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Sample records for heavy metals mercury

  1. Estimation of some heavy metals in polluted well water and mercury accumulation in broiler organs

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein, Hussein Khamis; Abu-Zinadah, Osama Abdullah; EL-Rabey, Haddad Abdulsameih; Meerasahib, Mohammed Fareez

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the concentrations of heavy metals in well water and bioaccumulation of the most abundant metals in chicken tissues in some areas in the province of Mecca Almokaramah, Saudi Arabia. Among the heavy metals (Cd, Zn, Cr, Mn, Cu Hg, Pb and Ni) studied, mercury (Hg) revealed highest in concentration in well waters. The concentration of mercury in the ground water, beside in liver, kidney, muscle and blood samples of ten chickens fro...

  2. Mercury heavy-metal-induced physiochemical changes and genotoxic alterations in water hyacinths [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malar, Srinivasan; Sahi, Shivendra Vikram; Favas, Paulo J C; Venkatachalam, Perumal

    2015-03-01

    Mercury heavy metal pollution has become an important environmental problem worldwide. Accumulation of mercury ions by plants may disrupt many cellular functions and block normal growth and development. To assess mercury heavy metal toxicity, we performed an experiment focusing on the responses of Eichhornia crassipes to mercury-induced oxidative stress. E. crassipes seedlings were exposed to varying concentrations of mercury to investigate the level of mercury ions accumulation, changes in growth patterns, antioxidant defense mechanisms, and DNA damage under hydroponics system. Results showed that plant growth rate was significantly inhibited (52 %) at 50 mg/L treatment. Accumulation of mercury ion level were 1.99 mg/g dry weight, 1.74 mg/g dry weight, and 1.39 mg/g dry weight in root, leaf, and petiole tissues, respectively. There was a decreasing trend for chlorophyll a, b, and carotenoids with increasing the concentration of mercury ions. Both the ascorbate peroxidase and malondialdehyde contents showed increased trend in leaves and roots up to 30 mg/L mercury treatment and slightly decreased at the higher concentrations. There was a positive correlation between heavy metal dose and superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase antioxidative enzyme activities which could be used as biomarkers to monitor pollution in E. crassipes. Due to heavy metal stress, some of the normal DNA bands were disappeared and additional bands were amplified compared to the control in the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profile. Random amplified polymorphic DNA results indicated that genomic template stability was significantly affected by mercury heavy metal treatment. We concluded that DNA changes determined by random amplified polymorphic DNA assay evolved a useful molecular marker for detection of genotoxic effects of mercury heavy metal contamination in plant species.

  3. Detoxification of toxic heavy metals by marine bacteria highly resistant to mercury

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    De; Ramaiah, N.; Vardanyan, L.

    Pollution in industrial areas is a serious environmental concern, and interest in bacterial resistance to heavy metals is of practical significance. Mercury (Hg), Cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) are known to cause damage to living organisms, including...

  4. Method for fixating sludges and soils contaminated with mercury and other heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Thomas E.; Roth, Rachel L.; Carlson, Allan L.

    2005-06-28

    The invention relates to a method, composition and apparatus for stabilizing mercury and other heavy metals present in a particulate material such that the metals will not leach from the particulate material. The method generally involves the application of a metal reagent, a sulfur-containing compound, and the addition of oxygen to the particulate material, either through agitation, sparging or the addition of an oxygen-containing compound.

  5. Estimation of some heavy metals in polluted well water and mercury accumulation in broiler organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Khamis Hussein

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the concentrations of heavy metals in well water and bioaccumulation of the most abundant metals in chicken tissues in some areas in the province of Mecca Almokaramah, Saudi Arabia. Among the heavy metals (Cd, Zn, Cr, Mn, Cu Hg, Pb and Ni studied, mercury (Hg revealed highest in concentration in well waters. The concentration of mercury in the ground water, beside in liver, kidney, muscle and blood samples of ten chickens from each of four poultry- production farms were estimated using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed that the kidney followed by liver had the highest bioaccumulation of mercury in all farm samples. The level of mercury in the ground water was 7.06µg/L. The relationship between mercury accumulation levels in the kidney and those in the liver tissues were proportionally correlated and altered with elevation in the antioxidant enzyme activities such as AST and ALT. These elevated enzymatic activities were induced by the level of toxicity. There was a significant elevation in the level of liver and kidney malondialdhyde (MDA, while the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase (SOD and CAT were significantly decreased. Biochemical observations were supplemented by histopathological examination of liver and kidney sections.

  6. Fate of heavy metals including mercury in a sewage sludge incineration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Yong-Chil; Kim, Jeong-Hun; Pudasainee, Deepak; Yoon, Young-Sik; Cho, Sung-Jin

    2010-01-01

    Thermal treatment technology for sewage sludge incineration has several advantages. However, emission of heavy metals including mercury, into the environment from such technology utilization has been a major concern. In this paper heavy metals including mercury emission and distribution behavior within the different streams of a fluidized bed sewage sludge incineration process is presented. Emission of heavy metals and mercury at the inlet and outlet of APCDs and each incoming and outgoing streams were sampled and analyzed. Mercury and its speciation in flue gas were sampled and analyzed by Ontario Hydro Method. Solid and liquid samples were analyzed by US EPA method 7470A and 7471A, respectively. Heavy metals were sampled by US EPA method and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. At the inlet of APCDs Cr, Ni and Pb were mainly enriched in coarse particles whereas, As was enriched in fine particles. Hg emission concentration in flue gas, on average was 326.73 μg/ Sm 3 and 4.44 μg/ Sm 3 at inlet APCDs and the stack emission, overall removal efficiency of APCDs was 98.6%. More than 83.3% of Hg was speciated into oxidized form at the inlet of APCD. Oxidized Hg was removed in wet APCDs leaving behind elemental Hg as dominant species in stack emission. Hg was mainly distributed in waste water (57.5%), other effluent and sludge (27.6%), waste water from spray dry reactor (12.3%), fly ash in hopper (2.5%). Further, detailed investigations would give more reliable mass distribution data and insight to control mercury from such sources. (author)

  7. Analysis of mercury and other heavy metals accumulated in lichen Usnea antarctica from James Ross Island, Antarctica

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zvěřina, O.; Láska, K.; Červenka, R.; Kuta, J.; Coufalík, Pavel; Komárek, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 186, č. 12 (2014), s. 9089-9100 ISSN 0167-6369 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : antarctica * heavy metal * mercury * lichen Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.679, year: 2014

  8. Total mercury, methyl mercury, and heavy metal concentrations in Hyeongsan River and its tributaries in Pohang city, South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailon, Mark Xavier; David, Anneschel Sheehan; Park, Yeongeon; Kim, Eunhee; Hong, Yongseok

    2018-04-11

    Heavy metal contamination in aquatic systems is a big problem in many areas around the world. In 2016, high mercury concentrations were reported in bivalves (Corbicula leana) and sediments near the confluence of the Hyeongsan River and Chilseong Creek located in Pohang, a steel industrial city in the south-east coast of the Korean peninsula. Given that both the Chilseong and Gumu creeks run through the Pohang industrial complex and ultimately flow to the Hyeongsan River, it is imperative to determine if the industrial effluents have any impact on the mercury contamination in these two streams and the Hyeongsan River. In this work, we investigated the concentration levels of different heavy metals using cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy. The metal concentration in the water samples from the Hyeongsan River, Gumu Creek, and Chilseong Creek did not exceed the limits for drinking water quality set by the US EPA and World Health Organization. However, the sediment samples were found to be heavily contaminated by Hg with levels exceeding the toxic effect threshold. Gumu Creek was found to be heavily contaminated. The concentrations of the different heavy metals increased downstream, and the samples collected from the sites in the Hyeongsan River near the Gumu Creek, an open channel for wastewater discharge of companies in the Pohang Industrial Complex, showed higher contamination levels, indicating that the effluents from the industrial complex are a possible source of contamination in the river.

  9. In vivo monitoring of heavy metals in man: cadmium and mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, K.J.; Vartsky, D.; Cohn, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    Direct in vivo measurements of selected heavy metals is possible by nuclear analytical techniques. In particular, cadmium and mercury are retained in the body in sufficient quantities for their detection by neutron activation analysis. Autopsy data on cadmium of adult male non-smokers living in the US indicates an average body burden of 30 mg by age 50. The distribution of cadmium in the body, however, is nonuniform, approximately 50% being located in the kidneys and liver. The increased concentration of cadmium within these organs has made possible the direct in vivo measurements of this metal by prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA). At present, in vivo determinations of mercury have been performed on phantoms only. These in vivo techniques provide a unique method of obtaining accurate organ burden data in humans that can be related to the toxicological effects of these metals

  10. Pollution by Arsenic, Mercury and other Heavy Metals in Sunchulli mining district of Apolobamba (Bolivia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terán Mita, Tania; Faz Cano, Angel; Muñoz, Maria Angeles; Millán Gómez, Rocio; Chincheros Paniagua, Jaime

    2010-05-01

    In Bolivia, metal mining activities since historical times have been one of the most important sources of environmental pollution. This is the case of the National Area of Apolobamba Integrated Management (ANMIN of Apolobamba) in La Paz, Bolivia, where intense gold mining activities have been carried out from former times to the present, with very little gold extraction and very primitive mineral processing technology; in fact, mercury is still being used in the amalgam processes of the gold concentration, which is burned outdoors to recover the gold. Sunchullí is a representative mining district in ANMIN of Apolobamba where mining activity is mainly gold extraction and its water effluents go to the Amazonian basin; in this mining district the productivity of extracted mineral is very low but the processes can result in heavy-metal contamination of the air, water, soils and plants. Due to its high toxicity, the contamination by arsenic and mercury create the most critical environmental problems. In addition, some other heavy metals may also be present such as lead, copper, zinc and cadmium. These heavy metals could be incorporated in the trophic chain, through the flora and the fauna, in their bio-available and soluble forms. Inhabitants of this area consume foodcrops, fish from lakes and rivers and use the waters for the livestock, domestic use, and irrigation. The aim of this work was to evaluate the heavy metals pollution by gold mining activities in Sunchullí area. In Sunchullí two representative zones were distinguished and sampled. Zone near the mining operation site was considered as affected by mineral extraction processes, while far away zones represented the non affected ones by the mining operation. In each zone, 3 plots were established; in each plot, 3 soil sampling points were selected in a random manner and analysed separately. In each sampling point, two samples were taken, one at the surface, from 0-5 cm depth (topsoil), and the other between 5

  11. Heavy Metals (Mercury, Lead and Cadmium Determination in 17 Species of Fish Marketed in Khorramabad City, West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mortazavi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals entrance to fish body tissues and transferring to human body systems after their consuming makes numerous undesirable effects and health problems. The aim of this study was to determine some heavy metals (lead, cadmium and mercury in fresh fishes marketed in Khorramabad City, west of Iran. In this descriptive study, five samples of 17 fish species with high consumption were purchased randomly in 2014. Measurement of mercury, lead and cadmium was performed using atomic absorption spectrometry. All measurements were performed three times for each sample. Lead mean levels in fish samples was in the range 0.736 -1.005 ppm, cadmium range was from 0.196 to 0.015 ppm and mean content of mercury was  0.431 - 0.107 ppm. At present mean concentration of lead, mercury and cadmium in supplied fishes muscle is lower than maximum recommended levels according to WHO, EC and FDA guidelines. Based on the obtained results of this study and the importance of heavy metals in foods and their impacts on human health, continuous monitoring of heavy metals levels in foods is necessary.

  12. A Study of Mercury and Heavy Metal at Some Gold Minefield in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahtiani, S; Asiah; Darmaerius; Saladini, S; Manurung, H; Rita; Rodiana, Y

    2001-01-01

    A study on Mercury and heavy metals contents in soil, sediment and river water at several gold mining areas in Indonesia was conducted. The study areas are the gold mining areas at Rejang Lebong (Province Bengkulu), Rungan Hulu and Kahayan River (Province Central Kalimantan), Pekondoh river (Province Lampung) and Halimun mountain (Province West Java). Sampling points at each site were selected from upstream and to downstream. The parameters of interest in this study include T-Hg and Heavy Metals (Pb, Cd, Cu and Cr). The main purpose of this study is for determine the preliminary data of T-Hg and heavy metals contents at gold mining areas and around the rivers for strengthen the environmental management programs in Indonesia. Analytical method for water and sediment samples used in this experiment was wet method with strong acid on the temperature of 230-250 o C for 20 minute. The extract was they analyzed as total Hg concentration using Mercury Analyzer (cold valor AAS). For water sample, extracted with Dithizone-benzene 0.01 O was performed prior to acid digestion, them dried and the left residue was treated with strong acid and analyzed with Mercury Analyzer (cold vapor AAS) too. Mostly, T-Hg contents were detected at each sampling location where gold mining activities take place; gold ore was crushed and extracted by mercury as gold amalgam. The highest concentration of T-Hg for sediment sample from four study sites 14600 ng/g at gold mining area Lampung and 13630 ng/g of T-Hg was found in sediment samples collected in Halimun Mountain, West Java. While, the highest concentration of T-Hg in water sample is was 367 ng/L at gold mining of Halimun Mountain, West Java. Average concentration of T-Hg in water sample ranged from 0.02 to 202.47 ng/L, in sediment sample ranged from 24.00 to 8544.75 ng/g. Average concentration of Pb in water sample ranged from 0.002 to 4.86 mg/L, in sediment sample ranged from 0.056 to 171.65 μg/g. Average concentration of Cd in water

  13. Intoxication with metallic mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichte, B.; Assmann, H.; Ritzau, F.

    1984-01-01

    Intoxications by metallic mercury are extremely rare. Report of a patient, who tried to commit suicide by subcutaneous injection of 500 g of metallic mercury. He died 16 months later in the course of the intoxication. A short review is given of effects and reactions of metallic mercury in the human organism. (orig.) [de

  14. Intoxication with metallic mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fichte, B.; Ritzau, F.; Assmann, H.

    1984-02-01

    Intoxications by metallic mercury are extremely rare. Report is given of a patient who tried to commit suicide by subcutaneous injection of 500 g of metallic mercury. He died 16 months later in the course of the intoxication. A short review is given of effects and reactions of metallic mercury in the human organism.

  15. Intoxication with metallic mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fichte, B.; Assmann, H.; Ritzau, F.

    1984-02-01

    Intoxications by metallic mercury are extremely rare. Report is given of a patient, who tried to commit suicide by subcutaneous injection of 500 g of metallic mercury. He died 16 months later in the course of the intoxication. A short review is given of effects and reactions of metallic mercury in the human organism.

  16. Current state of knowledge of the concentration of mercury and other heavy metals in fresh water fish in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancera Rodriguez, Nestor Javier; Alvarez Leon, Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    One of the most important environmental problems in the country refers to the indiscriminate use of chemical precursors in illicit activities, the use of heavy metals as mercury in mining activities, the spill of served waters and another type of compound related with the industrial activities of raw and the inadequate agricultural practices. This has led to chemical contamination especially by heavy metals, considered one of the most dangerous for the aquatic ecosystems and the present species in them. Fish have the capacity to store these compounds in their organism in a concentration higher than that in the surrounding environment (water), therefore, their concentration are important indicators of the contamination level, but also this implies that their consumption can become a serious health problem for the populations that feeds from them. The concentration of heavy metals in fish of fresh water is better known in the basin of the Magdalena river, especially in the region of the Mojana and in the marshes of the south of the department of Bolivar where the levels of contamination by mercury and other metals has been studied due to the development of multiple industrial activities, including gold mining and petrochemical industries. However, little is known in the country about the problem generated by the disposal heavy metals in rivers and lakes and their impact on the fish resource, deterioration of ecosystems and human health. Based in the current norms bio-assays have been used to check the effects of the aquatic contamination on fresh waters fish and the evaluation of at least three parameters (heavy metals, temperature, effluents) in eight species of fresh waters fish: carassius auratus, oreochromis spp., piractus brachypomus, prochilodus magdalenae, astyanax fasciatus, colossoma bidens, gambusia affinis and grundulus bogotensis

  17. Current State of Knowledge of the Concentration of Mercury and Other Heavy Metals in Fresh Water Fish in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Javier Mancera-Rodríguez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important environmental problems in the country refers to the indiscriminate use of chemical precursors in illicit activities, the use of heavy metals as mercury in mining activities, the spill of served waters and another type of compound related with the industrial activities of raw and the inadequate agricultural practices. This has led to chemical contamination especially by heavy metals, considered one of the most dangerous for the aquatic ecosystems and the present species in them. Fish have the capacity to store these compounds in their organism in a concentration higher important indicators of the contamination level, but also this implies that their consumption can become a serious health problem for the populations that feeds from them. The concentration of heavy metals in fish of fresh water is better known in the basin of the Magdalena river, especially in the region of the Mojana and in the marshes of the south of the Department of Bolivar where the levels of contamination by mercury and other metals has been studied due to the development of multiple industrial activities, including gold mining and petrochemical industries. However, little is known in the country about the problem generated by the disposal heavy metals in rivers and lakes and their impact on the fish resource, deterioration of ecosystems and human health. Based in the current norms bio-assays have been used to check the effects of the aquatic contamination on fresh waters fish and the evaluation of at least three parameters (heavy metals, temperature, effluents in eight species of fresh waters fish: Carassius auratus, Oreochromis spp., Piractus brachypomus, Prochilodus magdalenae, Astyanax fasciatus, Colossoma bidens, Gambusia affinis and Grundulus bogotensis.

  18. [Spatial distribution and ecological significance of heavy metals in soils from Chatian mercury mining deposit, western Hunan province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hong-Fei; Li, Yong-Hu; Ji, Yan-Fang; Yang, Lin-Sheng; Wang, Wu-Yi

    2009-04-15

    Ores, waste tailings and slag, together with three typical soil profiles (natural soil profiles far from mine entrance and near mine entrance, soil profile under slag) in Chatian mercury mining deposit (CMD), western Hunan province were sampled and their concentrations of mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn) were determined by HG-ICP-AES and ICP-MS. Enrichment factor and correlation analysis were taken to investigate the origins, distribution and migration of Hg, as well as other heavy metals in the CMD. The results show that Hg is enriched in the bottom of the soil profile far from mine entrance but accumulated in the surface of soil profiles near mine entrance and under slag. The soil profiles near mine entrance and under slag are both contaminated by Hg, while the latter is contaminated more heavily. In the soil profile under slag, Hg concentration in the surface soil, Hg average concentration in the total profile, and the leaching depth of soil Hg are 640 microg x g(-1), (76.74 +/- 171.71) microg x g(-1), and more than 100 cm, respectively; while 6.5 microg x g(-1), (2.74 +/- 1.90) microg x g(-1), and 40 cm, respectively, are found in the soil profile near mine entrance. Soil in the mercury mine area is also polluted by Cd, As, Pb, Zn besides metallogenic element Hg, among which Cd pollution is relatively heavier than others. The mobility of the studied heavy metals in soil follows the order as Hg > Cd > As > Zn approximately equal to Pb. The leaching depth of the heavy metals is influenced by total concentration in the surface soil and soil physico-chemical parameters. The origins, distribution and migration of heavy metals in soil profile in the mining area are related to primary geological environment, and strongly influenced by human mining activities.

  19. Characterization of the Metabolically Modified Heavy Metal-Resistant Cupriavidus metallidurans Strain MSR33 Generated for Mercury Bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Luis A.; Yáñez, Carolina; González, Myriam; Lobos, Soledad; Smalla, Kornelia; Seeger, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background Mercury-polluted environments are often contaminated with other heavy metals. Therefore, bacteria with resistance to several heavy metals may be useful for bioremediation. Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 is a model heavy metal-resistant bacterium, but possesses a low resistance to mercury compounds. Methodology/Principal Findings To improve inorganic and organic mercury resistance of strain CH34, the IncP-1β plasmid pTP6 that provides novel merB, merG genes and additional other mer genes was introduced into the bacterium by biparental mating. The transconjugant Cupriavidus metallidurans strain MSR33 was genetically and biochemically characterized. Strain MSR33 maintained stably the plasmid pTP6 over 70 generations under non-selective conditions. The organomercurial lyase protein MerB and the mercuric reductase MerA of strain MSR33 were synthesized in presence of Hg2+. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (mM) for strain MSR33 were: Hg2+, 0.12 and CH3Hg+, 0.08. The addition of Hg2+ (0.04 mM) at exponential phase had not an effect on the growth rate of strain MSR33. In contrast, after Hg2+ addition at exponential phase the parental strain CH34 showed an immediate cessation of cell growth. During exposure to Hg2+ no effects in the morphology of MSR33 cells were observed, whereas CH34 cells exposed to Hg2+ showed a fuzzy outer membrane. Bioremediation with strain MSR33 of two mercury-contaminated aqueous solutions was evaluated. Hg2+ (0.10 and 0.15 mM) was completely volatilized by strain MSR33 from the polluted waters in presence of thioglycolate (5 mM) after 2 h. Conclusions/Significance A broad-spectrum mercury-resistant strain MSR33 was generated by incorporation of plasmid pTP6 that was directly isolated from the environment into C. metallidurans CH34. Strain MSR33 is capable to remove mercury from polluted waters. This is the first study to use an IncP-1β plasmid directly isolated from the environment, to generate a novel and stable bacterial strain

  20. Characterization of the metabolically modified heavy metal-resistant Cupriavidus metallidurans strain MSR33 generated for mercury bioremediation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A Rojas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mercury-polluted environments are often contaminated with other heavy metals. Therefore, bacteria with resistance to several heavy metals may be useful for bioremediation. Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 is a model heavy metal-resistant bacterium, but possesses a low resistance to mercury compounds. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To improve inorganic and organic mercury resistance of strain CH34, the IncP-1β plasmid pTP6 that provides novel merB, merG genes and additional other mer genes was introduced into the bacterium by biparental mating. The transconjugant Cupriavidus metallidurans strain MSR33 was genetically and biochemically characterized. Strain MSR33 maintained stably the plasmid pTP6 over 70 generations under non-selective conditions. The organomercurial lyase protein MerB and the mercuric reductase MerA of strain MSR33 were synthesized in presence of Hg(2+. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (mM for strain MSR33 were: Hg(2+, 0.12 and CH(3Hg(+, 0.08. The addition of Hg(2+ (0.04 mM at exponential phase had not an effect on the growth rate of strain MSR33. In contrast, after Hg(2+ addition at exponential phase the parental strain CH34 showed an immediate cessation of cell growth. During exposure to Hg(2+ no effects in the morphology of MSR33 cells were observed, whereas CH34 cells exposed to Hg(2+ showed a fuzzy outer membrane. Bioremediation with strain MSR33 of two mercury-contaminated aqueous solutions was evaluated. Hg(2+ (0.10 and 0.15 mM was completely volatilized by strain MSR33 from the polluted waters in presence of thioglycolate (5 mM after 2 h. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A broad-spectrum mercury-resistant strain MSR33 was generated by incorporation of plasmid pTP6 that was directly isolated from the environment into C. metallidurans CH34. Strain MSR33 is capable to remove mercury from polluted waters. This is the first study to use an IncP-1β plasmid directly isolated from the environment, to generate a novel

  1. Effects of heavy metals (other than mercury) on marine and estuarine organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, G W

    1971-01-01

    Heavy metals such as copper, zinc and lead are normal constituents of marine and estuarine environments. When additional quantities are introduced from industrial wastes or sewage they enter the biogeochemical cycle and, as a result of being potentially toxic, may interfere with the ecology of a particular environment. In different marine organisms, the behavior of heavy metals is described in terms of their absorption, storage, excretion and regulation when different concentrations are available in the environment. At higher concentrations, the detrimental effects of heavy metals become apparent and their different toxic effects and factors affecting them are also described. 78 references, 9 figures, 4 tables.

  2. Effects of remediation train sequence on decontamination of heavy metal-contaminated soil containing mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hseu, Zeng-Yei; Huang, Yu-Tuan; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng

    2014-09-01

    When a contaminated site contains pollutants including both nonvolatile metals and Hg, one single remediation technology may not satisfactorily remove all contaminants. Therefore, in this study, chemical extraction and thermal treatment were combined as a remediation train to remove heavy metals, including Hg, from contaminated soil. A 0.2 M solution of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) was shown to be the most effective reagent for extraction of considerable amounts of Cu, Pb, and Zn (> 50%). Hg removal was ineffective using 0.2 M EDTA, but thermogravimetric analysis suggested that heating to 550 degrees C with a heating rate of 5 degrees C/min for a duration of 1 hr appeared to be an effective approach for Hg removal. With the employment of thermal treatment, up to 99% of Hg could be removed. However executing thermal treatment prior to chemical extraction reduced the effectiveness of the subsequent EDTA extraction because nonvolatile heavy metals were immobilized in soil aggregates after the 550 degrees C treatment. The remediation train of chemical extraction followed by thermal treatment appears to remediate soils that have been contaminated by many nonvolatile heavy metals and Hg. Implications: A remediation train conjoining two or more techniques has been initialized to remove multiple metals. Better understandings of the impacts of treatment sequences, namely, which technique should be employed first on the soil properties and the decontamination efficiency, are in high demand. This study provides a strategy to remove multiple heavy metals including Hg from a contaminated soil. The interactions between thermal treatment and chemical extraction on repartitioning of heavy metals was revealed. The obtained results could offer an integrating strategy to remediate the soil contaminated with both heavy metals and volatile contaminants.

  3. Heavy metals and zooplankton with special reference to Minamata (Japan) mercury pollution - A case study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gajbhiye, S.N.; Hirota, R.

    content was 0.01 to 0.25 mu g g/1 (dry). Among the various groups of zooplankton studied chaetognaths, bivalve, and crustaceans showed higher rate of bioaccumulation. The distribution of other heavy metals was not abnormal and the values were below...

  4. Heavy metals in our foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-11-01

    The special group ''chemistry of food and forensic chemistry'' of the Association of German Analytical Chemists in Munich in 1983 issued a statement on that subject. The publication points out how heavy metals (examples: lead, cadmium and mercury) make their way into the foodstuffs, how many heavy metals are contained in our foodstuffs, which heavy metals are indispensable minerals and which aren't, and which heavy metals are ingested with food. It concludes by discussing how heavy metal contamination of our food can be prevented.

  5. Evaluation of potential dietary toxicity of heavy metals in some common Nigerian beverages: A look at antimony, tin and mercury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.I. Roberts

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available There is currently little information on the composition of heavy metals in beverages imported and locally produced in Nigeria. The study quantitatively determined the composition of antimony (Sb, tin (Sn and mercury (Hg in 50 different beverage samples and evaluated the extent of violation of guideline values. Analysis of the beverage samples for the presence of Sb, Sn, and Hg was carried out using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS 929. The mean values detected for mercury, tin and antimony (±SE in fruit juices and soft drinks were 2.39±0.25, 3.66±0.22 and 0.49±0.048 μg/l; 2.93±0.34, 3.60±0.46 and 0.49±0.10 μg/l in dairy drinks and 0.94±0.02, 4.34±0.48 and 0.48±0.05 μg/l in bottled water samples respectively. While antimony detected in all products was below guideline values, mercury and tin were above the acceptable levels established by the World Health Organization, United States Environmental Protection Agency and European Union in most samples tested.

  6. Evaluation of heavy metals level (arsenic, nickel, mercury and lead effecting on health in drinking water resource of Kohgiluyeh county using geographic information system (GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolazim Alinejad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the amount of heavy metals (Arsenic, Nickel, Mercury, and Lead in drinking water resource of Kohgiluyeh County using Geographic Information System (GIS. This cross-sectional study was conducted on drinking water resource of Kohgiluyeh County (33 water supplies and 4 heavy metals in 2013. 264 samples were analyzed in this study. The experiments were performed at the laboratory of Water and Wastewater Company based on Standard Method. The Atomic Adsorption was used to evaluate the amount of heavy metals. The results were mapping by Geographic Information System software (GIS 9.3 after processing of parameters. Finally, the data were analyzed by SPSS 16 and Excel 2007. The maximum amount of each heavy metal and its resource were shown as follow: Nickel or Ni (Source of w12, 124ppb, Arsenic or As (w33, 42 ppb, Mercury or Hg (w22 and w30, 96ppb, Lead or Pb (w21, 1553ppb. Also, the GIS maps showed that Lead in the central region was very high, Mercury and Arsenic in the northern region were high and Nickel in the eastern and western regions was high. The Kriging method and Gauss model were introduced as best method for interpolation of these metals. Since the concentration of these heavy metals was higher than standard levels in most drinking water supplies in Kohgiluyeh County and these high levels of heavy metals can cause the adverse effects on human health; therefore, the environmental and geological studies are necessary to identify the pollution resource and elimination and removal of heavy metals

  7. Influences of thermal decontamination on mercury removal, soil properties, and repartitioning of coexisting heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Tuan; Hseu, Zeng-Yei; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng

    2011-08-01

    Thermal treatment is a useful tool to remove Hg from contaminated soils. However, thermal treatment may greatly alter the soil properties and cause the coexisting contaminants, especially trace metals, to transform and repartition. The metal repartitioning may increase the difficulty in the subsequent process of a treatment train approach. In this study, three Hg-contaminated soils were thermally treated to evaluate the effects of treating temperature and duration on Hg removal. Thermogravimetric analysis was performed to project the suitable heating parameters for subsequent bench-scale fixed-bed operation. Results showed that thermal decontamination at temperature>400°C successfully lowered the Hg content tosoil particle size was less significant, even when the soils were thermally treated to 550°C. Soil clay minerals such as kaolinite were shown to be decomposed. Aggregates were observed on the surface of soil particles after the treatment. The heavy metals tended to transform into acid-extractable, organic-matter bound, and residual forms from the Fe/Mn oxide bound form. These results suggest that thermal treatment may markedly influence the effectiveness of subsequent decontamination methods, such as acid washing or solvent extraction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Group 13 ligand supported heavy-metal complexes: first structural evidence for gallium-lead and gallium-mercury bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabusankar, Ganesan; Gemel, Christian; Winter, Manuela; Seidel, Rüdiger W; Fischer, Roland A

    2010-05-25

    Heavy-metal complexes of lead and mercury stabilized by Group 13 ligands were derived from the oxidative addition of Ga(ddp) (ddp=HC(CMeNC(6)H(3)-2,6-iPr(2))(2), 2-diisopropylphenylamino-4-diisopropyl phenylimino-2-pentene) with corresponding metal precursors. The reaction of Me(3)PbCl and Ga(ddp) afforded compound [{(ddp)Ga(Cl)}PbMe(3)] (1) composed of Ga-Pb(IV) bonds. In addition, the monomeric plumbylene-type compound [{(ddp)Ga(OSO(2)CF(3))}(2)Pb(thf)] (2a) with an unsupported Ga-Pb(II)-Ga linkage was obtained by the reaction of [Pb(OSO(2)CF(3))(3)] with Ga(ddp) (2 equiv). Compound 2a falls under the rare example of a discrete plumbylene-type compound supported by a nonclassical ligand. Interesting structural changes were observed when [Pb(OSO(2)CF(3))(3)]2.H(2)O was treated with Ga(ddp) in a 1:2 ratio to yield [{(ddp)Ga(mu-OSO(2)CF(3))}(2)(OH(2))Pb] (2b) at below -10 degrees C. Compound 2b consists of a bent Ga-Pb-Ga backbone with a bridging triflate group between the Ga-Pb bond and a weakly interacting water molecule at the gallium center. Similarly, the reaction of mercury thiolate Hg(SC(6)F(5)) with Ga(ddp) (2 equiv) produced the bimetallic homoleptic compounds anti-[{(ddp)Ga(SC(6)F(5))}(2)Hg] (3a) and gauche-[{(ddp)Ga(SC(6)F(5))}(2)Hg] (3b), respectively, with a linear Ga-Hg-Ga linkage. Compounds 1-3 were structurally characterized and these are the first examples of compounds comprised of Ga-Pb(II), Ga-Pb(IV), and Ga-Hg bonds.

  9. Removal of heavy metals from water by zeolite mineral chemically modified. Mercury as a particular case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebremedhin H, T.

    2002-01-01

    Research works on the removal of mercury from water by zeolite minerals show that a small quantity of this element is sorbed. In this work the mercury sorption from aqueous solutions in the presence and absence of Cu(l l), Ni(l l) and/or Zn(l l) by a Mexican zeolite mineral, natural and modified by cisteaminium chloride or cistaminium dichloride, was investigated in acidic p H. The zeolite minerals were characterized by X- Ray diffraction Ftir, scanning electron microscopy and semiquantitative elemental analysis (EDS), surface area analysis (BET) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Mercury from aqueous solutions was quantified by Atomic absorption spectroscopy. The amount of sulphur on the zeolite samples treated with Na CI and modified with cisteaminium chloride (0.375 mmol/g) or cistaminium dichloride(0.475 mmol/g) was found to be higher than that of the zeolite minerals modified with cisteaminium chloride and cistaminium dichloride without treating them with Na CI. The amount of sulphur on the zeolite minerals modified with thiourea was the lowest. The diffusion coefficients and sorption isotherms for mercury were determined in the natural, treated with Na CI and, treated with Na CI and then modified with the cisteaminium chloride or cistaminium dichloride zeolite samples. The retention of mercury was the highest for the zeolite minerals treated Na CI and then modified with cisteaminium chloride or cistaminium dichloride, with adsorption capacity of 0.0511 and 0.0525 mmol Hg/g, respectively. In this research work, it was found that the retention of mercury by the modified minerals was not affected by the presence of Cu (Il), Zn(l l) y Ni (I l) under the experimental conditions. (Author)

  10. Metallic mercury recycling. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, M.A.

    1994-07-01

    Metallic mercury is known to be a hazardous material and is regulated as such. The disposal of mercury, usually by landfill, is expensive and does not remove mercury from the environment. Results from the Metallic Mercury Recycling Project have demonstrated that metallic mercury is a good candidate for reclamation and recycling. Most of the potential contamination of mercury resides in the scum floating on the surface of the mercury. Pinhole filtration was demonstrated to be an inexpensive and easy way of removing residues from mercury. The analysis method is shown to be sufficient for present release practices, and should be sufficient for future release requirements. Data from tests are presented. The consistently higher level of activity of the filter residue versus the bulk mercury is discussed. Recommendations for the recycling procedure are made.

  11. Metallic mercury recycling. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    Metallic mercury is known to be a hazardous material and is regulated as such. The disposal of mercury, usually by landfill, is expensive and does not remove mercury from the environment. Results from the Metallic Mercury Recycling Project have demonstrated that metallic mercury is a good candidate for reclamation and recycling. Most of the potential contamination of mercury resides in the scum floating on the surface of the mercury. Pinhole filtration was demonstrated to be an inexpensive and easy way of removing residues from mercury. The analysis method is shown to be sufficient for present release practices, and should be sufficient for future release requirements. Data from tests are presented. The consistently higher level of activity of the filter residue versus the bulk mercury is discussed. Recommendations for the recycling procedure are made

  12. Assessment of Hair Aluminum, Lead, and Mercury in a Sample of Autistic Egyptian Children: Environmental Risk Factors of Heavy Metals in Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Farida El Baz; Zaky, Eman Ahmed; El-Sayed, Adel Bassuoni; Elhossieny, Reham Mohammed; Zahra, Sally Soliman; Salah Eldin, Waleed; Youssef, Walaa Yousef; Khaled, Rania Abdelmgeed; Youssef, Azza Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    The etiological factors involved in the etiology of autism remain elusive and controversial, but both genetic and environmental factors have been implicated. The aim of this study was to assess the levels and possible environmental risk factors and sources of exposure to mercury, lead, and aluminum in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as compared to their matched controls. One hundred ASD children were studied in comparison to 100 controls. All participants were subjected to clinical evaluation and measurement of mercury, lead, and aluminum through hair analysis which reflects past exposure. The mean Levels of mercury, lead, and aluminum in hair of the autistic patients were significantly higher than controls. Mercury, lead, and aluminum levels were positively correlated with maternal fish consumptions, living nearby gasoline stations, and the usage of aluminum pans, respectively. Levels of mercury, lead, and aluminum in the hair of autistic children are higher than controls. Environmental exposure to these toxic heavy metals, at key times in development, may play a causal role in autism.

  13. Heavy metals (copper, cadmium, lead, mercury) in mute swans from Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvestad, K.; Karlog, O.; Clausen, B.

    1982-03-01

    During the severe winter of 1978-79, large numbers of mute swans died in coastal areas of Denmark. Of these, 2111 were collected for examination. The analyses confirm previous findings of relatively high copper levels in mute swans (mean for 178 livers was 2680 mg/kg dry weight (Dw) and for 110 kidneys 34 mg/kg Dw) (Table I, Fig. 1). The copper content was not related to sex or age (Table II). The highest liver levels of copper were found in swans from Western Jutland. Cadmium was found at the same relatively low levels as recorded for waterfowl elsewhere (mean for 178 livers was 12 mg/kg Dw, for 110 kidneys 24 mg/kg Dw) (Table I, Fig. 2). The cadmium content was not sex-related, but it increased with age (Table II). The mean mercury content (liver) was 1.4 mg/kg Dw in the 10 birds analysed (Table I). The mean lead content was 15 mg/kg Dw in the 178 livers analysed and 31 mg/kg Dw in 110 sternum (Table I and Fig. 3). The lead content was not sex-related. In sternum, but not in livers, it was related to age (Table II). One third of the swans were found lead-contaminated probably after ingestion of lead pellets. None of the swans carried high levels of both copper, cadmium, and lead (Table III).

  14. Heavy metals

    OpenAIRE

    Adriano, Domy; VANGRONSVELD, Jaco; Bolan, N.S.; Wenzel, W.W.

    2005-01-01

    - Sources of Metals in the Environment - Environmental Contamination - Retention and Dynamics of Metals in Soils - Adsorption - Complexation - Precipitation - Bioavailability–Natural Attenuation Interactions - Biological Response to Metals - Soil Remediation

  15. Determination of heavy metals concentration in raw sheep milk from mercury polluted area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Stanovič

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on determining the content of monitored contaminants (Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn in 53 samples of raw sheep milk collected in 2013 and 2014 on the sites Poráč and Matejovce nad Hornádom (middle Spiš. The area is characterized by historical mining and metalworking activity (mining and processing of polymetallic ores rich in Hg, Cd and Pb. Currently, the area is one of the most mercury contaminated areas in Central Europe. All statistical analyses were carried out using the statistical software Statistica 10.0 (Statsoft, USA. Descriptive data analysis included minimum value, maximum value, arithmetic mean and standard deviation. The results of the studied contaminant content show that the limit value for cadmium (10 μg.kg-1 was exceeded in 25 samples. In the case of lead, the limit value of 20 μg.kg-1 was exceeded in 16 cases. The limit value for copper (0.4 mg.kg-1 was exceeded in one case. The limit value for zinc is not defined by a legislative standard. The risk level of the studied contaminants in the samples of raw sheep milk decreases as follows: Cd > Pb > Hg > Cu > Zn. It can be concluded that frequent and long-term consumption of the raw sheep milk originating from the studied sites poses a health risk. The content of the contaminants in the milk and their eventual transition into dairy products should be monitored over a longer term in more detail. Normal 0 21 false false false CS JA X-NONE

  16. Spectrophotometric Determination Of Heavy Metals In Cosmetics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN 1597-6343. Spectrophotometric Determination Of Heavy Metals In Cosmetics ... analysed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer – coupled with a hydride ... presence of arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead. (Pb) in ...

  17. Heavy metal jako subkultura

    OpenAIRE

    KOUTNÁ, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with heavy metal subculture. Its aim is to introduce the most important branches and to show broadness of heavy metal. This bachelor thesis describes development and history, briefly shows Czech heavy metal history alongside with the biggest and most popular Czech heavy metal festivals. It shows the most dressing concerns of society against this style.

  18. The concentration of heavy metals: zinc, cadmium, lead, copper, mercury, iron and calcium in head hair of a randomly selected sample of Kenyan people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wandiga, S.O.; Jumba, I.O.

    1982-01-01

    An intercomparative analysis of the concentration of heavy metals:zinc, cadmium, lead, copper, mercury, iron and calcium in head hair of a randomly selected sample of Kenyan people using the techniques of atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPAS) has been undertaken. The percent relative standard deviation for each sample analysed using either of the techniques show good sensitivity and correlation between the techniques. The DPAS was found to be slightly sensitive than the AAs instrument used. The recalculated body burden rations of Cd to Zn, Pb to Fe reveal no unusual health impairement symptoms and suggest a relatively clean environment in Kenya.(author)

  19. Heavy metals in packaging : a literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Putten EM; IMG

    2011-01-01

    The use of the heavy metals cadmium, mercury, chromium and lead in packaging is forbidden internationally for some years because these substances are harmful to the environment. In 2002 the Dutch national Inspectorate for the Environment determined the presence of heavy metals in packaging for

  20. Temporal trends (1989–2011) in levels of mercury and other heavy metals in feathers of fledgling great egrets nesting in Barnegat Bay, NJ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    There is an abundance of data for levels of metals from a range of species, but relatively few long-term time series from the same location. In this paper I examine the levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in feathers from fledgling great egrets (Ardea alba) collected at nesting colonies in Barnegat Bay, New Jersey from 1989 to 2011. The primary objectives were to test the null hypotheses that (1) There were no temporal differences in metal levels in feathers of fledgling great egrets, and (2) Great egrets nesting in different areas of Barnegat Bay (New Jersey) did not differ in metal levels. There were significant yearly variations in levels of all heavy metals in feathers of fledgling great egret, but levels decreased significantly from 1989 to 2011 only for lead (1470 ppb to 54.3 ppb), cadmium (277 ppb to 30.5 ppb), and manganese (only since 1996; 2669 ppb to 329 ppb)). Although mercury levels decreased from 2003–2008 (6430 ppb to 1042 ppb), there was no pattern before 2003, and levels increased after 2008 to 2610 ppb in 2011. Lead, cadmium, chromium, manganese and mercury were higher in feathers from great egrets nesting in the northern part of the bay, and selenium was highest in feathers from mid-bay. The lack of a temporal decline in mercury levels in feathers of great egrets is cause for concern, since the high levels in feathers from some years (means as high as 6430 ppb) are in the range associated with adverse effects (5000 ppb for feathers). -- Highlights: ► Metals were monitored in feathers of great egrets from Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. ► Levels of cadmium and lead decreased significantly from 1989–2011. ► Mercury levels in feathers from great egrets did not decline from 1989–2011. ► Metal levels were generally higher in great egrets and black-crowned night heron feathers than in snowy egrets

  1. heavy metals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    aDepartment of Chemistry, Tshwane University of Technology, P.O. Box 56208, Arcadia, 0007, South Africa. bSchool of Health Systems and Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, ... ing the levels of toxic metals in food.15,19 Compared to ET-AAS or .... mum pressure 350 psi and maximum temperature 210 °C. The.

  2. Poisoning of domestic animals with heavy metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velev Romel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The term heavy metal refers to a metal that has a relatively high density and is toxic for animal and human organism at low concentrations. Heavy metals are natural components of the Earth's crust. They cannot be degraded or destroyed. To a small extent they enter animal organism via food, drinking water and air. Some heavy metals (e.g cooper, iron, chromium, zinc are essential in very low concentrations for the survival of all forms of life. These are described as essential trace elements. However, when they are present in greater quantities, like the heavy metals lead, cadmium and mercury which are already toxic in very low concentrations, they can cause metabolic anomalies or poisoning. Heavy metal poisoning of domestic animals could result, for instance, from drinking-water contamination, high ambient air concentrations near emission sources, or intake via the food chain. Heavy metals are dangerous because they tend to bioaccumulate in a biological organism over time. Manifestation of toxicity of individual heavy metals varies considerably, depending on dose and time of exposure, species, gender and environmental and nutritional factors. Large differences exist between the effects of a single exposure to a high concentration, and chronic exposures to lower doses. The aim of this work is to present the source of poisoning and toxicity of some heavy metals (lead, mercury, cadmium, thallium, arsenic, as well as new data about effects of those heavy metals on the health of domestic animals. .

  3. Density functional investigation of mercury and arsenic adsorption on nitrogen doped graphene decorated with palladium clusters: A promising heavy metal sensing material in farmland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Chunjiang, E-mail: zhaocj_nercita@163.com [National Engineering Research Center for Information Technology in Agriculture, Beijing 100097 (China); Beijing Research Center for Information Technology in Agriculture, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Beijing 100097 (China); Key Laboratory for Information Technologies in Agriculture, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing100097 (China); Wu, Huarui, E-mail: wuhrnercita@163.com [National Engineering Research Center for Information Technology in Agriculture, Beijing 100097 (China); Beijing Research Center for Information Technology in Agriculture, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Beijing 100097 (China); Key Laboratory for Information Technologies in Agriculture, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing100097 (China)

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • PNG can be acted as micro-sensor for monitoring heavy metal in agriculture. • The most favorable adsorption site of Pd atom or cluster on PNG is the vacancy site. • The Pd atom or cluster enhance the reactivity of PNG toward Hg and AsH{sub 3} adsorption. • The efficiency of a sorbent can be tuned by tailoring the ε{sub d} of adsorbed metals. - Abstract: Density functional theory calculations are carried out to study the adsorption of mercury and arsenic on Pd{sub n} (n = 1–6) supported on pyridine-like nitrogen doped graphene (PNG). Owing to the promising sensitivity in trace amounts of atoms or molecules, PNG can be acted as micro-sensor for sensing heavy metals in agriculture soils. Through the analyses of structural and electronic properties of pristine PNG and Pd atom decorated PNG, we find that the most favorable adsorption site for Pd atom is the vacancy site. The analyses of structural and electronic properties reveal that the Pd atom or clusters can enhance the reactivity for Hg and AsH{sub 3} adsorption on PNG. The adsorption ability of Hg on Pd{sub n} decorated PNG is found to be related to the d-band center (ε{sub d}) of the Pd{sub n}, in which the closer ε{sub d} of Pd{sub n} to the Fermi level, the higher adsorption strength for Hg on Pd{sub n} decorated PNG. Moreover, the charge transfer between Pd{sub n} and arsenic may constitute arsenic adsorption on Pd{sub n} decorated PNG. Further design of highly efficient carbon based sorbents for heavy metals removal should be focused on tailoring ε{sub d} of adsorbed metals.

  4. Density functional investigation of mercury and arsenic adsorption on nitrogen doped graphene decorated with palladium clusters: A promising heavy metal sensing material in farmland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Chunjiang; Wu, Huarui

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • PNG can be acted as micro-sensor for monitoring heavy metal in agriculture. • The most favorable adsorption site of Pd atom or cluster on PNG is the vacancy site. • The Pd atom or cluster enhance the reactivity of PNG toward Hg and AsH_3 adsorption. • The efficiency of a sorbent can be tuned by tailoring the ε_d of adsorbed metals. - Abstract: Density functional theory calculations are carried out to study the adsorption of mercury and arsenic on Pd_n (n = 1–6) supported on pyridine-like nitrogen doped graphene (PNG). Owing to the promising sensitivity in trace amounts of atoms or molecules, PNG can be acted as micro-sensor for sensing heavy metals in agriculture soils. Through the analyses of structural and electronic properties of pristine PNG and Pd atom decorated PNG, we find that the most favorable adsorption site for Pd atom is the vacancy site. The analyses of structural and electronic properties reveal that the Pd atom or clusters can enhance the reactivity for Hg and AsH_3 adsorption on PNG. The adsorption ability of Hg on Pd_n decorated PNG is found to be related to the d-band center (ε_d) of the Pd_n, in which the closer ε_d of Pd_n to the Fermi level, the higher adsorption strength for Hg on Pd_n decorated PNG. Moreover, the charge transfer between Pd_n and arsenic may constitute arsenic adsorption on Pd_n decorated PNG. Further design of highly efficient carbon based sorbents for heavy metals removal should be focused on tailoring ε_d of adsorbed metals.

  5. Heavy Metal Absorption Efficiency of two Species of Mosses (Physcomitrella patens and Funaria hygrometrica) Studied in Mercury Treated Culture under Laboratory Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Abanti; Kumari, Sony; Dash, Saktisradha; Prasad Biswal, Durga; Kishore Dash, Aditya; Panigrahi, Kishore C. S.

    2017-08-01

    As an important component of ecosystems, mosses have a strong influence on the cycling of water, energy and nutrient. Given their sensitivity to environmental change, mosses can be used as bioindicators of water quality, air pollution, metal accumulation and climate change. In the present study, the growth, differentiation and heavy metal (Hg) absorption of two species of mosses like Physcomitrella patens and Funariahygrometrica were studied in solid cultures under laboratory conditions. It was observed that, the number of gametophores developed from single inoculated gametophores after 45 days of growth of F. hygrometrica was 11±2.0 in control where as it has decreased at higher concentrations, 4±1.5 in 1ppm of mercury treatment. P. patens also shows a similar trend. The heavy metal uptake of both the species of mosses was studied. It was observed that Hg content in pseudo leaves of P. patens ranged from 0.98 ppm to 2.76 ppm at different Hg treatment (0.1-1 ppm), whereas in F. hygrometrica it ranged from 0.78 ppm to 2.43 ppm under the same treatment condition. Comparing between the Hg content in pseudo-leaves and rhizoids of P. patens and F. hygrometrica, it was observed that the Hg content was elevated about 60-64% in rhizoids than that of pseudo-leaves at 0.1% treatment level, whereas it was increased almost up to 50% in other treatment level.

  6. Soil heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherameti, Irena [Jena Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Allgemeine Botanik und Pflanzenphysiologie; Varma, Ajit (eds.) [Amity Univ., Uttar Pradesh (India). Amity Inst. of Microbial Technology; Amity Science, Technology and Innovation Foundation, Noida, UP (India)

    2010-07-01

    Human activities have dramatically changed the composition and organisation of soils. Industrial and urban wastes, agricultural application and also mining activities resulted in an increased concentration of heavy metals in soils. How plants and soil microorganisms cope with this situation and the sophisticated techniques developed for survival in contaminated soils is discussed in this volume. The topics presented include: the general role of heavy metals in biological soil systems; the relation of inorganic and organic pollutions; heavy metal, salt tolerance and combined effects with salinity; effects on abuscular mycorrhizal and on saprophytic soil fungi; heavy metal resistance by streptomycetes; trace element determination of environmental samples; the use of microbiological communities as indicators; phytostabilization of lead polluted sites by native plants; effects of soil earthworms on removal of heavy metals and the remediation of heavy metal contaminated tropical land. (orig.)

  7. Enhanced phytoremediation of mixed heavy metal (mercury)-organic pollutants (trichloroethylene) with transgenic alfalfa co-expressing glutathione S-transferase and human P450 2E1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Junhong; Zhou, Yuanming; Gong, Tingyun; Wang, Jing; Ge, Yinlin

    2013-09-15

    Soil contamination is a global environmental problem and many efforts have been made to find efficient remediation methods over the last decade. Moreover, remediation of mixed contaminated soils are more difficult. In the present study, transgenic alfalfa plants pKHCG co-expressing glutathione S-transferase (GST) and human P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) genes were used for phytoremediation of mixed mercury (Hg)-trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminants. Simultaneous expression of GST and CYP2E1 may produce a significant synergistic effect, and leads to improved resistance and accumulation to heavy metal-organic complex contaminants. Based on the tolerance and accumulation assays, pKHCG transgenic plants were more resistant to Hg/TCE complex pollutants and many folds higher in Hg/TCE-accumulation than the non-transgenic control plants in mixed contaminated soil. It is confirmed that GST and CYP2E1 co-expression may be a useful strategy to help achieve mixed heavy metal-organic pollutants phytoremediation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Heavy metals anthropogenic pollutants in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderl, M.; Gager, M.; Gugele, B.; Huttunen, K.; Kurzweil, A.; Poupa, S.; Ritter, M.; Wappel, D.; Wieser, M.

    2004-01-01

    Several heavy metals from anthropogenic sources are emitted in the atmosphere damaging the air quality and the human health, besides they accumulate on the soil and lately are transmitted into the human food chain. Therefore at international level there is a concern to reduce them. Austrian heavy metals emissions (cadmium, mercury and lead) during 1990-2002 are given including an analysis of causes and sources. Lead is the main pollutant and the main sector responsible is the industry. 5 figs. (nevyjel)

  9. Heavy metal contamination in TIMS Branch sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickett, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this memorandum is to summarize results of previous sediment studies on Tims Branch and Steed's Pond conducted by Health Protection (HP) and by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) in conjunction with Reactor Materials Engineering ampersand Technology (RMET). The results for other heavy metals, such as lead, nickel, copper, mercury, chromium, cadmium, zinc, and thorium are also summarized

  10. Photoelectrochemical detection of toxic heavy metals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chamier, J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available on various substrates introduced the possibility for portable and on-site instant verification of heavy metal pollutants. In this work, the favorable properties of the mercury-sensitive fluorescent molecule, Rhodamine 6G hydrozone derivative (RS), were...

  11. Chemical speciation of heavy metals by surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy: identification and quantification of inorganic- and methyl-mercury in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrini, Luca; Rodriguez-Loureiro, Ignacio; Correa-Duarte, Miguel A.; Lee, Yih Hong; Ling, Xing Yi; García de Abajo, F. Javier; Alvarez-Puebla, Ramon A.

    2014-06-01

    Chemical speciation of heavy metals has become extremely important in environmental and analytical research because of the strong dependence that toxicity, environmental mobility, persistence and bioavailability of these pollutants have on their specific chemical forms. Novel nano-optical-based detection strategies, capable of overcoming the intrinsic limitations of well-established analytic methods for the quantification of total metal ion content, have been reported, but the speciation of different chemical forms has not yet been achieved. Here, we report the first example of a SERS-based sensor for chemical speciation of toxic metal ions in water at trace levels. Specifically, the inorganic Hg2+ and the more toxicologically relevant methylmercury (CH3Hg+) are selected as analytical targets. The sensing platform consists of a self-assembled monolayer of 4-mercaptopyridine (MPY) on highly SERS-active and robust hybrid plasmonic materials formed by a dense layer of interacting gold nanoparticles anchored onto polystyrene microbeads. The co-ordination of Hg2+ and CH3Hg+ to the nitrogen atom of the MPY ring yields characteristic changes in the vibrational SERS spectra of the organic chemoreceptor that can be qualitatively and quantitatively correlated to the presence of the two different mercury forms.Chemical speciation of heavy metals has become extremely important in environmental and analytical research because of the strong dependence that toxicity, environmental mobility, persistence and bioavailability of these pollutants have on their specific chemical forms. Novel nano-optical-based detection strategies, capable of overcoming the intrinsic limitations of well-established analytic methods for the quantification of total metal ion content, have been reported, but the speciation of different chemical forms has not yet been achieved. Here, we report the first example of a SERS-based sensor for chemical speciation of toxic metal ions in water at trace levels

  12. Removal of heavy metals from waste water of tanning leather ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LG

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... The results indicate that fungi of contaminated soils have high level of metal biosorption capacities. ... such as mercury, lead, cadmium, selenium, copper, chromium and ... considered as an alternative remediation for heavy.

