader perspective.

  12. Micromycetes sensitiveness to heavy metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Korinovskaya

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of 33 micromycete species to nitric compounds of copper, lead, zinc, nickel and cadmium has been determined. Absidia butleri Lendn, Mortierella vanesae Dixon-Stewart, Cunninghamella echinulata Thaxte, Curvularia tuberculata Jain, Cladosporium cladosporiodes (Fresen G. A. de Vries and Fusarium solani (C. Mart. Appel et Wollenw are sensitive to minimal content of the heavy metals (0.75 of maximum permissible concentration (MPC in the growth medium. At the same time Trixoderma longibrachiatiim Rifai, Alternaria alternatа (Fr. Keissl and Penicillium sp. 4 demonstrated moderate growth under maximal concentration (50 MPC. It is determined that minimal content of the heavy metals in the initial stage of influence (up to 48 h promotes growth of only Fusarium oxysporum E. F. Sm. et Swingle, while retards growth of the other species.

  13. Bioremediation of Toxic Heavy Metals: A Patent Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Neelam; Sharma, Rajni

    2017-01-01

    The global industrialization is fulfilling the demands of modern population at the cost of environmental exposure to various contaminants including heavy metals. These heavy metals affect water and soil quality. Moreover, these enter into the food chain and exhibit their lethal effects on the human health even when present at slightly higher concentration than required for normal metabolism. To the worst of their part, the heavy metals may become carcinogenic. Henceforth, the efficient removal of heavy metals is the demand of sustainable development. Remedy: Bioremediation is the 'green' imperative technique for the heavy metal removal without creating secondary metabolites in the ecosystem. The metabolic potential of several bacterial, algal, fungal as well as plant species has the efficiency to exterminate the heavy metals from the contaminated sites. Different strategies like bioaccumulation, biosorption, biotransformation, rhizofilteration, bioextraction and volatilization are employed for removal of heavy metals by the biological species. Bioremediation approach is presenting a splendid alternate for conventional expensive and inefficient methods for the heavy metal removal. The patents granted on the bioremediation of toxic heavy metals are summarized in the present manuscript which supported the applicability of bioremediation technique at commercial scale. However, the implementation of the present information and advanced research are mandatory to further explore the concealed potential of biological species to resume the originality of the environment. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Leachability of heavy metals from solidified sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG HuYuan; WANG Bao; DONG XingLing; FENG Lei; FAN ZhiMing

    2009-01-01

    Solidified sludge undergoes progressive depletion of the alkalinity materials under natural weathering condition and releases out of heavy metals. The leaching of heavy metals from solidified sewage sludge was studied by acid neutralization capacity (ANC) test and flow-through leaching test. The results of ANC test showed that heavy metals release at high concentration when the pH of extract lowers than 6. The disintegration of solidified sludge and the transformation of heavy metals are the main reasons for the resolubilisation of contaminants. Flow-through leaching test indicated that leaching of heavy metals from solidified sludge occurs in a slow way. A mathematical model has been developed to predict the stabilization time of heavy metals in solidified sludge. The research results showed that decreasing hydraulic conductivity is more important than cement addition for controlling the release of heavy metals from solidified sludge.

  15. Heavy metals precipitation in sewage sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchioretto, M.M.; Rulkens, W.H.; Bruning, H.

    2005-01-01

    There is a great need for heavy metal removal from strongly metal-polluted sewage sludges. One of the advantages of heavy metal removal from this type of sludge is the possibility of the sludge disposal to landfill with reduced risk of metals being leached to the surface and groundwater. Another

  16. Heavy metals precipitation in sewage sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchioretto, M.M.; Rulkens, W.H.; Bruning, H.

    2005-01-01

    There is a great need for heavy metal removal from strongly metal-polluted sewage sludges. One of the advantages of heavy metal removal from this type of sludge is the possibility of the sludge disposal to landfill with reduced risk of metals being leached to the surface and groundwater. Another adv

  17. Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Europe estimated by moss analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruehling, Aa. [Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Lund (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology

    1995-12-31

    Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Europe including 21 countries was monitored in 1990-1992 by the moss technique. This technique is based on the fact that the concentrations of heavy metals in moss are closely correlated to atmospheric deposition. This was the first attempt to map heavy metal deposition in this large area. The objectives of the project were to characterise qualitatively and quantitatively the regional atmospheric deposition pattern of heavy metals in background areas in Europe, to indicate the location of important heavy metal pollution sources and to allow retrospective comparisons with similar studies. The present survey is a follow-up of a joint Danish and Swedish project in 1980 and an extended survey in 1985 within the framework of the Nordic Council of Ministers. In Sweden, heavy-metal deposition was first mapped on a nation-wide scale in 1968-1971 and 1975. (author)

  18. Leaching of heavy metals from steelmaking slags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, J. F. P.; Pino, C. G.

    2006-07-01

    Leaching tests with EAF and Ladle slags were performed, using a flow through tests and the standard batch test DIN 38414-S4. The previous method was used to simulate the leaching behaviour of steel slags under landfill. the chemical analysis of the leachates during this period shows, in general, for both types of slag, and increase of heavy metal releases with ageing. Standard test method DIN 38414-S4 was used to evaluate leachability of heavy metals by water in unprocessed slags. After more than one year of trials, slang samples submitted to these trials presented very low total leaching levels. The most extracted elements are calcium and magnesium. Nevertheless, in flow-though test, calcium and magnesium leached from solid slags are below 0.5% and all other metals below 0.1%. Leachates obtained with DIN 38414-S4 present, as expected, higher leaching values; however, these are inferior to 5% (Ca) and 1% (other elements). (Author) 12 refs.

  19. Remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil | Nanda |

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil. ... in intensive research aiming at understanding metal interactions in soil and their removal in an efficient way. ... This paper investigates the plant-microbial interactions in reclaiming the metal ...

  20. Heavy metals in plants and phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shuiping

    2003-01-01

    In some cases, soil, water and food are heavily polluted by heavy metals in China. To use plants to remediate heavy metal pollution would be an effective technique in pollution control. The accumulation of heavy metals in plants and the role of plants in removing pollutants should be understood in order to implement phytoremediation, which makes use of plants to extract, transfer and stabilize heavy metals from soil and water. The information has been compiled from Chinese publications stemming mostly from the last decade, to show the research results on heavy metals in plants and the role of plants in controlling heavy metal pollution, and to provide a general outlook of phytoremediation in China. Related references from scientific journals and university journals are searched and summarized in sections concerning the accumulation of heavy metals in plants, plants for heavy metal purification and phytoremediation techniques. Plants can take up heavy metals by their roots, or even via their stems and leaves, and accumulate them in their organs. Plants take up elements selectively. Accumulation and distribution of heavy metals in the plant depends on the plant species, element species, chemical and bioavailiability, redox, pH, cation exchange capacity, dissolved oxygen, temperature and secretion of roots. Plants are employed in the decontamination of heavy metals from polluted water and have demonstrated high performances in treating mineral tailing water and industrial effluents. The purification capacity of heavy metals by plants are affected by several factors, such as the concentration of the heavy metals, species of elements, plant species, exposure duration, temperature and pH. Phytoremediation, which makes use of vegetation to remove, detoxify, or stabilize persistent pollutants, is a green and environmentally-friendly tool for cleaning polluted soil and water. The advantage of high biomass productive and easy disposal makes plants most useful to remediate

  1. Balance of heavy metals in the Volga River delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kur'yakova, A. N.

    2011-08-01

    The results of many years of geochemical research of aquatic landscapes are presented. Data on the average annual and seasonal concentrations of heavy metals in water and suspended sediments are given. Factors of migration and accumulation of elements in aquatic landscapes are discussed. Masses of heavy metals annually incoming and accumulated in the Volga River delta were calculated.

  2. Biomolecules for removal of heavy metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Namita Ashish

    2017-02-23

    Heavy metals are natural constituents of the earth's crust, but some heavy metals like cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic etc. are injurious to living organisms at higher concentration. Nowadays, anthropogenic activities have altered geochemical cycles and biochemical balance of heavy metals. Biomolecules are used nowadays for removal of heavy metals compared to other synthetic biosorbents due to their environmental friendly nature and cost effectiveness. The goal of this work is to review research work and patents related to adsorption through biomolecules like polysaccharides, polypeptides, lignin etc. and bio-sorption by biological material that are used for heavy metal removal. Biomolecules are cost effective and there have been significant progresses in the remediation of heavy metals but, still there are some problems that need to be rectified for its application at industrial processes.

  3. Heavy metal removal from sediments by biosurfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, C N; Yong, R N; Gibbs, B F

    2001-07-30

    Batch washing experiments were used to evaluate the feasibility of using biosurfactants for the removal of heavy metals from sediments. Surfactin from Bacillus subtilis, rhamnolipids from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and sophorolipid from Torulopsis bombicola were evaluated using a metal-contaminated sediment (110mg/kg copper and 3300mg/kg zinc). A single washing with 0.5% rhamnolipid removed 65% of the copper and 18% of the zinc, whereas 4% sophorolipid removed 25% of the copper and 60% of the zinc. Surfactin was less effective, removing 15% of the copper and 6% of the zinc. The technique of ultrafiltration and zeta potential measurements were used to determine the mechanism of metal removal by the surfactants. It was then postulated that metal removal by the biosurfactants occurs through sorption of the surfactant on to the soil surface and complexation with the metal, detachment of the metal from the soil into the soil solution and hence association with surfactant micelles. Sequential extraction procedures were used on the sediment to determine the speciation of the heavy metals before and after surfactant washing. The carbonate and oxide fractions accounted for over 90% of the zinc present in the sediments. The organic fraction constituted over 70% of the copper. Sequential extraction of the sediments after washing with the various surfactants indicated that the biosurfactants, rhamnolipid and surfactin could remove the organically-bound copper and that the sophorolipid could remove the carbonate and oxide-bound zinc. Therefore, heavy metal removal from sediments is feasible and further research will be conducted.

  4. Modeling Heavy Metal Removal in Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    1976 a,b,c) and Pettersson (1976) treated heavy metals uptake according to Michaelis-Menten kinetics ( Lehninger , 1975), discussed later in detail...copper kinetics equation as used in this modeling effort is presented below, after Lehninger (1975): dv_ dV, Ca (5) dt dt C.+K, where: v = rate of copper...the bulk solution, Cb, using either the Lineweaver-Burk double reciprocal or Eadie-Hofstee graphical methods ( Lehninger , 1975). Nielsen (1976 b) used

  5. Heavy metal emissions for Danish road transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winther, M.; Slentoe, E.

    2010-04-15

    This report presents new heavy metal emission factors for cars, vans, trucks, buses, mopeds and motorcycles for each of the emission sources fuel consumption, engine oil, tyre wear, brake wear and road abrasion. The emission components covered are Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Mercury (Hg), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb), Selenium (Se) and Zinc (Zn), all of them relevant for emission reporting to the UNECE CLRTAP (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Convention on Long Range Transboundary Pollutants) convention. The report also presents a new Danish inventory for the year 2007. The following emissions in total TSP (in brackets) are calculated for the year 2007: As (8 kg), Cd (48 kg), Cr (197 kg), Cu (51 779 kg), Hg (28 kg), Ni (158 kg), Pb (6 989 kg), Se (33 kg) and Zn (28 556 kg). Per vehicle type cars are the most important source of emission for all heavy metal species, followed by vans, trucks, buses and 2-wheelers. By using the detailed emission factors and inventory calculation methods established in the present project, estimates of heavy metal emissions can be made for other years than 2007. (author)

  6. Toxicity of heavy metals and metal-containing nanoparticles on plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Ghazala; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2016-08-01

    Plants are under the continual threat of changing climatic conditions that are associated with various types of abiotic stresses. In particular, heavy metal contamination is a major environmental concern that restricts plant growth. Plants absorb heavy metals along with essential elements from the soil and have evolved different strategies to cope with the accumulation of heavy metals. The use of proteomic techniques is an effective approach to investigate and identify the biological mechanisms and pathways affected by heavy metals and metal-containing nanoparticles. The present review focuses on recent advances and summarizes the results from proteomic studies aimed at understanding the response mechanisms of plants under heavy metal and metal-containing nanoparticle stress. Transport of heavy metal ions is regulated through the cell wall and plasma membrane and then sequestered in the vacuole. In addition, the role of different metal chelators involved in the detoxification and sequestration of heavy metals is critically reviewed, and changes in protein profiles of plants exposed to metal-containing nanoparticles are discussed in detail. Finally, strategies for gaining new insights into plant tolerance mechanisms to heavy metal and metal-containing nanoparticle stress are presented. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Proteomics--a bridge between fundamental processes and crop production, edited by Dr. Hans-Peter Mock.

  7. Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie

    2012-01-01

    Electrodialytic soil remediation is a method for removal of heavy metals. Good results have previously been obtained with both treatment of a stationary, water saturated soil matrix and with remediation of a stirred suspension of soil in water. The two different setups have different uses......). In the stirred setup it is possible to shorten the transport route to few mm and to have a faster and continuous process. The present paper for the first time reports a direct comparison of the two options. The remediation of the stirred suspension showed faster than remediation of the water saturated soil even...... without a short distance between the membranes. The acidification of the suspended soil was fastest and following the mobilization of heavy metals. This may indicate that water splitting at the anion exchange membrane is used more efficiently in the stirred setup....

  8. MICROBIAL REMOVAL OF HEAVY METALS FROM WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Koc-Jurczyk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Industrialization and urbanization result in increase of heavy metals released into the environment (soil, lakes, rivers, seas, oceans, groundwater. Studies on biosorption of heavy metals are aimed to specify types of microorganisms which could efficiently bind metals. This approach has a very important significance for both slowing down metals exploitation by recovery, and also reduction of environmental pollution by decrease of their excessive concentration. Recent studies have reported about the capabilities of fungi, algae, yeasts, bacteria, waste and agricultural residues or materials containing chitosan derived from crustacean shells as a biosorbents. Biohydrometallurgy could be considered as a new “green” technology of heavy metals removal from wastewater.

  9. Influence of heavy metal pollution on lichens and bryophytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, D.N.; Robitaille, G.; LeBlanc, F.

    1977-05-01

    A close correlation was observed between metal accumulation levels and phytosociological and physiological changes produced in lichens and bryophytes in a sulfur dioxide and heavy metal polluted area around a copper smelter in Murdochville, Canada. This observation has prompted a discussion of some of the past and present research on ecology, phytosociology, and physiology of lichens and bryophytes with respect to heavy metal pollution. Hopefully this will lead to a better understanding of the use of these plants in the diagnosis of heavy metal pollution. Data are received on the accumulation of Ba, Cu, Pb, Sr and Zn in certain mosses and their corresponding substrates.

  10. Bioremediation of heavy metals using biostimulation in laboratory bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulekar, M H; Sharma, Jaya; Tendulkar, Akalpita

    2012-12-01

    The present research study investigates bioremediation potential of biostimulated microbial culture isolated from heavy metals waste disposal contaminated site located at Bhayander (east), Mumbai, India. The physicochemical and microbial characterization including heavy metal contaminants have been studied at waste disposal site. The microorganisms adapted at heavy metal-contaminated environment were isolated, cultured, and biostimulated in minimal salt medium under aerobic conditions in a designed and developed laboratory bioreactor. Heavy metals such as Fe, Cu, and Cd at a selected concentration of 25, 50, and 100 μg/ml were taken in bioreactor wherein biostimulated microbial culture was added for bioremediation of heavy metals under aerobic conditions. The remediation of heavy metals was studied at an interval of 24 h for a period of 21 days. The biostimulated microbial consortium has been found effective for remediation of Cd, Cu, and Fe at higher concentration, i.e., 100 mg/l up to 98.5%, 99.6%, and 100%, respectively. Fe being a micronutrient was remediated completely compared to Cu and Cd. During the bioaccumulation of heavy metals by microorganisms, environmental parameters such as pH, total alkalinity, electronic conductivity, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, etc. were monitored and assessed. The pilot scale study would be applicable to remediate heavy metals from waste disposal contaminated site to clean up the environment.

  11. Human health risk assessment of heavy metals in urban stormwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yukun; Egodawatta, Prasanna; McGree, James; Liu, An; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2016-07-01

    Toxic chemical pollutants such as heavy metals (HMs) are commonly present in urban stormwater. These pollutants can pose a significant risk to human health and hence a significant barrier for urban stormwater reuse. The primary aim of this study was to develop an approach for quantitatively assessing the risk to human health due to the presence of HMs in stormwater. This approach will lead to informed decision making in relation to risk management of urban stormwater reuse, enabling efficient implementation of appropriate treatment strategies. In this study, risks to human health from heavy metals were assessed as hazard index (HI) and quantified as a function of traffic and land use related parameters. Traffic and land use are the primary factors influencing heavy metal loads in the urban environment. The risks posed by heavy metals associated with total solids and fine solids (heavy metal does not pose a significant risk, the presence of multiple heavy metals could be detrimental to human health. These findings suggest that stormwater guidelines should consider the combined risk from multiple heavy metals rather than the threshold concentration of an individual species. Furthermore, it was found that risk to human health from heavy metals in stormwater is significantly influenced by traffic volume and the risk associated with stormwater from industrial areas is generally higher than that from commercial and residential areas.

  12. Heavy metals in packaging : a literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Putten EM; IMG

    2011-01-01

    The use of the heavy metals cadmium, mercury, chromium and lead in packaging is forbidden internationally for some years because these substances are harmful to the environment. In 2002 the Dutch national Inspectorate for the Environment determined the presence of heavy metals in packaging for consu

  13. Behaviour of heavy metals in soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, K.

    1977-01-01

    Fractions of Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb, Fe and Mn extractable with water, a salt solution and dilute acid, and residual fractions were determined in soils with raised contents of heavy metals, near zinc smelters, along a river formerly discharging heavy metals, and in a sewage farm. Special attention was paid

  14. Heavy Metal, Religiosity, and Suicide Acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Steven

    1998-01-01

    Reports on data taken from the General Social Survey that found a link between "heavy metal" rock fanship and suicide acceptability. Finds that relationship becomes nonsignificant once level of religiosity is controlled. Heavy metal fans are low in religiosity, which contributes to greater suicide acceptability. (Author/JDM)

  15. Heavy Metal Music and Adolescent Suicidal Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacourse, Eric; Claes, Michel; Villeneuve, Martine

    2001-01-01

    Studied differentiating characteristics of youth who prefer heavy metal music, worship music, and use music for vicarious release. Data for 275 secondary school students suggest that heavy metal music preference and worshipping is not related to suicidal risk when controlling for other suicide factors. Discusses findings in the context of…

  16. Biosorption of heavy metals by a marine bacterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, Anita [Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Bhavnagar 364002, Gujarat (India); Mody, Kalpana [Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Bhavnagar 364002, Gujarat (India)]. E-mail: khmody@csmcri.org; Jha, Bhavanath [Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Bhavnagar 364002, Gujarat (India)

    2005-03-01

    Heavy metal chelation property of exopolysaccharide produced by Enterobacter cloaceae, a marine bacterium, isolated from the West Coast of India, is reported in this paper. The exopolysaccharide demonstrated excellent chelating properties with respect to cadmium (65%) followed by copper (20%) and cobalt (8%) at 100 mg/l heavy metal concentration. However, it could not chelate mercury. A comparative study of the percentage biosorption of the above mentioned metals is presented here.

  17. Effect of heavy metals on soil fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosak-Świderska, Bożena

    2010-05-01

    Fungi constitute a high proportion of the microbial biomass in soil.Being widespread in soil their large surface-to-volume ratio and high metabolic activity, fungi can contribute significantly to heavy metal dynamics in soil. At neutral pH heavy metals in soils tend to be immobilized to precipitation and/or absorption to cation exchange sites of clay minerals. In the acidic soils, metals are more mobile and enter food webs easier. Microbial production of acids and chelating agents can mobilize to toxic metals. Mobilization is often by uptake and intracellular accumulation of the heavy metlas, and in this way, the bioavailability of metals towards other organisms can be more reduced. Fungi were isolated from soils from Upper Silesia in Poland and belonged to widespread genera: Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Penicillium and Trichoderma. Fungi from different taxonomic groups differ greatly in their tolerance to heavy metals. This could be related to their wall structure and chemistry as well as biochemical and physiological characteristics of fungi. Localization of metals in fungal cells was studied using electron microscopy analysis. Metal biosorption in the cell wall can be complex as melanin granules. Fungal vacuoles have an important role in the regulation of the cytosolic concentration of metal ions, and may contribute to heavy metal tolerance.In polluted soils with heavy metals, fungal species composition can be changed and their physiological activity can be changed, too.

  18. Bioindication of a surplus of heavy metals in terrestrial ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, W H; Verkleij, J A; Vooijs, R

    1983-09-01

    A survey of the methods of boindication of heavy metals in terrestrial ecosystems and their effectiveness for predicting the consequences of environmental stress on organisms is presented. Two main inputs of heavy metals for terrestrial ecosystems have been considered: airborne and soil-borne.Airborne metals can be monitored due to physical adsorption on plant surfaces or due to chemical exchange processes in cell walls. Active biomonitoring widely uses both aspects, however, without predictive values.Meaningful bioindication of soilborne heavy metals can only be achieved by passive monitoring. Due to the different functions of heavy metals in organisms-micronutrients and trace elements-the knowledge of natural background values is important, considering the qualitative aspects of metals in the soil. In exceptional situations morphological and anatomical changes of plant organs will facilitate bioindication; in every case chemical analysis of the concentration of heavy metals is an essential part of the monitoring program.A long-term exposure of organisms to heavy metals will influence the genetic structure of populations. Therefore measurement of heavy metal tolerance of plants has to be a standard procedure in monitoring programs.

  19. Biomedical Implications of Heavy Metals Induced Imbalances in Redox Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shweta; Siddiqi, Nikhat J.

    2014-01-01

    Several workers have extensively worked out the metal induced toxicity and have reported the toxic and carcinogenic effects of metals in human and animals. It is well known that these metals play a crucial role in facilitating normal biological functions of cells as well. One of the major mechanisms associated with heavy metal toxicity has been attributed to generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, which develops imbalance between the prooxidant elements and the antioxidants (reducing elements) in the body. In this process, a shift to the former is termed as oxidative stress. The oxidative stress mediated toxicity of heavy metals involves damage primarily to liver (hepatotoxicity), central nervous system (neurotoxicity), DNA (genotoxicity), and kidney (nephrotoxicity) in animals and humans. Heavy metals are reported to impact signaling cascade and associated factors leading to apoptosis. The present review illustrates an account of the current knowledge about the effects of heavy metals (mainly arsenic, lead, mercury, and cadmium) induced oxidative stress as well as the possible remedies of metal(s) toxicity through natural/synthetic antioxidants, which may render their effects by reducing the concentration of toxic metal(s). This paper primarily concerns the clinicopathological and biomedical implications of heavy metals induced oxidative stress and their toxicity management in mammals. PMID:25184144

  20. Material Removes Heavy Metal Ions From Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Warren H., Jr.; Street, Kenneth W.; Hill, Carol; Savino, Joseph M.

    1995-01-01

    New high capacity ion-exchange polymer material removes toxic metal cations from contaminated water. Offers several advantages. High sensitivities for such heavy metals as lead, cadmium, and copper and capable of reducing concentrations in aqueous solutions to parts-per-billion range. Removes cations even when calcium present. Material made into variety of forms, such as thin films, coatings, pellets, and fibers. As result, adapted to many applications to purify contaminated water, usually hard wherever found, whether in wastewater-treatment systems, lakes, ponds, industrial plants, or homes. Another important feature that adsorbed metals easily reclaimed by either destructive or nondestructive process. Other tests show ion-exchange polymer made inexpensively; easy to use; strong, flexible, not easily torn; and chemically stable in storage, in aqueous solutions, and in acidic or basic solution.

  1. Heavy Metals Levels in Fish Samples from North Central Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2014-12-24

    Dec 24, 2014 ... Most aquatic organisms are capable of accumulating heavy metals to concentrations much higher than those present in water ... of their perseverance, high toxicity and their ... levels in water, sediment and fish food organism.

  2. Heavy metal accumulation in a flow restricted, tropical estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Balachandran, K.K.; Laluraj, C.M.; Nair, M.; Joseph, T.; Sheeba, P.; Venugopal, P.

    Levels of heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn), organic carbon content and textural characteristics in the surficial sediments of Cochin estuary (SW coast of India) and adjacent coast are presented. Anthropogenic inputs from...

  3. The interaction of heavy metals and nutrients present in soil and native plants with arbuscular mycorrhizae on the riverside in the Matanza-Riachuelo River Basin (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Rodolfo E; García, Ileana V; de Cabo, Laura; Weigandt, Cristian F; Fabrizio de Iorio, Alicia

    2015-02-01

    This study assessed the contamination by heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn), and nutrients (N, P) in soils and native plants, and the effect of the concentration of those elements with the density of arbuscular-mycorrhizal (AM) spores in soil and colonization in roots from the riverside of the Matanza-Riachuelo River Basin (MRRB). The concentration of metals and nutrients in soils and plants (Eleocharis montana, Cyperus eragrostis, Hydrocotyle bonariensis) increased from the upper sites (8 km from headwaters) to the lower sites (6 km from the mouth of the Riachuelo River) of the basin. AM-colonization on the roots of H. bonariensis and spore density in soil decreased as the concentrations of metals in soil and plant tissues increased from the upper to lower sites of the basin within a consistent gradient of contamination associated with land use, soil disturbance, population, and chemicals discharged into the streams and rivers along the MRRB. The general trends for all metals in plant tissue were to have highest concentrations in roots, then in rhizomes and lowest in aerial biomass. The translocation (TF) and bioconcentration (BCF) factors decreased in plants which grow from the upper sites to the lower sites of the basin. The plants tolerated a wide range in type and quantity of contamination along the basin by concentrating more metals and nutrients in roots than in aboveground tissue. The AM spore density in soil and colonization in roots of H. bonariensis decreased with the increase of the degree of contamination (Dc) in soil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Simultaneous removal of nitrate and heavy metals by iron metal*

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Zhi-wei; Xu, Xin-hua; Jin, Jian; He, Ping; Liu, Yong; Wang, Da-hui

    2005-01-01

    Great attention should be paid now to simultaneously removing common pollutants, especially inorganic pollutants such as nitrate and heavy metals, as individual removal has been investigated extensively. Removing common pollutants simultaneously by iron metal is a very effective alternative method. Near neutral pH, heavy metals, such as copper and nickel, can be removed rapidly by iron metal, while nitrate removal very much slower than that of copper and nickel, and copper can accelerate nitr...

  5. Heavy metals in municipal solid waste deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flyhammar, P.

    1997-12-01

    Extensive use of heavy metals in modern society influences routes followed by fluxes on the surface of the Earth. The changed flow paths may be harmful for the balance of biological systems at different levels, micro-organisms, human beings and whole ecosystems, since the toxicity of heavy metals is determined by their concentrations and chemical forms. Despite the low mobility of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd) in municipal landfills, it was found that extensive transformations of the binding forms of heavy metal take place within the waste mass during the degradation of the waste. These changes appear to be closely related to the development of early diagenetic solid phases, i.e. new secondary solid phases formed in the waste. The heavy metals often constitute a minor part of these phases and the bindings include several forms such as adsorption, complexation, coprecipitation, precipitation, etc. It was also found that the associations between heavy metals and solid phases are dominated by several binding forms to one specific substrate rather than bindings to various solid phases. The mobility of iron and manganese seems to increase during the processes involved in waste degradation due to the solution of oxide/hydroxide phases, while the heavy metals appear to become less mobile due to their binding to organic compounds and sulphides. However, one exception in this case may be nickel. Another aspect of the transformation of heavy metals is the accumulation of pools of heavy metals which can become susceptible to environmental changes, such as oxidation or acidification. However, the risk of increased mobilization caused by lower pH values seem to be limited since municipal solid waste has a large buffer capacity. 66 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs 66 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs

  6. Heavy metals in vegetables and potential risk for human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Guerra

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ingestion of vegetables containing heavy metals is one of the main ways in which these elements enter the human body. Once entered, heavy metals are deposited in bone and fat tissues, overlapping noble minerals. Slowly released into the body, heavy metals can cause an array of diseases. This study aimed to investigate the concentrations of cadmium, nickel, lead, cobalt and chromium in the most frequently consumed foodstuff in the São Paulo State, Brazil and to compare the heavy metal contents with the permissible limits established by the Brazilian legislation. A value of intake of heavy metals in human diets was also calculated to estimate the risk to human health. Vegetable samples were collected at the São Paulo General Warehousing and Centers Company, and the heavy metal content was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. All sampled vegetables presented average concentrations of Cd and Ni lower than the permissible limits established by the Brazilian legislation. Pb and Cr exceeded the limits in 44 % of the analyzed samples. The Brazilian legislation does not establish a permissible limit for Co contents. Regarding the consumption habit of the population in the São Paulo State, the daily ingestion of heavy metals was below the oral dose of reference, therefore, consumption of these vegetables can be considered safe and without risk to human health.

  7. HEAVY METAL LOADS IN THE SOIL OF DEBRECEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SÁNDOR SZEGEDI

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of examinations on the amount, and spatial distribution of heavy metal compounds in the soil of Debrecen, their geographic, pedologic and ecologic aspects are presented in this study. The effects of the differences in traffic conditions, build-up/land use and the density of vegetation on the heavy metal content of the soils have been examined in city of Debrecen and its closer environment.Cadmium-, cobalt-, nickel-, lead-, and copper-contents of the soil samples taken from 88 sites of the sample area have been studied after acidic extraction, using atomic absorption spectrometer with the flame technique. Close-to-background concentrations of heavy metals in unpolluted soils of the forested area of the Nagyerd were determined. Spatial differences in the heavy metal content of the soils for the whole area of Debrecen have been studied. Influence of soil properties (humus, Calcium- Carbonate content, pH and grain-size distribution on the binding and mobility of heavy metals in the soil has been examined. Vertical distribution and mobility of heavy metal compounds in acid sandy soils was determined. Heavy metal content of soil in the most sensitive areas, playgrounds, recreational areas, urban gardens and grazing fields along busy roads has been surveyed.

  8. Accumulation of heavy metals in selected medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Hemen; Deka, Suresh; Deka, Hemen; Saikia, Rashmi Rekha

    2011-01-01

    In this review, we evaluate the reports published between 1993 and 2011 that address the heavy metal accumulation in 88 medicinal plant species. We compare the safe limits for heavy metals set by governmental agencies vs. the levels at which such metals actually exist in selected medicinal plants. We also evaluate the uses and effectiveness of medicinal plants in health care, and assess the hazards of medicinal plant uses, in view of the growing worldwide use of medicinal plants. From our extensive review of the literature, we discovered that a maximum permissible level (MPL) of Pb is exceeded in 21 plant medicine species, Cd in 44 species, and Hg in 10 species. Vetiveria zizanioides a potential candidate species for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases absorb a wide range of heavy metals from metal-contaminated soils. We believe that this species is the single most impressive example of a potentially hazardous medicinal plant. Based on our review, we endorse the hypothesis that heavy metal accumulation by medicinal plants is mainly caused by extraction of soluble metals from contaminated soil, sediments and air. One continuing problem in protecting consumers of plant-based medicines is that permissible levels of all heavy metals in herbal medicine have not yet been standardized by regulating governmental entities. Moreover, there are few limit tests that exist for heavy metal content of medicinal plants, or permissible limits for essential dietary minerals, in most medicinal plants. The dearth of such limits hamstrings development of medicinal plant research and delays the release of either new or improved versions of medicinal plants or their components. In the present review, we emphasize that medicinal plants are often subjected to heavy metal contamination and that the levels at which these heavy metals sometimes occur exceeds permissible levels for some species. Therefore, collecting medicinal plants from areas that are, or may be, contaminated should be

  9. Determination of heavy metals in fish scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Nováková

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The outcomes from measurements of amount of selected elements in the fish scales of common carp are presented. Concentrations in the scales were identified and differences between storage of heavy metals in exposed and covered part of scale were studied. The spatial distribution of elements on the fish scale´s surface layer was measured by Laser Ablation–Inductively Coupled Plasma–Mass Spectrometry (LA–ICP–MS. The average amount of elements in the dissolved scales was quantified by ICP–MS. The fine structure of fish scales was visualized by phase–contrast Synchrotron radiation (SR microradiography.

  10. Fractionation of Heavy Metals in Sediments from Dianchi Lake, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ren-Ying; YANG Hao; ZHOU Zhi-Gao; L(U) Jun-Jie; SHAO Xiao-Hua; JIN Feng

    2007-01-01

    Fractionation of heavy metals in sediments can help in understanding potential hazards of heavy metals.The present study analyzed total concentrations and fractions of selected heavy metals(Cd,Cr,Cu,Pb,and Zn)in surfaca sediments from Dianchi Lake,Yunnan Province,China,as well as factors that may affect distributions of the various heavy metal fractions.Total concentrations of the heavy metals decreased in the order Zn>Cu>Pb>Cr>Cd.These heavy metals,except Cr,were much higher than their background levels,indicating that Dianchi Lake was polluted by Cd,Zn,Pb,and Cu.Cadmium occurred mainly as the non-residual fraction(sum of the HOAc-soluble,reducible,and oxidizable fractions)(97.6%),and Zn(55.7%)was also predominantly found in the non-residual fraction.In contrast,most of the Cr(88.5%),Pb(81.8%),and Cu(59.2%)occurred in the residual fraction.Correlation analysis showed that total heavy metal concentrations,organic matter and reducible Fe were the main factors affecting the distributions of the various heavy metal fractions.In the Waihai section of Dianchi Lake (comprising 97%of the lake area),the concentrations of Cd,Zn,Pb,and Cu in the non-residual fraction were significantly lower(P≤0.01 or 0.05)than those of the Caohai section (3% of the lake area).This indicated that potential heavy metal hazards in the Caohai section were greater than the Waihai section.

  11. ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS POLLUTION OF SEDIMENTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    KEY WORDS: Fosu lagoon, Heavy metal, Enrichment, Pollution ... Both anthropogenic pressures and natural processes account for degradation in surface water ... only play an important role in river water pollution but can also provide a ...

  12. 202 197 Heavy Metals and Microbial Contamin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-02

    Dec 2, 2008 ... ABSTRACT: The heavy metal and microbial contaminants levels were evaluated in a commercial polyherbal product ... fungal toxins such as aflatoxins, pesticides and synthetic ... natural products is that 'natural' equals safe.

  13. THE IMPACT OF HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATION ON

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Temitope

    Toxicity levels of heavy metals depend on the type, its ... sectors (food and processing sector) accounted for nearly ... Groundwater accounts for about 98% of the world's ... footpaths and a few major roads, with an uneven distribution of ...

  14. HEAVY METAL POLLUTION OF LAKE VICTORIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Physics, University of Dar es Salaam,. P. O. Box ... parameters. The study ..... chemical wastes containing heavy metals and organochlorides. During ... In Mwanza South, samples were collected near a fish processing industry,.

  15. Combined Heavy Metal Pollution in Red Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENHUAIMAN; ZHENGCHNURONG

    1996-01-01

    The effects of combined heavy metal pollution of red soil on the growth of wetland rice and the transfer of Pb,Cd,Cu and Zn from soil into plants were sudied by greenhouse pot experiment,The results showed that the plantyields were markedly affected by heavy metals,with the exception of Pb,in soils under the experimental conditions,without taking into consideration all the interactions among the elements.The concentrations of the elemets in plants were mainly affected by the specific element added to the soil.The effect of interactions among the heavy metals was very significant either on plant yields or on the concentration of the elements in plants.The risk assessment of a combined pollution by heavy metals in the soil is discussed preliminarily in terms of the relative pollution equivalent.

  16. Heavy metals and living systems: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are natural constituents of the earth′s crust, but indiscriminate human activities have drastically altered their geochemical cycles and biochemical balance. This results in accumulation of metals in plant parts having secondary metabolites, which is responsible for a particular pharmacological activity. Prolonged exposure to heavy metals such as cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc can cause deleterious health effects in humans. Molecular understanding of plant metal accumulation has numerous biotechnological implications also, the long term effects of which might not be yet known.

  17. Heavy metal removal and recovery using microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, E.W. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Benemann, J.R. (Benemann (J.R.), Pinole, CA (United States))

    1991-02-01

    Microorganisms -- bacteria, fungi, and microalgae -- can accumulate relatively large amounts of toxic heavy metals and radionuclides from the environment. These organisms often exhibit specificity for particular metals. The metal content of microbial biomass can be a substantial fraction of total dry weight with concentration factors (metal in dry biomass to metal in solution) exceeding one million in some cases. Both living and inert (dead) microbial biomass can be used to reduce heavy metal concentrations in contaminated waters to very low levels -- parts per billion and even lower. In many respects (e.g. specificity, residual metal concentrations, accumulation factors, and economics) microbial bioremoval processes can be superior to conventional processes, such as ion exchange and caustic (lime or hydroxide) precipitation for heavy metals removal from waste and contaminated waters. Thus, bioremoval could be developed to contribute to the clean-up of wastes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and other DOE facilities. However, the potential advantages of bioremoval processes must still be developed into practical operating systems. A detailed review of the literature suggests that appropriate bioremoval processes could be developed for the SRS. There is great variability from one biomass source to another in bioremoval capabilities. Bioremoval is affected by pH, other ions, temperature, and many other factors. The biological (living vs. dead) and physical (immobilized vs. dispersed) characteristics of the biomass also greatly affect metal binding. Even subtle differences in the microbial biomass, such as the conditions under which it was cultivated, can have major effects on heavy metal binding.

  18. Accumulation of heavy metals in oil-contaminated peat soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodyanitskii, Yu. N.; Savichev, A. T.; Trofimov, S. Ya.; Shishkonakova, E. A.

    2012-10-01

    X-ray fluorescence and X-ray radiometry represent easy and simple methods to determine concentrations of heavy metals in the ash of peat soils contaminated with oil and can be applied for soil monitoring purposes. Oil spills on peat bogs produce two contamination zones differing in the composition of heavy metals. In the zone of primary contamination, the peat surface is covered by a bitumen crust with V, Ni, Sr, Ba, Ce, and La accumulating there. This zone adjoins the zone of secondary peat contamination, where heavy alkaline-earth metals (Sr, Ba) and lanthanides (Ce and La) are accumulated to a lesser extent. Biological preparations recommended for remediation of oil-contaminated peat soils should be tolerant to high concentrations of heavy metals, particularly, V, Ni, and Ba that are present in the oil contaminated soils in relatively high amounts.

  19. Heavy metal and proximate composition associated with the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2014-05-08

    May 8, 2014 ... inorganic products, generating heat as a metabolic waste product. Heavy metal ..... Potencial Bioremediation Agent in Compost Material Contaminated with Heavy .... Toxicity of non-radioactive heavy metals and their salts in ...

  20. Solubility of deposited airborne heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizmecioglu, Sibel C.; Muezzinoglu, Aysen

    2008-09-01

    Toxic effects of heavy metals in water and soil environments are important. Quantifying the heavy metal concentrations and their solubilities in dry and wet deposition samples is part of atmospheric research. Soluble fractions of the deposited air pollutants are important in food chain mechanisms as heavy metals may cause ecotoxic impacts. In this study, the solubilities of Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Ni were investigated in deposition samples for total, dissolved, and suspended fractions after collection in a surrogate, water-surface sampler in Izmir, Turkey, during October 2003 to June 2004. To find overall solubility of each metal in dry and wet deposition samples, concentrations in soluble and suspended phases of aqueous solutions were analyzed separately. Ratios between total and dissolved forms and the metals in the same forms were analyzed and evaluated statistically. It was found that the deposited metal fluxes were significantly correlated in wet deposition with the highest correlation between Cd and Pb in the soluble and total forms. Comparatively smaller correlations were found between these metal fluxes in dry deposition samples. Results of this study showed the importance of metal pollution, especially ecotoxic properties of heavy metals in wet deposition far more than dry deposition.

  1. Distribution of heavy metals from flue gas in algal bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napan, Katerine

    Flue gas from coal-fired power plants is a major source of CO2 to the atmosphere. Microalgae can use this enriched form of CO2 as carbon source and in turn the biomass can be used to produce food, feed, fertilizer and biofuels. However, along with CO2, coal-based flue gas will inevitably introduce heavy metals, which have a high affinity to bind algal cells, could be toxic to the organisms and if transferred to the products could limit their uses. This study seeks to address the distribution and impact of heavy metals present in flue gas on microalgae production systems. To comprehend its effects, algae Scenedesmus obliquus was grown in batch reactors in a multimetal system. Ten heavy metals (Cu, Co, Zn, Pb, As, Se, Cr, Hg, Ni and Cd) were selected and were evaluated at four concentrations (1X, 2X, 5X and 10X). Results show that most heavy metals accumulated mainly in biomass and were found in very low concentrations in media. Hg was shown to be lost from the culture, with low amounts present in the biomass. An upper limit for As uptake was observed, suggesting its likelihood to build-up in the system during medium recycle. The As limited bioaccumulation was overcome by addition of sulfur to the algal medium. Heavy metal at 2X, 5X and 10X inhibited both growth and lipid production, while at the reference concentration both biomass and lipids yields were increased. Heavy metal concentrations in the medium and biomass were time dependent, and at the end of the cultivation most heavy metals in the supernatant solution complied with the recommendations for irrigation water, while biomass was below limits for cattle and poultry feed, fertilizer, plastic and paper. This research shows that bioremediation of CO2 and heavy metals in combination with energy production can be integrated, which is an environmentally friendly form of biotechnology.

  2. Plant transporters involved in heavy metal homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Podar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Transition metal ions (predominately manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper and zinc havean array of catalytic and regulatory roles in the growth and development of all living organisms.However, an excess of these metal ions can also be toxic to any life form and therefore every cell andwhole organism needs to maintain the concentration of these essential nutrient metals within a narrowrange: a process known as metal homeostasis. Heavy metal ions are taken up into cells by selectivetransporters and as they cannot be degraded, the “desired” levels of metal ions are achieved by anumber of strategies that involve: chelation, sequestration and export out of the cell. Cation DiffusionFacilitators (CDF is a large family of transporters involved in maintaining the cytosolic metalconcentration. They transport different heavy metal divalent ions, but exhibit main affinity for zinc, ironand manganese. Metal Tolerance Proteins (MTPs are a subfamily of the Cation Diffusion Facilitator (CDFfamily found in plants. There has been much interest in these heavy metal transporters in order toprovide an insight into plant metal homeostasis, which has significant implications in human health andphytoremediation. Although data regarding the CDFs/MTPs mechanism is gathering there is still littleinformation with respect to metal selectivity determinants.

  3. Leaching of heavy metals from steelmaking slags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes, J. F. P

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaching tests with EAF and Ladle slags were performed, using a flow through test and the standard batch test DIN 38414-S4. The previous method was used to simulate the leaching behaviour of steel slags under landfill. The chemical analysis of the leachates during this period shows, in general, for both types of slag, an increase of heavy metal releases with ageing. Standard test method DIN 38414-S4 was used to evaluate leachability of heavy metals by water in unprocessed slags. After more than one year of trials, slag samples submitted to these trials presented very low total leaching levels. The most extracted elements are calcium and magnesium. Nevertheless, in flow-through test, calcium and magnesium leached from solid slags are below 0.5% and all other metals below 0.1%. Leachates obtained with DIN 38414-S4 present, as expected, higher leaching values; however, these are inferior to 5 % (Ca and 1% (other elements.

    Este articulo contiene los resultados obtenidos en ensayos de lixiviación de escorias de acero (horno electrico y cuchara ejecutados siguiendo la metodologia de flujo dinámico así como el ensayo normalizado DIN 38414-S4. El primer ensayo intenta simular el comportamiento de lixiviación de las escorias en vertedero. Para las escorias ensayadas se han complementado los ensayos con el análisis químico de los lixiviados y se ha verificado un aumento de la liberación de metales pesados. El ensayo DIN 38414-S4 se ha utilizado para evaluar la lixiviación por agua de metales pesados, en muestras de escorias originales. Despues de un año de ensayos, se han observado niveles muy bajos de lixiviación. Los elementos mas lixiviados han sido calcio y magnesio. No obstante, en los ensayos de flujo dinámico, el calcio y el magnesio lixiviados de las escorias sólidas era menor de 0,5% y el resto de los otros metales era inferior a 0,1%. Los lixiviados obtenidos con el ensayo DIN 38414-S4 presentan, como era de esperar, valores

  4. Photoelectrochemical detection of toxic heavy metals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chamier, J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Toxic heavy metals in air, soil, and water are global problems that are a growing threat to the environment. Trace metal determination is currently done by expensive separation techniques which include inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and cold vapor...

  5. Dendroremediation of heavy metal polluted soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Oreja, J A; Rozas, M A; Alkorta, I; Garbisu, C

    2008-01-01

    Heavy metals are among the most common and harmful pollutants reaching the soil ecosystem all over the world. Phytoextraction is an effective, non-intrusive, inexpensive, aesthetically pleasing, socially accepted, highly promising phytotechnology for the remediation of soils polluted with heavy metals. To overcome the so-called 'Achilles' heel' of phytoextraction, namely, the long time needed for effective remediation, this phytotechnology should be combined with other profit-making activities such as forestry or bioenergy production. Dendroremediation, or the use of trees to clean up polluted soil and water, appears of great potential for metal phytoextraction, especially when using fast-growing tree species, for example, willows (Salix sp. pl.) and poplars (Populus sp. pl.). Most important, the ecologic and environmental risks of dispersing heavy metals into the ecosystems by dendroremediation strategies should be minimized by selecting the right tree species, properly managing/disposing the polluted plant material, or a combination of both options.

  6. Heavy metals in five Sabellidae species (Annelida, Polychaeta): ecological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giangrande, Adriana; Licciano, Margherita; Del Pasqua, Michela; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo; Migoni, Danilo; Stabili, Loredana

    2017-02-01

    The present work analyzed three hard-bottom and two soft-bottom species of sabellid polychaetes to determine the content of several heavy metals in their branchial crown and body. The highest concentrations of heavy metals were recorded in the hard-bottom species Branchiomma bairdi, a recent Mediterranean introduction. Differences in the metal concentrations were most notable in the high trace metal levels of the branchial crown for all the studied species. Statistical analysis showed that the Mediterranean hard-bottom species were similar each other in their heavy metal content in the body as well as in the branchial crown and appeared separated from all the other species. Arsenic and vanadium hyperaccumulation in the branchial crowns of the considered sabellid species probably acts as a deterrent for predation. The observed differences among the examined species were discussed not only at the light of habitat colonization but also in terms of the phylogeny.

  7. Research on heavy metal pollution of river Ganga: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak Paul

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available River Ganga is considered sacred by people of India for providing life sustenance to environment and ecology. Anthropogenic activities have generated important transformations in aquatic environments during the last few decades. Advancement of human civilization has put serious questions to the safe use of river water for drinking and other purposes. The river water pollution due to heavy metals is one of the major concerns in most of the metropolitan cities of developing countries. These toxic heavy metals entering the environment may lead to bioaccumulation and biomagnifications. These heavy metals are not readily degradable in nature and accumulate in the animal as well as human bodies to a very high toxic amount leading to undesirable effects beyond a certain limit. Heavy metals in riverine environment represent an abiding threat to human health. Exposure to heavy metals has been linked to developmental retardation, kidney damage, various cancers, and even death in instances of very high exposure. The following review article presents the findings of the work carried out by the various researchers in the past on the heavy metal pollution of river Ganga.

  8. Removal of heavy metals from biowaste: modelling of heavy metal behaviour and development of removal technologies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, A.

    1998-01-01

    In the Netherlands, recycling of solid organic waste streams as compost only becomes possible if the compost complies with the heavy metals standards of the BOOM decree. This dissertation focuses on the removal of heavy metals from biowaste, i.e. the source separated organic fraction of municipal so

  9. Removal of heavy metals from biowaste : modelling of heavy metal behaviour and development of removal technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, A.H.M.

    1998-01-01

    In the Netherlands, recycling of solid organic waste streams as compost only becomes possible if the compost complies with the heavy metals standards of the BOOM decree. This dissertation focuses on the removal of heavy metals from biowaste, i.e. the source separated organic fraction of mun

  10. Biosurfactant of marine origin exhibiting heavy metal remediation properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Palashpriya; Mukherjee, Soumen; Sen, Ramkrishna

    2009-10-01

    The present study was aimed at elucidating the role of biosurfactant product isolated from a marine bacterium in removing heavy metals from heavy metal containing solutions. In this study, metal removal was biosurfactant-mediated. Efficiency of metal removal depended on the concentration of the metal as well as that of the biosurfactant. At a concentration 5x, the critical micelle concentration (CMC), almost complete removal of 100 ppm of lead and cadmium occurred. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) studies also showed metal removal at a concentration less than the CMC in contrast to earlier findings that only micelles are involved in metal removal. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) further substantiated these findings.

  11. Heavy Metal Poisoning and Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman M. Alissa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is an increasing world health problem. Traditional risk factors fail to account for all deaths from CVD. It is mainly the environmental, dietary and lifestyle behavioral factors that are the control keys in the progress of this disease. The potential association between chronic heavy metal exposure, like arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury, and CVD has been less well defined. The mechanism through which heavy metals act to increase cardiovascular risk factors may act still remains unknown, although impaired antioxidants metabolism and oxidative stress may play a role. However, the exact mechanism of CVD induced by heavy metals deserves further investigation either through animal experiments or through molecular and cellular studies. Furthermore, large-scale prospective studies with follow up on general populations using appropriate biomarkers and cardiovascular endpoints might be recommended to identify the factors that predispose to heavy metals toxicity in CVD. In this review, we will give a brief summary of heavy metals homeostasis, followed by a description of the available evidence for their link with CVD and the proposed mechanisms of action by which their toxic effects might be explained. Finally, suspected interactions between genetic, nutritional and environmental factors are discussed.

  12. Recovering heavy rare earth metals from magnet scrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, Ryan T.; McCallum, Ralph W.; Jones, Lawrence L.

    2017-08-08

    A method of treating rare earth metal-bearing permanent magnet scrap, waste or other material in a manner to recover the heavy rare earth metal content separately from the light rare earth metal content. The heavy rare earth metal content can be recovered either as a heavy rare earth metal-enriched iron based alloy or as a heavy rare earth metal based alloy.

  13. Ecological risk and pollution history of heavy metals in Nansha mangrove, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qihang; Tam, Nora F Y; Leung, Jonathan Y S; Zhou, Xizhen; Fu, Jie; Yao, Bo; Huang, Xuexia; Xia, Lihua

    2014-06-01

    Owing to the Industrial Revolution in the late 1970s, heavy metal pollution has been regarded as a serious threat to mangrove ecosystems in the region of the Pearl River Estuary, potentially affecting human health. The present study attempted to characterize the ecological risk of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in Nansha mangrove, South China, by estimating their concentrations in the surface sediment. In addition, the pollution history of heavy metals was examined by determining the concentrations of heavy metals along the depth gradient. The phytoremediation potential of heavy metals by the dominant plants in Nansha mangrove, namely Sonneratia apetala and Cyperus malaccensis, was also studied. Results found that the surface sediment was severely contaminated with heavy metals, probably due to the discharge of industrial sewage into the Pearl River Estuary. Spatial variation of heavy metals was generally unobvious. The ecological risk of heavy metals was very high, largely due to Cd contamination. All heavy metals, except Mn, decreased with depth, indicating that heavy metal pollution has been deteriorating since 1979. Worse still, the dominant plants in Nansha mangrove had limited capability to remove the heavy metals from sediment. Therefore, we propose that immediate actions, such as regulation of discharge standards of industrial sewage, should be taken by the authorities concerned to mitigate the ecological risk posed by heavy metals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Body burdens of heavy metals in Lake Michigan wetland turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dayna L; Cooper, Matthew J; Kosiara, Jessica M; Lamberti, Gary A

    2016-02-01

    Tissue heavy metal concentrations in painted (Chrysemys picta) and snapping (Chelydra serpentina) turtles from Lake Michigan coastal wetlands were analyzed to determine (1) whether turtles accumulated heavy metals, (2) if tissue metal concentrations were related to environmental metal concentrations, and (3) the potential for non-lethal sampling techniques to be used for monitoring heavy metal body burdens in freshwater turtles. Muscle, liver, shell, and claw samples were collected from painted and snapping turtles and analyzed for cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, and zinc. Turtle tissues had measurable quantities of all eight metals analyzed. Statistically significant correlations between tissue metal concentrations and sediment metal concentrations were found for a subset of metals. Metals were generally found in higher concentrations in the larger snapping turtles than in painted turtles. In addition, non-lethal samples of shell and claw were found to be possible alternatives to lethal liver and muscle samples for some metals. Human consumption of snapping turtles presents potential health risks if turtles are harvested from contaminated areas. Overall, our results suggest that turtles could be a valuable component of contaminant monitoring programs for wetland ecosystems.

  15. Community Heavy Metal Exposure, San Francisco, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, A.; Devine, M.; Ho, T.; Zapata, I.; Bissell, M.; Neiss, J.

