Sample records for heavy metal transporter

  1. Effect of heavy metals on bacterial transport (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Olson, M. S.


    Adsorption of metals onto bacteria and soil takes place as stormwater runoff infiltrates into the subsurface. Changes in both bacterial surfaces and soil elemental content have been observed, and may alter the attachment of bacteria to soil surfaces. In this study, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDS) analyses were performed on soil samples equilibrated with synthetic stormwater amended with copper, lead and zinc. The results demonstrate the presence of copper and zinc on soil surfaces. To investigate bacterial attachment behavior, sets of batch sorption experiments were conducted on Escherichia Coli (E. coli) under different chemical conditions by varying solution compositions (nutrient solution vs synthetic stormwater). The adsorption data is best described using theoretical linear isotherms. The equilibrium coefficient (Kd) of E. coli is higher in synthetic stormwater than in nutrient solution without heavy metals. The adsorption of heavy metals onto bacterial surfaces significantly decreases their negative surface charge as determined via zeta potential measurements (-17.0±5.96mv for E. coli equilibrated with synthetic stormwater vs -21.6±5.45mv for E. coli equilibrated with nutrient solution), indicating that bacterial attachment may increase due to the attachment of metals onto bacterial surfaces and their subsequent change in surface charge. The attachment efficiency (α) of bacteria was also calculated and compared for both solution chemistries. Bacterial attachment efficiency (α) in synthetic stormwater is 0.997, which is twice as high as that in nutrient solution(α 0.465). The ratio of bacterial diameter : collector diameter suggests minimal soil straining during bacterial transport. Results suggest that the presence of metals in synthetic stormwater leads to an increase in bacterial attachment to soil surfaces. In terms of designing stormwater infiltration basins, the presence of heavy metals seems to

  2. Heavy metal emissions for Danish road transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winther, M.; Slentoe, E.


    This report presents new heavy metal emission factors for cars, vans, trucks, buses, mopeds and motorcycles for each of the emission sources fuel consumption, engine oil, tyre wear, brake wear and road abrasion. The emission components covered are Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Mercury (Hg), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb), Selenium (Se) and Zinc (Zn), all of them relevant for emission reporting to the UNECE CLRTAP (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Convention on Long Range Transboundary Pollutants) convention. The report also presents a new Danish inventory for the year 2007. The following emissions in total TSP (in brackets) are calculated for the year 2007: As (8 kg), Cd (48 kg), Cr (197 kg), Cu (51 779 kg), Hg (28 kg), Ni (158 kg), Pb (6 989 kg), Se (33 kg) and Zn (28 556 kg). Per vehicle type cars are the most important source of emission for all heavy metal species, followed by vans, trucks, buses and 2-wheelers. By using the detailed emission factors and inventory calculation methods established in the present project, estimates of heavy metal emissions can be made for other years than 2007. (author)

  3. Heavy metal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    niloticus after exposure to sublethal concentrations of heavy metals such as copper, lead and zinc for a 12-week period, using static renewable toxicity tests. The concentrations of the metals accumulated in the tissue of exposed fish were about 3-5 times higher than the concentrations detected in control fish.

  4. Transport and detoxification systems for transition metals, heavy metals and metalloids in eukaryotic and prokaryotic microbes. (United States)

    Rosen, Barry P


    Transition metals, heavy metals and metalloids are usually toxic in excess, but a number of transition metals are essential trace elements. In all cells there are mechanisms for metal ion homeostasis that frequently involve a balance between uptake and efflux systems. This review will briefly describe ATP-coupled resistance pumps. ZntA and CadA are bacterial P-type ATPases that confers resistance to Zn(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II). Homologous copper pumps include the Menkes and Wilson disease proteins and CopA, an Escherichia coli pump that confers resistance to Cu(I). For resistance to arsenicals and antimonials there are several different families of transporters. In E. coli the ArsAB ATPase is a novel system that confers resistance to As(III) and Sb(III). Eukaryotic arsenic resistance transporters include Acr3p and Ycf1p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These systems provide resistance to arsenite [As(III)]. Arsenate [As(V)] detoxification involves reduction of As(V) to As(III), a process catalyzed by arsenate reductase enzymes. There are three families of arsenate reductases, two found in bacterial systems and a third identified in S. cerevisiae.

  5. Facilitated transport of heavy metals by bacterial colloids in sand columns (United States)

    Guiné, V.; Martins, J.; Gaudet, J. P.


    The aim of this work is to evaluate the ability of biotic collois (e.g. bacterial cells) to facilitate the transport of heavy metals in soils. and to identify the main factors influencing colloid transport in order to detelmine the geo-chemical conditions where this secondary transport process may become dominant. The model colloids studied here are living cells of Escherichia coli and Ralstonia metallidurans. We studied the transport of mercury zinc, and cadmium in columns of Fontainebleau sand. The properties (i.e. optical and morphological properties, charge (zeta potential, zeta) and hydrophobia (water/hexadecane distribution parameter, K_{hw})) of the bacterial cells surface were characterised, as well as their potential for heavy metals sorption (kinetic and isotherm). Both surface charge (zeta=-54 and -14 mV) and hydrophobia (K_{hw} = 0.25 and 0.05) differ strongly for the two bacteria. Column studies were conducted with bacteria and heavy metals separately or simultaneously. The cell surface differences led to different transport behaviour of the two bacteria, although the retardation factor is close to 1 for both. We observed that colloid mobility increases when increasing bacterial cells concentration and when decreasing the ionic strength. We also observed that bacterial colloids appeared as excellent vectors for Hg, Zn and Cd. Indeed, heavy metals adsorbed on the Fontainebleau sand when injected alone in columns (retardation factors of 1.4 ; 2.9 and 3.8 for Hg, Zn and Cd, respectively); whereas no retardation (R≈1) is observed when injected in the presence of both bacteria. Moreover, transport of bio-sorbed metal appears to be 4 to 6 times higher than dissolved heavy-metal.

  6. An atmospheric-terrestrial heavy metal transport model: model theory and process equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagenet, R.J.; Grenney, W.J.; Wooldridge, G.L.; Jurinak, J.J.


    A general modelTOHMwas developed to predict the terrestrial fate of zinc, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury emitted during operation of a coal-fired electric generating facility. The model comprises interfacing submodels describing atmospheric dispersion, precipitation, soil chemistry, and soil erosion. TOHM predicted no substantial increase in indigenous levels of zinc, chromium, and lead in the impact area. However, the model predicted that both mercury and cadmium would be emitted and eroded to the environmental sink in concentrations exceeding that naturally present in the system. The process equations used to describe the atmospheric-terrestrial transport of heavy metals are presented. Accounting procedures allowing calculation of amount of sediment eroded, heavy metal distribution, soil chemical reactions, and precipitation are explained. (9 diagrams, 5 graphs, 2 maps, 13 references)

  7. The addition of organic carbon and nitrate affects reactive transport of heavy metals in sandy aquifers

    KAUST Repository

    Satyawali, Yamini


    Organic carbon introduction in the soil to initiate remedial measures, nitrate infiltration due to agricultural practices or sulphate intrusion owing to industrial usage can influence the redox conditions and pH, thus affecting the mobility of heavy metals in soil and groundwater. This study reports the fate of Zn and Cd in sandy aquifers under a variety of plausible in-situ redox conditions that were induced by introduction of carbon and various electron acceptors in column experiments. Up to 100% Zn and Cd removal (from the liquid phase) was observed in all the four columns, however the mechanisms were different. Metal removal in column K1 (containing sulphate), was attributed to biological sulphate reduction and subsequent metal precipitation (as sulphides). In the presence of both nitrate and sulphate (K2), the former dominated the process, precipitating the heavy metals as hydroxides and/or carbonates. In the presence of sulphate, nitrate and supplemental iron (Fe(OH)3) (K3), metal removal was also due to precipitation as hydroxides and/or carbonates. In abiotic column, K4, (with supplemental iron (Fe(OH)3), but no nitrate), cation exchange with soil led to metal removal. The results obtained were modeled using the reactive transport model PHREEQC-2 to elucidate governing processes and to evaluate scenarios of organic carbon, sulphate and nitrate inputs. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  8. P-type ATPase heavy metal transporters with roles in essential zinc homeostasis in Arabidopsis. (United States)

    Hussain, Dawar; Haydon, Michael J; Wang, Yuwen; Wong, Edwin; Sherson, Sarah M; Young, Jeff; Camakaris, James; Harper, Jeffrey F; Cobbett, Christopher S


    Arabidopsis thaliana has eight genes encoding members of the type 1(B) heavy metal-transporting subfamily of the P-type ATPases. Three of these transporters, HMA2, HMA3, and HMA4, are closely related to each other and are most similar in sequence to the divalent heavy metal cation transporters of prokaryotes. To determine the function of these transporters in metal homeostasis, we have identified and characterized mutants affected in each. Whereas the individual mutants exhibited no apparent phenotype, hma2 hma4 double mutants had a nutritional deficiency phenotype that could be compensated for by increasing the level of Zn, but not Cu or Co, in the growth medium. Levels of Zn, but not other essential elements, in the shoot tissues of a hma2 hma4 double mutant and, to a lesser extent, of a hma4 single mutant were decreased compared with the wild type. Together, these observations indicate a primary role for HMA2 and HMA4 in essential Zn homeostasis. HMA2promoter- and HMA4promoter-reporter gene constructs provide evidence that HMA2 and HMA4 expression is predominantly in the vascular tissues of roots, stems, and leaves. In addition, expression of the genes in developing anthers was confirmed by RT-PCR and was consistent with a male-sterile phenotype in the double mutant. HMA2 appears to be localized to the plasma membrane, as indicated by protein gel blot analysis of membrane fractions using isoform-specific antibodies and by the visualization of an HMA2-green fluorescent protein fusion by confocal microscopy. These observations are consistent with a role for HMA2 and HMA4 in Zn translocation. hma2 and hma4 mutations both conferred increased sensitivity to Cd in a phytochelatin-deficient mutant background, suggesting that they may also influence Cd detoxification.

  9. Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain in Heavy Metal-Induced Neurotoxicity: Effects of Cadmium, Mercury, and Copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Belyaeva


    Full Text Available To clarify the role of mitochondrial electron transport chain (mtETC in heavy-metal-induced neurotoxicity, we studied action of Cd2+, Hg2+, and Cu2+ on cell viability, intracellular reactive oxygen species formation, respiratory function, and mitochondrial membrane potential of rat cell line PC12. As found, the metals produced, although in a different way, dose- and time-dependent changes of all these parameters. Importantly, Cd2+ beginning from 10 [mu]M and already at short incubation time (3 h significantly inhibited the FCCP-uncoupled cell respiration; besides, practically the complete inhibition of the respiration was reached after 3 h incubation with 50 [mu]M Hg2+ or 500 [mu]M Cd2+, whereas even after 48 h exposure with 500 [mu]M Cu2+, only a 50% inhibition of the respiration occurred. Against the Cd2+-induced cell injury, not only different antioxidants and mitochondrial permeability transition pore inhibitors were protective but also such mtETC effectors as FCCP and stigmatellin (complex III inhibitor. However, all mtETC effectors used did not protect against the Hg2+- or Cu2+-induced cell damage. Notably, stigmatellin was shown to be one of the strongest protectors against the Cd2+-induced cell damage, producing a 15–20% increase in the cell viability. The mechanisms of the mtETC involvement in the heavy-metal-induced mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and cell death are discussed.

  10. Response of soil microflora to impact of heavy metals in zones of influence of railway transport

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    N. Bobryk


    Full Text Available Monitoring research on the areas intensively and continuously affected by technogenic loading has remained topical until nowadays. The soil as a basic component of many ecosystems, including the structure of its microbial cenoses, remains an informative index of a system’s overall stability. The areas affected by railway transport have been scarcely studied. Due to the above, the aim of this work has been to establish the transformation regularities of soil microbial cenoses of territories close to railways and to establish the groups of microorganisms that are a sensitive criterion of technogenic vehicular influence. For the purpose of microbiological research, soil samples were taken at different distances from the railway track (0, 25, 50, 100 and250 m within five monitoring sections of the Tchop – Uzhhorod – Sambor railway (in the territory of Zakarpatska oblast. The number of ecological trophic groups was identified by means of inoculation on nutrient media using the method of serial dilution of soil suspensions. The research showed that in all types of soils that were adjacent to railway tracks, the number of ammonifiers and spore microbiota was high due to the high content of heavy metals (beyond the background levels. Besides, the bacterial microflora on beef-extract agar was characterized by homogeneity with domination of enteric bacteria and spore bacteria. Simultaneously, the numbers of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms, micromycetes, oligonitrophils, amylolytic and pedotrophic microflorae were shown to be low compared to the control. Farther from the railway track, pigmental species of bacteria appeared in the soil samples, attesting to the activity of self-purification processes. Correlation analysis of the data showed that the soil microbiota of the railway-side areas was undergoing changes as affected by heightened contents of heavy metals. Existence of medium and close connections was established between the number of

  11. Detoxification of multiple heavy metals by a half-molecule ABC transporter, HMT-1, and coelomocytes of Caenorhabditis elegans.

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    Marc S Schwartz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Developing methods for protecting organisms in metal-polluted environments is contingent upon our understanding of cellular detoxification mechanisms. In this regard, half-molecule ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters of the HMT-1 subfamily are required for cadmium (Cd detoxification. HMTs have conserved structural architecture that distinguishes them from other ABC transporters and allows the identification of homologs in genomes of different species including humans. We recently discovered that HMT-1 from the simple, unicellular organism, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, SpHMT1, acts independently of phytochelatin synthase (PCS and detoxifies Cd, but not other heavy metals. Whether HMTs from multicellular organisms confer tolerance only to Cd or also to other heavy metals is not known. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using molecular genetics approaches and functional in vivo assays we showed that HMT-1 from a multicellular organism, Caenorhabditis elegans, functions distinctly from its S. pombe counterpart in that in addition to Cd it confers tolerance to arsenic (As and copper (Cu while acting independently of pcs-1. Further investigation of hmt-1 and pcs-1 revealed that these genes are expressed in different cell types, supporting the notion that hmt-1 and pcs-1 operate in distinct detoxification pathways. Interestingly, pcs-1 and hmt-1 are co-expressed in highly endocytic C. elegans cells with unknown function, the coelomocytes. By analyzing heavy metal and oxidative stress sensitivities of the coelomocyte-deficient C. elegans strain we discovered that coelomocytes are essential mainly for detoxification of heavy metals, but not of oxidative stress, a by-product of heavy metal toxicity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We established that HMT-1 from the multicellular organism confers tolerance to multiple heavy metals and is expressed in liver-like cells, the coelomocytes, as well as head neurons and intestinal cells, which are cell types

  12. Gold mining impact on riverine heavy metal transport in a sparsely monitored region: the upper Lake Baikal Basin case. (United States)

    Thorslund, Josefin; Jarsjö, Jerker; Chalov, Sergey R; Belozerova, Ekaterina V


    Mining and ore excavation can cause the acidification and heavy metal pollution of downstream water systems. It can be difficult to assess the load contributions from individual mining areas, which is commonly required for environmental impact assessments. In the current study, we quantified the net impact of the unmonitored mining activities in the Zaamar Goldfield (Mongolia) on heavy metal transport in the downstream Tuul River-Selenga River-Lake Baikal water systems. We also noted that the Zaamar site shares the conditions of limited monitoring with many rapidly developing regions of the world. The heavy metal concentrations and flow data were obtained from historical measurement campaigns, long-term monitoring, and a novel field campaign. The results indicate that natural mass flows of heavy metals in dissolved form increased by an order of magnitude because of mining. Prevailing alkaline conditions in the vicinity of Zaamar can limit the dissolution, maintaining the on-site concentrations below health-risk based guideline values. However, suspended river concentrations are much higher than the dissolved concentrations. The placer gold mining at the Zaamar site has increased the total riverine mass flows of Al, As, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn by 44.300, 30.1, 65.7, 47.800, 1.480, 76.0 and 65.0 tonnes per year respectively. We suggest that local to regional transformation and enrichment processes in combination with suspended sediment transport from numerous existing upstream mining areas contribute to high concentrations of dissolved heavy metals in downstream parts of the Selenga River, including its delta area at Lake Baikal. Furthermore, single hydrological events can increase the suspended load concentrations by at least one order of magnitude. Overall, the Selenga River Basin, which drains into Lake Baikal, should be recognised as one of the world's most impacted areas with regard to heavy metal loads, and it contributes to 1% and 3% of the world flux of

  13. Sources, transport and deposition of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacyna, J.M.


    The conference paper deals with a study on the behaviour of heavy metals (HMs) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the environment. The conclusion is that many of these compounds create serious problems due their toxicity and bioaccumulation in various environmental compartments. Several scientific questions have been posed for improved understanding of the nature and the extent of these problems. The present paper addresses questions related to sources, fluxes, and atmospheric pathways of HMs and POPs in Europe

  14. Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 4. Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution - Development of Chronological Records and Geochemical Monitoring. Rohit Shrivastav. General Article Volume 6 Issue 4 April 2001 pp 62-68 ...