  13. Evaluation of pollution status of heavy metals in the groundwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of pollution status of heavy metals in the groundwater system around ... cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), lead (pb) and arsenic (As) as ... Water samples (from bore holes, hand-dug wells, ponds and streams) were ...

  14. Heavy metal burden of the Pinnau river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The water phase and sediment of the Pinnau river were investigated for their heavy-metal pollution. Tests for the elements chromium, mercury, nickel, arsenic, lead, copper, cadmium, zinc and iron were carried through with sediment samples in 1984 and 1989 and with water samples in 1987 and 1989. Whereas no significant changes in the levels of these metals were found in the water phase during the two-year period of invetigation, slightly reduced levels of zinc, cadmium and mercury were established in the sediment in 1989 as compared to 1984. (orig.) [de

  15. Heavy metals concentration in various tissues of two freshwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heavy metals like cadmium, zinc, copper, chromium, lead and mercury were measured in the various tissues of Labeo rohita and Channa striatus and in the water samples collected from ... The values of heavy metals concentration in the present study are within the maximum permissible levels for drinking water and fish.

  16. Urban water pollution by heavy metals and health implication in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies of common heavy metals were conducted at Onitsha, Anambra State, the most urbanized city in Southeastern Nigeria. It was discovered that both surface and subsurface water were heavily polluted. Seven (7) heavy metals namely: arsenic (As+2), cadmium (Cd+2), lead (Pb+2), mercury (Hg+2), zinc (Zn+2), copper ...

  17. Biomolecules for Removal of Heavy Metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Namita Ashish

    2017-01-01

    Patents reveal that heavy metals are natural constituents of the earth's crust, but some heavy metals like cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic etc. are injurious to living organisms at higher concentration. Nowadays, anthropogenic activities have altered geochemical cycles and biochemical balance of heavy metals. Biomolecules are used nowadays for removal of heavy metals compared to other synthetic biosorbents due to their environmental friendly nature and cost effectiveness. The goal of this work is to identify the role of biomolecules like polysaccharides, polypeptides, natural compounds containing aromatic acid etc. for heavy metal removal by bio sorption. It has been observed that efficiency of biomolecules can be increased by functionalization e.g. cellulose functionalization with EDTA, chitosan with sulphur groups, alginate with carboxyl/ hydroxyl group etc. It was found that the porous structure of aerogel beads improves both sorption and kinetic properties of the material. Out of polypeptides metallothionein has been widely used for removal of heavy metal up to 88% from seawater after a single centrifugation. These cost effective functionalized biomolecules are significantly used for remediation of heavy metals by immobilizing these biomolecules onto materials. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Mushrooms pollution by radioactivity and heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delatouche, L.

    2001-01-01

    Some basic notions of radioactivity are recalled first (definition, origin, measurement units, long- and short-term effects..). Then, the pedology of soils and the properties and toxicity of 3 heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury) are presented to better understand the influence of some factors (genre, age, ecological type, pollution, conservation..) on the contamination of macro-mycetes by radioactivity and heavy metals. The role of chemists is to inform the consumers about these chemical and radioactive pollutions and to give some advices about the picking up (quantities, species and places to avoid) and the cooking of mushrooms. (J.S.)

  19. Development of a thermodynamic data base for selected heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hageman, Sven; Scharge, Tina; Willms, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    The report on the development of a thermodynamic data base for selected heavy metals covers the description of experimental methods, the thermodynamic model for chromate, the thermodynamic model for dichromate, the thermodynamic model for manganese (II), the thermodynamic model for cobalt, the thermodynamic model for nickel, the thermodynamic model for copper (I), the thermodynamic model for copper(II), the thermodynamic model for mercury (0) and mercury (I), the thermodynamic model for mercury (III), the thermodynamic model for arsenate.

  20. Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    acute toxicity and sublethal chronic action the devastating effects that the accumulation - including ... the laboratory and kept in holding glass (a) Copper as CuSO,.5H,0 ... from 2 psu to 21 psu) depending on time of The choice of heavy metals for this s year. ... serving as substrate and food source for Salinity of test media.

  1. 49 CFR 173.164 - Mercury (metallic and articles containing mercury).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ounces) of mercury per package; (iv) Tubes which are completely jacketed in sealed leakproof metal cases... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mercury (metallic and articles containing mercury... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.164 Mercury (metallic and articles containing mercury). (a) For...

  2. (17) ACCUMULATION OF HEAVY METAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adeyinka Odunsi

    Spectrophotometer (AAS) 2ID using their respective lamp and wavelengths. Calculation ... (Table 2). Concentration of heavy metals in the cassava. Lead and chromium were not significantly ..... Market basket survey for some heavy metals in ...

  3. Sewage sludge pyrolysis - the distribution of heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kistler, R.; Widmer, F.; Brunner, P.

    1986-01-01

    The paper informs about the heavy metal contents of sewage sludges and discusses the origin of household, industry and surface sewerage of the respective heavy metals. The study aimed at assessing whether and in how far heavy metal volatility may be checked by reducing the temperature during sewage sludge pyrolysis. The testing equipment used was made of glass/silica glass. Instead of in particles heavy metals were precipitated in the gaseous state. Except from mercury heavy metals are retained by the ashes up to temperatures from 450 to 555/sup 0/C. Due to the persistence of mercury care should be taken to keep the sewerage clear of it from the very beginning. Emissions caused by reactor materials can be avoided by choosing appropriate pyrolysis reactors.

  4. Heavy metal hazards of Nigerian herbal remedies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obi, E. [Toxicology Unit, Department of Pharmacology, College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi (Nigeria); Akunyili, Dora N. [National Agency of Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC), Lagos (Nigeria); Ekpo, B. [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medical Sciences, Abia State University, Uturu (Nigeria); Orisakwe, Orish E. [Toxicology Unit, Department of Pharmacology, College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi (Nigeria)]. E-mail: eorish@yahoo.com

    2006-10-01

    The uses of herbal products are not regulated in Nigeria and in many low-income countries and are freely available to everyone. The safety of these herbal medicines is poorly understood. This study characterizes the content of cadmium, copper, iron, nickel, selenium, zinc, lead and mercury in a random sample of Nigerian traditional products. Ready-to-use herbal products were purchased from the open market and digested using HNO{sub 3}.The heavy metal content of the digested filtrate was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry Uni-cam Model 929. The result showed that 100% of the samples contained elevated amounts of heavy metals. These data alert us to the possibility of heavy metal toxicity from herbal products in Nigeria. The public health hazards from ingestion of herbal medicines should be identified and disclosed by in-depth risk assessment studies.

  5. Heavy metal hazards of Nigerian herbal remedies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obi, E.; Akunyili, Dora N.; Ekpo, B.; Orisakwe, Orish E.

    2006-01-01

    The uses of herbal products are not regulated in Nigeria and in many low-income countries and are freely available to everyone. The safety of these herbal medicines is poorly understood. This study characterizes the content of cadmium, copper, iron, nickel, selenium, zinc, lead and mercury in a random sample of Nigerian traditional products. Ready-to-use herbal products were purchased from the open market and digested using HNO 3 .The heavy metal content of the digested filtrate was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry Uni-cam Model 929. The result showed that 100% of the samples contained elevated amounts of heavy metals. These data alert us to the possibility of heavy metal toxicity from herbal products in Nigeria. The public health hazards from ingestion of herbal medicines should be identified and disclosed by in-depth risk assessment studies

  6. Biosorption of heavy metals by a marine bacterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, Anita; Mody, Kalpana; Jha, Bhavanath

    2005-01-01

    Heavy metal chelation property of exopolysaccharide produced by Enterobacter cloaceae, a marine bacterium, isolated from the West Coast of India, is reported in this paper. The exopolysaccharide demonstrated excellent chelating properties with respect to cadmium (65%) followed by copper (20%) and cobalt (8%) at 100 mg/l heavy metal concentration. However, it could not chelate mercury. A comparative study of the percentage biosorption of the above mentioned metals is presented here

  7. Biosorption of heavy metals by a marine bacterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, Anita [Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Bhavnagar 364002, Gujarat (India); Mody, Kalpana [Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Bhavnagar 364002, Gujarat (India)]. E-mail: khmody@csmcri.org; Jha, Bhavanath [Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Bhavnagar 364002, Gujarat (India)

    2005-03-01

    Heavy metal chelation property of exopolysaccharide produced by Enterobacter cloaceae, a marine bacterium, isolated from the West Coast of India, is reported in this paper. The exopolysaccharide demonstrated excellent chelating properties with respect to cadmium (65%) followed by copper (20%) and cobalt (8%) at 100 mg/l heavy metal concentration. However, it could not chelate mercury. A comparative study of the percentage biosorption of the above mentioned metals is presented here.

  8. Determination of heavy metal deposition in the county of Obrenovac (Serbia using mosses as bioindicators, III: Copper (Cu, Iron (Fe and Mercury (Hg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabovljević M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the deposition of three heavy metals (Cu, Fe and Hg in four moss taxa (Bryum argenteum, Bryum capillare, Brachythecium sp. and Hypnum cupressiforme in the county of Obrenovac (Serbia is presented. The distribution of average heavy metal content in all mosses in the county of Obrenovac is presented on maps, while long-term atmospheric deposition (in the mosses Bryum argenteum and B. capillare and short-term atmospheric deposition (in the mosses Brachythecium sp. and Hypnum cupressiforme are discussed and given in a table. Areas of the highest contaminations are highlighted.

  9. Heavy Metal Poisoning and Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman M. Alissa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is an increasing world health problem. Traditional risk factors fail to account for all deaths from CVD. It is mainly the environmental, dietary and lifestyle behavioral factors that are the control keys in the progress of this disease. The potential association between chronic heavy metal exposure, like arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury, and CVD has been less well defined. The mechanism through which heavy metals act to increase cardiovascular risk factors may act still remains unknown, although impaired antioxidants metabolism and oxidative stress may play a role. However, the exact mechanism of CVD induced by heavy metals deserves further investigation either through animal experiments or through molecular and cellular studies. Furthermore, large-scale prospective studies with follow up on general populations using appropriate biomarkers and cardiovascular endpoints might be recommended to identify the factors that predispose to heavy metals toxicity in CVD. In this review, we will give a brief summary of heavy metals homeostasis, followed by a description of the available evidence for their link with CVD and the proposed mechanisms of action by which their toxic effects might be explained. Finally, suspected interactions between genetic, nutritional and environmental factors are discussed.

  10. [Resistance to heavy metals in ruminal staphylococci].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauková, A

    1994-01-01

    Ruminal, coagulase-negative, urease and bacteriocin-like substances producing staphylococci were screened for their heavy metal ions and antibiotics resistance. All strains tested were resistant to disodium arsenate at a minimal inhibition concentration (MIC > 5 g/l) and cadmium sulphate (MIC > 4 g/l). MIC = 50-60 mg/l was determined in eight staphylococci screened in mercury chloride resistance test (Tab. I). Silver nitrate resistance was detected in seven of the bacteria used (MIC = 40-50 mg/l). All strains were novobiocin resistant. Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. urealyticum SCU 40 was found as a strain with resistance to all heavy metal ions and 5 antibiotics (Tab. II). In addition, this strain produced bacteriocin-like substance which inhibited growth of six indicators of different origin (Tab. II). The most of staphylococci were detected as heavy metal ion polyresistant strains and antibiotic polyresistant strains producing antimicrobial substances with inhibition effects against at least one indicator of different origin. These results represent the first information on heavy metal ion resistance in ruminal bacteria. They also show relation or coresistance between heavy metal ions and antibiotics. Resulting from this study, staphylococci can be used as a bioindicator model for animal environmental studies. In addition, it can be used for specific interactions studies within the framework of ruminal bacterial ecosystem and also mainly with regard to molecular genetic studies.

  11. Perilous Effects of Heavy Metals Contamination on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseem Zahra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals form a versatile group of high density elements that vary considerably in their biological roles and chemical properties. Although many heavy metals are essential trace elements yet they have long been recognized as environmental pollutants due their toxic effects. Increased industrialization, urbanization anthropogenic activities like mining, smelting and other agricultural activities have resulted in accumulation of heavy metals in the environment. Heavy metals such as nickel, cadmium, zinc, copper, mercury, arsenic and chromium are not easily degradable and tend to build up in soil. These heavy metals through various routes such as fish and plants make their way into the human body and are known to have serious detrimental effects on human health at elevated levels. The harmful effects of some important heavy metals on human health have been discussed.

  12. Heavy metal ions are potent inhibitors of protein folding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Sandeep K.; Goloubinoff, Pierre; Christen, Philipp

    2008-01-01

    Environmental and occupational exposure to heavy metals such as cadmium, mercury and lead results in severe health hazards including prenatal and developmental defects. The deleterious effects of heavy metal ions have hitherto been attributed to their interactions with specific, particularly susceptible native proteins. Here, we report an as yet undescribed mode of heavy metal toxicity. Cd 2+ , Hg 2+ and Pb 2+ proved to inhibit very efficiently the spontaneous refolding of chemically denatured proteins by forming high-affinity multidentate complexes with thiol and other functional groups (IC 50 in the nanomolar range). With similar efficacy, the heavy metal ions inhibited the chaperone-assisted refolding of chemically denatured and heat-denatured proteins. Thus, the toxic effects of heavy metal ions may result as well from their interaction with the more readily accessible functional groups of proteins in nascent and other non-native form. The toxic scope of heavy metals seems to be substantially larger than assumed so far

  13. Health concerns of heavy metals and metalloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooksey, Chris

    2012-01-01

    There is a long history and an overwhelming amount of data on the toxicity of heavy metal compounds. Here a brief look is taken of some aspects of the toxicity of lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic, chosen for their historical importance and environmental significance, highlighting especially the contrast between the acute and chronic toxicity of purely inorganic species and their organic derivatives. For further details of other toxic metal compounds, the reader might like to consult "Elements of murder: a history of poison" by John Emsley (2005, Oxford University Press).

  14. Concentration of heavy metals from traffic emissions on plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent years, emission and combustion of fossils and fuels have been identified as primary sources of atmospheric metallic burden. Detailed information about this is not readily available in Nigeria. This study was therefore carried out to determine the concentration of heavy metals (e.g. lead, mercury and cadmium} ...

  15. Advances in Understanding How Heavy Metal Pollution Triggers Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhen Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of industrialization and urbanization, heavy metals contamination has become a major environmental problem. Numerous investigations have revealed an association between heavy metal exposure and the incidence and mortality of gastric cancer. The mechanisms of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury, chromium, and arsenic contamination leading to gastric cancer are concluded in this review. There are four main potential mechanisms: (1 Heavy metals disrupt the gastric mucosal barrier by decreasing mucosal thickness, mucus content, and basal acid output, thereby affecting the function of E-cadherin and inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS damage. (2 Heavy metals directly or indirectly induce ROS generation and cause gastric mucosal and DNA lesions, which subsequently alter gene regulation, signal transduction, and cell growth, ultimately leading to carcinogenesis. Exposure to heavy metals also enhances gastric cancer cell invasion and metastasis. (3 Heavy metals inhibit DNA damage repair or cause inefficient lesion repair. (4 Heavy metals may induce other gene abnormalities. In addition, heavy metals can induce the expression of proinflammatory chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8 and microRNAs, which promotes tumorigenesis. The present review is an effort to underline the human health problem caused by heavy metal with recent development in order to garner a broader perspective.

  16. A review on heavy metal contamination in the soil worldwide: Situation, impact and remediation techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Chao Su; LiQin Jiang; WenJun Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals in the soil refers to some significant heavy metals of biological toxicity, including mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), and arsenic (As), etc. With the development of the global economy, both type and content of heavy metals in the soil caused by human activities have gradually increased in recent years, which have resulted in serious environment deterioration. In present study we compared and analyzed soil contamination of heavy metals in various cities/count...

  17. Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury is an element that is found in air, water and soil. It has several forms. Metallic mercury is a shiny, silver-white, odorless liquid. If ... with other elements to form powders or crystals. Mercury is in many products. Metallic mercury is used ...

  18. Heavy metals and soil microbes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giller, K.E.; Witter, E.; McGrath, S.

    2009-01-01

    The discovery in the early 1980s that soil microorganisms, and in particular the symbiotic bacteria Rhizobium, were highly sensitive to heavy metals initiated a new line of research. This has given us important insights into a range of topics: ecotoxicology, bioavailability of heavy metals, the role

  19. Heavy metal sorption by microalgae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandau, E.; Sandau, P.; Pulz, O.

    1996-01-01

    Viable microalgae are known to be able to accumulate heavy metals (bioaccumulation). Against a background of the increasing environmental risks caused by heavy metals, the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis and their potential for the biological removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions were taken as an example for investigation. Small-scale cultivation tests (50 l) with Cd-resistant cells of Chlorella vulgaris have shown that approx. 40% of the added 10 mg Cd/l was removed from the solution within seven days. At this heavy metal concentration sensitive cells died. Non-viable microalgae are able to eliminate heavy metal ions in a short time by biosorption in uncomplicated systems, without any toxicity problems. Compared with original biomasses, the sorption capacity of microalgal by-products changes only insignificantly. Their low price makes them economical. (orig.)

  20. Occupational Metallic Mercury Poisoning in Gilders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Vahabzadeh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Occupational exposure to elemental mercury vapor usually occurs through inhalation during its utilizations. This leads to a variety of adverse health effects. In some Islamic cities, this type of poisoning may occur during gilding of shrines using elemental mercury with gold. Herein, we report on three male patients aged 20–53 years, who were diagnosed with occupational metallic mercury poisoning due to gilding of a shrine. All patients presented with neuro-psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, loss of memory and concentration, and sleep disorders with high urinary mercury concentrations of 326–760 μg/L upon referring, 3–10 days after cessation of elemental mercury exposure. Following chelating therapy, the patients recovered clinically and their mercury concentrations declined to non-toxic level (<25 μg/L. Health, environmental and labor authorities, as well as the gilders should be aware of the toxicity risk of exposure to metalic mercury during gilding in closed environments and act accordingly.

  1. Heavy metal residues in tissues of marine turtles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storelli, M.M.; Marcotrigiano, G.O.

    2003-01-01

    Heavy metal concentrations in the tissues of marine turtles are presented. The most frequently monitored elements are mercury, cadmium and lead; and the tissues mainly analysed in nearly all the stranded individuals are muscle, liver and kidney. The highest mercury and cadmium levels were found in liver and kidney respectively; the majority of the lead burden existed in bones and carapace, while arsenic was present mainly in muscle tissue. Mercury occurred quite completely as methylmercury in muscle, whereas in liver the main form was the inorganic one. Arsenic was exclusively present in the metallorganic form either in muscle tissue or in liver. Metals in the eggs were mainly present in the yolk. Significantly higher concentration of mercury, copper, zinc and iron were found in yolk than albumen, while shell contained highest levels of manganese and copper. The load of trace metals in these animals strictly correlated with the species seems to depend on their different food behaviour

  2. Heavy metal residues in tissues of marine turtles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storelli, M.M.; Marcotrigiano, G.O

    2003-04-01

    Heavy metal concentrations in the tissues of marine turtles are presented. The most frequently monitored elements are mercury, cadmium and lead; and the tissues mainly analysed in nearly all the stranded individuals are muscle, liver and kidney. The highest mercury and cadmium levels were found in liver and kidney respectively; the majority of the lead burden existed in bones and carapace, while arsenic was present mainly in muscle tissue. Mercury occurred quite completely as methylmercury in muscle, whereas in liver the main form was the inorganic one. Arsenic was exclusively present in the metallorganic form either in muscle tissue or in liver. Metals in the eggs were mainly present in the yolk. Significantly higher concentration of mercury, copper, zinc and iron were found in yolk than albumen, while shell contained highest levels of manganese and copper. The load of trace metals in these animals strictly correlated with the species seems to depend on their different food behaviour.

  3. Regenerative process for removal of mercury and other heavy metals from gases containing H.sub.2 and/or CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Raja A [Naperville, IL

    2009-07-07

    A method for removal of mercury from a gaseous stream containing the mercury, hydrogen and/or CO, and hydrogen sulfide and/or carbonyl sulfide in which a dispersed Cu-containing sorbent is contacted with the gaseous stream at a temperature in the range of about 25.degree. C. to about 300.degree. C. until the sorbent is spent. The spent sorbent is contacted with a desorbing gaseous stream at a temperature equal to or higher than the temperature at which the mercury adsorption is carried out, producing a regenerated sorbent and an exhaust gas comprising released mercury. The released mercury in the exhaust gas is captured using a high-capacity sorbent, such as sulfur-impregnated activated carbon, at a temperature less than about 100.degree. C. The regenerated sorbent may then be used to capture additional mercury from the mercury-containing gaseous stream.

  4. Toxicity of heavy metals in the environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oehme, F.W

    1978-01-01

    ... as the fundamental mechanisms of toxicity resulting from heavy metal chemicals. The more common toxic heavy metals, along with their biochemistry and associated clinical syndromes, are then described...

  5. Levels of micronutrients and heavy metals in cord blood and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The basis of the impact of HAP on maternal and fetal health was assessed by determining the levels of teratogenic heavy metals [Lead (Pb), Mercury (Hg)] and micronutrients associated with DNA methylation [Zinc (Zn), Iodine (I), vitamins B6 and B12, folic acid and homocysteine] in cord blood of babies and maternal blood ...

  6. Utilization of Plant Refuses as Component of Heavy Metal Ion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ability of the fabricated sensors to detect the presence of heavy metals was analyzed using electrochemical methods like cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. Results showed that the fabricated electrode were able to detect the presence of mercury and lead ions in aqueous solutions ...

  7. HEAVY METAL CONTENT OF AYURVEDIC HERBAL MEDICINE PRODUCTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case reports of individuals taking Ayurvedic herbal medicine products (HMPs) suggest that they may contain lead, mercury, and/or arsenic. We analyzed the heavy metal content of Ayurvedic HMPs manufactured in India and Pakistan, available in South Asian grocery stores in the Bost...

  8. Simulation of heavy metal contamination of fresh water bodies: toxic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    www.bioline.org.br/ja. Simulation of heavy metal contamination of fresh water bodies: toxic effects in the ... 96 hours (though sampling was done at the 48th hour). Biochemical markers of ... silver, while enhancing the bioavailability of mercury in Ceriodaphnia ..... Biochemical and molecular disorders of bilirubin metabolism.

  9. Customizable Biopolymers for Heavy Metal Remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostal, Jan; Prabhukumar, Giridhar; Lao, U. Loi; Chen Alin; Matsumoto, Mark; Mulchandani, Ashok; Chen, Wilfred

    2005-01-01

    Nanoscale materials have been gaining increasing interest in the area of environmental remediation because of their unique physical, chemical and biological properties. One emerging area of research has been the development of novel materials with increased affinity, capacity, and selectivity for heavy metals because conventional technologies are often inadequate to reduce concentrations in wastewater to acceptable regulatory standards. Genetic and protein engineering have emerged as the latest tools for the construction of nanoscale materials that can be controlled precisely at the molecular level. With the advent of recombinant DNA techniques, it is now possible to create 'artificial' protein polymers with fundamentally new molecular organization. The most significant feature of these nanoscale biopolymers is that they are specifically pre-programmed within a synthetic gene template and can be controlled precisely in terms of sizes, compositions and functions at the molecular level. In this review, the use of specifically designed protein-based nano-biomaterials with both metal-binding and tunable properties for heavy metal removal is summarized. Several different strategies for the selective removal of heavy metals such as cadmium and mercury are highlighted

  10. Heavy Metal Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-01

    thereafter dies as a burnt-out, dim "white dwarf" . Stars with masses between 0.8 and 8 times that of the Sun are believed to evolve to AGB-stars and to end their lives in this particular way. At the same time, they produce beautiful nebulae like the "Dumbbell Nebula". Our Sun will also end its active life this way, probably some 7 billion years from now. Low-metallicity stars The detailed understanding of the "s-process" and, in particular, where it takes place inside an AGB-star, has been an area of active research for many years. Current state-of-the-art computer-based stellar models predict that the s-process should be particularly efficient in stars with a comparatively low content of metals ("metal-poor" or "low-metallicity" stars) . In such stars - which were born at an early epoch in our Galaxy and are therefore quite old - the "s-process" is expected to effectively produce atomic nuclei all the way up to the most heavy, stable ones, like Lead (atomic number 82 [2]) and Bismuth (atomic number 83) - since more neutrons are available per Iron-seed nucleus when there are fewer such nuclei (as compared to the solar composition). Once these elements have been produced, the addition of more s-process neutrons to those nuclei will only produce unstable elements that decay back to Lead. Hence, when the s-process is sufficiently efficient, atomic nuclei with atomic numbers around 82, that is, the Lead region, just continue to pile up. As a result, when compared to stars with "normal" abundances of the metals (like our Sun), those low-metallicity stars should thus exhibit a significant "over-abundance" of those very heavy elements with respect to Iron, in particular of Lead . Looking for Lead Direct observational support for this theoretical prediction would be the discovery of some low-metallicity stars with a high abundance of Lead. At the same time, the measured amounts of all the heavy elements and their relative abundances would provide very valuable information and

  11. Heavy metal emissions for Danish road transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winther, M.; Slentoe, E.

    2010-04-15

    This report presents new heavy metal emission factors for cars, vans, trucks, buses, mopeds and motorcycles for each of the emission sources fuel consumption, engine oil, tyre wear, brake wear and road abrasion. The emission components covered are Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Mercury (Hg), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb), Selenium (Se) and Zinc (Zn), all of them relevant for emission reporting to the UNECE CLRTAP (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Convention on Long Range Transboundary Pollutants) convention. The report also presents a new Danish inventory for the year 2007. The following emissions in total TSP (in brackets) are calculated for the year 2007: As (8 kg), Cd (48 kg), Cr (197 kg), Cu (51 779 kg), Hg (28 kg), Ni (158 kg), Pb (6 989 kg), Se (33 kg) and Zn (28 556 kg). Per vehicle type cars are the most important source of emission for all heavy metal species, followed by vans, trucks, buses and 2-wheelers. By using the detailed emission factors and inventory calculation methods established in the present project, estimates of heavy metal emissions can be made for other years than 2007. (author)

  12. A review on heavy metal contamination in the soil worldwide: Situation, impact and remediation techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Su

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals in the soil refers to some significant heavy metals of biological toxicity, including mercury (Hg, cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb, chromium (Cr, and arsenic (As, etc. With the development of the global economy, both type and content of heavy metals in the soil caused by human activities have gradually increased in recent years, which have resulted in serious environment deterioration. In present study we compared and analyzed soil contamination of heavy metals in various cities/countries, and reviewed background, impact and remediation methods of soil heavy metal contamination worldwide.

  13. Heavy metal exposure in patients suffering from electromagnetic hypersensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghezel-Ahmadi, David, E-mail: david.ahmadi@web.de [Department of Psychiatry, University of Mainz (Germany); Engel, Alice; Weidemann, Joerg [Department of Psychiatry, University of Mainz (Germany); Budnik, Lygia Therese; Baur, Xaver [Institute for Occupational Medicine and Maritime Medicine (ZfAM), University of Hamburg (Germany); Frick, Ulrich [Department of Psychiatry, University of Regensburg (Germany); Department of Healthcare Management, Carinthia University of Applied Sciences (Austria); Hauser, Simone [Department of Psychiatry, University of Regensburg (Germany); Dahmen, Norbert [Department of Psychiatry, University of Mainz (Germany)

    2010-01-15

    Background: Risks from electromagnetic devices are of considerable concern. Electrohypersensitive (EHS) persons attribute a variety of rather unspecific symptoms to the exposure to electromagnetic fields. The pathophysiology of EHS is unknown and therapy remains a challenge. Objectives: Heavy metal load has been discussed as a potential factor in the symptomatology of EHS patients. The main objective of the study was to test the hypothesis of a link between EHS and heavy metal exposure. Methods: We measured lead, mercury and cadmium concentrations in the blood of 132 patients (n = 42 males and n = 90 females) and 101 controls (n = 34 males and n = 67 females). Results: Our results show that heavy metal load is of no concern in most cases of EHS but might play a role in exceptional cases. Conclusions: The data do not support the general advice to heavy metal detoxification in EHS.

  14. Heavy metal exposure in patients suffering from electromagnetic hypersensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghezel-Ahmadi, David; Engel, Alice; Weidemann, Joerg; Budnik, Lygia Therese; Baur, Xaver; Frick, Ulrich; Hauser, Simone; Dahmen, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    Background: Risks from electromagnetic devices are of considerable concern. Electrohypersensitive (EHS) persons attribute a variety of rather unspecific symptoms to the exposure to electromagnetic fields. The pathophysiology of EHS is unknown and therapy remains a challenge. Objectives: Heavy metal load has been discussed as a potential factor in the symptomatology of EHS patients. The main objective of the study was to test the hypothesis of a link between EHS and heavy metal exposure. Methods: We measured lead, mercury and cadmium concentrations in the blood of 132 patients (n = 42 males and n = 90 females) and 101 controls (n = 34 males and n = 67 females). Results: Our results show that heavy metal load is of no concern in most cases of EHS but might play a role in exceptional cases. Conclusions: The data do not support the general advice to heavy metal detoxification in EHS.

  15. Development of protein based bioremediation and drugs for heavy metal toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opella, Stanley J.

    2001-09-18

    Structural studies were performed on several proteins of the bacterial detoxification system. These proteins are responsible for binding (MerP) and transport of heavy metals, including mercury, across membranes. The structural information obtained from NMR experiments provides insight into the selectivity and sequestration processes towards heavy metal toxins.

  16. Transmission electron microscopy of mercury metal

    KAUST Repository

    Anjum, Dalaver H.

    2016-03-28

    Summary: Transmission electron microcopy (TEM) analysis of liquid metals, especially mercury (Hg), is difficult to carry out because their specimen preparation poses a daunting task due to the unique surface properties of these metals. This paper reports a cryoTEM study on Hg using a novel specimen preparation technique. Hg metal is mixed with water using sonication and quenched in liquid ethane cryogen. This technique permits research into the morphological, phase and structural properties of Hg at nanoscale dimensions. © 2016 Royal Microscopical Society.

  17. [Heavy metal poisoning and renal injury in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Li-Ping; Xu, Yuan-Yuan; Jiang, Xiao-Yun

    2014-04-01

    Along with global environmental pollution resulting from economic development, heavy metal poisoning in children has become an increasingly serious health problem in the world. It can lead to renal injury, which tends to be misdiagnosed due to the lack of obvious or specific early clinical manifestations in children. Early prevention, diagnosis and intervention are valuable for the recovery of renal function and children's good health and growth. This paper reviews the mechanism of renal injury caused by heavy metal poisoning in children, as well as the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and prevention and treatment of renal injury caused by lead, mercury, cadmium, and chromium.

  18. Process for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Chang Y.; Boysen, John E.; Branthaver, Jan F.

    1991-01-01

    A process is provided for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil by mixing the heavy crude oil with tar sand; preheating the mixture to a temperature of about 650.degree. F.; heating said mixture to up to 800.degree. F.; and separating tar sand from the light oils formed during said heating. The heavy metals removed from the heavy oils can be recovered from the spent sand for other uses.

  19. Levels of heavy metals in liver and kidney of dogs from urban environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Esposito

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Lead, cadmium and mercury were detected in liver and kidney tissue of dogs from an urban habitat. Samples were digested in a microwave system and analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results of the current study showed that at least one of the three heavy metals was detected in tissues of all examined dogs. These findings make us suppose that humans are exposed to the same heavy metals similar to those of dogs that are exposed since they share the same environment. Mercury concentrations detected in kidney of household dogs were higher than stray dogs, therefore the involvement of pet food in exposure to mercury can be supposed.

  20. Leaching Properties of Naturally Occurring Heavy Metals from Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Hoshino, M.; Yoshikawa, M.; Hara, J.; Sugita, H.

    2014-12-01

    The major threats to human health from heavy metals are associated with exposure to arsenic, lead, cadmium, chromium, mercury, as well as some other elements. The effects of such heavy metals on human health have been extensively studied and reviewed by international organizations such as WHO. Due to their toxicity, heavy metal contaminations have been regulated by national environmental standards in many countries, and/or laws such as the Soil Contamination Countermeasures Act in Japan. Leaching of naturally occurring heavy metals from the soils, especially those around abandoned metal mines into surrounding water systems, either groundwater or surface water systems, is one of the major pathways of exposure. Therefore, understanding the leaching properties of toxic heavy metals from naturally polluted soils is of fundamentally importance for effectively managing abandoned metal mines, excavated rocks discharged from infrastructure constructions such as tunneling, and/or selecting a pertinent countermeasure against pollution when it is necessary. In this study, soil samples taken from the surroundings of abandoned metal mines in different regions in Japan were collected and analyzed. The samples contained multiple heavy metals such as lead, arsenic and chromium. Standard leaching test and sequential leaching test considering different forms of contaminants, such as trivalent and pentavalent arsenics, and trivalent and hexavalent chromiums, together with standard test for evaluating total concentration, X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRF), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) tests were performed. In addition, sequential leaching tests were performed to evaluate long-term leaching properties of lead from representative samples. This presentation introduces the details of the above experimental study, discusses the relationships among leaching properties and chemical and mineral compositions, indicates the difficulties associated with

  1. Mercury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Irma

    2017-01-01

    Mercury is a naturally occurring metal that exists in several physical and chemical forms. Inorganic mercury refers to compounds formed after the combining of mercury with elements such as chlorine, sulfur, or oxygen. After combining with carbon by covalent linkage, the compounds formed are called

  2. Mercury and other heavy metal toxicity and mitocheondral dysfunction. Part of a coordinated programme of isotopic tracer-aided studies of the biological side-effects of foreign chemical residues in food and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitisewojo, P.

    1977-12-01

    Mercury and other heavy metal toxicity and mitochondrial dysfunction: kidney mitochondria isolated from Hg-poisoned rats (4mgHg ++ /kgb.wt.,i.v.) exhibited a considerable loss of capacity for oxidative phosphorylation, apparently related to Mg ++ depletion and inhibition of ATP synthesis. Liver mitochondria remained unaffected. It is maintained that acute Hg poisoning is related to kidney failure. Selenium was found to provide protection as ascertained by partial restoration of the kidney mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and prolongation of time of death of the poisoned animals. In contrast to Hg, acute Cd-poisoning in rats (4mgCd ++ /kg,b.wt.,i.v.) is probably related to liver failure, where hepatic mitochondria loses its capacity for oxidative phosphorylation, through the same mechanism postulated for kiney mitochondria isolated from Hg-poisoned rats. Again, selenium provided a similar protective effect. That Hg and Cd have two different target organs may be ascribed to the relative distribution of both elements in the animal body. Preliminary data in the rabbit showed that Cd caused an increase of heart beat as well as an increased difference between systolic and diastolic pressures. Studies on Pb-poisoned rats, using 2,4-Dinitrophenol as uncoupling agent in mitochondria, suggested inhibition of the electron transport chain

  3. Dynamics of electrons and heavy ions in Mercury's magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ip, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    The present investigation of Mercury magnetosphere processes employs simple models for the adiabatic acceleration and convection of equatorially mirroring charged particles, as well as the current sheet acceleration effect and the acceleration of such exospheric ions as that of Na(+) by both electric and magnetic magnetospheric fields near Mercury's surface. The large gyroradii of such heavy ions as those of Na allow surface reimpact as well as magnetopause-interception losses to occur; gyromotion-derived kinetic energy could in the case of the latter process account for the loss of as many as half of the planet's exospheric ions. 27 references

  4. Introduction of Molecular Building Blocks to Improve the Stability of Metal-Organic Frameworks for Efficient Mercury Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shu-Yi; He, Wen-Wen; Li, Shun-Li; Su, Zhong-Min; Lan, Ya-Qian

    2018-05-08

    With expanding human needs, many heavy metals were mined, smelted, processed, and manufactured for commercialization, which caused serious environmental pollutions. Currently, many adsorption materials are applied in the field of adsorption of heavy metals. Among them, the principle of many mercury adsorbents is based on the interaction between mercury and sulfur. Here, a S-containing metal-organic framework NENU-400 was synthesized for effective mercury extraction. Unfortunately, the skeleton of NENU-400 collapsed easily when exposed to the mercury liquid solution. To improve the stability, a synthetic strategy installing molecular building blocks (MBBs) into the channels was used. Modified by the MBBs, a more stable nanoporous framework was synthesized, which not only exhibits a high capacity of saturation mercury uptake but also shows high selectivity and efficient recyclability.

  5. Heavy metals in Mindhola river estuary, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Rokade, M.A; Mandalia, A

    The heavy metal concentrations are studied along the Mindhola river estuary. Surface and bottom water samples were collected using Niskin Sampler. The sediment samples were collected using a Van Veen grab. The heavy metal concentration is estimated...

  6. Normal concentrations of heavy metals in autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albizzati, A; Morè, L; Di Candia, D; Saccani, M; Lenti, C

    2012-02-01

    Autism is a neurological-psychiatric disease. In the last 20 years we witnessed a strong increase of autism diagnoses. To explain this increase, some scientists put forward the hypothesis that heavy metal intoxication may be one of the causes of autism. The origin of such an intoxication was hypothesised to be vaccines containing thimerosal as antimicrobic preservative. This preservative is mainly made up of mercury. The aim of our research was to investigate the correlation between autism and high biological concentrations of heavy metals. Seventeen autistic patients, between 6 and 16 years old (average: 11.52 DS: 3.20) (15 males and 2 females), were investigated, as well as 20 non autistic subjects from neuropsychiatric service between 6 and 16 years (average: 10.41 DS: 3.20) (15 males and 2 females). In both groups blood, urine and hair samples were analysed trough means of a semiquantitative analysis of heavy metal dosing. The metals analysed were Lead, mercury, cadmium and aluminium, since their build-up may give both neurological and psychiatric symptoms. The comparison of the mean values of the concentrations between the groups, performed with ANOVA test, has shown no statistically relevant differences. There wasn't correlation between autism and heavy metal concentration.

  7. Heavy metals in miscarriages and stillbirths in developing nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Nwadiuto Amadi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Cases of miscarriage and stillbirths due to heavy metal poisoning continue to be on the rise in developing nations. In these countries like Nigeria, the menace of miscarriage is not readily linked to heavy metal exposure. This could be as a result of insufficient scientific data available due to poor documentation and inadequate public health education on the consequences of these heavy metals on maternal health. The heavy metals mercury, lead and cadmium are toxicants which have been shown to cross the placental barrier to accumulate in fetal tissues. Methods: For this review, relevant databases were searched for original scientific reports and a total of 100 articles were retained for analysis. Required data was extracted from these studies and their methodology assessed. Results: Miscarriages and stillbirths were observed from exposure to five heavy metals namely; mercury, arsenic, lead, chromium and cadmium. These heavy metals were associated with increased incidence of miscarriages in developing nations. In Nigeria, women with history of miscarriage had blood lead levels >25 µg/dL during pregnancy with approximately 41.61% increase in miscarriage incidence. Cadmium blood level was found to be 85.96 ± 1.09 μg/dl with a 9.50% increase in miscarriage incidence in women exposed to mercury in comparison to the unexposed group. For chromium, a 1.60% increase in the incidence of miscarriage in women exposed to chromium was reported. For cadmium and arsenic, 83.93% and 5.88% increase in incidence were reported respectively. Similar data were obtained for Jamaica (mercury = 7.29 ± 9.10 μg/l, Egypt (Cadmium = 1.17%; Lead = 32.33%. Conclusion: Medical practitioners and Toxicologists involved in women health in sub-Sahara Africa SSA should consider if these heavy metals can become additional biomarkers in the diagnosis of miscarriages and stillbirths.

  8. Modelling of atmospheric transport of heavy metals emitted from Polish power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zysk, Janusz

    2016-01-01

    Modelling of atmospheric transport of heavy metals emitted from Polish power sector. Many studies have been conducted to investigate the atmospheric heavy metals contamination and its deposition to ecosystems. The increasing attention to mercury pollution has been mainly driven by the growing evidence of its negative impacts on wildlife, ecosystems and particularly human health. Lead and cadmium are also toxics which are being emitted into the atmosphere by anthropogenic as well as natural sources. The harmful influence of these three heavy metals was underlined in the Aarhus Protocol on Heavy Metals of 1998. The Parties of this protocol (including Poland) are obligated to reduce emissions, observe the transport and the amounts of lead, mercury and cadmium in the environment. Poland is one of the biggest emitter of mercury, lead and cadmium in Europe mainly due to emission from coal combustion processes. Therefore in Poland, research efforts to study the heavy metals emission, atmospheric transport, concentration and deposition are extremely important. The objectives of this work were twofold: - The practical objective was to develop and run a model to represent the atmospheric dispersion of mercury and to implement it in the air quality modelling platform Polyphemus.- The scientific objective was to perform heavy metals dispersion studies over Europe and detailed studies of the impact of the polish power sector on the air quality regarding mercury, cadmium and lead. To meet the declared aim, a new mercury chemical model was implemented into the Polyphemus air quality system. The scientific literature was reviewed regarding mercury chemistry and mercury chemical models. It can be concluded that the chemistry of mercury is still not well known. The models also differ in the way of calculating the dry and wet deposition of mercury. The elemental gaseous mercury ambient concentrations are evenly distributed, on the contrary, high variations in the spatial gradients of

  9. Heavy metals in commercial fish in New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Levels of contaminants in fish are of particular interest because of the potential risk to humans who consume them. While attention has focused on self-caught fish, most of the fish eaten by the American public comes from commercial sources. We sampled 11 types of fish and shellfish obtained from supermarkets and specialty fish markets in New Jersey and analyzed them for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury, and selenium. We test the null hypothesis that metal levels do not vary among fish types, and we consider whether the levels of any metals could harm the fish themselves or their predators or pose a health risk for human consumers. There were significant interspecific differences for all metals, and no fish types had the highest levels of more than two metals. There were few significant correlations (Kendall tau) among metals for the three most numerous fish (yellowfin tuna, bluefish, and flounder), the correlations were generally low (below 0.40), and many correlations were negative. Only manganese and lead positively were correlated for tuna, bluefish, and flounder. The levels of most metals were below those known to cause adverse effects in the fish themselves. However, the levels of arsenic, lead, mercury, and selenium in some fish were in the range known to cause some sublethal effects in sensitive predatory birds and mammals and in some fish exceeded health-based standards. The greatest risk from different metals resided in different fish; the species of fish with the highest levels of a given metal sometimes exceeded the human health guidance or standards for that metal. Thus, the risk information given to the public (mainly about mercury) does not present a complete picture. The potential of harm from other metals suggests that people not only should eat smaller quantities of fish known to accumulate mercury but also should eat a diversity of fish to avoid consuming unhealthy quantities of other heavy metals. However, consumers should

  10. Heavy metal ion adsorption onto polypyrrole-impregnated porous carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Moonjung; Jang, Jyongsik

    2008-09-01

    Polypyrrole-impregnated porous carbon was readily synthesized using vapor infiltration polymerization of pyrrole monomers. The results show that the functionalized polymer layer was successfully coated onto the pore surface of carbon without collapse of mesoporous structure. The modified porous carbon exhibited an improved complexation affinity for heavy metal ions such as mercury, lead, and silver ions due to the amine group of polypyrrole. The introduced polypyrrole layer could provide the surface modification to be applied for heavy metal ion adsorbents. Especially, polymer-impregnated porous carbon has an enhanced heavy metal ion uptake, which is 20 times higher than that of adsorbents with amine functional groups. Furthermore, the relationship between the coated polymer amount and surface area was also investigated in regard to adsorption capacity.

  11. Interactions between plant hormones and heavy metals responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bücker-Neto, Lauro; Paiva, Ana Luiza Sobral; Machado, Ronei Dorneles; Arenhart, Rafael Augusto; Margis-Pinheiro, Marcia

    2017-01-01

    Heavy metals are natural non-biodegradable constituents of the Earth's crust that accumulate and persist indefinitely in the ecosystem as a result of human activities. Since the industrial revolution, the concentration of cadmium, arsenic, lead, mercury and zinc, amongst others, have increasingly contaminated soil and water resources, leading to significant yield losses in plants. These issues have become an important concern of scientific interest. Understanding the molecular and physiological responses of plants to heavy metal stress is critical in order to maximize their productivity. Recent research has extended our view of how plant hormones can regulate and integrate growth responses to various environmental cues in order to sustain life. In the present review we discuss current knowledge about the role of the plant growth hormones abscisic acid, auxin, brassinosteroid and ethylene in signaling pathways, defense mechanisms and alleviation of heavy metal toxicity.

  12. Interactions between plant hormones and heavy metals responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Bücker-Neto

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Heavy metals are natural non-biodegradable constituents of the Earth's crust that accumulate and persist indefinitely in the ecosystem as a result of human activities. Since the industrial revolution, the concentration of cadmium, arsenic, lead, mercury and zinc, amongst others, have increasingly contaminated soil and water resources, leading to significant yield losses in plants. These issues have become an important concern of scientific interest. Understanding the molecular and physiological responses of plants to heavy metal stress is critical in order to maximize their productivity. Recent research has extended our view of how plant hormones can regulate and integrate growth responses to various environmental cues in order to sustain life. In the present review we discuss current knowledge about the role of the plant growth hormones abscisic acid, auxin, brassinosteroid and ethylene in signaling pathways, defense mechanisms and alleviation of heavy metal toxicity.

  13. [Toxic nephropathy secondary to occupational exposure to metallic mercury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voitzuk, Ana; Greco, Vanina; Caputo, Daniel; Alvarez, Estela

    2014-01-01

    Toxic nephrophaties secondary to occupational exposure to metals have been widely studied, including membranous nephropathy by mercury, which is rare. Occupational poisoning by mercury is frequent, neurological symptoms are the main form of clinical presentation. Secondary renal involvement in chronic exposure to metallic mercury can cause glomerular disease by deposit of immune-complexes. Membranous glomerulopathy and minimal change disease are the most frequently reported forms. Here we describe the case of a patient with occupational exposure to metallic mercury, where nephrotic syndrome due to membranous glomerulonephritis responded favorably to both chelation and immunosuppressive therapy.

  14. Micromycetes sensitiveness to heavy metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Korinovskaya

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of 33 micromycete species to nitric compounds of copper, lead, zinc, nickel and cadmium has been determined. Absidia butleri Lendn, Mortierella vanesae Dixon-Stewart, Cunninghamella echinulata Thaxte, Curvularia tuberculata Jain, Cladosporium cladosporiodes (Fresen G. A. de Vries and Fusarium solani (C. Mart. Appel et Wollenw are sensitive to minimal content of the heavy metals (0.75 of maximum permissible concentration (MPC in the growth medium. At the same time Trixoderma longibrachiatiim Rifai, Alternaria alternatа (Fr. Keissl and Penicillium sp. 4 demonstrated moderate growth under maximal concentration (50 MPC. It is determined that minimal content of the heavy metals in the initial stage of influence (up to 48 h promotes growth of only Fusarium oxysporum E. F. Sm. et Swingle, while retards growth of the other species.

  15. The potential for Probiotic Bacteria from milkfish intestine in reducing mercury metals in skimmed milk media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyana, Zaraswati; Priosambodo, D.; Haedar, N.; Erviani, A. E.; Djabura, A. K.; Sukma, R.

    2018-03-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the heavy metals that is harmful to humans. The accumulation of mercury in the body is generally derived from food. Several types of bacteria from intestine of milkfish are known to reduce mercury concentration. People can take advantage of this bacterial ability by eating it through probiotic foods. This research conducted to figure out the potential for probiotic bacteria from milkfish intestine in reducing mercury. Isolation from probiotic bacteria from milkfish intestine conducted with grown the isolates in MRSA medium with addition of 1% CaCO3. Twelve isolate were obtained from milkfish intestine. Mercury resistance tested was performed by measuring cell density using a spectrophotometer at concentrations of 10, 15 and 20 ppm respectively in skim milk media. Probiotic tests (gastric acid, bile salts and antimicrobial activity) for MRSB media was also conducted. Results showed that seven isolate were resistant to mercury in all concentrations and potential as probiotics. All resistant isolate then tested for skim milk media with addition of 5, 10, 20 ppm mercury acetate respectively. Result showed that only one isolated was able to reduce the concentration of mercury (Hg) in all variations on concentration and potential as mercury reducer probiotic bacteria.

  16. Heavy metal contamination in bats in Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, L.A.; Simpson, V.R.; Rockett, L.; Wienburg, C.L.; Shore, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    Toxic metals are bioaccumulated by insectivorous mammals but few studies (none from Britain) have quantified residues in bats. We measured renal mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in bats from south-west England to determine how they varied with species, sex, age, and over time, and if they were likely to cause adverse effects. Residues were generally highest in whiskered bats (Myotis mystacinus). Compared with other species, pipistrelle (Pipistrellus spp) and Natterer's bats (Myotis nattereri) had significantly lower kidney Hg and Pb concentrations, respectively. Renal Hg increased over time in pipistrelles but the contributory sources are unknown. Kidney Pb did not decrease over time despite concurrent declines in atmospheric Pb. Overall, median renal metal concentrations were similar to those in bats from mainland Europe and 6- to 10-fold below those associated with clinical effect, although 5% of pipistrelles had kidney Pb residues diagnostic of acute lead poisoning. - Heavy metal contamination has been quantified in bats from Britain for the first time and indicates increased accumulation of Hg and no reduction in Pb

  17. Toxic Heavy Metals: Materials Cycle Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Robert U.

    1992-02-01

    Long-term ecological sustainability is incompatible with an open materials cycle. The toxic heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, silver, uranium/plutonium, zinc) exemplify the problem. These metals are being mobilized and dispersed into the environment by industrial activity at a rate far higher than by natural processes. Apart from losses to the environment resulting from mine wastes and primary processing, many of these metals are utilized in products that are inherently dissipative. Examples of such uses include fuels, lubricants, solvents, fire retardants, stabilizers, flocculants, pigments, biocides, and preservatives. To close the materials cycle, it will be necessary to accomplish two things. The first is to ban or otherwise discourage (e.g., by means of high severance taxes on virgin materials) dissipative uses of the above type. The second is to increase the efficiency of recycling of those materials that are not replaceable in principle. Here, also, economic instruments (such as returnable deposits) can be effective in some cases. A systems view of the problem is essential to assess the cost and effectiveness of alternative strategies.

  18. Heavy metal contamination in bats in Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, L.A. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Simpson, V.R. [Wildlife Veterinary Investigation Centre, Jollys Bottom Farm, Chacewater, Truro, Cornwall TR4 8PB (United Kingdom); Rockett, L. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Wienburg, C.L. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Shore, R.F. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: rfs@ceh.ac.uk

    2007-07-15

    Toxic metals are bioaccumulated by insectivorous mammals but few studies (none from Britain) have quantified residues in bats. We measured renal mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in bats from south-west England to determine how they varied with species, sex, age, and over time, and if they were likely to cause adverse effects. Residues were generally highest in whiskered bats (Myotis mystacinus). Compared with other species, pipistrelle (Pipistrellus spp) and Natterer's bats (Myotis nattereri) had significantly lower kidney Hg and Pb concentrations, respectively. Renal Hg increased over time in pipistrelles but the contributory sources are unknown. Kidney Pb did not decrease over time despite concurrent declines in atmospheric Pb. Overall, median renal metal concentrations were similar to those in bats from mainland Europe and 6- to 10-fold below those associated with clinical effect, although 5% of pipistrelles had kidney Pb residues diagnostic of acute lead poisoning. - Heavy metal contamination has been quantified in bats from Britain for the first time and indicates increased accumulation of Hg and no reduction in Pb.

  19. Heavy metals in sea turtles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witkowski, S.A. (Millersville State College, PA); Frazier, J.G.

    1982-07-01

    Bone and barnacle samples from sea turtles (Hepidochelys olivacea) in Ecuador were analyzed for manganese, iron, copper, zinc and lead. Analysis was performed by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results show that zinc and iron levels in bone and barnacles were greater than copper, manganese and lead levels. The significance of the findings is difficult to interpret because so little is known about baseline levels and physiological effects of heavy metals in the animals. (JMT)

  20. Micromycetes sensitiveness to heavy metals

    OpenAIRE

    O. N. Korinovskaya; V. N. Gryshko

    2011-01-01

    The sensitivity of 33 micromycete species to nitric compounds of copper, lead, zinc, nickel and cadmium has been determined. Absidia butleri Lendn, Mortierella vanesae Dixon-Stewart, Cunninghamella echinulata Thaxte, Curvularia tuberculata Jain, Cladosporium cladosporiodes (Fresen) G. A. de Vries and Fusarium solani (C. Mart.) Appel et Wollenw are sensitive to minimal content of the heavy metals (0.75 of maximum permissible concentration (MPC)) in the growth medium. At the same time Trixoderm...

  1. Heavy metals hazard in agriculture in NWFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, A.; Perveen, S.

    2005-01-01

    Metals contamination is a persistent problem at many contaminated sites. In the U.S., the most commonly occurring metals at Superfund sites are lead, chromium, arsenic, zinc, cadmium, copper and mercury. The presence of metals in surface and ground waters, and soils can pose a significant threat to human health and ecological systems. Surface water and groundwater many be contaminated with metals from wastewater discharges or by direct contact with metals contaminated soils, sludges, mining wastes and debris. Due to use of sewage water and industrial effluents for agriculture in NWFP, there is a great threat to the human and animal health. In a survey of sewage water from three channels, it was found that 10 out of 18 samples ha lead content above the safe limits, while two in cadmium and 8 in chromium. While in soils irrigated with these channels, all the 18 samples were high in Cu and Pb, and 6 in Mn. As regards plants growing on these soils, samples of garlic, 4 of wheat and 3 of berseem were high in Pb. Cd content was high in 5 garlic samples, 5 wheat and 3 berseem. Effluents from two industries were high in Pb and four in Ni. In another study, all the nine water samples were high in Cu, 3 in Cd, and 6 in Pb. A survey of 20 Industries in Industrial Estate Hattar showed that all the effluent samples collected from these Industries were above the safe limits in Ni, Pb, Cd and Cr. From these studies, it seems that use of sewage water and industrial effluents for longer period can create heavy metals hazard in agriculture in NWFP. (author)

  2. Heavy metals precipitation in sewage sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchioretto, M.M.; Rulkens, W.H.; Bruning, H.