    2008-12-01

    Heavy metals are natural elements that generally occur in minute concentrations in the earth's crust. While some of these elements, in small quantities, are vital to life, most are harmful in larger doses. Various industrial and agricultural processes can result in dangerously high concentrations of heavy metals in our environment. Consequently, humans can be exposed to unsafe levels of these elements via the air we breathe, the water and food we consume, and the many products we use. During a two week study we collected numerous samples of sediments, water, food, and household items from around the San Francisco Bay Area that represent industrial, agricultural, and urban/residential settings. We analyzed these samples for Mercury (Hg), Lead (Pb), and Arsenic (As). Our goal was to examine the extent of our exposure to heavy metals in our daily lives. We discovered that many of the common foods and materials in our lives have become contaminated with unhealthy concentrations of these metals. Of our food samples, many exceeded the EPA's Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) set for each metal. Meats (fish, chicken, and beef) had higher amounts of each metal than did non-meat items. Heavy metals were also prevalent in varying concentrations in the environment. While many of our samples exceeded the EPA's Sediment Screening Level (SSL) for As, only two other samples surpassed the SSL set for Pb, and zero of our samples exceeded the SSL for Hg. Because of the serious health effects that can result from over-exposure to heavy metals, the information obtained in this study should be used to influence our future dietary and recreational habits.

  16. Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie;

    2012-01-01

    Electrodialytic soil remediation is a method for removal of heavy metals. Good results have previously been obtained with both treatment of a stationary, water saturated soil matrix and with remediation of a stirred suspension of soil in water. The two different setups have different uses...... without a short distance between the membranes. The acidification of the suspended soil was fastest and following the mobilization of heavy metals. This may indicate that water splitting at the anion exchange membrane is used more efficiently in the stirred setup........ The first as in-situ or on-site treatment when there is no requirement for fast remediation, as the removal rate of the heavy metals are dependent on the distance between the electrodes (everything else equal) and in such application the electrode spacing must have a certain distance (often meters...

  17. Heavy metal hazards of Nigerian herbal remedies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obi, E. [Toxicology Unit, Department of Pharmacology, College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi (Nigeria); Akunyili, Dora N. [National Agency of Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC), Lagos (Nigeria); Ekpo, B. [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medical Sciences, Abia State University, Uturu (Nigeria); Orisakwe, Orish E. [Toxicology Unit, Department of Pharmacology, College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi (Nigeria)]. E-mail: eorish@yahoo.com

    2006-10-01

    The uses of herbal products are not regulated in Nigeria and in many low-income countries and are freely available to everyone. The safety of these herbal medicines is poorly understood. This study characterizes the content of cadmium, copper, iron, nickel, selenium, zinc, lead and mercury in a random sample of Nigerian traditional products. Ready-to-use herbal products were purchased from the open market and digested using HNO{sub 3}.The heavy metal content of the digested filtrate was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry Uni-cam Model 929. The result showed that 100% of the samples contained elevated amounts of heavy metals. These data alert us to the possibility of heavy metal toxicity from herbal products in Nigeria. The public health hazards from ingestion of herbal medicines should be identified and disclosed by in-depth risk assessment studies.

  18. Heavy metal contamination of soil and water in the vicinity of an abandoned e-waste recycling site: implications for dissemination of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qihang; Leung, Jonathan Y S; Geng, Xinhua; Chen, Shejun; Huang, Xuexia; Li, Haiyan; Huang, Zhuying; Zhu, Libin; Chen, Jiahao; Lu, Yayin

    2015-02-15

    Illegal e-waste recycling activity has caused heavy metal pollution in many developing countries, including China. In recent years, the Chinese government has strengthened enforcement to impede such activity; however, the heavy metals remaining in the abandoned e-waste recycling site can still pose ecological risk. The present study aimed to investigate the concentrations of heavy metals in soil and water in the vicinity of an abandoned e-waste recycling site in Longtang, South China. Results showed that the surface soil of the former burning and acid-leaching sites was still heavily contaminated with Cd (>0.39 mg kg(-1)) and Cu (>1981 mg kg(-1)), which exceeded their respective guideline levels. The concentration of heavy metals generally decreased with depth in both burning site and paddy field, which is related to the elevated pH and reduced TOM along the depth gradient. The pond water was seriously acidified and contaminated with heavy metals, while the well water was slightly contaminated since heavy metals were mostly retained in the surface soil. The use of pond water for irrigation resulted in considerable heavy metal contamination in the paddy soil. Compared with previous studies, the reduced heavy metal concentrations in the surface soil imply that heavy metals were transported to the other areas, such as pond. Therefore, immediate remediation of the contaminated soil and water is necessary to prevent dissemination of heavy metals and potential ecological disaster.

  19. Novel modified pectin for heavy metal adsorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Ting Li; Hong Yang; Yan Zhao; Ran Xu

    2007-01-01

    Modified pectin cross-linked with adipic acid, was synthesized and used for heavy metal removal from wastewater. SEM and FrIR were used to investigate its structure and morphology. The modified pectin had a rough, porous phase covered with carboxy groups, resulting a high adsorption capacity. And at the room temperature, the saturated loading capacity for Pb2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ reached 1.82 mmol/g, 1.794 mmol/g and 0.964 mmol/g, respectively. The results proved its potential application to remove of the heavy metal.

  20. Analytical Methods for the Determination of Heavy Metals in the Textile Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffan, I.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals in textile wastewater represent a major environmental problem, and are a potential danger to human health when present on textiles. Furthermore, the presence of some metals influences the production of textiles. Heavy metals are often used as oxidizing agents, as metal complex dyes, dye stripping agents, fastness improvers, and finishers. Thus, they act as hazardous sources throughout entire textile processing. Toxic effects of heavy metals on humans are well documented. Therefore, it is important to monitor heavy metals throughout the entire production. Today, maximum permissible values for metals in textiles are given by different regulations, according to which the heavy metals have to be determined both qualitatively and quantitatively. Several analytical procedures for the determination of heavy metals were tested for their application on textiles. The advantages and disadvantages of TLC, UV-VIS, GF-AAS, ICP-OES, and ICP-MS methods are discussed.

  1. Heavy metal pollutant tolerance of Azolla pinnata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, A.; Jana, S.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of Hg, As, Pb, Cu, Cd, and Cr (1,2 and 5 mg L/sup -1/ each) on Azolla pinnata R. Br. were analyzed. The treatments (2 and 5 mg L/sup -1/) of the heavy metal pollutants decreased Hill activity, chlorophyll, protein and dry wt, and increased tissue permeability over control values. The effects were most pronounced with the treatment of 5 mg L/sup -1/. The harmful effects of the metals were, in general, found by the treatments in the order: Cd > Hg > Cu > As > Pb > Cr. There was no significant change in these parameters at 1 mg L/sup -1/ of the metals over control. Thus Azolla pinnata shows tolerance to the heavy metals tested up to 1 mg L/sup -1/ each.

  2. Esterase resistant to inactivation by heavy metals

    KAUST Repository

    El, Dorry Hamza

    2014-09-25

    EstATII is an esterase that a halotolerant, thermophilic and resistant to a spectrum of heavy metals including toxic concentration of metals. It was isolated from the lowest convective layer of the Atlantis II Red Sea brine pool. The Atlantis II brine pool is an extreme environment that possesses multiple harsh conditions such as; high temperature, salinity, pH and high concentration of metals, including toxic heavy metals. A fosmid metagenomic library using DNA isolated from the lowest convective layer this pool was used to identify EstATII. Polynucleotides encoding EstATII and similar esterases are disclosed and can be used to make EstATII. EstATII or compositions or apparatuses that contain it may be used in various processes employing lipases/esterases especially when these processes are performed under harsh conditions that inactivate other kinds of lipases or esterases.

  3. Heavy metal detoxification in eukaryotic microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales-Vela, Hugo Virgilio; Peña-Castro, Julián Mario; Cañizares-Villanueva, Rosa Olivia

    2006-06-01

    Microalgae are aquatic organisms possessing molecular mechanisms that allow them to discriminate non-essential heavy metals from those essential ones for their growth. The different detoxification processes executed by algae are reviewed with special emphasis on those involving the peptides metallothioneins, mainly the post transcriptionally synthesized class III metallothioneins or phytochelatins. Also, the features that make microalgae suitable organisms technologies specially to treat water that is heavily polluted with metals is discussed.

  4. Electrokinetic removal of heavy metals from soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puvvadi Venkata Sivapullaiah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Removal of heavy metal ions from soils by electrokinetic treatment has several advantages. The extent of removal, however, is both soil specific and ion specific. The conditions to be maintained have to be established based on laboratory studies. With a view to maximize the removal of metal ions the trends of removal of heavy metal ions such as iron, nickel and cadmium form a natural Indian kaolinitic red earth during different conditions maintained in the electrokinetic extraction process are studied. A laboratory electrokinetic extraction apparatus was assembled for this purpose. Attempts are also made to elucidate the mechanism of removal of the metal ions from soil. The composition of the flushing fluid, voltage and duration of extraction are varied. While dilute acetic acid has been used to neutralize the alkalinity that develops at the cathode, EDTA solution has been used to desorb heavy metals from clay surface. Generally the extent of removal was proportional to the osmotic flow. Nickel and Cadmium are more effectively removed than iron. The percentage removal of Ni is generally proportional to the osmotic flow but shows sensitivity to the pH of the system. There is an optimum voltage for removal of metal ions from soil. The removal of iron was negligible under different conditions studied.

  5. BIOACCUMULATION OF HEAVY METALS IN FORAGE GRASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Łukowski

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was estimation of bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd in forage grasses from the area of Podlasie Province based on the bioaccumulation factor. In the soil samples the pH, organic carbon content and CEC were determined. Determination of heavy metals contents in plant and soil material was carried out by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Soils were characterized mainly by acidic reaction, high cation exchange capacity and organic carbon content. The content of heavy metals in studied forage grasses did not exceed the polish regulations related to plant usage for feeding purposes, except the lead content in seven samples. Coefficients of variation for particular heavy metals content in studied forage grasses were as follows: Pb - 37%, Ni - 63%, Cu - 30%, Zn - 34%, Cd - 48%. The highest bioaccumulation factor was found for nickel and grass from the village Remieńkiń (11.54, while the lowest for cadmium and grass from the village Jemieliste (0.04.

  6. Heavy metals extraction from anaerobically digested sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchioretto, M.M.; Bruning, H.; Loan, N.T.P.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on the chemical extraction efficiency in the removal of heavy metals from sludge from an activated-sludge system, which receives as influent both industrial and municipal wastewater. Utilizing a series of chemical extractants in a sequential order comprised the first phase of the

  7. Hydroponics reducing effluent's heavy metals discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rababah, Abdellah; Al-Shuha, Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the capacity of Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) to control effluent's heavy metals discharge. A commercial hydroponic system was adapted to irrigate lettuces with primary treated wastewater for studying the potential heavy metals removal. A second commercial hydroponic system was used to irrigate the same type of lettuces with nutrient solution and this system was used as a control. Results showed that lettuces grew well when irrigated with primary treated effluent in the commercial hydroponic system. The NFT-plant system heavy metals removal efficiency varied amongst the different elements, The system's removal efficiency for Cr was more than 92%, Ni more than 85%, in addition to more than 60% reduction of B, Pb, and Zn. Nonetheless, the NFT-plants system removal efficiencies for As, Cd and Cu were lower than 30%. Results show that lettuces accumulated heavy metals in leaves at concentrations higher than the maximum acceptable European and Australian levels. Therefore, non-edible plants such as flowers or pyrethrum are recommended as value added crops for the proposed NFT.

  8. Heavy metals extraction from anaerobically digested sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchioretto, M.M.; Bruning, H.; Loan, N.T.P.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on the chemical extraction efficiency in the removal of heavy metals from sludge from an activated-sludge system, which receives as influent both industrial and municipal wastewater. Utilizing a series of chemical extractants in a sequential order comprised the first phase of the

  9. Phytoremediation of heavy metals: Recent techniques | Jadia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biotechnology ... microorganisms/biomass or live plants to clean polluted areas. ... of the plants. A brief review on phytoremediation of heavy metals and its effect on plants have been compiled to provide a wide applicability of ...

  10. Heavy metal contamination in TIMS Branch sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, J.B.

    1990-06-25

    The objective of this memorandum is to summarize results of previous sediment studies on Tims Branch and Steed's Pond conducted by Health Protection (HP) and by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) in conjunction with Reactor Materials Engineering Technology (RMET). The results for other heavy metals, such as lead, nickel, copper, mercury, chromium, cadmium, zinc, and thorium are also summarized.

  11. Heavy metal contamination in TIMS Branch sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, J.B.

    1990-06-25

    The objective of this memorandum is to summarize results of previous sediment studies on Tims Branch and Steed`s Pond conducted by Health Protection (HP) and by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) in conjunction with Reactor Materials Engineering & Technology (RMET). The results for other heavy metals, such as lead, nickel, copper, mercury, chromium, cadmium, zinc, and thorium are also summarized.

  12. Heavy metals in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storm, G.L. [Fish and Wildlife Service, University Park, PA (United States); Fosmire, G.J. [Dept. of Nutrition, University Park, PA (United States); Bellis, E.D. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Concentration (Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu) in soil and wildlife at the Palmerton zinc smelter site in eastern Pennsylvania were determined 6 yr after zinc smelting was terminated in 1980. Levels of the four metals were higher in litter (01 and 02 horizon) than in soil (A1 horizon), and the metals were at or near levels when the smelters were still in operation. Levels of metals in sod weft highest at sites close to the smelters and decreased as distances from the smelters increased. The relation of decreasing amounts of metals in body tissues with increasing distance from the smelters also held true for amphibians and mammals. An exception to this relation was higher level of Cu in red-lacked salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) captured {approx}17 km downwind than those captured {approx}12 km downwind. Levels of Zn, Pb, and Co in liver, kidney, and muscle tissue of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) were not different (P >0.05) among sites. Cadmium in kidneys in white-footed mice exceeded 10 mg&& which is reportedly considered an indication of environmental contamination. Levels of Cd in kidneys and liver of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) at Palmerton were five times higher than those for white-tailed deer collected 180 km southwest of Palmerton in southcentral Pennsylvania. The abnormal amounts of metals in the tissues of terrestrial vertebrates, and the absence or low abundance of wildlife at Palmerton indicated that ecological processes within 5 km of the smelters were markedly influenced 6 yr after zinc smelting was discontinued. 41 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Heavy metal contamination in the Western Indian Ocean (a review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamboya, F. A.; Pratap, H. B.; Björk, M.

    2003-05-01

    Western Indian Ocean Coast has many potential marine ecosystems such as mangrove, seagrass meadows, macroalgae, and coral reefs. It is largely unspoiled environment however, tourism and population growth in coastal urban centres, industrialization, are presenting a risk of pollutants input to the marine environment of the Western Indian Ocean. Mining, shipping and agricultural activities also input contaminants into the marine environment via runoff, vessel operations and accidental spillage. Heavy metals are among the pollutants that are expected to increase in the marine environment of the Western Indian Ocean. The increase in heavy metal pollution can pose a serious health problem to marine organism and human through food chain. This paper reviews studies on heavy metal contamination in the Western Indian Ocean. It covers heavy metal studies in the sediments, biota, particulates and seawater collected in different sites. In comparison to other regions, only few studies have been conducted in the Western Indian Ocean and are localized in some certain areas. Most of these studies were conducted in Kenyan and Tanzanian coasts while few of them were conducted in Mauritius, Somalia and Reunion. No standard or common method has been reported for the analysis or monitoring of heavy metals in the Western Indian Ocean.

  14. A novel heavy metal ATPase peptide from Prosopis juliflora is involved in metal uptake in yeast and tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeran, Nisha S; Ganesan, G; Parida, Ajay K

    2017-04-01

    Heavy metal pollution of agricultural soils is one of the most severe ecological problems in the world. Prosopis juliflora, a phreatophytic tree species, grows well in heavy metal laden industrial sites and is known to accumulate heavy metals. Heavy Metal ATPases (HMAs) are ATP driven heavy metal pumps that translocate heavy metals across biological membranes thus helping the plant in heavy metal tolerance and phytoremediation. In the present study we have isolated and characterized a novel 28.9 kDa heavy metal ATPase peptide (PjHMT) from P. juliflora which shows high similarity to the C-terminal region of P1B ATPase HMA1. It also shows the absence of the invariant signature sequence DKTGT, and the metal binding CPX motif but the presence of conserved regions like MVGEGINDAPAL (ATP binding consensus sequence), HEGGTLLVCLNS (metal binding domain) and MLTGD, GEGIND and HEGG motifs which play important roles in metal transport or ATP binding. PjHMT, was found to be upregulated under cadmium and zinc stress. Heterologous expression of PjHMT in yeast showed a higher accumulation and tolerance of heavy metals in yeast. Further, transgenic tobacco plants constitutively expressing PjHMT also showed increased accumulation and tolerance to cadmium. Thus, this study suggests that the transport peptide from P. juliflora may have an important role in Cd uptake and thus in phytoremediation.

  15. Molecular Mechanisms and Genetic Basis of Heavy Metal Tolerance/Hyperaccumulation in Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-E YANG; Xiao-Fen JIN; Ying FENG; Ejazul ISLAM

    2005-01-01

    Phytoremediation has gained increased attention as a cost-effective method for the remediation of heavy metal-contaminated sites. Because some plants possess a range of potential mechanisms that may be involved in the detoxification of heavy metals, they manage to survive under metal stresses. High tolerance to heavy metal toxicity could rely either on reduced uptake or increased plant internal sequestration,which is manifested by an interaction between a genotype and its environment. The growing application of molecular genetic technologies has led to increased understanding of mechanisms of heavy metal tolerance/accumulation in plants and, subsequently, many transgenic plants with increased heavy metal resistance,as well as increased uptake of heavy metals, have been developed for the purpose of phytoremediation. In the present review, our major objective is to concisely evaluate the progress made so far in understanding the molecular/cellular mechanisms and genetic basis that control the uptake and detoxification of metals by plants.

  16. Metabolic Demands of Heavy Metal Drumming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Romero

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The drum set involves dynamic movement of all four limbs. Motor control studies have been done on drum set playing, yet not much is known about the physiological responses to this activity. Even less is known about heavy metal drumming. Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine metabolic responses and demands of heavy metal drumming. Methods: Five semi-professional male drummers (mean ± SD age = 27.4 ± 2.6 y, height = 177.2 ± 3.8 cm, body mass = 85.1 ± 17.8 kg performed four prescribed and four self-selected heavy metal songs. Oxygen consumption (VO2, minute ventilation (VE and respiratory exchange ratio (RER were measured using a metabolic cart.  Heart rate (HR was measured using a heart rate monitor. VO2max was determined using a graded cycle ergometer test. Results: The results indicated a metabolic cost of 6.3 ± 1.4 METs and heart rate of 145.1 ± 15.7 beats·min-1 (75.4 ± 8.3% of age-predicted HRmax. VO2 peak values reached approximately 90% of the drummer’s VO2max when performing at the fastest speeds. According to these results, heavy metal drumming may be considered vigorous intensity activity (≥ 6.0 METs. The relative VO2max of 40.2 ± 9.5 mL·kg·min-1 leads to an aerobic fitness classification of “average” for adult males. Conclusions: The metabolic demands required during heavy metal drumming meet the American College of Sports Medicine guidelines for the development of health related fitness.  Keywords: Drum set, Exercise physiology, VO2, Music

  17. Use of Sapropel for Removal of Heavy Metals from Solution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rūta Birgėlaitė; Vaidotas Valskys; Gytautas Ignatavičius

    2016-01-01

    ... composition of sapropel research is very few. The article deals with silicon sapropel as a sorbent is able to absorb heavy metals from the solution depending on the time and the concentration of heavy metals in the solution...

  18. Cocoa shells for heavy metal removal from acidic solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, N; Laroulandie, J; Blais, J F; Tyagi, R D

    2003-12-01

    The development of economic and efficient processes for the removal of heavy metals present in acidic effluents from industrial sources or decontamination technologies has become a priority. The purpose of this work was to study the efficiency with which cocoa shells remove heavy metals from acidic solutions (pH 2) and to investigate how the composition of these solutions influences heavy metal uptake efficiency. Adsorption tests were conducted in agitated flasks with single-metal solutions (0.25 mM Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn), multi-metal solution (comprised of 0.25 mM of each of the cations above) and an effluent obtained from chemical leaching of metal-contaminated soil, in the presence of different cocoa shell concentrations (5-40 g/l). Results from the single-metal solution assays indicated that the fixation capacity of heavy metals by cocoa shells followed a specific order: Pb>Cr>Cd=Cu=Fe>Zn=Co>Mn=Ni=Al. Cocoa shells are particularly efficient in the removal of lead from very acidic solutions (q(max)=6.2 mg Pb/g, pH(i)=2.0 and T=22 degrees C). The presence of other metals and cations in solution did not seem to affect the recovery of lead. It was also observed that the maximum metal uptake was reached in less than 2 h. This research has also demonstrated that the removal of metals caused a decline in solution proton concentration (pH increase) and release of calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium from the cocoa shells.

  19. BIOACCUMULATION OF HEAVY METALS BY BACILLUS MEGATERIUM FROM PHOSPHOGYPSUM WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANA ADRIANA STEFANESCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to characterize the bioaccumulation capacity of heavy metals by Bacillus megaterium from phosphogypsum waste. The Bacillus megaterium strain (BM30 was isolated from soil near the phosphogypsum (PG dump. For the bioaccumulation quantification produced by BM30 strain were used three experimental treatments respectively with 2, 6 and 10 gL-1 PG. Cellular biomass samples were collected punctually at ages corresponding to the three stages of the development cycle of the microorganism: exponential phase, stationary phase and decline phase and the heavy metals concentrations were measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The bioaccumulation yields in cell biomass, relative to the total amount of analyte introduced in the reaction medium were between 20 - 80 %, the lowest value was recorded by Cu and highest by Mn. The study results indicated that the isolated strain near the dump PG, BM30, bioaccumulate heavy metals monitored in cell biomass in the order Cu > Fe > Zn = Mn.

  20. Heavy metal fates in laboratory bioretention systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xueli; Davis, Allen P

    2007-01-01

    Key to managing heavy metals in bioretention is to understand their fates in bioretention facilities. In this study, pot prototypes filled with bioretention media were built to simulate the conditions of natural growth of plants. Synthetic runoff with different heavy metal loadings (copper, cadmium, lead, and zinc) was periodically applied. Metal accumulations in tissues of grasses -Panicum virgatum, Kentucky-31, and Bromus ciliatus, were investigated after 230d of growth and multiple runoff treatment events. After 183d of periodic runoff application, the concentrations of Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd with low and high loadings had the same trends in the plant tissues, Zn>Cu>Pb>Cd, following the trend of the input metal concentrations. The fates of input metals were 88-97% captured in soil media, 2.0-11.6% not captured by bioretention media, and 0.5-3.3% accumulated in plants. Compared to the metals retained by the soil, the percentages of input metals taken up by plants were relatively low due to the low plant biomass produced in this study. Greater biomass density would be required for the vegetation to have a valuable impact in prolonging the lifetime of a bioretention cell.

  1. Theory and Analysis of Classic Heavy Metal Harmony

    OpenAIRE

    Lilja, Esa

    2009-01-01

    This thesis explores melodic and harmonic features of heavy metal, and while doing so, explores various methods of music analysis; their applicability and limitations regarding the study of heavy metal music. The study is built on three general hypotheses according to which 1) acoustic characteristics play a significant role for chord constructing in heavy metal, 2) heavy metal has strong ties and similarities with other Western musical styles, and 3) theories and analytical methods of Wester...

  2. Plants Role in Reducing Heavy Metals from Polluted Soil Leachate

    OpenAIRE

    Amouei A.1 PhD,; Tashakkorian H.1 PhD,; Naghipour D.2 PhD,; Mohammadi P.3 MSc

    2015-01-01

    Aims In the past few decades, more attention has been paid to clean up soils polluted with heavy metals by plants. A serious problem in this way is the amount of heavy metals uptake by plants. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of 3 local plants of Mazandaran province, Iran, in reducing and controlling the soil’s heavy metals. Instrument & Methods The removal amount of three heavy metals (lead, zinc and cadmium) by native plants (maize, velvetleaf and wild a...

  3. [Hyperspectral remote sensing in monitoring the vegetation heavy metal pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Lü, Jian-sheng; Altemann, W

    2010-09-01

    Mine exploitation aggravates the environment pollution. The large amount of heavy metal element in the drainage of slag from the mine pollutes the soil seriously, doing harm to the vegetation growing and human health. The investigation of mining environment pollution is urgent, in which remote sensing, as a new technique, helps a lot. In the present paper, copper mine in Dexing was selected as the study area and China sumac as the study plant. Samples and spectral data in field were gathered and analyzed in lab. The regression model from spectral characteristics for heavy metal content was built, and the feasibility of hyperspectral remote sensing in environment pollution monitoring was testified.

  4. Volatilization of heavy metals during incineration of municipal solid wastes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Lu-shi; S. Abanades; J.D.Lu; G.Flamant; D.Gauthier

    2004-01-01

    Incineration experiments with MSW, which had been impregnated with heavy metals, were presented toobtain information on the volatilization behavior of the elements cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) underdifferent conditions. Experiments were carried out in a bubbling fluid bed system connected to a customizedinductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy(ICP-OES) for analyzing metals in the flue gas. The resultsindicated that the combustion temperature, the gas atmosphere, and the chlorine content in the flue gas could affectthe volatilization behavior of heavy metals. In the fluidized bed combustion, a large surface area was provided by thebed sand particles, and they may act as absorbents for the gaseous ash-forming compound. Comparer with themetals Cd and Pb, the vaporization of Zn was Iow. The formation of stable compounds such as ZnO·Al2O3 couldgreatly decrease the metals volatilization. The presence of chlorine would enhance the volatilization of heavy metalsby increasing the formation of metal chlorides. However, when the oxygen content was high, the chlorinatingreaction was kinetically hindered, which heavy metals release would be delayed.

  5. Heavy Metal Concentrations in Maltese Potable Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Bugeja

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the levels of aluminum (Al, cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, copper (Cu, iron (Fe, lead (Pb, nickel (Ni and zinc (Zn in tap water samples of forty localities from around the Maltese Islands together with their corresponding service supply reservoirs. The heavy metal concentrations obtained indicated that concentrations of the elements were generally below the maximum allowed concentration established by the Maltese legislation. In terms of the Maltese and EU water quality regulations, 17.5% of the localities sampled yielded water that failed the acceptance criteria for a single metal in drinking water. Higher concentrations of some metals were observed in samples obtained at the end of the distribution network, when compared to the concentrations at the source. The observed changes in metal concentrations between the localities’ samples and the corresponding supply reservoirs were significant. The higher metal concentrations obtained in the samples from the localities can be attributed to leaching in the distribution network.

  6. A qualitative exploration of the influence of heavy metal music on South African

    OpenAIRE

    Mulder, Bianca Simone

    2015-01-01

    This mini-dissertation presents a discussion of the qualitative study exploring how South African youth, between the ages of 18 and 35, who are active listeners of Heavy Metal music experience this genre of music. The sample in the present study consists of 26 South African youths, living in various parts of the country, who listen to Heavy Metal music. Participants were recruited from attendees of the Heavy Metal music festival, Witchfest, which took place in Newtown, Johannesburg during 3-5...

  7. Determination of some heavy metals concentration in the tissues of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jen

    (Hg), Cadmium (Cd), Arsenic (As), Chromium (Cr) and Lead (Pb). They are natural ... Heavy metals poisoning could result for instance, from drinking water contamination ... The high level of pollution caused by heavy metals and their .... measures need to be taken in order to prevent future heavy metal pollution. References.

  8. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Can Benefit Heavy Metal Tolerance and Phytoremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgy, David

    2012-01-01

    Sites contaminated by heavy metals, such as industrial waste sites, create unwelcoming environments for plant growth. Heavy metals can have a wide range of toxic effects such as replacing essential elements or disrupting enzyme function. While some heavy metals are essential to plant nutrition at low concentrations, high concentrations of any…

  9. Effect of Heavy Metal Pollution on Cucumber POD Isoenzyme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The Experiment was carried out to study heavy metal pollution effect on cucumber POD isozyme in our experiment.The results showed that:the activities of POD in cucumber seeds increased in low concentration treatment,and decreased in high concentration treatment after being treated with heavy metal.The critical band patterns of POD isoenzyme was changed by heavy metal pollution.

  10. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Can Benefit Heavy Metal Tolerance and Phytoremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgy, David

    2012-01-01

    Sites contaminated by heavy metals, such as industrial waste sites, create unwelcoming environments for plant growth. Heavy metals can have a wide range of toxic effects such as replacing essential elements or disrupting enzyme function. While some heavy metals are essential to plant nutrition at low concentrations, high concentrations of any…

  11. Customizable Biopolymers for Heavy Metal Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostal, Jan; Prabhukumar, Giridhar; Lao, U. Loi; Chen Alin; Matsumoto, Mark; Mulchandani, Ashok; Chen, Wilfred [University of California, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering (United States)], E-mail: wilfred@engr.ucr.edu

    2005-10-15

    Nanoscale materials have been gaining increasing interest in the area of environmental remediation because of their unique physical, chemical and biological properties. One emerging area of research has been the development of novel materials with increased affinity, capacity, and selectivity for heavy metals because conventional technologies are often inadequate to reduce concentrations in wastewater to acceptable regulatory standards. Genetic and protein engineering have emerged as the latest tools for the construction of nanoscale materials that can be controlled precisely at the molecular level. With the advent of recombinant DNA techniques, it is now possible to create 'artificial' protein polymers with fundamentally new molecular organization. The most significant feature of these nanoscale biopolymers is that they are specifically pre-programmed within a synthetic gene template and can be controlled precisely in terms of sizes, compositions and functions at the molecular level. In this review, the use of specifically designed protein-based nano-biomaterials with both metal-binding and tunable properties for heavy metal removal is summarized. Several different strategies for the selective removal of heavy metals such as cadmium and mercury are highlighted.

  12. Effects of Heavy Metals on Activated Sludge Microorganism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Bing; XI Dan-li; CHEN Ji-hua

    2002-01-01

    The efforts of heavy metals on activated sludge microorganisms are reviewed. Although some heavy metals play an important role in the life of microorganism, heavy metals concentrations above toxic levels inhibit biological processes. Copper, zinc, nickel,cadmium and chromium were mostly studied because of their toxicity and widely used, regardless of single or combination. The microorganism response to these heavy metals varied with species and concentrations of metals,factors such as pH, sludge age, MLSS etc. also affect toxicity on the microorganism. The acclimation could extend the microorganism tolerance of heavy metals. The effects of heavy metals on sludge microorganisms could be described with different models, such as Sigmoidal and Monod equation. The kinetic constants are the useful indexes to estimate the heavy metals inhibition on activated sludge system. Methods to measure the toxicity and effects on microorganism community were also reviewed.

  13. HEAVY METALS IN PRODUCTIVE PARTS OF AGRICULTURAL PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Július Árvay

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The contents of heavy metals in plants were not in relation to contents of heavy metals in soil. Increased content of heavy metals in soils was not in consistency with content in plants. Usually content of heavy metals in plants according to our results were lower than their content in soil. Only the over limit contents of copper and cadmium were assessed in grain of barley and oat. The results of heavy metals content showed that dominant part on content of elements in plants have their mobile forms what depends on pH, content of organic matter in soil and portion of clay parts.

  14. HEAVY METALS IN PRODUCTIVE PARTS OF AGRICULTURAL PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Július Árvay; Ján Tomáš; Tomáš Tóth

    2012-01-01

    The contents of heavy metals in plants were not in relation to contents of heavy metals in soil. Increased content of heavy metals in soils was not in consistency with content in plants. Usually content of heavy metals in plants according to our results were lower than their content in soil. Only the over limit contents of copper and cadmium were assessed in grain of barley and oat. The results of heavy metals content showed that dominant part on content of elements in plants have their mobil...

  15. Heavy metal transfer from atmosphere to plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asta, J.; Guillard, E.; Tissut, M.; Gaude, T.; Ravanel, P.

    2003-05-01

    Heavy metal contamination due to traffic was studied in the water basin of the Aiguebelette lake (Savoie, France) in the alpine chain. It is surrounded by mountains and crossed by a highway on a 6-km-distance. Contamination of lichens, mosses, barks and dead leaves litters were submitted to a comparative study. The quantities of six metals (Pb, Al, Cd, Zn, Mn, Ni) were estimated in each of these materials. Except for Al which was highly concentrated in Xanthoria parietina and to a lesser extent in mosses, all the matrices accumulated the metals in a relatively similar way. The hyperaccumulation factor varied from 2 to 258, depending on the sampling point on the studied metal and on the matrix. Bark represented a long-term accumulator and contained more lead than the other matrices. In the studied water basin, a specific atmospheric movement allowed to distribute the contaminants far away from the highway, especially on the west slope of the highest mountain.

  16. Heavy metals in carabids (Coleoptera, Carabidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan Butovsky

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae are one of the most studied soil groups in relation to heavy metal (HM accumulation and use for bioindication of environmental pollution. Accumulation of Zn and Cu in carabid beetles was species-, sex- and trophic group-specific. No differences were found in HM contents between omnivorous and carnivorous species. The use of carabid beetles as indicators of HM accumulation appears to be rather limited.

  17. Heavy metals bioaccumulation by edible saprophytic mushrooms

    OpenAIRE

    ŠIRIĆ, Ivan; KOS, Ivica; Ante KASAP; Fran PETKOVIĆ; Držaić, Valentino

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of heavy metals Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb i Cd in certain edible species of saprophytic fungi and the substrate on three area of sampling, and to assess the role of individual species as biological indicators of environmental pollution. In this study were used three species of wild edible mushrooms (Agaricus macroarpus Bohus, Clitocybe inversa (Scop. ex Fr.) Pat. and Macrolepiota procera (Scop. ex Fr.) Sing.,). Completely developed and mature ...

  18. Heavy Metals Acting as Endocrine Disrupters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Georgescu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Last years researches focused on several natural and synthetic compounds that may interfere with the major functionsof the endocrine system and were termed endocrine disrupters. Endocrine disrupters are defined as chemicalsubstances with either agonist or antagonist endocrine effects in human and animals. These effects may be achievedby interferences with the biosynthesis or activity of several endogenous hormones. Recently, it was demonstratedthat heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd, arsen (As, mercury (Hg, nickel (Ni, lead (Pb and zinc (Zn may exhibitendocrine-disrupting activity in animal experiments. Emerging evidence of the intimate mechanisms of action ofthese heavy metals is accumulating. It was revealed, for example, that the Zn atom from the Zn fingers of theestrogen receptor can be replaced by several heavy metal molecules such as copper, cobalt, Ni and Cd. By replacingthe Zn atom with Ni or copper, binding of the estrogen receptor to the DNA hormone responsive elements in the cellnucleus is prevented. In both males and females, low-level exposure to Cd interferes with the biological effects ofsteroid hormones in reproductive organs. Arsen has the property to bind to the glucocorticoid receptor thusdisturbing glucocorticoids biological effects. With regard to Hg, this may induce alterations in male and femalefertility, may affect the function of the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis or the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis,and disrupt biosynthesis of steroid hormones.

  19. Removal of heavy metals using waste eggshell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The removal capacity of toxic heavy metals by the reused eggshell was studied. As a pretreatment process for the preparation of reused material from waste eggshell, calcination was performed in the furnace at 800℃ for 2 h after crushing the dried waste eggshell. Calcination behavior, qualitative and quantitative elemental information, mineral type and surface characteristics before and after calcination of eggshell were examined by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. After calcination, the major inorganic composition was identified as Ca (lime, 99.63%) and K, P and Sr were identified as minor components. When calcined eggshell was applied in the treatment of synthetic wastewater containing heavy metals, a complete removal of Cd as well as above 99% removal of Cr was observed after 10 min. Although the natural eggshell had some removal capacity of Cd and Cr, a complete removal was not accomplished even after 60 min due to quite slower removal rate. However, in contrast to Cd and Cr, an efficient removal of Pb was observed with the natural eggshell rather than the calcined eggshell. From the application of the calcined eggshell in the treatment of real electroplating wastewater, the calcined eggshell showed a promising removal capacity of heavy metal ions as well as had a good neutralization capacity in the treatment of strong acidic wastewater.

  20. Investigation and Evaluation of the Performance of Solidified Cellulose and Starch Xanthate Heavy Metal Sludges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-01

    EVALUATION OF THE PERFORMANCE OF SOLIDIFIED CELLULOSE AND STARCH XANTHATE HEAVY METAL SLUDGES by elf) R. Mark Bricka " Environmental Laboratory DEPARTMENT...THIS PAGE % % PREFACE This report presents the results of a laboratory investigation that com- pared the heavy metal leachability of solidified and...Starch Xanthate Heavy Metal Sludges," Technical Report EL-88-5, US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Miss. S., Accession For NTT S_

  1. Heavy metal toxicity in rice and soybean plants cultivated in contaminated soil

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Lígia de Souza Silva; Godofredo Cesar Vitti; Anderson Ricardo Trevizam

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals can accumulate in soil and cause phytotoxicity in plants with some specific symptoms. The present study evaluated the specific symptoms on rice and soybeans plants caused by excess of heavy metals in soil. Rice and soybean were grown in pots containing soil with different levels of heavy metals. A completely randomized design was used, with four replications, using two crop species and seven sample soils with different contamination levels. Rice and soybean exhibited different re...

  2. Heavy metal levels in Sokoto metropolis as a result of local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    new user

    2013-08-01

    Aug 1, 2013 ... Key words: Heavy metal, aluminium utensils, pollution, Sokoto. INTRODUCTION ... these metals are toxic and result in health impacts when present in .... can be toxic and poisoning to mammals if inhaled or injected in higher.

  3. Present levels of heavy metals in some molluscs of the Upper Gulf of Thailand. [Pernia viridis; Crassostrea commercialis; Anadara granosa; Paphia undulata; Amusium pleuronectes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hungspreugs, M.; Yuangthong, C.

    1984-05-01

    This investigation was carried out as part of Thailand's participation in the global 'Mussel Watch' program. The levels of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn in the green mussel, Perna viridis, oyster, Crassostrea commercialis, and the cockle, Anadara granosa, were studied from July 1982 to November 1982. Comparison was made with the previous study in August 1981 which also included the short necked clam, Paphia undulata and moon scallop, Amusium pleuronectes. It was found that the metal levels were sufficiently low that the molluscs could be consumed without any danger to health. The salinity of the water appeared to influence the uptake as higher levels of metals were found during the flood season when salinity was lower.

  4. Removal of heavy metal from industrial effluents using Baker's yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdous, Anika; Maisha, Nuzhat; Sultana, Nayer; Ahmed, Shoeb

    2016-07-01

    Bioremediation of wastewater containing heavy metals is one of the major challenges in environmental biotechnology. Heavy metals are not degraded and as a result they remain in the ecosystem, and pose serious health hazards as it comes in contact with human due to anthropogenic activities. Biological treatment with various microorganisms has been practiced widely in recent past, however, accessing and maintaining the microorganisms have always been a challenge. Microorganisms like Baker's yeast can be very promising biosorbents as they offer high surface to volume ratio, large availability, rapid kinetics of adsorption and desorption and low cost. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the applicability of the biosorption process using baker's yeast. Here we present an experimental investigation of biosorption of Chromium (Cr) from water using commercial Baker's Yeast. It was envisaged that yeast, dead or alive, would adsorb heavy metals, however, operating parameters could play vital roles in determining the removal efficiency. Parameters, such as incubation time, pH, amount of biosorbent and heavy metal concentration were varied to investigate the impacts of those parameters on removal efficiency. Rate of removal was found to be inversely proportional to the initial Cr (+6) concentrations but the removal rate per unit biomass was a weakly dependent on initial Cr(+6) concentrations. Biosorption process was found to be more efficient at lower pH and it exhibited lower removal with the increase in solution pH. The optimum incubation time was found to be between 6-8 hours and optimum pH for the metal ion solution was 2. The effluents produced in leather industries are the major source of chromium pollution in Bangladesh and this study has presented a very cost effective yet efficient heavy metal removal approach that can be adopted for such kind of wastewater.

  5. Heavy Metals Stimulate Human LINE-1 Retrotransposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid M. Roy-Engel

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available L1 and Alu elements are among the most active retroposons (mobile elements in the human genome. Several human diseases, including certain forms of breast cancer and leukemia, are associated with L1 and Alu insertions in functionally important areas of the genome. We present data demonstrating that environmental pollutants, such as heavy metals, can stimulate L1 retrotransposition in a tissue culture system using two different types of assays. The response to these agents was equivalent when using a cell line with a stably integrated L1 vector (genomic or a by introducing the L1 vector by transient transfection (episomal of the cell. Reproducible results showed that mercury (HgS, cadmium (CdS, and nickel (NiO increase the activity of L1 by an average of three (3 fold p<0.001. This observation is the first to link several carcinogenic agents with the increased retrotransposition activity of L1 as an alternate mechanism of generating genomic instability contributing to the process of carcinogenesis. Our results demonstrate that mobile element activation must be considered as one of the mechanisms when evaluating genomic damage/instability in response to environmental agents.

  6. Impact of heavy metals and PCBs on marine picoplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroppo, Carmela; Stabili, Loredana; Aresta, Michele; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Danovaro, Roberto

    2006-12-01

    Synergistic/antagonistic effects of multiple contaminants in marine environments are almost completely unexplored. In the present study, we investigated the effects of heavy metals (Zn and Pb) and PCBs on picoplankton abundance, biomass, cell size distribution, and bacterial C production. Natural picoplankton assemblages were exposed to heavy metals (Zn or Pb), organic contaminants (PCBs, Aroclor 1260), and to a mixture of different contaminants. The results of the present study indicate that Zn addition stimulated heterotrophic growth, whereas Pb has a negative impact on heterotrophic picoplankton, particularly significant in the first 24 h. Heavy metals had no effects on the autotrophic component. The addition of Aroclor 1260 had a significant impact on abundance, biomass, and cell size of autotrophic and heterotrophic picoplankton, and reduced significantly bacterial secondary production. Three weeks after PCB treatment, heterotrophic bacteria displayed a clear resilience, both in terms of abundance and biomass, reaching values comparable to those of the controls, but not in terms of bacterial C production. Our results indicate that picoplankton can be sensitive indicators of impact determined by heavy metals and PCBs in coastal marine systems.

  7. [Application of ICP-MS to the detection of heavy metals in transgenic corn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Yu-Kui; Guo, Jing; Huang, Kun-Lun; Jin, Yin-Hua; Luo, Yun-Bo

    2007-04-01

    With the rapid development of the transgenic food, more and more transgenic food has been pouring into the market attracting much attention to the transgenic food's edible safety. Transgenic corns and its parents were studied by ICP-MS to detect the heavy metals. The results showed that the transgenic corn accumulated less heavy metals (Ni, Cu, Cd, As, Cr, Zn and Hg) than their own parents; and the contents of some heavy metals (V, Co and Pb) in transgenic corns were similar to their parents. All the data showed that the insertion of foreign gene (Bt) might change the absorbing dynamics of most heavy metals, especially some important heavy metals, which are disadvantageous to human health. The present paper indicated that the change in heavy metals absorption could harm the edible safety of transgenic plant. The cause of this change should be studied further.

  8. Evaluation of Heavy and Trace Metals in Fingernails of Young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    WAHAB

    reference to the harmful effects of cadmium, mercury ... metalloid such as arsenic, regardless of density ... Heavy metal poisoning could results for instance, from ... metals from the samples or depositing metals on them. ... prevent foaming.

  9. Use of cestodes as indicator of heavy-metal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen Nhi, Tran Thi; Mohd Shazili, Noor Azhar; Shaharom-Harrison, Faizah

    2013-01-01

    Thirty snakehead fish, Channa micropeltes (Cuvier, 1831) were collected at Lake Kenyir, Malaysia. Muscle, liver, intestine and kidney tissues were removed from each fish and the intestine was opened to reveal cestodes. In order to assess the concentration of heavy metal in the environment, samples of water in the surface layer and sediment were also collected. Tissues were digested and the concentrations of manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were analysed by using inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS) equipment. The results demonstrated that the cestode Senga parva (Fernando and Furtado, 1964) from fish hosts accumulated some heavy metals to a greater extent than the water and some fish tissues, but less than the sediment. In three (Pb, Zn and Mn) of the five elements measured, cestodes accumulated the highest metal concentrations, and in remaining two (Cu and Cd), the second highest metal accumulation was recorded in the cestodes when compared to host tissues. Therefore, the present study indicated that Senga parva accumulated metals and might have potential as a bioindicator of heavy-metal pollution.

  10. Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals in Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Aibuedefe AISIEN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the major environmental problems is the pollution of water and soil by toxic heavy metals. This study investigated the phytoremediation potential of water hyacinth, for the removal of cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb and zinc (Zn. Water hyacinths were cultured in bore-hole water, supplemented with 5mg/l of Zn and Pb and 1mg/l of Cd at pH 4.5, 6.8 and 8.5. The plants were separately harvested each week for six weeks. The results showed that removal of these metals from solution was fast especially in the first two weeks, after which it became gradual till saturation point was reached. The accumulation of Cd and Zn in leaves and roots increased with increase in pH. The highest accumulation was in the roots with metal concentration of 4870mg/kg, 4150mg/kg and 710mg/kg for Zn, Pb and Cd respectively at pH 8.5. The maximum values of bioconcentration factor (BCF for Zn, Pb and Cd were 1674, 1531 and 1479 respectively, suggesting that water hyacinth was good accumulator of Zn, Pb and Cd, and could be used to treat industrial wastewater contaminated with heavy metals such as Zn, Pb and Cd.

  11. Environmental impact of heavy metal pollution in natural aquatic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tayab, Muhammad Rehan

    1991-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. The distribution of heavy metals between soil and soil solutions is a key issue in evaluating the environmental impact of long term applications of heavy metals to land. Contamination of soils by heavy metals has been reported by many workers. Metal adsorption is affected by many factors, including soil pH, clay mineralogy, abundance of oxides and organic matter, soil composition and solution...

  12. Carbon based secondary compounds do not provide protection against heavy metal road pollutants in epiphytic macrolichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauslaa, Yngvar; Yemets, Olena A; Asplund, Johan; Solhaug, Knut Asbjørn

    2016-01-15

    Lichens are useful monitoring organisms for heavy metal pollution. They are high in carbon based secondary compounds (CBSCs) among which some may chelate heavy metals and thus increase metal accumulation. This study quantifies CBSCs in four epiphytic lichens transplanted for 6months on stands along transects from a highway in southern Norway to search for relationships between concentrations of heavy metals and CBSCs along a gradient in heavy metal pollutants. Viability parameters and concentrations of 21 elements including nutrients and heavy metals in these lichen samples were reported in a separate paper. Medullary CBSCs in fruticose lichens (Ramalina farinacea, Usnea dasypoga) were reduced in the most polluted sites, but not in foliose ones (Parmelia sulcata, Lobaria pulmonaria), whereas cortical CBSC did not change with distance from the road in any species. Strong positive correlations only occurred between the major medullary compound stictic acid present in L. pulmonaria and most heavy metals, consistent with a chelating role of stictic acid, but not of other studied CBSCs or in other species. However, heavy metal chelating did not protect L. pulmonaria against damage because this species experienced the strongest reduction in viability in the polluted sites. CBSCs with an accumulation potential for heavy metals should be quantified in lichen biomonitoring studies of heavy metals because they, like stictic acid, could overshadow pollutant inputs in some species rendering biomonitoring data less useful. In the two fruticose lichen species, CBSCs decreased with increasing heavy metal concentration, probably because heavy metal exposure impaired secondary metabolism. Thus, we found no support for a heavy metal protection role of any CBSCs in studied epiphytic lichens. No intraspecific relationships occurred between CBSCs versus N or C/N-ratio. Interspecifically, medullary CBSCs decreased and cortical CBSCs increased with increasing C/N-ratio.

  13. Magnetotactic bacteria. Promising biosorbents for heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Yanzong; Ding, Xiaohui; Liu, Yan; Shen, Fei; Zhang, Xiaohong; Deng, Shihuai; Xiao, Hong; Yang, Gang; Peng, Hong [Sichuan Agricultural Univ., Chengdu (China). Provincial Key Lab. of Agricultural Environmental Engineering

    2012-09-15

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB), which can orient and migrate along a magnetic line of force due to intracellular nanosized magnetosomes, have been a subject of research in the medical field, in dating environmental changes, and in environmental remediation. This paper reviews the recent development of MTB as biosorbents for heavy metals. Ultrastructures and taxis of MTB are investigated. Adsorptions in systems of unitary and binary ions are highlighted, as well as adsorption conditions (temperature, pH value, biomass concentration, and pretreatments). The separation and desorption of MTB in magnetic separators are also discussed. A green method to produce metal nanoparticles is provided, and an energy-efficient way to recover precious metals is put forward during biosorption. (orig.)

  14. HEAVY FERMIONS. Strange metal without magnetic criticality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Takahiro; Kuga, Kentaro; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Coleman, Piers; Nakatsuji, Satoru

    2015-07-31

    A fundamental challenge to our current understanding of metals is the observation of qualitative departures from Fermi liquid behavior. The standard view attributes such non-Fermi liquid phenomena to the scattering of electrons off quantum critical fluctuations of an underlying order parameter. Although the possibility of non-Fermi liquid behavior isolated from the border of magnetism has long been speculated, no experimental confirmation has been made. Here, we report on the observation of a strange metal region away from a magnetic instability in an ultrapure single crystal. In particular, we show that the heavy-fermion superconductor β-YbAlB4 forms a possible phase with strange metallic behavior across an extensive pressure regime, distinctly separated from a high-pressure magnetic quantum phase transition by a Fermi liquid phase.

  15. Suppressing Heavy Metal Leaching through Ball Milling of Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiliang Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ball milling is investigated as a method of reducing the leaching concentration (often termed stablilization of heavy metals in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI fly ash. Three heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Pb loose much of their solubility in leachate by treating fly ash in a planetary ball mill, in which collisions between balls and fly ash drive various physical processes, as well as chemical reactions. The efficiency of stabilization is evaluated by analysing heavy metals in the leachable fraction from treated fly ash. Ball milling reduces the leaching concentration of Cu, Cr, and Pb, and water washing effectively promotes stabilization efficiency by removing soluble salts. Size distribution and morphology of particles were analysed by laser particle diameter analysis and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals significant reduction of the crystallinity of fly ash by milling. Fly ash particles can be activated through this ball milling, leading to a significant decrease in particle size, a rise in its BET-surface, and turning basic crystals therein into amorphous structures. The dissolution rate of acid buffering materials present in activated particles is enhanced, resulting in a rising pH value of the leachate, reducing the leaching out of some heavy metals.

  16. Surfactin restores and enhances swarming motility under heavy metal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anil Kumar; Dhanjal, Soniya; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2014-04-01

    The present work reports the importance of lipopeptide biosurfactant on swarming motility of multi-metal resistant (MMR) bacterium under heavy metal stress. The MMR bacteria strain CM100B, identified as Bacillus cereus, was isolated from the coal mine sample. The strain was able to grow and reduce several metals namely Cd(2+), Co(2+), Cu(2+), Ni(2+), Mn(2+) and Pb(2+) ions which are common environmental pollutants. Presence of toxic heavy metal ions in the swarming medium significantly altered the motility of CM100B. Presence of Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) ions inhibited development of peritrichous flagella, thus inhibiting swarming motility. However, the addition of anionic biosurfactant surfactin restored (in case of Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) ions) or enhanced (in case of Co(2+), Cu(2+), Ni(2+) and Mn(2+)) the swarming ability of CM100B. Zeta potential studies for determining bacterial cell surface charge indicated that surfactin provided a suitable swarming environment to bacteria even under metal stress by chelating to cationic metal ions. Non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100 was unable to restore swarming under Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) ion stress. Thus, suggesting that surfactin can aid in motility not only by reducing the surface tension of swarming medium but also by binding to metal ions in the presence of metal ions stress.

  17. BIOREMEDIATION OF HEAVY METALS USING BIOSURFACTANT PRODUCING MICROORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayanand.S

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate degradation of heavy metals in effluent waste water samples using microorganisms. The physical and chemical properties of the effluent samples were analyzed using standard methods. The soil sample collected from the heavy metal contaminated sites was subjected to serial dilution and streak-plating methods and six different strains were isolated from the samples. The activity of the isolates for hemolysis was studied on the Blood-Agar plates. The isolated strains were studied for its biochemical and morphological characteristics. The dark-blue colonies were observed by CTAB method, which confirmed the anionic bio surfactant produced by the isolate. The isolates were subjected to other screening tests like emulsification activity and oil displacement technique. These strains were used in the degradation of heavy metals present in the effluent waste water samples. The organism KDM 4 showed better degradation with 93.18% ability in reducing zinc when incubated for 72 hours and 86.36% when incubated for 24 hours in sample 3. The lead reduction was found to be 84.13% by the organism KDM3 when incubated at 37°C for 72 hours incubation. The chromium was reduced by the organism KDM 6 with 87.9% ability when incubated for 72 hours. The organisms had capacity to reduce the heavy metals depending on the factors like time and concentration of inoculum. As the time of incubation increases, more reduction was observed. The least amount of degradation was found in the organism KDM5 with only 27.08%. The percentage of reduction of heavy metals varies from one sample to another sample.