  15. Study of casks shielded with heavy metal to transport highly radioactive substances; Estudo de embalados com blindagem em metal pesado para transporte de substancias altamente radioativas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucchesi, R.F.; Hara, D.H.S.; Martinez, L.G.; Mucsi, C.S.; Rossi, J.L., E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    Nowadays, Brazil relies on casks produced abroad for transportation in its territory of substances that are sources of high radioactivity, especially the Mo-99. The product of the radioactive decay of the Mo-99 is the Tc-99m, which is used in nuclear medicine for administration to humans in the form of injectable radioactive drugs for the image diagnosis of numerous pathologies. This paper aims to study the existing casks in order to propose materials for the construction of the core part as shielding against gamma radiation. To this purpose, the existing literature on the subject was studied, as well as evaluation of existing and available casks. The study was focused on the core of which is made of heavy metals, especially depleted uranium for shielding the emitted radiation. (author)

  16. Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    acute toxicity and sublethal chronic action the devastating effects that the accumulation - ... surrounding waters. The results showed a programmes of heavy metals in aquatic strong and positive correlation (r = 0.97) ecosystems. between amounts of metals in the aquatic ...... Chemical composition of agricultural waste.

  17. Hydrothermal transport of heavy metals by seawater: The role of seawater/basalt ratio (United States)

    Seyfried, W.; Bischoff, J.L.


    Seawater reacted with basaltic glass at 260??C and 500 bars under water-dominated conditions (50 : 1 water/rock ratio) efficiently leached and maintained heavy metals in solution. Cu, Zn, and Ba are transferred in significant proportions to the aqueous phase, while Fe and Mn attain concentrations of 45 and 20 ppm respectively as the basalt is completely made over to magnesian smectite. High metal solubility is a function of acidity maintained by large excess of dissolved Mg and equilibria with the alteration phase. Metal concentrations and relative proportions are consistent within limits required for metal-rich fluid which produced East Pacific Rise metalliferous sediments. Experiments mixing metal-bearing altered seawater and normal seawater were carried out as a qualitative indicator of sea-floor precipitation processes. Bulk composition of the precipitates are strongly influenced by mixing ratio. Precipitates range from silica-magnesium rich under low dilution by seawater to essentially pure ferric hydroxide under conditions of high dilution. ?? 1977.

  18. Transport of heavy metals and chemical compatibility of hydraulic conductivity of a compacted sand-bentonite mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanthanit Charoenthaisong


    Full Text Available Clayey soils are usually used as barrier material in landfill liners because of its low hydraulic conductivity and high sorption capacity. Bentonite, which consists mainly of montmorillonite, has a high cation exchange capacity resulting in a high retention capacity of heavy metals. Sand is a permeable material but its hydraulic conductivity decreases significantly when mixed with bentonite. However, using a sand-bentonite mixture as landfill liners is questionable, because the hydraulic conductivity of the sand-bentonite mixture may increase when permeated with heavy metal solutions, which are normally found in landfill leachates. In this paper, transport of heavy metals through a compacted sand-bentonite mixture and its chemical compatibility were studied through the batch adsorption test, the column test, and the hydraulic conductivity test.Experimental results indicate that the sorption capacity of the bentonite, ranked in descending order, was Cr3+, Pb2+, Cd2+, Zn2+, and Ni2+, respectively. The diffusion coefficients of the sand-bentonite mixture were in the order of 10-5 cm2/s and the retardation factors were 130, 115, 111, and 90 for Pb2+, Ni2+, Zn2+, and Cd2+, respectively. The hydraulic conductivity of thesand-bentonite mixture was only compatible with a chromium solution having a concentration not greater than 0.001 M.

  19. [Transportation and risk assessment of heavy metal pollution in water-soil from the Riparian Zone of Daye Lake, China]. (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-quan; Li, Xiu; Zhang, Quan-fa; Li, Qiong; Xiao, Wen-sheng; Wang, Yong-kui; Zhang, Jian-chun; Gai, Xi-guang


    Each 20 water samples and soil samples (0-10 cm, 10-20 cm) were collected from the riparian zone of Daye Lake in dry season during March 2013. Heavy metals (Cu, Ph, Cd, Zn) have been detected by flame atomic absorption spectrometric (FAAS). The results showed that the average concentrations of Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn in the water were 7.14, 25.94, 15.72 and 37.58 microg x L(-1), respectively. The concentration of Cu was higher than the five degree of the surface water environment quality standard. The average concentrations of Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn in soil(0-10 cm) were 108.38, 53.92, 3.55, 139.26 mg x kg(-1) in soil (10-20 cm) were 93.00, 51.72, 2.08, 171.00 mg x kg(-1), respectively. The Cd concentrations were higher than the three grade value of the national soil environment quality standard. The transportation of Pb from soil to water was relatively stable, and Zn was greatly influenced by soil property and the surrounding environment from soil to water. The transformation of heavy metal in west riparian zone was higher than that of east riparian zone. The potential environmental risk was relatively high. Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn were dominated by residue fraction of the modified BCR sequential extraction method. The overall migration order of heavy metal element was: Pb > Cu > Cd > Zn. There were stronger transformation and higher environmental pollution risk of Cu, Pb. The index of assessment and potential ecological risk coefficient indicated that heavy metal pollution in soil (0-10 cm) was higher than the soil (10-20 cm), Cd was particularly serious.

  20. Atmospheric background levels and transport of heavy metals in the Balearic Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateu, J.; Forteza, R.; Colom-Altes, M.; Cerda, V. [Universitat de les Illes Balears, Palma de Mallorca (Spain). Dept. de Quimica


    Calcium and seven minor inorganic components (iron, manganese, nickel, chromium, copper, cadmium and lead) were determined in aerosols collected at the Alfabia and Soller stations (Majorca, Spain), 1100 and 100 m above sea level, respectively. The results obtained reveal a marked influence of long-distance transport of natural and anthropogenic materials. A statistical study allowed the metals to be grouped according to their origin. 22 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Direct observation of heavy metal-mineral association from the Clark Fork River Superfund Complex: Implications for metal transport and bioavailability (United States)

    Hochella, M.F.; Moore, J.N.; Putnis, C.V.; Putnis, A.; Kasama, T.; Eberl, D.D.


    Two sets of samples from riverbeds and adjacent floodplains, separated by 80 river kilometers, were collected from the Clark Fork River Superfund Complex, Montana, (the largest Superfund site in the United States), and studied primarily with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with several supporting techniques to determine heavy metal-mineral association. Seven of the eight samples studied were strongly influenced by material that once resided in mining and smelting dumps and impoundments; this material was transported downstream sometime during the last century and a half from the Butte/Anaconda areas. The eighth sample was from a deeper floodplain level and dates to premining days. The TEM observations afford a direct look, down to the nanometer level, at secondary mineral formation as a result of the breakdown of sulfides and silicates in the acid environment of this massive mine-drainage system. In the shallow, oxic floodplain sediments, heavy metals of concern in this system (As, Cu, Pb, and Zn) are taken up by the formation of sulfates (particularly Pb in jarosite), as well as hydrous metal oxides (As, Cu, Pb, and Zn in and on ferrihydrite, and a possibly new vernadite-like mineral). The oxides are long-lived in these systems, as they were also found in the anoxic riverbeds. Metals are also taken up by the formation of sulfides in sulfate-reducing environments as observed in the formation of nanoclusters of chalcopyrite and sphalerite. In all samples, clays make up between 5 and 20% of the sediment and carry significant amounts of Cu and Zn. The hydrous oxides, secondary sulfides, and clays provide several routes for metal transport downstream over long distances. Besides the potential bioavailability of heavy metals exchanged on and off the hydrous metal oxides and clays, nanometer-sized sulfides may also be highly reactive in the presence of biologic systems. Copyright ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Divergent biology of facultative heavy metal plants. (United States)

    Bothe, Hermann; Słomka, Aneta


    literature favours the idea that hyperaccumulation of heavy metals serves plants as deterrent against attack by feeding animals (termed elemental defense hypothesis). The capability to hyperaccumulate heavy metals in A. halleri and N. caerulescens is achieved by duplications and alterations of the cis-regulatory properties of genes coding for heavy metal transporting/excreting proteins. Several metallophytes have developed ecotypes with a varying content of such heavy metal transporters as an adaption to the specific toxicity of a heavy metal site. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Distribution of Heavy Metal Pb


    Samawi, Muh. Farid; Tambaru, Rahmadi; Husain, Aida Ala; Burhanuddin, Andi Iqbal


    Distribution of Heavy Metal Pb in Benthic Organism and Sediment Bonebatang Island Waters Benthic organisms Bonebatang Island waters consist of branching hard corals, massive hard corals, soft corals, sponges, macroalgae, coralline algae, seagrass and mussels have the potential to accumulate heavy metals Pb from the water column. Results of studies have determined the rate of accumulation of heavy metals Pb some benthic organisms in the Bonebatang Island waters. Branching hard corals have a...


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    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The application of foliar fungicides in vineyards and orchards can increase soil concentration of heavy metals such as copper (Cu and zinc (Zn, up to the toxicity threshold for fruit trees and cover crops. However, some agronomic practices, such as liming, addition of organic fertilizers, cultivation of soil cover crops and inoculation of young plants with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can decrease the availability and the potential of heavy metal toxicity to fruit trees. This review aims to compile and present information about the effects of increasing concentrations of heavy metals, especially Cu and Zn, on soils cultivated with fruit trees and provides some agronomic practices of remediation. Information about the sources of heavy metals found in soils cultivated with fruit trees are presented; mechanisms of absorption, transport, accumulation and potential toxicity to plants are described.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adeyinka Odunsi

    The mean metal content of cassava leaf indicated that all the metals were higher in the leaf at high ... components of petroleum hydrocarbons ..... Atmos. Environ. 40: 5929-5941. Onder, S., Dursun, S., Gezgin, S. and. Demirbas, A. (2007). Determination. Accumulation of heavy metal pollutants on soil microbial population.

  6. Heavy Metal Stars (United States)


    thereafter dies as a burnt-out, dim "white dwarf" . Stars with masses between 0.8 and 8 times that of the Sun are believed to evolve to AGB-stars and to end their lives in this particular way. At the same time, they produce beautiful nebulae like the "Dumbbell Nebula". Our Sun will also end its active life this way, probably some 7 billion years from now. Low-metallicity stars The detailed understanding of the "s-process" and, in particular, where it takes place inside an AGB-star, has been an area of active research for many years. Current state-of-the-art computer-based stellar models predict that the s-process should be particularly efficient in stars with a comparatively low content of metals ("metal-poor" or "low-metallicity" stars) . In such stars - which were born at an early epoch in our Galaxy and are therefore quite old - the "s-process" is expected to effectively produce atomic nuclei all the way up to the most heavy, stable ones, like Lead (atomic number 82 [2]) and Bismuth (atomic number 83) - since more neutrons are available per Iron-seed nucleus when there are fewer such nuclei (as compared to the solar composition). Once these elements have been produced, the addition of more s-process neutrons to those nuclei will only produce unstable elements that decay back to Lead. Hence, when the s-process is sufficiently efficient, atomic nuclei with atomic numbers around 82, that is, the Lead region, just continue to pile up. As a result, when compared to stars with "normal" abundances of the metals (like our Sun), those low-metallicity stars should thus exhibit a significant "over-abundance" of those very heavy elements with respect to Iron, in particular of Lead . Looking for Lead Direct observational support for this theoretical prediction would be the discovery of some low-metallicity stars with a high abundance of Lead. At the same time, the measured amounts of all the heavy elements and their relative abundances would provide very valuable information and

  7. Mobility of Source Zone Heavy Metals and Radionuclides: The Mixed Roles of Fermentative Activity on Fate and Transport of U and Cr

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    Apel, William; Peyton, Brent; Gerlach, Robin; Lee, Brady


    Various U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) low and medium-level radioactive waste sites contain mixtures of heavy metals, radionuclides and assorted organic materials. Over time, water infiltrates the wastes, and releases metals and radionuclides causing transport into the surrounding environment. We propose that fermentative microorganisms are active in these sites and may control metal and radionuclide migration from source zones (Figure 1). The following overarching hypothesis will drive our research: 'Metals and radionuclides can be mobilized by infiltration of water into waste storage sites. Microbial communities of lignocellulose degrading and fermenting microorganisms present in the subsurface of contaminated DOE sites can significantly impact migration by directly reducing and immobilizing metals and radionuclides while degrading complex organic matter to low molecular weight organic compounds. These low molecular weight organic compounds can increase metal and radionuclide mobility by chelation (i.e., certain organic acids) or decrease mobility by stimulating respiratory metal reducing microorganisms.' The objective of our research is to determine the effect of carbon and energy flow through simulated waste environments on metal and radionuclide migration from waste pits and trenches across the DOE complex. Metals and radionuclides can be mobilized by infiltration of water into waste storage sites. Cellulolytic and non-cellulolytic fermentative microorganisms have been chosen as the focus of this research because their activity is a critical first step that we hypothesize will control subsequent fate and transport in contaminated natural systems. Microbial communities of lignocellulose degrading and fermenting microorganisms present in the subsurface of contaminated DOE sites can significantly impact migration by directly reducing and immobilizing metals and radionuclides while degrading complex organic matter to low molecular weight organic

