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Sample records for heavy metals polluted

  1. Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 4. Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution - Development of Chronological Records and Geochemical Monitoring. Rohit Shrivastav. General Article Volume 6 Issue 4 April 2001 pp 62-68 ...

  2. Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    251, 1975. [2] L A Bame, Arctic air pollution: An overview of current knowledge,. Atmos Environ., 20, 643-663, 1986. [3] LA Bame and R S Schemenauer, Pollutant wet deposition mechanisms in precipitation and fog water, Water Air Soil Pollut., ...

  3. Electrodialytic decontamination of heavy metal polluted soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Henrik K.; Karlsmose, Bodil

    1996-01-01

    Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted soil is a newly developed method, which combines the electrokinetic mevement of ions in soil with the principle of electrodialytis. The method has been proven to work in laboratory scale and at present two types of pilot plant tests are made....

  4. heavy metal pollution asse al pollution assessment in the sediments

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ABSTRACT. Sediments were collected from Dumba and to assess the pollution statusof the sedim. Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu. (Zn) and Arsenic (As) were analysed using concentration of heavy metals varies bet with standard average shale to assess pollution in Dumba and KwataYobe sedi assessed ...

  5. Heavy Metal Pollution Around International Hatay Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Özkan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was aimed to determine the heavy metal pollution in the agricultural lands around Hatay airport and travel possible alteration in the amount of heavy metal on the land in accordance with the distance to the airport. For this purpose, the airport was chosen as the center and 27 soil samples were obtained around the airport at 2 km intervals in depth ranging from 0 to 30 cm. Lead (Pb, cadmium (Cd, nickel (Ni, chrome (Cr, cobalt (Co, aluminium (Al, iron (Fe, copper (Cu, manganese (Mn and zinc (Zn elements in soil samples were analysed using MP-AES instrument by DTPA method. (3 repetition for each sample. As a result of the analysis, heavy metal concentrations were found as Pb 0-1.45 mg/kg, Cd 0-0.220 mg/kg, Ni 0-3.95 mg/kg, Cr 0-0.780 mg/kg, Co 0-0.270 mg/kg, Al 0-0.700 mg/kg, Fe 1.47- 16.2 mg/kg, Cu 0.400-5.35 mg/kg, Mn 0-19 mg/kg and Zn 0.050-3.14 mg/kg. When comparing the obtained data through this study with allowable concentrations of heavy metals in soil of Environment and Forest Directorates Guidance, it was determined that the heavy metal concentration of the soil does not pose any problems in terms of heavy metal pollution. Besides, iron concentration was decreased when the distance to the airport is increased.

  6. Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Sediment and Polychaete ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HEAVY METAL POLLUTION & POLYCHAETE WORMS FROM MZINGA CREEK & RAS DEGE MANGROVE ECOSYSTEM. 125 ... metal pollution. The concentration of metals in the geochemically available sediment fraction (easily reducible and oxidisable phases) is analysed to assess the ..... River inputs to the ocean.

  7. [Research advances in heavy metals pollution ecology of diatom].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Teng-Da; Ni, Wan-Min; Zhang, Jian-Ying

    2012-03-01

    Diatom, due to its high sensitivity to environmental change, is one of the bio-indicators of aquatic ecosystem health, and some typical diatom species have been applied to indicate the heavy metals pollution of water body. With the focus on the surface water heavy metals pollution, this paper reviewed the research advances in the toxic effect of heavy metals pollution on diatom, biosorption and bioaccumulation of heavy metals by diatom, ecological adaptation mechanisms of diatom to heavy metals pollution, and roles of diatom as bio-indicator and in ecological restoration of heavy metals pollution. The growth tendency of diatom and the morphological change of frustule under heavy metals pollution as well as the differences in heavy metals biosorption and bioaccumulation by diatom, the ecological adaptation mechanisms of diatom on heavy metals surface complexation and ion exchange, and the roles of diatom as bio-indicator and in ecological restoration of heavy metals polluted water body were also discussed. This review could provide scientific evidences for the prevention of aquatic ecosystems heavy metals pollution and related early warning techniques.

  8. heavy metals pollution on surface water sources in kaduna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. This study examine the effects of heavy metal pollutants to aquatic ecosystems and the environment by considering the role of urban, municipal, agricultural, industrial and other anthropogenic processes as sources of heavy metal pollution in surface water sources of Kaduna metropolis. Samples of the polluted ...

  9. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in soils along major roadside ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to create awareness of vehicular heavy metal pollution to Botswana policy makers in the mitigation of vehicular pollution, as it is barely monitored. Key words: Heavy metal contamination, roadside soils, enrichment factors, contamination factor, pollution load index, geoaccumulation index, cluster analysis, factor analysis.

  10. Remediation of biochar on heavy metal polluted soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuguang; Xu, Yan; Norbu, Namkha; Wang, Zhan

    2018-01-01

    Unreasonable mining and smelting of mineral resources, solid waste disposal, sewage irrigation, utilization of pesticides and fertilizers would result in a large number of heavy metal pollutants into the water and soil environment, causing serious damage to public health and ecological safety. In recent years, a majority of scholars tried to use biochar to absorb heavy metal pollutants, which has some advantages of extensive raw material sources, low-cost and high environmental stability. This paper reviewed the definition, properties of biochar, the mechanism of heavy metal sorption by biochar and some related problems and prospects, to provide some technical support for the application of biochar into heavy metal polluted soils.

  11. Characteristics of heavy metal pollution on roadside soil along highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaocheng

    2017-10-01

    Highway traffic is the main source of heavy metal pollution. Due to limited cropland, it is very common to plant crops along the highways. So, in view of agricultural products safety, heavy metal pollution by highway traffic to soils along highway is widely concerned. Therefore, to study distribution traits, accumulative laws and influence factors of heavy metals in agricultural soils could provide scientific evidence and theoretical basis for environmental protection along express way.

  12. Heavy Metals Pollution on Surface Water Sources in Kaduna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heavy Metals Pollution on Surface Water Sources in Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria. JA Aliyu, Y Saleh, S Kabiru. Abstract. This study examine the effects of heavy metal pollutants to aquatic ecosystems and the environment by considering the role of urban, municipal, agricultural, industrial and other anthropogenic processes ...

  13. Ecological risk assessment of heavy metals pollution on irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper assessed the heavy metals pollution in irrigated soil of salanta river valley of Sharada industrial area with aim of assessing the potential ecological risk of Cd, Cu, Cr and Zn. Soil samples were collected from five plots randomly selected along the stream and heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Cr and Zn) and pH were ...

  14. Urban water pollution by heavy metals and health implication in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies of common heavy metals were conducted at Onitsha, Anambra State, the most urbanized city in Southeastern Nigeria. It was discovered that both surface and subsurface water were heavily polluted. Seven (7) heavy metals namely: arsenic (As+2), cadmium (Cd+2), lead (Pb+2), mercury (Hg+2), zinc (Zn+2), copper ...

  15. Public Health Implications of some heavy metal pollution in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heavy metal pollution has caused several health problems in different parts of the world and aquatic ecosystems are under constant pollution threats. The constant biomonitoring and assessment of the pollution levels of our aquatic environment should be ensured. Therefore, the objectives of this study was to investigate ...

  16. Dustfall Heavy Metal Pollution During Winter in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qiu-lin; Zhao, Wen-ji; Guo, Xiao-yu; Shu, Tong-tong; Chen, Fan-tao; Zheng, Xiao-xia; Gong, Zhao-ning

    2015-10-01

    In order to study heavy metal pollution in dustfall during Winter in North China, forty-four dustfall samples were collected in North China Region from November 2013 to March 2014. Then forty trace elements content were measured for each sample by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Finally, the contamination characteristics of the main heavy metals were studied through a multi-method analysis, including variability analysis, Pearson correlation analysis and principal component analysis. Results showed that the relative contents of cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), bismuth (Bi), lead (Pb) exceeded the standards stipulated in Chinese soil elements background values by amazing 4.9 times. In this study, conclusions were drawn that dustfall heavy metal pollution in the region was mainly caused by transport pollution, metallurgy industrial pollution, coal pollution and steel industrial pollution.

  17. Heavy Metal Pollution Assessment by Partial Geochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mn and Fe oxides are powerful absorbents of heavy metal cations in soils and stream sediments therefore considered in this environmental geochemical investigation. Steam sediment samples were collected from Au-Ag and Pb-Zn-Cu mineralized areas of the Rodalquilar old gold mine, located in the southeastern part of ...

  18. Environmental remediation from heavy metal pollution using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Graft copolymers of polyacrlamide-grafted gum arabic were synthesized, blended with Moringa oleifera and characterized by IR spectroscopy. The potentials of the products to remove heavy metals from aqueous solutions were studied at room temperature (30oC) and this was experimented on iron (III) ions (Fe3+).

  19. Spatiotemporal Analysis of Heavy Metal Water Pollution in Transitional China

    OpenAIRE

    Huixuan Li; Yingru Li; Ming-Kuo Lee; Zhongwei Liu; Changhong Miao

    2015-01-01

    China’s socioeconomic transitions have dramatically accelerated its economic growth in last three decades, but also companioned with continuous environmental degradation. This study will advance the knowledge of heavy metal water pollution in China from a spatial–temporal perspective. Specifically, this study addressed the following: (1) spatial patterns of heavy metal water pollution levels were analyzed using data of prefecture-level cities from 2004 to 2011; and (2) spatial statistical met...

  20. Heavy Metals in Marine Pollution Perspective-A Mini Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, T. M.; Marr, I. L.; Tariq, N.

    Anthropogenic inputs of pollutants such as heavy metals into the marine environment have increased their levels to large extents within past a few decades. These pollutants tend to accumulate in the bottom sediments. As a result, ecosystems such as seaports or other industrialized coastal areas that have chronic inputs of metals have highly contaminated sediments. This characteristic has led to concerns over the ecological effects that may be associated with sediment quality. Of particular concern are toxic effects and the potential for bioaccumulation of metals in biota exposed to the sediments. The availability of heavy metals to the biomass of a polluted region is the prime concern both in terms of the prediction of the effects of metal pollution on an ecosystem and in terms of possible human health risks. With growing interest on environmental issues, several intriguing questions related to heavy metals are often raised. This review addresses the basic concepts, sources, speciation, mode of action, levels, analytical measurement, bioavailability, bioaccumulation, biological role and toxicity of heavy metals in the marine environment. Lead, Cadmium, Zinc, Copper, Manganese, Iron, Mercury, Arsenic and Barium are selected because these metals are common and are often at measurable levels in marine samples. An attempt has been made to answer the queries presented by the environmentalists working on various aspects of heavy metal pollution in the marine environment

  1. Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie

    2012-01-01

    Electrodialytic soil remediation is a method for removal of heavy metals. Good results have previously been obtained with both treatment of a stationary, water saturated soil matrix and with remediation of a stirred suspension of soil in water. The two different setups have different uses......). In the stirred setup it is possible to shorten the transport route to few mm and to have a faster and continuous process. The present paper for the first time reports a direct comparison of the two options. The remediation of the stirred suspension showed faster than remediation of the water saturated soil even...... without a short distance between the membranes. The acidification of the suspended soil was fastest and following the mobilization of heavy metals. This may indicate that water splitting at the anion exchange membrane is used more efficiently in the stirred setup....

  2. Spatiotemporal Analysis of Heavy Metal Water Pollution in Transitional China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixuan Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available China’s socioeconomic transitions have dramatically accelerated its economic growth in last three decades, but also companioned with continuous environmental degradation. This study will advance the knowledge of heavy metal water pollution in China from a spatial–temporal perspective. Specifically, this study addressed the following: (1 spatial patterns of heavy metal water pollution levels were analyzed using data of prefecture-level cities from 2004 to 2011; and (2 spatial statistical methods were used to examine the underlying socioeconomic and physical factors behind water pollution including socioeconomic transitions (industrialization, urbanization, globalization and economic development, and environmental characteristic (natural resources, hydrology and vegetation coverage. The results show that only Cr pollution levels increased over the years. The individual pollution levels of the other four heavy metals, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb, declined. High heavy metal water pollution levels are closely associated with both anthropogenic activities and physical environments, in particular abundant mineral resources and industrialization prosperity. On the other hand, economic development and urbanization play important roles in controlling water pollution problems. The analytical findings will provide valuable information for policy-makers to initiate and adjust protocols and strategies for protecting water sources and controlling water pollution; thus improving the quality of living environments.

  3. Heavy metal pollution and genetic adaptations in ectomycorrhizal fungi

    OpenAIRE

    COLPAERT, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Heavy metal toxicity is a strong trigger for evolutionary adaptation in terrestrial biota that colonise metalliferous soils. Here, I will focus on the occurrence of metal tolerance in ectomycorrhizal fungi, the predominant group of root symbionts of pioneer trees that try to colonise severely polluted sites. A considerable amount of literature exists on metal-tolerant plants, which is in sharp contrast to what we know about the tolerance in the fungal symbiotic partners that associate with th...

  4. Research on heavy metal pollution of river Ganga: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak Paul

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available River Ganga is considered sacred by people of India for providing life sustenance to environment and ecology. Anthropogenic activities have generated important transformations in aquatic environments during the last few decades. Advancement of human civilization has put serious questions to the safe use of river water for drinking and other purposes. The river water pollution due to heavy metals is one of the major concerns in most of the metropolitan cities of developing countries. These toxic heavy metals entering the environment may lead to bioaccumulation and biomagnifications. These heavy metals are not readily degradable in nature and accumulate in the animal as well as human bodies to a very high toxic amount leading to undesirable effects beyond a certain limit. Heavy metals in riverine environment represent an abiding threat to human health. Exposure to heavy metals has been linked to developmental retardation, kidney damage, various cancers, and even death in instances of very high exposure. The following review article presents the findings of the work carried out by the various researchers in the past on the heavy metal pollution of river Ganga.

  5. A review of soil heavy metal pollution from mines in China: pollution and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiyuan; Ma, Zongwei; van der Kuijp, Tsering Jan; Yuan, Zengwei; Huang, Lei

    2014-01-15

    Heavy metal pollution has pervaded many parts of the world, especially developing countries such as China. This review summarizes available data in the literature (2005-2012) on heavy metal polluted soils originating from mining areas in China. Based on these obtained data, this paper then evaluates the soil pollution levels of these collected mines and quantifies the risks these pollutants pose to human health. To assess these potential threat levels, the geoaccumulation index was applied, along with the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) recommended method for health risk assessment. The results demonstrate not only the severity of heavy metal pollution from the examined mines, but also the high carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks that soil heavy metal pollution poses to the public, especially to children and those living in the vicinity of heavily polluted mining areas. In order to provide key management targets for relevant government agencies, based on the results of the pollution and health risk assessments, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Hg, As, and Ni are selected as the priority control heavy metals; tungsten, manganese, lead-zinc, and antimony mines are selected as the priority control mine categories; and southern provinces and Liaoning province are selected as the priority control provinces. This review, therefore, provides a comprehensive assessment of soil heavy metal pollution derived from mines in China, while identifying policy recommendations for pollution mitigation and environmental management of these mines. © 2013.

  6. Problem of landfilling environments pollution by heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilenina, V. G.; Ulanova, O. V.; Begunova, L. A.

    2017-10-01

    The article discusses the problems of snow and soil pollution by heavy metals. The results of physical and chemical special features of the deposit environment are given. Also, the results of snow mantle research in Irkutsk are described. The problem of manganese degradation from electrochemical cells disposed in the SMW areas is being discussed.

  7. Electrodialytic Remediation of Heavy Metal Polluted Soil. An Innovative Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Henrik; Karlsmose, Bodil

    1997-01-01

    Electrodialytic remediationof heavy metal polluted soil is a newly developed method which combines the electrokinetic movement of ions in soil with the principle of electrodialysis. The method has prowen to work in laboratorscale and at presnet two types of pilot plants are build....

  8. Heavy metal pollution assessment in the sediments of lake Chad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sediments were collected from Dumba and KwataYobe of Lake Chad, Nigerian Sector.The aim was to assess the pollution statusof the sediments of the lake. The concentration of heavy metals, Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), Z (Zn) and Arsenic (As) were ...

  9. Heavy metals pollution at municipal solid waste dumpsites in Kano ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil samples collected from two major dumpsites each in Kano and Kaduna states were investigated for heavy metals pollution. Each of the dumpsite was divided into north, south, east and west. Four soil samples were collected at a depth of 0-15 cm from each part and pooled to form a composite sample. Soil samples from ...

  10. Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Drinking Water Due to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    water sources. The toxicity of these heavy metals from the mining, milling and smelting companies can cause harmful and even lethal effects on the human health. The objective of this study was to investigate the level of As, Cr, Zn,. Mg, Fe, Pb, Cd, Cu, Ag and Mn in well and tap water and assess the degree of pollution in ...

  11. Investigation on speciation and pollution index of heavy metals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the chemical speciation of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb and their contamination/pollution indices in the sediment of River Ala in Akure, Nigeria. Sediment samples taken along the course of the river were subjected to Sequential Extraction Technique and the heavy metals were quantified using atomic ...

  12. The pollution status of Lake Nakuru, Kenya: heavy metals and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out from April 1999 to May 2000 to investigate the extent of pollution of Lake Nakuru. Water, sediment, fish and algae collected from the lake and its feeder rivers during the dry and rainy seasons were analysed for heavy metals and organochlorine pesticide residues to identify possible sources of ...

  13. Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Topsoil around Beijing Metropolis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranhao Sun

    Full Text Available The topsoil around Beijing metropolis, China, is experiencing impacts of rapid urbanization, intensive farming, and extensive industrial emissions. We analyzed the concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cr from 87 topsoil samples in the pre-rainy season and 115 samples in the post-rainy season. These samples were attributed to nine land use types: forest, grass, shrub, orchard, wheat, cotton, spring maize, summer maize, and mixed farmland. The pollution index (PI of heavy metals was calculated from the measured and background concentrations. The ecological risk index (RI was assessed based on the PI values and toxic-response parameters. The results showed that the mean PI values of Pb, Cr, and Cd were > 1 while those of Cu, Ni, and Zn were < 1. All the samples had low ecological risk for Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Cr while only 15.35% of samples had low ecological risk for Cd. Atmospheric transport rather than land use factors best explained the seasonal variations in heavy metal concentrations and the impact of atmospheric transport on heavy metal concentrations varied according to the heavy metal types. The concentrations of Cu, Cd, and Cr decreased from the pre- to post-rainy season, while those of Ni, Pb, and Zn increased during this period. Future research should be focused on the underlying atmospheric processes that lead to these spatial and seasonal variations in heavy metals. The policymaking on environmental management should pay close attention to potential ecological risks of Cd as well as identifying the transport pathways of different heavy metals.

  14. Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Topsoil around Beijing Metropolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ranhao; Chen, Liding

    2016-01-01

    The topsoil around Beijing metropolis, China, is experiencing impacts of rapid urbanization, intensive farming, and extensive industrial emissions. We analyzed the concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cr from 87 topsoil samples in the pre-rainy season and 115 samples in the post-rainy season. These samples were attributed to nine land use types: forest, grass, shrub, orchard, wheat, cotton, spring maize, summer maize, and mixed farmland. The pollution index (PI) of heavy metals was calculated from the measured and background concentrations. The ecological risk index (RI) was assessed based on the PI values and toxic-response parameters. The results showed that the mean PI values of Pb, Cr, and Cd were > 1 while those of Cu, Ni, and Zn were < 1. All the samples had low ecological risk for Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Cr while only 15.35% of samples had low ecological risk for Cd. Atmospheric transport rather than land use factors best explained the seasonal variations in heavy metal concentrations and the impact of atmospheric transport on heavy metal concentrations varied according to the heavy metal types. The concentrations of Cu, Cd, and Cr decreased from the pre- to post-rainy season, while those of Ni, Pb, and Zn increased during this period. Future research should be focused on the underlying atmospheric processes that lead to these spatial and seasonal variations in heavy metals. The policymaking on environmental management should pay close attention to potential ecological risks of Cd as well as identifying the transport pathways of different heavy metals. PMID:27159454

  15. Use of cestodes as indicator of heavy-metal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen Nhi, Tran Thi; Mohd Shazili, Noor Azhar; Shaharom-Harrison, Faizah

    2013-01-01

    Thirty snakehead fish, Channa micropeltes (Cuvier, 1831) were collected at Lake Kenyir, Malaysia. Muscle, liver, intestine and kidney tissues were removed from each fish and the intestine was opened to reveal cestodes. In order to assess the concentration of heavy metal in the environment, samples of water in the surface layer and sediment were also collected. Tissues were digested and the concentrations of manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were analysed by using inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS) equipment. The results demonstrated that the cestode Senga parva (Fernando and Furtado, 1964) from fish hosts accumulated some heavy metals to a greater extent than the water and some fish tissues, but less than the sediment. In three (Pb, Zn and Mn) of the five elements measured, cestodes accumulated the highest metal concentrations, and in remaining two (Cu and Cd), the second highest metal accumulation was recorded in the cestodes when compared to host tissues. Therefore, the present study indicated that Senga parva accumulated metals and might have potential as a bioindicator of heavy-metal pollution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. City, (from Point of Organic Pollutants and Heavy Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad Mazlomi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this study quality and quantity characteristics wastewater of hospitals, clinics and health centers of Arak city and the potential impacts of them on Arak wastewater plant investigated. Methods: In this cross-sectional  study, which done during 2011-2012, the quantity and quality  of wastewater via point of COD,BOD5, pH, TKN, PO4and also heavy metals in the hospitals, clinics and health center of Arak were studied. Then, the effects of these pollutants as equal to person on wastewater convey system and wastewater treatment plant were assisted. Results: Monitoring of BOD5, TKN, and PO4 indicated that the daily disposal rate of these pollutants were equal 778.14, 102.7, and 53.6 kg/d, respectively, which equal to 15763, 51351, and 6700 person, respectively. The average water consumption of these centers was equal to 8.2l/s, and the estimated measure of produced wastewater was6.14 l/s. Also, after analysis the measure of heavy metals, Hg production (99.331 g/d was more than other heavy metals, and the next rank was related to Zn (41.96 g/d and Ag (41.96g/d, respectively. Conclusion: Although existence pretreatment process units can help to decrease the side effects of produced wastewater, this kind of wastewater needs complete treatment. Discharge of this kind wastewater to absorption trenches led to adverse health impacts in future. Therefore, a construction separate wastewater treatment plants and proper operation of these systems can reduce ecosystem impacts of wastewater discharges.

  17. Advances in Understanding How Heavy Metal Pollution Triggers Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhen Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of industrialization and urbanization, heavy metals contamination has become a major environmental problem. Numerous investigations have revealed an association between heavy metal exposure and the incidence and mortality of gastric cancer. The mechanisms of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury, chromium, and arsenic contamination leading to gastric cancer are concluded in this review. There are four main potential mechanisms: (1 Heavy metals disrupt the gastric mucosal barrier by decreasing mucosal thickness, mucus content, and basal acid output, thereby affecting the function of E-cadherin and inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS damage. (2 Heavy metals directly or indirectly induce ROS generation and cause gastric mucosal and DNA lesions, which subsequently alter gene regulation, signal transduction, and cell growth, ultimately leading to carcinogenesis. Exposure to heavy metals also enhances gastric cancer cell invasion and metastasis. (3 Heavy metals inhibit DNA damage repair or cause inefficient lesion repair. (4 Heavy metals may induce other gene abnormalities. In addition, heavy metals can induce the expression of proinflammatory chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8 and microRNAs, which promotes tumorigenesis. The present review is an effort to underline the human health problem caused by heavy metal with recent development in order to garner a broader perspective.

  18. The Chemophytostabilisation Process of Heavy Metal Polluted Soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Grobelak

    Full Text Available Industrial areas are characterised by soil degradation processes that are related primarily to the deposition of heavy metals. Areas contaminated with metals are a serious source of risk due to secondary pollutant emissions and metal leaching and migration in the soil profile and into the groundwater. Consequently, the optimal solution for these areas is to apply methods of remediation that create conditions for the restoration of plant cover and ensure the protection of groundwater against pollution. Remediation activities that are applied to large-scale areas contaminated with heavy metals should mainly focus on decreasing the degree of metal mobility in the soil profile and metal bioavailability to levels that are not phytotoxic. Chemophytostabilisation is a process in which soil amendments and plants are used to immobilise metals. The main objective of this research was to investigate the effects of different doses of organic amendments (after aerobic sewage sludge digestion in the food industry and inorganic amendments (lime, superphosphate, and potassium phosphate on changes in the metals fractions in soils contaminated with Cd, Pb and Zn during phytostabilisation. In this study, the contaminated soil was amended with sewage sludge and inorganic amendments and seeded with grass (tall fescue to increase the degree of immobilisation of the studied metals. The contaminated soil was collected from the area surrounding a zinc smelter in the Silesia region of Poland (pH 5.5, Cd 12 mg kg-1, Pb 1100 mg kg-1, Zn 700 mg kg-1. A plant growth experiment was conducted in a growth chamber for 5 months. Before and after plant growth, soil subsamples were subjected to chemical and physical analyses. To determine the fractions of the elements, a sequential extraction method was used according to Zeien and Brümmer. Research confirmed that the most important impacts on the Zn, Cd and Pb fractions included the combined application of sewage sludge from the

  19. Heavy metal pollution in coastal areas of South China: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai-Long; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Sun, Yu-Xin; Liu, Jin-Ling; Li, Hua-Bin

    2013-11-15

    Coastal areas of South China face great challenges due to heavy metal contamination caused by rapid urbanization and industrialization. In this paper, more than 90 articles on levels, distributions, and sources of heavy metals in sediments and organisms were collected to review the status of heavy metal pollution along coastal regions of South China. The results show that heavy metal levels were closely associated with local economic development. Hong Kong and the Pearl River Estuary were severely contaminated by heavy metals. However, concentrations of heavy metals in sediments from Hong Kong have continually decreased since the early 1990 s. High levels of heavy metals were found in biota from Lingdingyang in Guangdong province. Mollusks had higher concentrations of heavy metals than other species. Human health risk assessments suggested that levels of heavy metals in some seafood from coastal areas of South China exceeded the safety limit. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Indices of soil contamination by heavy metals - methodology of calculation for pollution assessment (minireview).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissmannová, Helena Doležalová; Pavlovský, Jiří

    2017-11-07

    This article provides the assessment of heavy metal soil pollution with using the calculation of various pollution indices and contains also summarization of the sources of heavy metal soil pollution. Twenty described indices of the assessment of soil pollution consist of two groups: single indices and total complex indices of pollution or contamination with relevant classes of pollution. This minireview provides also the classification of pollution indices in terms of the complex assessment of soil quality. In addition, based on the comparison of metal concentrations in soil-selected sites of the world and used indices of pollution or contamination in soils, the concentration of heavy metal in contaminated soils varied widely, and pollution indices confirmed the significant contribution of soil pollution from anthropogenic activities mainly in urban and industrial areas.

  1. Ecological risk and pollution history of heavy metals in Nansha mangrove, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qihang; Tam, Nora F Y; Leung, Jonathan Y S; Zhou, Xizhen; Fu, Jie; Yao, Bo; Huang, Xuexia; Xia, Lihua

    2014-06-01

    Owing to the Industrial Revolution in the late 1970s, heavy metal pollution has been regarded as a serious threat to mangrove ecosystems in the region of the Pearl River Estuary, potentially affecting human health. The present study attempted to characterize the ecological risk of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in Nansha mangrove, South China, by estimating their concentrations in the surface sediment. In addition, the pollution history of heavy metals was examined by determining the concentrations of heavy metals along the depth gradient. The phytoremediation potential of heavy metals by the dominant plants in Nansha mangrove, namely Sonneratia apetala and Cyperus malaccensis, was also studied. Results found that the surface sediment was severely contaminated with heavy metals, probably due to the discharge of industrial sewage into the Pearl River Estuary. Spatial variation of heavy metals was generally unobvious. The ecological risk of heavy metals was very high, largely due to Cd contamination. All heavy metals, except Mn, decreased with depth, indicating that heavy metal pollution has been deteriorating since 1979. Worse still, the dominant plants in Nansha mangrove had limited capability to remove the heavy metals from sediment. Therefore, we propose that immediate actions, such as regulation of discharge standards of industrial sewage, should be taken by the authorities concerned to mitigate the ecological risk posed by heavy metals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in soils along major roadside ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    living organisms, when permissible concentration levels are exceeded. Heavy ... index (Igeo), and (3) Classify heavy metals by their similarities and ..... and classify metals. Statistical analysis. Analysis of variance was employed to determine whether groups of variables have the same mean. Sites showed no significant ...

  3. Comparative Studies on Mosses for Heavy Metals Pollution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ekiti, a rural town was investigated using mosses grown in the localities as possible bio-indicators. The sources of these heavy metals were discovered to include: vehicular emission and incineration of domestic wastes and the heavy metals from ...

  4. Heavy Metal Pollution of Vegetable Crops Irrigated with Wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    exotic and traditional vegetables (samples = 240) irrigated with wastewater from some parts of Accra were studied. ... pesticides (McBride, 2003), as well as ...... Chemical speciation of heavy metals in sewage sludge and related matrices. In. Heavy Metals in Wastewater and Sludge. Treatment Process. (J. N. Lester, ed.), pp ...

  5. Heavy metal pollution in sediment from Sisimiut, Greenland. Adsorption to organic matter and fine particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2006-01-01

    . The pollution could be linked to human activities in Sisimiut, a link that have not been investigated previously in Greenland. Except from the most polluted samples there was good correlation between heavy metal concentration and organic matter. Also some relation between fine fraction and heavy metal...

  6. Heavy metal pollution in benthic fishes from Kiri Dam in Guyuk local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LUCKY

    consumption, indicating that the study area is relatively less polluted with heavy metals. Key words: Heavy metals, pollution, fishes, Kiri Dam, Nigeria. INTRODUCTION. Fish constitute an important source of protein ..... Compilation of legal limits for hazardous substance in fish and fishery products FAO Fishery circular, p. 464.

  7. How metal-tolerant ecotypes of ectomycorrhizal fungi protect plants from heavy metal pollution.

    OpenAIRE

    COLPAERT, Jan; WEVERS, Jan; KRZNARIC, Erik; ADRIAENSEN, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Heavy metal pollution is a strong driver of above- and belowground communities and triggers evolutionary adaptation in organisms. This review provides an overview of our knowledge on the effects of toxic concentrations of metals on ectomycorrhizal populations and communities. Discussion: Selection and adaptations within particular ectomycorrhizal species that colonise host plants in harsh environments is discussed. Among these adaptations, we focus on the metal exclusion strateg...

  8. The possible use of soluble humic substances for remediation of heavy metal polluted soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borggaard, Ole K.; Jensen, Julie Katrine; Holm, Peter Engelund

    2008-01-01

    . Therefore, the potential of soluble natural humic substances (HS) to extract heavy metals from contaminated soils is tested as an environmental friendly substitute for EDTA. A strongly polluted urban soil and a moderately polluted agricultural soil were extracted at neutral pH in batch mode by three HS......Polluted soil is a common and serious environmental problem. While reliable methods exist for cleaning soil contaminated by organic compounds through degradation, remediation of heavy metal polluted soils awaits an appropriate solution. This is because heavy metals are nondegradable and generally...... extraction. Heavy metal extraction with dissolved HS is compared with EDTA at the same concentration and sequential extraction has been performed to identify extracted pools. The results indicate a clear potential of using HS solutions for remediation of heavy metal polluted soils, which is fortunate...

  9. Heavy Metal Soil Content as an Indicator of Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Rusu

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Two soil sample series were collected from 7 contaminated sites situated along a transect from the pollutant source, Zlatna copper ore-processing plant, and analyzed using different analytical methods. The soils collected in 1998 were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES after extraction with DTPA for trace metals and those collected in 1999 were analyzed with flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS following two acid digestion procedures. The DTPA extraction procedure produced lower results than the acid digestions. Also, the pH values for all samples was measured and the results obtained during autumn compared with those in spring after a long winter with heavy snow falls. The correlation between Cu, Pb, Zn (for samples collected in May 1999 and pH was investigated. The pattern of chemical abundance of contaminants (Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe, Cd and Ni was determined in soil at 0-50 cm depth. This study indicates that Pb is the most polluting element up to 25 km downwind from Zlatna town.

  10. Heavy Metals Phytoextraction from the Polluted Soils of Zakamensk (Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubugunov, V.; Dorzhonova, V.; Ubugunov, L.

    2012-04-01

    Mining and ore-dressing are one of the most serious causes of environment pollution. Last century in days of active industrialization in Russia a considerable quantity of mineral deposits has been developed. It was not given sufficient attention for ecological safety at that time. After an economic crisis connected with disorder of the USSR and a planned economy, a number of the enterprises became bankrupts and have stopped the activity. As a result the broken landscapes have not been recultivated everywhere, there were numerous wastes. The negative consequences were especially strongly manifested in areas with severe climatic conditions where environmental self-renewal occurred is slowed rather down. The degree of a waste toxicity also acted as the important factor. One of such situations has arisen in Zakamensk - an administrative center of Zakamensky area of Buryat Republic (Russia). Environmental problems of the town have arisen in connection with activity of town-forming enterprise - Dzhidinsky tungsten-molybdenum industrial complex. The enterprise has been organized in 1934 and functioned within 63 years till 1997. During enterprise operating time 3 deposits have been exploited and is created 2 large (more than 40 million tons) tails depository of technogenic sands (TS), located in immediate proximity (less than 1-2 km) from a town residential zone.Sand of tails are rather toxic, the average maintenance of heavy metals in them is (mg/kg): Cd - 42, Pb - 7500, Zn - 3160, Cu - 620, Ni - 34, Co - 44, Mn - 121, Cr - 70, Hg - 0,01, As - 13, Mo - 90. Due to the lack of knowledges on the toxicity of TS in the past century, they were actively used in the road and house construction, during the erection of dams. After scientific studies they were recommended for using as fertilizers. Besides anthropogenic sands movement, there was intensive dispersion of sand by means of water and wind erosion. As a result of natural migration sands got to the subordinated elements of

  11. Heavy metal pollution in marine mollusks from the coastal waters of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies of heavy metals in four marine mollusks, Thais haemastoma, T. nodosa, Nerita senegalensis and P. perna, have been conducted. This involved the assessment of levels of heavy metal pollution from point sources in the Korle lagoon and the determination of the extent to which these metals are transported by ...

  12. Heavy metal pollution of vegetable crops irrigated with wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    144) and edible parts of both exotic and traditional vegetables (samples = 240) irrigated with wastewater from some parts of Accra were studied. The concentrations of heavy metals in mg/l were quantified in wastewater from Accra and ...

  13. 255 effects of some heavy metal pollutants on fertility characteristics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2010-06-01

    ) and Zinc (Zn). As Aydinalp and Marinova (2003) observe, a precise knowledge of heavy metals concentration and the forms in which they are found, their dependence on soil's physico-chemical properties provide a basis.

  14. Carbon based secondary compounds do not provide protection against heavy metal road pollutants in epiphytic macrolichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauslaa, Yngvar; Yemets, Olena A; Asplund, Johan; Solhaug, Knut Asbjørn

    2016-01-15

    Lichens are useful monitoring organisms for heavy metal pollution. They are high in carbon based secondary compounds (CBSCs) among which some may chelate heavy metals and thus increase metal accumulation. This study quantifies CBSCs in four epiphytic lichens transplanted for 6months on stands along transects from a highway in southern Norway to search for relationships between concentrations of heavy metals and CBSCs along a gradient in heavy metal pollutants. Viability parameters and concentrations of 21 elements including nutrients and heavy metals in these lichen samples were reported in a separate paper. Medullary CBSCs in fruticose lichens (Ramalina farinacea, Usnea dasypoga) were reduced in the most polluted sites, but not in foliose ones (Parmelia sulcata, Lobaria pulmonaria), whereas cortical CBSC did not change with distance from the road in any species. Strong positive correlations only occurred between the major medullary compound stictic acid present in L. pulmonaria and most heavy metals, consistent with a chelating role of stictic acid, but not of other studied CBSCs or in other species. However, heavy metal chelating did not protect L. pulmonaria against damage because this species experienced the strongest reduction in viability in the polluted sites. CBSCs with an accumulation potential for heavy metals should be quantified in lichen biomonitoring studies of heavy metals because they, like stictic acid, could overshadow pollutant inputs in some species rendering biomonitoring data less useful. In the two fruticose lichen species, CBSCs decreased with increasing heavy metal concentration, probably because heavy metal exposure impaired secondary metabolism. Thus, we found no support for a heavy metal protection role of any CBSCs in studied epiphytic lichens. No intraspecific relationships occurred between CBSCs versus N or C/N-ratio. Interspecifically, medullary CBSCs decreased and cortical CBSCs increased with increasing C/N-ratio. Copyright © 2015

  15. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in soils along major roadside ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    1Department of Agricultural Engineering and Land Planning, Botswana College of Agriculture, Private Bag 0027,. Gaborone, Botswana. 2Department of Basic Sciences, Botswana College of ... residents along roads with heavy traffic loads are subjected to increasing levels of contamination with heavy metals (Ghrefat and ...

  16. Interaction of soil heavy metal pollution with industrialisation and the landscape pattern in Taiyuan city, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Su, Chao; Zhang, Hong; Li, Xiaoting; Pei, Jingfei

    2014-01-01

    Many studies indicated that industrialization and urbanization caused serious soil heavy metal pollution from industrialized age. However, fewer previous studies have conducted a combined analysis of the landscape pattern, urbanization, industrialization, and heavy metal pollution. This paper was aimed at exploring the relationships of heavy metals in the soil (Pb, Cu, Ni, As, Cd, Cr, Hg, and Zn) with landscape pattern, industrialisation, urbanisation in Taiyuan city using multivariate analysis. The multivariate analysis included correlation analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA), independent-sample T test, and principal component analysis (PCA). Geographic information system (GIS) was also applied to determine the spatial distribution of the heavy metals. The spatial distribution maps showed that the heavy metal pollution of the soil was more serious in the centre of the study area. The results of the multivariate analysis indicated that the correlations among heavy metals were significant, and industrialisation could significantly affect the concentrations of some heavy metals. Landscape diversity showed a significant negative correlation with the heavy metal concentrations. The PCA showed that a two-factor model for heavy metal pollution, industrialisation, and the landscape pattern could effectively demonstrate the relationships between these variables. The model explained 86.71% of the total variance of the data. Moreover, the first factor was mainly loaded with the comprehensive pollution index (P), and the second factor was primarily loaded with landscape diversity and dominance (H and D). An ordination of 80 samples could show the pollution pattern of all the samples. The results revealed that local industrialisation caused heavy metal pollution of the soil, but such pollution could respond negatively to the landscape pattern. The results of the study could provide a basis for agricultural, suburban, and urban planning.

  17. Biomonitoring of heavy metals pollution in Lake Burullus, Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    Aquatic macrophytes and benthos are unchangeable biological filters and they carry out purification of the water bodies by accumulating dissolved metals and toxins in their tissues. In view of their potential to entrap several toxic heavy metals, 3 groups of benthos and 6 macrophytes (submerged species: Potamogeton.

  18. Assessment of Heavy Metals Pollution in Dumpsites in Ilorin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Speciation and distribution of heavy metals in soil controls the degree to which metals and their compounds are mobile, extractable, and plant available. Eight strategically located dumpsites in Ilorin metropolis (an averagely growing city and a state capital) were chosen for dumpsites-soil characteristics study. Both the ...

  19. Predatory insects as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nummelin, Matti [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 65, University of Helsinki, FIN-00014 (Finland)]. E-mail: matti.nummelin@helsinki.fi; Lodenius, Martin [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 65, University of Helsinki, FIN-00014 (Finland); Tulisalo, Esa [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 65, University of Helsinki, FIN-00014 (Finland); Hirvonen, Heikki [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 65, University of Helsinki, FIN-00014 (Finland); Alanko, Timo [Statistics Finland, FIN-00022 (Finland)

    2007-01-15

    Heavy metal concentrations of different predatory insects were studied near by a steel factory and from control sites. Waterstriders (Gerridae), dragon fly larvae (Odonata), antlion larvae (Myrmeleontidae) and ants (Formicidae) were analyzed by AAS. In most cases the metal concentrations were higher near the factory, but e.g. waterstriders had higher cadmium concentrations in control area. Discriminant analysis clearly reveals that all these insect groups can be used as heavy metal indicators. However, the commonly used ants were the least effective in indicating the differences between the factory and control sites. Waterstriders are good in detecting differences in iron and manganese, but seem to be poor in accumulating nickel and lead. Antlions are efficient in detecting differences in iron. Antlions and ants are effective in accumulating manganese; as well antlions are efficient in accumulating cadmium. Waterstriders are poor in accumulating lead, but antlions and ants are effective. - Waterstriders, dragon fly larvae, antlion larvae, and ants can be used as heavy metal indicators.

  20. [Heavy metal pollution ecology of macro-fungi: research advances and expectation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qi-xing; An, Xin-long; Wei, Shu-he

    2008-08-01

    Macro-fungi are the main component of biosphere and one of the ecological resources, and play very important roles in matter cycling and in maintaining ecological balances. This paper summarized and reviewed the research advances in the eco-toxicological effects of heavy metals on macro-fungi, the bioaccumulation function of macro-fungi on heavy metals, the ecological adaptation mechanisms of macro-fungi to heavy metal pollution, the role of macro-fungi as a bio-indicator of heavy metal pollution, and the potential of macro-fungi in the ecological remediation of contaminated environment. To strengthen the researches on the heavy metal pollution ecology of macro-fungi would be of practical significance in the reasonable utilization of macro-fungi resources and in the ecological remediation of contaminated environment.

  1. Distribution of Heavy Metal Pollution in Surface Soil Samples in China: A Graphical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Qiannan; Lee, Jianchao; Liu, Yansong; Chen, Han; Hu, Huanyu

    2016-09-01

    Soil pollution in China is one of most wide and severe in the world. Although environmental researchers are well aware of the acuteness of soil pollution in China, a precise and comprehensive mapping system of soil pollution has never been released. By compiling, integrating and processing nearly a decade of soil pollution data, we have created cornerstone maps that illustrate the distribution and concentration of cadmium, lead, zinc, arsenic, copper and chromium in surficial soil across the nation. These summarized maps and the integrated data provide precise geographic coordinates and heavy metal concentrations; they are also the first ones to provide such thorough and comprehensive details about heavy metal soil pollution in China. In this study, we focus on some of the most polluted areas to illustrate the severity of this pressing environmental problem and demonstrate that most developed and populous areas have been subjected to heavy metal pollution.

  2. The environmental impact of gold mines: pollution by heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Wahab, Sabah; Marikar, Fouzul

    2012-06-01

    The gold mining plant of Oman was studied to assess the contribution of gold mining on the degree of heavy metals into different environmental media. Samples were collected from the gold mining plant area in tailings, stream waters, soils and crop plants. The collected samples were analyzed for 13 heavy metals including vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), aluminium (Al), strontium (Sr), iron (Fe) and barium (Ba). The water in the acid evaporation pond showed a high concentration of Fe as well as residual quantities of Zn, V, and Al, whereas water from the citizens well showed concentrations of Al above those of Omani and WHO standards. The desert plant species growing closed to the gold pit indicated high concentrations of heavy metals (Mn, Al, Ni, Fe, Cr, and V), while the similar plant species used as a control indicated lesser concentrations of all heavy metals. The surface water (blue) indicated very high concentrations of copper and significant concentrations of Mn, Ni, Al, Fe, Zn, lead, Co and Cd. The results revealed that some of the toxic metals absorbed by plants indicated significant metal immobilization.

  3. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in drinking water due to mining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mining and smelting activities are the main causes for the increasing pollution of heavy metals from water sources. The toxicity of these heavy metals from the mining, milling and smelting companies can cause harmful and even lethal effects on the human health. The objective of this study was to investigate the level of As, ...

  4. [Characteristic and evaluation of soil pollution by heavy metal in different functional zones of Hohhot].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Sun, Wen-Hui; Zhao, Ren-Xin; Zhao, Wen-Jing; Fu, Rui-Ying; Zhang, Jun

    2013-04-01

    The residential areas, cultural and educational areas, city parks, commercial areas, urban roads, industrial zones, and development zones in Hohhot were selected as the research objects. Sixty-two soil samples were collected by triple subsampling technique in the seven functional zones. The aim of this study is to control the soil heavy metal pollution of Hohhot and provide the basic information. To investigate and analyze the heavy metal pollution in soil in different functional zones of Hohhot, the pollution of heavy metal was assessed with single factor pollution index and Nemerow integrated pollution index, and the pollution sources were discriminated by Principal Component Analysis. Contents of seven kinds of heavy metals were analyzed in different functional zones of Hohhot. The mean contents of heavy metals in soil samples exceeded the corresponding background values in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. The mean contents of Cu and Zn were 2. 33 and 1. 85 times, respectively, as high as the soil background values of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Single factor pollution index showed that the urban soil in Hohhot has been polluted by heavy metals. The Cu pollution was the most severe in commercial areas, and the pollution degree was in the following order: Cu > Zn > Cr > Mn > As > Ni > Pb. Nemerow integrated pollution index showed that soils from the commercial areas were seriously contaminated by heavy metals. The soil of urban roads was moderately polluted. The soils from cultural and educational areas and the city parks were slightly polluted. The Nemerow integrated pollution index of the seven areas ranked as follows: commercial areas (3.03) > urban roads (2.12) > residential areas (1.98) > cultural and educational areas (1.81) > industrial zones (1.72) > development zones (1.36) > city parks (1. 28). The results of Principal Component Analysis showed that the heavy metals in soil of Hohhot came from different sources. Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn were

  5. Effects of environmental regulations on heavy metal pollution decline in core sediments from Manila Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosono, Takahiro; Su, Chih-Chieh; Siringan, Fernando; Amano, Atsuko; Onodera, Shin-ichi

    2010-05-01

    We investigated the high-resolution heavy metal pollution history of Manila Bay using heavy metal concentrations and Pb isotope ratios together with (210)Pb dating to find out the effects of environmental regulations after the 1990 s. Our results suggested that the rate of decline in heavy metal pollution increased dramatically from the end of the 1990 s due to stricter environmental regulations, Administrative Order No. 42, being enforced by the Philippines government. The presented data and methodology should form the basis for future monitoring, leading to pollution control, and to the generation of preventive measures at the pollution source for the maintenance of environmental quality in the coastal metropolitan city of Manila. Although this is the first report of a reduction in pollution in Asian developing country, our results suggest that we can expect to find similar signs of pollution decline in other parts of the world as well. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Tree Leaves as Bioindicator of Heavy Metal Pollution in Mechanic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heavy metal accumulation in soils is of concern in agricultural production due to the adverse effects on food safety and marketability, crop growth due to phytotoxicity, and environmental health of soil organisms. Soil and plant samples were collected from mechanic village in Odeda local Government of Ogun State. The soil ...

  7. INTRODUCTION Heavy metal pollution of water has become a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    major environmental problem almost since the advent of agricultural ... Nations state that monitoring eight elements in fish Hg, Cd, Pb, As, Cu, ..... Research J. Environ. Science, 3 (5):522-529. Staniskiene, B.; Matusevicius, P.; Budreckiene, R. and Skibniewska, K.A. 2006. Distribution of heavy metals in tissues of freshwater.

  8. Water quality characteristics and pollution levels of heavy metals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main aim of this study was to assess the level of water quality of Lake Haiq, Ethiopia with respect to selected physical parameters and heavy metals. Parameters such as temperature, pH, turbidity, electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids were measured in situ. While total alkalinity, chloride, ammonia, nitrate and ...

  9. Heavy metal pollution levels in water and oysters, Saccostrea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heavy metal (cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, lead and zinc) concentrations in mangrove forests were investigated in water, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and oyster samples from the Mzinga Creek and Ras Dege mangrove stands, Tanzania, using Inductively Coupled Plasma–Atomic Emission Spectroscopy.

  10. Predatory insects as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nummelin, Matti; Lodenius, Martin; Tulisalo, Esa; Hirvonen, Heikki; Alanko, Timo

    2007-01-01

    Heavy metal concentrations of different predatory insects were studied near by a steel factory and from control sites. Waterstriders (Gerridae), dragon fly larvae (Odonata), antlion larvae (Myrmeleontidae) and ants (Formicidae) were analyzed by AAS. In most cases the metal concentrations were higher near the factory, but e.g. waterstriders had higher cadmium concentrations in control area. Discriminant analysis clearly reveals that all these insect groups can be used as heavy metal indicators. However, the commonly used ants were the least effective in indicating the differences between the factory and control sites. Waterstriders are good in detecting differences in iron and manganese, but seem to be poor in accumulating nickel and lead. Antlions are efficient in detecting differences in iron. Antlions and ants are effective in accumulating manganese; as well antlions are efficient in accumulating cadmium. Waterstriders are poor in accumulating lead, but antlions and ants are effective.

  11. Heavy Metal Pollution from Gold Mines: Environmental Effects and Bacterial Strategies for Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fashola, Muibat Omotola; Ngole-Jeme, Veronica Mpode; Babalola, Olubukola Oluranti

    2016-10-26

    Mining activities can lead to the generation of large quantities of heavy metal laden wastes which are released in an uncontrolled manner, causing widespread contamination of the ecosystem. Though some heavy metals classified as essential are important for normal life physiological processes, higher concentrations above stipulated levels have deleterious effects on human health and biota. Bacteria able to withstand high concentrations of these heavy metals are found in the environment as a result of various inherent biochemical, physiological, and/or genetic mechanisms. These mechanisms can serve as potential tools for bioremediation of heavy metal polluted sites. This review focuses on the effects of heavy metal wastes generated from gold mining activities on the environment and the various mechanisms used by bacteria to counteract the effect of these heavy metals in their immediate environment.

  12. Heavy Metal Pollution from Gold Mines: Environmental Effects and Bacterial Strategies for Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muibat Omotola Fashola

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mining activities can lead to the generation of large quantities of heavy metal laden wastes which are released in an uncontrolled manner, causing widespread contamination of the ecosystem. Though some heavy metals classified as essential are important for normal life physiological processes, higher concentrations above stipulated levels have deleterious effects on human health and biota. Bacteria able to withstand high concentrations of these heavy metals are found in the environment as a result of various inherent biochemical, physiological, and/or genetic mechanisms. These mechanisms can serve as potential tools for bioremediation of heavy metal polluted sites. This review focuses on the effects of heavy metal wastes generated from gold mining activities on the environment and the various mechanisms used by bacteria to counteract the effect of these heavy metals in their immediate environment.

  13. Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Sediment and Polychaete ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Metal pollution in the Mzinga creek mangrove stand was assessed and compared with a relatively pristine mangrove forest at Ras Dege in Dar es Salaam. The concentrations of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead and zinc in sediment and polychaete worms (Capitella sp.) were analyzed by ICP-AES and mercury was ...

  14. A New Strategy for Heavy Metal Polluted Environments: A Review of Microbial Biosorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayangbenro, Ayansina Segun; Babalola, Olubukola Oluranti

    2017-01-01

    Persistent heavy metal pollution poses a major threat to all life forms in the environment due to its toxic effects. These metals are very reactive at low concentrations and can accumulate in the food web, causing severe public health concerns. Remediation using conventional physical and chemical methods is uneconomical and generates large volumes of chemical waste. Bioremediation of hazardous metals has received considerable and growing interest over the years. The use of microbial biosorbents is eco-friendly and cost effective; hence, it is an efficient alternative for the remediation of heavy metal contaminated environments. Microbes have various mechanisms of metal sequestration that hold greater metal biosorption capacities. The goal of microbial biosorption is to remove and/or recover metals and metalloids from solutions, using living or dead biomass and their components. This review discusses the sources of toxic heavy metals and describes the groups of microorganisms with biosorbent potential for heavy metal removal. PMID:28106848

  15. A New Strategy for Heavy Metal Polluted Environments: A Review of Microbial Biosorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayansina Segun Ayangbenro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent heavy metal pollution poses a major threat to all life forms in the environment due to its toxic effects. These metals are very reactive at low concentrations and can accumulate in the food web, causing severe public health concerns. Remediation using conventional physical and chemical methods is uneconomical and generates large volumes of chemical waste. Bioremediation of hazardous metals has received considerable and growing interest over the years. The use of microbial biosorbents is eco-friendly and cost effective; hence, it is an efficient alternative for the remediation of heavy metal contaminated environments. Microbes have various mechanisms of metal sequestration that hold greater metal biosorption capacities. The goal of microbial biosorption is to remove and/or recover metals and metalloids from solutions, using living or dead biomass and their components. This review discusses the sources of toxic heavy metals and describes the groups of microorganisms with biosorbent potential for heavy metal removal.

  16. Application of portable XRF and VNIR sensors for rapid assessment of soil heavy metal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bifeng; Chen, Songchao; Hu, Jie; Xia, Fang; Xu, Junfeng; Li, Yan; Shi, Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Rapid heavy metal soil surveys at large scale with high sampling density could not be conducted with traditional laboratory physical and chemical analyses because of the high cost, low efficiency and heavy workload involved. This study explored a rapid approach to assess heavy metals contamination in 301 farmland soils from Fuyang in Zhejiang Province, in the southern Yangtze River Delta, China, using portable proximal soil sensors. Portable X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (PXRF) was used to determine soil heavy metals total concentrations while soil pH was predicted by portable visible-near infrared spectroscopy (PVNIR). Zn, Cu and Pb were successfully predicted by PXRF (R2 >0.90 and RPD >2.50) while As and Ni were predicted with less accuracy (R2 <0.75 and RPD <1.40). The pH values were well predicted by PVNIR. Classification of heavy metals contamination grades in farmland soils was conducted based on previous results; the Kappa coefficient was 0.87, which showed that the combination of PXRF and PVNIR was an effective and rapid method to determine the degree of pollution with soil heavy metals. This study provides a new approach to assess soil heavy metals pollution; this method will facilitate large-scale surveys of soil heavy metal pollution.

  17. Aldehyde dehydrogenase expression in Metaphire posthuma as a bioindicator to monitor heavy metal pollution in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panday, Raju; Bhatt, Padam Shekhar; Bhattarai, Tribikram; Shakya, Kumudini; Sreerama, Lakshmaiah

    2016-11-21

    Soil contamination and associated pollution plays a detrimental role in soil flora and fauna. Soil is processed and remodeled by subterranean earthworms, accordingly are referred to as soil chemical engineers. These worms, besides processing carbon and nitrogen, serve as minors for processing metals. In heavy metal contaminated soils, they accumulate heavy metals, which in turn cause altered gene expression, including aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzymes. This study explores the possibility of ALDH expression in earthworms as a novel biomarker for the heavy metal contamination of soil. Earthworms cultured in contaminated soils accumulated significantly higher levels of Pb and Cd. Similarly, significantly higher levels of ALDH enzyme activities were observed in earthworms cultured in soils contaminated with Pb and Cd. The ALDH activity was found to be highest in worms cultured in 5 ppm heavy metal contaminated soils. Although, ALDH activities decreased as the heavy metal concentration in soil increased, they were significantly higher when compared to control worms cultured in uncontaminated soils. The accumulation of heavy metal in earthworms measured after 28 days decreased as the heavy metal concentration in soil increased. Levels of ALDH expression correlated with total Pb and Cd concentration in the earthworm tissue. This study showed that the ALDH activity in earthworms could potentially be used as a biomarker to show heavy metal pollution in soil.

  18. [Heavy Metals Pollution in Topsoil from Dagang Industry Area and Its Ecological Risk Assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Chen, Zong-juan; Peng, Chang-sheng; Li, Fa-sheng; Gu, Qing-bao

    2015-11-01

    Based on previous studies and field investigation of Dagang industry area in Tianjin, a total of 128 topsoil samples were collected, and contents of 10 heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, Ni, V, Zn and Hg) were determined. The geoaccumulation index and geostatistics were applied to examine the degree of contamination and spatial distribution of heavy metals in topsoil. The assessment on ecological risk of heavy metals was carried out using Hakanson's method, and the main resources of the heavy metals were analyzed as well. It was found that As, Cd and Co had the highest proportions exceeding Tianjin background value, which were 100%, 97.66% and 96.88%, respectively; the heavy-metal content increased to some extent comparing with that in 2004, and the pollutions of As and Cd were the worst, and other metals were at moderate pollution level or below. The ecological risks of heavy metals were different in topsoil with different land use types, the farmland soil in the southwest as well as soils adjacent to the industrial land were at relatively high potential ecological risk level, and the integrated ecological risk index reached up to 1 437.37. Analysis of correlation and principal component showed that traffic and transportation as well as agricultural activities might be the main resources of heavy metals in the area, besides, the industrial activities in the region might also affect the accumulation of heavy metals.

  19. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Soils of Gejiu Tin Ore and Other Metal Deposits of Yunnan Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuran; Danek, Tomas; Cheng, Xianfeng; Huang, Qianrui

    2017-12-01

    This paper aims to study three main metal mining areas in Yunnan Province, to summarize and analyze the heavy metal pollution situation in each mining area, and to assess the ecological risk of the mining areas. The results showed that heavy metal pollution existed in different regions of the three mining areas with pollution elements of Cd, As, Cu, Pb, Zn. Risk level, besides Zhen Yuan mining area (class C), for the other two areas was class D, with Beichang mining area in Lanping as the most serious polluted mining area.

  20. Pollution assessment and heavy metal determination by AAS in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, the hardness was 848 to 485 mg/l as CaCO3. Besides, at 20°C, the BOD values were evaluated from 57 to 88 ppm. The COD values retained were from 150 to 108 ppm. In contrast, heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu and Mn) were analyzed and compared with standards of drinking water. The results indicate that ...

  1. EVALUATION OF LANDFILL POLLUTION WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON HEAVY METALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Vaverková

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring leachate, groundwater and surface water aiming to determinate the concentration of heavy metals (Hg, Zn, Ni, Cr6+,Cd, Pb at the municipal solid waste landfill Štěpánovice took place in the years 2002–2010. The values of heavy metals concentration oscillated as follows: Zn (0.05 – 0.37 μg/dm3, Cr+6 (0.01 – 3.3 μg/dm3, Hg (0.0001 – 0.001 (μg/dm3, Ni (0.001 – 0.19 μg/dm3, Cd (0.001 – 0.007 μg/dm3 and Pb (0.002 – 0.176 μg/dm3. The measured data show that the concentrations of heavy metals met the limits provided by law. Under the current landfill operation mode, the results of measurements do not indicate any negative impact on the quality of surface water, groundwater or leachate water.

  2. Heavy-metal pollution and arseniasis in Hetao region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui

    2004-05-01

    In the Hetao region in northern China drinking water has become toxic due to the presence of arsenic (As) and other heavy metals in soil and water. The 7 counties in this region cover approx. 6100 km2, and in all 180,000 people are suffering from the toxic effects of contaminated drinking water. However, very few studies have been carried out in the region on the possible source of this arsenic. This paper is based on studies of the distribution of heavy metals in soil and groundwater. Results show that the average content of As is 0.483 microg g(-1) in groundwater and 13.74 microg g(-1) in soil. These levels are higher than the drinking water standard of 0.05 microg g(-1) recommended by the World Health Organization in 1984, and for the local background level in soil (5.20 microg g(-1)). This heavy-metal content in water and soil decreases gradually with increasing distance from the contaminated area, which fronts the Yin Mountains. The ratios of the Pb and Sr isotope contents in water are closely related to the ratios found in the water of the regions' mining area, and the ratios in soil correspond to the content of As in groundwater and soil in the area where pathological changes have been detected. Results suggest that the contaminants originate in the ore deposit zone fronting Yin mountains in the upper reaches of the Hetao Region.

  3. Trees as bioindicator of heavy metal pollution in three European cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawidis, T. [Department of Botany, University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Breuste, J., E-mail: juergen.breuste@sbg.ac.at [Department of Geography and Geology, University of Salzburg, 5010 Salzburg (Austria); Mitrovic, M.; Pavlovic, P. [Department of Ecology, Institute for Biological Research ' Sinisa Stankovic' , University of Belgrade, Bulevar despota Stefana 142, 11060 Belgrade (Serbia); Tsigaridas, K. [Department of Botany, University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2011-12-15

    Concentrations of four heavy metals were determined in tree leaves and bark collected from polluted and non-polluted areas of three European cities (Salzburg, Belgrade and Thessaloniki) for a comparative study. Platanus orientalis L. and Pinus nigra Arn., widespread in urban northern and southern Europe, were tested for their suitability for air quality biomonitoring. Leaves and barks were collected uniformly of an initial quantity of about 30 g of each sample. Analysis was accomplished by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry after total digestion. Site-dependent variations were found with the highest concentration level measured in Belgrade, followed by Thessaloniki and Salzburg. A higher accumulation of heavy metals was found in bark compared to leaves. Pine tree bark, accumulating higher concentrations of trace metals compared to plane tree bark, shows a higher efficiency as bioindicator for urban pollution. Both indicator species are suitable for comparative studies on bioindication of urban air pollution. - Highlights: > Oriental plane and Austrian pine are suitable for comparative urban air quality biomonitoring of heavy metal pollution. > Pine tree is excellently suitable as urban bioindicator as it accumulates high concentrations of trace metals. > The highest heavy metal pollution was found in Belgrade followed by Thessaloniki and Salzburg. - Oriental plane (Platanus orientalis L.) and Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn.), widespread in urban northern and southern Europe, are suitable for comparative biomonitoring of urban air pollution.

  4. [Investigation and analysis of heavy metal pollution related to soil-Panax notoginseng system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu; Mi, Yan-Hua; Lin, Xin; Liu, Da-Hui; Zeng, Min; Chen, Xiao-Yan

    2014-07-01

    In this study, five heavy metals contamination of soil and different parts of Panax notoginseng in the plantation area was investigated. Analysis of heavy metals correlation between the planting soil and P. notoginseng; and the absorption and accumulation characteristics and translocation of soil heavy metals by P. notoginseng plants was revealed. Through field investigation and laboratory analytical methods, analysis of China's 30 different soil P. notoginseng origin and content of heavy metals in five different parts of the P. notoginseng plant content of heavy metals. The results revealed that the soil heavy metals should not be neglected in the plantation area Referring to the national soil quality standards (GB15608-1995), the excessive degree of soil heavy metals pollution showed Hg > As > Cd > Cr in the plantation area, and Pb content of soil was in the scope of the standard. Refer to 'Green Industry Standards for Import and Export of Medical Plants and Preparations', the excessive degree of heavy metals content of P. notoginseng plants showed As > Pb > Cr > Cd, and Hg content of plants was in the scope of the standard. Concentrations of five heavy metals of underground parts of P. notoginseng plants are higher than aboveground, and heavy metals elements are more concentrated in the root, followed by the rhizome of P. notoginseng plants. Heavy metal accumulation characteristics of the different parts of the P. notoginseng of the overall performance is the root > the rhizome > the root tuber > leaves > stems. From the point of view BCF value analysis of various parts of the P. notoginseng plants to absorb heavy metals in soil, BCF values of all samples were less than 1, description P. notoginseng not belong Hyperaccumulator. From the view of transportation and related analysis of the soil-P. notoginseng systems, the rhizome of P. notoginseng and the content of As and Cr in soil was significantly correlated, the root of P. notoginseng and the content of Cd in

  5. Pollution status of Pakistan: a retrospective review on heavy metal contamination of water, soil, and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waseem, Amir; Arshad, Jahanzaib; Iqbal, Farhat; Sajjad, Ashif; Mehmood, Zahid; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2014-01-01

    Trace heavy metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, chromium, nickel, and mercury, are important environmental pollutants, particularly in areas with high anthropogenic pressure. In addition to these metals, copper, manganese, iron, and zinc are also important trace micronutrients. The presence of trace heavy metals in the atmosphere, soil, and water can cause serious problems to all organisms, and the ubiquitous bioavailability of these heavy metal can result in bioaccumulation in the food chain which especially can be highly dangerous to human health. This study reviews the heavy metal contamination in several areas of Pakistan over the past few years, particularly to assess the heavy metal contamination in water (ground water, surface water, and waste water), soil, sediments, particulate matter, and vegetables. The listed contaminations affect the drinking water quality, ecological environment, and food chain. Moreover, the toxicity induced by contaminated water, soil, and vegetables poses serious threat to human health.