  18. Effect of hydrothermal carbonization on migration and environmental risk of heavy metals in sewage sludge during pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingting; Liu, Zhengang; Zheng, Qingfu; Lang, Qianqian; Xia, Yu; Peng, Nana; Gai, Chao

    2017-09-18

    The heavy metals distribution during hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of sewage sludge, and pyrolysis of the resultant hydrochar was investigated and compared with raw sludge pyrolysis. The results showed that HTC reduced exchangeable/acid-soluble and reducible fraction of heavy metals and lowered the potential risk of heavy metals in sewage sludge. The pyrolysis favored the transformation of extracted/mobile fraction of heavy metals to residual form especially at high temperature, immobilizing heavy metals in the chars. Compared to the chars from raw sludge pyrolysis, the chars derived from hydrochar pyrolysis was more alkaline and had lower risk and less leachable heavy metals, indicating that pyrolysis imposed more positive effect on immobilization of heavy metals for the hydrochar than for sewage sludge. The present study demonstrated that HTC is a promising pretreatment prior to pyrolysis from the perspective of immobilization of heavy metals in sewage sludge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Bioleaching of heavy metals from sewage sludge: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Ashish; Dastidar, M G; Sreekrishnan, T R

    2009-06-01

    During the treatment of sewage, a huge volume of sludge is generated, which is disposed of on land as soil fertilizer/conditioner due to the presence of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and other nutrients. However, the presence of toxic heavy metals and other toxic compounds in the sludge restricts its use as a fertilizer. Over the years, bioleaching has been developed as an environmentally friendly and cost-effective technology for the removal of heavy metals from the sludge. The present paper gives an overview of the various bioleaching studies carried out in different modes of operation. The various important aspects such as pathogen destruction, odor reduction and metal recovery from acidic leachate also have been discussed. Further, a detailed discussion was made on the various technical problems associated with the bioleaching process, which need to be addressed while developing the process on a larger scale.

  20. Heavy metals in Ratnapura alluvial gem sediments, Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vithanage, M. S.; Hettiarachchi, J. K.; Rajapaksha, A. U.; Wijesekara, H.; Hewawasam, T.

    2011-12-01

    The valuable gems in Sri Lanka are found from the sedimentary gem deposits in Ratnapura District, which are found as alluvial deposits some are about >50 m deep. Gem bearing gravel layer is taken out from the mine, washed by panning to recover the gem minerals in the heavy mineral fraction, is a common practice in the gem mining area. Gem bearing sediment layer is associated with different heavy minerals in which different trace metals as Co, Cr, Cu, Al, Zr, Pb and As also can be present. During panning, the sediment is washed away and the heavy metals attached to the sediments are released into the environment. Hence we studied the lability and bioavailability of arsenic and other heavy metals from the gem sediments. Sediment samples were collected from 15 small scale gem mines (3 soil layers- top, gem mineral layer and layer below gem bearing gravel layer), air dried and sieved to obtain 150 mg/kg), Cu (>150 mg/kg), Pb (>400 mg/kg), Zn (>600 mg/kg) and Co ions (>100 mg/kg). Arsenite in the gem sediments were low and recorded as arsenic analysis is under investigation. Highest concentrations for bioavailable and exchangeable (leach to water) metals were Fe>Co>Zn>Mn>Ni>Cu>Pb. Sediments from few gem pits showed considerably high concentrations of metals analyzed. In some places Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn reported high in bioavailable fractions 70, 25, 20, 10 mg/kg respectively. Mobilization of these metals may increase due to changes in the pH and the presence of other ions in the environment. High concentrations of toxic metals in exchangeable and bioavailable fractions indicate the risk on plant and animals as well as the open water bodies and groundwater sources.

  1. The Confluence of Heavy Metal Biooxidation and Heavy Metal Resistance: Implications for Bioleaching by Extreme Thermoacidophiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrett Wheaton

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Extreme thermoacidophiles (Topt > 65 °C, pHopt < 3.5 inhabit unique environments fraught with challenges, including extremely high temperatures, low pH, as well as high levels of soluble metal species. In fact, certain members of this group thrive by metabolizing heavy metals, creating a dynamic equilibrium between biooxidation to meet bioenergetic needs and mechanisms for tolerating and resisting the toxic effects of solubilized metals. Extremely thermoacidophilic archaea dominate bioleaching operations at elevated temperatures and have been considered for processing certain mineral types (e.g., chalcopyrite, some of which are recalcitrant to their mesophilic counterparts. A key issue to consider, in addition to temperature and pH, is the extent to which solid phase heavy metals are solubilized and the concomitant impact of these mobilized metals on the microorganism’s growth physiology. Here, extreme thermoacidophiles are examined from the perspectives of biodiversity, heavy metal biooxidation, metal resistance mechanisms, microbe-solid interactions, and application of these archaea in biomining operations.

  2. Facultative hyperaccumulation of heavy metals and metalloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, A Joseph; Reeves, Roger D; Baker, Alan J M

    2014-03-01

    Approximately 500 species of plants are known to hyperaccumulate heavy metals and metalloids. The majority are obligate metallophytes, species that are restricted to metalliferous soils. However, a smaller but increasing list of plants are "facultative hyperaccumulators" that hyperaccumulate heavy metals when occurring on metalliferous soils, yet also occur commonly on normal, non-metalliferous soils. This paper reviews the biology of facultative hyperaccumulators and the opportunities they provide for ecological and evolutionary research. The existence of facultative hyperaccumulator populations across a wide edaphic range allows intraspecific comparisons of tolerance and uptake physiology. This approach has been used to study zinc and cadmium hyperaccumulation by Noccaea (Thlaspi) caerulescens and Arabidopsis halleri, and it will be instructive to make similar comparisons on species that are distributed even more abundantly on normal soil. Over 90% of known hyperaccumulators occur on serpentine (ultramafic) soil and accumulate nickel, yet there have paradoxically been few experimental studies of facultative nickel hyperaccumulation. Several hypotheses suggested to explain the evolution of hyperaccumulation seem unlikely when most populations of a species occur on normal soil, where plants cannot hyperaccumulate due to low metal availability. In such species, it may be that hyperaccumulation is an ancestral phylogenetic trait or an anomalous manifestation of physiological mechanisms evolved on normal soils, and may or may not have direct adaptive benefits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Heavy metals bioaccumulation by edible saprophytic mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan ŠIRIĆ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of heavy metals Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb i Cd in certain edible species of saprophytic fungi and the substrate on three area of sampling, and to assess the role of individual species as biological indicators of environmental pollution. In this study were used three species of wild edible mushrooms (Agaricus macroarpus Bohus, Clitocybe inversa (Scop. ex Fr. Pat. and Macrolepiota procera (Scop. ex Fr. Sing.,. Completely developed and mature fruiting bodies were collected at random selection in localities of Trakošćan, Jaska and Petrova gora. At the same time, the substrate soil samples were collected from the upper horizon (0-10. Determination of heavy metals in mushrooms and the substrate soil were carried out by X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry. The data obtained were analysed by means of the statistical program SAS V9.2. Significant differences were found in the concentrations of Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb and Cd between analysed species of mushrooms and localities of sampling (P 1. The consumption of investigated mushrooms poses no toxicological risk to human health due to low concentrations analysed metals.

  4. Magnetic evidence for heavy metal pollution of topsoil in Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guan; Liu, Yuan; Chen, Jiao; Ren, Feifan; Chen, Yuying; Ye, Fangzhou; Zhang, Weiguo

    2017-03-01

    This study presents the results obtained from magnetic susceptibility and heavy metal (Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cr) concentration measurements of soil profiles collected from arable land and urban parks in Baoshan District, an industrial district of Shanghai, China. The study focuses on the investigation of vertical variations in magnetic susceptibilities and heavy metal concentrations and on correlations between magnetic susceptibilities and heavy metal concentrations in soil profiles. The results demonstrate that magnetic enhancement in the surface layer of the soil profile is associated with increased heavy metal pollution. The enrichment factors (EF) and the Tomlinson Pollution Load Index (PLI-EF) are calculated for estimating the level of heavy metal pollution of soil profiles in the study. The significant positive correlations between heavy metal contents, enrichment factors (EF), Tomlinson pollution load index (PLI-CF), modified Tomlinson pollution load index (PLI-EF), and magnetic susceptibility (c) indicate that much of the heavy metal contamination in the study area is linked to combustion derived particulate emissions. The results confirm that the combined magnetic measurement and heavy metal concentration analysis could provide useful information for soil monitoring in urban environments. However, the use of magnetic technique to locate the heavy metal pollution boundary in the soil profile of this studied area should be confirmed by further geochemical analysis.

  5. Identification and Quantification of Heavy Metals Concentrations in Pistacia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhossein DAVARYNEJAD

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The levels of heavy metals are very important in pistachio nuts, because the edible nuts have an important and increasing role in human nutrition. Pistachio is one of the native nuts of Iran which contains high genetic resources, but there is insufficient information regarding nutritional properties and other elements like heavy metals. The objective of the present study was to investigate and compare heavy metals contents in the kernels of various pistachio samples including; ‘Daneshmandi’, ‘Sephid’, ‘Garmeh’, ‘Momtaz’, ‘Ahmad Aghaei’, ‘Badami Zarand’, Pistacia atlantica Desf. (‘Baneh’, Pistacia vera ‘Sarakhs’ and chance seedling as ‘Non-grafted 1’, ‘Non-grafted 2’ and ‘Non-grafted 3’. Inductively coupled plasma emission spectrophotometer (ICP was used for the determination of aluminium, chromium, nickel, copper, strontium, arsenic, cadmium and cobalt concentrations in pistachio kernels. This study showed that there were significant differences among the samples in all measured heavy metals except the arsenic, cadmium and cobalt. The content of aluminium varied from 3.22 to 9.59 (mg kg-1 of dry matter and chromium concentration from 0.60 to 1.86 (mg kg-1 of dry matter. The nickel content of examined pistachio samples was found between 0.43 and 3.63 (mg kg-1 of dry matter and copper ranged from 3.20 to 12.33 (mg kg-1 of dry matter. The strontium content was observed between 4.96 and 24.93 (mg kg-1 of dry matter. The contents of arsenic, cadmium and cobalt not reported, because their amounts were lower than the detection limit of the applied measuring method (ICP. These data demonstrated that the concentrations of heavy metals in pistachios varied by cultivar.

  6. Determination of selected heavy metals in inland fresh water of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agadaga

    significant negative impact on the water quality. Key words: Heavy ... fish, and for such in-stream uses as recreation, ... adverse effects of pollutants such as heavy metals is ... through Kebbi State and flows through to the Atlantic Ocean. The.

  7. Heavy metal and abiotic stress inducible metallothionein isoforms from Prosopis juliflora (SW) D.C. show differences in binding to heavy metals in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usha, B; Venkataraman, Gayatri; Parida, Ajay

    2009-01-01

    Prosopis juliflora is a tree species that grows well in heavy metal laden industrial sites and accumulates heavy metals. To understand the possible contribution of metallothioneins (MTs) in heavy metal accumulation in P. juliflora, we isolated and compared the metal binding ability of three different types of MTs (PjMT1-3). Glutathione S-transferase fusions of PjMTs (GSTMT1-3) were purified from Escherichia coli cells grown in the presence of 0.3 mM cadmium, copper or zinc. Analysis of metal bound fusion proteins using atomic absorption spectrometry showed that PjMT1 bound higher levels of all three heavy metals as compared to PjMT2 and PjMT3. A comparative analysis of the genomic regions (including promoter for all three PjMTs) is also presented. All three PjMTs are induced by H(2)O(2) and ABA applications. PjMT1 and PjMT2 are induced by copper and zinc respectively while PjMT3 is induced by copper, zinc and cadmium. Variation in induction of PjMTs in response to metal exposure and their differential binding to metals suggests that each MT has a specific role in P. juliflora. Of the three MTs analyzed, PjMT1 shows maximum heavy metal sequestration and is thus a potential candidate for use in heavy metal phytoremediation.

  8. Bismuth nanoparticles integration into heavy metal electrochemical stripping sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadevall, Miquel; Ros, Josep; Merkoçi, Arben

    2015-08-01

    Between their many applications bismuth nanoparticles (BiNPs) are showing interest as pre-concentrators in heavy metals detection while being applied as working electrode modifiers used in electrochemical stripping analysis. From the different reported methods to synthesize BiNPs we are focused on the typical polyol method, largely used in these types of metallic and semi-metallic nanoparticles. This study presents the strategy for an easy control of the shape and size of BiNPs including nanocubes, nanosferes and triangular nanostructures. To improve the BiNP size and shape, different reducing agents (ethylene glycol or sodium hypophosphite) and stabilizers (polyvinyl pyrrolidone, PVP, in different amounts) have been studied. The efficiency of BiNPs for heavy metals analysis in terms of detection sensitivity while being used as modifiers of screen-printed carbon electrodes including the applicability of the developed device in real sea water samples is shown. A parallel study between the obtained nanoparticles and their performance in heavy metal sensing has been described in this communication.

  9. Heavy metals in equine biological components

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Verônica de Souza; Maurício Paulo Ferreira Fontes; Raphael Bragança Alves Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the concentration of heavy metals in the blood (Pb, Ni and Cd), serum (Cu and Zn) and hair (Pb, Ni, Cd, Cu and Zn) of horses raised in non-industrial and industrial areas (with steel mill), and to verify the possibility to use these data as indicators of environmental pollution. The samples were collected during summer and winter, aiming to verify animal contamination related to environment and season of the year. Copper and Zn contents determin...

  10. Measurement of free heavy metal ion concentrations in soils using Donnan membrane technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI Li; HONG Yetang; WENG Liping; ZHU Yongxuan

    2005-01-01

    In natural systems heavy metals are present in very low concentrations (less than micro-molar), so precise measurement of the free metal ions is difficult. Recently, a new method has been developed called the Donnan membrane technique (DMT). Several heavy metals could be measured simultaneously using this method. Furthermore, all the metals did not interfere with each other, and the balance between the measured system and the surrounding condition could not be disturbed. Improvements were made according to the internal condition. The free heavy metal ion concentrations were measured in different systems using the improved method, and satisfied results have been obtained.

  11. Chemical speciation of heavy metals in sandy soils in relation to availability and mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temminghoff, E.J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The environmental risk of heavy metals which are present in soil at a certain total content is highly dependent on soil properties. Chemical speciation is a comprehensive term for the distribution of heavy metals over all possible chemical forms (species) in soil solution and in the solid

  12. Chemical speciation of heavy metals in sandy soils in relation to availability and mobility.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temminghoff, E.J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The environmental risk of heavy metals which are present in soil at a certain total content is highly dependent on soil properties. Chemical speciation is a comprehensive term for the distribution of heavy metals over all possible chemical forms (species) in soil solution and in the solid phase. The

  13. Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in the Copenhagen area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Allan; Hovmand, Mads Frederik; Johnsen, Ib

    1978-01-01

    Atmospheric dry and wet deposition (bulk precipitation) of the heavy metals Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, V and Fe over the Copenhagen area was measured by sampling in plastic funnels from 17 stations during a twelve-month period. Epigeic bryophytes from 100 stations in the area were analysed for the heavy...... and heavy metal concentration in lichens and bryophytes. An exponential correlation was found between bulk precipitation and heavy metal concentration in soil. Regional variation of the heavy metal levels in the Copenhagen area was described and three sub-areas with high metal burdens were distinguished....... The heavy metal gradients from a secondary smelter in one of these sub-areas were steepest in soil compared with lichens and bryophytes....

  14. [Bioremediation of heavy metal pollution by edible fungi: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-Fei; Hu, Liu-Jie; Liao, Dun-Xiu; Su, Shi-Ming; Zhou, Zheng-Ke; Zhang, Sheng

    2011-02-01

    Bioremediation is the method of using organisms and their derivatives to absorb heavy metals from polluted environment, with the characteristics of low cost, broad sources, and no secondary pollution. Heavy metals enrichment by edible fungi is an important research focus of bioremediation, because it can decrease the eco-toxicity of heavy metals via the uptake by edible fungi, and thereby, take a definite role in heavy metal remediation. This paper reviewed the research progress on the enrichment of heavy metal copper, cadmium, lead, zinc, arsenic, and chromium by edible fungi and the possible enrichment mechanisms, and prospected the development and applications of heavy metal enrichment by edible fungi in the management of polluted environment.

  15. Perilous Effects of Heavy Metals Contamination on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseem Zahra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals form a versatile group of high density elements that vary considerably in their biological roles and chemical properties. Although many heavy metals are essential trace elements yet they have long been recognized as environmental pollutants due their toxic effects. Increased industrialization, urbanization anthropogenic activities like mining, smelting and other agricultural activities have resulted in accumulation of heavy metals in the environment. Heavy metals such as nickel, cadmium, zinc, copper, mercury, arsenic and chromium are not easily degradable and tend to build up in soil. These heavy metals through various routes such as fish and plants make their way into the human body and are known to have serious detrimental effects on human health at elevated levels. The harmful effects of some important heavy metals on human health have been discussed.

  16. A Better Method for Evaluating Heavy Metal Water Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Hering, Janet

    2002-01-01

    High concentrations of heavy metals, and even trace amounts of some, can be harmful to both plants and animals. The toxicity of heavy metal contamination, however, is highly dependent on the chemical form of the metal in question. Metals that are bound in particles or to organic (carbon-containing) compounds are less toxic than dissolved free ions, less toxic meaning that the metals are less readily available for uptake by marine organisms.

  17. Heavy metals occurrence in Italian food supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brizio P.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years a significant increase in food supplements consumption has been observed, maybe in the belief that they couldn’t be dangerous for consumers health, even if they don’t achieved medical effects. However, environmental pollution can cause heavy metals contamination that could exceed maximum levels established by European legislation. Aim of this work was to evaluate arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead and mercury content in 12 food supplements seized in a Piedmont shop by the Italian authority against food adulteration. All metals were analysed after mineralization and dilution steps by ICP-MS, with the exception of mercury, detected by the direct analyser TDA-AAS. Only one sample exceed the European maximum limits for lead (3,00 mg/kg but warning levels of chromium (over 3,00 mg/Kg has been detected in three of them.

  18. Heavy metal speciation and toxicity characteristics of tannery sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juel, Md. Ariful Islam; Chowdhury, Zia Uddin Md.; Ahmed, Tanvir

    2016-07-01

    Heavy metals present in tannery sludge can get mobilized in the environment in various forms and can be a cause for concern for the natural ecosystem and human health. The speciation of metals in sludge provides valuable information regarding their toxicity in the environment and determines their suitability for land application or disposal in landfills. Concentrations of seven heavy metals (Cr, Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn, As and Cu) in tannery sludge were determined to evaluate their toxicity levels. Metal contents ranged over the following intervals: As: 1.52-2.07 mg/kg; Pb: 57.5-67 mg/kg; Cr: 15339-26501 mg/kg; Cu: 261.3-579.5 mg/kg; Zn: 210.2-329.1 mg/kg and Ni: 137.5-141.3 mg/kg (dry weight basis). The concentrations of all heavy metals in the sludge samples were lower compared to EPA guidelines except chromium which was found to be several orders of magnitude higher than the guideline value. Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP) test indicated that the leaching potential of chromium was higher compared to the other heavy metals and exceeded the EPA land disposal restriction limits. To quantitatively assess the environmental burden of the chromium associated with tannery sludge, the IMPACT 2002+ methodology was adopted under the SimaPro software environment. Considering the USEPA limit for chromium as the baseline scenario, it was found that chromium in the tannery sludge had 6.41 times higher impact than the baseline in the categories of aquatic ecotoxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity and non-carcinogens. Chromium has the highest contribution to toxicity in the category of aquatic ecotoxicity while copper is the major contributor to the category of terrestrial ecotoxicity in the tannery sludge.

  19. Removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions using clinoptilolite

    OpenAIRE

    Golomeova, Mirjana; Zendelska, Afrodita; Krstev, Boris; Golomeov, Blagoj; Krstev, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals are a common pollutant found in various industrial effluents. They are often encountered in mining operations and acid mine drainage. The heavy metals are highly toxic and are non-biodegradable, therefore they must be removed from the polluted streams in order to meet increasingly stringent environmental quality standards. Removal of heavy metals can be accomplished by a variety of techniques. Conventional methods typically involve the use of processes such as coag...

  20. Removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions using clinoptilolite

    OpenAIRE

    Golomeova, Mirjana; Zendelska, Afrodita; Krstev, Boris; Golomeov, Blagoj; Krstev, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals are a common pollutant found in various industrial effluents. They are often encountered in mining operations and acid mine drainage. The heavy metals are highly toxic and are non-biodegradable, therefore they must be removed from the polluted streams in order to meet increasingly stringent environmental quality standards. Removal of heavy metals can be accomplished by a variety of techniques. Conventional methods typically involve the use of processes such as coag...

  1. Microbial links between sulfate reduction and metal retention in uranium- and heavy metal-contaminated soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sitte, Jana; Akob, Denise M.; Kaufmann, Christian;

    2010-01-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) can affect metal mobility either directly by reductive transformation of metal ions, e.g., uranium, into their insoluble forms or indirectly by formation of metal sulfides. This study evaluated in situ and biostimulated activity of SRB in groundwater-influenced soils...... from a creek bank contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclides within the former uranium mining district of Ronneburg, Germany. In situ activity of SRB, measured by the 35SO42– radiotracer method, was restricted to reduced soil horizons with rates of 142 ± 20 nmol cm–3 day–1. Concentrations...... of heavy metals were enriched in the solid phase of the reduced horizons, whereas pore water concentrations were low. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) measurements demonstrated that 80% of uranium was present as reduced uranium but appeared to occur as a sorbed complex. Soil-based dsrAB clone...

  2. Beneficial role of bacterial endophytes in heavy metal phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying; Rajkumar, Mani; Zhang, Chang; Freitas, Helena

    2016-06-01

    Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that uses plants and their associated microbes to clean up pollutants from the soil, water and air. In recent years, phytoremediation assisted by bacterial endophytes has been highly recommended for cleaning up of metal polluted soils since endophytic bacteria can alleviate metal toxicity in plant through their own metal resistance system and facilitate plant growth under metal stress. Endophytic bacteria improve plant growth in metal polluted soils in two different ways: 1) directly by producing plant growth beneficial substances including solubilization/transformation of mineral nutrients (phosphate, nitrogen and potassium), production of phytohormones, siderophores and specific enzymes; and 2) indirectly through controlling plant pathogens or by inducing a systemic resistance of plants against pathogens. Besides, they also alter metal accumulation capacity in plants by excreting metal immobilizing extracellular polymeric substances, as well as metal mobilizing organic acids and biosurfactants. The present work aims to review the progress of recent research on the isolation, identification and diversity of metal resistant endophytic bacteria and illustrate various mechanisms responsible for plant growth promotion and heavy metal detoxification/phytoaccumulation/translocation in plants.

  3. Toxic heavy metals in commercially important food fishes collected from Palk Bay, Southeastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulkumar, Abimannan; Paramasivam, Sadayan; Rajaram, Rajendran

    2017-06-15

    Toxic heavy metals are an important group of emerging chemical contaminants in seafood. Heavy metal concentrations in commercially important and most commonly eaten 10 fish species from Thondi fish landing, southeast coast of India, were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The concentrations of heavy metals significantly varied within and between the investigated fish species (Ptoxic heavy metals in the fish samples. It was revealed that Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn metals were present in the fish samples at various levels. The residual levels of toxic heavy metals were less than the permissible levels specified for human consumption by the European Union, Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization guidelines. Therefore, the fish species found in the Thondi fish landing and their fishery products can be considered safe for human consumption and can be exported worldwide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A REVIEW OF HEAVY METAL POLLUTION IN THE PEARL RIVER ESTUARY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Sui-liang; ONYX W. H. Wai

    2004-01-01

    Since 70's, the economy and society in the Pearl River Delta region have been undergoing a great development. Pollution control and environment protection have received much public attention. As heavy metals are an important toxic pollutant source in this area and are not biodegradable in general, a lot of scientists in China, especially in Southern China, devote their focus on studying the pollution caused by heavy metals in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE). This paper presents a comprehensive review on the heavy metal pollution research and its related research in this area. It is suggested that the study of heavy metal pollution in PRE should be coupled with water movement, sediment motion and tidal characteristics in this region. Studying core sediments in various locations is recommended to reveal the history of heavy metal pollution in PRE and improve the understanding of the fate and transport of metals.

  5. Heavy metal biosorption by bacterial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vecchio, A; Finoli, C; Di Simine, D; Andreoni, [No Value

    1998-01-01

    Microbial biomass provides available ligand groups on which metal ions bind by different mechanisms. Biosorption of these elements from aqueous solutions represents a remediation technology suitable for the treatment of metal-contaminated effluents. The purpose of the present investigation was the a

  6. Heavy metal screening in compounds feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Toth

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are generally classified as basic groups of pollutants that are now a days found in different environmental compartments. This is quite a large group of contaminants, which have different characteristics, effects on the environment and sources of origin. For environment pose the greatest risks, especially heavy metals produced by anthropogenic activities that adversely affect the health and vitality of organisms and natural environmental conditions. Livestock nutrition is among the main factors which affect not only the deficiency of livestock production and quality of food of animal origin, but they are also a factor affecting the safety and wholesomeness and the animal health. Compound feeds is characterized as a mixture of two or more feed grain. Containing organic, inorganic nutrients and specifically active compound feed meet the nutritional requirements of a given kind and age category of animals. They are used mainly in the diet of pigs, poultry, but also the nutrition of cattle, sheep, horses and other animal categories. The basic ingredients are cereals in proportion of 60-70 %. The aim of this thesis was to analyze the content of hazardous elements (copper, zinc, iron, manganese, cobalt, nickel, chromium, lead, cadmium, mercury in 15 samples of compound feeds and then evaluating their content in comparison with maximum limits laid down by Regulation of the Government of the Slovak Republic and Regulation Commission (EC.

  7. Effects of heavy metal adsorption on silicene

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.

    2014-06-02

    Based on first-principles calculations, we study the effects of heavy metal atoms (Au, Hg, Tl, and Pb) adsorbed on silicene. We find that the hollow site is energetically favorable in each case. We particulary address the question how the adsorption modifies the band structure in the vicinity of the Fermi energy. Our results demonstrate that the heavy metal adatoms result in substantial energy gaps and band splittings in the silicene sheet as long as the binding is strong, which, however, is not always the case. (© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH &Co. KGaA, Weinheim) Carbon nanotube flexible sponge was manufactured as high performance electromagnetic shielding material. Chemical vapour deposition (CVD) synthesized sponges with extreme light weight show an electromagnetic shielding above 20 dB and a specific electromagnetic shielding as high as 1100 dB cm3g-1 in the whole 1-18 GHz range. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Heavy metal atmospheric deposition and biomonitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrault, S.; Clocchiatti, R.; Carrot, F.; Michel, A.; Gaudry, A.; Moskura, M.

    2003-05-01

    The atmospheric fluxes of heavy metals were measured continuously in the Paris area. The dry depositions were collected on quartz fiber filters, after comparison between clogging capacities and blank levels on commercial filters. Rain was collected in a polyethylene gauge. Two transplanted biomonitors, the epiphytic lichen Evernia prunastri, and the pleurocarpeous moss Scleropodium purum, were exposed simultaneously. These two common biomonitors have been used in previous passive biomonitoring campaigns [Galsomies 1999, Grasso 1999]. This work attempts to produce data on heavy metal exposure of this populated area near Paris, and to compare these two cryptogamic species behaviour. The results on bioaccumulation were compared to those given by a previous work in Italy [Bargagli, 2002] comparing the moss Hypnum cupressiforme and the lichen Parmelia caperata. In our study, the transplanted lichens were exposed in different conditions: to the rain or protected from rain, in vertical, horizontal or oblique position. Dry (filters) and wet (rain) depositions and biomonitors were analysed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) for more than 30elements [Ayrault, 2001]. The individual particle composition (on filters and cryptogams) was determined by nuclear microprobe (PIXE) and electron microprobe. The lichens displayed different accumulation rates, depending on exposition conditions. In particular, the inclination influenced the bulk concentrations in the lichen. Relation was made between fluxes and concentration accumulated by the biomonitors. The enrichment factors were spectacular for some elements, e.g. lead.

  9. Adsorption of heavy metal in freeway by asphalt block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaocheng

    2017-08-01

    Heavy metals are toxic, persistent, and carcinogenic in freeway. Various techniques are available for the removal of heavy metals from waste water among soils during freeway including ion-exchange, membrane filtration, electrolysis, coagulation, flotation, and adsorption. Among them, bio-sorption processes are widely used for heavy metal and other pollutant removal due to its sustainable, rapid and economic. In this paper, heavy metal removal facilitated by adsorption in plants during freeway was illustrated to provide concise information on exploring the adsorption efficiency.

  10. Determination of heavy metal toxicity of finished leather solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Ahmet

    2009-05-01

    This paper investigates the toxicity in leather products of heavy metals known to be detrimental to the ecosystem. Heavy metal concentrations in leather samples were identified with ICP-OES, and toxicity was determined using a MetPLATE bioassay. Chromium and aluminium were found to constitute 98% of the total concentration of heavy metals in finished leather tanned with chromium and aluminium salts, while in some vegetable-tanned leather, zirconium was the only heavy metal identified. The average inhibition values for chromium, aluminium and vegetable tanned leather were 98.08%, 97.04% and 62.36%, respectively.

  11. Research on Distribution Pattern of Heavy Metals in Yanzhou Coalfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Guang-zhu; YANG Feng-jie; CHENG Jian-guang; Wang Cui-zhen

    2005-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution brings extensive concerns since 1940s. In order to assess the heavy metal pollution on the farmland of Yanzhou coalfield, 216 soil samples and 54 combined samples were collected. Lead, cadmium, chromium, copper, zinc, and nickel contained in both topsoil and deep soil were analyzed using atomic absorbent spectrometry analyzer (AAS). Fuzzy clustering method was used in data processing. And fuzzy synthetic assessment was applied to assess the soil contamination by heavy metals. The result shows that Yanzhou coalfield has been polluted by the heavy metals to some extent.

  12. Heavy metal research in lacustrine sediment: a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Heavy metals are released into environment from a wide range of natural and anthropogenic sources. Aquatic ecosystems are normally at the receiving end and in many cases, with lakes as intermediaries.Lacustrine sediments are important sinks for heavy metals and play a significant role in enrichment and remobilization of heavy metals in aquatic systems. Therefore, characteristics of heavy metal in lacustrine sediments become one of the important issues in environmental sciences. Progress in heavy metal research of lake sediments since late 1980s is reviewed comprehensively in this paper from over 100. The Highlights are placed on the establishment of aquatic sediment quality guidelines, references chemical speciation of heavy metals, heavy metal transport mechanisms in lakes, and high-resolution study of lake borehole cores.Meanwhile, suggestions for heavy metal research in lacustrine sediment in the future are proposed, including such issues as using integrated approaches to assess aquatic ecosystem, modern lake dynamic process,high-resolution evolutionary sequence and spatial differentiation of environments and international lake database, which should be referential to the promotion of research on heavy metal in aquatic system.

  13. To study the recovery of L-Cysteine using halloysite nanotubes after heavy metal removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Juhi

    2016-04-01

    Industrial wastes are a major source of soil and water pollution that originate from mining industries, chemical industries, metal processing industries, etc. These wastes consist of a variety of chemicals including phenolics, heavy metals, etc. Use of industrial effluent and sewage sludge on agricultural land has become a common practice in the world which results in these toxic metals being transferred and ultimately concentrate in plant tissues from water and the soil. The metals that get accumulated, prove detrimental to plants themselves and may also cause damage to the healths of animals as well as man. This is because the heavy metals become toxins above certain concentrations, over a narrow range. As a further matter, these metals negatively affect the natural microbial populations as well, that leads to the disruption of fundamental ecological processes. However, many techniques and methods have been advanced to clear the heavy metal polluted soils and waters. One important method is by removing heavy metals with the help of amino acids like L-Cysteine and L-Penicillamine. But also, economy of removal of pollutant heavy metals from soils and waters is a major concern. Present study helps in decreasing the cost for large-scale removal of heavy metals from polluted water by recovering the amino acid (L-Cysteine) after removal of nickel (Ni+2) at a fixed pH, by binding the Ni+2 with halloysite nanotubes(HNT), so that L-Cysteine can be reused again for removal of heavy metals.

  14. Peltier effect in normal metal-insulator-heavy fermion metal junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltsev, A. V.; Rowe, D. M.; Kuznetsov, V. L.; Kuznetsova, L. A.; Min, Gao

    2003-04-01

    A theoretical study has been undertaken of the Peltier effect in normal metal-insulator-heavy fermion metal junctions. The results indicate that, at temperatures below the Kondo temperature, such junctions can be used as electronic microrefrigerators to cool the normal metal electrode and are several times more efficient in cooling than the normal metal-heavy fermion metal junctions.

  15. Competitive adsorption of dyes and heavy metals on zeolitic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Montoya, V; Pérez-Cruz, M A; Mendoza-Castillo, D I; Moreno-Virgen, M R; Bonilla-Petriciolet, A

    2013-02-15

    The adsorption of Acid blue 25, basic blue 9, basic violet 3, Pb(2+), Ni(2+), Zn(2+) and Cd(2+) ions has been studied in single and dye-metal binary solutions using two mineral materials: Clinoptilolite (CL) and ER (Erionite). These zeolites were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy; potentiometric titration and nitrogen adsorption isotherms at 77 K to obtain their textural parameters. Results indicated that ER has an acidic character and a high specific surface (401 m(2) g(-1)) in contrast with the zeolite CL (21 m(2) g(-1)). Surprisingly, the removal of dyes was very similar for the two zeolites and they showed a considerable selectivity by the basic dyes in comparison with the acid dyes. In the case of heavy metals, ER was more effective in the adsorption process showing a selectivity of: Pb(2+) > Ni(2+) > Zn(2+) > Cd(2+). In the multicomponent adsorption experiments an antagonistic effect was observed in the removal of basic dyes and heavy metals. Particularly, the adsorbed amount of basic violet 3 decreased more significantly when the heavy metals are presents in contrast with the basic blue 9. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Perspectives of plant-associated microbes in heavy metal phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, M; Sandhya, S; Prasad, M N V; Freitas, H

    2012-01-01

    "Phytoremediation" know-how to do-how is rapidly expanding and is being commercialized by harnessing the phyto-microbial diversity. This technology employs biodiversity to remove/contain pollutants from the air, soil and water. In recent years, there has been a considerable knowledge explosion in understanding plant-microbes-heavy metals interactions. Novel applications of plant-associated microbes have opened up promising areas of research in the field of phytoremediation technology. Various metabolites (e.g., 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase, indole-3-acetic acid, siderophores, organic acids, etc.) produced by plant-associated microbes (e.g., plant growth promoting bacteria, mycorrhizae) have been proposed to be involved in many biogeochemical processes operating in the rhizosphere. The salient functions include nutrient acquisition, cell elongation, metal detoxification and alleviation of biotic/abiotic stress in plants. Rhizosphere microbes accelerate metal mobility, or immobilization. Plants and associated microbes release inorganic and organic compounds possessing acidifying, chelating and/or reductive power. These functions are implicated to play an essential role in plant metal uptake. Overall the plant-associated beneficial microbes enhance the efficiency of phytoremediation process directly by altering the metal accumulation in plant tissues and indirectly by promoting the shoot and root biomass production. The present work aims to provide a comprehensive review of some of the promising processes mediated by plant-associated microbes and to illustrate how such processes influence heavy metal uptake through various biogeochemical processes including translocation, transformation, chelation, immobilization, solubilization, precipitation, volatilization and complexation of heavy metals ultimately facilitating phytoremediation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Plants accumulating heavy metals in the Danube River wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matache, Marius L; Marin, Constantin; Rozylowicz, Laurentiu; Tudorache, Alin

    2013-12-20

    We present herein our results regarding the accumulation of four heavy metals (copper, cadmium, lead, and zinc) in four aquatic species plants (Ceratophyllum demersum, Potamogeton pectinatus, Potamogeton lucens, Potamogeton perfoliatus) collected from the Danube River, South-Western part of Romania and their possible use as indicators of aquatic ecosystems pollution with heavy metals. Elements concentration from the vegetal material was determined through Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry. The species were chosen based on their previous use as bioindicators in aquatic ecosystems and due to the fact they are one of the most frequent aquatic plant species of the Danube River ecosystems within the Iron Gates Natural Park. Highest amounts are recorded for Ceratophyllum demersum (3.52 μg/g for Cd; 22.71 μg/g for Cu; 20.06 μg/g for Pb; 104.23 μg/g for Zn). Among the Potamogeton species, the highest amounts of heavy metals are recorded in Potamogeton perfoliatus (1.88 μg/g for Cd; 13.14 μg/g for Cu; 13.32 μg/g for Pb; 57.96 μg/g for Zn). The sequence for the bioconcentration factors (BCFs) calculated in order to describe the accumulation of the four metals is Cd > Zn > Pb > Cu. Increase of the zinc concentration determines an increase of the cadmium concentration (Spearman rho=0.40, p=0.02). Despite the low ambiental levels of heavy metals, the four aquatic plants have the ability to accumulate significant amounts, which make them useful as biological indicators. BCF value for Ceratophyllum demersum indicated this species as a cadmium hyperaccumulator.

  18. Heavy metals distribution in sediments of Nador lagoon (Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloundi, K.; Duplay, J.

    2003-04-01

    The Nador lagoon is a paralic system, located North-East of Morocco. At the present time this ecosystem undergoes an anthropic stress induced by urban, industrial and agricultural releases, and also by fishery activity which enriches this ecosystem in organic and inorganic wastes. A geochemical study has been undertaken, first to define the areas contaminated by heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Co, Cr and V), and second to caracterize the different mineral phases, which trap these elements. Sediment samples were collected on twenty-eight stations scattered all over the lagoon, and each core (30 cm) was subdivided in two horizons (surface and depth). Mineralogical analyses as well as major and trace elements analyses were performed on surface and deep sediments. The results on major element analyses (Si, Al, Ca, Mg, Na, P) show an enrichment in halite and phosphates in the surface sediments. This highlights on one hand, low water exchange rates between the lagoon and the Mediterranean sea, and on the other hand, an increase in organic releases related to the urban, agricultural and fishery activities. The highest concentrations in inorganic micro-pollutant were recorded N-E of the lagoon and close to Nador city. With reference to the geochemical background, it can be concluded that there is a slight contamination in heavy metals. Moreover, enrichment factor calculations (EF) for heavy metals point out an increase in metal elements as following: Zn>Co>Cr>V>Cu. Sequential extractions were performed to determine the behaviour of these micro-pollutants. Thus, it was shown that carbonates, oxides and phosphates are the preferential mineral phases for trapping these heavy metals.

  19. Determination of Heavy Metals in Leaves of Mangifera Indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER PC

    Anacardium Occidentale L. in Trikania Industrial Area, Kaduna-Nigeria. ... metals from soil, water or air and retain them ... Administration (OSHA), European Union .... Heavy Metals from Wastewater using ... Biotechnology 5 (12): 1167-1176. 2.

  20. Improved inventory for heavy metal emissions from stationary combustion plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Malene; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Hoffmann, Leif

    for stationary combustion plants and the corresponding improved emission inventories for the following HMs: Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Mercury (Hg), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb), Selenium (Se) and Zinc (Zn). The report presents data for the year 2009 and time series for 1990......-2009. The report also include methodology, references and an uncertainty estimate. In Denmark, stationary combustion plants are among the most important emission sources for heavy metals. Emissions of all heavy metals have decreased considerably (73 % - 92 %) since 1990. The main HM emission sources are coal...... combustion, waste incineration, residual oil combustion and in 2009 also combustion of biomass. The emission from waste incineration plants has decreased profoundly also in recent years due to installation and improved performance of flue gas cleaning devices. The emission from power plants have also...

  1. Improved inventory for heavy metal emissions from stationary combustion plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Malene; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Hoffmann, Leif

    for stationary combustion plants and the corresponding improved emission inventories for the following HMs: Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Mercury (Hg), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb), Selenium (Se) and Zinc (Zn). The report presents data for the year 2009 and time series for 1990......-2009. The report also include methodology, references and an uncertainty estimate. In Denmark, stationary combustion plants are among the most important emission sources for heavy metals. Emissions of all heavy metals have decreased considerably (73 % - 92 %) since 1990. The main HM emission sources are coal...... combustion, waste incineration, residual oil combustion and in 2009 also combustion of biomass. The emission from waste incineration plants has decreased profoundly also in recent years due to installation and improved performance of flue gas cleaning devices. The emission from power plants have also...

  2. CONTENT OF HEAVY METALS IN CANNED SEA FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Július Árvay

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of presented paper was to point on quality and healthiness of canned seafood considering the quantity of monitored hazardous elements, which are commonly available in Slovak trade network. We specified 19 types of sample for use in this paper that represent different locations of fish outs as well as different species baseline. We realized analyses to determine quantity of Cd, Pb, Hg and Cu in our samples. We compared obtained results of heavy metals quantity with adequate highest permitted levels defined by legislation effective in EU and SR. Obtained results show that the excess of maximum amounts we recorded for Cd and Pb, while on samples for which we did not exceed the values defined by legislation, we found similarity of content of heavy metals. In general we can come to conclusion, despite breaching the HPL, that monitored products do not represent any health risk due to consummation of this food.

  3. [Biological activity of selenorganic compounds at heavy metal salts intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusetskaya, N Y; Borodulin, V B

    2015-01-01

    Possible mechanisms of the antitoxic action of organoselenium compounds in heavy metal poisoning have been considered. Heavy metal toxicity associated with intensification of free radical oxidation, suppression of the antioxidant system, damage to macromolecules, mitochondria and the genetic material can cause apoptotic cell death or the development of carcinogenesis. Organic selenium compounds are effective antioxidants during heavy metal poisoning; they exhibit higher bioavailability in mammals than inorganic ones and they are able to activate antioxidant defense, bind heavy metal ions and reactive oxygen species formed during metal-induced oxidative stress. One of promising organoselenium compounds is diacetophenonyl selenide (DAPS-25), which is characterized by antioxidant and antitoxic activity, under conditions including heavy metal intoxication.

  4. Earliest evidence of pollution by heavy metals in archaeological sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, Guadalupe; Jimenez-Espejo, Francisco J.; García-Alix, Antonio; Martínez-Ruiz, Francisca; Mattielli, Nadine; Finlayson, Clive; Ohkouchi, Naohiko; Sánchez, Miguel Cortés; de Castro, Jose María Bermúdez; Blasco, Ruth; Rosell, Jordi; Carrión, José; Rodríguez-Vidal, Joaquín; Finlayson, Geraldine

    2015-09-01

    Homo species were exposed to a new biogeochemical environment when they began to occupy caves. Here we report the first evidence of palaeopollution through geochemical analyses of heavy metals in four renowned archaeological caves of the Iberian Peninsula spanning the last million years of human evolution. Heavy metal contents reached high values due to natural (guano deposition) and anthropogenic factors (e.g. combustion) in restricted cave environments. The earliest anthropogenic pollution evidence is related to Neanderthal hearths from Gorham's Cave (Gibraltar), being one of the first milestones in the so-called “Anthropocene”. According to its heavy metal concentration, these sediments meet the present-day standards of “contaminated soil”. Together with the former, the Gibraltar Vanguard Cave, shows Zn and Cu pollution ubiquitous across highly anthropic levels pointing to these elements as potential proxies for human activities. Pb concentrations in Magdalenian and Bronze age levels at El Pirulejo site can be similarly interpreted. Despite these high pollution levels, the contaminated soils might not have posed a major threat to Homo populations. Altogether, the data presented here indicate a long-term exposure of Homo to these elements, via fires, fumes and their ashes, which could have played certain role in environmental-pollution tolerance, a hitherto neglected influence.

  5. Heavy metal analysis in commercial Spirulina products for human consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    For consumption of health foods of Spirulina, by the general public, health food stores are increasingly offering more exotic products. Though Spirulina consumption is growing worldwide, relatively few studies have reported on the quantities of heavy metals/minerals they contain and/or their potential effects on the population’s health. This study reveals the concentrations of six typical heavy metals/minerals (Ni, Zn, Hg, Pt, Mg, and Mn) in 25 Spirulina products commercialized worldwide for direct human consumption. Samples were ground, digested and quantified by Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP–MS). The concentrations (mg/kg d.w.) were range from 0.001 to 0.012 (Pt) followed by 0.002–0.028 (Hg), 0.002–0.042 (Mg), 0.005–2.248 (Mn), 0.211–4.672 (Ni) and 0.533–6.225 (Zn). The inorganic elements of the present study were significantly lower than the recommended daily intake (RDI) level of heavy metal elements (mg/daily) Ni (0.4), Zn (13), Hg (0.01), Pt (0.002), Mg (400) and Mn (4). Based on this study the concentration of inorganic elements was not found to exceed the present regulation levels, and they can be considered as safe food. PMID:24235875

  6. Heavy metal contamination in bats in Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, L.A. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Simpson, V.R. [Wildlife Veterinary Investigation Centre, Jollys Bottom Farm, Chacewater, Truro, Cornwall TR4 8PB (United Kingdom); Rockett, L. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Wienburg, C.L. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Shore, R.F. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: rfs@ceh.ac.uk

    2007-07-15

    Toxic metals are bioaccumulated by insectivorous mammals but few studies (none from Britain) have quantified residues in bats. We measured renal mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in bats from south-west England to determine how they varied with species, sex, age, and over time, and if they were likely to cause adverse effects. Residues were generally highest in whiskered bats (Myotis mystacinus). Compared with other species, pipistrelle (Pipistrellus spp) and Natterer's bats (Myotis nattereri) had significantly lower kidney Hg and Pb concentrations, respectively. Renal Hg increased over time in pipistrelles but the contributory sources are unknown. Kidney Pb did not decrease over time despite concurrent declines in atmospheric Pb. Overall, median renal metal concentrations were similar to those in bats from mainland Europe and 6- to 10-fold below those associated with clinical effect, although 5% of pipistrelles had kidney Pb residues diagnostic of acute lead poisoning. - Heavy metal contamination has been quantified in bats from Britain for the first time and indicates increased accumulation of Hg and no reduction in Pb.

  7. Heavy Metals Toxicity and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchounwou, Paul B; Yedjou, Clement G; Patlolla, Anita K; Sutton, Dwayne J

    2013-01-01

    Heavy metals are naturally occurring elements that have a high atomic weight and a density at least 5 times greater than that of water. Their multiple industrial, domestic, agricultural, medical and technological applications have led to their wide distribution in the environment; raising concerns over their potential effects on human health and the environment. Their toxicity depends on several factors including the dose, route of exposure, and chemical species, as well as the age, gender, genetics, and nutritional status of exposed individuals. Because of their high degree of toxicity, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury rank among the priority metals that are of public health significance. These metallic elements are considered systemic toxicants that are known to induce multiple organ damage, even at lower levels of exposure. They are also classified as human carcinogens (known or probable) according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the International Agency for Research on Cancer. This review provides an analysis of their environmental occurrence, production and use, potential for human exposure, and molecular mechanisms of toxicity, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity. PMID:22945569

  8. Heavy Metals in the Vegetables Collected from Production Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Taghipour

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contamination of vegetable crops (as an important part of people's diet with heavy metals is a health concern. Therefore, monitoring levels of heavy metals in vegetables can provide useful information for promoting food safety. The present study was carried out in north-west of Iran (Tabriz on the content of heavy metals in vegetable crops. Methods: Samples of vegetables including kurrat (n=20 (Allium ampeloprasumssp. Persicum, onion (n=20 (Allium cepa and tomato (n=18 (Lycopersiconesculentum var. esculentum, were collected from production sites in west of Tabriz and analyzed for presence of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS after extraction by aqua regia method (drying, grounding and acid digestion. Results: Mean ± SD (mg/kg DW concentrations of Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni and Zn were 0.32 ± 0.58, 28.86 ± 28.79, 1.75 ± 2.05, 6.37± 5.61 and 58.01 ± 27.45, respectively. Cr, Cu and Zn were present in all the samples and the highest concentrations were observed in kurrat (leek. Levels of Cd, Cr and Cu were higher than the acceptable limits. There was significant difference in levels of Cr (P<0.05 and Zn (P<0.001 among the studied vegetables. Positive correlation was observed between Cd:Cu (R=0.659, P<0.001 Cr:Ni (R=0.326, P<0.05 and Cr:Zn (R=0.308, P<0.05. Conclusion: Level of heavy metals in some of the analyzed vegetables, especially kurrat samples, was higher than the standard levels. Considering the possible health outcomes due to the consumption of contaminated vegetables, it is required to take proper actions for avoiding people's chronic exposure.

  9. Analysis of Accumulating Ability of Heavy Metals in Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) Improved by Ion Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianhua; Wang, Naiyan; Zhang, Fengshou

    2012-05-01

    Heavy metals have seriously contaminated soil and water, and done harm to public health. Academician WANG Naiyan proposed that ion-implantation technique should be exploited for environmental bioremediation by mutating and breeding plants or microbes. By implanting N+ into Taikonglian No.1, we have selected and bred two lotus cultivars, Jingguang No.1 and Jingguang No.2. The present study aims at analyzing the feasibility that irradiation can be used for remediation of soil and water from heavy metals. Compared with parent Taikonglian No.1, the uptaking and accumulating ability of heavy metals in two mutated cultivars was obviously improved. So ion implantation technique can indeed be used in bioremediation of heavy metals in soil and water, but it is hard to select and breed a cultivar which can remedy the soil and water from all the heavy metals.

  10. NUMERICAL MODELING OF HEAVY METAL POLLUTANT TRANSPORT-TRANSFORMATION IN FLUVIAL RIVERS:A REVIEW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. L. HUANG; Z. H. WAN; P. SMITH

    2007-01-01

    A detailed discussion of existing three kinds of mathematical models of heavy metal pollutant transport-transformation in fluvial rivers is presented, with an emphasis on the mathematical model of heavy metal pollutant transport-transformation dynamics. The imperfection of two kinds of mathematical models, that is, mathematical model of chemical thermodynamic equilibrium and that of chemical reaction kinetics, and the shortcoming of existing mathematical models of heavy metal pollutant transport-transformation dynamics are pointed out. Furthermore, the structure of mathematical model of heavy metal pollutant transport-transformation dynamics in fluvial rivers is suggested. Equations in the mathematical model of heavy metal pollutant transport-transformation dynamics in fluvial rivers will be discussed in the following paper.

  11. Ecological risk assessment and sources of heavy metals in sediment from Daling River basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Mi, Dong; Chen, Yifu; Wang, Luo; Sun, Yeqing

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the distribution, source, and ecological risk of heavy metals in Daling River basin, 28 surface sediments collected in this region were analyzed by experimental and theoretical methods. Seven heavy metals, including Pb, Cr, Hg, Cu, As, Cd, and Zn, were detected in all samples. Monte Carlo simulation was used to assess the ecological risks of these heavy metals. It was found that the pollution of Cd was the most serious; the ecological risks in Daling River and Bohai Bay were significantly higher than those in estuary, Bohai Sea, and wetland, but overall, the ecological risks of these heavy metals were low to aquatic organisms in Daling River basin at present. Correlation analysis, principal component analysis, and cluster analysis showed that these heavy metals might originate from the same pollution sources located near Daling River and Bohai Bay.

  12. Heavy Metals Resisting Gravity in White Dwarfs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, T.; Gamrath, S.; Quinet, P.; Hoyer, D.; Werner, K.; Kruk, J. W.

    2017-03-01

    Spectral lines of heavy metals, identified in high-resolution ultraviolet spectra of the DO-type white dwarf RX J0503.9–2854 (RE 0503–289), allow precise abundance determinations of these species by means of advanced non-local thermodynamic equilibrium stellar-atmosphere models – provided that reliable atomic data is available. Such analyses of Zn (atomic number Z = 30), Ga (31), Ge (32), As (33), Mo (42), Kr (36), Zr (40), Xe (54), and Ba (56) have recently shown that, without exception, their abundances are unexpectedly strongly supersolar (up to about 5 dex). This is much higher than predicted by recent asymptotic giant branch nucleosynthesis calculations. Thus, the interplay of gravitational settling and radiative levitation may play an important role for their photospheric prominence.