  8. Mobility of Source Zone Heavy Metals and Radionuclides: The Mixed Roles of Fermentative Activity on Fate and Transport of U and Cr. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlach, Robin [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Peyton, Brent M. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Apel, William A. [Idaho National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    Various U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) low and medium-level radioactive waste sites contain mixtures of heavy metals, radionuclides and assorted organic materials. In addition, there are numerous sites around the world that are contaminated with a mixture of organic and inorganic contaminants. In most sites, over time, water infiltrates the wastes, and releases metals, radionuclides and other contaminants causing transport into the surrounding environment. We investigated the role of fermentative microorganisms in such sites that may control metal, radionuclide and organics migration from source zones. The project was initiated based on the following overarching hypothesis: Metals, radionuclides and other contaminants can be mobilized by infiltration of water into waste storage sites. Microbial communities of lignocellulose degrading and fermenting microorganisms present in the subsurface of contaminated DOE sites can significantly impact migration by directly reducing and immobilizing metals and radionuclides while degrading complex organic matter to low molecular weight organic compounds. These low molecular weight organic acids and alcohols can increase metal and radionuclide mobility by chelation (i.e., certain organic acids) or decrease mobility by stimulating respiratory metal reducing microorganisms. We demonstrated that fermentative organisms capable of affecting the fate of Cr6+, U6+ and trinitrotoluene can be isolated from organic-rich low level waste sites as well as from less organic rich subsurface environments. The mechanisms, pathways and extent of contaminant transformation depend on a variety of factors related to the type of organisms present, the aqueous chemistry as well as the geochemistry and mineralogy. This work provides observations and quantitative data across multiple scales that identify and predict the coupled effects of fermentative carbon and electron flow on the transport of radionuclides, heavy metals and organic contaminants in

  9. Role of hydrological events in sediment and sediment-associated heavy metals transport within a continental transboundary river system - Tuul River case study (Mongolia) (United States)

    Pietroń, Jan; Jarsjö, Jerker


    The concentration of heavy metals in rivers is often greater in the sediment load than in the water solution. Overall, heavy metal conveyance with sediment transport is a significant contributor to the global transport of heavy metals. Heavy metals once released to a river system may remain in the deposits of the river from short to very long times, for instance depending on to which extent erosion and deposition can influence the sediment mass stored in the river bed. In general, the mobility of contaminated sediments to downstream water recipients may to large extent be governed by natural sediment transport dynamics during hydrological events, such as flow peaks following heavy rainfalls. The Tuul River (Northern Mongolia) belongs to a Tuul River-Orkhon River-Selenga River- transboundary river system that discharges into Lake Baikal. The river system is largely characterized by its natural hydrological regime with numerous rapid peak flow events of the spring-summer periods. However, recent studies indicate contamination of fine sediment with heavy metals coming from placer gold mining area (Zaamar Goldfield) located along the downstream Tuul River. In this work, the general idea is to create a one-dimensional sediment transport model of the downstream Tuul River, and use field-data supported modeling to investigate natural erosion-deposition rates and the role of peak flows in natural sediment transport at 14 km reach just downstream the gold mining area. The model results show that the sediment load of the finest investigated grain size has a great potential to be eroded from the bed of the studied reach, especially during the main peak flow events. However, the same events are associated with a significant deposition of the finest material. The model results also show different hysteresis behavior of the sediment load rating curves (clockwise and counter-clockwise) during the main peak flow events. These are interpreted as effects of changing in

  10. Evaluation of heavy metal uptake and translocation by Acacia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many organic and inorganic pollutants, including heavy metals are being transported and mixed with the cultivated soils and water. Heavy metals are the most dangerous pollutants as they are nondegradable and accumulate and become toxic to plants and animals. An experiment was conducted in the glasshouse to ...

  11. Molecular Characterization of a Novel Heavy Metal Uptake Transporter from Higher Plants and its Potential for Use in Phytoremediation - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, J.


    Heavy metal toxicity poses major environmental and health problems, and heavy metals are more difficult to remediate than chemical contaminants, which can be degraded by microorganisms. Cadmium and arsenic, for example, are non-essential heavy metals which are toxic to living cells at very low concentrations. Cd 2+ ions displace Ca2+ or Zn2+ in proteins and can cause oxidative stress, while arsenic also causes oxidative stress damage and is a well known carcinogen.

  12. Heavy metals in Mindhola river estuary, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Rokade, M.A; Mandalia, A

    The heavy metal concentrations are studied along the Mindhola river estuary. Surface and bottom water samples were collected using Niskin Sampler. The sediment samples were collected using a Van Veen grab. The heavy metal concentration is estimated...

  13. Heavy metals in sea turtles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witkowski, S.A. (Millersville State College, PA); Frazier, J.G.


    Bone and barnacle samples from sea turtles (Hepidochelys olivacea) in Ecuador were analyzed for manganese, iron, copper, zinc and lead. Analysis was performed by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results show that zinc and iron levels in bone and barnacles were greater than copper, manganese and lead levels. The significance of the findings is difficult to interpret because so little is known about baseline levels and physiological effects of heavy metals in the animals. (JMT)

  14. Distribution of heavy metals in vegetation surrounding the Blackstone River, USA: considerations regarding sediment contamination and long term metals transport in freshwater riverine ecosystems. (United States)

    Ozdilek, Hasan Goksel; Mathisen, Paul P; Pellegrino, Don


    The Blackstone River, a 74 km interstate stream located in South Central Massachusetts and Rhode Island (USA), has had a long history of problems due to high concentrations of metals such as copper and lead. The river has been subjected to metals load that include contributions from urban runoff, wastewater discharges, contaminated sediments, and also resuspension of contaminated sediments in the river-bed. All of these effects lead to elevated concentrations of metals such as lead, copper, zinc, chromium, cadmium and arsenic. Furthermore, the contaminated sediments located behind impoundments become especially important when higher flows cause resuspension of the previously deposited sediments and associated metals. While it is known that high metals concentrations in this river are found in the bottom sediments, the fate of the metals and impact on the ecosystem are not well known. This paper addresses the potential impacts that metals may have on vegetation and plant tissues in the vicinity of the river Plant tissues (primarily mosses), were collected from a number of sampling sites along a 14 km stretch of this river. At each site, samples were collected from multiple distances from the riverbank. Laboratory analyses made use of both wet digestion and dry ashing digestion methods, followed by analysis using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The wet and dry ashing digestion methods yielded similar results, although the results afforded by the dry ashing methods were slightly lower than the results obtained from the wet method. The results showed that the metals concentrations in vegetation (as determined from plant tissue analyses) were generally inversely related to the distance between the vegetation and the riverbank, with higher metals concentrations existing in plant tissues located close to the riverbank. In addition, it was found that the transport of metals concentrations to the terrestrial vegetation adjacent to this section of the Blackstone

  15. Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie


    Electrodialytic soil remediation is a method for removal of heavy metals. Good results have previously been obtained with both treatment of a stationary, water saturated soil matrix and with remediation of a stirred suspension of soil in water. The two different setups have different uses......). In the stirred setup it is possible to shorten the transport route to few mm and to have a faster and continuous process. The present paper for the first time reports a direct comparison of the two options. The remediation of the stirred suspension showed faster than remediation of the water saturated soil even...... without a short distance between the membranes. The acidification of the suspended soil was fastest and following the mobilization of heavy metals. This may indicate that water splitting at the anion exchange membrane is used more efficiently in the stirred setup....

  16. Heavy metals precipitation in sewage sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchioretto, M.M.; Rulkens, W.H.; Bruning, H.


    There is a great need for heavy metal removal from strongly metal-polluted sewage sludges. One of the advantages of heavy metal removal from this type of sludge is the possibility of the sludge disposal to landfill with reduced risk of metals being leached to the surface and groundwater. Another

  17. Biosolids and heavy metals in soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Maria Lucia Azevedo


    Full Text Available The application of sewage sludge or biosolids on soils has been widespread in agricultural areas. However, depending on their characteristics, they may cause increase in heavy metal concentration of treated soils. In general, domestic biosolids have lower heavy metal contents than industrial ones. Origin and treatment method of biosolids may markedly influence their characteristics. The legislation that controls the levels of heavy metal contents in biosolids and the maximum concentrations in soils is still controversial. In the long-term, heavy metal behavior after the and of biosolid application is still unknown. In soils, heavy metals may be adsorbed via specific or non-specific adsorption reactions. Iron oxides and organic matter are the most important soil constituents retaining heavy metals. The pH, CEC and the presence of competing ions also affect heavy metal adsorption and speciation in soils. In solution, heavy metals can be present either as free-ions or complexed with organic and inorganic ligands. Generally, free-ions are more relevant in environmental pollution studies since they are readily bioavailable. Some computer models can estimate heavy metal activity in solution and their ionic speciation. Thermodynamic data (thermodynamic stability constant, total metal and ligand concentrations are used by the GEOCHEM-PC program. This program allows studying heavy metal behavior in solution and the effect of changes in the conditions, such as pH and ionic strength and the application of organic and inorganic ligands caused by soil fertilization.

  18. The Heavy Metal Subculture and Suicide. (United States)

    Stack, Steven; And Others


    Assessed relationship between heavy metal music and suicide with data on heavy metal magazine subscriptions and youth suicide in 50 states. Found that, controlling for other predictors of suicide, greater strength of metal subculture, higher youth suicide rate, suggests that music perhaps nurtures suicidal tendencies already present in subculture.…

  19. Industrial hygiene of selected heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodring, J.L.


    The industrial hygiene of heavy metals consists of recognition, evaluation, and control of exposures in the occupational environment. Several of these metals have been in use since ancient times. Reports of health effects and poisonings from overexposures also have a long history. This report discusses the industrial hygiene of the heavy metals, lead, cadmium, mercury, and manganese.

  20. Poisoning of domestic animals with heavy metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velev Romel


    Full Text Available The term heavy metal refers to a metal that has a relatively high density and is toxic for animal and human organism at low concentrations. Heavy metals are natural components of the Earth's crust. They cannot be degraded or destroyed. To a small extent they enter animal organism via food, drinking water and air. Some heavy metals (e.g cooper, iron, chromium, zinc are essential in very low concentrations for the survival of all forms of life. These are described as essential trace elements. However, when they are present in greater quantities, like the heavy metals lead, cadmium and mercury which are already toxic in very low concentrations, they can cause metabolic anomalies or poisoning. Heavy metal poisoning of domestic animals could result, for instance, from drinking-water contamination, high ambient air concentrations near emission sources, or intake via the food chain. Heavy metals are dangerous because they tend to bioaccumulate in a biological organism over time. Manifestation of toxicity of individual heavy metals varies considerably, depending on dose and time of exposure, species, gender and environmental and nutritional factors. Large differences exist between the effects of a single exposure to a high concentration, and chronic exposures to lower doses. The aim of this work is to present the source of poisoning and toxicity of some heavy metals (lead, mercury, cadmium, thallium, arsenic, as well as new data about effects of those heavy metals on the health of domestic animals. .

  1. Heavy Metal - Exploring a magnetised metallic asteroid (United States)

    Wahlund, Jan-Erik; Andrews, David; Futaana, Yoshifumi; Masters, Adam; Thomas, Nicolas; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Herique, Alain; Retherford, Kurt; Tortora, Paolo; Trigo-Rodriguez, Joseph; Ivchenko, Nickolay; Simon, Sven


    We propose a spacecraft mission (Heavy Metal) to orbit and explore (16) Psyche - the largest M-class metallic asteroid in the main belt. Recent estimates of the shape, 279×232×189 km and mass, 2.7×10(19) kg make it one of the largest and densest of asteroids, and together with the high surface radar reflectivity and the spectral data measured from Earth it is consistent with a bulk composition rich in iron-nickel. The M5 mission Heavy Metal will investigate if (16) Psyche is the exposed metallic core of a planetesimal, formed early enough to melt and differentiate. High-resolution mapping of the surface in optical, IR, UV and radar wavebands, along with the determination of the shape and gravity field will be used to address the formation and subsequent evolution of (16) Psyche, determining the origin of metallic asteroids. It is conceivable that a cataclysmic collision with a second body led to the ejection of all or part of the differentiated core of the parent body. Measurements at (16) Psyche therefore provide a possibility to directly examine an iron-rich planetary core, similar to that expected at the center of all the major planets including Earth. A short-lived dynamo producing a magnetic field early in the life of (16) Psyche could have led to a remnant field (of tens of micro Tesla) being preserved in the body today. (16) Psyche is embedded in the variable flow of the solar wind. Whereas planetary magnetospheres and induced magnetospheres are the result of intense dynamo fields and dense conductive ionospheres presenting obstacles to the solar wind, (16) Psyche may show an entirely new 'class' of interaction as a consequence of its lack of a significant atmosphere, the extremely high bulk electrical conductivity of the asteroid, and the possible presence of intense magnetic fields retained in iron-rich material. The small characteristic scale of (16) Psyche ( 200 km) firmly places any solar wind interaction in the "sub-MHD" scale, in which kinetic

  2. Heavy metals in Antarctic organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, J.E.A. de; Moreno, V.J. [Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata (Argentina); Gerpe, M.S.; Vodopivez, C. [Instituto Antartico Argentino, Buenos Aires (Argentina)


    To evaluate levels of essential (zinc and copper) and non-essential (mercury and cadmium) heavy metals, 34 species of organisms from different areas close to the Antarctic Peninsula were analysed. These included algae, filter-feeders, omnivorous invertebrates and vertebrates. Mercury was not detected, while cadmium was found in the majority of organisms analysed (detection limit was 0.05 ppm for both metals). The highest cadmium concentration was observed in the starfish Odontaster validus. Anthozoans, sipunculids and nudibranchs showed maximum levels of zinc, while the highest copper level was found in the gastropod Trophon brevispira. Mercury and cadmium levels in fishes were below the detection limit. Concentrations of essential and non-essential metals in birds were highest in liver followed by muscle and eggs. Cadmium and mercury levels in muscle of southern elephant seals were above the detection limit, whereas in Antarctic fur seals they were below it. The objective of the study was to gather baseline information for metals in Antarctic Ocean biota that may be needed to detect, measure and monitor future environmental changes. 46 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. Study of Correlation Between Heavy Metal Concentration, Street ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    needs to evaluate heavy metal content of water and food, the metal content of street has to be evaluated ... were recorded. The samples (dust) were transferred to clean labeled polyethylene bags and were directly ..... cell membranes via anion transport system in to the cell, the compounds are readily reduced to trivalent.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Feb 13, 2012 ... transported as either dissolved species in water or as an integral part ... In addition, to a small extent, the metals enter the human bodies via food, drinking water and air. Though, some heavy metals. (e.g. copper, selenium, zinc) are essential to maintain the .... The values of total suspended solids. (TSS) and ...

  5. Hazards of heavy metal contamination. (United States)

    Järup, Lars


    The main threats to human health from heavy metals are associated with exposure to lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic. These metals have been extensively studied and their effects on human health regularly reviewed by international bodies such as the WHO. Heavy metals have been used by humans for thousands of years. Although several adverse health effects of heavy metals have been known for a long time, exposure to heavy metals continues, and is even increasing in some parts of the world, in particular in less developed countries, though emissions have declined in most developed countries over the last 100 years. Cadmium compounds are currently mainly used in re-chargeable nickel-cadmium batteries. Cadmium emissions have increased dramatically during the 20th century, one reason being that cadmium-containing products are rarely re-cycled, but often dumped together with household waste. Cigarette smoking is a major source of cadmium exposure. In non-smokers, food is the most important source of cadmium exposure. Recent data indicate that adverse health effects of cadmium exposure may occur at lower exposure levels than previously anticipated, primarily in the form of kidney damage but possibly also bone effects and fractures. Many individuals in Europe already exceed these exposure levels and the margin is very narrow for large groups. Therefore, measures should be taken to reduce cadmium exposure in the general population in order to minimize the risk of adverse health effects. The general population is primarily exposed to mercury via food, fish being a major source of methyl mercury exposure, and dental amalgam. The general population does not face a significant health risk from methyl mercury, although certain groups with high fish consumption may attain blood levels associated with a low risk of neurological damage to adults. Since there is a risk to the fetus in particular, pregnant women should avoid a high intake of certain fish, such as shark, swordfish and


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Koc-Jurczyk


    Full Text Available Industrialization and urbanization result in increase of heavy metals released into the environment (soil, lakes, rivers, seas, oceans, groundwater. Studies on biosorption of heavy metals are aimed to specify types of microorganisms which could efficiently bind metals. This approach has a very important significance for both slowing down metals exploitation by recovery, and also reduction of environmental pollution by decrease of their excessive concentration. Recent studies have reported about the capabilities of fungi, algae, yeasts, bacteria, waste and agricultural residues or materials containing chitosan derived from crustacean shells as a biosorbents. Biohydrometallurgy could be considered as a new “green” technology of heavy metals removal from wastewater.