  6. Pollution Status of Pakistan: A Retrospective Review on Heavy Metal Contamination of Water, Soil, and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Waseem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Trace heavy metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, chromium, nickel, and mercury, are important environmental pollutants, particularly in areas with high anthropogenic pressure. In addition to these metals, copper, manganese, iron, and zinc are also important trace micronutrients. The presence of trace heavy metals in the atmosphere, soil, and water can cause serious problems to all organisms, and the ubiquitous bioavailability of these heavy metal can result in bioaccumulation in the food chain which especially can be highly dangerous to human health. This study reviews the heavy metal contamination in several areas of Pakistan over the past few years, particularly to assess the heavy metal contamination in water (ground water, surface water, and waste water, soil, sediments, particulate matter, and vegetables. The listed contaminations affect the drinking water quality, ecological environment, and food chain. Moreover, the toxicity induced by contaminated water, soil, and vegetables poses serious threat to human health.

  7. [Heavy metals pollution and its stability assessment of sediments in flowing rivers around lake Taihu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shao-Yong; Jiao, Wei; Jin, Xiang-Can; Yuan, Ye; Zhang, Ye; Li, Guang-De

    2010-10-01

    16 main inflow and outflow rivers around Lake Taihu were chosen as the research object, and the concentrations and distribution of four heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn) in the surface sediments of these river estuaries were detected. The pollution extent and stability were analyzed by using three-step sequential extraction method (BCR method). Aim of this study is to control heavy metal pollution of Lake Taihu and provide the basic information. Based on the results, the monitored river estuaries all had been contaminated by different degrees, and four heavy metals' concentrations all exceeded the threshold effect level (TEL) at most sampling sites. A distinct spatial heterogeneity was found in extracted fractions of these heavy metals distribution: northern rivers > southern rivers, inflow rivers > outflow rivers. The Stability Assessment Code (SAC) for different metals varied in the descending order of Cd, Zn, Pb and Cu. Compared with Pb and Cu, Cd and Zn had a higher second release potential and ecological risk.

  8. Airborne heavy metal pollution in the environment of a danish steel plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, N. K.; Stephansen, U.; Rasmussen, L.

    1986-01-01

    to electric-arc furnaces. The samples were analyzed for Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn.The results show that heavy metal pollution from the steelworks still is severe and that it follows a decreasing power curve when the distance to the steelworks is increased. However, a reduction in the deposition of heavy...

  9. Heavy metal pollution affects consumption and reproduction of the landsnail Cepaea nemoralis fed on naturally polluted Urtica dioica leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notten, Martje J M; Oosthoek, Annelies J P; Rozema, Jelte; Aerts, Rien

    2006-04-01

    This study is one of the very first that investigates the effects of heavy metal pollution on food consumption and reproduction of terrestrial snails under semi-realistic field conditions. Two experiments were carried out using snails (Cepaea nemoralis) and food (Urtica dioica leaves) from different metal polluted locations and one reference location. The first experiment showed that both polluted and reference snails fed on high-metal leaves from a highly polluted location had significantly lower consumption rates than snails consuming leaves from the reference location. In the second experiment, snails from both locations used in the consumption experiment and from two low-polluted locations were kept on native soil and food in order to reproduce. No negative effect of heavy metal pollution on clutch size was found for the snails from the reference location and the low-polluted locations. Snails from the highly polluted location laid no eggs. This suggests that at high levels of metal pollution, reproduction is strongly negatively affected. We suggest that the absence of egg laying by snails from the highly polluted location results from a combination of decreased consumption and an increased demand of energy for the accumulation and detoxification of metals (decreased scope for growth).

  10. [Environmental geochemical baseline of heavy metals in soils of the Ili river basin and pollution evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin-Ru; Nasier, Telajin; Cheng, Yong-Yi; Zhan, Jiang-Yu; Yang, Jian-Hong

    2014-06-01

    Environmental geochemical baseline models of Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Hg were established by standardized method in the ehernozem, chestnut soil, sierozem and saline soil from the Ili river valley region. The theoretical baseline values were calculated. Baseline factor pollution index evaluation method, environmental background value evaluation method and heavy metal cleanliness evaluation method were used to compare soil pollution degrees. The baseline factor pollution index evaluation showed that As pollution was the most prominent among the four typical types of soils within the river basin, with 7.14%, 9.76%, 7.50% of sampling points in chernozem, chestnut soil and sierozem reached the heavy pollution, respectively. 7.32% of sampling points of chestnut soil reached the permitted heavy metal Pb pollution index in the chestnut soil. The variation extent of As and Pb was the largest, indicating large human disturbance. Environmental background value evaluation showed that As was the main pollution element, followed by Cu, Zn and Pb. Heavy metal cleanliness evaluation showed that Cu, Zn and Pb were better than cleanliness level 2 and Hg was the of cleanliness level 1 in all four types of soils. As showed moderate pollution in sierozem, and it was of cleanliness level 2 or better in chernozem, chestnut soil and saline-alkali soil. Comparing the three evaluation systems, the baseline factor pollution index evaluation more comprehensively reflected the geochemical migration characteristics of elements and the soil formation processes, and the pollution assessment could be specific to the sampling points. The environmental background value evaluation neglected the natural migration of heavy metals and the deposition process in the soil since it was established on the regional background values. The main purpose of the heavy metal cleanliness evaluation was to evaluate the safety degree of soil environment.

  11. Efficiently Evaluating Heavy Metal Urban Soil Pollution Using an Improved Entropy-Method-Based Topsis Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Liu, Chun; Han, Wei

    2016-10-01

    Urban soil pollution is evaluated utilizing an efficient and simple algorithmic model referred to as the entropy method-based Topsis (EMBT) model. The model focuses on pollution source position to enhance the ability to analyze sources of pollution accurately. Initial application of EMBT to urban soil pollution analysis is actually implied. The pollution degree of sampling point can be efficiently calculated by the model with the pollution degree coefficient, which is efficiently attained by first utilizing the Topsis method to determine evaluation value and then by dividing the evaluation value of the sample point by background value. The Kriging interpolation method combines coordinates of sampling points with the corresponding coefficients and facilitates the formation of heavy metal distribution profile. A case study is completed with modeling results in accordance with actual heavy metal pollution, proving accuracy and practicality of the EMBT model.

  12. Changes of Heavy Metals in Pollutant Release and Transfer Registers (PRTRs) in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong-Su; Bae, Mi-Jung; Park, Young-Seuk

    2014-01-01

    Industrial effluent containing heavy metals discharged into streams may pose high toxicity risks to aquatic organisms and to human health. Therefore, it is important to understand how to change the amount of effluent with heavy metals discharged from industries into open aquatic ecosystems both for effective management of heavy metals and to foster sustainable ecosystems. This study was conducted to characterize the release of heavy metals from industries based on the Pollutant Release and Transfer Registers database in Korea from 1999 to 2010. From the database, we selected nine heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Mn, Sb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Sn, and Ni) and compared the differences in their effluent for different types of industries. The heavy metal effluents released into freshwater ecosystems were classified into four clusters through the learning process of the self-organizing map. Cluster 1 was characterized by the relatively higher effluent volumes of heavy metals, whereas cluster 4 had lower effluent volumes. The different patterns of the effluent volumes in heavy metals were closely associated with the differences of industrial types, and the changes of effluents of heavy metals reflected the changes in regulations and laws for aquatic ecosystem management. PMID:24577281

  13. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in vegetables and relationships with soil heavy metal distribution in Zhejiang province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xuezhu; Xiao, Wendan; Zhang, Yongzhi; Zhao, Shouping; Wang, Gangjun; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Qiang

    2015-06-01

    There are increasing concerns on heavy metal contaminant in soils and vegetables. In this study, we investigated heavy metal pollution in vegetables and the corresponding soils in the main vegetable production regions of Zhejiang province, China. A total of 97 vegetable samples and 202 agricultural soil samples were analyzed for the concentrations of Cd, Pb, As, Hg, and Cr. The average levels of Cd, Pb, and Cr in vegetable samples [Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris spp. Pekinensis), pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.), celery (Apium graveolens), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), cucumber (Colletotrichum lagenarium), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.), and eggplant (Solanum melongena)] were 0.020, 0.048, and 0.043 mg kg(-1), respectively. The Pb and Cr concentrations in all vegetable samples were below the threshold levels of the Food Quality Standard (0.3 and 0.5 mg kg(-1), respectively), except that two eggplant samples exceeded the threshold levels for Cd concentrations (0.05 mg kg(-1)). As and Hg contents in vegetables were below the detection level (0.005 and 0.002 mg kg(-1), respectively). Soil pollution conditions were assessed in accordance with the Chinese Soil Quality Criterion (GB15618-1995, Grade II); 50 and 68 soil samples from the investigated area exceeded the maximum allowable contents for Cd and Hg, respectively. Simple correlation analysis revealed that there were significantly positive correlations between the metal concentrations in vegetables and the corresponding soils, especially for the leafy and stem vegetables such as pakchoi, cabbage, and celery. Bio-concentration factor values for Cd are higher than those for Pb and Cr, which indicates that Cd is more readily absorbed by vegetables than Pb and Cr. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the possible pollution of heavy metals in vegetables, especially Cd.

  14. Ecological effects of some heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Hg, Cr) pollution of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-17

    Jun 17, 2008 ... pollution of phytoplanktonic algae and zooplanktonic organisms in Sarıyar Dam Reservoir in Turkey ... Key words: Heavy metals, accumulation, water pollution, algae, zooplankton. INTRODUCTION. Lake ecosystems are ..... Toxic Substance, Su kirliliği ve Kontrolü, TC. Başbakanlık Çevre Genel Müdürlüğü ...

  15. Application of portable XRF and VNIR sensors for rapid assessment of soil heavy metal pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bifeng; Chen, Songchao; Hu, Jie; Xia, Fang; Xu, Junfeng; Li, Yan; Shi, Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Rapid heavy metal soil surveys at large scale with high sampling density could not be conducted with traditional laboratory physical and chemical analyses because of the high cost, low efficiency and heavy workload involved. This study explored a rapid approach to assess heavy metals contamination in 301 farmland soils from Fuyang in Zhejiang Province, in the southern Yangtze River Delta, China, using portable proximal soil sensors. Portable X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (PXRF) was used to determine soil heavy metals total concentrations while soil pH was predicted by portable visible-near infrared spectroscopy (PVNIR). Zn, Cu and Pb were successfully predicted by PXRF (R2 >0.90 and RPD >2.50) while As and Ni were predicted with less accuracy (R2 soils was conducted based on previous results; the Kappa coefficient was 0.87, which showed that the combination of PXRF and PVNIR was an effective and rapid method to determine the degree of pollution with soil heavy metals. This study provides a new approach to assess soil heavy metals pollution; this method will facilitate large-scale surveys of soil heavy metal pollution. PMID:28234944

  16. Microbial and Plant-Assisted Bioremediation of Heavy Metal Polluted Environments: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omena Bernard Ojuederie

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution from hazardous waste materials, organic pollutants and heavy metals, has adversely affected the natural ecosystem to the detriment of man. These pollutants arise from anthropogenic sources as well as natural disasters such as hurricanes and volcanic eruptions. Toxic metals could accumulate in agricultural soils and get into the food chain, thereby becoming a major threat to food security. Conventional and physical methods are expensive and not effective in areas with low metal toxicity. Bioremediation is therefore an eco-friendly and efficient method of reclaiming environments contaminated with heavy metals by making use of the inherent biological mechanisms of microorganisms and plants to eradicate hazardous contaminants. This review discusses the toxic effects of heavy metal pollution and the mechanisms used by microbes and plants for environmental remediation. It also emphasized the importance of modern biotechnological techniques and approaches in improving the ability of microbial enzymes to effectively degrade heavy metals at a faster rate, highlighting recent advances in microbial bioremediation and phytoremediation for the removal of heavy metals from the environment as well as future prospects and limitations. However, strict adherence to biosafety regulations must be followed in the use of biotechnological methods to ensure safety of the environment.

  17. Heavy metals pollution status in surface sediments (rivers and artifical lakes, Serbia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakan, Sanja; Đorđević, Dragana

    2017-04-01

    Potentially hazardous trace elements, often in literature referred as "heavy metals", are deemed serious pollutants due to their toxicity, persistence and non-degradability in the environment. These elements play an important role in extent of water pollution and threaten the health of populations and ecosystems. As the sink of heavy metals, sediment beds adsorb metals in quantities that are many times higher than those found in the water column in the long-term polluted water environment. It is believed that most of the metal content, as much as 90% in aquatic sediments is bound to sediments. Metal contamination in these sediments could be directly affect the river water quality, resulting in potential consequences to the sensitive lowest levels of the food chain and ultimately to human health. The objective of this research was the evaluation of heavy metal contamination level in sediments of the most important rivers and artificial lakes in Serbia. The heavy metal enrichment in studied sediments was conducted by using: determination of total metal content, sequential extraction procedure for the fractionation of studied elements, quantification of the metal enrichment degree in the sediments by calculating geo-accumulation indices, determination of actual and potential element availability and application of BRAI index for the assessment of heavy metal bioavailability. The sediments were found to be contaminated by heavy metals to various extents, mostly with Cd, Cu, and Zn. The significant variation in heavy metal distribution among samples collected in this large region, encompassing all Serbian watersheds, suggests the selective contamination of sediments by heavy metals. Elevated concentrations of elements in most cases were detected in samples of river sediments, since artificial lake reservoirs are usually built in rural areas, where the less anthropogenic pollution. Rivers often flow through the towns and these water basins less or more loaded

  18. Pollution distribution of heavy metals in surface soil at an informal electronic-waste recycling site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Takashi; Takigami, Hidetaka

    2014-02-01

    We studied distribution of heavy metals [lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn)] in surface soil at an electronic-waste (e-waste) recycling workshop near Metro Manila in the Philippines to evaluate the pollution size (spot size, small area or the entire workshop), as well as to assess heavy metal transport into the surrounding soil environment. On-site length-of-stride-scale (~70 cm) measurements were performed at each surface soil point using field-portable X-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF). The surface soil at the e-waste recycling workshop was polluted with Cu, Zn and Pb, which were distributed discretely in surface soil. The site was divided into five areas based on the distance from an entrance gate (y-axis) of the e-waste recycling workshop. The three heavy metals showed similar concentration gradients in the y-axis direction. Zn, Pb and Cu concentrations were estimated to decrease to half of their maximum concentrations at ~3, 7 and 7 m from the pollution spot, respectively, inside the informal e-waste recycling workshop. Distance from an entrance may play an important role in heavy metal transport at the soil surface. Using on-site FP-XRF, we evaluated the metal ratio to characterise pollution features of the solid surface. Variability analysis of heavy metals revealed vanishing surficial autocorrelation over metre ranges. Also, the possibility of concentration prediction at unmeasured points using geostatistical kriging was evaluated, and heavy metals had a relative "small" pollution scales and remained inside the original workshop compared with toxic organohalogen compounds. Thus, exposure to heavy metals may directly influence the health of e-waste workers at the original site rather than the surrounding habitat and environmental media.

  19. [APPROACHES TO URBAN AREA RANKING ACCORDINGLY TO THE LEVEL OF HEAVY METAL POLLUTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, N V; Valeeva, E R; Fomina, S F

    2015-01-01

    Urban area ranking was performed according to the level of the heavy metal pollution based on the data of the snow and soil chemical characteristics. With reference to cumulative rates of the snow cover and soil pollution by heavy metals in the territory of the city of Kazan there were selected four areas: I--Derbyshki; II--Teplocontrol; III--Gorki; IV--Kirovsky district. The pollution level of snow cover in the territory of the city was determined by pollution level indices calculated with the application of Maximum Permissible Concentration (MPC) of chemical substances in ambient waters for household and recreational and service facilities use. The assessment of the pollution level in soils in the city showed the total territory of Kazan to be mildly polluted by manganese, concerning other heavy metals the categories of the soil pollution vary on areas. Results of hair biological monitoring in children are an informative auxiliary tool for the evaluation of the present ecological situation concerning heavy metals in certain territories of the city.

  20. Heavy-metal pollution of the river Rhine and Meuse floodplains in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelkoop, H.

    2000-01-01

    The embanked floodplains of the lower Rhine river in the Netherlands contain large amounts of heavy metals, which is a result of many years of deposition of contaminated overbank sediments. The metal pollution varies greatly between the various floodplain sections as well as in vertical direction

  1. Silica coated magnetite nanoparticles for removal of heavy metal ions from polluted waters

    CERN Document Server

    Dash, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic removal of Hg2+ and other heavy metal ions like Cd2+, Pb2+ etc. using silica coated magnetite particles from polluted waters is a current topic of active research to provide efficient water recycling and long term high quality water. The technique used to study the bonding characteristics of such kind of nanoparticles with the heavy metal ions is a very sensitive hyperfine specroscopy technique called the perturbed angular correlation technique (PAC).

  2. Spatio-Temporal Change of Heavy Metal Pollution in Sivas City

    OpenAIRE

    ELİK, Adil; AKÇAY, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    The anthropogenic heavy metal pollution of Sivas city was traced at seven stations which had the characteristic properties of the city, spatially and temporally, during the summer seasons, between 1992-1994. The heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Cu, Fe and Al) accumulated on the sprouts of Pinaceae Pinus Sylvertris L. and Fabaceae Rabinia Pseudoacacia L. were dissolved by ultrasonic leaching and were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The method of sample preparatio...

  3. Soil Pollution with Heavy Metals in the Industrial Cities of Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia E. Kosheleva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The technogenic anomalies in heavy metal patterns in the soils of Ulaanbaatar, Darkhan, and Erdenet cities are characterized both qualitatively and quantitatively. These data permitted to evaluate the background geochemical situation in the study area, and the technogenic specialization of the cities. The geochemical properties of urban soils were shown to display a spatial variability associated with certain functional zones. The ecological status of polluted urban soils was assessed basing on regulatory heavy metal values accepted in Mongolia.

  4. [Study on pollution evaluation of heavy metal in surface soil of the original site of Qingdao North Station].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Jia, Yong-gang; Pan, Yu-ying

    2013-09-01

    The determination of pollution extent and health risk assessment are the premise of heavy metal contaminated site remediation. The content of Cu, Cr, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni in Qingdao North Station was detected, and the correlation of the 6 kinds of heavy metal content was analyzed. The pollution extent in excess of background values was characterized by anthropogenic influence multiple, and the pollution of heavy metal in soil was evaluated using geoaccumulation index and a new method which connects geoaccumulation index with Nemero index. Finally, human health risk assessment was carried out with health risk assessment model for heavy metal content. The results showed that Qingdao North Station soil were polluted by heavy metals. Six heavy metal pollution levels were: Cd > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr > Zn, and Cd had reached the severity pollution level, Cu and Ni followed by, Cr, Pb and Zn were in minor pollution level. The order of coefficient variation in all heavy metals was: Cd > Ni > Cr > Zn > Pb > Cu. Within the study area soil heavy metal distribution was different, but overall discrepancy was small. The order of non-cancer hazards of heavy metals in soil was Cr > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cd > Zn, and the order of carcinogen risks of heavy metals was Ni > Cd. The non-cancer hazard and carcinogen risks values of metals were both lower than that their threshold values. They were not the direct threats to human health.

  5. Decomposition of heavy metal contaminated nettles (Urtica dioica L.) in soils subjected to heavy metal pollution by river sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Khalid Saifullah; Joergensen, Rainer Georg

    2006-11-01

    Two incubation experiments were conducted to evaluate differences in the microbial use of non-contaminated and heavy metal contaminated nettle (Urtica dioica L.) shoot residues in three soils subjected to heavy metal pollution (Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cd) by river sediments. The microbial use of shoot residues was monitored by changes in microbial biomass C, biomass N, biomass P, ergosterol, N mineralisation, CO(2) production and O(2) consumption rates. Microbial biomass C, N, and P were estimated by fumigation extraction. In the non-amended soils, the mean microbial biomass C to soil organic C ratio decreased from 2.3% in the low metal soil to 1.1% in the high metal soils. In the 42-d incubation experiment, the addition of 2% nettle residues resulted in markedly increased contents of microbial biomass P (+240%), biomass C (+270%), biomass N (+310%), and ergosterol (+360%). The relative increase in the four microbial properties was similar for the three soils and did not show any clear heavy metal effect. The contents of microbial biomass C, N and P and ergosterol contents declined approximately by 30% during the incubation as in the non-amended soils. The ratios microbial biomass C to N, microbial biomass C to P, and ergosterol to microbial biomass C remained constant at 5.2, 26, and 0.5%, respectively. In the 6-d incubation experiment, the respiratory quotient CO(2)/O(2) increased from 0.74 in the low metal soil to 1.58 in the high metal soil in the non-amended soils. In the treatments amended with 4% nettle residues, the respiratory quotient was constant at 1.13, without any effects of the three soils or the two nettle treatments. Contaminated nettle residues led generally to significantly lower N mineralisation, CO(2) production and O(2) consumption rates than non-contaminated nettle residues. However, the absolute differences were small.

  6. Assessment of heavy metal pollution of topsoils and plants in the City of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrejić Gordana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess heavy metal pollution in the city of Belgrade (Serbia concentrations of V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb were measured on 18 topsoil samples collected in the proximity to central urban boulevards and in urban parks. In addition, concentrations of specified elements were determined in leaves of three evergreen plant species Buxus sempervirens L., Mahonia aquifolium (Pursh Nutt. and Prunus laurocerasus L. so as to estimate their sensitivity to heavy metal pollution. Even though various types of soils from different quarts of Belgrade were sampled, their heavy metal contents were very similar, with somewhat higher concentrations of almost all elements detected in the proximity to high traffic roads. Generally, concentrations of heavy metals in leaves of investigated plant species paralleled the heavy metal concentrations found in their respective soils and were higher in plants sampled from boulevards then from urban parks. Since investigated plant show no visible injuries induced by detected heavy metal pollution these species are suitable for the successful urban landscaping. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173030

  7. Transgenerational effects of heavy metal pollution on immune defense of the blow fly Protophormia terraenovae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Pölkki

    Full Text Available Recently environmental conditions during early parental development have been found to have transgenerational effects on immunity and other condition-dependent traits. However, potential transgenerational effects of heavy metal pollution have not previously been studied. Here we show that direct exposure to heavy metal (copper upregulates the immune system of the blow fly, Protophormia terraenovae, reared in copper contaminated food. In the second experiment, to test transgenerational effects of heavy metal, the parental generation of the P. terraenovae was reared in food supplemented with copper, and the immunocompetence of their offspring, reared on uncontaminated food, was measured. Copper concentration used in this study was, in the preliminary test, found to have no effect on mortality of the flies. Immunity was tested on the imago stage by measuring encapsulation response against an artificial antigen, nylon monofilament. We found that exposure to copper during the parental development stages through the larval diet resulted in immune responses that were still apparent in the next generation that was not exposed to the heavy metal. We found that individuals reared on copper-contaminated food developed more slowly compared with those reared on uncontaminated food. The treatment groups did not differ in their dry body mass. However, parental exposure to copper did not have an effect on the development time or body mass of their offspring. Our study suggests that heavy metal pollution has positive feedback effect on encapsulation response through generations which multiplies the harmful effects of heavy metal pollution in following generations.

  8. Agroecological Responses of Heavy Metal Pollution with Special Emphasis on Soil Health and Plant Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav Srivastava

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With modern day urbanization and industrialization, heavy metal (HM contamination has become a prime concern for today's society. The impacts of metal contamination on agriculture range from the agricultural soil to the produce in our food basket. The heavy metals (HMs and metalloids, including Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, Hg, Pb, among others, can result in significant toxic impacts. The intensification of agricultural land use and changes in farming practices along with technological advancement have led to heavy metal pollution in soil. Metals/metalloids concentrations in the soil are increasing at alarming rate and affect plant growth, food safety, and soil microflora. The biological and geological reorganization of heavy metal depends chiefly on green plants and their metabolism. Metal toxicity has direct effects to flora that forms an integral component of ecosystems. Altered biochemical, physiological, and metabolic processes are found in plants growing in regions of high metal pollution. However, metals like Cu, Mn, Co, Zn, and Cr are required in trace amounts by plants for their metabolic activities. The present review aims to catalog major published works related to heavy metal contamination in modern day agriculture, and draw a possible road map toward future research in this domain.

  9. Determining the Heavy Metal Pollution in Mascara (Algeria by Using Casuarina equisetifolia

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    Lakhdari Aissa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Casuarina equisetifolia needles were evaluated as the possible biomonitors of heavy metal air pollution in Mascara (Algeria. The needles were sampled from seven locations with different degrees of metal pollution (near roads and from a control site. The concentrations of lead, zinc, copper and nickel were measured by using a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The maximal values of these four metals were found in the samples collected near the roads and the minimal values were found in the control site. Furthermore, sites with high traffic density and frequency of cars stoppage showed high heavy metal concentrations. However, the comparison of concentrations of all metals showed that the zinc one had the highest concentration of all. The cluster analysis divided the selected sampling sites in three distinct clusters. With regard to the results of this study, Casuarina equisetifolia can be successfully applied in biomonitoring of air pollution.

  10. Integrating classification and regression tree (CART) with GIS for assessment of heavy metals pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei; Zhang, Xiuying; Wang, Ke; Dai, Xuelong

    2009-11-01

    The classification and regression tree (CART) model integrated with geographical information systems and the assessment of heavy-metals pollution system was developed to assess the heavy metals pollution in Fuyang, Zhejiang, China. The integration of the decision tree model with ArcGIS Engine 9 using a COM implementation in Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0 provided an approach for assessing the spatial distribution of soil Zn content with high predictive accuracy. The Zn concentration classes estimated by CART assigned the right classes with an accuracy of near 90%. This is a great improvement compared to the ordinary Kriging method for the spatial autocorrelation of the study area severely destroyed by human activities. Also, it can be used to investigate the inter-relationships between the heavy metals pollution and environmental and anthropogenic variables. Moreover, the research presents model predictions over space for further applications and investigations.

  11. Characterisation of actinomycetes community from the heavy metals polluted soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Vítězová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The isolation of actinomycetes was performed from soil samples influenced by car-traffic. The acute toxicity of soil leaches was tested by the help of Microtox® bioassay testing system which uses freeze dried luminescent bacteria Photobacterium phosphoreum as the test organisms. The content of heavy metals in biomass of soil microorganisms and in whole soil samples was determinate. 115 strains of actinomycetes were isolated and their total numbers in soil samples were estimated. The acute toxicity of soil influenced the total numbers of actinomycetes. By the help of DNA-DNA reassociation procedure the generic diversity of bacteria was estimated. The identification and differentiation of streptomycetes from the total isolated actinomycetes was made using specific morphological criteria and the gas chromatography-fatty acid methyl ester (GC-FAME analysis. FAME method is adequate only for differentiation of members of genus Streptomyces from other actinomycetes because of their characteristical profile of fatty acids.

  12. [Distribution of Urban Soil Heavy Metal and Pollution Evaluation in Different Functional Zones of Yinchuan City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, You-qi; Bai, Yi-ru; Wang, Jian-yu

    2016-02-15

    Surface soil samples (0-20 cm) from eight different functional areas in Yinchuan city were collected. There were 10 samples respectively in each functional area. The urban soil heavy metals (Zn, Cd, Pb, Mn, Cu and Cr) pollution characteristics and sources in eight different functional areas were evaluated by mathematical statistics and geostatistical analysis method. Meanwhile, the spatial distributions of heavy metals based on the geography information system (GIS) were plotted. The average values of total Zn, Cd, Pb, Mn, Cu and Cr were 74.87, 0.15, 29.02, 553.55, 40.37 and 80.79 mg x kg(-1), respectively. The results showed that the average value of soil heavy metals was higher than the soil background value of Ningxia, which indicated accumulation of the heavy metals in urban soil. The single factor pollution index of soil heavy metals was in the sequence of Cu > Pb > Zn > Cr > Cd > Mn. The average values of total Zn, Cd, Pb and Cr were higher in north east, south west and central city, while the average values of Mn and Cu were higher in north east and central city. There was moderate pollution in road and industrial area of Yinchuan, while the other functional areas showed slight pollution according to Nemoro synthesis index. The pollution degree of different functional areas was as follows: road > industrial area > business district > medical treatment area > residential area > public park > development zone > science and education area. The results indicated that the soil heavy metal pollution condition in Yinchuan City has been affected by human activities with the development of economy.

  13. Heavy Metal Pollution in a Soil-Rice System in the Yangtze River Region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhouping; Zhang, Qiaofen; Han, Tiqian; Ding, Yanfei; Sun, Junwei; Wang, Feijuan; Zhu, Cheng

    2015-12-22

    Heavy metals are regarded as toxic trace elements in the environment. Heavy metal pollution in soil or rice grains is of increasing concern. In this study, 101 pairs of soil and rice samples were collected from the major rice-producing areas along the Yangtze River in China. The soil properties and heavy metal (i.e., Cd, Hg, Pb and Cr) concentrations in the soil and rice grains were analyzed to evaluate the heavy metal accumulation characteristics of the soil-rice systems. The results showed that the Cd, Hg, Pb and Cr concentrations in the soil ranged from 0.10 to 4.64, 0.01 to 1.46, 7.64 to 127.56, and 13.52 to 231.02 mg·kg(-)¹, respectively. Approximately 37%, 16%, 60% and 70% of the rice grain samples were polluted by Cd, Hg, Pb, and Cr, respectively. The degree of heavy metal contamination in the soil-rice systems exhibited a regional variation. The interactions among the heavy metal elements may also influence the migration and accumulation of heavy metals in soil or paddy rice. The accumulation of heavy metals in soil and rice grains is related to a certain extent to the pH and soil organic matter (SOM). This study provides useful information regarding heavy metal accumulation in soil to support the safe production of rice in China. The findings from this study also provide a robust scientific basis for risk assessments regarding ecological protection and food safety.

  14. Heavy Metal Pollution in a Soil-Rice System in the Yangtze River Region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhouping Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are regarded as toxic trace elements in the environment. Heavy metal pollution in soil or rice grains is of increasing concern. In this study, 101 pairs of soil and rice samples were collected from the major rice-producing areas along the Yangtze River in China. The soil properties and heavy metal (i.e., Cd, Hg, Pb and Cr concentrations in the soil and rice grains were analyzed to evaluate the heavy metal accumulation characteristics of the soil-rice systems. The results showed that the Cd, Hg, Pb and Cr concentrations in the soil ranged from 0.10 to 4.64, 0.01 to 1.46, 7.64 to 127.56, and 13.52 to 231.02 mg·kg−1, respectively. Approximately 37%, 16%, 60% and 70% of the rice grain samples were polluted by Cd, Hg, Pb, and Cr, respectively. The degree of heavy metal contamination in the soil-rice systems exhibited a regional variation. The interactions among the heavy metal elements may also influence the migration and accumulation of heavy metals in soil or paddy rice. The accumulation of heavy metals in soil and rice grains is related to a certain extent to the pH and soil organic matter (SOM. This study provides useful information regarding heavy metal accumulation in soil to support the safe production of rice in China. The findings from this study also provide a robust scientific basis for risk assessments regarding ecological protection and food safety.

  15. Benthic macroalgae as biological indicators of heavy metal pollution in the marine environments: a biomonitoring approach for pollution assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sukalyan; Bhattacharya, Tanushree; Singh, Gurmeet; Maity, Jyoti Prakash

    2014-02-01

    Metal pollution in the marine coastline environment is an important topical issue in the context of ecological disturbance and climate change. Heavy metal contaminations (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in seawater and surficial sediments, as well as macroalgal diversity, were determined in six different locations along the coast of the Gulf of Kutch in India. The marine coastline environment was found to be enriched with Cd and Zn in comparison to other metals. Significant (p ≤ 0.05) inter-elemental positive-correlations were observed between Fe-Mn, Fe-Cu, Fe-Cr, Fe-Zn, Cr-Cu, Cu-Mn, and Cd-Zn, as well as negative-correlations between Cd-Pb, Ni-Pb, and Zn-Pb. Though genus specific macroalgal responses to heavy metal accumulation were significant, species specific response was insignificant (p ≤ 0.05). The relative abundance of metals in macroalgae followed the order of Fe>Zn>Mn>Cu>Cd>Cr>Ni>Pb. The high uptake of metals in green algae (Ulva lactuca and Enteromorpha intestinalis) and brown algae (Padina gymnospora and Dictyota bartayresiana) suggested that these algae may be used as potential biomonitors for heavy metal pollution. Three pollution indicators, Contamination Factor (CF), Enrichment Factor (EF) and Geochemical Index (Igeo) were calculated to determine the degree of metal pollution in the marine coastline and the contribution of anthropogenic influence. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Evidence for between-generation effects in carabids exposed to heavy metals pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagisz, Malgorzata; Laskowski, Ryszard

    2008-01-01

    This work represents one of very few studies showing intergenerational effects of terrestrial pollution with heavy metals in a terrestrial predatory invertebrate. We demonstrate that carabid beetles Pterostichus oblongopunctatus (Coleoptera, Carabidae) inhabiting metal polluted environment have altered life-history parameters in comparison to those from reference area populations. We observed decreased hatchability of eggs in field collected animals fed with uncontaminated food, which suggests that carabids from heavily polluted sites are not able to fully avoid the risk of secondary poisoning via contaminated prey. The adult fresh body mass of young imagines from the first laboratory generation reared in uncontaminated conditions was affected by pollution level at the sites of beetles' origin. However, we did not observe any effects of site contamination in the second laboratory generation. Therefore, we conclude that although genetic adaptation has not occurred in the populations chronically exposed to toxic metal concentrations, there is evidence of intergenerational maternal effects of metal pollution.

  17. Heavy metal contents in whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) along a pollution gradient in a subarctic watercourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundsen, Per-Arne; Kashulin, Nikolay A; Terentjev, Petr; Gjelland, Karl Øystein; Koroleva, Irina M; Dauvalter, Vladimir A; Sandimirov, Sergey; Kashulin, Alexander; Knudsen, Rune

    2011-11-01

    Metallurgic industry is a source of serious environmental pollution related to the emission of heavy metals. Freshwater systems are focal points for pollution, acting as sinks for contaminants that may end up in fish and humans. The Pasvik watercourse in the border area between Finland, Norway and Russia is located in the vicinity of the Pechenganickel metallurgic enterprises, and the lower part of the watershed drains the Nikel smelters directly through Lake Kuetsjarvi. Heavy metal (Ni, Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb and Hg) concentrations in environment (water and sediments) and whitefish Coregonus lavaretus tissue (gills, liver, kidney and muscle) were contrasted between five lake localities situated along a spatial gradient of increasing distance (5-100 km) to the smelters. The heavy metal concentrations, in particular Ni, Cu and Cd, were highly elevated in Kuetsjarvi, but steeply declined with increasing distance to the smelters and were moderate or low in the other four localities. The study demonstrates that the majority of metal emissions and runoffs are deposited near the pollution source, and only moderate amounts of the heavy metal contaminants seem to be transported at further distances. Bioaccumulation of Hg occurred in all investigated tissues, and higher Hg concentrations in planktivorous versus benthivorous whitefish furthermore indicated that pelagic foraging is associated with higher levels of Hg biomagnification. Potential population ecology impacts of high heavy metal contaminations where mainly observed in whitefish in Kuetsjarvi, which showed depletions in growth rate, condition factor and size and age at maturation.

  18. Form finding of heavy metals in technogenic soil contamination at polyelement pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuraeva I.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The forms compounds with heavy metals pollution enterprises in various fields: coal, ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy, machine building and metalworking. Found that the initial ratio of elements forms varies with pollution. The degree of toxicity of soil contaminated with heavy metals, is determined not so much the total content elements as mobile forms, and forms related to the organic matter, oxides, hydroxides of Fe, Al, are involved in the biogenic migration of elements and admission to the neighboring environment. Investigated the soil in the immediate vicinity of the industrial enterprises in various fields, as well as soil health and recreational areas. Samples were collected from a depth of 0-20 cm. The analysis found that, in contaminated soils, the total content of metals above background. The content of heavy metals in soils located near the concentrating factory in Makeyevka, in almost all the investigated samples above background, it is noted in the soils of the private sector (garden plots. Most of the soil contaminated with heavy metals and industrial areas the neighborhood of ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, areas of residential areas and garden plots. Less prone to technogenic pollution with heavy metals territories located near the production association "Azot". It should be noted that the background of element content in soil sediments depend on the content of their parent rocks in the underlying, by landscape-geochemical factors on themselves and physico-chemical properties of soils

  19. Reassessment of heavy metal pollution in riverine sediments of Hainan Island, China: sources and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fangjian; Hu, Bangqi; Li, Jun; Cui, Ruyong; Liu, Zhaoqing; Jiang, Zuzhou; Yin, Xuebo

    2018-01-01

    Riverine sediment samples from Hainan Island were collected in 2013 to assess the heavy metal pollution levels, sources, and associated environmental risks. The concentrations of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb measured in this study were 31.6-128.8 mg kg-1, 9.8-70.3 mg kg-1, 18.3-210.8 mg kg-1, 49.3-314.2 mg kg-1, 2.3-69.2 mg kg-1, 0.3-1.5 mg kg-1, and 23.2-113.4 mg kg-1, respectively. The results indicate that the sediment quality of Hainan Island has been obviously influenced by heavy metals. Based on the effect range classification, the heavy metals in Hainan riverine sediments likely have adverse biological effects on local ecosystems. The enrichment factor (EF), geoaccumulation index (Igeo), contamination factor (CF), and pollution load index (PLI) clearly reflect significant metal pollution in this region. The most significant pollution was observed in the northern and eastern parts of Hainan Island. The pollution levels of the three largest rivers on Hainan Island (i.e., the Nandu, Changhua, and Wanquan Rivers) were notably high. The results of this research will be useful in assessing and managing environmental pollution in this region. In the future, greater attention and further investigation should focus on the metal sources linked to further economic development on Hainan Island.

  20. Effects of deposition of heavy-metal-polluted harbor mud on microbial diversity and metal resistance in sandy marine sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toes, Ann-Charlotte M; Finke, Niko; Kuenen, J Gijs

    2008-01-01

    Deposition of dredged harbor sediments in relatively undisturbed ecosystems is often considered a viable option for confinement of pollutants and possible natural attenuation. This study investigated the effects of deposition of heavy-metal-polluted sludge on the microbial diversity of sandy...

  1. [Study on canopy spectral characteristics of paddy polluted by heavy metals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hong-Yan; Zhuang, Da-Fang; Pan, Jian-Jun; Shi, Xue-Zheng; Shi, Run-He; Wang, Hong-Jie

    2010-02-01

    Because of frequent mining, heavy metals are brought into environment like soils, water and atmosphere, resulting heavy metal contamination in the agricultural region beside mines. Heavy metals contamination causes vegetation stress like destruction of chloroplast structure, chlorophyll content decrease, blunt photosynthesis, etc. Spectral responses to changes in chlorophyll content and photosynthesis make it possible that remote sensing is applied in monitoring heavy metals stress on paddy plants. Field spectroradiometer was used to acquire canopy reflectance spectra of paddy plants contaminated by heavy metals released from local mining. The present study was conducted to (1) investigate discrimination of canopy reflectance spectra of heavy metal polluted and normal paddy plants; (2) extract spectral characteristics of contaminated paddy plants and compare them. By means of correlation analysis, sensitive bands (SB) were firstly picked out from canopy spectra. Secondly, on the basis of these sensitive bands, normalized difference vegetation indices (NDVI) were established, and then red edge position (REP) was extracted from canopy spectra via curve fitting of inverted Gaussian model. As a result of correlation analysis, 460, 560, 660 and 1 100 nm were considered respectively as sensitive band for Pb, Zn, Cu and As concentration in paddy leaves. Furthermore, heavy metal concentrations (Pb, Zn, Cu and As) were significantly correlated with NDVIs (Pb, NDV(510, 810); Zn, NDVI(510, 870; Cu, NDVI(660, 870); As, NDVI(510, 810)). Heavy metals were also significantly correlated with REP, however, the inflexion termed as spectral critical value (SCV) between low and high heavy metals concentrations should be considered during applying REP in remote sensing monitoring. Moreover, NDVI and REP are much better than SB in terms of capability of expressing spectral information. Therefore, heavy metals contamination in paddy plants can be remotely monitored via ground

  2. Field effects of pollutants in dynamic environments. A case study on earthworm populations in river floodplains contaminated with heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klok, Chris [Alterra, Centre for Ecosystem Studies, Droevendaalsesteeg 3, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: chris.klok@wur.nl; Goedhart, Paul W. [Biometris, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 100, 6700 AC Wageningen (Netherlands); Vandecasteele, Bart [Research Institute for Nature and Forest, Gaverstraat 4, B-9500 Geraardsbergen (Belgium); Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research, Burg. van Gansberghelaan 96, P.O. Box 1, B-9820 Merelbeke (Belgium)

    2007-05-15

    In industrialized countries river floodplains can be strongly polluted with heavy metals. Published studies on effects of heavy metal pollution on soil invertebrates in floodplains, however, are inconclusive. This is unexpected since studies in other less dynamic environments reported clear effects at even lower levels of pollution. Flooding induces extra variation in invertebrate biomass and abundance which may reduce the probability to detect heavy metal effects. In this paper we combine reported data from studies on river floodplains in The Netherlands and Belgium and statistically analyze the effect of heavy metals on species composition, biomass, density and individual weight of earthworms. Interaction effects of heavy metal stress and flooding are also considered. The results suggest clear effects of zinc and copper on all variables and interaction of heavy metals and flooding for individual weight. - Interaction with flooding masks heavy metal effects.

  3. Heavy metal pollution in sediments of the largest reservoir (Three Gorges Reservoir) in China: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xingjuan; Gao, Bo; Xu, Dongyu; Gao, Li; Yin, Shuhua

    2017-09-01

    The Three Gorges Dam in China is the world's largest dam. Upon its completion in 2003, the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) became the largest reservoir in China and plays an important role in economic development and national drinking water safety. However, as a sink and source of heavy metals, there is a lack of continuous and comparative data on heavy metal pollution in sediments. This study reviewed all available literatures published on heavy metals in TGR sediments and further provided a comprehensive assessment of the pollution tendency of these heavy metals. The results showed that heavy metal concentrations in TGR sediments varied spatially and temporally. Temporal variations indicated that Hg in tributaries, as well as As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the mainstream, exhibited a higher probability to exceed background values after the impoundment of TGR. Pollution assessments by contamination factor, geoaccumulation index, and potential ecological risk were similar. High Cd and Hg concentrations in both the mainstream and tributaries are a cause for much concern. However, sediment quality guidelines produced different results, as most previous studies adopted different sampling and measurement strategies. The data inconsistencies and lack of continuity regarding the reservoir confirm the need for a continuous monitoring network and the development of quality criteria relevant to the sediments of the TGR in the future.

  4. [Magnetic Response of Dust-loaded Leaves in Parks of Shanghai to Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Chu, Hui-min; Zheng, Xiang-min

    2015-12-01

    To reveal the magnetic response to the atmospheric heavy metal pollution in leaves along urban parks, Camphor leaf samples, widely distributed at urban parks, were collected along the year leading wind direction of Shanghai, by setting two vertical and horizontal sections, using rock magnetic properties and heavy metal contents analysis. The results showed that the magnetic minerals of samples were predominated by ferromagnetic minerals, and both the concentration and grain size of magnetite particles gradually decreased with the winter monsoon direction from the main industrial district. A rigorous cleaning of leaves using ultrasonic agitator washer could remove about 63%-90% of low-field susceptibility values of the leaves, and this strongly indicated that the intensity of magnetic signal was mainly controlled by the PMs accumulated on the leaves surfaces. Moreover, there was a significant linear relationship between heavy metals contents (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cr, V and Pb) and magnetic parameters (0.442 ≤ R ≤ 0.799, P park leaves could be used as a proxy for atmospheric heavy metal pollution. The results of multivariate statistical analysis showed that the content of magnetic minerals and heavy metal indust-loaded tree leaves was affected by associated pollution of industry and traffic.

  5. Influence of industrial heavy metal pollution on soil free-living nematode population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pen-Mouratov, Stanislav [The Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel); Shukurov, Nosir [Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Academy of Sciences, Tashkent 700041 (Uzbekistan); Steinberger, Yosef [The Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel)], E-mail: steinby@mail.biu.ac.il

    2008-03-15

    The effect of distance from a heavy metal pollution source on the soil nematode community (trophic structure, sex structure, and taxa composition) was investigated along a 15-km transect originating at the Almalyk Industrial Complex, Uzbekistan (pollution source). The soil nematode community was exposed to heavy metal influence both directly and through soil properties changes. Pollution effect on the density and biomass of soil free-living nematodes was found to be highest at pollution source, with fungivores and plant parasites dominating at the upper and deeper soil layers next to the pollution source. These groups decreased along the transect, yielding domination to bacteria- and fungi-feeders. The sex ratio of nematode communities was found to be dependent on heavy metal pollution levels, with the juveniles being the most sensitive nematode group. The Maturity and modified Maturity Indices, reflecting the degree of disturbance of the soil ecosystem, were found to be the most sensitive indices. - Trophic structure and sex ratio of soil nematode population are sensitive tools for monitoring industrial pollution.

  6. Heavy metals in human teeth dentine: A bio-indicator of metals exposure and environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaduzzaman, Khandoker; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Binti Baharudin, Nurul Atiqah; Amin, Yusoff Bin Mohd; Farook, Mohideen Salihu; Bradley, D A; Mahmoud, Okba

    2017-06-01

    With rapid urbanization and large-scale industrial activities, modern human populations are being increasingly subjected to chronic environmental heavy metal exposures. Elemental uptake in tooth dentine is a bioindicator, the uptake occurring during the formation and mineralization processes, stored to large extent over periods of many years. The uptake includes essential elements, most typically geogenic dietary sources, as well as non-essential elements arising through environmental insults. In this study, with the help of the Dental Faculty of the University of Malaya, a total of 50 separate human teeth were collected from dental patients of various ethnicity, age, gender, occupation, dietary habit, residency, etc. Analysis was conducted using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), most samples indicating the presence of the following trace elements, placed in order of concentration, from least to greatest: As, Mn, Ba, Cu, Cr, Pb, Zn, Hg, Sb, Al, Sr, Sn. The concentrations have been observed to increase with age. Among the ethnic groups, the teeth of ethnic Chinese showed marginally greater metal concentrations than those of the Indians and Malays, the teeth dentine of females generally showing greater concentrations than that of males. Greater concentrations of Hg, Cu and Sn were found in molars while Pb, Sr, Sb and Zn were present in greater concentrations in incisors. With the elevated concentration levels of heavy metals in tooth dentine reflecting pollution from industrial emissions and urbanization, it is evident that human tooth dentine can provide chronological information on exposure, representing a reliable bio-indicator of environmental pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Heavy Metals Pollution and Pb Isotopic Signatures in Surface Sediments Collected from Bohai Bay, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bo; Lu, Jin; Hao, Hong; Yin, Shuhua; Yu, Xiao; Wang, Qiwen; Sun, Ke

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the characteristics and potential sources of heavy metals pollution, surface sediments collected from Bohai Bay, North China, were analyzed for the selected metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn). The Geoaccumulation Index was used to assess the level of heavy metal pollution. Pb isotopic compositions in sediments were also measured to effectively identify the potential Pb sources. The results showed that the average concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were 0.15, 79.73, 28.70, 36.56, 25.63, and 72.83 mg/kg, respectively. The mean concentrations of the studied metals were slightly higher than the background values. However, the heavy metals concentrations in surface sediments in Bohai Bay were below the other important bays or estuaries in China. The assessment by Geoaccumulation Index indicated that Cr, Zn, and Cd were classified as “the unpolluted” level, while Ni, Cu, and Pb were ranked as “unpolluted to moderately polluted” level. The order of pollution level of heavy metals was: Pb > Ni > Cu > Cr > Zn > Cd. The Pb isotopic ratios in surface sediments varied from 1.159 to 1.185 for 206Pb/207Pb and from 2.456 to 2.482 for 208Pb/207Pb. Compared with Pb isotopic radios in other sources, Pb contaminations in the surface sediments of Bohai Bay may be controlled by the mix process of coal combustion, aerosol particles deposition, and natural sources. PMID:24982926

  8. Field effects of pollutants in dynamic environments; a case study on earthworm populations in river floodplains contaminated with heavy metals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, C.; Goedhart, P.W.; Vandecasteele, B.

    2007-01-01

    In industrialized countries river floodplains can be strongly polluted with heavy metals. Published studies on effects of heavy metal pollution on soil invertebrates in floodplains, however, are inconclusive. This is unexpected since studies in other less dynamic environments reported clear effects

  9. Heavy metal pollution affects consumption and reproduction of the landsnail Cepaea Nemoralis fed on naturally polluted Urtica dioica leaves.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, M.J.M.; Oosthoek, A.; Rozema, J.; Aerts, R.

    2006-01-01

    This study is one of the very first that investigates the effects of heavy metal pollution on food consumption and reproduction of terrestrial snails under semi-realistic field conditions. Two experiments were carried out using snails (Cepaea nemoralis) and food (Urtica dioica leaves) from different

  10. Pollution and pollution tolerance in the case of heavy metals; Schadstoffbelastung und -belastbarkeit. Schwermetalle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kretschmer, H.; Neumann, A.; Surkus, A.E. [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Bodenkunde

    1997-12-31

    Urban soils often have high concentrations of heavy metals. This is particularly true of the technogenic substrates often found in cities and industrial and trading estates. The aim of the present project was therefore to mitigate the deficits of our present knowledge on problems relating to heavy metals in technogenic substrates. The studies presented in the following were carried out in pursuit of the following tasks: determination of the total concentration and mobility of the elements Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, and Ni in 11 lead soil profiles from technogenic substrates in Rostock, Kiel, Eckernfjoerde and Halle/Saale; study of the dependence of heavy metal mobility on different soil characteristics (e.g. pH, clay, organic carbon, and total heavy metal content); recording of adsorption isotherms characterising the sorption and desorption behaviour of heavy metals; estimation of the heavy metal binding capacity of technogenic substrates following the method quoted by DVWK (1988) for heavy metals; and performance of percolation experiments on soil columns for deriving material transport parameters and of model calculations on heavy metal migration. [Deutsch] Urbane Boeden, besonders die in Staedten, Industrie- und Gewerbegebieten verbreitet lagernden technogenen Substrate, weisen oft hohe Schwermetallgehalte auf. Ziel dieses Projektes ist daher, Erkenntnisdefizite zur Schwermetallproblematik technogener Substrate zu verringern. Den nachfolgend dargestellten Untersuchungen liegt folgende Aufgabenstellung zugrunde: - Bestimmung der Gesamtgehalte und Mobilitaeten der Elemente Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn und Ni an 11 Leitprofilen aus technogenen Substraten in Rostock, Kiel, Eckernfoerde und Halle/Saale, - Untersuchung der Abhaengigkeit der Schwermetallmobilitaet von verschiedenen Bodenkennwerten (pH-Wert, Ton-, Corg-, Kalkgehalt, KAK, Schwermetall-Gesamtgehalt), - Aufnahme von Adsorptionsisothermen zur Kennzeichnung des Sorptions- und Desorptionsverhaltens von Schwermetallen, - Schaetzung

  11. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in Córdoba (Spain) by biomonitoring foraging honeybee

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutiérrez, Miriam; Molero, Rafael; Gaju, Miquel; Steen, van der Sjef; Porrini, Claudio; Ruiz, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Due to features that make them outstanding environmental bioindicator, colonies of Apis mellifera are being used to study environmental pollution. The primary objective of this research was to use honeybee colonies to identify heavy metals and determine their utility for environmental management.

  12. The potential of willow for remediation of heavy metal polluted calcareous urban soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J K; Holm, P E; Nejrup, J

    2009-01-01

    Growth performance and heavy metal uptake by willow (Salix viminalis) from strongly and moderately polluted calcareous soils were investigated in field and growth chamber trials to assess the suitability of willow for phytoremediation. Field uptakes were 2-10 times higher than growth chamber...

  13. Diversity of Penicillium species isolated from heavy metal polluted soil in Guizhou Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qing-Xin, Zhou; Houbraken, J.; Li, Qi-Rui; Hyde, K.D.; McKenzie, E.H.C.; Wang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Seven Penicillium strains were isolated from soil samples polluted by heavy metals in different zones of Guizhou Province, China. Phenotypic identification proved to be difficult and this data was therefore supplemented with ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region and partial β-tubulin

  14. Novel polymer-based nanocomposites for application in heavy metal pollution remediation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kotzé-Jacobs, L

    2012-10-10

    Full Text Available In this presentation the author provides insights into how novel polymer nanocomposites can be utilised in the extraction of heavy metals like Cr(VI) from polluted waters in order to provide purified water up to potable standards....

  15. Glyphosate degradation as a soil health indicator for heavy metal polluted soils.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kools, S.A.E.; van Roovert, M.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; van Straalen, N.M.

    2005-01-01

    Glyphosate is a commonly used herbicide in grassland soils and microorganisms control its degradation. We introduce the concept of using the degradation rate as an indicator for ecosystem health. Testing this concept, we used soils with a long history of heavy metal pollution (Cu, Pb, and Zn). We

  16. A Review of Flood-Related Storage and Remobilization of Heavy Metal Pollutants in River Systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ciszewski, D.; Matys Grygar, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 227, č. 7 (2016), s. 227-239 ISSN 0049-6979 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-00340S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : River * Sediment * Heavy metals * Mobilization * Pollution Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 1.702, year: 2016

  17. Impact of Soil Heavy Metal Pollution on Food Safety in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuying Zhang

    Full Text Available Food safety is a major concern for the Chinese public. This study collected 465 published papers on heavy metal pollution rates (the ratio of the samples exceeding the Grade II limits for Chinese soils, the Soil Environmental Quality Standard-1995 in farmland soil throughout China. The results showed that Cd had the highest pollution rate of 7.75%, followed by Hg, Cu, Ni and Zn, Pb and Cr had the lowest pollution rates at lower than 1%. The total pollution rate in Chinese farmland soil was 10.18%, mainly from Cd, Hg, Cu, and Ni. The human activities of mining and smelting, industry, irrigation by sewage, urban development, and fertilizer application released certain amounts of heavy metals into soil, which resulted in the farmland soil being polluted. Considering the spatial variations of grain production, about 13.86% of grain production was affected due to the heavy metal pollution in farmland soil. These results many provide valuable information for agricultural soil management and protection in China.

  18. Impact of Soil Heavy Metal Pollution on Food Safety in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiuying; Zhong, Taiyang; Liu, Lei; Ouyang, Xiaoying

    2015-01-01

    Food safety is a major concern for the Chinese public. This study collected 465 published papers on heavy metal pollution rates (the ratio of the samples exceeding the Grade II limits for Chinese soils, the Soil Environmental Quality Standard-1995) in farmland soil throughout China. The results showed that Cd had the highest pollution rate of 7.75%, followed by Hg, Cu, Ni and Zn, Pb and Cr had the lowest pollution rates at lower than 1%. The total pollution rate in Chinese farmland soil was 10.18%, mainly from Cd, Hg, Cu, and Ni. The human activities of mining and smelting, industry, irrigation by sewage, urban development, and fertilizer application released certain amounts of heavy metals into soil, which resulted in the farmland soil being polluted. Considering the spatial variations of grain production, about 13.86% of grain production was affected due to the heavy metal pollution in farmland soil. These results many provide valuable information for agricultural soil management and protection in China.

  19. Impact of Soil Heavy Metal Pollution on Food Safety in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiuying; Zhong, Taiyang; Liu, Lei; Ouyang, Xiaoying

    2015-01-01

    Food safety is a major concern for the Chinese public. This study collected 465 published papers on heavy metal pollution rates (the ratio of the samples exceeding the Grade II limits for Chinese soils, the Soil Environmental Quality Standard-1995) in farmland soil throughout China. The results showed that Cd had the highest pollution rate of 7.75%, followed by Hg, Cu, Ni and Zn, Pb and Cr had the lowest pollution rates at lower than 1%. The total pollution rate in Chinese farmland soil was 10.18%, mainly from Cd, Hg, Cu, and Ni. The human activities of mining and smelting, industry, irrigation by sewage, urban development, and fertilizer application released certain amounts of heavy metals into soil, which resulted in the farmland soil being polluted. Considering the spatial variations of grain production, about 13.86% of grain production was affected due to the heavy metal pollution in farmland soil. These results many provide valuable information for agricultural soil management and protection in China. PMID:26252956

  20. Bioremediation mechanisms of combined pollution of PAHs and heavy metals by bacteria and fungi: A mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shao-Heng; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Niu, Qiu-Ya; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Lu; Jiang, Lu-Hua; Tan, Xiao-Fei; Xu, Piao; Zhang, Chen; Cheng, Min

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, knowledge in regard to bioremediation of combined pollution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals by bacteria and fungi has been widely developed. This paper reviews the species of bacteria and fungi which can tackle with various types of PAHs and heavy metals entering into environment simultaneously or successively. Microbial activity, pollutants bioavailability and environmental factors (e.g. pH, temperature, low molecular weight organic acids and humic acids) can all affect the bioremediation of PAHs and heavy metals. Moreover, this paper summarizes the remediation mechanisms of PAHs and heavy metals by microbes via elucidating the interaction mechanisms of heavy metals with heavy metals, PAHs/PAHs metabolites with PAHs and PAHs with heavy metals. Based on the above reviews, this paper also discusses the potential research needs for this field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Heavy metal pollution in aquatic ecosystems and its phytoremediation using wetland plants: An ecosustainable approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, P.K. [Mizoram Central University, Tanhril (India). School for Earth Science & Natural Resource Management

    2008-07-01

    This review addresses the global problem of heavy metal pollution originating from increased industrialization and urbanization and its amelioration by using wetland plants both in a microcosm as well as natural/field condition. This review mentions salient features of wetland ecosystems, their vegetation component, and the pros and cons involved in heavy metal removal. Wetland plants are preferred over other bio-agents due to their low cost, frequent abundance in aquatic ecosystems, and easy handling. Constructed wetlands proved to be effective for the abatement of heavy metal pollution from acid mine drainage; landfill leachate; thermal power; and municipal, agricultural, refinery, and chlor-alkali effluent. the physicochemical properties of wetlands provide many positive attributes for remediating heavy metals. Typha, Phragmites, Eichhornia, Azolla, Lemna, and other aquatic macrophytes are some of the potent wetland plants for heavy metal removal. Biomass disposal problem and seasonal growth of aquatic macrophytes are some limitations in the transfer of phytoremediation technology from the laboratory to the field. However, the disposed biomass of macrophytes may be used for various fruitful applications. An ecosustainable model has been developed through the author's various works, which may ameliorate some of the limitations. The creation of more areas for phytoremediation may also aid in wetlands conservation. Genetic engineering and biodiversity prospecting of endangered wetland plants are important future prospects in this regard.

  2. A Review of Flood-Related Storage and Remobilization of Heavy Metal Pollutants in River Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciszewski, Dariusz; Grygar, Tomáš Matys

    2016-01-01

    Recently observed rapid climate changes have focused the attention of researchers and river managers on the possible effects of increased flooding frequency on the mobilization and redistribution of historical pollutants within some river systems. This text summarizes regularities in the flood-related transport, channel-to-floodplain transfer, and storage and remobilization of heavy metals, which are the most persistent environmental pollutants in river systems. Metal-dispersal processes are essentially much more variable in alluvia than in soils of non-inundated areas due to the effects of flood-sediment sorting and the mixing of pollutants with grains of different origins in a catchment, resulting in changes of one to two orders of magnitude in metal content over distances of centimetres. Furthermore, metal remobilization can be more intensive in alluvia than in soils as a result of bank erosion, prolonged floodplain inundation associated with reducing conditions alternating with oxygen-driven processes of dry periods and frequent water-table fluctuations, which affect the distribution of metals at low-lying strata. Moreover, metal storage and remobilization are controlled by river channelization, but their influence depends on the period and extent of the engineering works. Generally, artificial structures such as groynes, dams or cut-off channels performed before pollution periods favour the entrapment of polluted sediments, whereas the floodplains of lined river channels that adjust to new, post-channelization hydraulic conditions become a permanent sink for fine polluted sediments, which accumulate solely during overbank flows. Metal mobilization in such floodplains takes place only by slow leaching, and their sediments, which accrete at a moderate rate, are the best archives of the catchment pollution with heavy metals.

  3. [Heavy metal pollution characteristics and ecological risk analysis for soil around Haining electroplating industrial park].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiong-Hui; Weng, Shan; Fang, Jing; Huang, Jia-Lei; Lu, Fang-Hua; Lu, Yu-Hao; Zhang, Hong-Ming

    2014-04-01

    The pollution status and potential ecological risks of heavy metal in soils around Haining electroplating industrial park were studied. Hakanson index approach was used to assess the ecological hazards of heavy metals in soils. Results showed that average concentrations of six heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd and Cr) in the soils were lower than the secondary criteria of environmental quality standard for soils, indicating limited harmful effects on the plants and the environment in general. Though the average soil concentrations were low, heavy metal concentrations in six sampling points located at the side of road still exceeded the criteria, with excessive rate of 13%. Statistic analysis showed that concentrations of Cu and Cd in roadside soils were significantly higher than those in non-roadside soils, indicating that the excessive heavy metal accumulations in the soil closely related with traffic transport. The average potential ecological hazard index of soils around Haining electroplating industrial park was 46.6, suggesting a slightly ecological harm. However, the potential ecological hazard index of soils with excessive heavy metals was 220-278, suggesting the medium ecological hazards. Cd was the most seriously ecological hazard factor.

  4. Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescent Analysis of Soil in the Vicinity of Industrial Areas and Heavy Metal Pollution Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, V.; Joshi, G. C.; Bisht, D.

    2017-05-01

    The soil of two agricultural sites near an industrial area was investigated for heavy metal pollution using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). The concentration values for 17 elements were determined in the soil samples including eight heavy metal elements, i.e., Fe, Ni, As, Pb, Mn, Cr, Cu, and Zn. The soil near a pulp and paper mill was found to be highly polluted by the heavy metals. The concentration data obtained by EDXRF were further examined by calculating the pollution index and Nemerow integrated pollution index.

  5. Heavy Metals Pollution Status of Sediments of Ahmadu Bello ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP USER

    ABSTRACT: Pollution status of the sediments of Ahmadu Bello University (ABU) dam, Zaria-Nigeria, was assessed. Twenty-four samples were collected ... I-geo is a powerful tool in the assessment of pollution levels of dams and rivers ... objective of this work was to calculate and apply PLI and I-geo in the establishment of ...

  6. Enrichment of marsh soils with heavy metals by effect of anthropic pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, Flora A.; Covelo, Emma F.; Cerqueira, Beatriz [Departamento de Biologia Vegetal y Ciencia del Suelo, Universidad de Vigo, As Lagoas. Marcosende 4, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Andrade, Maria Luisa, E-mail: mandrade@uvigo.es [Departamento de Biologia Vegetal y Ciencia del Suelo, Universidad de Vigo, As Lagoas. Marcosende 4, 36310 Vigo (Spain)

    2009-10-30

    The impact of waste disposal on marsh soils was assessed in topsoil samples collected at eight randomly selected points in the salt marsh in Ramallosa (Pontevedra, Spain) at 4-month intervals for 2 years. Polluted soil samples were characterized in physico-chemical terms and their heavy metal contents determined by comparison with control, unpolluted samples. The results revealed a marked effect of waste discharges on the soils in the area, which have low contents in heavy metals under normal environmental conditions. In fact, the studied soils were found to contain substantial amounts of total and DTPA-extractable Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. Based on the relationship of the redox potential with the DTPA-extractable Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn contents of the soils, strongly reductive conditions raised the total contents in these elements by effect of their remaining in the soils as precipitated sulphides. Such contents, however, decreased as oxidative conditions gradually prevailed. The contents in DTPA-extractable metals increased with increasing Eh through the release of the metals in ionic form to the soil solution under oxidative conditions. The contents in heavy metals concentrating in the polluted soils were several times higher than those in the control soils (viz. 2 vs. 6 for Cd, 4 vs. 6 for Cu, 4 vs. 20 for Pb, and 2 vs. 15 for Zn, all in mg kg{sup -1}). This can be expected to influence the amounts of available heavy metals present in the soils, and hence the environmental quality of the area, in the near future. Based on its geoaccumulation index (Class {>=}3 for Cd and Cu, and 1-4 for Pb and Zn), the Ramallosa marsh is highly polluted with Cd and moderately to highly polluted with Cu, Pb and Zn. The enrichment factors obtained confirm that the salt marsh is highly polluted (especially with Cd) as the primary result of anthropic activity.