  13. Heavy metals biogeochemistry in abandoned mining areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favas P. J. C.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants growing on the abandoned Portuguese mines, highly contaminated with W, Sn, As, Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb, have been studied for their biogeochemical indication/prospecting and mine restoration potential. The results of analysis show that the species best suited for biogeochemical indicating are: aerial tissues of Halimium umbellatum (L. Spach, for As and W; leaves of Erica arborea L. for Bi, Sn, W and mostly Pb; stems of Erica arborea L. for Pb; needles of Pinus pinaster Aiton and aerial tissues of Pteridium aquilinum (L. Kuhn for W; and leaves of Quercus faginea Lam. for Sn. The aquatic plant studied (Ranunculus peltatus Schrank can be used to decrease the heavy metals, and arsenic amounts into the aquatic environment affected by acid mine drainages.

  14. Hydroponic phytoremediation of heavy metals and radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartong, J.; Szpak, J.; Hamric, T.; Cutright, T.

    1998-07-01

    It is estimated that the Departments of Defense, Energy, and Agriculture will spend up to 300 billion federal dollars on environmental remediation during the next century. Current remediation processes can be expensive, non-aesthetic, and non-versatile. Therefore, the need exists for more innovative and cost effective solutions. Phytoremediation, the use of vegetation for the remediation of contaminated sediments, soils, and ground water, is an emerging technology for treating several categories of persistent, toxic contaminants. Although effective, phytoremediation is still in a developmental stage, and therefore is not a widely accepted technology by regulatory agencies and public groups. Research is currently being conducted to validate the processes effectiveness as well as increase regulatory and community acceptance. This research will focus on the ability of plants to treat an aquifer contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclides. Specifically, the effectiveness of hydroponically grown dwarf sunflowers and mustard seed will be investigated.

  15. Alterations of TH1/TH2 reactivity by heavy metals: possible consequences include induction of autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemdan, Nasr Y A; Emmrich, Frank; Faber, Sonya; Lehmann, Joerg; Sack, Ulrich

    2007-08-01

    Heavy metal pollution still represents a primary concern regarding human health. Recently, it become evident that the contribution of heavy metals extends far beyond their accepted role in allergic diseases, and that they may play a more extensive role in a variety of other diseases. Several lines of evidence indicate that heavy metals have a key role in the induction or exacerbation of several autoimmune diseases (AD). Moreover, the association between exposure to heavy metals and the signs of autoimmunity are supported by some studies. The mechanisms by which heavy metals induce the development of AD are not yet fully understood. Our objective here is to highlight the association of exposure to some heavy metals and AD. In addition, we present recent results showing the possible alterations in Th1/Th2 reactivity by some heavy metals, which may constitute the trigger for the incidence of autoimmunity in susceptible individuals.

  16. Heavy Metals Accumulation Characteristics of Vegetables in Hangzhou City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GU Yan-qing

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A field survey of heavy metal concentrations in soils and vegetables grown in 30 vegetable farmlands of Hangzhou City were carried out. Through calculating the bioconcentration factor(BCFand transfer factor(TFfor different heavy metals(Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr and Pbin 27 kinds of different vegetables which belong to leafy vegetables, root vegetables or eggplant fruit vegetables, assessing their accumulation characteristics of heavy metals according to the differences of the bio-concentration factor, the reasonable proposals were put forward to optimize the planting structure of vegetables in mild and middle-level heavy metal contamination soils. The experimental results were as follows: In soils with mild and middle-level heavy metal contamination, leafy vegetables, such as crown daisy, cabbage, celery and Chinese long cabbage, had relatively low enrichment ability of heavy metals, so as the root and fruit vegetables like white radish, carrot, tomatoes, hence these vegetables could be planted preferentially. In contrast, some kinds of vegetables, including white amaranth, red amaranth, tatsoi, broccoli, gynura, brassica juncea and lettuce of leafy vegetables, lactuca sativa, taro, red radish and cherry radish of rhizome vegetables and sweet pepper of fruit vegetables, had relatively high accumulation ability of heavy metal, which should be avoided to be planted in soils with mild and middle-level heavy metal contamination.

  17. THE HEAVY METALS CONNTENT IN VEGETABLES FROM MIDDLE SPIŠ AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Slávik,Tomáš Tóth

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the middle area of Spiš, it is significantly burden by heavy metals what is documented by radical content of Hg in soil from Rudňany 58.583645 mg.kg -1. On the content of heavy metals in vegetables grown in this soil it has the same effect. 61.5% samples exceeded the limit value of heavy metals. The most dangerous vegetables were Lactuca sativa L. The limit value was exceed in all determine heavy metals - Hg, Cd, Pb and Cu in this vegetables. In the case of Hg, the limit value exceed 93.86 times. For relatively safety is growing of Pisum sativum L., where there was no exceed any limits values. The root vegetables are dangerous, where the sample of Raphanus sativus L. exceed 6.71978 times the limit values for Pb although the content of lead in the soil was under hygienic limits. Transfer of heavy metals into consume parts of vegetables was no limited by high content of humus into soil. Transfer of heavy metals into consume parts of vegetables was no limited by weakly alkaline soil reaction. These factors are considered for factors limited mobility and input heavy metals into plants. We determined heavy metals by AAS method on a Varian 240 FS and method AMA 254.

  18. Safety Evaluation of Osun River Water Containing Heavy Metals and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Safety Evaluation of Osun River Water Containing Heavy. Metals and ... evaluated its safety in rats. Heavy metals .... levels of liver GSH and activities of AST and ALT in. Table 1: pH .... been observed previously in rats treated with aflatoxin.

  19. Heavy Metal Music and Adolescent Suicidality: An Empirical Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Karen R.; Westefeld, John S.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between preference for heavy metal music and vulnerability to suicide among high school students. Results indicate that preference for heavy metal music among adolescents may be sign of increased suicidal vulnerability, but also suggests that the source of the problem may lie more in personal and familial…

  20. Heavy Metal Music and Reckless Behavior among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Jeffrey

    1991-01-01

    Fifty-four male and 30 female adolescents who like heavy metal music were compared on various outcome variables to 56 male and 105 female peers who do not like it. Those who like heavy metal report a wider range of reckless behavior than those who do not like it. (SLD)

  1. A Process for Making Bulk Heavy Metal Fluoride Glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This invention relates to the preparation of glasses, and, in particular, relates to the preparation of heavy metal fluoride glasses with...reproducible high optical qualities. Considerable effort has been expended to develop heavy metal fluoride glasses ( HMFG ) as a viable family of infrared

  2. Heavy Metal Toxicity in Bioremediation: Microbial Cultures and Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-01

    This research employed a variety of microscopy and spread plating techniques to observe the effects of heavy metal treatments on a toluene-selected...of bacteria and offered new techniques for potential heavy metal toxicity measurements as well as differentiation methods.

  3. Determination of heavy metals in chinese prickly ash from different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    digestion, and the contents of copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic ... In addition, toxic heavy metals in plants could be influenced ... deformities, could be caused by heavy metal poisoning, including Pb, Cd, As, Hg, Sn, and Sb poisoning [4,5]. ..... body harm and prevention. Qinghai ...

  4. Heavy Metal Biosorption Sites Studies of Laminaria japonica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Aihong; WANG Xian; DENG Yongzhi; CHEN Lidan

    2005-01-01

    The role played by the functional groups of Laminaria japonica treated by methanol and formaldehyde in biosorption of the heavy metals was investigated.Infrared spectroscopy analysis and biosorption experiments show that both carboxyl and amino groups join in the sorption; chemical treatment decreased the biosorption efficiency of the heavy metals.

  5. Removal of Heavy Metals in Effluent by Adsorption and Coagulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Ting LI; Xia LI; Bing Ru ZHANG; Qing Hua OUYANG

    2004-01-01

    The silicate colloids with an average diameter 100 nm, were prepared by the hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane (TES), NH4OH (30%) and then modified by (3-mercaptopropyl) trimethoxysilane ( APS). The colloids can adsorb heavy metals such as Pb and Cr in effluent and after adsorption the colloids can be separated by coagulation of aluminum sulfate. The removal of heavy metals is up to 99%.

  6. Equations and their physical interpretation in numerical modeling of heavy metals in fluvial rivers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the previous work on the transport-transformation of heavy metal pollutants in fluvial rivers, this paper presented the formulation of a two-dimensional model to describe heavy metal transport-transformation in fluvial rivers by considering basic principles of environmental chemistry, hydraulics, mechanics of sediment transport and recent developments along with three very simplified test cases. The model consists of water flow governing equations, sediment transport governing equations, transport-transformation equation of heavy metal pollutants, and convection-diffusion equations of adsorption-desorption kinetics of particulate heavy metal concentrations on suspended load, bed load and bed sediment. The heavy metal transport-transformation equation is basically a mass balance equation, which demonstrates how sediment transport affects transport-transformation of heavy metals in fluvial rivers. The convection-diffusion equations of adsorption-desorption kinetics of heavy metals, being an extension of batch reactor experimental results and a major advancement of the previous work, take both physical transport, i.e. convection and diffusion and chemical reactions, i.e. adsorption-desorption into account. Effects of sediment transport on heavy metal transport-transformation were clarified through three examples. Specifically, the transport-transformation of heavy metals in a steady, uniform and equilibrium sediment-laden flow was calculated by applying this model, and results were shown to be rational. Both theoretical analysis and numerical simulation indicated that the transport-transformation of heavy metals in sediment-laden flows with clay-enriched riverbed possesses not only the generality of common tracer pollutants, but also characteristics of transport-transformation induced by sediment motion. Future work will be conducted to present validation/application of the model with available data.

  7. Mechanisms of silicon-mediated alleviation of heavy metal toxicity in plants: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrees, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Rizwan, Muhammad; Zia-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Abbas, Farhat; Farid, Mujahid; Qayyum, Muhammad Farooq; Irshad, Muhammad Kashif

    2015-09-01

    In present era, heavy metal pollution is rapidly increasing which present many environmental problems. These heavy metals are mainly accumulated in soil and are transferred to food chain through plants grown on these soils. Silicon (Si) is the second most abundant element in the soil. It has been widely reported that Si can stimulate plant growth and alleviate various biotic and abiotic stresses, including heavy metal stress. Research to date has explored a number of mechanisms through which Si can alleviate heavy metal toxicity in plants at both plant and soil levels. Here we reviewed the mechanisms through which Si can alleviate heavy metal toxicity in plants. The key mechanisms evoked include reducing active heavy metal ions in growth media, reduced metal uptake and root-to-shoot translocation, chelation and stimulation of antioxidant systems in plants, complexation and co-precipitation of toxic metals with Si in different plant parts, compartmentation and structural alterations in plants and regulation of the expression of metal transport genes. However, these mechanisms might be associated with plant species, genotypes, metal elements, growth conditions, duration of the stress imposed and so on. Further research orientation is also discussed.

  8. Heavy Metal Bioabsorption Capacity of Intestinal Helminths in Urban Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    TEIMOORI, Salma; SABOUR YARAGHI, Aliakbar; MAKKI, Mahsa Sadat; SHAHBAZI, Farideh; NAZMARA, Shahrokh; ROKNI, Mohhamad Bagher; MESDAGHINIA, Alireza; SALAHI MOGHADDAM, Abdoreza; HOSSEINI, Mostafa; RAKHSHANPOUR, Arash; MOWLAVI, Gholamreza

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the capability of helminths to absorb heavy metals in comparison with that of the host tissues. Methods We compared the concentration of cadmium (Cd) and chromium (Cr) in urban rats and in their harboring helminthes —Moniliformis moniliformis, Hymenolepis diminuta and larval stage of Taenia taenaeiformis (Cysticercus fasciolaris). The heavy metal absorption was evaluated in 1g wet weight of parasites and tissues digested in nitric acid, using Inductivity Coupled Plasma (ICP_OES). Results A higher concentration of heavy metals was revealed in the helminths than in the host tissues. Bioconcentration factor (BF= C in parasite/C in tissue) for both Cd and Cr absorption was more than 10-fold higher in M. moniliformis than in the three compared host tissues. The BF of Cd in M. moniliformis compared to the liver, kidney and muscle of the host was 9.16, 14.14 and 17.09, respectively. BF in Cr in the same parasite and the same host tissues ranged from 10.67, 7.06 and 4.6. High level of absorption in H. diminuta was significantly likewise; the individual BF of Cd and Cr in H. diminuta compared to the liver, kidney and muscle of the hosts was 4.95, 5.94 and 4.67 vs. 2.67, 11.56 and 5.59. The mean concentration of Cd and Cr in C. fasciolaris was also significantly higher than that in the rat livers (P<0.007 and P<0.004, respectively). Conclusion This study claims that parasites of terrestrial animals exposed to heavy metals can be more accurate indicators than the host tissues as new environmental monitoring agents. PMID:25988090

  9. Heavy metal bioabsorption capacity of intestinal helminths in urban rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Teimoori

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the capability of helminths to absorb heavy metals in comparison with that of the host tissues.We compared the concentration of cadmium (Cd and chromium (Cr in urban rats and in their harboring helminthes -Moniliformis moniliformis, Hymenolepis diminuta and larval stage of Taenia taenaeiformis (Cysticercus fasciolaris. The heavy metal absorption was evaluated in 1g wet weight of parasites and tissues digested in nitric acid, using Inductivity Coupled Plasma (ICP_OES.A higher concentration of heavy metals was revealed in the helminths than in the host tissues. Bioconcentration factor (BF= C in parasite/C in tissue for both Cd and Cr absorption was more than 10-fold higher in M. moniliformis than in the three compared host tissues. The BF of Cd in M. moniliformis compared to the liver, kidney and muscle of the host was 9.16, 14.14 and 17.09, respectively. BF in Cr in the same parasite and the same host tissues ranged from 10.67, 7.06 and 4.6. High level of absorption in H. diminuta was significantly likewise; the individual BF of Cd and Cr in H. diminuta compared to the liver, kidney and muscle of the hosts was 4.95, 5.94 and 4.67 vs. 2.67, 11.56 and 5.59. The mean concentration of Cd and Cr in C. fasciolaris was also significantly higher than that in the rat livers (P<0.007 and P<0.004, respectively.This study claims that parasites of terrestrial animals exposed to heavy metals can be more accurate indicators than the host tissues as new environmental monitoring agents.

  10. Plants accumulating heavy metals in the Sudety Mts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Brej

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sudeten flora consists of some plants we can recognize as heavy metal accumulators. Between others there are: Thlaspi caerulescens, Arabidopsis halleri, Armeria maritima ssp. halleri s.l. and probably the endemic fern Asplenium onopteris var. silesiaca. The authors present the concentrations of some important heavy metals measured in aboveground plant dry weight. The highest concentration of zinc was 8220 ppm (Thlaspi, nickel - 3100 ppm (Thlaspi, lead - 83 ppm (Armeria, copper - 611 ppm (Arabidopsis and cadmium - 28 ppm (Thlaspi. The concentrations depend rather on species or population specification than on ore deposit quality. There are no typical hyperaccumulator among plants we have examined, but some signs of hyperaccumulation of nickel, zinc and lead could be observed. There are no typical endemic taxa, only Asplenium onopteris var. silesiaca and Armeria maritima ssp. halleri may be recognized as neoendemic taxa, but still of unclear systematic position. During the study we tried to find out why some Sudeten vascular plants do not develop heavy metals hyperaccumulation and why they are rather latent hyperaccumulators. Finally, we suggest to protect some metallicolous areas in spite they are rather territories with low plant biodiversity.

  11. Fractionation behavior of heavy metals in soil during bioleaching with Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naresh Kumar, R; Nagendran, R

    2009-09-30

    The effects of bioleaching on the fractionation of soil heavy metals were investigated in this study. Bioleaching of heavy metals from contaminated soil was carried out in shake flask experiments. Acidophilic sulfur oxidizing bacteria Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans isolated from soil was used for bioleaching. Bioleaching resulted in removal of heavy metals at higher levels. Variations in the binding forms of heavy metals before, during and after bioleaching were evaluated. It was noticed that bioleaching affected the binding forms of all the heavy metals present in the soil. The major contaminant chromium bound mainly to the fractions of soil which are not very reactive (organic and residual fractions) also showed good removal efficiency. Bioleaching influenced the fractionation of metals in soil after treatment and most of the remnant heavy metals were bound either to residual fraction or to other not easily mobile fractions of soil. The results of this study indicated that the bioleaching process can be useful for efficient removal of heavy metals from soil. Further, the soil with remnant metals can be disposed off safely.

  12. Effect of heavy metals on, and handling by, the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Olivier; Jacquillet, Grégory; Tauc, Michel; Cougnon, Marc; Poujeol, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr) and platinum (Pt) are a major environmental and occupational hazard. Unfortunately, these non-essential elements are toxic at very low doses and non-biodegradable with a very long biological half-life. Thus, exposure to heavy metals is potentially harmful. Because of its ability to reabsorb and accumulate divalent metals, the kidney is the first target organ of heavy metal toxicity. The extent of renal damage by heavy metals depends on the nature, the dose, route and duration of exposure. Both acute and chronic intoxication have been demonstrated to cause nephropathies, with various levels of severity ranging from tubular dysfunctions like acquired Fanconi syndrome to severe renal failure leading occasionally to death. Very varied pathways are involved in uptake of heavy metals by the epithelium, depending on the form (free or bound) of the metal and the segment of the nephron where reabsorption occurs (proximal tubule, loop of Henle, distal tubule and terminal segments). In this review, we address the putative uptake pathways involved along the nephron, the mechanisms of intracellular sequestration and detoxification and the nephropathies caused by heavy metals. We also tackle the question of the possible therapeutic means of decreasing the toxic effect of heavy metals by increasing their urinary excretion without affecting the renal uptake of essential trace elements. We have chosen to focus mainly on Cd, Hg and Pb and on in vivo studies.

  13. Reducing hazardous heavy metal ions using mangium bark waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabibi, Jauhar; Syafii, Wasrin; Sari, Rita Kartika

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of mangium bark and its biosorbent ability to reduce heavy metal ions in standard solutions and wastewater and to assess changes in bark characteristics after heavy metal absorption. The experiments were conducted to determine heavy metal absorption from solutions of heavy metals alone and in mixtures as well as from wastewater. The results show that mangium bark can absorb heavy metals. Absorption percentages and capacities from single heavy metal solutions showed that Cu(2+) > Ni(2+) > Pb(2+) > Hg(2+), while those from mixture solutions showed that Hg(2+) > Cu(2+) > Pb(2+) > Ni(2+). Wastewater from gold mining only contained Cu, with an absorption percentage and capacity of 42.87 % and 0.75 mg/g, respectively. The highest absorption percentage and capacity of 92.77 % and 5.18 mg/g, respectively, were found for Hg(2+) in a mixture solution and Cu(2+) in single-metal solution. The Cu(2+) absorption process in a single-metal solution changed the biosorbent characteristics of the mangium bark, yielding a decreased crystalline fraction; changed transmittance on hydroxyl, carboxyl, and carbonyl groups; and increased the presence of Cu. In conclusion, mangium bark biosorbent can reduce hazardous heavy metal ions in both standard solutions and wastewater.

  14. Modelling the extra and intracellular uptake and discharge of heavy metals in Fontinalis antipyretica transplanted along a heavy metal and pH contamination gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, J.A. [Area de Ecologia, Facultad de Biologia, Univ. Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)]. E-mail: bfjafe@usc.es; Vazquez, M.D. [Area de Ecologia, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Univ. Santiago de Compostela, 27002 Lugo (Spain); Lopez, J. [Area de Ecologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Univ. de Vigo, 36200 Vigo (Spain); Carballeira, A. [Area de Ecologia, Facultad de Biologia, Univ. Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2006-01-15

    Samples of the aquatic bryophyte Fontinalis antipyretica Hedw. were transplanted to different sites with the aim of characterizing the kinetics of the uptake and discharge of heavy metals in the extra and intracellular compartments. The accumulation of metals in extracellular compartments, characterized by an initial rapid accumulation, then a gradual slowing down over time, fitted perfectly to a Michaelis-Menten model. The discharge of metals from the same compartment followed an inverse linear model or an inverse Michaelis-Menten model, depending on the metal. In intracellular sites both uptake and discharge occurred more slowly and progressively, following a linear model. We also observed that the acidity of the environment greatly affected metal accumulation in extracellular sites, even when the metals were present at relatively high concentrations, whereas the uptake of metals within cells was much less affected by pH. - The kinetics of uptake and discharge of heavy metals, in different cellular locations, were studied in transplanted aquatic mosses.

  15. Effect of Heavy Metals (Cd, Cu) on the Gametophytes of Laminaria japonica Aresch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nai-Hao YE; Guang-Ce WANG; Cheng-Kui TSENG

    2005-01-01

    concentrations of Cd showed clearly the distribution of the ion in gametophytes and the results obtained were consistent with distribution determined using other methods.All results of the present study showed that gametophytes of L. japonica play a remarkable role as heavy metal decontaminators, especially with regard to Cd.

  16. Heavy metals, PAHs and toxicity in stormwater wet detention ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Tove; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of 6 different heavy metals and total Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) were determined in stormwater runoff and in the pond water of two Danish wet detention ponds. The pond water samples were analyzed for toxic effects, using the algae Selenastrum capricornutum as a test......, reducing the potential toxicity of the metal. Another catchment (residential) produced stormwater and pond water with moderate concentration of heavy metals. The pond water occasionally showed toxic effects but no correlation between heavy metals and toxicity was identified. PAHs concentrations were...... for both catchments low and no correlations between PAH concentrations in the pond and toxicity were found....

  17. Modeling of Heavy Metal Transformation in Soil Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinichenko, Kira; Nikovskaya, Galina N.

    2017-04-01

    The intensification of industrial activity leads to an increase in heavy metals pollution of soils. In our opinion, sludge from biological treatment of municipal waste water, stabilized under aerobic-anaerobic conditions (commonly known as biosolid), may be considered as concentrate of natural soil. In their chemical, physical and chemical and biological properties these systems are similar gel-like nanocomposites. These contain microorganisms, humic substances, clay, clusters of nanoparticles of heavy metal compounds, and so on involved into heteropolysaccharides matrix. It is known that microorganisms play an important role in the transformation of different nature substances in soil and its health maintenance. The regularities of transformation of heavy metal compounds in soil ecosystem were studied at the model of biosolid. At biosolid swelling its structure changing (gel-sol transition, weakening of coagulation contacts between metal containing nanoparticles, microbial cells and metabolites, loosening and even destroying of the nanocomposite structure) can occur [1, 2]. The promotion of the sludge heterotrophic microbial activities leads to solubilization of heavy metal compounds in the system. The microbiological process can be realized in alcaligeneous or acidogeneous regimes in dependence on the type of carbon source and followed by the synthesis of metabolites with the properties of flocculants and heavy metals extragents [3]. In this case the heavy metals solubilization (bioleaching) in the form of nanoparticles of hydroxycarbonate complexes or water soluble complexes with oxycarbonic acids is observed. Under the action of biosolid microorganisms the heavy metals-oxycarbonic acids complexes can be transformed (catabolised) into nano-sizing heavy metals- hydroxycarbonates complexes. These ecologically friendly complexes and microbial heteropolysaccharides are able to interact with soil colloids, stay in the top soil profile, and improve soil structure due

  18. [Characteristics of speciation and evaluation of ecological risk of heavy metals in sewage sludge of Guangzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Peng-Ran; Lei, Yong-Qian; Cai, Da-Chuan; Zhang, Tao; Wu, Rui; Pan, Jia-Chuan

    2014-02-01

    Contents of heavy metals in different sewage sludges were analyzed and the speciation distribution and bioavailability of heavy metals were investigated, and the risk assessment code (RAC) and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure for solid waste were used to evaluate the potential ecological risk and leaching toxicity risk of heavy metals in sludge samples, respectively. The results showed that contents of Cu, Cr, Pb and Zn were high and presented a great difference by different sources in sewage sludges. Most of heavy metals existed in non-residual fractions and percentages of the mobile fraction (acid soluble fraction) of heavy metals in acidic sludge were higher. According to the results of single extraction, 1 mol x L(-1) NaOAc solution (pH 5.0) and 0.02 mol x L(-1) EDTA + 0.5 mol x L(-1) NH4OAc solution (pH 4.6) were suitable for evaluating bioavailable heavy metals in acidic and alkaline sludge, respectively. Percentages of bioavailable heavy metals were higher with the stronger of sludge acidity. The mobile ability of heavy metals resulted in the high ecological risk of sludge samples, and the bioavailability of heavy metals caused acidic sludges with a very high ecological risk but alkaline sludges with the middle ecological risk. Leaching toxicity risk was very high in sludge samples except domestic sewage sludge. After the removal of bioavailable heavy metals, leaching toxicity risk of sludge samples was still high in spite of its decrease; however, part type of sludges could be implemented landfill disposal.

  19. Assessment of heavy metals in Averrhoa bilimbi and A. carambola fruit samples at two developmental stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumya, S L; Nair, Bindu R

    2016-05-01

    Though the fruits of Averrhoa bilimbi and A. carambola are economically and medicinally important, they remain underutilized. The present study reports heavy metal quantitation in the fruit samples of A. bilimbi and A. carambola (Oxalidaceae), collected at two stages of maturity. Heavy metals are known to interfere with the functioning of vital cellular components. Although toxic, some elements are considered essential for human health, in trace quantities. Heavy metals such as Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Pb, and Cd were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The samples under investigation included, A. bilimbi unripe (BU) and ripe (BR), A. carambola sour unripe (CSU) and ripe (CSR), and A. carambola sweet unripe (CTU) and ripe (CTR). Heavy metal analysis showed that relatively higher level of heavy metals was present in BR samples compared to the rest of the samples. The highest amount of As and Se were recorded in BU samples while Mn content was highest in CSU samples and Co in CSR. Least amounts of Cr, Zn, Se, Cd, and Pb were noted in CTU while, Mn, Cu, and As were least in CTR. Thus, the sweet types of A. carambola (CTU, CTR) had comparatively lower heavy metal content. There appears to be no reason for concern since different fruit samples of Averrhoa studied presently showed the presence of various heavy metals in trace quantities.

  20. Heavy metal adsorption of Streptomyces chromofuscus K101

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Said Mohamed Daboor; Amany Mohamed Haroon; Neven Abd Elfatah Esmael; Slah Ibrahem Hanona

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To find the best actinomycete that has potential application value in the heavy metal remediation due to its special morphological and physiological metabolism. Methods: In some areas of River Nile, Egypt, a total of 67 actinomycete isolates (17 isolates from surface water and 50 from sediment) were identified. In addition, the studied area was characterized by a large amount of submerged macrophyte species Ceratophyllum demersum, one free floating species Eichhornia crassipes and two emergent species Polygonum tomentosum and Saccharum spontaneum with the highest biomass production values. Many methods are used in this research like qualitative evaluation of heavy metals, minimum inhibitory concentration of heavy metal determination, metal binding assay, heavy metal assessment, etc. Results: Many actinomycetes isolates were isolated from River Nile, Egypt, the absorbent efficiency of one isolate Streptomyces chromofuscusK101 showed the most efficient metal binding activity. The adsorption process of Zn2+, Pb2+and Fe2+single or mixture metal ions was investigated, where the order of adsorption potential ( Zn2+>Pb2+>Fe2+ ) was observed in single metal reaction. The adsorption in mixed metal reactions was the same order as in single-metal ion with a significant decrease in Fe2+and Pb2+adsorption. Conclusions: In conclusion the metal adsorption reactions were very fast, pH dependent and culture age-independent, suggestive of a physicochemical reaction between cell wall components and heavy metal ions. The absorbent removal efficiency was determined as a function of ion concentration, pH and temperature.

  1. Differential responses of sweetpotato peroxidases to heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun-Hee; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2010-09-01

    Oxidative stress is one of the major causes of damage in plants exposed to different types of environmental stress, including heavy metals. Accumulation of heavy metals in plants can disrupt many cellular functions and plant growth. To assess the contribution of oxidative stress to heavy metal toxicity in plants, young sweetpotato plants (Ipomoea batatas) were treated with increasing concentrations of Cd, Cu and Zn, and grown in half Murashige and Skoog nutrient solution culture. Plant growth was significantly inhibited and internal metal content was increased in a dose-dependent manner for each metal. The generation of H(2)O(2) in leaves and fibrous roots correlated positively with metal dose. The specific activity of peroxidases (PODs) in fibrous roots was markedly enhanced by metal treatment, whereas in leaves, activity was low and only slightly affected by metal treatment. Analysis of 13 POD genes revealed differential expression of PODs in response to heavy metals. Several genes for acidic PODs (swpa2, swpa3 and swpa4) and basic PODs (swpb1, swpb3 and swpab4) were strongly expressed under all metal treatment conditions in leaves or fibrous roots. The expression of swpa1 was increased in leaves and fibrous roots by Cd and Cu treatment, whereas swpb5 expression was reduced by all metals in fibrous roots. These results indicate that increased H(2)O(2) levels in response to heavy metal stress are closely linked to an improved antioxidant defense capability mediated by POD.

  2. Cell surface engineering of microorganisms towards adsorption of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng-Song; Tao, Hu-Chun

    2015-06-01

    Heavy metal contamination has become a worldwide environmental concern due to its toxicity, non-degradability and food-chain bioaccumulation. Conventional physical and chemical treatment methods for heavy metal removal have disadvantages such as cost-intensiveness, incomplete removal, secondary pollution and the lack of metal specificity. Microbial biomass-based biosorption is one of the approaches gaining increasing attention because it is effective, cheap, and environmental friendly and can work well at low concentrations. To enhance the adsorption properties of microbial cells to heavy metal ions, the cell surface display of various metal-binding proteins/peptides have been performed using a cell surface engineering approach. The surface engineering of Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria and yeast towards the adsorption of heavy metals are reviewed in this article. The problems and future perspectives of this technology are discussed.

  3. Effects of Heavy Metal Toxicity on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guluzar Ozbolat

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are the elements that can be toxic even at low concentrations. It is often used as a group name for metals and semimetals (metalloids that have been associated with contamination and potential toxicity or ecotoxicity. Heavy metals are toxic to human health. Because it cannot be discarded with (kidney, liver intestine, skin, lung without special support from most of the body's normal excretion routes Therefore, a large part of the heavy metals accumulate in biological organisms. As a result of the accumulation of these metals that are focused within living things, when they have reached the effective dose severe diseases (such as autism neurological, thyroid and infertility even can cause death. In this review information about the properties and effects of some heavy metals that affects human health have been provided.. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(4.000: 502-521

  4. Heavy metal pollution of ambient air in Nagpur City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Pramod R; Gupta, Rakhi; Gajghate, Daulat Ghilagi; Wate, Satish R

    2012-04-01

    Heavy metals released from different sources in urban environment get adsorbed on respirable particulate matter less than 10 μm in size (PM(10)) and are important from public health point of view causing morbidity and mortality. Therefore, the ambient air quality monitoring was carried out to study the temporal and special pattern in the distribution of PM(10) and associated heavy metal content in the atmosphere of Nagpur, Maharashtra State, India during 2001 as well as in 2006. PM(10) fraction was observed to exceed the stipulated standards in both years. It was also observed that minimum range of PM(10) was observed to be increased in 2006 indicating increase in human activity during nighttime also. Six heavy metals were analyzed and were observed to occur in the order Zn > Fe > Pb > Ni > Cd > Cr in 2006, similar to the trend in other metro cities in India. Lead and Nickel were observed to be within the stipulated standards. Poor correlation coefficient (R(2)) between lead and PM(10) indicated that automobile exhaust is not the source of metals to air pollution. Commercial and industrial activity as well as geological composition may be the potential sources of heavy metal pollution. Total load of heavy metals was found to be increased in 2006 with prominent increase in zinc, lead, and nickel in the environment. Public health impacts of heavy metals as well as certain preventive measures to mitigate the impact of heavy metals on public health are also summarized.

  5. Impact of heavy metals on the female reproductive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Rzymski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It has been recognized that environmental pollution can affect the quality of health of the human population. Heavy metals are among the group of highly emitted contaminants and their adverse effect of living organisms has been widely studied in recent decades. Lifestyle and quality of the ambient environment are among these factors which can mainly contribute to the heavy metals exposure in humans. Objective. A review of literature linking heavy metals and the female reproductive system and description of the possible associations with emission and exposure of heavy metals and impairments of female reproductive system according to current knowledge. Results. The potential health disorders caused by chronic or acute heavy metals toxicity include immunodeficiency, osteoporosis, neurodegeneration and organ failures. Potential linkages of heavy metals concentration found in different human organs and blood with oestrogen-dependent diseases such as breast cancer, endometrial cancer, endometriosis and spontaneous abortions, as well as pre-term deliveries, stillbirths and hypotrophy, have also been reported. Conclusions. Environmental deterioration can lead to the elevated risk of human exposure to heavy metals, and consequently, health implications including disturbances in reproduction. It is therefore important to continue the investigations on metal-induced mechanisms of fertility impairment on the genetic, epigenetic and biochemical level.

  6. Phytoremediation: structural characteristics of plants under heavy metal effect

    OpenAIRE

    Otradovcová, Marie

    2010-01-01

    The environmental pollution by heavy metals has been becoming currently a big problem. The contents of these metals in soils and water increase, particular in consequence of human activities particularly in developed countries. Local contaminations are problematic in our country, too. Soil contamination by heavy metals negatively affects agricultural production and food chains in nature. It may have an adverse impact to human health. The general public is interested in possibilities of removi...

  7. Heavy Metal Contamination of Popular Nail Polishes in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Golnaz Karimi; Parisa Ziarati

    2015-01-01

    Background: Toxic and hazardous heavy metals like arsenic, lead, mercury, zinc, chromium and iron are found in a variety of personal care products, e.g. lipstick, whitening toothpaste, eyeliner and nail color. The nails absorb the pigments of nail polishes and vaporized or soluble metals can easily pass it. The goal of this survey was to assess whether the different colors of nail polishes comply with maximum concentrations of heavy metals in the EPA’s guidelines. Methods: 150 samples of d...

  8. Studies on Leaching of Heavy Metals from E – waste

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Michael; R.Wilfred Sugumar

    2013-01-01

    One of the global problems in the present day world is the negative impacts created by the growing e-waste on the natural resources like air, soil and water. In the present work, the discarded electronic components were allowed to leach in water samples drawn from different rivers and the leachate were analyzed for the presence of heavy metals. The results highlight that even if the contact time is short, the toxic elements tend to leach to a great extent. In our studies, Arsenic had leached ...

  9. Heavy Metals Contamination of Road-Deposited Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Yisa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Impact of anthropogenic activities on man and his environment as a result of the growing rate of urbanization in Bida, Nigeria is of a great concern. Street sediments that accumulate along pavements in urban environments have the potential to provide considerable loadings of heavy metals to receiving waters and water bodies, particularly with changing environmental conditions. The objective of this research was to evaluate the streets sediment contamination in Bida, Nigeria. Approach: Fifty five sediment samples were collected from four roads that experience intense traffic conditions and analyzed in the laboratory for some heavy metals by atomic absorption Spectrophotometric method and multivariate statistical techniques. Results: The overall decreasing metal concentration order was: Pb > Mn > Fe > Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Cd. Significantly positive correlation was only found between Cd and organic matter (r = 0.580. Factor analysis shows that road deposited sediment quality data consists of four major components accounting for 77.11% of cumulative variance of the contamination: Ni, pH and silt + clay; Cr, Fe and organic matter; Mn and Zn and finally Cu and Pb. Discriminant analysis revealed that the first two Discriminate Functions (DF1 and DF2 contain 90.61% information for Cu, Pb and Ni accumulation. Conclusion: This study concluded that the concentrations of all metals measured in Bida can be considered to present a low level of contamination and that multivariate statistical analysis is a useful tool in understanding contaminants relationships.

  10. Heavy metal displacement in chelate-irrigated soil during phytoremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, F.; Liphadzi, M. S.; Kirkham, M. B.

    2003-03-01

    Heavy metals in wastewater sewage sludge (biosolids), applied to land, contaminate soils. Phytoremediation, the use of plants to clean up toxic heavy metals, might remove them. Chelating agents are added to soil to solubilize the metals for enhanced phytoextraction. Yet no studies follow the displacement and leaching of heavy metals in soil with and without roots following solubilization with chelates. The objective of this work was to determine the mobility of heavy metals in biosolids applied to the surface of soil columns (76 cm long; 17 cm diam.) with or without plants (barley; Hordeum vulgare L.). Three weeks after barley was planted, all columns were irrigated with the disodium salt of the chelating agent, EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid) (0.5 g/kg soil). Drainage water, soil, and plants were analyzed for heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn). Total concentrations of the heavy metals in all columns at the end of the experiment generally were lower in the top 30 cm of soil with EDTA than without EDTA. The chelate increased concentrations of heavy metals in shoots. With or without plants, the EDTA mobilized Cd, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn, which leached to drainage water. Drainage water from columns without EDTA had concentrations of these heavy metals below detection limits. Only Cu did not leach in the presence of EDTA. Even though roots retarded the movement of Cd, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn through the EDTA-treated soil from 1 d (Cd) to 5 d (Fe), the drainage water from columns with EDTA had concentrations of Cd, Fe, Mn, and Pb that exceeded drinking water standards by 1.3, 500, 620, and 8.6 times, respectively. Because the chelate rendered Cd, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn mobile, it is suggested that the theory for leaching of soluble salts, put forward by Nielsen and associates in 1965, could be applied to control movement of the heavy metals for maximum uptake during chelate-assisted phytoremediation.

  11. Evaluación de la eficiencia de una batería de filtros empacados en zeolita en la remoción de metales pesados presentes en un licor mixto bajo condiciones de laboratorio Evaluation of efficiency of a filter battery packaging zeolite in the removal of heavy metals in a mixed liquor under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Rocío Acevedo Cifuentes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se muestran resultados de investigación obtenidos en la remoción de los metales pesados, plomo, níquel, cromo, cadmio y mercurio, presentes en una solución compuesta por licor mixto proveniente de la planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales de San Fernando y una solución preparada con metales pesados con una concentración conocida, mediante el uso de una batería de filtros empacados en zeolita clinoptilolita. La experimentación se desarrolló bajo condiciones controladas de caudal y pH, a temperatura ambiente. Se encontró que la eficiencia de los filtros bajo las condiciones específicas de diseño es significativamente alta en la remoción de los metales pesados evaluados en la solución acuosa. Se encontró, además, que sin importar el valor de la concentración inicial, se obtuvo una remoción importante en los contaminantes luego de pasar por los filtros con una mayor eficiencia en la remoción del mercurio.This article shows the research results on the removal of five heavy metals (lead, nickel, chromium, cadmium and mercury present in a liquor made of a mixture of wastewater from San Fernando wastewater treatment plant and a solution prepared with known concentrations of heavy metals, using a series of batery filters packed with zeolita clinoptilolita. The experiments were run under controlled conditions of flow and pH, at room temperature. It was found that the removal efficiency was significantly high under the specified design conditions; also, it was found an important removal of the contaminants after passing through the filters, independently of the initial concentration, with the highest observed removal for mercury.

  12. Bioindication: a short review on the use of plants as indicators of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, M; Podani, J

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses some fundamental principles of bioindication. The presentation follows a classification of methods based on the different levels of organization implied in the various approaches. Special references are made to plants that accumulate heavy metals.

  13. Plants Role in Reducing Heavy Metals from Polluted Soil Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amouei A.* PhD,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims In the past few decades, more attention has been paid to clean up soils polluted with heavy metals by plants. A serious problem in this way is the amount of heavy metals uptake by plants. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of 3 local plants of Mazandaran province, Iran, in reducing and controlling the soil’s heavy metals. Instrument & Methods The removal amount of three heavy metals (lead, zinc and cadmium by native plants (maize, velvetleaf and wild amaranth was investigated in alkaline (pH=8 and acidic (pH=5 soils and also using three substances such as EDTA, ammonium citrate and phosphate. The concentrations of these metals in leachate were measured by using atomic absorption spectrometry method. Findings Lead, cadmium and zinc levels in leachate in treatments with plants were less than unplanted ones. The concentrations of these metals in the produced leachate of treatments with acidic soils were higher than those with alkaline soils. In the treatments of soil polluted with additives, treatments containing ammonium phosphate and EDTA had the lowest and highest concentrations of heavy metals, respectively. Concentrations of these metals in treatments without plants were higher than those with plants. Conclusion Increasing of soil pH is effective on stabilization of heavy metals in soil. Ammonium phosphate plays an important role in stabilizing and EDTA and ammonium citrate increase the mobility of lead, zinc and cadmium in soil and groundwater.

  14. Effects of single and combined heavy metals and their chelators on aphid performance and preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolpe, Clemens; Müller, Caroline

    2016-12-01

    When present at elevated levels in the environment, heavy metals are toxic for most organisms. However, so-called hyperaccumulator plants tolerate heavy metals and use chelators for their internal long-distance transport. Thus, phloem-sucking insects may come in contact with the chelated metals. In the present study, the effects of individual and combined heavy metals, zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd), as well as of common chelators, nicotianamine and phytochelatin, were investigated on the performance, preferences, and metal accumulation of the generalist aphid Myzus persicae, using artificial diets. Added Zn increased aphid growth, whereas Cd reduced the survival of aphids. Chelators had neither protective nor negative effects on aphids. The combination of the 2 heavy metals in chelated or nonchelated form caused a potentiation effect that led to an extinction of the aphids within less than 2 wk, before they could reproduce. Both Cd and Zn accumulated in the aphids, indicating a possible biomagnification. In choice assays, aphids preferred diets amended with Zn with or without nicotianamine compared to a control diet. In contrast, a Cd-containing diet led to neither attraction nor aversion. The present study provides insight into how mixtures of heavy metals and their chelators influence the life history of a generalist aphid. The results have implications for the use of phytoremediation to remove heavy metals from contaminated soils. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:3023-3030. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  15. Identification of Thlaspi caerulescens genes that may be involved in heavy metal hyperaccumulation and tolerance. Characterization of a novel heavy metal transporting ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoyan, Ashot; Kochian, Leon V

    2004-11-01

    Thlaspi caerulescens is a heavy metal hyperaccumulator plant species that is able to accumulate extremely high levels of zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) in its shoots (30,000 microg g(-1) Zn and 10,000 microg g(-1) Cd), and has been the subject of intense research as a model plant to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms of heavy metal hyperaccumulation and tolerance and as a source of genes for developing plant species better suited for the phytoremediation of metal-contaminated soils. In this study, we report on the results of a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisae) complementation screen aimed at identifying candidate heavy metal tolerance genes in T. caerulescens. A number of Thlaspi genes that conferred Cd tolerance to yeast were identified, including possible metal-binding ligands from the metallothionein gene family, and a P-type ATPase that is a member of the P1B subfamily of purported heavy metal-translocating ATPases. A detailed characterization of the Thlaspi heavy metal ATPase, TcHMA4, demonstrated that it mediates yeast metal tolerance via active efflux of a number of different heavy metals (Cd, Zn, lead [Pb], and copper [Cu]) out of the cell. However, in T. caerulescens, based on differences in tissue-specific and metal-responsive expression of this transporter compared with its homolog in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), we suggest that it may not be involved in metal tolerance. Instead, we hypothesize that it may play a role in xylem loading of metals and thus could be a key player in the hyperaccumulation phenotype expressed in T. caerulescens. Additionally, evidence is presented showing that the C terminus of the TcHMA4 protein, which contains numerous possible heavy metal-binding His and Cys repeats residues, participates in heavy metal binding. When partial peptides from this C-terminal domain were expressed in yeast, they conferred an extremely high level of Cd tolerance and Cd hyperaccumulation. The possibilities for enhancing the metal

  16. Identification of Thlaspi caerulescens Genes That May Be Involved in Heavy Metal Hyperaccumulation and Tolerance. Characterization of a Novel Heavy Metal Transporting ATPase1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoyan, Ashot; Kochian, Leon V.

    2004-01-01

    Thlaspi caerulescens is a heavy metal hyperaccumulator plant species that is able to accumulate extremely high levels of zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) in its shoots (30,000 μg g−1 Zn and 10,000 μg g−1 Cd), and has been the subject of intense research as a model plant to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms of heavy metal hyperaccumulation and tolerance and as a source of genes for developing plant species better suited for the phytoremediation of metal-contaminated soils. In this study, we report on the results of a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisae) complementation screen aimed at identifying candidate heavy metal tolerance genes in T. caerulescens. A number of Thlaspi genes that conferred Cd tolerance to yeast were identified, including possible metal-binding ligands from the metallothionein gene family, and a P-type ATPase that is a member of the P1B subfamily of purported heavy metal-translocating ATPases. A detailed characterization of the Thlaspi heavy metal ATPase, TcHMA4, demonstrated that it mediates yeast metal tolerance via active efflux of a number of different heavy metals (Cd, Zn, lead [Pb], and copper [Cu]) out of the cell. However, in T. caerulescens, based on differences in tissue-specific and metal-responsive expression of this transporter compared with its homolog in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), we suggest that it may not be involved in metal tolerance. Instead, we hypothesize that it may play a role in xylem loading of metals and thus could be a key player in the hyperaccumulation phenotype expressed in T. caerulescens. Additionally, evidence is presented showing that the C terminus of the TcHMA4 protein, which contains numerous possible heavy metal-binding His and Cys repeats residues, participates in heavy metal binding. When partial peptides from this C-terminal domain were expressed in yeast, they conferred an extremely high level of Cd tolerance and Cd hyperaccumulation. The possibilities for enhancing the metal tolerance

  17. Microalgae - A promising tool for heavy metal remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh Kumar, K; Dahms, Hans-Uwe; Won, Eun-Ji; Lee, Jae-Seong; Shin, Kyung-Hoon

    2015-03-01

    Biotechnology of microalgae has gained popularity due to the growing need for novel environmental technologies and the development of innovative mass-production. Inexpensive growth requirements (solar light and CO2), and, the advantage of being utilized simultaneously for multiple technologies (e.g. carbon mitigation, biofuel production, and bioremediation) make microalgae suitable candidates for several ecofriendly technologies. Microalgae have developed an extensive spectrum of mechanisms (extracellular and intracellular) to cope with heavy metal toxicity. Their wide-spread occurrence along with their ability to grow and concentrate heavy metals, ascertains their suitability in practical applications of waste-water bioremediation. Heavy metal uptake by microalgae is affirmed to be superior to the prevalent physicochemical processes employed in the removal of toxic heavy metals. In order to evaluate their potential and to fill in the loopholes, it is essential to carry out a critical assessment of the existing microalgal technologies, and realize the need for development of commercially viable technologies involving strategic multidisciplinary approaches. This review summarizes several areas of heavy metal remediation from a microalgal perspective and provides an overview of various practical avenues of this technology. It particularly details heavy metals and microalgae which have been extensively studied, and provides a schematic representation of the mechanisms of heavy metal remediation in microalgae.

  18. Removal of heavy metals through adsorption using sand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The removal of four heavy metals i.e. Pb, Cr, Cu, and Zn from their aqueous solutions, using ordinary sand as an adsorbent, was studied at 20oC. The amount of metal adsorbed to form monolayer on sand(am), obtained from Langmuir isotherm, exhibited the preference of metals for sand in the order Pb>Cr>Cu>Zn. The heavy metal-sand adsorption phenomena can be illustrated on the basis of the interaction between surface functional group of silicates (sand) and the metal ions. It is deduced that sand can be used as a low cost adsorbent for the removal of heavy metal from wastewater (containing low conc. of metals), especially in the developing countries.

  19. Heavy metals, PAHs and toxicity in stormwater wet detention ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Tove; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of 6 different heavy metals and total Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) were determined in stormwater runoff and in the pond water of two Danish wet detention ponds. The pond water samples were analyzed for toxic effects, using the algae Selenastrum capricornutum as a test...... organism. Stormwater and pond water from a catchment with light industry showed high levels of heavy metals, especially zinc and copper. The pond water showed high toxic effects and copper were found to be the main toxicant. Additionally, a large part of the copper was suspected to be complex bound......, reducing the potential toxicity of the metal. Another catchment (residential) produced stormwater and pond water with moderate concentration of heavy metals. The pond water occasionally showed toxic effects but no correlation between heavy metals and toxicity was identified. PAHs concentrations were...

  20. Dense Heavy Metal Aerosol Monitoring by Direct X-Ray Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    TECHNICAL REPORT BRL-TR-3003 BRL 0 sDENSE HEAVY METAL AEROSOL MONITORING BY DIRECT X-RAY FLUORESCENCE I GEORGE M. THOMSON flgDTIC ELF% CTE b JUN 16...21005-5066 /F 6261A jIN8 1001I 11. TITLE (-’mi- Sawt Cauif&aan)II DENSE HEAVY METAL AEROSOL MONITORMN BY DIRECT X-RAY FLUORESCENCE 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S...Before proceeding, a definition of the term "dense, heavy - metal aerosol" is in order. For present purposes, it is an aerosol in which the suspended

  1. Heavy metals in aerosols over the seas of the Russian Arctic

    OpenAIRE

    Shevchenko, Vladimir; Lisitzin, Alexander; Vinogradova, A.; Stein, Rüdiger

    2003-01-01

    A review of the data on heavy metals in aerosols over the seas of the Russian Arctic is presented. Results of heavy metal studies in aerosols obtained during 11 research expeditions in summer/autumn period from 1991 to 2000, and at Severnaya Zemlya and Wrangel Island in spring, in 1985–1989 are discussed. Concentrations of most heavy metals in the atmosphere in the marine boundary layer in the Russian Arctic are nearly of the same order as literature data from other Arctic areas. The content ...

  2. Cyclic electrowinning/precipitation (CEP) system for the removal of heavy metal mixtures from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimshaw, Pengpeng; Calo, Joseph M; Hradil, George

    2011-11-15

    The description and operation of a novel cyclic electrowinning/precipitation (CEP) system for the simultaneous removal of mixtures of heavy metals from aqueous solutions are presented. CEP combines the advantages of electrowinning in a spouted particulate electrode (SPE) with that of chemical precipitation and redissolution, to remove heavy metals at low concentrations as solid metal deposits on particulate cathode particles without exporting toxic metal precipitate sludges from the process. The overall result is very large volume reduction of the heavy metal contaminants as a solid metal deposit on particles that can either be safely discarded as such, or further processed to recover particular metals. The performance of this system is demonstrated with data on the removal of mixtures of copper, nickel, and cadmium from aqueous solutions.

  3. [Structure and function of heavy metal transporter P(1B)-ATPase in plant: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuxiu; Zhang, Yuanya; Sun, Tao; Chai, Tuanyao

    2010-06-01

    The regulation of the heavy-metal accumulation in vivo for plant survival is very complex. The metal cation transporter plays key roles in the metabolic process. P(1B)-ATPases are the only subgroup of P-ATPases that contribute to heavy metal homeostasis presented in most organisms. Arabidopsis thaliana contains eight genes encoding P(1B)-ATPases. The current reports show that the functions of P(1B)-ATPases are involved in maintaining metal homeostasis, transporting and detoxification in plants. P(1B)-ATPases not only mediated metal ion mobilization and uptake in roots, but also contribute to the metal transport, storage and tolerance in shoots, especially in heavy metal hyperaccumulators. In this paper, we reviewed and discussed the evolution, classification, structure and function of P(1B)-ATPases in plants. HMAs-transgenic manipulation could be a feasible approach for phytoremediation and mineral nutrition fortification.

  4. "Periodic-table-style" paper device for monitoring heavy metals in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miaosi; Cao, Rong; Nilghaz, Azadeh; Guan, Liyun; Zhang, Xiwang; Shen, Wei

    2015-03-03

    If a paper-based analytical device (μ-PAD) could be made by printing indicators for detection of heavy metals in chemical symbols of the metals in a style of the periodic table of elements, it could be possible for such μ-PAD to report the presence and the safety level of heavy metal ions in water simultaneously and by text message. This device would be able to provide easy solutions to field-based monitoring of heavy metals in industrial wastewater discharges and in irrigating and drinking water. Text-reporting could promptly inform even nonprofessional users of the water quality. This work presents a proof of concept study of this idea. Cu(II), Ni(II), and Cr(VI) were chosen to demonstrate the feasibility, specificity, and reliability of paper-based text-reporting devices for monitoring heavy metals in water.

  5. Temperature Sensitive Optical Phenomena in Heavy Metal Halide Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-08

    Heavy - metal halides such as Pb!2 and HgI2 exhibit a strongly tempera- ture dependent absorption edge at visible frequencies. The shift in the absorption...AOb9 537 ROCKWELL INTERNATIONAL ANAHEIM CA ELECTRONICS RESEAR—— ETC FIG L u G TEMPERATURE SENSITIVE OPTICAL PHENOMENA IN HEAVY METAL HALIDE F—— ETC (U...PHENOMENA IN HEAVY METAL HALIDE F — ET C( U) ,JAN 79 J D MC*LLEN, D M HEINZ. F S STEARNS DAAK7O— 77—C—01 6 5 UNCLASSIFIED C79 1501 _ _ U SB

  6. The influence of heavy metals on soil microflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štyriaková Iveta

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our contribution was to ascertain an influence of heavy metals on quantitative and qualitative composition of soil microflora. Our experiment was directed to quantitative isolation of culturable bacteria from individual soil samples and to the comparison of the amounts and colony morphology of the isolates from various soil samples. These soil samples were characteristic by a difference in pH, heavy metals and humus contents. Despite the differences between individual soil samples, the most of bacterial isolates were represented by Bacillus genus (especially Bacillus cereus and Bacillus mycoides which belongs to the heavy metal resistant bacterial kinds.