    2005-01-01

    There is a great need for heavy metal removal from strongly metal-polluted sewage sludges. One of the advantages of heavy metal removal from this type of sludge is the possibility of the sludge disposal to landfill with reduced risk of metals being leached to the surface and groundwater. Another

  3. Assessing potential dietary toxicity of heavy metals in selected vegetables and food crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Ejaz ul; Yang, Xiao-e; He, Zhen-li; Mahmood, Qaisar

    2007-01-01

    Heavy metals, such as cadmium, copper, lead, chromium and mercury, are important environmental pollutants, particularly in areas with high anthropogenic pressure. Their presence in the atmosphere, soil and water, even in traces can cause serious problems to all organisms, and heavy metal bioaccumulation in the food chain especially can be highly dangerous to human health. Heavy metals enter the human body mainly through two routes namely: inhalation and ingestion, ingestion being the main route of exposure to these elements in human population. Heavy metals intake by human populations through food chain has been reported in many countries. Soil threshold for heavy metal toxicity is an important factor affecting soil environmental capacity of heavy metal and determines heavy metal cumulative loading limits. For soil-plant system, heavy metal toxicity threshold is the highest permissible content in the soil (total or bioavailable concentration) that does not pose any phytotoxic effects or heavy metals in the edible parts of the crops does not exceed food hygiene standards. Factors affecting the thresholds of dietary toxicity of heavy metal in soil-crop system include: soil type which includes soil pH, organic matter content, clay mineral and other soil chemical and biochemical properties; and crop species or cultivars regulated by genetic basis for heavy metal transport and accumulation in plants. In addition, the interactions of soil-plant root-microbes play important roles in regulating heavy metal movement from soil to the edible parts of crops. Agronomic practices such as fertilizer and water managements as well as crop rotation system can affect bioavailability and crop accumulation of heavy metals, thus influencing the thresholds for assessing dietary toxicity of heavy metals in the food chain. This paper reviews the phytotoxic effects and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in vegetables and food crops and assesses soil heavy metal thresholds for potential dietary

  4. Heavy metals in locus ceruleus and motor neurons in motor neuron disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamphlett, Roger; Kum Jew, Stephen

    2013-12-12

    The causes of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (SALS) and other types of motor neuron disease (MND) remain largely unknown. Heavy metals have long been implicated in MND, and it has recently been shown that inorganic mercury selectively enters human locus ceruleus (LC) and motor neurons. We therefore used silver nitrate autometallography (AMG) to look for AMG-stainable heavy metals (inorganic mercury and bismuth) in LC and motor neurons of 24 patients with MND (18 with SALS and 6 with familial MND) and in the LC of 24 controls. Heavy metals in neurons were found in significantly more MND patients than in controls when comparing: (1) the presence of any versus no heavy metal-containing LC neurons (MND 88%, controls 42%), (2) the median percentage of heavy metal-containing LC neurons (MND 9.5%, control 0.0%), and (3) numbers of individuals with heavy metal-containing LC neurons in the upper half of the percentage range (MND 75%, controls 25%). In MND patients, 67% of remaining spinal motor neurons contained heavy metals; smaller percentages were found in hypoglossal, nucleus ambiguus and oculomotor neurons, but none in cortical motor neurons. The majority of MND patients had heavy metals in both LC and spinal motor neurons. No glia or other neurons, including neuromelanin-containing neurons of the substantia nigra, contained stainable heavy metals. Uptake of heavy metals by LC and lower motor neurons appears to be fairly common in humans, though heavy metal staining in the LC, most likely due to inorganic mercury, was seen significantly more often in MND patients than in controls. The LC innervates many cell types that are affected in MND, and it is possible that MND is triggered by toxicant-induced interactions between LC and motor neurons.

  5. Heavy metals in locus ceruleus and motor neurons in motor neuron disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The causes of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (SALS) and other types of motor neuron disease (MND) remain largely unknown. Heavy metals have long been implicated in MND, and it has recently been shown that inorganic mercury selectively enters human locus ceruleus (LC) and motor neurons. We therefore used silver nitrate autometallography (AMG) to look for AMG-stainable heavy metals (inorganic mercury and bismuth) in LC and motor neurons of 24 patients with MND (18 with SALS and 6 with familial MND) and in the LC of 24 controls. Results Heavy metals in neurons were found in significantly more MND patients than in controls when comparing: (1) the presence of any versus no heavy metal-containing LC neurons (MND 88%, controls 42%), (2) the median percentage of heavy metal-containing LC neurons (MND 9.5%, control 0.0%), and (3) numbers of individuals with heavy metal-containing LC neurons in the upper half of the percentage range (MND 75%, controls 25%). In MND patients, 67% of remaining spinal motor neurons contained heavy metals; smaller percentages were found in hypoglossal, nucleus ambiguus and oculomotor neurons, but none in cortical motor neurons. The majority of MND patients had heavy metals in both LC and spinal motor neurons. No glia or other neurons, including neuromelanin-containing neurons of the substantia nigra, contained stainable heavy metals. Conclusions Uptake of heavy metals by LC and lower motor neurons appears to be fairly common in humans, though heavy metal staining in the LC, most likely due to inorganic mercury, was seen significantly more often in MND patients than in controls. The LC innervates many cell types that are affected in MND, and it is possible that MND is triggered by toxicant-induced interactions between LC and motor neurons. PMID:24330485

  6. Biosolids and heavy metals in soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Maria Lucia Azevedo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of sewage sludge or biosolids on soils has been widespread in agricultural areas. However, depending on their characteristics, they may cause increase in heavy metal concentration of treated soils. In general, domestic biosolids have lower heavy metal contents than industrial ones. Origin and treatment method of biosolids may markedly influence their characteristics. The legislation that controls the levels of heavy metal contents in biosolids and the maximum concentrations in soils is still controversial. In the long-term, heavy metal behavior after the and of biosolid application is still unknown. In soils, heavy metals may be adsorbed via specific or non-specific adsorption reactions. Iron oxides and organic matter are the most important soil constituents retaining heavy metals. The pH, CEC and the presence of competing ions also affect heavy metal adsorption and speciation in soils. In solution, heavy metals can be present either as free-ions or complexed with organic and inorganic ligands. Generally, free-ions are more relevant in environmental pollution studies since they are readily bioavailable. Some computer models can estimate heavy metal activity in solution and their ionic speciation. Thermodynamic data (thermodynamic stability constant, total metal and ligand concentrations are used by the GEOCHEM-PC program. This program allows studying heavy metal behavior in solution and the effect of changes in the conditions, such as pH and ionic strength and the application of organic and inorganic ligands caused by soil fertilization.

  7. Observations of Metallic Species in Mercury's Exosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Rosemary M.; Potter, Andrew E.; Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; Bradley, E. Todd; McClintock, William E.; Anderson, Carrie M.; Burger, Matthew H.

    2010-01-01

    From observations of the metallic species sodium (Na), potassium (K), and magnesium (Mg) in Mercury's exosphere, we derive implications for source and loss processes. All metallic species observed exhibit a distribution and/or line width characteristic of high to extreme temperature - tens of thousands of degrees K. The temperatures of refractory species, including magnesium and calcium, indicate that the source process for the atoms observed in the tail and near-planet exosphere are consistent with ion sputtering and/or impact vaporization of a molecule with subsequent dissociation into the atomic form. The extended Mg tail is consistent with a surface abundance of 5-8% Mg by number, if 30% of impact-vaporized Mg remains as MgO and half of the impact vapor condenses. Globally, ion sputtering is not a major source of Mg, but locally the sputtered source can be larger than the impact vapor source. We conclude that the Na and K in Mercury's exosphere can be derived from a regolith composition similar to that of Luna 16 soil (or Apollo 17 orange glass), in which the abundance by number is 0.0027 (0.0028) for Na and 0.0006 (0.0045) for K.

  8. Oil Spill Related Heavy Metal: A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Dasuki Mustafa; Hafizan Juahir; Kamaruzzaman Yunus; Mohammad Azizi Amran; Che Noraini Che Hasnam; Fazureen Azaman; Ismail Zainal Abidin; Syahril Hirman Azmee; Nur Hishaam Sulaiman

    2015-01-01

    Oil spill occurs every day worldwide and oil contamination is a significant contributor for the higher levels of heavy metals in the environment. This study is purposely to summarize the heavy metals which significant to major oil spill incidents around the world and effects of toxic metals to human health. The study performed a comprehensive review of relevant scientific journal articles and government documents concerning heavy metals contamination and oil spills. Overall, the heavy metals most frequently been detected in oil spill related study where Pb>Ni>V>Zn>Cd and caused many effects to human health especially cancer. In conclusion, the comparison of heavy metal level between the post - spill and baseline levels must be done, and implementation of continuous monitoring of heavy metal. In addition, the result based on the strategies must be transparent to public in order to maintaining human health. (author)

  9. Heavy metals in sediments from the Athens sewage outfall area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papakostidis, G.; Grimanis, A.P.; Zafiropoulos, D.; Griggs, G.B.; Hopkins, T.S.

    1975-01-01

    Sediments in the upper Saronikos Gulf have been contaminated by heavy metals from the discharge of untreated industrial and domestic wastewater from the area around Athens. Neutron activation analysis indicates concentrations of antimony, arsenic, chromium, gold, mercury, silver and zinc at 8 to 200 times greater than in the surrounding uncontaminated sediments. The bottom area affected by increased metal concentrations is at least 13km 2 and indicates a nearly radial dispersal pattern from the main outfall with higher concentrations extending to the southeast and southwest. (author)

  10. Treatment and minimization of heavy metal-containing wastes 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hager, J.P.; Mishra, B.; Litz, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    This symposium was held in conjunction with the 1995 Annual Meeting of the Minerals, Metals and Materials Society in Las Vegas, Nevada, February 12--16, 1995. The purpose of this meeting was to provide a forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on treating and minimizing heavy metal-containing wastes. Papers were categorized under the following broad headings: aqueous processing; waste water treatment; thermal processing and stabilization; processing of fly ash, flue dusts, and slags; and processing of lead, mercury, and battery wastes. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  11. Effect of some heavy metals on the growth and development of Pleurotus tuber-regium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akpaja EO

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of five heavy metals (cadmium, copper, mercury, lead and zinc on the growth and fruit body production in Pleurotus tuber-regium was investigated. Lead sulphate, zinc sulphate, copper sulphate, cadmium nitrate and mercury chloride were added to garden soil at concentrations of 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mmol per 3 kg of soil. Sclerotia of the test mushroom were used to inoculate the artificially contaminated soil. Mercury prevented growth and fruit body production in P. tuber-regium. Fungal morphometry was greatly affected by lead. The heavy metal content in the fungal biomass complex increased with increase of heavy metal concentration in the soil. The highest concentration (183.06 mg/kg was found in zinc at 2 mmol/L.

  12. Determination of Heavy Metals in Raw Milk Produced in Tangshan City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Aijun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the content of heavy metals (Arsenic, Lead, Chromium and Mercury in raw milk of Tangshan. Samples were obtained directly from dairy farms in Tangshan City. A total of 55 raw milk samples were collected in 2012, a total of 150 raw milk samples and 150 in 2013 and 2014 respectively. All the samples were analyzed by ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry method-based on China National Standard. In general, heavy metals (Arsenic, Lead, Chromium and Mercury of raw milk in Tangshan were relatively safe for people’s health because none of those heavy metals (Arsenic, Lead, Chromium and Mercury contents exceeded the Maximum Limit set by China.

  13. Mercury-impacted scrap metal: Source and nature of the mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finster, Molly E; Raymond, Michelle R; Scofield, Marcienne A; Smith, Karen P

    2015-09-15

    The reuse and recycling of industrial solid wastes such as scrap metal is supported and encouraged both internationally and domestically, especially when such wastes can be used as substitutes for raw material. However, scrap metal processing facilities, such as mini-mills, have been identified as a source of mercury (Hg) emissions in the United States. This research aims to better define some of the key issues related to the source and nature of mercury in the scrap metal waste stream. Overall, it is difficult to pinpoint the key mercury sources feeding into scrap metal recycling facilities, quantify their associated mercury concentrations, or determine which chemical forms are most significant. Potential sources of mercury in scrap metal include mercury switches from discarded vehicles, electronic-based scrap from household appliances and related industrial systems, and Hg-impacted scrap metal from the oil and gas industry. The form of mercury associated with scrap metal varies and depends on the source type. The specific amount of mercury that can be adsorbed and retained by steel appears to be a function of both metallurgical and environmental factors. In general, the longer the steel is in contact with a fluid or condensate that contains measurable concentrations of elemental mercury, the greater the potential for mercury accumulation in that steel. Most mercury compounds are thermally unstable at elevated temperatures (i.e., above 350 °C). As such, the mercury associated with impacted scrap is expected to be volatilized out of the metal when it is heated during processing (e.g., shredding or torch cutting) or melted in a furnace. This release of fugitive gas (Hg vapor) and particulates, as well as Hg-impacted bag-house dust and control filters, could potentially pose an occupational exposure risk to workers at a scrap metal processing facility. Thus, identifying and characterizing the key sources of Hg-impacted scrap, and understanding the nature and extent

  14. Screen-printed electrodes for environmental monitoring of heavy metal ions: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, John; González García, María Begoña; Hernández Santos, David; Fanjul-Bolado, Pablo; Ribotti, Alberto; Magni, Paolo; McCaul, Margaret; Diamond, Dermot

    2016-01-01

    Heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cadmium, zinc and copper are among the most important pollutants because of their non-biodegradability and toxicity above certain thresholds. Here, we review methods for sensing heavy metal ions (HMI) in water samples using screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) as transducers. The review (with 107 refs.) starts with an introduction into the topic, and this is followed by sections on (a) mercury-coated SPEs, (b) bismuth-coated SPEs, (c) gold-coated SPEs (d) chemically modified and non-modified carbon SPEs, (e) enzyme inhibition-based SPEs, and (f) an overview of commercially available electrochemical portable heavy metal analyzers. The review reveals the significance of SPEs in terms of decentralized and of in situ analysis of heavy metal ions in environmental monitoring. (author)

  15. Divergent biology of facultative heavy metal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothe, Hermann; Słomka, Aneta

    2017-12-01

    Among heavy metal plants (the metallophytes), facultative species can live both in soils contaminated by an excess of heavy metals and in non-affected sites. In contrast, obligate metallophytes are restricted to polluted areas. Metallophytes offer a fascinating biology, due to the fact that species have developed different strategies to cope with the adverse conditions of heavy metal soils. The literature distinguishes between hyperaccumulating, accumulating, tolerant and excluding metallophytes, but the borderline between these categories is blurred. Due to the fact that heavy metal soils are dry, nutrient limited and are not uniform but have a patchy distribution in many instances, drought-tolerant or low nutrient demanding species are often regarded as metallophytes in the literature. In only a few cases, the concentrations of heavy metals in soils are so toxic that only a few specifically adapted plants, the genuine metallophytes, can cope with these adverse soil conditions. Current molecular biological studies focus on the genetically amenable and hyperaccumulating Arabidopsis halleri and Noccaea (Thlaspi) caerulescens of the Brassicaceae. Armeria maritima ssp. halleri utilizes glands for the excretion of heavy metals and is, therefore, a heavy metal excluder. The two endemic zinc violets of Western Europe, Viola lutea ssp. calaminaria of the Aachen-Liège area and Viola lutea ssp. westfalica of the Pb-Cu-ditch of Blankenrode, Eastern Westphalia, as well as Viola tricolor ecotypes of Eastern Europe, keep their cells free of excess heavy metals by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi which bind heavy metals. The Caryophyllaceae, Silene vulgaris f. humilis and Minuartia verna, apparently discard leaves when overloaded with heavy metals. All Central European metallophytes have close relatives that grow in areas outside of heavy metal soils, mainly in the Alps, and have, therefore, been considered as relicts of the glacial epoch in the past. However, the current

  16. Albatross as Sentinels of Heavy Metal Pollution: Local and Global Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentman, W.; Edwards, S. V.; Vo, A. E.; Bank, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    Heavy metal pollution in the Pacific Ocean has garnered significant attention in recent years, especially with regard to rising mercury emissions from Asia. Uncertainty exists over the extent to which mercury in biota may have resulted from increases in anthropogenic emissions over time. Albatrosses, including those inhabiting the North Pacific, are wide-ranging, long-lived, keystone, avian predators. Consequently, they serve as ideal sentinel species for investigating the effects of historical and contemporary pollution as well as local and global factors related to heavy metal bioaccumulation, exposure, and ecotoxicological risk. To date, high levels of mercury and lead have been documented in albatross species throughout the Pacific. To address biotic exposure to these multiple stressors, here we synthesize and conduct meta-analyses of total mercury, methylmercury, and lead exposure data in Black-footed albatross (Phoebastria nigripes) and Laysan albatross (Phoebastria immutabilis). Our approach uses data from the field and literature and for methyl mercury uses museum feathers spanning the past 130 years for Black-Footed albatross. We discuss the use and application of stable isotopes (δ15N and δ13C) as a way to control for temporal changes in trophic structure and diet and the importance of conducting speciation analyses, for mercury, to account for curator mediated inorganic mercury in older specimens. Our data showed higher levels of inorganic mercury in older specimens of Black-Footed albatross as well as two non-pelagic species (control samples) lacking historical sources of bioavailable mercury exposure, which suggests that studies on bioaccumulation should measure methylmercury rather than total mercury when utilizing museum collections. Additionally, at the local scale, previous research has reported that lead paint exposure from buildings was also an important environmental stressor for Laysan albatross, suggesting that albatross species face heavy

  17. MICROBIAL REMOVAL OF HEAVY METALS FROM WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Koc-Jurczyk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Industrialization and urbanization result in increase of heavy metals released into the environment (soil, lakes, rivers, seas, oceans, groundwater. Studies on biosorption of heavy metals are aimed to specify types of microorganisms which could efficiently bind metals. This approach has a very important significance for both slowing down metals exploitation by recovery, and also reduction of environmental pollution by decrease of their excessive concentration. Recent studies have reported about the capabilities of fungi, algae, yeasts, bacteria, waste and agricultural residues or materials containing chitosan derived from crustacean shells as a biosorbents. Biohydrometallurgy could be considered as a new “green” technology of heavy metals removal from wastewater.

  18. Pollution Status of Pakistan: A Retrospective Review on Heavy Metal Contamination of Water, Soil, and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Waseem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Trace heavy metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, chromium, nickel, and mercury, are important environmental pollutants, particularly in areas with high anthropogenic pressure. In addition to these metals, copper, manganese, iron, and zinc are also important trace micronutrients. The presence of trace heavy metals in the atmosphere, soil, and water can cause serious problems to all organisms, and the ubiquitous bioavailability of these heavy metal can result in bioaccumulation in the food chain which especially can be highly dangerous to human health. This study reviews the heavy metal contamination in several areas of Pakistan over the past few years, particularly to assess the heavy metal contamination in water (ground water, surface water, and waste water, soil, sediments, particulate matter, and vegetables. The listed contaminations affect the drinking water quality, ecological environment, and food chain. Moreover, the toxicity induced by contaminated water, soil, and vegetables poses serious threat to human health.

  19. Bioremoval of heavy metals by bacterial biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, Mahendra; Liakopoulou-Kyriakides, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals are among the most common pollutants found in the environment. Health problems due to the heavy metal pollution become a major concern throughout the world, and therefore, various treatment technologies such as reverse osmosis, ion exchange, solvent extraction, chemical precipitation, and adsorption are adopted to reduce or eliminate their concentration in the environment. Biosorption is a cost-effective and environmental friendly technique, and it can be used for detoxification of heavy metals in industrial effluents as an alternative treatment technology. Biosorption characteristics of various bacterial species are reviewed here with respect to the results reported so far. The role of physical, chemical, and biological modification of bacterial cells for heavy metal removal is presented. The paper evaluates the different kinetic, equilibrium, and thermodynamic models used in bacterial sorption of heavy metals. Biomass characterization and sorption mechanisms as well as elution of metal ions and regeneration of biomass are also discussed.

  20. Heavy metal uptake of Geosiphon pyriforme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheloske, Stefan E-mail: stefan.scheloske@mpi-hd.mpg.de; Maetz, Mischa; Schuessler, Arthur

    2001-07-01

    Geosiphon pyriforme represents the only known endosymbiosis between a fungus, belonging to the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, and cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). Therefore we use Geosiphon as a model system for the widespread AM symbiosis and try to answer some basic questions regarding heavy metal uptake or resistance of AM fungi. We present quantitative micro-PIXE measurements of a set of heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Tl, Pb) taken up by Geosiphon-cells. The uptake is studied as a function of the metal concentration in the nutrient solution and of the time Geosiphon spent in the heavy metal enriched medium. The measured heavy metal concentrations range from several ppm to some hundred ppm. Also the influence of the heavy metal uptake on the nutrition transfer of other elements will be discussed.

  1. Development of a thermodynamic data base for selected heavy metals; Entwicklung einer thermodynamischen Datenbasis fuer ausgewaehlte Schwermetalle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hageman, Sven; Scharge, Tina; Willms, Thomas

    2015-07-15

    The report on the development of a thermodynamic data base for selected heavy metals covers the description of experimental methods, the thermodynamic model for chromate, the thermodynamic model for dichromate, the thermodynamic model for manganese (II), the thermodynamic model for cobalt, the thermodynamic model for nickel, the thermodynamic model for copper (I), the thermodynamic model for copper(II), the thermodynamic model for mercury (0) and mercury (I), the thermodynamic model for mercury (III), the thermodynamic model for arsenate.

  2. Metallic mercury uptake by catalase Part 1 In Vitro metallic mercury uptake by various kind of animals' erythrocytes and purified human erythrocyte catalase

    OpenAIRE

    劒持,堅志

    1980-01-01

    The uptake of metallic mercury was studied using erythrocytes with different catalase activities taken from various kind of animals. The results were: 1) The uptake of metallic mercury by erythrocytes paralleled the activity of catalase in the erythrocytes with and without hydrogen peroxide, suggesting that the erythrocyte catalase activity is related to the uptake of metallic mercury. 2) The uptake of metallic mercury occurred not only with purified human erythrocyte catalase but also with h...

  3. ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS AND CRUDE PROTEIN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UNICORN

    to quantify heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd) and crude protein content of these species that are sold in ... in protein, omega 3 and low fat content. Furthermore ... high levels of cadmium can cause kidney and liver damage in man [6]. Motivation .... analysis. Determination of heavy metals in the edible tissues of the organisms.

  4. Microbial treatment of heavy metal leachates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Aliaga, M. T.

    2009-01-01

    Ore-mining metallurgy and other industrial activities represent the source of heavy metal and radionuclide contamination in terrestrial and aquatic environments. Physico-chemical processes are employed for heavy metal removal from industrial wastewaters. However, limitations due to the cost-effectiveness and use of contaminating reagents make these processes not environmentally friendly. (Author)

  5. Behaviour of heavy metals in soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, K.

    1977-01-01

    Fractions of Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb, Fe and Mn extractable with water, a salt solution and dilute acid, and residual fractions were determined in soils with raised contents of heavy metals, near zinc smelters, along a river formerly discharging heavy metals, and in a sewage farm. Special attention

  6. Antibiogram and heavy metal tolerance of bullfrog bacteria in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Najiah

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial isolates from 30 farmed bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus weighing 500-600 g at Johore, Malaysia with external clinical signs of ulcer, red leg and torticollis were tested for their antibiograms and heavy metal tolerance patterns. A total of 17 bacterial species with 77 strains were successfully isolated and assigned to 21 antibiotics and 4 types of heavy metal (Hg2+, Cr6+, Cd2+, Cu2+. Results revealed that bacteria were resistant against lincomycin (92%, oleandomycin (72.7% and furazolidone (71.4% while being susceptible to chloramphenicol and florfenicol at 97.4%. The multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR index for C. freundii, E. coli and M. morganii was high with the value up to 0.71. Bacterial strains were found to exhibit 100 % resistance to chromium and mercury. High correlation of resistance against both antibiotics and heavy metals was found (71.4 to 100% between bullfrog bacteria isolates, except bacteria that were resistant to kanamycin showed only 25% resistance against Cu2+. Based on the results in this study, bacterial pathogens of bullfrog culture in Johore, Malaysia, were highly resistant to both antibiotics and heavy metals.

  7. Antibiogram and heavy metal tolerance of bullfrog bacteria in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, L W; Najiah, M

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial isolates from 30 farmed bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) weighing 500-600 g at Johore, Malaysia with external clinical signs of ulcer, red leg and torticollis were tested for their antibiograms and heavy metal tolerance patterns. A total of 17 bacterial species with 77 strains were successfully isolated and assigned to 21 antibiotics and 4 types of heavy metal (Hg(2+), Cr(6+), Cd(2+), Cu(2+)). Results revealed that bacteria were resistant against lincomycin (92%), oleandomycin (72.7%) and furazolidone (71.4%) while being susceptible to chloramphenicol and florfenicol at 97.4%. The multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index for C. freundii, E. coli and M. morganii was high with the value up to 0.71. Bacterial strains were found to exhibit 100 % resistance to chromium and mercury. High correlation of resistance against both antibiotics and heavy metals was found (71.4 to 100%) between bullfrog bacteria isolates, except bacteria that were resistant to kanamycin showed only 25% resistance against Cu(2+). Based on the results in this study, bacterial pathogens of bullfrog culture in Johore, Malaysia, were highly resistant to both antibiotics and heavy metals.

  8. Determination of Heavy Metals in Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. Collected from Different Cultivation Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Dan; Fu, Yurong; Lai, Weiyong; Zhang, Junqing

    2016-01-01

    20 batches of Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. were collected from Yunnan, Guangdong, Guangxi, and Hainan province in China. The contents of heavy metals of As, Hg, Pb, Cd, and Cu were determined and compared. The results indicated that geographical source might be a major factor to influence the contents of heavy metals of arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and copper (Cu) in Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. Compared to the criteria of heavy metals, the contents of As, Hg, Pb, and Cd in almost...

  9. The heavy metals content in wild growing mushrooms from burdened Spiš area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Slávik

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we evaluated the rate of entry of heavy metals into the edible parts of wild mushrooms, from central Spiš area. The area is characterized by extremely high content of heavy metals particularly mercury in abiotic and biotic components of ecosystems. The toxicity of heavy metals is well known and described. Known is also the ability of fungi to accumulate contaminants from substrates in which mushrooms grow. We have collected commonly consumed species of mushrooms (Russula vesca., Macrolepiota procera, Lycoperdon pyriforme, Lecinum piceinum, Boletus reticulatus. Sampling was conducted for two years 2012 and 2013. The samples taken mushrooms and substrates on which to grow, we determined heavy metal content (Cd, Pb, Cu, including total mercury content modified by atomic absorption spectrometry (AMA - 254. In the substrate, we determined the humus content and pH value. The heavy metal content in soils were evaluated according to Law no. 220/2004 Z.z The exceedance limit values of Cd, Pb, Cu and Hg was recorded. Most significantly the respective limit was recorded in soil samples in the case of mercury. The determined concentration Hg was 39.01 mg.kg-1. From the results, we evaluated the degree of ability to bioaccumulate heavy metals different kinds of fungi. We also evaluated the health safety of the consumption of these fungi on the comparison with the limit values provided in the food code of SR. We recorded a high rate of accumulation of mercury in the species Boletus reticulatus and Macrolepiota procera. For these types we recorded the most significant than allowed concentrations of mercury in mushrooms. The highest recorded concentration reached 17.64 mg.kg-1 Hg in fresh matter. The limit value was exceeded also in the case of copper. We do not recommend to increased consumption of wild mushrooms in the reference area.

  10. Heavy metals contamination: implications for health and food safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulieth C. Reyes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Contamination by heavy metals in water resources, soil and air poses one of the most severe problems that compromise food safety and public health at global and local level. In this review, the specific problem of contamination by mercury (Hg, arsenic (As, cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb in the environment and food is presented. A description of the sources of contamination, exposure in living beings, accumulation and retention in food and consumer products is carried out. Study cases and results in some countries included Colombia are discussed.

  11. Geostatistical exploration of dataset assessing the heavy metal contamination in Ewekoro limestone, Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehinde D. Oyeyemi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The dataset for this article contains geostatistical analysis of heavy metals contamination from limestone samples collected from Ewekoro Formation in the eastern Dahomey basin, Ogun State Nigeria. The samples were manually collected and analysed using Microwave Plasma Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (MPAS. Analysis of the twenty different samples showed different levels of heavy metals concentration. The analysed nine elements are Arsenic, Mercury, Cadmium, Cobalt, Chromium, Nickel, Lead, Vanadium and Zinc. Descriptive statistics was used to explore the heavy metal concentrations individually. Pearson, Kendall tau and Spearman rho correlation coefficients was used to establish the relationships among the elements and the analysis of variance showed that there is a significant difference in the mean distribution of the heavy metals concentration within and between the groups of the 20 samples analysed. The dataset can provide insights into the health implications of the contaminants especially when the mean concentration levels of the heavy metals are compared with recommended regulatory limit concentration.

  12. Heavy Metal Blood Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/heavymetalbloodtest.html Heavy Metal Blood Test To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Heavy Metal Blood Test? A heavy metal blood test ...

  13. Removal of heavy metals from water by zeolite mineral chemically modified. Mercury as a particular case; Remocion de metales pesados del agua por mineral zeolitico quimicamente modificado. Mercurio como un caso particular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebremedhin H, T

    2002-07-01

    Research works on the removal of mercury from water by zeolite minerals show that a small quantity of this element is sorbed. In this work the mercury sorption from aqueous solutions in the presence and absence of Cu(l l), Ni(l l) and/or Zn(l l) by a Mexican zeolite mineral, natural and modified by cisteaminium chloride or cistaminium dichloride, was investigated in acidic p H. The zeolite minerals were characterized by X- Ray diffraction Ftir, scanning electron microscopy and semiquantitative elemental analysis (EDS), surface area analysis (BET) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Mercury from aqueous solutions was quantified by Atomic absorption spectroscopy. The amount of sulphur on the zeolite samples treated with Na CI and modified with cisteaminium chloride (0.375 mmol/g) or cistaminium dichloride(0.475 mmol/g) was found to be higher than that of the zeolite minerals modified with cisteaminium chloride and cistaminium dichloride without treating them with Na CI. The amount of sulphur on the zeolite minerals modified with thiourea was the lowest. The diffusion coefficients and sorption isotherms for mercury were determined in the natural, treated with Na CI and, treated with Na CI and then modified with the cisteaminium chloride or cistaminium dichloride zeolite samples. The retention of mercury was the highest for the zeolite minerals treated Na CI and then modified with cisteaminium chloride or cistaminium dichloride, with adsorption capacity of 0.0511 and 0.0525 mmol Hg/g, respectively. In this research work, it was found that the retention of mercury by the modified minerals was not affected by the presence of Cu (Il), Zn(l l) y Ni (I l) under the experimental conditions. (Author)

  14. Heavy Metal Contamination of Popular Nail Polishes in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golnaz Karimi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxic and hazardous heavy metals like arsenic, lead, mercury, zinc, chromium and iron are found in a variety of personal care products, e.g. lipstick, whitening toothpaste, eyeliner and nail color. The nails absorb the pigments of nail polishes and vaporized or soluble metals can easily pass it. The goal of this survey was to assess whether the different colors of nail polishes comply with maximum concentrations of heavy metals in the EPA’s guidelines. Methods: 150 samples of different popular brands of nail polishes in 13 colors (yellow, beige, silver, pink, white, violet, brown, golden, green, black, colorless, red and blue were randomly purchased from beauty shops in Tehran City, Iran, in 2014. Microwave digestion EPA method 3051 was used by a microwave oven to determine the amount of 5 heavy metals; Nickel, Chromium, Lead, Arsenic and Cadmium. One-way ANOVA, Two-way ANOVA, hierarchical cluster, and principal component analyses were applied by Statistica 7.0 software. Results: The concentrations of chrome, lead, nickel and arsenic showed significant differences between the colors (p<0.05. In all studied samples, the level of cadmium was beyond the safe maximum permissible limit (MPS, but no significance difference in the cadmium content was identified. Conclusion: Due to the high concentrations of toxic metals in many brands of nail polishes, meticulous quality control is recommended for these beauty products.

  15. Metal chelators and neurotoxicity: lead, mercury, and arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørklund, Geir; Mutter, Joachim; Aaseth, Jan

    2017-12-01

    This article reviews the clinical use of the metal chelators sodium 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonate (DMPS), meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), and calcium disodium edetate (CaEDTA, calcium EDTA) in overexposure and poisonings with salts of lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and arsenic (As). DMSA has considerably lower toxicity than the classic heavy metal antagonist BAL (2,3-dimercaptopropanol) and is also less toxic than DMPS. Because of its adverse effects, CaEDTA should be replaced by DMSA as the antidote of choice in treating moderate Pb poisoning. Combination therapy with BAL and CaEDTA was previously recommended in cases of severe acute Pb poisoning with encephalopathy. We suggest that BAL in such cases acted as a shuttling Pb transporter from the intra- to the extracellular space. The present paper discusses if a combination of the extracellularly distributed DMSA with the ionophore, Monensin may provide a less toxic combination for Pb mobilization by increasing both the efflux of intracellularly deposited Pb and the urinary Pb excretion. Anyhow, oral therapy with DMSA should be continued with several intermittent courses. DMPS and DMSA are also promising antidotes in Hg poisoning, whereas DMPS seems to be a more efficient agent against As poisoning. However, new insight indicates that a combination of low-dosed BAL plus DMPS could be a preferred antidotal therapy to obtain mobilization of the intracerebral deposits into the circulation for subsequent rapid urinary excretion.

  16. Heavy metals in municipal solid waste deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flyhammar, P.

    1997-12-01

    Extensive use of heavy metals in modern society influences routes followed by fluxes on the surface of the Earth. The changed flow paths may be harmful for the balance of biological systems at different levels, micro-organisms, human beings and whole ecosystems, since the toxicity of heavy metals is determined by their concentrations and chemical forms. Despite the low mobility of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd) in municipal landfills, it was found that extensive transformations of the binding forms of heavy metal take place within the waste mass during the degradation of the waste. These changes appear to be closely related to the development of early diagenetic solid phases, i.e. new secondary solid phases formed in the waste. The heavy metals often constitute a minor part of these phases and the bindings include several forms such as adsorption, complexation, coprecipitation, precipitation, etc. It was also found that the associations between heavy metals and solid phases are dominated by several binding forms to one specific substrate rather than bindings to various solid phases. The mobility of iron and manganese seems to increase during the processes involved in waste degradation due to the solution of oxide/hydroxide phases, while the heavy metals appear to become less mobile due to their binding to organic compounds and sulphides. However, one exception in this case may be nickel. Another aspect of the transformation of heavy metals is the accumulation of pools of heavy metals which can become susceptible to environmental changes, such as oxidation or acidification. However, the risk of increased mobilization caused by lower pH values seem to be limited since municipal solid waste has a large buffer capacity. 66 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs 66 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs

  17. Processes affecting the distribution and speciation of heavy metals in the Rhine/Meuse estuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paalman, M.A.A.

    1997-01-01

    When rivers drain areas with a high population density the sediments are often contaminated with heavy metals, such as chromium, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium, mercury and lead. The extent and seriousness of sediment contamination is most pronounced in the lower reaches of rivers, where

  18. Study of heavy metals in Lake Abbaya, Ethiopia, and the incidence of non-parasitic elephantiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, A.E.

    1977-01-01

    Samples of surface water from Lake Abbaya, Ethiopia, and from nearby hot springs, have been analysed for heavy metals and other consituents. Significant levels of mercury and arsenic were observed. These findings may be relevant to the high incidence of non-parasitic elephantiasis in the immediate vicinity of the lake.

  19. Metallothionein as biomarker of mussel exposure to heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raspor, B.; Erk, M.; Pavicic, J.; Juric, D.; Kwokal, Z.; Odzak, N.

    1999-01-01

    The biological effect of marine pollution with heavy metals is followed in bivalves by means of the induced amount of metallothioneins (MTs), determined in different tissue types. The biological effect of the available toxic metals, cadmium and mercury, are related to the amount of MTs in the whole edible part, gills and the digestive gland of Mytilus galloprovincialis. For that purpose highly sensitive chemical and biochemical methods for metal and metallothionein content determination were developed and applied. The study was conducted in the Kastela Bay, which is the urban and industrial center of Dalmatia, Croatia, with two groups of mussels, indigenous and the transplanted. In accordance with the objective of the Symposium the results on monitoring the marine pollution by means of MTs as a biomarker, isolated from the edible, sessile and filter-feeding bivalves are discussed. (author)

  20. Case report: heavy metal burden presenting as Bartter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crinnion, Walter J; Tran, Jessica Q

    2010-12-01

    Maternal transfer of heavy metals during fetal development or lactation possibly contributed to the clinical manifestations of Bartter syndrome and developmental delay in the offspring. An 11-month-old child diagnosed with Bartter syndrome and failure to thrive was treated concurrently for elevated metal burden while he was undergoing standard medical interventions. Treatment with body-weight doses of meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) reduced the body burden of lead, beryllium, copper, mercury, and cadmium at the three- and sixth-month follow-up tests. During the course of the six-month treatment, the patient gained 2.4 kg (5.2 lb) and grew approximately 9.5 cm (3.75 in). His weight shifted from significantly below the 5th percentile in weight to within the 5th percentile, and from below the 5th to within the 10th percentile for length. The child's acquisition of lead, beryllium, and copper correspond to his mother's history of stained glass assembly and occurred during fetal development or lactation, since there were no other identifiable sources that could have contributed to the heavy metal burden. Tests for known genetic mutations leading to Bartter syndrome were all negative. This case report highlights the potential benefit of DMSA for treatment of heavy metal body burden in infants who present with Bartter syndrome.

  1. Heavy Metals in Brown Bears from the Central European Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Čelechovská

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess heavy metal load in the brown bear (Ursus arctos living in the central European Carpathians. Between 2002 and 2004, fifteen bears were examined to evaluate the distribution of cadmium, lead, mercury and copper in the animals' muscles (diaphragm, spleen, liver and kidney. The highest content of cadmium, lead and mercury was found in the kidney (17.4 ± 5.2 mg kg-1, 1.16 ± 0.39 mg kg-1, 0.39 ± 0.25 mg kg-1, whereas the lowest content of the metals was observed in the muscles (0.017 ± 0.009 mg kg-1, 0.299 ± 0.308 mg kg-1, 0.013 ± 0.011 mg kg-1. Second highest concentration of cadmium, lead and mercury was detected in the liver (0.83 ± 0.24 mg kg-1, 0.99 ± 0.61 mg kg-1, 0.11 ± 0.05 mg kg-1. Copper distributions and concentrations in bear tissues were as follows (in descending order: liver (23.9 ± 6.7 mg kg-1, > kidneys (9.0 ± 3.3 mg kg-1, > muscles (1.9 ± 1.6 mg kg-1 and > spleen (1.0 ± 0.2 mg kg-1. As compared with heavy metal load observed in bear tissues between 1988 and 1990, the concentration of cadmium in the muscles and liver was significantly lower (p p p < 0.01. Lead and copper tissue concentrations did not change substantially.

  2. Remediating sites contaminated with heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartzbaugh, J.; Sturgill, J.; Cormier, B.; Williams, H.D.

    1992-01-01

    This article is intended to serve as a reference for decision makers who must choose an approach to remediate sites contaminated with heavy metals. Its purpose is to explain pertinent chemical and physical characteristics of heavy metals, how to use these characteristics to select remedial technologies, and how to interpret and use data from field investigations. Different metal species are typically associated with different industrial processes. The contaminant species behave differently in various media (i.e., groundwater, soils, air), and require different technologies for containment and treatment. We focus on the metals that are used in industries that generate regulated waste. These include steelmaking, paint and pigment manufacturing, metal finishing, leather tanning, papermaking, aluminum anodizing, and battery manufacturing. Heavy metals are also present in refinery wastes as well as in smelting wastes and drilling muds

  3. Chelation Therapy for Mercury Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Guan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chelation therapy has been the major treatment for heavy metal poisoning. Various chelating agents have been developed and tested for treatment of heavy metal intoxications, including mercury poisoning. It has been clearly shown that chelating agents could rescue the toxicity caused by heavy metal intoxication, but the potential preventive role of chelating agents against heavy metal poisoning has not been explored much. Recent paper by Siddiqi and colleagues has suggested a protective role of chelating agents against mercury poisoning, which provides a promising research direction for broader application of chelation therapy in prevention and treatment of mercury poisoning.

  4. Tissue heavy metal concentrations of stranded California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in Southern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, Erin R. [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States)]. E-mail: erin-harper@hotmail.com; St Leger, Judy A. [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Westberg, Jody A. [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Mazzaro, Lisa [Mystic Aquarium and Institute for Exploration, 55 Coogan Blvd, Mystic, CT 06355 (United States); Schmitt, Todd [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Reidarson, Tom H. [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Tucker, Melinda [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Cross, Dee H. [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Puschner, Birgit [California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California at Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Concentrations of nine heavy metals (As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb, Mn, Mo and Zn) were determined in the hepatic and renal tissues of 80 stranded California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Significant age-dependant increases were observed in liver and kidney concentrations of cadmium and mercury, and renal zinc concentrations. Hepatic iron concentrations were significantly higher in females than males. Animals with suspected domoic acid associated pathological findings had significantly higher concentrations of liver and kidney cadmium; and significantly higher liver mercury concentrations when compared to animals classified with infectious disease or traumatic mortality. Significantly higher hepatic burdens of molybdenum and zinc were found in animals that died from infectious diseases. This is the largest study of tissue heavy metal concentrations in California sea lions to date. These data demonstrate how passive monitoring of stranded animals can provide insight into environmental impacts on marine mammals. - Tissue heavy metal concentrations are valuable in population and environmental monitoring.

  5. Measurement and Evaluation of Ecological Risk of Heavy Metals in Surface Sediments of Pars Special Economic Energy Zone

    OpenAIRE

    Arash Haghshenas; Masoud Hatami-manesh; Mohsen Mirzaei; MirMehrdad Mir Sanjari; Parisa Hossein Khezri

    2017-01-01

    Background: Today, heavy metals pollution in aquatic ecosystems is one of the most important global environmental problems. Because this metals have characteristics such as chemical stability, low degradability and bioaccumulation ability at different levels of the food chain cause the abundant ecological risks for organisms. Therefore, this study investigates the concentration of heavy metals (mercury, cadmium, lead, chromium, copper, nickel, zinc and iron) and ecological risk assessment of ...

  6. Heavy metal content of tinned soup as a function of storage time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stelte, W.

    1983-01-01

    Samples were taken from soups prior to their preservation in tins. None of the samples showed an increased content of the investigated heavy metals lead and mercury exceeding the amounts normally found in food. Thus it may be considered as certain that the heavy metal content of soups is not adversely affected by technical processes during their preparation. Increase in heavy metal content by metallic residues from tin manufacture is slight and mainly due to tin, whose content is on average increased in the soup by 0.4 mg/kg. For lead the influence is smaller and for mercury it is not significantly demonstrable. The metallic residues from tin manufacture are an irrelevant quantity in terms of nutrition physiology. Within the investigated 4-year storage-period the lead content shows a tendency to increase towards saturation. Cadmium remains essentially constant, the content of mercury has a downward tendency and reaches zero after 2 to 4 years. Consumers' exposure is in a range known for the consumption of other foodstuffs as well. The use of varnished tins to package industrial soups involves no exposure of consumers to heavy metals justifying any apprehension even after prolonged storage.

  7. Phytoremediation of heavy metals: Recent techniques | Jadia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    microorganisms/biomass or live plants to clean polluted areas. Phytoremediation is an emerging technology for cleaning up contaminated sites, which is ... A brief review on phytoremediation of heavy metals and its effect on plants have been ...

  8. Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution - Development of Chronological ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 4. Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution - Development of Chronological Records and Geochemical Monitoring. Rohit Shrivastav. General Article Volume 6 Issue 4 April 2001 pp 62-68 ...

  9. HEAVY METALS IN VINEYARDS AND ORCHARD SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUSTAVO BRUNETTO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The application of foliar fungicides in vineyards and orchards can increase soil concentration of heavy metals such as copper (Cu and zinc (Zn, up to the toxicity threshold for fruit trees and cover crops. However, some agronomic practices, such as liming, addition of organic fertilizers, cultivation of soil cover crops and inoculation of young plants with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can decrease the availability and the potential of heavy metal toxicity to fruit trees. This review aims to compile and present information about the effects of increasing concentrations of heavy metals, especially Cu and Zn, on soils cultivated with fruit trees and provides some agronomic practices of remediation. Information about the sources of heavy metals found in soils cultivated with fruit trees are presented; mechanisms of absorption, transport, accumulation and potential toxicity to plants are described.

  10. Heavy metal removal and recovery using microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilde, E.W.; Benemann, J.R.

    1991-02-01

    Microorganisms -- bacteria, fungi, and microalgae -- can accumulate relatively large amounts of toxic heavy metals and radionuclides from the environment. These organisms often exhibit specificity for particular metals. The metal content of microbial biomass can be a substantial fraction of total dry weight with concentration factors (metal in dry biomass to metal in solution) exceeding one million in some cases. Both living and inert (dead) microbial biomass can be used to reduce heavy metal concentrations in contaminated waters to very low levels -- parts per billion and even lower. In many respects (e.g. specificity, residual metal concentrations, accumulation factors, and economics) microbial bioremoval processes can be superior to conventional processes, such as ion exchange and caustic (lime or hydroxide) precipitation for heavy metals removal from waste and contaminated waters. Thus, bioremoval could be developed to contribute to the clean-up of wastes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and other DOE facilities. However, the potential advantages of bioremoval processes must still be developed into practical operating systems. A detailed review of the literature suggests that appropriate bioremoval processes could be developed for the SRS. There is great variability from one biomass source to another in bioremoval capabilities. Bioremoval is affected by pH, other ions, temperature, and many other factors. The biological (living vs. dead) and physical (immobilized vs. dispersed) characteristics of the biomass also greatly affect metal binding. Even subtle differences in the microbial biomass, such as the conditions under which it was cultivated, can have major effects on heavy metal binding

  11. Heavy metal removal and recovery using microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, E.W. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Benemann, J.R. (Benemann (J.R.), Pinole, CA (United States))

    1991-02-01

    Microorganisms -- bacteria, fungi, and microalgae -- can accumulate relatively large amounts of toxic heavy metals and radionuclides from the environment. These organisms often exhibit specificity for particular metals. The metal content of microbial biomass can be a substantial fraction of total dry weight with concentration factors (metal in dry biomass to metal in solution) exceeding one million in some cases. Both living and inert (dead) microbial biomass can be used to reduce heavy metal concentrations in contaminated waters to very low levels -- parts per billion and even lower. In many respects (e.g. specificity, residual metal concentrations, accumulation factors, and economics) microbial bioremoval processes can be superior to conventional processes, such as ion exchange and caustic (lime or hydroxide) precipitation for heavy metals removal from waste and contaminated waters. Thus, bioremoval could be developed to contribute to the clean-up of wastes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and other DOE facilities. However, the potential advantages of bioremoval processes must still be developed into practical operating systems. A detailed review of the literature suggests that appropriate bioremoval processes could be developed for the SRS. There is great variability from one biomass source to another in bioremoval capabilities. Bioremoval is affected by pH, other ions, temperature, and many other factors. The biological (living vs. dead) and physical (immobilized vs. dispersed) characteristics of the biomass also greatly affect metal binding. Even subtle differences in the microbial biomass, such as the conditions under which it was cultivated, can have major effects on heavy metal binding.

  12. Interactions between heavy metals and photosynthetic materials studied by optical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventrella, Andrea; Catucci, Lucia; Piletska, Elena; Piletsky, Sergey; Agostiano, Angela

    2009-11-01

    In this work studies on rapid inhibitory interactions between heavy metals and photosynthetic materials at different organization levels were carried out by optical assay techniques, investigating the possibility of applications in the heavy metal detection field. Spinach chloroplasts, thylakoids and Photosystem II proteins were employed as biotools in combination with colorimetric assays based on dichlorophenol indophenole (DCIP) photoreduction and on fluorescence emission techniques. It was found that copper and mercury demonstrated a strong and rapid photosynthetic activity inhibition, that varied from proteins to membranes, while other metals like nickel, cobalt and manganese produced only slight inhibition effects on all tested photosynthetic materials. By emission measurements, only copper was found to rapidly influence the photosynthetic material signals. These findings give interesting information about the rapid effects of heavy metals on isolated photosynthetic samples, and are in addition to the literature data concerning the effects of growth in heavy metal enriched media.

  13. Mobile heavy metal fractions in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horak, O.; Kamel, A.A.; Ecker, S.; Benetka, E.; Rebler, R.; Lummerstorfer, E.; Kandeler, E.

    1994-01-01

    A long term outdoor experiment was conducted in plastic containers (50 litres) with three soils, contaminated by increasing concentrations of zinc, copper, nickel, cadmium and vanadium. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of heavy metal contamination on soil microbial processes as well as the accumulation of heavy metals in plants. Spring barley, followed by winter endive were grown as experimental crops in a first vegetation period, while spring wheat was grown during the second year. The soil microbial activities, indicated by arylsulfatase, dehydrogenase, and substrate-induced respiration, decreased with increasing heavy metal contamination. Significant correlations were observed between the inhibition of soil microorganisms and the easily mobilizable heavy metal fractions of soils, extracted by a solution of 1 M ammoniumacetate at pH = 7. The heavy metal accumulation in vegetative and generative parts of the crop plants also showed a good agreement with mobilizable soil fractions. The results of the experiment indicate, that the extraction with ammoniumacetate can be used as a reference method for determination of tolerable heavy metal concentrations in soils. (authors)

  14. 'Man and biosphere' - studies of the Sikkim Himalayas. Pt. 5. Acute toxicity of selected heavy metals on the tadpoles of Rana hexadactyla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khangarot, B S; Sehgal, A; Bhasin, M K

    1985-01-01

    The toxicity of different heavy metals as mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic and zinc was tested on tadpoles of Rana hexadactyla. The rank order of the toxicity was determined. The results are briefly discussed.

  15. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Soil and Kiwifruit of Planting Base in Western Hunan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Ren-cai

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The heavy metals accumulation in soil and kiwi fruit plant in Western Hunan Province main kiwifruit planting base were analyzed, such as As, Pb, Hg, Cd, Cr. The results showed that the accumulation of heavy metals in soil of 6 kiwifruit planting areas were not obvious. The contents of heavy metals in most of areas of Western Hunan Province were below the national standard, except one area where the soil contents of cadmium (4.900 mg·kg-1, mercury (0.634 mg·kg-1were exceeded. At the same time, the comprehensive pollution index of heavy metals was less than 0.7 in these areas. There were 5 bases with no pollution of heavy metal, all which the kiwifruit could be safely produced in line with the requirements of the green kiwifruit planting base soil standards. At these areas, the contents of various heavy metals(except cadmium and mercurywere small in the branches and leaves of kiwifruit; kiwifruit had a very well capacity to absorb the cadmium when the cadmium content of its branches reached 12.73%. The heavy metal contents of the kiwifruit in the 6 regions, which belonging to the pollutionfree green fruits, were below or far lower than the national standard. According to the comprehensive analysis, the soil condition of the main cultivated land in Western Hunan Province was good, and the fruit had no heavy metal residues.

  16. Heavy Metals in Agricultural Soils in Nigeria: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Musa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This review paper presents the health risks of heavy metals such as: lead (Pb, chromium (Cr, zinc (Zn, cadmium (Cd, copper (Cu, mercury (Hg, nickel (Ni and arsenic (As etc contamination in soils. The review reveals the major sources of these metals which are urban and industrial effluents, deterioration of sewage pipe, treatment water works, sewage sludge, fertilizers and pesticides. It also reveals the adopted standard for drinking water (maximum tolerable limit by FAO, JECFA and WHO which are as follows: 0.05mg/L, 0.05mg/L, 1.5mg/L, 0.001mg/L, 0.02mg/L, 15mg/L, 0.3mg/L, 0.5mg/L, 0.01mg/L, 0.05mg/L and 0.05mg/L for Pb, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Zn, Fe, Mn, Se, As and Cd respectively. The accumulation of heavy metals in agricultural soils is of increasing concern because of food safety issues, potential health risks such as neurological disorder, cancer, kidney damage, fragile bone etc and their detrimental effects on soil ecosystem. However, the regular monitoring of levels of these metals from dump sites, effluents and sewages in soil and drinking water is essential to prevent excessive buildup of these metals thereby increasing toxicity and elevating the public health risk.

  17. Heavy metals modulate the activity of the purinergic P2X4 receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coddou, Claudio; Lorca, Ramon A.; Acuna-Castillo, Claudio; Grauso, Marta; Rassendren, Francois; Huidobro-Toro, J.Pablo

    2005-01-01

    To further characterize the nature of the regulatory metal-binding sites of the rat P2X 4 receptor, several transition heavy metals were tested to examine their ability to mimic the facilitator action of zinc or the inhibitory action of copper. cDNA coding for the rat P2X 4 receptor was injected into Xenopus laevis oocytes; the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique was used to measure and quantify the ATP-evoked currents in the absence or presence of the metals. Cadmium facilitated the ATP-gated currents in a reversible and voltage-independent manner; maximal potentiation occurred within less than 1 min. Cadmium displaced leftward, in a concentration-dependent manner, the ATP concentration-response curve. In contrast, mercury reduced the ATP-gated currents in a reversible, time, and concentration manner. Maximal inhibition occurred after about 5 min of metal application. Cobalt also augmented the ATP-evoked currents, but its action was long lasting and did not reverse even after 45 min of metal washout. Other metals such as lead, nickel, manganese, silver, or gallium did not significantly alter the ATP-gated currents. The co-application of cadmium plus zinc or mercury plus copper caused additive effects. Mutation of H140 by alanine (H140A) augmented both the cadmium-induced facilitation and the mercury-induced inhibition. In contrast, the H241A mutant showed characteristics indistinguishable from the wild type. The H286A mutant showed a normal cadmium-induced potentiation, but an increased mercury inhibition. Out of the metals examined, only cadmium mimicked closely the action of zinc, evidencing commonalities. While mercury mimicked the action of copper, both metals apparently interact at distinct metal-binding sites. The present findings allow us to infer that heavy metals modulate the P2X 4 receptor by acting in at least three separate metal-binding sites

  18. Gender identity and the electric guitar in heavy metal music

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Philip

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter I will attempt to outline the gendered characteristics of heavy metal and the electric guitar and address the question: has society’s impression of heavy metal as a primarily masculine pursuit been so imbedded in Western culture that we will never see a female heavy metal band achieve the same level of success as a male heavy metal band?