  7. Snails from heavy-metal polluted environments have reduced sensitivity to carbon dioxide-induced acidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefcort, Hugh; Cleary, David A; Marble, Aaron M; Phillips, Morgan V; Stoddard, Timothy J; Tuthill, Lara M; Winslow, James R

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic atmospheric CO2 reacts with water to form carbonic acid (H2CO3) which increases water acidity. While marine acidification has received recent consideration, less attention has been paid to the effects of atmospheric carbon dioxide on freshwater systems-systems that often have low buffering potential. Since many aquatic systems are already impacted by pollutants such as heavy metals, we wondered about the added effect of rising atmospheric CO2 on freshwater organisms. We studied aquatic pulmonate snails (Physella columbiana) from both a heavy-metal polluted watershed and snails from a reference watershed that has not experienced mining pollution. We used gaseous CO2 to increase water acidity and we then measured changes in antipredatory behavior and also survival. We predicted a simple negative additive effect of low pH. We hypothesized that snails from metal-polluted environments would be physiologically stressed and impaired due to defense responses against heavy metals. Instead, snails from populations that acclimated or evolved in the presence of heavy metal mining pollution were more robust to acidic conditions than were snails from reference habitats. Snails from mining polluted sites seemed to be preadapted to a low pH environment. Their short-term survival in acidic conditions was better than snails from reference sites that lacked metal pollution. In fact, the 48 h survival of snails from polluted sites was so high that it did not significantly differ from the 24 h survival of snails from control sites. This suggests that the response of organisms to a world with rising anthropogenic carbon dioxide levels may be complex and difficult to predict. Snails had a weaker behavioral response to stressful stimuli if kept for 1 month at a pH that differed from their lake of origin. We found that snails raised at a pH of 5.5 had a weaker response (less of a decrease in activity) to concentrated heavy metals than did snails raised at their natal pH of

  8. Soil quality changes in response to their pollution by heavy metals, Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchavariani, Lia; Kalandadze, Besik; Lagidze, Lamzira; Gokhelashvili, Nino; Sulkhanishvili, Nino; Paichadze, Nino; Dvalashvili, Giorgi

    2015-01-01

    The present study deals with the composition, migration and accumulation of heavy metals in irrigated soils, plants and partially natural waters; and also, establishing the possible sources of pollution and their impact on environmental situation. The content of toxic elements in the irrigated soils adjacent to ore mining and processing enterprise were studied. Content of toxic elements in the irrigated soils adjacent to ore mining, showed that more than half of territory was seriously polluted by copper and zinc. Some part of the area were considered catastrophically polluted. Expressed technogenesis taking place influenced irrigation. Heavy metals like copper, zinc and manganese negative by effected the properties of soil, thus composition and soil-forming processes taking place in the soil. It was especially well represented in the deterioration of hydro-physical potential of the soil. Irrigation of agricultural land plots by water, polluted with heavy metals changed the pH. Balanced correlation among solid, liquid and gas phases was disrupted. In highly polluted soil, the cementing processes took place that sharply increased the bulk density of the soil, deteriorated the porosity of soil and reduced water permeability critically.

  9. Identification of Heavy Metal Pollution Derived From Traffic in Roadside Soil Using Magnetic Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pingguo; Ge, Jing; Yang, Miao

    2017-06-01

    The study integrates surface and vertical distribution of magnetic susceptibility and heavy metal contents (Pb, Cu, Zn and Fe) to characterize the signature of vehicle pollutants in roadside soils at Linfen city, China. Sites with reforestation and without vegetation cover were investigated. The results showed that magnetic susceptibility and heavy metal contents were higher at the roadside without trees than in the reforest belt. The variations of magnetic susceptibility and heavy metal contents decreased both with distance and with depth. The maximum value was observed at 5-10 m away from the roadside edge. The vertical distribution in soil revealed accumulation of pollutants in 0-5 cm topsoils. The average contents were higher than the background values and in the order Fe (107.21 g kg-1), Zn (99.72 mg kg-1), Pb (90.99 mg kg-1), Cu (36.14 mg kg-1). Coarse multi domain grains were identified as the dominating magnetic particles. Multivariate statistical and SEM/EDX analyses suggested that the heavy metals derived from traffic sources. Trees act as efficient receptors and green barrier, which can reduce vehicle derived pollution.

  10. Soil heavy metal pollution and risk assessment in Shenyang industrial district, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Xudong; Teng, Yanguo; Zhan, Yanhong; Wu, Jin; Lin, Xueyu

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the soil heavy metal pollution characteristics and ecological risk factors, 42 samples and six typical soil profiles were collected from the Shenyang industrial district in northeast China and were analyzed for contents of titanium (Ti), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As). Through statistical analysis, it was found that the mean concentrations were higher than their background values (Ti = 4.77>3.8g/kg, Cu = 33.75>22.6 mg/kg, Pb = 45.95>26 mg/kg, Zn = 81.54>74.2 mg/kg, Co = 12.91>12.7 mg/kg, Ni = 32.26>26.9 mg/kg, Cr = 83.36>61 mg/kg and As = 13.69>11.2 mg/kg) but did not exceed their corresponding pollution limits for the Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for Soils (State Environmental Protection Administration of China, 1995). There were contamination hotspots that may be caused by human activities such as smelting plants and sewage irrigation. The Enrichment Factor and Ecological Risk Index were used to identify the anthropogenic contamination and ecological risks of heavy metals. Soil in the study area could be considered lightly or partially polluted by heavy metals. According to clustering analysis, distinct groups of heavy metals were discriminated between natural or anthropogenic sources.

  11. Soil heavy metal pollution and risk assessment in Shenyang industrial district, Northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Jiao

    Full Text Available To investigate the soil heavy metal pollution characteristics and ecological risk factors, 42 samples and six typical soil profiles were collected from the Shenyang industrial district in northeast China and were analyzed for contents of titanium (Ti, copper (Cu, lead (Pb, zinc (Zn, cobalt (Co, nickel (Ni, chromium (Cr and arsenic (As. Through statistical analysis, it was found that the mean concentrations were higher than their background values (Ti = 4.77>3.8g/kg, Cu = 33.75>22.6 mg/kg, Pb = 45.95>26 mg/kg, Zn = 81.54>74.2 mg/kg, Co = 12.91>12.7 mg/kg, Ni = 32.26>26.9 mg/kg, Cr = 83.36>61 mg/kg and As = 13.69>11.2 mg/kg but did not exceed their corresponding pollution limits for the Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for Soils (State Environmental Protection Administration of China, 1995. There were contamination hotspots that may be caused by human activities such as smelting plants and sewage irrigation. The Enrichment Factor and Ecological Risk Index were used to identify the anthropogenic contamination and ecological risks of heavy metals. Soil in the study area could be considered lightly or partially polluted by heavy metals. According to clustering analysis, distinct groups of heavy metals were discriminated between natural or anthropogenic sources.

  12. Spatial assessment and source identification of heavy metals pollution in surface water using several chemometric techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Azimah; Toriman, Mohd Ekhwan; Juahir, Hafizan; Zain, Sharifuddin Md; Habir, Nur Liyana Abdul; Retnam, Ananthy; Kamaruddin, Mohd Khairul Amri; Umar, Roslan; Azid, Azman

    2016-05-15

    This study presents the determination of the spatial variation and source identification of heavy metal pollution in surface water along the Straits of Malacca using several chemometric techniques. Clustering and discrimination of heavy metal compounds in surface water into two groups (northern and southern regions) are observed according to level of concentrations via the application of chemometric techniques. Principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrates that Cu and Cr dominate the source apportionment in northern region with a total variance of 57.62% and is identified with mining and shipping activities. These are the major contamination contributors in the Straits. Land-based pollution originating from vehicular emission with a total variance of 59.43% is attributed to the high level of Pb concentration in the southern region. The results revealed that one state representing each cluster (northern and southern regions) is significant as the main location for investigating heavy metal concentration in the Straits of Malacca which would save monitoring cost and time. The monitoring of spatial variation and source of heavy metals pollution at the northern and southern regions of the Straits of Malacca, Malaysia, using chemometric analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Soil Heavy Metal Pollution and Risk Assessment in Shenyang Industrial District, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Xudong; Teng, Yanguo; Zhan, Yanhong; Wu, Jin; Lin, Xueyu

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the soil heavy metal pollution characteristics and ecological risk factors, 42 samples and six typical soil profiles were collected from the Shenyang industrial district in northeast China and were analyzed for contents of titanium (Ti), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As). Through statistical analysis, it was found that the mean concentrations were higher than their background values (Ti = 4.77>3.8g/kg, Cu = 33.75>22.6 mg/kg, Pb = 45.95>26 mg/kg, Zn = 81.54>74.2 mg/kg, Co = 12.91>12.7 mg/kg, Ni = 32.26>26.9 mg/kg, Cr = 83.36>61 mg/kg and As = 13.69>11.2 mg/kg) but did not exceed their corresponding pollution limits for the Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for Soils (State Environmental Protection Administration of China, 1995). There were contamination hotspots that may be caused by human activities such as smelting plants and sewage irrigation. The Enrichment Factor and Ecological Risk Index were used to identify the anthropogenic contamination and ecological risks of heavy metals. Soil in the study area could be considered lightly or partially polluted by heavy metals. According to clustering analysis, distinct groups of heavy metals were discriminated between natural or anthropogenic sources. PMID:25997173

  14. [Pollution Evaluation and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals from Atmospheric Deposition in the Parks of Nanjing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Qian, Xin; Li, Hui-ming; Sun, Yi-xuan; Wang, Jin-hua

    2016-05-15

    Contents of heavy metals involving As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn from atmospheric deposition in 10 parks of Nanjing were analyzed. The pollution level, ecological risk and health risk were evaluated using Geoaccumulation Index, Potential Ecological Risk Index and the US EPA Health Risk Assessment Model, respectively. The results showed that the pollution levels of heavy metals in Swallow Rock Park, Swallow Rock Park and Mochou Lake Park were higher than the others. Compared to other cities such as Changchun, Wuhan and Beijing, the contents of heavy metals in atmospheric deposition of parks in Nanjing were higher. The evaluation results of Geoaccumulation Index showed that Pb was at moderate pollution level, Zn and Cu were between moderate and serious levels, while Cd was between serious and extreme levels. The ecological risk level of Cd was high. The assessment results of Health Risk Assessment Model indicated that there was no non-carcinogenic risk for all the seven heavy metals. For carcinogenic risk, the risks of Cd, Cr and Ni were all negligible (Risk < 1 x 10⁻⁶), whereas As had carcinogenic risk possibility but was considered to be acceptable (10⁻⁶ < Risk < 10⁻⁴).

  15. Effect of Heavy Metals Pollution on Soil Microbial Diversity and Bermudagrass Genetic Variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yan; Fan, Jibiao; Zhu, Weixi; Amombo, Erick; Lou, Yanhong; Chen, Liang; Fu, Jinmin

    2016-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution is a serious global environmental problem as it adversely affects plant growth and genetic variation. It also alters the composition and activity of soil microbial communities. The objectives of this study were to determine the soil microbial diversity, bermudagrass genetic variation in Cd contaminated or uncontaminated soils from Hunan province of China, and to evaluate Cd-tolerance of bermudagrass at different soils. The Biolog method, hydroponic experiments and simple sequence repeat markers were used to assess the functional diversity of microorganisms, Cd-tolerance and the genetic diversity of bermudagrass, respectively. Four of the sampling sites were heavily contaminated with heavy metals. The total bioactivity, richness, and microbial diversity decreased with increasing concentration of heavy metal. The hydroponic experiment revealed that bermudagrass populations collected from polluted sites have evolved, encompassing the feature of a higher resistance to Cd toxicity. Higher genetic diversity was observed to be more in contaminated populations than in uncontaminated populations. Heavy metal pollution can result in adverse effects on plant growth, soil microbial diversity and activity, and apparently has a stronger impact on the genetic structure. The results of this study provide new insights and a background to produce a genetic description of populations in a species that is suitable for use in phytoremediation practices.

  16. Effect of heavy metals pollution on soil microbial diversity and bermudagrass genetic variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan eXie

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal pollution is a serious global environmental problem as it adversely affects plant growth and genetic variation. It also alters the composition and activity of soil microbial communities. The objectives of this study were to determine the soil microbial diversity, bermudagrass genetic variation in Cd contaminated or uncontaminated soils from Hunan province of China, and to evaluate Cd tolerance of bermudagrass at different soils. The Biolog method, hydroponic experiments and simple sequence repeat markers were used to assess the functional diversity of microorganisms, Cd tolerance and the genetic diversity of bermudagrass, respectively. Four of the sampling sites were heavily contaminated with heavy metal. The total bioactivity, richness, and microbial diversity decreased with increasing concentration of heavy metal. The hydroponic experiment revealed that bermudagrass populations collected from polluted sites have evolved, encompassing the feature of a higher resistance to Cd toxicity. Higher genetic diversity was observed to be more in contaminated populations than in uncontaminated populations. Heavy metal pollution can result in adverse effects on plant growth, soil microbial diversity and activity, and apparently has a stronger impact on the genetic structure. The results of this study provide new insights and a background to produce a genetic description of populations in a species that is suitable for use in phytoremediation practices.

  17. Phytoscreening and phytoextraction of heavy metals at Danish polluted sites using willow and poplar trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Algreen; Trapp, Stefan; Rein, Arno

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine typical concentrations of heavy metals (HM) in wood from willows and poplars, in order to test the feasibility of phytoscreening and phytoextraction of HM. Samples were taken from one strongly, one moderately, and one slightly polluted site and from...... three reference sites. Wood from both tree species had similar background concentrations at 0.5 mg kg−1 for cadmium (Cd), 1.6 mg kg−1 for copper (Cu), 0.3 mg kg−1 for nickel (Ni), and 25 mg kg−1 for zinc (Zn). Concentrations of chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb) were below or close to detection limit....... Concentrations in wood from the highly polluted site were significantly elevated, compared to references, in particular for willow. The conclusion from these results is that tree coring could be used successfully to identify strongly heavy metal-polluted soil for Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn, and that willow trees were...

  18. [Analysis of distribution and contents of heavy metal pollution in fish body with laser-induced breaddown spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiong; Wang, Jian-Yu; Ye, Jian-Hua; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Zhi-Min

    2013-01-01

    Environmental pollution can cause poisoning, disease and death of organisms, and the absorption and the accumulation of different biological tissues on pollutants are different. The absorption of heavy metal elements of various biological tissues on pollutants is an important biomedical research problem. In the present paper, a laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) method was used to quantitatively analyze heavy metal elements in various tissues of some contaminated fish samples. Optimal experimental parameters were obtained in the LIBS experiments for these fish samples, calibration curves for plumbum and barium elements were fitted and the contents of heavy metal elements were determined with the external calibration approach. Experimental results showed that there was the heavy metal accumulation in fish liver mouth, and gills etc, however the heavy metal content in fish meat is very low. The proposed method can be used for the assessment studies of the influence of pollution on the organisms, and can be promoted in the biomedical fields.

  19. Geochemical assessment of heavy metals pollution in surface sediments of Vellar and Coleroon estuaries, southeast coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nethaji, S; Kalaivanan, R; Arya Viswam; Jayaprakash, M

    2017-02-15

    Surface sediments were collected from Vellar and Coleroon estuaries for determine sediment texture, calcium carbonate, organic matter and heavy metals. Pollution indices such as pollution load index (PLI), contamination factor (CF), enrichment factor (EF) and geo-accumulation index (Igeo) were done for this study to know the level of heavy metals pollution in the estuarine ecosystem. Pearson correlation matrix and factor were used to assess the relationship and source of heavy metals in the estuarine sediments. The results of PLI values reveal that the study area was polluted by all the heavy metals. The calculated values of CF and Igeo followed the decreasing order Cu>Ni>Pb>Co>Cr>Zn>Mn>Fe and illustrate that Cu, Ni and Pb are contaminated due to anthropogenic sources in both estuaries. Correlation and factor analysis suggest that FeMn oxyhydroxides, organic matter and fine particles are responsible for high concentration of heavy metals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of heavy metals pollution in the gulf of Gabes (Tunisia using four mollusk species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. RABAOUI

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the establishment of the ‘Tunisian Chemical Group’ in Gabes city, Tunisia, no serious investigations were carried out about the heavy metal pollution in Gabes gulf.  In the present study, the contents of four heavy metals were assessed in four mollusk species (two gastropods, Gibbula ardens and Patella caerulea, and two bivalves, Pinctada radiata and Pinna nobilis, collected from twelve coastal stations. The results obtained showed generally that high concentrations of heavy metals were recorded in the central area of Gabes gulf, nearer to Gabes city; the low concentrations were in contrast found at the edges of this gulf, which is probably due to the chemical pollution generated from the huge industry of phosphoric acid in Gabes city. Comparing the results found with the four examined species, the lowest concentrations were noted with the two bivalve species P. radiata and P. nobilis. The highest heavy metals’ concentrations, noted during this study, are comparable to the findings of other authors in other areas, but they are considerably beyond the standards. A remediation action is necessarily needed either by reducing the amount of heavy metals in the phosphgypums quantities thrown directly in the sea or by stopping completely this harmful industry to protect the marine life in the area. A remediation action is necessarily needed to protect the marine life in the area.

  1. Pollution assessment and heavy metal determination by AAS in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foisal

    This study was to investigate the contamination level of waste water in the Kushtia industrial region of. Bangladesh. Some parameters of waste water were analyzed like pH, electrical conductance, total dissolved solids (TDS), hardness, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand. (COD), and for heavy ...

  2. Pollution in the urban soils of Lianyungang, China, evaluated using a pollution index, mobility of heavy metals, and enzymatic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Li, Hong-Guan; Liu, Fu-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Soil samples from 16 urban sites in Lianyungang, China were collected and analyzed. A pollution index was used to assess the potential ecological risk of heavy metals and a sequential extraction procedure was used to evaluate the relative distribution of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, and As in exchangeable, carbonate, Fe/Mn oxide, organic/sulfide, and residual fractions. The mobility of heavy metals and urease (URE) activity, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and invertase (INV) activity of soils was determined. The results showed that the average concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, and As in Lianyungang soils were much higher than those in the coastal city soil background values of Jiangsu and China. Among the five studied regions (utilities, commercial, industrial, tourism, and roadside), the industrial region had the highest metal concentrations demonstrating that land use had a significant impact on the accumulation of heavy metals in Lianyungang soils. Compared to the other metals, Cd showed the highest ecological risk. According to chemical partitioning, Cu was associated with the organic/sulfides and Pb and Zn were mainly in the carbonate and the Fe/Mn oxide phase. The greatest amounts of Cd were found in exchangeable and carbonate fractions, while Cr and As were mainly in the residual fraction. Cd had the highest mobility of all metals, and the order of mobility (highest to lowest) of heavy metals in Lianyungang soils was Cd > Zn > Pb > Cu > As > Cr. Soil urease activity, alkaline phosphatase activity, and invertase activity varied considerably in different pollution degree sites. Soil enzyme activities had the lowest levels in roadside and industrial regions. Across all the soil data in the five regions, the total Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, and As level was negatively correlated with urease activity, alkaline phosphatase activity, and invertase activity, but the relationship was not significant. In the industrial region, alkaline phosphatase activity had

  3. Carbonized waste for the cut-down of environmental pollution with heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmucová, K.; Morvová, M.; Havránek, E.; Kliman, J.; Košinár, I.; Kunecová, D.; Malakhov, A. I.; Anisimov, Yu. S.; Morva, I.; Siváček, I.; Sýkorová, M.; Šatka, A.

    2011-07-01

    Nowadays, an increasing concern about the treatment and disposal of waters contaminated by toxic heavy metals is noticed. The toxic pollutants must be removed from the sewage water which then is fed back into the materials cycle. Any candidate technology should result in reusable by-products. With this in mind, the aim of the present study is to test a low cost procedure for utilization of the carbonized waste, a product of PET (polyethylene terephthalate) bottles pyrolysis on sand bedding, for this purpose. Both the water present in PET bottles waste and combustion exhaust probably contribute to the conversion of carbon char to activated carbon directly within the pyrolysis oven. Preliminary results, obtained for several heavy metal ions under laboratory conditions are presented and discussed. Adsorption of heavy metals on the carbonized PET waste is tested by both the electrochemical methods and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. A simple desorption procedure for the regeneration of prepared active carbon is proposed.

  4. Effects of some heavy metal pollutants on fertility characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Significantly positive correlation was also found to exist between lead and potassium; lead and phosphorus; nitrogen and magnesium and copper and phosphorus. The quality of the soil for production is not immediately under threat especially with the very low mean values of the pollutants and the lack of significant effects ...

  5. Health Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution (Cadmium, Lead, Arsenic in Citrus Marketed in Tehran, Iran, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Saleh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Today, the environment pollution with heavy metals has increased. It is important to study various types of pollutions specially those regarding fruits. The effect of pollutions on food safety for human consumption is a global concern.  This study was conducted for health assessment of heavy metals pollution (cadmium, lead, and arsenic in citrus marketed in Tehran, Iran in 2015. Materials & Methods: After collecting and preparing 2 samples from each citrus species (tangerine, grapefruit, sweet lime, sour orange, orange with acid digestion method, the citrus pulp and peel were surveyed. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES was used to determine the concentrations of heavy metals with three replications. Moreover, SPSS version 19 was employed to perform statistical analysis. Results: The results showed that the concentration average of Cadmium, Lead and Arsenic in citrus samples of the pulp parts were 19.73, 42.95 and 2.30 mg/kg and in peel parts were 20.09, 42.71 and 2.12 mg/kg, respectively. The average concentrations of heavy metals were higher than WHO maximum permissible limits. Conclusions: Based on these results, consumption of citrus species has no adverse effect on the consumers’ health (except Sweet lime, Orange, Tangerine and Grapefruit in lead is risky for adults and Sweet lime and Orange that Health Index in Lead and Arsenic and Sour Orange, Tangerine and Grapefruit that Health Index in Lead is more than 1 and is risky for children. Thus, individuals living in Tehran should be cautious about using these citrus fruits and researchers should try to obtain national standards in the field of entering these metals to food in environmental conditions that are in Iran.

  6. Pollution Characteristics and Health Risk Assessment of Airborne Heavy Metals Collected from Beijing Bus Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Wenji; Yan, Xing; Shu, Tongtong; Xiong, Qiulin; Chen, Fantao

    2015-08-17

    Airborne dust, which contains high levels of toxic metals, is recognized as one of the most harmful environment component. The purpose of this study was to evaluate heavy metals pollution in dustfall from bus stations in Beijing, and to perform a risk assessment analysis for adult passengers. The concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, V and Zn were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The spatial distribution, pollution level and potential health risk of heavy metals were analyzed by Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping technology, geo-accumulation index and health risk assessment model, respectively. The results indicate that dust samples have elevated metal concentrations, especially for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. The nine metals can be divided into two categories in terms of spatial distribution and pollution level. Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Pb and Zn reach contaminated level and have similar spatial patterns with hotspots distributed within the Fifth Ring Road. While the hot spot areas of Co and V are always out of the Fifth Ring Road. Health risk assessment shows that both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks of selected metals were within the safe range.

  7. Pollution Characteristics and Health Risk Assessment of Airborne Heavy Metals Collected from Beijing Bus Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Wenji; Yan, Xing; Shu, Tongtong; Xiong, Qiulin; Chen, Fantao

    2015-01-01

    Airborne dust, which contains high levels of toxic metals, is recognized as one of the most harmful environment component. The purpose of this study was to evaluate heavy metals pollution in dustfall from bus stations in Beijing, and to perform a risk assessment analysis for adult passengers. The concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, V and Zn were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The spatial distribution, pollution level and potential health risk of heavy metals were analyzed by Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping technology, geo-accumulation index and health risk assessment model, respectively. The results indicate that dust samples have elevated metal concentrations, especially for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. The nine metals can be divided into two categories in terms of spatial distribution and pollution level. Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Pb and Zn reach contaminated level and have similar spatial patterns with hotspots distributed within the Fifth Ring Road. While the hot spot areas of Co and V are always out of the Fifth Ring Road. Health risk assessment shows that both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks of selected metals were within the safe range. PMID:26287229

  8. Influence of the soil sealing on the geoaccumulation index of heavy metals and various pollution factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charzyński, Przemysław; Plak, Andrzej; Hanaka, Agnieszka

    2017-02-01

    Soil sealing belongs to the most destructive and damaging processes to the soil environment. Soil sealing interrupts or greatly restricts the exchange of matter and energy between the biosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere and the soil environment. The aim of this study was to compare the content of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn) of Ekranic Technosols by applying indicators such as geoaccumulation index (I geo), enrichment factor (EF), and pollution load index (PLI), which allowed to determine quantitatively the impact of the soil sealing degree on the content of heavy metals and to distinguish natural from anthropogenic sources of origin of heavy metals. In general, 42 soils from different parts of the city of Toruń (NW Poland) were sampled and divided into three groups according to the degree of soil sealing: completely sealed with asphalt or concrete (A), semi-permeable (partially sealed with cobblestones and concrete paving slabs (B)), and reference (non-sealed) (C). The results indicate that the artificial sealing in urban areas slightly affects the content of heavy metals in soils. However, based on PLI, I geo, and EF, it was found that the sealing has influence on soil properties and unsealed soil is the most exposed to the accumulation of pollutants.

  9. Heavy metal and bacterial pollution of the Sava River in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuković, Zivorad; Marković, Ljiljana; Radenković, Mirjana; Vuković, Dubravka; Stanković, Srboljub

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to establish microbial and heavy metal pollution of the Sava River at three locations close to industry and urban areas (Šabac, Obrenovac, Beograd) in Serbia. Heavy metal analysis included Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd in the river water and sediment samples. Using the microbiological analysis we tried to establish the effectiveness of total coliforms, faecal coliforms and Escherichia coli in detecting pollution of surface waters. We found that E. coli levels steadily increased downstream from Šabac (location 1; 2100 MPN per 100 mL) to Belgrade (location 3; 10000 MPN per 100 mL). To prevent bacterial contamination, it is necessary to reduce the discharge of wastewater with faecal matters near highly populated towns. Heavy metal levels in sediments correlated with those in the river water. Fluctuations attributed mainly to anthropogenic sources were not high. These results point to acceptable anthropogenic contribution to heavy metal content in the Sava River and to low environmental risk.

  10. Geochemical speciation and pollution assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments from Nansi Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liyuan; Wang, Longfeng; Wang, Yunqian; Zhang, Wei

    2015-05-01

    Sixteen surface sediment samples were collected from Nansi Lake to analyze geochemical speciation of heavy metals including Cd, As, Pb, Cr, and Zn, assess their pollution level, and determine the spatial distribution of the non-residual fraction. Results showed that Cd had higher concentrations in water-soluble and exchangeable fractions. As and Pb were mainly observed as humic acid and reducible fractions among the non-residual fractions, while Cr and Zn were mostly locked up in a residual fraction. The mean pollution index (P i) values revealed that the lower lake generally had a higher enrichment degree than the upper lake. Cd (2.73) and As (2.05) were in moderate level of pollution, while the pollution of Pb (1.80), Cr (1.27), and Zn (1.02) appeared at low-level pollution. The calculated pollution load index (PLI) suggested the upper lake suffered from borderline moderate pollution, while the lower lake showed moderate to heavy pollution. Spatial principle component analysis showed that the first principal component (PC1) including Cd, As, and Pb could explain 56.18 % of the non-residual fraction. High values of PC1 were observed mostly in the southern part of Weishan Lake, which indicated greater bioavailability and toxicity of Cd, As, and Pb in this area.

  11. Heavy metals pollution levels and children health risk assessment of Yerevan kindergartens soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepanosyan, Gevorg; Maghakyan, Nairuhi; Sahakyan, Lilit; Saghatelyan, Armen

    2017-08-01

    Children, the most vulnerable urban population group, are exceptionally sensitive to polluted environments, particularly urban soils, which can lead to adverse health effects upon exposure. In this study, the total concentrations of Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Ti, V, and Zn were determined in 111 topsoil samples collected from kindergartens in Yerevan. The objectives of this study were to evaluate heavy metal pollution levels of kindergarten's soils in Yerevan, compare with national legal and international requirements on heavy metal contents in kindergarten soil, and assess related child health risk. Multivariate geostatistical analyses suggested that the concentrations of Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Cu, Hg, Mo, Pb, and Zn observed in the kindergarten's topsoil may have originated from anthropogenic sources, while Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Ti, and V mostly come from natural sources. According to the Summary pollution index (Zc), 102 kindergartens belong to the low pollution level, 7 to the moderate and only 2 to the high level of pollution. Summary concentration index (SCI) showed that 109 kindergartens were in the allowable level, while 2 featured in the low level of pollution. The health risk assessment showed that in all kindergartens except for seven, non-carcinogenic risk for children was detected (HI>1), while carcinogenic risk from arsenic belongs to the very low (allowable) level. Cr and multi-element carcinogenic risk (RI) exceeded the safety level (1.0E- 06) in all kindergartens and showed that the potential of developing cancer, albeit small, does exist. Therefore, city's kindergartens require necessary remedial actions to eliminate or reduce soil pollution and heavy metal-induced health risks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Critical review of heavy metal pollution of traffic area runoff: Occurrence, influencing factors, and partitioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Maximilian [Chair of Urban Water Systems Engineering, Technical University of Munich, Am Coulombwall 8, 85748 Garching (Germany); Welker, Antje [Fachgebiet Siedlungswasserwirtschaft und Hydromechanik, Frankfurt University of Applied Sciences, Nibelungenplatz 1, 60318 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Helmreich, Brigitte, E-mail: b.helmreich@tum.de [Chair of Urban Water Systems Engineering, Technical University of Munich, Am Coulombwall 8, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    A dataset of 294 monitored sites from six continents (Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, North and South America) was compiled and evaluated to characterize the occurrence and fate of heavy metals in eight traffic area categories (parking lots, bridges, and three types each of both roads and highways). In addition, site-specific (fixed and climatic) and method-specific (related to sample collection, preparation, and analysis) factors that influence the results of the studies are summarized. These factors should be considered in site descriptions, conducting monitoring programs, and implementing a database for further research. Historical trends for Pb show a sharp decrease during recent decades, and the median total Pb concentrations of the 21st century for North America and Europe are approximately 15 μg/L. No historical trend is detected for Zn. Zn concentrations are very variable in traffic area runoff compared with other heavy metals because of its presence in galvanized structures and crumbs of car tire rubber. Heavy metal runoff concentrations of parking lots differ widely according to their use (e.g., employee, supermarket, rest areas for trucks). Bridge deck runoff can contain high Zn concentrations from safety fences and galvanizing elements. Roads with more than 5000 vehicles per day are often more polluted than highways because of other site-specific factors such as traffic signals. Four relevant heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cd) can occur in the dissolved phase. Knowledge of metal partitioning is important to optimize stormwater treatment strategies and prevent toxic effects to organisms in receiving waters. - Highlights: • Heavy metal runoff concentrations in parking lots, bridges, and roads • Large dataset of dissolved and total metal concentrations in traffic area runoff • Description of site-specific and monitoring method-specific factors • Summary of traffic-related and anthropogenic heavy metals in road runoff • Reduction in Pb

  13. Application of zinc isotope tracer technology in tracing soil heavy metal pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbu, Namkha; Wang, Shuguang; Xu, Yan; Yang, Jianqiang; Liu, Qiang

    2017-08-01

    Recent years the soil heavy metal pollution has become increasingly serious, especially the zinc pollution. Due to the complexity of this problem, in order to prevent and treat the soil pollution, it's crucial to accurately and quickly find out the pollution sources and control them. With the development of stable isotope tracer technology, it's able to determine the composition of zinc isotope. Based on the theory of zinc isotope tracer technique, and by means of doing some latest domestic and overseas literature research about the zinc isotope multi-receiving cups of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) testing technology, this paper summarized the latest research results about the pollution tracer of zinc isotope, and according to the deficiencies and existing problems of previous research, made outlooks of zinc isotope fractionation mechanism, repository establishment and tracer multiple solutions.

  14. Evaluation of pollution status of heavy metals in the groundwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While dumping activities within the New layout dumpsite should be continued due to absence or low concentration of these metals in the groundwater system, it is recommended that resistivity methods of geophysical survey be carried out on the Iyiokwu and Rice mill dumpsites to ascertain the viability of the subsurface ...

  15. Moss as Indicator of Heavy Metals Pollution in Kano Municipality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2015-09-23

    Sep 23, 2015 ... ABSTRACT. Metals accumulation was determined in moss specie funaria hygrometrica collected from industrial and neighbouring residential areas of Kano municipality, using atomic absorption spectrometry with air acetylene flame. The areas under study have been modified by increasing industrial ...

  16. Evaluation of heavy metals pollution of Nokoue Lake | Christophe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxic metals (cadmium, lead, copper and arsenic) assessment was carried out in water and sediments samples of Nokoue Lake. Except for water, a group of sediment samples was mineralized before the analysis with atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The second group of sediment samples was processed for texture ...

  17. Assessment of heavy metals pollution in sediments and surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    45-50cm) sediments, as well as the overlying water of River Benue within the industrialized areas of Makurdi, Nigeria in order to assess the extent of anthropogenic influences. Samples were analyzed for their concentrations of these metals, ...

  18. Using Moss to Assess Airborne Heavy Metal Pollution in Taizhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Zhou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Bryophytes act as bioindicators and bioaccumulators of metal deposition in the environment. To understand the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals (cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, copper (Cu, mercury (Hg, nickel (Ni, lead (Pb, and zinc (Zn in Taizhou, East China, samples of moss (Haplocladium microphyllum were collected from 60 sites selected by a systematic sampling method during the summer of 2012, and the concentrations of these heavy metals were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES. The results suggested that the concentrations of these metals varied moderately among different sites, indicating a similar contamination level for each element throughout the monitoring region. The mean values under investigation were higher than those from neighboring cities, such as Wuxi, Xuzhou, and Nanjing, and much higher than those in Europe based on a 2010 survey. Significant (p < 0.01 correlations were identified among some of the heavy metals, suggesting that these originated from identical sources. There was no statistically significant correlation between Hg and all the other elements. Spatial distribution maps of the elements over the sampled territory were created using Arc-GIS 9.0. The potential ecological risk index indicated that the air was heavily polluted by Cd and Hg, and that there was a considerable potential ecological risk from all the heavy metals studied.

  19. Threat of heavy metal pollution in halophytic and mangrove plants of Tamil Nadu, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy; Chen, F.-A. [Department of Pharmacy, Tajen University, Yanpu, Pingtung 907, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Minna J. [Department of Biological Sciences, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: hsumin@mail.nsysu.edu.tw

    2008-09-15

    Mangrove and halophytic plants occur along the coastal areas of Tamil Nadu, south India and these plants have been used in traditional medicine for centuries. Heavy metals are known to pose a potential threat to terrestrial and aquatic biota. However, little is known on the toxic levels of heavy metals found in mangrove and halophytic plants that are used in traditional medicine in India. To understand heavy metal toxicity, we investigated the bioconcentration factors (BCF) of heavy metals in leaves collected from eight mangroves and five halophytes in the protected Pichavaram mangrove forest reserve in Tamil Nadu State, south India. Data presented in this paper describe the impact of essential (Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn and Zn) and non-essential/environmentally toxic trace metals (Hg, Pb and Sn) in mangrove and halophytic medicinal plants. The concentrations of Pb among 13 plant species were higher than the normal range of contamination reported for plants. The average concentration of Hg in the halophytic plants (0.43 {+-} 0.37 {mu}g/g) was seven times higher than mangrove plants (0.06 {+-} 0.03 {mu}g/g) and it indicated pollutants from industrial sources affecting halophytes more than mangroves. - Metal effects occur in India's mangrove ecosystem.

  20. Assessment of the heavy metal pollution in a gold ``garimpo''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues-Filho, Saulo; Maddock, John Edmund L.

    Gold has been exploited in the Poconé regions, in Mato Grosso state in Brazil, during the past 13 years using garimpo methods. In this study, background levels of metals were determined by analysing sediments and soils unaffected by mining activities, located upstream of the anthropogenic inputs. The study done in Poconé focuses on Hg, Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe and Mn. In addition, the study aims to evaluate the level of contamination in sediments, soils and water, taking into account drainage waters directly affected by gold mining. As the physical-chemical parameters of the waters are subjected to seasonal variations, they were monitored throughout the year to interpret the behaviour of the metals in the studied environments. In general, the concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe and Mn presented values very close to the background in sediments, while the concentrations of Hg in sediments showed anomalous geo-accumulation indexes.

  1. The Posidonia oceanica marine sedimentary record: A Holocene archive of heavy metal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, O; Mateo, M A; Dueñas-Bohórquez, A; Renom, P; López-Sáez, J A; Martínez Cortizas, A

    2011-10-15

    The study of a Posidonia oceanica mat (a peat-like marine sediment) core has provided a record of changes in heavy metal abundances (Fe, Mn, Ni, Cr, Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, As and Al) since the Mid-Holocene (last 4470yr) in Portlligat Bay (NW Mediterranean). Metal contents were determined in P. oceanica. Both, the concentration records and the results of principal components analysis showed that metal pollution in the studied bay started ca. 2800yr BP and steadily increased until present. The increase in Fe, Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn and As concentrations since ca. 2800yr BP and in particular during Greek (ca. 2680-2465cal BP) and Roman (ca. 2150-1740cal BP) times shows an early anthropogenic pollution rise in the bay, which might be associated with large- and short-scale cultural and technological development. In the last ca. 1000yr the concentrations of heavy metals, mainly derived from anthropogenic activities, have significantly increased (e.g. from ~15 to 47μg g(-1) for Pb, ~23 to 95μg g(-1) for Zn and ~8 to 228μg g(-1) for As). Our study demonstrates for the first time the uniqueness of P. oceanica meadows as long-term archives of abundances, patterns, and trends of heavy metals during the Late Holocene in Mediterranean coastal ecosystems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Response of rhizosphere microbial community structure and diversity to heavy metal co-pollution in arable soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Linjing; Zeng, Guangming; Fan, Changzheng; Lu, Lunhui; Chen, Xunfeng; Chen, Ming; Wu, Haipeng; He, Xiaoxiao; He, Yan

    2015-10-01

    Due to the emerging environmental issues related to heavy metals, concern about the soil quality of farming lands near manufacturing district is increasing. Investigating the function of soil microorganisms exposed to long-term heavy metal contamination is meaningful and important for agricultural soil utilization. This article studied the potential influence of several heavy metals on microbial biomass, activity, abundance, and community composition in arable soil near industrial estate in Zhuzhou, Hunan province, China. The results showed that soil organic contents (SOC) were significantly positive correlated with heavy metals, whereas dehydrogenase activity (DHA) was greatly depressed by the heavy metal stress. Negative correlation was found between heavy metals and basal soil respiration (BSR), and no correlation was found between heavy metals and microbial biomass content (MBC). The quantitative PCR (QPCR) and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis could suggest that heavy metal pollution has significantly decreased abundance of bacteria and fungi and also changed their community structure. The results could contribute to evaluate heavy metal pollution level in soil. By combining different environmental parameters, it would promote the better understanding of heavy metal effect on the size, structure, and activity of microbial community in arable soil.

  3. Sources, transport and deposition of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacyna, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The conference paper deals with a study on the behaviour of heavy metals (HMs) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the environment. The conclusion is that many of these compounds create serious problems due their toxicity and bioaccumulation in various environmental compartments. Several scientific questions have been posed for improved understanding of the nature and the extent of these problems. The present paper addresses questions related to sources, fluxes, and atmospheric pathways of HMs and POPs in Europe

  4. Decontamination of Heavy Metals in Polluted Soil by Phytoremediation Using Bryophyllum Pinnatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekwumemgbo P. A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation is the use of specially selected or engineered living green plants for in situ risk reduction and/or removal of pollutants from contaminated media. This process is one of the most rapidly developing components of environmentally friendly (green and cost-effective technology to abate environmental pollution. The risk reduction could be through the process of removal, degradation, containment of a contaminant or a combination of any of these factors. Bryophyllum pinnatum a herbally-accepted plant in some parts of the world was cultivated in ten different plastic buckets containing heavy metal polluted soil and nurtured for 20 months. The plants were left in ambient conditions and watered periodically. After the first 2 weeks, the plant and soil samples were collected and analysed for total concentration of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb V and Zn. Subsequently, the plant and soil samples were collected monthly and analysed for the total concentrations of these heavy metals, using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Maximum extracted heavy metals from soil by plant were Cd (3.12±1.03 mg/kg, Cr (32.48±3.21 mg/kg, Cu (81.01±2.3 mg/kg Ni (11.91±2.32 mg/kg, Pb (399.90 ±4.32 mg/kg V (5.81±0.08 mg/kg and Zn (150.51± 0.33 and this occurred in the 4th month of study. This study confirms B. pinnatum as one of the plants that could be employed in phytoremediation of soil polluted by heavy metals.

  5. Influence of the soil sealing on the geoaccumulation index of heavy metals and various pollution factors

    OpenAIRE

    Charzy?ski, Przemys?aw; Plak, Andrzej; Hanaka, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Soil sealing belongs to the most destructive and damaging processes to the soil environment. Soil sealing interrupts or greatly restricts the exchange of matter and energy between the biosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere and the soil environment. The aim of this study was to compare the content of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn) of Ekranic Technosols by applying indicators such as geoaccumulation index (I geo), enrichment factor (EF), and pollution load index (PLI), which allo...

  6. A comparison of native and transplanted Fontinalis antipyretica Hedw. as biomonitors of water polluted with heavy metals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samecka-Cymerman, A.; Kolon, K.; Kempers, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Native and transplanted mosses of the species Fontinalis antipyretica were studied to assess their capacity as biomonitors of heavy metals. Assays were carried out with transplanted mosses (sampled from an unpolluted control stream) exposed for 60 days to five streams polluted with heavy metals. At

  7. Species associations and metal contents of algae from rivers polluted by heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, P.L.

    1982-02-01

    The algal flora of the Rivers Hayle and Gannel, which drain copper and lead mining regions of Cornwall, are described and compared. Both the total algal abundance and the number of species were depressed at high metal sites. The close similarity between the flora of similar sites on the copper-polluted River Hayle and the lead-polluted River Gannel implies that the degree of metal pollution, rather than the polluting metal per se, determines the species present. All mine sites were characterized by a Microspora-community whereas a Zygnemales community of Spirogyra and Mougeotia species was typical of low metal pollution. Moderately polluted sites downsteam of the mines had an intermediate flora of Zygnemales, Microsporales, Ulotrichales and gelatinous Volvocales and Tetrasporales species. The most abundant species at highly contaminated sites were also those with the widest distributions. Field samples of filamentous algae (mainly Spirogyra, Zygogonium, Mougeotia and Microspora species) contained metal concentrations several orders of magnitude greater than ambient levels. For copper and iron, both algal metal contents and concentration ratios (..mu..g g /sup -1/ algae/..mu..g ml/sup -1/ water) were positive functions of water metal levels, although algal iron appeared to plateau at water concentrations of about 1 mg ml/sup -1/. Algal lead concentrations, but not the concentration ratios, also were positively correlated with water lead levels. Thus, for these three metals, the algal metals contents were indicative of ambient conditions. In contrast, algal zinc concentrations were nearly constant and consequently the concentration ratios for this metal were inversely related to water levels. This result suggests that unlike the uptake of other metals, uptake of zinc by these algae may be strictly regulated.

  8. Effects of heavy metal pollution of highway origin on soil nematode guilds in North Shenyang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dechang; Zhang, Xiaoke; Tomar Vijay Vikram, Singh; Li, Qi; Wen, Dazhong; Liang, Wenju

    2009-01-01

    Soil samples were collected with distance at 5, 20, 40, 80, 160, and 320 m from the Shen-Ha (Shenyang-Harbin) Highway, Northeast China, to investigate the effect of heavy metals of highway origin on soil nematode guilds. The contents of soil Pb, Cu, Zn, and the nematode community structure were analyzed. The results showed that the contents of total and available Pb, Cu, Zn varied significantly with the different distances from the highway. Pb was the main pollutant in the soils in the vicinity of Shen-Ha Highway. The zone from 20 to 40 m away from the highway was the most polluted area. The highest abundance of soil nematodes was found at 5 m while the lowest at 20 m away from the highway. Thirty six genera of nematodes belonging to 23 families were identified. Nematode guilds having different responses to soil heavy metals were classified into four types. Soil nematode guilds may act as a prominent indicator to heavy metal pollution of highway origin.

  9. Distribution of heavy metal pollution in sediments from an acid leaching site of e-waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Sheng-Xiang; Yan, Bo; Lei, Chang; Yang, Fan; Li, Ning; Xiao, Xian-Ming; Fu, Jia-Mo

    2014-11-15

    The spatial distribution, bioavailability, potential risks and emission sources of 12 heavy metals in sediments from an acid leaching site of e-waste were investigated. The results showed that the sediments from the acid leaching site were significantly contaminated with Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, Sb and Pb, especially in the middle sediments (30-50 cm), with average concentrations of 4820, 1260, 10.7, 2660, 5690 and 2570 mg/kg, respectively. Cu, Cd and Pb were mainly present in the non-residual fractions, suggesting that the sediments from the acid leaching site may exert considerable risks. Mn, Ni, Zn, Sn and Sb were predominantly associated with the residual fraction. Despite their low reactivity and bioavailability, uncommon pollutants, such as Sn and Sb, may exert environmental risks due to their extremely elevated total concentrations. All of these results indicate that there is an urgent need to control the sources of heavy metal emission and to remediate contaminated sediments. In addition to Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb, the sediments from an acid leaching site in Guiyu were heavily polluted with uncommon heavy metal pollutants, such as Sn and Sb. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Air Pollution with Heavy Metals and Radionuclides in Slovakia Studied by the Moss Biomonitoring Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Florek, M; Mankovska, B; Oprea, K; Pavlov, S S; Steinnes, E; Sykora, I

    2001-01-01

    Applying the moss biomonitoring technique to air pollution studies in Slovakia, heavy metals, rare-earth elements, actinides (U and Th) were determined in 86 moss samples from the European moss survey 2000 by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis at the IBR-2 reactor (Dubna). Such elements as In, Cu, Cd, Hg and Pb were determined by AAS in the Forest Research Institute, Zvolen (Slovakia). The results of measurement of the natural radionuclides ^{210}Pb, ^{7}Be, ^{137}Cs and ^{40}K in 11 samples of moss are also reported. A comparison with the results from moss surveys 1991 and 1995 revealed previously unknown tendencies of air pollution in the examined areas.

  11. Stress responses investigated; application of zinc and heat to Terrestrial Model Ecosystems from heavy metal polluted grassland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kools, S.A.E.; Berg, M.P.; Boivin, M.E.Y.; Wurff, van der A.W.G.; Gestel, van C.A.M.; Straalen, van N.M.; Kuenen, F.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that soils with a deprived biodiversity due to metal pollution are less stable than non-polluted soils, containing a more diverse community. For this, soils were sampled from specific grasslands in the Netherlands that contain elevated heavy metal concentrations (Cu,

  12. [Pollution evaluation and health risk assessment of heavy metals from atmospheric deposition in Lanzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Xue, Su-Yin; Wang, Sheng-Li; Nan, Zhong-Ren

    2014-03-01

    In order to evaluate the contamination and health risk of heavy metals from atmospheric deposition in Lanzhou, samples of atmospheric deposition were collected from 11 sampling sites respectively and their concentrations of heavy metals were determined. The results showed that the average contents of Cu, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn and Mn were 82.22, 130.31, 4.34, 88.73, 40.64, 369.23 and 501.49 mg x kg(-1), respectively. There was great difference among different functional areas for all elements except Mn. According to the results, the enrichment factor score of Mn was close to 1, while the enrichment of Zn, Ni, Cu and Cr was more serious, and Pb and Cd were extremely enriched. The assessment results of geoaccumulation index of potential ecological risk indicated that the pollution of Cd in the atmospheric deposition of Lanzhou should be classified as extreme degree, and that of Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb as between slight and extreme degrees, and Cr as practically uncontaminated. Contaminations of atmospheric dust by heavy metals in October to the next March were more serious than those from April to August. Health risk assessment indicated that the heavy metals in atmospheric deposition were mainly ingested by human bodies through hand-mouth ingestion. The non-cancer risk was higher for children than for adults. The order of non-cancer hazard indexes of heavy metals was Pb > Cr > Cd > Cu > Ni > Zn. The non-cancer hazard indexes and carcinogen risks of heavy metals were both lower than their threshold values, suggesting that they will not harm the health.

  13. Risk Assessment System Based on WebGIS for Heavy Metal Pollution in Farmland Soils in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouhui Pan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal pollution in farmlands is a serious threat to sustainable agricultural development and has become a major agro-ecological problem that has attracted public concern in China. This study proposes a soil–crop collaborative risk assessment model that aims to assess the potential safety risks of heavy metal pollution in farmland soils by considering the concentrations of heavy metals in soils and the accumulation effects of heavy metals in crops. Based on these effects, a decision support system for risk assessment of heavy metal pollution in farmland soil is established, in which technologies such as web-based geographic information system, quick response code, radio frequency identification, and web service are introduced as the bases. The proposed system is composed of a mobile data acquisition terminal (MDAT and a web-based information system (WIS. The MDAT, which is a portable computerized device running on the Android platform, is used for data acquisition or query, and the WIS is used for risk assessment, data management, and information visualization. The system is employed in some county-level cities in China for risk assessment and supervision of heavy metal pollution in farmlands. The practical application results show that the system provides highly efficient decision support for risk assessment of heavy metal pollution in farmland soils.

  14. Blood and urine levels of heavy metal pollutants in female and male patients with coronary artery disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sponder, Michael; Fritzer-Szekeres, Monika; Marculescu, Rodrig; Mittlböck, Martina; Uhl, Maria; Köhler-Vallant, Birgit; Strametz-Juranek, Jeanette

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metal pollutants such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) are rarely the subjects of cardiovascular research although they have been suspected for decades to negatively impact the circulatory system...

  15. Heavy metal pollution in Ancient Nara, Japan, during the eighth century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahata, Hodaka; Yamashita, Shusuke; Yamaoka, Kyoko; Okai, Takashi; Shimoda, Gen; Imai, Noboru

    2014-12-01

    We quantitatively investigated the eighth century heavy metal pollution in Heijo-kyo (Ancient Nara), the first large, international city of Japan. In this metropolis, mercury, copper, and lead levels in soil were increased by urban activity and by the construction of the Great Buddha statue, Nara Daibutsu. Mercury and copper pollution associated with the construction of the statue was particularly high in the immediate vicinity of the statue, but markedly lower in the wider city environment. We therefore reject the hypothesis that extensive mercury pollution associated with the construction of the Nara Daibutsu made it necessary to abandon Ancient Nara, even though severe lead pollution was detected at several sites. The isotopic composition of the lead indicated that it originated mainly from the Naganobori mine in Yamaguchi, which was a major source of the copper for the Nara Daibutsu.

  16. Assessment of heavy metal pollutants accumulation in the Tisza river sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakan, Sanja M; Dordević, Dragana S; Manojlović, Dragan D; Predrag, Polić S

    2009-08-01

    In this study we have worked on the evaluation of heavy metal contamination in the sediments taken from the Tisza River and its tributaries, and thereby used the sequential extraction method, geochemical normalization, the calculation of the enrichment factor (EF), and the methods of statistical analysis. The chemical fractionation of Ni, Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Fe, and Mn, carried out by using the modified Tessier method, points to different substrates and binding mechanisms of Cu, Zn and Pb in sediments of the tributaries and sediments of the Tisza River. The similarities in the distributions of Fe and Ni in all types of sediments are the result of geochemical similarity as well as of the fact that natural sources mainly affect the concentration levels of these elements. The calculated enrichment factors (EF, measured metal vs. background concentrations) indicated that metal contamination (Cu, Pb, Zn and Cr) was recorded in the sediments of the Tisza River, while no indications of pollution were detected in the tributaries of the Tisza River and the surrounding pools. The maximum values of the EF were close to 6 for Cu and Pb (moderately severe enrichment) and close to 4.5 for Zn (indicating moderate enrichment). It can be said that the Tisza River is slightly to moderately severely polluted with Cu, Zn, and Pb, and minorly polluted with Cr. It is concluded that sediments of the Tisza serve as a repository for heavy metal accumulation from adjacent urban and industrial areas.

  17. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in Republic of Macedonia using a plant assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjorgieva, Darinka; Kadifkova-Panovska, Tatjana; Bačeva, Katerina; Stafilov, Trajče

    2011-02-01

    Different plant organs (leaves, flowers, stems, or roots) from four plant species-Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae), Robinia pseudoacacia L. (Fabaceae), Taraxacum officinale (Asteraceae), and Matricaria recutita (Asteraceae)-were evaluated as possible bioindicators of heavy-metal pollution in Republic of Macedonia. Concentrations of Pb, Cu, Cd, Mn, Ni, and Zn were determined in unwashed plant parts collected from areas with different degrees of metal pollution by ICP-AES. All these elements were found to be at high levels in samples collected from an industrial area. Maximum Pb concentration was 174.52 ± 1.04 mg kg⁻¹ in R. pseudoacacia flowers sampled from the Veles area, where lead and zinc metallurgical activities were present. In all control samples, the Cd concentrations were found to be under the limit of detection (LOD recutita was a metal avoider.

  18. Oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida - bioindicators of forest soils pollution with heavy metals and fluorine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otilia Ivan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study analyzes the effects of pollution with heavy metals and fluorine on the oribatid mite communities populating the forest soils, on the basis of the researches carried on in three oak-type forests, situated at different distances from the Phosphoric Fertilizers Plant of Valea Cãlugãreascã (the Prahova county, Romania.In the forest strongly affected by pollution, the heavy metals concentrations were 2-9 times higher than the maximum allowable limits (MAL. In the perimeter with medium level of pollution, the content of Pb, Cr and Ni were over the MAL, while Co and Cd concentrations are closed to these limits. Two years after closing ofthis industrial unit, a decrease of soil loading with heavy metals was to be found, mostly in the surface sub-horizon. In the control perimeter, the oribatids constitute a complex community with a large specific diversity. The characteristic species for this zone (South-Eastern of Romania are frequent and/or abundant, having a high ecological significance. In the affected forests, the oribatid mites' densities are 6-476 times lower than in the control perimeter. Their communities are constituted of a small number of tolerant species (euryplastic, unspecific fauna, being characterized by a low specific diversity and a marked structural instability. The analysis of the oribatid species distribution in the control and polluted ecosystems has evidenced that certain elements can be considered bioindicators for this type of pollution. Our researches carried out two years after the production stopping, have not evidenced afavourable evolution of the oribatid mites communities. It is probably that the recovery of the decomposers' trophic chains requires a longer time.

  19. Oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida - bioindicators of forest soils pollution with heavy metals and fluorine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otilia Ivan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study analyzes the effects of pollution with heavy metals and fluorine on the oribatid mite communities populating the forest soils, on the basis of the researches carried on in three oak-type forests, situated at different distances from the Phosphoric Fertilizers Plant of Valea Călugărească (the Prahova county, Romania. In the forest strongly affected by pollution, the heavy metals concentrations were 2-9 times higher than the maximum allowable limits (MAL. In the perimeter with medium level of pollution, the content of Pb, Cr and Ni were over the MAL, while Co and Cd concentrations are closed to these limits. Two years after closing of this industrial unit, a decrease of soil loading with heavy metals was to be found, mostly in the surface sub-horizon. In the control perimeter, the oribatids constitute a complex community with a large specific diversity. The characteristic species for this zone (South-Eastern of Romania are frequent and/or abundant, having a high ecological significance. In the affected forests, the oribatid mites' densities are 6-476 times lower than in the control perimeter. Their communities are constituted of a small number of tolerant species (euryplastic, unspecific fauna, being characterized by a low specific diversity and a marked structural instability. The analysis of the oribatid species distribution in the control and polluted ecosystems has evidenced that certain elements can be considered bioindicators for this type of pollution. Our researches carried out two years after the production stopping, have not evidenced a favourable evolution of the oribatid mites communities. It is probably that the recovery of the decomposers' trophic chains requires a longer time.

  20. [Heavy metals content and pollution risk assessment of cropland soils around a pesticide industrial park].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ning-ning; Ding, Yan-feng; Zhao, Xiu-feng; Wang, Qiang-sheng

    2010-07-01

    By the method of concentric circle distribution method, a total of 183 topsoil samples were collected from 30-km2 area around a pesticide industrial park in south Jiangsu Province, with the content and pollution index of soil Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Hg and As analyzed. The average contents of Hg, Cu, Cd, and Pb in the top soils were higher than those of the natural background values, and the contents of Hg and Cu were the highest. Taking the national standard II as the assessment criterion, the average pollution index values of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, and As in the top soils were all below 1, while those of the Hg and Cu were 1.59 and 1.05, respectively. In the southeast and northwest to the pesticide industrial park, soil heavy metals contamination was more serious, and, with the increasing distance to the park, the contents of soil Cd, Ni, Pb, Cr, As, Hg, Zn, and Cu increased first and then decreased to a stable level. The comprehensive pollution index of test metals indicated that the areas 200-1000 meter around the industrial park were of high risk in soil heavy metals contamination, while the areas 1000 meter beyond were safety. By using geostatistics and GIS, it was found that the pollution index of the eight heavy metals had significant spatial variability. Based on the principal component analysis and correlation analysis, it was speculated that the Zn, Ni, Cr, Pb, and As were mainly from soil parent materials, while the Hg, Cu, and Cd were mainly related to human activities.

  1. Detection of Genetic Variations in Marine Algae Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta Induced by Heavy Metal Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basel Saleh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta green macroalgae has been successfully used as bioindicator for heavy metals pollution in ecosystems. Random amplified microsatellite polymorphism (RAMP marker was employed to investigate genetic DNA pattern variability in green U. lactuca 5 days after exposure to Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn heavy metals stress. Genomic template stability (GTS% value was employed as a qualitative DNA changes measurement based on RAMP technique. In this respect, estimated GTS% value was recorded to be 65.215, 64.630, 59.835 and 59.250% for Pb, Cu, Cd and Zn treatment, respectively. Moreover, genetic similarity (GS induced by the above heavy metals was also evaluated to measure genetic distance between algae treated plants and their respective control. In this respect, estimated GS values generated by RAMP marker ranged between 0.576 (between control and Zn treatment - 0.969 (for both case; between Pb and Cu and between Cd and Zn treatment with an average of 0.842. Based upon data presented herein based on variant bands number (VB, GTS% and GS values; the present study could be suggested that Pb and Cu followed similar tendency at genomic DNA changes. Similar finding was also observed with Cd and Zn ions. Thereby, RAMP marker successfully highlighted DNA change patterns induced by heavy metals stress.

  2. Effects of heavy metal Cd pollution on microbial activities in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Weilin; Ma, Xiying

    2017-12-23

    Heavy metal contamination of soil occurs when heavy metals are introduced to soil through human activities, leading to the gradual deterioration of the ecology and environment. Microorganism activity reflects the intensity of various biochemical reactions in soil, and changes in it reflect the level of heavy metal pollution affecting the soil. The effects were studied of heavy metal Cd on the microbial activity of soil at different concentrations by investigating the respiratory intensity, urease activity, and catalase activity in forest soil and garden soil. The results showed that the respiratory intensity, urease and catalase activities in the garden soil were all higher than in the forest soil. Cd has obvious inhibitory effects on microbial activities. The three parameters exhibited a downward trend with increasing concentrations of Cd. Catalase activity increased when the mass concentration of Cd reached 1.0 mg/kg, indicating that low concentrations of Cd can promote the activity of some microorganisms. Respiratory intensity and urease activity also increased when the concentration reached 10.0 mg/kg, showing that respiratory intensity and urease activity have strong response mechanisms to adverse conditions. The effective state of Cd in soil, as well as inhibition of microbial activity, decreased with incubation time.

  3. [Effect of Recycled Water Irrieation on Heavy Metal Pollution in Irrigation Soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi-qi; Liu, Yun-xia; Fu, Hui-min

    2016-01-15

    With acceleration of urbanization, water shortages will become a serious problem. Usage of reclaimed water for flushing and watering of the green areas will be common in the future. To study the heavy metal contamination of soils after green area irrigation using recycled wastewater from special industries, we selected sewage and laboratory wastewater as water source for integrated oxidation ditch treatment, and the effluent was used as irrigation water of the green area. The irrigation units included broad-leaved forest, bush and lawn. Six samples sites were selected, and 0-20 cm soil of them were collected. Analysis of the heavy metals including Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb in the soil showed no significant differences with heavy metals concentration in soil irrigated with tap water. The heavy metals in the soil irrigated with recycled water were mainly enriched in the surface layer, among which the contents of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb were below the soil background values of Beijing. A slight pollution of As and Cd was found in the soil irrigated by recycled water, which needs to be noticed.

  4. Smouldering peat fires in polluted landscapes and their impact on heavy metal mobilisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Gareth; Rothwell, James; Shuttleworth, Emma

    2016-04-01

    Whilst wildfires are commonly viewed as a threat confined to Southern Europe, Australia, and North America, recognition of wildfire hazard in the UK has been growing in recent years. UK wildfires often occur on heathland vegetation underlain by peat. These areas can contain industrially-derived legacy pollutants, such as mercury, lead, and arsenic. Ignition of the peat can lead to long-term smouldering fires that are difficult to extinguish, leading to large-scale damage. While work on assessing post-fire damage of peatlands has focussed on carbon and nutrient dynamics, there has been little attention on the release of heavy metals following wildfires. This paper presents initial data from a preliminary study to assess heavy metal release from smouldering peat fires. A homogenised sample of peat from the Peak District National Park, UK was ignited, monitored using thermocouples and an IR camera, and left to smoulder until self-extinguished (~9 hours). Total mass loss was 61%. Samples of pre- and post-burn peat were analysed for their heavy metal concentrations using XRF, ICP-MS, and CVAFS. Sample analysis is ongoing, but initial data shows that there is a substantial (3x) relative enrichment in heavy metal concentrations in post-fire ash. This has important implications for subsequent mobilisation in the aquatic and terrestrial environments, as well as consequences for human health risk through atmospheric redistribution.

  5. Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Sediments of Inflow Rivers to Lake Taihu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yong; Niu, Yuan; Pang, Yong; Yu, Hui

    2015-11-01

    Lake Taihu, the third-largest freshwater body in China, has many functions, including drinking water supply, flood control, cultivation, navigation, and tourism. In this study, sediment samples were collected at 31 sites from 11 inflow rivers in 2012, to investigate the distribution and concentration of heavy metals copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and chromium (Cr), and to assess their potential ecological risk. The highest mean concentration was found for Zn, followed by Cu, Cr, Pb, and Ni. Generally, heavy metal pollution was more serious in Wu Jingang River and Caoqiao River, probably because they receive large amounts of wastewater from various local industrial enterprises. The potential ecological risk values of the heavy metals were larger than 120 in more than 25.8% of the sediment samples, indicating a very high risk. The largest ecological risk was due to copper. Furthermore, the results of a principal component analysis and subsequent analysis of variance showed that heavy metal concentrations in the sediment of inflow rivers were higher than those of the lake, which created a large hazard for the aquatic ecosystems of Lake Taihu.

  6. Heavy metal pollution in Tianjin, China—its bioavailability prediction and mitigation practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongwen; Wang, Ting; Zhang, Yanfeng; Jiang, Chunxiao; Wang, Jing

    2010-05-01

    Irrigation of sewage water has been applied for agriculture production in Tianjin for over 50 years, for Tianjin is a city lacking water resource. Based on the result of an extensive investigation on heavy metals in the farmland of Tianjin in 2005, 21 samples (including soil and lettuce) were collected from most the polluted areas along the three sewage rivers. Nine of the 21 soil samples exceeded the National Soil Quality Standard for cadmium (0.6 mg/kg) and 7 exceeded the standard for mercury (1.0 mg/kg). However, the heavy metal contents in lettuce did not correlate the heavy metal concentrations in soil. The bioavailability changed with soil properties. The part extracted by diethylene-triaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and another mixed extraction solvent, M3, were used to predict the bioavailability of heavy metals. The solvent extraction gave good prediction on Cd absorbance in lettuce, with correlative coefficient larger than 0.9. However, it failed for Hg. This may be because Hg is relatively volatile, and the absorption patterns are complex for Hg. To set up a mitigation method for heavy metal pollution in farm land, friendly to agricultural production, in-situ fixing strategy was adopted. Bacillus subtilis and Candida tropicalis were induced by ultraviolet (UV) radiation and HNO2 treatment to get mutated strains that can tolerate and accumulate higher level of cadmium. A strain of B38 from B. subtilis showed the highest Cd tolerance, and was used for further experiment. Though B38 could accumulate Cd from water solution, but it did not fix Cd in soil. This is due to that the amended microorganisms could not propagate well in the polluted soil. Novogro, which is produced from the waste of an enzyme factory, was selected out from several materials to amend together with B38. After the co-amendment of Novogro and B38, the DTPA extractable Cd decreased by 72%, and B38 could propagate efficiently as indicated by DGGE test. Applying conditions, such as amendment

  7. Heavy metal pollution in soils from abandoned Taizhou Chemical Industry Zone in Zhejiang province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Binbin; Zhang, Huimin; Chen, Tao; Mou, Yijun; Wu, Zucheng

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metal (HM) pollution in soils from an abandoned Taizhou Chemical Industry Zone (TCIZ) was investigated. By analysing soils, including sediments, collected from the study zone, the main pollutants were quantitatively identified and their spatial distribution patterns were clearly displayed. Eleven types of HM pollutants were obtained and the results indicated a significant correlation in most of the elements of the soil and sediment. A pollution index Pi was employed to classify the degree of contamination and characterize the main pollutant, which was controlled with the evaluation standard value instead of background one. As was characterized to be one of the main pollutants with the mean concentrations at the pollution source, in the surrounding area, and in the sediment of 603, 20.4, and 22.5 mg/kg, respectively. Our study suggested that the contaminated area of TCIZ may necessitate remediation before it can be considered for reuse. Pollution index method could be a useful tool for assessing soils quality to provide comparable criteria.