  7. Heavy metal pollution in intertidal sediments from Quanzhou Bay, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ruilian; YUAN Xing; ZHAO Yuanhui; HU Gongren; TU Xianglin

    2008-01-01

    The concentrations of eight heavy metals (Cu,Zn,Pb,Cd,Cr,Ni,Hg,and As) in the intertidal surface sediments from Quanzhou Bay were determined to evaluate their levels and spatial distribution due to urbanization and economic development of Quanzhou region,southeast China.The ranges of the measured concentrations in the sediments are as foilows:24.8-119.7 mg/kg for Cu,105.5-241.9 mg/kg for Zn,34.3-10n9 mg/kg for Pb,0.28-0.89 mg/kg for Cd,51.1-121.7 mg/kg for Cr,16.1-45.7 mg/kg for Ni,0.17-0.74 mg/kg for Hg,and 17.7-30.2 mg/kg for As.The overall average concentrations of above metals exceed the primary standard criteria but meet the secondary standard criteria of the Chinese National Standard of Marine Sediment Quality.Several contents of Cu and Hg exceed the secondary standard criteria at some stations.The results of geoaccumulation index (Igeo) show that Cd causes strong pollution in most of the study area.There are no significant correlations among most of these heavy metals,indicating they have different anthropogenic and natural sources.Some locations present severe pollution by heavy metals depending on the sources,of which sewage outlets,aquatic breeding,and commercial ports are the main sources of contaminants to the area.

  8. Solidification and Immobilization of Heavy metals in Soil using with nano-metallic Ca/CaO Dispersion Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallampati S. R.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the use of nano-metallic calcium (Ca and calcium oxide (CaO dispersion mixture for the immobilization of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr and Pb in soil was investigated. With simple grinding, 85-90% of heavy metals immobilization could be achieved, while it could be enhanced to 98-100% by grinding with the addition of nano-metallic Ca/CaO dispersion mixture. By SEM-EDS elemental maps as well as semi-quantitative analysis observed that the amount of As, Cd, Cr and Pb measurable on soil particle surface decreases after nano-metallic Ca/CaO treatment. The leachable heavy metals concentrations were reduced, to the concentration lower than the Japan soil elution standard regulatory threshold, i. e., < 0.01 mg/l for As, Cd and Pb and 0.05mg/l for Cr. Whereas, the effect of soil moisture and pH on heavy metals immobilization was not much influenced. The results suggest that nano-metallic Ca/CaO mixture is suitable to be used for the gentle immobilization of heavy metals contaminated soil at normal moisture conditions.

  9. Water-soluble organophosphorus reagents for mineralization of heavy metals.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, K. L.

    1999-02-26

    In this report, we have described the principal stages of a two-step process for the in-situ stabilization of actinide ions in the environment. The combination of cation exchange and mineralization appears likely to provide a long-term solution to environments contaminated with heavy metals. Relying on a naturally occurring sequestering agent has obvious potential advantages from a regulatory standpoint. There are additional aspects of this technology requiring further elucidation, including the demonstration of the effect of these treatment protocols on the geohydrology of soil columns, further examination of the influence of humates and other colloidal species on cation uptake, and microbiological studies of phytate hydrolysis. We have learned during the course of this investigation that phytic acid is potentially available in large quantities. In the US alone, phytic acid is produced at an annual rate of several hundred thousand metric tons as a byproduct of fermentation processes (11). This material presently is not isolated for use. Instead, most of the insoluble phyate (as phytin) is being recycled along with the other solid fermentation residues for animal feed. This material is in fact considered undesirable in animal feed. The details of possible separation processes for phytate from these residues would have to be worked out before this untapped resource would be available for application to heavy metal sequestration. The results described emphasize the behavior of actinide and trivalent lanthanide metal ions, as these species are of primary interest to the Department of Energy for the cleanup of the former nuclear weapons production complex. While the specific demonstration includes this limited selection of metal ions, the technique should be readily applicable to any class of metal ions that form insoluble phosphate compounds under appropriate conditions. Further, though this demonstration has been conducted in the pH 5-8 range, it is conceivable that

  10. Adsorption behavior of heavy metals on biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamisawa, Mayumi; Minamisawa, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Shoichiro; Takai, Nobuharu

    2004-09-08

    We have investigated adsorption of Cd(II) and Pb(II) at pH 2-6.7 onto the biomaterials chitosan, coffee, green tea, tea, yuzu, aloe, and Japanese coarse tea, and onto the inorganic adsorbents, activated carbon and zeolite. High adsorptive capabilities were observed for all of the biomaterials at pH 4 and 6.7. In the adsorption of Cd(II), blend coffee, tea, green tea, and coarse tea have comparable loading capacities to activated carbon and zeolite. Although activated carbon, zeolite, and chitosan are utilized in a variety of fields such as wastewater treatment, chemical and metallurgical engineering, and analytical chemistry, these adsorbents are costly. On the other hand, processing of the test biomaterials was inexpensive, and all the biomaterials except for chitosan were able to adsorb large amounts of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions after a convenient pretreatment of washing with water followed by drying. The high adsorption capability of the biomaterials prepared from plant materials is promising in the development of a novel, low-cost adsorbent. From these results, it is concluded that heavy metal removal using biomaterials would be an effective method for the economic treatment of wastewater. The proposed adsorption method was applied to the determination of amounts of Cd(II) and Pb(II) in water samples.

  11. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Vegetable Species Planted in Contaminated Soils and the Health Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Zhou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to investigate heavy metal accumulation in 22 vegetable species and to assess the human health risks of vegetable consumption. Six vegetable types were cultivated on farmland contaminated with heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, and As. The target hazard quotient (THQ method was used to assess the human health risks posed by heavy metals through vegetable consumption. Clear differences were found in the concentrations of heavy metals in edible parts of the different vegetables. The concentrations of heavy metals decreased in the sequence as leafy vegetables > stalk vegetables/root vegetables/solanaceous vegetables > legume vegetables/melon vegetables. The ability of leafy vegetables to uptake and accumulate heavy metals was the highest, and that of melon vegetables was the lowest. This indicated that the low accumulators (melon vegetables were suitable for being planted on contaminated soil, while the high accumulators (leafy vegetables were unsuitable. In Shizhuyuan area, China, the total THQ values of adults and children through consumption of vegetables were 4.12 and 5.41, respectively, suggesting that the residents may be facing health risks due to vegetable consumption, and that children were vulnerable to the adverse effects of heavy metal ingestion.

  12. Airborne heavy metals over Europe: emissions, long-range transport and deposition fluxes to natural ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, G. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrophysik

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents a brief review of the processes by which airborne heavy metals are transported from the main emission areas in Europe and become subject to deposition and absorption into terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems with subsequent transport and transformation within the biotic and abiotic media that comprise these ecosystems. Results from numerical simulation models capable of simulating long-range transport of heavy metals over Europe together with measurement data of heavy metal concentrations in air and precipitation and the corresponding dry and wet deposition fluxes are reported. European wide inventories of anthropogenic heavy metal emissions based on location and capacity of their dominating source categories such as fossil fuel burning in power plants, industrial and residential combustion, waste incineration and road traffic are briefly described. Emission reduction scenarios with respect to introduction of lead free gasoline are outlined. The critical gaps of knowledge on heavy metals in the atmosphere are identified focusing on uncertainties associated with emission fluxes in Eastern Europe and the scarcity of measurement data in that area. Future research is needed to estimate the effects of emission reductions on deposition fluxes of heavy metals to sensitive ecosystems such as forested areas in Europe is recommended. Special emphasis is placed on mercury, lead and cadmium which have been defined within the European convention on long-range transboundary air pollution of the United Nations-Economic Commission Europe (UN-ECE) to be the priority heavy metals of concern. (orig.)

  13. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Vegetable Species Planted in Contaminated Soils and the Health Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hang; Yang, Wen-Tao; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Li; Gu, Jiao-Feng; Wang, Wen-Lei; Zou, Jia-Ling; Tian, Tao; Peng, Pei-Qin; Liao, Bo-Han

    2016-03-04

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate heavy metal accumulation in 22 vegetable species and to assess the human health risks of vegetable consumption. Six vegetable types were cultivated on farmland contaminated with heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, and As). The target hazard quotient (THQ) method was used to assess the human health risks posed by heavy metals through vegetable consumption. Clear differences were found in the concentrations of heavy metals in edible parts of the different vegetables. The concentrations of heavy metals decreased in the sequence as leafy vegetables > stalk vegetables/root vegetables/solanaceous vegetables > legume vegetables/melon vegetables. The ability of leafy vegetables to uptake and accumulate heavy metals was the highest, and that of melon vegetables was the lowest. This indicated that the low accumulators (melon vegetables) were suitable for being planted on contaminated soil, while the high accumulators (leafy vegetables) were unsuitable. In Shizhuyuan area, China, the total THQ values of adults and children through consumption of vegetables were 4.12 and 5.41, respectively, suggesting that the residents may be facing health risks due to vegetable consumption, and that children were vulnerable to the adverse effects of heavy metal ingestion.

  14. Heavy metals in aerosols over the seas of the Russian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, V; Lisitzin, A; Vinogradova, A; Stein, R

    2003-05-01

    A review of the data on heavy metals in aerosols over the seas of the Russian Arctic is presented. Results of heavy metal studies in aerosols obtained during 11 research expeditions in summer/autumn period from 1991 to 2000, and at Severnaya Zemlya and Wrangel Island in spring, in 1985-1989 are discussed. Concentrations of most heavy metals in the atmosphere in the marine boundary layer in the Russian Arctic are nearly of the same order as literature data from other Arctic areas. The content of heavy metals in the aerosols over the seas of the Russian Arctic shows an annual variation with maximal concentrations during the winter/spring season. In the summer/autumn period increased concentrations of heavy metals could be explained, in most cases, by natural processes (generation of sea salt aerosols, etc.). In some cases, aerosols from Norilsk and Kola Peninsula were detected. Particular attention was paid to estimation of horizontal and vertical fluxes of atmospheric heavy metals. We estimated annual variations in long-range transport of heavy metals into the Russian Arctic in 1986-1995. In winter and spring, up to 50% of the average air pollutant concentrations in the Russian Arctic are due to the Arctic atmospheric pollution itself. Moreover, the monthly and annual averaged fluxes of six anthropogenic chemical elements (arsenic, nickel, lead, vanadium, zinc and cadmium) onto the surface in the Arctic were estimated, and the values obtained were in reasonable agreement with the literature data available.

  15. HEAVY METALS AS UNWANTED COMPONENTS OF BACKWASH WATER DERIVED FROM GROUNDWATER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Nowak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some aspects of the problem of heavy metals presence in wastewater and sewage sludge from water treatment. In the first part, issues on quality of wastewaters and sludge produced during water treatment along with actions aimed at the neutralization of such wastes, were discussed. Subsequent parts of the work present the example of 12 groundwater treatment stations in a particular municipality, and the problem of backwash water quality, in particular, heavy metals contents. The analysis covered a period of three years: 2013, 2014, and 2015. The authors, using the discussed examples, have shown that besides hydrated iron and manganese oxides, also other toxic contaminants can be present in backwash water from groundwater treatment. In particular, the qualitative analysis of the backwash water revealed the presence of heavy metals, mainly zinc. The test results for backwash water were compared with those of filtrate qualitative assessment, wherein the heavy metals were not found. This fact indicated the metal retention in the filter bed and their unsustainable immobilization resulting in penetration of heavy metals from deposit to the backwash water along with other impurities, mainly iron and manganese oxides. The main conclusion from the study is to demonstrate the need for constant monitoring of the backwash water quality, including the presence of toxic heavy metals. This is also important because of the requirement to minimize the negative environmental impact of wastes generated during the water treatment process.

  16. A highly efficient and selective polysilsesquioxane sorbent for heavy metal removal

    KAUST Repository

    Duan, Xiaonan

    2012-02-29

    Suited for heavy stuff: An efficient mesoporous sorbent based on a pure ethylendiamine-bridged polysilsesquioxane is presented. This material, with both a high amine loading and a high surface area, is applied for heavy metal ion removal. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Handheld colorimeter for determination of heavy metal concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Ruiz, N; Martinez Olmos, A; Palma, A J [ECSens ETSIIT, Departamento de Electronica, Universidad de Granada. C/ Periodista Daniel Saucedo s/n 18071 Granada (Spain); Ariza, M; Capitan-Vallvey, L F [Department of Analytical Chemistry. Faculty of Sciences. University of Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Vukovic, J, E-mail: nurilr@ugr.es [Department of Analytics and Control of Medicines, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Zagreb, A. Kovacica 1,HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2011-08-17

    A portable instrument that measures heavy metal concentration from a colorimetric sensor array is presented. The use of eight sensing membranes, placed on a plastic support, allows to obtain the hue component of the HSV colour space of each one in order to determinate the concentration of metals present in a solution. The developed microcontroller-based system captures, in an ambient light environment, an image of the sensor array using an integrated micro-camera and shows the picture in a touch micro-LCD screen which acts as user interface. After image-processing of the regions of interest selected by the user, colour and concentration information are displayed on the screen.

  18. Speciation and mobility of heavy metals in mud in coastal reclamation areas in Shenzhen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianmin; Huang, Runqiu; Jiao, Jiu J.; Chen, Kouping

    2007-09-01

    Coastal reclamation has been carried out along the coastal areas near Shenzhen, China in a large scale since 1980s by dumping fill materials over the marine mud at the sea bottom. Usually the area to be reclaimed is drained first and some of the mud is air-dried for a few weeks before it is buried by fill. After reclamation, the terrestrial groundwater, which is relatively acidic and with high dissolved oxygen, gradually displaces the seawater, which is alkaline with high salinity. The changes in the burial conditions of mud and the properties of the pore water in the mud may induce the release of some heavy metals into the mud. Field survey confirms that the pH and salinity of the groundwater in the reclamation site are much lower than the seawater. Chemical analyses of mud and groundwater samples collected from the reclamation sites reclaimed in different years indicate that most of the heavy metals in the mud decrease gradually with time, but the heavy metals in the groundwater are increased. The release of heavy metals into pore water due to reactivation of heavy metals in the mud is of environmental concern. To understand why some of the heavy metals can be released from the mud more easily than others, a sequential extraction method was used to study the operationally determined chemical forms of five heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Cd) in the mud samples. Heavy metals can be presented in five chemical forms: exchangeable, carbonate, Fe-Mn oxide, organic, and residual. Ni and Pb were mainly associated with the Fe-Mn oxide fraction and carbonate fraction; Zn was mainly associated with organic fraction and Fe-Mn oxide fraction, while Cu and Cd were associated with organic fraction and carbonate fraction, respectively. If the residual fraction can be considered as an inert phase of the metal that cannot be mobilized, it is the other four forms of heavy metal that cause the noticeable changes in the concentration of heavy metals in the mud. On the basis of the

  19. Removal of heavy metals from the environment by biosorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavrilescu, M. [Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Industrial Chemistry, Department of Environmental Engineering, Mangeron Blvd. 71, 6600-Iasi (Romania)

    2004-06-01

    The pollution of the environment with toxic metals is a result of many human activities, such as mining and metallurgy, and the effects of these metals on the ecosystems are of large economic and public-healthsignificance. This paper presents the features and advantages of the unconventional removal method of heavy metals - biosorption - as a part of bioremediation. Bioremediation consists of a group of applications, which involve the detoxification of hazardous substances instead of transferring them from one medium to another, by means of microbes and plants. This process is characterized as less disruptive and can be often carried out on site, eliminating the need to transport the toxic materials to treatment sites. The biosorption (sorption of metallic ions from solutions by live or dried biomass) offers an alternative to the remediation of industrial effluents as well as the recovery of metals contained in other media. Biosorbents are prepared from naturally abundant and/or waste biomass. Due to the high uptake capacity and very cost-effective source of the raw material, biosorption is a progression towards a perspective method. The mechanism by which microorganisms take up metals is relatively unclear, but it has been demonstrated that both living and non-living biomass may be utilized in biosorptive processes, as they often exhibit a marked tolerance towards metals and other adverse conditions. One of their major advantages is the treatment of large volumes of effluents with low concentrations of pollutants. Models developed were presented to determine both the number of adsorption sites required to bind each metal ion and the rate of adsorption, using a batch reactor mass balance and the Langmuir theory of adsorption to surfaces or continuous dynamic systems. Two main categories of bioreactors used in bioremediation - suspended growth and fixed film bioreactors - are discussed. Reactors with varying configurations to meet the different requirements for

  20. Selection of ectomycorrhizal willow genotype in phytoextraction of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrynkiewicz, Katarzyna; Baum, Christel

    2013-01-01

    Willow clones are used for the phytoextraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils and are usually mycorrhizal. The receptiveness of willow clones for mycorrhizal inoculum varies specific to genotype; however, it is unknown if this might have a significant impact on their efficiency in phytoextraction of heavy metals. Therefore, a model system with mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal willows of two different genotypes--one with usually stronger natural mycorrhizal colonization (Salix dasyclados), and one with lower natural mycorrhizal colonization (S. viminalis)--was investigated for its efficiency of phytoextraction of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) from contaminated soil. Inoculation with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita muscaria significantly decreased the biomass of leaves of both inoculated willow clones, and increased or had no effect on the biomass of trunks and roots of S. dasyclados and S. viminalis, respectively. The concentrations of heavy metals in the biomass of S. dasyclados were in general higher than in S. viminalis irrespective of inoculation with the ectomycorrhizal fungus. Inoculation with A. muscaria significantly decreased the concentration of Cu in the trunks of both Salix taxa, but did not affected the concentrations of other heavy metals in the biomass. In conclusion, stronger receptiveness of willow clones for mycorrhizal inoculum was correlated with an increased total extraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils. Therefore, this seems to be a suitable criterion for effective willow clone selection for phytoremediation. Increased biomass production with relatively constant metal concentrations seems to be a major advantage of mycorrhizal formation of willows in phytoremediation of contaminated soils.

  1. Effect of heavy metals on plasma membrane lipids and antioxidant enzymes of Zygophyllum species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Ahmed Morsy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heavy metals are major environmental pollutant when they present in high concentration in soil and have toxic effects on growth and development of plants. Industrial activities result in heavy metal pollution of large areas of land, which greatly affects natural vegetation. Understanding the mechanism of how plants combat heavy metals adverse effects is hence of great importance. Materials and Methods: Two different localities were chosen; one locality was in the vicinity of gypsum factory and the other one was 25 km away from the factory. Two Zygophyllum species (Z. album and Z. coccineum were naturally grown in the studied areas. The effects of soil heavy metal stress on shoot heavy metal concentrations, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities and the root plasma membrane (PM lipid composition were analyzed. Results: Heavy metal concentrations and Lipid peroxidation increased in the shoot of both species grown in the polluted area. The activities of ascorbate oxidase (ASO, guaiacal peroxidase (GPX, ascorbate peroxidase (APX and superoxide dismutase (SOD were increased whereas these of catalase (CAT were decreased in both species under the polluted conditions. PM total lipids, phospholipids, glycolipids and sterols were decreased in Z. album and Z. coccineum as a result of the polluted soil. Heavy metal stress increased phosphatidylethanolamine (PE and decreased phosphatidylinositol (PI and phophatidylglycerol (PG, with no significant change in phosphatidylcholine (PC in the root PM of both species. Phosphatidylserine (PS decreased in the PM of Z. album whereas it increased in the PM of Z. coccineum under the pollution conditions. Heavy metal stress changed the composition and concentration of fatty acids of the root PM, resulting in increased sat/unsat ratio of both species. Conclusion: the results suggest that efficient antioxidant machinery and favorable PM lipid homeostasis are important to enable Zygophyllum species

  2. Cleanup of industrial effluents containing heavy metals: a new opportunity of valorising the biomass produced by brewing industry

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Eduardo V.; Soares, Helena Maria

    2013-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution is a matter of concern in industrialised countries. Contrary to organic pollutants, heavy metals are not metabolically degraded. This fact has two main consequences: its bioremediation requires another strategy and heavy metals can be indefinitely recycled. Yeast cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are produced at high amounts as a by-product of brewing industry constituting a cheap raw material. In the present work, the possibility of valorising this type of biomass in th...

  3. Distribution of heavy metal concentrations in surface sediments in Dubai Creeks, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howari, Fares M

    2005-01-01

    Dubai is developing rapidly and many developmental activities are concentrated around its Creek. The present study reports the lateral distribution of heavy metals and compares it with local historical record of heavy metal concentrations. For this purpose surface sediment samples were collected and analyzed for metal contents, total organic carbon content (TOC), mineralogy and grain size. The percentages of the different grain size fraction of the collected sediments were as follow 65% for sand size, 15% for silt size fraction, and the rest accounted for clay size fraction. The microscopic analyses indicate that the sediment composed mainly from carbonate and quartz with traces of rock fragments. Such mineral composition is not believed to be a potential source of heavy metal. The study found that the average recorded heavy metal concentrations in the collected sediment samples were 87, 96, 127, 38.5, and 279 ppm for Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn, respectively. Those values were slightly higher than metal concentrations recoded in 2001 with 1.22 (Cr), 2.5 (Cu), 2.87 (Ni), 0.69 (Pb), and 2.1 (Zn) folds. However, in 2001 and 2003 the measured metal contents, along the creek, were lower than those of the average earth crust. Along the Creek most metals recorded the highest concentrations in the upper reach of the Creek. The distribution of the measured heavy metals was not affected significantly with the TOC values. The present study also documented obvious related point sources of pollution.

  4. SURFACE MODIFICATION OF SILICA- AND CELLULOSE-BASED MICROFILTRATION MEMBRANES WITH FUNCTIONAL POLYAMINO ACIDS FOR HEAVY METAL SORPTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Functionalized membranes represent a field with multiple applications. Examination of specific metal-macromolecule interactions on these surfaces presents an excellent method for characterizion of these materials. These interactions may also be exploited for heavy metal sorptio...

  5. The effects of fire temperatures on water soluble heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, P.; Ubeda, X.; Martin, D. A.

    2009-04-01

    Fire ash are majority composed by base cations, however the mineralized organic matter, led also available to transport a higher quantity of heavy metals that potentially could increase a toxicity in soil and water resources. The amount availability of these elements depend on the environment were the fire took place, burning temperature and combusted tree specie. The soil and water contamination from fire ash has been neglected, because the majority of studies are focused on base cations dynamic. Our research, beside contemplate major elements, is focused in to study the behavior of heavy metals released from ash slurries created at several temperatures under laboratory environment, prescribed fires and wildland fires. The results presented in these communication are preliminary and study the presence of Aluminium (Al3+), Manganese (Mn2+), Iron (Fe2+) and Zinc (Zn2+) of ash slurries generated in laboratory environment at several temperatures (150°, 200°, 250°, 300°, 350°, 400°,450°, 500°, 550°C) from Quercus suber, Quercus robur, Pinus pinea and Pinus pinaster and from a low medium temperature prescribed fire in a forest dominated Quercus suber trees. We observed that ash produced at lower and medium temperatures (Quercus species and Mn2+ in Pinus ashes. Fe2+ and Zn2+ showed a reduced concentration in test solution in relation to unburned sample at all temperatures of exposition. In the results obtained from prescribed fire, we identify a higher release of Al3+ and a decrease of the remain elements. The solubilization of these elements are related with pH levels and ash calcite content, because their ability to capture ions in solution. Moreover, the amount and the type of ions released in relation to unburned sample vary in each specie. In this study Al3+ release is related with Quercus species and Mn2+ with Pinus species. Fire ashes can be an environmental problem, because at long term can increase soil acidity. After all base cations have being leached

  6. Short communication Assessment of heavy metal contamination in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-27

    May 27, 2016 ... Assessment of heavy metal contamination in raw milk for human consumption ... 3 University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan ..... vegetables irrigated with mixtures of wastewater and sewage sludge in ...

  7. Phycoremediation of Wastewater: Heavy Metal and Nutrient Removal Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwarciak-Kozłowska Anna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Phycoremediation is the use of algae for the removal or biotrans-formation of pollutants from wastewater. The study is a novel at-tempt to integrate nutrient (N and P removal and some heavy met-als (iron, manganese and zinc bioaccumulation from municipal wastewater using two microalgae species: Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus armatus. The Chlorella vulgaris showed higher re-moval of total nitrogen (TN both in influent and effluent waste water than Scenedesmus armatus. Nevertheless, more than 51% of total phosphorus (TP in effluent and 36% in influent wastewaters were removed by Scenedesmus armatus. More efficient microalga in heavy metal removal in influent wastewater was Scenedesmus armatus. The results showed that Chlorella vulgaris was appropriate for TN removal and bioaccumulation of heavy metals from effluent wastewater. Nevertheless, Scenedesmus armatus was highly pref-erable for heavy metals removal from influent wastewater.

  8. Growth response and heavy metals tolerance of Axonopus affinis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-12-20

    Dec 20, 2010 ... assayed heavy metals, suggesting a synergistic effect between this species and the rhizobacterium in response ... soils, mainly in regions of copper and gold with great ..... enhance plant biomass production in mine tailings at.

  9. Heavy Metal Polluted Soils: Effect on Plants and Bioremediation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. U. Chibuike

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soils polluted with heavy metals have become common across the globe due to increase in geologic and anthropogenic activities. Plants growing on these soils show a reduction in growth, performance, and yield. Bioremediation is an effective method of treating heavy metal polluted soils. It is a widely accepted method that is mostly carried out in situ; hence it is suitable for the establishment/reestablishment of crops on treated soils. Microorganisms and plants employ different mechanisms for the bioremediation of polluted soils. Using plants for the treatment of polluted soils is a more common approach in the bioremediation of heavy metal polluted soils. Combining both microorganisms and plants is an approach to bioremediation that ensures a more efficient clean-up of heavy metal polluted soils. However, success of this approach largely depends on the species of organisms involved in the process.

  10. Heavy metal contaminants in Malapterurus electricus (Gmeli, 1789 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to evaluate the potential health risk associated with the ... The concentrations of some heavy metals, Manganese (Mn), ... unity for the fish species confirming that these fish species were safe for human consumption.

  11. Detection of heavy metal by paper-based microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yang; Gritsenko, Dmitry; Feng, Shaolong; Teh, Yi Chen; Lu, Xiaonan; Xu, Jie

    2016-09-15

    Heavy metal pollution has shown great threat to the environment and public health worldwide. Current methods for the detection of heavy metals require expensive instrumentation and laborious operation, which can only be accomplished in centralized laboratories. Various microfluidic paper-based analytical devices have been developed recently as simple, cheap and disposable alternatives to conventional ones for on-site detection of heavy metals. In this review, we first summarize current development of paper-based analytical devices and discuss the selection of paper substrates, methods of device fabrication, and relevant theories in these devices. We then compare and categorize recent reports on detection of heavy metals using paper-based microfluidic devices on the basis of various detection mechanisms, such as colorimetric, fluorescent, and electrochemical methods. To finalize, the future development and trend in this field are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Biomonitoring of heavy metals pollution in Lake Burullus, Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    pectinatus, Ceratophyllum demersum and Najas armata); (floating species: ... good tools for heavy metal pollution markers, in the biological treatment of the polluted water and in ... from water and wetlands sediments (Gulati et al., 1979).

  13. heavy metal content in some commonly consumed vegetables from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    This work reports on the levels of cadmium, lead, copper, manganese and zinc in 174 samples from eight varieties of ... Keywords: Heavy metals, Vegetables, Daily intake, Kariakoo market, Food safety ... well as crop rotation system can affect.

  14. Changes in Rheological Properties and Heavy Metal Content of an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    Keywords: Ash, rheological properties, heavy metal, maize yield. ... have beneficial effects on soil nutrients, soil physical conditions, soil biological .... matter yield observed in ash amended plots could be attributed to the reduction of soil pH.

  15. Toxic effect of heavy metals on aquatic environment | Baby ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxic effect of heavy metals on aquatic environment. ... International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences ... Remediation approaches such as excavation and land fill, thermal treatment, electroreclamation and soil capping have been ...

  16. Evaluation of Antibiotic Resistance Patterns and Heavy Metals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    Department of Environmental Management and Toxicology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Benin, P.M.B 1154, Benin City, ... and the use of vehicles for transportation release high .... indicates the toxic effect of the heavy metals on the.

  17. Adsorption of heavy metal from landfill leachate by wasted biosolids

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... Key words: Adsorption, biomass waste, heavy metal, synthetic water, leachate. INTRODUCTION ... Gadd, 1993; White et al., 1997). There is also ..... The performance of natural clay as a barrier to the diffusion of municipal ...

  18. A study on heavy metal concentration in Izmit gulf

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hasibe Cingilli

    2006-01-01

    Water samples taken from thirteen different stations and from three streams in İzmit Gulf where the pollution is very high have been investigated with Atomic Absorption Spectrometre for heavy metal...

  19. Investigation of the origin and distribution of heavy metals around ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-04-28

    Apr 28, 2010 ... around Ebenezer Dam, Limpopo Province, South Africa. JS Ogola1*, HR ... Concentrations of heavy metals in water around the Ebenezer Dam were found to be less than 0.01 mg/g , ..... World Health Organization, Geneva.

  20. HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATION OF SOIL IN THE REGIONAL CITY PLAYGROUNDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kei; Tsuzuki, Megumi; Asakura, Hiroshi

    It seems important to examine heavy metal concentration in playgrounds, to evaluate potential risk for heavy metal ingestion by children. In this study, heavy metal concentrations of soil samples in 40 playgrounds in K-city were investigated by the voltammetric method. To visualize heavy metal concentration distribution in playgrounds, free GIS software MANDARA was used. According to the comparison between the 1 N HCl dissolved concentration and the PTWI (Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake), playgrounds in K-city may not have intake risk of lead. Even if the possibility of the risk was very low, there are differences of the intensities. As for the specific playground where concentration is high, investigating continuously may be desirable hereafter.

  1. A bioseparation process for removing heavy metals from waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A bioseparation process for removing heavy metals from waste water using biosorbents. ... In recent years, many low cost sorbents such as algae, fungi bacteria and ... In this comprehensive review, the emphasis is on outlining the occurrences ...

  2. Removal of heavy metals from waste water of tanning leather ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LG

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Taibah University, AL-Madinah AL- Munawarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Accepted 19 ... Key words: Fungi, industrial wastewater, biosorption, heavy metals. ... Such treatments are.

  3. The effect of heavy metals on peroxidase from Jerusalem artichoke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. ... EU/mg. The substrate specificity of peroxidase was investigated ... compounds, removal of phenolics from waste waters and ... Heavy metal pollution occurs in many industrial waste-.

  4. Heavy metal concentrations in soils and accumulation in plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-03

    Sep 3, 2008 ... An auto battery manufacturing company dumped slag containing proportion of heavy metals in ... their shoot over a wide range of soil concentrations. They ... capacity of plants that grew naturally on metalliferous wastes and ...

  5. Heavy Metal Contamination of Soils and Vegetation around Solid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    The mean concentrations of zinc in soil and vegetations along the transect ... wastes contributed to the levels of heavy metals in soils and vegetation. ...... Current Topics in Toxicology. Vol. ... seminar on collaborative Agricultural Research.

  6. Simulation of heavy metal contamination of fresh water bodies: Toxic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Simulation of heavy metal contamination of fresh water bodies: Toxic effects in the catfish and its amelioration with co-contamination with glyphosate. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management. Journal Home · ABOUT ...

  7. Microbial and heavy metal contamination of pineapple products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    Key words: Pineapple, juices, jams, microbial contamination, heavy metal, Rwanda. ..... material used. This was obvious ... sterilise the product employing boiling pots and package .... that post-harvest, processing and preservation techniques.

  8. Influence of different concentration of heavy metals on the seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    Some heavy metals in higher doses may cause metabolic disorders and growth inhibition for most of ... doses of these compounds affected the germination and some growth indices. ... ment causing oxidative stress both in roots and leaves.

  9. Combined toxicity of heavy metal mixtures in liver cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xialu; Gu, Yuanliang; Zhou, Qi; Mao, Guochuan; Zou, Baobo; Zhao, Jinshun

    2016-09-01

    With rapid industrialization, China is now facing great challenges in heavy metal contamination in the environment. Human exposure to heavy metals through air, water and food commonly involves a mixture consisting of multiple heavy metals. In this study, eight common heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Hg, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cr, Ni) that cause environmental contamination were selected to investigate the combined toxicity of different heavy metal mixtures in HL7702 cells. Toxicity (24 h LC50 ) of each individual metal on the cells ranked Hg > Cr = Cd > Cu > Zn > Ni > Mn > Pb; toxicity of the different mixtures ranked: M5 > M3PbHgCd > M5+Mn > M5+Cu > M2CdNi > M4A > M8-Mn > M8 > M5+Zn > M4B > M8-Cr > M8-Zn > M8-Cu > M8-Pb > M8-Cd > M8-Hg > M8-Ni > M3PbHgNi > M3CuZnMn. The cytotoxicity data of individual metals were successfully used to build the additive models of two- to eight-component metal mixtures. The comparison between additive model and combination model or partly additive model was useful to evaluate the combined effects in mixture. Synergistic, antagonistic or additive effects of the toxicity were observed in different mixtures. These results suggest that the combined effects should be considered in the risk assessment of heavy metal co-exposure, and more comprehensive investigations on the combined effects of different heavy metal mixtures are needed in the future. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Phytoremediation strategies for soils contaminated with heavy metals: Modifications and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, Nadeem; Imran, Muhammad; Shaheen, Muhammad Rashid; Ishaque, Wajid; Kamran, Muhammad Asif; Matloob, Amar; Rehim, Abdur; Hussain, Saddam

    2017-03-01

    Presence of heavy metals in agricultural soils is of major environmental concern and a great threat to life on the earth. A number of human health risks are associated with heavy metals regarding their entry into food chain. Various physical, chemical and biological techniques are being used to remove heavy metals and metalloids from soils. Among them, phytoremediation is a good strategy to harvest heavy metals from soils and have been proven as an effective and economical technique. In present review, we discussed various sources and harmful effects of some important heavy metals and metalloids, traditional phytoremediation strategies, mechanisms involved in phytoremediation of these metals, limitations and some recent advances in phytoremediation approaches. Since traditional phytoremediation approach poses some limitations regarding their applications at large scale, so there is a dire need to modify this strategy using modern chemical, biological and genetic engineering tools. In view of above, the present manuscript brings both traditional and advanced phytoremediation techniques together in order to compare, understand and apply these strategies effectively to exclude heavy metals from soil keeping in view the economics and effectiveness of phytoremediation strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Molecular mechanisms of heavy metal hyperaccumulation and phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoe; Feng, Ying; He, Zhenli; Stoffella, Peter J

    2005-01-01

    A relatively small group of hyperaccumulator plants is capable of sequestering heavy metals in their shoot tissues at high concentrations. In recent years, major scientific progress has been made in understanding the physiological mechanisms of metal uptake and transport in these plants. However, relatively little is known about the molecular bases of hyperaccumulation. In this paper, current progresses on understanding cellular/molecular mechanisms of metal tolerance/hyperaccumulation by plants are reviewed. The major processes involved in hyperaccumulation of trace metals from the soil to the shoots by hyperaccumulators include: (a) bioactivation of metals in the rhizosphere through root-microbe interaction; (b) enhanced uptake by metal transporters in the plasma membranes; (c) detoxification of metals by distributing to the apoplasts like binding to cell walls and chelation of metals in the cytoplasm with various ligands, such as phytochelatins, metallothioneins, metal-binding proteins; (d) sequestration of metals into the vacuole by tonoplast-located transporters. The growing application of molecular-genetic technologies led to the well understanding of mechanisms of heavy metal tolerance/accumulation in plants, and subsequently many transgenic plants with increased resistance and uptake of heavy metals were developed for the purpose of phytoremediation. Once the rate-limiting steps for uptake, translocation, and detoxification of metals in hyperaccumulating plants are identified, more informed construction of transgenic plants would result in improved applicability of the phytoremediation technology.

  12. classification of plants according to their heavy metal content around ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    nickel) by AAS. Of 15 plant species; 10, 6, 6 were hyperaccumulators, excluders and indicators for heavy ... Classification of plants according to their heavy metal content … 110 die-off. ..... vegetable plants I. Use of a filtered air growth cabinet.

  13. Detection of heavy metals in biological samples through anodic stripping voltammetry

    OpenAIRE

    Buzea, Vlad; Florescu, Monica; Badea, Mihaela

    2012-01-01

    The toxicological aspects due to the presence of heavy metals in biological samples impose to have accurate and rapid methods for their detection. This paper is aimed to review approaches to anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) determination of several heavy metals (lead, cadmium, copper, mercury, zinc) in biological matrices (blood, urine, saliva, tissue sample). Analytical performances (LOD, data linearity range, sensitivity) of the reviewed methods were presented for several electrochemical ...

  14. Mechanisms of stress avoidance and tolerance by plants used in phytoremediation of heavy metals

    OpenAIRE

    Jutsz Anna Małachowska; Gnida Anna

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution of soil is a significant environmental problem and has a negative impact on human health and agriculture. Phytoremediation can be an alternative environmental treatment technology, using the natural ability of plants to take up and accumulate pollutants or transform them. Proper development of plants in contaminated areas (e.g. heavy metals) requires them to generate the appropriate protective mechanisms against the toxic effects of these pollutants. This paper presents ...

  15. Heavy metal cumulation in crops after the sewage sludge application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gondová Andrea

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available During 1995 - 1996 the crops samples after the sewage sludge application were collected. The heavy metals cumulation in investigated crops from Bardejov increased in order: Zn > Cu > Pb > Ni > Cr > Cd and Banská Bystrica : Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Pb > Cd. Heavy metals contents after the sewage sludge application were increased in comparison with the highest admissible concentration in eatable part of crops. The sewage sludge application were not recommended in soils for the growth of vegetables

  16. Heavy Metal Polluted Soils: Effect on Plants and Bioremediation Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Chibuike, G. U.; Obiora, S. C.

    2014-01-01

    Soils polluted with heavy metals have become common across the globe due to increase in geologic and anthropogenic activities. Plants growing on these soils show a reduction in growth, performance, and yield. Bioremediation is an effective method of treating heavy metal polluted soils. It is a widely accepted method that is mostly carried out in situ; hence it is suitable for the establishment/reestablishment of crops on treated soils. Microorganisms and plants employ different mechanisms for...

  17. Spatiotemporal Analysis of Heavy Metal Water Pollution in Transitional China

    OpenAIRE

    Huixuan Li; Yingru Li; Ming-Kuo Lee; Zhongwei Liu; Changhong Miao

    2015-01-01

    China’s socioeconomic transitions have dramatically accelerated its economic growth in last three decades, but also companioned with continuous environmental degradation. This study will advance the knowledge of heavy metal water pollution in China from a spatial–temporal perspective. Specifically, this study addressed the following: (1) spatial patterns of heavy metal water pollution levels were analyzed using data of prefecture-level cities from 2004 to 2011; and (2) spatial statistical met...

  18. Spatiotemporal Analysis of Heavy Metal Water Pollution in Transitional China

    OpenAIRE

    Huixuan Li; Yingru Li; Ming-Kuo Lee; Zhongwei Liu; Changhong Miao

    2015-01-01

    China’s socioeconomic transitions have dramatically accelerated its economic growth in last three decades, but also companioned with continuous environmental degradation. This study will advance the knowledge of heavy metal water pollution in China from a spatial–temporal perspective. Specifically, this study addressed the following: (1) spatial patterns of heavy metal water pollution levels were analyzed using data of prefecture-level cities from 2004 to 2011; and (2) spatial statistical met...

  19. Heavy metal music and drug abuse in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, P

    1988-04-01

    A large number of adolescents in a psychiatric population, particularly those who are chemically dependent, prefer to listen to heavy metal music. Young people who do not identify with traditional values may find simple but unconventional answers to complex problems in the lyrics of this type of music. While a clearcut relationship cannot be established between heavy metal music and destructive behavior, evidence shows that such music promotes and supports patterns of drug abuse, promiscuous sexual activity, and violence.

  20. Efficacy of Locust Beans Husk Char in Heavy Metal Sequestration

    OpenAIRE

    Ademola Ayodeji Ajayi-Banji; Temitayo Ewemoje; Adeniyi Ajimo

    2016-01-01

    Most solid waste management schemes minimally consider low concentration biodegradable agricultural waste management, though the environmental impact of this waste category is significant over a time frame. The column-mode study seeks to address the issue by suggesting potential utilisation of post-harvest waste for heavy metal sequestering. Locust beans husk char of 100 and 200 g was employed to inspect removal efficiency, isotherm and kinetic models of some heavy metals at 30, 60, 90, 120 a...

  1. Determination of heavy metals in edible mushrooms consumed in Shahrekord

    OpenAIRE

    Khodabakhshi A; Sedehi M; Shakeri K

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: Heavy metal pollution is a major problem in the environmental and health concerns of food. Toxic elements in the environment of mushrooms may be attracted to them, in which case the problem will create mushroom consumption. This study was aimed to determine the concentration of heavy metals, manganese, chromium, iron, lead, zinc and copper in mushroom consumed in Shahrekord. Methods: This study was a cross- sectional research. 6 samples of the edible mushroom cultiv...

  2. Mosses accumulate heavy metals from the substrata of coal ash

    OpenAIRE

    Vukojević Vanja; Sabovljević Marko; Jovanović S.

    2005-01-01

    Plants that are able to accumulate and tolerate extraordinarily high concentrations of heavy metals (hyperaccumulators) can be used for phytoremediation (removal of contaminants from soils) or phytomining (growing a crop of plants to harvest the metals). Two moss species, Bryum capillare Hedw. and Ceratodon purpureus Hedw., were tested as potential phytoremedies under in vivo conditions on a coal ash disposal site in the surroundings of Obrenovac (NW Serbia). The content of various heavy meta...

  3. Evaluation of the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) along the Persian Gulf coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadar, Maryam; Peyghan, Rahim; Memari, Hamid Rajabi

    2014-09-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals in Persian Gulf are low, but petrochemical and refinery activities have caused an increase in heavy metal wastes, especially in coastal regions. The present study was done to determine the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in the muscle of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The experiment was conducted in four important coastal regions of the Persian Gulf: Bushehr, Deylam, Mahshahr, and Abadan. Amounts of seven heavy metals such as Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Lead (Pb), Zinc (Zn), Nickel (Ni), Cadmium (Cd), and Cobalt (Co), were measured as µg/g heavy metal in dry weight in the muscle of white shrimp from the afore-mentioned regions during 2011. This study revealed information that the primary risk for human health and the marine life chain was lead in the muscles of white shrimp in Mahshahr, where intense petrochemical and refinery activities are conducted. Concentrations of other heavy metals were lower than world standards.

  4. Interaction of heavy metals with membrane Ca2+ channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PengSQ; HajelRK

    2002-01-01

    The objective of our study was to determine if specific types of high voltage-activated Ca2+ channels,typically found in neurons were affected differentially by MeHg,Hg2+ and Pb2+.Expression cDNA clones of α1C,α1B or α1E subunits coding for neuronal L-,N- and R- subtypes respectively,were combined with α2b δ and β3 Ca2+ channel subunits of human neuronal origin to transfect HEK293 cells.Current was measured using whole cell voltage clamp recording techniques.It the present studies,we conclude: (1)neurotoxic heavy metals such as MeHg,Hg2+ and Pb impair the function of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels at low μmolar to sub-μmolar concentrations-concentrations in the range of which are pathologically and environmentally relevant; (2)a particular metal,i.e.Pb2+,may inhibit function of phenotypically distince Ca2+ channels with variable potency; (3)different metals have differing “orders of potency” at inhibiting defined populations of Ca2+ channels; (4)for “susceptible populations” of patients with either underlying diseases or genetic alter ations of Ca2+ channel function,these metals may have heightened effectiveness.As such,for these populations,environmental toxic metals could produce a more dominant neurotoxicity.

  5. Nano sized carbonized waste biomass for heavy metal ion remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahajan Garima

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of agricultural waste material with approach to enhance the heavy metal remediation properties by carbonizing the biomass at nano size particles has been explored in present investigation from aqueous solutions. In this study the lignocellulosic, nitrogenous agricultural waste biomass Delbergia sissoo pods (DSP has been tried for sequestering of Cd (II, Pb (II and Ni (II metal ions from aqueous solutions. Batch experiments were performed for removal of targeted metal ions keeping in consideration the preliminary affecting parameters such as effect of adsorption dose, pH, initial metal ion concentration, stirring speed and contact time. The sorption studies were analyzed by using, Freundlic isotherm and Langmuir isotherm models. The kinetics of the process was evaluated by pseudo pseudo-first order and pseudo second order kinetic models. Studies reveal that the equilibrium was achieved with in 30 min of the contact time at optimized parameters. Analytical studies of biosorbent were done by means of FT-IR, SEM and XRD. Desorption experiments were carried out using HCl solution with a view to regenerate the spent adsorbent and to recover the adsorbed metal ions.

  6. Comparison of Eleven Heavy Metals in Moringa Oleifera Lam. Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmatvapirat, C; Limmatvapirat, S; Charoenteeraboon, J; Wessapan, C; Kumsum, A; Jenwithayaamornwech, S; Luangthuwapranit, P

    2015-01-01

    Eleven heavy metals in various products of Moringa oleifera were analyzed to determine eleven heavy metals (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, and Zn) using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. The products of M. oleifera were purchased in Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. All products were digested with nitric acid solution before determining the concentrations of heavy metals. The recoveries of all heavy metals were found to be in the range of 99.89-103.05%. Several criteria such as linearity, limits of detection, limits of quantification, specificity, precision under repeatability conditions and intermediate precision reproducibility were evaluated. Results indicate that this method could be used in the laboratory for determination of eleven heavy metals in M. oleifera products with acceptable analytical performance. The results of analysis showed that the highest concentrations of As, Cr, Hg, and Mn were found in tea leaves while the highest concentrations of Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn were found in leaf capsules. Continuous monitoring of heavy metals in M. oleifera products is crucial for consumer health.

  7. Comparison of eleven heavy metals in moringa oleifera lam. products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Limmatvapirat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleven heavy metals in various products of Moringa oleifera were analyzed to determine eleven heavy metals (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, and Zn using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. The products of M. oleifera were purchased in Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. All products were digested with nitric acid solution before determining the concentrations of heavy metals. The recoveries of all heavy metals were found to be in the range of 99.89-103.05%. Several criteria such as linearity, limits of detection, limits of quantification, specificity, precision under repeatability conditions and intermediate precision reproducibility were evaluated. Results indicate that this method could be used in the laboratory for determination of eleven heavy metals in M. oleifera products with acceptable analytical performance. The results of analysis showed that the highest concentrations of As, Cr, Hg, and Mn were found in tea leaves while the highest concentrations of Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn were found in leaf capsules. Continuous monitoring of heavy metals in M. oleifera products is crucial for consumer health.

  8. Removal of Heavy Metals from Textile Wastewater using Zeolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Normala Halimoon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals such as lead (Pb, chromium (Cr, cadmium (Cd and copper (Cu are widely used for production of colour pigments of textile dyes. Textile dyes pollutants are being released to the environment at various stages of operation therefore it is necessary that the pollutants are treated before discharge using zeolite with and without alum. A study was carried out to compare the effectiveness of treatment using zeolite with and without alum for the removal of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Cd, Cr in textile effluent. The concentrations of these heavy metals in the textile wastewater samples were reduced to more than 50 percent after treating with zeolite. The sequence in increasing order of removal efficiency of these heavy metals using zeolite was Cd < Pb < Cr < Cu. When the textile wastewater sample was treated using zeolite and 10 mg/L of alum, 80% of the heavy metals (Cd and Cu were removed. The most effective treatment prior to removal of heavy metals from textile wastewater sample is by using zeolite with the addition of 10 mg/L of alum as flocculants.

  9. Use of dried aquatic plant roots to adsorb heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robichaud, K.D.

    1996-12-31

    The removal of heavy metal ions by dried aquatic macrophytes was investigated. The ability of the biomass, Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth), Typha latifolia (cattail), Sparganium minimum (burr reed) and Menyanthes trifoliata to abstract lead and mercury ions is presented here, along with a conceptual filter design. This paper examines an alternative to both the traditional and recent systems designed for metal removal. It involves the use of dried aquatic macrophytes. There are numerous advantages for the use of dried macrophytes in the treatment of industrial wastewater. First, it is cost-effective. There are also funding opportunities through a variety of Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) programs. It is more environmentally conscious because a wetland, the harvesting pond, has been created. And, it creates public goodwill by providing a more appealing, less hardware-intensive, natural system.

  10. Development of biochar and chitosan blend for heavy metals uptake from synthetic and industrial wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Athar; Maitra, Jaya; Khan, Kashif Ali

    2017-08-01

    Heavy metals are usually released into water bodies from industrial/domestic effluents such as metal plating industries, mining and tanneries. Adsorption is a fundamental process in the physiochemical treatment of wastewaters because of its low cost. Great efforts have been made to use the economically efficient and unconventional adsorbents to adsorb heavy metals from aqueous solutions, such as plant wastes and agricultural waste. Biochar mixed with chitosan after crosslinking can be casted into membranes, beads and solutions which can be effectively utilized as an adsorbent for metal ion uptake. Keeping these facts into consideration, the present study was undertaken with the objective to determine the effect of various proportions of biochar-modified chitosan membranes on the sorption characteristics of different heavy metals like Cu, Pb, As and Cd along with comparison of sorption characteristics between industrial waste water samples containing multi-metals and standard synthetic stock solution containing a particular metal. It is apparent from the results that the bioadsorbent prepared from biochar and chitosan are low-cost efficacious resource due to its easy availability. It is also eco-friendly material for making adsorbent for abstraction of heavy metals from aqueous solution. This adsorbent can be best utilized for adsorption of heavy metals.

  11. Pollution and pollution tolerance in the case of heavy metals; Schadstoffbelastung und -belastbarkeit. Schwermetalle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kretschmer, H.; Neumann, A.; Surkus, A.E. [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Bodenkunde

    1997-12-31

    Urban soils often have high concentrations of heavy metals. This is particularly true of the technogenic substrates often found in cities and industrial and trading estates. The aim of the present project was therefore to mitigate the deficits of our present knowledge on problems relating to heavy metals in technogenic substrates. The studies presented in the following were carried out in pursuit of the following tasks: determination of the total concentration and mobility of the elements Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, and Ni in 11 lead soil profiles from technogenic substrates in Rostock, Kiel, Eckernfjoerde and Halle/Saale; study of the dependence of heavy metal mobility on different soil characteristics (e.g. pH, clay, organic carbon, and total heavy metal content); recording of adsorption isotherms characterising the sorption and desorption behaviour of heavy metals; estimation of the heavy metal binding capacity of technogenic substrates following the method quoted by DVWK (1988) for heavy metals; and performance of percolation experiments on soil columns for deriving material transport parameters and of model calculations on heavy metal migration. [Deutsch] Urbane Boeden, besonders die in Staedten, Industrie- und Gewerbegebieten verbreitet lagernden technogenen Substrate, weisen oft hohe Schwermetallgehalte auf. Ziel dieses Projektes ist daher, Erkenntnisdefizite zur Schwermetallproblematik technogener Substrate zu verringern. Den nachfolgend dargestellten Untersuchungen liegt folgende Aufgabenstellung zugrunde: - Bestimmung der Gesamtgehalte und Mobilitaeten der Elemente Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn und Ni an 11 Leitprofilen aus technogenen Substraten in Rostock, Kiel, Eckernfoerde und Halle/Saale, - Untersuchung der Abhaengigkeit der Schwermetallmobilitaet von verschiedenen Bodenkennwerten (pH-Wert, Ton-, Corg-, Kalkgehalt, KAK, Schwermetall-Gesamtgehalt), - Aufnahme von Adsorptionsisothermen zur Kennzeichnung des Sorptions- und Desorptionsverhaltens von Schwermetallen, - Schaetzung

  12. Factors Affecting the Binding of a Recombinant Heavy Metal-Binding Domain (CXXC motif Protein to Heavy Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamala Boonyodying

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A number of heavy metal-binding proteins have been used to study bioremediation. CXXC motif, a metal binding domain containing Cys-X-X-Cys motif, has been identified in various organisms. These proteins are capable of binding various types of heavy metals. In this study, heavy metal binding domain (CXXC motif recombinant protein encoded from mcsA gene of S. aureus were cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The factors involved in the metal-binding activity were determined in order to analyze the potential of recombinant protein for bioremediation. A recombinant protein can be bound to Cd2+, Co2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+. The thermal stability of a recombinant protein was tested, and the results showed that the metal binding activity to Cu2+ and Zn2+ still exist after treating the protein at 85ºC for 30 min. The temperature and pH that affected the metal binding activity was tested and the results showed that recombinant protein was still bound to Cu2+ at 65ºC, whereas a pH of 3-7 did not affect the metal binding E. coli harboring a pRset with a heavy metal-binding domain CXXC motif increased the resistance of heavy metals against CuCl2 and CdCl2. This study shows that metal binding domain (CXXC motif recombinant protein can be effectively bound to various types of heavy metals and may be used as a potential tool for studying bioremediation.