  19. Albatross as Sentinels of Heavy Metal Pollution: Local and Global Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bank M.S.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal pollution in the Pacific Ocean has garnered significant attention in recent years, especially with regard to rising mercury emissions from Asia. Uncertainty exists over the extent to which mercury in biota may have resulted from increases in anthropogenic emissions over time. Albatrosses, including those inhabiting the North Pacific, are wide-ranging, long-lived, keystone, avian predators. Consequently, they serve as ideal sentinel species for investigating the effects of historical and contemporary pollution as well as local and global factors related to heavy metal exposure, bioaccumulation, and ecotoxicological risk. To date, high levels of mercury and lead have been documented in albatross species throughout the Pacific. To address biotic exposure to these multiple stressors, here we synthesize and conduct meta-analyses of total mercury, methylmercury, and lead exposure data in Black-footed albatross (Phoebastria nigripes and Laysan albatross (Phoebastria immutabilis. Our approach includes data from the field and literature, and for total mercury and methyl mercury, we use measurements from museum feathers spanning the past 130 years for Black-Footed albatross. We discuss the use and application of stable isotopes (δ15N and δ13C as a way to control for temporal changes in trophic structure and diet and we demonstrate the importance of conducting speciation analyses for mercury to account for historical, curator-mediated, inorganic mercury contamination of specimens. Our data showed higher levels of inorganic mercury in older specimens of Black-Footed albatross as well as two non-pelagic species (control samples lacking historical sources of bioavailable mercury exposure, which suggests that studies on bioaccumulation should measure methylmercury rather than total mercury when utilizing museum collections. Changes in methylmercury levels in Black-Footed albatross were consistent with historical global and recent regional

  20. Distribution of heavy metals in the coastal area of Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Rashdi, Saeed; Arabi, Alya A; Howari, Fares M; Siad, Abdi

    2015-08-15

    Fifty-seven sediment samples were collected from Abu Dhabi coastal area, United Arab Emirates (UAE). The concentrations of heavy metals including antimony, arsenic, barium, cadmium, cobalt, copper, mercury, lead, molybdenum, nickel and zinc were obtained using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and X-ray fluorescence. Heavy metal contaminations in Abu Dhabi had increased since 2004. Nevertheless, the enrichment factors, geoaccumulation indices and the pollution load index of 0.3 showed no pollution with any of the measured metals except arsenic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Antimicrobial resistance, heavy metal resistance and integron content in bacteria isolated from a South African tilapia aquaculture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenia, Hafizah Y; Jacobs, Anelet

    2017-11-21

    Antibacterial compounds and metals co-select for antimicrobial resistance when bacteria harbour resistance genes towards both types of compounds, facilitating the proliferation and evolution of antimicrobial and heavy metal resistance. Antimicrobial and heavy metal resistance indices of 42 Gram-negative bacteria from a tilapia aquaculture system were determined to identify possible correlations between these phenotypes. Agar dilution assays were carried out to determine susceptibility to cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, chromate and zinc, while susceptibility to 21 antimicrobial agents was investigated by disk diffusion assays. Presence of merA, the mercury resistance gene, was determined by dot-blot hybridizations and PCR. Association of mercury resistance with integrons and transposon Tn21 was also investigated by PCR. Isolates displayed a high frequency of antimicrobial (erythromycin: 100%; ampicillin: 85%; trimethoprim: 78%) and heavy metal (Zn2+: 95%; Cd2+: 91%) resistance. No correlation was established between heavy metal and multiple antibiotic resistance indices. Significant positive correlations were observed between heavy metal resistance profiles, indices, Cu2+ and Cr3+ resistance with erythromycin resistance. Significant positive correlations were observed between merA (24%)/Tn21 (24%) presence and heavy metal resistance profiles and indices; however, significant negative correlations were obtained between integron-associated qacE∆1 (43%) and sulI (26%) gene presence and heavy metal resistance indices. Heavy metal and antimicrobial agents co-select for resistance, with fish-associated, resistant bacteria demonstrating simultaneous heavy metal resistance. Thus, care should be taken when using anti-fouling heavy metals as feed additives in aquaculture facilities.

  2. 40 CFR 63.10885 - What are my management practices for metallic scrap and mercury switches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... minimize the presence of mercury in scrap from end-of-life vehicles. (3) Option for specialty metal scrap... metallic scrap and mercury switches? 63.10885 Section 63.10885 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Affected Sources § 63.10885 What are my management practices for metallic scrap and mercury switches? (a...

  3. 40 CFR 421.250 - Applicability: Description of the primary precious metals and mercury subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... primary precious metals and mercury subcategory. 421.250 Section 421.250 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Precious Metals and Mercury Subcategory § 421.250 Applicability: Description of the primary precious metals and mercury subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  4. Heavy metals: teeth as environmental biomarkers

    OpenAIRE

    Lumbau, Aurea Maria Immacolata; Lugliè, Pietrina Francesca; Carboni, Donatella; Ginesu, Sergio; Falchi, Simonetta; Schinocca, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Aim of this study was to measure the concentration of heavy metals in tooth matrix and to determine the factors that affect their presence. During tooth development and mineralization several metals can be absorbed in the tooth matrix, thus allowing us to use them as biological markers.

  5. Esterase resistant to inactivation by heavy metals

    KAUST Repository

    El, Dorry Hamza; Siam, Rania; Mohamed, Yasmine M.

    2014-01-01

    EstATII is an esterase that a halotolerant, thermophilic and resistant to a spectrum of heavy metals including toxic concentration of metals. It was isolated from the lowest convective layer of the Atlantis II Red Sea brine pool. The Atlantis II

  6. Atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in Norway. Nationwide survey 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinnes, Eiliv; Berg, Torunn; Uggerud, Hilde Thelle; Pfaffhuber, Katrine Aspmo

    2011-01-01

    The geographical distribution of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in Norway was mapped in 2010 by analysis of moss samples from 464 sites all over the country. This report provides a presentation of the results and a comparison with data from a series of corresponding moss surveys starting 1977. The survey is part of an international program comprising large parts of Europe. The survey primarily concerns the ten metals of priority in the European program: vanadium, chromium, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead. In addition data are reported for another 42 elements in the moss. The discussion of the obtained data mainly refers to contributions from air pollution. In addition influence from natural processes to the elemental composition of the moss and how it may influence the interpretation of the data is discussed. (Author)

  7. Low-cost bioremediation of heavy metals and radionuclides of contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathiyamoorthy, P.; Golan-Goldhrish, A.

    2005-01-01

    The environmental pollution by toxic metals, especially lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), selenium (Se), chromium (Cr) and radionuclides ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 238 Pu, 226 Ra) is a potential hazard to health and welfare of mankind. Rapid industrial revolution has left an international legacy of soil and water contaminated with a combination of toxic and potentially carcinogenic compounds and heavy metals. Many of the contaminated sites were abandoned due to high cost of traditional clean-up approaches. Various approaches are being practiced to decontaminate heavy metals and radionuclides from polluted-soil. Remediation of heavy metal and radionuclides contaminated soils poses a significant expense to many industries and government organizations. Remediation cost in the United States and European Union alone is expected to exceed US$20 billion annually. Bioremediation strategy depends on the limitations of technology, cost and nature of the contaminant in the soil. Certain higher plants are capable of accumulation of heavy metals (2-5 %) in roots and shoots to the level far exceeding those present in the soils, these are called hyper-accumulators. Using heavy metal hyper-accumulating higher plants for environmental clean-up of contaminated soil is a recently emerged technology known as 'phytoremediation'. Genetically engineered (Transgenic) plants have a remarkable potential to absorb heavy metals and show a new avenue for biotechnology technique in Phytoremediation. The cost-effective approach of using heavy metal and radionuclide hyper-accumulators in phytoremediation is discussed. (author)

  8. Mercury uptake in vivo by normal and acatalasemic mice exposed to metallic mercury vapor (203Hg degrees) and injected with metallic mercury or mercuric chloride (203HgCl2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, M.; Kenmotsu, K.; Hirota, N.; Meguro, T.; Aikoh, H.

    1985-01-01

    Levels of mercury in the brain and liver of acatalasemic mice immediately following exposure to metallic mercury vapor or injection of metallic mercury were higher than those found in normal mice. Acatalasemic mice had decreased levels of mercury in the blood and kidneys when the levels were compared with those of normal mice, which indicated that catalase plays a role in oxidizing and taking up mercury. Thus, the brain/blood or liver/blood ratio of mercury concentration in acatalasemic mice was significantly higher than that of normal mice. These results suggest that metallic mercury in the blood easily passed through the blood-brain or blood-liver barrier. The levels of mercury distribution to the kidneys of normal and acatalasemic mice, 1 hr after injection of mercuric chloride solution, were higher than that of normal and acatalasemic mice, respectively, 1 hr after injection of metallic mercury

  9. The remediation of heavy metals contaminated sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jian-Feng; Song, Yong-Hui; Yuan, Peng; Cui, Xiao-Yu; Qiu, Guang-Lei

    2009-01-30

    Heavy metal contamination has become a worldwide problem through disturbing the normal functions of rivers and lakes. Sediment, as the largest storage and resources of heavy metal, plays a rather important role in metal transformations. This paper provides a review on the geochemical forms, affecting factors and remediation technologies of heavy metal in sediment. The in situ remediation of sediment aims at increasing the stabilization of some metals such as the mobile and the exchangeable fractions; whereas, the ex situ remediation mainly aims at removing those potentially mobile metals, such as the Mn-oxides and the organic matter (OM) fraction. The pH and OM can directly change metals distribution in sediment; however oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), mainly through changing the pH values, indirectly alters metals distribution. Mainly ascribed to their simple operation mode, low costs and fast remediation effects, in situ remediation technologies, especially being fit for slight pollution sediment, are applied widely. However, for avoiding metal secondary pollution from sediment release, ex situ remediation should be the hot point in future research.

  10. Recovering heavy rare earth metals from magnet scrap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Ryan T.; McCallum, Ralph W.; Jones, Lawrence L.

    2017-08-08

    A method of treating rare earth metal-bearing permanent magnet scrap, waste or other material in a manner to recover the heavy rare earth metal content separately from the light rare earth metal content. The heavy rare earth metal content can be recovered either as a heavy rare earth metal-enriched iron based alloy or as a heavy rare earth metal based alloy.

  11. Plasmid Mediated Antibiotic and Heavy Metal Resistance in Bacillus Strains Isolated From Soils in Rize, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif SEVİM

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen Bacillus strains which were isolated from soil samples were examined for resistance to 17 different antibiotics (ampicillin, methicillin, erythromycin, norfloxacin, cephalotine, gentamycin, ciprofloxacin, streptomycin, tobramycin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, vancomycin, oxacilin, neomycin, kanamycin and, novabiocin and to 10 different heavy metals (copper, lead, cobalt, chrome, iron, mercury, zinc, nickel, manganese and, cadmium and for the presence of plasmid DNA. A total of eleven strains (67% were resistant to at least one antibiotic. The most common resistance was observed against methicillin and oxacillin. The most resistance strains were found as Bacillus sp. B3 and Bacillus sp. B11. High heavy metal resistance against copper, chromium, zinc, iron and nickel was detected, but mercury and cobalt resistance was not detected, except for 3 strains (B3, B11, and B12 which showed mercury resistance. It has been determined that seven Bacillus strains have plasmids. The isolated plasmids were transformed into the Bacillus subtilis W168 and it was shown that heavy metal and antibiotic resistance determinants were carried on these plasmids. These results showed that there was a correlation between plasmid content and resistance for both antibiotic and heavy metal resistance

  12. A review on various electrochemical techniques for heavy metal ions detection with different sensing platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansod, BabanKumar; Kumar, Tejinder; Thakur, Ritula; Rana, Shakshi; Singh, Inderbir

    2017-08-15

    Heavy metal ions are non-biodegradable and contaminate most of the natural resources occurring in the environment including water. Some of the heavy metals including Lead (Pb), Mercury (Hg), Arsenic (As), Chromium (Cr) and Cadmium (Cd) are considered to be highly toxic and hazardous to human health even at trace levels. This leads to the requirement of fast, accurate and reliable techniques for the detection of heavy metal ions. This review presents various electrochemical detection techniques for heavy metal ions those are user friendly, low cost, provides on-site and real time monitoring as compared to other spectroscopic and optical techniques. The categorization of different electrochemical techniques is done on the basis of different types of detection signals generated due to presence of heavy metal ions in the solution matrix like current, potential, conductivity, electrochemical impedance, and electrochemiluminescence. Also, the recent trends in electrochemical detection of heavy metal ions with various types of sensing platforms including metals, metal films, metal oxides, nanomaterials, carbon nano tubes, polymers, microspheres and biomaterials have been evoked. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Distributing Characteristics of Heavy Metal Elements in A Tributary of Zhedong River in Laowangzhai Gold Deposit, Yunnan (China): An Implication to Environmentology from Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuran; Danĕk, Tomáš; Yang, Xiaofeng; Cheng, Xianfeng

    2016-10-01

    Five heavy metal contents from five sediments and seven sediment profiles in an upstream reach of Zhedong river in Laowangzhai gold deposit were investigated in this research, along with analysis of the horizontal distribution, the surface distribution, the vertical distribution and the interlayer distribution of five heavy metal contents: arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn). The potential ecological risk of five heavy metals was evaluated to help understanding pollution control of Laowangzhai deposit.

  14. Voltammetry of metallic powder suspensions on mercury electrodes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korshunov, A.; Heyrovský, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 4 (2006), s. 423-426 ISSN 1040-0397 R&D Projects: GA MPO 1H-PK/42 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : metallic particles * oxide layers * suspensions * mercury electrodes * particulate electrolysis Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.444, year: 2006

  15. Heavy metals in liquid pig manure in light of bacterial antimicrobial resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hölzel, Christina S.; Müller, Christa; Harms, Katrin S.; Mikolajewski, Sabine; Schäfer, Stefanie; Schwaiger, Karin; Bauer, Johann

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metals are regularly found in liquid pig manure, and might interact with bacterial antimicrobial resistance. Concentrations of heavy metals were determined by atomic spectroscopic methods in 305 pig manure samples and were connected to the phenotypic resistance of Escherichia coli (n=613) against 29 antimicrobial drugs. Concentrations of heavy metals (/kg dry matter) were 0.08–5.30 mg cadmium, 1.1–32.0 mg chrome, 22.4–3387.6 mg copper, <2.0–26.7 mg lead, <0.01–0.11 mg mercury, 3.1–97.3 mg nickel and 93.0–8239.0 mg zinc. Associated with the detection of copper and zinc, resistance rates against β-lactams were significantly elevated. By contrast, the presence of mercury was significantly associated with low antimicrobial resistance rates of Escherichia coli against β-lactams, aminoglycosides and other antibiotics. Effects of subinhibitory concentrations of mercury on bacterial resistance against penicillins, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides and doxycycline were also demonstrated in a laboratory trial. Antimicrobial resistance in the porcine microflora might be increased by copper and zinc. By contrast, the occurrence of mercury in the environment might, due to co-toxicity, act counter-selective against antimicrobial resistant strains.

  16. Heavy metals in liquid pig manure in light of bacterial antimicrobial resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelzel, Christina S., E-mail: Christina.Hoelzel@wzw.tum.de [Chair of Animal Hygiene, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Weihenstephaner Berg 3, 85354 Freising (Germany); Mueller, Christa [Institute for Agroecology, Organic Farming and Soil Protection, Bavarian State Research Center for Agriculture (LfL), Lange Point 12, 85354 Freising (Germany); Harms, Katrin S. [Chair of Animal Hygiene, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Weihenstephaner Berg 3, 85354 Freising (Germany); Mikolajewski, Sabine [Department for Quality Assurance and Analytics, Bavarian State Research Center for Agriculture (LfL), Lange Point 4, 85354 Freising (Germany); Schaefer, Stefanie; Schwaiger, Karin; Bauer, Johann [Chair of Animal Hygiene, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Weihenstephaner Berg 3, 85354 Freising (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    Heavy metals are regularly found in liquid pig manure, and might interact with bacterial antimicrobial resistance. Concentrations of heavy metals were determined by atomic spectroscopic methods in 305 pig manure samples and were connected to the phenotypic resistance of Escherichia coli (n=613) against 29 antimicrobial drugs. Concentrations of heavy metals (/kg dry matter) were 0.08-5.30 mg cadmium, 1.1-32.0 mg chrome, 22.4-3387.6 mg copper, <2.0-26.7 mg lead, <0.01-0.11 mg mercury, 3.1-97.3 mg nickel and 93.0-8239.0 mg zinc. Associated with the detection of copper and zinc, resistance rates against {beta}-lactams were significantly elevated. By contrast, the presence of mercury was significantly associated with low antimicrobial resistance rates of Escherichia coli against {beta}-lactams, aminoglycosides and other antibiotics. Effects of subinhibitory concentrations of mercury on bacterial resistance against penicillins, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides and doxycycline were also demonstrated in a laboratory trial. Antimicrobial resistance in the porcine microflora might be increased by copper and zinc. By contrast, the occurrence of mercury in the environment might, due to co-toxicity, act counter-selective against antimicrobial resistant strains.

  17. MRP proteins as potential mediators of heavy metal resistance in zebrafish cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yong; Li, Qing; Wang, Youhui; Cui, Zongbin

    2011-04-01

    Acquired resistance of mammalian cells to heavy metals is closely relevant to enhanced expression of several multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRP), but it remains unclear whether MRP proteins confer resistance to heavy metals in zebrafish. In this study, we obtained zebrafish (Danio rerio) fibroblast-like ZF4 cells with resistance to toxic heavy metals after chronic cadmium exposure and selection for 6months. These cadmium-resistant cells (ZF4-Cd) were maintained in 5μM cadmium and displayed cross-resistance to cadmium, mercury, arsenite and arsenate. ZF4-Cd cells remained the resistance to heavy metals after protracted culture in cadmium-free medium. In comparison with ZF4-WT cells, ZF4-Cd cells exhibited accelerated rate of cadmium excretion, enhanced activity of MRP-like transport, elevated expression of abcc2, abcc4 and mt2 genes, and increased content of cellular GSH. Inhibition of MRP-like transport activity, GSH biosynthesis and GST activity significantly attenuated the resistance of ZF4-Cd cells to heavy metals. The results indicate that some of MRP transporters are involved in the efflux of heavy metals conjugated with cellular GSH and thus play crucial roles in heavy metal detoxification of zebrafish cells. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Heavy metal pollution of agricultural soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, S.C.

    1975-01-01

    Inputs of heavy metals to soils have increased recently and there is much concern that they may be toxic at various stages along the food chain and ultimately to man. Cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, zinc, chromium, nickel, cadmium and lead move from geochemical sources to plants and then to animals and man; they then are returned in various forms to soil to complete the cycle. The ways in which heavy metals may be added to soils are reviewed. They include: aerial inputs by air pollution, fertilizers, pesticides, farm slurries and sewage sludge. Possibly the source of contamination which is to have the most impact on soils used for the production of crops is sewage sludge. The fate of heavy metal added to soils is discussed in relation to form, mobility, uptake by plants, effect of soil conditions on availability to plants, and toxicity to animals. 56 references.

  19. Heavy Metal Pollution Around International Hatay Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Özkan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was aimed to determine the heavy metal pollution in the agricultural lands around Hatay airport and travel possible alteration in the amount of heavy metal on the land in accordance with the distance to the airport. For this purpose, the airport was chosen as the center and 27 soil samples were obtained around the airport at 2 km intervals in depth ranging from 0 to 30 cm. Lead (Pb, cadmium (Cd, nickel (Ni, chrome (Cr, cobalt (Co, aluminium (Al, iron (Fe, copper (Cu, manganese (Mn and zinc (Zn elements in soil samples were analysed using MP-AES instrument by DTPA method. (3 repetition for each sample. As a result of the analysis, heavy metal concentrations were found as Pb 0-1.45 mg/kg, Cd 0-0.220 mg/kg, Ni 0-3.95 mg/kg, Cr 0-0.780 mg/kg, Co 0-0.270 mg/kg, Al 0-0.700 mg/kg, Fe 1.47- 16.2 mg/kg, Cu 0.400-5.35 mg/kg, Mn 0-19 mg/kg and Zn 0.050-3.14 mg/kg. When comparing the obtained data through this study with allowable concentrations of heavy metals in soil of Environment and Forest Directorates Guidance, it was determined that the heavy metal concentration of the soil does not pose any problems in terms of heavy metal pollution. Besides, iron concentration was decreased when the distance to the airport is increased.

  20. The behaviour of ashes and heavy metals during the co-combustion of sewage sludges in a fluidised bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, M.H.; Abelha, P.; Lapa, N.; Oliveira, J.S.; Cabrita, I.; Gulyurtlu, I. [INETI, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2003-07-01

    Co-combustion tests of dry sewage sludges with coal were performed in a pilot bubbling FBC with the aim of characterizating the ashes and determining the behaviour of heavy metals in the process. The tests showed compliance with the regulatory levels as far as heavy metal emissions were concerned. The bottom ashes, which accounted for about 70% of the total ash production, were obtained in a granular form, with diameters ranging from 0.5 to 4 mm. The heavy metals were distributed in ashes obtained from different locations of the installation and their concentrations were found to vary depending on the location of capture. The increase in heavy metals content in bottom ashes was not found to lead to higher leachability and ecotoxicity compared to sewage sludges. Mercury suffered vaporisation inside the reactor, thus leaving bottom ashes free of contamination by it. However, there was observed a strong retention of mercury in cyclone ashes due to the presence of unburned carbon which probably acted as an adsorbent. The effluent mercury was also found to be mostly associated with the particulate fraction, being less than 20% emitted in gaseous forms. The results suggested that the combustion of the sewage sludge could successfully be carried out and the amount of unburned carbon leaving the combustor but captured in cyclone was large enough to ensure substantial retention of mercury at low temperatures, hence could contribute to an improvement of the mercury release which still remains an issue of great concern to resolve during combustion of waste materials.

  1. Heavy metals in MSW incineration fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2003-01-01

    Incineration is a common solution for dealing with the increasing amount of municipal solid waste (MSW). During the process, the heavy metals initially present in the waste go through several transformations, ending up in combustion products, such as fly ash. This article deals with some issues...... related to the combustion of MSW and the formation of fly ash, especially in what concerns heavy metals. Treatment of the flue gas in air pollution control equipment plays an important role and the basic processes to accomplish this are explained. Fly ash from a semi-dry flue gas treatment system...

  2. Heavy metals in edible seaweeds commercialised for human consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besada, Victoria; Andrade, José Manuel; Schultze, Fernando; González, Juan José

    2009-01-01

    Though seaweed consumption is growing steadily across Europe, relatively few studies have reported on the quantities of heavy metals they contain and/or their potential effects on the population's health. This study focuses on the first topic and analyses the concentrations of six typical heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Hg, Cu, Zn, total As and inorganic As) in 52 samples from 11 algae-based products commercialised in Spain for direct human consumption ( Gelidium spp.; Eisenia bicyclis; Himanthalia elongata; Hizikia fusiforme; Laminaria spp.; Ulva rigida; Chondrus crispus; Porphyra umbilicales and Undaria pinnatifida). Samples were ground, homogenised and quantified by atomic absorption spectrometry (Cu and Zn by flame AAS; Cd, Pb and total As by electrothermal AAS; total mercury by the cold vapour technique; and inorganic As by flame-hydride generation). Accuracy was assessed by participation in periodic QUASIMEME (Quality Assurance of Information in Marine Environmental Monitoring in Europe) and IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) intercalibration exercises. To detect any objective differences existing between the seaweeds' metal concentrations, univariate and multivariate studies (principal component analysis, cluster analysis and linear discriminant analysis) were performed. It is concluded that the Hizikia fusiforme samples contained the highest values of total and inorganic As and that most Cd concentrations exceeded the French Legislation. The two harvesting areas (Atlantic and Pacific oceans) were differentiated using both univariate studies (for Cu, total As, Hg and Zn) and a multivariate discriminant function (which includes Zn, Cu and Pb).

  3. Chelation Therapy for Mercury Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Rong Guan; Han Dai

    2009-01-01

    Chelation therapy has been the major treatment for heavy metal poisoning. Various chelating agents have been developed and tested for treatment of heavy metal intoxications, including mercury poisoning. It has been clearly shown that chelating agents could rescue the toxicity caused by heavy metal intoxication, but the potential preventive role of chelating agents against heavy metal poisoning has not been explored much. Recent paper by Siddiqi and colleagues has suggested a protective role o...

  4. Transfer of heavy metals through terrestrial food webs: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Jillian E; Boyd, Robert S; Rajakaruna, Nishanta

    2015-04-01

    Heavy metals are released into the environment by both anthropogenic and natural sources. Highly reactive and often toxic at low concentrations, they may enter soils and groundwater, bioaccumulate in food webs, and adversely affect biota. Heavy metals also may remain in the environment for years, posing long-term risks to life well after point sources of heavy metal pollution have been removed. In this review, we compile studies of the community-level effects of heavy metal pollution, including heavy metal transfer from soils to plants, microbes, invertebrates, and to both small and large mammals (including humans). Many factors contribute to heavy metal accumulation in animals including behavior, physiology, and diet. Biotic effects of heavy metals are often quite different for essential and non-essential heavy metals, and vary depending on the specific metal involved. They also differ for adapted organisms, including metallophyte plants and heavy metal-tolerant insects, which occur in naturally high-metal habitats (such as serpentine soils) and have adaptations that allow them to tolerate exposure to relatively high concentrations of some heavy metals. Some metallophyte plants are hyperaccumulators of certain heavy metals and new technologies using them to clean metal-contaminated soil (phytoextraction) may offer economically attractive solutions to some metal pollution challenges. These new technologies provide incentive to catalog and protect the unique biodiversity of habitats that have naturally high levels of heavy metals.

  5. Evaluation of heavy metals in the process of composting organic waste of coca leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apaza-Condori Emma Eva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study is to evaluate the total concentrations of the heavy metals in waste compost samples from coca leaf. This work was carried out Kallutaca Experimental Center, Biofertilizers module Career Agricultural Engineering at the Public University of El Alto, La Paz municipality of Laja. Posed treatments were: T1 (+ Yogurt Coca wastes; T2 (Coca wastes + whey; T3 (Coca wastes + yeast and T4 (Control. The design was completely randomized with 4 treatments and 3 repetitions. The concentration of heavy metals (cadmium, copper, nickel, lead, mercury and chromium; they were categorized into Class A, for the four treatments according to the classifications established by Moreno & Moral (2008.

  6. Approaches for enhanced phytoextraction of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Atul; Carmona, Francisco F; Bhargava, Meenakshi; Srivastava, Shilpi

    2012-08-30

    The contamination of the environment with toxic metals has become a worldwide problem. Metal toxicity affects crop yields, soil biomass and fertility. Soils polluted with heavy metals pose a serious health hazard to humans as well as plants and animals, and often requires soil remediation practices. Phytoextraction refers to the uptake of contaminants from soil or water by plant roots and their translocation to any harvestable plant part. Phytoextraction has the potential to remove contaminants and promote long-term cleanup of soil or wastewater. The success of phytoextraction as a potential environmental cleanup technology depends on factors like metal availability for uptake, as well as plants ability to absorb and accumulate metals in aerial parts. Efforts are ongoing to understand the genetics and biochemistry of metal uptake, transport and storage in hyperaccumulator plants so as to be able to develop transgenic plants with improved phytoremediation capability. Many plant species are being investigated to determine their usefulness for phytoextraction, especially high biomass crops. The present review aims to give an updated version of information available with respect to metal tolerance and accumulation mechanisms in plants, as well as on the environmental and genetic factors affecting heavy metal uptake. The genetic tools of classical breeding and genetic engineering have opened the door to creation of 'remediation' cultivars. An overview is presented on the possible strategies for developing novel genotypes with increased metal accumulation and tolerance to toxicity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilas, F.; Chapman, C.R.; Matthews, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    Papers are presented on future observations of and missions to Mercury, the photometry and polarimetry of Mercury, the surface composition of Mercury from reflectance spectrophotometry, the Goldstone radar observations of Mercury, the radar observations of Mercury, the stratigraphy and geologic history of Mercury, the geomorphology of impact craters on Mercury, and the cratering record on Mercury and the origin of impacting objects. Consideration is also given to the tectonics of Mercury, the tectonic history of Mercury, Mercury's thermal history and the generation of its magnetic field, the rotational dynamics of Mercury and the state of its core, Mercury's magnetic field and interior, the magnetosphere of Mercury, and the Mercury atmosphere. Other papers are on the present bounds on the bulk composition of Mercury and the implications for planetary formation processes, the building stones of the planets, the origin and composition of Mercury, the formation of Mercury from planetesimals, and theoretical considerations on the strange density of Mercury

  8. Heavy metal pollutant tolerance of Azolla pinnata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, A.; Jana, S.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of Hg, As, Pb, Cu, Cd, and Cr (1,2 and 5 mg L/sup -1/ each) on Azolla pinnata R. Br. were analyzed. The treatments (2 and 5 mg L/sup -1/) of the heavy metal pollutants decreased Hill activity, chlorophyll, protein and dry wt, and increased tissue permeability over control values. The effects were most pronounced with the treatment of 5 mg L/sup -1/. The harmful effects of the metals were, in general, found by the treatments in the order: Cd > Hg > Cu > As > Pb > Cr. There was no significant change in these parameters at 1 mg L/sup -1/ of the metals over control. Thus Azolla pinnata shows tolerance to the heavy metals tested up to 1 mg L/sup -1/ each.

  9. Esterase resistant to inactivation by heavy metals

    KAUST Repository

    El, Dorry Hamza

    2014-09-25

    EstATII is an esterase that a halotolerant, thermophilic and resistant to a spectrum of heavy metals including toxic concentration of metals. It was isolated from the lowest convective layer of the Atlantis II Red Sea brine pool. The Atlantis II brine pool is an extreme environment that possesses multiple harsh conditions such as; high temperature, salinity, pH and high concentration of metals, including toxic heavy metals. A fosmid metagenomic library using DNA isolated from the lowest convective layer this pool was used to identify EstATII. Polynucleotides encoding EstATII and similar esterases are disclosed and can be used to make EstATII. EstATII or compositions or apparatuses that contain it may be used in various processes employing lipases/esterases especially when these processes are performed under harsh conditions that inactivate other kinds of lipases or esterases.

  10. Engineering the metal sensitive sites in Macrolampis sp2 firefly luciferase and use as a novel bioluminescent ratiometric biosensor for heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Gabriele V M; Viviani, Vadim R

    2016-12-01

    Most luminescent biosensors for heavy metals are fluorescent and rely on intensity measurements, whereas a few are ratiometric and rely on spectral changes. Bioluminescent biosensors for heavy metals are less common. Firefly luciferases have been coupled to responsive promoters for mercury and arsenium, and used as light on biosensors. Firefly luciferase bioluminescence spectrum is naturally sensitive to heavy metal cations such as zinc and mercury and to pH. Although pH sensitivity of firefly luciferases was shown to be useful for ratiometric estimation of intracellular pH, its potential use for ratiometric estimation of heavy metals was never considered. Using the yellow-emitting Macrolampis sp2 firefly luciferase and site-directed mutagenesis, we show that the residues H310 and E354 constitute two critical sites for metal sensitivity that can be engineered to increase sensitivity to zinc, nickel, and mercury. A linear relationship between cation concentration and the ratio of bioluminescence intensities at 550 and 610 nm allowed, for the first time, the ratiometric estimation of heavy metals concentrations down to 0.10 mM, demonstrating the potential applicability of firefly luciferases as enzymatic and intracellular ratiometric metal biosensors.

  11. Pyrolized biochar for heavy metal adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Removal of copper and lead metal ions from water using pyrolized plant materials. Method can be used to develop a low cost point-of-use device for cleaning contaminated water. This dataset is associated with the following publication:DeMessie, B., E. Sahle-Demessie , and G. Sorial. Cleaning Water Contaminated With Heavy Metal Ions Using Pyrolyzed Banana Peel Adsorbents. Separation Science and Technology. Marcel Dekker Incorporated, New York, NY, USA, 50(16): 2448-2457, (2015).

  12. Prevalence of exposure of heavy metals and their impact on health consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Kanwal; Fatima, Fiza; Waheed, Iqra; Akash, Muhammad Sajid Hamid

    2018-01-01

    Even in the current era of growing technology, the concentration of heavy metals present in drinking water is still not within the recommended limits as set by the regulatory authorities in different countries of the world. Drinking water contaminated with heavy metals namely; arsenic, cadmium, nickel, mercury, chromium, zinc, and lead is becoming a major health concern for public and health care professionals. Occupational exposure to heavy metals is known to occur by the utilization of these metals in various industrial processes and/or contents including color pigments and alloys. However, the predominant source resulting in measurable human exposure to heavy metals is the consumption of contaminated drinking water and the resulting health issues may include cardiovascular disorders, neuronal damage, renal injuries, and risk of cancer and diabetes. The general mechanism involved in heavy metal-induced toxicity is recognized to be the production of reactive oxygen species resulting oxidative damage and health related adverse effects. Thus utilization of heavy metal-contaminated water is resulting in high morbidity and mortality rates all over the world. Thereby, feeling the need to raise the concerns about contribution of different heavy metals in various health related issues, this article has discussed the global contamination of drinking water with heavy metals to assess the health hazards associated with consumption of heavy metal-contaminated water. A relationship between exposure limits and ultimate responses produced as well as the major organs affected have been reviewed. Acute and chronic poisoning symptoms and mechanisms responsible for such toxicities have also been discussed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Wastewater treatment from heavy metal ions using nanoactivated complexes of natural zeolite and diatomite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malkin Polad

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the wide practical use of sorption methods and complexones in treatment of industrial wastewater, some problems are still to be solved in this field. These are the most significant: insufficient sorption capacity of materials, lack of reliable methods for regenerating sorbents and resource-saving ecology friendly treatment technologies with the use of sorbents as well as methods of utilization of heavy metals from waste by complex formation. An important factor affecting the behavior of heavy metals in the soil is the medium acidity. With a neutral and slightly alkaline reaction of the medium, hardly soluble compounds are formed: hydroxides, sulphides, phosphates, carbonates, and oxalates of heavy metals. When acidity increases the reverse process runs in the soil: hardly soluble compounds become more mobile, while mobility of many heavy metals increases. However, the effect of soil acidity on mobility of heavy metals is ambiguous. Although mobility of many heavy metals decreases with increasing pH of the medium (for example, Fe, Mn, Zn, Co, etc., there are a number of metals whose mobility increases with soil neutralization. These include molybdenum and chromium, which are able to form soluble salts in a weak ly acidic and alkaline medium. In addition, heavy metals such as mercury and cadmium are able to maintain mobility in an alkaline medium through formation of complex compounds with organic matter in soils. Heavy metals interact with a solid phase of the soil by mechanisms of specific and nonspecific adsorption. In this article, a technique of wastewater treatment from heavy metal ions using nanoactivated complexes of natural zeolite and diatomite is proposed. This technique can reduce significant costs in preparation of raw materials and subsequent chemical modification of them. Technological solutions aimed at disposal and recycling of industrial wastewater have been proposed. These solutions make it possible to obtain the water

  14. Heavy metals and related trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leland, H.V.; Luoma, S.N.; Wilkes, D.J.

    1977-01-01

    A review is given of heavy metals and related trace elements in the aquatic environment. Other reviews and bibliographies are cited, dealing with the metabolism and transport of metal ions and with the toxic effects of stable and radioactive trace metals on aquatic organisms. The sources of trace elements in natural waters are discussed. It is suggested that atmospheric inputs of several trace metals comprise sizable fractions of total inputs to the Great Lakes and continental shelf waters. Information on stack emissions of trace elements from a coal-fired steam plant was used to estimate the likely range of air concentrations and inputs to a forested watershed in Tennessee. Some basic concepts of cycling of elements through aquatic communities were examined, such as the Pb, Mn and Zn concentrations in sediment and estuarine plants and animals colonizing dredge-spoil disposal areas. The use of plants as biological indicators of trace element contamination was outlined, as well as bioaccumulation in aquatic fauna. The effects of environmental factors on the kinetics of element exchange were noted, for example the influx rates of Cs 137 in tubificid worms, and Co 60 and Zn 65 in shrimp were shown to be temperature dependent. The toxicity of heavy metals on aquatic fauna was discussed, such as the histopathological lesions in the kidney and liver of fishes caused by heavy metals, and the effects of Hg and Cu on the olfactory response of rainbow trout

  15. Advanced Gasification Mercury/Trace Metal Control with Monolith Traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musich, Mark; Swanson, Michael; Dunham, Grant; Stanislowski, Joshua

    2010-10-05

    Two Corning monoliths and a non-carbon-based material have been identified as potential additives for mercury capture in syngas at temperatures above 400°F and pressure of 600 psig. A new Corning monolith formulation, GR-F1-2189, described as an active sample appeared to be the best monolith tested to date. The Corning SR Liquid monolith concept continues to be a strong candidate for mercury capture. Both monolith types allowed mercury reduction to below 5-μg/m{sup 3} (~5 ppb), a current U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) goal for trace metal control. Preparation methods for formulating the SR Liquid monolith impacted the ability of the monolith to capture mercury. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC)-prepared Noncarbon Sorbents 1 and 2 appeared to offer potential for sustained and significant reduction of mercury concentration in the simulated fuel gas. The Noncarbon Sorbent 1 allowed sustained mercury reduction to below 5-μg/m{sup 3} (~5 ppb). The non-carbon-based sorbent appeared to offer the potential for regeneration, that is, desorption of mercury by temperature swing (using nitrogen and steam at temperatures above where adsorption takes place). A Corning cordierite monolith treated with a Group IB metal offered limited potential as a mercury sorbent. However, a Corning carbon-based monolith containing prereduced metallic species similar to those found on the noncarbon sorbents did not exhibit significant or sustained mercury reduction. EERC sorbents prepared with Group IB and IIB selenide appeared to have some promise for mercury capture. Unfortunately, these sorbents also released Se, as was evidenced by the measurement of H2Se in the effluent gas. All sorbents tested with arsine or hydrogen selenide, including Corning monoliths and the Group IB and IIB metal-based materials, showed an ability to capture arsine or hydrogen selenide at 400°F and 600 psig. Based on current testing, the noncarbon metal-based sorbents appear to be the most

  16. ADVANCED GASIFICATION MERCURY/TRACE METAL CONTROL WITH MONOLITH TRAPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark A. Musich; Michael L. Swanson; Grant E. Dunham; Joshua J. Stanislowski

    2010-07-31

    Two Corning monoliths and a non-carbon-based material have been identified as potential additives for mercury capture in syngas at temperatures above 400°F and pressure of 600 psig. A new Corning monolith formulation, GR-F1-2189, described as an active sample appeared to be the best monolith tested to date. The Corning SR Liquid monolith concept continues to be a strong candidate for mercury capture. Both monolith types allowed mercury reduction to below 5-μg/m3 (~5 ppb), a current U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) goal for trace metal control. Preparation methods for formulating the SR Liquid monolith impacted the ability of the monolith to capture mercury. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC)-prepared Noncarbon Sorbents 1 and 2 appeared to offer potential for sustained and significant reduction of mercury concentration in the simulated fuel gas. The Noncarbon Sorbent 1 allowed sustained mercury reduction to below 5-μg/m3 (~5 ppb). The non-carbon-based sorbent appeared to offer the potential for regeneration, that is, desorption of mercury by temperature swing (using nitrogen and steam at temperatures above where adsorption takes place). A Corning cordierite monolith treated with a Group IB metal offered limited potential as a mercury sorbent. However, a Corning carbon-based monolith containing prereduced metallic species similar to those found on the noncarbon sorbents did not exhibit significant or sustained mercury reduction. EERC sorbents prepared with Group IB and IIB selenide appeared to have some promise for mercury capture. Unfortunately, these sorbents also released Se, as was evidenced by the measurement of H2Se in the effluent gas. All sorbents tested with arsine or hydrogen selenide, including Corning monoliths and the Group IB and IIB metal-based materials, showed an ability to capture arsine or hydrogen selenide at 400°F and 600 psig. Based on current testing, the noncarbon metal-based sorbents appear to be the most effective arsine

  17. Heavy metal-induced cytotoxicity to cultured human epidermal keratinocytes and effects of antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, H; Reinhold, C

    1994-04-01

    Human epidermal keratinocytes which have been cultured were treated with the heavy metal ions of cadmium, mercury, copper and zinc. Cytotoxicity was measured either by protein estimation or by using the neutral red assay. Antioxidants were added in order to find out whether heavy metal-induced cytotoxicity is related to oxidative stress. All metals used showed considerable cytotoxic effects within 24 h in moderate concentrations. None of the antioxidants vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol), pyrogallol, propyl gallate, BHT or ebselen showed any protective or preventive effect. This indicates that oxidative stress may not be involved in the cytotoxicity induced by heavy metals in human epidermal keratinocytes. The cells used are, however, a valuable tool to study mechanisms of cytotoxicity.

  18. Expressing a bacterial mercuric ion binding protein in plant for phytoremediation of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ju-Liang; Chen, Ching-Yi; Chiu, Meng-Hsuen; Chein, Mei-Fang; Chang, Jo-Shu; Endo, Ginro; Huang, Chieh-Chen

    2009-01-30

    A specific mercuric ion binding protein (MerP) originating from transposon TnMERI1 of Bacillus megaterium strain MB1 isolated from Minamata Bay displayed good adsorption capability for a variety of heavy metals. In this study, the Gram-positive MerP protein was expressed in transgenic Arabidopsis to create a model system for phytoremediation of heavy metals. Under control of an actin promoter, the transgenic Arabidpsis showed higher tolerance and accumulation capacity for mercury, cadium and lead when compared with the control plant. Results from confocal microscopy analysis also indicate that MerP was localized at the cell membrane and vesicles of plant cells. The developed transgenic plants possessing excellent metal-accumulative ability could have potential applications in decontamination of heavy metals.

  19. Microbial functional genes enriched in the Xiangjiang River sediments with heavy metal contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Shiqi; Li, Mingming; Gan, Min; Zhu, Jianyu; Yin, Huaqun; Liu, Xueduan

    2016-08-08

    Xiangjiang River (Hunan, China) has been contaminated with heavy metal for several decades by surrounding factories. However, little is known about the influence of a gradient of heavy metal contamination on the diversity, structure of microbial functional gene in sediment. To deeply understand the impact of heavy metal contamination on microbial community, a comprehensive functional gene array (GeoChip 5.0) has been used to study the functional genes structure, composition, diversity and metabolic potential of microbial community from three heavy metal polluted sites of Xiangjiang River. A total of 25595 functional genes involved in different biogeochemical processes have been detected in three sites, and different diversities and structures of microbial functional genes were observed. The analysis of gene overlapping, unique genes, and various diversity indices indicated a significant correlation between the level of heavy metal contamination and the functional diversity. Plentiful resistant genes related to various metal were detected, such as copper, arsenic, chromium and mercury. The results indicated a significantly higher abundance of genes involved in metal resistance including sulfate reduction genes (dsr) in studied site with most serious heavy metal contamination, such as cueo, mer, metc, merb, tehb and terc gene. With regard to the relationship between the environmental variables and microbial functional structure, S, Cu, Cd, Hg and Cr were the dominating factor shaping the microbial distribution pattern in three sites. This study suggests that high level of heavy metal contamination resulted in higher functional diversity and the abundance of metal resistant genes. These variation therefore significantly contribute to the resistance, resilience and stability of the microbial community subjected to the gradient of heavy metals contaminant in Xiangjiang River.

  20. Hydroponics reducing effluent's heavy metals discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rababah, Abdellah; Al-Shuha, Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the capacity of Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) to control effluent's heavy metals discharge. A commercial hydroponic system was adapted to irrigate lettuces with primary treated wastewater for studying the potential heavy metals removal. A second commercial hydroponic system was used to irrigate the same type of lettuces with nutrient solution and this system was used as a control. Results showed that lettuces grew well when irrigated with primary treated effluent in the commercial hydroponic system. The NFT-plant system heavy metals removal efficiency varied amongst the different elements, The system's removal efficiency for Cr was more than 92%, Ni more than 85%, in addition to more than 60% reduction of B, Pb, and Zn. Nonetheless, the NFT-plants system removal efficiencies for As, Cd and Cu were lower than 30%. Results show that lettuces accumulated heavy metals in leaves at concentrations higher than the maximum acceptable European and Australian levels. Therefore, non-edible plants such as flowers or pyrethrum are recommended as value added crops for the proposed NFT.

  1. Evaluation of Physicochemical Properties and Heavy Metals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physicochemical properties of municipal dumpsite compost in Kano metropolis and concentration of heavy metals were investigated. Analysis was carried out by atomic absorption spectrometry (Buck Scientific VPG 210). The results shows that the compost pH (6.63-8.19), electric conductivity of compost (638-933μs/cm), ...

  2. Heavy metal bioaccumulation in Callinectes amnicola and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bioaccumulation of heavy metals in organisms is as a result of pollutants discharge generated by anthropogenic and natural activities which has become a tremendous concern in developing nations. The levels of cadmium, copper, chromium, lead, zinc and nickel in the tissue of Callinectes amnicola and ...

  3. Heavy metals contamination of Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the presence of heavy metal contamination of Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and Lates niloticus. Adult C. nigrodigitatus and L. niloticus were obtained from fishermen in Ikere Gorge, Oyo state, Nigeria. Water samples were also collected during the wet and dry seasons of the year in the same locality.

  4. Heavy metal levels, physicochemical properties and microbial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... out to assess the microbial, physicochemical and heavy metal characteristics of soil samples from five different waste collection sites within the University of Benin, Benin City and evaluated using standard analytical and classical microbiological methods.

  5. On chemical activity of heavy metal oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechev, V.V.

    1994-01-01

    Interaction of solid oxides of heavy nonferrous metals with sulfur and carbon is investigated. The results are discussed. Direct dependence of chemical activity of oxides on disordering of their crystal lattice at heating is established. Beginning of interaction in the systems studied is accompanied by change of oxide conductivity type

  6. Electrodialytic decontamination of heavy metal polluted soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Henrik K.; Karlsmose, Bodil

    1996-01-01

    Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted soil is a newly developed method, which combines the electrokinetic mevement of ions in soil with the principle of electrodialytis. The method has been proven to work in laboratory scale and at present two types of pilot plant tests are made....

  7. HEAVY METALS CONTAMINATION OF TOPSOIL AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    emissions from automobile exhaust, waste incineration, land disposal of wastes, use of .... of total organic carbon increased from 2.0 ± 1.5 % in the top soil to 3.42 ± 0.83 ..... Thus, accumulation of heavy metals in the soil has potential to restrict.

  8. HEAVY METAL CONTENTS IN MARINE SEDIMENTS AND SEAWATER AT TOTOK BAY AREA, NORTH SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delyuzar Ilahude

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The study area is located in north-eastern part of Tomini Bay, approximately 80 km south of Manado city, North Sulawesi. This area is closed to submarine tailing disposal system in Buyat Bay. Five marine sediment samples and four water samples from seawater and dig wells have been used for heavy metals (Hg, As, CN analyses by using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS. This study is a part of research conducted by Marine Geological Institute of Indonesia on morphological changes of seabed in the Totok Bay. The result shows that concentration of mercury (Hg in water samples taken from Ratatotok estuary is higher than standards stipulated Government Regulation (Peraturan Pemerintah/PP No. 82/2001. Meanwhile, concentration of arsenic (As is almost reaching its standard threshold, and conversely cyanide (CN concentration is low. This value of mercury (Hg concentration taken from Ratatotok estuary is much higher than water samples from of Buyat Bay estuary. Significant concentration of mercury (Hg analysed from those particular sampling sites indicated high mercury contamination. Therefore, further examination on ground water of dig wells is necessary, especially for mercury analysis (Hg. Furthermore, comparing the formerly obtained data of mercury concentration in the sediment, this particular study concludes that the sediments in the Totok Bay had contaminated by mercury from gold-processing of illegal mining.

  9. Evaluation of toxic heavy metals in ayurvedic syrups sold in local markets of hazara, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajra, B.; Orakzai, S.; Hussain, F.; Farya, U.

    2015-01-01

    Herbal and Ayurvedic preparations, widely used in Pakistan and the developing world, present serious risk of heavy metal toxicity related to their medicinal content and prolonged use by patients. The objective of this study was to find out the concentration of heavy metals in Herbal and Ayurvedic liquid preparations commonly used for treatment of different diseases, from local markets of Hazara. Methods: The cross sectional survey of traditional herbal and Ayurvedic medicine shops included ten liquid preparations selected from local shops of Mansehra and Abbottabad after interviewing the shopkeepers; so as to select the most commonly sold preparations along with their indications. All samples were analysed on standard Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy for qualitative and quantitative study of toxic heavy metals (Mercury, Iron, Zinc, Lead, Manganese and Arsenic). Results: Toxic levels of Mercury were present in seven syrups, i.e., (Kashneeze, Akseer e Pachas, Tankar, Sharbat e folad, Urosinal, Akseer e Jigar and Amrat dhara) while Arsenic was present only in Urosinal. Iron, Zinc, Manganese and Lead were present in permissible limits in all syrups. Conclusion: Mercury and Arsenic are present in local Herbal and Ayurvedic liquid preparations far beyond the permissible limits as proposed by the International Regulatory Authorities for health drugs while the rest of metals, i.e., Zinc, Manganese, and Iron are within the therapeutic limits. (author)

  10. Heavy metals in tissues of stranded short-finned pilot whales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoneburner, D.L.

    1978-01-01

    Selected tissues from four short-finned pilot whales that stranded at Cumberland Island National Seashore were analyzed for total cadmium, mercury and selenium by neutron activation. Cadmium reached a maximum mean wet weight concentration of 31.4 ppm in the kidney tissues. Maximum mean wet weight concentrations of mercury, 230.9 ppm, and selenium, 44.2 ppm, were found in the liver tissues. The lowest concentration of each metal was found in the blubber. Postmortem examination showed that the whales had no food in their stomachs. The whales must have been utilizing metabolic reserves, contaminated with residual concentrations of heavy metals, prior to beaching. This utilization of reserves probably resulted in the high concentrations of cadmium, mercury and selenium found in the liver and kidney tissues. Since the heavy metal concentrations were three to four times greater in the stranded whales, as compared to apparently healthy whales of the same species, it is suggested that heavy metal toxicosis may have been a factor contributing to this particular stranding. (Auth.)

  11. Article Commentary: Chelation Therapy for Mercury Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Guan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chelation therapy has been the major treatment for heavy metal poisoning. Various chelating agents have been developed and tested for treatment of heavy metal intoxications, including mercury poisoning. It has been clearly shown that chelating agents could rescue the toxicity caused by heavy metal intoxication, but the potential preventive role of chelating agents against heavy metal poisoning has not been explored much. Recent paper by Siddiqi and colleagues has suggested a protective role of chelating agents against mercury poisoning, which provides a promising research direction for broader application of chelation therapy in prevention and treatment of mercury poisoning.

  12. Metabolic Demands of Heavy Metal Drumming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Romero

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The drum set involves dynamic movement of all four limbs. Motor control studies have been done on drum set playing, yet not much is known about the physiological responses to this activity. Even less is known about heavy metal drumming. Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine metabolic responses and demands of heavy metal drumming. Methods: Five semi-professional male drummers (mean ± SD age = 27.4 ± 2.6 y, height = 177.2 ± 3.8 cm, body mass = 85.1 ± 17.8 kg performed four prescribed and four self-selected heavy metal songs. Oxygen consumption (VO2, minute ventilation (VE and respiratory exchange ratio (RER were measured using a metabolic cart.  Heart rate (HR was measured using a heart rate monitor. VO2max was determined using a graded cycle ergometer test. Results: The results indicated a metabolic cost of 6.3 ± 1.4 METs and heart rate of 145.1 ± 15.7 beats·min-1 (75.4 ± 8.3% of age-predicted HRmax. VO2 peak values reached approximately 90% of the drummer’s VO2max when performing at the fastest speeds. According to these results, heavy metal drumming may be considered vigorous intensity activity (≥ 6.0 METs. The relative VO2max of 40.2 ± 9.5 mL·kg·min-1 leads to an aerobic fitness classification of “average” for adult males. Conclusions: The metabolic demands required during heavy metal drumming meet the American College of Sports Medicine guidelines for the development of health related fitness.  Keywords: Drum set, Exercise physiology, VO2, Music

  13. Heavy metal driven co-selection of antibiotic resistance in soil and water bodies impacted by agriculture and aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Claudia; Berendonk, Thomas U

    2012-01-01

    The use of antibiotic agents as growth promoters was banned in animal husbandry to prevent the selection and spread of antibiotic resistance. However, in addition to antibiotic agents, heavy metals used in animal farming and aquaculture might promote the spread of antibiotic resistance via co-selection. To investigate which heavy metals are likely to co-select for antibiotic resistance in soil and water, the available data on heavy metal pollution, heavy metal toxicity, heavy metal tolerance, and co-selection mechanisms was reviewed. Additionally, the risk of metal driven co-selection of antibiotic resistance in the environment was assessed based on heavy metal concentrations that potentially induce this co-selection process. Analyses of the data indicate that agricultural and aquacultural practices represent major sources of soil and water contamination with moderately to highly toxic metals such as mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn). If those metals reach the environment and accumulate to critical concentrations they can trigger co-selection of antibiotic resistance. Furthermore, co-selection mechanisms for these heavy metals and clinically as well as veterinary relevant antibiotics have been described. Therefore, studies investigating co-selection in environments impacted by agriculture and aquaculture should focus on Hg, Cd, Cu, and Zn as selecting heavy metals. Nevertheless, the respective environmental background has to be taken into account.

  14. Environmental and Body Concentrations of Heavy Metals at Sites Near and Distant from Industrial Complexes in Ulsan, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Joo Hyun; Oh, Inbo; Kim, Ahra; Lee, Jiho; Sim, Chang Sun; Yoo, Cheolin; Park, Sang Jin; Kim, Geun Bae; Kim, Yangho

    2018-01-29

    Industrial pollution may affect the heavy metal body burden of people living near industrial complexes. We determined the average concentrations of atmospheric heavy metals in areas close to and distant from industrial complexes in Korea, and the body concentrations of these heavy metals in residents living near and distant from these facilities. The atmospheric data of heavy metals (lead and cadmium) were from the Regional Air Monitoring Network in Ulsan. We recruited 1,148 participants, 872 who lived near an industrial complex ("exposed" group) and 276 who lived distant from industrial complexes ("non-exposed" group), and measured their concentrations of blood lead, urinary cadmium, and urinary total mercury. The results showed that atmospheric and human concentrations of heavy metals were higher in areas near industrial complexes. In addition, residents living near industrial complexes had higher individual and combined concentrations (cadmium + lead + mercury) of heavy metals. We conclude that residents living near industrial complexes are exposed to high concentrations of heavy metals, and should be carefully monitored. © 2018 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  15. Check Amount of heavy metals in muscle and fish oil Rutilus frisii kutum, Clupeonella cultriventris and Liza saliens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Salehi Borban

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal pollution in marine environments and the potential for bioaccumulation of contaminants have been considered as a serious threat for a long time. These contaminants accumulate in fish body and then transferred through the food chain to humans. The aim of this study was to determine the heavy metals cadmium, lead, arsenic, mercury and copper and iron metals in muscle and fish oil (Rutilus frisii kutum ،Clupeonella cultriventris ،Liza saliens. Three samples of Rutilus frisii kutum ،Clupeonella cultriventris and Liza saliens were caught in Mahmoud Abad area. One part of the muscle was dried by freeze drying method and another part was used to extract the oil. Then, using the atomic absorption spectrometric and Mercury Analyzer heavy metals concentrations were determined in muscle and fish oil. The results of muscle showed the highest accumulation of mercury (0.347±0.018, cadmium (0.08±0.001, copper (1.2156±0.059 and iron (2.643±0.231 in Rutilus frisii kutum and the highest level of lead (0.3593±0.015 and arsenic (0.0892±0.001 in Liza saliens. Moreover, in the fish oils samples, lead and mercury had the highest concentrations. The heavy metals in the samples were lower than or close to international standards. Therefore, their use does not pose a health problem for the consumers.