  8. STUDY OF HEAVY METALS ACCUMULATION INDEX IN PLANTS USED IN POLLUTED SOILS PHYTOREMEDIATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. LIXANDRU

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The mine tailings have a high content in heavy metals, especially Zn, Cu, Mn, Pb, Ni, Cr and others. In phytoremediation activities of mine tailings dumps were used plant species with high capacity to adapt to the physical-chemical properties of this inorganic waste. During the vegetation period, on any soil type, the cultivated plant species extract and accumulate high amounts of heavy metals in roots and terrestrial parts. Metal translocation rate from soil and accumulation in tissues is dependent to metal species biodisponibility capacity from soil organic-mineral structures in correlation with a series of factors like: pH, ionic change capacity, temperature, water retention a.o. Through this experiment was studied the metals amount of accumulation in plants, in roots and also in terrestrial parts. So, in case of Medicago sativa and Festuca arundinaceea, using the Zn, Cu and Mn uptake coefficient was analyzed the rate of translocation in order to monitor the accumulations dynamic. It turned out that Medicago sativa plants registered a higher uptake coefficient value on Cu and Mn. Festuca arundinaceea plants have a higher rate of accumulation in case of Zn. Also, in case of mine tailings polluted soils, the Zn, Cu and Mn translocation degree is higher and in case of soils polluted with mine tailings and with biosolids addition is lower.

  9. Multivariate statistical assessment of heavy metal pollution sources of groundwater around a lead and zinc plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamani Abbas Ali

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The contamination of groundwater by heavy metal ions around a lead and zinc plant has been studied. As a case study groundwater contamination in Bonab Industrial Estate (Zanjan-Iran for iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium and lead content was investigated using differential pulse polarography (DPP. Although, cobalt, copper and zinc were found correspondingly in 47.8%, 100.0%, and 100.0% of the samples, they did not contain these metals above their maximum contaminant levels (MCLs. Cadmium was detected in 65.2% of the samples and 17.4% of them were polluted by this metal. All samples contained detectable levels of lead and iron with 8.7% and 13.0% of the samples higher than their MCLs. Nickel was also found in 78.3% of the samples, out of which 8.7% were polluted. In general, the results revealed the contamination of groundwater sources in the studied zone. The higher health risks are related to lead, nickel, and cadmium ions. Multivariate statistical techniques were applied for interpreting the experimental data and giving a description for the sources. The data analysis showed correlations and similarities between investigated heavy metals and helps to classify these ion groups. Cluster analysis identified five clusters among the studied heavy metals. Cluster 1 consisted of Pb, Cu, and cluster 3 included Cd, Fe; also each of the elements Zn, Co and Ni was located in groups with single member. The same results were obtained by factor analysis. Statistical investigations revealed that anthropogenic factors and notably lead and zinc plant and pedo-geochemical pollution sources are influencing water quality in the studied area.

  10. Multivariate statistical assessment of heavy metal pollution sources of groundwater around a lead and zinc plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The contamination of groundwater by heavy metal ions around a lead and zinc plant has been studied. As a case study groundwater contamination in Bonab Industrial Estate (Zanjan-Iran) for iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium and lead content was investigated using differential pulse polarography (DPP). Although, cobalt, copper and zinc were found correspondingly in 47.8%, 100.0%, and 100.0% of the samples, they did not contain these metals above their maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). Cadmium was detected in 65.2% of the samples and 17.4% of them were polluted by this metal. All samples contained detectable levels of lead and iron with 8.7% and 13.0% of the samples higher than their MCLs. Nickel was also found in 78.3% of the samples, out of which 8.7% were polluted. In general, the results revealed the contamination of groundwater sources in the studied zone. The higher health risks are related to lead, nickel, and cadmium ions. Multivariate statistical techniques were applied for interpreting the experimental data and giving a description for the sources. The data analysis showed correlations and similarities between investigated heavy metals and helps to classify these ion groups. Cluster analysis identified five clusters among the studied heavy metals. Cluster 1 consisted of Pb, Cu, and cluster 3 included Cd, Fe; also each of the elements Zn, Co and Ni was located in groups with single member. The same results were obtained by factor analysis. Statistical investigations revealed that anthropogenic factors and notably lead and zinc plant and pedo-geochemical pollution sources are influencing water quality in the studied area. PMID:23369182

  11. Multivariate statistical assessment of heavy metal pollution sources of groundwater around a lead and zinc plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Abbas Ali; Yaftian, Mohammad Reza; Parizanganeh, Abdolhossein

    2012-12-17

    The contamination of groundwater by heavy metal ions around a lead and zinc plant has been studied. As a case study groundwater contamination in Bonab Industrial Estate (Zanjan-Iran) for iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium and lead content was investigated using differential pulse polarography (DPP). Although, cobalt, copper and zinc were found correspondingly in 47.8%, 100.0%, and 100.0% of the samples, they did not contain these metals above their maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). Cadmium was detected in 65.2% of the samples and 17.4% of them were polluted by this metal. All samples contained detectable levels of lead and iron with 8.7% and 13.0% of the samples higher than their MCLs. Nickel was also found in 78.3% of the samples, out of which 8.7% were polluted. In general, the results revealed the contamination of groundwater sources in the studied zone. The higher health risks are related to lead, nickel, and cadmium ions. Multivariate statistical techniques were applied for interpreting the experimental data and giving a description for the sources. The data analysis showed correlations and similarities between investigated heavy metals and helps to classify these ion groups. Cluster analysis identified five clusters among the studied heavy metals. Cluster 1 consisted of Pb, Cu, and cluster 3 included Cd, Fe; also each of the elements Zn, Co and Ni was located in groups with single member. The same results were obtained by factor analysis. Statistical investigations revealed that anthropogenic factors and notably lead and zinc plant and pedo-geochemical pollution sources are influencing water quality in the studied area.

  12. Toxicity testing of heavy-metal-polluted soils with algae Selenastrum capricornutum: a soil suspension assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruoja, Villem; Kurvet, Imbi; Dubourguier, Henri-Charles; Kahru, Anne

    2004-08-01

    A small-scale Selenastrum capricornutum (Rhapidocelis subcapitata) growth inhibition assay was applied to the toxicity testing of suspensions of heavy-metal-polluted soils. The OECD 201 standard test procedure was followed, and algal biomass was measured by the fluorescence of extracted chlorophyll. The soils, which contained up to (per kilogram) 1390 mg of Zn, 20 mg of Cd, and 1050 mg of Pb were sampled around lead and zinc smelters in northern France. The water extractability of the metals in suspensions (1 part soil/99 parts water w/v) was not proportional to the pollution level, as extractability was lower for soil samples that were more polluted. Thus, the same amount of metals could be leached out of soils of different levels of pollution, showing that total concentrations of heavy metals in soil (currently used for risk assessment purposes) are poor predictors of the real environmental risk via the soil-water path. Despite high concentrations of water-extracted zinc (0.6-1.4 mg/L of Zn in the test), exceeding by approximately 10-fold the EC(50) value for S. capricornutum (0.1 mg Zn/L), 72-h algal growth in the soil extracts was comparable or better than growth in the standard control OECD mineral medium. The soil suspension stimulated the growth of algae up to eightfold greater than growth using the OECD control medium. Growth stimulation of algae was observed even when soil suspensions contained up to 12.5 mg Zn/L and could not be explained by supplementary nitrogen, phosphorous, and carbonate leached from the soil. However, if the growth of algae in suspensions of clean and polluted soils was compared, a dose-dependent inhibitory effect of metals on algal growth was demonstrated. Thus, as soil contains nutrients/supplements that mask the adverse effect of heavy metals, a clean soil that has properties similar to the polluted soils should be used instead of mineral salt solution as a control for analysis of the ecotoxicity of soils. Copyright 2004 Wiley

  13. Adaptation strategies and referencing trial of Scots and black pine populations subjected to heavy metal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudzińska, Ewa; Diatta, Jean B; Wojnicka-Półtorak, Aleksandra

    2014-02-01

    The impact of industrial heavy metal pollution on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and black pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) populations was investigated. Sampled pine stands, which were located in Upper Silesia (southern Poland) in an area strongly polluted by heavy metals, consisted of resistant and sensitive trees. To evaluate the adaptation process, genetic structure and diversity was tested using isozyme analysis. Higher levels of Zn, Pb, Cd and Cu were detected in needles of sensitive trees compared with resistant ones. With respect to morphology, Scots pines were more distinctly impaired than black pines. Although black pines had lower heavy metal concentrations, levels in 1-year-old needles, other than Cu, significantly exceeded "reference plant" values (Markert 1994). In both species, resistant trees demonstrated a lower degree of genetic variation than metal-sensitive trees with respect to some enzyme loci (SHDH A, PGI, PGM, MDH C and DIA). This observation was corroborated in sensitive trees by the smaller number of identified alleles and alleles per locus, absence of private alleles and significant excess of homozygotes in relation to expected Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium values. Assuming that only resistant trees of both species survive under conditions of prolonged soil contamination, the observed genetic structure implies that remaining populations will be depleted of some alleles of unknown adaptive value to future selection pressures. Genetic changes induced by heavy metals suggest an important role for specific enzymes-FEST, SHDH A and B, GOT B and PGI-in the adaptation process. Our results may serve as a basis for selection and propagation of individuals appropriate for re-cultivation of areas chemically degraded by industrial activity.

  14. Epiphytic lichens as sentinels for heavy metal pollution at forest ecosystems (central Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loppi, Stefano; Pirintsos, S.A

    2003-03-01

    Epiphytic lichens were useful as an early warning system for changes in forest ecosystems. - The results of a study using epiphytic lichens (Parmelia caperata) as sentinels for heavy metal deposition at six selected forest ecosystems of central Italy are reported. The woods investigated are characterized by holm oak (Quercus ilex), turkey oak (Quercus cerris) and beech (Fagus sylvatica) and represent the typical forest ecosystems of central Italy at low, medium and high elevations, respectively. The results showed that levels of heavy metals in lichens were relatively low and consequently no risk of heavy metal air pollution is expected for the six forest ecosystems investigated. However, for two of them there are indications of a potential risk: the beech forest of Vallombrosa showed signs of contamination by Pb as a consequence of vehicle traffic due to the rather high touristic pressure in the area, and the holm oak forest of Cala Violina showed transboundary pollution by Mn, Cr and Ni originating from the steel industry in Piombino. Epiphytic lichens proved to be very effective as an early warning system to detect signs of a changing environment at forest ecosystems.

  15. Assessment of heavy metals contamination in surface layers of Roztocze National Park forest soils (SE Poland) by indices of pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Ryszard; Kowalska, Joanna; Gąsiorek, Michał; Zadrożny, Paweł; Józefowska, Agnieszka; Zaleski, Tomasz; Kępka, Wojciech; Tymczuk, Maryla; Orłowska, Kalina

    2017-02-01

    In most cases, in soils exposed to heavy metals accumulation, the highest content of heavy metals was noted in the surface layers of the soil profile. Accumulation of heavy metals may occur both as a result of natural processes as well as anthropogenic activities. The quality of the soil exposed to heavy metal contamination can be evaluated by indices of pollution. On the basis of determined heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Mn, Ni and Cr) in the soils of Roztocze National Park the following indices of pollution were calculated: Enrichment Factor (EF), Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo), Nemerow Pollution Index (PINemerow) and Potential Ecological Risk (RI). Additionally, we introduced and calculated the Biogeochemical Index (BGI), which supports determination of the ability of the organic horizon to accumulate heavy metals. A tens of times higher content of Pb, Zn, Cu and Mn was found in the surface layers compared to their content in the parent material. This distribution of heavy metals in the studied soils was related to the influence of anthropogenic pollution (both local and distant sources of emission), as well as soil properties such as pH, organic carbon and total nitrogen content. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Silica nanoparticles capture atmospheric lead: implications in the treatment of environmental heavy metal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xifei; Shen, Zhiguo; Zhang, Bing; Yang, Jianping; Hong, Wen-Xu; Zhuang, Zhixiong; Liu, Jianjun

    2013-01-01

    Lead (Pb) contamination in the air is a severe global problem, most notably in China. Removal of Pb from polluted air remains a significant challenge. It is unclear what potential effects silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) exposure can have on atmospheric Pb. Here we first characterized the features of SiNPs by measuring the particle size, zeta potential and the specific surface area of SiO(2) particles using a Nicomp 380/ZLS submicron particle sizer, the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM). We measured the content of the metal Pb adsorbed by SiNPs exposed to two Pb polluted electric battery plants using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). It is found that SiNPs exposed to two Pb polluted electric battery plants absorb more atmospheric Pb compared to either blank control or micro-sized SiO(2) particles in a time-dependent manner. This is the first study demonstrating that SiNPs exposure can absorb atmospheric Pb in the polluted environment. These novel findings indicate that SiNPs have potential to serve as a significant adsorbent of Pb from industrial pollution, implicating a potentially novel application of SiNPs in the treatment of environmental heavy metal pollution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Heavy metal content (Cd, Ni, Cr and Pb) in soil amendment with a low polluted biosolid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez Lucas, Ignacio; Lag Brotons, Alfonso; Navarro-Pedreño, Jose; Belén Almendro-Candel, Maria; Jordán, Manuel M.; Bech, Jaume; Roca, Nuria

    2016-04-01

    The progressively higher water quality standards in Europe has led to the generation of large quantities of sewage sludge derived from wastewater treatment (Fytili and Zabaniotou 2008). Composting is an effective method to minimize these risks, as pathogens are biodegraded and heavy metals are stabilized as a result of organic matter transformations (Barker and Bryson 2002; Noble and Roberts 2004). Most of the studies about sewage sludge pollution are centred in medium and high polluted wastes. However, the aim of this study was to assess the effects on soil heavy metal content of a low polluted sewage sludge compost in order to identify an optimal application rate based in heavy metal concentration under a period of cultivation of a Mediterranean horticultural plant (Cynara carducnculus). The experiment was done between January to June: rainfall was 71 mm, the volume of water supplied every week was 10.5 mm, mean air temperatures was 14.2, 20.4 (maximum), and 9.2◦C (minimum). The soil was a clay-loam anthrosol (WRB 2006). The experimental plot (60 m2) was divided into five subplots with five treatments corresponding to 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 kg compost/m2. Three top-soil (first 20 cm) samples from each treatment were taken (January, April and June) and these parameters were analysed: pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter and total content of heavy metals (microwave acid digestion followed by AAS-spectrometry determination). The results show that sewage sludge compost treatments increase the organic matter content and salinity (electrical conductivity of the soils) and diminish the pH. Cd and Ni total content in top-soil was affected and both slightly reduce their concentration. Pb and Cr show minor changes. In general, the application of this low polluted compost may affect the mobility of Cd and Ni due to the pH modification and the water added by irrigation along time but Pb and Cr remain their content in the top-soil. References Barker, A.V., and G.M. Bryson

  18. [Assessment of heavy metal pollution and potential ecological risks of urban soils in Kaifeng City, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Meng; Ma, Jian-Hua; Liu, De-Xin; Sun, Yan-Li; Chen, Yan-Fang

    2015-03-01

    Ninety-nine topsoil (0-15 cm) samples were collected from Kaifeng City, China using the grid method, and then the concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in the samples were measured by standard methods. Soil pollution levels and potential ecological risks of the heavy metals were assessed using the pollution load index (PLI) and potential ecological risk index (RI), respectively. Ordinary Kriging interpolation technique was employed to investigate the spatial distribution of PLI and RI of the city. The results showed that high pollution of Cd occurred in Kaifeng urban soils, and there was moderate pollution of Zn, slight pollution of Pb and Cu, and no pollution of Ni, Cr and As. Very high ecological risk was posed by Cd and low risk by other metals. The mean PLI of the 7 metals from all sample points was 2.53, which was categorized as moderate pollution. The average RI was 344.58 which represented a considerable ecological risk. PLI and RI shared a similar spatial distribution with high values centralized in the old industrial area in the southeast and railway stations for passengers and goods in the south of the city, followed by the old town within the ancient city wall, and low values located in the north and west areas. Cadmium was the main factor for both soil pollution and potential ecological risk primarily due to farmland topsoil in the eastern suburb of Kaifeng City with high Cd concentrations resulted from sewage irrigation deposited in the urban area by wind, human activities such as soot discharged from the chemical fertilizer plant of Kaifeng, transportation and coal combustion.

  19. The influence of soil heavy metals pollution on soil microbial biomass, enzyme activity, and community composition near a copper smelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, YuanPeng; Shi, JiYan; Wang, Hui; Lin, Qi; Chen, XinCai; Chen, YingXu

    2007-05-01

    The environmental risk of heavy metal pollution is pronounced in soils adjacent to large industrial complexes. It is important to investigate the functioning of soil microorganisms in ecosystems exposed to long-term contamination by heavy metals. We studied the potential effects of heavy metals on microbial biomass, activity, and community composition in soil near a copper smelter in China. The results showed that microbial biomass C was negatively affected by the elevated metal levels and was closely correlated with heavy metal stress. Enzyme activity was greatly depressed by conditions in the heavy metal-contaminated sites. Good correlation was observed between enzyme activity and the distance from the smelter. Elevated metal loadings resulted in changes in the activity of the soil microbe, as indicated by changes in their metabolic profiles from correlation analysis. Significant decrease of soil phosphatase activities was found in the soils 200 m away from the smelter. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis demonstrated that heavy metals pollution had a significant impact on bacterial and actinomycetic community structure. There were negative correlations between soil microbial biomass, phosphatase activity, and NH(4)NO(3) extractable heavy metals. The soil microorganism activity and community composition could be predicted significantly using the availability of Cu and Zn. By combining different monitoring approaches from different viewpoints, the set of methods applied in this study were sensitive to site differences and contributed to a better understanding of heavy metals effects on the structure, size and activity of microbial communities in soils. The data presented demonstrate the role of heavy metals pollution in understanding the heavy metal toxicity to soil microorganism near a copper smelter in China.

  20. Determination of anthropogenic boundary depth in industrially polluted soil and semi-quantification of heavy metal loads using magnetic susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaha, U; Appel, E; Stanjek, H

    2008-11-01

    This study focuses on magnetic susceptibility processing and analysis towards fast and cost-efficient discrimination and semi-quantification of anthropogenic heavy metal loads in soil. Spatial variability of magnetic susceptibility was investigated on sets of soil cores from both "polluted" and "less polluted" forest soil close to a steel mill near Leoben, Austria. Test sites of approximately 10 m(2) represent "site scale" dimensions. Statistical analysis of magnetic data provides a boundary depth indicating the transition from the "polluted" to the deeper, "unpolluted" zone in contaminated natural soil. Introduction of a block master curve simplifies the complex variations of individual curves, and represents magnetic susceptibility at "site scale". For linking the block master curve to heavy metals we only require magnetic susceptibility data from one soil core and heavy metal data from two sub-samples from the same core. Our optimized magnetic susceptibility data processing scheme provides an applicable tool to semi-quantify anthropogenic heavy metal loads in soil.

  1. DEP-On-Go for Simultaneous Sensing of Multiple Heavy Metals Pollutants in Environmental Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu Biyani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe a simple and affordable “Disposable electrode printed (DEP-On-Go” sensing platform for the rapid on-site monitoring of trace heavy metal pollutants in environmental samples for early warning by developing a mobile electrochemical device composed of palm-sized potentiostat and disposable unmodified screen-printed electrode chips. We present the analytical performance of our device for the sensitive detection of major heavy metal ions, namely, mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic, zinc, and copper with detection limits of 1.5, 2.6, 4.0, 5.0, 14.4, and, 15.5 μg·L−1, respectively. Importantly, the utility of this device is extended to detect multiple heavy metals simultaneously with well-defined voltammograms and similar sensitivity. Finally, “DEP-On-Go” was successfully applied to detect heavy metals in real environmental samples from groundwater, tap water, house dust, soil, and industry-processed rice and noodle foods. We evaluated the efficiency of this system with a linear correlation through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and the results suggested that this system can be reliable for on-site screening purposes. On-field applications using real samples of groundwater for drinking in the northern parts of India support the easy-to-detect, low-cost (<1 USD, rapid (within 5 min, and reliable detection limit (ppb levels performance of our device for the on-site detection and monitoring of multiple heavy metals in resource-limited settings.

  2. Air pollution tolerance index and heavy metal bioaccumulation in selected plant species from urban biotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadgórska-Socha, Aleksandra; Kandziora-Ciupa, Marta; Trzęsicki, Michał; Barczyk, Gabriela

    2017-09-01

    This research was carried out on plants Taraxacum officinale, Plantago lanceolata, Betula pendula and Robinia pseudoacacia growing in urban biotopes with different levels of heavy metal contamination in the city of Dąbrowa Górnicza (southern Poland). Based on the pollution index, the highest heavy metal contamination was determined in the site 4 (connected with industry emitters) and 6 (high traffic). The metal accumulation index (MAI) values ranged within the biotopes in Dąbrowa Górnicza between 7.3 and 20.6 for R. pseudoacacia, 4.71-23.1 for P. lanceolata, 4.68-28.1 for T. officinale and 10.5-27.2 for B. pendula. Increasing tendency in proline content in biotopes connected with high traffic was found in the leaves of investigated plants (except R. pseudoacacia). Similar tendency was observed for ascorbic acid content in the foliage of the plants as well as in T. officinalle in stands connected industrial emission. Non-protein thiols content increased especially in the leaves of R. pseudoacacia in biotopes with high traffic emissions as well as in T. officinale in stands connected with industry. The mean values of APTI (Air Pollution Tolerance Index) within the city of Dąbrowa Górnicza for investigated plants were found in the following ascending order P. lanceolata contamination, especially with heavy metals. The results indicate that species deemed tolerant according to APTI are suitable plants in barriers areas to combat atmospheric pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Heavy Metal Pollution, Fractionation, and Potential Ecological Risks in Sediments from Lake Chaohu (Eastern China) and the Surrounding Rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Liao, Qianjiahua; Shao, Shiguang; Zhang, Nan; Shen, Qiushi; Liu, Cheng

    2015-11-06

    Heavy metal (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) pollution, fractionation, and ecological risks in the sediments of Lake Chaohu (Eastern China), its eleven inflowing rivers and its only outflowing river were studied. An improved BCR (proposed by the European Community Bureau of Reference) sequential extraction procedure was applied to fractionate heavy metals within sediments, a geoaccumulation index was used to assess the extent of heavy metal pollution, and a risk assessment code was applied to evaluate potential ecological risks. Heavy metals in the Shuangqiao and Nanfei Rivers were generally higher than the other studied sites. Of the three Lake Chaohu sites, the highest concentrations were identified in western Chaohu. Heavy metal pollution and ecological risks in the lake's only outflowing river were similar to those in the eastern region of the lake, to which the river is connected. Heavy metal concentrations occurred in the following order: Cd > Zn > Cu > Pb ≈ Ni ≈ Cr. Cr, Ni, and Cu made up the largest proportion of the residual fraction, while Cd was the most prominent metal in the exchangeable and carbonate-included fraction. Cd posed the greatest potential ecological risk; the heavy metals generally posed risks in the following order: Cd > Zn > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr.

  4. Taiwan's industrial heavy metal pollution threatens terrestrial biota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, M.J. [Department of Biological Sciences, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Selvaraj, K. [Institute of Marine Geology and Chemistry, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Agoramoorthy, G. [Department of Pharmacy, Tajen University, Yanpu, Pingtung 907, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: agoram@mail.tajen.edu.tw

    2006-09-15

    The bioconcentration levels of essential (Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, and Zn) and non-essential (As, Cd, Hg, Pb, and Sn) elements have been investigated in different terrestrial biota such as fungi, plant, earthworm, snail, crab, insect, amphibian, lizard, snake, and bat including the associated soil, to investigate the ecosystem health status in Kenting National Park, Taiwan. High bioconcentrations of Cd, Hg, and Sn in snail, earthworm, crab, lizard, snake, and bat indicated a contaminated terrestrial ecosystem. High concentrations of Cd, Hg, and Sn in plant species, effective bioaccumulation of Cd by earthworm, snail, crab and bat, as well as very high levels of Hg found in invertebrates, amphibians, and reptiles revealed a strong influence from industrial pollution on the biotic community. This study for the first time presents data on the impact of heavy metal pollution on various terrestrial organisms in Taiwan. - Metal effects occur at any terrestrial levels in Taiwan.

  5. Heavy metal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    niloticus after exposure to sublethal concentrations of heavy metals such as copper, lead and zinc for a 12-week period, using static renewable toxicity tests. The concentrations of the metals accumulated in the tissue of exposed fish were about 3-5 times higher than the concentrations detected in control fish.

  6. Heavy metal, trace element and petroleum hydrocarbon pollution in the Arabian Gulf: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afnan Mahmood Freije

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Arabian Gulf environmental status was assessed based on studies conducted in Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and United Arab Emirates (UAE during 1983–2011. This review examines all sorts of pollutions in the Arabian Gulf area over the last three decades. Approximately 50 published studies were reviewed in order to determine the pollution status in the Arabian Gulf regarding heavy metals and organic substances. Three types of environmental pollutions including marine and coastal, soil, and air were addressed in this review as well as sources of pollutants and their effect on biological systems, marine organisms, and human health. Emphasis is placed on marine pollution, particularly toxic metal, and petroleum hydrocarbon contaminations. Major parts of this review discuss the consequences of the 1991 Gulf War on the environment, and the substantial changes associated with the marine habitats. The effects of oil field fires in Kuwait following the 1991 Gulf War were evaluated through studies that investigated hydrocarbons concentration and trace metals in samples of near shore sediments, bivalves, and fish collected from Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, UAE, and Oman. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were discussed in biota (fish and various bivalves and coastal sediments from six countries in the Gulf. The review has revealed different concentrations of pollutants, low, moderately, and chronically contaminated areas from oil and metals. It has also outlined effective sustainable management measures and goals as a first step in the evaluation of coastal, marine, soil, and air environment in the Arabian Gulf area.

  7. Biomonitoring Heavy Metal Pollution Using an Aquatic Apex Predator, the American Alligator, and Its Parasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Tellez

    Full Text Available Monitoring the bioaccumulation of chemical elements within various organismal tissues has become a useful tool to survey current or chronic levels of heavy metal exposure within an environment. In this study, we compared the bioaccumulations of As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, Se, and Zn between the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis, and its parasites in order to establish their use as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution. Concomitant with these results, we were interested to determine if parasites were more sensitive bioindicators of heavy metals relative to alligators. We found parasites collectively accumulated higher levels of As, Cu, Se, and Zn in comparison to their alligator hosts, whereas Fe, Cd, and Pb concentrations were higher in alligators. Interestingly, Fe levels were significantly greater in intestinal trematodes than their alligator hosts when analyzed independently from other parasitic taxa. Further analyses showed alligator intestinal trematodes concentrated As, Cu, Fe, Se, and Zn at significantly higher levels than intestinal nematodes and parasites from other organs. However, pentastomids also employed the role as a good biomagnifier of As. Interestingly, parasitic abundance decreased as levels of As increased. Stomach and intestinal nematodes were the poorest bioaccumulators of metals, yet stomach nematodes showed their ability to concentrate Pb at orders of magnitude higher in comparison to other parasites. Conclusively, we suggest that parasites, particularly intestinal trematodes, are superior biomagnifiers of As, Cu, Se, and Zn, whereas alligators are likely good biological indicators of Fe, Cd, and Pb levels within the environment.

  8. Albatross as Sentinels of Heavy Metal Pollution: Local and Global Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentman, W.; Edwards, S. V.; Vo, A. E.; Bank, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    Heavy metal pollution in the Pacific Ocean has garnered significant attention in recent years, especially with regard to rising mercury emissions from Asia. Uncertainty exists over the extent to which mercury in biota may have resulted from increases in anthropogenic emissions over time. Albatrosses, including those inhabiting the North Pacific, are wide-ranging, long-lived, keystone, avian predators. Consequently, they serve as ideal sentinel species for investigating the effects of historical and contemporary pollution as well as local and global factors related to heavy metal bioaccumulation, exposure, and ecotoxicological risk. To date, high levels of mercury and lead have been documented in albatross species throughout the Pacific. To address biotic exposure to these multiple stressors, here we synthesize and conduct meta-analyses of total mercury, methylmercury, and lead exposure data in Black-footed albatross (Phoebastria nigripes) and Laysan albatross (Phoebastria immutabilis). Our approach uses data from the field and literature and for methyl mercury uses museum feathers spanning the past 130 years for Black-Footed albatross. We discuss the use and application of stable isotopes (δ15N and δ13C) as a way to control for temporal changes in trophic structure and diet and the importance of conducting speciation analyses, for mercury, to account for curator mediated inorganic mercury in older specimens. Our data showed higher levels of inorganic mercury in older specimens of Black-Footed albatross as well as two non-pelagic species (control samples) lacking historical sources of bioavailable mercury exposure, which suggests that studies on bioaccumulation should measure methylmercury rather than total mercury when utilizing museum collections. Additionally, at the local scale, previous research has reported that lead paint exposure from buildings was also an important environmental stressor for Laysan albatross, suggesting that albatross species face heavy

  9. Three centuries of heavy metal pollution in Paris (France) recorded by urban speleothems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pons-Branchu, Edwige, E-mail: epons@lsce.ipsl.fr [LSCE (UMR8212, CEA/CNRS/UVSQ), Bâtiment 12, avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Ayrault, Sophie; Roy-Barman, Matthieu; Bordier, Louise [LSCE (UMR8212, CEA/CNRS/UVSQ), Bâtiment 12, avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Borst, Wolfgang; Branchu, Philippe [CEREMA, 12 rue Teisserenc de Bort, 78190 Trappes (France); Douville, Eric [LSCE (UMR8212, CEA/CNRS/UVSQ), Bâtiment 12, avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Dumont, Emmanuel [CEREMA, rue de l' égalité Prolongée, 93352, Le Bourget cedex 319 (France)

    2015-06-15

    The first record of urban speleothems used to reconstruct the history of heavy metal pollution of shallow groundwaters is presented. Two speleothems grew during the last 300 years in an underground aqueduct in the north-eastern part of Paris. They display high Pb, Mn V, Cu, Cd and Al concentrations since 1900 due to the urbanization of the site which triggered anthropogenic contamination of the water feeding the speleothems. Surprisingly, these heavy metal concentrations are also high in the oldest part. This early pollution could come from the use of Parisian waste as fertilizers in the orchards and vineyards cultivated above the aqueduct before urbanization. Lead isotopes were measured in these carbonates as well as in lead artifacts from the 17th–18th centuries ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb = 1.180 +/− 0.003). The mean {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratio, for one of the speleothems is 1.181 +/− 0.003 unvarying with time. These lead signatures are close to those of coal and old lead from northern European mines, lower than the natural background signature. It confirms that the high metal concentrations found come from anthropogenic pollution. Conversely, the lead isotopic composition of the second speleothem presents two temporal trends: for the oldest levels, the mean value (1.183 +/− 0.003) is similar to the first speleothem. For the youngest part, a lower value (1.172 +/− 0.005) is recorded, evidencing the contribution of a new lead source at the beginning of the industrial revolution. Pb isotopes were also measured in recent samples from a nearby superficial site. The first sample is a recent (AD 1975 +/− 15 years) deposit ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb = 1.148 +/− 0.003), and the second, a thin subactual layer ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb = 1.181 +/− 0.002). These data are compatible with the adding of anthropogenic sources (leaded gasoline and industrial lead from Rio Tinto ore). - Highlights: • Urban speleothems from underground aqueduct in Paris, France were

  10. Design and Testing of a New Diatom-Based Index for Heavy Metal Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, M R; Martín, G; Corzo, J; de la Linde, A; García, E; López, M; Sousa, M

    2017-05-16

    The Tinto and Odiel river basins (SW Spain) are known worldwide for their unique water characteristics. Such uniqueness is a consequence of their flow through the Iberian Pyrite Belt (an area rich in metal sulphides) and the mining activities in the basins. A process of sulphide oxidation occurs in this region, which acidifies the water and increases the amount of heavy metals in it. As a result, the rivers suffer the so-called "acid mine drainage" (AMD). Traditional biotic diatom-based indexes (IPS, IBD, EPI-D, etc.) do not take into account the pollution caused by AMD. The purpose of this paper is to develop a new diatom-based index which can serve as a useful and quick monitoring tool. Such tool must reflect the level of AMD while being user friendly. We present the development and validation of the ICM (Índice de Contaminación por Metales or Metal Pollution Index). ICM demonstrated to meet successfully the above criteria and, therefore, can assess water quality in the Tinto and Odiel Rivers. In addition, ICM was applied with satisfactory results in the Guadiamar River (SW Spain), which was subjected to AMD too. Thus, we propose to make use of it in any other basin with the same type of pollution.

  11. Heavy Metal Pollution in Settled Dust Associated with Different Urban Functional Areas in a Heavily Air-Polluted City in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Dejun; Han, Zhangxiong; Yang, Jinsong; Yang, Guanglin; Liu, Xingqi

    2016-11-10

    Understanding variations of heavy metals in atmospheric particles between different functional areas is significant for pollution control and urban planning in cities. To reveal pollution and spatial distribution of heavy metals in atmospheric particles from different urban functional areas in Shijiazhuang in North China, 43 settled dust samples were collected over the main urban area and heavy metal concentrations were determined in their pollution indexes (IPIs) of the ten heavy metals are 2.7-13.6 (5.7 ± 2.2), suggesting high or very high pollution levels of most dust. Relatively lower IPIs occur mainly in the administration-education area, the commercial area, and other unclassified sites; while peaks occur mainly in the North Railway Station, the northeastern industrial area, and some sites near heavily trafficked areas, implying the significant influence of intensive industrial (including coal combustion) and traffic activities on atmospheric heavy metal accumulation. These results suggest a clear need of mitigating atmospheric heavy metal pollution via controlling emissions of toxic metals (especially Cd and Pb) from industrial and traffic sources in the city.

  12. Heavy Metal Pollution in Settled Dust Associated with Different Urban Functional Areas in a Heavily Air-Polluted City in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Dejun; Han, Zhangxiong; Yang, Jinsong; Yang, Guanglin; Liu, Xingqi

    2016-01-01

    Understanding variations of heavy metals in atmospheric particles between different functional areas is significant for pollution control and urban planning in cities. To reveal pollution and spatial distribution of heavy metals in atmospheric particles from different urban functional areas in Shijiazhuang in North China, 43 settled dust samples were collected over the main urban area and heavy metal concentrations were determined in their <63 μm fractions using an ICP-OES. The results suggest that Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and V in the dust are not or slightly enriched and their concentrations vary slightly between different sites, implying their natural origins; whereas Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb are often notably enriched and their concentrations vary significantly between different functional areas, indicating their anthropogenic sources. Integrated pollution indexes (IPIs) of the ten heavy metals are 2.7–13.6 (5.7 ± 2.2), suggesting high or very high pollution levels of most dust. Relatively lower IPIs occur mainly in the administration-education area, the commercial area, and other unclassified sites; while peaks occur mainly in the North Railway Station, the northeastern industrial area, and some sites near heavily trafficked areas, implying the significant influence of intensive industrial (including coal combustion) and traffic activities on atmospheric heavy metal accumulation. These results suggest a clear need of mitigating atmospheric heavy metal pollution via controlling emissions of toxic metals (especially Cd and Pb) from industrial and traffic sources in the city. PMID:27834903

  13. Plant response to heavy metals and organic pollutants in cell culture and at whole plant level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golan-Goldhirsh, A.; Barazani, O. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of The Negev, The Jacob Blaustein Inst. for Desert Research, Albert Katz Dept. of Dryland Biotechnologies, Desert Plant Biotechnology Lab., Sede Boqer Campus (Israel); Nepovim, A.; Soudek, P.; Vanek, T. [Inst. of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry (Czech Republic); Smrcek, S.; Dufkova, L.; Krenkova, S. [Faculty of Natural Sciences, Charles Univ. (Czech Republic); Yrjala, K. [Univ. of Helsinki, Dept. of Biosciences, Div. of General Microbiology, Helsinki (Finland); Schroeder, P. [Inst. for Soil Ecology, GSF National Research Center for Environment and Health, Neuherberg, Oberschleissheim (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Background. Increasing awareness in the last decade concerning environmental quality had prompted research into 'green solutions' for soil and water remediation, progressing from laboratory in vitro experiments to pot and field trials. In vitro cell culture experiments provide a convenient system to study basic biological processes, by which biochemical pathways, enzymatic activity and metabolites can be specifically studied. However, it is difficult to relate cell cultures, calli or even hydroponic experiments to the whole plant response to pollutant stress. In the field, plants are exposed to additional a-biotic and biotic factors, which complicate further plant response. Hence, we often see that in vitro selected species perform poorly under soil and field conditions. Soil physical and chemical properties, plant-mycorrhizal association and soil-microbial activity affect the process of contaminant degradation by plants and/or microorganisms, pointing to the importance of pot and field experiments. Objective. This paper is a joint effort of a group of scientists in COST action 837. It represents experimental work and an overview on plant response to environmental stress from in vitro tissue culture to whole plant experiments in soil. Results. Results obtained from in vitro plant tissue cultures and whole plant hydroponic experiments indicate the phytoremediation potential of different plant species and the biochemical mechanisms involved in plant tolerance. In pot experiments, several selected desert plant species, which accumulated heavy metal in hydroponic systems, succeeded in accumulating the heavy metal in soil conditions as well. Conclusions and recommendations. In vitro plant tissue cultures provide a useful experimental system for the study of the mechanisms involved in the detoxification of organic and heavy metal pollutants. However, whole plant experimental systems, as well as hydroponics followed by pot and field trials, are essential when

  14. Screening of variable importance for optimizing electrodialytic remediation of heavy metals from polluted harbour sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kristine B.; Lejon, Tore; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Using multivariate design and modelling, the optimal conditions for electrodialytic remediation (EDR) of heavy metals were determined for polluted harbour sediments from Hammerfest harbour located in the geographic Arctic region of Norway. The comparative importance of the variables, current...... density, remediation time, light/no light, the liquid-solid ratio and stirring rate of the sediment suspension, was determined in 15 laboratory-scale EDR experiments by projection to latent structures (PLS). The relation between the X matrix (experimental variables) and the Y matrix (removal efficiencies...

  15. Identification of soil heavy metal sources from anthropogenic activities and pollution assessment of Fuyang County, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X Y; Lin, F F; Wong, Mike T F; Feng, X L; Wang, K

    2009-07-01

    Understanding regional variations of soil heavy metals and their anthropogenic influence are very important for environmental planning. In this study, 286 surface soil samples were collected in Fuyang county, and the 'total' metals for copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni) were measured in 2005. Statistic analysis showed that Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd had been added by exterior factors, and Ni was mainly controlled by natural factors. The combination of multivariate statistical and geostatistical analysis successfully grouped three groups (Cu, Zn and Pb; Cd; and Ni) of heavy metals from different sources. Through pollution evaluation, it was found that 15.76% of the study area for Cu, Zn and Pb, and 46.14% for Cd suffered from moderate or severe pollution. Further spatial analysis identified the limestone mining activities, paper mills, cement factory and metallurgic activities were the main sources for the concentration of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd in soils, and soil Ni was mainly determined by the parent materials.

  16. SPECIATION OF HEAVY METALS IN SURFACE WATERS POLLUTED BY ANTHROPOGENIC ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Luca

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present the results of a methodological research on the chemical speciation of heavy metals found in surface waters of an area polluted by mining activities (in the Western Carpathians. The surface water samples were collected in two seasons (summer and fall. Each time were performed in situ physical-chemical measurements (pH, Eh, conductivity, temperature and analytical determination of total concentrations of some metals (manganese, copper, zinc, iron, cadmium and anions (SO42-, Cl-, PO43-, NO3-. Analyze of chemical speciation of these metals was made using the PHREEQC program which allowed us to determine the distribution of studied elements. The concordance of the results obtained with this program with thermodynamic predictions arising from potential - pH equilibrium diagrams - Pourbaix type justify the compatibility between the program calculation and experimental data.

  17. Risk assessment of heavy metal pollution for detritivores in floodplain soils in the Biesbosch, the Netherlands, taking bioavailability into account.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hobbelen, P.H.F.; Koolhaas, J.E.; van Gestel, C.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Floodplains of the European rivers Rhine and Meuse are heavily polluted. We investigated the risk of heavy metal pollution (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn) for detritivores living in a floodplain area, the Biesbosch, the Netherlands, affected by these rivers. Total soil, pore water and 0.01 M CaCl

  18. [Heavy metal pollution characteristics and ecological risk analysis for soil in Phyllostachys praecox stands of Lin'an].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiao-bo; Shi, Han; Liao, Xin-feng; Lou, Zhong; Zhou, Lyu-yan; Yu, Hai-xia; Yao, Lin; Sun, Li-ping

    2015-06-01

    An investigation was carried out in an attempt to reveal the characteristics of heavy metals contamination in the soils of Phyllostachys praecox forest in Lin' an. Based on the concentrations of Hg, As, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Ni, Co and Mn in 160 topsoil samples, the pollution status and ecological risks of heavy metals in the soils were assessed by single factor pollution index, Nemerow integrated pollution index and Hankanson potential ecological risk index. The spatial variability of heavy metal concentrations in the soils closely related to the distribution of traffic, industrial and livestock pollution sources. The average concentrations of Hg, As, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Ni, Co and Mn in the soils were 0.16, 7.41, 34.36, 87.98, 103.98, 0.26, 59.12, 29.56, 11.44 and 350.26 mg · kg(-1), respectively. Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu concentrations were as 2.89, 1.70, 1.12 and 1.12 times as the background values of soil in Zhejiang Province, respectively. But their concentrations were all lower than the threshold values of the National Environmental Quality Standard for Soil (GB 15618-1995). The average single factor pollution index revealed that the level of heavy metal pollution in the soils was in order of Pb>Cd>Cu= Zn>Hg>As>Ni>Co>Cr>Mn. Pb pollution was of moderate level while Cd, Cu and Zn pollutions were slight. There was no soil pollution caused by the other heavy metals. However, the Nemerow integrated pollution index showed that all the 160 soil samples were contaminated by heavy metals to a certain extent. Among total 160 soil samples, slight pollution level, moderate pollution level and heavy pollution level accounted for 55.6%, 29.4% and 15.0%, respectively. The average single factor potential ecological risk index (Er(i)) implied that the potential ecological risk related to Cd reached moderate level, while the others were of slight level. Furthermore, Cd and Hg showed higher potential ecological risk indices which reached up to 256.82 and 187.33 respectively

  19. Heavy Metals Technogenic Pollution of Plough Lands Arable Layer in the Chelyabinsk Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantorova, G. F.

    2017-11-01

    Environmental protection and rational use of natural resources in agriculture are the main directions of this scientific research. Contamination is caused by the substances of chemical, radiation and biological origin above the maximum permissible concentration (MPC). The main source of soil contamination in the arable land, hayfields and pastures is the waste of livestock complexes, agricultural chemicals (fertilizers, pesticides), motor vehicle exhausts, industrial emissions, sewage from settlements, etc. The ecological state of the soil and vegetation cover is largely determined by agricultural activities. The agricultural production technology complicating is accompanied by increase in the degree of environmental risk, especially in the chemicalization of agriculture. Pollution also enters the soil with atmospheric precipitation, surface waste. They are also introduced into the soil layer by soil and groundwater. The most dangerous for human health is considered to be contamination with heavy metals (HM)–lead, mercury and cadmium. However, the concentration of the rest elements is no less harmful. The paradox of heavy metals is that in certain quantities they are necessary to ensure the normal life of plants and organisms but their excess can lead to serious diseases and even death. A nutritional cycle causes harmful compounds to enter the human body and often cause great harm to health. The present work reveals the results of the research of a long-term experience on accumulation and distribution of heavy metals on the arable layer profile depending on the concentration in humus soil and the system of ground processing.

  20. Comparative assessment of button cells using a normalized index for potential pollution by heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Merino, Luis; Jiménez-Hernández, Maria Emilia; de la Losa, Almudena; Huerta-Muñoz, Virginia

    2015-09-01

    Many household batteries worldwide still end up in landfills or are incinerated due to inefficient collection and recycling schemes. Toxic heavy metals from improperly discarded button cells pose a serious risk to human health and the environment, as they can pollute air, soil and water. This paper analyses a series of button cells selected from batteries available on the retail market, and compares their polluting potential. A total of 64 batteries were subjected to chemical analyses of 19 elements - including metals and metalloids - , and energy density measurements. The samples were from four different brands of each of the four most common button cell technologies (alkaline, zinc-air, silver oxide and lithium). An energy-normalized index - the Weighted Potential Pollution Index (WPPI) - was proposed to compare the polluting potential of the different batteries. The higher the battery WPPI score, the greater the content in toxic elements and the lower the energy output. The results of the chemical composition and energy density varied depending on the construction technology of the button cells. However, significant differences in both variables were also found when comparing different brands within the same technology. The differences in WPPI values confirmed the existence of a significant margin to reduce the environmental impact of discarded button cells simply by avoiding the most polluting options. The choice of the battery with the most favourable WPPI produced a reduction in potential pollution of 3-53% for silver oxide batteries, 4-39% for alkaline, 20-28% for zinc-air and 12-26% for lithium. Comparative potential pollution could be assessed when selecting batteries using an energy-normalized index such as WPPI to reduce the environmental impact of improperly disposed button cells. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Distributions and pollution assessment of heavy metals Pb, Cd and Cr in the water system of Kendari Bay, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armid, A.; Shinjo, R.; Ruslan, R.; Fahmiati

    2017-02-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals Pb, Cd and Cr in the coastal waters of Kendari Bay were analyzed to assess their pollution status. Water samples from 32 sampling points were analyzed for dissolved heavy metals concentrations by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The RSD(%) of each metal was accounted to analyze the diversity of the heavy metals among 32 sampling points. The results demonstrate that the dissolved heavy metal Pb had the highest concentrations (0.009 to 0.549 μg/L, average = 0.210 μg/L) followed by Cr (0.085 to 0.386 μg/L, average = 0.149 μg/L), and Cd (0.001 to 0.015 μg/L, average = 0.008 μg/L). Based on the the RSD values (Pb = 87.8%, Cd = 45.2% and Cr = 41.3%), it is suggested that the antropogenic activities controls the high diversity of concentrations for heavy metal Pb relative to those of Cd and Cr. Comparing the data with the mean oceanic concentrations, only the concentrations of Pb exceed the mean oceanic level (210 folds). Therefore, the water system of Kendari Bay is severely polluted with heavy metal Pb. More management and treatment should be introduced to protect the marine environment in the study area, especially from Pb pollution.

  2. [Analysis on heavy metal pollution in major seafoods from Zhoushan Fishery, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Yue; Wang, Yu-Chao; Lou, Jiang-Hong

    2012-10-01

    Through reviewing data on surveys, tested materials especially on lead in Zhoushan fisheries, with ground lead, cadmium and methyl-mercury were analyzed and evaluated. According to the distribution of Zhoushan fisheries, we randomly selected a certain number of Zhoushan seafood as research objects from four counties or districts. Different kinds of seafood would include sea fish, seawater crustaceans, seawater soft-bodied animals and sea algae. The inedible parts of all the seafood were removed, and then the samples of the edible parts were grinding into homogenate. We measured the contents of lead and cadmium, using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry method. The content of methylmercury was measured, using the gas chromatography (acid extraction method of mercaptoacetic cotton). Data from 2007 to 2009 was analyzed under SPSS software. (1) The average standardized rates were: lead as 3.90% (11/282), cadmium as 11.35% (32/282) and methylmercury as 2.84% (8/282). (2) Results from the comprehensive evaluation on the contents of metals showed the following rankings: seaweed (0.4513 mg/kg), marine molluscs (0.1155 mg/kg), marine crustaceans (0.0486 mg/kg), sea-fish (0.0419 mg/kg). (3) Results from the single-factor variance analysis showed that the accumulation of lead, cadmium and methylmercury in different types of seafood were: lead F = 35.683 (P safety analysis related to the different types of seafood on lead, cadmium, methylmercury food, the Chi-square tests showed as: lead χ(2) = 10.167, P 0.05. The situation of heavy metal pollution in different kinds of Zhoushan fisheries was different. Algae appeared the worst while sea fish, sea water crustaceans pollution were light, with lead and methylmercury mainly influencing sea algae and cadmium mainly in the sea algae, followed by seawater software class. The rates over standards of different kinds of seafood were different from each other, while the rates over standards of lead, cadmium and

  3. The Assessment of Sediment Heavy Metal Pollution in Begej Canal (Serbia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krčmar, Dejan; Trickovic, Jelena; Grba, Nenad; Becelic Tomin, Milena; Pesic, Vesna; Varga, Natasa; Dalmacija, Bozo

    2016-04-01

    Accumulation of heavy metals in aquatic systems has received huge concern due to their toxicity, persistence and subsequent accumulation in aquatic sediments. One of the most crucial properties of the metals, which differentiate them from organic pollutants, is that they are not biodegradable in the environment. Metals are part of biogeochemical cycles with aquatic sediments acting as their ultimate sinks for longer periods of time. However, when environmental conditions change (pH, redox potential, etc.) sediments act as secondary sources of metal pollution. The toxicity and mobility of metals depend strongly on the way they are associated with sediments. Therefore, information on the total concentrations of metals in sediment alone should not be used to assess the environmental impact of polluted sediments. The Begej Canal is navigation canal between Romania and Serbia and it is a part of Danube-Tisa-Danube hydrosystem in Vojvodina (Northern Province of Serbia). Approximately, 500,000 m3 of sediment is accumulated in Begej canal which currently prevents canal's primary function - navigability. The objective of the present study was to assess the chemical quality of Begej canal sediments regarding heavy metals content. The concentrations of heavy metals were as follows: Cd - 2.4-4.9 mg/kg, Cr - 125-349 mg/kg, Cu - 65-124 mg/kg, Pb - 47-113 mg/kg, Ni - 45-88 mg/kg and Zn - 362-602 mg/kg. According to Serbian legislation (Official gazette, no. 50/12), sediment of Begej canal is the third class sediment which means that special measures should be taken in case of its removal from watercourse and final disposal in order to prevent contamination of other environmental compartments (soil, ground waters, surface waters, wildlife). Therefore, determination of third class has important economic and social implications. Additional tests to assess sediment quality included determination of contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI) and enrichment factor (EF). In

  4. Origin, transfer and effects of heavy metals in a soil-plant-snail food chain in polluted ecosystems of Biesbosch National Park

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, M.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Emissions of heavy metals result in pollution of the soil, the atmosphere and the hydrosphere, and this pollution is a potential threat to the health of humans and ecosystems. Biesbosch National Park (the Netherlands) is exposed to chronic and diffuse pollution of heavy metals. The park is the

  5. Lemna minor L.: As bioindicator of heavy metal pollution in Skadar lake: Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kastratović Vlatko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of aquatic plants to analyze the heavy metal pollution of a lake environment has a number of advantages over the standard chemical methods of the analysis of metal presence in water and sediment. The macrophyta Lemna minor L., sampled from Lake Skadar in Montenegro has been used as a bio-indicator. Floating macrophyte L. minor accumulates metals from water through its submerged roots and floated leaves. The contents of Cd, Cu, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, Sr and V were determined in sediments, water and the plant. The results obtained indicated a very high capacity of L. minor for the accumulation of Mn. In addition, higher Zn concentration was found in root tissue comparing to the sediment. The concentration of the other metals under investigation decreases in the following order: sediment > L. minor(root > L. minor(leaf > water. Higher concentrations of all metals in the tissue of L. minor were observed at the end of the growing season. A higher metal content was recorded in the root compared to the leaf. In descending order, the concentrations in plant tissues were found for the following metals: Mn > Zn > Sr > Cu > Ni > Pb > Co > V > Cr > Cd, while the series of bioaccumulation is, in descending order: Mn > Zn > Ni > Co > Pb > Cu > Cr > V > Sr > Cd.

  6. Albatross as Sentinels of Heavy Metal Pollution: Local and Global Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bank M.S.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal pollution in the Pacific Ocean has garnered significant attention in recent years, especially with regard to rising mercury emissions from Asia. Uncertainty exists over the extent to which mercury in biota may have resulted from increases in anthropogenic emissions over time. Albatrosses, including those inhabiting the North Pacific, are wide-ranging, long-lived, keystone, avian predators. Consequently, they serve as ideal sentinel species for investigating the effects of historical and contemporary pollution as well as local and global factors related to heavy metal exposure, bioaccumulation, and ecotoxicological risk. To date, high levels of mercury and lead have been documented in albatross species throughout the Pacific. To address biotic exposure to these multiple stressors, here we synthesize and conduct meta-analyses of total mercury, methylmercury, and lead exposure data in Black-footed albatross (Phoebastria nigripes and Laysan albatross (Phoebastria immutabilis. Our approach includes data from the field and literature, and for total mercury and methyl mercury, we use measurements from museum feathers spanning the past 130 years for Black-Footed albatross. We discuss the use and application of stable isotopes (δ15N and δ13C as a way to control for temporal changes in trophic structure and diet and we demonstrate the importance of conducting speciation analyses for mercury to account for historical, curator-mediated, inorganic mercury contamination of specimens. Our data showed higher levels of inorganic mercury in older specimens of Black-Footed albatross as well as two non-pelagic species (control samples lacking historical sources of bioavailable mercury exposure, which suggests that studies on bioaccumulation should measure methylmercury rather than total mercury when utilizing museum collections. Changes in methylmercury levels in Black-Footed albatross were consistent with historical global and recent regional

  7. Long-term effect of heavy-metal pollution on diversity of gastrointestinal microbial community of Bufo raddei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenya; Guo, Rui; Yang, Ying; Ding, Jian; Zhang, Yingmei

    2016-09-06

    Gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota plays a very important role in maintaining its host's health. However, the effects of environmental contamination on the GI microbiota homeostasis of amphibians have not yet been reported. The present study reveals the long-term effect of natural heavy-metal pollution on the GI microbial community diversity and structural changes of Bufo raddei (B. raddei). Basing on the 16S rRNA sequencing method, the GI microbiota of B. raddei from a heavily heavy-metal-polluted area (Baiyin, (BY)) and a relatively unpolluted area (Liujiaxia, (LJX)) were profiled. The results showed that heavy-metal pollution had caused significant shifts in the composition of the GI microbiota both at the phylum and genus levels. Specifically, Bacteroidetes dominated in the GI tract of B. raddei from BY, while Tenericutes was much more common in those from LJX. The ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes and the proportion of probiotics in the GI microbiota of B. raddei from BY were reduced compared to those from LJX, as well. Heavy-metal pollution also induced in a reduction of species diversity and decreased proportion of unique operational taxonomic units in the GI tract. In short, our results demonstrate that long-term heavy-metal exposure re-shaped the composition and decreased the species diversity of GI microbiota of B. raddei; our results also represent a novel approach to uncover the toxic effects of pollution on amphibians. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Pollution Assessment and Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Heavy Metals in Soils of Coal Mining Area in Longkou City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuo; Wu, Quan-yuan; Cao, Xue-jiang; Wang, Ji-ning; Zhang, Long-long; Cai, Dong-quan; Zhou, Li-yuan; Liu, Na

    2016-01-15

    The present paper takes the coal mining area of Longkou City as the research area. Thirty-six topsoil (0-20 cm) samples were collected and the contents of 5 kinds of heavy metals were determined, including Cd, As, Ni, Ph, Cr. Geo-statistics analysis was used to analyze the spatial distribution of heavy metals. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to explore the pollution sources of heavy metals and the degree of heavy metals pollution was evaluated by weighted average comprehensive pollution evaluation method. The results showed that enrichment phenomenon was significant for the 5 kinds of heavy metals. Taking secondary standard of National Environment Quality Standard for Soil as the background value, their exceed standard rates were 72.22%, 100%, 100%, 91.67%, 100%, respectively. Average contents of heavy metals in the soil samples were all over the national standard level two and were 1.53, 11.86, 2.40, 1.31, 4.09 times of the background value. In addition, the average contents were much higher than the background value of the topsoil in the eastern part of Shandong Province and were 9.85, 39.98, 8.85, 4.29, 12.71 times of the background value. According to the semivariogram model, we obtained the nugget-effects of 5 kinds of heavy metals and their values were in the order of As (0.644) > Cd (0.627) > Cr (0.538) > Ni (0.411) > Pb (0.294), all belonging to moderate spatial correlation. On the whole, the central part of the Sangyuan Coal Mine and its surrounding areas were the most seriously polluted, while the pollution of heavy metals in the east and west of the study area was relatively light. Principal component analysis suggested that the enrichment of Cd, As, Ni, Cr was due to irrigation of wastewater, the discharge of industry and enterprise, and the industrial activity. Automobile exhaust and coal combustion were the main pollution sources of Pb. The single-factor assessment of heavy metals pollution showed that the degree of different heavy metals

  9. Electrodialytic Remediation of Different Heavy Metal-Polluted Soils in Suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie

    2013-01-01

    Electrokinetic remediation of heavy metal-polluted soil faces different challenges in relation to implementation. One challenge is to cope with the nonlinear and transient geochemical changes in the soil and another is to increase the remediation rate. Both these challenges are met when treating...... is necessary to meet the goal. The good results were obtained even without optimization of processing parameters, but the investigation underlined that the optimal parameters are highly soil and pollution specific....... the soil in a suspension in an electrodialytic cell. The soil suspension is stirred and uniform during treatment. Previously, it has been shown that a faster remediation can be obtained when remediating a stirred soil suspension compared to a stationary water saturated soil (all other parameters the same...

  10. Effects of thermal treatment on mineralogy and heavy metal behavior in iron oxide stabilized air pollution control residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette Abildgaard; Bender-Koch, C.; Starckpoole, M. M.

    2000-01-01

    Stabilization of air pollution control residues by coprecipitation with ferrous iron and subsequent thermal treatment (at 600 and 900 °C) has been examined as a means to reduce heavy metal leaching and to improve product stability. Changes in mineralogy and metal binding were analyzed using various...

  11. [Distribution and pollution assessment of heavy metals in soil of relocation areas from the Danjiangkou Reservoir].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Qin, Yan-Wen; Zheng, Bing-Hui; Shi, Yao; Han, Chao-Nan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explore the pollution level and potential ecological risk of heavy metals in soil of the relocation areas from the Danjiangkou Reservoir. The contents and spatial distribution of Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr and As in soil of the relocation areas from the Danjiangkou Reservoir were analyzed. The integrated pollution index and potential ecological risk index were used to evaluate the contamination degree and potential ecological risk of these elements. The results indicated that the average contents of Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr and As in the samples were 0.61, 23.11, 58.25, 22.65, 58.99 and 16.95 mg x kg(-1), respectively. Compared with the background value of soils from Henan province, all these 6 elements except Zn were enriched to some extent, especially Cd. Similar patterns were observed for the spatial distribution of Cu, Zn, and Pb. Compared with the contents of heavy metals in surface sediments of the typical domestic reservoirs, Cd and As in soil of the relocation areas from the Danjiangkou Reservoir were heavily accumulated. The correlation analysis showed that there were significant positive correlations among Pb, Cu, and Zn. And there was also significant positive correlation between Cr and Pb. In contrast, negative correlation was found between Cr and As. To sum up, the comprehensive assessment results showed that Cd was the primary element with high ecological risk.

  12. Comparison of pollution indices for the assessment of heavy metal in Brisbane River sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duodu, Godfred Odame; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Ayoko, Godwin A

    2016-12-01

    Estuarine environment is complex and receives different contaminants from numerous sources that are persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic. The distribution, source, contamination and ecological risk status of heavy metals in sediment of Brisbane River, Australia were investigated. Sediment samples were analysed for major and minor elements using LA-ICP-MS. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis identified three main sources of metals in the samples: marine sand intrusion, mixed lithogenic and sand intrusion as well as transport related. To overcome inherent deficiencies in using a single index, a range of sediment quality indices, including contamination factor, enrichment factor, index of geo-accumulation, modified degree of contamination, pollution index and modified pollution index were utilised to ascertain the sediment quality. Generally, the sediment is deemed to be "slightly" to "heavily" polluted. A further comparison with the Australian Sediment Quality Guidelines indicated that Ag, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn had the potential to rarely cause biological effects while Hg could frequently cause biological effects. Application of potential ecological risk index (RI) revealed that the sediment poses moderate to considerable ecological risk. However, RI could not account for the complex sediment behaviour because it uses a simple contamination factor. Consequently, a modified ecological risk index (MRI) employing enrichment factor is proposed. This provides a more reliable understanding of whole sediment behaviour and classified the ecological risk of the sediment as moderate to very high. The results demonstrate the need for further investigation into heavy metal speciation and bioavailability in the sediment to ascertain the degree of toxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Three centuries of heavy metal pollution in Paris (France) recorded by urban speleothems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons-Branchu, Edwige; Ayrault, Sophie; Roy-Barman, Matthieu; Bordier, Louise; Borst, Wolfgang; Branchu, Philippe; Douville, Eric; Dumont, Emmanuel

    2015-06-15

    The first record of urban speleothems used to reconstruct the history of heavy metal pollution of shallow groundwaters is presented. Two speleothems grew during the last 300 years in an underground aqueduct in the north-eastern part of Paris. They display high Pb, Mn V, Cu, Cd and Al concentrations since 1900 due to the urbanization of the site which triggered anthropogenic contamination of the water feeding the speleothems. Surprisingly, these heavy metal concentrations are also high in the oldest part. This early pollution could come from the use of Parisian waste as fertilizers in the orchards and vineyards cultivated above the aqueduct before urbanization. Lead isotopes were measured in these carbonates as well as in lead artifacts from the 17th-18th centuries ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.180+/-0.003). The mean (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio, for one of the speleothems is 1.181+/-0.003 unvarying with time. These lead signatures are close to those of coal and old lead from northern European mines, lower than the natural background signature. It confirms that the high metal concentrations found come from anthropogenic pollution. Conversely, the lead isotopic composition of the second speleothem presents two temporal trends: for the oldest levels, the mean value (1.183+/-0.003) is similar to the first speleothem. For the youngest part, a lower value (1.172+/-0.005) is recorded, evidencing the contribution of a new lead source at the beginning of the industrial revolution. Pb isotopes were also measured in recent samples from a nearby superficial site. The first sample is a recent (AD 1975+/-15 years) deposit ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.148+/-0.003), and the second, a thin subactual layer ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.181+/-0.002). These data are compatible with the adding of anthropogenic sources (leaded gasoline and industrial lead from Rio Tinto ore). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Simultaneous cleanup of soil polluted with crude oil and heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groudeva, V.; Doycheva, A. [Sofia Univ., Faculty of Biology (Bulgaria); Groudev, S. [University of Mining and Geology, Dept. of Engineering Geoecology, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2005-07-01

    Some soils in a site located in the Northwestern part of Bulgaria were heavily polluted with crude oil and some heavy metals (copper, zinc, cadmium, lead). The oil was light, with a specific gravity of about 0.8 g/cm{sup 3}, rich in paraffins and with a very low content of asphaltene-resinous substances. The heavy metals were present mainly as the relevant sulphide minerals but products from the oxidation of sulphides were also present. The oil and the above-mentioned heavy metals were present mainly in the upper soil layers (mainly in the horizon A). Preliminary laboratory experiments in reactors and lysimeters revealed that it was possible to remove most of the contaminants in the soil by using the activity of the indigenous soil microflora. This activity was enhanced by suitable changes in the levels of some essential environmental factors such as pH and water, oxygen and nutrient contents of the soil. It was also found that the inoculation of the soil with active oil-degrading and metal-solubilizing microorganisms caused a considerable positive effect on the soil clean up. A pilot-scale operation for a simultaneous biological removal of the oil and heavy metals from the soil was carried out using the heap technique. Some data about this pilot-scale operation are presented in this paper. At the end of the treatment, the contents of pollutants in the soil were decreased below the permissible levels for soil of such type. At the same time, the chemical composition, structure and main physical and water properties of the soil were altered to a small extent, regardless of the fact that its pH was decreased to about 3.5. The addition of lime to the treated soil increased this pH to about 5.5 and in this way prevented the further acidification of the soil and the generation of acid drainage after rainfall. It must be noted that the removal of contaminants from the control heap was negligible, even after a period of about three years.