  13. Radionuclides and heavy metals in Borovac, Southern Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, Dragana; Todorovic, Dragana; Frontasyeva, Marina; Ajtic, Jelena; Tasic, Mirjana; Rajsic, Slavica

    2008-09-01

    The paper presents the complex approach to the assessment of the state of the environment in Southern Serbia, surroundings of Bujanovac, the region which is of great concern as being exposed to contamination by depleted uranium (DU) ammunition during the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) attacks in 1999. It includes studies on concentrations of radionuclides and heavy metals in different environmental samples 5 years after the military actions. In October 2004, samples of soil, grass, lichen, moss, honey, and water were collected at two sites, in the immediate vicinity of the targeted area and 5 km away from it. Radionuclide ((7)Be, (40)K, (137)Cs, (210)Pb, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (235)U, (238)U) activities in solid samples were determined by standard gamma spectrometry and total alpha and beta activity in water was determined by proportional alpha-beta counting. Concentrations of 35 elements were determined in the samples of soil, moss, grass, and lichen by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The results are discussed in the context of a possible contamination by DU that reached the environment during the attacks as well as in the context of an environmental pollution by radionuclides and heavy metals in Southern Serbia. The results are compared to the state of environment in the region and other parts of the country both prior to and following the attacks. This is the first comprehensive study of the contents of radionuclides and heavy metals in Southern Serbia and consequently highly important for the assessment of the state of environment in this part of the country concerning possible effects of DU ammunition on the environment, as well as anthropogenic source of pollution by radionuclides and heavy metals and other elements. Also, the highly sensitive method of INAA was used for the first time to analyze the environmental samples from this area. The results of the study of radionuclides in the samples of soils, leaves, grass, moss, lichen

  14. Determination of Heavy Metal Levels in Edible Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshmati

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Edible salt is the most commonly used food additive worldwide. Therefore, any contamination of table salt could be a health hazard. Objectives The present study aimed to determine the levels of heavy metals in table and bakery refined salts. Materials and Methods Eighty-one table refined salt samples and the same number of bakery refined salt samples were purchased from retail market in the province of Hamadan, Iran. The levels of lead (Pb, cadmium (Cd, mercury (Hg, copper (Cu, and iron (Fe were determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy method. Results The levels (mean ± SD, μg/g of Pb, Cd, Hg, Cu, Fe in table refined salt samples were 0.852 ± 0.277, 0.229 ± 0.012, 0.054 ± 0.040, 1.25 ± 0.245 and 0.689 ± 1.58, respectively. The results for the same metals in bakery refined salt samples were as follows (mean ± SD, μg/g: 22 ± 0.320 for Pb, 0.240 ± 0.018 for Cd, 0.058 ± 0.007 for Hg, 1.89 ± 0.218 for Cu, and 8.75 ± 2.10 for Fe. Heavy metal concentrations were generally higher in bakery refined salt. Conclusions The results obtained in the present study were compared with the literature and legal limits. All values for these metals in the table and bakery refined salts were lower than the permitted consumption level defined by Codex (2 µg/g of Pb, 0.5 µg/g of Cd, 0.1 µg/g of Hg, and 2 µg/g of Cu.

  15. Optimization and/or acclimatization of activated sludge process under heavy metals stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bestawy, Ebtesam; Helmy, Shacker; Hussein, Hany; Fahmy, Mohamed

    2013-04-01

    The present study aimed to overcome the toxicity of the heavy metals load, discharged with the industrial effluents into Alexandria sewerage network, on the activated sludge treatment system through effective acclimation for organic matter and heavy metals removal. Optimization and/or acclimatization of the activated sludge process in the presence of Cu, Cd, Co and Cr contaminating mixed domestic-industrial wastewater was investigated. Acclimatization process was performed through abrupt and stepwise addition of tested metals using sequencing batch reactors treatment approach and evaluated as microbial oxygen uptake rate (OUR), dehydrogenase activity (DHA), organic matter (COD) and heavy metals removal. Abrupt addition of metals adversely affected sludge bioactivity leading to decline in the removal efficiency of the targeted contaminants and loss of floc structure. Metals IC50 confirmed that copper possessed the highest toxicity towards the OUR, DHA activity and COD removal with orders Cu > Cd > Cr > Co; Cu > Cd > Co = Cr and Cu > Cd > Cr > Co, respectively. The highest metal removal was recorded for Cd followed by Co, Cu and finally Cr, most of which was retained in the dissolved influent. However, controlled stepwise application of the tested metals exhibited high sensitivity of DHA and OUR activities only at the highest metal concentrations although enhanced at the lowest concentrations while COD removal was not significantly affected. In conclusion, this approach resulted in adaptation of the system where sludge microbes acquired and developed natural resistance to such metals leading to remarkable enhancement of both organic matter and heavy metals removal.

  16. Soil reclamation by municipal sewage compost: Heavy metals migration study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalkowski, Tomasz; Buszewski, Bogusław

    2009-04-01

    This paper describes sorption and transport phenomena of selected heavy metals (e.g., Pb, Zn, Ni and Cu) in the superficial layer of soil and sewage sludge compost. The main aim of the study was the investigation of possibility of heavy metals contamination in soil profile reclaimed by sewage sludge compost. The column leaching test as well as the sequential Tessier extraction procedure were applied to investigate the mitigation of heavy metals. The results revealed that distribution of metals in specific Tessier fractions was the major factor influencing their transport in the investigated soils profiles. Moreover, sorption capacity of the soil sample studied was substantially greater to prevent transportation of metals into the lower horizons and groundwater.

  17. Assessment of toxicity of heavy metal contaminated soils for Collembola in the field and laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jie; Krogh, Paul Henning; Luo, Yongming

    2008-01-01

    of Zhejiang province, Fuyang county. We addressed the questions: 1) how do different collembolan life-forms respond to heavy metals in long-time pollution field site. 2) Are laboratory toxicity testing of field collected polluted soil predictable for the population effects observed in aged heavy metal......We present a field and laboratory investigation of effects of increasing levels of heavy metal contamination on the biodiversity and performance of collembolans. A 40 year old pollution with Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd pollution due to Cu smelting over 40 years was investigated in a paddy field area...... pollutions. Effects of the heavy metals in the soil from the paddy fields were assessed for growth, survival and reproduction under laboratory conditions. For the tests we used two soil arthropod species: the parthenogenetic, Folsomia candida Willem 1902, and the sexually reproducing, Sinella curviseta Brook...

  18. Contamination by urban superficial runoff: accumulated heavy metals on a road surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alfonso Zafra Mejía

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Studying the behaviour of accumulated contamination on urban surfaces is important in designing control methods minimising the impacts of surface runoff on the environment. This paper presents data regarding the sediment collected on the surface of an urban road in the city of Torrelavega in northern Spain during a period of 65 days during which 132 samples were collected. Two types of sediment collection samples were obtained: vacuumed dry samples (free load and those swept up following vacuuming (fixed load. The results showed that heavy metal concentration in the collected sediment (Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd was inversely proportional to particle diameter. High heavy metal concentrations were found in the smaller fraction (63 pm. Regression equations were calculated for heavy metal concentration regarding particle diameter. Large heavy metal loads were found in the larger fraction (125 pm. The results provide information for analysing runoff water quality in urban areas and designing treatment strategies.

  19. Analytical techniques for estimation of heavy metals in soil ecosystem: a tabulated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soodan, Rajneet Kour; Pakade, Yogesh B; Nagpal, Avinash; Katnoria, Jatinder Kaur

    2014-07-01

    Soil, an important environmental medium, is exposed to a number of pollutants including toxic heavy metals by various natural and anthropogenic activities. Consequently heavy metal contaminated soil has the potential to pose severe health risks and hazards to humans as well as other living creatures of the ecosystem through various routes of exposure such as direct ingestion, contaminated drinking ground water, food crops, contact with contaminated soil and through food chain. Therefore, it is mandatory to explore various techniques that could efficiently determine the occurrence of heavy metals in soil. A number of methods have been developed by several regulatory agencies and private laboratories and are applied routinely for the quantification and monitoring of soil matrices. The present review is an initiative to summarize the work on pollution levels of soil ecosystem and thus pertains to various extraction and quantification procedures used worldwide to analyze heavy metals in soil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Comparison of heavy metal elements between natural and plantation forests in a subtropical Montane forest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Ming; Wan, Jia-Rong; Chen, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Li; Li, Bo; Chen, Jia-Kuan

    2011-11-01

    Heavy metals as one of major pollutants is harmful to the health of forest ecosystems. In the present paper, the concentrations of thirteen heavy metals (Fe, Al, Ti, Cr, Cu, Mn, V, Zn, Ni, Co, Pb, Se and Cd) were compared between natural and plantation forests in the Mt. Lushan by ICP-AES and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results suggest that the soil of natural forest had higher concentrations of Fe, Al, Ti, Cu, Mn, V, Zn, Ni, Co, Pb, Se, and Cd than the plantation forest except for Cr. The soil of natural forest had a higher level of heavy metals than that of the plantation forest as a whole. This might be due to that the natural forest has longer age than the plantation forest, and fixed soil heavy metals take a longer period of time than the plantation forest.

  1. Assessment of heavy metal removal technologies for biowaste by physico-chemical fractionation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, A.H.M.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2003-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the heavy metal content of biowaste-compost frequently exceeds the legal standards for heavy metals. In order to assess heavy metal removal technologies, a physico-chemical fractionation scheme was developed to gain insight into the distribution of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn

  2. Assessment of heavy metal removal technologies for biowaste by physico-chemical fractionation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, A.H.M.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2003-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the heavy metal content of biowaste-compost frequently exceeds the legal standards for heavy metals. In order to assess heavy metal removal technologies, a physico-chemical fractionation scheme was developed to gain insight into the distribution of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn

  3. Assessment of heavy metal removal technologies for biowaste by physico-chemical fractionation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, A.H.M.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2003-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the heavy metal content of biowaste-compost frequently exceeds the legal standards for heavy metals. In order to assess heavy metal removal technologies, a physico-chemical fractionation scheme was developed to gain insight into the distribution of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and

  4. METALert - an emergency response system for China for heavy metals in the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joris, Ingeborg; Seuntjens, Piet; Dams, Jef; Desmet, Nele; Van Looy, Stijn; Raymaekers, Jens; Decorte, Lieve; Raben, Ingrid; Thijssen, Chris; Zhang, Hongzhen; Dong, Jingqi; Zhang, Qianwen

    2016-04-01

    The rapid industrialisation and economic growth of China has resulted in a mirrored increase of environmental issues and threats, which make the updating of the current environmental emergency response protocols very important. Heavy metal pollution accidents with high environmental risks are happening more frequently than ever in recent years. Despite efforts made by the authorites in respect to the formulation of sound policy, efficient technical methods and regulations for dealing with appropriate responses to emergency environmental incidents related to heavy metal pollution are still lacking. METALert is a generic Emergency Response System (ERS) for accidental pollution incidents caused by key heavy metal related industries in China and developed to support China in achieving its environmental targets. The METALert tool is based on environmental models for forecasting, simulation and visualisation of dispersion of heavy metal pollution in water, air and soil. The tool contains a generic database with scenarios for accidental release of metals in typical accidents related to the five key heavy metal industries in China. The tool can calculate the impact of an accident in water, air and soil and is evaluated and demonstrated for a river basin in the Chenzhou area, an important heavy metal mining area in China. The setup of the tool, the background models and the application in Chenzhou will be presented.

  5. Influence of mineralogical and heavy metal composition on natural radionuclide concentrations in the river sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, G; Ramasamy, V; Meenakshisundaram, V; Venkatachalapathy, R; Ponnusamy, V

    2011-10-01

    The natural radiation level has been determined for the sediment samples of the Ponnaiyar River with an aim of evaluating the radiation hazard. The mineralogical characterizations of the sediments have been carried out using the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic technique. The relative distribution of major minerals is determined by calculating extinction coefficient. The concentration and spatial distribution of heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn and Ni) have been studied to understand the heavy metal contamination and its level of toxicity. To evaluate the potential toxicity, heavy metal concentrations are compared with different toxicological and geological reference values. The comparison results suggest that the present metals create an adverse effect on the aquatic ecosystems associated with this river. To assess the sediment contamination due to the studied heavy metals, the Pollution Load Index (PLI) is calculated. Multivariate Statistical analyses (Pearson Correlation, Cluster and Factor analysis) were carried out between the parameters obtained from radioactivity, mineralogical and geochemical analysis to know the existing relations. Obtained results showed that the effect of mineralogy on level of radioactivity should be significant. However, mineralogy effect on heavy metal composition in the sediments should be limited, indicating that other factors such as vicinity of the pollution sources are more important. Also, the influence of mineralogical characterization on level of radioactivity is significant, whereas the influence of the heavy metal composition on level of radioactivity should be limited.

  6. Thermal behaviors and heavy metal vaporization of phosphatized tannery sludge in incineration process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Ping; ZHAO Youcai; XIA Fengyi

    2008-01-01

    The high concentration of heavy metal (Cu, Cr, Zn, Pb) in tannery sludge causes severe heavy metal emissions in the process of incineration. In the present investigation, the tannery sludge was treated with 85% phosphoric acid before the incineration process in the tube furnace to control the heavy metal emissions. The thermal behavior and heavy metal vaporization of pre-treated tannery sludge were investigated, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis were also implemented to elucidate the chemical mechanisms responsible for the thermal behavior and weakening of heavy metal vaporization of pre-treated tannery sludge. The results obtained show that the differences in thermal behaviors between untreated and pre-treated tannery sludge are caused by the reaction of phosphoric acid and calcium carbonate. The vaporization percentage of heavy metal decreased efficiently with the increasing volumes of H3PO4, which indicated the important thermal stability of the water-insoluble metallic phosphates (Ca18Cu3(PO4)14 Ca9Cr(PO4)7 Ca19Zn2(PO4)14, PbMgP2O7) formed during tannery sludge phosphatation.

  7. Short-term uptake of heavy metals by periphyton algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vymazal, J.

    1984-12-31

    The utilization of periphyton for the removal of heavy metals from enriched small streams has been examined. By means of short-term batch laboratory experiments the courses of metal uptake have been studied. For uptake study naturally growing periphyton community and periphytic filamentous algae Cladophora glomerata and Oedogonium rivulare have been used. Uptakes of nine heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Co, Cr, Ni, Zn, Fe and Mn) have been determined during four hours exposure. In addition the influence of humic substances on heavy metals uptake has been determined. Uptake of all metals increased during four hours exposure but not in the same way. Some metals were removed continuously (Ni, Cr, Fe and Mn), other metals were removed more rapidly during the first hour or first two hours of exposure and then only slight removal continued (Cu, Pb, Cd, Co). Uptake of Zn was rather unambiguous. Results of these experiments suggest that the course of uptake for individual metals could be similar for most periphyton algae. It was established that humic substances significantly reduce heavy metals uptake. The highest decrease of uptake was observed in Cu, Cr, Co and Cd. The results of model experiments are being tested in a pilot scale with respect to the demands of engineering practice. (J.R.)

  8. Immunotoxicology in wood mice along a heavy metal pollution gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tersago, Katrien [Department of Biology, Evolutionary Biology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)]. E-mail: katrien.tersago@ua.ac.be; De Coen, Wim [Department of Biology, Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Scheirs, Jan [Department of Biology, Evolutionary Biology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Vermeulen, Katrien [Department of Medicine, Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, University of Antwerp, Antwerp University Hospital, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Blust, Ronny [Department of Biology, Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Bockstaele, Dirk van[Department of Medicine, Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, University of Antwerp, Antwerp University Hospital, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Verhagen, Ron [Department of Biology, Evolutionary Biology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2004-12-01

    We carried out an immunotoxicological field study of wood mice in three populations along a heavy metal pollution gradient. Heavy metal concentrations in liver tissue indicated that exposure to silver, arsenic, cadmium, cobalt and lead decreased with increasing distance from a non-ferrous smelter. Host resistance to the endoparasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus decreased with increasing exposure, while the abundance of tick larvae and the nematode Syphacia stroma was unrelated to heavy metal exposure. Spleen mass was increased at the intermediate and the most polluted sites and was positively correlated with the number of H. polygyrus and tick larvae. Proportion of early apoptotic leukocytes increased towards the smelter and was positively related to cadmium exposure. Red and white blood cell counts and lysozyme activity showed no relationship with metal exposure. All together, our observations suggest negative effects of heavy metal exposure on the immune function of wood mice under field conditions. - Capsule: Complex interactions among metal burden, immune response and parasite burden suggest negative effects of heavy metal exposure on the immune system of wood0011 mi.

  9. Heavy metal music meets complexity and sustainability science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeler, David G

    2016-01-01

    This paper builds a bridge between heavy metal music, complexity theory and sustainability science to show the potential of the (auditory) arts to inform different aspects of complex systems of people and nature. The links are described along different dimensions. This first dimension focuses on the scientific aspect of heavy metal. It uses complex adaptive systems theory to show that the rapid diversification and evolution of heavy metal into multiple subgenres leads to a self-organizing and resilient socio-musicological system. The second dimension builds on the recent use of heavy metal as a critical thinking model and educational tool, emphasizing the artistic component of heavy metal and its potential to increase people's awareness of environmental sustainability challenges. The relationships between metal, complexity theory and sustainability are first discussed independently to specifically show mechanistic links and the reciprocal potential to inform one domain (science) by the other (metal) within these dimensions. The paper concludes by highlighting that these dimensions entrain each other within a broader social-cultural-environmental system that cannot be explained simply by the sum of independent, individual dimensions. Such a unified view embraces the inherent complexity with which systems of people and nature interact. These lines of exploration suggest that the arts and the sciences form a logical partnership. Such a partnership might help in endeavors to envision, understand and cope with the broad ramifications of sustainability challenges in times of rapid social, cultural, and environmental change.

  10. Electrokinetic treatment of an agricultural soil contaminated with heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Arylein; Cameselle, Claudio; Gouveia, Susana; Hansen, Henrik K

    2016-07-28

    The high organic matter content in agricultural soils tends to complex and retain contaminants such as heavy metals. Electrokinetic remediation was tested in an agricultural soil contaminated with Co(+2), Zn(+2), Cd(+2), Cu(+2), Cr(VI), Pb(+2) and Hg(+2). The unenhanced electrokinetic treatment was not able to remove heavy metals from the soil due to the formation of precipitates in the alkaline environment in the soil section close to the cathode. Moreover, the interaction between metals and organic matter probably limited metal transportation under the effect of the electric field. Citric acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were used in the catholyte as complexing agents in order to enhance the extractability and removal of heavy metals from soil. These complexing agents formed negatively charged complexes that migrated towards the anode. The acid front electrogenerated at the anode favored the dissolution of heavy metals that were transported towards the cathode. The combined effect of the soil pH and the complexing agents resulted in the accumulation of heavy metals in the center of the soil specimen.

  11. Phytoremediation of heavy metals--concepts and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hazrat; Khan, Ezzat; Sajad, Muhammad Anwar

    2013-05-01

    The mobilization of heavy metals by man through extraction from ores and processing for different applications has led to the release of these elements into the environment. Since heavy metals are nonbiodegradable, they accumulate in the environment and subsequently contaminate the food chain. This contamination poses a risk to environmental and human health. Some heavy metals are carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic and endocrine disruptors while others cause neurological and behavioral changes especially in children. Thus remediation of heavy metal pollution deserves due attention. Different physical and chemical methods used for this purpose suffer from serious limitations like high cost, intensive labor, alteration of soil properties and disturbance of soil native microflora. In contrast, phytoremediation is a better solution to the problem. Phytoremediation is the use of plants and associated soil microbes to reduce the concentrations or toxic effects of contaminants in the environments. It is a relatively recent technology and is perceived as cost-effective, efficient, novel, eco-friendly, and solar-driven technology with good public acceptance. Phytoremediation is an area of active current research. New efficient metal hyperaccumulators are being explored for applications in phytoremediation and phytomining. Molecular tools are being used to better understand the mechanisms of metal uptake, translocation, sequestration and tolerance in plants. This review article comprehensively discusses the background, concepts and future trends in phytoremediation of heavy metals.

  12. Evaluation of Heavy Metals in Two Major Ingredients of Ampucare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naithani V.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO estimates that 4 billion people or 80 percent of the world population, presently use herbal medicine for some aspect of primary health care and 25% of modern medicines are made from plants first used traditionally. There are several reports of adverse effects of these herbal preparations due to the presence of high level of heavy metals such as Lead, cadmium, chromium, nickel, arsenic and mercury and this problem has become a matter of concern. The present study was done to check the presence of lead, cadmium, chromium, nickel, arsenic and mercury in two major ingredients (Azadirachta indica and Curcuma longa of a polyherbal product- Ampucare. These ingredients were procured from different cities of India and subjected to analysis by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS. Results were compared with the permissible limits (PL, acceptable daily intake (ADI and provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI as set by World Health Organization (WHO, Food and Drug Administration (FDA and Joint FAO/WHO expert committee on food additives (JECFA. All the metals were within these limits. Mean levels were evaluated with respect to their place of procurement. Delhi samples had highest mean metal contamination followed by Lucknow, Chandigarh and Chennai samples. Lowest metal contamination was found in Srinagar samples. These results were also in correlation with the safe limits as well as pollution prevailing in these cities. Overall study confirmed the safety of Ampucare.

  13. Heavy metal adsorption of Streptomyces chromofuscus K101

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Mohamed Daboor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To find the best actinomycete that has potential application value in the heavy metal remediation due to its special morphological and physiological metabolism. Methods: In some areas of River Nile, Egypt, a total of 67 actinomycete isolates (17 isolates from surface water and 50 from sediment were identified. In addition, the studied area was characterized by a large amount of submerged macrophyte species Ceratophyllum demersum, one free floating species Eichhornia crassipes and two emergent species Polygonum tomentosum and Saccharum spontaneum with the highest biomass production values. Many methods are used in this research like qualitative evaluation of heavy metals, minimum inhibitory concentration of heavy metal determination, metal binding assay, heavy metal assessment, etc. Results: Many actinomycetes isolates were isolated from River Nile, Egypt, the absorbent efficiency of one isolate Streptomyces chromofuscusK101 showed the most efficient metal binding activity. The adsorption process of Zn2+ , Pb2+ and Fe 2+ single or mixture metal ions was investigated, where the order of adsorption potential ( Zn2+ >Pb2+ >Fe 2+ was observed in single metal reaction. The adsorption in mixed metal reactions was the same order as in single-metal ion with a significant decrease in Fe 2+ and Pb2+ adsorption. Conclusions: In conclusion the metal adsorption reactions were very fast, pH dependent and culture age-independent, suggestive of a physicochemical reaction between cell wall components and heavy metal ions. The absorbent removal efficiency was determined as a function of ion concentration, pH and temperature.

  14. A Study of Heavy Metal Pollution in China: Current Status, Pollution-Control Policies and Countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Hu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the past 30 years, China’s economy has experienced rapid development, which led to a vast increase in energy consumption and serious environmental pollution. Among the different types of pollution, heavy metal pollution has become one of the major environmental issues in China. A number of studies show that high level of heavy metal exposure is a frequent cause of permanent intellectual and developmental disabilities. In recent years, some traditional pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide, have been put under control in China. However, heavy metal pollution, which poses even greater risks to public health and sustainable development, has yet to gain policymakers’ attention. The purpose of this paper is to explore effective countermeasures for heavy metal pollution in China. The present study reviews the current status of China’s heavy metal pollution and analyzes related public policies and countermeasures against that pollution. It also presents a few recommendations and measures for prevention of heavy metal pollution.

  15. Mechanisms of Selenium Mitigating Stress and Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YUAN Si-li

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se plays an important role in improving plant stress resistance, mitigating heavy metal stress and reducing heavy metal uptake. This paper reviewed mechanisms involved with Se for mitigation of heavy metal stress and accumulation. Se could alleviate heavy metals stress because of the combined physiological and biochemical effects of the relevant products, including GSH-Px which could change toxic peroxides to non-toxic substances and remove free radicals induced by heavy metals. Se could activate phytochelatins synthase and increase the amount of precursors to phytochelatin (PC, and make plant produce more PC, and form more heavy metal-PC complexes. The formation of Se-heavy metal complexes reduced the biotoxicity of heavy metals. Se could produce antagonistic effect with a variety of heavy metals, and reduce the uptake of heavy metals.

  16. The accumulation of heavy metals in agricultural land and the associated potential ecological risks in Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiansheng; Song, Jing; Li, Weifeng; Zheng, Maokun

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of heavy metals in agricultural land and their ecological risks are key issues in soil security studies. This study investigated the concentrations of six heavy metals--copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and chromium (Cr) in Shenzhen's agricultural lands and examined the potential hazards and possible sources of these metals. Eighty-two samples from agricultural topsoil were collected. Potential ecological risk index was used to calculate the potential risk of heavy metals. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to explore pollution sources of the metals. Finally, Kriging was used to predict the spatial distribution of the metals' potential ecological risks. The concentrations of the heavy metals were higher than their background values. Most of them presented little potential ecological risk, except for the heavy metal cadmium (Cd). Four districts (Longgang, Longhua, Pingshan, and Dapeng) exhibited some degree of potential risk, which tended to have more industries and road networks. Three major sources of heavy metals included geochemical processes, industrial pollutants, and traffic pollution. The heavy metal Cd was the main contributor to the pollution in agricultural land during the study period. It also poses the potential hazard for the future. High potential risk is closely related to industrial pollution and transportation. Since the 1980s, the sources of heavy metals have evolved from parent rock weathering, erosion, degradation of organics, and mineralization to human disturbances resulting in chemical changes in the soil.

  17. Heavy metal availability and impact on activity of soil microorganisms along a Cu/Zn contamination gradient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yuan-peng; SHI Ji-yan; LIN Qi; CHEN Xin-cai; CHEN Ying-xu

    2007-01-01

    All the regulations that define a maximum concentration of metals in the receiving soil are based on total soil metal concentration. However, the potential toxicity of a heavy metal in the soil depends on its speciation and availability. We studied the effects of heavy metal speciation and availability on soil microorganism activities along a Cu/Zn contamination gradient. Microbial biomass and enzyme activity of soil contaminated with both Cu and Zn were investigated. The results showed that microbial biomass was negatively affected by the elevated metal levels. The microbial biomass-C (Cmic)/organic C (Corg) ratio was closely correlated to heavy metal stress. There were negative correlations between soil microbial biomass, phosphatase activity and NH4NO3 extractable heavy metals. The soil microorganism activity could be predicted using empirical models with the availability of Cu and Zn. We observed that 72% of the variation in phosphatase activity could be explained by the NH4NO3-extractable and total heavy metal concentration. By considering different monitoring approaches and different viewpoints, this set of methods applied in this study seemed sensitive to site differences and contributed to a better understanding of the effects of heavy metals on the size and activity of microorganisms in soils. The data presented demonstrate the relationship between heavy metals availability and heavy metal toxicity to soil microorganism along a contamination gradient.

  18. Spatio-temporal variation of heavy metals in Cauvery River basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Venkatesha Raju

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study water, sediment and soil samples of Cauvery basin was undertaken to evaluate the spatio-temporal variations in heavy metal concentrations between 2007 and 2009. The Line diagrams for individual heavy metals of the seasonal samples with standard deviation at p=0.05 were plotted to comprehend the seasonal and spatial fluxes and variations. The seasonal heavy metal concentration in river water was maximum for Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Co and Cd during pre-monsoon and Pb, Ni and Cr during post-monsoon season whereas, in the sediment samples higher concentration of Ni, Cr, Mn, Cu, Co and Cd was found during pre-monsoon and Fe Pb and Zn in post-monsoon. In the case of soil samples maximum concentrations of Fe, Pb, Zn, Cr and Co noticed during pre-monsoon, while Ni, Mn, Cu and Cd during post-monsoon. An exponential increasing trend from water to soil and to sediment was evident throughout the river stretch. The mean concentration for all the heavy metals in water was within the limits of BIS and WHO standards. In sediment samples heavy metal concentrations were below the limit of sediment quality guidelines except Ni and Cd. Correlation analysis revealed higher degree of inter-metallic and intra-metallic association among water, sediment and soil samples indicating identical behavior of metals during its transport into the river environment. The spatial trends of heavy metal enrichment in river sediments reflected the sources/activities of the corresponding catchments in the study area. As such the downstream stations of Cauvery are enriched with heavy metals due to the influx of pollutants.

  19. Nutrients and heavy metal distribution in thermally treated pig manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuligowski, Ksawery; Poulsen, Tjalfe G.; Stoholm, Peder

    2008-01-01

    Ash from pig manure treated by combustion and thermal gasification was characterized and compared in terms of nutrient, i.e., potassium (K), phosphorus (P) and heavy metal, i.e., cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) contents. Total nutrient and metal concentrations...

  20. Tolerance and Accumulation of Heavy Metals by Descurainia sophia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Karamooz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, biosphere pollution has accelerated strongly with start of industrial revolution by toxicity of heavy metals. One of existing pollution is soil pollution. Unfortunately, soil pollution by metals is as intensive environmental stress for plant hence for human. Plants, which are able to store heavy metals in their organs, can be used for phytoremediation of polluted soils and utilization of these plants is effective for phytoremediation as a cheap and economic method. In this research, the absorption rate of Cd (II, Ni (II by Descurainia sophia was considered in hydroponic conditions. Plants were grown in Hoagland media containing different concentrations of Cd (II, Ni (II. An experiment in a completely randomized design with three replications was conducted. Two weeks after treatment of plants the sample were gathered and metal concentration was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Besides, the content of chlorophyll and proline was measured. The results showed the chlorophyll content in high concentrations of the metals (Cd (II, Ni (II was decreased in plants that were sign of pigment degradation in presence of heavy metals. Similarly, the proline content in plants was increased under stress which was sign of damage of heavy metal stress on plant and activation of defensive mechanisms in this condition. The effects of toxic concentration of nickel and cadmium on metal accumulation in these plants showed that roots were able to absorb more than shoots, which is sign of elements connection to root cell wall.

  1. Sorption of Heavy Metal Ions from Mine Wastewater by Activated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2016-12-02

    Dec 2, 2016 ... tailings disposal, illegal mining, domestic waste disposal and many .... Waste water sample for the test work was collected ..... “Heavy Metal Contamination of Ground. Water”. ... metallurgy, waste management, pyrolysis-gasification of wastes ... of waste polymers in metal extraction processes and recycling.

  2. Biosorption of heavy metals by free and immobilised biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beolchini, F. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Ingegneria Chimica e Materiali, Universita degli studi de L' Aquila (Italy); Pagnanelli, F.; Toro, L. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Facolta di S.M.F.N., Universita degli Studi ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Roma (Italy); Esposito, A.; Veglio, F. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica e di Processo ' ' G.B. Bonino' ' , Universita degli Studi di Genova, Genova (Albaro) (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    A review of the research activities carried out by the authors on biosorption of heavy metals is reported in this work. In particular, biomass characterisation, biosorption equilibrium with single metal system, biomass immobilisation in polymeric matrix and related kinetics, biosorption in membrane reactor systems are the main aspects reported in the paper. (orig.)

  3. Bioaccumulation of eight heavy metals in cave animals from Dashui ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl2

    Eight heavy metals content in the dominant animal groups, soil and water in Malang and Dashui caves ... Dashui cave is situated in the urban zone of Guiyang City, Guizhou, and Guizhou Aluminum ... cient of a metal in animal suggests higher absorption capacity of ... Pb, As, Cd and Hg, respectively, while the ranking of.

  4. Modelling heavy metal and phosphorus balances for farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, A.N.; Schulin, R.

    2003-01-01

    Accounting for agricultural activities such as P fertilization in regional models of heavy metal accumulation provides suitable sustainable management strategies to reduce nutrient surpluses and metal inputs in agricultural soils. Using the balance model PROTERRA-S, we assessed the phosphorus ( P),

  5. Extractive decontamination of heavy metals from CCA contaminated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    contaminated soil obtained from a wood treatment factory site by four organic acids are ... that 59% As, 19% Cr and 5% Cu were potentially bio-available and mobile. ... potential industrial source of heavy metals is the wood ... by the European Union, it remains the main chemical ..... metals in soils irrigated with wastewater.

  6. Impact of heavy metals on the female reproductive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Rzymski

    2015-05-01

    Environmental deterioration can lead to the elevated risk of human exposure to heavy metals, and consequently, health implications including disturbances in reproduction. It is therefore important to continue the investigations on metal-induced mechanisms of fertility impairment on the genetic, epigenetic and biochemical level.

  7. Concurrent removal and accumulation of heavy metals by the three aquatic macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Virendra Kumar; Tripathi, B D

    2008-10-01

    Under the present investigation effectiveness of three aquatic macrophytes Pistia stratiotes L. (water lettuce), Spirodela polyrrhiza W. Koch (duckweed) and Eichhornia crassipes were tested for the removal of five heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Cr and Cd). These plants were grown at three different concentrations (1.0, 2.0 and 5.0mgl(-1)) of metals in laboratory experiment. Result revealed high removal (>90%) of different metals during 15 days experiment. Highest removal was observed on 12th day of experiment, thereafter it decreased. Results revealed E. crassipes as the most efficient for the removal of selected heavy metals followed by P. stratiotes and S. polyrrhiza. Results from analysis confirmed the accumulation of different metals within the plant and a corresponding decrease of metals in the water. Significant correlations between metal concentration in final water and macrophytes were obtained. Plants have accumulated heavy metals in its body without the production of any toxicity or reduction in growth. Selected plants shown a wide range of tolerance to all of the selected metals and therefore can be used for large scale removal of heavy metals from waste water.

  8. Physiochemicals and Heavy Metal Removal from Domestic Wastewater via Phycoremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ab Razak Abdul Rafiq

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The common sources of water pollution in Malaysia are domestic sewage and industrial waste. Therefore, domestic wastewater quality effluent should be improved before discharged through the outlets. The alternative method of treatment uses microalgae for water remediation which is known as phycoremediation was applied. This technique is to remove or reduce nutrients and harmful pollutants in domestic wastewater. Thus, objective of the present study is to bioremediate the physiochemical and heavy metal from domestic wastewater using freshwater green microalgae Botryococcus sp. A photobioreactor is used to treat the wastewater by employing the microalgae Botryococcus sp. as a vital part of the treatment system. The results show that several nutrients have been reduced successfully such as phosphate and total phosphorus of 100% removal, inorganic carbon of 99% removal, total carbon of 42% removal, and nitrate of 10%. The most prominent heavy metal content that has been removed is Aluminium of 41%. At the same time, the growth of microalgae Botryococcus sp. in this wastewater has achieved the maximum value at Day 4 with 2.58 × 105 cell/ml only. These results show the potential of Botryococcus sp. cultivation as an alternative method to treat domestic wastewater and any other biotechnology works in the future.

  9. Assessing fly ash treatment: Remediation and stabilization of heavy metals

    KAUST Repository

    Lima, A.T.

    2010-12-17

    Fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), straw (ST) and co-combustion of wood (CW) are here analyzed with the intent of reusing them. Two techniques are assessed, a remediation technique and a solidification/stabilization one. The removal of heavy metals from fly ashes through the electrodialytic process (EDR) has been tried out before. The goal of removing heavy metals has always been the reuse of fly ash, for instance in agricultural fields (BEK). The best removal rates are here summarized and some new results have been added. MSW fly ashes are still too hazardous after treatment to even consider application to the soil. ST ash is the only residue that gets concentrations low enough to be reused, but its fertilizing value might be questioned. An alternative reuse for the three ashes is here preliminary tested, the combination of fly ash with mortar. Fly ashes have been substituted by cement fraction or aggregate fraction. Surprisingly, better compressive strengths were obtained by replacing the aggregate fraction. CW ashes presented promising results for the substitution of aggregate in mortar and possibly in concrete. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Influence of Agriculture on Water Quality: Significance of Heavy Metals Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Nusreta Đonlagić; Amra Odobašić; Amra Bratovčić

    2007-01-01

    Agricultural activities directly influence the quality of water systems. Investigations showed that application of various agro-technical measures results with the pollution of water streams with heavy metals and other polluters. Increased concentrations of heavy metals result with intake of heavy metals and their transfer to food chains, and for that reason it is necessary to monitor the content of heavy metals regularly. Broad investigations of bio-geochemical cycling of heavy metals in the...

  11. Disposable cuvette test for enzymatic determination of heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfbeis, O.S.; Preininger, C. [Karl-Franzens Univ., Graz (Austria). Institute of Organic Chemistry

    1995-12-31

    The authors report on an optical cuvette test for total heavy metals based on the inhibition of the enzyme urease by metals ions including silver(I), mercury(II), copper(II), nickel(II), cobalt(II), and cadmium(II). The enzymatic action is monitored using an optical ammonia transducer deposited on the wall of a disposable cuvette. This results in a rapid and inexpensive single-shot device for heavy metal sensing. A solution of urease and buffer is placed in the cuvette with the ammonium sensor membrane fixed on one of its walls. Enzymatic action starts after addition of a defined quantity of urea. This is indicated by the increase in the absorption of the ammonia sensor membrane whose color changes from yellow to blue. The slope of the increase in signal is the information for the un-inhibited reaction. After several minutes, the sample (containing the heavy metal) is added to the cuvette. Heavy metal ions inhibit the enzyme (by binding to the sulfhydryl groups) and cause a decrease in the slope. The ratio of slopes of un-inhibited and inhibited reactions is a direct parameter for detection and calculation total heavy metals.

  12. Heavy Metals in a Sulfidic Minespoil: Fractions and Column Leaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Fractions of various heavy metals in a sulfidic minespoil were investigated. Column leaching experimentwas also conducted to simulate "acid mine drainage" (AMD) from the minespoil. The results show thatleaching of heavy metals from the minespoil was extremely significant during the initial water flushing.The amounts of heavy metals leached out dramatically reduced after leaching twice. It is worthwhile tonote that in this study, Zn, Mn, Fe, As and Ni in the first leachate exceeded the total amount of eachcorresponding water-extractable (1:5, soil:water) metal contained in the minespoil sample. This appears tosuggest that 1:5 water extraction did not allow accurate estimation of water-leachable concentrations of theabove heavy metals. This work has implications for the management of sulfidic minespoils. Acid drainageof great environmental concerns is likely to occur only during heavy rainfall events after substantial solubleand readily exchangeable acid and metals are accumulated in the minespoils. The slow-reacting fractionsother than water-soluble and readily exchangeable fractions may pose little environmental hazards. This isparticularly true for Pb, As and Ni.

  13. Biosorption of heavy metals from wastewater by biosolids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orhan, Y.; Bueyuekguengoer, H. [Ondokuz Mayis University, Engineering Faculty, Environmental Engineering Department, 55139 Samsun (Turkey); Hrenovic, J. [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, Rooseveltov trg 6, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2006-08-15

    In a study where the removal of heavy metals from wastewater is the primary aim, the biosorption of heavy metals onto biosolids prepared as Pseudomonas aeruginosa immobilized onto granular activated carbon was investigated in batch and column systems. In the batch system, adsorption equilibriums of heavy metals were reached between 20 and 50 min, and the optimal dosage of biosolids was 0.3 g/L. The biosorption efficiencies were 84, 80, 79, 59 and 42 % for Cr(VI), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) ions, respectively. The rate constants of biosorption and pore diffusion of heavy metals were 0.013-0.089 min{sup -1} and 0.026-0.690 min{sup -0.5}. In the column systems, the biosorption efficiencies for all heavy metals increased up to 81-100 %. The affinity of biosorption for various metal ions towards biosolids was decreased in the order: Cr = Ni > Cu > Zn > Cd. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  14. Riesgo por metales pesados en horticultura urbana Heavy metals risk in urban agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Giuffré

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available La agricultura urbana y periurbana puede implicar riesgos para la salud humana si no es adecuadamente manejada. El objetivo de esta contribución fue presentar un relevamiento de metales pesados en suelos hortícolas de Buenos Aires. La información se comparó con estandares de calidad nacionales e internacionales, y se calcularon factores de enriquecimiento con referencia a estandares holandeses. Con respecto a la corteza terrestre, el Cd. Pb, Cu y Zn se incrementaron. Los factores medios y máximos de enriquecimiento fueron mayores para Cu, Pb, Cd y Zn. Los suelos hortícolas urbanos y periurbanos deben ser cuidadosamente monitoreados considerando el riesgo de entrada de metales en al cadena alimenticia.Urban and periurban agriculture may imply risks for human health if it is not appropriately conducted. The objective of this contribution was to present a survey of heavy metal content in horticultural soils of Buenos Aires. The information is compared to national and international quality standards, and enrichment factors for heavy metals were calculated with reference to Dutch values. With reference to earth crust, Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn were increased. Mean and maximum enrichment factors were higher for Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn. Horticultural urban and periurban soils must be carefully monitored considering risk of metal input in food chain.

  15. Ecotoxicology of heavy metals: Liquid-phase extraction by nanosorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burakov, A.; Romantsova, I.; Babkin, A.; Neskoromnaya, E.; Kucherova, A.; Kashevich, Z.

    2015-11-01

    The paper considers the problem of extreme toxicity heavy metal compounds dissolved in wastewater and liquid emissions of industrial enterprises to living organisms and environment as a whole. The possibility of increasing extraction efficiency of heavy metal ions by sorption materials was demonstrated. The porous space of the latter was modified by carbon nanotubes (CNTs) during process of the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of carbon on metal oxide catalysts. The increasing of the sorption capacity (10-30%) and the sorption rate of nanomodified activated carbons in comparison with standard materials in the example of absorption of Co2+ and Ni2+ ions from aqueous solutions was proven.

  16. Mosses accumulate heavy metals from the substrata of coal ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukojević Vanja

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants that are able to accumulate and tolerate extraordinarily high concentrations of heavy metals (hyperaccumulators can be used for phytoremediation (removal of contaminants from soils or phytomining (growing a crop of plants to harvest the metals. Two moss species, Bryum capillare Hedw. and Ceratodon purpureus Hedw., were tested as potential phytoremedies under in vivo conditions on a coal ash disposal site in the surroundings of Obrenovac (NW Serbia. The content of various heavy metals (iron, manganese zinc, lead, nickel, cadmium, and copper in the mosses and substrata were investigated over a period of three years. Iron and zinc were found to have the highest concentration in the mosses.

  17. Nonisothermal particle modeling of municipal solid waste combustion with heavy metal vaporization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazza, G. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Comahue, IDEPA (CONICET - UNCo), Buenos Aires 1400, 8300 Neuquen (Argentina); Falcoz, Q.; Gauthier, D.; Flamant, G. [Laboratoire Procedes et Materiaux et Energie Solaire (CNRS-PROMES), 7 Rue du Four Solaire, Odeillo, 66120 Font-Romeu Cedex (France); Soria, J. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Comahue, IDEPA (CONICET - UNCo), Buenos Aires 1400, 8300 Neuquen (Argentina); Laboratoire Procedes et Materiaux et Energie Solaire (CNRS-PROMES), 7 Rue du Four Solaire, Odeillo, 66120 Font-Romeu Cedex (France)

    2010-12-15

    A particulate model was developed for municipal solid-waste incineration in a fluidized bed combining solid-waste-particle combustion and heavy metal vaporization from the burning particles. Based on a simpler, isothermal version presented previously, this model combines an asymptotic-combustion model for carbonaceous-solid combustion and a shrinking-core model to describe the heavy metal vaporization phenomenon, in which the particle is now considered nonisothermal. A parametric study is presented that shows the influence of temperature on the global metal-vaporization process. The simulation results are compared to experimental data obtained with a lab-scale fluid bed incinerator and to the results of the simpler isothermal model. It is shown that conduction in the particle strongly affects the variation of the vaporization rate with time and that the present version of the model well fits both the shape of the plots and the maximum heavy metal vaporization rates for all bed temperatures. (author)

  18. [Heavy Metals Accmultio in the Caofeidian Reclamation Soils: Indicated by Soil Magnetic Susceptibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yong; Zhou, Qian; Li, Yuan; Zhang, Hai-bo; Hu, Xue-feng; Luo, Yong-ming

    2016-04-15

    The environmental magnetism method has been widely applied to identify soil heavy metal pollution, which is characterized by simplicity, efficiency, non-destructivity and sensitivity. The present study used magnetic susceptibility to assess the accumulation of heavy metals in soils of the Caofeidian industrial zone which is a typical reclamation area in northern China. The study area was divided into three sub-zones based on the function, including industrial zone, living zone, natural tidal flat and wetland. A total of 35 topsoil samples (0-10 cm) and 3 soil profiles were collected from the three sub-zones. Magnetic susceptibility (X(lf)), iron oxide (Fe2O3) contents and heavy metals contents (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Pb, Mn and V) of the samples were analyzed. The results showed that X(lf) values and heavy metals contents exhibited higher spatial variability in the top soil of the industrial zone, indicating the severe impacts of industrial activities. In the soil profiles of the industrial and living zones, all heavy metals were enriched to different degrees in the upper layer (0-20 cm). However, there was no significant change of heavy metal contents in the soil profiles of tidal flat which was far from the industrial area. The X(lf) value was significantly (P soil. This indicated that X(lf) could be used as an indicator for heavy metal accumulation in the industrial zone. However, the X(lf) value was not suitable to be an indicator to show the heavy metal accumulation in the soils of living zone and natural tidal flat. This might be associated with the different sources of magnetic materials among the different sub-zones and the special characteristics of the soils in the tidal flat and wetland.

  19. Synthesis and Characteristics of A Novel Heavy Metal Ions Chelator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhuannian; SONG Yejing; HAN Xiaogang

    2012-01-01

    Polyacrylamide-urea-sulfanilamide(PUS) was prepared as a novel heavy metal ions chelator and successfully used to simultaneously remove heavy metals from wastewater effluents.The effects of reaction parameters (sodium hydroxide,material ratio,temprature and contact time) were monitored to specify the best synthesis conditions.PUS was chemically characterized by means of infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis).The simultaneous chelation performance of PUS towards selected heavy metals ions,Ni2+,Cu2+,Pb2+,Zn2+,Cd2+ was discussed,showing that Ni2+,Cu2+,Pb2+,Zn2+ could be better chelated.It is indicated that the synthesized PUS is a potential remediation material when used for the treatment of wastewater containing metal ions.

  20. Predatory insects as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nummelin, Matti [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 65, University of Helsinki, FIN-00014 (Finland)]. E-mail: matti.nummelin@helsinki.fi; Lodenius, Martin [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 65, University of Helsinki, FIN-00014 (Finland); Tulisalo, Esa [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 65, University of Helsinki, FIN-00014 (Finland); Hirvonen, Heikki [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 65, University of Helsinki, FIN-00014 (Finland); Alanko, Timo [Statistics Finland, FIN-00022 (Finland)

    2007-01-15

    Heavy metal concentrations of different predatory insects were studied near by a steel factory and from control sites. Waterstriders (Gerridae), dragon fly larvae (Odonata), antlion larvae (Myrmeleontidae) and ants (Formicidae) were analyzed by AAS. In most cases the metal concentrations were higher near the factory, but e.g. waterstriders had higher cadmium concentrations in control area. Discriminant analysis clearly reveals that all these insect groups can be used as heavy metal indicators. However, the commonly used ants were the least effective in indicating the differences between the factory and control sites. Waterstriders are good in detecting differences in iron and manganese, but seem to be poor in accumulating nickel and lead. Antlions are efficient in detecting differences in iron. Antlions and ants are effective in accumulating manganese; as well antlions are efficient in accumulating cadmium. Waterstriders are poor in accumulating lead, but antlions and ants are effective. - Waterstriders, dragon fly larvae, antlion larvae, and ants can be used as heavy metal indicators.

  1. Preparation of Dithizone Functionalized Polystyrene for Detecting Heavy Metal Ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hyeon Ho; Kim, Younghun [Kwangwoon University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Colorimetric sensors were usually used to detect specific metal ions using selective color change of solutions. While almost organic dye in colorimetric sensors detected single molecule, dithizone (DTZ) solution could be separately detected above 5 kinds of heavy metal ions by the change of clear color. Namely, DTZ could be used as multicolorimetric sensors. However, DTZ was generally used as aqueous type and paper/pellet-type DTZ was not reported yet. Therefore, in this work, polystyrene (PS) was prepared to composite with DTZ and then DTZ/PS pellet was obtained, which was used to selectively detect 10 kinds of heavy metal ions. When 10 ppm of Hg and Co ions was exposed in DTZ/PS pellets, clear color change was revealed. It is noted that DTZ/PS pellet could be used in detecting of heavy metal ion as dry type.

  2. Biogas production as affected by heavy metals in the anaerobic digestion of sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein I. Abdel-Shafy

    2014-12-01

    The sewage sludge samples were separated from the sewage water of the pilot plant at the National Research Centre, TDC site. The effect of heavy metals on the biogas production of the anaerobic digester was studied. The inhibitory effect on the biogas production and toxic level of metals was determined in this study. The general ranking of heavy metal toxicity appears to be Hg > Cd > Cr (III. The present investigation reveals that heavy metals in addition to the anaerobic digester decreased the biogas production as an indication of efficiency of the process. A significant decrease in gas production and volatile organic matter removal was obtained. It was also noted that an accumulation of organic acid intermediates was obtained as a result of methanogenic bacterial inhibition. This accumulation was limited during the pulse feed of metals. This is due to the rapid poisoning of the active bacterial forms in the digester.

  3. Critical loads of heavy metals for soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Groenenberg, J.E.; Lofts, S.; Tipping, E.; Posch, M.

    2012-01-01

    To enable a precautionary risk assessment for future inputs of metals, steady-state methods have been developed to assess critical loads of metals avoiding long-term risks to food quality and eco-toxicological effects on organisms in soils and surface waters. A critical load for metals equals the lo

  4. Influence of municipal solid waste compost application on heavy metal content in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Orhan

    2015-06-01

    Municipal solid waste composts (MSWC) are widely used over agricultural lands as organic soil amendment and fertilizer. However, MSWC use may result in various adverse impacts over agricultural lands. Especially, heavy metal contents of MSWC should always be taken into consideration while using in agricultural practices. The present study was conducted to find out heavy metal contents of municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) and to investigate their effects on soils. Experiments were carried out in three replications as field experiments for 2 years. Dry-based MSWC was applied to each plot at the ratios of 0, 40, 80, 120, 160, 200 t ha(-1). Results revealed that heavy metal content of MSWC was within the allowable legal limits. Compost treatments significantly increased Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Cd, and Pb content of soils (p compost doses. Although compost treatments significantly increased soil heavy metal contents, the final contents were still within the allowable legal limits. Results showed that MSWC doses over 10 t ha(-1) may create a heavy metal risk in long term for soils with pH ≥ 7. Therefore, in MSWC use over agricultural lands, heavy metal contents should always be taken into consideration and excessive uses should be avoided.

  5. Assessment of heavy metal residues in water, fish tissue and human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    Key Words : Heavy metal residues , Fish tissue, Human blood, Ubeji River. ... essential metals have been found to be toxic when ... Heavy metal contamination of aquatic environments ... higher organisms, during feeding may incorporate.

  6. Heavy Metals in ToxCast: Relevance to Food Safety (SOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human exposure to heavy metals occurs through food contamination due to industrial processes, vehicle emissions and farming methods. Specific toxicity endpoints have been associated with metal exposures, e.g. lead and neurotoxicity; however, numerous varieties of heavy metals hav...

  7. Heavy Metal Bioaccumulation and Toxicity with Special Reference to Microalgae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The bioaccumulation and toxicity of heavy metals were reviewed with special reference to microalgae, the key component of the food web in aquatic ecosystems. Heavy metals enter algal cells either by means of active transport or by endocytosis through chelating proteins and affect various physiological and biochemical processes of the algae. The toxicity primarily results from their binding to the sulphydryl groups in proteins or disrupting protein structure or displacing essential elements. Metals can break the oxidative balance of the algae, inducing antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). The amount of oxidized proteins and lipids in the algal cells thus indicates the severity of the stress. Algal tolerance to heavy metal is highly dependent upon the defense response against the probable oxidative damages. Production of binding factors and proteins, exclusion of metals from cells by ion-selective transporters and excretion or compartmentalization have been suggested with regard to reducing heavy metal toxicity. However, a comprehensive description on the mechanisms underlining metal toxicity of microalgae and gaining tolerance is yet to be elaborated.