  16. Heavy Metal - Exploring a magnetised metallic asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlund, J.-E.; Andrews, D. J.

    2017-09-01

    We propose an ESA/M5 spacecraft mission to orbit and explore (16) Psyche - the largest M-class metallic asteroid in the main belt. Recent estimates of the shape, 279×232×189 km and mass, 2.7×1019 kg of (16) Psyche make it one of the largest and densest of asteroids, 4.5 g cm-3, and together with the high surface radar reflectivity and the spectral data measured from Earth it is consistent with a bulk composition rich in iron-nickel. (16) Psyche orbits the Sun with semi-major axis 2.9 AU, 3º inclination, and is as yet unexplored in-situ.

  17. classification of plants according to their heavy metal content around

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    accumulated heavy metals around North Mara Gold Mine were not known. To study such ... heavy metal hyperaccumulator plants for possible future remediation of the study area. ... mine is about 100 kilometers east of Lake. Victoria and 20 ...

  18. Evaluation of some heavy metal contaminants in biscuits, fruit drinks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of some heavy metal contaminants in biscuits, fruit drinks, concentrates, ... effect in human due to continual consumption of food contaminated with heavy metals gotten from raw materials, manufacturing and packaging processes.

  19. Determination of selected heavy metals in inland fresh water of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agadaga

    Key words: Heavy metals, freshwater, concentrations, quality, variation, distribution. ... prevalence of heavy metals in inland water of lower River. Niger drain are scarce ..... Niger waters at Ajaokuta were found to be low and within guideline.

  20. Concentration and Health Implication of Heavy Metals in Drinking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concentration and Health Implication of Heavy Metals in Drinking Water from Urban ... water is not mentioned by WHO, but all the samples analyzed were found to ... Key words: Drinking water quality, Heavy metals, Maximum admissible limit, ...

  1. Phytoremediation of heavy metals with several efficiency enhancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... Key words: phytoremediation, heavy metal, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, multi-functional method. ... population in the twentieth century, heavy metal ... This natural and environmental friendly technology is.

  2. heavy metals and cyanide distribution in the villages surrounding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    detection limit) were higher in the wells closest to the Tailing Storage Facility ... Key Words: Heavy metals pollution, Total cyanide, ground water pollution and ..... cyanide, heavy metals and probably other hazardous substances, leakage of.

  3. Studies of heavy metal contents and microbial composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FLEXI-DONEST

    the use of private electricity generating sets, in recent times, have ... soil and evaluate the impact of heavy metal on soil degradable ..... a reasonable length of time by herbivores may .... Heavy Metals in Root, Stem and Leaves of Acalypha.

  4. Leaching of heavy metals from steelmaking slags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, J. F. P.; Pino, C. G.

    2006-01-01

    Leaching tests with EAF and Ladle slags were performed, using a flow through tests and the standard batch test DIN 38414-S4. The previous method was used to simulate the leaching behaviour of steel slags under landfill. the chemical analysis of the leachates during this period shows, in general, for both types of slag, and increase of heavy metal releases with ageing. Standard test method DIN 38414-S4 was used to evaluate leachability of heavy metals by water in unprocessed slags. After more than one year of trials, slang samples submitted to these trials presented very low total leaching levels. The most extracted elements are calcium and magnesium. Nevertheless, in flow-though test, calcium and magnesium leached from solid slags are below 0.5% and all other metals below 0.1%. Leachates obtained with DIN 38414-S4 present, as expected, higher leaching values; however, these are inferior to 5% (Ca) and 1% (other elements). (Author) 12 refs

  5. Solubility of heavy metals added to MSW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, H.M.; Lin, K.C.; Liu, M.H.; Pai, T.Z.; Lin, C.Y.; Liu, W.F.; Fang, G.C.; Lu, C.; Chiang, C.F.; Wang, S.C.; Chen, P.H.; Chen, J.K.; Chiu, H.Y.; Wu, K.C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the six heavy metal levels (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn) in municipal solid waste (MSW) at different pHs. It intends to provide the baseline information of metals solubility in MSW co-disposed or co-digested with MSW incinerator ashes in landfill or anaerobic bioreactors or heavy metals contaminated in anaerobic digesters. One milliliter (equal to 1 mg) of each metal was added to the 100 ml MSW and the batch reactor test was carried out. The results showed that higher HNO 3 and NaOH were consumed at extreme pH of 1 and 13 compared to those from pH 2 to 11 due to the comparably higher buffer capacity. Pb was found to have the least soluble level, highest metal adsorption (%) and highest partitioning K d (l g -1 ) between pH 3 and 12. In contrast, Ni showed the highest soluble level, lowest metal adsorption (%) and lowest K d (l g -1 ) between pH 4 and 12. Except Ni and Cr, other four metals seemed to show the amphibious properties as comparative higher solubility was found in the acidic and basic conditions

  6. Solubility of heavy metals added to MSW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, H.M. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Management, Chaoyang University of Technology, 168 Gifong E. Road, Wufong, Taichung County 41349, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: hmlo@cyut.edu.tw; Lin, K.C. [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Chung Shan Medical University, 110, Sec. 1, Jiangguo N. Rd., Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Liu, M.H.; Pai, T.Z. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Management, Chaoyang University of Technology, 168 Gifong E. Road, Wufong, Taichung County 41349, Taiwan (China); Lin, C.Y. [Department of Soil and Water Conservation, Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuokuang Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Liu, W.F. [Department of Electronical Engineering, Feng Chia University, 100 Wenhwa Road, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Fang, G.C. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Hungkuang University, 34 Chung-Chie Road, Sha Lu, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China); Lu, C. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuokuang Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Chiang, C.F. [Department of Health Risk Management, China Medical University, No. 91 Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Wang, S.C.; Chen, P.H.; Chen, J.K.; Chiu, H.Y.; Wu, K.C. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Management, Chaoyang University of Technology, 168 Gifong E. Road, Wufong, Taichung County 41349, Taiwan (China)

    2009-01-15

    This paper aims to investigate the six heavy metal levels (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn) in municipal solid waste (MSW) at different pHs. It intends to provide the baseline information of metals solubility in MSW co-disposed or co-digested with MSW incinerator ashes in landfill or anaerobic bioreactors or heavy metals contaminated in anaerobic digesters. One milliliter (equal to 1 mg) of each metal was added to the 100 ml MSW and the batch reactor test was carried out. The results showed that higher HNO{sub 3} and NaOH were consumed at extreme pH of 1 and 13 compared to those from pH 2 to 11 due to the comparably higher buffer capacity. Pb was found to have the least soluble level, highest metal adsorption (%) and highest partitioning K{sub d} (l g{sup -1}) between pH 3 and 12. In contrast, Ni showed the highest soluble level, lowest metal adsorption (%) and lowest K{sub d} (l g{sup -1}) between pH 4 and 12. Except Ni and Cr, other four metals seemed to show the amphibious properties as comparative higher solubility was found in the acidic and basic conditions.

  7. Heavy metals and metalloids as a cause for protein misfolding and aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamás, Markus J; Sharma, Sandeep K; Ibstedt, Sebastian; Jacobson, Therese; Christen, Philipp

    2014-02-25

    While the toxicity of metals and metalloids, like arsenic, cadmium, mercury, lead and chromium, is undisputed, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not entirely clear. General consensus holds that proteins are the prime targets; heavy metals interfere with the physiological activity of specific, particularly susceptible proteins, either by forming a complex with functional side chain groups or by displacing essential metal ions in metalloproteins. Recent studies have revealed an additional mode of metal action targeted at proteins in a non-native state; certain heavy metals and metalloids have been found to inhibit the in vitro refolding of chemically denatured proteins, to interfere with protein folding in vivo and to cause aggregation of nascent proteins in living cells. Apparently, unfolded proteins with motile backbone and side chains are considerably more prone to engage in stable, pluridentate metal complexes than native proteins with their well-defined 3D structure. By interfering with the folding process, heavy metal ions and metalloids profoundly affect protein homeostasis and cell viability. This review describes how heavy metals impede protein folding and promote protein aggregation, how cells regulate quality control systems to protect themselves from metal toxicity and how metals might contribute to protein misfolding disorders.

  8. Chelation: Harnessing and Enhancing Heavy Metal Detoxification—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret E. Sears

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxic metals such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury are ubiquitous, have no beneficial role in human homeostasis, and contribute to noncommunicable chronic diseases. While novel drug targets for chronic disease are eagerly sought, potentially helpful agents that aid in detoxification of toxic elements, chelators, have largely been restricted to overt acute poisoning. Chelation, that is multiple coordination bonds between organic molecules and metals, is very common in the body and at the heart of enzymes with a metal cofactor such as copper or zinc. Peptides glutathione and metallothionein chelate both essential and toxic elements as they are sequestered, transported, and excreted. Enhancing natural chelation detoxification pathways, as well as use of pharmaceutical chelators against heavy metals are reviewed. Historical adverse outcomes with chelators, lessons learned in the art of using them, and successes using chelation to ameliorate renal, cardiovascular, and neurological conditions highlight the need for renewed attention to simple, safe, inexpensive interventions that offer potential to stem the tide of debilitating, expensive chronic disease.

  9. Determination of heavy metal pollution in soils from selected potentially contaminated sites in Tema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyaaba, A.K.L.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the concentration and determine the level of pollution by harmful heavy metals in soils from selected potentially contaminated sites in Tema. The metals of interest include; mercury, lead, cadmium, cobalt zinc, arsenic, nickel, copper and chromium. A total of forty seven (47) samples comprising thirty eight sub-samples (38) and nine (9) composite samples were collected from nine (9) different locations. These included playgrounds, steel processing factories, used Lead Acid Battery (ULAB) recycling plant, mechanic workshops and the municipal waste disposal site. The samples were prepared after which the elemental concentrations were determined using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) with a secondary target excitation arrangement (5.9 keV). The analysis of the samples yielded the following mean heavy metal concentrations in mg/kg: 424.38 (Cr); 408.68 (Ni); 14427 (Cu); 4129.87 (Zn); 1580.68 (As); 647.48 (Hg); 73361.51 (Pb) and 1176.16 (Co). The mean concentrations of heavy metals in the soils were in the following order Pb>Zn>As>Co>Cu>Hg>Cr>Ni. Mercury was detected at only two of the sites. The average heavy metals in the soils from the sites were generally high since most of them exceeded the optimum and action values of the New Dutch List. The Enrichment Factor (EF) ratios show that the enrichment of the elements in the soils ranged from deficiently to extremely highly enriched. The contamination factor show that the contamination by the heavy metals were low at some of the sites and very high at others. The geoaccumulation indices indicated that the playground (PG) has not been contaminated by any of the metals, C8 is contaminated strongly by mercury only and the contamination at the remaining sites varied from moderately contaminated to extremely contaminated by the metals. The Igeo also indicated that the elements accounting for extreme contamination are lead, arsenic, copper, zinc mercury and chromium. Lead

  10. Heavy metals in chinese therapeutic foods and herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, S.M.; Ning, H.M.; Wu, Y.X.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study 15 samples of Chin ese therapeutic foods and herbs that are frequently consumed by people in both the East and West are analyzed, for the content of cadmium, mercury, lead, arsenic, cuprum and zinc, by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed that the highest mean value for Cd(0.49 mg kg/sup -1/), Hg(0.34 mg kg/sup -1/), Pb(9.01 mg kg/sup -1/), As(3.26 mg kg/sup -1/), Cu(33.56 mg kg/sup -1) and Zn(38.32 mg kg/sup -1/) were found in Radix Salviae Miltitorrhizae, Radix Puerariae, Radix Salviae Miltitorrhizae, Radix Sophorae Flavescentis, Fructus Crataegi, Herba andrographis, respectively.The Cd levels of two samples and Cu levels of one sample were found to be higher than the recommended values of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and World Health Organization (WHO), and may constitute a health hazard for consumers. Mercury, lead, and arsenic levels of one sample were higher than the recommended limit of China Pharmacopoeia, but it were below the WHO and FDA. All other heavy metals in other medicinal plants were found below the recommended tolerable limits. (author)

  11. Determination of heavy metals in the stream of Sunter river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Las, Thamsil; Suwirma, S.; Surtipanti, S.

    1980-01-01

    An environmental pollution study was made on four locations of waste water along the stream of Sunter river during the period of June 1978 to March 1979. Trace heavy metals could be separated by chelation with sodium diethyl dithiocarbamate (NaDDC) extracted into methyl isobuthyl ketone (MIBK) and determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) except mercury which was determined flamelessly. Physical parameters including pH, temperature, turbidity and dissolved oxygen (D.O) were also determined by water checker. The results obtained were as follows: Hg 1.2 to 20.6 ppb; Cd 0.03 to 0.24 ppm; Zn 0.10 to 0.31 ppm; Pb 0.06 to 0.30 ppm; Ni 0.05 to 0.25 ppm; Co 0.05 to 0.20 ppm and Fe 0.27 to 0.76 ppm. The physical parameters were: pH 6.4 to 7.6; temperature 27.6 to 31.1 deg C; turbidity 126 to 328 ppm and dissolved oxygen 2.8 to 7.3 ppm. Data obtained showed that especially mercury and lead were high in concentration, i.e. Hg: 20.6 ppb at location 4 in December 1978 and Pb: 0.30 ppm at location 3 in July 1978. (author)

  12. Distribution, relationship, and risk assessment of toxic heavy metals in walnuts and growth soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yongxiang; Ni, Zhanglin; Li, Shiliang; Qu, Minghua; Tang, Fubin; Mo, Runhong; Ye, Caifen; Liu, Yihua

    2018-04-14

    Walnut is one of the most popular nuts worldwide and contains various mineral nutrients. Little is known, however, about the relationship between toxic heavy metals in walnuts and growth soil. In this study, we investigated the distribution, relationship, and risk assessment of five toxic heavy metals-lead (Pb), arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg)-in walnuts and growth soil in the main production areas of China. The results showed that the main heavy metal pollution in walnut and soil was Pb and Cd. Regionally, positive relationships existed between heavy metals and the pH and organic matter of soil. In addition, we observed a notable uptake effect between walnut and growth soil. In this study, we found a significant correlation (r = 0.786, P toxic heavy metal pollution in walnuts and growth soil could be helpful to screen suitable planting sites to prevent and control heavy metal pollution and improve the quality and safety of walnut.

  13. Organochlorines and heavy metals in pregnant women from the Disko Bay area in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P; Hansen, J C

    2000-01-01

    Recent studies from Greenland and the Canadian Arctic have shown high concentrations of heavy metals, such as mercury, and organochlorines in the blood and fatty tissue of the Inuit. This is attributed in particular to their high consumption of the meat and blubber of marine mammals. In the present...... systems but the high concentrations of pollutants have so far not been shown to influence health in Greenland....

  14. Phytoremediation of water bodies contaminated with radioactive heavy metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Zhen; Yuan Shichao; Ling Hui; Xie Shuibo

    2012-01-01

    The sources of the radioactive heavy metal in the water bodies were analyzed. The factors that affect phyto remediation of water contaminated with radioactive heavy metal were discussed. The plant species, mechanism and major technology of phyto remediation of water contaminated with radioactive heavy metal were particularly introduced. The prospective study was remarked. (authors)

  15. Heavy metals content in the stem bark of Detarium microcarpum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The heavy metal analysis was carried out on the stem bark of D. microcarpum using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The heavy metals screened for include: lead, chromium, manganese, zinc and iron. The levels of manganese, zinc and iron were 13.91, 4.89 and 21.89 mg/L respectively. These heavy metals ...

  16. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Can Benefit Heavy Metal Tolerance and Phytoremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgy, David

    2012-01-01

    Sites contaminated by heavy metals, such as industrial waste sites, create unwelcoming environments for plant growth. Heavy metals can have a wide range of toxic effects such as replacing essential elements or disrupting enzyme function. While some heavy metals are essential to plant nutrition at low concentrations, high concentrations of any…

  17. Classification of Plants According to Their Heavy Metal Content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plants like other living organisms respond differently under different environmental conditions. An elevated level of heavy metals is one of the stresses which results into three classes of plants depending on their heavy metal content. The classes of plant species according to their accumulated heavy metals around North ...

  18. Bioaccumulation and toxic effects of some heavy metals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The contamination of the aquatic systems with heavy metals from natural anthropogenic sources has become a global problem which poses threats to ecosystems and natural communities. Hence this study reviews the effects of heavy metals in freshwater fishes. Fishes bioaccumulate heavy metals (including cadmium, zinc ...

  19. Report on the environmental and health effects of heavy metals; Rapport sur les effets des metaux lourds sur l'environnement et la sante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    In the framework of the bond between the environment and the health, a major interest of the today political debate, the author proposes a report on the environmental and health effects of the heavy metals to help political deciders in the technological and scientific choices. The first part is devoted to the dental amalgam and more specially the use, the environmental and the health aspects of the mercury. The second part deals with the consequences of heavy metals on the environment. The sources, the atmospheric emissions, the releases in water and soils, the heavy metals wastes are detailed. In parallel the third part deals with the consequences of heavy metals on the health, including the toxicity, the risks evaluation, the food exposure, the heavy metals in the life places and the mercury in Guyana. (A.L.B.)

  20. Report on the environmental and health effects of heavy metals; Rapport sur les effets des metaux lourds sur l'environnement et la sante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    In the framework of the bond between the environment and the health, a major interest of the today political debate, the author proposes a report on the environmental and health effects of the heavy metals to help political deciders in the technological and scientific choices. The first part is devoted to the dental amalgam and more specially the use, the environmental and the health aspects of the mercury. The second part deals with the consequences of heavy metals on the environment. The sources, the atmospheric emissions, the releases in water and soils, the heavy metals wastes are detailed. In parallel the third part deals with the consequences of heavy metals on the health, including the toxicity, the risks evaluation, the food exposure, the heavy metals in the life places and the mercury in Guyana. (A.L.B.)

  1. Bioremediation of Heavy Metal by Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Dwivedi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Instead of using mainly bacteria, it is also possible to use mainly algae to clean wastewater because many of the pollutant sources in wastewater are also food sources for algae. Nitrates and phosphates are common components of plant fertilizers for plants. Like plants, algae need large quantities of nitrates and phosphates to support their fast cell cycles. Certain heavy metals are also important for the normal functioning of algae. These include iron (for photosynthesis, and chromium (for metabolism. Because marine environments are normally scarce in these metals, some marine algae especially have developed efficient mechanisms to gather these heavy metals from the environment and take them up. These natural processes can also be used to remove certain heavy metals from the environment. The use of algae has several advantages over normal bacteria-based bioremediation processes. One major advantage in the removal of pollutants is that this is a process that under light conditions does not need oxygen. Instead, as pollutants are taken up and digested, oxygen is added while carbon dioxide is removed. Hence, phytoremediation could potentially be coupled with carbon sequestration. Additionally, because phytoremediation does not rely on fouling processes, odors are much less a problem. Microalgae, in particular, have been recognized as suitable vectors for detoxification and have emerged as a potential low-cost alternative to physicochemical treatments. Uptake of metals by living microalgae occurs in two steps: one takes place rapidly and is essentially independent of cell metabolism – “adsorption” onto the cell surface. The other one is lengthy and relies on cell metabolism – “absorption” or “intracellular uptake.” Nonviable cells have also been successfully used in metal removal from contaminated sites. Some of the technologies in heavy metal removals, such as High Rate Algal Ponds and Algal Turf Scrubber, have been justified for

  2. Heavy metals hazards from Nigerian spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asomugha, Rose Ngozi; Udowelle, Nnaemeka Arinze; Offor, Samuel James; Njoku, Chinonso Judith; Ofoma, Ifeoma Victoria; Chukwuogor, Chiaku Chinwe; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere

    Natural spices are commonly used by the people in Nigeria. They may be easily contaminated with heavy metals when they are dried and then pose a health risk for the consumers. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of heavy metals in some commonly consumed natural spices namely Prosopis Africana, Xylopia aethiopica, Piper gineense, Monodora myristica, Monodora tenuifolia and Capsicum frutescens sold in the local markets of Awka, Anambra state, South East Nigeria to estimate the potential health risk. The range of heavy metal concentration was in the order: Zn (14.09 - 161.04) > Fe (28.15 - 134.59) > Pb (2.61 - 8.97) > Cr (0.001 - 3.81) > Co (0.28 - 3.07) > Ni (0.34 - 2.89). Pb, Fe and Zn exceeded the maximum allowable concentrations for spices. The Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) of the spices varied from 0.06-0.5. Estimated daily intakes (EDI) were all below the tolerable daily intake (TDI). The lead levels in Prosopis africana, Xylopia aethiopica, Piper gineense, Monodora myristica and Capsicum frutescens which are 8-30 times higher than the WHO/FAO permissible limit of 0.3 mg/kg. Lead contamination of spices sold in Awka (south east Nigeria) may add to the body burden of lead. A good quality control for herbal food is important in order to protect consumers from contamination. food products, spices, potential toxic metals, risk assessment, public health.

  3. 21 CFR 862.3600 - Mercury test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....3600 Mercury test system. (a) Identification. A mercury test system is a device intended to measure mercury, a heavy metal, in human specimens. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the diagnosis... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mercury test system. 862.3600 Section 862.3600...

  4. Uptake and distribution of soil-applied labelled heavy metals in cereal plants and products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberlaender, H.E.; Roth, K.

    1983-01-01

    In the present paper investigations are described on the uptake, distribution and translocation of mercury, cadmium, chromium and zinc by spring and winter varieties of wheat, rye and barley. Pot experiments were carried out at low concentrations of the heavy metals in order to avoid growth interference during the uptake. Using radioisotopes the pathway of the metals was traced through different organs into the milling products. An ion-exchanger was added to the soils and its efficiency of reducing the uptake of the metals by the plants was tested

  5. Use of Dried Blood Spots for Estimating Children?s Exposures to Heavy Metals in Epidemiological Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Children’s exposures to arsenic (As), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and cadmium (Cd) are of particular concern in early-life. Exposures to heavy metals are traditionally measured in whole venous blood, which is costly and invasive. As an alternative we describe a met...

  6. Contamination features and health risk of soil heavy metals in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Haiyang; Teng, Yanguo; Lu, Sijin; Wang, Yeyao; Wang, Jinsheng

    2015-01-01

    China faces a big challenge of environmental deterioration amid its rapid economic development. To comprehensively identify the contamination characteristics of heavy metals in Chinese soils on a national scale, data set of the first national soil pollution survey was employed to evaluate the pollution levels using several pollution indicators (pollution index, geoaccumulation index and enrichment factor) and to quantify their exposure risks posed to human health with the risk assessment model recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The results showed that, due to the drastically increased industrial operations and fast urban expansion, Chinese soils were contaminated by heavy metals in varying degrees. As a whole, the exposure risk levels of soil metals in China were tolerable or close to acceptable. Comparatively speaking, children and adult females were the relatively vulnerable populations for the non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks, respectively. Cadmium and mercury have been identified as the priority control metals due to their higher concentrations in soils or higher health risks posed to the public, as well as, arsenic, lead, chromium and nickel. Spatial distribution pattern analysis implied that the soil metal pollutions in southern provinces of China were relatively higher than that in other provinces, which would be related to the higher geochemical background in southwest regions and the increasing human activities in southeast areas. Meanwhile, it should be noticed that Beijing, the capital of China, also has been labeled as the priority control province for its higher mercury concentration. These results will provide basic information for the improvement of soil environment management and heavy metal pollution prevention and control in China. - Highlights: • Soil contamination with heavy metals in China was systematically studied. • Spatial distribution patterns of heavy metals in Chinese soils were identified. • Monte

  7. Contamination features and health risk of soil heavy metals in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Haiyang [Engineering Research Center of Groundwater Pollution Control and Remediation, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Teng, Yanguo, E-mail: Teng1974@163.com [Engineering Research Center of Groundwater Pollution Control and Remediation, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Lu, Sijin; Wang, Yeyao [China National Environmental Monitoring Center, Beijing 100012 (China); Wang, Jinsheng [Engineering Research Center of Groundwater Pollution Control and Remediation, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2015-04-15

    China faces a big challenge of environmental deterioration amid its rapid economic development. To comprehensively identify the contamination characteristics of heavy metals in Chinese soils on a national scale, data set of the first national soil pollution survey was employed to evaluate the pollution levels using several pollution indicators (pollution index, geoaccumulation index and enrichment factor) and to quantify their exposure risks posed to human health with the risk assessment model recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The results showed that, due to the drastically increased industrial operations and fast urban expansion, Chinese soils were contaminated by heavy metals in varying degrees. As a whole, the exposure risk levels of soil metals in China were tolerable or close to acceptable. Comparatively speaking, children and adult females were the relatively vulnerable populations for the non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks, respectively. Cadmium and mercury have been identified as the priority control metals due to their higher concentrations in soils or higher health risks posed to the public, as well as, arsenic, lead, chromium and nickel. Spatial distribution pattern analysis implied that the soil metal pollutions in southern provinces of China were relatively higher than that in other provinces, which would be related to the higher geochemical background in southwest regions and the increasing human activities in southeast areas. Meanwhile, it should be noticed that Beijing, the capital of China, also has been labeled as the priority control province for its higher mercury concentration. These results will provide basic information for the improvement of soil environment management and heavy metal pollution prevention and control in China. - Highlights: • Soil contamination with heavy metals in China was systematically studied. • Spatial distribution patterns of heavy metals in Chinese soils were identified. • Monte

  8. Deciphering heavy metal contamination zones in soils of a granitic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ., Ba, Cr, Cu,. Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr ... metal contamination in soils of different regions. The study ... in the Hyderabad city. ... A network of first and second order streams ... In this case, redun- ...... strategy for developing countries; In: Lead, mercury, cad-.

  9. Association between Serum Heavy Metals Level and Cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-06-11

    Jun 11, 2018 ... metals level and cancer incidence in Darbandikhan and Kalar area,. Kurdistan region ..... In males, they were lung, leukemia, lymphoma, colorectal, prostate, bladder, ... lead, mercury, and tin activate the estrogen receptor,.

  10. Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie

    2012-01-01

    Electrodialytic soil remediation is a method for removal of heavy metals. Good results have previously been obtained with both treatment of a stationary, water saturated soil matrix and with remediation of a stirred suspension of soil in water. The two different setups have different uses....... The first as in-situ or on-site treatment when there is no requirement for fast remediation, as the removal rate of the heavy metals are dependent on the distance between the electrodes (everything else equal) and in such application the electrode spacing must have a certain distance (often meters......). In the stirred setup it is possible to shorten the transport route to few mm and to have a faster and continuous process. The present paper for the first time reports a direct comparison of the two options. The remediation of the stirred suspension showed faster than remediation of the water saturated soil even...

  11. Heavy Metals Pollution in Lake Mariut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, M.A.H.; Ezzat, A.A.E.; El-Rayis, O.A.; Hafez, H.

    1981-01-01

    The occurrence and distribution of heavy metals in the water of the heavily polluted Lake Mariut (Egypt) during August 1978 to September 1979 as well as the accumulation of these metals in the different parts of the common fish, Tilapia species, were studied. The study represents a second part of a pilot project on pollution of Lake Mariut supported by IAEA. The mean concentrations of the measured Zn, Gu, Fe, Mn and Cd in the lake water were 10.9, 4.2, 19.1, 26.2 and 0.62 μg/l, respectively

  12. Heavy metals in the hydrological cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astruc, M.; Lester, J.N.

    1988-01-01

    An integrated approach to the problems associated with heavy metals in the hydrological cycle is presented. Research and practical experience from a broad spectrum of disciplines are drawn together concentrating on the following themes: water quality, domestic and industrial wastes, sludge and dredge materials, soil interactions, effects on aquatic ecosystems, organometallics (with particular reference to tin compounds), speciation, the marine environment and health effects. One paper is within INIS scope and is processed separately. (U.K.)

  13. Heavy metals in carabids (Coleoptera, Carabidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan Butovsky

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae are one of the most studied soil groups in relation to heavy metal (HM accumulation and use for bioindication of environmental pollution. Accumulation of Zn and Cu in carabid beetles was species-, sex- and trophic group-specific. No differences were found in HM contents between omnivorous and carnivorous species. The use of carabid beetles as indicators of HM accumulation appears to be rather limited.

  14. Uranium and heavy metals in phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khater, Ashraf E.M.; King Saud University, Riyadh

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Agricultural applications of chemical fertilizers are a worldwide practice. The specific activity of uranium-238 and heavy metals in phosphate fertilizers depends on the phosphate ore from which the fertilizer produced and on the chemical processing of the ore. Composite phosphate fertilizers samples were collected and the uranium-238 specific activity, in Bq/kg, and As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Se concentration were measured. The annual addition of these elements in soil due to soil fertilization were calculated and discussed. (author)

  15. Polution of the environment by heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houtman, J.P.W.

    1980-01-01

    An overview is given of the problems caused by pollution of the environment by heavy metals and the important role played by nuclear examination methods such as activation analysis and particle induced X-ray emission. A number of examples taken from work initiated by the interuniversitair Reactor Instituut, demonstrate that this research should be continued and extended, particularly in relation to the expected increase in the use of coal for energy generation in electricity centres. (C.F.)

  16. Effects of some heavy metals on oats in pot experiments with three different soil types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asbjørn Sorteberg

    1978-07-01

    Full Text Available An account is given of two pot experiments, of which one has included all combinations of 5 heavy metals (cadmium, cobalt, lead, mercury and nickel, 3 rates of each metal, 2 rates of lime, and 3 types of soil (clay soil, peat soil and sandy soil. The experiment has run for 4 years (1973 —1976. Two parallels have been used for each treatment. A third parallel without crop has been used for soil sampling only. The second experiment has run for 3 years (1974 —1976, and has included the same soil types and lime rates, but only cadmium and mercury of the metals. The crop grown in all years has been oats. 250 mg/pot of all metals except lead have had a distinct yield reducing effect. In the case of mercury, the reducing effect ceases from the third year. It decreases gradually after nickel throughout the experimental period, but not after cadmium and cobalt. Heavy liming (pH 6—7 has almost eliminated the yield reduction after nickel, and has considerably reduced it after cobalt. The contents of cadmium, nickel, cobalt, and mercury in the yield have been multiplied with the application of 250 mg/pot of the metals mentioned. Application of even 0.5 mg/pot of cadmium resulted in a distinct increase of content both in grain and straw. 0.5 and 5 mg mercury, however, had only slight effect. The content of the metals decreased throughout the experimental period. The effect of mercury in the fourth year has been minimal, even after the highest application rate. Lead application led to only moderate increase in the content of the yield. Roughly 45—55 percent of the added rates of cadmium, nickel and cobalt, as a mean value for the soil series, has been recovered as AL-soluble at light liming with pH approximately 5. Heavy liming has reduced the uptake by 3—7 percent for cadmium, by 16—20 percent for nickel, and by 22—24 percent for cobalt. Generally, the amounts of AL-soluble metal in soils have decreased in the order: series peat > sand > clay.

  17. [Research advances in heavy metals pollution ecology of diatom].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Teng-Da; Ni, Wan-Min; Zhang, Jian-Ying

    2012-03-01

    Diatom, due to its high sensitivity to environmental change, is one of the bio-indicators of aquatic ecosystem health, and some typical diatom species have been applied to indicate the heavy metals pollution of water body. With the focus on the surface water heavy metals pollution, this paper reviewed the research advances in the toxic effect of heavy metals pollution on diatom, biosorption and bioaccumulation of heavy metals by diatom, ecological adaptation mechanisms of diatom to heavy metals pollution, and roles of diatom as bio-indicator and in ecological restoration of heavy metals pollution. The growth tendency of diatom and the morphological change of frustule under heavy metals pollution as well as the differences in heavy metals biosorption and bioaccumulation by diatom, the ecological adaptation mechanisms of diatom on heavy metals surface complexation and ion exchange, and the roles of diatom as bio-indicator and in ecological restoration of heavy metals polluted water body were also discussed. This review could provide scientific evidences for the prevention of aquatic ecosystems heavy metals pollution and related early warning techniques.

  18. Mercury and Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Risk of Exposure to Mercury Learn About Mercury What is Mercury What is Metallic mercury? Toxicological Profile ToxFAQs Mercury Resources CDC’s National Biomonitoring Program Factsheet on Mercury ...

  19. Heavy Metals in Contaminated Soils: A Review of Sources, Chemistry, Risks and Best Available Strategies for Remediation

    OpenAIRE

    Wuana, Raymond A.; Okieimen, Felix E.

    2011-01-01

    Scattered literature is harnessed to critically review the possible sources, chemistry, potential biohazards and best available remedial strategies for a number of heavy metals (lead, chromium, arsenic, zinc, cadmium, copper, mercury and nickel) commonly found in contaminated soils. The principles, advantages and disadvantages of immobilization, soil washing and phytoremediation techniques which are frequently listed among the best demonstrated available technologies for cleaning up heavy met...

  20. Heavy metal movement in metal-contaminated soil profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhenbin; Shuman, L.M. [Univ. of Georgia, Griffin, GA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Heavy metal movement in soil profiles is a major environmental concern because even slow transport through the soil may eventually lead to deterioration of groundwater quality. In this study, three metal-contaminated soil (Fuquay, Dothan, and Clarendon) were selected from cropland were a high-metal flue dust had been applied annually for 6 years to raise soil pH, with application ending 4 years before sampling. One uncontaminated soil (Tifton) from the same physiographic area was also sampled as a control. Soil samples were collected in 15-cm increments from the surface to 105 cm in depth. Total contents of Zn, Cd, and Pb in the soils samples were determined. To better understand metal movement in relation to metal fractions in the soil profile, soil samples were also extracted sequentially for exchangeable (EXC), organic matter (OM), Mn oxide (MNO), amorphous Fe oxide (AFEO), crystalline Fe oxide (CFEO), and residual (RES) fractions. 35 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. The effects of pH and concentration on heavy metal speciation and mobility, and its relation to heavy metal hyperaccumulation and distribution in selected native Australian flora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, D.D.; McPhail, D.C.; Hallam, N.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The purpose of this research is to establish a clearer understanding of the relations that exist between heavy metal activity, speciation, bioavailability and their uptake and spatial distribution into plants. A combination of experimental modeling and pot trials using toxic heavy metals (cadmium, lead, mercury, copper, chromium and zinc) will be carried out. In the experiments, selected native Australian flora (Eucalyptus, Acacia, Atriplex) adapted to adverse environmental conditions will be used. Varying external factors such as pH, and metal concentration altered the composition of heavy metal speciation in the soil solution. Mathematical and geochemical (PHREEQC) models were used to vary these factors and emulate the conditions under which experimentation will be taking place. These variations help determine the possible heavy metal speciation that would occur in both soil and hydroponic based experiments under given conditions. The rhizosphere, soil solution and the plant material will be analysed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICPMS). Proton Ion X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Secondary Ion Mass spectrometry will help ascertain the distribution, concentration of heavy metal taken up into plant tissues. Information derived from these data will be used to determine and understand how varying such environmental conditions and hence heavy metal speciation affect their bioavailability in the medium, and how their acceptance, accumulation and storage within the selected flora. Preliminary experimentation showed that, for lead and cadmium, the variation in soil solution pH affected the quantity of heavy metal accumulated into selected native Australian flora. ICP-MS analysis of plants subjected to a known soil solution spiked with 200 μmol of lead and cadmium showed that the quantities of lead and cadmium accumulated into plant sections (roots, stems and leaves) varied in the selected woody species. A. heteroclita, A. saligna, and A

  2. Sediment, water pollution indicators for heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabaleiro, S.; Horn, A.

    2010-01-01

    The complexity of an aquatic system requires consideration of its dynamics: spatial and temporal variations of physical, chemical and biological. Heavy metals have peculiar behavior in the aquatic system and may not be available in the waters, but on sediments.The sub-basin of the Sarandi stream is responsible for the contamination of Pampulha Lake. The Instituto Mineiro das Águas – IGAM - uses tool for monitoring the quality of surface water for developing strategies for conservation, restoration and rational use of water resources. So through the indices: IQA ( Indice de qualidade de águas) Index of water quality, and TC- toxic contamination, reduces conflicts, implements the disciplining of the environmental economy.This study determined the monitoring of sediment and water of Sarandi Stream, so in the samples collected during dry and rainy seasons (2007- 2008) were analyzed heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Cr, Co, Ni, Zn, Pb) and physical-chemical factors (conductivity, solids dissolved, temperature, turbidity). This allowed the determination of Hackanson factors of contamination and Muller Index geoaccumulation, indicating very high contamination in sediments regarding the elements Cr, Cu, and Cd, and high contamination for Pb, Zn, and Mn. The comparison with the indices of water quality- IQA (IGAM - 2006, 2007 and 2008), combined with exploratory data analysis and graphs of correlation between the variables indicated favorable conditions for metals contamination on water and sediment for these metals, besides allowing the identification of its source

  3. Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals in Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Aibuedefe AISIEN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the major environmental problems is the pollution of water and soil by toxic heavy metals. This study investigated the phytoremediation potential of water hyacinth, for the removal of cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb and zinc (Zn. Water hyacinths were cultured in bore-hole water, supplemented with 5mg/l of Zn and Pb and 1mg/l of Cd at pH 4.5, 6.8 and 8.5. The plants were separately harvested each week for six weeks. The results showed that removal of these metals from solution was fast especially in the first two weeks, after which it became gradual till saturation point was reached. The accumulation of Cd and Zn in leaves and roots increased with increase in pH. The highest accumulation was in the roots with metal concentration of 4870mg/kg, 4150mg/kg and 710mg/kg for Zn, Pb and Cd respectively at pH 8.5. The maximum values of bioconcentration factor (BCF for Zn, Pb and Cd were 1674, 1531 and 1479 respectively, suggesting that water hyacinth was good accumulator of Zn, Pb and Cd, and could be used to treat industrial wastewater contaminated with heavy metals such as Zn, Pb and Cd.

  4. On the structure of heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedel, J.

    1958-01-01

    The properties of the last series of Mendeleef's table are compared with those of the elements of the preceding series. This comparison suggests an electronic structure of the 'transition metal' type, with narrow bands, at the beginning of this series (up to certain phases at least of plutonium); then of the rare earth metal type, with independent non-saturated internal layers, further on in the series. The 5 f orbits seem to play an important part in these two types of structure, from uranium on. A more detailed study of the very heavy elements (americium and beyond) and alloys would allow these conclusions to be confirmed. Certain general points, concerning the nature of homopolar connections and paramagnetism in the transition metals, are developed in an additional section. (author) [fr

  5. Heavy metals binding properties of esterified lemon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arslanoglu, Hasan; Altundogan, Hamdi Soner [Department of Chemical Engineering, Firat University, 23279 Elazig (Turkey); Tumen, Fikret, E-mail: ftumen@firat.edu.tr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Firat University, 23279 Elazig (Turkey)

    2009-05-30

    Sorption of Cd{sup 2+}, Cr{sup 3+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+} onto a carboxyl groups-rich material prepared from lemon was investigated in batch systems. The results revealed that the sorption is highly pH dependent. Sorption kinetic data indicated that the equilibrium was achieved in the range of 30-240 min for different metal ions and sorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order model for all metals studied. Relative sorption rate of various metal cations was found to be in the general order of Ni{sup 2+} > Cd{sup 2+} > Cu{sup 2+} > Pb{sup 2+} > Zn{sup 2+} > Cr{sup 3+}. The binding characteristics of the sorbent for heavy metal ions were analyzed under various conditions and isotherm data was accurately fitted to the Langmuir equation. The metal binding capacity order calculated from Langmuir isotherm was Pb{sup 2+} > Cu{sup 2+} > Ni{sup 2+} > Cd{sup 2+} > Zn{sup 2+} > Cr{sup 3+}. The mean free energy of metal sorption process calculated from Dubinin-Radushkevich parameter and the Polanyi potential was found to be in the range of 8-11 kJ mol{sup -1} for the metals studied showing that the main mechanism governing the sorption process seems to be ion exchange. The basic thermodynamic parameters of metals ion sorption process were calculated by using the Langmuir constants obtained from equilibration study. The {Delta}G{sup o} and {Delta}H{sup o} values for metals ion sorption on the lemon sorbent showed the process to be spontaneous and exothermic in nature. Relatively low {Delta}H{sup o} values revealed that physical adsorption significantly contributed to the mechanism.

  6. Heavy metal toxicity and iron chlorosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeKock, P C

    1956-01-01

    The toxicity of copper, nickel, cobalt, zinc, chromium, and manganese to mustard was studied in water culture, utilizing either the ionic form or the EDTA chelate of the metal in the presence of either ferric chloride or ferric EDTA. In presence of ferric chloride the activity of the metals in producing chlorosis was as given above, i.e. in the order of stability of their chelates. In the presence of ferric versenate, toxicity of the ionic metal was much reduced. The metal chelates gave very little indication of toxicity with either form of iron. It was found that the ratio of total phosphorus to total iron was higher in chlorotic plants than in green plants, irrespective of which metal was causing the toxicity. Copper could be demonstrated in the phloem cells of the root using biscyclohexanone-oxalydihydrazone as histochemical reagent. It is postulated that transport of iron probably takes place in the phloem as an active process. It would appear that as a major part of the iron in plant cells is attached to nucleo- or phospho-proteins, the heavy metals must be similarly attached to phospho-proteins.

  7. A review of toxicity and mechanisms of individual and mixtures of heavy metals in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiangyang; Cobbina, Samuel J; Mao, Guanghua; Xu, Hai; Zhang, Zhen; Yang, Liuqing

    2016-05-01

    The rational for the study was to review the literature on the toxicity and corresponding mechanisms associated with lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As), individually and as mixtures, in the environment. Heavy metals are ubiquitous and generally persist in the environment, enabling them to biomagnify in the food chain. Living systems most often interact with a cocktail of heavy metals in the environment. Heavy metal exposure to biological systems may lead to oxidation stress which may induce DNA damage, protein modification, lipid peroxidation, and others. In this review, the major mechanism associated with toxicities of individual metals was the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Additionally, toxicities were expressed through depletion of glutathione and bonding to sulfhydryl groups of proteins. Interestingly, a metal like Pb becomes toxic to organisms through the depletion of antioxidants while Cd indirectly generates ROS by its ability to replace iron and copper. ROS generated through exposure to arsenic were associated with many modes of action, and heavy metal mixtures were found to have varied effects on organisms. Many models based on concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA) have been introduced to help predict toxicities and mechanisms associated with metal mixtures. An integrated model which combines CA and IA was further proposed for evaluating toxicities of non-interactive mixtures. In cases where there are molecular interactions, the toxicogenomic approach was used to predict toxicities. The high-throughput toxicogenomics combines studies in genetics, genome-scale expression, cell and tissue expression, metabolite profiling, and bioinformatics.

  8. Spatial assessment of soil contamination by heavy metals from informal electronic waste recycling in Agbogbloshie, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyere, Vincent Nartey; Greve, Klaus; Atiemo, Sampson M

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the spatial distribution and the extent of soil contamination by heavy metals resulting from primitive, unconventional informal electronic waste recycling in the Agbogbloshie e-waste processing site (AEPS) in Ghana. A total of 132 samples were collected at 100 m intervals, with a handheld global position system used in taking the location data of the soil sample points. Observing all procedural and quality assurance measures, the samples were analyzed for barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn), using X-ray fluorescence. Using environmental risk indices of contamination factor and degree of contamination (C deg ), we analyzed the individual contribution of each heavy metal contamination and the overall C deg . We further used geostatistical techniques of spatial autocorrelation and variability to examine spatial distribution and extent of heavy metal contamination. Results from soil analysis showed that heavy metal concentrations were significantly higher than the Canadian Environmental Protection Agency and Dutch environmental standards. In an increasing order, Pb>Cd>Hg>Cu>Zn>Cr>Co>Ba>Ni contributed significantly to the overall C deg . Contamination was highest in the main working areas of burning and dismantling sites, indicating the influence of recycling activities. Geostatistical analysis also revealed that heavy metal contamination spreads beyond the main working areas to residential, recreational, farming, and commercial areas. Our results show that the studied heavy metals are ubiquitous within AEPS and the significantly high concentration of these metals reflect the contamination factor and C deg , indicating soil contamination in AEPS with the nine heavy metals studied.

  9. A review of phytoremediation technology: heavy metals uptake by plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiahadi, A.; Acar, R.

    2018-03-01

    Heavy metal is one of the serious environmental pollutions for now days as impact of industrial development in several countries. Heavy metals give toxic effects on human health and cause several serious diseases. Several techniques have been using for removing heavy metal contaminants from the environmental but these techniques have limitations such as high cost, long time, logistical problems and mechanical complexity. Phytoremediation can be used as an alternative solution for heavy metal remediation process because of its advantages as a cost-effective, efficient, environment- and eco-friendly technology based on the use of metal-accumulating plants. According to previous studies, several plants have a high potential as heavy metals bioaccumulator and can be used for phytoremediation process of heavy metals.

  10. Heavy Metal Contaminated Soil Imitation Biological Treatment Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chang; Chen, Jun; Wu, Ke; Zhou, Zhongkai; Cheng, Tingting

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the treatment methods of heavy metal pollution in soils were analyzed, the existence and transformation of heavy metals in soil were explored, and the mechanism of heavy metal absorption by plants was studied. It was concluded that the main form of plants absorb heavy metals in the soil is exchangeable. The main mechanism was that the plant cell wall can form complex with heavy metals, so that heavy metals fixed on the cell wall, and through the selective absorption of plasma membrane into the plant body. In addition, the adsorption mechanism of the adsorbed material was analyzed. According to the results of some researchers, it was found that the mechanism of adsorption of heavy metals was similar to that of plants. According to this, using adsorbent material as the main material, Imitate the principle of plant absorption of heavy metals in the soil to removing heavy metals in the soil at one-time and can be separated from the soil after adsorption to achieve permanent removal of heavy metals in the soil was feasibility.

  11. Children with health impairments by heavy metals in an e-waste recycling area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiang; Xu, Xijin; Boezen, H Marike; Huo, Xia

    2016-04-01

    E-waste recycling has become a global environmental health issue. Pernicious chemicals escape into the environment due to informal and nonstandard e-waste recycling activities involving manual dismantling, open burning to recover heavy metals and open dumping of residual fractions. Heavy metals derived from electronic waste (e-waste), such as, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), aluminum (Al) and cobalt (Co), differ in their chemical composition, reaction properties, distribution, metabolism, excretion and biological transmission. Our previous studies showed that heavy metal exposure have adverse effects on children's health including lower birth weight, lower anogenital distance, lower Apgar scores, lower current weight, lower lung function, lower hepatitis B surface antibody levels, higher prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and higher DNA and chromosome damage. Heavy metals influence a number of diverse systems and organs, resulting in both acute and chronic effects on children's health, ranging from minor upper respiratory irritation to chronic respiratory, cardiovascular, nervous, urinary and reproductive disease, as well as aggravation of pre-existing symptoms and disease. These effects of heavy metals on children's health are briefly discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A Review of Heavy Metal Concentration and Potential Health Implications of Beverages Consumed in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvester Chibueze Izah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Beverages are consumed in Nigeria irrespective of age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Beverages may be alcoholic (wine, spirits, and beers or non-alcoholic (soft drink, energy drinks, candies, chocolates, milks. Notwithstanding, most beverages are packed in cans, bottles, and plastics. This paper reviews the concentration of heavy metals from some commercially-packaged beverages consumed in Nigeria. The study found that heavy metal concentrations, including iron, mercury, tin, antimony, cadmium, zinc, copper, chromium, lead, and manganese, seldom exceed the maximum contaminant level recommended by the Standard Organization of Nigeria (SON and the World Health Organization (WHO as applicable to drinking water resources. The occurrence of heavy metals in the beverages could have resulted from the feedstocks and water used in their production. Consumption of beverages high in heavy metal could be toxic and cause adverse effect to human health, depending on the rate of exposure and accumulation dosage. This study concludes by suggesting that heavy metal concentration in the feedstocks and water should be monitored by producers, and its concentration in beverages should also be monitored by appropriate regulatory agencies.

  13. The phytoremediation potential of heavy metals from soil using Poaceae energy crops: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa PRELAC

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation is a method that use plants which can remove or stabilize pollutants in the environment. The aim of the polluted area remediation is to return ecosystems into original condition. Phytoremediation is a green technology used for a wide range of pollutants as well as on various lands, low costs and reduced environment impacts. Energy crops are relatively new in this field of researches and insufficiently explored. However, the results so far show their potential in heavy metal removal. The aim of this research was to examine the available literature and determine the phytoremediation potential of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel and zinc from the soil using Arundo donax, Miscanthus x giganteus, Panicum virgatum, Pennisetum purpureum, Sida hermaphrodita and Sorghum x drummondii. According to the researches conditions, studied energy crops are reccomended in heavy metals phytoextraction, rhizofiltration, stabilization and accumulation. Still, those plants accumulate higher concentrations of heavy metals in the rhizosphere which makes them heavy metals excluders since heavy metals are not translocated into the plants' shoot system and favorable in the implementation of rhizofiltration as well.

  14. Heavy metals in atmospheric surrogate dry deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morselli; Cecchini; Grandi; Iannuccilli; Barilli; Olivieri

    1999-02-01

    This paper describes a methodological approach for the assessment of the amount of surrogate dry deposition of several toxic heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V, Zn) associated with atmospheric particulate matter at ground level. The objectives of the study were twofold: i) the evaluation of several techniques for the digestion of dry deposition samples for trace metal analysis; ii) the comparison of the results from two samplers with different collecting surfaces. A dry solid surface sampler (DRY sampler, Andersen--USA) and a water layer surface sampler (DAS sampler--MTX Italy) were employed. The samples were collected over a one-year period in an urban site of Bologna (northern Italy). A description is given of the complete procedure, from sampling to data elaboration, including sample storage, digestion and analytical methods. According to the results obtained with three different digestion techniques (Teflon bomb, microwave digester and Teflon flask with vapour cooling system), the highest recovery rate was achieved by the Teflon bomb procedure employing an NBS 1648 Standard Reference Material; 90-95% of the elements considered were recovered by dissolution in a pressurized Teflon bomb with an HNO3-HF mixture. Given these results, the technique was adopted for dry deposition sample digestion. On the basis of the amount of heavy metals measured as monthly deposition fluxes (microg/m2), the collecting efficiency of the DAS sampler for a number of elements was found to be as much as two to three times greater than that of the DRY sampler.

  15. Facultative hyperaccumulation of heavy metals and metalloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, A Joseph; Reeves, Roger D; Baker, Alan J M

    2014-03-01

    Approximately 500 species of plants are known to hyperaccumulate heavy metals and metalloids. The majority are obligate metallophytes, species that are restricted to metalliferous soils. However, a smaller but increasing list of plants are "facultative hyperaccumulators" that hyperaccumulate heavy metals when occurring on metalliferous soils, yet also occur commonly on normal, non-metalliferous soils. This paper reviews the biology of facultative hyperaccumulators and the opportunities they provide for ecological and evolutionary research. The existence of facultative hyperaccumulator populations across a wide edaphic range allows intraspecific comparisons of tolerance and uptake physiology. This approach has been used to study zinc and cadmium hyperaccumulation by Noccaea (Thlaspi) caerulescens and Arabidopsis halleri, and it will be instructive to make similar comparisons on species that are distributed even more abundantly on normal soil. Over 90% of known hyperaccumulators occur on serpentine (ultramafic) soil and accumulate nickel, yet there have paradoxically been few experimental studies of facultative nickel hyperaccumulation. Several hypotheses suggested to explain the evolution of hyperaccumulation seem unlikely when most populations of a species occur on normal soil, where plants cannot hyperaccumulate due to low metal availability. In such species, it may be that hyperaccumulation is an ancestral phylogenetic trait or an anomalous manifestation of physiological mechanisms evolved on normal soils, and may or may not have direct adaptive benefits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Analysis of heavy metals monitoring results in food in Shaoxing in 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wei; Wang, Jing; Wu, Hongmiao; Lian, Lingjun; Du, Sai; Chen, Li

    2015-11-01

    To investigate heavy metals contamination level in food in Shaoxing, and to provide basis evidence for supervising heavy metals pollution in food and environmental pollution control in Shaoxing. Food samples in 2014 were detected for lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic, nickel, copper and chromium by national standard methods, and the results were evaluated by GB 2762-2012 Pollutants limits in food. 1384 samples from 10 food categories were collected and tested for lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic, the over standard rates were 2.0%, 3.0%, 1.5% and 0.22%, respectively, the median were 0.019, 0.0085, 0.0024 and 0.015 mg/kg, respectively; 273 samples were collected and tested for nickel, the detection rate was 48.4%, the median was 0.010 mg/kg; 255 samples were collected and tested for chromium, the detection rate was 14.9%, the median was 0.0050 mg/kg; 486 samples were collected and tested for copper, the detection rate was 94.0%, the median was 1.34 mg/kg. The heavy metals over standard rate of aquatic products, animal internal organs and grain were relatively high, 16.9%, 7.9% and 7.3% cadmium in swimming crabs exceeded standard seriously, the over standard rate was 38.9%. The overall pollution of heavy metals in food are not high in Shaoxing in 2014, but some food (aquatic products, animal internal organs and grain) pollution are relatively outstanding, and have the over standard problems of lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic.

  17. Feasibility study of X-ray K-edge analysis of RCRA heavy metal contamination of sludge packaged in drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, T.

    1999-01-01

    A study has been completed to assess the capabilities of X-ray K-edge analysis in the measurement of RCRA metal contamination of sludge packaged in drums. Results were obtained for mercury and lead contamination. It was not possible to measure cadmium contamination using this technique. No false positive signals were observed. In cases where uniformity of the sludge can be assumed, this analysis can provide a quick, accurate measurement of heavy-metal contamination

  18. Uranium and heavy metals in phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khater, A.E.M.

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural applications of chemical fertilizers are a worldwide practice. The specific activity of uranium-238 and heavy metals in phosphate fertilizers depends on the phosphate ore from which the fertilizer produced and on the chemical processing of the ore. Composite phosphate fertilizers samples where collected and the uranium-238 specific activity, in Bq/kg, and As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Se concentration, in ppm, were measured. The annual addition of these elements in soil due to fertilization were calculated and discussed. (author)(tk)

  19. Evaluation of heavy metal complex phytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vita Vasilyevna Datsenko

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The experimental data dealing with the effect of heavy metals contained in the technogenic contaminated soils on plant objects under controlled conditions was discussed. The aim of this work is to define the quantitative indicators of copper and zinc potential phytotoxicity, namely germination energy, simultaneous germination and duration of the test plants. It was found that the activity of the test plant growth is linked with copper and zinc complex action. Joint effect of copper and zinc is manifested both in inhibition of lettuce growth and determined, above all, by the nature contamination, soil properties and biological specificity of the test plants.