  15. Heavy Metal Pollution of Chari River Water during the Crossing of N’Djamena (Chad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N’garam Nambatingar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to identify and assess the water quality of the Chari River. The Chari, 1200 km long, is Chad’s major water source. Municipal sewage, industrial wastewater discharge, and seasonal run-off from agriculture are regularly fed into the river. Several trace metals such as Cu, Zn, Fe, Ni, Cr, Mn, and Cd, were measured in different sampling stations located along the Chari River at N’Djamena in different campaigns from 2008 to 2010. Overall, manganese, zinc, chromium, and copper concentration levels were mainly in the range of the permissible limits prescribed by WHO guidelines (WHO 2011. Nickel, iron, and cadmium concentrations were still high. This preliminary study allowed us to identify the magnitude of toxic pollutants, which are responsible for Chari River water contamination in the study area. This study revealed that urgent measures must be taken to protect the local people from health problems resulting from high concentrations of heavy metals.

  16. Contribution of GIS to evaluate surface water pollution by heavy metals: Case of Ichkeul Lake (Northern Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazidi, Amira; Saidi, Salwa; Ben Mbarek, Nabiha; Darragi, Fadila

    2017-10-01

    The concentrations of nutrients and heavy elements in the surface water of the lake Ichkeul, main wadis which feed directly and thermal springs that flow into the lake, are measured to evaluate these chemical elements. There are used to highlight the interactions between these different aquatic compartments of Ichkeul. All metal concentrations in lake water, except Cu, were lower than the maximum permitted concentration for the protection of aquatic life. The results show that the highest concentrations are located in the eastern and south-eastern part of the lake where the polluted water comes from the lagoon of Bizerte through the wadi Tinja as well as from the city of Mateur through the wadi Joumine. The pollution indices and especially the heavy metal evaluation index (HEI) show high pollution specially located at the mouths of wadis and an increase of heavy metal concentrations, as a result of uncontrolled releases of domestic and industrial wastewater.

  17. Using ensemble models to identify and apportion heavy metal pollution sources in agricultural soils on a local scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Xie, Zhiyi; Li, Fangbai

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to identify and apportion multi-source and multi-phase heavy metal pollution from natural and anthropogenic inputs using ensemble models that include stochastic gradient boosting (SGB) and random forest (RF) in agricultural soils on the local scale. The heavy metal pollution sources were quantitatively assessed, and the results illustrated the suitability of the ensemble models for the assessment of multi-source and multi-phase heavy metal pollution in agricultural soils on the local scale. The results of SGB and RF consistently demonstrated that anthropogenic sources contributed the most to the concentrations of Pb and Cd in agricultural soils in the study region and that SGB performed better than RF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pollution by Arsenic, Mercury and other Heavy Metals in Sunchulli mining district of Apolobamba (Bolivia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terán Mita, Tania; Faz Cano, Angel; Muñoz, Maria Angeles; Millán Gómez, Rocio; Chincheros Paniagua, Jaime

    2010-05-01

    In Bolivia, metal mining activities since historical times have been one of the most important sources of environmental pollution. This is the case of the National Area of Apolobamba Integrated Management (ANMIN of Apolobamba) in La Paz, Bolivia, where intense gold mining activities have been carried out from former times to the present, with very little gold extraction and very primitive mineral processing technology; in fact, mercury is still being used in the amalgam processes of the gold concentration, which is burned outdoors to recover the gold. Sunchullí is a representative mining district in ANMIN of Apolobamba where mining activity is mainly gold extraction and its water effluents go to the Amazonian basin; in this mining district the productivity of extracted mineral is very low but the processes can result in heavy-metal contamination of the air, water, soils and plants. Due to its high toxicity, the contamination by arsenic and mercury create the most critical environmental problems. In addition, some other heavy metals may also be present such as lead, copper, zinc and cadmium. These heavy metals could be incorporated in the trophic chain, through the flora and the fauna, in their bio-available and soluble forms. Inhabitants of this area consume foodcrops, fish from lakes and rivers and use the waters for the livestock, domestic use, and irrigation. The aim of this work was to evaluate the heavy metals pollution by gold mining activities in Sunchullí area. In Sunchullí two representative zones were distinguished and sampled. Zone near the mining operation site was considered as affected by mineral extraction processes, while far away zones represented the non affected ones by the mining operation. In each zone, 3 plots were established; in each plot, 3 soil sampling points were selected in a random manner and analysed separately. In each sampling point, two samples were taken, one at the surface, from 0-5 cm depth (topsoil), and the other between 5

  19. Assessment of heavy metal pollution risks in Yonki Reservoir environmental matrices affected by gold mining activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapia, Samuel; Rao, B K Rajashekhar; Sakulas, Harry

    2016-10-01

    This study reports the heavy metal (Hg, Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb) contamination risks to and safety of two species of fresh water fish (tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus and carp, Cyprinus carpio) that are farmed in the Yonki Reservoir in the Eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea (PNG). The upper reaches of the reservoir are affected by alluvial and large-scale gold mining activities. We also assessed heavy metal levels in the surface waters and sediments and in selected aquatic plant species from the reservoir and streams that intersect the gold mining areas. The water quality was acceptable, except for the Cr concentration, which exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) standard for water contamination. The sediments were contaminated with Cd and Cu in most of the sampling stations along the upstream waters and the reservoir. The Cd concentration in the sediments exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency's Sediment Quality Guideline (SQG) values, and the geoaccumulation index (Igeo) values indicated heavy to extreme pollution. In addition, the Cd, Cu, and Pb concentrations in aquatic plants exceeded the WHO guidelines for these contaminants. Between the fish species, tilapia accumulated significantly higher (P < 0.05) Cu in their organ tissues than carp, confirming the bioaccumulation of some metals in the aquatic fauna. The edible muscles of the fish specimens had metal concentrations below the maximum permissible levels established by statutory guidelines. In addition, a human health risk assessment, performed using the estimated weekly intake (EWI) values, indicated that farmed fish from the Yonki Reservoir are safe for human consumption.

  20. Heavy metal pollution decreases microbial abundance, diversity and activity within particle-size fractions of a paddy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junhui; He, Feng; Zhang, Xuhui; Sun, Xuan; Zheng, Jufeng; Zheng, Jinwei

    2014-01-01

    Chemical and microbial characterisations of particle-size fractions (PSFs) from a rice paddy soil subjected to long-term heavy metal pollution (P) and nonpolluted (NP) soil were performed to investigate whether the distribution of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) regulates microbial community activity, abundance and diversity at the microenvironment scale. The soils were physically fractionated into coarse sand, fine sand, silt and clay fractions. Long-term heavy metal pollution notably decreased soil basal respiration (a measurement of the total activity of the soil microbial community) and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) across the fractions by 3-45% and 21-53%, respectively. The coarse sand fraction was more affected by pollution than the clay fraction and displayed a significantly lower MBC content and respiration and dehydrogenase activity compared with the nonpolluted soils. The abundances and diversities of bacteria were less affected within the PSFs under pollution. However, significant decreases in the abundances and diversities of fungi were noted, which may have strongly contributed to the decrease in MBC. Sequencing of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis bands revealed that the groups Acidobacteria, Ascomycota and Chytridiomycota were clearly inhibited under pollution. Our findings suggest that long-term heavy metal pollution decreased the microbial biomass, activity and diversity in PSFs, particularly in the large-size fractions. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Heavy Metal Pollution of Indian River and Its Biomagnifications In the Molluscs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanindhar Shreedhar Gaikwad; Nitin Anandrao Kamble

    2014-01-01

    .... However, amongst these aquatic contaminants, heavy metals are of major concern. So, present investigation was carried out in order to assess the exact level of heavy contaminants and its impact over the aquatic creatures...

  2. Modeling and evaluation of urban pollution events of atmospheric heavy metals from a large Cu-smelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bing; Stein, Ariel F; Castell, Nuria; Gonzalez-Castanedo, Yolanda; Sanchez de la Campa, A M; de la Rosa, J D

    2016-01-01

    Metal smelting and processing are highly polluting activities that have a strong influence on the levels of heavy metals in air, soil, and crops. We employ an atmospheric transport and dispersion model to predict the pollution levels originated from the second largest Cu-smelter in Europe. The model predicts that the concentrations of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and arsenic (As) in an urban area close to the Cu-smelter can reach 170, 70, and 30 ng m−3, respectively. The model captures all the observed urban pollution events, but the magnitude of the elemental concentrations is predicted to be lower than that of the observed values; ~300, ~500, and ~100 ng m−3 for Cu, Zn, and As, respectively. The comparison between model and observations showed an average correlation coefficient of 0.62 ± 0.13. The simulation shows that the transport of heavy metals reaches a peak in the afternoon over the urban area. The under-prediction in the peak is explained by the simulated stronger winds compared with monitoring data. The stronger simulated winds enhance the transport and dispersion of heavy metals to the regional area, diminishing the impact of pollution events in the urban area. This model, driven by high resolution meteorology (2 km in horizontal), predicts the hourly-interval evolutions of atmospheric heavy metal pollutions in the close by urban area of industrial hotspot.

  3. Comparison of soil heavy metal pollution caused by e-waste recycling activities and traditional industrial operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kailing; Sun, Zehang; Hu, Yuanan; Zeng, Xiangying; Yu, Zhiqiang; Cheng, Hefa

    2017-04-01

    The traditional industrial operations are well recognized as an important source of heavy metal pollution, while that caused by the e-waste recycling activities, which have sprouted in some developing countries, is often overlooked. This study was carried out to compare the status of soil heavy metal pollution caused by the traditional industrial operations and the e-waste recycling activities in the Pearl River Delta, and assess whether greater attention should be paid to control the pollution arising from e-waste recycling activities. Both the total contents and the chemical fractionation of major heavy metals (As, Cr, Cd, Ni, Pb, Cu, and Zn) in 50 surface soil samples collected from the e-waste recycling areas and 20 soil samples from the traditional industrial zones were determined. The results show that the soils in the e-waste recycling areas were mainly polluted by Cu, Zn, As, and Cd, while Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb were the major heavy metals in the soils from the traditional industrial zones. Statistical analyses consistently show that Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn in the surface soils from both types of sites were contributed mostly by human activities, while As, Cr, and Ni in the soils were dominated by natural background. No clear distinction was found on the pollution characteristic of heavy metals in the surface soils between the e-waste recycling areas and traditional industrial zones. The potential ecological risk posed by heavy metals in the surface soils from both types of sites, which was dominated by that from Cd, ranged from low to moderate. Given the much shorter development history of e-waste recycling and its largely unregulated nature, significant efforts should be made to crack down on illegal e-waste recycling and strengthen pollution control for related activities.

  4. Plankton as an indicator of heavy metal pollution in a freshwater reservoir of Madhya Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Neetu; Biswas, A K; Raju, C B

    2013-06-01

    Halali Reservoir is an important freshwater body of Madhya Pradesh. The water of the reservoir is used for drinking, irrigation and aquaculture practices. It receives untreated sewage, wastes from small scale industries and agricultural runoff from the catchment area. Various heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) levels were measured in plankton of Halali Reservoir during 2006-2007 by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. Mean concentration ranges for Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were 0.0018-0.0037, 0.0038-0.2257, 0.0013-0.0228, 0.0011-0.0086, 0.0133-0.0494 and 0.0130-0.1168 μg g⁻¹, respectively. Overall, mean Cr concentrations in the plankton were generally the highest of the six metals at four of the five study sites. Metal concentrations at these four sites generally followed the order: Cr > Zn > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cd. Mean concentrations of all metals at a fifth site were consistently lower than at the other sites. The high levels of Cr in the plankton are in agreement with high Cr levels that have been reported in fish from this reservoir, indicating that plankton may serve as a useful indicator of metal pollution in fish.

  5. Heavy Metal Pollution from Gold Mines: Environmental Effects and Bacterial Strategies for Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Muibat Omotola Fashola; Veronica Mpode Ngole-Jeme; Olubukola Oluranti Babalola

    2016-01-01

    Mining activities can lead to the generation of large quantities of heavy metal laden wastes which are released in an uncontrolled manner, causing widespread contamination of the ecosystem. Though some heavy metals classified as essential are important for normal life physiological processes, higher concentrations above stipulated levels have deleterious effects on human health and biota. Bacteria able to withstand high concentrations of these heavy metals are found in the environment as a re...

  6. A review of heavy metal pollution levels and health risk assessment of urban soils in Chinese cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Libo; Wang, Yue; Ma, Jin; Hu, Yu; Su, Benying; Fang, Guangling; Wang, Lei; Xiang, Bao

    2017-11-13

    This study assessed literature-based data for the period 2006-2016 regarding heavy metal (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, Zn, and Hg) concentrations in soils from 32 Chinese cities and the associated human health risks. The mean concentrations of the eight metals were lower than the soil environmental quality standards in China, but were much higher than the background values for most cities. The enrichment factor (EF) and geoaccumulation index (I geo) values showed moderate pollution levels, possibly influenced by anthropogenic activity for Cd, Hg, Pb, and Zn. The pollution levels in eastern cities were much higher than those in western cities, and heavy metals concentrations in different types of cities followed the order: industrial based cities > more developed cities > metropoles > underdeveloped cities. The human health risk assessment for heavy metals in most cities indicated that non-carcinogenic risks were within threshold values (HI urban areas was in excess of 1 × 10(-5), but was lower than 1 × 10(-4). However, in some cities (e.g., Baoji City, Tiyuan City, and Xuzhou City), Ni and Cr have potential cancer risks for both adults and children. Compared to adults, children could be more seriously threatened by heavy metal contamination in soils. In general, we recommend that Cd, Hg, and Pb are selected as priority heavy metals pollutants that require control in Chinese cities.

  7. Environmental risk of heavy metal pollution and contamination sources using multivariate analysis in the soils of Varanasi environs, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shubhra; Raju, N Janardhana; Nazneen, Sadaf

    2015-06-01

    This study assessed soil pollution in the Varanasi environs of Uttar Pradesh in India. Assessing the concentration of potentially harmful heavy metals in the soils is imperative in order to evaluate the potential risks to human. To identify the concentration and sources of heavy metals and assess the soil environmental quality, 23 samples were collected from different locations covering dumping, road and agricultural area. The average concentrations of the heavy metals were all below the permissible limits according to soil quality guidelines except Cu (copper) and Pb (lead) in dumping and road soils. Soil heavy metal contamination was assessed on the basis of geoaccumulation index (Igeo), pollution index (PI) and integrated pollution index (IPI). The IPI of the metals ranged from 0.59 to 9.94, with the highest IPI observed in the dumping and road soils. A very significant correlation was found between Pb and Cu. The result of principal component analysis suggested that PC1 was mainly affected by the use of agrochemicals, PC2 was affected by vehicular emission and PC3 was affected by dumping waste. Meanwhile, PC4 was mainly controlled by parent material along with anthropogenic activities. Appropriate measures should be taken to minimize the heavy metal levels in soils and thus protect human health.

  8. Comparative assessment of button cells using a normalized index for potential pollution by heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Merino, Luis, E-mail: l.moreno@igme.es [Geological Survey of Spain, Environmental Geology Research Group, C/ Ríos Rosas 23, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Jiménez-Hernández, Maria Emilia; Losa, Almudena de la [Geological Survey of Spain, Environmental Geology Research Group, C/ Ríos Rosas 23, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Huerta-Muñoz, Virginia [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Departamento de Geodinámica Externa, C/ José Antonio Novais, 12, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-09-01

    Many household batteries worldwide still end up in landfills or are incinerated due to inefficient collection and recycling schemes. Toxic heavy metals from improperly discarded button cells pose a serious risk to human health and the environment, as they can pollute air, soil and water. This paper analyses a series of button cells selected from batteries available on the retail market, and compares their polluting potential. A total of 64 batteries were subjected to chemical analyses of 19 elements — including metals and metalloids — , and energy density measurements. The samples were from four different brands of each of the four most common button cell technologies (alkaline, zinc-air, silver oxide and lithium). An energy-normalized index — the Weighted Potential Pollution Index (WPPI) — was proposed to compare the polluting potential of the different batteries. The higher the battery WPPI score, the greater the content in toxic elements and the lower the energy output. The results of the chemical composition and energy density varied depending on the construction technology of the button cells. However, significant differences in both variables were also found when comparing different brands within the same technology. The differences in WPPI values confirmed the existence of a significant margin to reduce the environmental impact of discarded button cells simply by avoiding the most polluting options. The choice of the battery with the most favourable WPPI produced a reduction in potential pollution of 3–53% for silver oxide batteries, 4–39% for alkaline, 20–28% for zinc-air and 12–26% for lithium. Comparative potential pollution could be assessed when selecting batteries using an energy-normalized index such as WPPI to reduce the environmental impact of improperly disposed button cells. - Highlights: • We compare the polluting potential of button cells using an energy-normalized index. • This battery index considers both chemical

  9. Meta-Analysis of the Copper, Zinc, and Cadmium Absorption Capacities of Aquatic Plants in Heavy Metal-Polluted Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Yu, Haixin; Luan, Yaning

    2015-11-26

    The use of aquatic plants for phytoremediation is an important method for restoring polluted ecosystems. We sought to analyze the capacity of different aquatic plant species to absorb heavy metals and to summarize available relevant scientific data on this topic. We present a meta-analysis of Cu, Zn, and Cd absorption capacities of aquatic plants to provide a scientific basis for the selection of aquatic plants suitable for remediation of heavy-metal pollution. Plants from the Gramineae, Pontederiaceae, Ceratophyllaceae, Typhaceae and Haloragaceae showed relatively strong abilities to absorb these metals. The ability of a particular plant species to absorb a given metal was strongly correlated with its ability to absorb the other metals. However, the absorption abilities varied with the plant organ, with the following trend: roots > stems > leaves. The pH of the water and the life habits of aquatic plants (submerged and emerged) also affect the plant's ability to absorb elements. Acidic water aids the uptake of heavy metals by plants. The correlation observed between element concentrations in plants with different aquatic life habits suggested that the enrichment mechanism is related to the surface area of the plant exposed to water. We argue that this meta-analysis would aid the selection of aquatic plants suitable for heavy-metal absorption from polluted waters.

  10. Stepwise magnetic-geochemical approach for efficient assessment of heavy metal polluted sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, E.; Rösler, W.; Ojha, G.

    2012-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that magnetometry can outline the distribution of fly ash deposition in the surroundings of coal-burning power plants and steel industries. Especially the easy-to-measure magnetic susceptibility (MS) is capable to act as a proxy for heavy metal (HM) pollution caused by such kind of point source pollution. Here we present a demonstration project around the coal-burning power plant complex "Schwarze Pumpe" in eastern Germany. Before reunification of West and East Germany huge amounts of HM pollutants were emitted from the "Schwarze Pumpe" into the environment by both fly ash emission and dumped clinker. The project has been conducted as part of the TASK Centre of Competence which aims at bringing new innovative techniques closer to the market. Our project combines in situ and laboratory MS measurements and HM analyses in order to demonstrate the efficiency of a stepwise approach for site assessment of HM pollution around point sources of fly-ash emission and deposition into soil. The following scenario is played through: We assume that the "true" spatial distribution of HM pollution (given by the pollution load index PLI comprising Fe, Zn, Pb, and Cu) is represented by our entire set of 85 measured samples (XRF analyses) from forest sites around the "Schwarze Pumpe". Surface MS data (collected with a Bartington MS2D) and in situ vertical MS sections (logged by an SM400 instrument) are used to determine a qualitative overview of potentially higher and lower polluted areas. A suite of spatial HM distribution maps obtained by random selections of 30 out of the 85 analysed sites is compared to the HM map obtained from a targeted 30-sites-selection based on pre-information from the MS results. The PLI distribution map obtained from the targeted 30-sites-selection shows all essential details of the "true" pollution map, while the different random 30-sites-selections miss important features. This comparison shows that, for the same cost

  11. The emissions of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants from modern coal-fired power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meij, Ruud; te Winkel, Henk

    Extensive research for establishing the emissions of heavy metals from coal-fired power stations is performed in the Netherlands for the past 25 years. In the Netherlands coal is fired from all over the world. This means that the emissions are established for coal of various origins. In the eighties, the emissions of installations equipped with ESPs (electrostatic precipitators) were measured. In the nineties, the influence of wet FGD (flue gas desulphurisation) on the emissions was studied. The effect of co-combustion of biomass and other secondary fuels is the main item for the last 10 years. Fifty-five elements were measured in the solid state and eight elements in the gaseous phase. It appeared that at low particulate concentration the influence of calcium containing evaporated water droplets downstream the wet FGD on the emissions of heavy metals is bigger than the composition of the coal. Also it appeared that at modern coal-fired power stations the emissions are hardly influenced by co-combustion of biomass. All the results are used for modelling, resulting in the KEMA TRACE MODEL ®, by which the emissions can be predicted. The established emission factors are for most elements in good agreement with literature values for comparable modern installations. Persistence organic pollutants (POPs) that were detected in the flue gases of coal-fired power stations are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and dioxins/furans. Measurements during full coal-firing and during co-firing of biomass have indicated that these emissions are negligible.

  12. Assessing pollution in Izmir Bay from rivers in western Turkey: heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinci, Gorkem; Guven, Duyusen E; Ugurlu, Sanem Keles

    2013-12-01

    Urban rivers having different catchment areas and properties are investigated in order to infer their heavy metal contribution to the Izmir Inner Bay. The concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the waters and sediments of these rivers were measured and compared with the limit values given in the Sediment Quality Guidelines and Screening Quick Reference Tables (SQuiRTs). Metal concentrations in the sediments were determined to be between 0.5 and 3.5 mg kg(-1), 10 to 221.5 mg kg(-1), 28 to 153.5 mg kg(-1), 13 to 103.5 mg kg(-1), 31.5 to 157 mg kg(-1), and 124 to 1065.5 mg kg(-1) for Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn, respectively. Higher metal concentrations in river waters were observed in rainy seasons, and Cu and Zn were frequently found above the critical limits. The correlations between the concentrations in waters, sediments, and wash off fluxes of the river catchments were statistically investigated and evaluated. Strong correlations between Ni-Cr (r = 0.618, p pollution, which influences the whole city, may be the major source of these metals.

  13. [Pollution characteristics of heavy metals in sludge from wastewater treatment plants and sludge disposal in Chinese coastal areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Can; Chen, Hong; Yu, Yi-Xuan; Wang, Li-Jun; Han, Jian-Bo; Tao, Ping

    2013-04-01

    Thirteen sludge samples from Guangzhou, Shanghai and Dalian were collected and analysed for heavy metals to investigate the distribution and variation trend of heavy metals in sludge from wastewater treatment plants in Chinese coastal areas. The results showed that contents of heavy metals in sludge varied significantly, and the average contents exhibited an order of Cr > Zn > Cu > Pb > As > Hg > Cd. Additionally, contents of Cr, Cu and As exceeded their corresponding standard levels. Compared with contents of heavy metals in 2006 and 2001, content of Zn in sludge increased while contents of Cr, Cu and As decreased. Results also indicated that the industrial sludge was more seriously polluted than domestic sludge in terms of Zn, Cu and As. Only 23% sludge samples exceeded the standards for fertilization of sludge, suggesting that most of the sludge could be disposed by land application. These results also provide further information about the establishment of ocean disposal assessment for sludge.

  14. GROWTH RESPONSE OF THE DUCKWEED LEMNA MINOR TO HEAVY METAL POLLUTION

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    N. Khellaf ، M. Zerdaoui

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available To assess the tolerance and effect of heavy metals pollution on the duckweed Lemna minor, the aquatic plants were exposed to different concentrations of copper (Cu, nickel (Ni, cadmium (Cd and zinc (Zn in a quarter Coïc and Lessaint solution at pH = 6.1 (± 0.1 and under a daily regime of 16 h light (101 μmol/m2.s1. Copper at 0.2 mg/L and nickel at 0.5 mg/L promoted the growth of Lemna fronds. At higher concentrations, Cu and Ni inhibited the growth of duckweed; the EC50 (concentration causing 50% inhibition were 0.47 mg/L for Cu and 1.29 mg/L for Ni. Cadmium and zinc decreased by 50% the growth of fronds when the medium contained respectively 0.64 and 5.64 mg/L (EC50. Duckweed tolerated Cu, Ni, Cd and Zn at concentrations of 0.4, 3.0, 0.4 and 15.0 mg/L respectively without showing any visible signs of toxicity (chlorosis, frond disconnection and necrosis. On the basis of visible symptoms and the EC50 values, the toxicity of the metals on Lemna. minor was in decreasing order of damage: Cu > Cd > Ni > Zn. It was concluded that the duckweed Lemna. minor is very sensitive to copper and cadmium pollution.

  15. Forewing structure of the solitary bee Osmia bicornis developing on heavy metal pollution gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szentgyörgyi, Hajnalka; Moroń, Dawid; Nawrocka, Anna; Tofilski, Adam; Woyciechowski, Michał

    2017-10-01

    Wild bees in natural conditions can develop under various environmental stressors. Heavy metal pollution of the environment is one of the most widely studied stressors in insects, yet its effect is poorly described in bees. We have measured how pollution of the environment along a zinc, cadmium and lead contamination gradient in Poland affects bee development, using red mason bees (Osmia bicornis) as a model and their forewing asymmetry measures to assess possible developmental instabilities. We have also described wing asymmetry measures in the red mason bee-an important managed pollinator species-for the first time. The development of bee larvae in a contaminated environment did not affect forewing asymmetry measures, but it did lead to a negative correlation of wing size with contamination in females. Bees also showed a clear change in their asymmetry measures between various seasons, suggesting other, unknown environmental factors affecting wing asymmetry more than pollution. Sexes were found to have different forewing shape and size, larger females having larger forewings than the smaller males. The direction of size asymmetry was in favour of the left side in both sexes and also shape differences between the left and right wings showed similar tendencies in males and females. The levels of forewing shape and size asymmetry were smaller in females, making them the more symmetrical sex.

  16. Assessment of marine pollution in Izmir Bay: nutrient, heavy metal and total hydrocarbon concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucuksezgin, F; Kontas, A; Altay, O; Uluturhan, E; Darilmaz, E

    2006-01-01

    , in Izmir Bay. Heavy metal levels were lower than the results in fish tissues reported from polluted areas of the Mediterranean Sea.

  17. [Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution and its Health Risk of Surface Dusts from Parks of Kaifeng, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Hai-jing; Cai, Xiao-qiang; Ruan, Xin-ling; Tong, Zhi-qi; Ma, Jian-hua

    2015-08-01

    Fifty-two dust samples were collected from four parks [Longting Park (P(L)), Tieta Park (P(T)), Qingmingshanghe Park (P(Q)), Xiangguosi Park (P(X))] located in Kaifeng City, China. Concentrations of Hg and As in dusts were measured by atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS), while Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni and Cd were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS). The heavy metal pollution of dust was assessed using Geo-accumulation index (Igeo) and pollution load index (PLI). The health risk due to exposure to heavy metals in dust was assessed using the model recommended by USEPA. The non-carcinogen (HI) and carcinogen health risks (TCR) were also calculated to evaluate the potential risks to adults. The results showed that the average contents of Hg, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb were much higher than those in control samples and the background values of fluvo-aquic soil in China. The samples were seriously polluted by Hg and Pb, besides, there was.moderate pollution, slight pollution of Cu and Zn, and no pollution of As, Cr and Ni. The PLI from the 4 Parks indicated that there was serious heavy metals pollution of dust in P(X), moderate pollution in P%, and slight pollution in P(T) and P(Q). The average HI of heavy metals in the four Parks was lower than one. The average HI decreased in the order of P(L) > P(X), > P(T) > P(Q), while the average TCR decreased in the order of P(L) > P(Q) > P(x) > P(T). The contribution rate of HQ(As) to HI was about 43.51% , and that of CR(As) to TCR was about 70.11%.

  18. [Speciation and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Surface Sediments from the Heavily Polluted Area of Xiaoqing River].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Li, Yong-xia; Gao, Fu-wei; Xu, Min-min; Sun, Bo; Wang, Ning; Yang, Jian

    2015-06-01

    Th concentrations of Cu, As, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, Ni in interstitial water were analyzed by ICP-MS from the heavily polluted area of Xiaoqing River. A modified BCR's sequential extraction procedure was used to investigate the fraction of the heavy metals in the surface sediments. The aquatic toxicity of heavy metals in interstitial water was assessed by US Water Quality Criteria (CCC, CMC). Based on the speciation of the metals in the surface sediments, the ecological risk of heavy metals was assessed with methods of risk assessment code (RAC) and potential ecological risk index. The results showed that: The tested heavy metals would not pose chronic toxicity for aquatic ecosystem. The contents of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, Ni) in the surface sediments were higher than the background values of the local soils, indicating enrichment of heavy metals. Cu, As and Ni were mainly composed with residual fractions, Pb and Cr were mainly constituted of residual and oxidizable fractions, and mass fractions of Zn and Cd existed mainly in acid soluble and reducible factions. The contents of bio-available fractions of Cd, Zn, Cr and Pb in the sediments were higher those of residual fractions, indicating high potential for secondary release. Based on calculation of RAC method, Cu, Pb, Cr and As posed extremely low to low risk to the environment. Accordingly, Ni was of low to medium risk, Cd was of medium to high risk, and Zn was of medium to extremely high risk to the environment. The potential ecological risk of heavy metals in the sediments was in the descending order of Cd > Zn > Ni > As > Cu > Cr > Pb. Cd had high to very high potential ecological risk comparing with the other heavy metals. The potential ecological risk indexes (RI) of the heavy metals in the sediments were in the range of 136.83-264.83, and posed medium to high potential ecological risks for Xiaoqing River.

  19. Groundwater pollution with heavy metals in the Ibar alluvium near Raška (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović Branko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the operation of an ore flotation facility at Donja Rudnica near Raška, Serbia, during the period from 1972 to 2002, flotation tailings and wastewater of highly complex chemical compositions were deposited in the alluvial plain of the Ibar River. Due to the excellent groundwater flow characteristics of the alluvial formations underlying the tailings dump, the groundwater and soil over an extended area were continually polluted. High concentrations of heavy metals (Fe = 7.38 mg/L. Zn = 4.04 mg/L, Pb = 2.17 mg/L in the soil and concentrations of sulfate as high as 3709 mg/L, and pH levels of 4.2 in the groundwater have been recorded at some locations. This paper draws attention to the potential risk this site poses for the conservation of biodiversity over the extended area.

  20. Concentrations of heavy metals in hair as indicators of environmental pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baran A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Over 80 hair samples were collected from 38% males and 62% females in Krakow, Poland. The hairs sampled for the analysis were washed in the water-acetone-water arrangement (three times. Subsequently the hair samples were wet mineralized in a closed system HNO3:H2O2 (6:1 in a microwave furnace. Concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cd were assessed by means of ICP-OES method. Obtained results of analysis of heavy metal concentrations in the hair of tested population of Krakow inhabitants evidence environmental hazard (beside professional hazardWe observed that the hair of females showed higher levels of zinc and cadmium. Hair analysis allows for an assessment of the natural environment contamination, which is particularly important for the research on populations inhabiting areas with different degree of pollution.

  1. The Extent of Heavy Metal Pollution and Their Potential Health Risk in Topsoils of the Massively Urbanized District of Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffar, Syed Taseer Abbas; Luo, Fan; Ye, Rong; Younas, Hassan; Hu, Xue-Feng; Chen, Long-Zhu

    2017-10-01

    Urbanization and industrialization increase the concentrations of heavy metals in soils, which affect human health. A total of 127 topsoil samples were collected from the massively urbanized and industrialized district of Shanghai: Baoshan District. The sampling sites were isolated based on the land-use practice: industrial area, roadside area, residential area, and agricultural area. The absolute concentrations of heavy metals (Zn, Cr, Ni, Mn, Cu, Pb, and Cd) were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry and compared with Shanghai and the National soil background values. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo) and Nemerow pollution index were used to determine the existence and severity of the pollution of heavy metals. Enrichment factor (EF) analysis, spatial variability of pollution, and multivariate statistical analyses also were employed to determine the anthropogenic loading of heavy metals, their spatial dependency, and correlation among their sources, respectively. Moreover, potential ecological risk and human health risk [carcinogenic risk (RI) and noncarcinogenic hazard (HI)] were evaluated. The average concentration of all the metals (accounted as 229, 128, 56, 719, 55, 119, and 0.3 mg kg-1 for Zn, Cr, Ni, Mn, Cu, Pb, and Cd, respectively) was many folds higher than the background values. The indices depicted that the pollution exists in all the sites and severity decreases in the following order: industrial soils > roadside soil > residential soils > agricultural soils. However, Zn, Pb, and Cd showed high levels of pollution in all the soils. The EF values suggested that the majority of heavy metals are anthropogenically loaded; spatial variability showed that the pollution is more concentrated in Songnan town; Pearson's correlation, principal component analysis (PCA), and cluster analysis suggested different sources of origin for the majority of the heavy metals. RI of Cr and Pb ranged between 2.8E-04 and 2.7E-07. However, HI was site

  2. Hydrocarbon Pollution and Potential Ecological Risk of Heavy Metals in the Sediments of the Oturuba Creek, Niger Delta, Nigeria

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    Ezekwe Clinton Ifeanyichukwu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at examining the impact of oil pollution from artisanal oil refineries on the Oturuba river ecosystem using active river bottom sediment. Specific objectives included to determine the level of hydrocarbons and trace metals (Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, V and Mg in the sediments and to relate this with general ecosystem health. The study found elevated concentrations of both hydrocarbons and heavy metals in the range above most sediment quality guidelines exceeding the respective Threshold Effects Level and Probable Effects. Level guideline values and occurring at levels where impairment to biological communities is certain an d where toxicity levels can lead to negative impacts on benthic animals or infaunal communities. Heavy metal geochemical accumulation index and potential ecological risk analysis also returned anomalously high concentrations in the range of very highly polluted sediment environments with very high ecological risk indices, thereby ranking the Oturuba Creek as one of the most polluted coastal river systems in the world.

  3. Enhancing cleanup of heavy metal-polluted landfill soils and improving soil microbial activity using green technology with ferrous sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landfills have led to some of the most intense battles over pollution that has ever been seen. With the population skyrocketing worldwide, these landfills will only become more of a public issue as time goes on. Heavy metals from several sources especially in landfills are an increasingly urgent pro...

  4. Oyster condition index in Crassostrea rhizophorae (Guilding, 1828 from a heavy-metal polluted coastal lagoon

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    M. F. Rebelo

    Full Text Available The condition index (CI of oysters represents an ecophysiological approach to estimate meat quality and yield in cultured bivalve mollusks. In the present study, the CI of oysters from a heavy-metal polluted bay was analyzed with respect to Zn and Cd contamination in soft tissues, spawning, and polychaete infestation. The CI was calculated through a new technique based on molds made to measure the volume of oyster-shell internal cavities. The higher CI values (over 9 in the dry season were probably related availability of suspended particles rich in organic matter in the bay, while the rapid reduction in the CI from one season to the next at some stations suggests the effect of spawning. Polychaete infestation was considered low (18.7% and produced no clear CI effects. The Cd in the oyster tissue collected during the rainy season was weak, although still significantly correlated with the CI (r = -0.36; p < 0.05. All other comparisons of CI and metal concentrations demonstrated a non-significant correlation. The CI variations observed on the temporal and spatial scale were likely to have been caused by availability of organic matter and spawning, rather than spionid infestation or metal body burdens.

  5. Laboratory tests for the phytoextraction of heavy metals from polluted harbor sediments using aquatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mânzatu, Carmen; Nagy, Boldizsár; Ceccarini, Alessio; Iannelli, Renato; Giannarelli, Stefania; Majdik, Cornelia

    2015-12-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations and pollution levels of heavy metals, organochlorine pesticides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in marine sediments from the Leghorn Harbor (Italy) on the Mediterranean Sea. The phytoextraction capacity of three aquatic plants Salvinia natans, Vallisneria spiralis, and Cabomba aquatica was also tested in the removal of lead and copper, present in high concentration in these sediments. The average detectable concentrations of metals accumulated by the plants in the studied area were as follows: >3.328 ± 0.032 mg/kg dry weight (DW) of Pb and 2.641 ± 0.014 mg/kg DW of Cu for S. natans, >3.107 ± 0.034 g/kg DW for V. spiralis, and >2.400 ± 0.029 mg/kg DW for C. aquatica. The occurrence of pesticides was also analyzed in the sediment sample by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Due to its metal and organic compound accumulation patterns, S. natans is a potential candidate in phytoextraction strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Input of heavy metals to the forest floor as a result of Cracow urban pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicka-Kapusta, Katarzyna; Zakrzewska, Marta; Bajorek, Katarzyna; Gdula-Argasińska, Joanna

    2003-03-01

    The influence of Cracow's urban pollution on small forest ecosystems was studied during 1998-2000. Seven sites located at different distances from the Cracow conurbation and from busy road were selected. Two sites were situated 26 and 31 km from Cracow town along an eastern transect, the other five-3, 8, 14, 26 and 35 km respectively, from Cracow-along a southern transect. At the beginning of September, five litter traps were set at each site. The quantity of litter fall, along with percentage composition of each species, were estimated for an area of 1 m(2). The concentration of Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn and Fe in the litter fall and the input of these metals to the forest floor were determined. The input of cadmium ranged from 84 microg m(-2) at Kornatka in 1998 to 382 microg m(-2) at Bonarka in 2000. The input of lead was about 10 times higher than cadmium and varied from 406 microg m(-2) at Weglówka in 1998 to 3717 microg m(-2) at Bonarka in 2000. Input of Cu, Zn and Fe to the forest floor showed the similar tendency. During 1998-2000, the highest heavy metal concentrations in the litter fall and their impact on the forest floor were always found at sites close to the Cracow conurbation and, in the eastern transect, close to a steel works. Input of metals to the forest floor tended to decrease with increasing distance from the centre of Cracow.

  7. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in Córdoba (Spain) by biomonitoring foraging honeybee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Miriam; Molero, Rafael; Gaju, Miquel; van der Steen, Josef; Porrini, Claudio; Ruiz, José Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Due to features that make them outstanding environmental bioindicator, colonies of Apis mellifera are being used to study environmental pollution. The primary objective of this research was to use honeybee colonies to identify heavy metals and determine their utility for environmental management. Five stations each with two A. mellifera hives were strategically located in urban, industrial, agricultural and forested areas within the municipality of Córdoba (Spain), and foraging bees were collected from April to December in 2007, 2009 and 2010 to analyse spatial and temporal variation in Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd pollution. Metal concentrations, in milligram per kilogram of honeybee, were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Significant differences in concentrations were found among the various locations and periods. The highest number of values exceeding the upper reference thresholds proposed for this study (Pb, 0.7 mg/kg; Cr, 0.12 mg/kg; Ni, 0.3 mg/kg; and Cd, 0.1 mg/kg) was observed for Pb and Cr (6.25% respectively), station S4 (13.22%), year 2007 (20.83%) and in months of May and July (11.90% each). Regarding the Cd, which was analysed only in 2010, the highest number of values exceeding the upper reference thresholds was 40%. Biomonitoring with colonies of A. mellifera could contribute to improved surveillance and control systems for atmospheric pollution by integrating qualitative and quantitative assessments, thus facilitating prevention and readiness in the event of environmental crises.

  8. Pollution by heavy metals in the Moche River Basin, 1980 - 2010, La Libertad - Peru

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    Félix Huaranga Moreno

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The pollution of the continental waters is a problem at a world scale, mainly due to the impact of the mining tailings. Using top technologies as neutralization plants of acid waters, many companies are mitigating the impact of this functioning; so taking as a reference the changes in the concentration of heavy metals present in water, soils and cultivations of the high, middle and low basin of the Moche river, samplings of water were obtained at eight stations of the Moche river (Trujillo, Peru, and in four sectors of its margins for soils and cultivations. The most representative heavy metals in water were found in the high basin during the year 1980: iron (557.500 ppm, lead (100.375 ppm, cadmium (4.550 ppm, copper (6.900 ppm, zinc (262.900 ppm and arsenic (9.000 ppm; whereas in the soils the higher concentrations were found on the right margin of median basin in the year 1980: iron (83.400 mg/kg; lead (0.820 mg/kg; cadmium (0.012 mg/kg; copper (1.240 mg/kg; zinc (0.380 mg/kg and arsenic (0.016 mg/kg; in relation to the metal accumulation in the cultivations, iron (0.6525 mg/kg was predominant, being the yucca (Manihot esculentus the most contaminated cultivation. It is concluded that, most contamination level of water analysis was present in the high basin during 1980, whereas the right side of the median basin highest levels of contamination in the samples of soils; relating to the cultives, the yucca (Manihot esculentus was the species most contaminated.

  9. The identification of 'hotspots' of heavy metal pollution in soil-rice systems at a regional scale in eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wanlu; Xu, Binbin; Song, Qiujin; Liu, Xingmei; Xu, Jianming; Brookes, Philip C

    2014-02-15

    Chinese agricultural soils and crops are suffering from increasing damage from heavy metals, which are introduced from various pollution sources including agriculture, traffic, mining and especially the flourishing private metal recycling industry. In this study, 219 pairs of rice grain and corresponding soil samples were collected from Wenling in Zhejiang Province to identify the spatial relationship and pollution hotspots of Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn in the soil-rice system. The mean soil concentrations of heavy metals were 0.316 mg kg(-1) for Cd, 47.3 mg kg(-1) for Cu, 31.7 mg kg(-1) for Ni and 131 mg kg(-1) for Zn, and the metal concentrations in rice grain were 0.132 mg kg(-1) for Cd, 2.46 mg kg(-1) for Cu, 0.223 mg kg(-1) for Ni and 17.4 mg kg(-1) for Zn. The coefficient of variability (CV) of soil Cd, Cu and rice Cd were 147%, 146% and 180%, respectively, indicating an extensive variability. While the CVs of other metals ranged from 23.4% to 84.3% with a moderate variability. Kriging interpolation procedure and the Local Moran's I index detected the locations of pollution hotspots of these four metals. Cd and Cu had a very similar spatial pattern, with contamination hotspots located simultaneously in the northwestern part of the study area, and there were obvious hotspots for soil Zn in the north area, while in the northeast for soil Ni. The existence of hotspots may be due to industrialization and other anthropogenic activities. An Enrichment Index (EI) was employed to measure the uptake of heavy metals by rice. The results indicated that the accumulation and availability of heavy metals in the soil-rice system may be influenced by both soil heavy metal concentrations and soil physico-chemical properties. Cross-correlograms quantitatively illustrated that EIs were significantly correlated with soil properties. Soil pH and organic matter were the most important factors controlling the uptake of heavy metals by rice. As results, positive measures should be taken into

  10. Agroecological Responses of Heavy Metal Pollution with Special Emphasis on Soil Health and Plant Performances

    OpenAIRE

    Vaibhav Srivastava; Abhijit Sarkar; Sonu Singh; Pooja Singh; Ademir S. F. Araujo; Rajeev P. Singh

    2017-01-01

    With modern day urbanization and industrialization, heavy metal (HM) contamination has become a prime concern for today's society. The impacts of metal contamination on agriculture range from the agricultural soil to the produce in our food basket. The heavy metals (HMs) and metalloids, including Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, Hg, Pb, among others, can result in significant toxic impacts. The intensification of agricultural land use and changes in farming practices along with technological a...

  11. [Distributions and pollution status of heavy metals in the suspended particles of the estuaries and coastal area of eastern Hainan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Cheng-Lin; Ren, Jing-Ling; Zhang, Gui-Ling; Shao, Ya-Ping; Zhang, Guo-Ling; Liu, Su-Mei

    2013-04-01

    The distributions and pollution status of heavy metals in the suspended particles were investigated in the Wanquan and Wenchang/Wenjiao estuaries and the coastal area of eastern Hainan in July 2008. The concentrations of metal elements (Al, Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Ni, V, Zn) were determined by ICP-AES after microwave digestion. Multivariate statistical methods (e. g. correlation analysis and principal factor analysis) were used to discuss the major factors controlling the variability of heavy metal concentrations and the pollution status in those areas. There was an obvious variability in particulate metal concentrations from upstream to estuary of both rivers. The concentrations first increased with increasing salinity and then decreased with further increase of the salinity; the concentrations were slightly higher at the coastal area in the east. The variability of particulate metal concentrations reduced significantly after the normalization by Al, indicating the effects of grain size. Enrichment factor calculation results showed that there was heavy metal pollution (especially Cu, Ni) in the Wenchang/Wenjiao River and estuary, while the situation in Wanquan River remained at pristine level. Concentrations of particulate metals in the study area were mainly controlled by source geology and provenance, as well as contamination from the discharge of waste water and biological activity.

  12. Assessment of diffuse heavy metal pollution, mass transfer and flows at a gold mining site within the Lake Baikal Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorslund, Josefin; Jarsjö, Jerker; Chalov, Sergey; Belozerova, Ekaterina

    2013-04-01

    The flux, transfer and accumulation of heavy metals in aquatic systems pose a potential danger to the ecosystem at various scales, due to their toxicity and non-destroyable nature. Mining and ore excavation can cause heavy metal pollution of both local and downstream water systems, including groundwater sources. The Zaamar Goldfield, located in the upper Lake Baikal Basin (Mongolia), is an example of an extensive gold mining site, which significantly contributes to downstream increases in riverine concentrations of heavy metals, both in dissolved and suspended phases. However, the placer mining area is large and the pollution is diffuse by nature. Due to lack of detailed monitoring, it is unclear how the pollution is transported from the mine tailings to the river. There are several potentially important pathways, such as mobilization of bank sediments, in-stream dissolution from metal-rich suspended/bottom sediments, and through polluted groundwater. We here aim at estimating diffuse mass flows from the source zone to the river, in addition to riverine mass flows. Additionally, the behaviour of heavy metals under varying geochemical conditions (such as pH) is investigated, to be able to understand the solubility of various heavy metals and their partitioning between particulate and dissolved phase. We base our analysis on on-site hydrogeochemical field campaigns. These include concentration measurements in different media (groundwater, waste ponds, ditches, river water, suspended sediments, and bottom sediments). Runoff estimations from the site as well as solubility calculations are also main analytical methods. Results show a net increase in both dissolved and suspended riverine mass flows over the Zaamar site. Concentrations in the deep groundwater system are generally in the same order of magnitude as river concentrations, which suggest important inputs of dissolved heavy metals to the river through groundwater flows. The input of dissolved concentrations are

  13. [History of heavy metal pollution from tidal flat in Haizhou Bay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Fan; Liu, Fu-Cheng; Yin, Fu-Jun; Ding, Ying-Jun; Gao, Jin-Rong; Chen, Jing; Shao, Wei

    2013-03-01

    Coastal zone could be considered as an important sink of regional source to sink and preserve historical records of environmental evolution. Four sediment cores, collected from tidal flat at Haizhou Bay near Lianyungang City, were examined for concentrations of heavy metals including Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn in core sediments to investigate the historical input of trace metals. In addition, sediment rates of cores LH3 and LH4 were determined based on radionuclide 210Pb. The results showed that grain size control effect was not the main factor that influenced the distribution of heavy metals. Heavy metals concentrations in the surface sediments were higher than these regional background values. Furthermore, Al element as a proxy of grain size was selected for normalization and calculation of metal enrichment factor (EF) and anthropogenic heavy metal fluxes. The results revealed that heavy metals in tidal flats were continuously enriched in the past decades, meanwhile, tidal flats have been significantly subjected to contaminations due to anthropogenic activities. Moreover, the depth profiles of heavy metals fluxes correspond to scenario of social-economy development of Lianyungang, which is an important urban area near Haizhou Bay. From 1950s to 2005, anthropogenic fluxes of metals increased with fluctuations, whereas, since 2005 anthropogenic fluxes declined, which may be correlated to the adjustment of industrial structure as well as the strengthened environmental regulation.

  14. PILLARED ZEOLITES AMENDMENTS INFLUENCE FROM POLLUTED SOIL ON HEAVY METALS BIOACCUMULATION IN TOMATOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SMARANDA MASU

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to anthropic activities, the presence of metals in polluted soils has effects on plants development and metals bioaccumulation into trophic levels. In this paper, were followed experiments regarding the tomatoes development into polluted soils with 43.4 – 58.4 mg Cd/kg d.s. and 500- 633 mg Pb/kg d.s. Nickel, zinc and copper content in soils are in the range of diffuse pollution values. Comparatively, an experiment was realized with polluted soils and amended with pillared zeolites. Pillared zeolites change metals distribution in soil fractions and their solubility. Tomato plants grew onto polluted soils, but did not present fruits. Tomatoes from polluted and amended soils presented fruits and metals in tissues (Zn  Cu  Ni. Zinc concentration was five times greater then Ni. Fruits do not accumulate cadmium and lead.

  15. Concentration Levels, Pollution Characteristics and Potential Ecological Risk of Dust Heavy Metals in the Metropolitan Area of Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qiulin; Zhao, Wenji; Zhao, Jiayin; Zhao, Wenhui; Jiang, Lei

    2017-09-30

    This study aims to investigate the concentration levels, pollution characteristics and the associated potential ecological risks of the heavy metals found in dust in the metropolitan area of Beijing, China during the winter. Dust samples were collected at 49 different spatial locations of Beijing's metropolitan area from November 2013 to January 2014, in which the concentration levels of Cd, Cr, Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, V, Bi and Mo were measured by Elan DRC II type inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Test results showed that the concentrations of dust heavy metals Pb, Cr, Cu and Zn in the urban areas (147.1 mg·kg-1, 195.9 mg·kg-1, 239.2 mg·kg-1 and 713.2 mg·kg-1) were significantly higher than those in the suburbs (91.6 mg·kg-1, 125.1 mg·kg-1, 131.9 mg·kg-1 and 514.5 mg·kg-1). Enrichment factors and the geo-accumulation index were used to describe the pollution characteristics of dust heavy metals in urban and suburban areas. Results indicated that Zn and Cu were moderately polluting in both urban and suburban areas, Cd was severely polluting in urban areas and heavily polluting in the suburbs. Furthermore, potential ecological risk assessment revealed that the degrees of ecological harm of dust heavy metals were very strong in both urban and suburban areas, but especially in urban areas. The potential ecological risk of heavy metal Cd, whose single factor of ecological damage was extremely strong, accounted for about 90% of the total ecological risk.

  16. Concentration Levels, Pollution Characteristics and Potential Ecological Risk of Dust Heavy Metals in the Metropolitan Area of Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qiulin; Zhao, Wenji; Zhao, Jiayin; Zhao, Wenhui; Jiang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the concentration levels, pollution characteristics and the associated potential ecological risks of the heavy metals found in dust in the metropolitan area of Beijing, China during the winter. Dust samples were collected at 49 different spatial locations of Beijing’s metropolitan area from November 2013 to January 2014, in which the concentration levels of Cd, Cr, Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, V, Bi and Mo were measured by Elan DRC II type inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Test results showed that the concentrations of dust heavy metals Pb, Cr, Cu and Zn in the urban areas (147.1 mg·kg−1, 195.9 mg·kg−1, 239.2 mg·kg−1 and 713.2 mg·kg−1) were significantly higher than those in the suburbs (91.6 mg·kg−1, 125.1 mg·kg−1, 131.9 mg·kg−1 and 514.5 mg·kg−1). Enrichment factors and the geo-accumulation index were used to describe the pollution characteristics of dust heavy metals in urban and suburban areas. Results indicated that Zn and Cu were moderately polluting in both urban and suburban areas, Cd was severely polluting in urban areas and heavily polluting in the suburbs. Furthermore, potential ecological risk assessment revealed that the degrees of ecological harm of dust heavy metals were very strong in both urban and suburban areas, but especially in urban areas. The potential ecological risk of heavy metal Cd, whose single factor of ecological damage was extremely strong, accounted for about 90% of the total ecological risk. PMID:28973969

  17. Hydrogeological and hydrochemical features of an area polluted by heavy metals in central Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, J. A.; Dahlin, T.; Barmen, G.

    2006-09-01

    Geophysical and hydrochemical surveys were used to investigate the hydrogeological conditions in one of the Río Sucio microbasins, in central Nicaragua. Zones of vertical structures (i.e. fractures and quartz veins) and weathering were mapped using Continuous Vertical Electrical Soundings (CVES), as such zones are of major importance for groundwater transport. Water from the springs was analysed to determine concentrations of major ions and heavy metals. Low ion concentrations and 18O analyses indicate that the springs occur close to their recharge areas and there is a relatively rapid groundwater circulation. Mercury (Hg) content in the springs was low, while comparatively high amounts of lead (Pb) were found. The results presented here demonstrate the important function of weathering and tectonics in the occurrence of groundwater systems in the basin. Hg and Pb found in the springs’ water reveal the existence of an increase in pollution sources disseminating in the area. More than 100 years of using mercury in the gold-mining industry and releasing wastes into rivers has affected water quality and ecosystems. Further investigations are needed in this area to determine the groundwater vulnerability to this pollution as this resource may be needed in the future.

  18. Spatial Distribution and Pollution Characteristics of Heavy Metals in Soil of Mentougou Mining Area of Beijing City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XING Yu-xin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The pollution characteristics and spatial distribution of soil heavy metals around mine-concentrated area in Mentougou were comprehensive studied using ArcGIS carried by inverse distance weighted interpolation mathematical model and SPSS multivariate statistical analysis. The ecological risk assessment was carried out by the potential ecological risk index. The results showed that the spatial distribution of soil heavy metal concentrations increased gradually from the west to the east of study area. Harmful degrees of heavy metals decreased in the order of Hg > Cd > Pb > Cr > Zn > Cu > Ni > As. Combination of coal mining and human activity caused the strongest risk, while the risks caused by heavy metals from sandstone minerals was relatively weak. The potential ecological risk indexes(RI of eight heavy metals were between 67.81 and 668.53. The order of the potential ecological risk was Hg > Cd > As > Pb > Ni > Cu > Cr > Zn. In summary, the heavy metals in soil of the study area were harmful. Because the study area is located in the ecological conservation district of Beijing, the ecological harm should not be overlooked, and needs to be evaluated and repaired.

  19. Assessment of heavy metal pollution and human health risk in urban soils of steel industrial city (Anshan), Liaoning, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Xiao; Yutong, Zong; Shenggao, Lu

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations and health risk of heavy metals in urban soils from a steel industrial district in China. A total of 115 topsoil samples from Anshan city, Liaoning, Northeast China were collected and analyzed for Cr, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Ni. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo), pollution index (PI), and potential ecological risk index (PER) were calculated to assess the pollution level in soils. The hazard index (HI) and carcinogenic risk (RI) were used to assess human health risk of heavy metals. The average concentration of Cr, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Ni were 69.9, 0.86, 45.1, 213, 52.3, and 33.5mg/kg, respectively. The Igeo and PI values of heavy metals were in the descending order of Cd>Zn>Cu>Pb>Ni>Cr. Higher Igeo value for Cd in soil indicated that Cd pollution was moderate. Pollution index indicated that urban soils were moderate to highly polluted by Cd, Zn, Cu, and Pb. The spatial distribution maps of heavy metals revealed that steel industrial district was the contamination hotspots. Principal component analysis (PCA) and matrix cluster analysis classified heavy metals into two groups, indicating common industrial sources for Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd. Matrix cluster analysis classified the sampling sites into four groups. Sampling sites within steel industrial district showed much higher concentrations of heavy metals compared to the rest of sampling sites, indicating significant contamination introduced by steel industry on soils. The health risk assessment indicated that non-carcinogenic values were below the threshold values. The hazard index (HI) for children and adult has a descending order of Cr>Pb>Cd>Cu>Ni>Zn. Carcinogenic risks due to Cr, Cd, and Ni in urban soils were within acceptable range for adult. Carcinogenic risk value of Cr for children is slightly higher than the threshold value, indicating that children are facing slight threat of Cr. These results provide basic information of heavy metal pollution control

  20. Removal of Heavy Metal Ions from Polluted Waters by Using of Low Cost Adsorbents: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghaedi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption is a fundamental process in the physicochemical treatment of wastewaters which industries employ to reduce hazardous organic and inorganic wastes in effluents. In recent years the use of low-cost adsorbents has been widely investigated as a replacement for the currently costly methods of removing heavy metal ions from wastewater. It is well-known that cellulosic waste materials can be obtained and employed as cheap adsorbents and their performance to remove heavy metal ions can be affected upon chemical treatment. In this study, the use of some of low cost adsorbents for the removal of heavy metals from wastewater has been reviewed.

  1. Effects of heavy metal pollution from mining and smelting on enchytraeid communities under different land management and soil conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapusta, Paweł; Sobczyk, Łukasz

    2015-12-01

    We studied enchytraeid communities in several habitats polluted by heavy metals from Zn-Pb mining and smelting activities. We sampled 41 sites that differed in the type of substratum (carbonate rock, metal-rich carbonate mining waste, siliceous sand) and land management (planting Scots pine, topsoiling, leaving to natural succession), and the distance from the smelter. Our main aims were to determine which pollution variables and natural factors most influenced enchytraeid species composition, richness and density, and examine what was the effect of planting Scots pine (reclamation) on enchytraeid communities. The soils harboured on average 1 to 5 enchytraeid species and 700 to 18,300 individuals per square metre, depending on the habitat. These figures were generally lower than those reported from unpolluted regions. Redundancy and multiple regression analyses confirmed the negative impact of heavy metal pollution on both enchytraeid community structure and abundance. Among pollution variables, the distance from the smelter best explained the variation in enchytraeid communities. The concentrations of heavy metals in the soil had less (e.g. total Pb and exchangeable Zn) or negligible (water-soluble forms) explanatory power. Natural soil properties were nearly irrelevant for enchytraeids, except for soil pH, which determined the species composition. Plant species richness was an important explanatory variable, as it positively affected most parameters of enchytraeid community. The results of two-by-two factorial comparisons (planting Scots pine vs. natural succession; carbonate mining waste vs. siliceous sand) suggest that reclamation can improve soil quality for biota, since it increased the diversity and abundance of enchytraeids; this effect was not dependent on the type of substratum. In conclusion, enchytraeids responded negatively to heavy metal pollution and their response was consistent and clear. These animals can be used as indicators of metal toxicity

  2. Sediment dynamics and heavy metal pollution history of the Cruhlig Lake (Danube Delta, Romania).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begy, Róbert-Csaba; Preoteasa, Luminita; Timar-Gabor, Alida; Mihăiescu, Radu; Tănăselia, Claudiu; Kelemen, Szabolcs; Simon, Hedvig

    2016-03-01

    This is the first study reporting recent sedimentation rates data (e.g. the past 120-150 years) for the Cruhlig Lake situated in the Danube Delta. The aim of this study is to analyse the recent sedimentation rates using the (210)Pb dating method and identifying the heavy metal pollutants and their variability in time. Five sediment cores were taken with a gravity corer and - after drying the sliced samples-physical parameters, organic material and inorganic carbon content were determined. The total (210)Pb content was measured via (210)Po by alpha spectrometry, while supported (210)Pb was measured by (226)Ra (trough short life (222)Rn daughters) with HPGe detectors. Heavy metals were determined by ICP-MS; from the 64 measured elements, only exceeding values of Al, As, Cd, Co, Cs, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn are discussed. After applying the CRS model, ages and sedimentation rates were calculated. The average sedimentation rate of the Cruhlig Lake is 0.21 ± 0.02 g/cm(2)y, Minimum values (0.05 ± 0.003 g/cm(2)y) are registered along the eastern shoreline of the lake before 1913, while maximum values are recorded due to the flooding in 2006 in the western side (1.34 ± 0.12 g/cm(2)y). Recent sedimentation rates divide the lake into three areas: the secluded eastern near shore part (0.63 ± 0.07 g/cm(2)y), the centre of the lake (0.92 ± 0.05 g/cm(2)y) and the dynamic western area, where most sediment transport takes place (1.13 ± 0.01 g/cm(2)y). The sedimentation pattern proves this lake to be very sensitive to fluvial discharge fluctuations. The building of the Iron Gate dams (1972 and 1985) had a negative impact on the sedimentation decreasing it with 58.74%, while after 1989 these values grew 2.25 times. The lake received a quantity of sediment rich in heavy metals in 1992 ± 3 y, which settled mostly on the eastern part. Values for Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Pb and Zn are up to five times higher in 1980 ± 5 y in the eastern part of the lake, while Cd, Co

  3. Assessment of airborne heavy metal pollution in soil and lichen in the Meric-Ergene Basin, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanedar, Asude

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, accumulations of airborne heavy metals in lichen and soil samples were determined on the basis of pollutant source groups by conducting Zinc (Zn), Lead (Pb), Iron (Fe), Copper (Cu), Chromium (Cr), Cadmium (Cd), Arsenic (As), Cobalt (Co) and Manganese (Mn) analyses on a total of 48 samples collected in the periods of May 2014 and August 2014 from 12 sampling points in a heavily industrialized area, a mixed industrial and residential area, an agricultural area and a background area in the Meric-Ergene Basin, and pH and total organic carbon determination was carried out on soil samples. With the obtained data, heavy metal levels were statistically assessed in detail by being associated with each other and with their probable sources; the accumulations found in soil and lichen samples were compared and spatial variances were set forth. Based on the results, it was observed that heavy metal pollution is at high levels particularly in industrialized areas, and that the differences between the cleanest and most polluted levels determined from soil samples for As, Cr, Cd and Pb reach 10 folds. The highest levels of all heavy metals were determined in both the soil and lichen samples collected from the areas in the south-east part of the region, where industrial activities and particularly leather and chemical industries are concentrated. With the comparison of the indication properties of soil and lichen, it was determined that significant and comparable results can be observed in both matrices.

  4. Surface sediment properties and heavy metal pollution assessment in the Shallow Sea Wetland of the Liaodong Bay, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Ye, Siyuan; Laws, Edward A; Yuan, Hongming; Ding, Xigui; Zhao, Guangming

    2017-07-15

    Liaodong Bay, a semi-enclosed bay located in northeastern China, is impacted by the discharges of five rivers. We analyzed 100 surface sediment samples from the Shallow Sea Wetland of Liaodong Bay for grain size and concentrations of organic carbon (Corg) and heavy metals. The ranges of the heavy metal concentrations were 2.32-17μg/g (As), 0.025-1.03μg/g (Cd), 18.9-131μg/g (Cr), 4.6-36.1μg/g (Cu), 0.012-0.29μg/g (Hg), 13.7-33.9μg/g (Pb), and 17.4-159μg/g (Zn). Pollution assessments revealed that some stations were moderately to highly polluted with As, Cd, and Hg. Severe pollution was apparent in the Xiaoling River estuary; lower concentrations of heavy metals were observed in other river mouths, where the sediments were more coarse. The distributions of the heavy metals were closely associated with Corg and grain size. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Optimization of EDXRF for the study of heavy metal pollution of Lake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer installed in the Department of Physics, University of Dar es Salaam. The spectrometer was subsequently utilized to determine concentrations of heavy metals in water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes ...

  6. Pollution characteristics and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in the surface sediments from a source water reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changming Yang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface sediment samples were collected from a source water reservoir in Zhejiang Province, East of China to investigate pollution characteristics and potential ecological risk of heavy metals. The BCR sequential extraction method was used to determine the four chemical fractions of heavy metals such as acid soluble, easily reducible, easily oxidizable and residual fractions. The heavy metals pollution and potential ecological risk were evaluated systematically using geoaccumulation index (Igeo and Hakanson potential ecological risk index (H′. The results showed that the sampling sites from the estuaries of tributary flowing through downtowns and heavy industrial parks showed significantly (p < 0.05 higher average concentrations of heavy metals in the surface sediments, as compared to the other sampling sites. Chemical fractionation showed that Mn existed mainly in acid extractable fraction, Cu and Pb were mainly in reducible fraction, and As existed mainly in residual fraction in the surface sediments despite sampling sites. The sampling sites from the estuary of tributary flowing through downtown showed significantly (p < 0.05 higher proportions of acid extractable and reducible fractions than the other sampling sites, which would pose a potential toxic risk to aquatic organisms as well as a potential threat to drinking water safety. As, Pb, Ni and Cu were at relatively high potential ecological risk with high Igeo values for some sampling locations. Hakanson potential ecological risk index (H′ showed the surface sediments from the tributary estuaries with high population density and rapid industrial development showed significantly (p < 0.05 higher heavy metal pollution levels and potential ecological risk in the surface sediments, as compared to the other sampling sites.