  7. Heavy metal uptake of Geosiphon pyriforme (United States)

    Scheloske, Stefan; Maetz, Mischa; Schüßler, Arthur


    Geosiphon pyriforme represents the only known endosymbiosis between a fungus, belonging to the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, and cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). Therefore we use Geosiphon as a model system for the widespread AM symbiosis and try to answer some basic questions regarding heavy metal uptake or resistance of AM fungi. We present quantitative micro-PIXE measurements of a set of heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Tl, Pb) taken up by Geosiphon-cells. The uptake is studied as a function of the metal concentration in the nutrient solution and of the time Geosiphon spent in the heavy metal enriched medium. The measured heavy metal concentrations range from several ppm to some hundred ppm. Also the influence of the heavy metal uptake on the nutrition transfer of other elements will be discussed.

  8. Biosorption of Heavy Metals by Biomass


    AKÇİN, Göksel


    Wetland plants are successfully used in the biosorption of heavy metals in natural and constructed wetlands. In this study, the removal of heavy metals by water hyacinth [ Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.)Solms)] were investigated. The plants were grown under control in the Turkish climate. The biosorption was dependent on factors such as metal concentration, constant temperature, pH and relative moisture. The plants were exposed to different metal concentrations of Chromium(III), Chromi...

  9. Heavy Metal Music and Adolescent Suicidal Risk. (United States)

    Lacourse, Eric; Claes, Michel; Villeneuve, Martine


    Studied differentiating characteristics of youth who prefer heavy metal music, worship music, and use music for vicarious release. Data for 275 secondary school students suggest that heavy metal music preference and worshipping is not related to suicidal risk when controlling for other suicide factors. Discusses findings in the context of…

  10. Heavy Metal Levels, Physicochemical Properties and Microbial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Heavy Metal Levels, Physicochemical Properties and Microbial Diversity of Soil Matrix from University Solid Waste ... characteristics of soil samples from five different waste collection sites within the University of Benin, Benin City and evaluated using ...... phytoremediation of heavy metals contaminated soils: A review.

  11. Nanopipettes for Metal Transport (United States)

    Svensson, K.; Olin, H.; Olsson, E.


    Here we demonstrate, for the first time experimentally, a nanopipette action for metals using multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The process relies on electromigration forces, created at high electron current densities, enabling the transport of material inside the hollow core of carbon nanotubes. In this way nanoparticles of iron were transported to and from electrically conducting substrates.

  12. Electrokinetic treatment of an agricultural soil contaminated with heavy metals. (United States)

    Figueroa, Arylein; Cameselle, Claudio; Gouveia, Susana; Hansen, Henrik K


    The high organic matter content in agricultural soils tends to complex and retain contaminants such as heavy metals. Electrokinetic remediation was tested in an agricultural soil contaminated with Co(+2), Zn(+2), Cd(+2), Cu(+2), Cr(VI), Pb(+2) and Hg(+2). The unenhanced electrokinetic treatment was not able to remove heavy metals from the soil due to the formation of precipitates in the alkaline environment in the soil section close to the cathode. Moreover, the interaction between metals and organic matter probably limited metal transportation under the effect of the electric field. Citric acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were used in the catholyte as complexing agents in order to enhance the extractability and removal of heavy metals from soil. These complexing agents formed negatively charged complexes that migrated towards the anode. The acid front electrogenerated at the anode favored the dissolution of heavy metals that were transported towards the cathode. The combined effect of the soil pH and the complexing agents resulted in the accumulation of heavy metals in the center of the soil specimen.

  13. Mass transport of heavy metal ions and radon in gels used as sealing agents in containment technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakatos, I.; Bauer, K.; Lakatos-Szabo, J. [Research Lab. for Mining Chemistry, Miskolc-Egyetemvaros (Hungary); Kretzschmar, H.J. [DBI Gas- und Umwelttechnik GmbH, Feiberg (Germany)


    The diffusion and hydrodynamic mass transport of multivalent cations, mostly Cr(III) and Cr(VI) ions and radon in polymer/silicate gels and Montanwax emulsions were studied. It was concluded that the self-conforming gels may decrease the hydrodynamic mass transport in porous and fractured media by 4-6 orders of magnitude. In water saturated systems, however, the diffusion transport can be restricted by hydrogels only to a moderate extent. On the other hand, the high and selective retention capacity of gels towards different diffusing species may open new vistas in the sealing technologies. Similar results were obtained for transport phenomena of radon. The almost perfect quenching process of radon and its nuclides in gels and emulsions further enhances the positive effects of the encapsulation methods. The laboratory experiments provided valuable new information to design the different containment technologies.

  14. Biomolecules for Removal of Heavy Metal. (United States)

    Singh, Namita Ashish


    Patents reveal that heavy metals are natural constituents of the earth's crust, but some heavy metals like cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic etc. are injurious to living organisms at higher concentration. Nowadays, anthropogenic activities have altered geochemical cycles and biochemical balance of heavy metals. Biomolecules are used nowadays for removal of heavy metals compared to other synthetic biosorbents due to their environmental friendly nature and cost effectiveness. The goal of this work is to identify the role of biomolecules like polysaccharides, polypeptides, natural compounds containing aromatic acid etc. for heavy metal removal by bio sorption. It has been observed that efficiency of biomolecules can be increased by functionalization e.g. cellulose functionalization with EDTA, chitosan with sulphur groups, alginate with carboxyl/ hydroxyl group etc. It was found that the porous structure of aerogel beads improves both sorption and kinetic properties of the material. Out of polypeptides metallothionein has been widely used for removal of heavy metal up to 88% from seawater after a single centrifugation. These cost effective functionalized biomolecules are significantly used for remediation of heavy metals by immobilizing these biomolecules onto materials. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at

  15. Heavy metals in municipal solid waste deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flyhammar, P.


    Extensive use of heavy metals in modern society influences routes followed by fluxes on the surface of the Earth. The changed flow paths may be harmful for the balance of biological systems at different levels, micro-organisms, human beings and whole ecosystems, since the toxicity of heavy metals is determined by their concentrations and chemical forms. Despite the low mobility of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd) in municipal landfills, it was found that extensive transformations of the binding forms of heavy metal take place within the waste mass during the degradation of the waste. These changes appear to be closely related to the development of early diagenetic solid phases, i.e. new secondary solid phases formed in the waste. The heavy metals often constitute a minor part of these phases and the bindings include several forms such as adsorption, complexation, coprecipitation, precipitation, etc. It was also found that the associations between heavy metals and solid phases are dominated by several binding forms to one specific substrate rather than bindings to various solid phases. The mobility of iron and manganese seems to increase during the processes involved in waste degradation due to the solution of oxide/hydroxide phases, while the heavy metals appear to become less mobile due to their binding to organic compounds and sulphides. However, one exception in this case may be nickel. Another aspect of the transformation of heavy metals is the accumulation of pools of heavy metals which can become susceptible to environmental changes, such as oxidation or acidification. However, the risk of increased mobilization caused by lower pH values seem to be limited since municipal solid waste has a large buffer capacity. 66 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs 66 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs

  16. Human health risks from heavy metals via consumption of contaminated food


    Balabanova, Biljana; Gulaboski, Rubin


    Mining and processing metal ore can be a significant source of heavy metal contamination of the environment. The environmental concern in mining areas is primarily related to physical disturbance of the surrounding landscape, spilled mine tailings, emitted dust and acid mine drainage transported into rivers. Excessive accumulation of heavy metals in agricultural soils around mining areas, resulting in elevated heavy metal uptake by plant food, is of great concern because of potential health r...

  17. Heavy metal pollution in marine mollusks from the coastal waters of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies of heavy metals in four marine mollusks, Thais haemastoma, T. nodosa, Nerita senegalensis and P. perna, have been conducted. This involved the assessment of levels of heavy metal pollution from point sources in the Korle lagoon and the determination of the extent to which these metals are transported by ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    The dietary supplements of macronutrients and trace heavy metals from herbs and ... sustain temperature up to 230 oC and pressure up to 625 psi. .... manufacture of energy maintenance of health of reproductive system, immune system and.

  19. Effects of various heavy metal nanoparticles on Enterococcus hirae and Escherichia coli growth and proton-coupled membrane transport. (United States)

    Vardanyan, Zaruhi; Gevorkyan, Vladimir; Ananyan, Michail; Vardapetyan, Hrachik; Trchounian, Armen


    Due to bacterial resistance to antibiotics there is a need for new antimicrobial agents. In this respect nanoparticles can be used as they have expressed antibacterial activity simultaneously being more reactive compared to their bulk material. The action of zinc (II), titanium (IV), copper (II) and (I) oxides thin films with nanostructured surface and silver nanoscale particles on Enterococcus hirae and Escherichia coli growth and membrane activity was studied by using microbiological, potentiometric and spectrophotometric methods. It was revealed that sapphire base plates with deposited ZnO, TiO2, CuO and Cu2O nanoparticles had no effects neither on E. hirae nor E. coli growth both on agar plates and in liquid medium. Concentrated Ag nanoparticles colloid solution markedly affected bacterial growth which was expressed by changing growth properties. E. hirae was able to grow only at E. coli grew even at 1:10 dilution. At the same time Ag nanoparticles directly affected membranes, as the FOF1-ATPase activity and H(+)-coupled transport was changed either (E. coli were less susceptible to nanoparticles compared to E. hirae). Ag nanoparticles increased H(+) and K(+) transport even in the presence of N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD), inhibitor of FOF1. The stoichiometry of DCCD-inhibited ion fluxes was disturbed. These results point out to distinguishing antibacterial effects of Ag nanoparticles on different bacteria; the difference between effects can be explained by peculiarities in bacterial membrane structure and properties. H(+)-K(+)-exchange disturbance by Ag nanoparticles might be involved in antibacterial effects on E. hirae. The role of FOF1 in antibacterial action of Ag nanoparticles was shown using atpD mutant lacked β subunit in F1.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Key words: Water, contamination degree, geochemical factors, public health, heavy metal. INTRODUCTION. Earth is unique among other planets in the solar system since it has an environment where it has been able to thrive. Pure water rarely occurs in nature due to the capacity to dissolve numerous substances of heavy.

  1. Do heavy metals counter the potential health benefits of wine?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heavy metals may enter cells through various mechanisms. Divalent cations may utilise transporter ... methylation and this can lead to epigenetic phenomena with adverse effects on the cell. These effects were ... Despite the potential for harm through these mechanisms, evidence was recently reviewed in support of a ...

  2. Transport, fate and speciation of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd) in mine drainage: geochemical modeling and anodic stripping voltammetric analysis. (United States)

    Yun, S T; Jung, H B; So, C S


    The maximum concentrations (ppb) of heavy metals in the mine drainage (pH: down to 3.3) of Chonam-ri creek in the abandoned Kwangyang gold-silver mine, South Korea, are 22600 Zn, 2810 Cu, 182 Cd, and 109 Pb. A small, limestone-infused retention pond, about 440 meters downstream from the waste dump, plays an important role in the removal of heavy metals: the factors of reduction for Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb are 12, 24, 14, and 14, respectively. This is due to the pH increase (up to >5.4) accompanying adsorption onto and/or coprecipitation with Fe- and Al-hydroxides (goethite and gibbsite). From the waste dump to the pond, heavy metal concentrations also progressively decrease due to pH increase. Geochemical modeling (using the computer code WATEQ4F) predicts that free aqueous metal ions are dominant (mostly >70% for Cu and Zn, and >60% for Pb and Cd) in samples collected upstream from the pond, whereas complexing with sulfate, carbonate and hydroxyl ions becomes important in the samples collected downstream. The comparison between the concentrations of electrochemically labile species (determined by Anodic Stripping Voltammetry) and the result of computer modeling shows that Cd and Zn are present predominantly as labile inorganic species throughout the whole range of the creek. However, Cu and Pb in the samples collected downstream from the pond largely form electrochemically inert species (possibly, metal-organic complexes). The above results indicate that the retention pond is effective in reducing the toxicity of heavy metals, especially Cu and Pb.

  3. Heavy metal removal and recovery using microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, E.W. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Benemann, J.R. (Benemann (J.R.), Pinole, CA (United States))


    Microorganisms -- bacteria, fungi, and microalgae -- can accumulate relatively large amounts of toxic heavy metals and radionuclides from the environment. These organisms often exhibit specificity for particular metals. The metal content of microbial biomass can be a substantial fraction of total dry weight with concentration factors (metal in dry biomass to metal in solution) exceeding one million in some cases. Both living and inert (dead) microbial biomass can be used to reduce heavy metal concentrations in contaminated waters to very low levels -- parts per billion and even lower. In many respects (e.g. specificity, residual metal concentrations, accumulation factors, and economics) microbial bioremoval processes can be superior to conventional processes, such as ion exchange and caustic (lime or hydroxide) precipitation for heavy metals removal from waste and contaminated waters. Thus, bioremoval could be developed to contribute to the clean-up of wastes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and other DOE facilities. However, the potential advantages of bioremoval processes must still be developed into practical operating systems. A detailed review of the literature suggests that appropriate bioremoval processes could be developed for the SRS. There is great variability from one biomass source to another in bioremoval capabilities. Bioremoval is affected by pH, other ions, temperature, and many other factors. The biological (living vs. dead) and physical (immobilized vs. dispersed) characteristics of the biomass also greatly affect metal binding. Even subtle differences in the microbial biomass, such as the conditions under which it was cultivated, can have major effects on heavy metal binding.

  4. Heavy metal contamination of soil and water in the vicinity of an abandoned e-waste recycling site: implications for dissemination of heavy metals. (United States)

    Wu, Qihang; Leung, Jonathan Y S; Geng, Xinhua; Chen, Shejun; Huang, Xuexia; Li, Haiyan; Huang, Zhuying; Zhu, Libin; Chen, Jiahao; Lu, Yayin


    Illegal e-waste recycling activity has caused heavy metal pollution in many developing countries, including China. In recent years, the Chinese government has strengthened enforcement to impede such activity; however, the heavy metals remaining in the abandoned e-waste recycling site can still pose ecological risk. The present study aimed to investigate the concentrations of heavy metals in soil and water in the vicinity of an abandoned e-waste recycling site in Longtang, South China. Results showed that the surface soil of the former burning and acid-leaching sites was still heavily contaminated with Cd (>0.39 mg kg(-1)) and Cu (>1981 mg kg(-1)), which exceeded their respective guideline levels. The concentration of heavy metals generally decreased with depth in both burning site and paddy field, which is related to the elevated pH and reduced TOM along the depth gradient. The pond water was seriously acidified and contaminated with heavy metals, while the well water was slightly contaminated since heavy metals were mostly retained in the surface soil. The use of pond water for irrigation resulted in considerable heavy metal contamination in the paddy soil. Compared with previous studies, the reduced heavy metal concentrations in the surface soil imply that heavy metals were transported to the other areas, such as pond. Therefore, immediate remediation of the contaminated soil and water is necessary to prevent dissemination of heavy metals and potential ecological disaster. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Heavy metals in equine biological components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Verônica de Souza


    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the concentration of heavy metals in the blood (Pb, Ni and Cd, serum (Cu and Zn and hair (Pb, Ni, Cd, Cu and Zn of horses raised in non-industrial and industrial areas (with steel mill, and to verify the possibility to use these data as indicators of environmental pollution. The samples were collected during summer and winter, aiming to verify animal contamination related to environment and season of the year. Copper and Zn contents determined in the serum and Cd and Ni contents obtained in the blood indicated no contamination effects of industries. For some animals, contents of Pb in the blood were higher than those considered acceptable for the species, but without relationship with industrialization and without clinical signs of Pb intoxication. The heavy metals evaluated on the hair of horses in this study were not increased with the presence of industries, but Cu and Cd contents were influenced by the season. The contents of some heavy metals in biological components analyzed were influenced by season sampling; however, serum, blood and hair may not be suitable to indicate differences in environmental contamination between the two contrasting areas. Most part of the heavy metal contents was lower or close to the reference values for horses. Serum, blood and hair components from horses may not be effective as indicators of environmental pollution with heavy metals. Industrialization and seasons have no effects on most part of heavy metals contents from those components.