  20. Heavy Metal Exposure and Metabolic Syndrome: Evidence from Human and Model System Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planchart, Antonio; Green, Adrian; Hoyo, Cathrine; Mattingly, Carolyn J

    2018-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) describes the co-occurrence of conditions that increase one's risk for heart disease and other disorders such as diabetes and stroke. The worldwide increase in the prevalence of MS cannot be fully explained by lifestyle factors such as sedentary behavior and caloric intake alone. Environmental exposures, such as heavy metals, have been implicated, but results are conflicting and possible mechanisms remain unclear. To assess recent progress in determining a possible role between heavy metal exposure and MS, we reviewed epidemiological and model system data for cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) from the last decade. Data from 36 epidemiological studies involving 17 unique countries/regions and 13 studies leveraging model systems are included in this review. Epidemiological and model system studies support a possible association between heavy metal exposure and MS or comorbid conditions; however, results remain conflicting. Epidemiological studies were predominantly cross-sectional and collectively, they highlight a global interest in this question and reveal evidence of differential susceptibility by sex and age to heavy metal exposures. In vivo studies in rats and mice and in vitro cell-based assays provide insights into potential mechanisms of action relevant to MS including altered regulation of lipid and glucose homeostasis, adipogenesis, and oxidative stress. Heavy metal exposure may contribute to MS or comorbid conditions; however, available data are conflicting. Causal inference remains challenging as epidemiological data are largely cross-sectional; and variation in study design, including samples used for heavy metal measurements, age of subjects at which MS outcomes are measured; the scope and treatment of confounding factors; and the population demographics vary widely. Prospective studies, standardization or increased consistency across study designs and reporting, and consideration of molecular mechanisms informed by model

  1. Physico-chemical characteristics and Heavy metal levels in Drinking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical characteristics and Heavy metal levels in Drinking Water ... composition was analysed using X-ray Fluorescence spectroscopy. Majority of the water samples had neutral pH (6.80 – 7.20) few were slightly alkaline and one was acidic. ... Heavy metals (copper and lead), rare earth metals (gallium, rubidium, ...

  2. Fractionation, characterization and speciation of heavy metals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Speciation of heavy metals in soils determines the availability for metals for plant uptake and potential for contamination of groundwater following application of composts to agricultural lands. Methods used to characterize heavy metals in solid phase of composts and compost amended soils include physical fractionation ...

  3. Assessment and bioremediation of heavy metals from crude oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The assessment of the levels of heavy metals present in crude oil contaminated soil and the application of the earthworm - Hyperiodrilus africanus with interest on the bioremediation of metals from the contaminated soil was investigated within a 90-days period under laboratory conditions. Selected heavy metals such as ...

  4. Removal of heavy metals from waste water of tanning leather ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most dominant A. candidus on the isolation plates exhibited the highest activity for biosorption of heavy metals. The results indicate that fungi of contaminated soils have high level of metal biosorption capacities. Keywords: Fungi, industrial wastewater, biosorption, heavy metals. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol.

  5. Applicability of concentration factors for the heavy metals hazard identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzzi, Luigi

    2006-01-01

    The bioconcentration factor (BCF) and bioaccumulation factor (BAF) used as criteria for heavy metals hazards identification are inadequate. These considerations is based on the argument that the BCF-BAF model was developed and validated for xenobiotic synthetic organic substances and that does not recognize the complex internal metal dynamic of uptake, the internal sequestration, and the essentially of some heavy metals [it

  6. Predicting toxic heavy metal movements in upper Sanyati catchment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water samples from boreholes located in areas where mining, mineral processing and agricultural activities were dominant, yielded the highest values of toxic heavy metals. Dilution Attenuation Factor (DAF) for each toxic heavy metal was calculated to observe metal behaviour along the contaminant path for each season.

  7. Use of heavy ions to model radiation damage of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirokov, S.V.; Vyshemirskij, M.P.

    2011-01-01

    The methods for modeling radiation damage of metals using heavy ions are reviewed and the results obtained are analyzed. It is shown that irradiation of metals with heavy ion can simulate neutron exposure with the equivalent dose with adequate accuracy and permits a detailed analysis of radiation damage of metals

  8. Performance of Raphidocelis subcapitata exposed to heavy metal mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expósito, Nora; Kumar, Vikas; Sierra, Jordi; Schuhmacher, Marta; Giménez Papiol, Gemma

    2017-12-01

    Microalgae growth inhibition assays are candidates for referent ecotoxicological assays, and are a fundamental part in the strategy to reduce the use of fish and other animal models in aquatic toxicology. In the present work, the performance of Raphidocelis subcapitata exposed to heavy metals following standardized growth inhibition assays has been assessed in three different scenarios: 1) dilutions of single heavy metals, 2) artificial mixture of heavy metals at similar levels than those found in natural rivers and, 3) natural samples containing known mixtures of contaminants (heavy metals). Chemical speciation of heavy metals has been estimated with Eh-pH diagram and Visual MINTEQ software; heavy metal and free heavy metal ion concentrations were used as input data, together with microalgae growth inhibition, for Dr. Fit software. The final goal was to assess the suitability of the ecotoxicological test based on the growth inhibition of microalgae cultures, and the mathematic models based on these results, for regulatory and decision-making purposes. The toxicity of a given heavy metal is not only determined by its chemical speciation; other chemical and biological interaction play an important role in the final toxicity. Raphidocelis subcapitata 48h-h-EC50 for tested heavy metals (especially Cu and Zn) were in agreement with previous studies, when ion metal bioavailability was assumed to be 100%. Nevertheless, the calculated growth inhibition was not in agreement with the obtained inhibition when exposed to the artificial mixture of heavy metals or the natural sample. Interactions between heavy metal ions and the compounds of the culture media and/or the natural sample determine heavy metal bioavailability, and eventually their toxicity. More research is needed for facing the challenge posed by pollutant mixtures as they are present in natural environments, and make microalgae-based assays suitable for pollution management and regulatory purposes. Copyright

  9. Radiation dose due to radon and heavy metal analysis in drinking water samples of Jammu district, J. and K., India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajay Kumar; Kaur, Manpreet; Sharma, Sumit; Mehra, Rohit; Sharma, Dinesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between the contaminant drinking water and its impact on human health. The most contaminants of ground water are heavy metals like arsenic, cadmium, mercury, copper, zinc and etc. These heavy metals particularly cause strong toxicity even at low concentration. Heavy metals are considered to be the major pollutants of water sources. Heavy metal toxicity can result in damaged or reduced mental and central nervous function, lower energy levels and damage to blood composition, lungs, kidneys, liver and other vital organs. Physicochemical parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, salinity and dissolved oxygen were analyzed. For revealing the ground water quality and soil quality in area of Jammu, a total of 40 samples have been collected and analyzed for different kind of heavy metal concentration. These heavy metal concentrations in water samples were analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The results were compared with WHO, ED, ICMR and Indian. The trace metal analysis is not on the exceeding side of the permissible limit in all the samples. Along with the heavy metal concentration in water samples and soil samples, the radon concentration also measured by using RAD7. The values of radon concentration in drinking water samples were also compared within the safe limit recommended by different health agencies. (author)

  10. Using Moss to Assess Airborne Heavy Metal Pollution in Taizhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Zhou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Bryophytes act as bioindicators and bioaccumulators of metal deposition in the environment. To understand the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals (cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, copper (Cu, mercury (Hg, nickel (Ni, lead (Pb, and zinc (Zn in Taizhou, East China, samples of moss (Haplocladium microphyllum were collected from 60 sites selected by a systematic sampling method during the summer of 2012, and the concentrations of these heavy metals were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES. The results suggested that the concentrations of these metals varied moderately among different sites, indicating a similar contamination level for each element throughout the monitoring region. The mean values under investigation were higher than those from neighboring cities, such as Wuxi, Xuzhou, and Nanjing, and much higher than those in Europe based on a 2010 survey. Significant (p < 0.01 correlations were identified among some of the heavy metals, suggesting that these originated from identical sources. There was no statistically significant correlation between Hg and all the other elements. Spatial distribution maps of the elements over the sampled territory were created using Arc-GIS 9.0. The potential ecological risk index indicated that the air was heavily polluted by Cd and Hg, and that there was a considerable potential ecological risk from all the heavy metals studied.

  11. A Review on Heavy Metals (As, Pb, and Hg Uptake by Plants through Phytoremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bieby Voijant Tangahu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are among the most important sorts of contaminant in the environment. Several methods already used to clean up the environment from these kinds of contaminants, but most of them are costly and difficult to get optimum results. Currently, phytoremediation is an effective and affordable technological solution used to extract or remove inactive metals and metal pollutants from contaminated soil and water. This technology is environmental friendly and potentially cost effective. This paper aims to compile some information about heavy metals of arsenic, lead, and mercury (As, Pb, and Hg sources, effects and their treatment. It also reviews deeply about phytoremediation technology, including the heavy metal uptake mechanisms and several research studies associated about the topics. Additionally, it describes several sources and the effects of As, Pb, and Hg on the environment, the advantages of this kind of technology for reducing them, and also heavy metal uptake mechanisms in phytoremediation technology as well as the factors affecting the uptake mechanisms. Some recommended plants which are commonly used in phytoremediation and their capability to reduce the contaminant are also reported.

  12. Response and Bioaccumulation Potential of Boerhavia diffusa L. Towards Different Heavy Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdussalam A.K.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Effect of different concentrations of heavy metals such as Cadmium, Chromium, Mercury and Leadwas studied by cultivating rooted propagules of Boerhavia diffusafor a period of twenty days in Hoagland nutrient medium artificially contaminated with known concentration of those heavy metal ions. Concentrations of the metals selected to impart visible symptoms of growth retardation and to permit survival for prolonged period are 30µM cadmium chloride (CdCl2, 400 µM potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7, 10 µM mercuric chloride (HgCl2, and 600 µM lead acetate (CH3-COO2Pb. More or less uniform growth performance was shown by the plants irrespective of the differences of concentration of the heavy metals. However, parameters such as root - and stem length, stomatal - and tolerance index varied among the treatments. Significant differences were observed in the heavy metal accumulation potential among metals and between plant parts such as root, stem and leaf and the pattern was dependent on growth period.

  13. Mechanisms and kinetics of electrodeposition of alkali metals on solid and liquid mercury electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wenzhe.

    1993-01-01

    Electroreduction of alkali metal ions at mercury is an important area in electrochemistry related to the battery industry. In this work, four major topics were considered: alkali metal/mercury interactions; electrosorption of alkali metal ions on solid mercury; electroreduction of alkali metal/crown ether complexes; and ammonium amalgam formation. The formation of alkali metal-mercury intermetallic compounds was studied on liquid and frozen thin layer mercury electrodes. The stoichiometry of the compounds produced under these conditions was determined using cyclic voltammetry. As expected, formation of a new phase was preceded by nucleation phenomena, which were particularly easy to monitor at solid Hg electrodes. The nucleation kinetics were studied using the chronoamperometric method. At very low temperatures, when the mobility of mercury atoms was restricted, the electrosorption of alkali metal ions on solid mercury electrodes was noted. Subsequent study allowed determination of the electrosorption parameters. The free energy of electrosorption is discussed in terms of interactions between alkali metals and mercury. The effect of crown ethers on the kinetics of alkali metal ion reduction was studied at both standard size and ultramicro-mercury electrodes in nonaqueous solutions using ultrafast cyclic voltammetry and ac voltammetry. The usefulness of ultrafast cyclic voltammetry with ultramicroelectrodes in measurements of the kinetics of amalgam formation was verified in a brief study of cadmium ion reduction. The mechanism of the complex reduction at mercury was analyzed based on the free energy changes before and after the activation state. In addition, the stoichiometry and formation constants of the crown ether/alkali metal complexes were determined using cyclic voltammetry. The mechanism of electroreduction of ammonium ions at mercury electrodes in non-aqueous media was analyzed.

  14. Analysis of Carcinogenic Heavy Metals in Gallstones and its Role in Gallbladder Carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Bikash; Maulik, Dhrubajyoti; Mandal, Mousumi; Sarkar, Gautam Narayan; Sengupta, Sanjay; Ghosh, Debidas

    2017-12-01

    Gallstone is a high-risk factor for gallbladder pre-malignancy or malignancy (GB PM-M) but which substances of gallstones definitely assist to turn out in to GB PM-M, remains unclear. This study aimed to find out the presence of carcinogenic heavy metals in gallstones and to explore the aetiopathogenesis of gallbladder pre-malignancy and malignancy. Presence of elements in gallstones was detected by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and then level of carcinogenic heavy metals was estimated in gallstones using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The experiment was carried out in gallstone samples of 46 patients with gallbladder pre-malignant and malignant condition (PM-M group) and 65 sex and age-matched patients with chronic cholecystitis (C-C group). Gallstones were also classified in to three types such as cholesterol stone, mixed stone, and black pigment stone. EDS analysis detected presence of mercury, lead, and cobalt elements in all types of gallstones of both PM-M and C-C groups. AAS analysis revealed significantly higher amount of mercury (p heavy metals also varied among stone types of both groups. EDS phase analysis showed 'dense deposits' of these metals in gallstones. Presence of significantly higher amount of mercury, lead, cobalt, and cadmium in gallstones may play a pivotal role as risk factors in the development of gallbladder malignancy or pre-malignancy. 'Dense deposits' of these metals in the gallstones which is the first observation, may act as crucial doses of carcinogens.

  15. Heavy metal removal using reverse osmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Gajdošová

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study reverse osmosis characteristics for copper, nickel and zinc removal from technological aqueoussolutions. Reverse osmosis (RO is a separation process that uses pressure to force a solution through a membrane that retainsthe solute on one side and allows the pure solvent to pass to the other side. A polyamide thin-film composite membrane TW30-1812-50was used. The difference in flux decline is significant. There is a significant difference in flux decline depending on the anions of usedheavy metal salts. The heavy metal concentration also has a significant influence on the membrane separation. There is alsoa significant difference in flux decline depending on the transmembrane pressure.

  16. [Socioeconomic status, eating patterns, and heavy metals exposure in women of childbearing age in Cali, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Roger; Caicedo, Diana; Echeverry, Ghisliane; Peña, Miguel; Méndez, Fabián

    2017-09-01

    Global increase in food and water pollution is associated with health risk, which depends on the concentration, the dose, and the exposure time. This has raised concerns about the possible long-term effects of chronic exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals, such as lead, cadmium and mercury. To explore the relationship among socioeconomic status, eating patterns, and exposure to heavy metals among a population of women in Cali, Colombia. A total of 233 non-pregnant women of childbearing age living in the Aguablanca district of Cali, Colombia, were enrolled in the study. We gathered sociodemographic data, as well as information on housing conditions, exposure to heavy metals, frequency of food intake, and anthropometric measurements. Samples of lettuce, cabbage and fish (tilapia and butterfish) were collected to determine lead, cadmium, and mercury concentrations. Descriptive and multiple correspondence analyses were performed to establish eating patterns. Fish was served in each of the three main meals of the day, with a bigger serving at lunch time. Cadmium was found in three samples of butterfish at levels below the acceptable. Of those who ate fish more than once a week, 11.1% bought the product at a cadmium-positive store. The multiple correspondence analysis showed a positive relationship between being black and consuming butterfish and tilapia more than once per week. The findings showed that the studied population had access to heavy metal-contaminated food, which combined with the women's cultural eating patterns, socioeconomic status, and metabolic characteristics led to a greater vulnerability to the effects of heavy metals exposure.

  17. Heavy metal decontamination of sludges and soils. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemann, J.

    1993-06-01

    This research project deals with decontamination technology for contaminated soil and sediments. A pilot plant for the decontamination of soil contaminated with heavy metals has been erected and is operated. The process is arranged in two steps: - heavy metal contaminated solid is decontaminted with acidic extraction. - the heavy metals are separated in a recyclable formation from the process solution you gain in the first process step. Heavy metal contaminated soil, heavy metal contaminated sediments (habour sediments) as well as residue from a soil regeneration plant have been successfully decontaminated in the pilot plan. An adaption of the process is necessary for various materials. High rates of mobilisation of heavy metals (e.g. lead, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, zinc) were obtained, especially with soil which contains less organic matter. (orig.). 54 figs., 30 tabs., 45 refs [de

  18. Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Europe estimated by moss analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruehling, Aa. [Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Lund (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology

    1995-12-31

    Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Europe including 21 countries was monitored in 1990-1992 by the moss technique. This technique is based on the fact that the concentrations of heavy metals in moss are closely correlated to atmospheric deposition. This was the first attempt to map heavy metal deposition in this large area. The objectives of the project were to characterise qualitatively and quantitatively the regional atmospheric deposition pattern of heavy metals in background areas in Europe, to indicate the location of important heavy metal pollution sources and to allow retrospective comparisons with similar studies. The present survey is a follow-up of a joint Danish and Swedish project in 1980 and an extended survey in 1985 within the framework of the Nordic Council of Ministers. In Sweden, heavy-metal deposition was first mapped on a nation-wide scale in 1968-1971 and 1975. (author)

  19. Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Europe estimated by moss analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruehling, Aa [Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Lund (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology

    1996-12-31

    Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Europe including 21 countries was monitored in 1990-1992 by the moss technique. This technique is based on the fact that the concentrations of heavy metals in moss are closely correlated to atmospheric deposition. This was the first attempt to map heavy metal deposition in this large area. The objectives of the project were to characterise qualitatively and quantitatively the regional atmospheric deposition pattern of heavy metals in background areas in Europe, to indicate the location of important heavy metal pollution sources and to allow retrospective comparisons with similar studies. The present survey is a follow-up of a joint Danish and Swedish project in 1980 and an extended survey in 1985 within the framework of the Nordic Council of Ministers. In Sweden, heavy-metal deposition was first mapped on a nation-wide scale in 1968-1971 and 1975. (author)

  20. Distribution of heavy metals in Tamshui mangrove forest ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, C Y; Chou, C H

    1990-06-01

    Tamsui estuary area is one of the few places in Taiwan where mangrove is still growing. Heavy metals, carried by the water of the Tamsui river, are accumulated in the estuary soil. Most heavy metals in soil, however, are immobile under reducing conditions and are fixed in the large amount of organic matter present. Heavy metals are distributed at different concentrations in various tissues of Kandelia candel as well as grasses of Phragmites communis, Imperata cylindrica, and Cyperus malaccensis growing in the swamp area. The concentration of heavy metals was significantly higher root than in stems and leaves. The absorption of heavy metals by the plants was less in soil that was frequently submerged. Kandelia candel seems to have no special tolerance to copper and zinc. The soil environment which favors reduced availability of heavy metals may help Kandelia candel adapt to growth in the polluted estuary.

  1. Effect of heavy metal and EDTA application on heavy metal uptake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-04-12

    Apr 12, 2012 ... Cadmium, lead and ... removal of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn (Prasad and ... collected for the analysis of heavy metal concentrations of Cd, Cr ... One hundred millgram (100 mg) of leaf tissues ..... Variability for the fatty acid.

  2. Leaching of heavy metals from timah langat amang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukri bin Othman

    1990-01-01

    Accelerated leaching studies of amang from Timah Langat for heavy metals showed that the material was rather stable. From almost 24 types of heavy metals contained in the material, the metal that leached out most was Al, followed by Pb, U, Cu, Mn, Fe, Mg, Y and La but at smaller quantities. The studies also showed that amang was very porous. The high seepage rate resulted in the solubilities of the metals not reaching equilibrium. In that situation, the leaching of heavy metals from amang was dependent on the seepage rate of water, the height of the material, the volume of water that seeped through and the solubility of the metals

  3. Temporal trends and bioavailability assessment of heavy metals in the sediments of Deception Bay, Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, James P; Ayoko, Godwin A; Martens, Wayde N; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2014-12-15

    Thirteen sites in Deception Bay, Queensland, Australia were sampled three times over a period of 7 months and assessed for contamination by a range of heavy metals, primarily As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Hg. Fraction analysis, enrichment factors and Principal Components Analysis-Absolute Principal Component Scores (PCA-APCS) analysis were conducted in order to identify the potential bioavailability of these elements of concern and their sources. Hg and Te were identified as the elements of highest enrichment in Deception Bay while marine sediments, shipping and antifouling agents were identified as the sources of the Weak Acid Extractable Metals (WE-M), with antifouling agents showing long residence time for mercury contamination. This has significant implications for the future of monitoring and regulation of heavy metal contamination within Deception Bay. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Electrochemical sensors and devices for heavy metals assay in water: the French groups' contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca ePUJOL

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A great challenge in the area of heavy metal trace detection is the development of electrochemical techniques and devices which are user-friendly, robust, selective, with low detection limits and allowing fast analyses. This review presents the major contribution of the French scientific academic community in the field of electrochemical sensors and electroanalytical methods within the last 20 years. From the well-known polarography to the up-to-date generation of functionalized interfaces, the different strategies dedicated to analytical performances improvement are exposed: stripping voltammetry, solid mercury-free electrode, ion selective sensor, carbon based materials, chemically modified electrodes, nano-structured surfaces. The paper particularly emphasizes their advantages and limits face to the last Water Frame Directive devoted to the Environmental Quality Standards for heavy metals. Recent trends on trace metal speciation as well as on automatic on line monitoring devices are also evoked.

  5. Leaching of heavy metals from steelmaking slags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes, J. F. P

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaching tests with EAF and Ladle slags were performed, using a flow through test and the standard batch test DIN 38414-S4. The previous method was used to simulate the leaching behaviour of steel slags under landfill. The chemical analysis of the leachates during this period shows, in general, for both types of slag, an increase of heavy metal releases with ageing. Standard test method DIN 38414-S4 was used to evaluate leachability of heavy metals by water in unprocessed slags. After more than one year of trials, slag samples submitted to these trials presented very low total leaching levels. The most extracted elements are calcium and magnesium. Nevertheless, in flow-through test, calcium and magnesium leached from solid slags are below 0.5% and all other metals below 0.1%. Leachates obtained with DIN 38414-S4 present, as expected, higher leaching values; however, these are inferior to 5 % (Ca and 1% (other elements.

    Este articulo contiene los resultados obtenidos en ensayos de lixiviación de escorias de acero (horno electrico y cuchara ejecutados siguiendo la metodologia de flujo dinámico así como el ensayo normalizado DIN 38414-S4. El primer ensayo intenta simular el comportamiento de lixiviación de las escorias en vertedero. Para las escorias ensayadas se han complementado los ensayos con el análisis químico de los lixiviados y se ha verificado un aumento de la liberación de metales pesados. El ensayo DIN 38414-S4 se ha utilizado para evaluar la lixiviación por agua de metales pesados, en muestras de escorias originales. Despues de un año de ensayos, se han observado niveles muy bajos de lixiviación. Los elementos mas lixiviados han sido calcio y magnesio. No obstante, en los ensayos de flujo dinámico, el calcio y el magnesio lixiviados de las escorias sólidas era menor de 0,5% y el resto de los otros metales era inferior a 0,1%. Los lixiviados obtenidos con el ensayo DIN 38414-S4 presentan, como era de esperar, valores

  6. Characteristics of heavy metal pollution on roadside soil along highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaocheng

    2017-10-01

    Highway traffic is the main source of heavy metal pollution. Due to limited cropland, it is very common to plant crops along the highways. So, in view of agricultural products safety, heavy metal pollution by highway traffic to soils along highway is widely concerned. Therefore, to study distribution traits, accumulative laws and influence factors of heavy metals in agricultural soils could provide scientific evidence and theoretical basis for environmental protection along express way.

  7. Children exposure to trace levels of heavy metals at the north zone of Kifissos River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evrenoglou, Lefkothea; Partsinevelou, Sofia Aikaterini; Stamatis, Panagiotis; Lazaris, Andreas; Patsouris, Eustratios; Kotampasi, Chrysanthi; Nicolopoulou-Stamati, Polyxeni

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the exposure level of primary school children at three different towns in northern Attica, near the banks of the Kifissos River, defining referential values of toxic heavy metals. Concentrations of five toxic metals (arsenic, cadmium, mercury, lead and nickel) were analyzed in water samples from the Kifissos River as well as in the scalp hair of children aged 11 to 12 years old living in the study area. Chronic low-level toxicity of lead and cadmium came into view in recent years as a problem of our civilization. Exposure to concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) poses a potential threat to humans and can cause effects on children's renal and dopaminergic systems without clear evidence of a threshold, a fact that reinforces the need to control all the potential heavy metal emissions into the environment in order to protect children's health. The results were analyzed with the IBM SPSS Statistics 20 for Windows. The possible influence of sex and area was examined. Statistical differences were observed by t-test between the log-transformed hair concentrations of lead (p = 0.021), arsenic (p = 0.016) and nickel (p = 0.038) in children's scalp hair from the municipalities of Kifisia and Kryoneri. ANOVA one-way test confirmed the difference of Pb concentration in hair between girls and boys from the municipality of Kifisia (p = 0.038). The t-test confirms the difference of heavy metal concentrations in river samples between the municipalities Kifisia and Philadelphia in comparison with the samples from Kryoneri. The observations suggest that children living at the municipality of Kifisia are exposed to higher concentrations of heavy metals than the others. Despite all the confounding factors, hair can be used as a biomarker in order to determine the exposure to heavy metals, according to standardized protocols. - Highlights: ► The study area was the north zone of the Kifissos River which is characterized by

  8. Children exposure to trace levels of heavy metals at the north zone of Kifissos River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evrenoglou, Lefkothea [Department of Sanitary Engineering and Environmental Health, National School of Public Health, 11521 Athens (Greece); Partsinevelou, Sofia Aikaterini, E-mail: partsi@hol.gr [Department of Sanitary Engineering and Environmental Health, National School of Public Health, 11521 Athens (Greece); Stamatis, Panagiotis; Lazaris, Andreas; Patsouris, Eustratios; Kotampasi, Chrysanthi [Department of Pathology, Medical School of Athens,11527 Athens (Greece); Nicolopoulou-Stamati, Polyxeni, E-mail: pnicolopouloustamati@gmail.com [Department of Pathology, Medical School of Athens,11527 Athens (Greece)

    2013-01-15

    This study evaluates the exposure level of primary school children at three different towns in northern Attica, near the banks of the Kifissos River, defining referential values of toxic heavy metals. Concentrations of five toxic metals (arsenic, cadmium, mercury, lead and nickel) were analyzed in water samples from the Kifissos River as well as in the scalp hair of children aged 11 to 12 years old living in the study area. Chronic low-level toxicity of lead and cadmium came into view in recent years as a problem of our civilization. Exposure to concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) poses a potential threat to humans and can cause effects on children's renal and dopaminergic systems without clear evidence of a threshold, a fact that reinforces the need to control all the potential heavy metal emissions into the environment in order to protect children's health. The results were analyzed with the IBM SPSS Statistics 20 for Windows. The possible influence of sex and area was examined. Statistical differences were observed by t-test between the log-transformed hair concentrations of lead (p = 0.021), arsenic (p = 0.016) and nickel (p = 0.038) in children's scalp hair from the municipalities of Kifisia and Kryoneri. ANOVA one-way test confirmed the difference of Pb concentration in hair between girls and boys from the municipality of Kifisia (p = 0.038). The t-test confirms the difference of heavy metal concentrations in river samples between the municipalities Kifisia and Philadelphia in comparison with the samples from Kryoneri. The observations suggest that children living at the municipality of Kifisia are exposed to higher concentrations of heavy metals than the others. Despite all the confounding factors, hair can be used as a biomarker in order to determine the exposure to heavy metals, according to standardized protocols. - Highlights: ► The study area was the north zone of the Kifissos River which is

  9. Effects of heavy metal adsorption on silicene

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.

    2014-06-02

    Based on first-principles calculations, we study the effects of heavy metal atoms (Au, Hg, Tl, and Pb) adsorbed on silicene. We find that the hollow site is energetically favorable in each case. We particulary address the question how the adsorption modifies the band structure in the vicinity of the Fermi energy. Our results demonstrate that the heavy metal adatoms result in substantial energy gaps and band splittings in the silicene sheet as long as the binding is strong, which, however, is not always the case. (© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH &Co. KGaA, Weinheim) Carbon nanotube flexible sponge was manufactured as high performance electromagnetic shielding material. Chemical vapour deposition (CVD) synthesized sponges with extreme light weight show an electromagnetic shielding above 20 dB and a specific electromagnetic shielding as high as 1100 dB cm3g-1 in the whole 1-18 GHz range. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Synthetic biology for microbial heavy metal biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Ju; Jeong, Haeyoung; Lee, Sang Jun

    2018-02-01

    Using recombinant DNA technology, various whole-cell biosensors have been developed for detection of environmental pollutants, including heavy metal ions. Whole-cell biosensors have several advantages: easy and inexpensive cultivation, multiple assays, and no requirement of any special techniques for analysis. In the era of synthetic biology, cutting-edge DNA sequencing and gene synthesis technologies have accelerated the development of cell-based biosensors. Here, we summarize current technological advances in whole-cell heavy metal biosensors, including the synthetic biological components (bioparts), sensing and reporter modules, genetic circuits, and chassis cells. We discuss several opportunities for improvement of synthetic cell-based biosensors. First, new functional modules must be discovered in genome databases, and this knowledge must be used to upgrade specific bioparts through molecular engineering. Second, modules must be assembled into functional biosystems in chassis cells. Third, heterogeneity of individual cells in the microbial population must be eliminated. In the perspectives, the development of whole-cell biosensors is also discussed in the aspects of cultivation methods and synthetic cells.

  11. Removal of dissolved heavy metals and radionuclides by microbial spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revis, N.W.; Hadden, C.T.; Edenborn, H.

    1997-01-01

    Microbial systems have been shown to remove specific heavy metals from contaminated aqueous waste to levels acceptable to EPA for environmental release. However, systems capable of removing a variety of heavy metals from aqueous waste to environmentally acceptable levels remain to be reported. The present studies were performed to determine the specificity of spores of the bacterium Bacillus megaterium for the adsorption of dissolved metals and radionuclides from aqueous waste. The spores effectively adsorbed eight heavy metals from a prepared metal mix and from a plating rinse waste to EPA acceptable levels for waste water. These results suggest that spores have multiple binding sites for the adsorption of heavy metals. Spores were also effective in adsorbing the radionuclides 85 strontium and 197 cesium. The presence of multiple sites in spores for the adsorption of heavy metals and radionuclides makes this biosorbent a good candidate for the treatment of aqueous wastes associated with the plating and nuclear industries. 17 refs., 4 tabs

  12. Adsorption of heavy metal in freeway by asphalt block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaocheng

    2017-08-01

    Heavy metals are toxic, persistent, and carcinogenic in freeway. Various techniques are available for the removal of heavy metals from waste water among soils during freeway including ion-exchange, membrane filtration, electrolysis, coagulation, flotation, and adsorption. Among them, bio-sorption processes are widely used for heavy metal and other pollutant removal due to its sustainable, rapid and economic. In this paper, heavy metal removal facilitated by adsorption in plants during freeway was illustrated to provide concise information on exploring the adsorption efficiency.

  13. Heavy metals in the cell nucleus - role in pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sas-Nowosielska, Hanna; Pawlas, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    People are exposed to heavy metals both in an occupational and natural environment. The most pronounced effects of heavy metals result from their interaction with cellular genetic material packed in form of chromatin. Heavy metals influence chromatin, mimicking and substituting natural microelements in various processes taking place in the cell, or interacting chemically with nuclear components: nucleic acids, proteins and lipids. This paper is a review of current knowledge on the effects of heavy metals on chromatin, exerted at the level of various nuclear components.

  14. Remediation of biochar on heavy metal polluted soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuguang; Xu, Yan; Norbu, Namkha; Wang, Zhan

    2018-01-01

    Unreasonable mining and smelting of mineral resources, solid waste disposal, sewage irrigation, utilization of pesticides and fertilizers would result in a large number of heavy metal pollutants into the water and soil environment, causing serious damage to public health and ecological safety. In recent years, a majority of scholars tried to use biochar to absorb heavy metal pollutants, which has some advantages of extensive raw material sources, low-cost and high environmental stability. This paper reviewed the definition, properties of biochar, the mechanism of heavy metal sorption by biochar and some related problems and prospects, to provide some technical support for the application of biochar into heavy metal polluted soils.

  15. THE HEAVY METALS CONNTENT IN VEGETABLES FROM MIDDLE SPIŠ AREA

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Slávik,Tomáš Tóth; Július Árvay; Miriama Kopernická; Luboš Harangozo; Radovan Stanovič; Pavol Trebichalský; Petra Kavalcová

    2014-01-01

    In the middle area of Spiš, it is significantly burden by heavy metals what is documented by radical content of Hg in soil from Rudňany 58.583645 mg.kg -1. On the content of heavy metals in vegetables grown in this soil it has the same effect. 61.5% samples exceeded the limit value of heavy metals. The most dangerous vegetables were Lactuca sativa L. The limit value was exceed in all determine heavy metals - Hg, Cd, Pb and Cu in this vegetables. In the case of Hg, the limit value exceed 93.86...

  16. Improved inventory for heavy metal emissions from stationary combustion plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Malene; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Hoffmann, Leif

    On behalf of the Ministry of the Environment DCE at Aarhus University annually reports heavy metals (HM) emissions to the UNECE CLRTAP (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution). This report presents updated heavy metal emission factors......-2009. The report also include methodology, references and an uncertainty estimate. In Denmark, stationary combustion plants are among the most important emission sources for heavy metals. Emissions of all heavy metals have decreased considerably (73 % - 92 %) since 1990. The main HM emission sources are coal...

  17. Bioremediation of Toxic Heavy Metals: A Patent Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Neelam; Sharma, Rajni

    2017-01-01

    The global industrialization is fulfilling the demands of modern population at the cost of environmental exposure to various contaminants including heavy metals. These heavy metals affect water and soil quality. Moreover, these enter into the food chain and exhibit their lethal effects on the human health even when present at slightly higher concentration than required for normal metabolism. To the worst of their part, the heavy metals may become carcinogenic. Henceforth, the efficient removal of heavy metals is the demand of sustainable development. Remedy: Bioremediation is the 'green' imperative technique for the heavy metal removal without creating secondary metabolites in the ecosystem. The metabolic potential of several bacterial, algal, fungal as well as plant species has the efficiency to exterminate the heavy metals from the contaminated sites. Different strategies like bioaccumulation, biosorption, biotransformation, rhizofilteration, bioextraction and volatilization are employed for removal of heavy metals by the biological species. Bioremediation approach is presenting a splendid alternate for conventional expensive and inefficient methods for the heavy metal removal. The patents granted on the bioremediation of toxic heavy metals are summarized in the present manuscript which supported the applicability of bioremediation technique at commercial scale. However, the implementation of the present information and advanced research are mandatory to further explore the concealed potential of biological species to resume the originality of the environment. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Potential health impacts of heavy metals on HIV-infected population in USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Xu

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Noninfectious comorbidities such as cardiovascular diseases have become increasingly prevalent and occur earlier in life in persons with HIV infection. Despite the emerging body of literature linking environmental exposures to chronic disease outcomes in the general population, the impacts of environmental exposures have received little attention in HIV-infected population. The aim of this study is to investigate whether individuals living with HIV have elevated prevalence of heavy metals compared to non-HIV infected individuals in United States. METHODS: We used the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2003-2010 to compare exposures to heavy metals including cadmium, lead, and total mercury in HIV infected and non-HIV infected subjects. RESULTS: In this cross-sectional study, we found that HIV-infected individuals had higher concentrations of all heavy metals than the non-HIV infected group. In a multivariate linear regression model, HIV status was significantly associated with increased blood cadmium (p=0.03 after adjusting for age, sex, race, education, poverty income ratio, and smoking. However, HIV status was not statistically associated with lead or mercury levels after adjusting for the same covariates. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that HIV-infected patients might be significantly more exposed to cadmium compared to non-HIV infected individuals which could contribute to higher prevalence of chronic diseases among HIV-infected subjects. Further research is warranted to identify sources of exposure and to understand more about specific health outcomes.

  19. Local to regional scale industrial heavy metal pollution recorded in sediments of large freshwater lakes in central Europe (lakes Geneva and Lucerne) over the last centuries

    OpenAIRE

    Thevenon F; Graham ND; Chiaradia M; Arpagaus P; Wildi W; Pote J

    2011-01-01

    This research first focuses on the spatial and temporal patterns of heavy metals from contrasting environments (highly polluted to deepwater sites) of Lake Geneva. The mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) records from two deepwater sites show that the heavy metal variations before the industrial period are primarily linked to natural weathering input of trace elements. By opposition the discharge of industrial treated wastewaters into Vidy Bay of Lake Geneva during the second part of the 20th century i...

  20. The behavior of ashes and heavy metals during the co-combustion of sewage sludges in a fluidised bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Helena M.; Abelha, P.; Cabrita, I. [INETI-DEECA, Lisboa (Portugal); Lapa, N.; Oliveira, J.S. [UNL-Ubia, Monte de Caparica (Portugal)

    2003-07-01

    Co-combustion tests of dry sewage sludges with coal were performed in a pilot bubbling FRC aiming at the characterization of ashes and determining the behaviour of heavy metals in the process. The tests showed compliance with the regulatory levels as far as heavy metal emissions were concerned. The bottom ashes, which accounted for about 70% of the total ash production, were obtained in a granular form, with diameters ranging from 0.5 to 4 mm. The heavy metals were distributed in ashes obtained from different locations of the installation and their concentrations were found to vary depending on the location of capture. The increase in heavy metals content in bottom ashes was not found to lead to higher leachability and ecotoxicity compared to sewage sludges, suggesting that there could be opportunities for their reactor further use. Mercury suffered vaporisation inside the reactor, thus leaving bottom ashes free of contamination by it. However, there was observed a strong retention of mercury in cyclone ashes due to the presence of unburned carbon which probably acted as an adsorbent. The effluent mercury was also found to be mostly associated with the particulate fraction, being less than 20% emitted in gaseous forms. The results suggested that the combustion of the sewage sludge could successfully be carried out, and the amount of unburned carbon leaving the combustor but captured in the cyclone was large enough to ensure substantial retention of mercury at low temperatures, and, hence, could contribute to an improvement of the mercury release, which still remains an issue of great concern to resolve during combustion of waste materials.

  1. The behaviour of ashes and heavy metals during the co-combustion of sewage sludges in a fluidised bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helena Lopes, M; Abelha, P; Lapa, N; Oliveira, J S; Cabrita, I; Gulyurtlu, I

    2003-01-01

    Co-combustion tests of dry sewage sludges with coal were performed in a pilot bubbling FBC aiming at the characterization of ashes and determining the behaviour of heavy metals in the process. The tests showed compliance with the regulatory levels as far as heavy metal emissions were concerned. The bottom ashes, which accounted for about 70% of the total ash production, were obtained in a granular form, with diameters ranging from 0.5 to 4 mm. The heavy metals were distributed in ashes obtained from different locations of the installation and their concentrations were found to vary depending on the location of capture. The increase in heavy metals content in bottom ashes was not found to lead to higher leachability and ecotoxicity compared to sewage sludges, suggesting that there could be opportunities for their further use. Mercury suffered vaporisation inside the reactor, thus leaving bottom ashes free of contamination by it. However, there was observed a strong retention of mercury in cyclone ashes due to the presence of unburned carbon which probably acted as an adsorbent. The effluent mercury was also found to be mostly associated with the particulate fraction, being less than 20% emitted in gaseous forms. The results suggested that the combustion of the sewage sludge could successfully be carried out and the amount of unburned carbon leaving the combustor but captured in cyclone was large enough to ensure substantial retention of mercury at low temperatures, hence could contribute to an improvement of the mercury release which still remains an issue of great concern to resolve during combustion of waste materials.

  2. The behaviour of ashes and heavy metals during the co-combustion of sewage sludges in a fluidised bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helena Lopes, M.; Abelha, P.; Lapa, N.; Oliveira, J.S.; Cabrita, I.; Gulyurtlu, I.

    2003-01-01

    Co-combustion tests of dry sewage sludges with coal were performed in a pilot bubbling FBC aiming at the characterization of ashes and determining the behaviour of heavy metals in the process. The tests showed compliance with the regulatory levels as far as heavy metal emissions were concerned. The bottom ashes, which accounted for about 70% of the total ash production, were obtained in a granular form, with diameters ranging from 0.5 to 4 mm. The heavy metals were distributed in ashes obtained from different locations of the installation and their concentrations were found to vary depending on the location of capture. The increase in heavy metals content in bottom ashes was not found to lead to higher leachability and ecotoxicity compared to sewage sludges, suggesting that there could be opportunities for their further use. Mercury suffered vaporisation inside the reactor, thus leaving bottom ashes free of contamination by it. However, there was observed a strong retention of mercury in cyclone ashes due to the presence of unburned carbon which probably acted as an adsorbent. The effluent mercury was also found to be mostly associated with the particulate fraction, being less than 20% emitted in gaseous forms. The results suggested that the combustion of the sewage sludge could successfully be carried out and the amount of unburned carbon leaving the combustor but captured in cyclone was large enough to ensure substantial retention of mercury at low temperatures, hence could contribute to an improvement of the mercury release which still remains an issue of great concern to resolve during combustion of waste materials

  3. Pop, heavy metal and the blues: secondary analysis of persistent organic pollutants (POP), heavy metals and depressive symptoms in the NHANES National Epidemiological Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Michael; Williams, Lana J; Andreazza, Ana C; Pasco, Julie A; Dodd, Seetal; Jacka, Felice N; Moylan, Steven; Reiner, Eric J; Magalhaes, Pedro V S

    2014-07-18

    Persistent environmental pollutants, including heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs), have a ubiquitous presence. Many of these pollutants affect neurobiological processes, either accidentally or by design. The aim of this study was to explore the associations between assayed measures of POPs and heavy metals and depressive symptoms. We hypothesised that higher levels of pollutants and metals would be associated with depressive symptoms. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). A total of 15 140 eligible people were included across the three examined waves of NHANES. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the nine-item version of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), using a cut-off point of 9/10 as likely depression cases. Organic pollutants and heavy metals, including cadmium, lead and mercury, as well as polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs), pesticides, phenols and phthalates, were measured in blood or urine. Higher cadmium was positively associated with depression (adjusted Prevalence Ratios (PR)=1.48, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.90). Higher levels of mercury were negatively associated with depression (adjusted PR=0.62, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.78), and mercury was associated with increased fish consumption (n=5500, r=0.366, p<0.001). In addition, several PFCs (perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorohexane sulfonic acid, perfluorodecanoic acid and perfluorononanoic acid) were negatively associated with the prevalence of depression. Cadmium was associated with an increased likelihood of depression. Contrary to hypotheses, many of persistent environmental pollutants were not associated or negatively associated with depression. While the inverse association between mercury and depressive symptoms may be explained by a protective role for fish consumption, the negative associations with other pollutants remains unclear. This exploratory study suggests the need for further investigation of the role of various agents and classes of agents in the

  4. Packaging a liquid metal ESD with micro-scale Mercury droplet.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, Casey Anderson

    2011-08-01

    A liquid metal ESD is being developed to provide electrical switching at different acceleration levels. The metal will act as both proof mass and electric contact. Mercury is chosen to comply with operation parameters. There are many challenges surrounding the deposition and containment of micro scale mercury droplets. Novel methods of micro liquid transfer are developed to deliver controllable amounts of mercury to the appropriate channels in volumes under 1 uL. Issues of hermetic sealing and avoidance of mercury contamination are also addressed.

  5. Heavy Metal Assessment in Water and Sediments at Jaikwadi Dam (Godavari River Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish S Patil

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The indiscriminate release of industrial effluents, domestic sewage, agricultural runoff have resulted in extensive contamination of water and soil with heavy metals thereby causing hazard to flora and fauna and the aquatic ecosystem. Therefore, there is a need for biological monitoring studies to evaluate the toxic concentrations of various chemical compounds so that certain preventive measure can be taken to ensure the safety of the environment. Therefore, this study was focused at investigating few of the important heavy metals like zinc, chromium, cadmium, mercury and lead, in water along with sediments of the Jaikwadi dam. It has been found that the content of mercury was the highest in both water (15.24 - 18.21 μg/L and sediments, it is followed by lead (14.31 - 18.38 μg/L, cadmium (1.95 - 2.29 μg/L, chromium (0.68 - 4.00 μg/L and finally zinc (0.88 - 1.77 μg/L. High concentrations particularly of mercury and lead warrant studies for their remediation so that the concentration remains safe for the populace dependent on the water.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTVolume-5, Issue-2, March-May 2016, Page: 75-88

  6. Eliminating Heavy Metals from Water with NanoSheet Minerals as Adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoxian Song

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals usually referred to those with atomic weights ranging from 63.5 to 200.6. Because of natural-mineral dissolution and human activities such as mining, pesticides, fertilizer, metal planting and batteries manufacture, etc., these heavy metals, including zinc, copper, mercury, lead, cadmium and chromium have been excessively released into water courses, like underground water, lake and river, etc. The ingestion of the heavy metals-contaminated water would raise serious health problems to human beings even at a low concentration. For instance, lead can bring human beings about barrier to the normal function of kidney, liver and reproductive system, while zinc can cause stomach cramps, skin irritations, vomiting and anemia. Mercury is a horrible neurotoxin that may result in damages to the central nervous system, dysfunction of pulmonary and kidney, chest and dyspnea. Chromium (VI has been proved can cause many diseases ranging from general skin irritation to severe lung carcinoma. Accordingly, the World Health Organization announced the maximum contaminant levels (MCL for the heavy metals in drinking water. There are numerous processes for eliminating heavy metals from water in order to provide citizens safe drinking water, including precipitation, adsorption, ion exchange, membrane separation and biological treatment, etc. Adsorption is considered as a potential process for deeply removing heavy metals, in which the selection of adsorbents plays a predominant role. Nano-sheet minerals as the adsorbents are currently the hottest researches in the field. They are obtained from layered minerals, such as montmorillonite, graphite and molybdenite, through the processing of intercalation, electrochemical and mechanical exfoliation, etc. Nano-sheet minerals are featured by their large specific surface area, relatively low costs and active adsorbing sites, leading to be effective and potential adsorbents for heavy metals removal from water

  7. Heavy metal and proximate composition associated with the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2014-05-08

    May 8, 2014 ... Levels of Cu, Mn, Pd and Zn in mushroom samples analysed were ... metal concentration in soil and fungal factors such as species ..... Levels of trace elements in the fruiting bodies ... Toxicity of non-radioactive heavy metals.

  8. Assessment of Heavy Metals Level of River Kaduna at Kaduna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... status and the implications of the heavy metal pollution on human health and the environment. ... metals discharged into the river especially from the industries and municipal ...

  9. Comparative assessment of heavy metal removal by immobilized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    Key words: Biosorption, bacteria, heavy metal, dead bacterial cells, immobilization. INTRODUCTION ... Moreover, the metals cannot be degraded to harmless products and ... a sterile plastic container and taken immediately to the laboratory.

  10. Waste printing paper as analogous adsorbents for heavy metals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    heavy metals uptake from aqueous solutions but the recovery efficacy as economic and environmental ... system. 1 . Wastes containing metals are directly or indirectly discharge into the environment ... According to World health Organization. 5.

  11. Analysis of Heavy Metals Concentration in Kano Herbal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-23

    Sep 23, 2017 ... toxic metals in the body system of the consumers of these herbal preparations in order to attain to safe and effective ..... heavy metal availability and vegetation recovery at a grown ... World Health Organization (WHO,. 2007).

  12. urban dietary heavy metal intake from protein foods and vegetables

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    Contamination of food and food products by heavy metals has made dietary intake as one of the ... metals cadmium, copper, lead and zinc from protein-foods (beans, meat, fish, milk) and green ..... on food additives Technical report series. No.

  13. Rhizofiltration of heavy metals from the tannery sludge by the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... The accumulation of toxic metals in the plants was significantly increased, with increasing exposure time ..... in the conversion of organic carbon into carbon dioxide. It ... Once absorbed by the plants, toxic or heavy metals can.

  14. Accumulation of Proline under Salinity and Heavy metal stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Seed germination and growth parameters of seedlings of cauliflower were observed after 5, 10 and 15 ... Keywords: Abiotic stress, salinity, proline and heavy metals. The responses of ..... induced accumulation of free proline in a metal-tolerant.

  15. Heavy Metal Analyses and Nutritional Composition of Raw and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    KEYWORDS: Nutritional composition, heavy metals, fresh water fishes, marine water fishes, lagoons. Introduction. Fish is an .... the flame and 90% passed out as waste. The flame ..... metals in surface water, sediments, fish and periwinkles of ...

  16. Trend of Heavy Metal Concentrations in Lagos Lagoon Ecosystem

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    The distribution and occurrence of heavy metals in the sediment, water and benthic animals of the Lagos lagoon ... The concentrations of the metals detected in the lagoon sediment and water ..... waste products contaminating water sources.

  17. Heavy metals in trees and energy crops - a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnsson, Lars

    1995-12-01

    This literature review deals with the use of energy crops for cleaning of soils from heavy metals. It also deals with the use of low accumulating energy crops to be used on strongly contaminated soils where a low uptake of heavy metals is preferred, for example on mining deposits. In addition to the efforts to reduce the sources for heavy metal contamination of soils (for example commercial fertilizers and atmospheric deposition) the uptake and removal of heavy metals from the soils by the use of energy crops have recently been discussed as a method for cleaning of soils. Species from the Salix family (willow) have a greater potential for accumulating heavy metals than cereals which makes them interesting for this purpose. The Salix family consists of species with a great genetic variation. This will probably make it possible to find or develop clones with different characteristics suitable for cleaning of contaminated soils as well as for plant covering of soils that are extremely contaminated by heavy metals. In the former case an accumulation of heavy metals in the harvested parts, the shoots, is preferred. In the later case clones that do not accumulate heavy metals and maybe also clones with only root accumulation are preferred. There are also Salix clones with a specific accumulation of heavy metals which makes it possible to clean soils from a toxic metal and at the same time avoid the risk for deficiency of essential metals, for example Zn. The greatest potential to clean soils by the use of energy crops, is when the contamination levels in the soils are low, the areas to clean are large and when the time needed for cleaning is of minor importance. The most suitable soils are those where the metal contamination is located in the top soil layer and where the heavy metal concentrations in the sub soil layer are still low. 58 refs, 8 tabs, 1 fig

  18. Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in the Copenhagen area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, A; Hovmand, M F; Johnsen, I

    1978-10-01

    Transport of heavy metals from the atmosphere to the soil and vegetation takes place by dust fall, bulk precipitation, and gas/aerosol adsorption processes. Atmospheric dry and wet deposition of the heavy metals lead, zinc, nickel, vanadium, iron, and copper over the Copenhagen area was measured by sampling in plastic funnels from 17 stations throughout the area for 12 months. Epigeic bryophytes, epiphytic lichen, and topsoil samples were analyzed. A linear correlation between bulk precipitation and heavy metal concentration in lichens and bryophytes was found. An exponential correlation between bulk precipitation and heavy metal concentration in soil was noted. Regional variation of the heavy metal levels in the Copenhagen area was described, and three sub-areas with high metal burdens were distinguished. (10 diagrams, 8 graphs, 13 references, 2 tables)

  19. Experimental testing facilities for ultrasonic measurements in heavy liquid metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cojocaru, V.; Ionescu, V.; Nicolescu, D.; Nitu, A.

    2016-01-01

    The thermo-physical properties of Heavy Liquid Metals (HLM), like lead or its alloy, Lead Bismuth Eutectic (LBE), makes them attractive as coolant candidates in advanced nuclear systems. The opaqueness, that is common to all liquid metals, disables all optical methods. For this reason ultrasound waves are used in different applications in heavy liquid metal technology, for example for flow and velocity measurements and for inspection techniques. The practical use of ultrasound in heavy liquid metals still needs to be demonstrated by experiments. This goal requires heavy liquid metal technology facility especially adapted to this task. In this paper is presented an experimental testing facility for investigations of Heavy Liquid Metals acoustic properties, designed and constructed in RATEN ICN. (authors)

  20. Scaling behavior of heavy fermion metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaginyan, V.R., E-mail: vrshag@thd.pnpi.spb.r [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, RAS, Gatchina, 188300 (Russian Federation); CTSPS, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314 (United States); Amusia, M.Ya. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, RAS, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Msezane, A.Z. [CTSPS, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314 (United States); Popov, K.G. [Komi Science Center, Ural Division, RAS, 3a, Chernova str. Syktyvkar, 167982 (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-15

    Strongly correlated Fermi systems are fundamental systems in physics that are best studied experimentally, which until very recently have lacked theoretical explanations. This review discusses the construction of a theory and the analysis of phenomena occurring in strongly correlated Fermi systems such as heavy-fermion (HF) metals and two-dimensional (2D) Fermi systems. It is shown that the basic properties and the scaling behavior of HF metals can be described within the framework of a fermion condensation quantum phase transition (FCQPT) and an extended quasiparticle paradigm that allow us to explain the non-Fermi liquid behavior observed in strongly correlated Fermi systems. In contrast to the Landau paradigm stating that the quasiparticle effective mass is a constant, the effective mass of new quasiparticles strongly depends on temperature, magnetic field, pressure, and other parameters. Having analyzed the collected facts on strongly correlated Fermi systems with quite a different microscopic nature, we find these to exhibit the same non-Fermi liquid behavior at FCQPT. We show both analytically and using arguments based entirely on the experimental grounds that the data collected on very different strongly correlated Fermi systems have a universal scaling behavior, and materials with strongly correlated fermions can unexpectedly be uniform in their diversity. Our analysis of strongly correlated systems such as HF metals and 2D Fermi systems is in the context of salient experimental results. Our calculations of the non-Fermi liquid behavior, the scales and thermodynamic, relaxation and transport properties are in good agreement with experimental facts.

  1. Were mercury emission factors for Chinese non-ferrous metal smelters overestimated? Evidence from onsite measurements in six smelters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lei; Wang Shuxiao; Wu Qingru; Meng Yang; Yang Hai; Wang Fengyang; Hao Jiming

    2012-01-01

    Non-ferrous metal smelting takes up a large proportion of the anthropogenic mercury emission inventory in China. Zinc, lead and copper smelting are three leading sources. Onsite measurements of mercury emissions were conducted for six smelters. The mercury emission factors were 0.09–2.98 g Hg/t metal produced. Acid plants with the double-conversion double-absorption process had mercury removal efficiency of over 99%. In the flue gas after acid plants, 45–88% was oxidized mercury which can be easily scavenged in the flue gas scrubber. 70–97% of the mercury was removed from the flue gas to the waste water and 1–17% to the sulfuric acid product. Totally 0.3–13.5% of the mercury in the metal concentrate was emitted to the atmosphere. Therefore, acid plants in non-ferrous metal smelters have significant co-benefit on mercury removal, and the mercury emission factors from Chinese non-ferrous metal smelters were probably overestimated in previous studies. - Highlights: ► Acid plants in smelters provide significant co-benefits for mercury removal (over 99%). ► Most of the mercury in metal concentrates for smelting ended up in waste water. ► Previously published emission factors for Chinese metal smelters were probably overestimated. - Acid plants in smelters have high mercury removal efficiency, and thus mercury emission factors for Chinese non-ferrous metal smelters were probably overestimated.