  7. Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of heavy metals in street dusts from different functional areas in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xin; Gao, Bo; Wang, Peng; Zhou, Huaidong; Lu, Jin

    2015-02-01

    Street dusts from Heavy Density Traffic Area, Residential Area, Educational Area and Tourism Area in Beijing, China, were collected to study the distribution, accumulation and health risk assessment of heavy metals. Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb concentrations were in higher concentrations in these four locations than in the local soil background. In comparison with the concentrations of selected metals in other cities, the concentrations of heavy metals in Beijing were generally at moderate or low levels. Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb concentrations in the Tourism Area were the highest among four different areas in Beijing. A pollution assessment by Geoaccumulation Index showed that the pollution level for the heavy metals is in the following order: Cd>Pb>Zn>Cu>Cr>Ni. The Cd levels can be considered "heavily contaminated" status. The health risk assessment model that was employed to calculate human exposure indicated that both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks of selected metals in street dusts were generally in the low range, except for the carcinogenic risk from Cr for children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Heavy metal pollution in soil associated with a large-scale cyanidation gold mining region in southeast of Jilin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mo; Lu, Wenxi; Hou, Zeyu; Zhang, Yu; Jiang, Xue; Wu, Jichun

    2017-01-01

    Different gold mining and smelting processes can lead to distinctive heavy metal contamination patterns and results. This work examined heavy metal pollution from a large-scale cyanidation gold mining operation, which is distinguished from artisanal and small-scale amalgamation gold mining, in Jilin Province, China. A total of 20 samples including one background sample were collected from the surface of the mining area and the tailings pond in June 2013. These samples were analyzed for heavy metal concentrations and degree of pollution as well as sources of Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cd, As, and Hg. The mean concentrations of Pb, Hg, and Cu (819.67, 0.12, and 46.92 mg kg-1, respectively) in soil samples from the gold mine area exceeded local background values. The mean Hg content was less than the first-class standard of the Environmental Quality for Soils, which suggested that the cyanidation method is helpful for reducing Hg pollution. The geochemical accumulation index and enrichment factor results indicated clear signs that enrichment was present for Pb, Cu, and Hg, with the presence of serious Pb pollution and moderate presence to none of Hg and Cu pollution. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that there were three metal sources: (1) Pb, Cd, Cu, and As came from anthropogenic sources; (2) Cr and Zn were naturally occurring; whereas (3) Hg and Ni had a mix of anthropogenic and natural sources. Moreover, the tailings dam plays an important role in intercepting the tailings. Furthermore, the potential ecological risk assessment results showed that the study area poses a potentially strong risk to the ecological health. Furthermore, Pb and Hg (due to high concentration and high toxicity, respectively) are major pollutants on the risk index, and both Pb and Hg pollution should be of great concern at the Haigou gold mines in Jilin, China.

  9. Biological indication of heavy metal pollution in the areas of Donje Vlase and Cerje (southeastern Serbia using epiphytic lichens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenković S.S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of two epiphytic lichen species (Evernia prunastri (L. Ach. and Parmelia sulcata Taylor as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution in natural areas around the city of Niš (southeastern Serbia were evaluated. The concentration of 19 heavy metals in lichen samples was measured by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. For the majority of the elements the concentrations found in Parmelia sulcata Taylor were higher than in Evernia prunastri (L. Ach. In addition, interspecific differences in heavy metal accumulation between Evernia prunastri (L. Ach. and Parmelia sulcata Taylor are observed. Parmelia sulcata Taylor showed a tendency to accumulate Fe, Mn, Ni and Ti while Evernia prunastri (L. Ach. preferentially concentrated Cu on both locations. A clear distinction between lithogenic (Mn-Cu-Ti and atmospheric elements (Ni-Co-Cr-Ag-Pb-Hg was achieved by cluster analysis. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III41018, br. OI 171025, br. 172017 and br. III41017

  10. A study of Heavy Metal Pollution in Groundwater of Malwa Region of Punjab, India: Current Status, Pollution and its Potential Health Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajni Sharma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the different types of pollution, heavy metal pollution has become one of the major environmental issues in India. A number of studies show that high level of heavy metal exposure is a frequent cause of permanent intellectual and developmental disabilities. In this present study, the AAS method is used to determine the various heavy metal concentrations for 240 samples of Groundwater distributed in eight districts in Malwa Region of Punjab. The concentration values were compared with Standard Values given by BIS. The results showed that the maximum percentage of groundwater samples of Malwa region is beyond the permissible limits and that’s why not fit for drinking purposes and other domestic activities due to the presence of various heavy metals . The overall groundwater quality of Punjab for Arsenic, lead, Iron, Cobalt, Chromium, zinc and Mercury can also be detected and compared with BIS standards. The aim of this particular study was to investigate the distribution of Heavy metals in groundwater of Malwa Region of Punjab and its greater risks to public health. The results were compared with the recommended standards for drinking water of BIS to know the existing status and trend. Overall, water quality was found as unsatisfactory for drinking purposes in all the samples

  11. Mass burden and estimated flux of heavy metals in Pakistan coast: sedimentary pollution and eco-toxicological concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Usman; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Mehmood, Ch Tahir; Sánchez-García, Laura; Khalid, Azeem; Chaudhry, Muhammad Jamshed Iqbal

    2015-03-01

    Heavy-metal contamination in coastal areas poses a serious threat to aquatic life and public health due to their high toxicity and bio-accumulation potential. In the present study, levels of different heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni, Co, Pb, Zn, and Mn), their spatial distribution, geochemical status, and enrichment indices (Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni, Co, Pb, Zn) were investigated in the sediment samples from 18 coastal sites of Pakistan. The analyses of coastal sediments indicated the presence of heavy metals in order such as Cr > Zn > Cu > Pb > Ni > Mn > Co > Cd. Geo-accumulation index (I geo), enrichment factor (EF), and contamination factor (CF) showed diverse range in heavy-metal enrichment site by site. Pollution load index (PLI) has shown that average pollution load along the entire coastal belt was not significant. Based on the mean effect range medium quotient, coastal sediments of Pakistan had 21% probability of toxicity. The estimated sedimentary load of selected heavy metals was recorded in the range of 0.3-44.7 g/cm(2)/year, while the depositional flux was in the range of 0.07-43.5 t/year. Heavy-metal inventories of 9.8 × 10(2)-3.8 × 10(5) t were estimated in the coastal sediments of Pakistan. The enrichment and contamination factors (EF and CF) suggested significant influence of anthropogenic and industrial activities along the coastal belt of Pakistan.

  12. Persistent organic pollutants, heavy metals and parasites in the glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) on Spitsbergen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagerup, Kjetil, E-mail: kjetil.sagerup@uit.n [Tromso University Museum, NO-9037 Tromso (Norway); Savinov, Vladimir; Savinova, Tatiana [Akvaplan-niva, Polar Environmental Centre, NO-9296 Tromso (Norway); Kuklin, Vadim [Murmansk Marine Biological Institute, Kola Scientific Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, Murmansk (Russian Federation); Muir, Derek C.G. [Aquatic Ecosystem Protection Research Division, Environment Canada, Burlington ON L7R 4A6 (Canada); Gabrielsen, Geir W. [Norwegian Polar Institute, Polar Environmental Centre, NO-9296 Tromso (Norway)

    2009-08-15

    The prediction of a higher parasite infection as a consequence of an impaired immune system with increasing persistent organic pollution (POP) and heavy metal levels were investigated in adult glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) from Svalbard. The levels of chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), toxaphenes and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in liver. Cupper, cadmium, lead, mercury, selenium and zinc were measured in kidney samples. An elevated ratio of PCB-118 was found, suggesting that local contamination from the settlement was detectable in the glaucous gull. Eight cestodes, four nematodes, two acanthocephalan and three trematode helminth species were found in the intestine. A positive correlation was found between cestode intensities and selenium levels and between acanthocephalan intensities and mercury levels. No correlation was found between parasite intensities and POP concentrations. It is concluded that the contaminant levels found in glaucous gulls do not cause immune suppression severe enough to affect parasite intensity. - Consistent relationships between contaminant level and parasite intensity, as an immunotoxic endpoint unit, were not found in the present study.

  13. Disposal options for polluted plants grown on heavy metal contaminated brownfield lands - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Helga; Szemmelveisz, Katalin

    2017-01-01

    Reducing or preventing damage caused by environmental pollution is a significant goal nowadays. Phytoextraction, as remediation technique is widely used, but during the process, the heavy metal content of the biomass grown on these sites special treatment and disposal techniques are required, for example liquid extraction, direct disposal, composting, and combustion. These processes are discussed in this review in economical and environmental aspects. The following main properties are analyzed: form and harmful element content of remains, utilization of the main and byproducts, affect to the environment during the treatment and disposal. The thermal treatment (combustion, gasification) of contaminated biomass provides a promising alternative disposal option, because the energy production affects the rate of return, and the harmful elements are riched in a small amount of solid remains depending on the ash content of the plant (1-2%). The biomass combustion technology is a wildely used energy production process in residential and industrial scale, but the ordinary biomass firing systems are not suited to burn this type of fuel without environmental risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sources of heavy metal pollution in agricultural soils of a rapidly industrializing area in the Yangtze Delta of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianghua; Zhao, Yongcun; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yudong; Deng, Wenjing

    2014-10-01

    The rapid industrialization and urbanization in developing countries have increased pollution by heavy metals, which is a concern for human health and the environment. In this study, 230 surface soil samples (0-20cm) were collected from agricultural areas of Jiaxing, a rapidly industrializing area in the Yangtze Delta of China. Sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS) and multivariate factorial kriging analysis (FKA) were used to identify and explore the sources of heavy metal pollution for eight metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cd, Hg and As). Localized hot-spots of pollution were identified for Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd with area percentages of 0.48 percent, 0.58 percent, 2.84 percent, 2.41 percent, 0.74 percent, and 0.68 percent, respectively. The areas with Hg pollution covered approximately 38 percent whereas no potential pollution risk was found for As. The soil parent material and point sources of pollution had significant influences on Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd levels, except for the influence of agricultural management practices also accounted for micro-scale variations (nugget effect) for Cu and Zn pollution. Short-range (4km) diffusion processes had a significant influence on Cu levels, although they did not appear to be the dominant sources of Zn and Cd variation. The short-range diffusion pollution arising from current and historic industrial emissions and urbanization, and long-range (33km) variations in soil parent materials and/or diffusion jointly determined the current concentrations of soil Pb. The sources of Hg pollution risk may be attributed to the atmosphere deposition of industrial emission and historical use of Hg-containing pesticides. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Risk Assessment of Sediment Heavy Metal Pollution in the East Dongting Lake Wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Total concentrations of cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb, chrome (Cr, and nickel (Ni in surface sediment (0–10 cm from the East Dongting Lake wetlands were determined and the spatial distribution of heavy metals was mapped. The results showed that the single risk indices (Eri of heavy metals were ranked in the order of Cd > Pb > Ni > Cr. The content of Cd and Pb was gradually reduced from the east (Xiangjiang River to the west, while the Cr and Ni content had a patchy distribution pattern in the East Dongting Lake wetlands. Cd and Pb contents were correlated with soil pH significantly, while Cr and Ni contents were correlated with soil organic carbon (SOC and total nitrogen (TN. The origination of heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb could be divided into two groups: Cd and Pb from anthropogenic source and Cr and Ni from parent material weathering. Our results indicated that Cd posed a high risk to local ecosystem. The relatively lower pH and higher soil organic carbon (SOC and total nitrogen (TN in sediment may inhibit the fixation of heavy metals, which in turn increased the concentration of heavy metal in sediment.

  16. Grain size distribution of road-deposited sediment and its contribution to heavy metal pollution in urban runoff in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongtao; Li, Xuyong; Wang, Xiaomei; Tian, Di

    2010-11-15

    Pollutant washoff from road-deposited sediment (RDS) is an increasing problem associated with the rapid urbanization of China that results in urban non-point source pollution. Here, we analyzed the RDS grain size distribution and its potential impact on heavy metal pollution in urban runoff from impervious surfaces of urban villages, colleges and residences, and main traffic roads in the Haidian District, Beijing, China. RDS with smaller grain size had a higher metal concentration. Specifically, particles with the smallest grain size (grain size (grain size grain size distribution in heavy metal pollution caused by urban storm runoff. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Seabird feathers as monitors of the levels and persistence of heavy metal pollution after the Prestige oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Rocio, E-mail: rocio@rociomoreno.com [Dept. Biologia Animal (Vertebrats), Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Avgda. Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Jover, Lluis, E-mail: lluis_jover@ub.edu [Dept. Salut Publica, Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona, Casanova 143, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Diez, Carmen, E-mail: karminha13@gmail.com [Dept. Ecoloxia e Bioloxia Animal, Facultade de Ciencias, Universidade de Vigo, 36310 Vigo, Galicia (Spain); Sanpera, Carola, E-mail: csanpera@ub.edu [Dept. Biologia Animal (Vertebrats), Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Avgda. Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    We measured heavy metal concentrations in yellow-legged gulls (n = 196) and European shags (n = 189) in order to assess the temporal pattern of contaminant exposure following the Prestige oil spill in November 2002. We analysed Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni and V levels in chick feathers sampled at four colonies during seven post-spill years (2003-2009), and compared results with pre-spill levels obtained from feathers of juvenile shag corpses (grown in spring/summer 2002). Following the Prestige wreck, Cu (4.3-10 {mu}g g{sup -1}) and Pb concentrations (1.0-1.4 {mu}g g{sup -1}) were, respectively, between two and five times higher than pre-spill levels (1.5-3.6 and 0.1-0.4 {mu}g g{sup -1}), but returned to previous background concentrations after three years. Our study highlights the suitability of chick feathers of seabirds for assessing the impact of oil spills on heavy metal contamination, and provides the best evidence to date on the persistence of oil pollution after the Prestige incident. - Highlights: > Seabirds as sentinel species of levels and persistence of heavy metal pollution after oil spills. > Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni, V in chick feathers of Phalacrocorax aristotelis and Larus michahellis. > Chronic oil pollution in the marine food web for at least three years after the Prestige oil spill. - Monitoring heavy metal in seabird feathers indicated chronic oil pollution in the marine food web for at least three years after the Prestige oil spill.

  18. Phytoremediation of soils polluted by heavy metals and metalloids using crops: (i) the state of the art

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Zerbi; Guido Fellet; Luca Marchiol

    2008-01-01

    Phytoremediation has a strong potential as a natural, solar-energy driven remediation approach for the treatment of soils and sediments polluted. Research has focused several aspects of the process of uptake, translocation and storage of heavy metals in plants. However we can not predict when the technique could find practical application on large scale. Beyond the evaluation of the best suited species, little has been inquired on the multiple aspects of the agronomic management of phytoextra...

  19. Influence of low impact development construction on pollutant process of road-deposited sediments and associated heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yukun; Gong, Manli; Zhao, Hongtao; Li, Xuyong

    2018-02-01

    Intense Low-Impact Development (LID) construction in China could lead to increasingly severe stormwater and receiving water pollution due to the lack of appropriate regulation for mitigating pollution from LID construction. Samples of road-deposited sediments (RDS) were collected from 50 study sites at seven LID construction stages and four road hierarchies to analyze the pollution process and determine the size of the region influenced by LID construction. Six heavy metals were analyzed, and the RDS index model was adopted to estimate the potential heavy metal load washed off by stormwater runoff. Analysis of variance revealed that the excavation and gravel filling of rain gardens and excavation of porous pavements were critical LID construction stages that contributed the largest masses of RDS per unit area to road surfaces. Although the concentration of heavy metals at LID construction sites was lower than at sites without LID construction, the load of heavy metals washed off from LID construction was much higher. In addition, the sizes of regions influenced by accumulated RDS from LID construction descended in the following order: arterial road (600-775m)>collector road (150-200m)>access road (100-150m)>laneway (20-30m). According to the characteristics of LID construction at the study sites, the potential total solid loads in stormwater throughout China were estimated to reach 36,694t by 2020 and 146,777t by 2030. According to the results of analysis, several recommendations are provided for designing LID construction regulations to mitigate stormwater pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. ADAPTATION OF TRANSLATIONAL APPARATUS OF PLASTIDS OF DAYLILY SORTS (НEMEROCALLIS L. TOWARDS THE POLLUTION BY HEAVY METALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. F. Chipilyak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The specificity of the accumulation of heavy metals (Fe, Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd by cultivars Hemerocallis and peculiarities of adaptation of the photosynthetic system of daylilies in the conditions of industrial pollution and impact of emissions of motor transport were presented. The highest values of the indices of interstitial pollution of leaves by Pb ions and the fastest rate of lipid peroxidation in leaf cells were typical for cv. Stagecoach. The lowest rate of accumulation of the majority of heavy metals were registered for cv. Winnie the Pooh. The overall pattern of adaptive reactions of daylilies to the pollution was the alteration in chlorophyll a and b ratio. It was lower in more sensitive (cv. Stagecoach and higher in more persistent (cv. Winnie the Pooh sorts. The translocation indices for barrier block "soil-sheets" suggest that all the cultivars have persistent anti-concentration barrier only for Ni, which actively operates both in normal and industrial conditions (translocation indices < 1,0. Keywords: Нemerocallis L., H. x hybrida hort. cv. American Revolution, cv. Winnie the Pooh, cv. Stagecoach, heavy metals, pigments of photosynthesis, TBA-active compounds.

  1. Heavy Metal Pollution, Selection, and Genome Size: The Species of the Žerjav Study Revisited with Flow Cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva M. Temsch

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Death Valley at Žerjav in northern Slovenia exhibits a gradient of heavy metal pollution in the soil with severe consequences for species richness and composition along this gradient. Recently, a progressive loss of large-genome species in parallel with increasing concentrations of heavy metals has been shown. Here, we have measured the genome size of a near-complete sample of these species with flow cytometry and analysed the correlation of heavy metal pollution with the C- and Cx-values assigned to the test plots. The method of probability analysis was a hypergeometric distribution method. We confirm, on a different methodological basis than previously, that along the pollution gradient, species with high C- and Cx-values are increasingly underrepresented. This lends support to the “large genome constraint hypothesis”, predicting that plants with large genomes are at a disadvantage under all aspects of evolution, ecology, and phenotype, because junk DNA imposes a load to the organism.

  2. The use of heavy metal accumulating plants for detoxication of chemically polluted soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Antonkiewicz

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The studies conducted from 1997 to 1999 in a vegetation hall were performed as a pot experiment on ordinary silt soil. Jerusalem artichoke, maize, Sida hermaphrodita Rusby, amaranth and hemp were used as indicator plants. The results confirmed, great diversification of the element contents which depends not only on the species but also on the part of individual plants. Analysis of the data revealed also another dependence: increased concentration of heavy metals in the soil corresponded to a higher content of heavy metals in the plants. Significant differences in this respect were observed for the plant species grown in unpolluted or differently contaminated soil.

  3. Multivariate methods for evaluating the efficiency of electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from polluted harbour sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kristine Bondo; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2015-01-01

    , dry/wet sediment, cell set-up as well as sediment properties. Evaluation of the model showed that remediation time and current density had the highest comparative influence on the clean-up levels. Individual models for each heavy metal showed variance in the variable importance, indicating...... that the targeted heavy,metals were bound to different sediment fractions. Based on the results, a PLS model was used to design five new EDR experiments of a sixth sediment to achieve specified clean-up levels of Cu and Pb. The removal efficiencies were up to 82% for Cu and 87% for Pb and the targeted clean...

  4. The Risk Assessment of Sediment Heavy Metal Pollution in the East Dongting Lake Wetland

    OpenAIRE

    Cong Hu; Zheng-miao Deng; Yong-hong Xie; Xin-sheng Chen; Feng Li

    2015-01-01

    Total concentrations of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), chrome (Cr), and nickel (Ni) in surface sediment (0–10 cm) from the East Dongting Lake wetlands were determined and the spatial distribution of heavy metals was mapped. The results showed that the single risk indices (Eri) of heavy metals were ranked in the order of Cd > Pb > Ni > Cr. The content of Cd and Pb was gradually reduced from the east (Xiangjiang River) to the west, while the Cr and Ni content had a patchy distribution pattern in the ...

  5. Research on Interrelationship between some Species of Freshwater Fish and Helmintic Larvae within Aquatic Ecosystems Polluted with Heavy Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Daniela Urdeş

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of some larvae of cestodes and nematodes which live infreshwater fish (intermediate hosts, to exhibit an uptake of heavy metals.According to some scientifical papers treating this subject, only adult worms were able to absorb successfully heavymetals within their hosts. Furthermore, it is believed that only the adults would act as biofilters and consequently astrustworthy indicators of environmental pollution.This study, carried out on the Danube Delta area, comes to prove the ability of the larvae to absorb heavy metalswithin their hosts, even when the pollution level with respect to heavy metals is very low.Following the biochemical analyses of water, sediment, aquatic plants, larvae and fish tissues (liver and musclesamples, it resulted that the larvae were able to absorb important quantities within their hosts, so that only scarceamounts to be found in the muscle and liver. Both parasites were able to accumulate some heavy metals within theirhosts, although only one of them did it successfully.

  6. Pollution characteristics, risk assessment, and source apportionment of heavy metals in road dust in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, Cong; Liu, Ruimin; Xu, Fei; Wang, Qingrui; Guo, Lijia; Shen, Zhenyao

    2018-01-15

    To analyze the spatial distribution patterns, risks, and sources of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, Fe), 36 road dust samples were collected from an urbanized area of Beijing in June 2016. The mean concentration of most metals, except As and Mn, exceeded their corresponding background values, with the mean concentration of Cd being 8 times that of its background. Spatially, for most heavy metals, except As and Mn, the high concentration areas were mainly within the 5th ring road, especially the northern area. The geo-accumulation index of Cd and Cu indicated moderate contamination at many sites. The entire study area was prone to potential ecological risks, with higher risks within the 4th ring road. Cd caused high potential ecological risk at most sites. According to the health risk assessment results, the non-carcinogenic risks that human beings suffered from heavy metals were insignificant. However, the carcinogenic risks due to Ni and Cr exceeded the acceptable level. Based on the source apportionment using positive matrix factorization, four factors were defined for the heavy metals. Factor 1, which was traffic-related exhaust, accounted for 34.47% of the concentration of heavy metals. The contributions of Factors 2 and 3 were approximately 25% each. Factor 2 was potentially related to coal combustion, while Factor 3 could be related to the manufacture and use of metal components. Factor 4, which could be related to the use of pesticides, fertilizers, and medical devices, accounted for 14.88%, which was the lowest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Heavy metal accumulation, heat shock protein expression and cytogenetic changes in Tetrix tenuicornis (L.) (Tetrigidae, Orthoptera) from polluted areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warchalowska-Sliwa, E. [Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals, Polish Academy of Sciences, Slawkowska 17, 31-016 Cracow (Poland)]. E-mail: warchalowska@isez.pan.krakow.pl; Niklinska, M. [Department of Ecotoxicology, Institute of Environmental Studies, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 3, 30-387 Cracow (Poland); Goerlich, A. [Department of Cytology and Histology, Institute of Zoology, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 6, 30-060 Cracow (Poland); Michailova, P. [Institute of Zoology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1 Tzar Osvoboditiel Boulevard, Sofia 1000 (Bulgaria); Pyza, E. [Department of Cytology and Histology, Institute of Zoology, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 6, 30-060 Cracow (Poland)

    2005-01-01

    The orthopteran insect Tetrix tenuicornis, collected from polluted and unpolluted areas, was used to study heavy metal accumulation and its impact on stress protein levels and on changes in the number and morphology of chromosomes in mitotic and meiotic cells. During two consecutive years, insects were collected from polluted areas of zinc-lead mine spoils near Boleslaw (Poland) and from unpolluted areas near Busko and Staszow (Poland). T. tenuicornis from the polluted area showed 1.5, 4.03, 4.32 and 41.73 times higher concentrations of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd), respectively, than insects of the same species collected from unpolluted areas. Insects exposed to heavy metals showed only small changes, and rather a decrease in the concentration of constitutive and inducible heat shock proteins Hsp70, the level of which increases under stress conditions. A cytogenetic study of T. tenuicornis revealed intra-population anomalies in chromosome number and morphology in mitotic and meiotic cells and the presence of an additional B chromosome in germinal cells. In 50% of females collected from polluted areas, mosaic oogonial mitotic chromosome sets and diploid, hypo- or hypertetraploid, tetraploid, and octoploid chromosome numbers were detected. In turn, 14.6% of males showed a heterozygous deficiency of chromatin in L{sub 2} and M{sub 3} bivalents in addition to the presence of B chromosomes. - Metals accumulation caused genotoxicity in insects.

  8. Synergistic effects of heavy metal pollutants on senescence in submerged aquatic plants. [Potamogeton pectinatus L. , Vallisneria spiralis L. , Hydrialla Verticillata (L. f. ) Royle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jana, S.; Choudhuri, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of many combinations of toxic concentrations of heavy metal pollutants, viz., mercuric chloride, lead acetate, cadmium chloride and cupric sulphate, on the senescence of isolated mature leaves of submerged aquatic plants, Potamogeton pectinatus L., Vallisneria spiralis L., and Hydrilla Verticillata (L.f.) Royle were studied. All of the combinations of heavy metal pollutants caused senescence in all three species by decreasing chlorophyll, DNA, RNA, protein and dry wt, and increasing free amino acid, tissue permeability, the activities of protease and RNase, and the ratio of acid to alkaline pyrophosphatase activity over control values. The effects were highest in Potamogeton and lowest in Hydrilla. The degree of senescence in the three submerged plants by combinations of toxic concentrations of heavy metal pollutants is much higher due to synergism than that by individual heavy metal pollutants.

  9. A study of heavy metal pollution in Lake Victoria sediments by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makundi, I N

    2001-01-01

    Sources of heavy metal pollution of Lake Victoria is of interest due to its economic and domestic implication in East Africa. Sediments from the shore of Lake Victoria and from some streams flowing into the lake have been analyzed for their heavy metal content using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) analysis. The samples were collected from seventeen different locations around the Municipality of Mwanza divided into three zones according to their activities. The results show that sediments from Mwanza North, which is least in anthropogenic activities, contains Cr and Co in addition to metals of terrestrial origin (K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Rb, Sr, Y, and Zr), samples from Mwanza Central, which is the town center, contains high concentrations of V, Cu, Zn and Pb, and samples collected from Mwanza South, which is the industrial area, contains the highest concentrations of V, Cu, Zn, As and Pb. It is concluded that the industrial and sewage wastes discharged into the lake are the main sources of the heavy metal contamination of Lake Victoria. Further studies will be required to assess detriments of these pollutants to human and aquatic life before policy for the factories responsible is put in place.

  10. Surface sediment properties and heavy metal pollution assessment in the Pearl River Estuary, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guangming; Ye, Siyuan; Yuan, Hongming; Ding, Xigui; Wang, Jin

    2017-01-01

    Grain size and concentrations of heavy metals (arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn)) of 148 surface sediments and activities of 210Pb and heavy metal concetrantions of one sediment core from the Pearl River Estuary were analyzed. The surface sediments were dominated by silt and sandy silt. Sediment type controlled the spatial distribution patterns of the heavy metals. The heavy metal concentrations in the sediments ranged from 3.34 to 37.11 mg/kg for As, 0.06 to 2.06 mg/kg for Cd, 12 to 130 mg/kg for Cr, 5.8 to 170.6 mg/kg for Cu, 0.01 to 0.25 mg/kg for Hg, 23 to 78 mg/kg for Pb, and 32 to 259 mg/kg for Zn. Both contents of clay and organic carbons were significantly positively correlated with heavy metals. The baseline values of elements in the study area were 12.97 mg/kg for As, 0.14 mg/kg for Cd, 68 mg/kg for Cr, 28.9 mg/kg for Cu, 0.08 mg/kg for Hg, 33 mg/kg for Pb, and 92 mg/kg for Zn. The metal enrichment factor (EF) and geoaccumulation index (Igeo) were calculated to assess anthropogenic contamination. Results showed slight to moderate Cd contamination in the region. Principle component analysis indicated that Cd could be attributed to anthropogenic sources; As and Hg were predominantly affected by human activities; and Pb, Cr, Cu, and Zn were associated with both natural and anthropogenic sources.

  11. Spatial and Seasonal Variations of Heavy Metal Loads in Uyo Urban Drainage Stream under PS and NPS Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Essien

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of heavy metals (HM in the 4km urban drainage stream in Uyo was studied using grab and composite sampling of water from six stations on the stream, and analyzed by a multipurpose atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The data were statistically analyzed using SPSS version 17 software arid correlated between stations and among samples. HM contamination was evaluated with the coefficient and rate of dispersion between stations and the Normalized Scatter Coefficient (NSC. The seasonal distribution of metal pollution varied individually amongst metals at stations. The Fe and Pb concentrations exceeded the safe drinking water standard, rendering the water quality not acceptable for drinking; however, the quality was within the safe limit for crop production along the river bank. The relative.dominance of heavy metals followed a different sequence in upstream leachate effluent from all downstream stations. The NSC in dry-wet season was higher than in wet season, and was in the order: Fe>Cu>Zn>Pb, showing that large but variable concentration of Fe from PS and NPS contaminated the stream at faster rate in the wet season while Pb contaminated at nearly constant rate. However, in the dry season, Fe and Pb depleted at downstream at rates far higher than Zn as Cu was increasing. Fe and Pb could be good pollution monitor for total maximum daily load (TMDL pollution monitoring programme.

  12. Assessment of heavy metal pollution, spatial distribution and origin in agricultural soils along the Sinú River Basin, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrugo-Negrete, José; Pinedo-Hernández, José; Díez, Sergi

    2017-04-01

    The presence of metals in agricultural soils from anthropogenic activities such as mining and agricultural use of metals and metal-containing compounds is a potential threat for human health through the food chain. In this study, the concentration of heavy metals in 83 agricultural soils irrigated by the Sinú River, in northern Colombia, affected by mining areas upstream and inundated during seasonal floods events were determined to evaluate their sources and levels of pollution. The average concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd, Hg and Zn were 1149, 661, 0.071, 0.040, 0.159 and 1365mg/kg respectively and exceeded the world normal averages, with the exception of Pb and Cd. Moreover, all values surpassed the background levels of soils in the same region. Soil pollution assessment was carried out using contamination factor (CF), enrichment factor (EF), geoaccumulation index (Igeo) and a risk assessment code (RAC). According to these indexes, the soils show a high degree of pollution of Ni and a moderate to high contamination of Zn and Cu; whereas, Pb, Cd and Hg present moderate pollution. However, based on the RAC index, a low environmental risk is found for all the analysed heavy metals. Multivariate statistical analyses, principal component and cluster analyses, suggest that soil contamination was mainly derived from agricultural practices, except for Hg, which was caused probably by atmospheric and river flow transport from upstream gold mining. Finally, high concentrations of Ni indicate a mixed pollution source from agricultural and ferronickel mining activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The European emission inventory of heavy metals and persistant organic pollutants for 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdowski, J.J.M.; Baas, J.; Bloos, J.P.J.; Visschedijk, A.J.H.; Zandveld, P.Y.J.

    1997-06-01

    This report presents the results of an emission inventory project for heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants for 1990 on the basis of submissions of emission data from the Parties to OSPARCOM, HELCOM and the Convention on LRTAP. The report`s substance list includes the compounds identified as priority substances by OSPARCOM and HELCOM. For the countries, sources or compounds lacking in official submissions, default emission estimates have been prepared and applied to complete the inventory. The inventory practically covers the whole of Europe and the inventory results are available on a 50x50 km{sup 2} EMEP grid for modelling purposes. Besides the results by the countries, the report describes the methodology applied. Also, it indicates how the results can be used by the countries for updating emissions. The report is intended to be a preparatory step towards the preparation of the European CORINAIR95 emission inventory. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Bericht enthaelt die Ergebnisse eines Emissionsinventarprojektes fuer Schwermetalle und Persistente Organische Verbindungen, das fuer das Bezugsjahr 1990 auf der Grundlage seitens der Mitgliedstaaten von OSPARCOM und HELCOM sowie der ECE-Luftreinhaltekonvention bereitgestellter Daten durchgefuehrt wurde. Die Stoffliste enthaelt insbesondere die von OSPARCOM und HELCOM als prioritaer eingestuften Komponenten. Soweit die Laenderdaten hinsichtlich der Quellen und Komponenten Luecken aufwiesen, wurden ersatzweise Schaetzwerte ermittelt, um das Inventar zu vervollstaendigen. Das Inventar bietet eine praktisch vollstaendige Flaechendeckung fuer Europa. Die Ergebnisse sind fuer Ausbreitungsrechnungen im 50x50 km{sup 2}-Raster aufbereitet. Darueber hinaus werden sowohl die angewendeten Methoden beschrieben als auch Hinweise zur laenderseitigen Fortschreibung gegeben. Insofern ist der Bericht nicht zuletzt zur Unterstuetzung beim Aufbau des Europaeischen Emissionsinventars CORINAIR95 vorgesehen. (orig.)

  14. Heavy metal pollution in drinking water - a global risk for human health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water resources in the world have been profoundly influenced over the last years by human activities, whereby the world is currently facing critical water supply and drinking water quality problems. In many parts of the world heavy metal (HM) concentrations in drinking water are higher than some international guideline ...

  15. Heavy metals and zooplankton with special reference to Minamata (Japan) mercury pollution - A case study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gajbhiye, S.N; Hirota, R.

    content was 0.01 to 0.25 mu g g/1 (dry). Among the various groups of zooplankton studied chaetognaths, bivalve, and crustaceans showed higher rate of bioaccumulation. The distribution of other heavy metals was not abnormal and the values were below...

  16. Heavy metal pollution and health risk assessment of agricultural soils in a typical peri-urban area in southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Chen, Qianqian; Deng, Meihua; Japenga, Jan; Li, Tingqiang; Yang, Xiaoe; He, Zhenli

    2018-02-01

    Heavy metal pollution in peri-urban areas in China is serious and complex. We thus developed an integrated evaluation method to assess heavy metal pollution and potential health risk to residents in a typical peri-urban area with diverse anthropogenic emission sources and cropping systems. Ecological risk was evaluated using Nemerow's synthetical pollution index (P n ) and Potential ecological risk index (RI). Then polluted areas and responsible emission sources were identified by GIS mapping. Health risk caused by food intake and soil exposure was calculated by accounting for the influence of anthropogenic emissions and cropping systems. Agricultural soils in the study area were polluted by cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and arsenic (As). High concentrations mainly occurred near the mining area and along the roadsides. The accumulation of heavy metals in crops followed the order of tea leaves > rice grain > vegetables. The hazard index of potential human health risk caused by chronic soil exposure and food intake was 15.3, indicating obvious adverse health effects. 87.5% of health risk was attributed to food consumption, and significantly varied among different cropping systems with the decreasing order of rice (10.44) >vegetable (2.86) > tea (0.05). The integrated method of ecological and health risk index, which takes consideration of both anthropogenic emission and cropping system can provide a practical tool for evaluating of agricultural soil in the peri-urban area regrading different risk factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Phytoremediation of soils polluted by heavy metals and metalloids using crops: (i the state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Zerbi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation has a strong potential as a natural, solar-energy driven remediation approach for the treatment of soils and sediments polluted. Research has focused several aspects of the process of uptake, translocation and storage of heavy metals in plants. However we can not predict when the technique could find practical application on large scale. Beyond the evaluation of the best suited species, little has been inquired on the multiple aspects of the agronomic management of phytoextraction. This review provides a synthesis of current knowledge on phytoextraction of metals from soils and their accumulation in plants.

  18. Phytoremediation of soils polluted by heavy metals and metalloids using crops: (i the state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Marchiol

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation has a strong potential as a natural, solar-energy driven remediation approach for the treatment of soils and sediments polluted. Research has focused several aspects of the process of uptake, translocation and storage of heavy metals in plants. However we can not predict when the technique could find practical application on large scale. Beyond the evaluation of the best suited species, little has been inquired on the multiple aspects of the agronomic management of phytoextraction. This review provides a synthesis of current knowledge on phytoextraction of metals from soils and their accumulation in plants.

  19. [Correlation between multiple antibiotic resistance and heavy-metal tolerance among some E.coli strains isolated from polluted waters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazăr, Veronica; Cernat, Ramona; Balotescu, Carmen; Cotar, Ani; Coipan, Elena; Cojocaru, Cristina

    2002-01-01

    Self-transmissible plasmids conferring multiple antibiotic resistance are wide-spread in coliforms populations. In soil and water, multiple antibiotic resistance is clearly associated with resistance/tolerance to heavy-metals (Hg2+, Cu2+, Pb2+, Zn2+, Ca2+). For different genera the genes for heavy-metals resistance are often plasmid encoded. Since these genes are clustered on the same plasmids, heavy-metals and drugs are environmental factors which exert a selective pressure for the populations of these plasmid-harboring bacteria. The aim of this preliminary study was to find possible correlation between resistance genotype determined by genetic analysis and antibiotic and heavy-metal resistance patterns of 12 E. coli strains isolated from chronically polluted waters. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed for ampicillin, tetracycline, gentamycin, kanamycin, chloramphenicol, ceftazidime and cefotaxime by standard disk diffusion Kirby-Bauer method following NCCLS recommendations. These antibiotics were chosen because of their wide-spread use and importance in the treatment of Gram-negative bacterial infections. MICs values of antibiotics and heavy-metals were determined by dilution method in Mueller-Hinton broth using an inoculum of about 1-2 x 10(8) CFU/ml. The concentration range for antimicrobials and heavy-metals salts (CuSO4, CdCl2, Co(NO3)2, Cr(NO3)3, HgCl2, NiCl2 and ZnSO4) was 0.06-64 [symbol: see text] g/ml, 0.5-256 [symbol: see text] g/ml respectively. Plasmid DNA was isolated from E. coli strains by an alkaline lysis. Genetic characterization was performed by agarose gel electrophoresis and spectrophotometric analysis. All strains are multiple antibiotic resistant, 16% of them being resistant to 3, 4 and 6 antibiotics, 32% to 5 and 8% to all 7 antibiotics, respectively. Multiple tolerance to high levels of Cd2+, Cu2+, Cr3+ and Ni2+ was common among multiple antibioresistant strains. Screening for plasmids relieved the presence of several

  20. Assessment of ammonium, nitrate, phosphate, and heavy metal pollution in groundwater from Amik Plain, southern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ağca, Necat; Karanlık, Sema; Ödemiş, Berkant

    2014-09-01

    Amik Plain is one of the most important agricultural areas of Turkey. Because the groundwater resources have been used not only for irrigation but also for drinking purpose, groundwater resources play a vital role in this area. However, there exist no or a very limited number of studies on groundwater quality and its physicochemical and heavy metal composition for Amik Plain. This study aimed to assess groundwater of Amik Plain in terms of human health and suitability for irrigation based on physicochemical variables, heavy metals, and their spatial distribution. A total of 92 groundwater samples were collected from wells and were analyzed for temperature (T), salt content (SC), dissolved oxygen (DO), ammonium (NH4(+)), nitrate (NO3(-)), and phosphorus (P) and such heavy metals as cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). The temperature, SC, DO, NH4(+), and NO3(-) parameters were measured in situ immediately with YSI Professional plus instrument (Pro Plus). Water depth was taken from owner of the wells. Heavy metal analyses were carried out in triplicate using inductively coupled atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES). The ICP-AES was calibrated for all the metals by running different concentrations of standard solutions. Descriptive statistical analyses were calculated to characterize distribution of physicochemical properties and heavy metal contents of groundwater. Correlation analysis was used to assess the possible relationships among heavy metals and physicochemical properties of the groundwater. Spatial variability in groundwater parameters were determined by geostatistical methods. Result shows that the highest and lowest coefficient of variation occurred for NO3(-) and T, respectively. Mean water table depth was 92.1 m, and only 12 of all the samples exceeded the desirable limit of 50 mg/L for NO3(-) content. The metal concentrations showed a dominance in the order of Fe >

  1. [Assessment of heavy metal pollution in surface sediments of rivers in northern area of Haihe River Basin, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Lin-Yuan; Sun, Ran-Hao; Wang, Zhao-Ming; Ji, Yu-He; Chen, Li-Ding

    2012-02-01

    Using Håkanson potential ecological risk index, the paper assesses heavy metal risk levels in northern parts of Haihe River basin based on 39 sampling sites. The results indicate that, the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Cr in Haihe River basin are higher than the background values of heavy metals in China mainland, while the concentration of Pb is close to the background value in China mainland. Based on the potential ecological risk index for single heavy metal, the risk of Cu, Pb, Zn and Cr belongs to the "slight" level, while Cd has various risk levels at different sampling sites. Generally, the risk order of the heavy metals is Cd > Pb > Cu > Cr > Zn. According to Håkanson potential ecological risk index, 32 monitoring sites belong to "slight" level, 5 sampling sites belong to "middle" level, and 2 monitoring sites belong to "very strong" level. The most polluted sites are Tang River and Dashi River of Beijing, Juma River in Baoding. Therefore, these rivers should be taken more considerations in the river management.

  2. (17) ACCUMULATION OF HEAVY METAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adeyinka Odunsi

    The mean metal content of cassava leaf indicated that all the metals were higher in the leaf at high ... components of petroleum hydrocarbons ..... Atmos. Environ. 40: 5929-5941. Onder, S., Dursun, S., Gezgin, S. and. Demirbas, A. (2007). Determination. Accumulation of heavy metal pollutants on soil microbial population.

  3. Pollution Problem in River Kabul: Accumulation Estimates of Heavy Metals in Native Fish Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of aquatic systems with heavy metals is affecting the fish population and hence results in a decline of productivity rate. River Kabul is a transcountry river originating at Paghman province in Afghanistan and inters in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan and it is the major source of irrigation and more than 54 fish species have been reported in the river. Present study aimed at the estimation of heavy metals load in the fish living in River Kabul. Heavy metals including chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium, and lead were determined through atomic absorption spectrophotometer after tissue digestion by adopting standard procedures. Concentrations of these metals were recorded in muscles and liver of five native fish species, namely, Wallago attu, Aorichthys seenghala, Cyprinus carpio, Labeo dyocheilus, and Ompok bimaculatus. The concentrations of chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, and lead were higher in both of the tissues, whereas the concentration of cadmium was comparatively low. However, the concentration of metals was exceeding the RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowance of USA limits. Hence, continuous fish consumption may create health problems for the consumers. The results of the present study are alarming and suggest implementing environmental laws and initiation of a biomonitoring program of the river.

  4. Novel biopolymer-coated hydroxyapatite foams for removing heavy-metals from polluted water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vila, M.; Sanchez-Salcedo, S.; Cicuendez, M.; Izquierdo-Barba, I. [Inorganic and BioInorganic Chemistry Department, Pharmacy Faculty, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Plaza de Ramon y Cajal s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Biomedical Research Networking Center in Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine, CIBER-BBN (Spain); Vallet-Regi, Maria, E-mail: vallet@farm.ucm.es [Inorganic and BioInorganic Chemistry Department, Pharmacy Faculty, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Plaza de Ramon y Cajal s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Biomedical Research Networking Center in Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine, CIBER-BBN (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} 3D-macroporous biopolymer-coated hydroxyapatite (HA) foams as potential devices for the treatment of heavy metal ions. {yields} HA stable foams coated with biopolymers. {yields} Feasible advance in development of new, easy to handle and low cost water purifying methods. - Abstract: 3D-macroporous biopolymer-coated hydroxyapatite (HA) foams have been developed as potential devices for the treatment of lead, cadmium and copper contamination of consumable waters. These foams have exhibited a fast and effective ion metal immobilization into the HA structure after an in vitro treatment mimicking a serious water contamination case. To improve HA foam stability at contaminated aqueous solutions pH, as well as its handling and shape integrity the 3D-macroporous foams have been coated with biopolymers polycaprolactone (PCL) and gelatine cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (G/Glu). Metal ion immobilization tests have shown higher and fast heavy metals captured as function of hydrophilicity rate of biopolymer used. After an in vitro treatment, foam morphology integrity is guaranteed and the uptake of heavy metal ions rises up to 405 {mu}mol/g in the case of Pb{sup 2+}, 378 {mu}mol/g of Cu{sup 2+} and 316 {mu}mol/g of Cd{sup 2+}. These novel materials promise a feasible advance in development of new, easy to handle and low cost water purifying methods.

  5. Pollution, toxicity, and ecological risk of heavy metals in surface river sediments of a large basin undergoing rapid economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wenzhong; Zhang, Chao; Zhao, Yu; Shan, Baoqing; Song, Zhixin

    2017-05-01

    A comprehensive and detailed investigation of heavy metal pollution, toxicity, and ecological risk assessment was conducted for the surface river sediments of the Haihe Basin in China based on 220 sampling sites selected in 2013. The average concentrations of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the sediments were 129 mg/kg, 63.4 mg/kg, 36.6 mg/kg, 50.0 mg/kg, and 202 mg/kg, respectively. As indicated by the geoaccumulation and pollution load indices, most surface river sediments of the Haihe Basin were contaminated with the investigated metals, especially in the junction region of the Zi Ya He and Hei Long Gang watersheds. The 5 heavy metals in the sediments all had anthropogenic sources, and the enrichment degrees followed the order Cu > Pb > Zn > Cr > Ni, with mean enrichment factors of 3.27, 2.77, 2.58, 1.81, and 1.44, respectively. According to the mean index of comprehensive potential ecological risk (38.9), the studied sediments of the Haihe Basin showed low potential ecological risk, but the sediments were potentially biologically toxic based on the mean probable effect concentration quotient (0.547), which may be the result of speciation of the 5 metals in the sediments. The results indicate that heavy metal pollution should be considered during the development of ecological restoration strategies in the Haihe Basin. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1149-1155. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  6. Wintertime haze deterioration in Beijing by industrial pollution deduced from trace metal fingerprints and enhanced health risk by heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Chi; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Chou, Charles C-K; Zhang, Renjian; Wu, Yunfei; Kao, Shuh-Ji; Luo, Li; Huang, Chao-Hao; Lin, Shuen-Hsin; Huang, Yi-Tang

    2016-01-01

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) was collected in Beijing between 24 February and 12 March 2014 to investigate chemical characteristics and potential industrial sources of aerosols along with health risk of haze events. Results showed secondary inorganic aerosol was the major contributor to PM2.5 during haze days. Utilizing specific elements, including Fe, La, Tl and As, as fingerprinting tracers, four emission sources, namely iron and steel manufacturing, petroleum refining, cement plant, and coal combustion were explicitly identified; their elevated contributions to PM during haze days were also estimated. The average cancer risk from exposure to inhalable PM toxic metals was 1.53 × 10(-4) on haze days, which is one order of magnitude higher than in other developed cities. These findings suggested heavy industries emit large amounts of not only primary PM but also precursor gas pollutants, leading to secondary aerosol formation and harm to human health during haze days. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Integrated use of histological and ultrastructural biomarkers in Mugil cephalus for assessing heavy metal pollution in Ennore estuary, Chennai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arockia Vasanthi, Lourduraj; Revathi, Peranandam; Mini, Jayaprakash; Munuswamy, Natesan

    2013-05-01

    Bioaccumulation of heavy metals and its associated histological perturbations were studied in various tissues of Mugil cephalus collected from Ennore estuary and compared with the fish collected from off-shore region. The concentration of copper, lead, zinc, cadmium, manganese and iron were quantified in gills, liver and muscle. The results showed marked differences between the two sites as well as significant variations within the tissues. The decreasing trend of metals in the tissues of fish sampled from both Ennore estuary and off-shore was in the order of Fe>Mn>Zn>Cu>Pb>Cd. Overall, the highest metal concentrations were found in the fish collected from Ennore estuary. The accumulation in the gills and liver of M. cephalus was found to be quite high in comparison with the muscle. These tissues were further investigated by light and electron microscopy and the results were compared with the reference site (off-shore region). The presence of large lipid droplets in liver and increase of mucous cells in gills were some of the most noticeable alterations observed and were related to heavy metal contaminants. It is concluded that histopathological and ultrastructural biomarkers provide reliable and discriminatory data to augment heavy metal pollution in Ennore estuary. Therefore, long-term monitoring is necessary to assess the eco-health of the Ennore estuarine environment by choosing bio-indicator species like M. cephalus, which provide accurate, reliable measurements of environmental quality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Proper land use for heavy metal-polluted soil based on enzyme activity analysis around a Pb-Zn mine in Feng County, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Linchuan; Liu, Yuqing; Tian, Haixia; Chen, Hansong; Wang, Yunqiang; Huang, Min

    2017-12-01

    Enzymes in the soil are useful for assessing heavy metal soil pollution. We analyzed the activity of a number of enzymes, including urease, protease, catalase, and alkaline phosphatase, in three types of land (farmland, woodland, and grassland) to evaluate soil pollution by heavy metals (Pb, Zn, and Cd). Our results showed that the tested soil was polluted by a combination of Pb, Zn, and Cd, but the primary pollutant was Cd. An ecological dose analysis demonstrated that urease was the most sensitive enzyme to Pb and Cd in the farmland, and catalase and phosphatase were the most sensitive enzymes to Pb, Zn, and Cd in the woodland and grassland. The ecological risk of Cd (E Cd ) was the smallest in all three types of land, suggesting that Cd was the major metal inhibiting enzyme activity. Electrical conductivity (EC) was shown to be a negative regulator, while nitrogen, phosphorus, and clay contents were positive regulators of soil enzyme activity. The total enzyme index (TEI) inhibition rates in the woodland were 22.2 and 38.6% under moderate and heavy pollution, respectively, which were lower than those of the other two types of land. Therefore, woodlands might be the optimum land use choice in relieving heavy metal pollution. Taken together, this study identified the key metal pollutant inhibiting soil enzyme activity and suitable land use patterns around typical metal mine. These results provide possible improvement strategies to the phytomanagement of metal-contaminated land around world.

  9. Heavy metal accumulation and ecosystem engineering by two common mine site-nesting ant species: implications for pollution-level assessment and bioremediation of coal mine soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shbbir R; Singh, Satish K; Rastogi, Neelkamal

    2017-04-01

    The present study focuses on the abundance, heavy metal content, and the impact of ecosystem engineering activities of two coal mine site-inhabiting ant species, Cataglyphis longipedem and Camponotus compressus. The abundance of Ct. longipedem increased while that of C. compressus decreased, with increasing soil pollution. Correspondence analysis reveals a close association between soil heavy metal concentrations and Ct. longipedem abundance, but this association is lacking in the case of C. compressus. Cataglyphis ants which occupy stress-characterized niches appear to be pre-adapted to tolerate heavy metal pollution. Higher concentrations of Zn and Mn in Ct. longipedem may contribute to the strengthening of the cuticular structures, necessary for nest excavation in the hard, arid soil and for single load carrying. C. compressus ants appear to be pollution sensitive. Their higher Fe content may be related to metal uptake via plant-derived liquids and species-specific regulatory mechanisms. The metal pollution index and biota-to-soil accumulation factors, calculated by using the ant body metal content of the two species, indicate an overall decrease of soil heavy metal concentrations with increase of the site age, which reflects the degree of pollution related to the mine site age. The concentrations of total and available heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Mn, Pb, and Cu) were significantly lower in the ant nest debris soil as compared to the reference soil. The results of the present study highlight the role of ants as bioindicators and in bioremediation of contaminated soil.

  10. Relations between metals (Zn, Pb, Cd and Cu) and glutathione-dependent detoxifying enzymes in spiders from a heavy metal pollution gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilczek, Grazyna [Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, University of Silesia, Bankowa 9, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Babczynska, Agnieszka [Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, University of Silesia, Bankowa 9, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Augustyniak, Maria [Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, University of Silesia, Bankowa 9, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Migula, Pawel [Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, University of Silesia, Bankowa 9, 40-007 Katowice (Poland)]. E-mail: migula@us.edu.pl

    2004-12-01

    We studied the relations between glutathione-dependent detoxifying enzymes and heavy metal burdens in the web-building spider Agelena labyrinthica (Agelenidae) and the wolf spider Pardosa lugubris (Lycosidae) from five meadow sites along a heavy metal pollution gradient. We assayed the activity of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidases (GPOX, GSTPx), and glutathione (GSH) levels in both sexes. Except for GSH vs Pb content, we found significant correlations between GPOX and GSTPx activity and metal concentrations in females of A. labyrinthica. The highest activity of these enzymes measured in the web-building spiders was found in the individuals from the most polluted sites. In P. lugubris males significant correlations were found between GST and Pb and Zn concentrations, and between GPOX and GSTPx and the concentration of Cu. GST activity was higher in males collected from less polluted areas. Thus, detoxifying strategies against pollutants seemed to be sex-dependent. Actively hunting spiders had higher metal concentrations, maintaining lower activity of detoxifying enzymes and a lower glutathione level. - Capsule: Glutathione-linked enzyme activity in spiders from polluted areas depends on hunting strategy and sex.

  11. Leaching behavior of heavy metals and transformation of their speciation in polluted soil receiving simulated acid rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shun-an; Zheng, Xiangqun; Chen, Chun

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metals that leach from contaminated soils under acid rain are of increasing concern. In this study, simulated acid rain (SAR) was pumped through columns of artificially contaminated purple soil. Column leaching tests and sequential extraction were conducted for the heavy metals Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn to determine the extent of their leaching as well as to examine the transformation of their speciation in the artificially contaminated soil columns. Results showed that the maximum leachate concentrations of Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn were less than those specified in the Chinese Quality Standards for Groundwater (Grade IV), thereby suggesting that the heavy metals that leached from the polluted purple soil receiving acid rain may not pose as risks to water quality. Most of the Pb and Cd leachate concentrations were below their detection limits. By contrast, higher Cu and Zn leachate concentrations were found because they were released by the soil in larger amounts as compared with those of Pb and Cd. The differences in the Cu and Zn leachate concentrations between the controls (SAR at pH 5.6) and the treatments (SAR at pH 3.0 and 4.5) were significant. Similar trends were observed in the total leached amounts of Cu and Zn. The proportions of Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn in the EXC and OX fractions were generally increased after the leaching experiment at three pH levels, whereas those of the RES, OM, and CAR fractions were slightly decreased. Acid rain favors the leaching of heavy metals from the contaminated purple soil and makes the heavy metal fractions become more labile. Moreover, a pH decrease from 5.6 to 3.0 significantly enhanced such effects.

  12. Comprehensive assessment of heavy metal pollution in topsoil of historical urban park on an example of the Planty Park in Krakow (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gąsiorek, Michał; Kowalska, Joanna; Mazurek, Ryszard; Pająk, Marek

    2017-07-01

    The Historic Centre of Krakow is on the UNESCO World Heritage List and includes the Main Market Square, which is surrounded by the historical Planty Park. Soils in the Planty Park are an example of a green area in an urban environment that is particularly exposed to heavy metal-rich pollution. To assess the relative content of heavy metals and evaluate the sources of the contamination, pollution indices were used: Enrichment Factor (EF), Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo), Nemerow Pollution Index (PINemerow), Potential Ecological Risk (RI), and Contamination Security Index (CSI). Pollution indices were calculated on the base of both reference and local geochemical backgrounds. Sources of heavy metals in soils of Planty Park are related to its historic role as a metallurgy centre, as well as the more recent urban and industrial development of Krakow centre and neighbouring areas. It is concluded that increased accumulation of heavy metals is an effect of growing numbers of emission sources. The variation of each element may not unambiguously reflect the natural or anthropogenic effect on the Planty Park soil cover. In general, the present and historical emission of pollutants and heavy metal-rich contamination has led to a mixed origin of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. Moreover, it can be assumed that the content of Cr and Ni is derived from natural sources. Furthermore, a comparison of the quality of the Planty Park topsoil with the heavy metal content assessment in other urban parks in the world has been presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Transportation and risk assessment of heavy metal pollution in water-soil from the Riparian Zone of Daye Lake, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-quan; Li, Xiu; Zhang, Quan-fa; Li, Qiong; Xiao, Wen-sheng; Wang, Yong-kui; Zhang, Jian-chun; Gai, Xi-guang

    2015-01-01

    Each 20 water samples and soil samples (0-10 cm, 10-20 cm) were collected from the riparian zone of Daye Lake in dry season during March 2013. Heavy metals (Cu, Ph, Cd, Zn) have been detected by flame atomic absorption spectrometric (FAAS). The results showed that the average concentrations of Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn in the water were 7.14, 25.94, 15.72 and 37.58 microg x L(-1), respectively. The concentration of Cu was higher than the five degree of the surface water environment quality standard. The average concentrations of Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn in soil(0-10 cm) were 108.38, 53.92, 3.55, 139.26 mg x kg(-1) in soil (10-20 cm) were 93.00, 51.72, 2.08, 171.00 mg x kg(-1), respectively. The Cd concentrations were higher than the three grade value of the national soil environment quality standard. The transportation of Pb from soil to water was relatively stable, and Zn was greatly influenced by soil property and the surrounding environment from soil to water. The transformation of heavy metal in west riparian zone was higher than that of east riparian zone. The potential environmental risk was relatively high. Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn were dominated by residue fraction of the modified BCR sequential extraction method. The overall migration order of heavy metal element was: Pb > Cu > Cd > Zn. There were stronger transformation and higher environmental pollution risk of Cu, Pb. The index of assessment and potential ecological risk coefficient indicated that heavy metal pollution in soil (0-10 cm) was higher than the soil (10-20 cm), Cd was particularly serious.

  14. Tropidurus torquatus (Squamata: Tropiduridae) as a bioindicator of heavy metal (aluminum and zinc) pollution in Vila Velha, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, Raiza Menezes Venturim; Pim, Fernanda; Júnior, Hermínio Arias Nalini; de Abreu, Adriana Trópia; Pimentel, Elisângela Flavia; de Cerqueira, Lorena Oliveira; Junior, Paulo Dias Ferreira; Endringer, Denise Coutinho

    2018-01-01

    Urbanization is responsible for numerous environmental changes including pollution. Information on the susceptibility of reptiles to environmental contaminants is relatively scarce. Tropidurus torquatus represents a potential bioindicator of heavy metal pollution. Levels of heavy metals in tissues from T. torquatus depend on bioavailability and vary among different populations. The aim of this study was to determine the heavy metal concentration in liver and fat tissue of T. torquatus from three distinct populations in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The study areas included coastal rocky outcrops, dunes, and mountain rocky outcrops; each area had a different climate, vegetation, and level of anthropogenic influence. Fifty-one individuals were captured. Biometrics and sexes were determined, and stomach contents were identified. The tissue samples were digested with nitric acid and analyzed via inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) for aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lithium (Li), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), strontium (Sr), titanium (Ti), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn) contents. The concentration of zinc in Tropidurus torquatus was higher in liver than in fat tissue (432 ± 1380 mg kg -1 ), and that of aluminum was higher in fat tissue (765 ± 1455 mg.kg -1 ). The animals' diet may be related to heavy metal contamination. The study suggests that T. torquatus could be used for soil biomonitoring with liver as a bioindicator for aluminum contamination and fat tissue as a bioindicator for zinc contamination. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  15. ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METAL POLLUTION OF SOILS IN INDUSTRIAL CITIES OF MONGOLIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Kosheleva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents qualitative and quantitative assessment of technogenic anomalies of heavy metals in urban soils of Ulaanbaatar, Darkhan, and Erdenet (Mongolia, including the assessment of background geochemical conditions of the study area and technological specialization of the cities. The research efforts concentrated on identifying spatial geochemical heterogeneity of urban soils depending upon their functional identity. The ecological status of the urban soils was evaluated based on standards accepted in Mongolia.

  16. [Changes in quantity and species composition of streptomycetes associations in soil polluted by heavy metals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hryshko, V M; Syshchykova, O V

    2010-01-01

    High content of Cu, Fe, Cd, Zn, Ni mobile forms in industrial platform technozems of ore-concentrating factory causes a 1.5-6.3-fold decrease of microorganisms total quantity and 3-4 fold decrease of streptomycetes amount. The obtained results are confirmed by the model experience information, in accordance to which the streptomycetes amount decreases 1.8-2.4 times on the 1st and 10th days when CdSO4, Fe2(SO4)3, Ni(NO3)2, CuSO4, ZnSO4, (CH3COO)2Pb.Pb(OH) are brought in chernozem at the maximal concentration of heavy metals. The renewal of common chernozem microbiocenosis quantity under the effect of maximum possible concentration of heavy metals salts (MPC) is observed already on the 30th day of research, while at 5 MPC it is observed--after 90 days, and at 15 MPC--the cenosis homeostasis is violated irreversibly. The dominants of technozems streptomycetes association are S. albocrustosus, S. sporostellatus, S. sporoherbeus, S aerionidulus and S. violobrunneus. The influence of heavy metals blend in the industrial platform technozem results in the decline of streptomycetes variety in the association.

  17. Heavy metal speciation, risk, and bioavailability in the sediments of rivers with different pollution sources and intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wenzhong; Shan, Baoqing; Zhang, Hong; Zhu, Xiaolei; Li, Shanshan

    2016-12-01

    A comprehensive analysis of heavy metal speciation, risk, and bioavailability in the sediments of three rivers in northern China (Shaocun River (SR), Wangyang River (WR), and Xiao River (XR)) was conducted. The results showed that higher pollution input resulting from urbanization and industrialization caused higher heavy metal contents and bioavailable proportion in the studied sediments. Total contents of all studied metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in the sediments of SR, WR, and XR were 270.31, 902.62, and 2367.46 mg/kg, respectively. The average percentages of bioavailable fractions were 31.16, 61.73, and 81.69 %, respectively. Cr, Ni, and Pb were all mainly observed in the B4 (residual) fraction in the studied sediments, with an average percentage of 42.03, 48.19, and 55.08 %, respectively. Cu was mainly observed in the B2 (reducible) fraction (40.53 %). Zn was mainly observed in the B1 (exchangeable/acid soluble/carbonate) fraction (36.01 %), resulting in medium or high risk associated with Zn in the sediments of SR, WR, and XR. Sedimentary heavy metal risk and bioavailability associated with regional urbanization and industrialization should be taken into consideration with respect to the health of aquatic ecosystems.