  6. Functional analysis of the heavy metal binding domains of the Zn/Cd-transporting ATPase, HMA2, in Arabidopsis thaliana. (United States)

    Wong, Chong Kum Edwin; Jarvis, Renée S; Sherson, Sarah M; Cobbett, Christopher S


    The Zn/Cd-transporting ATPase, HMA2, has N- and C-terminal domains that can bind Zn ions with high affinity. Mutant derivatives were generated to determine the significance of these domains to HMA2 function in planta. Mutant derivatives, with and without a C-terminal GFP tag, were expressed from the HMA2 promoter in transgenic hma2,hma4, Zn-deficient, plants to test for functionality. A deletion mutant lacking the C-terminal 244 amino acids rescued most of the hma2,hma4 Zn-deficiency phenotypes with the exception of embryo or seed development. Root-to-shoot Cd translocation was fully rescued. The GFP-tagged derivative was partially mis-localized in the root pericycle cells in which it was expressed. Deletion derivatives lacking the C-terminal 121 and 21 amino acids rescued all phenotypes and localized normally. N-terminal domain mutants localized normally but failed to complement the hma2,hma4 phenotypes. These observations suggest that the N-terminal domain of HMA2 is essential for function in planta while the C-terminal domain, although not essential for function, may contain a signal important for the subcellular localization of the protein.

  7. Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Topsoil around Beijing Metropolis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranhao Sun

    Full Text Available The topsoil around Beijing metropolis, China, is experiencing impacts of rapid urbanization, intensive farming, and extensive industrial emissions. We analyzed the concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cr from 87 topsoil samples in the pre-rainy season and 115 samples in the post-rainy season. These samples were attributed to nine land use types: forest, grass, shrub, orchard, wheat, cotton, spring maize, summer maize, and mixed farmland. The pollution index (PI of heavy metals was calculated from the measured and background concentrations. The ecological risk index (RI was assessed based on the PI values and toxic-response parameters. The results showed that the mean PI values of Pb, Cr, and Cd were > 1 while those of Cu, Ni, and Zn were < 1. All the samples had low ecological risk for Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Cr while only 15.35% of samples had low ecological risk for Cd. Atmospheric transport rather than land use factors best explained the seasonal variations in heavy metal concentrations and the impact of atmospheric transport on heavy metal concentrations varied according to the heavy metal types. The concentrations of Cu, Cd, and Cr decreased from the pre- to post-rainy season, while those of Ni, Pb, and Zn increased during this period. Future research should be focused on the underlying atmospheric processes that lead to these spatial and seasonal variations in heavy metals. The policymaking on environmental management should pay close attention to potential ecological risks of Cd as well as identifying the transport pathways of different heavy metals.

  8. Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Topsoil around Beijing Metropolis (United States)

    Sun, Ranhao; Chen, Liding


    The topsoil around Beijing metropolis, China, is experiencing impacts of rapid urbanization, intensive farming, and extensive industrial emissions. We analyzed the concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cr from 87 topsoil samples in the pre-rainy season and 115 samples in the post-rainy season. These samples were attributed to nine land use types: forest, grass, shrub, orchard, wheat, cotton, spring maize, summer maize, and mixed farmland. The pollution index (PI) of heavy metals was calculated from the measured and background concentrations. The ecological risk index (RI) was assessed based on the PI values and toxic-response parameters. The results showed that the mean PI values of Pb, Cr, and Cd were > 1 while those of Cu, Ni, and Zn were < 1. All the samples had low ecological risk for Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Cr while only 15.35% of samples had low ecological risk for Cd. Atmospheric transport rather than land use factors best explained the seasonal variations in heavy metal concentrations and the impact of atmospheric transport on heavy metal concentrations varied according to the heavy metal types. The concentrations of Cu, Cd, and Cr decreased from the pre- to post-rainy season, while those of Ni, Pb, and Zn increased during this period. Future research should be focused on the underlying atmospheric processes that lead to these spatial and seasonal variations in heavy metals. The policymaking on environmental management should pay close attention to potential ecological risks of Cd as well as identifying the transport pathways of different heavy metals. PMID:27159454

  9. Studies on the occurrence and distribution of heavy metals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    induced pollution and high levels of heavy metals can often be attributed to anthropogenic influences, rather ... of heavy metal ions on bacteria and determined the heavy metals by bioassay. Collins and Stotzky (1992) ... the microbe, which alter the net charge of the cell. Once heavy metals are discharged into estuarine and ...

  10. Mobility of Source Zone Heavy Metals and Radionuclides: The Mixed Roles of Fermentative Activity on Fate and Transport of U and Cr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, William; Peyton, Brent; Gerlach, Robin; Lee, Brady


    Predicting the potential migration of metals and radionuclides from waste pits and trenches will require understanding the effects of carbon and electron flow through these environments. Important aspects of this flow include the physiological activity of cellulolytic and non-cellulolytic fermentative microbial populations, as well as the subsequent activity of metal and radionuclide reducing bacteria. The activity of subsurface fermentative microbial populations is significantly understudied even though these organisms can affect contaminant migration by at least two mechanisms. In the first mechanism, products of the fermentation process can act as chelators for metals and radionuclides increasing their transport through underlying geological media. The second mechanism is the reduction and immobilization of metals and radionuclides since some fermentative bacteria have been shown to directly reduce metals and radionuclides, while their fermentation products can provide carbon and energy for respiratory metal reducing bacteria that can also reduce oxidized metals and radionuclides.

  11. Heavy metals contamination of Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 27, 2010 ... and the lowest concentration was in the muscle. These findings agree with the result of Manahan (1992) that lower concentrations of heavy metals occurred in gills and bones than in the intestines and muscles. The metal, iron was found to have the highest concen- tration in the tissues of C. nigrodigitatus, ...

  12. Dustfall Heavy Metal Pollution During Winter in North China. (United States)

    Xiong, Qiu-lin; Zhao, Wen-ji; Guo, Xiao-yu; Shu, Tong-tong; Chen, Fan-tao; Zheng, Xiao-xia; Gong, Zhao-ning


    In order to study heavy metal pollution in dustfall during Winter in North China, forty-four dustfall samples were collected in North China Region from November 2013 to March 2014. Then forty trace elements content were measured for each sample by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Finally, the contamination characteristics of the main heavy metals were studied through a multi-method analysis, including variability analysis, Pearson correlation analysis and principal component analysis. Results showed that the relative contents of cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), bismuth (Bi), lead (Pb) exceeded the standards stipulated in Chinese soil elements background values by amazing 4.9 times. In this study, conclusions were drawn that dustfall heavy metal pollution in the region was mainly caused by transport pollution, metallurgy industrial pollution, coal pollution and steel industrial pollution.

  13. Silicon occurrence, uptake, transport and mechanisms of heavy metals, minerals and salinity enhanced tolerance in plants with future prospects: A review. (United States)

    Imtiaz, Muhammad; Rizwan, Muhammad Shahid; Mushtaq, Muhammad Adnan; Ashraf, Muhammad; Shahzad, Sher Muhammad; Yousaf, Balal; Saeed, Dawood Anser; Rizwan, Muhammad; Nawaz, Muhammad Azher; Mehmood, Sajid; Tu, Shuxin


    Recently, heavy metals pollution due to industrialization and urbanization, use of untreated wastewater and unreasonable use of pesticides and fertilizers is increasing rapidly, resulting in major threat to the environment and contaminate soils. Silicon (Si) is the second most abundant element in the earth crust after oxygen. Although it's higher accumulation in plants, yet Si has not been listed as essential nutrient however, considered as beneficial element for growth of plants particularly in stressed environment. Research to date has demonstrated that silicon helps the plants to alleviate the various biotic and abiotic stresses. This review article presents a comprehensive update about Si and heavy metals, minerals and salinity stresses, and contained the progress about Si so far done worldwide in the light of previous studies to evaluate the ecological importance of Si. Moreover, this review will also be helpful to understand the Si uptake ability and its benefits on plants grown under stressed environment. Further research needs for Si-mediated mitigation of heavy metals and mineral nutrients stresses are also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Removal of heavy metals from biowaste : modelling of heavy metal behaviour and development of removal technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, A.H.M.


    In the Netherlands, recycling of solid organic waste streams as compost only becomes possible if the compost complies with the heavy metals standards of the BOOM decree. This dissertation focuses on the removal of heavy metals from biowaste, i.e. the source separated organic fraction of

  15. Heavy Metal Poisoning and Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman M. Alissa


    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is an increasing world health problem. Traditional risk factors fail to account for all deaths from CVD. It is mainly the environmental, dietary and lifestyle behavioral factors that are the control keys in the progress of this disease. The potential association between chronic heavy metal exposure, like arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury, and CVD has been less well defined. The mechanism through which heavy metals act to increase cardiovascular risk factors may act still remains unknown, although impaired antioxidants metabolism and oxidative stress may play a role. However, the exact mechanism of CVD induced by heavy metals deserves further investigation either through animal experiments or through molecular and cellular studies. Furthermore, large-scale prospective studies with follow up on general populations using appropriate biomarkers and cardiovascular endpoints might be recommended to identify the factors that predispose to heavy metals toxicity in CVD. In this review, we will give a brief summary of heavy metals homeostasis, followed by a description of the available evidence for their link with CVD and the proposed mechanisms of action by which their toxic effects might be explained. Finally, suspected interactions between genetic, nutritional and environmental factors are discussed.

  16. Recovering heavy rare earth metals from magnet scrap (United States)

    Ott, Ryan T.; McCallum, Ralph W.; Jones, Lawrence L.


    A method of treating rare earth metal-bearing permanent magnet scrap, waste or other material in a manner to recover the heavy rare earth metal content separately from the light rare earth metal content. The heavy rare earth metal content can be recovered either as a heavy rare earth metal-enriched iron based alloy or as a heavy rare earth metal based alloy.

  17. Structural biology of the sequestration and transport of heavy metal toxins: NMR structure determination of roteins containing the -Cys-X-Y-Cys-metal binding motifs. 1998 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opella, S.J.


    'The overall goal of the research is to apply the methods of structural biology, which have been previously used primarily in biomedical applications, to bioremediation. The authors are doing this by using NMR spectroscopy to determine the structures of proteins involved in the bacterial mercury detoxification system. The research is based on the premise that the proteins encoded in the genes of the bacterial detoxification system are an untapped source of reagents and, more fundamentally, chemical strategies that can be used to remove heavy metal toxins from the environment. The initial goals are to determine the structures of the proteins of the bacterial mercury detoxification systems responsible for the sequestration and transport of the Hg(II) ions in to the cell where reduction to Hg(O) occurs. These proteins are meP, which is water soluble and can be investigated with multidimensional solution NMR methods, and merT, the transport protein in the membrane that requires solid-state NMR methods. As of June 1998, this report summarizes work after about one and half years of the three-year award. The authors have made significant accomplishments in three aspects of the NMR studies of the proteins of the bacterial mercury detoxification system.'

  18. Heavy metal hazards of Nigerian herbal remedies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obi, E. [Toxicology Unit, Department of Pharmacology, College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi (Nigeria); Akunyili, Dora N. [National Agency of Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC), Lagos (Nigeria); Ekpo, B. [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medical Sciences, Abia State University, Uturu (Nigeria); Orisakwe, Orish E. [Toxicology Unit, Department of Pharmacology, College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi (Nigeria)]. E-mail:


    The uses of herbal products are not regulated in Nigeria and in many low-income countries and are freely available to everyone. The safety of these herbal medicines is poorly understood. This study characterizes the content of cadmium, copper, iron, nickel, selenium, zinc, lead and mercury in a random sample of Nigerian traditional products. Ready-to-use herbal products were purchased from the open market and digested using HNO{sub 3}.The heavy metal content of the digested filtrate was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry Uni-cam Model 929. The result showed that 100% of the samples contained elevated amounts of heavy metals. These data alert us to the possibility of heavy metal toxicity from herbal products in Nigeria. The public health hazards from ingestion of herbal medicines should be identified and disclosed by in-depth risk assessment studies.

  19. Heavy Metal Pollution Around International Hatay Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Özkan


    Full Text Available In this study, it was aimed to determine the heavy metal pollution in the agricultural lands around Hatay airport and travel possible alteration in the amount of heavy metal on the land in accordance with the distance to the airport. For this purpose, the airport was chosen as the center and 27 soil samples were obtained around the airport at 2 km intervals in depth ranging from 0 to 30 cm. Lead (Pb, cadmium (Cd, nickel (Ni, chrome (Cr, cobalt (Co, aluminium (Al, iron (Fe, copper (Cu, manganese (Mn and zinc (Zn elements in soil samples were analysed using MP-AES instrument by DTPA method. (3 repetition for each sample. As a result of the analysis, heavy metal concentrations were found as Pb 0-1.45 mg/kg, Cd 0-0.220 mg/kg, Ni 0-3.95 mg/kg, Cr 0-0.780 mg/kg, Co 0-0.270 mg/kg, Al 0-0.700 mg/kg, Fe 1.47- 16.2 mg/kg, Cu 0.400-5.35 mg/kg, Mn 0-19 mg/kg and Zn 0.050-3.14 mg/kg. When comparing the obtained data through this study with allowable concentrations of heavy metals in soil of Environment and Forest Directorates Guidance, it was determined that the heavy metal concentration of the soil does not pose any problems in terms of heavy metal pollution. Besides, iron concentration was decreased when the distance to the airport is increased.

  20. Development of protein based bioremediation and drugs for heavy metal toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opella, Stanley J.


    Structural studies were performed on several proteins of the bacterial detoxification system. These proteins are responsible for binding (MerP) and transport of heavy metals, including mercury, across membranes. The structural information obtained from NMR experiments provides insight into the selectivity and sequestration processes towards heavy metal toxins.