  2. Concentration of heavy metals in brook trout in comparison to aquatic plants and sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abo-Rady, M.D.

    1983-01-01

    From 1974 to 1977 the heavy metal content of river water, fishes (Salmo trutta fario), three aquatic plants (Cladophora glomerata, Potamogeton pectinatus, Zannichellia palustris), one river-bank plant (Phalaris arundinacea), and sediments (clay fraction) taken from the River Leine, up and downstream of Goettingen, were determined. Galvanic-bath sewage containing heavy metals caused an increase (11-60%) in the concentration of nine elements in the water. The average level of heavy metals in the river water corresponded to that of the Ems, Elbe and Weser, but was lower than that of the Neckar, Rhine and Danube. It was also below the European Community Guidelines (1975) on the quality of water used for the artificial recharging of ground water. River water upstream of the city has been used for this recharging for many years. There is a good correlation between the metal content in the investigated samples and in the water. In the muscles, only Cd, Co and Mn, in the liver Cd, Co, Cr. Hg, Mn and Zn, and in the total fish Cd, Co, Cr, Cu and Zn had increased significantly. In contrast to all other elements, Cr shows the highest concentration in the muscles. A previous accumulation of Cr in the liver is not a prerequisite for the accumulation in the muscles. Mercury shows the highest accumulation in the muscles, apparently because of the high retention rate of this element. Muscles also are a good monitor for this element. The impact of heavy metals on the Leine water was reflected in aquatic plants, which showed an increase in concentration up to 95-fold (according to metal or plant) - but not in river-bank plants. C. glomerata has the remarkable capability of accumulating all ten elements. Since P. arundinacea cannot reflect the different load of heavy metals it is therefore less suitable as a biological monitor for these metals.

  3. Heavy metal contamination in canned foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sand, W.A.; Flex, H.; Allan, K.F.; Mahmoud, R.M.; Abdel-Haleem, A.E.

    2001-01-01

    The work carried out in this paper aims to the study of contamination of different foodstuffs, that are consumed frequently in our daily life, such as tomatoes concentrate, jam, tuna, and bean, as a result of canning in glass or tin cans. The effect of the storage time on the contamination of the aforementioned foods with heavy metals was also investigated. The technique used for the simultaneous determination of these elements was the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). This technique was selected due to its high accuracy, sensitivity and selectivity. In the light of the obtained results it was suggested that tin cans is the best choice for canning jam and it is suitable also for preserving tuna. On the other hand, glass utensils were found to be the most suitable for preserving tomatoes concentrate. detailed studies are needed to throw more light on the effect of canning material on the concentration level of both essential and toxic trace elements in bean

  4. Hydroponic phytoremediation of heavy metals and radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartong, J.; Szpak, J.; Hamric, T.; Cutright, T.

    1998-01-01

    It is estimated that the Departments of Defense, Energy, and Agriculture will spend up to 300 billion federal dollars on environmental remediation during the next century. Current remediation processes can be expensive, non-aesthetic, and non-versatile. Therefore, the need exists for more innovative and cost effective solutions. Phytoremediation, the use of vegetation for the remediation of contaminated sediments, soils, and ground water, is an emerging technology for treating several categories of persistent, toxic contaminants. Although effective, phytoremediation is still in a developmental stage, and therefore is not a widely accepted technology by regulatory agencies and public groups. Research is currently being conducted to validate the processes effectiveness as well as increase regulatory and community acceptance. This research will focus on the ability of plants to treat an aquifer contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclides. Specifically, the effectiveness of hydroponically grown dwarf sunflowers and mustard seed will be investigated

  5. Hydroponic phytoremediation of heavy metals and radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartong, J; Szpak, J; Hamric, T; Cutright, T

    1998-07-01

    It is estimated that the Departments of Defense, Energy, and Agriculture will spend up to 300 billion federal dollars on environmental remediation during the next century. Current remediation processes can be expensive, non-aesthetic, and non-versatile. Therefore, the need exists for more innovative and cost effective solutions. Phytoremediation, the use of vegetation for the remediation of contaminated sediments, soils, and ground water, is an emerging technology for treating several categories of persistent, toxic contaminants. Although effective, phytoremediation is still in a developmental stage, and therefore is not a widely accepted technology by regulatory agencies and public groups. Research is currently being conducted to validate the processes effectiveness as well as increase regulatory and community acceptance. This research will focus on the ability of plants to treat an aquifer contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclides. Specifically, the effectiveness of hydroponically grown dwarf sunflowers and mustard seed will be investigated.

  6. Heavy metals biogeochemistry in abandoned mining areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favas P. J. C.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants growing on the abandoned Portuguese mines, highly contaminated with W, Sn, As, Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb, have been studied for their biogeochemical indication/prospecting and mine restoration potential. The results of analysis show that the species best suited for biogeochemical indicating are: aerial tissues of Halimium umbellatum (L. Spach, for As and W; leaves of Erica arborea L. for Bi, Sn, W and mostly Pb; stems of Erica arborea L. for Pb; needles of Pinus pinaster Aiton and aerial tissues of Pteridium aquilinum (L. Kuhn for W; and leaves of Quercus faginea Lam. for Sn. The aquatic plant studied (Ranunculus peltatus Schrank can be used to decrease the heavy metals, and arsenic amounts into the aquatic environment affected by acid mine drainages.

  7. Remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boni, M.R.; D' Aprile, L. [Univ. of Rome ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Dept. of Hydraulic Transportation and Roads (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    In December 1999 Italy issued the national regulation (DM 471/99) for the clean-up of contaminated sites. This regulation applies both to derelict and to still operating industrial plants and waste management facilities. Target concentration values for clean-up interventions are issued and the requirements for design and planning of technical operation are defined. The selection of the appropriate clean-up technology are based on the following main criteria: - reduce the concentration in environmental media and the migration of pollutants without removing soil off-site; - in order to reduce contaminated material removal and transportation, remedial actions of soil, subsoil and groundwater should preferably be based on in-situ treatments. In-situ technologies commonly applied in Italy to the remediation of soils contaminated by heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb) are: - containment (caps, vertical barriers); - soil flushing; - cement based solidification/stabilization. (orig.)

  8. Comparative study on the hepatoprotection to heavy metals of Zingiber officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwokocha, Chukwuemeka R; Owu, Daniel U; Nwokocha, Magdalene I; Ufearo, Chibueze S; Iwuala, Moses O E

    2012-10-01

    Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) is a herb used for culinary and therapeutic purposes due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potentials. We examined its protective ability against mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the liver. MATERIALS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; Ground Zingiber officinale (7%, w/w of feed) was administered to rats either at the same time with the exposure ofheavy metals (group 2), a week after exposure to heavy metals (group 3) or given a week before heavy metal exposure (group 4) for six weeks. Animals were exposed to either of Hg (10 ppm), Cd (200 ppm) and Pb (100 ppm) in drinking water. The heavy metal accumulations in the liver were determined using AAS. Weight losses induced by these metals were not reversed by Zingiber officinale administration. There was a significant (PZingiber officinale affected the bioavailability, elimination and uptake of these metals in a time-dependent way with highest beneficial reducing effect to Cd followed by Hg and least protection to Pb in the liver.

  9. Seasonal assessment, treatment and removal of heavy metal concentrations in a tropical drinking water reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Moshood Keke

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are present in low concentrations in reservoirs, but seasonal anthropogenic activities usually elevate the concentrations to a level that could become a health hazard. The dry season concentrations of cadmium, copper, iron, lead, mercury, nickel and zinc were assessed from three sites for 12 weeks in Oyun reservoir, Offa, Nigeria. Triplicate surface water samples were collected and analysed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The trend in the level of concentrations in the three sites is site C > B > A, while the trend in the levels of the concentrations in the reservoir is Ni > Fe > Zn > Pb > Cd > Cu > Hg. Ni, Cd, Pb and Hg were found to be higher than the WHO guidelines for the metals in drinking water. The high concentration of these metals was from anthropogenic watershed run-off of industrial effluents, domestic sewages and agricultural materials into the reservoir coming from several human activities such as washing, bathing, fish smoking, especially in site C. The health effects of high concentration of these metals in the reservoir were highlighted. Methods for the treatment and removal of the heavy metals from the reservoir during water purification such as active carbon adsorption, coagulation-flocculation, oxidation-filtration, softening treatment and reverse osmosis process were highlighted. Other methods that could be used include phytoremediation, rhizofiltration, bisorption and bioremediation. Watershed best management practices (BMP remains the best solution to reduce the intrusion of the heavy metals from the watershed into the reservoir.

  10. Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals in Broilers Fed “Trinidad de Guedes” Phosphorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valera M

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to use the “Trinidad de Guedes" phosphorite (TGP as a supplement of calcium and phosphorus in animals, its concentrations of heavy metals were determined and their deposition was analyzed in broilers. Toxic elements were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mean levels of heavy metals found in TGP were 82.5 mg/kg lead (Pb, 7.2 mg/kg cadmium (Cd, 1056.9 mg/kg manganese (Mn, 1.3 mg/kg mercury (Hg, 10.4 mg/kg  arsenic (As, 210.6 mg/kg zinc (Zn, and 121.3 mg/kg copper (Cu. All concentrations of heavy metals were below harmful levels, with the exception of Pb, which was above its maximum tolerable value. The levels of heavy metals accumulated in bones and feathers of broilers fed TGP were determined in a feeding trial. An amount of 300 day-old broilers from commercial hybrid crossing (HE21 were allocated into three treatments in a completely randomized design, with four replicates of 25 broilers each. The three treatments were a control containing dicalcium phosphate as calcium and phosphorus source, and two experimental treatments with TGP replacing dicalcium phosphate at levels of 50 and 100%. There were no differences between treatments for levels of toxic elements accumulated in feathers, femurs and tarsus of broilers. The amounts of heavy metals accumulated in the analyzed organs showed that TGP can replace dicalcium phosphate (DCP, the traditional source of calcium and phosphate without causing harm to animal health nor bioaccumulating heavy metals.

  11. Heavy metal levels in soil samples from highly industrialized Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anyakora

    2013-09-05

    Sep 5, 2013 ... The effect of heavy metals on the environment is of serious concern and threatens life in all forms. Environmental ... have affected the quality of soil due to contamination of soil with heavy metals and the consequent effects on the ..... tested for remediation of chromium-contaminated soils. (Collen, 2003).

  12. Heavy metals in soils of cocoa plantation (Theobroma cacao L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocoa has experienced significant growth in recent years in Peru and the presence of heavy metals in the soils of these plantations is a potential problem for the export of this product. Contents of heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Pb, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn) in soils from 19 plantations that have been in production f...

  13. Selected mineral and heavy metal concentrations in blood and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Pb in the dead vultures were generally above values characteristic of heavy metal poisoning. ... of the food chain), may accumulate and concentrate heavy metals in their ..... µg/g wet weight) (Honda et al., 1990), which validates the order of ...

  14. A Review of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Heavy Metal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Review of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Heavy Metal Contamination of Fish from Fish Farms. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals contribute to pollutants in aquaculture facilities and thus need to be further investigated.

  15. Heavy Metals Pollution on Surface Water Sources in Kaduna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examine the effects of heavy metal pollutants to aquatic ecosystems and the environment by considering the role of urban, municipal, agricultural, industrial and other anthropogenic processes as sources of heavy metal pollution in surface water sources of Kaduna metropolis. Samples of the polluted water were ...

  16. Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals by Moringa Oleifera in Automobile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plants accumulate minerals essential for their growth from the environment alongside with heavy metals from contaminated areas.This study investigated bioaccumulation of heavy metals by Moringa oleifera in automobile workshops in three selected local government areas in Ibadan. This was done with a view to ...

  17. Occurrence and distribution of heavy metals in indoor settled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed widespread heavy metals contamination especially Fe and Zn, which were present as the highest concentration while Cd was the lowest in the settled particles (dust). The order of occurrence of heavy metals in settled particles (dust) collected indoor in 2007 and 2008 respectively were as follows, ...

  18. Determination of Some Heavy Metals in Selected Beauty and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several epidemiologic studies have investigated the potential carcinogenicity of human exposure to heavy metals from diverse sources but few or none was on African black and beauty soaps. Hence, this study examines the presence of some heavy metals in selected African black and beauty soaps commonly used in ...

  19. Heavy metal biosorption sites in Penicillium cyclopium | Tsekova ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biomass of Penicillium cyclopium was subjected to chemical treatment to study the role of the functional groups in the biosorption of heavy metal ions. The modifications of the functional groups were examined with infrared spectroscopy. Hydroxyl groups were identified as providing the major sites of heavy metal ...

  20. Safety Evaluation of Osun River Water Containing Heavy Metals and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: This study evaluated the pH, heavy metals and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Osun river water. It also evaluated its safety in rats. Heavy metals were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) while VOCs were determined by gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detector ...

  1. Evaluation of heavy metal uptake and translocation by Acacia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many organic and inorganic pollutants, including heavy metals are being transported and mixed with the cultivated soils and water. Heavy metals are the most dangerous pollutants as they are nondegradable and accumulate and become toxic to plants and animals. An experiment was conducted in the glasshouse to ...

  2. Comparative assessment of heavy metal removal by immobilized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microorganisms play a vital role in heavy metal contaminated soil and wastewater by the mechanisms of biosorption. In this study, heavy metal resistant bacteria were isolated from an electroplating industrial effluent samples that uses copper, cadmium and lead for plating. These isolates were characterized to evaluate their ...

  3. assessment of heavy metals concentration in drinking water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    guidelines (WHO 2005). Findings suggest that continues water quality monitoring should be carried out to check the concentration levels of heavy metals in that area, to prevent them from been above the limit of WHO. Keywords: Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometers, Heavy Metals, Water, Kauru Local. Government Area.

  4. Uptake and elimination kinetics of heavy metals by earthworm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Earthworm inoculation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil is thought to catalyze the bioremediation. Most bioremediation studies focus on the petroleum hydrocarbon content and not on the heavy metals. Here, the uptake kinetics of heavy metals by earthworm in used engine oil contaminated soil was investigated.

  5. Bioaccumulation of eight heavy metals in cave animals from Dashui ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl2

    karst caves and water systems in the caves are well developed. So, heavy metals can contaminate cave envi- ronment and affect cave animals. Karst topography is widely distributed in Guizhou province, China, accounting for 73.8% of the total land area. So, the examination of heavy metal pollution in cave soil and water ...

  6. Heavy metal accumulation in under crown Olea europaea L forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heavy metal concentration in plants increased in site irrigation with wastewater. Zn, Pb and Ni exceeded their permitted limits in soils and Pb, Cr and Ni exceeded their permitted limits in roots of plants irrigated with wastewater. It was concluded that the use of wastewater in urban forest enriched the soils with heavy metals ...

  7. Tracing heavy metals in 'swine manure - maggot - chicken' production chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wanqiang; Zhang, Wenjuan; Wang, Xiaoping; Lei, Chaoliang; Tang, Rui; Zhang, Feng; Yang, Qizhi; Zhu, Fen

    2017-08-21

    With the development of large-scale livestock farming, manure pollution has drawn much attention. Conversion by insects is a rapid and cost-effective new method for manure management. Swine manure conversion with maggots (Musca domestica larvae) has developed, and the harvested maggots are often used as animal feed. However, the flow of heavy metals from manure to downstream processes cannot be ignored, and therefore, heavy metal content was measured in untreated raw manure, maggot-treated manure, harvested maggots and maggot-eating chickens (chest muscle and liver) to evaluate potential heavy metal risks. The levels of zinc, copper, chromium, selenium, cadmium and lead had significant differences between untreated raw manure and maggot-treated manure. The concentrations of all detected heavy metals, except for cadmium and selenium, in maggots met the limits established by the feed or feed additive standards of many countries. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of heavy metals decreased with the increase of the maggot instar, indicating that heavy metals were discharged from the bodies of maggots with the growth of maggots. Also, the contents of overall heavy metals in chickens fed harvested maggots met the standards for food. In conclusion, regarding heavy metals, it is eco-safe to use maggots in manure management.

  8. THE HEAVY METALS CONNTENT IN VEGETABLES FROM MIDDLE SPIŠ AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Slávik,Tomáš Tóth

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the middle area of Spiš, it is significantly burden by heavy metals what is documented by radical content of Hg in soil from Rudňany 58.583645 mg.kg -1. On the content of heavy metals in vegetables grown in this soil it has the same effect. 61.5% samples exceeded the limit value of heavy metals. The most dangerous vegetables were Lactuca sativa L. The limit value was exceed in all determine heavy metals - Hg, Cd, Pb and Cu in this vegetables. In the case of Hg, the limit value exceed 93.86 times. For relatively safety is growing of Pisum sativum L., where there was no exceed any limits values. The root vegetables are dangerous, where the sample of Raphanus sativus L. exceed 6.71978 times the limit values for Pb although the content of lead in the soil was under hygienic limits. Transfer of heavy metals into consume parts of vegetables was no limited by high content of humus into soil. Transfer of heavy metals into consume parts of vegetables was no limited by weakly alkaline soil reaction. These factors are considered for factors limited mobility and input heavy metals into plants. We determined heavy metals by AAS method on a Varian 240 FS and method AMA 254.

  9. Heavy metal contamination of some vegetables from pesticides and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vegetable farming in developing countries is characterized by the indiscriminate application of pesticides and the resultant pollution of agricultural soil with heavy metals that form constituents of these pesticides. These heavy metals have long term toxicity to human and other biota in the ecosystem. This problem is ...

  10. Comparative Studies on Mosses for Heavy Metals Pollution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sources of these heavy metals were discovered to include: vehicular emission and incineration of domestic wastes and the heavy metals from these sources were discovered to pose severe toxicological risks to the environment and human health. Samples of mosses were collected at eight different locations in each ...

  11. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopic determination of heavy metals and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the heavy metal and trace element composition of the powdered aerial parts of Origanum sipyleum L. and its water extract. Methods: The heavy metal and trace elements content of the powdered plant material and 2 % aqueous extract were evaluated by x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy with silicon ...

  12. Heavy Metals Accumulation Characteristics of Vegetables in Hangzhou City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GU Yan-qing

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A field survey of heavy metal concentrations in soils and vegetables grown in 30 vegetable farmlands of Hangzhou City were carried out. Through calculating the bioconcentration factor(BCFand transfer factor(TFfor different heavy metals(Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr and Pbin 27 kinds of different vegetables which belong to leafy vegetables, root vegetables or eggplant fruit vegetables, assessing their accumulation characteristics of heavy metals according to the differences of the bio-concentration factor, the reasonable proposals were put forward to optimize the planting structure of vegetables in mild and middle-level heavy metal contamination soils. The experimental results were as follows: In soils with mild and middle-level heavy metal contamination, leafy vegetables, such as crown daisy, cabbage, celery and Chinese long cabbage, had relatively low enrichment ability of heavy metals, so as the root and fruit vegetables like white radish, carrot, tomatoes, hence these vegetables could be planted preferentially. In contrast, some kinds of vegetables, including white amaranth, red amaranth, tatsoi, broccoli, gynura, brassica juncea and lettuce of leafy vegetables, lactuca sativa, taro, red radish and cherry radish of rhizome vegetables and sweet pepper of fruit vegetables, had relatively high accumulation ability of heavy metal, which should be avoided to be planted in soils with mild and middle-level heavy metal contamination.

  13. Heavy metals – a silent threat to health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Kosek-Hoehne

    2017-01-01

    Environmental pollution makes it impossible to produce goods and food from products completely free from heavy metals contamination. That is why we should focus on reducing the amount of heavy metals to the minimum when it comes to the world around us.

  14. selected heavy metals in some vegetables produced through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    toshiib

    Haramaya University; P. O. Box 138, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia. 10013 ... and trace elements that have potential health benefits [1]. ... leads to a build-up of heavy metals in soils and foods [3]. Exposure of ... Based on the effect of heavy metals on ... (Buck Scientific Model 210VGP AAS, East Norwalk, USA) with air-acetylene flame.

  15. Heavy Metal Pollution of Vegetable Crops Irrigated with Wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Cr (< 0.006), Cd (< 0.002) and Co (< 0.005), soil Fe (164.38; 162.92), Mn (39.39; 20.09), Cu (7.21; ... extent of heavy metal contamination, steps must be taken to reduce human activities at the sites. ...... The degree of toxicity of heavy metals to.

  16. Physicochemical characteristics and heavy metal levels in soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Distribution pattern of heavy metals in petrol stations, abattoirs, mechanic workshops and hospital incinerator sites were Mn > Zn > Pb > Cd, while for dumpsites Zn > Mn > Pb > Cd. Pollution index indicated that soil qualities varied between slightly contaminated to severely polluted status. This showed that the heavy metal ...

  17. Determination of Heavy Metals in Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. Collected from Different Cultivation Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 20 batches of Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. were collected from Yunnan, Guangdong, Guangxi, and Hainan province in China. The contents of heavy metals of As, Hg, Pb, Cd, and Cu were determined and compared. The results indicated that geographical source might be a major factor to influence the contents of heavy metals of arsenic (As, mercury (Hg, lead (Pb, cadmium (Cd, and copper (Cu in Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. Compared to the criteria of heavy metals, the contents of As, Hg, Pb, and Cd in almost all the samples were in accordance with The Green Trade Standards. The contents of Cu were higher than the criteria for heavy metals except the samples from Changxing town, Qiongzhong county, Maoyang town, Qiongzhong county, Wupo town, Tunchang county, and Nanlv town, Tunchang county, in Hainan province. The best cultivation regions of Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. were from Changxing town, Qiongzhong county, Maoyang town, Qiongzhong county, Wupo town, Tunchang county, and Nanlv town, Tunchang county, in Hainan province. This research would provide the scientific basis for quality control and standardization of Alpinia oxyphylla Miq.

  18. Combined toxicity and underlying mechanisms of a mixture of eight heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qi; Gu, Yuanliang; Yue, Xia; Mao, Guochuan; Wang, Yafei; Su, Hong; Xu, Jin; Shi, Hongbo; Zou, Baobo; Zhao, Jinshun; Wang, Renyuan

    2017-02-01

    With the rapid development of modernization and industrialization in China, a large quantity of heavy metals, including zinc, copper, lead, cadmium and mercury, have been entering the atmosphere, soil and water, the latter being the primary route of pollution. In the present study, in vitro experiments were performed to examine the joint toxicity and the underlying mechanisms of the eight most common heavy metals contaminating offshore waters on the eastern coast of Ningbo region. Using a cell cycle assay, cell apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection methods, the present study demonstrated that the heavy metal mixture arrested JB6 cells at the S phase, induced the generation of ROS and cell apoptosis. A luciferase assay indicated that the levels of activator protein‑1 and nuclear factor‑κB transcription factors were upregulated. Upregulation of the protein levels of C‑jun and p65 were detected in the JB6 cells by western blot analysis; these two genes have important roles in cell carcinogenesis. These results provide a useful reference for further investigations on the combined toxicity of the exposure to multiple heavy metals.

  19. Determination of Heavy Metals in Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. Collected from Different Cultivation Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dan; Fu, Yurong; Lai, Weiyong; Zhang, Junqing

    2016-01-01

    20 batches of Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. were collected from Yunnan, Guangdong, Guangxi, and Hainan province in China. The contents of heavy metals of As, Hg, Pb, Cd, and Cu were determined and compared. The results indicated that geographical source might be a major factor to influence the contents of heavy metals of arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and copper (Cu) in Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. Compared to the criteria of heavy metals, the contents of As, Hg, Pb, and Cd in almost all the samples were in accordance with The Green Trade Standards. The contents of Cu were higher than the criteria for heavy metals except the samples from Changxing town, Qiongzhong county, Maoyang town, Qiongzhong county, Wupo town, Tunchang county, and Nanlv town, Tunchang county, in Hainan province. The best cultivation regions of Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. were from Changxing town, Qiongzhong county, Maoyang town, Qiongzhong county, Wupo town, Tunchang county, and Nanlv town, Tunchang county, in Hainan province. This research would provide the scientific basis for quality control and standardization of Alpinia oxyphylla Miq.

  20. Smouldering peat fires in polluted landscapes and their impact on heavy metal mobilisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Gareth; Rothwell, James; Shuttleworth, Emma

    2016-04-01

    Whilst wildfires are commonly viewed as a threat confined to Southern Europe, Australia, and North America, recognition of wildfire hazard in the UK has been growing in recent years. UK wildfires often occur on heathland vegetation underlain by peat. These areas can contain industrially-derived legacy pollutants, such as mercury, lead, and arsenic. Ignition of the peat can lead to long-term smouldering fires that are difficult to extinguish, leading to large-scale damage. While work on assessing post-fire damage of peatlands has focussed on carbon and nutrient dynamics, there has been little attention on the release of heavy metals following wildfires. This paper presents initial data from a preliminary study to assess heavy metal release from smouldering peat fires. A homogenised sample of peat from the Peak District National Park, UK was ignited, monitored using thermocouples and an IR camera, and left to smoulder until self-extinguished (~9 hours). Total mass loss was 61%. Samples of pre- and post-burn peat were analysed for their heavy metal concentrations using XRF, ICP-MS, and CVAFS. Sample analysis is ongoing, but initial data shows that there is a substantial (3x) relative enrichment in heavy metal concentrations in post-fire ash. This has important implications for subsequent mobilisation in the aquatic and terrestrial environments, as well as consequences for human health risk through atmospheric redistribution.

  1. [Biosorption of heavy metals in fluoritum decoction by fungal mycelium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Pei-wu; Hu, Wei; Hu, Ya-qiang; Tan, Zhao-yang

    2014-09-01

    To explore the biosorption technology of heavy metals in Fluoritum decoction by fungal mycelium. Four factors including fungal mycelium amount, adsorption time, pH value and temperature were employed to estimate the fungal biomass adsorption conditions for removing the heavy metals in Fluoritum decoction. Then an orthogonal experimental design was taken to optimize the biosorption process, and the removal efficiency was also evaluated. Under the optimized conditions of 1.0 g/50 mL Fluoritum decoction, 3 hours adsorption time, pH 5.0 and 40 degrees C, a result of 70.12% heavy metals removal rate was accomplished with 35.99% calcium ion loss. The study indicates that removing of heavy metals in Fluoritum decoction through fungal mycelium is feasible, and the experiment results can also provide a basis for further research on biosorption of heavy metals in traditional Chinese medicine

  2. Indicators of Lake Temsah Potential by some heavy metals Heavy Metals in Sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Sabour, M.F.; Aly, R.O.; Khalil, M.T.; Attwa, A.H.A.

    1999-01-01

    The Environmental impact of industrial, agricultural and domestic waster on heavy metals sediment content in lake Temsah has been investigated. Seven sites were chosen, differ in nature of activity and quantity of wastes, namely from south to north-west; Arab contractors shipyard workshop(A), The junction between the western logon and the lake(B), El-Temsah workshop (C), El-Temsah shipyard (private workshop) (D), El-Karakat workshop for SCA (E), El-Forsan drain out fall to the lake (F) and SCA Press outlet (G). Eight of heavy metal concentrations of concern (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Co, Ni, Cd and Pb) were estimated in sediment samples collected from different chosen sites during the seasons; summer , autumn 1995 and winter , spring 1996. Results of this study reveal that pollution is directly related to the type of the activity in each site. Sediment samples results showed that the most suffering sites were found to be in the order of B> D> C> G> F, and the least polluted ones were E> A. And the highest polluted season was summer, whereas the least one was winter. It is obvious that the general mean values of Cu, Ni and Cd are exceeding the allowed concentrations documented for diverse trace components in coastal sediments. Strict regulations that must be followed in order to minimize this pollution specially, by heavy metals from marine workshop

  3. Determination of some soft drink constituents and contamination by some heavy metals in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engwa Azeh Godwill

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft drinks are consumed daily in Nigeria due to its affordability, characteristic taste, and thirst quenching potential. However, the high demand may compromise the quality of production with possible contamination of heavy metals which have shown to cause intoxication and death in humans. This study evaluated some constituents of twenty-six soft drinks in Nigeria and investigated the presence of some heavy metal contaminants. The soft drinks were screened for the presence of sugar, carbon dioxide, phosphate and alcohol as well as the pH and acidity determined. The level of cadmium, mercury and lead were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The study showed the presence of sugar, carbon dioxide, phosphate, and alcohol in the soft drinks. The soft drinks were acidic in nature, pH ranging from 3 to 5 with a mean of 3.6 and the acid concentration was relatively low between 3 and 12 g/L with a mean of 8.1 g/L. Lead was present in all the samples ranging from 0.17 to 3.39 mg/L with a mean of 0.8, mercury was present in 22 samples ranging from 0.29 to 11.32 mg/L with a mean of 2.08 mg/L while cadmium was present only in one sample (0.149 mg/L. When compared to EPA, WHO and NIS standards, the levels of the heavy metal contaminants were above the tolerated limits for good quality drinking water in most samples. These results suggest that soft drinks in Nigeria may be contaminated with heavy metals which constitute a major public health problem. Thus, quality control is recommended during the production process especially at the stages of sterilization and purification.

  4. Modeling of Heavy Metal Transformation in Soil Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinichenko, Kira; Nikovskaya, Galina N.

    2017-04-01

    The intensification of industrial activity leads to an increase in heavy metals pollution of soils. In our opinion, sludge from biological treatment of municipal waste water, stabilized under aerobic-anaerobic conditions (commonly known as biosolid), may be considered as concentrate of natural soil. In their chemical, physical and chemical and biological properties these systems are similar gel-like nanocomposites. These contain microorganisms, humic substances, clay, clusters of nanoparticles of heavy metal compounds, and so on involved into heteropolysaccharides matrix. It is known that microorganisms play an important role in the transformation of different nature substances in soil and its health maintenance. The regularities of transformation of heavy metal compounds in soil ecosystem were studied at the model of biosolid. At biosolid swelling its structure changing (gel-sol transition, weakening of coagulation contacts between metal containing nanoparticles, microbial cells and metabolites, loosening and even destroying of the nanocomposite structure) can occur [1, 2]. The promotion of the sludge heterotrophic microbial activities leads to solubilization of heavy metal compounds in the system. The microbiological process can be realized in alcaligeneous or acidogeneous regimes in dependence on the type of carbon source and followed by the synthesis of metabolites with the properties of flocculants and heavy metals extragents [3]. In this case the heavy metals solubilization (bioleaching) in the form of nanoparticles of hydroxycarbonate complexes or water soluble complexes with oxycarbonic acids is observed. Under the action of biosolid microorganisms the heavy metals-oxycarbonic acids complexes can be transformed (catabolised) into nano-sizing heavy metals- hydroxycarbonates complexes. These ecologically friendly complexes and microbial heteropolysaccharides are able to interact with soil colloids, stay in the top soil profile, and improve soil structure due

  5. Treatment of heavy metals and radionuclides in groundwater and wastewater by magnetic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, D.; Elder, G.R.; Tucker, P.M.; Dunn, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    Removal of trace quantities of heavy metal or radionuclide contamination from solutions at high flow rate presents a considerable technical challenge. Low flow methods of treatment such as particle gravity settling require expensive large volume equipment, whereas traditional methods of filtration demand significant energy costs. Magnetic filtration can be used to provide a low cost method of solid-liquid separation at high flow rate, provided contaminants can be selectively bound to a magnetic solid particle. This paper describes recent progress with this technique including performance tests of composite materials produced to selectively remove specific contaminants such as cesium, uranium, lead, cadmium, and mercury from solution

  6. Preparation and Evaluation of Some Surface Active Sequestering Agents for Some Heavy Metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badawi, A.M.; Mohamed, M.Z.; Mohamed, A.S.; Khowdry, M.M.; Bastway, A.F.

    2004-01-01

    A novel series of chelating agents has been synthesized by the reaction of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, citric acid and polyethylene glycol with different molecular weights and different number of moles. The unique structural features of these surfactants have been confirmed by FTIR spectra, elemental analysis and H 1 NMR spectrum. These surfactants exhibit excellent properties in sequestering heavy metal such as copper, lead and mercury. They show good surfactant properties, including surface tension, effectiveness, efficiency and emulsifying power. Critical micelle concentration, maximum surface excess and minimum surface area have been studied. Free energy of micellization and adsorption have been calculated

  7. Deliberate, repeated self-administration of metallic mercury injection: case report and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Givica-Perez, A.; Santana-Montesdeoca, J.M.; Diaz-Sanchez, M.; Martinez-Lagares, F.J.; Castaneda, W.R.

    2001-01-01

    Self-administration of metallic mercury through the intravenous route is rare. This event has been reported in psychiatric patients and in suicide attempts. We report a case of successive intravenous self-injections of mercury demonstrated by plain film radiographs and CT scans of the thorax and abdomen. (orig.)

  8. Adsorption of heavy metal ions on different clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruse, K.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the present dissertation is to study the adsorption of heavy metal ions (Cd 2+ , Cu 2+ , Pb 2+ , Zn 2+ ) and their mixtures on clays. Different clays and bentonites (Ca 2+ -bentonite, activated Na + -bentonite, special heavy metal adsorber bentonite, two organophilic bentonites and a mixed layer clay) were used. The adsorbed metal ions were desorbed by appropriate solutions of HCl, EDTA and dioctadecyl dimethylammonium bromide. High concentrations of the heavy metal ions in the solutions can be reached. The desorption guarantees economical recycling. After desorption the clays were used (up to three times) for purification of contaminated water. The best experimental conditions, i.e. the highest adsorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions was found for the greatest ratio of adsorbent/adsorbate. The adsorption was very fast. Calcium, sodium bentonites and the heavy metal adsorber bentonite attained the highest adsorption and desorption for Cu 2+, Zn 2+ and Pb 2+ ions. Cd 2+ ions were only absorbed by Silitonit, a special heavy metal absorber bentonite. The mixed layer clay (Opalit) ranges in adsorption and desorption properties below the unmodified Ca 2+ -bentonite (Montigel) or the activated Na + -bentonite. Only Tixosorb and Tixogel (organophilic bentonites) reach the lowest value of heavy metal adsorption. Only lead cations which are characterised by good polarizability were adsorbed at higher rates, therefore the organophilic bentonites are not appropriate for adsorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. Mixing of the metal ions generally decreases the adsorption of Pb 2+ and increases the adsorption of Cd 2+ . From mixtures if heavy metal ions adsorption and desorption of Cu 2+ ions reached a maximum for all clays. (author) figs., tabs., 56 refs

  9. Cell surface engineering of microorganisms towards adsorption of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng-Song; Tao, Hu-Chun

    2015-06-01

    Heavy metal contamination has become a worldwide environmental concern due to its toxicity, non-degradability and food-chain bioaccumulation. Conventional physical and chemical treatment methods for heavy metal removal have disadvantages such as cost-intensiveness, incomplete removal, secondary pollution and the lack of metal specificity. Microbial biomass-based biosorption is one of the approaches gaining increasing attention because it is effective, cheap, and environmental friendly and can work well at low concentrations. To enhance the adsorption properties of microbial cells to heavy metal ions, the cell surface display of various metal-binding proteins/peptides have been performed using a cell surface engineering approach. The surface engineering of Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria and yeast towards the adsorption of heavy metals are reviewed in this article. The problems and future perspectives of this technology are discussed.

  10. Impact of heavy metals on the female reproductive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Rzymski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It has been recognized that environmental pollution can affect the quality of health of the human population. Heavy metals are among the group of highly emitted contaminants and their adverse effect of living organisms has been widely studied in recent decades. Lifestyle and quality of the ambient environment are among these factors which can mainly contribute to the heavy metals exposure in humans. Objective. A review of literature linking heavy metals and the female reproductive system and description of the possible associations with emission and exposure of heavy metals and impairments of female reproductive system according to current knowledge. Results. The potential health disorders caused by chronic or acute heavy metals toxicity include immunodeficiency, osteoporosis, neurodegeneration and organ failures. Potential linkages of heavy metals concentration found in different human organs and blood with oestrogen-dependent diseases such as breast cancer, endometrial cancer, endometriosis and spontaneous abortions, as well as pre-term deliveries, stillbirths and hypotrophy, have also been reported. Conclusions. Environmental deterioration can lead to the elevated risk of human exposure to heavy metals, and consequently, health implications including disturbances in reproduction. It is therefore important to continue the investigations on metal-induced mechanisms of fertility impairment on the genetic, epigenetic and biochemical level.

  11. Predictive Modelling of Heavy Metals in Urban Lakes

    OpenAIRE

    Lindström, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Heavy metals are well-known environmental pollutants. In this thesis predictive models for heavy metals in urban lakes are discussed and new models presented. The base of predictive modelling is empirical data from field investigations of many ecosystems covering a wide range of ecosystem characteristics. Predictive models focus on the variabilities among lakes and processes controlling the major metal fluxes. Sediment and water data for this study were collected from ten small lakes in the ...

  12. Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Sediment and Polychaete ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Metal pollution in the Mzinga creek mangrove stand was assessed and compared with a relatively pristine mangrove forest at Ras Dege in Dar es Salaam. The concentrations of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead and zinc in sediment and polychaete worms (Capitella sp.) were analyzed by ICP-AES and mercury was ...

  13. Heavy metal accumulation in arctic hares (Lepus arcticus) in Nunavut, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Simen [Department of Biology, University of Tromso, N-9037 Tromso (Norway)]. E-mail: simenpeders1@gmail.com; Lierhagen, Syverin [Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Tungasletta 2, N-7485 Trondheim (Norway)

    2006-09-15

    Accumulation of cadmium, mercury, lead, copper and zinc was studied in muscle, liver and kidney of 9 adult and 7 juvenile arctic hares (Lepus arcticus), collected in 2003 in the southwestern part of Nunavut, Canada. Our objective was to determine the level of heavy metal accumulation, and distribution among age groups and tissue. Concentrations of all metals varied among tissues, and concentrations of Cd, Hg and Zn were higher in adults compared to juveniles. We found correlations in metal content among tissues, and among metals in kidneys. We also found the hares to have low concentration of most heavy metals except cadmium. We suggest that the high cadmium levels might be caused by the local geology, and the hares being adapted to these levels. The low levels of the other metals are probably due to low input of atmospheric contaminants. Only one of the individuals had Cd content slightly above the maximum contaminant levels recommended for human consumption of meat. There were no levels in meat above the recommended maximum for the rest of the metals surveyed. However the Cd levels in liver and kidney are orders of magnitude higher than the recommended maximum, and consumption of these organs should be avoided.

  14. Heavy metal displacement in chelate-irrigated soil during phytoremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, F.; Liphadzi, M. S.; Kirkham, M. B.

    2003-03-01

    Heavy metals in wastewater sewage sludge (biosolids), applied to land, contaminate soils. Phytoremediation, the use of plants to clean up toxic heavy metals, might remove them. Chelating agents are added to soil to solubilize the metals for enhanced phytoextraction. Yet no studies follow the displacement and leaching of heavy metals in soil with and without roots following solubilization with chelates. The objective of this work was to determine the mobility of heavy metals in biosolids applied to the surface of soil columns (76 cm long; 17 cm diam.) with or without plants (barley; Hordeum vulgare L.). Three weeks after barley was planted, all columns were irrigated with the disodium salt of the chelating agent, EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid) (0.5 g/kg soil). Drainage water, soil, and plants were analyzed for heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn). Total concentrations of the heavy metals in all columns at the end of the experiment generally were lower in the top 30 cm of soil with EDTA than without EDTA. The chelate increased concentrations of heavy metals in shoots. With or without plants, the EDTA mobilized Cd, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn, which leached to drainage water. Drainage water from columns without EDTA had concentrations of these heavy metals below detection limits. Only Cu did not leach in the presence of EDTA. Even though roots retarded the movement of Cd, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn through the EDTA-treated soil from 1 d (Cd) to 5 d (Fe), the drainage water from columns with EDTA had concentrations of Cd, Fe, Mn, and Pb that exceeded drinking water standards by 1.3, 500, 620, and 8.6 times, respectively. Because the chelate rendered Cd, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn mobile, it is suggested that the theory for leaching of soluble salts, put forward by Nielsen and associates in 1965, could be applied to control movement of the heavy metals for maximum uptake during chelate-assisted phytoremediation.

  15. Multiple heavy metal removal using an entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gola, Deepak; Dey, Priyadarshini; Bhattacharya, Arghya; Mishra, Abhishek; Malik, Anushree; Namburath, Maneesh; Ahammad, Shaikh Ziauddin

    2016-10-01

    Towards the development of a potential remediation technology for multiple heavy metals [Zn(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), Cr(VI) and Ni(II)] from contaminated water, present study examined the growth kinetics and heavy metal removal ability of Beauveria bassiana in individual and multi metals. The specific growth rate of B. bassiana varied from 0.025h(-1) to 0.039h(-1) in presence of individual/multi heavy metals. FTIR analysis indicated the involvement of different surface functional groups in biosorption of different metals, while cellular changes in fungus was reflected by various microscopic (SEM, AFM and TEM) analysis. TEM studies proved removal of heavy metals via sorption and accumulation processes, whereas AFM studies revealed increase in cell surface roughness in fungal cells exposed to heavy metals. Present study delivers first report on the mechanism of bioremediation of heavy metals when present individually as well as multi metal mixture by entomopathogenic fungi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Concentration of Heavy Metals in the Territorial Sea Water of the Kingdom of Bahrain, Arabian Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juma, H.A.; Al-Madany, I.M.

    2008-01-01

    This is the first investigation for the analysis of heavy metal covering the territorial water of Kingdom of Bahrain. For the purpose of establishing baseline, as well as the assessment of marine contamination due to heavy metals, sea water were collected from 23 different sites known as fishing areas of the territorial water of the Kingdom of Bahrain in the year 2007. The heavy metals analyzed were Arsenic, Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb), Vanadium (V), Zinc (Zn) and Mercury (Hg), using Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, Zn, Hg were in the range of 0.85-2.75, 0.06-5.20, 4.53-119.00, 1.03-28.62, 0.06-1.24, 0.71-20.1, 1.13-2.01, 1.13-9.93, 4.06-118.0 and 0.13-0.38 ug/1, respectively representing the baseline trace metal concentrations of sea water in the Kingdom of Bahrain. The results suggest that the Kingdom of Bahrain's marine waters seem to be of good quality as the concentrations of the metals reported the studied areas are far below the United Kingdom Water quality standards and United States Environmental Protection Agency recommended water quality criteria, with the exception of copper in all sites, and Mercury (Hg) in Msoor site. In general concentrations of the trace elements in sea water were similar to those of other areas worldwide, and were deemed not to be of any toxicological significance. (author)

  17. Age-Related Uptake of Heavy Metals in Human Spinal Interneurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Pamphlett

    Full Text Available Toxic heavy metals have been implicated in the loss of spinal motoneurons in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease (ALS/MND. Motoneuron loss in the spinal anterior horn is severe in ALS/MND at the time of death, making this tissue unsuitable for examination. We therefore examined spinal cords of people without muscle weakness to look for any presence of heavy metals that could make these neurons susceptible to damage. Spinal cord samples from 50 individuals aged 1-95 y who had no clinical or histopathological evidence of spinal motoneuron loss were studied. Seven μm formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections were stained for heavy metals with silver nitrate autometallography (AMGHM which detects intracellular mercury, silver or bismuth. Neurons in the spinal cord were classified as interneurons or α-motoneurons based on their site and cell body diameter. Spinal interneurons containing heavy metals were present in 8 of 24 people (33% aged 61-95 y, but not at younger ages. These AMGHM interneurons were most numerous in the lumbar spinal cord, with moderate numbers in the caudal cervical cord, few in the rostral cervical cord, and almost none in the thoracic cord. All people with AMGHM interneurons had occasional AMGHM staining in α-motoneurons as well. In one man AMGHM staining was present in addition in dorsomedial nucleus and sensory neurons. In conclusion, heavy metals are present in many spinal interneurons, and in a few α-motoneurons, in a large proportion of older people. Damage to inhibitory interneurons from toxic metals in later life could result in excitotoxic injury to motoneurons and may underlie motoneuron injury or loss in conditions such as ALS/MND, multiple sclerosis, sarcopenia and calf fasciculations.

  18. Roles of Extracellular Polysaccharides and Biofilm Formation in Heavy Metal Resistance of Rhizobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Nocelli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial surface components and extracellular compounds, particularly flagella, lipopolysaccharides (LPSs, and exopolysaccharides (EPSs, in combination with environmental signals and quorum-sensing signals, play crucial roles in bacterial autoaggregation, biofilm development, survival, and host colonization. The nitrogen-fixing species Sinorhizobium meliloti (S. meliloti produces two symbiosis-promoting EPSs: succinoglycan (or EPS I and galactoglucan (or EPS II. Studies of the S. meliloti/alfalfa symbiosis model system have revealed numerous biological functions of EPSs, including host specificity, participation in early stages of host plant infection, signaling molecule during plant development, and (most importantly protection from environmental stresses. We evaluated functions of EPSs in bacterial resistance to heavy metals and metalloids, which are known to affect various biological processes. Heavy metal resistance, biofilm production, and co-culture were tested in the context of previous studies by our group. A range of mercury (Hg II and arsenic (As III concentrations were applied to S. meliloti wild type strain and to mutant strains defective in EPS I and EPS II. The EPS production mutants were generally most sensitive to the metals. Our findings suggest that EPSs are necessary for the protection of bacteria from either Hg (II or As (III stress. Previous studies have described a pump in S. meliloti that causes efflux of arsenic from cells to surrounding culture medium, thereby protecting them from this type of chemical stress. The presence of heavy metals or metalloids in culture medium had no apparent effect on formation of biofilm, in contrast to previous reports that biofilm formation helps protect various microorganism species from adverse environmental conditions. In co-culture experiments, EPS-producing heavy metal resistant strains exerted a protective effect on AEPS-non-producing, heavy metal-sensitive strains; a phenomenon

  19. Heavy Metals in Soil and Crops of an Intensively Farmed Area: A Case Study in Yucheng City, Shandong Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linsheng Yang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Yucheng City is located in northwestern Shandong Province, China, and is situated on the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, the largest alluvial plain in China. In this study, 86 surface soil samples were collected in Yucheng City and analyzed for cation exchange capacity (CEC, soil organic matter (SOM, pH, available phosphorus (avail. P, phosphorus (P, aluminum (Al, and iron (Fe. These soils were also analyzed for ‘total’ chromium (Cr, nickel (Ni, copper (Cu, zinc (Zn, arsenic (As, mercury (Hg, cadmium (Cd, and lead (Pb, together with 92 wheat samples and 37 corn samples. There was no obvious heavy metal contamination in the soil and irrigation water. But the long-term accumulation of heavy metals in soil has lead to an increase of Ni, As, Hg and Pb concentrations in some of wheat and corn samples and Cd in wheat samples. Because of the numerous sources of soil heavy metals and the lower level of heavy metal in irrigation water, there is no significant relation between soil heavy metal concentrations and irrigation water concentrations. Cr, Ni were mainly from the indigenous clay minerals according to multivariate analysis. Little contribution to soil heavy metal contents from agricultural fertilizer use was found and the local anomalies of As, Cd, Hg, Pb in wheat and corn grain are attributed to the interactive effects of irrigation and fertilizer used. Aerial Hg, however may also be the source of Hg for soil, wheat and corn.

  20. A sensitive whole-cell biosensor for the simultaneous detection of a broad-spectrum of toxic heavy metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerminati, S; Soncini, F C; Checa, S K

    2015-04-07

    Bacterial biosensors are simple, cost-effective and efficient analytical tools for detecting bioavailable heavy metals in the environment. This work presents the design, construction and calibration of a novel whole-cell fluorescent biosensory device that, simultaneously and with high sensitivity, reports the presence of toxic mercury, lead, cadmium and/or gold ions in aqueous samples. This bio-reporter can be easily applied as an immediate alerting tool for detecting the presence of harmful pollutants in drinking water.

  1. Air emission in France. Metropolitan area heavy metals; Emissions dans l'air en France. Metropole metaux lourds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    Substances and index currently in survey are: Heavy metals: Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Mercury (Hg), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb), Selenium (Se), Zinc (Zn). Density ratios relating to population, area, gross product, primary energy consumption, etc. Annual emissions are provided for each substance since 1990. Dates corresponding to the maximum and minimum values are also included. Results are provisional for 2001. (author)

  2. Heavy metal sensitivity and bioconcentration in oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skubala, Piotr, E-mail: piotr.skubala@us.edu.pl [Department of Ecology, University of Silesia, Bankowa 9, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Zaleski, Tomasz [Department of Soil Science and Soil Protection, Agricultural University in Krakow, Mickiewicza 21, 31-120 Cracow (Poland)

    2012-01-01

    In this study we aimed to identify different reactions of oribatid species to heavy metal pollution and to measure concentrations of cadmium, zinc and copper in oribatid species sampled along a gradient. Oribatid mites were sampled seasonally during two years in five meadows located at different distances from the zinc smelter in the Olkusz District, southern Poland. Oribatids were shown to withstand critical metal concentration and established comparatively abundant and diverse communities. The highest abundance and species richness of oribatids were recorded in soils with moderate concentrations of heavy metals. Four different responses of oribatid species to heavy metal pollution were recognized. Heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni) and various physical (bulk density, field capacity, total porosity) and chemical (K{sub av}, P{sub av}, N, C, pH) factors were recognized as the structuring forces that influence the distribution of oribatid species. Analysis by atomic absorption spectrophotometry revealed large differences in metal body burdens among species. None of the species can be categorized as accumulators or non-accumulators of the heavy metals - the pattern depends on the metal. The process of bioconcentration of the toxic metal (regulated) and essential elements (accumulated) was generally different in the five oribatid species studied. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Responses of oribatid mites to metal contamination along a gradient in meadow soils were studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Small concentrations of heavy metals positively influenced the abundance of oribatid mites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four different responses of oribatid species to heavy metal pollution were recognised. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bioaccumulation of the toxic metal and essential elements proceeded differently in oribatid species. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Five studied oribatid species were deconcentrators of cadmium.

  3. Microalgae - A promising tool for heavy metal remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh Kumar, K; Dahms, Hans-Uwe; Won, Eun-Ji; Lee, Jae-Seong; Shin, Kyung-Hoon

    2015-03-01

    Biotechnology of microalgae has gained popularity due to the growing need for novel environmental technologies and the development of innovative mass-production. Inexpensive growth requirements (solar light and CO2), and, the advantage of being utilized simultaneously for multiple technologies (e.g. carbon mitigation, biofuel production, and bioremediation) make microalgae suitable candidates for several ecofriendly technologies. Microalgae have developed an extensive spectrum of mechanisms (extracellular and intracellular) to cope with heavy metal toxicity. Their wide-spread occurrence along with their ability to grow and concentrate heavy metals, ascertains their suitability in practical applications of waste-water bioremediation. Heavy metal uptake by microalgae is affirmed to be superior to the prevalent physicochemical processes employed in the removal of toxic heavy metals. In order to evaluate their potential and to fill in the loopholes, it is essential to carry out a critical assessment of the existing microalgal technologies, and realize the need for development of commercially viable technologies involving strategic multidisciplinary approaches. This review summarizes several areas of heavy metal remediation from a microalgal perspective and provides an overview of various practical avenues of this technology. It particularly details heavy metals and microalgae which have been extensively studied, and provides a schematic representation of the mechanisms of heavy metal remediation in microalgae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Heavy metals in vegetables and potential risk for human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Guerra

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ingestion of vegetables containing heavy metals is one of the main ways in which these elements enter the human body. Once entered, heavy metals are deposited in bone and fat tissues, overlapping noble minerals. Slowly released into the body, heavy metals can cause an array of diseases. This study aimed to investigate the concentrations of cadmium, nickel, lead, cobalt and chromium in the most frequently consumed foodstuff in the São Paulo State, Brazil and to compare the heavy metal contents with the permissible limits established by the Brazilian legislation. A value of intake of heavy metals in human diets was also calculated to estimate the risk to human health. Vegetable samples were collected at the São Paulo General Warehousing and Centers Company, and the heavy metal content was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. All sampled vegetables presented average concentrations of Cd and Ni lower than the permissible limits established by the Brazilian legislation. Pb and Cr exceeded the limits in 44 % of the analyzed samples. The Brazilian legislation does not establish a permissible limit for Co contents. Regarding the consumption habit of the population in the São Paulo State, the daily ingestion of heavy metals was below the oral dose of reference, therefore, consumption of these vegetables can be considered safe and without risk to human health.

  5. A Drinking Water Sensor for Lead and Other Heavy Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Chi; Li, Zhongrui; Burns, Mark A

    2017-09-05

    Leakage of lead and other heavy metals into drinking water is a significant health risk and one that is not easily detected. We have developed simple sensors containing only platinum electrodes for the detection of heavy metal contamination in drinking water. The two-electrode sensor can identify the existence of a variety of heavy metals in drinking water, and the four-electrode sensor can distinguish lead from other heavy metals in solution. No false-positive response is generated when the sensors are placed in simulated and actual tap water contaminated by heavy metals. Lead detection on the four-electrode sensor is not affected by the presence of common ions in tap water. Experimental results suggest the sensors can be embedded in water service lines for long-time use until lead or other heavy metals are detected. With its low cost (∼$0.10/sensor) and the possibility of long-term operation, the sensors are ideal for heavy metal detection of drinking water.

  6. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in oysters from the southern coast of Korea: assessment of potential risk to human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Jong Soo; Yoo, Hyun Duk; Kim, Poong Ho; Yoon, Ho Dong; Park, Young Cheol; Lee, Tae Seek; Kwon, Ji Young; Son, Kwang Tae; Lee, Hee Jung; Ha, Kwang Soo; Shim, Kil Bo; Kim, Ji Hoe

    2015-06-01

    From 2009 to 2013, 80 oyster and 16 seawater samples were collected from the southern coast of Korea, including designated shellfish growing areas for export. The concentrations and bioaccumulation of heavy metals were determined, and a potential risk assessment was conducted to evaluate their hazards towards human consumption. The cadmium (Cd) concentration in oysters was the highest of three hazardous metals, including Cd, lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg), however, below the standards set by various countries. The metal bioaccumulation ratio in oysters was relatively high for zinc and Cd but low for Hg, Pb, arsenic, and chromium. The estimated dietary intakes of all heavy metals for oysters accounted for 0.02%-17.75% of provisional tolerable daily intake. The hazard index for all samples was far oysters do not pose an appreciable hazard to humans for the metal pollutants of study.