  18. Sources identification and pollution evaluation of heavy metals in the surface sediments of Bortala River, Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoyong; Juying, Li; Mamat, Zulpiya; QingFu, Ye

    2016-04-01

    The current study focused on the Bortala River - a typical inland river located in an oasis of arid area in northwestern China. The sediment and soil samples were collected from the river and drainage basin. Results showed that: (1) the particle size of the sand fraction of the sediments was 78-697 µm, accounting for 78.82% of the total samples; the average concentrations of eight heavy metals fell within the concentration ranges recommended by the Secondary National Standard of China, while the maximum concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Hg exceeded these standards; (2) results from multivariate statistical analysis indicated that Cu, Ni, As, and Zn originated primarily from natural geological background, while Cd, Pb, Hg and Cr in the sediments originated from human activities; (3) results of the enrichment factor analysis and the geo-accumulation index evaluation showed that Cd, Hg, and Pb were present in the surface sediments of the river at low or partial serious pollution levels, while Zn, Cr, As, Ni, and Cu existed at zero or low pollution levels; (4) calculation of the potential ecological hazards index showed that among the eight tested heavy metals, Cd, Pb, Hg, and Cr were the main potential ecological risk factors, with relative contributions of 25.43%, 22.23%, 21.16%, and 14.87%, respectively; (5) the spatial distribution of the enrichment factors (EF(S)), the Geo-accumulation index (I(geo)), and the potential ecological risk coefficient (E(r)(i)) for eight heavy metals showed that there was a greater accumulation of heavy metals Pb, Cd, and Hg in the sediments of the central and eastern parts of the river. Results of this research can be a reference for the heavy metals pollution prevention, the harmony development of the ecology protection and the economy development of the oases of inland river basin of arid regions of China, Central Asia and also other parts of the world. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Total and Available Heavy Metal Concentrations and Assessment of Soil Pollution Indices in Selected Soils of Zanjan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Taheri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Soil is a hardly renewable natural resource. Although soil degradation, caused by either human activities and natural processes is a relatively slow procedure, but its effects are long lasting and most often, irreversible in the time scale of man's life. Among the most significant soil contaminants resulting from both natural and human sources, heavy metals are more important due to their long- term toxicity effects. For evaluating soil's enrichment rate by heavy metals, a wide and full study of soils background values, including total and available fractions of heavy metal contents should be done. Zanjan province has some great mines and concentrating industries of lead and zinc especially in Angoran, Mahneshan. Unfortunately produced waste materials of these industries spread over the adjacent areas. Investigations showed that accumulation of some heavy metals in vegetables and crops planted in this region had occurred. Therefore, performing some investigations in these polluted areas and assessing pollution rate and heavy metals distribution in arable lands had prime importance. Our goals were: 1 determining the total and available amounts of Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd in the soils of arable lands in polluted areas of Zanjan city, 2 producing the distribution map for the metals mentioned above and 3 calculating pollution indices in the soils. Materials and Methods: The study area was in south west of Zanjan city. For soil sampling, a 1 Km by 1 Km grid defined in ArcGIS software on landuse layer and totally 144 points that placed on agricultural lands, due to our goals, were sampled. For sampling, in a 5m radius around the point we collected some subsamples from depth of 0 - 15 cm, and after mixing the subsamples, finally a 1Kg soil sample prepared and sent to the laboratory. Sampled soils were air dried and were passed through a 2mm sieve. Soils organic matter (OM content and texture were determined by Walkely-Black and Bouyoucos

  20. Determination of Natural and Anthropogenic Factors on Pollution of Heavy Metals in the Central Zanjan (Based on Multivariate Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Afshari

    2017-01-01

    level of 5%. Principle component analysis (PCA and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA were used to classify metals group. Achieving a simple structure and better results interpretation, data rotation in varimax type was conducted in PCA algorithm. Before cluster analysis, data were standardized and subsequently exposed to cluster analysis and plotting dendrogram, Euclidean approach was applied. Results and Discussion Multivariate analysis (PCA, CA and CM have been shown as an efficient tool to identify heavy metals origins, helping us in better data comprehension and interpretation. Results obtained on multivariate analysis approaches might are promising to distinguish polluted area and heavy metals potential origin, in turns indicating soil environmental quality. PCA is known as an efficient method to determine anthropogenic impacts on a spatial scale and it may be essential to specify heavy metals contamination degree in respect to anthropogenic and litogenic contribution. As it illustrated, heavy metals are categorized in three-component model framework, accounting for 67% of total data variations. In rotated component matrix the first PC (PC1, 30% of variance involves Ni, Cr, Co, Mn and Fe, while the second PC (PC2, 19% of variance involves Zn and Pb and eventually the third one (PC3, 18% of variance covers Cu and Cd among others. PC1 can be introduced as geological component because of its less coefficient of variations than others, skewedness less than 1 and normalized data status. It denotes lithogenic distribution of these metals in area. Furthermore,as above mentioned, the average heavy metalconcentrations werefound to be less than calculated background threshold. Because of their increased concentration in soil, high coefficient of variations and very high concentration than background threshold level as well as positive skewedness in heavy metals, PC2 and PC3 can be defined to antropogenical components. Atmospheric precipitation (deposition serves as one of

  1. Mobilization of arsenic and heavy metals from polluted soils by humic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Arturo; Fuentes, Bárbara; Letelier, María Victoria; Cuevas, Jacqueline

    2017-04-01

    The existence of soils contaminated with harmful elements by mining activities is a global environmental concern. The northern part of Chile has several heavy metal contaminated sites due to former copper and gold artisanal mining activities. Therefore, a complete characterization of abandoned sites and the implementation of remediation technologies are of interest for regulators, the industry, and the population. The objective of the study was to test the use of humic acid as a washing treatment to reduce the heavy metal concentration of soil samples impacted by mine waste material. A stratified random sampling was conducted on the target site to determine the physical and chemical composition of mine waste and soil material. The sampling consisted of taking 37 samples at 0-20 cm depths in a 10,000 square-meter area. The samples were dried and sieved at 2 mm. The batch washing experiments were conducted in triplicate at pH 7.0. A 1:10 solid to liquid ratio and three humic acid dose (0, 50, and 100 mg/l) were used. After shaking (24 h, room temperature) and subsequently filtration (0.22 μm), the supernatants were analyzed for heavy metals, redox potential and pH. The heavy metals mobility was assessed using extraction methods before and after treatments. The soils had alkaline pH values, conductivity ranged between 8 and 35 mS/cm, with low organic matter. Total concentrations of Vanadium (V) (10.80 to 175.00 mg/kg), Lead (Pb) (7.31 to 90.10 mg/kg), Antimonium (Sb) (0.83 to 101.00 mg/kg), and Arsenic (As) (9.53 to 2691.00 mg/kg) exceeded several times the EPA`s recommended values for soils. At 100 mg/L HA the removal efficiencies for V, Pb, Sb, and As were 32, 68, 77, and 82% respectively. According to the extraction procedure V, Pb, Sb, and As species are mainly as oxidizable and residual fractions. According to the results, the target mine site is contaminated with harmful elements. It can be concluded that the use of humic acid is a good alternative as a

  2. Total and available heavy metal concentrations in soils of the Thriassio plain (Greece) and assessment of soil pollution indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massas, Ioannis; Kalivas, Dionisios; Ehaliotis, Constantions; Gasparatos, Dionisios

    2013-08-01

    The Thriassio plain is located 25 km west of Athens city, the capital of Greece. Two major towns (Elefsina and Aspropyrgos), heavy industry plants, medium to large-scale manufacturing, logistics plants, and agriculture comprise the main land uses of the studied area. The aim of the present study was to measure the total and available concentrations of Cr, Zn, Ni, Pb, Co, Mn, Ba, Cu, and Fe in the top soils of the plain, and to asses soil contamination by these metals by using the geoaccumulation index (I geo), the enrichment factor (EF), and the availability ratio (AR) as soil pollution indexes. Soil samples were collected from 90 sampling sites, and aqua regia and DTPA extractions were carried out to determine total and available metal forms, respectively. Median total Cr, Zn, Ni, Pb, Co, Mn, Ba, Cu, and Fe concentrations were 78, 155, 81, 112, 24, 321, 834, 38, and 16 × 10(3) mg kg(-1), respectively. The available fractions showed much lower values with medians of 0.4, 5.6, 1.7, 6.9, 0.8, 5.7, 19.8, 2.1, and 2.9 mg kg(-1). Though median total metal concentrations are not considered as particularly high, the I geo and the EF values indicate moderate to heavy soil enrichment. For certain metals such as Cr, Ni, Cu, and Ba, the different distribution patterns between the EFs and the ARs suggest different origin of the total and the available metal forms. The evaluation of the EF and AR data sets for the soils of the two towns further supports the argument that the EFs can well demonstrate the long-term history of soil pollution and that the ARs can adequately portray the recent history of soil pollution.

  3. Estimation of Ecological Compensation Standards for Fallow Heavy Metal-Polluted Farmland in China Based on Farmer Willingness to Accept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Xie

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the context of China’s trial fallow policy; the heavy metal pollution of farmland is addressed via field surveys in Hunan Province, where the fallow policy has been implemented, and in Jiangxi Province, where it has not been implemented. We measured and analyzed willingness to accept (WTA using the contingent valuation method (CVM. The conclusions of this study are as follows: (1 Farmer awareness of heavy metal pollution and pollution sources is higher in Jiangxi Province than in Hunan Province; (2 Ignoring the impact of other factors, the WTA of farmers is 902 (yuan /mu in Jiangxi Province and 902.26 (yuan /mu in Hunan Province. Considering the influence of the basic characteristics of the respondents using the parameter estimation method, the WTA of farmers is 839.34 (yuan/mu in Jiangxi Province and 934.39 (yuan/mu in Hunan Province. There is little difference in WTA between the two provinces, but both estimates are higher than the national compensation standards; (3 The factors that affect the WTA of farmers in Jiangxi Province are gender, education level, average annual income and per capita arable land. The factors that affect the WTA of farmers in Hunan Province are age, education level, family size, average annual income, per capita arable land area and farmer occupation; (4 At present, the means and methods of compensation for the implementation of the fallow policy are recognized by most farmers. The paper concludes with some policy suggestions based on above findings.

  4. An assessment of heavy metal pollution in the East London and Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim was to assess the impact of potential pollution sources, mainly from the cities' formal disposal to the sea, from industry and from dockyard and shipping ... 26.1 to 332.0 mg·g-1 (dry weight) for Zn. In the Port Elizabeth harbour, the concentration of metals in seawaters varied between 0.3 mg·ℓ-1 and 4.0 mg·ℓ-1 for Cd, ...

  5. Heavy metal pollution and Pb isotopes in urban soils of Napoli, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Cicchella, D.; De Vivo, Benedetto; De Lima, A.; Albanese, S; McGill, Rona R.A.; Parrish, Randall R.

    2008-01-01

    Lead isotope analysis is an increasingly widespread tool in the study of environmental pollution as Pb isotope compositions do not change during industrial and environmental processes, and always reflect their source origin. In this study we present the results of R-mode factor analysis for associations between chemical elements in Neapolitan soils, combined with the distribution of Pb concentrations and Pb isotope compositions in order to differentiate natural from anthropogenic metal source...

  6. Risk Assessment and Prediction of Heavy Metal Pollution in Groundwater and River Sediment: A Case Study of a Typical Agricultural Irrigation Area in Northeast China

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    Shuang Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The areas with typical municipal sewage discharge river and irrigation water function were selected as study sites in northeast China. The samples from groundwater and river sediment in this area were collected for the concentrations and forms of heavy metals (Cr(VI, Cd, As, and Pb analysis. The risk assessment of heavy metal pollution was conducted based on single-factor pollution index (I and Nemerow pollution index (NI. The results showed that only one groundwater sampling site reached a polluted level of heavy metals. There was a high potential ecological risk of Cd on the N21-2 sampling site in river sediment. The morphological analysis results of heavy metals in sediment showed that the release of heavy metals can be inferred as one of the main pollution sources of groundwater. In addition, the changes in the concentration and migration scope of As were predicted by using the Groundwater Modeling System (GMS. The predicted results showed that As will migrate downstream in the next decade, and the changing trend of As polluted areas was changed with As content districts because of some pump wells downstream to form groundwater depression cone, which made the solute transfer upstream.

  7. Assessment of Mine Water Quality Using Heavy Metal Pollution Index in a Coal Mining Area of Damodar River Basin, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahato, Mukesh Kumar; Singh, Gurdeep; Singh, Prasoon Kumar; Singh, Abhay Kumar; Tiwari, Ashwani Kumar

    2017-07-01

    A total no. of 16 mine water (underground and opencast coal mine pump discharges) samples were collected from East Bokaro coalfield during pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. The concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, As, Se, Al, Cd and Cr were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the assessment of spatio-temporal variations, source apportionment and heavy metal pollution indexing. The results demonstrated that concentrations of the metals showed significant seasonality and most variables exhibited higher levels in the pre-monsoon season. The principle component analysis for ionic source identification was synthesized into three factors with eigen values cut off at greater than unity and explained about 64.8% of the total variance. The extracted factors seemed to be associated to the geogenic, extensive mining and allied transportation sources of the elements. The heavy metal pollution index (HPI) of the mine water calculated for the individual locations varied from 7.1 to 49.5. Most of the locations fall under low to medium classes of HPI except few locations which are under the influence of surface mining and associated transportation.

  8. [Study on heavy metal contaminations and the sources of Pb pollution in Jinghai Bay using the stable isotope technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lin-Bo; Gao, Qin-Feng; Dong, Shuang-Lin; Liu, Jia; Fu, Xiu-Juan

    2013-02-01

    The concentrations of typical heavy metals including Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn, Mn, Cd, Cr and As in the surface sediment and suspended particulate matter (SPM) in Jinghai Bay, Rongcheng city were tested. The degree of heavy metal pollution in the surface sediment was assessed according to the national standard of marine sediment quality. The potential ecological risk (PER) of heavy metals to marine ecosystem in Jinghai Bay was assessed using PER coefficient and risk index. The results showed that the levels of heavy metals and PER in the surface sediments were low enough to meet the requirement of the first class of the sediment quality standards except the levels of Cu and Zn in the sampling site S2 and Cd in S3, S4, S5 and S6 which met the requirements of the second class of the sediment quality standards. The PER coefficients of heavy metals increased following the sequence of Zn metals in surface sediment and SPM were the highest at S2 and gradually declined with the increasing distance between the sampling sites and the shoreline. The correlation analysis of the loss on ignition (LOI) and the levels of heavy metals showed that LOI was positively correlated to the levels of Cu, Cr, Pb, Zn, Mn, Hg and As in surface sediment. Stable isotope technique was used to trace the dominant sources of Pb contamination in surface sediments and SPM. The results showed that the ratios of 208Ph/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, 206Pb/204Pb and 206pb/207pb in surface sediment were more closely related to that of SPM. The ratio of 206pb/207Pb for both surface sediment and SPM was the lowest at the sampling site S2 and negatively correlated to the Pb concentration. The comparisons of Pb stable isotope ratio between the isotope ratios of natural and anthropogenic source showed that the Pb contamination was mainly derived from the human activities such as industrial discharges and leaded gasoline.

  9. Uptake of heavy metals by Typha capensis from wetland sites polluted by effluent from mineral processing plants: implications of metal-metal interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaranyika, M F; Nyati, W

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present work was to demonstrate the existence of metal-metal interactions in plants and their implications for the absorption of toxic elements like Cr. Typha capensis, a good accumulator of heavy metals, was chosen for the study. Levels of Fe, Cr, Ni, Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn were determined in the soil and roots, rhizomes, stems and leaves of T. capensis from three Sites A, B and C polluted by effluent from a chrome ore processing plant, a gold ore processing plant, and a nickel ore processing plant, respectively. The levels of Cr were extremely high at Site A at 5415 and 786-16,047 μg g-1 dry weight in the soil and the plant, respectively, while the levels of Ni were high at Site C at 176 and 24-891 μg g-1 in the soil and the plant, respectively. The levels of Fe were high at all three sites at 2502-7500 and 906-13,833 μg g-1 in the soil and plant, respectively. For the rest of the metals, levels were modest at 8.5-148 and 2-264 μg g-1 in the soil and plant, respectively. Pearson's correlation analysis confirmed mutual synergistic metal-metal interactions in the uptake of Zn, Cu, Co, Ni, Fe, and Cr, which are attributed to the similarity in the radii and coordination geometry of the cations of these elements. The implications of such metal-metal interactions (or effects of one metal on the behaviour of another) on the uptake of Cr, a toxic element, and possible Cr detoxification mechanism within the plant, are discussed.

  10. Analysis on Heavy Metal Distribution in Overlying Deposit and Pollution Characteristics in Drainage Basin of Xiaojiang River in Dongchuan District, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qianrui; Cheng, Xianfeng; Xu, Jun; Qi, Wufu; Yang, Shuran; Dong, Tao; Zhang, Xiangqun

    2017-12-01

    The distribution characteristics of heavy metal (Cu, Zn, As, Pb and Cd) content in overlying deposit in Xiaojiang River is analyzed in this thesis, and potential ecological risk index is adopted to evaluate the potential ecological risk of heavy metal pollution in the overlying deposit. Results indicate that the heavy metal (Cu, Zn, As, Pb and Cd) content in overlying deposit in Xiaojiang River all has exceeded standard, especially the content near diggings which is much higher than the national first standard value. And this will affect the bottom mud and river system of Jinsha River to some extent. Cu and Cd are the key pollutants and should be taken as the key object of study. It can be seen from comparison between samples in wet season and that in dry season that pollutants in bottom mud will be released due to the effect of pH value, and secondary pollution of the river will be caused.

  11. Diversity of Soil Nematodes in Areas Polluted with Heavy Metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Lanzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gen; Qin, Jie; Shi, Dazhong; Zhang, Yingmei; Ji, Weihong

    2009-07-01

    This study investigated the soil nematode community structure along the Yellow River in the Lanzhou area of China, and analyzed the impact of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu, and Zn) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the nematode community. Soil samples from five locations (named A-E), which were chosen for soil analysis, showed significant differences in their heavy metal content ( p plant parasites ( p plant parasites), plant parasite index (PPI), ΣMI (including all the soil nematodes), Shannon-Wiener diversity index ( H''), and Wasilewska index (WI). Disturbance to the soil environment was more severe when MI, ΣMI, and H' values were lower. The results of the study show that the abundance and structure of the soil nematode communities in the sampling locations were strongly influenced by levels of heavy metals and PAHs in the soil. They also show that the diversity index H' and the maturity index can be valuable tools for assessing the impact of pollutants on nematodes.

  12. Does biodiversity of macroinvertebrates and genome response of Chironomidae larvae (Diptera) reflect heavy metal pollution in a small pond?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michailova, Paraskeva; Warchałowska-Śliwa, Elzbieta; Szarek-Gwiazda, Ewa; Kownacki, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    The investigation was carried out on a small pond situated on a recent mine spoil at Bolesław in the Olkusz region with Zn-Pb ore deposits. Water of the pond had pH 7.2-8.5 and low concentrations of heavy metals. Concentrations of Pb (487 μg g( - 1)) and Zn (1,991 μg g( - 1)) in the sediment were very high and potentially could lead to toxicological effects. In the pond, 48 taxa of macroinvertebrates belonging to Oligochaeta and water stages of Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Megaloptera, Trichoptera, Heteroptera, Coleoptera and Diptera (mainly Chironomidae family) were found. The influence of heavy metals on macroinvertebrates diversity was not found. Effect of heavy metal pollution was observed on the appearance of chromosome aberrations in the polytene chromosomes of Chironomidae larvae. It was manifested by two ways: (1) in Kiefferulus tendipediformis and Chironomus sp. chromosome rearrangements in fixed state (tandem fusion and homozygous inversions), indicated intensive process of speciation; (2) in Chironomus sp., K. tendipediformis, Glyptotendipes gripekoveni (Chironomidae) somatic chromosome rearrangements (inversions, deficiencies, specific puffs, polyploidy) affected few cells of every individual. The somatic functional and structural alterations in Chironomidae species are particular suitable as biomarkers-they can be easily identified and used for detecting toxic agents in the environment.

  13. Removal of heavy metals from polluted soil using the citric acid fermentation broth: a promising washing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongjiao; Gao, Yuntao; Xiong, Huabin

    2017-04-01

    The citric acid fermentation broth was prepared and it was employed to washing remediation of heavy metal-polluted soil. A well-defined washing effect was obtained, the removal percentages using citric acid fermentation broth are that 48.2% for Pb, 30.6% for Cu, 43.7% for Cr, and 58.4% for Cd and higher than that using citric acid solution. The kinetics of heavy metals desorption can be described by the double constant equation and Elovich equation and is a heterogeneous diffusion process. The speciation analysis shows that the citric acid fermentation broth can effectively reduce bioavailability and environmental risk of heavy metals. Spectroscopy characteristics analysis suggests that the washing method has only a small effect on the mineral composition and does not destroy the framework of soil system. Therefore, the citric acid fermentation broth is a promising washing agent and possesses a potential practical application value in the field of remediation of soils with a good washing performance.

  14. Measurement of Pollution Levels Caused by Heavy Metals of Vanadium, Nickel, Lead and Copper Using Bivalve Shells of Timoclea imbricata Species On Bahrakan Coast in Spring 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moosavian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Bivalves have been used to study pollution level caused by heavy metals due to their biological characteristics. Bahrakan region includes Bahrakansar, Hendijan, Norouz and Soroush oil fields, and current information regarding sea management, especially from the protective aspect is very little. Objectives This study aimed to assess region pollution with heavy metals. For this purpose, pollution caused by heavy metals in bivalves was assessed and compared with the standard values. Materials and Methods Bivalve sampling was performed using Grab to determine the pollution content with heavy metals of vanadium, nickel, lead and copper in five different stations on 15 samples (3 samples for each station in spring 2013. The digestion process was completed using the Yap method, then the concentrations of mentioned metals were measured using the ICP device in each of digested samples. Results Nickel (13.12 ± 6.07 mg/kg had the highest total average concentration and the lowest for lead (1.15 ± 0.28 mg/kg. Concentrations of nickel, vanadium and lead were higher than the WHO international standards, but much lower for copper regarding the same standards. Concentrations of nickel and vanadium were higher than copper compared to FAO, but lower than lead regarding the presented allowable limit. Conclusions Nickel and vanadium had the highest concentration among other metals. Since these two metals are used as oil pollution parameters and the region is rich in oil, it can be concluded that oil pollution is present in the region. The existing oil pollution threatens all the living organisms in the area. Therefore, it would be of great importance to examine pollution sources of this region. The results can be used to constantly monitor the amount of heavy metals in bivalves of Timoclea imbricate species in this region.

  15. The evaluation and determination of heavy metals pollution in edible vegetables, water and soil in the south of Tehran province by GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirkhanloo Hamid

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, heavy metals pollutions in waters, soils and vegetables were investigated from farms, near oil refinery in south of Tehran city, Iran (Shahre Ray. The most important heavy metals in Iranian oil are vanadium, cobalt, nickel, arsenic and mercury (V, Co, Ni, As, Hg. In this region, the concentration of heavy metals in soils, well waters and leafy edible vegetables were evaluated in ten different points of farms. Geographic information systems (GIS were used to estimate the levels of heavy metals concentration at unmeasured locations. After sample preparation, concentrations of heavy metals in vegetables, soils and waters were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS. Five different leafy edible vegetables from farms, i.e., Persian leek, dill, parsley, spinach and radish were sampled in spring, summer and autumn 2012. In vegetables and well water samples, the concentrations of V, Ni and Co were above the permissible limit of heavy metals as compared to WHO guidelines and the concentrations of these metals in agricultural soils were found to be lower in accordance to soil references. The industrial waste waters had high concentration of heavy metals in this area. In consequence, the results of this study indicate that industrial waste water can cause pollution in well waters and edible vegetables. So, this region is not suitable for cultivation and growing vegetables.

  16. Heavy metal pollution and potential ecological risks in rivers: a case study from southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protano, Carmela; Zinnà, Loredana; Giampaoli, Saverio; Romano Spica, Vincenzo; Chiavarini, Salvatore; Vitali, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    We monitored heavy metal (As, Cd, Hg, and Pb) concentrations in surface water, sediments, and oligochaetes in four major rivers in Calabria (southern Italy) over the course of 1 year. As, Cd, and Pb showed accumulation factors of 10(3)-10(5) for water to sediment and 1-10 for sediment to oligochaetes. Hg showed a water to sediment accumulation factor of 10-100. Finally, Hg concentrations exceeded the Italian quality standard for freshwater in all of the rivers, and As concentrations in sediments exceeded the respective Canadian standard. However, the application of an ecological risk assessment method indicated low risks for all monitored rivers.

  17. A comparative study of heavy metal accumulation and antioxidant responses in Vaccinium myrtillus L. leaves in polluted and non-polluted areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandziora-Ciupa, Marta; Ciepał, Ryszard; Nadgórska-Socha, Aleksandra; Barczyk, Gabriela

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore a possible relationship between the availability of metals in soil (Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn) and their concentrations in leaves of Vaccinium myrtillus L. as a species which has been reported to be a successful colonist of acid-and-heavy metal-contaminated soil. Analysis also concerned the antioxidant response of plants from three heavily polluted (immediate vicinity of: zinc smelter, iron smelter and power plant) and three relatively clean sites (nature reserve, ecological site and unprotected natural forest community) in southern Poland. The contents of glutathione, non-protein thiols, protein, proline and activity of guaiacol peroxidase in leaves of bilberry were measured. Generally, the concentrations of metals in the HNO3 and CaCl2 extracants of the soil from the polluted sites were higher. Moreover, the antioxidant responses were also elevated in bilberries in the polluted sites. Significant positive relationships between Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations in soil and in the plants were found. In the leaves of V. myrtillus from the polluted sites, higher concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn were noted (In Miasteczko Śląskie respectively 6.26, 157.09 and 207.17 mg kg(-1) d.w.). We found a positive correlation between the increase in the NPTs and protein contents as well as the Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations in V. myrtillus. Cd, Pb and Zn also decreased guaiacol peroxidase activity. However, the activity of this enzyme increased under Fe. A decreasing trend in glutathione contents was observed with increasing iron and manganese concentrations in bilberry leaves. Parameters such as protein, non-protein -SH groups and changes in GPX activity seem to be universal, sensitive and correlated well with heavy metal stress.

  18. Biosorption of heavy metals in polluted water, using different waste fruit cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly-Vargas, Kevin; Cerro-Lopez, Monica; Reyna-Tellez, Silvia; Bandala, Erick R.; Sanchez-Salas, Jose Luis

    The biosorption capacity of different cortex fruit wastes including banana (Musa paradisiaca), lemon (Citrus limonum) and orange (Citrus sinensis) peel were evaluated. In order to perform these experiments, grinded dried cortexes were used as package in 100 mm high, 10 mm i.d. columns. The grinded material was powdered in a mortar and passed through a screen in order to get two different particle sizes, 2 and 1 mm, for all powders. To estimate the biosorption capabilities of the tested materials, different heavy metals were passed through the columns and the elution filtrate reloaded different times to increase the retention of metals. The heavy metals used were prepared as synthetic samples at 10 mg/L of Pb(NO3)2, Cd(NO3)2, and Cu(NO3)2·6H2O using primary standards. In preliminary experiments using banana cortex, it was found that material with 1 mm of particle size showed higher retention capability (up to12%) than the material with 2 mm of particle size. Considering these results, 1 mm particle size material was used in further experiments with the other waste materials. It was found that for Pb and Cu removal, lemon and orange cortex showed better biosorption capability when compared with banana cortex (up to 15% less for Pb and 48% less for Cu). For Cd, banana cortex showed better biosorption capability 57% (67.2 mg/g of cortex) more than orange (28.8 mg/g of cortex), and 82% more than lemon (12 mg/g of cortex). Reload of the columns with the filtrate after passing through the column improved the removal capability of all the materials tested from 10% to 50% depending on the cortex and metal tested.

  19. Changes in the ecological and biological properties of ordinary chernozems polluted by heavy metals of the second hazard class (Mo, Co, Cr, and Ni)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikov, S. I.; Evreinova, A. V.; Kazeev, K. Sh.; Val'Kov, V. F.

    2009-08-01

    The pollution of ordinary chernozems by heavy metals of the second hazard class (Mo, Co, Cr, and Ni) results in a decrease in the numbers of saprotrophic bacteria and fungi and bacteria of the Azotobacter genus; the catalase and invertase activities and the rates of the cellulose and urea decomposition also decrease. The soil phytotoxicity becomes higher. With respect to their ecological hazard, the studied heavy metals may be arranged into the following sequence: Cr > Co ≥ Ni > Mo.

  20. Local to regional scale industrial heavy metal pollution recorded in sediments of large freshwater lakes in central Europe (lakes Geneva and Lucerne) over the last centuries

    OpenAIRE

    Thevenon F; Graham ND; Chiaradia M; Arpagaus P; Wildi W; Pote J

    2011-01-01

    This research first focuses on the spatial and temporal patterns of heavy metals from contrasting environments (highly polluted to deepwater sites) of Lake Geneva. The mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) records from two deepwater sites show that the heavy metal variations before the industrial period are primarily linked to natural weathering input of trace elements. By opposition the discharge of industrial treated wastewaters into Vidy Bay of Lake Geneva during the second part of the 20th century i...

  1. Local to regional scale industrial heavy metal pollution recorded in sediments of large freshwater lakes in central Europe (lakes Geneva and Lucerne) over the last centuries

    OpenAIRE

    Thevenon F; Graham ND; Chiaradia M; Arpagaus P; Wildi W; Pote J

    2011-01-01

    This research first focuses on the spatial and temporal patterns of heavy metals from contrasting environments (highly polluted to deepwater sites) of Lake Geneva. The mercury and lead (Pb) records from two deepwater sites show that the heavy metal variations before the industrial period are primarily linked to natural weathering input of trace elements. By opposition the discharge of industrial treated wastewaters into Vidy Bay of Lake Geneva during the second part of the 20th century involv...

  2. Testing applicability of black poplar (Populus nigra L.) bark to heavy metal air pollution monitoring in urban and industrial regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlizov, A N; Blum, O B; Filby, R H; Malyuk, I A; Tryshyn, V V

    2007-01-01

    A comparative study of the capabilities of black poplar-tree (Populus nigra L.) bark as a biomonitor of atmospheric heavy-metal pollution is reported. Performance indicators (concentrations and enrichment factors) of heavy metal bioaccumulation of bark were compared to the corresponding indicators of epiphytic lichens Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr. and Physcia adscendens (Fr.) H. Oliver, collected simultaneously with bark samples within the Kiev urban-industrial conurbation. The concentrations of 40 minor and trace elements in the samples were measured by a combination of epithermal and instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) using a 10 MW nuclear research reactor WWR-M as the neutron source. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out using non-parametric tests. It was shown that for the majority of the elements determined a good correlation exists between their concentrations in bark and in the lichen species. The accumulation capability of the bark was found to be as effective as, and in some cases better, for both types of lichens. Based on the background levels and variations of the elemental concentration in black poplar-tree bark, threshold values for the enrichment factors were established. For a number of elements (As, Au, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, La, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sb, Sm, Ti, Th, U, V, W) an interspecies calibration was performed. An optimized pre-irradiation treatment of the bark sample was employed which efficiently separated the most informative external layer from the deeper layers of the bark and thus minimized variations of the element concentrations. Results of this study support black poplar-tree bark as an alternative to epiphytic lichens for heavy metal air pollution monitoring in urban and industrial regions, where severe environmental conditions may result in scarcity or even lack of the indicator species.

  3. SEDIMENTS POLLUTION WITH HEAVY METALS. CASE STUDY: BAIA MARE MINING AREA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PIŞTEA IOANA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to assess the degree of sediments contamination with heavy metals. In December 2013, 8 sediments samples were collected from several areas from Baia Mare. Each of the collected sediment samples was analyzed for pH, redox potential (ORP, electrical conductivity (EC, total dissolved solids (TDS and salinity with a portable multiparameter (WTW 3210i. In laboratory, using an ICP-OES, all the sediment samples were analyzed for iron (Fe, nickel (Ni, chromium (Cr, cobalt (Co, copper (Cu, zinc (Zn, cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb, and manganese (Mn.According to Romanian legislation the level of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn exceeded the maximum permissible limit (0.8 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg, 85 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg.Heavy metals are not removed from aquatic ecosystem by self purification and they can accumulate in suspanded particulates and sediments, as a consequence they are a real threath for the human health and ecosystem via food chain accumulation.

  4. Acclimation of poplar trees to heavy metals in polluted habitats: l. Carbohydrate metabolism in fine roots of Populus deltoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Lorenc-Plucińska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of total nonstructural carbohydrates (TNC, soluble carbohydrates, starch, sucrose, glucose, fructose, raffinose, galactose, stachyose, mannitol and specific activities of soluble acid (AI and neutral (NI invertases, sucrose synthase (SuSy, hexokinase (HK, fructokinase (FK, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH were analyzed in fine roots of Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh growing at a polluted site (near copper smelters and a control site (free from heavy pollution. Also chemical properties of the soil from both sites were assessed. In comparison with the control, fine roots from the polluted site contained greater concentrations of TNC, soluble sugars, starch and sucrose but less hexoses, so they had higher values of sucrolysis index (sucrose/hexoses. The activity of AI, NI and SuSy declined insignificantly, while specific activities of HK, FK, GAPDH and G6PDH were significantly inhibited. The results suggest that a long-term heavy metal stress leads to an accumulation of carbohydrates and altering activities of glycolysis and the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway in fine roots.

  5. Heavy metals precipitation in sewage sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchioretto, M.M.; Rulkens, W.H.; Bruning, H.

    2005-01-01

    There is a great need for heavy metal removal from strongly metal-polluted sewage sludges. One of the advantages of heavy metal removal from this type of sludge is the possibility of the sludge disposal to landfill with reduced risk of metals being leached to the surface and groundwater. Another

  6. A water quality management strategy for regionally protected water through health risk assessment and spatial distribution of heavy metal pollution in 3 marine reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yinan; Chu, Chunli; Li, Tong; Xu, Shengguo; Liu, Lei; Ju, Meiting

    2017-12-01

    Severe water pollution and resource scarcity is a major problem in China, where it is necessary to establish water quality-oriented monitoring and intelligent watershed management. In this study, an effective watershed management method is explored, in which water quality is first assessed using the heavy metal pollution index and the human health risk index, and then by classifying the pollution and management grade based on cluster analysis and GIS visualization. Three marine reserves in Tianjin were selected and analyzed, namely the Tianjin Ancient Coastal Wetland National Nature Reserve (Qilihai Natural Reserve), the Tianjin DaShentang Oyster Reef National Marine Special Reserve (DaShentang Reserve), and the Tianjin Coastal Wetland National Marine Special Reserve (BinHai Wetland Reserve) which is under construction. The water quality and potential human health risks of 5 heavy metals (Pb, As, Cd, Hg, Cr) in the three reserves were assessed using the Nemerow index and USEPA methods. Moreover, ArcGIS10.2 software was used to visualize the heavy metal index and display their spatial distribution. Cluster analysis enabled classification of the heavy metals into 4 categories, which allowed for identification of the heavy metals whose pollution index and health risks were highest, and, thus, whose control in the reserve is a priority. Results indicate that heavy metal pollution exists in the Qilihai Natural Reserve and in the north and east of the DaShentang Reserve; furthermore, human health risks exist in the Qilihai Natural Reserve and in the BinHai Wetland Reserve. In each reserve, the main factor influencing the pollution and health risk were high concentrations of As and Pb that exceed the corresponding standards. Measures must be adopted to control and remediate the pollutants. Furthermore, to protect the marine reserves, management policies must be implemented to improve water quality, which is an urgent task for both local and national governments. Copyright

  7. Biomarkers of oxidative stress in rat for assessing toxicological effects of heavy metal pollution in river water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Utkarsh A; Prabhakar, P V; Rao, G Sankara; Rao, Pasham Rajasekhar; Sandeep, K; Rahman, M F; Kumari, S Indu; Grover, Paramjit; Khan, Haseeb A; Mahboob, M

    2015-09-01

    Increasing use of heavy metals in various fields, their environmental persistency, and poor regulatory efforts have significantly increased their fraction in river water. We studied the effect of Musi river water pollution on oxidative stress biomarkers and histopathology in rat after 28 days repeated oral treatment. River water analysis showed the presence of Zn and Pb at mg/l concentration and Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sn, and Sb at μg/l concentration. River water treatment resulted in a dose-dependent accumulation of metals in rat organs, being more in liver followed by kidney and brain. Metal content in both control and low-dose group rat organs was below limit of detection. However, metal bioaccumulation in high- and medium-dose group organs as follows: liver-Zn (21.4 & 14.5 μg/g), Cu (8.3 & 3.6 μg/g), and Pb (8.2 & 0.4 μg/g); kidney-Zn (16.2 & 7.9 μg/g), Cu (3.5 & 1.4 μg/g), Mn (2.9 & 0.5 μg/g), and Pb (2.6 & 0.5 μg/g); and brain-Zn (2.4 & 1.1 μg/g), and Ni (1 & 0.3 μg/g). These metals were present at high concentrations in respective organs than other metals. The increased heavy metal concentration in treated rat resulted significant increase in superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S transferase enzymes activity, and lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner. However, glutathione content and catalase activity were significantly decreased in treated rat organs. Histopathological examination also confirmed morphological changes in rat organs due to polluted river water treatment. In conclusion, the findings of this study clearly indicate the oxidative stress condition in rat organs due to repeated oral treatment of polluted Musi river water.

  8. New biodegradable organic-soluble chelating agents for simultaneous removal of heavy metals and organic pollutants from contaminated media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullmann, Amos, E-mail: Ullmann@eng.tau.ac.il [Faculty of Engineering, School of Mechanical Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Brauner, Neima; Vazana, Shlomi; Katz, Zhanna [Faculty of Engineering, School of Mechanical Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Goikhman, Roman [The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, The Robert H. Smith, Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Rehovot (Israel); Seemann, Boaz; Marom, Hanit [School of Chemistry, Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Gozin, Michael, E-mail: cogozin@gmail.com [School of Chemistry, Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • New soil remediation process using phase transition of partially miscible solvents. • Design and synthesis of new bio-degradable, organic soluble chelating agents. • Feasibility tests of the process on authentically polluted sediments and sludge. • Simultaneous removal of toxic metals and organic pollutants was demonstrated. -- Abstract: Advanced biodegradable and non-toxic organic chelators, which are soluble in organic media, were synthesized on the basis of the S,S-ethylenediamine-disuccinate (S,S-EDDS) ligand. The modifications suggested in this work include attachment of a lipophilic hydrocarbon chain (“tail”) to one or both nitrogen atoms of the S,S-EDDS. The new ligands were designed and evaluated for application in the Sediments Remediation Phase Transition Extraction (SR-PTE) process. This novel process is being developed for the simultaneous removal of both heavy metals and organic pollutants from contaminated soils, sediments or sludge. The new chelators were designed to bind various target metal ions, to promote extraction of these ions into organic solvents. Several variations of attached tails were synthesized and tested. The results for one of them, N,N′-bis-dodecyl-S,S-EDDS (C24-EDDS), showed that the metal-ligand complexes are concentrated in the organic-rich phase in the Phase Transition Extraction process (more than 80%). Preliminary applications of the SR-PTE process with the C24-EDDS ligand were conducted also on actually contaminated sludge (field samples). The extraction of five toxic metals, namely, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn was examined. In general, the extraction performance of the new ligand was not less than that of S,S-EDDS when a sufficient ligand-to-extracted ion ratio (about 4:1 was applied.

  9. Impacts from Land Use Pattern on Spatial Distribution of Cultivated Soil Heavy Metal Pollution in Typical Rural-Urban Fringe of Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenbo; Wang, Dongyan; Wang, Qing; Liu, Shuhan; Zhu, Yuanli; Wu, Wenjun

    2017-03-22

    Under rapid urban sprawl in Northeast China, land conversions are not only encroaching on the quantity of cultivated lands, but also posing a great threat to black soil conservation and food security. This study's aim is to explore the spatial relationship between comprehensive cultivated soil heavy metal pollution and peri-urban land use patterns in the black soil region. We applied spatial lag regression to analyze the relationship between PLI (pollution load index) and influencing factors of land use by taking suburban cultivated land of Changchun Kuancheng District as an empirical case. The results indicate the following: (1) Similar spatial distribution characteristics are detected between Pb, Cu, and Zn, between Cr and Ni, and between Hg and Cd. The Yitong River catchment in the central region, and the residential community of Lanjia County in the west, are the main hotspots for eight heavy metals and PLI. Beihu Wetland Park, with a larger-area distribution of ecological land in the southeast, has low level for both heavy metal concentrations and PLI values. Spatial distribution characteristics of cultivated heavy metals are related to types of surrounding land use and industry; (2) Spatial lag regression has a better fit for PLI than the ordinary least squares regression. The regression results indicate the inverse relationship between heavy metal pollution degree and distance from long-standing residential land and surface water. Following rapid urban land expansion and a longer accumulation period, residential land sprawl is going to threaten cultivated land with heavy metal pollution in the suburban black soil region, and cultivated land irrigated with urban river water in the suburbs will have a higher tendency for heavy metal pollution.

  10. Heavy metal pollution induced due to coal mining effluent on surrounding aquatic ecosystem and its management through naturally occurring aquatic macrophytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, V.K.; Upadhyaya, A.R.; Pandey, S.K.; Tripathi, B.D. [Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India)

    2008-03-15

    Three aquatic plants Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhhiza were used in laboratory for the removal of heavy metals from the coal mining effluent. Plants were grown singly as well as in combination during 21 days phytoremediation experiment. Results revealed that combination of E. crassipes and L. minor was the most efficient for the removal of heavy metals while E. crassipes was the most efficient in monoculture. Significant correlations between metal concentration in final water and macrophytes were obtained. Translocation factor i.e. ratio of shoot to root metal concentration revealed that metals were largely retained in the roots of aquatic macrophytes. Analytical results showed that plant roots have accumulated heavy metals approximately 10 times of its initial concentration. These plants were also subjected to toxicity assessment and no symptom of metal toxicity was found therefore, this method can be applied on the large scale treatment of waste water where volumes generated are very high and concentrations of pollutants are low.

  11. A method to assess the evolution and recovery of heavy metal pollution in estuarine sediments: Past history, present situation and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bárcena, Javier F; Claramunt, Inigo; García-Alba, Javier; Pérez, María Luisa; García, Andrés

    2017-11-15

    A methodology to assess the historical evolution and recovery of heavy metal pollution in estuarine sediments was developed and is presented here. This approach quantifies the distribution of heavy metals in sediment cores, and investigates the influence of anthropogenic activities and/or core locations on the heavy metal pollution, by proposing and using sediment quality indices and polynomial regressions. The method has been applied to the Suances Estuary confirming its suitability as a comprehensive and practical management tool. In this estuary, the evolution of heavy metal pollution (since 1997-1998 to 2015) pointed out the deeper the sediments, the more polluted, indicating a recovery at the upper layers due to the closure and ending of washing discharges from mining, and the reduction of metal loads from industrial wastewaters. In terms of global pollution, the intertidal and subtidal sediments will require 43.1±2.8 and 8.6±0.6years to be unpolluted, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Oxidative stress on land snail Helix aspersa as a sentinel organism for ecotoxicological effects of urban pollution with heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Halim, K Y; Abo El-Saad, A M; Talha, M M; Hussein, A A; Bakry, N M

    2013-10-01

    The oxidative stress in the digestive gland of the land snail Helix aspersa was considered as a bioindicator for atmospheric pollution with heavy metals from several industries and vehicular traffic in Kafr El-Zayat city. Regional means of heavy metals concentration of all sites were 0.71, 7.09, 0.71, 2.68, 41.44 and 18.01 mg kg(-1) wet mass for Cd, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn and Cu, respectively. In addition, the highest values of Cd concentrations were found 1.22 and 1.73 mg kg(-1) wet mass in S1 (Potato International Center) and S4 (The Nile bank), respectively. Lactate dehydrogenase (D-LDH(and recorded lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were significantly high in S1 and S2 (Traffic station). On the other hand, the highest activity of catalase (CAT) was found in S2 (194.04% of control), while the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) reached the highest significant value in S1. As a matter of fact, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities were significantly higher in polluted sites than in reference zone. In contrast, the glutathione (GSH) concentration of exposed animals showed significant decrease in all sites, with the lowest value in S1 (57.61% of control). However, metallothioneins concentration (MT) showed no significant difference in all sites except in S1 which accounted for 127.81% of control. Therefore, the overall results of this study showed the importance of H. aspersa as a sentinel organism for biomonitoring the biologic impact of atmospheric pollution in urban areas. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Relationship between heavy metals pollution and genetic diversity in Mediterranean populations of the sandhopper Talitrus saltator (Montagu) (Crustacea, Amphipoda)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ungherese, G.; Mengoni, A.; Somigli, S. [Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica ' Leo Pardi' , Universita degli studi di Firenze, Via Romana 17, 50125 Firenze (Italy); Baroni, D.; Focardi, S. [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali ' G. Sarfatti' , Universita degli studi di Siena, Via Mattioli 4, 53100 Siena (Italy); Ugolini, A., E-mail: alberto.ugolini@unifi.i [Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica ' Leo Pardi' , Universita degli studi di Firenze, Via Romana 17, 50125 Firenze (Italy)

    2010-05-15

    Trace metals are one of the groups of pollutants that reduce genetic variability in natural populations, causing the phenomenon known as 'genetic erosion'. In this study we evaluate the relationship between trace metals contamination (Hg, Cd and Cu) and genetic variability, assessed using fluorescent Inter-Simple Sequence Repeats (fISSRs). We used eight populations of a well-established biomonitor of trace metals on sandy beaches: the amphipod Talitrus saltator. The trace metals analysis confirmed the ability of sandhoppers to accumulate Hg, Cd and Cu. Moreover, populations from sites with high Hg availability had the lowest values of genetic diversity. Our results validate the use of fISSR markers in genetic studies in sandhoppers and support the 'genetic erosion' hypothesis by showing the negative influence of Hg contamination on sandhopper genetic diversity. Therefore, genetic variability assessed with fISSR markers could be successfully employed as a biomarker of Hg exposure. - Genetic variability of sandhoppers is affected by heavy metals contamination.

  14. Heavy Metal Pollution of Lakes along the Mid-Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River in China: Intensity, Sources and Spatial Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Haiao; Wu, Jinglu

    2013-01-01

    Lakes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River form a shallow lake group unique in the World that is becoming increasingly polluted by heavy metals. Previous studies have largely focused on individual lakes, with limited exploration of the regional pattern of heavy metal pollution of the lake group in this area. This paper explores the sources, intensity and spatial patterns of heavy metal pollution of lake sediments. A total of 45 sample lakes were selected and the concentrations of key metal elements in the sediments of each lake were measured. The cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA) and Geo-accumulation index (Ig) analysis permitted analysis of the source and pollution intensity of the target lakes. Results suggested a notable spatial variation amongst the sample lakes. Lakes in the upper part of the lower reach of the Yangtze River surrounded by typical urban landscapes were strongly or extremely polluted, with high concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd in their sediments. This was attributed to large amount of untreated industrial discharges and municipal sewage produced within the lake catchments. In contrast, the heavy-metal pollution of lakes in the Taihu Delta area was notably lower due to industrial restructuring and implementation of effective environmental protection measures. Lakes along the middle reach of Yangtze River surrounded by agricultural areas were unpolluted to moderately polluted by heavy metals overall. Our results suggested that lakes in the central part of China require immediate attention and efforts should be made to implement management plans to prevent further degradation of water quality in these lakes. PMID:23442559

  15. Heavy Metal Pollution of Lakes along the Mid-Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River in China: Intensity, Sources and Spatial Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiao Zeng

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Lakes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River form a shallow lake group unique in the World that is becoming increasingly polluted by heavy metals. Previous studies have largely focused on individual lakes, with limited exploration of the regional pattern of heavy metal pollution of the lake group in this area. This paper explores the sources, intensity and spatial patterns of heavy metal pollution of lake sediments. A total of 45 sample lakes were selected and the concentrations of key metal elements in the sediments of each lake were measured. The cluster analysis (CA, principal component analysis (PCA and Geo-accumulation index (Ig analysis permitted analysis of the source and pollution intensity of the target lakes. Results suggested a notable spatial variation amongst the sample lakes. Lakes in the upper part of the lower reach of the Yangtze River surrounded by typical urban landscapes were strongly or extremely polluted, with high concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd in their sediments. This was attributed to large amount of untreated industrial discharges and municipal sewage produced within the lake catchments. In contrast, the heavy-metal pollution of lakes in the Taihu Delta area was notably lower due to industrial restructuring and implementation of effective environmental protection measures. Lakes along the middle reach of Yangtze River surrounded by agricultural areas were unpolluted to moderately polluted by heavy metals overall. Our results suggested that lakes in the central part of China require immediate attention and efforts should be made to implement management plans to prevent further degradation of water quality in these lakes.

  16. Heavy metal pollution of lakes along the mid-lower reaches of the Yangtze River in China: intensity, sources and spatial patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Haiao; Wu, Jinglu

    2013-02-26

    Lakes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River form a shallow lake group unique in the World that is becoming increasingly polluted by heavy metals. Previous studies have largely focused on individual lakes, with limited exploration of the regional pattern of heavy metal pollution of the lake group in this area. This paper explores the sources, intensity and spatial patterns of heavy metal pollution of lake sediments. A total of 45 sample lakes were selected and the concentrations of key metal elements in the sediments of each lake were measured. The cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA) and Geo-accumulation index (I(g)) analysis permitted analysis of the source and pollution intensity of the target lakes. Results suggested a notable spatial variation amongst the sample lakes. Lakes in the upper part of the lower reach of the Yangtze River surrounded by typical urban landscapes were strongly or extremely polluted, with high concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd in their sediments. This was attributed to large amount of untreated industrial discharges and municipal sewage produced within the lake catchments. In contrast, the heavy-metal pollution of lakes in the Taihu Delta area was notably lower due to industrial restructuring and implementation of effective environmental protection measures. Lakes along the middle reach of Yangtze River surrounded by agricultural areas were unpolluted to moderately polluted by heavy metals overall. Our results suggested that lakes in the central part of China require immediate attention and efforts should be made to implement management plans to prevent further degradation of water quality in these lakes.

  17. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in wetland soils from the young and old reclaimed regions in the Pearl River Estuary, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Junhong; Xiao, Rong; Cui, Baoshan; Zhang, Kejiang; Wang, Qinggai; Liu, Xinhui; Gao, Haifeng; Huang, Laibin

    2011-03-01

    Soils were sampled in three types of wetlands from the young (A) and old (B) reclaimed regions of the Pearl River Estuary. They were analyzed for total concentrations of heavy metals to investigate their distributions and pollution levels in both regions. Results showed that most heavy metals in ditch and riparian wetlands did not significantly differ from those in reclaimed wetlands in A region, while significantly lower for Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in reclaimed wetlands in B region, suggesting higher effects of long-term reclamation. Iron, Cr and Cu were identified as metal pollutants of primary concern and had higher contributions to the total toxic units compared to other metals. Almost all metals exceeded their lowest effect levels and Fe and Cr even exceeded the severe effect levels. Multivariate analysis shows that Fe and Mn are controlled by parent rocks and other metals mainly originate from anthropogenic source. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals, metalloids, and chlorine in ectomycorrhizae from smelter-polluted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejpková, Jaroslava; Gryndler, Milan; Hršelová, Hana; Kotrba, Pavel; Řanda, Zdeněk; Synková, Iva; Borovička, Jan

    2016-11-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi contribute to the survival of host trees on metal-rich soils by reducing the transfer of toxic metals into roots. However, little is known about the ability of ECM fungi to accumulate elements in ectomycorrhizae (ECMs). Here we report Ag, As, Cd, Cl, Cu, Sb, V, and Zn contents in wild-grown Norway spruce ECMs collected in a smelter-polluted area at Lhota near Příbram, Czech Republic. The ECMs data were compared with the element concentrations determined in the corresponding non-mycorrhizal fine roots, soils, and soil extracts. Bioaccumulation factors were calculated to differentiate the element accumulation ability of ECMs inhabited by different mycobionts, which were identified by ITS rDNA sequencing. Among the target elements, the highest contents were observed for Ag, Cl, Cd, and Zn; Imleria badia ECMs showed the highest capability to accumulate these elements. ECMs of Amanita muscaria, but not of other species, accumulated V. The analysis of the proportions of I. badia and A. muscaria mycelia in ECMs by using species-specific quantitative real-time PCR revealed variable extent of the colonization of roots, with median values close to 5% (w/w). Calculated Ag, Cd, Zn and Cl concentrations in the mycelium of I. badia ECMs were 1 680, 1 510, 2 670, and 37,100 mg kg-1 dry weight, respectively, indicating substantial element accumulation capacity of hyphae of this species in ECMs. Our data strengthen the idea of an active role of ECM fungi in soil-fungal-plant interactions in polluted environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Spatial distribution of heavy hydrocarbons, PAHs and metals in polluted areas. The case of "Galicia", Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, D; Chianese, E; Riccio, A; Delgado-Sanchez, A; Lacorte, S

    2017-08-15

    The aim of this work is to verify the impact of anthropogenic activities and the effects of accidental events, e.g. oil spills, on the marine environment. For this reason, marine sediments and soil samples were collected in the inner part of Vigo and Pontevedra bays, in the Galicia region, northwest Spain, an area interested by many events of oil spills and also characterized by coastal areas with intense anthropic activities; also Cíes Islands, a natural protected area facing the Vigo bay, was investigated, as background site. PAHs, heavy hydrocarbons and metals were analyzed according to standard methods, in order to satisfy quality assurance and quality check constraints. Total PAHs concentration (Σ 16 compounds) were in the range of 25-4000ng/g, and 30-800ng/g for marine sediments and soil samples, respectively. Even some samples from the Cíes Islands, show a contamination with values achieving >200ng/g of PAHs. Although contamination levels have been shown to be strong at several locations in the study area, their ranges are those typical of other estuarine sites, with PAHs and hydrocarbons primarily of pyrolytic origin. This observation was further confirmed by enrichment factors of some metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) that match to those of harbor and shipyard zones of the main industrial and commercial maritime areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of Some Physiochemical Parameters and Heavy Metal Contamination in Hara Biosphere Reserve, Iran, Using a New Pollution Index Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Zarei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pollution of the aquatic environment with heavy metals has become a worldwide problem during recent years, due to their potential toxic effects and ability to bio-accumulate in aquatic ecosystems. Heavy metals are sensitive indicators for monitoring changes in the aquatic environment. Methods: In this study, total concentrations of Cr, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Fe were measured in water and sediments from nine sites, based on ecological conditions and human activities and the effects of sediment pH and sediment organic matter on bioavailability of selected metals were determined. Modified degree of contamination (mCd was computed in order to determine anthropogenically derived sediment contamination. Results: Mean concentration of metals in water found to be in the following order: Pb > Fe > Zn > Cu > Cr, while in sediment samples it was Fe > Cr > Zn > Pb > Cu. The average content of examined metals in water was higher than the chronic values in marine surface water guideline values. Mean content of Cr, Pb and Fe in sediments were higher than average of the less contaminated sample but Cu and Zn were lower than this guideline value. In the study area, mCd values were less than 1.5 with values ranging from 0.71 to 1.02. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated with a decrease in organic matter and pH in sediments, the concentration of copper and iron increased. Base on modified contamination degree, the sediments of Hara Biosphere Reserve are considered to be in the zero to very low contamination status.

  1. Occurrence and distribution of selected heavy metals in the surface sediments of South Brittany coastal waters: An assessment using pollution indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, M. C.; Menier, D.; Noor Azhar, M. S.; Dupont, V.; Révillon, S.

    2012-04-01

    In order to avoid the pollution of heavy metals in South Brittany water, it is necessary to establish the data and understand the mechanisms influencing the distribution of heavy metals of the area. One of the aims of this work was to assess heavy metals contamination in Gulf of Morbihan and Quiberon Bay. Another aim was to use interpolation surfaces per metals to assess the contamination separately per metal. A total of 196 bottom sediment samples were collected from the coastal waters in order to determine the spatial concentration of Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS) after acid digestion. The average heavy metal concentrations are ranked as follows: Mn>Zn>Cr>Pb>Cu>Cu>Cd. In the gulf, metal enrichments observed compared to the bay environment may due river run-off from three major river (Auray, Le Marle and Novalo rivers) which carried municipal waste and maritime activities along the coastal area within the gulf. Beside those factors, the natural factors such as the sheltered basin morphology itself, fine sediment and low hydrodynamic regime which favour the in situ accumulation of pollutants. The level of pollution levels attributed to heavy metals was evaluated using several pollution indicators in order to determine anthropogenically derived sediment contamination. Comparison to sediment quality guidelines (SQGs), enrichment factors (EFs), index of geoaccumulation (Igeo) and contamination factors (CF) based on reference element and background value to compensate for the influence of the natural variability in sediment mineralogy and to assess whether the concentration observed in surface sediment represent background and contaminated levels and visualize using ArcGIS software. These analyses validated that the bottom sediment only enriched in Pb and the other metals in most sample are not due to artificial contamination. Overall, geochemistry of the samples show the effect of both natural and anthropogenic

  2. Heavy metals pollution in soil profiles from seasonal-flooding riparian wetlands in a Chinese delta: Levels, distributions and toxic risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangliang; Bai, Junhong; Zhao, Qingqing; Jia, Jia; Wen, Xiaojun

    2017-02-01

    Soil profile samples were collected in seasonal-flooding riparian wetlands in the Yellow River Delta (YRD) of China in autumn and spring to investigate the levels, distributions and toxic risks of heavy metals in soil profiles. Total elemental contents of Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic absorption spectrometry (ICP-AAS). Results indicated that the contents of determined heavy metals showed non-negligible depth variations (coefficient of variation > 10%), and their distribution patterns were irregular. Compared with other heavy metals, both As and Cd presented higher enrichment factors (EF) based on the classification of EF values (moderate enrichment for As while significant enrichment for Cd). Cluster analysis (CA) and principal components analysis (PCA) revealed that Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn might derive from the common source, while As and Cd shared another similar source. The toxic unit (TU) values of these heavy metals did not exceed probable effect levels (PEL) except for Ni. Both As and Ni showed higher contributions to the sum of TU (∑TUs), which indicated they were the primary concerns of heavy metals pollution. Generally, As, Cd and Ni should be paid more attention for wetlands managers and policy makers to avoid potential ecotoxicity in the study area. The findings of this study could contribute to the prevention and control of heavy metals pollution in estuarine wetlands.

  3. Geochemistry and magnetic measurements of suspended sediment in urban sewage water vis-à-vis quantification of heavy metal pollution in Ganga and Yamuna Rivers, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakarvorty, Munmun; Dwivedi, Akhil Kumar; Shukla, Anil Dutt; Kumar, Sujeet; Niyogi, Ambalika; Usmani, Mavera; Pati, Jayanta Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Sewage water is becoming a key source of heavy metal toxicity in large river systems worldwide and the two major Himalayan Rivers in India (Ganga and Yamuna) are severely affected. The high population density in the river banks combined with increased anthropogenic and industrial activities is contributing to the heavy metal pollution in these rivers. Geochemical data shows a significant increase in the concentration of all heavy metals (Pb, 48-86 ppm; Zn, 360-834 ppm; V, 45-101 ppm; Ni, 20-143 ppm; Cr, 79-266 ppm; Co, 8.62-22.12 ppm and Mn, 313-603 ppm) in sewage and mixed water (sewage and river water confluence site) samples due to increased effluent discharge from the catchment area. The ΣREE content of sewage water (129 ppm) is lower than the average mixed water samples (142 ppm). However, all the samples show similar REE pattern. The mass magnetic susceptibility (Xlf) values of suspended sediments (28 to 1000 × 10(-8) m(3) kg(-1)) indicate variable concentration of heavy metals. The Xlf values show faint positive correlation with their respective bulk heavy metal contents in a limited sample population. The present study comprising geochemical analysis and first magnetic measurement data of suspended sediments in water samples shows a strongly polluted nature of Ganga and Yamuna Rivers at Allahabad contrary to the previous report mainly caused by overtly polluted city sewage water.

  4. Assessing heavy metal pollution in the water level fluctuation zone of China's Three Gorges Reservoir using geochemical and soil microbial approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chen; Li, Siyue; Zhang, Yulong; Tong, Xunzhang; Zhang, Quanfa

    2013-01-01

    The water level fluctuation zone (WLFZ) in the Three Gorges Reservoir is located in the intersection of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and assessing heavy metal pollution in the drown zone is critical for ecological remediation and water conservation. In this study, soils were collected in June and September 2009 in natural recovery area and revegetation area of the WLFZ, and geochemical approaches including geoaccumulation index (I (geo)) and factor analysis and soil microbial community structure were applied to assess the spatial variability and evaluate the influence of revegetation on metals in the WLFZ. Geochemical approaches demonstrated the moderate pollutant of Cd, the slight pollutant of Hg, and four types of pollutant sources including industrial and domestic wastewater, natural rock weathering, traffic exhaust, and crustal materials in the WLFZ. Our results also demonstrated significantly lower concentrations for elements of As, Cd, Pb, Zn, and Mn in the revegetation area. Moreover, soil microbial community structure failed to monitor the heavy metal pollution in such a relatively clean area. Our results suggest that revegetation plays an important role in controlling heavy metal pollution in the WLFZ of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.

  5. Evaluation of the pollution and human health risks posed by heavy metals in the atmospheric dust in Ebinur Basin in Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuduwailil, Jilili; Zhaoyong, Zhang; Fengqing, Jiang

    2015-09-01

    Recently, a large amount of research assessing pollution levels and the related health risks posed by atmosphere dust has been undertaken worldwide. However, little work has been done in the oases of the arid regions of Northwest China. In this paper, we studied the pollution and health risks over a year of seven heavy metals in the atmospheric dust of Ebinur Basin, a typical oasis in Northwest China. The results showed the following: (1) The annual amount of atmospheric deposition in Ebinur Basin was 298.23 g m(-2) and the average monthly atmospheric deposition was 25.06 g m(-2). The average and maximum values of the seven heavy metals measured were all below the National Soil Environmental Quality Standards (2nd). (2) Heavy metals of Cu, Cr, and As in the atmospheric deposition mainly originated from the natural geological background, while Zn came from human activity. This study also showed that among the seven measured heavy metals, the ratios of the no-pollution status of Pb, Cd, and Hg were higher than those of others with moderate degrees of pollution also accounting for a certain ratio. (3) The carcinogenic risks from As, Cd, and Cr were all lower than the corresponding standard limit values, and these metals are considered not harmful to the health of the basin. However, there is a relatively high risk of exposure for children from hand-to-mouth intake, which is worthy of attention. This research showed that both human activity and natural factors, such as wind and altitude, influenced the heavy metal contents in the atmospheric dust of the study area. Furthermore, recent human activity in the study area had the most negative influence on the accumulation of the heavy metals and the corresponding health risks, especially for Hg, Pb, and Cd, which is worthy of attention.

  6. Distribution and pollution, toxicity and risk assessment of heavy metals in sediments from urban and rural rivers of the Pearl River delta in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Rong; Bai, Junhong; Huang, Laibin; Zhang, Honggang; Cui, Baoshan; Liu, Xinhui

    2013-12-01

    Sediments were collected from the upper, middle and lower reaches of both urban and rural rivers in a typical urbanization zone of the Pearl River delta. Six heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) were analyzed in all sediment samples, and their spatial distribution, pollution levels, toxicity and ecological risk levels were evaluated to compare the characteristics of heavy metal pollution between the two rivers. Our results indicated that the total contents of the six metals in all samples exceeded the soil background value in Guangdong province. Based on the soil quality thresholds of the China SEPA, Cd levels at all sites exceeded class III criteria, and other metals exhibited pollution levels exceeding class II or III criteria at both river sites. According to the sediment quality guidelines of the US EPA, all samples were moderately to heavily polluted by Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. Compared to rural river sites, urban river sites exhibited heavier pollution. Almost all sediment samples from both rivers exhibited moderate to serious toxicity to the environment, with higher contributions from Cr and Ni. A "hot area" of heavy metal pollution being observed in the upper and middle reaches of the urban river area, whereas a "hot spot" was identified at a specific site in the middle reach of the rural river. Contrary metal distribution patterns were also observed along typical sediment profiles from urban and rural rivers. However, the potential ecological risk indices of rural river sediments in this study were equal to those of urban river sediments, implying that the ecological health issues of the rivers in the undeveloped rural area should also be addressed. Sediment organic matter and grain size might be important factors influencing the distribution profiles of these heavy metals.

  7. Temporal variations of heavy metals in coral Porites lutea from Guangdong Province, China: Influences from industrial pollution, climate and economic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Z.; Liu, J.; Zhou, C.; Nie, B.; Chen, T.

    2006-01-01

    The eight heavy metals Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb have been determined in samples of coral Porites lutea collected from Dafangji Island waters (21°21′N, 111°11′E), Dianbai County, Guangdong Province, China, by the ICP-MS method. The samples represent the growth of coral in the period of 1982–2001. The results showed that the waters were polluted by the heavy metals Cu, Ni, Zn, and Pb in certain years, but not by other metals. The contamination may have come from industrial sources, including electroplating, metallurgy, mining, and aquatic industries in the coastal areas.