  1. Heavy metals and Pb isotopic composition of aerosols in urban and suburban areas of Hong Kong and Guangzhou, South China—Evidence of the long-range transport of air contaminants (United States)

    Lee, Celine S. L.; Li, Xiang-Dong; Zhang, Gan; Li, Jun; Ding, Ai-Jun; Wang, Tao

    Rapid urbanization and industrialization in South China has placed great strain on the environment and on human health. In the present study, the total suspended particulate matter (TSP) in the urban and suburban areas of Hong Kong and Guangzhou, the two largest urban centres in South China, was sampled from December 2003 to January 2005. The samples were analysed for the concentrations of major elements (Al, Fe, Mg and Mn) and trace metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, V and Zn), and for Pb isotopic composition. Elevated concentrations of metals, especially Cd, Pb, V and Zn, were observed in the urban and suburban areas of Guangzhou, showing significant atmospheric trace element pollution. Distinct seasonal patterns were observed in the heavy metal concentrations of aerosols in Hong Kong, with higher metal concentrations during the winter monsoon period, and lower concentrations during summertime. The seasonal variations in the metal concentrations of the aerosols in Guangzhou were less distinct, suggesting the dominance of local sources of pollution around the city. The Pb isotopic composition in the aerosols of Hong Kong had higher 206Pb/ 207Pb and 208Pb/ 207Pb ratios in winter, showing the influence of Pb from the northern inland areas of China and the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, and lower 206Pb/ 207Pb and 208Pb/ 207Pb ratios in summer, indicating the influence of Pb from the South Asian region and from marine sources. The back trajectory analysis showed that the enrichment of heavy metals in Hong Kong and Guangzhou was closely associated with the air mass from the north and northeast that originated from northern China, reflecting the long-range transport of heavy metal contaminants from the northern inland areas of China to the South China coast.

  2. Transfer of heavy metals through terrestrial food webs: a review. (United States)

    Gall, Jillian E; Boyd, Robert S; Rajakaruna, Nishanta


    Heavy metals are released into the environment by both anthropogenic and natural sources. Highly reactive and often toxic at low concentrations, they may enter soils and groundwater, bioaccumulate in food webs, and adversely affect biota. Heavy metals also may remain in the environment for years, posing long-term risks to life well after point sources of heavy metal pollution have been removed. In this review, we compile studies of the community-level effects of heavy metal pollution, including heavy metal transfer from soils to plants, microbes, invertebrates, and to both small and large mammals (including humans). Many factors contribute to heavy metal accumulation in animals including behavior, physiology, and diet. Biotic effects of heavy metals are often quite different for essential and non-essential heavy metals, and vary depending on the specific metal involved. They also differ for adapted organisms, including metallophyte plants and heavy metal-tolerant insects, which occur in naturally high-metal habitats (such as serpentine soils) and have adaptations that allow them to tolerate exposure to relatively high concentrations of some heavy metals. Some metallophyte plants are hyperaccumulators of certain heavy metals and new technologies using them to clean metal-contaminated soil (phytoextraction) may offer economically attractive solutions to some metal pollution challenges. These new technologies provide incentive to catalog and protect the unique biodiversity of habitats that have naturally high levels of heavy metals.

  3. Esterase resistant to inactivation by heavy metals

    KAUST Repository

    El, Dorry Hamza


    EstATII is an esterase that a halotolerant, thermophilic and resistant to a spectrum of heavy metals including toxic concentration of metals. It was isolated from the lowest convective layer of the Atlantis II Red Sea brine pool. The Atlantis II brine pool is an extreme environment that possesses multiple harsh conditions such as; high temperature, salinity, pH and high concentration of metals, including toxic heavy metals. A fosmid metagenomic library using DNA isolated from the lowest convective layer this pool was used to identify EstATII. Polynucleotides encoding EstATII and similar esterases are disclosed and can be used to make EstATII. EstATII or compositions or apparatuses that contain it may be used in various processes employing lipases/esterases especially when these processes are performed under harsh conditions that inactivate other kinds of lipases or esterases.

  4. Heavy metal mining using microbes. (United States)

    Rawlings, Douglas E


    The use of acidiphilic, chemolithotrophic iron- and sulfur-oxidizing microbes in processes to recover metals from certain types of copper, uranium, and gold-bearing minerals or mineral concentrates is now well established. During these processes insoluble metal sulfides are oxidized to soluble metal sulfates. Mineral decomposition is believed to be mostly due to chemical attack by ferric iron, with the main role of the microorganisms being to reoxidize the resultant ferrous iron back to ferric iron. Currently operating industrial biomining processes have used bacteria that grow optimally from ambient to 50 degrees C, but thermophilic microbes have been isolated that have the potential to enable mineral biooxidation to be carried out at temperatures of 80 degrees C or higher. The development of higher-temperature processes will extend the variety of minerals that can be commercially processed.

  5. [Investigation and analysis of heavy metal pollution related to soil-Panax notoginseng system]. (United States)

    Chen, Lu; Mi, Yan-Hua; Lin, Xin; Liu, Da-Hui; Zeng, Min; Chen, Xiao-Yan


    In this study, five heavy metals contamination of soil and different parts of Panax notoginseng in the plantation area was investigated. Analysis of heavy metals correlation between the planting soil and P. notoginseng; and the absorption and accumulation characteristics and translocation of soil heavy metals by P. notoginseng plants was revealed. Through field investigation and laboratory analytical methods, analysis of China's 30 different soil P. notoginseng origin and content of heavy metals in five different parts of the P. notoginseng plant content of heavy metals. The results revealed that the soil heavy metals should not be neglected in the plantation area Referring to the national soil quality standards (GB15608-1995), the excessive degree of soil heavy metals pollution showed Hg > As > Cd > Cr in the plantation area, and Pb content of soil was in the scope of the standard. Refer to 'Green Industry Standards for Import and Export of Medical Plants and Preparations', the excessive degree of heavy metals content of P. notoginseng plants showed As > Pb > Cr > Cd, and Hg content of plants was in the scope of the standard. Concentrations of five heavy metals of underground parts of P. notoginseng plants are higher than aboveground, and heavy metals elements are more concentrated in the root, followed by the rhizome of P. notoginseng plants. Heavy metal accumulation characteristics of the different parts of the P. notoginseng of the overall performance is the root > the rhizome > the root tuber > leaves > stems. From the point of view BCF value analysis of various parts of the P. notoginseng plants to absorb heavy metals in soil, BCF values of all samples were less than 1, description P. notoginseng not belong Hyperaccumulator. From the view of transportation and related analysis of the soil-P. notoginseng systems, the rhizome of P. notoginseng and the content of As and Cr in soil was significantly correlated, the root of P. notoginseng and the content of Cd in

  6. Pyrolized biochar for heavy metal adsorption (United States)

    Removal of copper and lead metal ions from water using pyrolized plant materials. Method can be used to develop a low cost point-of-use device for cleaning contaminated water. This dataset is associated with the following publication:DeMessie, B., E. Sahle-Demessie , and G. Sorial. Cleaning Water Contaminated With Heavy Metal Ions Using Pyrolyzed Banana Peel Adsorbents. Separation Science and Technology. Marcel Dekker Incorporated, New York, NY, USA, 50(16): 2448-2457, (2015).

  7. Heavy metal detoxification in eukaryotic microalgae. (United States)

    Perales-Vela, Hugo Virgilio; Peña-Castro, Julián Mario; Cañizares-Villanueva, Rosa Olivia


    Microalgae are aquatic organisms possessing molecular mechanisms that allow them to discriminate non-essential heavy metals from those essential ones for their growth. The different detoxification processes executed by algae are reviewed with special emphasis on those involving the peptides metallothioneins, mainly the post transcriptionally synthesized class III metallothioneins or phytochelatins. Also, the features that make microalgae suitable organisms technologies specially to treat water that is heavily polluted with metals is discussed.

  8. Microwave enhanced stabilization of heavy metal sludge. (United States)

    Hsieh, Ching-Hong; Lo, Shang-Lien; Chiueh, Pei-Te; Kuan, Wen-Hui; Chen, Ching-Lung


    A microwave process can be utilized to stabilize the copper ions in heavy metal sludge. The effects of microwave processing on stabilization of heavy metal sludge were studied as a function of additive, power, process time, reaction atmosphere, cooling gas, organic substance, and temperature. Copper leach resistance increased with addition of aluminum metal powder, with increased microwave power, increased processing time, and using a gaseous environment of nitrogen for processing and air for cooling [N2/air]. The organic in the sludge affected stabilization, whether or not the organic smoldered. During heating in conventional ovens, exothermic oxidation of the organic resulted in sludge temperatures of about 500 degrees C for oven control temperatures of 200-500 degrees C. After microwave heating dried the sludge, the sludge temperature rose to 500 degrees C. The reaction between copper ions and metal aluminum in the dried sludge should be regarded as a solid phase reaction. Adding aluminum metal powder and reaction temperature were the key parameters in stabilizing copper in the heavy metal sludge, whether heated by microwave radiation or conventional oven. The mass balance indicates insignificant volatization of the copper during heating.

  9. Electrokinetic removal of heavy metals from soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puvvadi Venkata Sivapullaiah


    Full Text Available Removal of heavy metal ions from soils by electrokinetic treatment has several advantages. The extent of removal, however, is both soil specific and ion specific. The conditions to be maintained have to be established based on laboratory studies. With a view to maximize the removal of metal ions the trends of removal of heavy metal ions such as iron, nickel and cadmium form a natural Indian kaolinitic red earth during different conditions maintained in the electrokinetic extraction process are studied. A laboratory electrokinetic extraction apparatus was assembled for this purpose. Attempts are also made to elucidate the mechanism of removal of the metal ions from soil. The composition of the flushing fluid, voltage and duration of extraction are varied. While dilute acetic acid has been used to neutralize the alkalinity that develops at the cathode, EDTA solution has been used to desorb heavy metals from clay surface. Generally the extent of removal was proportional to the osmotic flow. Nickel and Cadmium are more effectively removed than iron. The percentage removal of Ni is generally proportional to the osmotic flow but shows sensitivity to the pH of the system. There is an optimum voltage for removal of metal ions from soil. The removal of iron was negligible under different conditions studied.

  10. Hydroponics reducing effluent's heavy metals discharge. (United States)

    Rababah, Abdellah; Al-Shuha, Ahmad


    This paper investigates the capacity of Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) to control effluent's heavy metals discharge. A commercial hydroponic system was adapted to irrigate lettuces with primary treated wastewater for studying the potential heavy metals removal. A second commercial hydroponic system was used to irrigate the same type of lettuces with nutrient solution and this system was used as a control. Results showed that lettuces grew well when irrigated with primary treated effluent in the commercial hydroponic system. The NFT-plant system heavy metals removal efficiency varied amongst the different elements, The system's removal efficiency for Cr was more than 92%, Ni more than 85%, in addition to more than 60% reduction of B, Pb, and Zn. Nonetheless, the NFT-plants system removal efficiencies for As, Cd and Cu were lower than 30%. Results show that lettuces accumulated heavy metals in leaves at concentrations higher than the maximum acceptable European and Australian levels. Therefore, non-edible plants such as flowers or pyrethrum are recommended as value added crops for the proposed NFT.

  11. Heavy Metal Pollution Assessment by Partial Geochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mn and Fe oxides are powerful absorbents of heavy metal cations in soils and stream sediments therefore considered in this environmental geochemical investigation. Steam sediment samples were collected from Au-Ag and Pb-Zn-Cu mineralized areas of the Rodalquilar old gold mine, located in the southeastern part of ...

  12. Heavy metals phytoremediation using Typha domingensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytoremediation as a tool employs aquatic macrophytes as a principal and inexpensive strategy for controlling environmental pollution. It is achieved through various mechanisms such as phytoextraction, phytostabilization, and phytovolatilization. In this study, heavy metal content of a contaminated drainage that empties ...

  13. Heavy Metals and Related Trace Elements. (United States)

    Leland, Harry V.; And Others


    Presents a literature review of heavy metals and related trace elements in the environment, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) trace treatment in natural water and in sediments; and (2) bioaccumulation and toxicity of trace elements. A list of 466 references is presented. (HM)

  14. Assessment of physicochemical qualities, heavy metal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 23, 2012 ... Key words: Aquatic biota, contamination, pollution, public health, microbial indicators, toxic effects. INTRODUCTION. Water is ... commonly occur in water and wastewater can be divided into four separate groups. ... heavy/toxic metal contamination of the Shanomi creek of the Warri river, hence the need for ...

  15. Electrodialytic decontamination of heavy metal polluted soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Henrik K.; Karlsmose, Bodil


    Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted soil is a newly developed method, which combines the electrokinetic mevement of ions in soil with the principle of electrodialytis. The method has been proven to work in laboratory scale and at present two types of pilot plant tests are made....

  16. Evaluation of Physicochemical Properties and Heavy Metals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physicochemical properties of municipal dumpsite compost in Kano metropolis and concentration of heavy metals were investigated. Analysis was carried out by atomic absorption spectrometry (Buck Scientific VPG 210). The results shows that the compost pH (6.63-8.19), electric conductivity of compost (638-933μs/cm), ...

  17. 202 197 Heavy Metals and Microbial Contamin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Dec 2, 2008 ... ABSTRACT: The heavy metal and microbial contaminants levels were evaluated in a commercial polyherbal .... (Cowan and Steel) was carried out to identify ... Statistical Analysis. Analysis of data obtained from this study was done using Excel Microsoft software. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used for.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. Phytoremediation as a tool employs aquatic macrophytes as a principal and inexpensive strategy for controlling environmental pollution. It is achieved through various mechanisms such as phytoextraction, phytostabilization, and phytovolatilization. In this study, heavy metal content of a contaminated drainage ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT. The macronutrients and heavy metals content of different parts of a locally found herb named ... inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. (AAS). .... involved in the formation of vitamin B12 or cobalamin and as such essential for erythrocyte.

  20. Environmental remediation from heavy metal pollution using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Graft copolymers of polyacrlamide-grafted gum arabic were synthesized, blended with Moringa oleifera and characterized by IR spectroscopy. The potentials of the products to remove heavy metals from aqueous solutions were studied at room temperature (30oC) and this was experimented on iron (III) ions (Fe3+).


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    MOLLUSCS AND CRUSTACEANS FROM TWO SELECTED CITIES IN. NIGERIA. Ogundiran ... are good sources of animal protein if they are found in contamination free environment. Key words: Heavy metals, ..... commonly used traditional preservation methods include sun-drying and hot-smoking. [28]. The sun-drying ...

  2. Comparative anatomy, nutraceutical potentials and heavy metal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the anatomical features, nutraceutical potentials and heavy metal compositions in two varieties of Lasianthera africana (P. Beauv) which is a member of the family Icacinaceae predominantly found mostly in southern Nigeria. The anatomical studies were carried out with free hand sectioning using a ...

  3. Metabolic Demands of Heavy Metal Drumming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Romero


    Full Text Available Background: The drum set involves dynamic movement of all four limbs. Motor control studies have been done on drum set playing, yet not much is known about the physiological responses to this activity. Even less is known about heavy metal drumming. Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine metabolic responses and demands of heavy metal drumming. Methods: Five semi-professional male drummers (mean ± SD age = 27.4 ± 2.6 y, height = 177.2 ± 3.8 cm, body mass = 85.1 ± 17.8 kg performed four prescribed and four self-selected heavy metal songs. Oxygen consumption (VO2, minute ventilation (VE and respiratory exchange ratio (RER were measured using a metabolic cart.  Heart rate (HR was measured using a heart rate monitor. VO2max was determined using a graded cycle ergometer test. Results: The results indicated a metabolic cost of 6.3 ± 1.4 METs and heart rate of 145.1 ± 15.7 beats·min-1 (75.4 ± 8.3% of age-predicted HRmax. VO2 peak values reached approximately 90% of the drummer’s VO2max when performing at the fastest speeds. According to these results, heavy metal drumming may be considered vigorous intensity activity (≥ 6.0 METs. The relative VO2max of 40.2 ± 9.5 mL·kg·min-1 leads to an aerobic fitness classification of “average” for adult males. Conclusions: The metabolic demands required during heavy metal drumming meet the American College of Sports Medicine guidelines for the development of health related fitness.  Keywords: Drum set, Exercise physiology, VO2, Music

  4. Heavy Metal Uptake by Novel Miscanthus Seed-Based Hybrids Cultivated in Heavy Metal Contaminated Soil (United States)

    Krzyżak, Jacek; Pogrzeba, Marta; Rusinowski, Szymon; Clifton-Brown, John; McCalmont, Jon Paul; Kiesel, Andreas; Mangold, Anja; Mos, Michal


    When heavy metal contaminated soils are excluded from food production, biomass crops offer an alternative commercial opportunity. Perennial crops have potential for phytoremediation. Whilst the conditions at heavy metal contaminated sites are challenging, successful phytoremediation would bring significant economic and social benefits. Seed-based Miscanthus hybrids were tested alongside the commercial clone Miscanthus × giganteus on arable land, contaminated with Pb, Cd and Zn near Katowice. Before the randomized experimental plots were established (25m2 plots with plant density 2/m2) `time-zero' soil samples were taken to determine initial levels of total (aqua regia) and bioavailable (CaCl2 extraction) concentration of Pb, Cd and Zn. After the growing season plant material was sampled during autumn (October, green harvest) and winter (March, brown harvest) to determine differences in heavy metal uptake. Results after the first growing season are presented, including the plot establishment success, biomass yield and heavy metal uptake.