  8. Determination of trace and heavy metals in some commonly used medicinal herbs in Ayurveda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nema, Neelesh K; Maity, Niladri; Sarkar, Birendra K; Mukherjee, Pulok K

    2014-11-01

    Traditionally, the herbal drugs are well established for their therapeutic benefits. Depending upon their geographical sources sometimes the trace and heavy metals' content may differ, which may lead to severe toxicity. So, the toxicological and safety assessment of these herbal drugs are one of the major issues in recent days. Eight different plant species including Aloe vera, Centella asiatica, Calendula officinalis, Cucumis sativus, Camellia sinensis, Clitoria ternatea, Piper betel and Tagetes erecta were selected to determine their heavy and trace metals content and thereby to assure their safer therapeutic application. The trace and heavy metals were detected through atomic absorption spectrometry analysis. The selected medicinal plant materials were collected from the local cultivated regions of West Bengal, India, and were digested with nitric acid and hydrochloric acid as specified. Absorbance was measured through atomic absorption spectrometer (AA 303) and the concentration of different trace and heavy metals in the plant samples were calculated. The quantitative determinations were carried out using standard calibration curve obtained by the standard solutions of different metals. The contents of heavy metals were found to be within the prescribed limit. Other trace metals were found to be present in significant amount. Thus, on the basis of experimental outcome, it can be concluded that the plant materials collected from the specific region are safe and may not produce any harmful effect of metal toxicity during their therapeutic application. The investigated medicinal plants contain trace metals such as copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe) and nickel (Ni) as well as heavy metals such as arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg), which were present within the permissible limit.

  9. Heavy metal accumulation by carrageenan and agar producing algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdin, K.S. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Faculty of Biology; Bird, K.T. [North Carolina Univ., Wilmington, NC (United States). Center for Marine Science Research

    1994-09-01

    The accumulation of six heavy metals Cu, Cd, Ni, Zn, Mn and Pb was measured in living and lzophilized algal thalli. The agar producing algae were Gracilaria tikvahiae and Gelidium pusillum. The carrageenan producing macroalgae were Agardhiella subulata and the gametophyte and tetrasporophyte phases of Chondrus crispus. These produce primarily iota, kappa and lambda carrageenans, respectively. At heavy metal concentrations of 0.5 mg L{sup -1}, living thalli of Gracilaria tikvahiae generally showed the greatest amount of accumulation of the 6 heavy metals tested. The accumulation of Pb was greater in the living thalli of all four species than in the lyophilized thalli. Except for Agardhiella subulata, lyophilized thalli showed greater accumulation of Ni, Cu and Zn. There was no difference in heavy metal accumulation between living and lyophilized thalli in the accumulation of Cd. Manganese showed no accumulation at the tested concentration. There did not appear to be a relationship between algal hydrocolloid characteristics and the amounts of heavy metals accumulated. (orig.)

  10. Thermal treatment of harzardous waste for heavy metal recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Gaston; Schirmer, Matthias; Bilitewski, Bernd; Kaszás Savos, Melania

    2007-07-16

    In this study, a new method for recovering heavy metals from hazardous waste is introduced. The process is characterized by a separation of heavy metals and residues during the thermal treatment under a sub-stoichiometric atmosphere in a rotary kiln. After leaving the rotary kiln the separated heavy metals are precipitated in a hot gas ceramic filter. Using this technology, hazardous materials, both liquids and pasty hazardous waste containing heavy metals, can be treated and a product with a quasi-raw material condition can be formed. In contrast to current methods,the harmful substances should not be immobilized and disposed. In fact, a saleable product highly concentrated with heavy metals should be formed. During preliminary investigations with a solution containing sodium chromate tetrahydrate, the process was tested in a pilot plant. Here,the separation of chromium could be demonstrated with leaching tests and characterization of the filter dust. Analysis concerning the disposability of the residues had not been carried out because only the process and the characteristic of the filter dust were in the centre of attention.

  11. SPECIATION OF HEAVY METALS AT WATER-SEDIMENT INTERFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Ferronato

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to understand the equilibrium relationship between the heavy metals concentrations in superficial water and pore water. At  water-sediment interface, the equilibrium rapidly changed and it is influenced by chemico-physical parameters of aquatic ecosystems. The hydraulic safety of Bologna plain (North Italy depends on network of artificial canals and they are related with natural rivers of Reno basin (Reno river and its tributaries. The natural and artificial water courses flowed in agricultural, urban and industrial land. The heavy metals concentration in water and sediment discriminated the human pressure on the land and their spatial distribution in sediment could predict the hazard of pollution in aquatic ecosystems. We compared the heavy metals concentrations in pore water and superficial water determined in natural rivers and artificial canals, and more pollution in artificial canals than natural rivers was found. Furthermore, the coefficient of partition (log Kd between water and sediments was calculated to evaluate the bioavailability of heavy metals adsorbed on the sediments. The heavy metals extracted in deionised water at equilibrium after 16 h showed higher concentrations than those determined directly on water samples.

  12. HEAVY METALS CONTENT IN SHEEP PRODUCTS FROM MIDLE SPIŠ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slávik Marek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we evaluated the risk of contamination of animal products by heavy metals. Samples of animal raw materials were obtained in 2013 in the municipalities of Porac and Matejovce nad Hornádom. Samples of muscle and internal organs were collected from domestic sheep (Ovis aries reared in the village of Rudnianska burdened area where mercury along with other heavy metals contamination is above the limit value of agricultural soil. Measuring the concentration of heavy metals in the samples was performed in accordance with the general requirements set out in the tenth chapter of the Food Code of the Slovak Republic. Mercury content in biological materials were assessed by total mercury as on the AMA 254 in fresh samples. The other heavy metal content, was determined after wet mineralization (HNO3: H2O - 1: 1 using the device AAS Varian 240 FS. The contamination of the environment showed increased accumulation of heavy metals in the - studiet sheep tissues intended for consumption. Such as Hg content in the kidneys of domestic sheep exceed the limit value by 1.3 times, whereas, in the case of cadmium 3 times exceeding the limit value in meat was recordered. Exceed limit was recorded in the case of lead and copper in the liver.

  13. [Immobilization impact of different fixatives on heavy metals contaminated soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lie-shan; Zeng, Dong-mei; Mo, Xiao-rong; Lu, Hong-hong; Su, Cui-cui; Kong, De-chao

    2015-01-01

    Four kinds of amendments including humus, ammonium sulfate, lime, superphosphate and their complex combination were added to rapid immobilize the heavy metals in contaminated soils. The best material was chosen according to the heavy metals' immobilization efficiency and the Capacity Values of the fixative in stabilizing soil heavy metals. The redistributions of heavy metals were determined by the European Communities Bureau of Referent(BCR) fraction distribution experiment before and after treatment. The results were as follows: (1) In the single material treatment, lime worked best with the dosage of 2% compared to the control group. In the compound amendment treatments, 2% humus combined with 2% lime worked best, and the immobilization efficiency of Pb, Cu, Cd, Zn reached 98.49%, 99.40%, 95.86%, 99.21%, respectively. (2) The order of Capacity Values was lime > humus + lime > ammonium sulfate + lime > superphosphate > ammonium sulfate + superphosphate > humus + superphosphate > humus > superphosphate. (3) BCR sequential extraction procedure results indicated that 2% humus combined with 2% lime treatment were very effective in immobilizing heavy metals, better than 2% lime treatment alone. Besides, Cd was activated firstly by 2% humus treatment then it could be easily changed into the organic fraction and residual fraction after the subsequent addition of 2% lime.

  14. Microorganisms in heavy metal bioremediation: strategies for applying microbial-community engineering to remediate soils

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer L. Wood; Caixian Tang; Franks, Ashley E.; Wuxing Liu

    2016-01-01

    The remediation of heavy-metal-contaminated soils is essential as heavy metals persist and do not degrade in the environment. Remediating heavy-metal-contaminated soils requires metals to be mobilized for extraction whilst, at the same time, employing strategies to avoid mobilized metals leaching into ground-water or aquatic systems. Phytoextraction is a bioremediation strategy that extracts heavy metals from soils by sequestration in plant tissues and is currently the predominant bioremediat...

  15. Heavy Metal Exposure Influences Double Strand Break DNA Repair Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria E Morales

    Full Text Available Heavy metals such as cadmium, arsenic and nickel are classified as carcinogens. Although the precise mechanism of carcinogenesis is undefined, heavy metal exposure can contribute to genetic damage by inducing double strand breaks (DSBs as well as inhibiting critical proteins from different DNA repair pathways. Here we take advantage of two previously published culture assay systems developed to address mechanistic aspects of DNA repair to evaluate the effects of heavy metal exposures on competing DNA repair outcomes. Our results demonstrate that exposure to heavy metals significantly alters how cells repair double strand breaks. The effects observed are both specific to the particular metal and dose dependent. Low doses of NiCl2 favored resolution of DSBs through homologous recombination (HR and single strand annealing (SSA, which were inhibited by higher NiCl2 doses. In contrast, cells exposed to arsenic trioxide preferentially repaired using the "error prone" non-homologous end joining (alt-NHEJ while inhibiting repair by HR. In addition, we determined that low doses of nickel and cadmium contributed to an increase in mutagenic recombination-mediated by Alu elements, the most numerous family of repetitive elements in humans. Sequence verification confirmed that the majority of the genetic deletions were the result of Alu-mediated non-allelic recombination events that predominantly arose from repair by SSA. All heavy metals showed a shift in the outcomes of alt-NHEJ repair with a significant increase of non-templated sequence insertions at the DSB repair site. Our data suggest that exposure to heavy metals will alter the choice of DNA repair pathway changing the genetic outcome of DSBs repair.

  16. Bioremediation of soluble heavy metals with recombinant Caulobacter crescentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhaohui; Lei, Yu; Patel, Jigar

    2010-01-01

    To achieve one-step separation of heavy metal ions from contaminated water, we have developed a novel bioremediation technology based on self-immobilization of the Caulobacter crescentus recombinant strain JS4022/p723-6H, which overexpresses hexahistidine peptide on the surface of the bacterial cells and serves as a whole-cell adsorbent for dissolved heavy metals. Biofilms formed by JS4022/p723-6H are effective at retaining cadmium from bacterial growth media or environmental water samples. Here we provide additional experiment data discussing the application potential of this new technology. Supplementation of calcium to the growth media produced robust JS4022/p723-6H cells by alleviating their sensitivity to chelators. After growth in the presence of 0.3% CaCl(2)·2H(2)O, double the amount of JS4022/p723-6H cells survived the treatment with 2 mM EDTA. Free cells of JS4022/p723-6H effectively sequestered 51% of the total cadmium from a Lake Erie water sample at pH 5.4, compared to 37% retrieved by the control strain. Similar levels of adsorption were observed at pH 4.2 as well. Cells of JS4022/p723-6H were tolerant of acid treatment for 90 min at pH ≥1.1 or 120 min at pH ≥2.5, which provides an avenue for the convenient regeneration of the bacterial cells metal-binding capacity with acidic solutions. Designs of possible bioreactors and an operation system are also presented.

  17. Assessment of heavy metals in sediment of Aguamilpa Dam, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Peraza, Jesús Gabriel; de Anda, José; González-Farías, Fernando A; Rode, Michael; Sanhouse-García, Antonio; Bustos-Terrones, Yaneth A

    2015-03-01

    The Aguamilpa Dam is part of the reservoir cascade system formed by four reservoirs in the middle and lower part of the Santiago River. For decades, this system has received urban and industrial wastewater from the metropolitan area of Guadalajara and the runoff of agricultural fields located in the river basin. The present study was carried out to obtain a preliminary assessment on the concentration distribution of heavy metals (Al, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in surface sediments of the Aguamilpa reservoir collected from 10 sampling stations. The metal concentrations (mg kg(-1)) in the sampling stations ranged as follows: Al, 27,600-7760; Ba, 190.0-15.9; Cd, 0.27-0.02; Cr, 18.30-0.22; Cu, 60.80-0.79; Fe, 15,900-4740; Hg, 0.04-0.01; Mg, 7590-8.05; Ni, 189.00-0.24; Pb, 13.6-1.64; and Zn, 51.8-14.8. Significant spatial variation in concentrations was observed for Al, Fe, and Pb. Sediment pollution was evaluated using the enrichment factor, the geo-accumulation index, the pollution load index, and sediment quality guidelines. Based on geo-accumulation and pollution load indexes, Aguamilpa sediments were found, in some sampling stations, as unpolluted to moderately polluted with Ni, Cd, Cu, and Mg. Enrichment factors showed that Cd is highly related to agricultural activities that take place in the surrounding areas of the Aguamilpa reservoir. Despite these results, none of the heavy metals evaluated exceeded international concentrations limits, indicating that the Aguamilpa reservoir surface sediments are not contaminated.

  18. Heavy Metal Pollution in Water and Sediment From Disembogue Points of Some Creeks along Giresun Coast

    OpenAIRE

    Aysun Türkmen; Selin Akbulut

    2015-01-01

    Carrying between February 2012 and February 2013 as seasonal, the present study aims to determine heavy metal loads of five different creeks pass through Giresun city center and disembogue to Black Sea. Heavy metal analyses were performed from selected stations by ICP-MS instrument. Without seasonal and station differences, metal levels were found as follow; Cd: 0.129-5.113, Mn: 0.009-2.937, Fe: 0.007-1.985, Cu: 0.002-1.344, Zn: 0.002-1.901, Ni: 0.003-0.149, Pb: 0.009-21.22, Cr: 0.002-0.177, ...

  19. Thermal conductivity of soils with heavy metals concentration from the Niger Delta region of Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AKINYEMI O.D.; OLOWOFELA J.A.; AKINLADE O.O.; AKANDE O.O.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the characteristic thermal and chemical properties of some surface soil samples from the oil-producing regions of Nigeria. A microprocessor-based thermal analyzer was used to determine the thermal conductivity while spectrophotometric procedure was employed to conduct the heavy metal concentration analysis. Thermal conductivity values were compared with heavy metal concentrations in each soil sample. The values of lead and cadmium and their respective measured thermal conductivities were highly correlated, with their correlation coefficients both greater than 0.900, while other metals showed no correlation.

  20. Removal of heavy metals from synthetic solution by electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ilou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work concerns the optimization of the operating conditions for the removal of heavy metals from synthetic solution by Electrocoagulation (EC. To reach this purpose, we prepared a synthetic wastewater containing certain heavy metals (Ni, Cu, Zn, Fe and Pb to study the influence of various parameters (conductivity, pH, time of electrolysis, current density and the initial concentration of the metal on the rate of removal of these metals. The results show that this rate of removal can reach 99.9 % in the following optimal conditions: pH included between 6 and 8 and a density of the current of 1~1.5A / dm2. This study shows that it is possible to remove metals in aqueous solution by the technique of electrocoagulation. 

  1. Modelling the extra and intracellular uptake and discharge of heavy metals in Fontinalis antipyretica transplanted along a heavy metal and pH contamination gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, J A; Vázquez, M D; López, J; Carballeira, A

    2006-01-01

    Samples of the aquatic bryophyte Fontinalis antipyretica Hedw. were transplanted to different sites with the aim of characterizing the kinetics of the uptake and discharge of heavy metals in the extra and intracellular compartments. The accumulation of metals in extracellular compartments, characterized by an initial rapid accumulation, then a gradual slowing down over time, fitted perfectly to a Michaelis-Menten model. The discharge of metals from the same compartment followed an inverse linear model or an inverse Michaelis-Menten model, depending on the metal. In intracellular sites both uptake and discharge occurred more slowly and progressively, following a linear model. We also observed that the acidity of the environment greatly affected metal accumulation in extracellular sites, even when the metals were present at relatively high concentrations, whereas the uptake of metals within cells was much less affected by pH.

  2. Remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils by using Solanum nigrum: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Muhammad Zia Ur; Rizwan, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Ok, Yong Sik; Ishaque, Wajid; Saifullah; Nawaz, Muhammad Farrakh; Akmal, Fatima; Waqar, Maqsooda

    2017-09-01

    Heavy metals are among the major environmental pollutants and the accumulation of these metals in soils is of great concern in agricultural production due to the toxic effects on crop growth and food quality. Phytoremediation is a promising technique which is being considered as an alternative and low-cost technology for the remediation of metal-contaminated soils. Solanum nigrum is widely studied for the remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils owing to its ability for metal uptake and tolerance. S. nigrum can tolerate excess amount of certain metals through different mechanism including enhancing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and metal deposition in non-active parts of the plant. An overview of heavy metal uptake and tolerance in S. nigrum is given. Both endophytic and soil microorganisms can play a role in enhancing metal tolerance in S. nigrum. Additionally, optimization of soil management practices and exogenous application of amendments can also be used to enhance metal uptake and tolerance in this plant. The main objective of the present review is to highlight and discuss the recent progresses in using S. nigrum for remediation of metal contaminated soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Beneficial effect of sesame oil on heavy metal toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Victor Raj Mohan; Hsu, Dur-Zong; Liu, Ming-Yie

    2014-02-01

    Heavy metals become toxic when they are not metabolized by the body and accumulate in the soft tissue. Chelation therapy is mainly for the management of heavy metal-induced toxicity; however, it usually causes adverse effects or completely blocks the vital function of the particular metal chelated. Much attention has been paid to the development of chelating agents from natural sources to counteract lead- and iron-induced hepatic and renal damage. Sesame oil (a natural edible oil) and sesamol (an active antioxidant) are potently beneficial for treating lead- and iron-induced hepatic and renal toxicity and have no adverse effects. Sesame oil and sesamol significantly inhibit iron-induced lipid peroxidation by inhibiting the xanthine oxidase, nitric oxide, superoxide anion, and hydroxyl radical generation. In addition, sesame oil is a potent inhibitor of proinflammatory mediators, and it attenuates lead-induced hepatic damage by inhibiting nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-1β levels. Because metal chelating therapy is associated with adverse effects, treating heavy metal toxicity in addition with sesame oil and sesamol may be better alternatives. This review deals with the possible use and beneficial effects of sesame oil and sesamol during heavy metal toxicity treatment.

  4. The environmental impact of gold mines: pollution by heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Wahab, Sabah; Marikar, Fouzul

    2012-06-01

    The gold mining plant of Oman was studied to assess the contribution of gold mining on the degree of heavy metals into different environmental media. Samples were collected from the gold mining plant area in tailings, stream waters, soils and crop plants. The collected samples were analyzed for 13 heavy metals including vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), aluminium (Al), strontium (Sr), iron (Fe) and barium (Ba). The water in the acid evaporation pond showed a high concentration of Fe as well as residual quantities of Zn, V, and Al, whereas water from the citizens well showed concentrations of Al above those of Omani and WHO standards. The desert plant species growing closed to the gold pit indicated high concentrations of heavy metals (Mn, Al, Ni, Fe, Cr, and V), while the similar plant species used as a control indicated lesser concentrations of all heavy metals. The surface water (blue) indicated very high concentrations of copper and significant concentrations of Mn, Ni, Al, Fe, Zn, lead, Co and Cd. The results revealed that some of the toxic metals absorbed by plants indicated significant metal immobilization.

  5. Dustfall Heavy Metal Pollution During Winter in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qiu-lin; Zhao, Wen-ji; Guo, Xiao-yu; Shu, Tong-tong; Chen, Fan-tao; Zheng, Xiao-xia; Gong, Zhao-ning

    2015-10-01

    In order to study heavy metal pollution in dustfall during Winter in North China, forty-four dustfall samples were collected in North China Region from November 2013 to March 2014. Then forty trace elements content were measured for each sample by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Finally, the contamination characteristics of the main heavy metals were studied through a multi-method analysis, including variability analysis, Pearson correlation analysis and principal component analysis. Results showed that the relative contents of cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), bismuth (Bi), lead (Pb) exceeded the standards stipulated in Chinese soil elements background values by amazing 4.9 times. In this study, conclusions were drawn that dustfall heavy metal pollution in the region was mainly caused by transport pollution, metallurgy industrial pollution, coal pollution and steel industrial pollution.

  6. Effect of Heavy Metals in Plants of the Genus Brassica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourato, Miguel P.; Moreira, Inês N.; Leitão, Inês; Pinto, Filipa R.; Sales, Joana R.; Louro Martins, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Several species from the Brassica genus are very important agricultural crops in different parts of the world and are also known to be heavy metal accumulators. There have been a large number of studies regarding the tolerance, uptake and defense mechanism in several of these species, notably Brassica juncea and B. napus, against the stress induced by heavy metals. Numerous studies have also been published about the capacity of these species to be used for phytoremediation purposes but with mixed results. This review will focus on the latest developments in the study of the uptake capacity, oxidative damage and biochemical and physiological tolerance and defense mechanisms to heavy metal toxicity on six economically important species: B. juncea, B. napus, B. oleracea, B. carinata, B. rapa and B. nigra. PMID:26247945

  7. Electrodialytic Removal of Heavy Metals from Different Solid Waste Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Christensen, Iben Vernegren; Pedersen, Anne Juul;

    2003-01-01

    that the method could be used for removal of different heavy metals from impregnated wood waste, fly ash from straw combustion, and fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration. The best result was obtained with the wood waste where more than 80% of each of the polluting elements Cu, Cr and As was removed......A variety of heavy metal polluted waste products must be handled today. Electrochemical methods have been developed for remediation of polluted soil. One of the methods is the electrodialytic remediation method that is based on electromigration of heavy metal ions and ionic species within the soil...... could be used when removing Cu and Cr from a soil with 25% carbonates. The final concentrations of the elements were below the target values after the remediation. A question of whether the electrodialytic remediation method can be used for other waste products arose. Preliminary experiments showed...

  8. Deena Weinstein, Heavy Metal: The Music and Its Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Grassy, Elsa

    2009-01-01

    Au moment où la sociologue Deena Weinstein publie Heavy Metal : The Music and Its Culture, en 1991, le heavy metal fait l’objet de controverses très médiatisées aux États-Unis. Le procès de Judas Priest pour incitation au suicide vient de faire les gros titres, et tous les conservateurs du pays passent leurs journées à écouter des disques à l’envers, à la recherche de paroles sataniques. Le livre de Weinstein s’inspire de ce climat sulfureux qui entoure le heavy metal depuis ses débuts mais a...

  9. Effect of Heavy Metals in Plants of the Genus Brassica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel P. Mourato

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Several species from the Brassica genus are very important agricultural crops in different parts of the world and are also known to be heavy metal accumulators. There have been a large number of studies regarding the tolerance, uptake and defense mechanism in several of these species, notably Brassica juncea and B. napus, against the stress induced by heavy metals. Numerous studies have also been published about the capacity of these species to be used for phytoremediation purposes but with mixed results. This review will focus on the latest developments in the study of the uptake capacity, oxidative damage and biochemical and physiological tolerance and defense mechanisms to heavy metal toxicity on six economically important species: B. juncea, B. napus, B. oleracea, B. carinata, B. rapa and B. nigra.

  10. Heavy metals intake by cultured mushrooms growing in model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Dursun, Nesim; Al Juhaimi, Fahad Y

    2013-10-01

    Micro element and heavy metal contents of mushrooms were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). It was seen an increase in the heavy metal contents (except Cu and Zn) of the mushrooms until the second dose. A decrease was seen in heavy metal intake of the mushroom in the application of the third dose. The highest accumulation occurred from the upper soils treated with the second dose. Amounts of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn, which were accumulated in the mushroom after the application of this dose, were detected as 5.7, 23.1, 75.7, 62.8 and 99.3 ppm, respectively.

  11. Content, mineral allocation and leaching behavior of heavy metals in urban PM2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazziotti Tagliani, Simona; Carnevale, Monica; Armiento, Giovanna; Montereali, Maria Rita; Nardi, Elisa; Inglessis, Marco; Sacco, Fabrizio; Palleschi, Simonetta; Rossi, Barbara; Silvestroni, Leopoldo; Gianfagna, Antonio

    2017-03-01

    To clarify the relationship between airborne particulate exposure and negative impacts on human health, focusing on the heavy metal content alone might not be sufficient. To address this issue, in the present work, mineral allocation and leaching behavior of heavy metals in the PM2.5 were investigated. This work, therefore, provides a novel perspective in the field of urban airborne particle investigation that is not currently found in the literature. Four sampling campaigns were performed in the urban area of Rome (Central Italy) during the winter and summer seasons (February and July 2013 and 2014, respectively). The measured concentrations of the regulated elements of As, Cd, Ni and Pb were consistent with those reported by the local Environmental Agency (ARPA Lazio), but non-regulated heavy metals, including Fe, Cu, Cr and Zn, were also found in PM2.5 and analyzed in detail. As a novelty, heavy metals were associated with the host-identified mineral phases, primarily oxides and alloys, and to a lesser extent, other minerals, such as sulfates, carbonates and silicates. Leaching tests of the collected samples were conducted in a buffered solution mimicking the bodily physiological environment. Despite the highest concentration of heavy metals found during the winter sampling period, all of the elements showed a leaching trend leading to major mobility during the summer period. To explain this result, an interesting comparative analysis between the leaching test behavior and innovative mineral allocation was conducted. Both the heavy metal content and mineral allocation in PM2.5 might contribute to the bioavailability of toxic elements in the pulmonary environment. Hence, for regulatory purposes, the non-linear dependency of heavy metal bioavailability on the total metal content should be taken into account.

  12. Characterization of a heavy metal translocating P-type ATPase gene from an environmental heavy metal resistance Enterobacter sp. isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chih-Ching; Huang, Chia-Hsuan; Lin, Yi-Wei

    2013-03-01

    Heavy metals are common contaminants found in polluted areas. We have identified a heavy metal translocating P-type ATPase gene (hmtp) via fosmid library and in vitro transposon mutagenesis from an Enterobacter sp. isolate. This gene is believed to participate in the bacterium's heavy metal resistance traits. The complete gene was identified, cloned, and expressed in a suitable Escherichia coli host cell. E. coli W3110, RW3110 (zntA::Km), GG48 (ΔzitB::Cm zntA::Km), and GG51 (ΔzitB::Cm) were used to study the possible effects of this gene for heavy metal (cadmium and zinc in particular) resistance. Among the E. coli strains tested, RW3110 and GG48 showed more sensitivity to cadmium and zinc compared to the wild-type E. coli W3110 and strain GG51. Therefore, strains RW3110 and GG48 were chosen for the reference hosts for further evaluation of the gene's effect. The results showed that expression of this heavy metal translocating P-type ATPase gene could increase the ability for zinc and cadmium resistance in the tested microorganisms.

  13. Molecular mechanisms of heavy metal tolerance and evolution n invertebrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thierry K.S.Janssens; Dick Roelofs; Nico M.van Straalen

    2009-01-01

    Following the genomics revolution,our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying defenses against stress has been greatly expanded.Under strong selective pressure many animals may evolve an enhanced stress tolerance.This can be achieved by altering the structure of proteins(through mutations in the coding regions of genes)or by altering the amount of protein(through changes in transcriptional regulation).The latter type of evolution Can be achieved by substitutions in the promoter of the gene of interest(cis-regulatory change)or by altering the structure or anaount of transcriptional regulator proteins (trans-regulatory change).The metallothionein system is one of the best studied stress response systems in the context of heavy metals.Metallothionein expression is assumed to be regulated by metal transcription factor 1(MTF-1);however,up to now the involvement of MTF-1 has only been proven for some vertebrates and Drosophila.Data on invertebrates such as nematodes and earthworms suggest that other mechanisms of metallothionein induction may be present.A detailed study of Cd tolerance was done for a species of soilliving springtail,Orchesella cincta.The metallothionein gene of this species is overexpressed in metal-exposed field populations.Analysis of the metallothionein promoter has demonstrated extensive polymorphisills that have a functional significance,as shown in bioreporter assays.In a study comparing 20 different populations,the frequency of a high-expresser promoter allele Was positively correlated with the concentration of metals in soil,especially Cd.The springtail study shows that cis-regulatory change of genes involved in the cellular stress response may contribute to evolution of metal tolerance.

  14. Individual and competitive removal of heavy metals using capacitive deionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhe; Lu, Lu; Cai, Zhenxiao; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2016-01-25

    This study presents the viability and preference of capacitive deionization (CDI) for removing different heavy metal ions in various conditions. The removal performance and mechanisms of three ions, cadmium (Cd(2+)), lead (Pb(2+)) and chromium (Cr(3+)) were investigated individually and as a mixture under different applied voltages and ion concentrations. It was found that CDI could effectively remove these metals, and the performance was positively correlated with the applied voltage. When 1.2 V was applied into solution containing 0.5mM individual ions, the Cd(2+), Pb(2+), and Cr(3+) removal was 32%, 43%, and 52%, respectively, and the electrosorption played a bigger role in Cd(2+) removal than for the other two ions. Interestingly, while the removal of Pb(2+) and Cr(3+) remained at a similar level of 46% in the mixture of three ions, the Cd(2+) removal significantly decreased to 14%. Similar patterns were observed when 0.05 mM was used to simulate natural contaminated water condition, but the removal efficiencies were much higher, with the removal of Pb(2+), Cr(3+), and Cd(2+) increased to 81%, 78%, and 42%, respectively. The low valence charge and lack of physical sorption of Cd(2+) were believed to be the reason for the removal behavior, and advanced microscopic analysis showed clear deposits of metal ions on the cathode surface after operation.

  15. Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Topsoil around Beijing Metropolis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranhao Sun

    Full Text Available The topsoil around Beijing metropolis, China, is experiencing impacts of rapid urbanization, intensive farming, and extensive industrial emissions. We analyzed the concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cr from 87 topsoil samples in the pre-rainy season and 115 samples in the post-rainy season. These samples were attributed to nine land use types: forest, grass, shrub, orchard, wheat, cotton, spring maize, summer maize, and mixed farmland. The pollution index (PI of heavy metals was calculated from the measured and background concentrations. The ecological risk index (RI was assessed based on the PI values and toxic-response parameters. The results showed that the mean PI values of Pb, Cr, and Cd were > 1 while those of Cu, Ni, and Zn were < 1. All the samples had low ecological risk for Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Cr while only 15.35% of samples had low ecological risk for Cd. Atmospheric transport rather than land use factors best explained the seasonal variations in heavy metal concentrations and the impact of atmospheric transport on heavy metal concentrations varied according to the heavy metal types. The concentrations of Cu, Cd, and Cr decreased from the pre- to post-rainy season, while those of Ni, Pb, and Zn increased during this period. Future research should be focused on the underlying atmospheric processes that lead to these spatial and seasonal variations in heavy metals. The policymaking on environmental management should pay close attention to potential ecological risks of Cd as well as identifying the transport pathways of different heavy metals.

  16. Using microbiological leaching method to remove heavy metals from sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuyu Gu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial leaching is one of the most effective methods to remove heavy metals from sludge. In the conducted researches, the sludge samples were processed with Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans obtained via cultivation, extraction and purification processes. Heavy metals such as Pb, Cd, Cu and Ni were leached from sludge by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans within different substrate concentration and pH value conditions. It is defined that from the point of view of economy and efficiency the optimal concentration of FeSO4.7H2O and sulfur for bio-leaching process was 0.2 g. The leaching rates of heavy metals such as Pb, Cd, Cu and Ni of the same concentration were 74.72%, 81.54%, 70.46% and 77.35% respectively. However, no significant differences depending on the pH value among the leaching rates were defined, even for the pH value of 1.5. Along with the removal of heavy metals from sludge, the organic matter, N, P, K were also leached to some extent. The losing rate of phosphorus was the highest and reached 38.44%. However, the content of organic matter, N, P, K in the processed sludge were higher in comparison with level I of the National Soil Quality Standards of China. Ecological risk of heavy metals in sludge before and after leaching was assessed by Index of Geo-accumulation (Igeo and comprehensive potential risk (RI. The results of research defined that the content of heavy metals in sludge meets the level of low ecological risk after leaching and their contents is lower in comparison with the National Agricultural Sludge Standard of China. Sludge leached by biological methods is possible to use for treatment for increasing soil fertility.

  17. IMPACT OF BIOSLUDGE APPLICATION ON HEAVY METALS CONTENT IN SUNFLOWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Slávik

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The application of decomposed substrate after continual biogas production is one of the possible ways how to use alternative energy sources with following monitoring of its complex influence on the hygienic state of soil with the emphasis on heavy metal input. The substances from bilge and drain sediments from water panels, also biosludge gained by continual co-fermentation of animal excrements belong to these compounds. The biosludge application is connected with possible risk of cadmium and lead, also other risky elements input into the soil. The analyses of applicated sludge prove that the determined heavy metals contents are compared with limitary value. These facts - hygienic state of soil, pH influence this limitary value and biosludge is suitable for soil application. The total heavy metals content in soil is related to the increased cadmium, nickel, chromium and cobalt contents. The analyses of heavy metals contents in sunflower seeds show that the grown yield does not comply with the legislative norms from the stand point of heavy metals content due to high zinc and nickel contents. Copper, cadmium, lead, chromium contents fulfil limitary values, for cobalt content the value is not mentioned in Codex Alimentarius. The nickel value in the control variant seeds is 2.2 times higher than the highest acceptable amount, then in variant where the sludge was applicated the nickel content was increased by 1.6 times. In the case of zinc there was increasing content in individual variants 4.7, or 4.8 times. The direct connection with the higher accumulation of zinc and nickel in soil by the influence of biosludge application is not definitely surveyed, the increased heavy metals contents in sunflower were primarily caused by their increased contents in soils.

  18. Novel forward osmosis process to effectively remove heavy metal ions

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Yue

    2014-10-01

    In this study, a novel forward osmosis (FO) process for the removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater was demonstrated for the first time. The proposed FO process consists of a thin-film composite (TFC) FO membrane made from interfacial polymerization on a macrovoid-free polyimide support and a novel bulky hydroacid complex Na4[Co(C6H4O7)2]·r2H2O (Na-Co-CA) as the draw solute to minimize the reverse solute flux. The removal of six heavy metal solutions, i.e., Na2Cr2O7, Na2HAsO4, Pb(NO3)2, CdCl2, CuSO4, Hg(NO3)2, were successfully demonstrated. Water fluxes around 11L/m2/h (LMH) were harvested with heavy metals rejections of more than 99.5% when employing 1M Na-Co-CA as the draw solution to process 2000ppm(1 ppm=1 mg/L) heavy metal solutions at room temperature. This FO performance outperforms most nanofiltration (NF) processes. In addition, the high rejections were maintained at 99.5% when a more concentrated draw solution (1.5M) or feed solution (5000ppm) was utilized. Furthermore, rejections greater than 99.7% were still achieved with an enhanced water flux of 16.5LMH by operating the FO process at 60°C. The impressive heavy metal rejections and satisfactory water flux under various conditions suggest great potential of the newly developed FO system for the treatment of heavy metal wastewater. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  19. Heavy liquid metals: Research programs at PSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Y.

    1996-06-01

    The author describes work at PSI on thermohydraulics, thermal shock, and material tests for mechnical properties. In the presentation, the focus is on two main programs. (1) SINQ LBE target: The phase II study program for SINQ is planned. A new LBE loop is being constructed. The study has the following three objectives: (a) Pump study - design work on an electromagnetic pump to be integrated into the target. (b) Heat pipe performance test - the use of heat pipes as an additional component of the target cooling system is being considered, and it may be a way to futher decouple the liquid metal and water coolant loops. (c) Mixed convection experiment - in order to find an optimal configuration of the additional flow guide for window cooling, mixed convection around the window is to be studied. The experiment will be started using water and then with LBE. (2) ESS Mercury target: For ESS target study, the following experimental studies are planned, some of which are exampled by trial experiments. (a) Flow around the window: Flow mapping around the hemi-cylindrical window will be made for optimising the flow channels and structures, (b) Geometry optimisation for minimizing a recirculation zone behind the edge of the flow separator, (c) Flow induced vibration and buckling problem for a optimised structure of the flow separator and (d) Gas-liquid two-phase flow will be studied by starting to establish the new experimental method of measuring various kinds of two-phase flow characteristics.

  20. Heavy metals and color retention by a synthesized inorganic membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chougui

    2014-11-01

    The ceramic membranes were tested for the removal of cadmium, zinc, Methylene Blue and Malachite Green from water under a pressure of 5 bar and a treatment time of 2 h. Liquid filtration and flow tests through these membranes resulted in a rejection rate of 100% for Methylene Blue and Malachite Green. This paper also presents the ability of the tubular membrane prepared to separate heavy metals (cadmium and zinc from their synthetic aqueous solutions. The influence of the applied pressure, feed solute concentration, feed pH on the rejection of cadmium and zinc ions was studied. Retention rates of cadmium and zinc ions of 100% were observed for an initial feed concentration of 10−4 mol/L.

  1. Heavy metal analysis in groundwater samples by SR-TXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana; Ficaris, Maria [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Dept. de Recursos Hidricos]. E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Zucchi, Orgheda L.A.D. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: olzucchi@fcfrp.usp.br; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio Franco do [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: virgilio@cena.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    In order to obtain information about levels of heavy metals in groundwater, analysis were carried out on samples from monitoring and supplying wells located in Campinas, Sao Paulo State, Southeastern Brazil. The analytical technique used was Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF) and all the measurements were performed at Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory, using a white beam and a Si(Li) detector in total reflection condition. The determined elements were Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ba and Pb. The results were compared with the maximum allowed values (MPV) established by the Brazilian Health Department. The detection limits obtained varying from 0.10 up to 8 {mu}g.L{sup -1} were in agreement with the values presented by others analytical techniques. (author)

  2. Testing of T91 steel in heavy liquid metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chocholoušek, M.; Fulín, Z.; Janoušek, J.; Špirit, Z.

    2017-02-01

    Tests of candidate construction materials for a heavy liquid metal environment are performed at Centrum Vyzkumu Rez. Tests are focused among other things on the influence of corrosive environments on the mechanical properties of T91 steel. Non-standard environments require special testing devices, which must be able to perform tests in liquid lead or liquid lead bismuth eutectic. An important issue is also the monitoring of the oxygen volume, which has an influence on the production and stability of oxide layers and therefore on crack initiation. This article presents the issue of testing steel T91 and the associated development of a testing device for slow strain rate tests, especially in liquid lead bismuth eutectic environment.

  3. Mathematical analysis of dermal absorption rate of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batkin, Izmail; Bolic, Miodrag

    2015-08-01

    Presently 90 - 95% of children in the US wear disposable diapers before completing their toilet training at average age of 30 months. The diaper absorbs urine and liquid component from feces contaminated with excreted toxicants. In this initial study, we posit that the long contact between the diaper and the skin leads to increased dermal reabsorption of excreted body toxicants, mainly heavy metals, which are statistically associated with autism and neurodevelopmental disorder. We developed a mathematical model to analyse the increase of the level of toxicants due to dermal reabsorption after excretion. This simple kinetic model gives us the average reabsorbtion factor in the range of 1.6 to 5. The limitation of this work is that only mathematical model has been considered and it has not been verified experimentally.

  4. Heavy-metal concentrations in three owl species from Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungsoo; Lee, Hang; Koo, Tae-Hoe

    2008-01-01

    This study presents concentrations of heavy metals (iron, zinc, manganese, copper, lead, and cadmium) in livers of three owl species from Korea. Essential trace elements (iron, zinc, manganese, and copper) did not differ among the owl species. We suggest that the essential elements are within the normal range and are maintained by normal homeostatic mechanisms. Lead and cadmium concentrations in Eurasian Eagle Owls (Bubo bubo) were significantly lower than in Brown Hawk Owls (Nixos scutulata) and Collared Scops Owls (Otus lempiji). Lead and cadmium concentrations in Korean owl species were at background levels; lead concentrations in two Collared Scops Owls were above background concentrations. Lead and cadmium concentrations were similar to concentrations previously reported in owls from other parts of the world. We suggest that lead and cadmium concentrations in Korean owls are below toxic concentrations.

  5. Accumulation of heavy metals using Sorghum sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudek, Petr; Petrová, Šarka; Vaňková, Radomíra; Song, Jing; Vaněk, Tomaš

    2014-06-01

    The essential requirement for the effective phytoremediation is selection of a plant species which should be metal tolerant, with high biomass production and known agronomic techniques. The above mentioned criteria are met by crop plant sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). The response of hydroponically grown S. bicolor plants to cadmium and zinc stress was followed. The impact of metal application on physiological parameters, including changes in chlorophylls contents and antioxidative enzymes activities, was followed during the stress progression. Cadmium and zinc were accumulated primarily in the roots of sorghum plants. However, elevation of metal concentrations in the media promoted their transfer to the shoots. Toxic effects of metals applied at lower concentrations were less serious in the shoots in comparison with their influence to the roots. When applied at higher concentrations, transfer of the metals into the leaves increased, causing growth reduction and leading to Chl loss and metal-induced chlorosis. Moreover, higher metal levels in the roots overcame the quenching capacity of peroxidase and glutathione transferase, which was associated with reduction of their activities. Fortification of antioxidant system by addition of glutathione significantly increased the accumulation of cadmium in the roots as well as in the shoots at the highest cadmium concentration applied.

  6. 我国农田土壤重金属污染的植物修复技术现状与展望%Phytoremediation technology present situation and prospect of heavy metal pol ution in framland soil in our country

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鑫; 王继富

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of farmland soil heavy metal pollution is increasingly serious in our country, repairing has already been to be imperative. Compared with engineering remediation, physics and chemical remediation technology, Phytoremediation is low cost, wide application range, so it becomes one of widespread attention heavy metal contaminated soil remediation technology. This paper briefly describes the present situation of the farmland soil heavy metal pol ution in our country, introduces the development situation of the phytoremediation and hyperaccumulator plants, also forecasts the future development trend.%我国农田土壤重金属污染现象日益严重,修复已经势在必行。植物修复技术与工程修复和物理、化学修复技术相比,成本低,适用范围广,成为受到广泛重视的土壤重金属污染修复技术之一。本文简述了我国农田土壤重金属污染现状,介绍了植物修复技术与超富集植物现阶段在国内的发展应用状况,并对其未来发展趋势进行展望。

  7. Heavy Metal Pollution and Chemical Profile of Cauvery River Water

    OpenAIRE

    Abida Begum; Ramaiah, M.; Harikrishna; Irfanulla Khan; K. Veena

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of water, plankton, fish and sediment reveals that the Cauvery River water in the downstream is contaminated by certain heavy metals. Water samples have high carbonate hardness. Concentrations of all elements and ions increase in the downstream. Main ions are in the following order: Na > HCO3 >Mg > K > Ca> Cl > SO4. Heavy metal concentration in water was Cr >Cu ≈ Mn > Co > Ni > Pb > Zn, in fish muscles Cr > Mn > Cu > Ni > Co > Pb ≈ Zn, in phytoplanktens Co > Zn > Pb > Mn > Cr and in ...

  8. Assessing fly ash treatment: Remediation and stabilization of heavy metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, A.T.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.

    2012-01-01

    the electrodialytic process (EDR) has been tried out before. The goal of removing heavy metals has always been the reuse of fly ash, for instance in agricultural fields (BEK). The best removal rates are here summarized and some new results have been added. MSW fly ashes are still too hazardous after treatment to even......Fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), straw (ST) and co-combustion of wood (CW) are here analyzed with the intent of reusing them. Two techniques are assessed, a remediation technique and a solidification/stabilization one. The removal of heavy metals from fly ashes through...

  9. [Heavy metal poisoning and renal injury in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Li-Ping; Xu, Yuan-Yuan; Jiang, Xiao-Yun

    2014-04-01

    Along with global environmental pollution resulting from economic development, heavy metal poisoning in children has become an increasingly serious health problem in the world. It can lead to renal injury, which tends to be misdiagnosed due to the lack of obvious or specific early clinical manifestations in children. Early prevention, diagnosis and intervention are valuable for the recovery of renal function and children's good health and growth. This paper reviews the mechanism of renal injury caused by heavy metal poisoning in children, as well as the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and prevention and treatment of renal injury caused by lead, mercury, cadmium, and chromium.

  10. Brassinosteroids and Response of Plants to Heavy Metals Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajewska, Iwona; Talarek, Marta; Bajguz, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a widespread group of plant hormones. These phytohormones play a crucial role in the regulation of growth and development of various plant species, and they demonstrate high biological activity. BRs are considered to demonstrate protective activity in the plants exposed to various stresses. Due to rapid industrialization and urbanization, heavy metals have become one of the most important plant stressors. In plants, accumulation of heavy metals beyond the critical levels leads to oxidative stress. However, BRs may inhibit the degradation of lipids, resulted from the overproduction of reactive oxygen species under stress conditions, and increase the activity of antioxidants. They also have the ability to promote phytochelatins synthesis. PMID:27242833

  11. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the Ph.D. work was to develop the electrodialytic remediation method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. The work was focused on two types of fly ashes: fly ashes from wood combustion and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration.......The aim of the Ph.D. work was to develop the electrodialytic remediation method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. The work was focused on two types of fly ashes: fly ashes from wood combustion and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration....

  12. Oil palm biomass as an adsorbent for heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakili, Mohammadtaghi; Rafatullah, Mohd; Ibrahim, Mahamad Hakimi; Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi; Salamatinia, Babak; Gholami, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Many industries discharge untreated wastewater into the environment. Heavy metals from many industrial processes end up as hazardous pollutants of wastewaters.Heavy metal pollution has increased in recent decades and there is a growing concern for the public health risk they may pose. To remove heavy metal ions from polluted waste streams, adsorption processes are among the most common and effective treatment methods. The adsorbents that are used to remove heavy metal ions from aqueous media have both advantages and disadvantages. Cost and effectiveness are two of the most prominent criteria for choosing adsorbents. Because cost is so important, great effort has been extended to study and find effective lower cost adsorbents.One class of adsorbents that is gaining considerable attention is agricultural wastes. Among many alternatives, palm oil biomasses have shown promise as effective adsorbents for removing heavy metals from wastewater. The palm oil industry has rapidly expanded in recent years, and a large amount of palm oil biomass is available. This biomass is a low-cost agricultural waste that exhibits, either in its raw form or after being processed, the potential for eliminating heavy metal ions from wastewater. In this article, we provide background information on oil palm biomass and describe studies that indicate its potential as an alternative adsorbent for removing heavy metal ions from wastewater. From having reviewed the cogent literature on this topic we are encouraged that low-cost oil-palm-related adsorbents have already demonstrated outstanding removal capabilities for various pollutants.Because cost is so important to those who choose to clean waste streams by using adsorbents, the use of cheap sources of unconventional adsorbents is increasingly being investigated. An adsorbent is considered to be inexpensive when it is readily available, is environmentally friendly, is cost-effective and be effectively used in economical processes. The

  13. Effects of lime on bioavailability and leachability of heavy metals during agitated pile composting of water hyacinth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jiwan; Kalamdhad, Ajay S

    2013-06-01

    In the present study composting of water hyacinth was done with cattle manure and saw dust (6:3:1) ratio and effects of addition of lime (1%, 2% and 3%) on heavy metal bioavailability and leachability was evaluated during 30 days of composting period. The changes in temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic matter and extractable heavy metal contents were measured. Results showed that the total concentration of heavy metals was increased during the composting process. Due to addition of lime initial pH of the compost was raised effectively, caused a decrease in water soluble, diethylene triamine pentracetic acid (DTPA) and toxicity characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP) extractable metal contents in the final compost. Water soluble metals (Ni, Pb and Cd) and DTPA extractable metals (Pb and Cd) were not detected during water soluble fraction. Addition of lime significantly reduced the bioavailability and leachability of heavy metals during water hyacinth composting process.

  14. Science Letters: Simultaneous removal of nitrate and heavy metals by iron metal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Zhi-wei; XU Xin-hua; JIN Jian; HE Ping; LIU Yong; WANG Da-hui

    2005-01-01

    Great attention should be paid now to simultaneously removing common pollutants, especially inorganic pollutants such as nitrate and heavy metals, as individual removal has been investigated extensively. Removing common pollutants simultaneously by iron metal is a very effective alternative method. Near neutral pH, heavy metals, such as copper and nickel, can be removed rapidly by iron metal, while nitrate removal very much slower than that of copper and nickel, and copper can accelerate nitrate removal when both are removed simultaneously. Even a little amount of copper can enhance nitrate removal efficiently.Different mechanisms of these contaminants removal by iron metal were also discussed.

  15. Can heavy metal pollution defend seed germination against heat stress? Effect of heavy metals (Cu(2+), Cd(2+) and Hg(2+)) on maize seed germination under high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Benliang; Yang, Kejun; Zhang, Yifei; Li, Zuotong

    2016-09-01

    Heavy metal pollution, as well as greenhouse effect, has become a serious threat today. Both heavy metal and heat stresses can arrest seed germination. What response can be expected for seed germination under both stress conditions? Here, the effects of heavy metals (Cu(2+), Cd(2+) and Hg(2+)) on maize seed germination were investigated at 20 °C and 40 °C. Compared with 20 °C, heat stress induced thermodormancy. However, this thermodormancy could be significantly alleviated by the addition of a low concentration of heavy metals. Heavy metals, as well as heat stress induced H2O2 accumulation in germinating seeds. Interestingly, this low concentration of heavy metal that promoted seed germination could be partly blocked by DMTU (a specific ROS scavenger), irrespective of temperature. Accordingly, H2O2 addition reinforced this promoting effect on seed germination, which was induced by a low concentration of heavy metal. Furthermore, we found that the NADPH oxidase derived ROS was required for seed germination promoted by the heavy metals. Subsequently, treatment of seeds with fluridone (a specific inhibitor of ABA) or ABA significantly alleviated or aggravated thermodormancy, respectively. However, this alleviation or aggravation could be partly attenuated by a low concentration of heavy metals. In addition, germination that was inhibited by high concentrations of heavy metals was also partly reversed by fluridone. The obtained results support the idea that heavy metal-mediated ROS and hormone interaction can finally affect the thermodormancy release or not.

  16. Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicle Field Evaluations (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walkowicz, K.

    2014-06-01

    This presentation discusses field evaluations of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles performed by NREL. The project provides medium-duty (MD) and heavy-duty (HD) test results, aggregated data, and detailed analysis, including 3rd party unbiased data (data that would not normally be shared by industry in an aggregated and detailed manner). Over 5.6 million miles of advanced technology MD and HD truck data have been collected, documented, and analyzed on over 240 different vehicles since 2002. Data, analysis, and reports are shared within DOE, national laboratory partners, and industry for R&D planning and strategy. The results help guide R&D for new technology development, help define intelligent usage of newly developed technology, and help fleets/users understand all aspects of advanced technology.

  17. Hydroponical estimation of interactions among selected heavy metals accumulated by Salix viminalis in phytoremediation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mleczek, Mirosław; Magdziak, Zuzanna; Kaczmarek, Zygmunt; Golinski, Piotr

    2010-09-01

    Determination of interactions between selected heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in their phytoremediation by one-year-old cuttings of Salix viminalis 'Cannabina' was the purpose of this work. The achieved results indicate that Salix cuttings may successfully be used in phytoremediation of polluted soil and/or sewage not only with one metal at high concentrations but also in different combinations with the other metals. Under controlled conditions (the hydroponic experiment) new interactions were found as well as known data concerning interactions between-presented in the matrix-heavy metals, depending on whether their concentration and composition were confirmed. The results showed that the ratio of metal concentration can change the interaction intensity. The achieved results enable one to indirectly estimate the accumulation efficiency of dominating metals as well as accompanying ones at lower concentrations.

  18. Magnetic properties of alluvial soils polluted with heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlouha, S.; Petrovsky, E.; Boruvka, L.; Kapicka, A.; Grison, H.

    2012-04-01

    Magnetic properties of soils, reflecting mineralogy, concentration and grain-size distribution of Fe-oxides, proved to be useful tool in assessing the soil properties in terms of various environmental conditions. Measurement of soil magnetic properties presents a convenient method to investigate the natural environmental changes in soils as well as the anthropogenic pollution of soils with several risk elements. The effect of fluvial pollution with Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn on magnetic soil properties was studied on highly contaminated alluvial soils from the mining/smelting district (Příbram; CZ) using a combination of magnetic and geochemical methods. The basic soil characteristics, the content of heavy metals, oxalate, and dithionite extractable iron were determined in selected soil samples. Soil profiles were sampled using HUMAX soil corer and the magnetic susceptibility was measured in situ, further detailed magnetic analyses of selected distinct layers were carried out. Two types of variations of magnetic properties in soil profiles were observed corresponding to indentified soil types (Fluvisols, and Gleyic Fluvisols). Significantly higher values of topsoil magnetic susceptibility compared to underlying soil are accompanied with high concentration of heavy metals. Sequential extraction analysis proved the binding of Pb, Zn and Cd in Fe and Mn oxides. Concentration and size-dependent parameters (anhysteretic and isothermal magnetization) were measured on bulk samples in terms of assessing the origin of magnetic components. The results enabled to distinguish clearly topsoil layers enhanced with heavy metals from subsoil samples. The dominance of particles with pseudo-single domain behavior in topsoil and paramagnetic/antiferromagnetic contribution in subsoil were observed. These measurements were verified with room temperature hysteresis measurement carried out on bulk samples and magnetic extracts. Thermomagnetic analysis of magnetic susceptibility measured on

  19. Contamination of soils with heavy metals and metalloids and its ecological hazard (analytic review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodyanitskii, Yu. N.