  8. Decline in Topsoil Microbial Quotient, Fungal Abundance and C Utilization Efficiency of Rice Paddies under Heavy Metal Pollution across South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongzhuo; Zhou, Tong; Crowley, David; Li, Lianqing; Liu, Dawen; Zheng, Jinwei; Yu, Xinyan; Pan, Genxing; Hussain, Qaiser; Zhang, Xuhui; Zheng, Jufeng

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural soils have been increasingly subject to heavy metal pollution worldwide. However, the impacts on soil microbial community structure and activity of field soils have been not yet well characterized. Topsoil samples were collected from heavy metal polluted (PS) and their background (BGS) fields of rice paddies in four sites across South China in 2009. Changes with metal pollution relative to the BGS in the size and community structure of soil microorganisms were examined with multiple microbiological assays of biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN) measurement, plate counting of culturable colonies and phospholipids fatty acids (PLFAs) analysis along with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profile of 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA gene and real-time PCR assay. In addition, a 7-day lab incubation under constantly 25°C was conducted to further track the changes in metabolic activity. While the decrease under metal pollution in MBC and MBN, as well as in culturable population size, total PLFA contents and DGGE band numbers of bacteria were not significantly and consistently seen, a significant reduction was indeed observed under metal pollution in microbial quotient, in culturable fungal population size and in ratio of fungal to bacterial PLFAs consistently across the sites by an extent ranging from 6% to 74%. Moreover, a consistently significant increase in metabolic quotient was observed by up to 68% under pollution across the sites. These observations supported a shift of microbial community with decline in its abundance, decrease in fungal proportion and thus in C utilization efficiency under pollution in the soils. In addition, ratios of microbial quotient, of fungal to bacterial and qCO2 are proved better indicative of heavy metal impacts on microbial community structure and activity. The potential effects of these changes on C cycling and CO2 production in the polluted rice paddies deserve further field studies. PMID:22701725

  9. Decline in topsoil microbial quotient, fungal abundance and C utilization efficiency of rice paddies under heavy metal pollution across South China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzhuo Liu

    Full Text Available Agricultural soils have been increasingly subject to heavy metal pollution worldwide. However, the impacts on soil microbial community structure and activity of field soils have been not yet well characterized. Topsoil samples were collected from heavy metal polluted (PS and their background (BGS fields of rice paddies in four sites across South China in 2009. Changes with metal pollution relative to the BGS in the size and community structure of soil microorganisms were examined with multiple microbiological assays of biomass carbon (MBC and nitrogen (MBN measurement, plate counting of culturable colonies and phospholipids fatty acids (PLFAs analysis along with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE profile of 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA gene and real-time PCR assay. In addition, a 7-day lab incubation under constantly 25°C was conducted to further track the changes in metabolic activity. While the decrease under metal pollution in MBC and MBN, as well as in culturable population size, total PLFA contents and DGGE band numbers of bacteria were not significantly and consistently seen, a significant reduction was indeed observed under metal pollution in microbial quotient, in culturable fungal population size and in ratio of fungal to bacterial PLFAs consistently across the sites by an extent ranging from 6% to 74%. Moreover, a consistently significant increase in metabolic quotient was observed by up to 68% under pollution across the sites. These observations supported a shift of microbial community with decline in its abundance, decrease in fungal proportion and thus in C utilization efficiency under pollution in the soils. In addition, ratios of microbial quotient, of fungal to bacterial and qCO(2 are proved better indicative of heavy metal impacts on microbial community structure and activity. The potential effects of these changes on C cycling and CO(2 production in the polluted rice paddies deserve further field studies.

  10. Decline in topsoil microbial quotient, fungal abundance and C utilization efficiency of rice paddies under heavy metal pollution across South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongzhuo; Zhou, Tong; Crowley, David; Li, Lianqing; Liu, Dawen; Zheng, Jinwei; Yu, Xinyan; Pan, Genxing; Hussain, Qaiser; Zhang, Xuhui; Zheng, Jufeng

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural soils have been increasingly subject to heavy metal pollution worldwide. However, the impacts on soil microbial community structure and activity of field soils have been not yet well characterized. Topsoil samples were collected from heavy metal polluted (PS) and their background (BGS) fields of rice paddies in four sites across South China in 2009. Changes with metal pollution relative to the BGS in the size and community structure of soil microorganisms were examined with multiple microbiological assays of biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN) measurement, plate counting of culturable colonies and phospholipids fatty acids (PLFAs) analysis along with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profile of 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA gene and real-time PCR assay. In addition, a 7-day lab incubation under constantly 25°C was conducted to further track the changes in metabolic activity. While the decrease under metal pollution in MBC and MBN, as well as in culturable population size, total PLFA contents and DGGE band numbers of bacteria were not significantly and consistently seen, a significant reduction was indeed observed under metal pollution in microbial quotient, in culturable fungal population size and in ratio of fungal to bacterial PLFAs consistently across the sites by an extent ranging from 6% to 74%. Moreover, a consistently significant increase in metabolic quotient was observed by up to 68% under pollution across the sites. These observations supported a shift of microbial community with decline in its abundance, decrease in fungal proportion and thus in C utilization efficiency under pollution in the soils. In addition, ratios of microbial quotient, of fungal to bacterial and qCO(2) are proved better indicative of heavy metal impacts on microbial community structure and activity. The potential effects of these changes on C cycling and CO(2) production in the polluted rice paddies deserve further field studies.

  11. Local to regional scale industrial heavy metal pollution recorded in sediments of large freshwater lakes in central Europe (lakes Geneva and Lucerne) over the last centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevenon, Florian; Graham, Neil D; Chiaradia, Massimo; Arpagaus, Philippe; Wildi, Walter; Poté, John

    2011-12-15

    This research first focuses on the spatial and temporal patterns of heavy metals from contrasting environments (highly polluted to deepwater sites) of Lake Geneva. The mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) records from two deepwater sites show that the heavy metal variations before the industrial period are primarily linked to natural weathering input of trace elements. By opposition, the discharge of industrial treated wastewaters into Vidy Bay of Lake Geneva during the second part of the 20th century, involved the sedimentation of highly metal-contaminated sediments in the area surrounding the WWTP outlet pipe discharge. Eventually, a new Pb isotope record of sediments from Lake Lucerne identifies the long-term increasing anthropogenic lead pollution after ca. 1500, probably due to the development of metallurgical activities during the High Middle Ages. These data furthermore allows to compare the recent anthropogenic sources of water pollution from three of the largest freshwater lakes of Western Europe (lakes Geneva, Lucerne, and Constance). High increases in Pb and Hg highlight the regional impact of industrial pollution after ca. 1750-1850, and the decrease of metal pollution in the 1980s due to the effects of remediation strategies such as the implementation of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). However, at all the studied sites, the recent metal concentrations remain higher than pre-industrial levels. Moreover, the local scale pollution data reveal two highly contaminated sites (>100 μg Pb/g dry weight sediment) by industrial activities, during the late-19th and early-20th centuries (Lake Lucerne) and during the second part of the 20th century (Vidy Bay of Lake Geneva). Overall, the regional scale pollution history inferred from the three large and deep perialpine lakes points out at the pollution of water systems by heavy metals during the last two centuries due to the discharge of industrial effluents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Pollution and Potential Ecology Risk Evaluation of Heavy Metals in River Water, Top Sediments on Bed and Soils Along Banks of Bortala River, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhao-yong; Abuduwaili, Jilili; Jiang, Feng-qing

    2015-07-01

    This paper focuses on the sources, pollution status and potential ecology risks of heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Hg, As, Cd, Pb, and Zn) in the surface water, top sediment of river bed and soil along banks of Bortala River, which locates in the oasis region of Xinjiang, northwest China. Results showed that: (1) As a whole, contents of 7 tested heavy metals of Bortala River were low, while the maximum values of Hg, Cd, Pb, and Cr in the river water were significantly higher than those of Secondary Category of the Surface Water Quality Standards of People's Republic of China (GB 3838-2002) and Drinking Water Guideline from WHO. Analysis showed that the heavy metals contents of top sediment on river bed and soils along river banks were significantly higher than those of the river water. (Correlation analysis and enrichment factor (EF) calculation showed that in the river water, top sediment on river bed and soils along river banks, Hg, Cd, Pb, and Cr mainly originated from industrial emissions, urban and rural anthropogenic activities, transportation and agricultural production activities; While Cu, Zn, and As mainly originated from natural geological background and soil parent materials. (3) Pollution assessment showed that in three matrices, the single factor pollution index(Pi) and the integrated pollution index (Pz) of 7 heavy metals were all lower than 1, and they all belonged to safe and clean levels. (4) Potential ecology risk evaluation showed that as a whole the single factor potential ecological risk (Eir) and the integrated potential ecology risks (RI) of 7 heavy metals were relatively low, and would not cause threats to the health of water and soil environment of river basin, while the potential ecology risks of Cd, Hg, Pb, and Cr were significantly higher than those of other heavy metals.

  13. Local to regional scale industrial heavy metal pollution recorded in sediments of large freshwater lakes in central Europe (lakes Geneva and Lucerne) over the last centuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thevenon, Florian, E-mail: Florian.Thevenon@yahoo.fr [Institute F.-A. Forel, University of Geneva, Versoix (Switzerland); Graham, Neil D. [Institute F.-A. Forel, University of Geneva, Versoix (Switzerland); Chiaradia, Massimo [Department of Mineralogy, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Arpagaus, Philippe; Wildi, Walter; Pote, John [Institute F.-A. Forel, University of Geneva, Versoix (Switzerland)

    2011-12-15

    This research first focuses on the spatial and temporal patterns of heavy metals from contrasting environments (highly polluted to deepwater sites) of Lake Geneva. The mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) records from two deepwater sites show that the heavy metal variations before the industrial period are primarily linked to natural weathering input of trace elements. By opposition, the discharge of industrial treated wastewaters into Vidy Bay of Lake Geneva during the second part of the 20th century, involved the sedimentation of highly metal-contaminated sediments in the area surrounding the WWTP outlet pipe discharge. Eventually, a new Pb isotope record of sediments from Lake Lucerne identifies the long-term increasing anthropogenic lead pollution after ca. 1500, probably due to the development of metallurgical activities during the High Middle Ages. These data furthermore allows to compare the recent anthropogenic sources of water pollution from three of the largest freshwater lakes of Western Europe (lakes Geneva, Lucerne, and Constance). High increases in Pb and Hg highlight the regional impact of industrial pollution after ca. 1750-1850, and the decrease of metal pollution in the 1980s due to the effects of remediation strategies such as the implementation of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). However, at all the studied sites, the recent metal concentrations remain higher than pre-industrial levels. Moreover, the local scale pollution data reveal two highly contaminated sites (> 100 {mu}g Pb/g dry weight sediment) by industrial activities, during the late-19th and early-20th centuries (Lake Lucerne) and during the second part of the 20th century (Vidy Bay of Lake Geneva). Overall, the regional scale pollution history inferred from the three large and deep perialpine lakes points out at the pollution of water systems by heavy metals during the last two centuries due to the discharge of industrial effluents. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Natural sources

  14. Study On The Effects Of Heavy Metals Pollution On The Activity Of 7-Ethoxyresorufin-O-Diethylase EROD In Two Freshwater Fish Species Of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Kusuma Dewi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the effect of heavy metal pollution on 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-diethylase EROD enzyme activity in carp Cyprinus carpio and tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. The samples were taken by purposive random sampling technique. The treatment site was the downstream part of the Kaligarang River Semarang Indonesia which contaminated byheavy metals concentration of Cd 0.007 ppm Pb 0.010 ppm and Hg 0.0006 ppm. A clean reference site in Nyatnyono Village Ungaran was used as the control site with the heavy metal content of 0 ppm. The EROD activities in carp and tilapia were significantly decreased after Cd Pb and Hg exposure. The results showed that the average value of liver EROD activity in carp fish control group amounted to 1.77 0.23molminmg protein and the treatment group was 0.49 0.24molminmg protein. Whereas in control group of tilapia fish EROD activity was equal to 2.08 0.47molminmg protein and the treatment group was 0.49 0.40molminmg protein. The results demonstrated that metallothionein was a specific heavy metals biomarker whereas EROD activity ishighly sensitive to extremely low concentrations of theselected pollutants.In conclusion the use of multiple biomarkers is recommended to monitor the heavy metal pollutants in the river environment.

  15. Studies on the occurrence and distribution of heavy metals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    induced pollution and high levels of heavy metals can often be attributed to anthropogenic influences, rather ... of heavy metal ions on bacteria and determined the heavy metals by bioassay. Collins and Stotzky (1992) ... the microbe, which alter the net charge of the cell. Once heavy metals are discharged into estuarine and ...

  16. Integrated use of biomarkers (superoxide dismutase, catalase and lipid peroxidation) in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis for assessing heavy metals' pollution in coastal areas from the Saronikos Gulf of Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahogianni, Thomais; Dassenakis, Manos; Scoullos, Michael J; Valavanidis, Athanasios

    2007-09-01

    Mussels are used as sentinel organisms and bioindicators to evaluate the toxic effects of chemical pollutants in marine organisms, especially heavy metals, representing an important tool for biomonitoring environmental pollution in coastal areas. Antioxidant defence enzymes play an important role in cellular antioxidant defence systems and protect from oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Indigenous mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis of the Saronikos Gulf of Greece were used for monitoring heavy metal pollution in three polluted sites in the area and in one unpolluted site. Seasonal variations of the activity of antioxidant defence enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), as well as lipid peroxidation (LP) were measured as biomarkers in a period of three years in relation to concentrations of trace metals in their gills and mantle and compared to mussels from an unpolluted sampling site. SOD activity increased at least 2 fold at the polluted sites when compared to the control site (the high activity was recorded in the spring time). CAT activity was increased 2-3 times at the polluted sites, with high activity in the winter and spring time, compared to the control site. LP concentration was twice higher at the polluted sites, following the same seasonal pattern. Trace metals contents in mussels collected at polluted sites were 3-4 fold higher compared to the control site and showed moderate variations along the months, with a winter maximum followed by a summer pre-spawning minimum matching the seasonal trends of temperature and salinity. Our results showed that metal pollution in the Elefsis Bay (the most polluted coastal area) causes relatively medium levels of oxidative stress in tissues of mussels due to cellular oxy-radical generation. This study, which is the first in the area, showed that seasonal variations of the activity of antioxidant defence enzymes and LP concentrations in mussels can be used as potential biomarkers of

  17. Surface sediment properties and heavy metal pollution assessment in the near-shore area, north Shandong Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gang; Pei, Shaofeng; Liu, Jian; Gao, Maosheng; Hu, Gang; Kong, Xianghuai

    2015-06-15

    Samples of surface sediment were collected off the north Shandong Peninsula for grain size and element analyses. Based on the grain size analysis, the surface sediments were dominated by silt and sand, with a small portion of clay, and were probably from the coastal erosion of the Shandong Peninsula. The spatial distribution patterns of the heavy metals were primarily controlled by the sediment types. The geo-accumulation indexes suggest that there was no Cu, Zn and Cr pollution in the study area; Pb and Cd contaminations appeared only at a few stations, while As pollution was distributed widely. The enrichment factors indicated that Cu, Zn and Cr were primarily from terrigenous materials. By contrast, Cd, Pb and As, and especially Cd and As, were probably largely provided by anthropogenic sources. Due to the dilution of coarse-grained matters, there was no contamination at some of the stations at which the influence of human activities was obvious. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Whole-cell bacterial biosensors for rapid and effective monitoring of heavy metals and inorganic pollutants in wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaniran, Ademola O; Hiralal, Lettisha; Pillay, Balakrishna

    2011-10-01

    The increasing number of potentially harmful pollutants in the wastewater effluent discharge necessitates the need for the development of fast and cost effective analytical techniques for extensive monitoring programmes to assess the effectiveness of the treatment process. This study compared the use of bacterial biosensors to the conventional Daphnia magna assay, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) tests as well as chemical analysis, for monitoring the toxicity of wastewater. The bacterial biosensors constructed in this study, using S. sonnei and E. coli, were found to be sensitive to the toxicity of the wastewater effluents. A linear increase in bioluminescence with increasing concentration of heavy metals and inorganic pollutants in water was observed, with a correlation coefficient (r(2)) as high as 0.995 and 0.997, respectively. No notable correlation between biosensor toxicity and BOD and COD test results was observed. These bacterial biosensors could provide appropriate alternatives for a rapid, sensitive and cost effective detection of wastewater quality. However, the differences in sensitivity obtained for the different systems suggest that the use of a battery of toxicity assays may be required to provide a real ecotoxicological assessment of wastewater samples.

  19. [Spatiotemporal variation characteristics of heavy metals pollution in the water, soil and sediments environment of the Lean River-Poyang Lake Wetland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Min-Fei; Li, Ling-Yu; Xu, Peng-Fei; Chen, Pu-Qing; Xiong, Jian-Qiu; Zhou, Xue-Ling

    2014-05-01

    Overlying water, sediments, surface soils in the typical wetland areas of Lean River and Poyang Lake which were rich in non-ferrous metal mineral resources on both sides of the river, were chosen for monitoring heavy metals including copper, lead and cadmium of base flow in average season, flood season, and dry season in 2012. Statistical analysis methods were coupled to characterize the spatiotemporal variation of heavy metals pollution and identify the main sources. The results indicated that the concentrations of copper were the highest in all samples of each sampling sites in the Lean River-Poyang Lake wetland. And the content values of copper, lead and cadmium in different samples of different sampling sites also showed that the content values of copper were higher than those of lead, and the content values of lead were also higher than those of cadmium. The results also showed that the heavy metals pollution of copper, lead and cadmium in flood season was the heaviest whereas the heavy metals pollution in dry season was comparatively light. The results of the contents of the three kinds of heavy metals elements in different sampling sites of the watersheds of lean River showed that the contents of copper in the samples from the upstream sampling sites of Lean River were higher than those of other samples from other sites. And the contents of lead in the samples from the downstream sampling sites of Lean River were higher than those of other samples from other sampling sites. The contents of cadmium in the samples from the midstream sampling sites of Lean River were higher than those of other samples from other sites. The first principal component representing copper pollution explained 36. 99% of the total variance of water quality. The second principal component concerning representing lead pollution explained 30. 12% of the total variance. The correlation analysis results showed that there were significant positive correlations among the contents of copper

  20. Phyto-dehydration of confined polluted sludge: impacts on C-storage and heavy metal immobilization in plant tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberati, Dario; Sconocchia, Paolo; Ricci, Anna; Gigliotti, Giovanni; Tacconi, Chiara; De Angelis, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Transpiration of plants can be used to control or remove water in artificial basins containing polluted flooded sediments (phyto-dehydration), with the aim to reduce the risk of environment contamination due to water/sediment spillage. At the same time plants can reduce the risks associated to the pollutants, reducing their mobility by the adsorption in the rhizosphere, uptake and accumulation in tissues, and providing organiccompounds contributing to bind heavy metals. We tested, at pilot scale, a phytodeydration approach to be applied to a storage pond containing sludge with high zinc and copper concentrations (3200 and 1000 µg/Kg, respectively). The sludge derives from the biodigestion of pig slurries, and for most of the year is covered by a water layer due to rainfall. The phyto-dehydration approach was tested in a two years long mesocosm-scale experiment. Inside the mesocosms we maintained the same sludge/water stratification observed in the pond; the helophyte species Phragmites australis was planted over a floating frame inside half of the mesocosms. Mesocosms with P.australis and control mesocosms without plants, were monitored during the test to assess the water consumption, CO2 and CH4 gas exchanges and plant functioning. At the end of the second year we analysed the changes on the carbon pool of the sludge and the immobilization of heavy metals in the plant tissues. After two years, the total organic carbon content of the sludge has been reduced in the control mesocosms, while in the P. australis mesocosms remain close to the initial values. Zinc and copper immobilization in the plant tissues, was characterised by: a very low concentration of zinc (5 µg/kg ) in leaves, intermediates values in culms and rhizomes (49 and 30 µg/kg) and higher values in roots (222 and 114 µg/kg). In conclusion, in addition to the reduction of the sludge spillage risks, the phyto-dehydration approach based on P. australis reduced the carbon loss of the sludge, and

  1. Ecological risk assessment of toxic organic pollutant and heavy metals in water and sediment from a landscape lake in Tianjin City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Liu, Yuanyuan; Niu, Zhiguang; Jin, Shaopei

    2017-05-01

    To estimate the ecological risk of toxic organic pollutant (formaldehyde) and heavy metals (mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and chromium (Cr)) in water and sediment from a landscape Lake in Tianjin City, an ecological risk assessment was performed. The risk quotient (RQ) method and the AQUATOX model were used to assess the ecological risk of formaldehyde in landscape water. Meanwhile, the RQ method and the potential ecological risk index method were used to assess the ecological risk of four heavy metals in water and sediment from the studied landscape lake, respectively. The results revealed that the maximum concentration of formaldehyde in landscape water was lower than the environmental quality standards of surface water in China. The maximum simulated concentrations of formaldehyde in phytoplankton and invertebrates were 3.15 and 22.91 μg/L, respectively, which were far less than its toxicity data values (1000 and 510 μg/L, respectively), suggesting that formaldehyde in landscape water was at a safe level for aquatic organisms. The RQ model indicated that the risks of phytoplankton and invertebrates were higher than that of fish posed by Hg and Cd in landscape water, and the risks from As and Cr were acceptable for all test organisms. Cd is the most important pollution factor among all heavy metals in sediment from studied landscape lake, and the pollution factor sequence of heavy metals was Hg > As > Cr > Cd. The values of risk index (RI) for four heavy metals in samples a and b were 43.48 and 72.66, which were much lower than the threshold value (150), suggesting that the ecological risk posed by heavy metals in sediment was negligible.

  2. Combining a finite mixture distribution model with indicator kriging to delineate and map the spatial patterns of soil heavy metal pollution in Chunghua County, central Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Yupin, E-mail: yplin@ntu.edu.t [Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, 1, Section 4, Roosevelt Road, Da-an District, Taipei City 106, Taiwan (China); Cheng Baiyou [Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, 1, Section 4, Roosevelt Road, Da-an District, Taipei City 106, Taiwan (China); Shyu, G.-S. [Department of Environmental Management, Tungnan University, 152, Section 3, PeiShen Road, ShenKeng, Taipei 222, Taiwan (China); Chang, T.-K. [Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, 1, Section 4, Roosevelt Road, Da-an District, Taipei City 106, Taiwan (China)

    2010-01-15

    This study identifies the natural background, anthropogenic background and distribution of contamination caused by heavy metal pollutants in soil in Chunghua County of central Taiwan by using a finite mixture distribution model (FMDM). The probabilities of contaminated area distribution are mapped using single-variable indicator kriging and multiple-variable indicator kriging (MVIK) with the FMDM cut-off values and regulation thresholds for heavy metals. FMDM results indicate that Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn can be individually fitted by a mixture model representing the background and contamination distributions of the four metals in soil. The FMDM cut-off values for contamination caused by the metals are close to the regulation thresholds, except for the cut-off value of Zn. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve validates that indicator kriging and MVIK with FMDM cut-off values can reliably delineate heavy metals contamination, particularly for areas lacking background information and high heavy metal concentrations in soil. - Effectively determine pollution threshold and map contaminated areas.

  3. ACCUMULATION OF HEAVY METALS IN BIOTA OF VYRLYTSA LAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Bilyk

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The main task was to investigate the pollution by heavy metals of biota of Vyrlytsa Lake. Thecontents of movable forms of heavy metals in aquatic plants, fish and snails was determined by atomicabsorbtion method and were made the conclusions about general state of the water object.Keywords: heavy metals, accumulation, biota, pollution, atomic absorption spectroscopy.

  4. SURFACE WATER POLLUTION WITH HEAVY METALS IN THE LOWER CATCHMENT OF JIU RIVER BASIN, ACCORDING TO THE WATER FRAMEWORK DIRECTIVE (2000/60/EC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADINA SANDA ŞERBAN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface water pollution with heavy metals in the lower catchment of Jiu river basin, according to the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC. The Water Framework Directive establishes a single transparent, effective and coherent water policy by defining a strategy to combat pollution by requiring specific action programs.Chemical pollution of surface water presents a threat to the aquatic environment with acute and chronic toxicity to aquatic organisms, accumulation in the ecosystem and losses of habitats and biodiversity, as well as a threat to human health (art.1 from Directive 2008/105/EC regarding the environmental quality standards for water policy.The purpose of this study is to evaluate the chemical status for surface water bodies in the lower catchment of Jiu river basin. The assessment was made taking into account the water impact of four heavy metals: cadmium (Cd, nickel (Ni, mercury (Hg and lead (Pb.

  5. Perspectives of phytoremediation using water hyacinth for removal of heavy metals, organic and inorganic pollutants in wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezania, Shahabaldin; Ponraj, Mohanadoss; Talaiekhozani, Amirreza; Mohamad, Shaza Eva; Md Din, Mohd Fadhil; Taib, Shazwin Mat; Sabbagh, Farzaneh; Sairan, Fadzlin Md

    2015-11-01

    The development of eco-friendly and efficient technologies for treating wastewater is one of the attractive research area. Phytoremediation is considered to be a possible method for the removal of pollutants present in wastewater and recognized as a better green remediation technology. Nowadays the focus is to look for a sustainable approach in developing wastewater treatment capability. Water hyacinth is one of the ancient technology that has been still used in the modern era. Although, many papers in relation to wastewater treatment using water hyacinth have been published, recently removal of organic, inorganic and heavy metal have not been reviewed extensively. The main objective of this paper is to review the possibility of using water hyacinth for the removal of pollutants present in different types of wastewater. Water hyacinth is although reported to be as one of the most problematic plants worldwide due to its uncontrollable growth in water bodies but its quest for nutrient absorption has provided way for its usage in phytoremediation, along with the combination of herbicidal control, integratated biological control and watershed management controlling nutrient supply to control its growth. Moreover as a part of solving wastewater treatment problems in urban or industrial areas using this plant, a large number of useful byproducts can be developed like animal and fish feed, power plant energy (briquette), ethanol, biogas, composting and fiber board making. In focus to the future aspects of phytoremediation, the utilization of invasive plants in pollution abatement phytotechnologies can certainly assist for their sustainable management in treating waste water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Changes in the biological activity of heavy metal- and oil-polluted soils in urban recreation territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonova, T. A.; Zabelina, O. N.

    2017-04-01

    Urban recreation areas of different sizes were investigated in the city of Vladimir. The degree of their contamination with heavy metals and oil products was revealed. The content of heavy metals exceeded their maximum permissible concentrations by more than 2.5 times. The total content of heavy metals decreased in the sequence: Zn > Pb > Co > Mn > Cr > Ni. The mass fraction of oil products in the studied soils varied within the range of 0.016-0.28 mg/g. The reaction of soils in public gardens and a boulevard was neutral or close to neutral; in some soil samples, it was weakly alkaline. The top layer of all the soils significantly differed from the lower one by the higher alkalinity promoting the deposition of heavy metals there. As the content of Ni, Co, and Mn increased and exceeded the background concentrations, but did not reach the three-fold value of the maximum permissible concentrations, the activity of catalase was intensified. The stimulating effect of nickel on the catalase activity was mostly pronounced at the neutral soil reaction. The urease activity increased when heavy metals and oil products were present together in the concentrations above the background ones, but not higher than the three-fold maximal permissible concentrations for heavy metals and 0.3 mg/g for the content of oil products. The nitrifying activity was inhibited by oil hydrocarbons that were recorded in the soils in different amounts.

  7. Ecotoxicological characteristic of a soil polluted by radioactive elements and heavy metals before and after its bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, P.; Groudev, S.; Spasova, I.; Nikolova, M.

    2012-04-01

    Cinnamon soils from southeastern Bulgaria are heavily polluted with radionuclides (uranium, radium) and toxic heavy metals (copper and lead) due to the winds transportation of fine particles from flotation dumps to the soil surface. As a result of this, the polluted soils are characterized by a slightly alkaline pH (7.82) and positive net neutralization potential (+136.8 kg CaCO3/t). A fresh sample of cinnamon soil was subjected to remediation under laboratory conditions in four lysimeters each containing 70 kg of soil. The preliminary study revealed that most of the pollutants were presented as carbonate, reducible and oxidisable mobility fractions, i.e. pollutants ions were specifically adsorbed by carbonate and ferric iron minerals or were capsulated in sulfides. The applied soil treatment was connected with leaching of the pollutants located mainly in the horizon A, their transportation through the soil profile as soluble forms, and their precipitation in the rich-in-clay subhorizon B3. The efficiency of leaching depended on the activity of the indigenous microflora and on the chemical processes connected with solubilization of pollutants and formation of stable complexes with some organic compounds, chloride and hydrocarbonate ions. These processes were considerably enhanced by adding hay to the horizon A and irrigating the soil with water solutions containing the above-mentioned ions and some nutrients. After 18 months of treatment, each of the soil profiles in the different lysimeters was divided into five sections reflecting the different soil layers. The soil in these sections was subjected to a detailed chemical analysis and the data obtained were compared with the relevant data obtained before the start of the experiment. The best leaching of pollutants from horizon A was measured in the variants where soil mulching was applied. For example, the best leaching of lead (54.5 %) was found in the variant combining this technique and irrigation with solutions

  8. Assessment of pollution trend of heavy metals in soils in the vicinity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Topsoil and subsoil obtained in the vicinity of the Nigerian Gas Company were digested and analysed for some selected trace metals using atomic absorption spectrophotometer of model pye unicam SP 2900. The trace metals determined include nickel, copper, iron, barium, lead, cadmium and zinc respectively.

  9. Heavy metal contamination in sand and sediments near to disposal site of reject brine from desalination plant, Arabian Gulf: Assessment of environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshahri, Fatimh

    2017-01-01

    Accumulation of heavy metals in environment may cause series potential risk in the living system. This study was carried out to investigate heavy metal contamination in sand samples and sediments along the beach near to disposal site of reject brine from Alkhobar desalination plant, which is one of the oldest and largest reverse osmosis desalination plants in eastern Saudi Arabia, Arabian Gulf. Fourteen heavy metals (U, Ca, Fe, Al, Ti, Sr, Rb, Ni, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, As, and Zr) were measured using gamma-ray spectrometry, atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS) and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDX). The obtained data revealed that the concentrations of these metals were higher than the values in sediment and soil for other studies in Arabian Gulf. Furthermore, the mean values of Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, As, Sr, and Zr concentrations in sand and sediments were higher than the geochemical background values in shale. The contamination factor (CF), modified degree of contamination (mCd) and pollution load index (PLI) were assessed. According to contamination factors (CF > 1), the results showed elevated levels of Cu, Cr, Mn, Zr, and As in all samples. The highest value of contamination factor was found for As. Based on PLI (PLI > 1), the values of all sampling sites indicate a localized pollution in the study area. Current study could be useful as baseline data for heavy metals in sand and sediments nearby a desalination plant.

  10. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in the Lupa gold field, SW ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentrations of AS, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg and Pb were determined in water, stream sediments, soil, and mine tailings from Lupa Gold Field (LGF), SW Tanzania, in order to assess their pollution levels. As, Cd and Cr were determined by automated Graphite Furnace Absorption Spectrophotometry. Cu and Pb were analysed ...

  11. Human Exposure Risk Assessment Due to Heavy Metals in Groundwater by Pollution Index and Multivariate Statistical Methods: A Case Study from South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vetrimurugan Elumalai

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals in surface and groundwater were analysed and their sources were identified using multivariate statistical tools for two towns in South Africa. Human exposure risk through the drinking water pathway was also assessed. Electrical conductivity values showed that groundwater is desirable to permissible for drinking except for six locations. Concentration of aluminium, lead and nickel were above the permissible limit for drinking at all locations. Boron, cadmium, iron and manganese exceeded the limit at few locations. Heavy metal pollution index based on ten heavy metals indicated that 85% of the area had good quality water, but 15% was unsuitable. Human exposure dose through the drinking water pathway indicated no risk due to boron, nickel and zinc, moderate risk due to cadmium and lithium and high risk due to silver, copper, manganese and lead. Hazard quotients were high in all sampling locations for humans of all age groups, indicating that groundwater is unsuitable for drinking purposes. Highly polluted areas were located near the coast, close to industrial operations and at a landfill site representing human-induced pollution. Factor analysis identified the four major pollution sources as: (1 industries; (2 mining and related activities; (3 mixed sources- geogenic and anthropogenic and (4 fertilizer application.

  12. Heavy metal concentrations in a soil-plant-snail food chain along a terrestrial soil pollution gradient.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, M.J.M.; Oosthoek, A.; Rozema, J.; Aerts, R.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated concentrations of Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb in the compartments of a soil-plant (Urtica dioica)-snail (Cepaea nemoralis) food chain in four polluted locations in the Biesbosch floodplains, the Netherlands, and two reference locations. Total soil metal concentrations in the polluted locations

  13. Biosolids and heavy metals in soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Maria Lucia Azevedo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of sewage sludge or biosolids on soils has been widespread in agricultural areas. However, depending on their characteristics, they may cause increase in heavy metal concentration of treated soils. In general, domestic biosolids have lower heavy metal contents than industrial ones. Origin and treatment method of biosolids may markedly influence their characteristics. The legislation that controls the levels of heavy metal contents in biosolids and the maximum concentrations in soils is still controversial. In the long-term, heavy metal behavior after the and of biosolid application is still unknown. In soils, heavy metals may be adsorbed via specific or non-specific adsorption reactions. Iron oxides and organic matter are the most important soil constituents retaining heavy metals. The pH, CEC and the presence of competing ions also affect heavy metal adsorption and speciation in soils. In solution, heavy metals can be present either as free-ions or complexed with organic and inorganic ligands. Generally, free-ions are more relevant in environmental pollution studies since they are readily bioavailable. Some computer models can estimate heavy metal activity in solution and their ionic speciation. Thermodynamic data (thermodynamic stability constant, total metal and ligand concentrations are used by the GEOCHEM-PC program. This program allows studying heavy metal behavior in solution and the effect of changes in the conditions, such as pH and ionic strength and the application of organic and inorganic ligands caused by soil fertilization.

  14. Synergistic adsorption of heavy metal ions and organic pollutants by supramolecular polysaccharide composite materials from cellulose, chitosan and crown ether

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mututuvari, Tamutsiwa M.; Tran, Chieu D.

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a simple one-step method to synthesize novel supramolecular polysaccharide composites from cellulose (CEL), chitosan (CS) and benzo-15-crown 5 (B15C5). Butylmethylimidazolium chloride [BMIm+Cl−], an ionic liquid (IL), was used as a sole solvent for dissolution and preparation of the composites. Since majority of [BMIm+Cl−] used was recovered for reuse, the method is recyclable. The [CEL/CS + B15C5] composites obtained retain properties of their components, namely superior mechanical strength (from CEL), excellent adsorption capability for heavy metal ions and organic pollutants (from B15C5 and CS). More importantly, the [CEL/CS + B15C5] composites exhibit truly supramolecular properties. By itself CS, CEL and B15C5 can effectively adsorb Cd2+, Zn2+ and 2,4,5-trichlorophenol. However, adsorption capability of the composite was substantially and synergistically enhanced by adding B15C5 to either CEL and/or CS. That is, the adsorption capacity (qe values) for Cd2+ and Zn2+ by [CS + B15C5], [CEL + B15C5] and [CEL + CS + B15C5] composites are much higher than combined qe values of individual CS, CEL and B15C5 composites. It seems that B15C5 synergistically interact with CS (or CEL) to form more stable complexes with Cd2+ (or Zn2+), and as a consequence, the [CS + B15C5] (or the [CEL + B15C5]) composite can adsorb relatively larger amount Cd2+ (or Zn2+). Moreover, the pollutants adsorbed on the composites can be quantitatively desorbed to enable the [CS + CEL + B15C5] composites to be reused with similar adsorption efficiency. PMID:24333678

  15. The system Tetrabothrius bassani (Tetrabothriidae)/Morus bassanus (Sulidae) as a bioindicator of marine heavy metal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Paula; Eira, Catarina; Vingada, José; Miquel, Jordi; Torres, Jordi

    2013-03-01

    Helminths are known to accumulate higher amounts of certain elements than their hosts. The present study assesses the accumulation of heavy metals in Tetrabothrius bassani and in its host, the Atlantic gannet (Morus bassanus) found dead due to bycatch along the seashore in the centre of Portugal. Samples of kidney, liver and pectoral muscle of 23 infected gannets, as well as specimens of T. bassani were analysed for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Pb, Se and Zn by ICP-MS. The evidenced lower concentrations of Cr and Pb in tissues of gannets in comparison to an earlier study performed in the same area may reveal a change in the diet of M. bassanus between both study periods. The highest bioaccumulation factor was obtained for Cd with a 12.7-times higher concentration in the cestode than in gannet muscle. Lead concentration in T. bassani was 6.9-times higher than in kidney tissue, 8.5-times higher than in muscle and 9.5-times higher than in liver of M. bassanus. The cestode/seabird system T. bassani/M. bassanus can be considered a promising bioindicator system to monitor environmental Cd and Pb pollution in marine ecosystems.

  16. Assessment of the Heavy Metal Pollution in the Sediment samples of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the levels of selected metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Fe and Pb) concentrations were measured by Flame Emission Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (FL-AAS) in sediment (sludge) samples collected from 10 different Canals in and around the Dhaka City Corporation (DCC) area of Bangladesh. The analysis ...

  17. MICROBIAL REMOVAL OF HEAVY METALS FROM WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Koc-Jurczyk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Industrialization and urbanization result in increase of heavy metals released into the environment (soil, lakes, rivers, seas, oceans, groundwater. Studies on biosorption of heavy metals are aimed to specify types of microorganisms which could efficiently bind metals. This approach has a very important significance for both slowing down metals exploitation by recovery, and also reduction of environmental pollution by decrease of their excessive concentration. Recent studies have reported about the capabilities of fungi, algae, yeasts, bacteria, waste and agricultural residues or materials containing chitosan derived from crustacean shells as a biosorbents. Biohydrometallurgy could be considered as a new “green” technology of heavy metals removal from wastewater.

  18. Natural and Anthropogenic Source of Heavy Metals Pollution in the Soil Samples of an Industrial Complex; a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Mohammadi Roozbahani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Soil serves as a major reservoir for contaminants as it can bind to various chemicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of some metals (Cd, Cu, Fe and V in soil samples collected from different stations of Ahvaz Industrial Complex II to determine the natural and anthropogenic contribution of metal in the soil. Methods: This was an experimental study that carried out in 2013. Soil samples were obtained from 9 stations and were subjected to bulk digestion and chemical partitioning. Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Fe and V in soil were determined by ICP-OES. Contaminant factor (CF and geo-accumulation index (I-geo were used to evaluate the soil pollution in the samples. ANOVA, Duncan Multiple Range and Pearson correlation coefficient matrix tests was used to analyze the data. Results: According to I-geo results, the soil samples of the Ahvaz Industrial Complex II could be classified as strongly to very strongly pollute for Cd and it was unpolluted to moderately pollute for Cu, Fe and V. The amount of anthropogenic pollution was more than that of natural sources and the anthropogenic order of metals pollution was Fe (88%> Cu (83%> Cd (75%> V (61%. Conclusion: Metals concentrations are the highest at a distance of 300m from the pollution source. V, Cu and Cd pollutants are probably originated from oil industries.

  19. Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    acute toxicity and sublethal chronic action the devastating effects that the accumulation - ... surrounding waters. The results showed a programmes of heavy metals in aquatic strong and positive correlation (r = 0.97) ecosystems. between amounts of metals in the aquatic ...... Chemical composition of agricultural waste.

  20. The role of NAA in the environmental studies. Quantitative determination of heavy metals pollutant on environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutisna; Yusuf, Saeful; Fisli, Adel; Rukihati; Wardhani, Sri; Th Rina M [National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia, Kawasan Puspiptek, Serpong (Indonesia)

    2003-03-01

    The neutron activation analysis technique was applied in the elemental analysis of environmental samples to solve an environmental pollution problem. We focused our study in the analysis of heavy metal which has potentially become a pollutant. The environmental samples analyzed were some water, sediment and an air particulate matter. The tap water sample was collected from five samplings points located at region of Serpong and Muria. Meanwhile the river water samples were taken from five samplings points of Ciliwung River. Eight samplings points of Cisadane river estuary located at Tanjung Burung were selected to collect sediment samples. Air particulate samples were collected from Jakarta Metropolitan and Serpong using high volume air sampler. Trace elements analyses of water samples were done using a combination of INAA and pre-concentration stage prior irradiation. All samples were irradiated at GA. Siwabessy reactor located at Serpong using a thermal neutron flux of about 10{sup 12} n.cm{sup -2}.sec{sup -1}. After cooling time, the samples irradiated were counted by a high resolution HPGe detector coupled to a multichannel analyzer. The quantitative analyses have been done using a comparative method to a fresh laboratory standard and we used some standard references materials to validate our analytical result. The obtained result from the tap water analysis show that the elements of As, Cr, Co, Cd, Mn, Sb and Zn could be determine quantitatively and they have a concentration range from about 0.02 {mu}g/L to 103.9 {mu}g/L. The analysis result of Ciliwung river water samples show that elements of Ag, As, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, V and Zn are present in the range of 2.4 {mu}g/L to about 1365.8 {mu}g/L. Meanwhile some important elements were obtained in the sediments samples taken from Cisadane River estuary such as Ce (40.4 - 63.6 mg/kg), Co (15.2 - 40.2 mg/kg), Cr (21.6 - 57.8 mg/kg), Eu (1.2 - 1.8 mg/kg), Fe (7.0 - 16.8 mg/kg), Mn (887 - 1810 mg/kg) and V (160 - 558

  1. In situ reactive zone with modified Mg(OH)2 for remediation of heavy metal polluted groundwater: Immobilization and interaction of Cr(III), Pb(II) and Cd(II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jun; Li, Bowen; Bao, Qiburi

    2017-04-01

    Mg(OH)2 dissolves slowly and can provide a long-term source of alkalinity, thus a promising alternative reagent for the in situ remediation of heavy metal polluted groundwater. However, the application of Mg(OH)2 on in situ reactive zone (IRZ) for heavy metal polluted groundwater has never been investigated. In this study, the behaviors of heavy metals in a Mg(OH)2 IRZ were monitored for 45 d. The heavy metals show a sequential precipitation by modified Mg(OH)2 due to the difference of Ksp. Column tests were conducted to investigate the temporal and spatial distribution of heavy metals in Mg(OH)2 IRZ and evaluate the stabilization effect for multi-heavy metal polluted groundwater. Experimental results indicate that there exist interactions between different heavy metals, and their zoning distribution is attributed either to the competitive adsorption onto porous media (control column) or to the sequential precipitation of heavy metal ions (IRZ column). In contrast with the control column, heavy metal contaminated area in Mg(OH)2 IRZ significantly shrinks. According to the chemical speciation analysis, when water containing Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cr(III) flows through Mg(OH)2 IRZ, exchangeable fraction of total concentration significantly reduce and the proportion of carbonate and Fe/Mn oxides fraction increase, indicating the decrease of their mobility and toxicity.

  2. The Effects of Organic Wastes on Soil and Cotton Quality with respect to the Risk of Boron and Heavy Metal Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Seçer, Müzeyyen; Elmaci, Ömer Lütfü; Ceylan, Şafak

    2016-01-01

    The effects on soil and cotton quality of organic wastes from medicinal and aromatic plant factories were investigated with regard to the risks of boron and heavy metal pollution. Oily cumin, oregano, oilless oregano wastes, and mineral fertilizers were applied to cotton in two field experiments performed in the years 2003 and 2006. The Pb content of the soil differed significantly in the 2003 experiment and oregano wastes had significantly decreasing effect. Boron of soil to which oily cumin...

  3. Blood and urine levels of heavy metal pollutants in female and male patients with coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sponder M

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Michael Sponder,1 Monika Fritzer-Szekeres,2 Rodrig Marculescu,2 Martina Mittlböck,3 Maria Uhl,4 Birgit Köhler-Vallant,5 Jeanette Strametz-Juranek1 1Department of Cardiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; 2Department of Medical-Chemical Laboratory Analysis, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; 3Department of Medical Statistics, Informatics and Intelligent Systems, Section for Clinical Biometrics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; 4Department of Pollutants and Human, Environment Agency Austria, Vienna, Austria; 5Department of Inorganic Analysis, Environment Agency Austria, Vienna, Austria Background: Heavy metal pollutants such as cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb, and mercury (Hg are rarely the subjects of cardiovascular research although they have been suspected for decades to negatively impact the circulatory system. Methods: Apart from detailed anamnestic data, urinary levels of Cd and full blood levels of Pb and Hg were measured in 53 female (mean age: 68.04±7.03 years and 111 male (mean age: 60.68±11.43 years nonsmoking or never-smoking patients with angiographically verified and precisely quantified coronary artery disease (CAD. Results: Although Cd was quantifiable in 68.3% of subjects, only 34.1% of these patients exceeded the critical 1 µg/L Human Biomonitoring (HBM-I level. Median Pb (20 µg/L and Hg (0.55 µg/L levels were lower than the HBM-I, as well as reference levels of Pb. Wine consumption was the main source for Pb, fish and wine consumption for Hg, and previous nicotine abuse for Cd. There was no correlation between Cd, Pb, or Hg and severity of CAD although severity correlated positively with atherosclerosis parameters (uric acid, creatinine, triglycerides, blood urea nitrogen, C-reactive protein and negatively with high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusion: Cd levels detected in CAD patients were high compared to German and European reference levels but it could not be proven that urine

  4. Heavy metal contamination in bore water due to industrial pollution and polluted and non polluted sea water intrusion in Thoothukudi and Tirunelveli of South Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthiyasekar, C; Neelakantan, M A; Poongothai, S

    2010-12-01

    This study investigates the pollution vulnerability of bore water in the coastal region of Tirunelveli and Thoothukudi in the state of Tamilnadu, India. There are no industries in the Tirunelveli Coastal area whereas there are many industries in SIPCOT (State Industries Promotion Corporation of Tamilnadu) Thoothukudi, and coastal area of Thoothukudi. Bore water from the SIPCOT, coastal area of Thoothukudi and Tirunelveli were collected periodically from July 2006 to May 2008 for this study. These samples were tested and analyzed to find the concentrations of sodium, magnesium, aluminium, potassium, calcium, copper, cadmium, mercury and lead. The toxic cadmium concentration was found in the range of 0.00-0.22 mg Kg⁻¹ at SIPCOT 2 in November 2007, mercury 0.00-0.024 mg Kg⁻¹ and lead 0.00-0.02 mg Kg⁻¹ in SIPCOT 2 in January 2008. The level of contamination is higher than the WHO limits of drinking water standards; but copper and aluminium content are within the limit. On the other hand, the samples taken from bores in Tirunelveli coastal area are non-polluted, and the analysis shows that all the metals are within the limits of WHO standard.

  5. Influence of Heavy Metals and PCBs Pollution on the Enzyme Activity and Microbial Community of Paddy Soils around an E-Waste Recycling Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xianjin; Hashmi, Muhammad Z.; Long, Dongyan; Chen, Litao; Khan, Muhammad I.; Shen, Chaofeng

    2014-01-01

    Due to the emerging environmental issues related to e-waste there is concern about the quality of paddy soils near e-waste workshops. The levels of heavy metals and PCBs and their influence on the enzyme activity and microbial community of paddy soils obtained from the immediate vicinity of an e-waste workshop were investigated in the present study. The results indicated that the heavy metal and PCB pollution did not differ significantly with an increase of the sampling point distances (5 to 30 m). The concentration of Cd (2.16 mg·kg−1) and Cu (69.2 mg·kg−1) were higher, and the PCB pollution was also serious, ranging from 4.9 to 21.6 μg·kg−1. The highest enzyme activity was found for urease compared to phosphatase and catalase, and a fluctuating trend in soil enzyme activity was observed in soils from different sampling sites. The microbial analysis revealed that there was no apparent correlation between the microbial community and the pollutants. However, a slight influence for soil microbial communities could be found based on DGGE, the Shannon index and PCA analysis. The present study suggests that the contamination stress of heavy metals and PCBs might have a slight influence on microbial activity in paddy soils. This study provides the baseline data for enzyme activities and microbial communities in paddy soil under the influence of mixed contamination. PMID:24637907

  6. Influence of Heavy Metals and PCBs Pollution on the Enzyme Activity and Microbial Community of Paddy Soils around an E-Waste Recycling Workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianjin Tang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the emerging environmental issues related to e-waste there is concern about the quality of paddy soils near e-waste workshops. The levels of heavy metals and PCBs and their influence on the enzyme activity and microbial community of paddy soils obtained from the immediate vicinity of an e-waste workshop were investigated in the present study. The results indicated that the heavy metal and PCB pollution did not differ significantly with an increase of the sampling point distances (5 to 30 m. The concentration of Cd (2.16 mg·kg−1 and Cu (69.2 mg·kg−1 were higher, and the PCB pollution was also serious, ranging from 4.9 to 21.6 μg·kg−1. The highest enzyme activity was found for urease compared to phosphatase and catalase, and a fluctuating trend in soil enzyme activity was observed in soils from different sampling sites. The microbial analysis revealed that there was no apparent correlation between the microbial community and the pollutants. However, a slight influence for soil microbial communities could be found based on DGGE, the Shannon index and PCA analysis. The present study suggests that the contamination stress of heavy metals and PCBs might have a slight influence on microbial activity in paddy soils. This study provides the baseline data for enzyme activities and microbial communities in paddy soil under the influence of mixed contamination.

  7. Influence of heavy metals and PCBs pollution on the enzyme activity and microbial community of paddy soils around an e-waste recycling workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xianjin; Hashmi, Muhammad Z; Long, Dongyan; Chen, Litao; Khan, Muhammad I; Shen, Chaofeng

    2014-03-14

    Due to the emerging environmental issues related to e-waste there is concern about the quality of paddy soils near e-waste workshops. The levels of heavy metals and PCBs and their influence on the enzyme activity and microbial community of paddy soils obtained from the immediate vicinity of an e-waste workshop were investigated in the present study. The results indicated that the heavy metal and PCB pollution did not differ significantly with an increase of the sampling point distances (5 to 30 m). The concentration of Cd (2.16 mg·kg-1) and Cu (69.2 mg·kg-1) were higher, and the PCB pollution was also serious, ranging from 4.9 to 21.6 μg·kg-1. The highest enzyme activity was found for urease compared to phosphatase and catalase, and a fluctuating trend in soil enzyme activity was observed in soils from different sampling sites. The microbial analysis revealed that there was no apparent correlation between the microbial community and the pollutants. However, a slight influence for soil microbial communities could be found based on DGGE, the Shannon index and PCA analysis. The present study suggests that the contamination stress of heavy metals and PCBs might have a slight influence on microbial activity in paddy soils. This study provides the baseline data for enzyme activities and microbial communities in paddy soil under the influence of mixed contamination.

  8. On the quantitative relationships between environmental parameters and heavy metals pollution in Mediterranean soils using GIS regression-trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bou Kheir, Rania; Shomar, B.; Greve, Mogens Humlekrog

    2014-01-01

    the relationships between four toxic heavy metals (Ni, Cr, Cd and As) and sixteen environmental parameters (e.g., parent material, slope gradient, proximity to roads, etc.) in the soils of northern Lebanon (as a case study of Mediterranean landscapes), and to detect the most important parameters that can be used...... between 68% and 100%), surroundings of waste areas (48 – 92%), proximity to roads (45 – 82%) and parent materials (57 – 73%) considerably influenced all investigated heavy metals, which is not the case of hydromorphological and soil properties. For instance, hydraulic conductivity (18 – 41%) and pH (23...

  9. Burkholderia metalliresistens sp. nov., a multiple metal-resistant and phosphate-solubilising species isolated from heavy metal-polluted soil in Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jun Kang; Ding, Yong Zhen; Feng, Ren Wei; Wang, Rui Gang; Xu, Ying Ming; Chen, Chun; Wei, Xiu Li; Chen, Wei Min

    2015-06-01

    A metal-resistant and phosphate-solubilising bacterium, designated as strain D414(T), was isolated from heavy metal (Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn)-polluted paddy soils at the surrounding area of Dabao Mountain Mine in Southeast China. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of heavy metals for strain D414(T) were 2000 mg L(-1) (Cd), 800 mg L(-1) (Pb), 150 mg L(-1) (Cu) and 2500 mg L(-1) (Zn). The strain possessed plant growth-promoting properties, such as 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate assimilation, indole production and phosphate solubilisation. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the isolate is a member of the genus Burkholderia where strain D414(T) formed a distinct phyletic line with validly described Burkholderia species. Strain D414(T) is closely related to Burkholderia tropica DSM 15359(T), B. bannensis NBRC E25(T) and B. unamae DSM 17197(T), with 98.5, 98.3 and 98.3 % sequence similarities, respectively. Furthermore, less than 34 % DNA-DNA relatedness was detected between strain D414(T) and the type strains of the phylogenetically closest species of Burkholderia. The dominant fatty acids of strain D414(T) were C14:0, C16:0, C17:0 cyclo and C18:1 ω7c. The DNA G+C content was 62.3 ± 0.5 mol%. On the basis of genotypic, phenotypic and phylogenetic data, strain D414(T) represents a novel species, for which the name Burkholderia metalliresistens sp. nov. is proposed, with D414(T) (=CICC 10561(T) = DSM 26823(T)) as the type strain.

  10. Evaluation of heavy metal pollution in water wells and soil using common leafy green plant indicators in the Al-Kharj region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hammad, Bushra Ahmed; Abd El-Salam, Magda Magdy

    2016-06-01

    This study was performed to determine the levels of eight heavy metals in irrigation well water and soil and to assess the suitability of some leafy green plants that are commonly cultivated in the Al-Kharj region, Saudi Arabia, for human consumption using an atomic absorption spectrometer. The mean concentrations of metals ranged from 0.0001 to 0.436 mg/L in well water and from 0.248 to 164.52 mg/kg in soil. The heavy metal concentrations showed significant differences among the different leafy green plants studied. Parsley (4.98 mg/kg) exhibited higher levels of Pb than other leafy green plants, whereas mallow (0.097 mg/kg) revealed greater amounts of Cd than other plants. All of the leafy green plants retained essential metals (Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn) more than the toxic metals (Pb and Cd). The levels of some of the metals in the leafy green plants were found to meet the FAO/WHO-recommended limits. The monitoring of heavy metals in leafy green plants must be continued because these plants are the main source of food for humans in many parts of the world and are considered to be bio-indicators for environmental pollution.

  11. Removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution by using mango ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-14

    Mar 14, 2011 ... waste pollution, thermal pollution, shipping water pollution and radioactive wastes (Tyagi and Mehra, 1994). Heavy metals such as zinc, lead and chromium ... alkalis, acids, detergents and heat, which may enhance the amount of the metal sorbed. When non-viable biomass is used in the removal of heavy ...

  12. [Pollution Level and Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Atmospheric PM₂.₅ in Nanjing Before and After the Youth Olympic Games].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng; Zhou, Zi-qiang; Zhao, Hai-yan; Xiong, Zheng-qin

    2016-01-15

    The influence of human activities on the atmospheric environment has attracted people's attention. This study reported the dynamic changes in PM₂.₅ concentration, its heavy metal compositions and health risk assessment from April to September, 2014 in Nanjing when the Youth Olympic Games ( YOG) was held. The results showed that the mass levels of PM₂.₅ ranged from 26.39 to 80.31 µg · m⁻³ from April to September. The mass levels of PM₂.₅ met the level II standard of ambient air quality in China (24 h average concentration, 75 µg · m⁻³) in months of April, May and July while met the level I standard (24 h average concentration, 35 µg · m⁻³) in August during the YOG. The average mass concentration of PM₂.₅ reached 76.14 µg · m⁻¹ after the YOG, showing resilience of air pollution. The variations of heavy metals were not consistent with each other throughout the observation period. Principal component analysis indicated that emission sources significantly affected the variations of PM₂.₅ and its heavy metals. PM₂.₅ and all of the heavy metals decreased to their minimum values during the YOG, indicating the effectiveness of those temporary measures for reducing atmospheric pollutant before and during the YOG. The health risks of Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb in PM₂.₅ via breathing and dermal contact exposure were all within the acceptable ranges, but potential carcinogenic risk existed for Cr in PM₂.₅. There was potential non-carcinogenic health risk for adult males via breathing of Mn and greater non-carcinogenic health risk for children via dermal contact exposures to all these 6 heavy metals.

  13. Health benefit from decreasing exposure to heavy metals and metalloid after strict pollution control measures near a typical river basin area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Suzhen; Duan, Xiaoli; Ma, Yingqun; Zhao, Xiuge; Qin, Yanwen; Liu, Yan; Li, Sai; Zheng, Binghui; Wei, Fusheng

    2017-10-01

    The metal(loid) pollution still is a great concern due to the effects from urbanization and industrialization. While, the health risks from the toxic metal(loid)s could decrease if strict pollution control measures were adopted. However, few studies to date investigate the health risks of heavy metal(loid)s in a systematic river basin for the dependent residents, after taking pollution control measures. Thus, the contents of metal(loid)s (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Mn, As) in surface water along a typical river basin were investigated in this study, and the potential non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks posed to the residents were assessed. Although the soluble contents of Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd exceeded the respective thresholds in two sites located downstream the mine area, they were greatly decreased in comparison with previous contamination levels, and the soluble concentrations of all the metal(loid)s were within the relevant thresholds in the sites far away from the mining area. Moreover, the closer to the mining area, the higher the pollution levels of metal(loid)s. The total hazard index for non-carcinogenic risks of metal(loid)s were basically lower than the threshold (1) for the local population. Whereas, although the content of metal(loid)s were low (such as As), they could pose relative higher non-carcinogenic health risks. The result illustrated that pollution levels, toxicity of the contaminants and exposure behavior patterns all could contribute to the potential detrimental health risks. Additionally, the non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks from ingestion exposure were ∼2-∼4 orders of magnitude higher than those from dermal contact. The total carcinogenic risks were basically lower than the maximum tolerable levels (1.0 × 10 -4 ), indicating carcinogenic risks from most areas of the river could also be accepted. Among different population groups, heavy metal(loid)s posed relative higher non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks to the children in

  14. Toxicity of algal-derived aldehydes to two invertebrate species: Do heavy metal pollutants have a synergistic effect?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Rebecca L. [School of Marine Science and Technology, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Ridley Building, Claremont Road, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: r.l.taylor@ncl.ac.uk; Caldwell, Gary S. [School of Marine Science and Technology, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Ridley Building, Claremont Road, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Bentley, Matthew G. [School of Marine Science and Technology, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Ridley Building, Claremont Road, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-15

    The recent discovery of the production of anti-proliferative aldehydes in a variety of microalgal species has lead to considerable investigation into the effects of these toxins on aquatic invertebrates. Studies have, however, rarely considered the impact pollutants may have on grazer responses to algal toxins. In this study, the acute toxicities of five aldehydes to the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis and nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia salina are examined using immersion assays. In addition, the effect of a representative of these aldehydes in the presence of sub-lethal levels of heavy metals was examined. B. plicatilis generally showed greater sensitivity to the aldehydes than A. salina. The polyunsaturated 2-trans,4-trans-decadienal was the most toxic to both species having 24 h LD{sub 50} values of 7 and 20 {mu}M for B. plicatilis and A. salina, respectively. The remaining aldehydes had different orders of toxicity for the two species with a stronger relationship observed between mortality and aldehyde carbon-chain length for A. salina whereas B. plicatilis mortality showed a stronger dependence on the presence of carbon-carbon double bonds in the aldehydes. The presence of 1 {mu}M of copper sulphate in solutions of decadienal resulted in the reduction of the 24 h LD{sub 50} of decadienal by approximately a third for both species. 1 {mu}M of copper chloride in solutions of decadienal reduced the 24 h LD{sub 50} of decadienal to A. salina nauplii by approximately 11% and 1 {mu}M zinc sulphate caused a reduction of only 3%. Pre-exposure of the organisms to 1 {mu}M copper sulphate had no significant impact on their subsequent mortality in decadienal. The ecological implications and the possible mechanisms for the action of copper sulphate on the response of organisms to decadienal are discussed.

  15. A comparison of freshwater mussels and passive samplers as indicators of heavy metal pollution in aquatic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Laila C.; Vollertsen, Jes; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning

    2013-01-01

    The utility of passive sampling as a tool for determining the ecological state of wet retention ponds was investigated as an alternative to the analysis of living organisms. The accumulation of heavy metals over time in mussels and passive samplers exposed to artificial stormwater was examined...

  16. Transfer of heavy metals through terrestrial food webs: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Jillian E; Boyd, Robert S; Rajakaruna, Nishanta

    2015-04-01

    Heavy metals are released into the environment by both anthropogenic and natural sources. Highly reactive and often toxic at low concentrations, they may enter soils and groundwater, bioaccumulate in food webs, and adversely affect biota. Heavy metals also may remain in the environment for years, posing long-term risks to life well after point sources of heavy metal pollution have been removed. In this review, we compile studies of the community-level effects of heavy metal pollution, including heavy metal transfer from soils to plants, microbes, invertebrates, and to both small and large mammals (including humans). Many factors contribute to heavy metal accumulation in animals including behavior, physiology, and diet. Biotic effects of heavy metals are often quite different for essential and non-essential heavy metals, and vary depending on the specific metal involved. They also differ for adapted organisms, including metallophyte plants and heavy metal-tolerant insects, which occur in naturally high-metal habitats (such as serpentine soils) and have adaptations that allow them to tolerate exposure to relatively high concentrations of some heavy metals. Some metallophyte plants are hyperaccumulators of certain heavy metals and new technologies using them to clean metal-contaminated soil (phytoextraction) may offer economically attractive solutions to some metal pollution challenges. These new technologies provide incentive to catalog and protect the unique biodiversity of habitats that have naturally high levels of heavy metals.

  17. Fluctuating asymmetry rather than oxidative stress in Bufo raddei can be an accurate indicator of environmental pollution induced by heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Zhang, Wenya; Ai, Shiwei; Ren, Liang; Zhang, Yingmei

    2017-06-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) and fluctuating asymmetry (FA) as risk markers for environmental stress are widely used to predict changes in the health and fitness of many animals exposed to pollutants. However, from the perspective of protecting declining amphibians, it remains to be verified which one would be a reliable indicator for amphibians exposed to long-term heavy metal pollution under natural conditions. In this study, the OS and FA of Bufo raddei exposed to natural heavy metal pollution were analyzed to determine which marker is more accurate for indicating heavy metal-induced stress. Three years of data were collected during the breeding season of B. raddei from Baiyin (BY), which has been mainly contaminated with Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd compounds for a long period, and from Liujiaxia (LJX), which is a relatively unpolluted area. Unexpectedly, although significant accumulation of the four heavy metals was found in the kidney and liver of B. raddei from BY, the levels of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and malondialdehyde in these two organs were found to be irregular, with low repeatability in both BY and LJX. However, significant differences in the levels of FA were observed in B. raddei populations from these two areas over the past 3 years (P < 0.01). The degrees of FA in B. raddei populations from BY and LJX were assessed as degree 4 and 1, respectively. In short, this study suggested that FA was a more reliable and effective indicator than OS to monitor and predict long-term environmental stress on anuran amphibians.

  18. First record of anisakid juveniles (Nematoda) in the European seabass Dicentrarchus labrax (family: Moronidae), and their role as bio-indicators of heavy metal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, Kareem; Bashtar, Abdel-Rahman; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Quraishy, Saleh Al; El-Mahdi, Magda; Al-Ghamdi, Ali; Mostafa, Nesma

    2012-03-01

    This study assessed the anisakid nematode distribution pattern in the fish collected from coasts of Mediterranean Sea, Egypt, during the period September 2010-April 2011. Two hundred thirty out of 300 (76.7%) Dicentrarchus labrax (European seabass) marine fishes belonging to family Moronidae were dissected and found to be infected with larva three nematodes. The larvae had been studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. The present work represents the first record of the presence of the parasite in this fish in the Mediterranean Sea. The concentrations of some heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Fe, Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni) in parasites as well as in tissues of fish were measured. The presented results showed that the nematode parasites are able to accumulate heavy metals in their tissues and in some cases that they are able to accumulate large amounts of heavy metals in a higher amount than host tissues. This demonstrated their sustainability as bioindicators of environmental pollution by removing heavy metals and help in the survival of fish.

  19. Effect of heavy metals on the carbon and nitrogen ratio in Avicennia marina from polluted and unpolluted regions

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Yadav, A.; Ram, A.; Majithiya, D.; Salvi, S.; Sonavane, S.; Kamble, A.; Ghadigaonkar, S.; JiyalalRam, M.J.; Gajbhiye, S.N.

    on nitrogen metabolism in nodules and roots of soybean plants. Funct. Plant Biol. 30, 57–64. Bertrand, M., Guary, J.C., 2002. How plants adopt their physiology to an excess of metals. In: Pessarakli, M. (Ed.), Handbook of Plant and Crop Physiology, 2nd ed... and Crop Stress, 2d ed. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 569–598. Mildvan, A.S., 1970. Metal in enzymes catalysis. In: Boyer, D.D. (Ed.)The Enzymes vol 11. Academic Press, London, pp. 445–536. Nagajyoti, P.C., Lee, K.D., Sreekanth, T.V.M., 2010. Heavy metals...

  20. Leachate and Pollution Levels of Heavy Metals in the Groundwater near Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Site of Mashhad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borhan Mansouri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study is to investigate the concentration of metals (lead, cadmium, chromium, copper, and nickel in the landfill leachate and heavy metals in wells downstream of municipal solid waste landfill site in the city of Mashhad. Methods: In both winter and summer seasons in 2009 samples were collected from five wells that were in landfill downstream in Mashhad. Results: Among heavy metals, nickel concentration in summer and lead concentration in winter had the highest levels. The results showed that