  5. Heavy Metal Induced Antibiotic Resistance in Bacterium LSJC7

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Songcan; Li, Xiaomin; Sun, Guoxin; Zhang, Yingjiao; Su, Jianqiang; Ye, Jun


    Co-contamination of antibiotics and heavy metals prevails in the environment, and may play an important role in disseminating bacterial antibiotic resistance, but the selective effects of heavy metals...

  6. Adsorption of heavy metal by natural clayey soil


    Budianta, Wawan


    This study focused on the capability of Clayey soil to retain and release heavy metals. Batch experiment for sample of clayey soil was conducted with several concentrated solutions of heavy metals. The results show that the clayey soil sample may have a relatively high heavy metal retention capacity. This is particularly positive in the context of municipal waste disposal (landfills) in Indonesia Keywords: Adsorption, heavy metal, clayey soil, batch experiment

  7. Perilous Effects of Heavy Metals Contamination on Human Health


    Naseem Zahra; Imran Kalim; Minahil Mahmood; Nageen Naeem


    Heavy metals form a versatile group of high density elements that vary considerably in their biological roles and chemical properties. Although many heavy metals are essential trace elements yet they have long been recognized as environmental pollutants due their toxic effects. Increased industrialization, urbanization anthropogenic activities like mining, smelting and other agricultural activities have resulted in accumulation of heavy metals in the environment. Heavy metals such as nickel, ...

  8. Spatial distribution and transport of heavy metals in soil, ponded-surface water and grass in a pb-contaminated watershed as related to land-use practices. (United States)

    Panichayapichet, P; Nitisoravut, S; Simachaya, W


    The aim of this study was to investigate the spatial distribution of heavy metal in soil and evaluate the dissolution of metal from soil to ponded-surface water, leaching through soil profiles and metal uptake in grass as related to different land-use practices. The data provided a scientific basis for best-management practices for land use in Khli Ti watershed. The watershed has a Pb-contamination problem from the previous operation of a Pb-ore concentrator and abandoned Zn-Pb mine. Sampling sites were selected from a land-use map, with land-use types falling into the following four categories: forest, agricultural land, residential area and road. Soil, ponded-surface water, grass samples and soil profiles were collected. The study related soil characteristics from different land-use practices and locations with observed metal concentrations in ponded-surface water and soil. High enrichment factors of Pb and As in soil were found. Partitioning coefficient, K(d) values were in the order: Cr > Pb > Ni > Cu > Cd > Zn. Soil disturbance from land-use activities including tillage and traffic increased leaching of trace metal from soils. Pb in soil was significantly taken up by grass even though the Transfer Factor, TF values were rather low. Agricultural activities in the watershed must be limited. Moreover, land encroachments in the upper and middle part of the watershed which have high potential of Pb must be strictly controlled in order to reduce the Pb contamination from non-point sources.

  9. Heavy Metal Concentrations in Maltese Potable Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Bugeja


    Full Text Available This study evaluates the levels of aluminum (Al, cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, copper (Cu, iron (Fe, lead (Pb, nickel (Ni and zinc (Zn in tap water samples of forty localities from around the Maltese Islands together with their corresponding service supply reservoirs. The heavy metal concentrations obtained indicated that concentrations of the elements were generally below the maximum allowed concentration established by the Maltese legislation. In terms of the Maltese and EU water quality regulations, 17.5% of the localities sampled yielded water that failed the acceptance criteria for a single metal in drinking water. Higher concentrations of some metals were observed in samples obtained at the end of the distribution network, when compared to the concentrations at the source. The observed changes in metal concentrations between the localities’ samples and the corresponding supply reservoirs were significant. The higher metal concentrations obtained in the samples from the localities can be attributed to leaching in the distribution network.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Bilyk


    Full Text Available Abstract. The main task was to investigate the pollution by heavy metals of biota of Vyrlytsa Lake. Thecontents of movable forms of heavy metals in aquatic plants, fish and snails was determined by atomicabsorbtion method and were made the conclusions about general state of the water object.Keywords: heavy metals, accumulation, biota, pollution, atomic absorption spectroscopy.

  11. Classification of Plants According to Their Heavy Metal Content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plants like other living organisms respond differently under different environmental conditions. An elevated level of heavy metals is one of the stresses which results into three classes of plants depending on their heavy metal content. The classes of plant species according to their accumulated heavy metals around North ...

  12. classification of plants according to their heavy metal content around

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. Plants like other living organisms respond differently under different environmental conditions. An elevated level of heavy metals is one of the stresses which results into three classes of plants depending on their heavy metal content. The classes of plant species according to their accumulated heavy metals ...

  13. Heavy metals content in the stem bark of Detarium microcarpum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The heavy metal analysis was carried out on the stem bark of D. microcarpum using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The heavy metals screened for include: lead, chromium, manganese, zinc and iron. The levels of manganese, zinc and iron were 13.91, 4.89 and 21.89 mg/L respectively. These heavy metals ...

  14. Absorption and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in giant African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at investigating the ability and effects (if any) of heavy metal accumulation in Giant African Land Snails (Archachatina marginata). 120 A. marginata growers were randomly allotted to 2 feed treatments (T1: Heavy metal contaminated pawpaw fruits and leaves; and T2: Heavy metal free pawpaw fruits and ...

  15. Studies of action of heavy metals on caffeine degradation by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The isolate was encapsulated in gellan gum and its ability to degrade caffeine in the presence of heavy metals was determined. Out of the nine heavy metals tested, Copper (Cu), Mercury (Hg), and Silver (Ag) had significant effects on caffeine degradation at 1mg/L. Therefore, the concentration of these heavy metals was ...

  16. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Can Benefit Heavy Metal Tolerance and Phytoremediation (United States)

    Forgy, David


    Sites contaminated by heavy metals, such as industrial waste sites, create unwelcoming environments for plant growth. Heavy metals can have a wide range of toxic effects such as replacing essential elements or disrupting enzyme function. While some heavy metals are essential to plant nutrition at low concentrations, high concentrations of any…

  17. incidence of heavy metals in kano metropolis drinking water sources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    into these sources as domestic sewage might be of kitchen and toilet origin heavily accumulated with soaps of heavy metals constituents. Heavy metal contamination with ... Water pollution has been a major challenge which requires ongoing evaluation. (Okonko et al., 2008).Presence of excessive amounts of heavy metals ...

  18. Bioaccumulation and toxic effects of some heavy metals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The contamination of the aquatic systems with heavy metals from natural anthropogenic sources has become a global problem which poses threats to ecosystems and natural communities. Hence this study reviews the effects of heavy metals in freshwater fishes. Fishes bioaccumulate heavy metals (including cadmium, zinc ...

  19. Customizable Biopolymers for Heavy Metal Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostal, Jan; Prabhukumar, Giridhar; Lao, U. Loi; Chen Alin; Matsumoto, Mark; Mulchandani, Ashok; Chen, Wilfred [University of California, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering (United States)], E-mail:


    Nanoscale materials have been gaining increasing interest in the area of environmental remediation because of their unique physical, chemical and biological properties. One emerging area of research has been the development of novel materials with increased affinity, capacity, and selectivity for heavy metals because conventional technologies are often inadequate to reduce concentrations in wastewater to acceptable regulatory standards. Genetic and protein engineering have emerged as the latest tools for the construction of nanoscale materials that can be controlled precisely at the molecular level. With the advent of recombinant DNA techniques, it is now possible to create 'artificial' protein polymers with fundamentally new molecular organization. The most significant feature of these nanoscale biopolymers is that they are specifically pre-programmed within a synthetic gene template and can be controlled precisely in terms of sizes, compositions and functions at the molecular level. In this review, the use of specifically designed protein-based nano-biomaterials with both metal-binding and tunable properties for heavy metal removal is summarized. Several different strategies for the selective removal of heavy metals such as cadmium and mercury are highlighted.

  20. Elimination of heavy metals from leachates by membrane electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, R. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Siedlungs- und Industriewasserwirtschaft, Mommsenstrasse 13, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Seidel, H. [UFZ-Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Department Bioremediation, Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Rahner, D. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie und Eektrochemie, Mommsenstrasse 13, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Morgenstern, P. [UFZ-Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Department Analytik, Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Loeser, C. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Lebensmittel- und Bioverfahrenstechnik, Bergstrasse 120, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)


    The elimination of heavy metals from bioleaching process waters (leachates) by electrolysis was studied in the anode and cathode region of a membrane electrolysis cell at current densities of 5-20 mA/cm{sup 2} using various electrode materials. The leaching waters containing a wide range of dissolved heavy metals, were high in sulfate, and had pH values of approx. 3. In preliminary tests using a rotating disc electrode the current density-potential curve (CPK) was recorded at a rotation velocity of 0, 1000 and 2000 rpm and a scan rate of 10 mV/s in order to collect information on the influence of transport processes on the electrochemical processes taking place at the electrodes. The electrochemical deposition-dissolution processes at the cathode are strongly dependent on the hydrodynamics. Detailed examination of the anodic oxidation of dissolved Mn(II) indicated that the manganese dioxide which formed adhered well to the electrode surface but in the cathodic return run it was again reduced. Electrode pairs of high-grade steel, lead and coal as well as material combinations were used to investigate heavy metal elimination in a membrane electrolysis cell. Using high-grade steel, lead and carbon electrode pairs, the reduction and deposition of Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni and some Cd in metallic or hydroxide form were observed in an order of 10-40 % in the cathode chamber. The dominant process in the anode chamber was the precipitation of manganese dioxide owing to the oxidation of dissolved Mn(II). Large amounts of heavy metals were co-precipitated by adsorption onto the insoluble MnO{sub 2}. High-grade steel and to some extent lead anodes were dissolved and hence were proven unsuitable as an anode material. These findings were largely confirmed by experiments using combination electrodes of coal and platinized titanium as an anode material and steel as a cathode material.The results indicate that electrochemical metal separation in the membrane electrolysis cell can represent a

  1. Determination of heavy metals in the ambient atmosphere. (United States)

    Suvarapu, Lakshmi Narayana; Baek, Sung-Ok


    Heavy metal determination in ambient air is an important task for environmental researchers because of their toxicity to human beings. Some heavy metals (hexavalent chromium (Cr), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni)) have been listed as carcinogens. Furthermore, heavy metals in the atmosphere can accumulate in various plants and animals and enter humans through the food chain. This article reviews the determination of heavy metals in the atmosphere in different areas of the world since 2006. The results showed that most researchers concentrated on toxic metals, such as Cr, Cd, Ni, As and lead. A few studies used plant materials as bio-monitors for the atmospheric levels of heavy metals. Some researchers found higher concentrations of heavy metals surrounding industrial areas compared with residential and/or commercial areas. Most studies reported the major sources of the particulate matter and heavy metals in the atmosphere to be industrial emissions, vehicular emissions and secondary aerosols.

  2. Emission factors for heavy metals from diesel and petrol used in European vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulles, M.P.J.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.; Appelman, W.A.J.; Verheul, M.


    Abstract: Heavy metals constitute an important group of persistent toxic pollutants occurring in ambient air and other media. One of the suspected sources of these metals in the atmosphere is combustion of transport fuels in road vehicles. However estimates of the emissions of these metals from road

  3. Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals in Aqueous Solutions


    Felix Aibuedefe AISIEN; Oluwole FALEYE; Eki Tina AISIEN


    One of the major environmental problems is the pollution of water and soil by toxic heavy metals. This study investigated the phytoremediation potential of water hyacinth, for the removal of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn). Water hyacinths were cultured in bore-hole water, supplemented with 5mg/l of Zn and Pb and 1mg/l of Cd at pH 4.5, 6.8 and 8.5. The plants were separately harvested each week for six weeks. The results showed that removal of these metals from solution was fast especia...

  4. Heavy metals in carabids (Coleoptera, Carabidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan Butovsky


    Full Text Available Carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae are one of the most studied soil groups in relation to heavy metal (HM accumulation and use for bioindication of environmental pollution. Accumulation of Zn and Cu in carabid beetles was species-, sex- and trophic group-specific. No differences were found in HM contents between omnivorous and carnivorous species. The use of carabid beetles as indicators of HM accumulation appears to be rather limited.

  5. Modeling Heavy Metal Removal in Wetlands. (United States)


    1976 a,b,c) and Pettersson (1976) treated heavy metals uptake according to Michaelis-Menten kinetics ( Lehninger , 1975), discussed later in detail...copper kinetics equation as used in this modeling effort is presented below, after Lehninger (1975): dv_ dV, Ca (5) dt dt C.+K, where: v = rate of copper...the bulk solution, Cb, using either the Lineweaver-Burk double reciprocal or Eadie-Hofstee graphical methods ( Lehninger , 1975). Nielsen (1976 b) used

  6. Heavy Metals Acting as Endocrine Disrupters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Georgescu


    Full Text Available Last years researches focused on several natural and synthetic compounds that may interfere with the major functionsof the endocrine system and were termed endocrine disrupters. Endocrine disrupters are defined as chemicalsubstances with either agonist or antagonist endocrine effects in human and animals. These effects may be achievedby interferences with the biosynthesis or activity of several endogenous hormones. Recently, it was demonstratedthat heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd, arsen (As, mercury (Hg, nickel (Ni, lead (Pb and zinc (Zn may exhibitendocrine-disrupting activity in animal experiments. Emerging evidence of the intimate mechanisms of action ofthese heavy metals is accumulating. It was revealed, for example, that the Zn atom from the Zn fingers of theestrogen receptor can be replaced by several heavy metal molecules such as copper, cobalt, Ni and Cd. By replacingthe Zn atom with Ni or copper, binding of the estrogen receptor to the DNA hormone responsive elements in the cellnucleus is prevented. In both males and females, low-level exposure to Cd interferes with the biological effects ofsteroid hormones in reproductive organs. Arsen has the property to bind to the glucocorticoid receptor thusdisturbing glucocorticoids biological effects. With regard to Hg, this may induce alterations in male and femalefertility, may affect the function of the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis or the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis,and disrupt biosynthesis of steroid hormones.