    2013-07-01

    According to the present-day ecotoxicologic data, hazardous heavy metals/metalloids form the following sequence in the soil: Se > Tl > Sb > Cd > V > Hg > Ni > Cu > Cr > As > Ba. This sequence differs from the well-known series of the hazardous heavy elements, in which the danger of Pb and Zn is exaggerated, whereas that of V, Sb, and Ba, is underestimated. Tl also should be included in the list of hazardous elements in the soil. At present, the stress is made on the investigation of heavy metals/metalloids in agricultural soils rather than in urban soils, as the former produce contaminated products poisoning both animals and humans. The main sources of soil contamination with heavy metals are the following: aerial deposition from stationary and moving sources; hydrogenic contamination from the industrial sewage discharging into water bodies; sewage sediments; organic and mineral fertilizers and chemicals for plant protection, tailing dumps of ash, slag, ores, and sludge. In addition to the impact on plants and groundwater, heavy metals/metalloids exert a negative effect on the soil proper. Soil microorganisms appear to be very sensitive to the influence of heavy elements.

  20. A review on progress of heavy metal removal using adsorbents of microbial and plant origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shalini; Agrawal, S B; Mondal, M K

    2015-10-01

    Heavy metals released into the water bodies and on land surfaces by industries are highly toxic and carcinogenic in nature. These heavy metals create serious threats to all the flora and fauna due to their bioaccumulatory and biomagnifying nature at various levels of food chain. Existing conventional technologies for heavy metal removal are witnessing a downfall due to high operational cost and generation of huge quantity of chemical sludge. Adsorption by various adsorbents appears to be a potential alternative of conventional technologies. Its low cost, high efficiency, and possibility of adsorbent regeneration for reuse and recovery of metal ions for various purposes have allured the scientists to work on this technique. The present review compiles the exhaustive information available on the utilization of bacteria, algae, fungi, endophytes, aquatic plants, and agrowastes as source of adsorbent in adsorption process for removal of heavy metals from aquatic medium. During the last few years, a lot of work has been conducted on development of adsorbents after modification with various chemical and physical techniques. Adsorption of heavy metal ions is a complex process affected by operating conditions. As evident from the literature, Langmuir and Freundlich are the most widely used isotherm models, while pseudo first and second order are popularly studied kinetic models. Further, more researches are required in continuous column system and its practical application in wastewater treatment.

  1. Attenuation of heavy metals by geosynthetics in the coal gangue-filled columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Hu, Zhenqi; Wang, Peijun

    2013-01-01

    In the subsided areas backfilled with coal gangue, an issue of continuing environmental concern is the migration of hazardous metals to the subsurface soil and groundwater. As an effective isolation material, geosynthetics have been scarcely applied into mining areas reclamation of China. This paper describes research aimed at characterizing the behaviours of different geosynthetics in the leaching columns filled with coal gangues. Four types of geosynthetics were selected: fibres needle-punched nonwoven geotextiles, high-density polyethylene, needle-punched Na-bentonite geosynthetic clay liner (GCL-NP) and Na-bentonite geosynthetic-overbited film. Heavy metals were significantly attenuated and by monitoring aqueous solutions in the whole percolation period, negative correlation was found between pH value and concentration of heavy metals. Generally, GCL-NP showed comparatively better effects on attenuating the migration of heavy metals. According to the meta-analysis of heavy metals present in the leachates and retained in the columns, geosynthetics have good capabilities of sorption and retardation, which can delay the breakthrough time of heavy metals and retard the accumulation in the subsurface. Future research will use X-ray diffraction and micro-imaging (electron microprobe and scanning electron microscopy) to further explain retention mechanisms.

  2. HEAVY METALS CONTAMINATION OF TOPSOIL AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    Average topsoil metal concentrations (0-10 cm) in auto-repair workshop areas ...... States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) with a carcinogenicity classification A ... Mellor, A.; Bevan, J.R. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 1999, 112, 327.

  3. Heavy Metal Bioavailability and Bioaccessibility in Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, John Richard

    This chapter considers the use of a variety of approaches to assess either the bioavailability or the bioaccessibility of metals in soil. The bioavailability of metals from soils is considered with respect to a series of single-extraction methods, including the use of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), acetic acid, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), ammonium nitrate, calcium chloride and sodium nitrate. Then, a procedure for the recovery of metals using a three-stage sequential extraction protocol is described. Two alternate approaches for assessing the environmental health risk to humans by undertaking in vitro gastrointestinal extraction (also known as the physiologically based extraction test, PBET) are considered. Finally, two acid digestion protocols that allow the pseudo-total metal content of samples to be assessed are provided.

  4. DETERMINATION OF HEAVY METALS IN IRANIAN AND IMPORTED BLACK TEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ansari

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Tea is the most popular beverage in the world and contains several essential nutrients, which are beneficial for human health. The contamination of tea leaves by heavy metals may pose a serious threat to human, because they are not biodegradable and remain in environment and pass to food chain. In this study, the concentration of heavy metals of Cd, Pb, Ni, and Al and macro-elements of Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry on 30 samples of black tea cultivated in Iran and compared with the results for 30 samples of imported black tea in 2006. The results of analysis showed that the mean level of Al was 699.2±172.7mg/kg for Iranian and 388.3±98.3mg/kg for imported black tea. However, the values for Cd, Pb, and Ni were non-detectable. The most abundant nutritive metal was manganese with 155.2-214.2mg/kg and 96.7-332.9mg/kg in Iranian and imported black tea, respectively. The average contents of detectable heavy metals were significantly (p<0.05 higher in Iranian black tea. According to the results of this study, it is justifiable to set maximum residue level for heavy metals in tea, such as Al which appears to be very high in concentration.

  5. Heavy metal characterization of circulating fluidized bed derived biomass ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lianming; Yu, Chunjiang; Bai, Jisong; Wang, Qinhui; Luo, Zhongyang

    2012-09-30

    Although the direct combustion of biomass for energy that applies circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology is steadily expanding worldwide, only few studies have conducted an environmental assessment of biomass ash thus far. Therefore, this study aims to integrate information on the environmental effects of biomass ash. We investigated the concentration of heavy metal in biomass ash samples (bottom ash, cyclone ash, and filter ash) derived from a CFB boiler that combusted agricultural and forest residues at a biomass power plant (2×12 MW) in China. Ash samples were gathered for the digestion and leaching test. The heavy metal content in the solution and the leachate was studied via an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer and a Malvern Mastersizer 2000 mercury analyzer. Measurements for the chemical composition, particle size distribution, and the surface morphology were carried out. Most of the metals in cyclone ash particles were enriched, whereas Ti and Hg were enriched in filter ash. Residence time contributed most to heavy metal enrichment. Under HJ/T 300 conditions, the heavy metals showed serious leaching characteristics. Under EN 12457-2 conditions, leaching behavior was hardly detected.

  6. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Vegetables from Agricultural Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELJAN KASA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the heavy metals in vegetables cultivated in private gardens in Bregu i Matit, an important agricultural area in the NW Albania.The plant and soil samples taken from irrigated and non-irrigated fields in this area were analyzed for the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb and Ni using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS, after extraction by HNO3 and H2O2.The transfer factors (TF were used to evaluate the risk of metal transfer from soil to plant and the FAO/WHO safe limits to assess the potential hazards of heavy metals to human health. The ranges of heavy metal concentrations ± standard deviation in vegetable samples were (mg kg- 1: Cu 2.98-12.90 (±3.08, Ni 4.82-35.79 (±7.68, Zn Zn > Cu > Ni > Pb. The TF values indicate that only Cd was accumulated in plants.The contents of Cd in three vegetable samples, Pb in four samples, and Cu in one sample were above the safe limits set by the FAO/WHO for heavy metals in foods and vegetables indicating that consumption of vegetables grown in the studied soils could be dangerous to human health.

  7. Analysis of Accumulating Ability of Heavy Metals in Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) Improved by Ion Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建华; 王乃彦; 张丰收

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metals have seriously contaminated soil and water, and done harm to public health. Academician WANG Naiyan proposed that ion-implantation technique should be exploited for environmental bioremediation by mutating and breeding plants or microbes. By implanting N^+ into Taikonglian No.l, we have selected and bred two lotus cultivars, Jingguang No.1 and Jingguang No.2. The present study aims at analyzing the feasibility that irradiation can be used for remediation of soil and water from heavy metals. Compared with parent Taikonglian No.l, the uptaking and accumulating ability of heavy metals in two mutated cultivars was obviously improved. So ion implantation technique can indeed be used in bioremediation of heavy metals in soil and water, but it is hard to select and breed a cultivar which can remedy the soil and water from all the heavy metals.

  8. STUDIES AND RESEARCHES ON TYPHA LATIFOLIA’S (BULRUSH ABSORPTION CAPACITY OF HEAVY METALS FROM THE SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRA-DANA CHIŢIMUŞ 1*, CRISTIAN RADU 1, 2, VALENTIN NEDEFF 1, EMILIAN MOŞNEGUŢU 1, NARCIS BÂRSAN 1

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to determine Typha latifolia’s (bulrush absorption capacity of heavy metals from the soil in the industrial area of Piatra Neamt city, Romania. Heavy metals present in ecological systems are available to the absorption process only partially, depending on the type of pH of the environment, their chemical composition, and the quantity of heavy metals in the soil, plants, sediments, water, or air. The choice of sampling points (the industrial area of Piatra Neamt city took into consideration the areas where the pollution sources are located and where the sediment layer is thick and the granularity level is lower than 63 μm. The investigation of Typha latifolia’s absorption capacity showed that, in case of nickel, chromium, copper and arsenic, a very low capacity of heavy metals absorption was detected. Typha latifolia’s highest absorption capacity of heavy metals from the soil was recorded in case of cadmium.

  9. Recovery of Trace and Heavy Metals from Coal Combustion Residues for Reuse and Safe Disposal: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashvani; Samadder, Sukha Ranjan; Elumalai, Suresh Pandian

    2016-09-01

    The safe disposal of coal combustion residues (CCRs) will remain a major public issue as long as coal is used as a fuel for energy production. Both dry and wet disposal methods of CCRs create serious environmental problems. The dry disposal method creates air pollution initially, and the wet disposal method creates water pollution as a result of the presence of trace and heavy metals. These leached heavy metals from fly ash may become more hazardous when they form toxic compounds such as arsenic sulfite (As2S3) and lead nitrate (N2O6Pb). The available studies on trace and heavy metals present in CCRs cannot ensure environmentally safe utilization. In this work, a novel approach has been offered for the retrieval of trace and heavy metals from CCRs. If the proposed method becomes successful, then the recovered trace and heavy metals may become a resource and environmentally safe use of CCRs may be possible.

  10. Phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil by Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fang-Chih; Ko, Chun-Han; Tsai, Ming-Jer; Wang, Ya-Nang; Chung, Chin-Yi

    2014-12-01

    This study employed Jatropha curcas (bioenergy crop plant) to assist in the removal of heavy metals from contaminated field soils. Analyses were conducted on the concentrations of the individual metals in the soil and in the plants, and their differences over the growth periods of the plants were determined. The calculation of plant biomass after 2 years yielded the total amount of each metal that was removed from the soil. In terms of the absorption of heavy metal contaminants by the roots and their transfer to aerial plant parts, Cd, Ni, and Zn exhibited the greatest ease of absorption, whereas Cu, Cr, and Pb interacted strongly with the root cells and remained in the roots of the plants. J. curcas showed the best absorption capability for Cd, Cr, Ni, and Zn. This study pioneered the concept of combining both bioremediation and afforestation by J. curcas, demonstrated at a field scale.

  11. Analysis of build-up of heavy metals and volatile organics on urban roads in gold coast, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahbub, Parvez; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Ayoko, Godwin A; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Yigitcanlar, Tan

    2011-01-01

    Urban water quality can be significantly impaired by the build-up of pollutants such as heavy metals and volatile organics on urban road surfaces due to vehicular traffic. Any control strategy for the mitigation of traffic related build-up of heavy metals and volatile organic pollutants should be based on the knowledge of their build-up processes. In the study discussed in this paper, the outcomes of a detailed experimental investigation into build-up processes of heavy metals and volatile organics are presented. It was found that traffic parameters such as average daily traffic, volume over capacity ratio and surface texture depth had similar strong correlations with the build-up of heavy metals and volatile organics. Multicriteria decision analyses revealed that that the 1-74 microm particulate fraction of total suspended solids (TSS) could be regarded as a surrogate indicator for particulate heavy metals in build-up and this same fraction of total organic carbon could be regarded as a surrogate indicator for particulate volatile organics build-up. In terms of pollutants affinity, TSS was found to be the predominant parameter for particulate heavy metals build-up and total dissolved solids was found to be the predominant parameter for the potential dissolved particulate fraction in heavy metals buildup. It was also found that land use did not play a significant role in the build-up of traffic generated heavy metals and volatile organics.

  12. Bioaccumulation and translocation of heavy metals by nine native plant species grown at a sewage sludge dump site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Ebrahem M; Shaltout, Kamal H

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, nine native plant species were collected to determine their potential to clean up nine heavy metals from soil of a sewage sludge dump site. Almost all nine plant species grown at sewage sludge dump site showed multifold higher concentrations of heavy metals as compared to plants grown at the reference site. All the investigated species were characterized by a bioaccumulation factor (BF) > 1.0 for some heavy metals. BF was generally higher for Cd, followed by Pb, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Mn, Zn, and Fe. The translocation factor (TF) varied among plant species, and among heavy metals. For most studied heavy metals, TFs were heavy metals (except Cd, Co, and Pb) in most studied species were positively correlated with those in soil. Such correlations indicate that these species reflect the cumulative effects of environmental pollution from soil, and thereby suggesting their potential use in the biomonitoring of most heavy metals examined. In conclusion, all tissues of nine plant species could act as bioindicators, biomonitors, and remediates of most examined heavy metals. Moreover, Bassia indica, Solanum nigrum, and Pluchea dioscoridis are considered hyperaccumulators of Fe; Amaranthus viridis and Bassia indica are considered hyperaccumulators of Pb; and Portulaca oleracea is considered hyperaccumulator of Mn.

  13. Studies on Leaching of Heavy Metals from E – waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Michael

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the global problems in the present day world is the negative impacts created by the growing e-waste on the natural resources like air, soil and water. In the present work, the discarded electronic components were allowed to leach in water samples drawn from different rivers and the leachate were analyzed for the presence of heavy metals. The results highlight that even if the contact time is short, the toxic elements tend to leach to a great extent. In our studies, Arsenic had leached to an extent of 0.053ppm, Cadmium 0.010 ppm, Chromium 0.029 ppm, Lead 0.042ppm and Mercury 0.061ppm. The results indicate that most of the metals have a tendency to leach and the extent of leaching depends on the quality of the water. As a result of leaching the physico-chemical parameters like pH, hardness, conductance and TDS of the water samples underwent a change. On the other hand, the physical parameters like viscosity, density, were not much affected. These studies highlight the danger of dumping the discarded electronic components in river beds especially when the water flow is less and when the water is stagnated.

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in Kostrena coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsak, Dijana Tomić; Linsak, Zeljko; Besić, Denis; Vojcić, Nina; Telezar, Mirna; Coklo, Miran; Susnić, Sasa; Mićović, Vladimir

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine pollution by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and heavy metals in seawater and sediment in Kostrena coastal area, as well as their toxicity using bioluminescence based tests. Total PAH concentration in seawater ranged 1.7-155.3 ng/L. The share of carcinogenetic PAH was relatively high, ranging 22-48.3%. Nickel concentrations in seawater were beyond detection limits (chrome concentrations were beyond detection limits, and copper concentrations were also beyond detection limits or extremely low (up to 0.32 microg/L). EC50 values in seawater ranged 23.80-90.90 ng/L. Correlation between total PAH concentration and toxicity of seawater showed strong connection between them (r = 0.9579). Total PAH concentration in marine sediment ranged 58.02-1116 microg/kg dry weight (d.w.). The share of carcinogenetic PAH was extremely high ranging 10-53%. Nickel concentrations in marine sediment ranged 8-24 mg/kg d.w., vanadium concentrations ranged 24-42 mg/kg d.w., chrome concentrations ranged 11-19 mg/kg d.w., and copper concentrations ranged 7-25 mg/kg d.w. EC50 values in marine sediment ranged 818-4596 microg/kg d.w. Correlation between total PAH concentration and toxicity of marine sediment showed weak connection between them (r = 0.2590). Previous studies of seawater samples from areas of the Adriatic sea under the direct influence of oil industry did not include concentrations of heavy metals, which makes our study the first to present such comprehensive results. Our results point out the need for further evaluations and following of marine environment pollution and its consequences on living organisms and marine ecosystem in whole.

  15. Assessment of carcinogenic heavy metal levels in Brazilian cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Gustavo Freitas de Sousa; Garcia, Karina S; Menezes-Filho, Jose Antonio

    2011-10-01

    Several studies have associated high cancer incidence with smoking habits. According to IARC, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), nickel (Ni), and chromium (Cr) are carcinogenic to humans. These metals are present in cigarettes and their levels vary according to geographical region of tobacco cultivation, fertilizer treatment, plant variety etc. This study aims to assess these metal levels in cigarettes commercialized in Brazil. Three cigarettes of each 20 different brands were individually weighed, the tobacco filling removed, and homogenized. After desiccation, samples were subjected to microwave-assisted digestion. Analyses were performed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Mean levels for Pb, Cd, As, Ni, and Cr were, respectively, 0.27 ± 0.054, 0.65 ± 0.091, 0.09 ± 0.024, 1.26 ± 0.449, and 1.43 ± 0.630, in micrograms per gram of tobacco. No correlation was observed between Cd and any other metal analyzed. A mild correlation (r = 0.483, p < 0.05) was observed between Pb and Cr levels. Strong significant (p < 0.01) correlations were observed between Ni and Cr (r = 0.829), Ni and As (r = 0.799), Ni and Pb (r = 0.637), and between Cr and As (r = 0.621). Chromium and Ni levels were significantly higher in cigarettes from a multinational manufacturer. Our results show a high variability in heavy metal levels in cigarettes, representing an important exposure source of smokers and passive smokers to carcinogenic substances.

  16. Biomonitoring and speciation of road dust for heavy metals using Calotropis procera and Delbergia sissoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Prajapati

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted for identifying the important heavy metals present in the road dust and at the same time biomonitor them using Calotropis procera and Delbergia sissoo leaves. The study clearly indicated that both the plants can be used as biomonitor for As, Pb, Fe, V, Cd, Cr, Zn and Cu. The heavy metals were estimated using AAS-7000 (Shimadzu. Reason for selecting the plants were their abundance in the area and high air pollution indices. Presence of these heavy metals in the road dust can be attributed to the red soil and more importantly thermal power plants operating in the study area. Since plants are able to capture the road dust, they can also prevent the particulate pollution which is having adverse health impacts for humans.

  17. 麻阳铜矿废弃地土壤重金属污染现状及修复研究%Study on Present Situation and Remediation of Heavy Metal Pollution in Abandoned Copper Mine Lands in Mayang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶漪; 刘浩; 梁娟

    2015-01-01

    This research studied the current situation of heavy metal pollution in old and new tailings ,waste rock piles , copper - outcropping ores ,artificial restoration areas of tailings and waste rock piles of Mayang copper mine .The pH value ,soil organic matter content and vegetation composition of each land were also investigated . Results showed that : most of abandoned copper mine lands had different degrees of copper pollution .New tailings and copper - outcropping ores reached heavy pollution , old tailings moderate pollution ,waste rock piles light pollution ,while the artificial restoration areas of tailings and waste rock piles had no pollution .The pH value of all the abandoned copper mine lands was greater than 8 ,and the soil fertility of each land was poor with the organic content from 0.12% to 0.86% .But the fertility of artificial restoration area was significantly higher than that of tailings and waste rock piles .Contrastive analysis of vegetation composition in old tailings and artificial restoration areas of old tailings indicated that there were several plants in the former land ,while the latter land distributed 44 kinds of plants which mainly belonged to Compositae , Polygonaceae , Gramineae , Legume and Rosaceae , etc . There was no metal pollution in artificial restoration areas and soil fertility was improved ,which indicated that phytoremediation was an effective way for soil remediation in abandoned copper mine lands .%本研究分析了麻阳铜矿旧尾砂库、新尾砂库、废石场、矿脉地表露头区、尾砂库人工修复区以及废石场人工修复区等6个地类的土壤重金属污染现状,以及各地类土壤 pH 值、有机质含量以及植被组成情况.结果表明:麻阳铜矿废弃大部分地类均存在不同程度的 Cu 污染,新尾砂库和矿脉地表露头区达到重度污染,旧尾砂库达到中度污染,废石场达到轻度污染,而尾砂库人工修复区和废石场人工修复区基本

  18. Regional distribution pattern of groundwater heavy metals resulting from agricultural activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, J.; Mahvi, A. H.; Jahed, G. R.; Babaei, A. A.

    2008-09-01

    Contaminations of groundwater by heavy metals due to agricultural activities are growing recently. The objective of this study was to evaluate and map regional patterns of heavy metals (Cd, Zn and Cu) in groundwater on a plain with high agricultural activities. The study was conducted to investigate the concentration of heavy metals and distribution in groundwater in regions of Shush Danial and Andimeshk aquifers in the southern part of Iran. Presently, groundwater is the only appropriate and widely used source of drinking water for rural and urban communities in this region. The region covers an area of 1,100 km2 between the Dez and Karkhe rivers, which lead to the Persian Gulf. For this study, the region was divided into four sub-regions A, B, C and D. Additionally, 168 groundwater samples were collected from 42 water wells during the earlier months of 2004. The flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS-Flame) was used to measure the concentration of heavy metals in water samples and the Surfer software was used for determination of the contour map of metal distribution. The results demonstrated that in all of the samples, Cd and Zn concentrations were below the EPA MCLG and EPA secondary standard, respectively. However, the Cu contents of 4.8 % of all samples were higher than EPA MCL. It is also indicated that the concentrations of metals were more pronounced at the southern part of the studied region than at the others. The analysis of fertilizers applied for agricultural activities at this region also indicated that a great majority of the above-mentioned heavy metals were discharged into the environment. Absence of confining layers, proximity to land surface, excess agricultural activities in the southern part and groundwater flow direction that is generally from the north to the southern parts in this area make the southern region of the Shush plain especially vulnerable to pollution by heavy metals than by other contaminants.

  19. Effects of heavy metal pollution on soil microbial biomass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the effects of heavy metals on microbial biomass in metal-polluted soils. Laboratory and field investigations where metals were applied ass inorganic or organic salts demonstrated a significant decline in the size of s oil microbial biomass. In most of the cases, negative effects were evident at metal concentrations below the European Community's (EC) current permissible metal levels in the soil. Application of metal-enriched sludges and composts caused significant inhibition of microbial biomass at surprisingly modest concentrations of metals in the soil that were indeed smaller than those likely to decrease the growth of sensitive crop species. On the whole, relative toxicity of metals decreased in the order of Cd>Cu>Zn>Pb, but a few exceptions to this trend also existed. A significant decline in the biomass carbon to organic carbon ratio(Cmin/Corg) in metal-polluted soils indicated that this parameter can serve as a good indicator of the toxicity of metals on soil microflora. The knowledge regarding the response of soil biota to metal interactions and the factors affecting metal toxicity to soil microorganisms is still very limited and warrants further study.

  20. Heavy metal: musiikkia vai elämäntapa?

    OpenAIRE

    Rimbacher, Niko

    2010-01-01

    Opinnäytetyöni on ontologinen kuvaus heavy metal – musiikista ja kulttuurista. Työssä pohditaan, mitä heavy metal on ja mitä se kuuntelijalleen merkitsee. Työssä käydään läpi myös heavy metalin historian vaiheita. Työ on toteutettu itsenäisesti ilman tilaajaa. Työssä on käytetty lähteitä dokumenttielokuvista kirjallisuuden kautta sosiaaliseen mediaan. Onko hevi vain musiikkia vai jopa elämäntavaksi kasvanut musiikki-instituutio? Tutkimuksissa kävi ilmi, että on olemassa monenlaisia hevi...

  1. Deposition of sediment and associated heavy metals on floodplains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thonon, Ivo

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, floodplains have become widely acknowledged as important natural sinks for sediments and associated substances like nutrients, PAHs, PCBs and heavy metals. The character of floodplains will change in the near future because of landscaping measures (excavation of secondary channels,

  2. Spatiotemporal Analysis of Heavy Metal Water Pollution in Transitional China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixuan Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available China’s socioeconomic transitions have dramatically accelerated its economic growth in last three decades, but also companioned with continuous environmental degradation. This study will advance the knowledge of heavy metal water pollution in China from a spatial–temporal perspective. Specifically, this study addressed the following: (1 spatial patterns of heavy metal water pollution levels were analyzed using data of prefecture-level cities from 2004 to 2011; and (2 spatial statistical methods were used to examine the underlying socioeconomic and physical factors behind water pollution including socioeconomic transitions (industrialization, urbanization, globalization and economic development, and environmental characteristic (natural resources, hydrology and vegetation coverage. The results show that only Cr pollution levels increased over the years. The individual pollution levels of the other four heavy metals, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb, declined. High heavy metal water pollution levels are closely associated with both anthropogenic activities and physical environments, in particular abundant mineral resources and industrialization prosperity. On the other hand, economic development and urbanization play important roles in controlling water pollution problems. The analytical findings will provide valuable information for policy-makers to initiate and adjust protocols and strategies for protecting water sources and controlling water pollution; thus improving the quality of living environments.

  3. Concentration and Health Implication of Heavy Metals in Drinking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was undertaken to assess the status of drinking water quality in the ... pH, and turbidity and ten heavy metals,viz., As, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and ... treatment practices in the areas, which in turn have important human health ...

  4. Predicting the phytoextraction duration to remediate heavy metal contaminated soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, G.F.; Römkens, P.F.A.M.; Song, J.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Japenga, J.

    2007-01-01

    The applicability of phytoextraction to remediate soils contaminated with heavy metals (HMs) depends on, amongst others, the duration before remediation is completed. The impact of changes in the HM content in soil occurring during remediation on plant uptake has to be considered in order to obtain

  5. New trends in removing heavy metals from industrial wastewater

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barakat, M.A

    2011-01-01

    ... to its discharge to the environment. Heavy metal removal from inorganic effluent can be achieved by conventional treatment processes such as chemical precipitation, ion exchange, and electrochemical removal. These processes have significant disadvantages, which are, for instance, incomplete removal, high-energy requirements, and production of toxic slud...

  6. Regional ecotoxicological hazards associated with anthropogenic enrichment of heavy metals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijker, J.H.; Mol, G.; Posthuma, L.

    2011-01-01

    Regional geochemical data of heavy metals are commonly used for environmental risk assessment and management. Often these data are based on so-called total concentrations, whereas the exposure to the mobile or reactive fraction of these elements finally determines whether the exposed ecosystem is at

  7. Removal of Heavy Metals and PAH in Highway Detention Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke

    2005-01-01

    , which has been designed according to standard design criteria for several decades. The study will focus on heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The long-term simulation of input of flow and pollution to the ponds will be a hind cast based on time series of historical...

  8. Levels of heavy metals, total hydrocarbon and organic carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Levels of heavy metals, total hydrocarbon and organic carbon contents of sediments from Ikpoba (Edo) and Ethiope (Delta) Rivers of Nigeria. ... THC contents were 6.50mg/kg (Ikpoba river) and 42.10mg/kg (Ethiope river). The organic contents ...

  9. Predicting the phytoextraction duration to remediate heavy metal contaminated soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, G.F.; Römkens, P.F.A.M.; Song, J.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Japenga, J.

    2007-01-01

    The applicability of phytoextraction to remediate soils contaminated with heavy metals (HMs) depends on, amongst others, the duration before remediation is completed. The impact of changes in the HM content in soil occurring during remediation on plant uptake has to be considered in order to obtain

  10. Antibiogram and heavy metal tolerance of bullfrog bacteria in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Najiah

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial isolates from 30 farmed bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus weighing 500-600 g at Johore, Malaysia with external clinical signs of ulcer, red leg and torticollis were tested for their antibiograms and heavy metal tolerance patterns. A total of 17 bacterial species with 77 strains were successfully isolated and assigned to 21 antibiotics and 4 types of heavy metal (Hg2+, Cr6+, Cd2+, Cu2+. Results revealed that bacteria were resistant against lincomycin (92%, oleandomycin (72.7% and furazolidone (71.4% while being susceptible to chloramphenicol and florfenicol at 97.4%. The multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR index for C. freundii, E. coli and M. morganii was high with the value up to 0.71. Bacterial strains were found to exhibit 100 % resistance to chromium and mercury. High correlation of resistance against both antibiotics and heavy metals was found (71.4 to 100% between bullfrog bacteria isolates, except bacteria that were resistant to kanamycin showed only 25% resistance against Cu2+. Based on the results in this study, bacterial pathogens of bullfrog culture in Johore, Malaysia, were highly resistant to both antibiotics and heavy metals.

  11. Adolescents and Heavy Metal Music: From the Mouths of Metalheads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Jeffrey

    1991-01-01

    Attitudes and characteristics of adolescents who like heavy metal music (HMM) were explored in a study of 52 adolescents (largely White males) who liked HMM and 123 who did not in suburban Atlanta (Georgia). HMM is discussed as a reflection of, rather than a cause of, adolescent alienation. (SLD)

  12. Screening Capsicum chinense fruits for heavy metals bioaccumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated concentrations of heavy metals in edible plants could expose consumers to excessive levels of potentially hazardous chemicals. Sixty-three accessions (genotypes) of Capsicum chinense Jacq, collected from 8 countries of origin, were grown in a silty-loam soil under field conditions. At matur...

  13. Heavy metal analyses and nutritional composition of raw and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... trend moisture (43.24 - 76.79 %) > carbohydrate (3.16 – 63.45 %) > protein ... In this study, these fishes are generally low in fats (lean fish), and fish ... lower than the maximum standard level reported to be 0.5 mg/kg dry weight ... The fresh water fishes showed higher concentration of heavy metals than ... Metrics Loading .

  14. Assessment of heavy metals leachability from traditional clay pots ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leachate from the clay raw pulp material was initially analysed for heavy metals ... Cd, Fe and Zn. Results of this study showed that Pb, Cd and Fe were transferred ... are different from regions to region and the techniques of making them differ, ...

  15. Phenol degradation and heavy metal tolerance of Antarctic yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Pablo Marcelo; Martorell, María Martha; Blaser, Mariana G; Ruberto, Lucas Adolfo Mauro; de Figueroa, Lucía Inés Castellanos; Mac Cormack, Walter Patricio

    2017-03-07

    In cold environments, biodegradation of organic pollutants and heavy metal bio-conversion requires the activity of cold-adapted or cold-tolerant microorganisms. In this work, the ability to utilize phenol, methanol and n-hexadecane as C source, the tolerance to different heavy metals and growth from 5 to 30 °C were evaluated in cold-adapted yeasts isolated from Antarctica. Fifty-nine percent of the yeasts were classified as psychrotolerant as they could grow in all the range of temperature tested, while the other 41% were classified as psychrophilic as they only grew below 25 °C. In the assimilation tests, 32, 78, and 13% of the yeasts could utilize phenol, n-hexadecane, and methanol as C source, respectively, but only 6% could assimilate the three C sources evaluated. In relation to heavy metals ions, 55, 68, and 80% were tolerant to 1 mM of Cr(VI), Cd(II), and Cu(II), respectively. Approximately a half of the isolates tolerated all of them. Most of the selected yeasts belong to genera previously reported as common for Antarctic soils, but several other genera were also isolated, which contribute to the knowledge of this cold environment mycodiversity. The tolerance to heavy metals of the phenol-degrading cold-adapted yeasts illustrated that the strains could be valuable as inoculant for cold wastewater treatment in extremely cold environments.

  16. Assessment of heavy metals concentrations in coastal sediments in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    are dangerous for sea wild life and for human food resources. ... Key words: Marine pollution, heavy metals, coastal sediments, toxicity, Nosy Be, .... source of Cd and Pb in sediments come from ferry port ..... Water Environment in the Eastern African Region. ... marine organisms from the Northern part of the Gulf of Suez, Red.

  17. Optimization of heavy metals total emission, case study: Bor (Serbia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilić, Ivana; Bogdanović, Dejan; Živković, Dragana; Milošević, Novica; Todorović, Boban

    2011-07-01

    The town of Bor (Serbia) is one of the most polluted towns in southeastern Europe. The copper smelter which is situated in the centre of the town is the main pollutant, mostly because of its old technology, which leads to environmental pollution caused by higher concentrations of SO 2 and PM 10. These facts show that the word is about a very polluted region in Europe which, apart from harming human health in the region itself, poses a particular danger for wider area of southeastern Europe. Optimization of heavy metal's total emission was undertaken because years of long contamination of the soil with heavy metals of anthropogenic origin created a danger that those heavy metals may enter the food chains of animals and people, which can lead to disastrous consequences. This work represents the usage of Geographic Information System (GIS) for establishing a multifactor assessment model to quantitatively divide polluted zones and for selecting control sites in a linear programming model, combined with PROMETHEE/GAIA method, Screen View modeling system, and linear programming model. The results show that emissions at some control sites need to be cut for about 40%. In order to control the background of heavy metal pollution in Bor, the ecological environment must be improved.

  18. Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination in Soils around Cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treatment. Apart from the fact that cassava effluents contain high cyanide content which has adverse ... cottage industries such as cassava processing in ...... European. Soil Bureau Research Report No. 4. Office of. Official Publication of the ... irrigation using waste water on heavy metal ... Biological Sciences 7(2): 405-408.

  19. Electrodialytic Remediation of Heavy Metal Polluted Soil. An Innovative Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Henrik; Karlsmose, Bodil

    1997-01-01

    Electrodialytic remediationof heavy metal polluted soil is a newly developed method which combines the electrokinetic movement of ions in soil with the principle of electrodialysis. The method has prowen to work in laboratorscale and at presnet two types of pilot plants are build....

  20. Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Heavy Metals in Household Water

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, Erin; Benham, Brian Leslie, 1960-; Forrester, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Federal law requires public water utilities to provide biologically safe water. However, the safety of privately owned, individual water supplies such as wells, springs, and cisterns is the sole responsibility of the owner. This publication discusses the sources, testing, and treatment of heavy metals.

  1. Proficiency test for heavy metals in compound feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereboom, D.P.K.H.; Elbers, I.J.W.; Jong, de J.; Lee, van der M.K.; Nijs, de W.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    The here described proficiency test for heavy metals in compound feed was organised by RIKILT, Wageningen UR in accordance with ISO 17043. RIKILT Wageningen UR has an ISO/IEC 17043 accreditation for proficiency tests of residues in products of animal origin. However, this specific test is not part

  2. Heavy metals contamination of Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-27

    Sep 27, 2010 ... concentration of the metals found in fish and water was less than that recommended by the World ... that have relatively high density, which are toxic and poi- sonous at ... phase is through the feeding on aquatic organisms that.

  3. Heavy Metal Tolerance in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pages, Delphine; Rose, Jerome; Conrod, Sandrine; Cuine, Stephane; Carrier, Patrick; Heulin, Thierry; Achouak, Wafa

    2008-01-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an aerobic, non-fermentative Gram-negative bacterium widespread in the environment. S. maltophilia Sm777 exhibits innate resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents. Furthermore, this bacterium tolerates high levels (0.1 to 50 mM) of various toxic metals, such as Cd, Pb, Co, Zn, Hg, Ag, selenite, tellurite and uranyl. S. maltophilia Sm777 was able to grow in the presence of 50 mM selenite and 25 mM tellurite and to reduce them to elemental selenium (Se0) and tellurium (Te0) respectively. Transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis showed cytoplasmic nanometer-sized electron-dense Se0 granules and Te0 crystals. Moreover, this bacterium can withstand up to 2 mM CdCl2 and accumulate this metal up to 4% of its biomass. The analysis of soluble thiols in response to ten different metals showed eightfold increase of the intracellular pool of cysteine only in response to cadmium. Measurements by Cd K-edge EXAFS spectroscopy indicated the formation of Cd-S clusters in strain Sm777. Cysteine is likely to be involved in Cd tolerance and in CdS-clusters formation. Our data suggest that besides high tolerance to antibiotics by efflux mechanisms, S. maltophilia Sm777 has developed at least two different mechanisms to overcome metal toxicity, reduction of oxyanions to non-toxic elemental ions and detoxification of Cd into CdS. PMID:18253487

  4. Speciation of heavy metals in River Rhine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vega, F.A.; Weng, L.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical speciation of Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd and Pb in River Rhine was studied by measuring free ion concentration and distribution in nanoparticles, and by comparing the measurement with speciation modeling. Concentrations of free metal ions were determined in situ using Donnan Membrane Technique (DMT). T

  5. Heavy metals in miscarriages and stillbirths in developing nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Nwadiuto Amadi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Cases of miscarriage and stillbirths due to heavy metal poisoning continue to be on the rise in developing nations. In these countries like Nigeria, the menace of miscarriage is not readily linked to heavy metal exposure. This could be as a result of insufficient scientific data available due to poor documentation and inadequate public health education on the consequences of these heavy metals on maternal health. The heavy metals mercury, lead and cadmium are toxicants which have been shown to cross the placental barrier to accumulate in fetal tissues. Methods: For this review, relevant databases were searched for original scientific reports and a total of 100 articles were retained for analysis. Required data was extracted from these studies and their methodology assessed. Results: Miscarriages and stillbirths were observed from exposure to five heavy metals namely; mercury, arsenic, lead, chromium and cadmium. These heavy metals were associated with increased incidence of miscarriages in developing nations. In Nigeria, women with history of miscarriage had blood lead levels >25 µg/dL during pregnancy with approximately 41.61% increase in miscarriage incidence. Cadmium blood level was found to be 85.96 ± 1.09 μg/dl with a 9.50% increase in miscarriage incidence in women exposed to mercury in comparison to the unexposed group. For chromium, a 1.60% increase in the incidence of miscarriage in women exposed to chromium was reported. For cadmium and arsenic, 83.93% and 5.88% increase in incidence were reported respectively. Similar data were obtained for Jamaica (mercury = 7.29 ± 9.10 μg/l, Egypt (Cadmium = 1.17%; Lead = 32.33%. Conclusion: Medical practitioners and Toxicologists involved in women health in sub-Sahara Africa SSA should consider if these heavy metals can become additional biomarkers in the diagnosis of miscarriages and stillbirths.

  6. Application of SEM/EDS to environmental geochemistry of heavy metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Gosar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals represent a ubiquitous constituent of the near-surface environment, present in widely varyingconcentrations that typically have little impact on human behaviour and health. However, the mining of metals anduse of these metals in industrial processes has produced significant anthropogenic inputs of metals to both localand global environments. As such, a rigorous overview of the current accumulation of heavy metals and knowledgeof mineralogy of heavy metal-bearing phases is important for understanding their stability, solubility, mobility,bioavailability and toxicity. These data are of fundamental importance for environmental risk assessment and evaluationof future scenarios. Since conventional geochemical analyses provide limited information, other analyticalmethods have to be utilized for the characterisation of heavy metal-bearing phases. Significant analytical methodfor identification and characterisation of heavy metals in environmental media is a scanning electron microscopecoupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM/EDS, an apparatus for qualitative and semi-quantitative chemical analysis at microne level, newly introduced to Geological Survey of Slovenia. Use of SEM/EDS was already introduced to environmental studies world-wide. In Slovenia, SEM/EDS analyses of environmental media werefirstly carried out on the Meža River stream sediments and snow deposits from Ljubljana urban area.Heavy metal-bearing phases in the Meža River stream sediments were apportioned to three source areas: Mežica mining/smelting area (geogenic-technogenic origin, Ravne ironworks area (technogenic origin and the Meža River catchment area (geogenic origin, which corresponds to data obtained by conventional geochemical and multivariate statistical methods. Airborne particles, identified in urban snow deposits, were interpreted as geogenic particles, represented by fragments of heavy metal-bearing minerals, and technogenic particles that

  7. Ground water quality evaluation near mining area and development of heavy metal pollution index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Bably; Kumari, Puja; Bano, Shamima; Kumari, Shweta

    2014-03-01

    Opencast as well as underground coal mining are likely to disturb the underground water table in terms of quantity as well as quality. Added to this is the problem of leachates from the large number of industrial waste and overburden dumps that are in abundance in mining areas, reaching the ground water and adversely affecting its quality. Enhancement of heavy metals contamination of the ground water is one eventuality. In the present work, concentrations of 7 heavy metals have been evaluated at 20 important ground water sampling stations at Dhanbad township situated very near to Jharia coalfields. The concentration of heavy metals in general was found to be below the permissible levels although concentration of iron and manganese was found above the permissible limits at a few stations. These data have been used for the calculation of heavy metal pollution index (HPI). The HPI of ground water in total was found to be 6.8860 which is far below the critical index limit of 100 pointing to the fact that the ground water is not polluted with respect to heavy metals in spite of the prolific growth of mining and allied industrial activities near the town.

  8. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in crop plants grown near Almeda Textile Factory, Adwa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitet, Hintsa; Hilawie, Masho; Muuz, Mehari; Weldegebriel, Yirgaalem; Gebremichael, Dawit; Gebremedhin, Desta

    2016-09-01

    The contents of heavy metals cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) present in water (wastewater and wetland), soils, and food crops collected from the vicinity of Almeda Textile Factory were quantified using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (FAAS) in order to assess the environmental impact of the textile factory. The contents of heavy metals determined in the wastewater were found below the recommended limit set by WHO and United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) except for Cr, which was found slightly higher than WHO permissible limit. Besides, the contents of the heavy metals determined in soils were below the permissible level of FAO/WHO and Canada maximum allowable limits. Moreover, only the concentrations of Cd and Pb were found above the permissible level set by FAO/WHO in the crop plants studied. Generally, the mean concentrations of heavy metals in the plants were in the decreasing order of: Mn > Zn > Cu > Pb > Ni > Co > Cr > Cd. Nevertheless, higher bioconcentration factor (BCF) was found for Cd (0.108-1.156) followed by Zn (0.081-0.499). In conclusion, comparison of heavy metal concentrations with the permissible limits in all collected sample types i.e. water, soil, and crop plants did not show significant pollution from the factory.

  9. Feasibility of using demolition waste as an alternative heavy metal immobilising agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damrongsiri, Seelawut

    2017-05-01

    Demolition waste consisting of cement paste, lightweight concrete and bricks is a worthless material generated by a growing city. However, research suggests that it may be applied as an alternative heavy metal immobilising agent. The diverse characteristics of demolition waste were examined. Cadmium was selected as there presentative heavy metal to investigate demolition waste adsorption capacity. The solid-liquid distribution coefficients (Kd) were observed. The adsorption isotherms were applied to investigate adsorption characteristics. Carbon content in the demolition waste materials was low and mainly in inorganic form. Cement paste and lightweight concrete had an alkaline pH with very high acid neutralising capacity (ANC). The surface area and cation exchange capacity (CEC) of these materials were low. Cement paste possessed the highest pH, ANC, CEC and surface area, with the highest Kd; however, its specific surface area and CEC were low compared to activated carbon and organic material. The adsorption isotherms indicated surface heterogeneity with favourable conditions for adsorption and the mean free energy suggested physisorption with multilayer formation. The Kd values of the tested materials were comparable to soil which was not effective in immobilising heavy metal via adsorption mechanisms. However, the high pH and ANC of cement paste and lightweight concrete can improve the heavy metal adsorption capacity of soil and soil ANC that help prevents and controls leaching by heavy metals.

  10. The Hydration and Carbonation of Tricalcium Aluminate (C3A) in the Presence of Heavy Metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Quanyuan; C. D. Hills; M. Tyrer; I. Slipper

    2005-01-01

    The hydration of tricalcium aluminate (C3A) has a significant effect on the effectiveness of cement-based systems. In addition, the carbonation of hydration products of C3A is particularly important in respect of durability performance. The present work investigates the hydration and carbonation reactions of C3A and the changes induced by the presence of the heavy metal ions such as Zn2+, Pb2+, Cu2+ and Cr3+ by X-ray diffractometry (XRD). During hydration of C3A, gehlenite hydrate, hydrogarnet, calcium monoaluminate (C4AHx) and calcium carboaluminate were detected in C3A pastes except the Zn2+doped paste, where hydrogarnet did not form. The examinations revealed that heavy metals coexisted with gehlenite hydrate, calcium monoaluminate (C4AHx) and calcium carboaluminate, inhibiting the formation of hydrogarnet. Hydrating C3A was liable to be carbonated on exposure to air and carbon dioxide, especially in the presence of heavy metals, resulting in the formation of carboaluminate and/or calcium carbonate. The presence of heavy metals in-fluenced the polymorphism of calcium carbonate,ndicating that heavy metals could co-precipitate with calcium to form a carbonate solid solution.

  11. Nutritional composition and heavy metal content of selected fruits in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koleayo Oluwafemi Omoyajowo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the nutritional benefits obtained from fruit consumption, the presence of heavy metals accompanying it from the environment draws scientific concerns as these affect human health. The aim of this study is to determine nutritional composition and heavy metal content of some commonly consumed fruits (apple, watermelon and sweet orange in Nigeria. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to determine nickel, cadmium, chromium, lead and copper present in fruits. The results obtained show that the three fruit varieties contained considerable nutritional value that may meet body needs. Additionally, there was no significant difference in heavy metal concentrations of the fruits based on different locations (ANOVA F. test >0.05. This study posits that all the fruit varieties had the heavy metals within world health organisation (WHO permissible limit except apples. Apples sampled for different locations had nickel and chromium levels above the WHO permissible limits. Based on the observations in this study, there is a need for continuity of heavy metals inspection in agricultural products so as to prevent contamination and secure human safety.

  12. Heavy metal concentration in mangrove surface sediments from the north-west coast of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Cadena, J C; Andrade, S; Silva-Coello, C L; De la Iglesia, R

    2014-05-15

    Mangrove ecosystems are coastal estuarine systems confined to the tropical and subtropical regions. The Estero Salado mangrove located in Guayaquil, Ecuador, has suffered constant disturbances during the past 20 years, due to industrial wastewater release. However, there are no published data for heavy metals present in its sediments and the relationship with anthropogenic disturbance. In the present study, metal concentrations were evaluated in surface sediment samples of the mangrove, showing that B, Cd, Cu, Pb, Se, V, and Zn levels exceeded those declared in international environmental quality standards. Moreover, several metals (Pb, Sn, Cd, Ag, Mo, Zn and Ni) could be linked to the industrial wastewater present in the studied area. In addition, heavy metal levels detected in this mangrove are higher than previous reports on mangrove sediments worldwide, indicating that this mangrove ecosystem is one of the most disrupted on earth.

  13. NOISE INDUCED HEARING LOSSIN HEAVY METAL INDUSTRIAL WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subbarao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Today the world is facing with number of serious problems, which are challenging the humanity for its survival. “The present generation and the future generations have to solve at least three grave problems, namely, population, poverty and pollution if they have to survive”. Pollution is of many types li ke sound pollution, air pollution, and noise pollution. Workers who are exposed to heavy noise at industries are at higher risk of getting severe health problems especially the hearing loss which can be prevented when necessary precautions are taken. AIM: The study consists of ‘Noise Induced Hearing Loss’ (NIHL that may be present in the heavy metal industrial workers exposed to high levels of noise at the work place and compared with the control group and also to find out which frequencies are effected mo re. SETTING: The study was carried out in a nearby heavy metal industry, by taking different departments with varying noise range from (83 - 105 dB are as follows: 1 . Shells (90 - 92dB, 2. Press Shop (94 - 96 dB, 3. Cryogenic Production (85 - 86 dB, 4. Heat Ex changers (95 - 105dB, 5. Pressure Vessels (88 - 90 dB, 6. Tool Manufacturing Section (88 - 92 dB, 7. Welding (90 - 92 dB, (8. Training Section (87 - 88 dB, 9. Quality Control (83 - 85 dB, 10. Garage (86 - 88 dB . MATERIALS & METHODS : The study population included all 200 male subjects with 100 test group and 100 control group. All are subjected to thorough clinical examination, hearing tests in the department of physiology and pure tone audiometry at Visakhapatnam, from January 2014 to January 2015. The parameters studied were age, duration of exposure and years of service and intensity of exposure to noise. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: In this study statistical analysis is Chi square analysis for estimation of p value which is <0.05. RESULTS: The case sheets analyzed wer e total 200. Test group which include100 and control group 100. Among test group almost all of them

  14. [Concentration of heavy metals in pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacyszyn, K; Walas, J; Malinowski, A; Latkowski, T; Cwynar, L

    1982-01-01

    Copper, zinc, and lead concentrations were measured in two groups 72 pregnant women. Twenty-one of them, making up the control group, lived and worked in Wrocław. The other 51 women, the second group, had lived more than five years in Lubin-Polkowice and worked in the local non-ferrous metal plants. They were particularly endangered by their exposure to copper, zinc, and lead concentrations. Pregnancy was normal in all cases. Maternal blood, umbilical cord blood, placenta homogenate, and amniotic fluid were examined by techniques of atom-absorption spectrometry. The metals tested were conspicuously absorbed by placental tissue, but no danger to the pregnant women could be established.

  15. A sensitive rapid on-site immunoassay for heavy metal contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blake, R.; Blake, D.; Flowers, G.

    1996-05-02

    This project concerns the development of immunoassays for heavy metals that will permit the rapid on-site analysis of specific heavy metals, including lead and chromium in water and soil samples. 2 refs.

  16. Changes in soil properties and plant uptake of heavy metals on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Full Length Research Paper. Changes in soil ... In a study to evaluate the contributions of open municipal waste dump to soil heavy metals ... Key words: Heavy metal contamination, seasonal changes, soil pH, soil texture, specific adsorption.

  17. Heavy metal removal from waste waters by ion flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, H; Erdogan, D

    2007-09-05

    Flotation studies were carried out to investigate the removal of heavy metals such as copper (II), zinc (II), chromium (III) and silver (I) from waste waters. Various parameters such as pH, collector and frother concentrations and airflow rate were tested to determine the optimum flotation conditions. Sodium dodecyl sulfate and hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide were used as collectors. Ethanol and methyl isobutyl carbinol (MIBC) were used as frothers. Metal removal reached about 74% under optimum conditions at low pH. At basic pH it became as high as 90%, probably due to the contribution from the flotation of metal precipitates.

  18. Recovery of alumina and some heavy metals from sulfate liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. El Hazek

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The gibbsite bearing shale occurrence in the Paleozoic sedimentary sequence of SW Sinai, Egypt, was found to be associated with several metal values. From sulfate liquor prepared by proper leaching, the recovery of these metal values has been studied. Alumina was first separated in the form of potash alum followed by Cu-selective extraction by hydroxyoxime LIX-973N solvent. Then U recovery using an anionic exchange resin Amberlite IRA-400 was achieved. For the associated heavy metal Zn, it was subsequently extracted using di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid. The relevant factors affecting the extraction process were adequately studied.

  19. Modified silicates applied in adsorption of heavy metal; Silicatos modificados aplicados na adsorcao de metal pesado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, M.C.M. de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais; Raposo, C.M.O., E-mail: raposo@dmg.ufcg.edu.b [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Mineracao e Geologia

    2010-07-01

    The levels of heavy metals in the environment has increased considerably in recent decades due to various human activities, which cause serious pollution problems, both in aquatic systems and in soil. The clay minerals present himself as amenable to the adsorption of metal ions and, sometimes, taking the advantage of being abundant and inexpensive. Vermiculite has intrinsic characteristics which favor its use as adsorbent. In this work, we investigate the adsorption of lead (II) from aqueous solutions by vermiculite fractions in commercial, fine to medium in molar concentration between 1-4 mmol (s). The samples provided by the Uniao Brasileira de Mineracao/Paraiba/Brazil were modified thermal and organically. The results of X-ray diffraction associated with the results of X-ray fluorescence showed that the average fraction vermiculite exfoliated organically modified responded most significantly to the adsorption process when compared to vermiculite fine fraction under the same conditions. (author)

  20. A review of heavy metal adsorption by marine algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jin-Fen; Lin, Rong-Gen; Ma, Li

    2000-09-01

    Accumulation of heavy metals by algae had been studied extensively for biomonitoring or bioremediation purposes. Having the advantages of low cost raw material, big adsorbing capacity, no secondary pollution, etc., algae may be used to treat industrial water containing heavy metals. The adsorption processes were carried out in two steps: rapid physical adsorption first, and then slow chemical adsorption. pH is the major factor influencing the adsorption. The Freundlich equation fitted very well the adsorption isotherms. The uptake decreased with increasing ionic strength. The principal mechanism of metallic cation sequestration involves the formation of complexes between a metal ion and functional groups on the surface or inside the porous structure of the biological material. The carboxyl groups of alginate play a major role in the complexation. Different species of algae and the algae of the same species may have different adsorption capacity. Their selection affinity for heavy metals was the major criterion for the screening of a biologic adsorbent to be used in water treatment. The surface complex formation model (SCFM) can solve the equilibrium and kinetic problems in the biosorption.