  7. The distribution and extent of heavy metal accumulation in song sparrows along Arizona's upper Santa Cruz River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Michael B.; van Riper, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals are persistent environmental contaminants, and transport of metals into the environment poses a threat to ecosystems, as plants and wildlife are susceptible to long-term exposure, bioaccumulation, and potential toxicity. We investigated the distribution and cascading extent of heavy metal accumulation in southwestern song sparrows (Melospiza melodia fallax), a resident riparian bird species that occurs along the US/Mexico border in Arizona’s upper Santa Cruz River watershed. This study had three goals: (1) quantify the degree of heavy metal accumulation in sparrows and determine the distributional patterns among study sites, (2) compare concentrations of metals found in this study to those found in studies performed prior to a 2009 international wastewater facility upgrade, and (3) assess the condition of song sparrows among sites with differing potential levels of exposure. We examined five study sites along with a reference site that reflect different potential sources of contamination. Body mass residuals and leukocyte counts were used to assess sparrow condition. Birds at our study sites typically had higher metal concentrations than birds at the reference site. Copper, mercury, nickel, and selenium in song sparrows did exceed background levels, although most metals were below background concentrations determined from previous studies. Song sparrows generally showed lower heavy metal concentrations compared to studies conducted prior to the 2009 wastewater facility upgrade. We found no cascading effects as a result of metal exposure.

  8. Biosorption of heavy metals and uranium from dilute solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, I.A.H.; Misra, M.; Smith, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    Eichhornia crassipes approaches being a scourge in many parts of the world, choking waterways and hindering transport upon them. At the same time it is known to readily abstract heavy metal ions from water and, thus, aids in the removal of heavy metals found in such waters. This paper considers the possibility of using specific parts of the plant as an inexpensive adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals from contaminated chemical and mining industry waste waters. In particular the root of the plant was found to be an excellent accumulator of heavy metal ions including uranium from solution. It is also suggested that dried roots of the plant might be placed in simple bags and used in a very low cost metal ion removal system

  9. Improving crop tolerance to heavy metal stress by polyamine application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudek, Petr; Ursu, Marina; Petrová, Šárka; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2016-12-15

    Many areas have been heavily contaminated by heavy metals from industry and are not suitable for food production. The consumption of contaminated foods represents a health risk in humans, although some heavy metals are essential at low concentrations. Increasing the concentrations of essential elements in foods is one goal to improve nutrition. The aim of this study was to increase the accumulation of heavy metals in plant foods by the external application of putrescine. The levels of cadmium, zinc and iron were measured in different vegetables grown in hydroponic medium supplemented with heavy metals and compared with those grown in a reference medium. The estimated daily intake, based on the average daily consumption for various vegetable types, and the influence of polyamines on metal uptake were calculated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Heavy metals' data in soils for agricultural activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. Adagunodo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the heavy metals in soils for agricultural activities were analyzed statistically. Ten (10 soil samples were randomly taken across the agricultural zones in Odo-Oba, southwestern Nigeria. Ten (10 metals; namely: copper (Cu, lead (Pb, chromium (Cr, arsenic (As, zinc (Zn, cadmium (Cd, nickel (Ni, antimony (Sb, cobalt (Co and vanadium (V were determined and compared with the guideline values. When the values were compared with the international standard, none of the heavy metals in the study area exceeded the threshold limit. However, the maximum range of the samples showed that Cr and V exceeded the permissible limit which could be associated with ecological risk. The data can reveal the distributions of heavy metals in the agricultural topsoil of Odo-Oba, and can be used to estimate the risks associated with the consumption of crops grown on such soils. Keywords: Agricultural soils, Heavy metals, Contamination, Environment, Soil screening, Geostatistics

  11. Heavy metals, PAHs and toxicity in stormwater wet detention ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Tove; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of 6 different heavy metals and total Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) were determined in stormwater runoff and in the pond water of two Danish wet detention ponds. The pond water samples were analyzed for toxic effects, using the algae Selenastrum capricornutum as a test...... organism. Stormwater and pond water from a catchment with light industry showed high levels of heavy metals, especially zinc and copper. The pond water showed high toxic effects and copper were found to be the main toxicant. Additionally, a large part of the copper was suspected to be complex bound......, reducing the potential toxicity of the metal. Another catchment (residential) produced stormwater and pond water with moderate concentration of heavy metals. The pond water occasionally showed toxic effects but no correlation between heavy metals and toxicity was identified. PAHs concentrations were...

  12. Heavy metal ion uptake properties of polystyrene-supported ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    concentration on the uptake of metal ions have been studied. The uptake ... employed for the removal of heavy metal pollutants from industrial waste water. ... nitrate, mercuric chloride, cadmium nitrate and potassium dichromate salts. ... polymer resin was determined by reacting 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 ppm of metal.

  13. Mercury in mercury(II)-spiked soils is highly susceptible to plant bioaccumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlodák, Michal; Urík, Martin; Matúš, Peter; Kořenková, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Heavy metal phytotoxicity assessments usually use soluble metal compounds in spiked soils to evaluate metal bioaccumulation, growth inhibition and adverse effects on physiological parameters. However, exampling mercury phytotoxicity for barley (Hordeum vulgare) this paper highlights unsuitability of this experimental approach. Mercury(II) in spiked soils is extremely bioavailable, and there experimentally determined bioaccumulation is significantly higher compared to reported mercury bioaccumulation efficiency from soils collected from mercury-polluted areas. Our results indicate this is not affected by soil sorption capacity, thus soil ageing and formation of more stable mercuric complexes with soil fractions is necessary for reasonable metal phytotoxicity assessments.

  14. Contents and risk assessment of heavy metals in marine invertebrates from Korean coastal fish markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Jong Soo; Kwon, Ji Young; Son, Kwang Tae; Choi, Woo Seok; Kang, Sung Rim; Ha, Na Young; Jo, Mi Ra; Kim, Ji Hoe

    2014-06-01

    The concentrations of the heavy metals cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), chromium, silver, nickel, copper, and zinc in the edible portions of 105 marine invertebrates representing 16 mollusk and crustacean species were accurately determined to evaluate their hazard for human consumption. The samples were collected in 2011 from major fish markets on the coast of Korea and analyzed for Hg using a direct Hg analyzer and for other metals using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Estimated dietary exposure (EDE) was determined, and a risk assessment was made of the heavy metals to provide information concerning consumer safety. The Cd concentrations, which were the highest for the three hazardous metals (Cd, Hg, and Pb), were significantly higher (P Food Additives or the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The EDE of Cd, Hg, and Pb for each class of marine invertebrate were 0.07 to 2.64, 0.01 to 0.43, and 0.001 to 0.16% of the PTDI, respectively. The total EDE of Cd, Hg, and Pb for marine invertebrates accounted for 4.03, 0.96, and 0.21%, respectively, of the PTDI. The EDE of other metals in each class of marine invertebrate was less than 2% of the PTDI. The hazard index is a reasonable parameter for assessing the risk of heavy metal consumption associated with contaminated food. In the present study, the hazard index for all of the species was less than 1.0, which indicates that the intake of heavy metals from consumption of these marine invertebrates does not represent an appreciable hazard to humans.

  15. Heavy liquid metal cooled FBR. Results 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enuma, Yasuhiro; Soman, Yoshindo; Konomura, Mamoru; Mizuno, Tomoyasu

    2003-08-01

    In the feasibility studies of commercialization of an FBR fuel cycle system, the targets are economical competitiveness to future LWRs, efficient utilization of resources, reduction of environmental burden and enhancement of nuclear non-proliferation, besides ensuring safety. Both medium size pool-type lead-bismuth cooled reactor with primary pumps system and without primary pumps system are studied to pursue their improvement in heavy metal coolant considering design requirements form plant structures. The design of plant systems are reformed, and the conceptual design is made and the commodities are analyzed. (1) Conceptual design of lead-bismuth cooled reactor with pumping system: Electrical output 750 MWe and 4-module system. The heat-mass balance is optimized and drawings are made about plant layout, cooling system, reactor structure and cooling component structures. (2) Structural analysis of main components. (3) Conceptual design of natural circulation type lead-bismuth cooled reactor: Electrical output 550 MWe and 6-module system. The heat-mass balance is optimized and drawings are made about plant layout, cooling system, reactor structure and cooling component structures. (4) Study of R and D program. (author)

  16. Heavy metal contamination and health risk assessment in three commercial fish species in the Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Behnam; Hassanaghaei, Mina; Moore, Farid; Rastegari Mehr, Meisam; Soltanian, Siyavash; Lahijanzadeh, Ahmad Reza; Sorooshian, Armin

    2018-04-01

    Five heavy metals/metalloids and related potential health risks were investigated in three commercially important fish species (Anodontostoma chacunda, Belangerii, and Cynoglossurs arel) in Musa Estuary and Mahshahr Harbour of the Persian Gulf. A total of 116 fish samples were collected, and their liver and muscle organs were separately analyzed using ICP-MS. Results revealed that studied metals concentrations (with some exceptions) varied among sampling stations, fish species and their organs. Human health risk is evaluated using different indices. The results indicated that arsenic and mercury are the most hazardous elements. Estimated daily intake (EDI) for the metals exceeded the provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) for all studied fish species. Also, target risk (TR) of arsenic indicated that consumption over a long period of time may result in a carcinogenic effect. The results are expected to create awareness among the public on the safety of consuming food products grown in particular areas. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Heavy metals in sediments, mussels and oysters from Trinidad and Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas Astudillo, L. de; Chang Yen, I.; Bekele, I.

    2005-01-01

    The Gulf of Paria is bordered by both Trinidad and Venezuela, from which various metallic pollutants and other contaminants can originate. The Gulf is still a significant source of fish, crabs and shellfish for human consumption to both countries, where concerns over the quality of this marine environment have been long expressed but never properly addressed. In addition, the circulatory current patterns in the Gulf ensure that contaminants originating from either country are likely to affect both countries eventually. Heavy metals were determined in oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae and C. virginica), green mussels (Perna viridis) and sediments from the Gulf of Paria. Samples were obtained at four sites in Trinidad and three sites in Venezuela in the Gulf of Paria, in addition to comparative samples collected from three sites on the north coast of Venezuela. Edible tissues of twelve shellfish from each location were blended and aliquots digested with concentrated nitric acid, for extraction of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel and zinc. The solutions were analysed by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. Mercury was extracted with a mixture of nitric, hydrochloric and sulphuric acids and determined by cold vapour atomic absorption. Sediments were oven-dried at 60 0 C, before being similarly extracted. Results showed that mercury in sediments at all sites in Trinidad and Venezuela exceeded NOAA and Canadian sediment quality guidelines, while cadmium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc also exceeded these guidelines at several sites. Heavy metal levels in oysters and green mussels varied widely with location. However, oysters from the Gulf of Paria contained significantly higher mean levels of cadmium, copper, nickel and zinc than those from the north coast of Venezuela, but this difference was not apparent in mussels. Cadmium, mercury and zinc in sediments were significantly correlated with those of mussels, but not of oysters, in which copper and zinc at several

  18. The influence of heavy metals on the production of extracellular polymer substances in the processes of heavy metal ions elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikes, J; Siglova, M; Cejkova, A; Masak, J; Jirku, V

    2005-01-01

    Wastewaters from a chemical industry polluted by heavy metal ions represent a hazard for all living organisms. It can mean danger for ecosystems and human health. New methods are sought alternative to traditional chemical and physical processes. Active elimination process of heavy metals ions provided by living cells, their components and extracellular products represents a potential way of separating toxic heavy metals from industrial wastewaters. While the abilities of bacteria to remove metal ions in solution are extensively used, fungi have been recognized as a promising kind of low-cost adsorbents for removal of heavy-metal ions from aqueous waste sources. Yeasts and fungi differ from each other in their constitution and in their abilities to produce variety of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) with different mechanisms of metal interactions. The accumulation of Cd(2+), Cr(6+), Pb(2+), Ni(2+) and Zn(2+) by yeasts and their EPS was screened at twelve different yeast species in microcultivation system Bioscreen C and in the shaking Erlenmayer's flasks. This results were compared with the production of yeast EPS and the composition of yeast cell walls. The EPS production was measured during the yeast growth and cell wall composition was studied during the cultivations in the shaking flasks. At the end of the process extracellular polymers and their chemical composition were isolated and amount of bound heavy metals was characterized. The variable composition and the amount of the EPS were found at various yeast strains. It was influenced by various compositions of growth medium and also by various concentrations of heavy metals. It is evident, that the amount of bound heavy metals was different. The work reviews the possibilities of usage of various yeast EPS and components of cell walls in the elimination processes of heavy metal ions. Further the structure and properties of yeasts cell wall and EPS were discussed. The finding of mechanisms mentioned

  19. The Heavy Metals in Agrosystems and Impact on Health and Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Tutic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The metal is a chemical element that conducts electricity well and heat, and the nonferrous metals builds cations and ionic bonds. Heavy metals include metals whose density is higher than 5 g/cm3. The whole range of the metal is in the form of essential trace elements, essential for a number of functions in the human body, and its deficiency results in a lack of occurrence of a serious symptom. The best examples are anemia lack of iron, lack of chromium in diabetes, growth problems in lack of nickel. Other elements such as lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic and molybdenum have been shown to exhibit large quantities of toxic effects. The paper examines the problem of heavy metals originating from agriculture on agroecosystems. This group of pollutants is considered the most important cause of degradation of soil quality, surface and groundwater and direct causal adverse effects on human and animal health. In order to complete the environmental monitoring of pollutants, these main categories, origins, and possible negative impacts of the basic principles of preventing their toxic effects were examined.

  20. Heavy Metal In Food Ingredients In Oil Refi nery Industrial Area, Dumai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Sundari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Industrial waste generally contains a lot of heavy metals such as Plumbum (Pb, Arsenic (As, Cadmium(Cd and Mercury (Hg, which can contaminate the surrounding environment and cause health problems. Bioaccumulation ofheavy metals from the environment can occur in foodstuffs. The study aims to determine levels of heavy metals Pb, Cd, Asand Hg in foodstuffs in the oil refi nery industry. Methods: The analytical method used Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer(AAS. Samples were taken from two locations, namely: the exposed area and non exposed area. The sample consisted ofcassava, papaya leaves, fern leaves, cassava leaves, guava, papaya and catfi sh. Results: The analysis showed levels ofmetals As in all samples at exposed locations is below the maximum limit of SNI, the location is not exposed only in catfi shlevels of As (2.042 mg/kg exceeds the SNI. Cd levels of both locations are not detected. Pb levels in catfi sh in exposedlocations (1,109 mg/kg exceeds the SNI. Hg levels in leaves of papaya, cassava leaves, fern leaves, cassava and fruitpapaya exceed SNI. Conclusion: There has been a heavy metal contamination in foodstuffs. Recommendation: Thelocal people are advised to be careful when consuming food stuffs from oil refi nery industrial area.

  1. DEP-On-Go for Simultaneous Sensing of Multiple Heavy Metals Pollutants in Environmental Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu Biyani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe a simple and affordable “Disposable electrode printed (DEP-On-Go” sensing platform for the rapid on-site monitoring of trace heavy metal pollutants in environmental samples for early warning by developing a mobile electrochemical device composed of palm-sized potentiostat and disposable unmodified screen-printed electrode chips. We present the analytical performance of our device for the sensitive detection of major heavy metal ions, namely, mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic, zinc, and copper with detection limits of 1.5, 2.6, 4.0, 5.0, 14.4, and, 15.5 μg·L−1, respectively. Importantly, the utility of this device is extended to detect multiple heavy metals simultaneously with well-defined voltammograms and similar sensitivity. Finally, “DEP-On-Go” was successfully applied to detect heavy metals in real environmental samples from groundwater, tap water, house dust, soil, and industry-processed rice and noodle foods. We evaluated the efficiency of this system with a linear correlation through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and the results suggested that this system can be reliable for on-site screening purposes. On-field applications using real samples of groundwater for drinking in the northern parts of India support the easy-to-detect, low-cost (<1 USD, rapid (within 5 min, and reliable detection limit (ppb levels performance of our device for the on-site detection and monitoring of multiple heavy metals in resource-limited settings.

  2. Heavy metal and radioactivity measurements in fish, water, plants and soils in tin-mining pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad Samudi Yasir; Norlaili Ahmad Kabir; Redzuwan Yahaya; Amran Abdul Majid

    2008-01-01

    Malaysia aggressively reclaimed most of their disused tin-mining pool especially for agricultural activities, freshwater fish farming area, recreational area, houses area and even as an industrial area. Past mining activities might induced the concentration of naturally occurring radionuclide (NORM) and heavy metal at the disused tin-mining pool ecosystem. A study has been conducted on the status of heavy metal (Hf, Zr, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba, Hg and Pb) concentration and naturally occurring radionuclide activity in fish, water, plants and sediments at three different disused tin-mining pool near by Sepang and Puchong, Selangor Darul Ehsan. Sample of fish, water, plant and sediment being analyze using ICP-MS. The concentrations of heavy metal in sediment and plant are higher than its concentrations in fish and followed by water. The highest concentration of heavy metal in sediment and water is barium, whereas the highest concentration of heavy metal in fish and plant is zinc and manganese. The result also showed that only mercury level in fish collected in second disused tin-mining pool (0.53 ± 0.20 mg/ kg) is exceed the maximum limit (0.5 mg/ kg) prescribe by the Malaysian Food Act (Act 281). The activity of U-238 and Th-232 in sediment was found to be relatively higher than its activity in fish, plant or water (30.76 ± 2.71 to 35.34 ± 0.27 Bq/ kg) and (9.37 ± 2.30 - 18.86 ± 2.60 Bq/ kg). The determination of K-40 activity showed that it is highly contained in plant and fish than in sediment or water. (author)

  3. Analysis and Pollution Assessment of Heavy Metal in Soil, Perlis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Norbaya Mat Ripin; Siti Norbaya Mat Ripin; Sharizal Hasan; Mohd Lias Kamal; NorShahrizan Mohd Hashim

    2014-01-01

    Concentration of 5 heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Ni, Cd, Pb) were studied in the soils around Perlis, to assess heavy metals contamination distribution due to industrialization, urbanization and agricultural activities. Soil samples were collected at depth of 0-15 cm in eighteen station around Perlis. The soil samples (2 mm) were obtained duplicates and subjected to hot block digestion and the concentration of total metal was determined via ICP-MS. Overall concentrations of Cu, Cr, Ni, Cd and Pb in the soil samples ranged from 0.38-240.59, 0.642-3.921, 0.689-2.398, 0-0.63 and 0.39-27.47 mg/ kg respectively. The concentration of heavy metals in the soil display the following decreasing trend: Cu> Pb> Cr> Ni> Cd. From this result, found that level of heavy metal in soil near centralized Chuping industrial areas give maximum value compared with other location in Perlis. The Pollution index revealed that only 11 % of Cu and 6 % of Cd were classes as heavily contaminated. Meanwhile, Cu and Pb showed 6 % from all samples result a moderately contaminated and the others element give low contamination. Results of combined heavy metal concentration and heavy metal assessment indicate that industrial activities and traffic emission represent most important sources for Cu, Cd and Pb whereas Cr, Ni mainly from natural sources. Increasing anthropogenic influences on the environment, especially pollution loadings, have caused negative changes in natural ecosystems and decreased biodiversity. (author)

  4. Selection of ectomycorrhizal willow genotype in phytoextraction of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrynkiewicz, Katarzyna; Baum, Christel

    2013-01-01

    Willow clones are used for the phytoextraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils and are usually mycorrhizal. The receptiveness of willow clones for mycorrhizal inoculum varies specific to genotype; however, it is unknown if this might have a significant impact on their efficiency in phytoextraction of heavy metals. Therefore, a model system with mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal willows of two different genotypes--one with usually stronger natural mycorrhizal colonization (Salix dasyclados), and one with lower natural mycorrhizal colonization (S. viminalis)--was investigated for its efficiency of phytoextraction of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) from contaminated soil. Inoculation with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita muscaria significantly decreased the biomass of leaves of both inoculated willow clones, and increased or had no effect on the biomass of trunks and roots of S. dasyclados and S. viminalis, respectively. The concentrations of heavy metals in the biomass of S. dasyclados were in general higher than in S. viminalis irrespective of inoculation with the ectomycorrhizal fungus. Inoculation with A. muscaria significantly decreased the concentration of Cu in the trunks of both Salix taxa, but did not affected the concentrations of other heavy metals in the biomass. In conclusion, stronger receptiveness of willow clones for mycorrhizal inoculum was correlated with an increased total extraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils. Therefore, this seems to be a suitable criterion for effective willow clone selection for phytoremediation. Increased biomass production with relatively constant metal concentrations seems to be a major advantage of mycorrhizal formation of willows in phytoremediation of contaminated soils.

  5. Proline accumulation in lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Stapf.) due to heavy metal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handique, G K; Handique, A K

    2009-03-01

    Toxic heavy metals viz. lead, mercury and cadmium induced differential accumulation of proline in lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Stapf.) grown in soil amended with 50, 100, 200, 350 and 500 mg kg(-1) of the metals have been studied. Proline accumulation was found to be metal specific, organ specific and linear dose dependant. Further, proline accumulation following short term exposure (two months after transplantation) was higher than long term exposure (nine months after transplantation). Proline accumulation following short term exposure was 2.032 to 3.839 micro moles g(-1) for cadmium (50-200 mg kg(-1)); the corresponding range for mercury was 1.968 to 5.670 micro moles g(-1) and 0.830 to 4.567 micro moles g(-1) for lead (50-500 mg kg(-1) for mercury and lead). Proline accumulation was consistently higher in young tender leaf than old leaf, irrespective of the metal or duration of exposure. For cadmium treatment proline level was 2.032 to 3.839 micro moles g(-1) for young leaves while the corresponding value for old leaf was 1.728 to 2.396 micro moles g(-1) following short term exposure. The same trend was observed for the other two metals and duration of exposure. For control set proline accumulation in root was 0.425 micro moles g(-1) as against 0.805 and 0.533 micro moles g(-1) in young and old leaves respectively indicating that proline accumulation in root are lower than leaves, under both normal and stressed condition.

  6. Heavy metals in the snow pack of Semey town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panin, M.S.; Esenzholova, A.Zh.; Toropov, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    The data about the maintenance of heavy metals in the snow pack in various zones of Semey and biogeochemical operation factors of snow pack in Semey are presented in this work. Also the correlation connection between elements is calculated.

  7. Toxic effect of heavy metals on aquatic environment | Baby ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxic effect of heavy metals on aquatic environment. ... International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences ... The indiscriminate discharge of industrial effluents, raw sewage wastes and other waste pollute most of the environments and ...

  8. Assessment of heavy metals in chicken feeds available in Sokoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2014-12-08

    Dec 8, 2014 ... through eggs and meats. Supplementation of some ... heavy metal contaminations of chicken meat, eggs and other products .... processing and mixing of ingredients to the feed. ... Additives and Contaminants, 22(2): 141-. 149.

  9. Heavy metal pollution of vegetable crops irrigated with wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    144) and edible parts of both exotic and traditional vegetables (samples = 240) irrigated with wastewater from some parts of Accra were studied. The concentrations of heavy metals in mg/l were quantified in wastewater from Accra and ...

  10. Determination of heavy metals and genotoxicity of water from an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of heavy metals and genotoxicity of water from an artesian well ... do Amaral, Vanessa Marques de Oliveira Moraes, Luciana Pereira Silva ... environmental interest because it is the most important zinc producer district of Brazil.

  11. Heavy Metals Levels in Fish Samples from North Central Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2014-12-24

    Dec 24, 2014 ... Most aquatic organisms are capable of accumulating heavy metals to concentrations ... This indicates that the fish samples could be used to monitor Mn and Cr pollution levels .... was carried out to remove any organic plastic.

  12. Determination of some heavy metals concentration in the tissues of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jen

    Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Bayero University, Kano, P.M.B. 3011, Kano, Nigeria ... contamination (e.g. lead pipes), high ambient air concentrations near emission ... Thus heavy metals acquired through the food chain as a.

  13. Sorption of Heavy Metal Ions from Mine Wastewater by Activated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2016-12-02

    Dec 2, 2016 ... assess their heavy metal ions adsorption potential. The results show that the .... De-ionised water obtained from the Mineral. Engineering Laboratory of ... Batch adsorption experiment for each of the derived activated carbons ...

  14. Assessment of Heavy Metal Content of Branded Pakistani Herbal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    analyzed using a flame atomic absorption spectrometer. Results: Most of the products exceeded the permissible limits for lead (100 %), cadmium (68 %), .... absorption spectrometry. M e ta l n a m ..... Determination of Heavy Metals in Medicinal.

  15. 92 Assessment of Heavy Metals Pollution in Dumpsites in Ilorin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice-Academy

    Speciation and distribution of heavy metals in soil controls the degree to which ... observed that the groundwater is vulnerable to contamination as no treated ... toxic materials such as lead, cadmium, .... designing remediation programme for.

  16. Effect of depuration on heavy metal concentrations in periwinkle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tympanatonus fuscastus) was evaluated in this study. Periwinkle in depuration tanks were taken at intervals of 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours of depuration and analyzed for these heavy metals: Lead (Pb), Zinc (Zn), Chromium (Cr) and Cadmium (Cd).

  17. Heavy metals accumulation in edible part of vegetables irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hassana Ibrahim Mustapha

    water quality and permissible levels of metals in food and water. It revealed that the heavy .... irrigation with partially treated or untreated sewage. This was reported by .... Reuse of domestic grey water for irrigation of food crops, unpublished ...

  18. The effects of heavy metals concentration on some commercial fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Badmus B S

    heavy metals (lead, cadmium, copper and zinc) were analyzed and only copper and zinc were found to be present in the ... contents of essential minerals, vitamins and unsaturated fatty acids .... that the interaction effect is significant. This effect ...

  19. Heavy Metal Contents in Some Commonly Consumed Vegetables

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    This work reports on the levels of cadmium, lead, copper, manganese and ... source of both heavy metals and essential trace elements due to their ... content, clay mineral and other soil chemical ... addition, the interactions of soil-plant root-.

  20. Heavy Metal Polluted Soils: Effect on Plants and Bioremediation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. U. Chibuike

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soils polluted with heavy metals have become common across the globe due to increase in geologic and anthropogenic activities. Plants growing on these soils show a reduction in growth, performance, and yield. Bioremediation is an effective method of treating heavy metal polluted soils. It is a widely accepted method that is mostly carried out in situ; hence it is suitable for the establishment/reestablishment of crops on treated soils. Microorganisms and plants employ different mechanisms for the bioremediation of polluted soils. Using plants for the treatment of polluted soils is a more common approach in the bioremediation of heavy metal polluted soils. Combining both microorganisms and plants is an approach to bioremediation that ensures a more efficient clean-up of heavy metal polluted soils. However, success of this approach largely depends on the species of organisms involved in the process.

  1. Electrochemical activity of heavy metal oxides in the process of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2002-02-02

    Feb 2, 2002 ... Electrochemical activity of heavy metal oxides in the process of chloride induced .... represents the protective barrier moderating the chloride attack which ... inhibitors and their influence on the physical properties of. Portland ...

  2. Potential Human Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals Intake via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Gyawali et al., 2011). The concentrations of natural and synthetic ... traditional nutrients, heavy metals, pesticides and various other ... fertilizers and pesticides to soils, with a number of ..... selected brands of canned fish in Nigeria: Estimation of ...

  3. Heavy metal content of selected African leafy vegetables planted in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heavy metal content of selected African leafy vegetables planted in urban and peri-urban Nairobi, Kenya. ... African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... Government clean-up activities and monitoring of waste disposal is ...

  4. Heavy metal accumulation in a flow restricted, tropical estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Balachandran, K.K.; Laluraj, C.M.; Nair, M.; Joseph, T.; Sheeba, P.; Venugopal, P.

    Levels of heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn), organic carbon content and textural characteristics in the surficial sediments of Cochin estuary (SW coast of India) and adjacent coast are presented. Anthropogenic inputs from...

  5. Seasonal variation in heavy metal concentration in mangrove foliage

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Wafar, S.; Bhosle, N.B.

    Seasonal variation in the concentration of some heavy metals in the leaves of seven species of mangrove vegetation from Goa, revealed that maximum concentration of iron and manganese occurs during the monsoon season without any significant toxic...

  6. incidence of heavy metals in kano metropolis drinking water sources

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    corrosion of brass fittings of certain submersible pumps and pipes used in borehole and taps specifically. The contamination of well with heavy metals might be due to seepage of sewage ... Chloride determination (Agumetric method):.

  7. Assessment of Heavy Metals in Waterleaf from Various Sources in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Standard method was followed for sample treatment, digestion, and analysis of selected heavy metals: lead .... research laboratory, University of Ibadan. Each ... Survey of consumption of waterleaf in Ota: Over 500 ..... In Encyclopedia of.

  8. Microbial and heavy metal contamination of pineapple products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    Quantitative determination of heavy metals: zinc, iron, lead, copper, cadmium and aluminium ...... consumption of dairy products, fish/seafood and meat from Ismailia ... Contamination in Green Leafy Vegetables Grown in Bangalore Urban.

  9. Biomonitoring of heavy metals: Definitions, possibilities and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markert, B.; Oehlmann, J.; Roth, M.

    2000-01-01

    Increasing attention given to heavy metals as components of the pollutant load in ecosystems makes it necessary to find reliable biological indicators. Fundamental investigations into the effect of heavy metals on organisms are therefore required. Different organisms (mosses, snails, etc.) were chosen as indicator organisms to optimize the indication of heavy metal loads at the physiological and biochemical level. All current programmes are designed to observe and measure pollutant inputs on a short or long-term basis. However, the changes in the environment of a phenological, physiological, sociological, genetic and physiological/biochemical nature have been investigated by biologists since the beginning of biological scientific research. So far excellent scientific results have been produced by qualification of the heavy metal status in ecosystems. Until now, the quantification of the results with regard to pollutant inputs in ecosystems (mass balances) and their action in these ecosystems have been investigated inadequately. (author)

  10. Estimation of Heavy Metals in Neem Tree Leaves along Katsina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Key Words: Neem tree, Heavy metals, Pollution. Determination ... concentrations of pollutants in the tree bark correlate with those of ... hence are not readily detoxified and removed by .... levels can severely damage the brain and kidneys and.

  11. Distribution of Heavy Metals in Organs of Freshwater Fishes from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2015-12-24

    Dec 24, 2015 ... indicate that the concentrations of the heavy metals in the samples are generally well above the respective recommended ... weathering processes on rocks and soils (Babel and. Opiso ..... Source apportionment of suspended.

  12. Natural occurrence of heavy metal, fungi and mycotoxins in soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... Heavy metals are a definite human health hazard be- cause of their .... The mean values of nutrient composition of the soybean meal samples ..... A food borne disease outbreak due to the consumption of moldy sorghum and.

  13. Determination of heavy metals in chinese prickly ash from different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    digestion, and the contents of copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), cadmium ... concentrations of heavy metals in these CPA samples mean they are safe for human consumption. ... poisoning, including Pb, Cd, As, Hg, Sn, and Sb.

  14. Preliminary Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution of Opa Reservoir, Ile

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    big timmy

    Awolowo University (OAU), Ile-Ife, Nigeria, with a view to assessing its pollution level. ... Heavy metals are not biodegradable, but are assimilated .... samples were filtered (with Whatman filter paper. No 42) and ..... acidity,Water, Air Soil Pollut.

  15. Heavy metal pollution disturbs immune response in wild ant populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorvari, Jouni; Rantala, Liisa M.; Rantala, Markus J.; Hakkarainen, Harri; Eeva, Tapio

    2007-01-01

    Concern about the effects of environmental contaminants on immune function in both humans and wildlife is growing and practically nothing is known about this impact on terrestrial invertebrates, even though they are known to easily accumulate pollutants. We studied the effect of industrial heavy metal contamination on immune defense of a free-living wood ant (Formica aquilonia). To find out whether ants show an adapted immune function in a polluted environment, we compared encapsulation responses between local and translocated colonies. Local colonies showed higher heavy metal levels than the translocated ones but the encapsulation response was similar between the two groups, indicating that the immune system of local ants has not adapted to high contamination level. The encapsulation response was elevated in moderate whereas suppressed in high heavy metal levels suggesting higher risk for infections in heavily polluted areas. - Heavy metal pollution affects immune function in ants

  16. Heavy metal contamination of soil and sediment in Zambia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Key words: Heavy metal, contamination, mining, soil, sediment. INTRODUCTION ... drinking water and inhaling air or soil contaminated by mining activities and the ..... indicates that copper waste discharged into the upper reaches of the Kafue ...

  17. Baby Teeth Link Autism and Heavy Metals, NIH Study Suggests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Release Thursday, June 1, 2017 Baby teeth link autism and heavy metals, NIH study suggests Cross-section ... Sinai Health System Baby teeth from children with autism contain more toxic lead and less of the ...

  18. Heavy metal oxide glasses as gamma rays shielding material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Preet; Singh, Devinder; Singh, Tejbir

    2016-01-01

    The gamma rays shielding parameters for heavy metal oxide glasses and concrete samples are comparable. However, the transparent nature of glasses provides additional feature to visualize inside the shielding material. Hence, different researchers had contributed in computing/measuring different shielding parameters for different configurations of heavy metal oxide glass systems. In the present work, a detailed study on different heavy metal (_5_6Ba, _6_4Gd, _8_2Pb, _8_3Bi) oxide glasses has been presented on the basis of different gamma rays shielding parameters as reported by different researchers in the recent years. It has been observed that among the selected heavy metal oxide glass systems, Bismuth based glasses provide better gamma rays shielding. Hence, Bismuth based glasses can be better substitute to concrete walls at nuclear reactor sites and nuclear labs.

  19. Heavy metal oxide glasses as gamma rays shielding material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Preet; Singh, Devinder; Singh, Tejbir, E-mail: dr.tejbir@gmail.com

    2016-10-15

    The gamma rays shielding parameters for heavy metal oxide glasses and concrete samples are comparable. However, the transparent nature of glasses provides additional feature to visualize inside the shielding material. Hence, different researchers had contributed in computing/measuring different shielding parameters for different configurations of heavy metal oxide glass systems. In the present work, a detailed study on different heavy metal ({sub 56}Ba, {sub 64}Gd, {sub 82}Pb, {sub 83}Bi) oxide glasses has been presented on the basis of different gamma rays shielding parameters as reported by different researchers in the recent years. It has been observed that among the selected heavy metal oxide glass systems, Bismuth based glasses provide better gamma rays shielding. Hence, Bismuth based glasses can be better substitute to concrete walls at nuclear reactor sites and nuclear labs.

  20. Heavy metal speciation and their accumulation in sediments of Lake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UFUOMA

    African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 5(4), pp. 280-298, April ..... present study gave higher values due to the effect of increasing ...... on The Heavy Metal. Pollution of Guanabara Bay Sediments and Evaluation of The.

  1. Auto-aggressive metallic mercury injection around the knee joint: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friesenbichler Joerg

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accidental or intentional subcutaneous and/or intramuscular injection of metallic mercury is an uncommon form of poisoning. Although it does not carry the same risk as mercury vapour inhalation, it may cause destructive early and late reactions. Case Presentation Herein we present the case of a 29-year-old male patient who developed an obsessive-compulsive disorder causing auto-aggressive behaviour with injection of elemental mercury and several other foreign bodies into the soft tissues around the left knee about 15 years before initial presentation. For clinical examination X-rays and a CT-scan of the affected area were performed. Furthermore, blood was taken to determine the mercury concentration in the blood, which showed a concentration 17-fold higher than recommended. As a consequence, the mercury depots and several foreign bodies were resected marginally. Conclusion Blood levels of mercury will decrease rapidly following surgery, especially in combination with chelating therapy. In case of subcutaneous and intramuscular injection of metallic mercury we recommend marginal or wide excision of all contaminated tissue to prevent migration of mercury and chronic inflammation. Nevertheless, prolonged clinical and biochemical monitoring should be performed for several years to screen for chronic intoxication.

  2. Heavy metals and PAHs in canned fish supplies on the Serbian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakov, Nikolina J; Mihaljev, Željko A; Kartalović, Brankica D; Blagojević, Bojan J; Petrović, Jelana M; Ćirković, Miroslav A; Rogan, Dragan R

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the level of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 57 samples of canned tuna, 25 samples of canned sardines, and 16 samples of canned smoked sprouts, collected from supermarkets in Serbia. Heavy metal levels (lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic, iron, copper, and zinc) were determined using an inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometry method. Sixteen analysed PAHs were determined using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method. The trace elements in canned fish were in the range (mg kg -1 ) of 0.01-0.28 for lead, 0.003-0.08 for cadmium, 0.007-0.64 for mercury, 0.17-3.73 for arsenic, 3.88-52.2 for iron, 0.2-5.95 for copper, and 1.35-44.5 for zinc. Total PAH levels reached 17.67 µg kg -1 in canned tuna and 15.12 µg kg -1 in sardines, whereas in smoked sprouts it amounted to 57.19 µg kg -1 . Some of the samples contained cadmium, arsenic, copper, and benzo(a)pyrene above the limits as set by the European and Serbian legislation.

  3. The distribution, contamination and risk assessment of heavy metals in sediment and shellfish from the Red Sea coast, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Nemr, Ahmed; El-Said, Ghada F; Ragab, Safaa; Khaled, Azza; El-Sikaily, Amany

    2016-12-01

    Zn, Cu, Ni, V, Al, Pb, Cd, Hg, lipid and water contents were determined in the soft tissues of different shellfish species collected along the Red Sea shoreline. Metal contents showed a descending order of Zn > Cu > Ni > Al > V > Pb > Cd > Hg. The leachable concentrations found in the sediments gathered from the studied locations gave another descending order: Al > Zn > Ni > Pb > V > Cu > Cd. The determined leachable heavy metal contents in the sediment did not exceed the NOAA and CCME (Anonymous 1999) sediment quality guidelines. Accordingly, the sediments along the Egyptian Red Sea area did not pose any adverse impacts on the biological life. According to the hazard quotient (HQ) calculations for heavy metal contents in the soft tissue of shellfish, mercury did not pose any risk on human health; whereas, the other determined heavy metals gave HQ values of 1 < HQ < 10 and showed a possibility of risk on the long term. Cu is above the desirable levels in mussels. The RQ calculations of toddlers and adults reflected that Cu was the only heavy metal that had an adverse effect on toddlers' health. Based on the human organizations (EPA, BOE, MAFF, and NHMRC) that proposed safety concentrations of heavy metals, the studied shellfish were somewhat safe for human consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Spatial assessment of potential ecological risk of heavy metals in soils from informal e-waste recycling in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Nartey Kyere

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly increasing annual global volume of e-waste, and of its inherently valuable fraction, has created an opportunity for individuals in Agbogbloshie, Accra, Ghana to make a living by using unconventional, uncontrolled, primitive and crude procedures to recycle and recover valuable metals from this waste. The current form of recycling procedures releases hazardous fractions, such as heavy metals, into the soil, posing a significant risk to the environment and human health. Using a handheld global positioning system, 132 soil samples based on 100 m grid intervals were collected and analysed for cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, copper (Cu, mercury (Hg, lead (Pb and zinc (Zn. Using geostatistical techniques and sediment quality guidelines, this research seeks to assess the potential risk these heavy metals posed to the proposed Korle Ecological Restoration Zone by informal e-waste processing site in Agbogbloshie, Accra, Ghana. Analysis of heavy metals revealed concentrations exceeded the regulatory limits of both Dutch and Canadian soil quality and guidance values, and that the ecological risk posed by the heavy metals extended beyond the main burning and dismantling sites of the informal recyclers to the school, residential, recreational, clinic, farm and worship areas. The heavy metals Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn had normal distribution, spatial variability, and spatial autocorrelation. Further analysis revealed the decreasing order of toxicity, Hg>Cd>Pb> Cu>Zn>Cr, of contributing significantly to the potential ecological risk in the study area.

  5. Bioconcentration factors and potential human health risks of heavy metals in cultivated Lentinus edodes in Chengdu, People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Donghui; Xie, Han; Song, Haihai; Xu, Heng; Wu, Yumeng

    2015-02-01

    Lentinus edodes is one of the most popular edible mushrooms in the market. However, it contains heavy metals that are poisonous to humans even at trace concentrations. The concentrations and bioconcentration factors of five heavy metals in cultivated L. edodes in Chengdu were studied, and the potential health risks to local residents associated with the cultivated L. edodes consumption were evaluated. Total concentrations of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), arsenic (As), and mercury were determined in the fruiting bodies and the substrate from three agricultural areas. Fruiting bodies samples were collected at different growing times (2, 4, 6, and 8 days). The bioconcentration factors of heavy metals from the substrate to the fruiting bodies were estimated, and the potential health risks of local L. edodes were assessed. Because antioxidant enzymes can resist the creation of reactive oxygen species and defend against heavy metals, the activities of three antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase) in the fruiting bodies were also determined. A gradual change in heavy metal concentrations occurred across the growing time of the fruiting bodies. Cd transferred from the substrate to the fruiting bodies in larger concentrations than did Pb, Cr, and As. However, Chengdu residents were not exposed to significant health risks associated with consumption of local L. edodes. Nevertheless, more attention should be focused on children because of their higher sensitivity to metal pollutants.

  6. Effect of irrigation on heavy metals content of wastewater irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is an urgent need to educate farmers on the dangers of the presence of heavy metals in soils as well as the quality of irrigation water especially if it comes from tanning industries for increased crop production. Accordingly, soil and irrigation wastewater study was conducted to assess the concentrations of heavy ...

  7. Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in the Copenhagen area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Allan; Hovmand, Mads Frederik; Johnsen, Ib

    1978-01-01

    Atmospheric dry and wet deposition (bulk precipitation) of the heavy metals Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, V and Fe over the Copenhagen area was measured by sampling in plastic funnels from 17 stations during a twelve-month period. Epigeic bryophytes from 100 stations in the area were analysed for the heavy...

  8. Heavy Metal Polluted Soils: Effect on Plants and Bioremediation Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Chibuike, G. U.; Obiora, S. C.

    2014-01-01

    Soils polluted with heavy metals have become common across the globe due to increase in geologic and anthropogenic activities. Plants growing on these soils show a reduction in growth, performance, and yield. Bioremediation is an effective method of treating heavy metal polluted soils. It is a widely accepted method that is mostly carried out in situ; hence it is suitable for the establishment/reestablishment of crops on treated soils. Microorganisms and plants employ different mechanisms for...

  9. Distribution of heavy metals from flue gas in algal bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napan, Katerine

    Flue gas from coal-fired power plants is a major source of CO2 to the atmosphere. Microalgae can use this enriched form of CO2 as carbon source and in turn the biomass can be used to produce food, feed, fertilizer and biofuels. However, along with CO2, coal-based flue gas will inevitably introduce heavy metals, which have a high affinity to bind algal cells, could be toxic to the organisms and if transferred to the products could limit their uses. This study seeks to address the distribution and impact of heavy metals present in flue gas on microalgae production systems. To comprehend its effects, algae Scenedesmus obliquus was grown in batch reactors in a multimetal system. Ten heavy metals (Cu, Co, Zn, Pb, As, Se, Cr, Hg, Ni and Cd) were selected and were evaluated at four concentrations (1X, 2X, 5X and 10X). Results show that most heavy metals accumulated mainly in biomass and were found in very low concentrations in media. Hg was shown to be lost from the culture, with low amounts present in the biomass. An upper limit for As uptake was observed, suggesting its likelihood to build-up in the system during medium recycle. The As limited bioaccumulation was overcome by addition of sulfur to the algal medium. Heavy metal at 2X, 5X and 10X inhibited both growth and lipid production, while at the reference concentration both biomass and lipids yields were increased. Heavy metal concentrations in the medium and biomass were time dependent, and at the end of the cultivation most heavy metals in the supernatant solution complied with the recommendations for irrigation water, while biomass was below limits for cattle and poultry feed, fertilizer, plastic and paper. This research shows that bioremediation of CO2 and heavy metals in combination with energy production can be integrated, which is an environmentally friendly form of biotechnology.

  10. Antibiogram and heavy metal tolerance of bullfrog bacteria in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Tee, L.W.; Najiah, M.

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial isolates from 30 farmed bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) weighing 500-600 g at Johore, Malaysia with external clinical signs of ulcer, red leg and torticollis were tested for their antibiograms and heavy metal tolerance patterns. A total of 17 bacterial species with 77 strains were successfully isolated and assigned to 21 antibiotics and 4 types of heavy metal (Hg2+, Cr6+, Cd2+, Cu2+). Results revealed that bacteria were resistant against lincomycin (92%), oleandomycin (72.7%) an...

  11. Study of heavy metals in urban runoff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabizadeh, R.; Mahvi, A.; Mardani, G.; Yunesian, M.

    2005-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted through Tehran city and a field study was conducted to prepare main and accessory drainage channels map. Three main drainage channels were identified for this research and some sampling stations were chosen. Three stations selected in south of Tehran. The reason for selecting these stations is that all urban surface run off completely pass through these points and samples taken from these points are representative of all kinds of pollutants that transit from city surface. Another three stations were selected in center and further three stations were selected at north of Tehran. Surface runoff flow in three main channels, from north of south of Tehran, converge at south of Rey city and finally end up to Ghom Salt lake. The stations were chosen at three trajectories Sorkhe Hesar, Emad Avard, Kan. At each month two samples were from nine different stations. After collection of samples with respect to standard methods, they were dissolved in nitric acid and then analyzed by atomic absorption device. The results show that the concentrations of pollutants increased from north to south. For instance, Zinc had most concentration with monthly average of 0.98 mg/l and Nickel had the lowest amount with 0.02 mg/l in southern stations. Average concentration of Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu and Ni were: 0.638, 0.97, 0.04 and 0.035 mg/l respectively. Total average concentrations of heavy metals at three main channels were of 0.177, 0.176 and 0.145 mg/l. Emad Avard was the most polluted channel

  12. Removal of heavy metals from metal-containing effluent by yeast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Removal of heavy metals from metal-containing effluent by yeast biomass. ... Research studies have described this phenomenon of fast initial sorption with a ... chrome and tin from the chrome and tin effluents of a local iron and steel industry.

  13. Effects of heavy metals on soil microbial community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Dian

    2018-02-01

    Soil is one of the most important environmental natural resources for human beings living, which is of great significance to the quality of ecological environment and human health. The study of the function of arable soil microbes exposed to heavy metal pollution for a long time has a very important significance for the usage of farmland soil. In this paper, the effects of heavy metals on soil microbial community were reviewed. The main contents were as follows: the effects of soil microbes on soil ecosystems; the effects of heavy metals on soil microbial activity, soil enzyme activities and the composition of soil microbial community. In addition, a brief description of main methods of heavy metal detection for soil pollution is given, and the means of researching soil microbial community composition are introduced as well. Finally, it is concluded that the study of soil microbial community can well reflect the degree of soil heavy metal pollution and the impact of heavy metal pollution on soil ecology.

  14. Heavy metal concentration of settled surface dust in residential building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Aimi abdul Wahab; Fairus Muhamad Darus; Norain Isa; Siti Mariam Sumari; Nur Fatihah Muhamad Hanafi

    2012-01-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in settled surface dust were collected from nine residential buildings in different areas in Seberang Prai Tengah District, Pulau Pinang. The samples of settled surface dust were collected in 1 m 2 area by using a polyethylene brush and placed in the dust pan by sweeping the living room floor most accessible to the occupants. Heavy metals concentrations were determined by using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) after digestion with nitric acid and sulphuric acid. The results show that the range of heavy metals observed in residential buildings at Seberang Prai Tengah were in the range of 2.20-14.00 mg/ kg, 1.50-32.70 mg/ kg, 1.50-76.80 mg/ kg and 14.60-54.40 mg/ kg for Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn respectively. The heavy metal concentration in the investigated areas followed the order: Pb > Zn > Ni > Cu. Statistical analysis indicates significant correlation between all the possible pairs of heavy metal. The results suggest a likely common source for the heavy metal contamination, which could be traced most probably to vehicular emissions, street dust and other related activities. (author)

  15. Research on heavy metal pollution of river Ganga: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak Paul

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available River Ganga is considered sacred by people of India for providing life sustenance to environment and ecology. Anthropogenic activities have generated important transformations in aquatic environments during the last few decades. Advancement of human civilization has put serious questions to the safe use of river water for drinking and other purposes. The river water pollution due to heavy metals is one of the major concerns in most of the metropolitan cities of developing countries. These toxic heavy metals entering the environment may lead to bioaccumulation and biomagnifications. These heavy metals are not readily degradable in nature and accumulate in the animal as well as human bodies to a very high toxic amount leading to undesirable effects beyond a certain limit. Heavy metals in riverine environment represent an abiding threat to human health. Exposure to heavy metals has been linked to developmental retardation, kidney damage, various cancers, and even death in instances of very high exposure. The following review article presents the findings of the work carried out by the various researchers in the past on the heavy metal pollution of river Ganga.

  16. Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Topsoil around Beijing Metropolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ranhao; Chen, Liding

    2016-01-01

    The topsoil around Beijing metropolis, China, is experiencing impacts of rapid urbanization, intensive farming, and extensive industrial emissions. We analyzed the concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cr from 87 topsoil samples in the pre-rainy season and 115 samples in the post-rainy season. These samples were attributed to nine land use types: forest, grass, shrub, orchard, wheat, cotton, spring maize, summer maize, and mixed farmland. The pollution index (PI) of heavy metals was calculated from the measured and background concentrations. The ecological risk index (RI) was assessed based on the PI values and toxic-response parameters. The results showed that the mean PI values of Pb, Cr, and Cd were > 1 while those of Cu, Ni, and Zn were heavy metal concentrations and the impact of atmospheric transport on heavy metal concentrations varied according to the heavy metal types. The concentrations of Cu, Cd, and Cr decreased from the pre- to post-rainy season, while those of Ni, Pb, and Zn increased during this period. Future research should be focused on the underlying atmospheric processes that lead to these spatial and seasonal variations in heavy metals. The policymaking on environmental management should pay close attention to potential ecological risks of Cd as well as identifying the transport pathways of different heavy metals. PMID:27159454

  17. Determination of some heavy metals in wetlands by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez O, J.; Rios M, C.

    2008-01-01

    In this work the results of the analysis are presented, using the PIXE technique (Proton Induced X-ray Emission), in soil samples of the El Bordo, Vetagrande, Zacatecas, before and after subjecting them to a lixiviation process for the recovering of gold, silver and mercury. This community is part of the mining region nearer to the Zacatecas city municipality, region in which the mining exploitation dates from the colonial time. During almost 350 years the 'yard benefit' method was used or amalgamation with mercury, process that besides having used big quantities of mercury, generated a great quantity of mineral waste calls 'mine wetlands', those that were accumulating, crawled by the rains, toward the streams that end in the prey 'The Pedernalillo'. The dispersion of wetlands them it has extended from the prey until the communities of Tacoaleche, Zoquite, Lampotal and El Bordo, embracing an approximate area of 16 x 2 Km 2 and forming with the course of the time an accumulated of several millions of tons. In order to determining if the process of recovery of gold, silver and mercury make soluble to other contained metals in these wastes, samples were gathered in an area of 600 m 2 in the community of The Border, Vetagrande, Zacatecas. Half of the samples were subjected to the lixiviation process in a local metal recovery plant and the other part was analyzed without processing. The analysis of both types of samples by means of the PIXE was carried out in the University of Arizona in Tucson. (Author)

  18. Factors Affecting the Binding of a Recombinant Heavy Metal-Binding Domain (CXXC motif Protein to Heavy Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamala Boonyodying

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A number of heavy metal-binding proteins have been used to study bioremediation. CXXC motif, a metal binding domain containing Cys-X-X-Cys motif, has been identified in various organisms. These proteins are capable of binding various types of heavy metals. In this study, heavy metal binding domain (CXXC motif recombinant protein encoded from mcsA gene of S. aureus were cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The factors involved in the metal-binding activity were determined in order to analyze the potential of recombinant protein for bioremediation. A recombinant protein can be bound to Cd2+, Co2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+. The thermal stability of a recombinant protein was tested, and the results showed that the metal binding activity to Cu2+ and Zn2+ still exist after treating the protein at 85ºC for 30 min. The temperature and pH that affected the metal binding activity was tested and the results showed that recombinant protein was still bound to Cu2+ at 65ºC, whereas a pH of 3-7 did not affect the metal binding E. coli harboring a pRset with a heavy metal-binding domain CXXC motif increased the resistance of heavy metals against CuCl2 and CdCl2. This study shows that metal binding domain (CXXC motif recombinant protein can be effectively bound to various types of heavy metals and may be used as a potential tool for studying bioremediation.

  19. Heavy metal contamination status and source apportionment in sediments of Songhua River Harbin region, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Tian, Yu; Zhang, Jun; Zuo, Wei; Zhan, Wei; Zhang, Jian

    2017-02-01

    The Songhua River represents one of the seven major river systems in China. It flows through Harbin city with 66 km long, locating in the northern China with a longer winter time. This paper aimed to study concentration distributions, stability, risk assessment, and source apportionment of heavy metals including chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and nickel (Ni) in 11 selected sections of the Songhua River Harbin region. Results showed that Cr, Cd, Pb, Hg, and As exceeded their respective geochemical background values in sediments of most monitoring sections. Compared with other important rivers and lakes in China, Cr, Hg, Cd, and As pollutions in surface sediments were above medium level. Further analysis of chemical speciation indicated that Cr and As in surface sediments were relatively stable while Pb and Cd were easily bioavailable. Correlation analysis revealed sources of these metals except As might be identical. Pollution levels and ecological risks of heavy metals in surface sediments presented higher in the mainstream region (45° 47.0' N ~ 45° 53.3' N, 126° 37.0' E ~ 126° 42.1' E). Source apportionment found Hejiagou and Ashi River were the main contributors to metal pollution of this region. Thus, anthropogenic activities along the Hejiagou and Ashi River should be restricted in order to protect the Songhua River Harbin region from metal contamination.

  20. Heavy metals monitoring in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis from the Apulian coasts (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. SPADA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of six heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn and one semi-metal (As were determined in tissues of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis collected along the Apulian coasts (Mediterranean sea. This project, performed in 2009, was targeted toward the assessment of levels and spatial distribution of metals in the environment in order to evaluate the coastal water quality using mussels as bioindicators and health risk for mussel consumers.The concentrations (mg/kg d.w. of these metals ranged from 6.35 to 76.17 for arsenic (As, 0.38 to 2.54 for cadmium (Cd, 0.96 to 9.46 for chromium (Cr, 5.26 to 19.22 for copper (Cu, 0.10 to 0.81 for mercury (Hg, 25.00 to 110.51 for zinc (Zn and from 0.37 to 3.25 for lead (Pb. These levels were lower than the permissible limits set by European Commission and FAO with the exception for Cr in three sampling stations. Evaluation of the risk associated to molluscs consumption for human health suggested that there is no evident risk for a moderate Mytilus g. consumer, however heavy metals concentrations must be monitored periodically and carefully with respect to the consumers health.