  7. [Research advances in heavy metals pollution ecology of diatom]. (United States)

    Ding, Teng-Da; Ni, Wan-Min; Zhang, Jian-Ying


    Diatom, due to its high sensitivity to environmental change, is one of the bio-indicators of aquatic ecosystem health, and some typical diatom species have been applied to indicate the heavy metals pollution of water body. With the focus on the surface water heavy metals pollution, this paper reviewed the research advances in the toxic effect of heavy metals pollution on diatom, biosorption and bioaccumulation of heavy metals by diatom, ecological adaptation mechanisms of diatom to heavy metals pollution, and roles of diatom as bio-indicator and in ecological restoration of heavy metals pollution. The growth tendency of diatom and the morphological change of frustule under heavy metals pollution as well as the differences in heavy metals biosorption and bioaccumulation by diatom, the ecological adaptation mechanisms of diatom on heavy metals surface complexation and ion exchange, and the roles of diatom as bio-indicator and in ecological restoration of heavy metals polluted water body were also discussed. This review could provide scientific evidences for the prevention of aquatic ecosystems heavy metals pollution and related early warning techniques.

  8. MRP proteins as potential mediators of heavy metal resistance in zebrafish cells. (United States)

    Long, Yong; Li, Qing; Wang, Youhui; Cui, Zongbin


    Acquired resistance of mammalian cells to heavy metals is closely relevant to enhanced expression of several multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRP), but it remains unclear whether MRP proteins confer resistance to heavy metals in zebrafish. In this study, we obtained zebrafish (Danio rerio) fibroblast-like ZF4 cells with resistance to toxic heavy metals after chronic cadmium exposure and selection for 6months. These cadmium-resistant cells (ZF4-Cd) were maintained in 5μM cadmium and displayed cross-resistance to cadmium, mercury, arsenite and arsenate. ZF4-Cd cells remained the resistance to heavy metals after protracted culture in cadmium-free medium. In comparison with ZF4-WT cells, ZF4-Cd cells exhibited accelerated rate of cadmium excretion, enhanced activity of MRP-like transport, elevated expression of abcc2, abcc4 and mt2 genes, and increased content of cellular GSH. Inhibition of MRP-like transport activity, GSH biosynthesis and GST activity significantly attenuated the resistance of ZF4-Cd cells to heavy metals. The results indicate that some of MRP transporters are involved in the efflux of heavy metals conjugated with cellular GSH and thus play crucial roles in heavy metal detoxification of zebrafish cells. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Removal of heavy metals from wastewater using electrocoagulation


    Pokhrel, Nikunj


    Heavy metal contamination of water sources is a constant threat to human health. High exposure of heavy metals have often resulted in severe health hazards such as cancer, growth deficiency, liver and kidney damage and in some extreme cases death (World Health Organization, 2005). Heavy metals are often released into the environment and mainly into the water sources in the form of industrial and municipal wastewater. This thesis aims at examining the possibility of removing 5 different heavy ...

  10. [Heavy Metals Pollution in Topsoil from Dagang Industry Area and Its Ecological Risk Assessment]. (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Chen, Zong-juan; Peng, Chang-sheng; Li, Fa-sheng; Gu, Qing-bao


    Based on previous studies and field investigation of Dagang industry area in Tianjin, a total of 128 topsoil samples were collected, and contents of 10 heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, Ni, V, Zn and Hg) were determined. The geoaccumulation index and geostatistics were applied to examine the degree of contamination and spatial distribution of heavy metals in topsoil. The assessment on ecological risk of heavy metals was carried out using Hakanson's method, and the main resources of the heavy metals were analyzed as well. It was found that As, Cd and Co had the highest proportions exceeding Tianjin background value, which were 100%, 97.66% and 96.88%, respectively; the heavy-metal content increased to some extent comparing with that in 2004, and the pollutions of As and Cd were the worst, and other metals were at moderate pollution level or below. The ecological risks of heavy metals were different in topsoil with different land use types, the farmland soil in the southwest as well as soils adjacent to the industrial land were at relatively high potential ecological risk level, and the integrated ecological risk index reached up to 1 437.37. Analysis of correlation and principal component showed that traffic and transportation as well as agricultural activities might be the main resources of heavy metals in the area, besides, the industrial activities in the region might also affect the accumulation of heavy metals.

  11. Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals in Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Aibuedefe AISIEN


    Full Text Available One of the major environmental problems is the pollution of water and soil by toxic heavy metals. This study investigated the phytoremediation potential of water hyacinth, for the removal of cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb and zinc (Zn. Water hyacinths were cultured in bore-hole water, supplemented with 5mg/l of Zn and Pb and 1mg/l of Cd at pH 4.5, 6.8 and 8.5. The plants were separately harvested each week for six weeks. The results showed that removal of these metals from solution was fast especially in the first two weeks, after which it became gradual till saturation point was reached. The accumulation of Cd and Zn in leaves and roots increased with increase in pH. The highest accumulation was in the roots with metal concentration of 4870mg/kg, 4150mg/kg and 710mg/kg for Zn, Pb and Cd respectively at pH 8.5. The maximum values of bioconcentration factor (BCF for Zn, Pb and Cd were 1674, 1531 and 1479 respectively, suggesting that water hyacinth was good accumulator of Zn, Pb and Cd, and could be used to treat industrial wastewater contaminated with heavy metals such as Zn, Pb and Cd.

  12. Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Sediment and Polychaete ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HEAVY METAL POLLUTION & POLYCHAETE WORMS FROM MZINGA CREEK & RAS DEGE MANGROVE ECOSYSTEM. 125 ... metal pollution. The concentration of metals in the geochemically available sediment fraction (easily reducible and oxidisable phases) is analysed to assess the ..... River inputs to the ocean.

  13. Transportation of heavy crude by pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, G.; Lachmann, J.


    The purpose of this work is to present a general summary of the operations which should be performed from the technical point of view, as well as the economic, for arriving at an optimum design for a pipeline and its utilization in the transportation of heavy crude oil. The characteristics are presented of the Boscan field crude which is one of the most difficult in the world to handle. Many of the different insulating coatings are named that have been used for covering piping or equipment which has to operate in a hot environment. Other parts of the study present some of the experiences which have occurred during the transport of heavy crude in cold water. The properties of the crude are listed as well as those of some of the interior coatings including polymers. Equations are given with which to calculate heat loss from heated lines and to determine pressure drop. Various insulation thicknesses are calculated with selection of the most economic value. In some pipelines of considerable length which transport heated heavy crude, it is necessary to provide reheating equipment at one or more locations prior to destination.

  14. Material Removes Heavy Metal Ions From Water (United States)

    Philipp, Warren H., Jr.; Street, Kenneth W.; Hill, Carol; Savino, Joseph M.


    New high capacity ion-exchange polymer material removes toxic metal cations from contaminated water. Offers several advantages. High sensitivities for such heavy metals as lead, cadmium, and copper and capable of reducing concentrations in aqueous solutions to parts-per-billion range. Removes cations even when calcium present. Material made into variety of forms, such as thin films, coatings, pellets, and fibers. As result, adapted to many applications to purify contaminated water, usually hard wherever found, whether in wastewater-treatment systems, lakes, ponds, industrial plants, or homes. Another important feature that adsorbed metals easily reclaimed by either destructive or nondestructive process. Other tests show ion-exchange polymer made inexpensively; easy to use; strong, flexible, not easily torn; and chemically stable in storage, in aqueous solutions, and in acidic or basic solution.

  15. Magnetotactic bacteria. Promising biosorbents for heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Yanzong; Ding, Xiaohui; Liu, Yan; Shen, Fei; Zhang, Xiaohong; Deng, Shihuai; Xiao, Hong; Yang, Gang; Peng, Hong [Sichuan Agricultural Univ., Chengdu (China). Provincial Key Lab. of Agricultural Environmental Engineering


    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB), which can orient and migrate along a magnetic line of force due to intracellular nanosized magnetosomes, have been a subject of research in the medical field, in dating environmental changes, and in environmental remediation. This paper reviews the recent development of MTB as biosorbents for heavy metals. Ultrastructures and taxis of MTB are investigated. Adsorptions in systems of unitary and binary ions are highlighted, as well as adsorption conditions (temperature, pH value, biomass concentration, and pretreatments). The separation and desorption of MTB in magnetic separators are also discussed. A green method to produce metal nanoparticles is provided, and an energy-efficient way to recover precious metals is put forward during biosorption. (orig.)

  16. Effects of Heavy Metal Toxicity on Human Health


    Guluzar Ozbolat; Abdullah Tuli


    Heavy metals are the elements that can be toxic even at low concentrations. It is often used as a group name for metals and semimetals (metalloids) that have been associated with contamination and potential toxicity or ecotoxicity. Heavy metals are toxic to human health. Because it cannot be discarded with (kidney, liver intestine, skin, lung) without special support from most of the body's normal excretion routes Therefore, a large part of the heavy metals accumulate in biological organisms...

  17. Heavy metal and associated antibiotic resistance of fecal coliforms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The pollution of the environment with toxic heavy metals is increasing globally with industrial progress. Microorganisms can be good bio-accumulators of particulate and soluble forms of heavy metals and subsequently resist antibiotics. The present study aimed at assessing the resistance pattern to multiple heavy ...

  18. Managing heavy metal toxicity stress in plants: biological and biotechnological tools. (United States)

    Ovečka, M; Takáč, T


    The maintenance of ion homeostasis in plant cells is a fundamental physiological requirement for sustainable plant growth, development and production. Plants exposed to high concentrations of heavy metals must respond in order to avoid the deleterious effects of heavy metal toxicity at the structural, physiological and molecular levels. Plant strategies for coping with heavy metal toxicity are genotype-specific and, at least to some extent, modulated by environmental conditions. There is considerable interest in the mechanisms underpinning plant metal tolerance, a complex process that enables plants to survive metal ion stress and adapt to maintain growth and development without exhibiting symptoms of toxicity. This review briefly summarizes some recent cell biological, molecular and proteomic findings concerning the responses of plant roots to heavy metal ions in the rhizosphere, metal ion-induced reactions at the cell wall-plasma membrane interface, and various aspects of heavy metal ion uptake and transport in plants via membrane transporters. The molecular and genetic approaches that are discussed are analyzed in the context of their potential practical applications in biotechnological approaches for engineering increased heavy metal tolerance in crops and other useful plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Advances in Understanding How Heavy Metal Pollution Triggers Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhen Yuan


    Full Text Available With the development of industrialization and urbanization, heavy metals contamination has become a major environmental problem. Numerous investigations have revealed an association between heavy metal exposure and the incidence and mortality of gastric cancer. The mechanisms of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury, chromium, and arsenic contamination leading to gastric cancer are concluded in this review. There are four main potential mechanisms: (1 Heavy metals disrupt the gastric mucosal barrier by decreasing mucosal thickness, mucus content, and basal acid output, thereby affecting the function of E-cadherin and inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS damage. (2 Heavy metals directly or indirectly induce ROS generation and cause gastric mucosal and DNA lesions, which subsequently alter gene regulation, signal transduction, and cell growth, ultimately leading to carcinogenesis. Exposure to heavy metals also enhances gastric cancer cell invasion and metastasis. (3 Heavy metals inhibit DNA damage repair or cause inefficient lesion repair. (4 Heavy metals may induce other gene abnormalities. In addition, heavy metals can induce the expression of proinflammatory chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8 and microRNAs, which promotes tumorigenesis. The present review is an effort to underline the human health problem caused by heavy metal with recent development in order to garner a broader perspective.

  20. The Confluence of Heavy Metal Biooxidation and Heavy Metal Resistance: Implications for Bioleaching by Extreme Thermoacidophiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrett Wheaton


    Full Text Available Extreme thermoacidophiles (Topt > 65 °C, pHopt < 3.5 inhabit unique environments fraught with challenges, including extremely high temperatures, low pH, as well as high levels of soluble metal species. In fact, certain members of this group thrive by metabolizing heavy metals, creating a dynamic equilibrium between biooxidation to meet bioenergetic needs and mechanisms for tolerating and resisting the toxic effects of solubilized metals. Extremely thermoacidophilic archaea dominate bioleaching operations at elevated temperatures and have been considered for processing certain mineral types (e.g., chalcopyrite, some of which are recalcitrant to their mesophilic counterparts. A key issue to consider, in addition to temperature and pH, is the extent to which solid phase heavy metals are solubilized and the concomitant impact of these mobilized metals on the microorganism’s growth physiology. Here, extreme thermoacidophiles are examined from the perspectives of biodiversity, heavy metal biooxidation, metal resistance mechanisms, microbe-solid interactions, and application of these archaea in biomining operations.

  1. Heavy metals bioaccumulation by edible saprophytic mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan ŠIRIĆ


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of heavy metals Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb i Cd in certain edible species of saprophytic fungi and the substrate on three area of sampling, and to assess the role of individual species as biological indicators of environmental pollution. In this study were used three species of wild edible mushrooms (Agaricus macroarpus Bohus, Clitocybe inversa (Scop. ex Fr. Pat. and Macrolepiota procera (Scop. ex Fr. Sing.,. Completely developed and mature fruiting bodies were collected at random selection in localities of Trakošćan, Jaska and Petrova gora. At the same time, the substrate soil samples were collected from the upper horizon (0-10. Determination of heavy metals in mushrooms and the substrate soil were carried out by X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry. The data obtained were analysed by means of the statistical program SAS V9.2. Significant differences were found in the concentrations of Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb and Cd between analysed species of mushrooms and localities of sampling (P 1. The consumption of investigated mushrooms poses no toxicological risk to human health due to low concentrations analysed metals.

  2. Heavy Metal Contents of Lake Sapanca


    YALÇIN, Nevin; SEVİNÇ, Vahdettin


    The heavy metal pollution of Lake Sapanca located in the Marmara region (Turkey), was investigated over time. The lake is the drinking water source of the city of Adapazarı and its environs. The D-80 (TEM) motorway passes about 5 km along the lake's zero point in the Sapanca district. The motorway's wastewater drainages have been connected to the lake without having been subjected to any wastewater treatment. The motorway was opened to service in October 1990. An...

  3. Evaluation of heavy metal complex phytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vita Vasilyevna Datsenko


    Full Text Available The experimental data dealing with the effect of heavy metals contained in the technogenic contaminated soils on plant objects under controlled conditions was discussed. The aim of this work is to define the quantitative indicators of copper and zinc potential phytotoxicity, namely germination energy, simultaneous germination and duration of the test plants. It was found that the activity of the test plant growth is linked with copper and zinc complex action. Joint effect of copper and zinc is manifested both in inhibition of lettuce growth and determined, above all, by the nature contamination, soil properties and biological specificity of the test plants.

  4. The expression of heterologous Fe (III) phytosiderophore transporter HvYS1 in rice increases Fe uptake, translocation and seed loading and excludes heavy metals by selective Fe transport. (United States)

    Banakar, Raviraj; Alvarez Fernández, Ána; Abadía, Javier; Capell, Teresa; Christou, Paul


    Many metal transporters in plants are promiscuous, accommodating multiple divalent cations including some which are toxic to humans. Previous attempts to increase the iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) content of rice endosperm by overexpressing different metal transporters have therefore led unintentionally to the accumulation of copper (Cu), manganese (Mn) and cadmium (Cd). Unlike other metal transporters, barley Yellow Stripe 1 (HvYS1) is specific for Fe. We investigated the mechanistic basis of this preference by constitutively expressing HvYS1 in rice under the control of the maize ubiquitin1 promoter and comparing the mobilization and loading of different metals. Plants expressing HvYS1 showed modest increases in Fe uptake, root-to-shoot translocation, seed accumulation and endosperm loading, but without any change in the uptake and root-to-shoot translocation of Zn, Mn or Cu, confirming the selective transport of Fe. The concentrations of Zn and Mn in the endosperm did not differ significantly between the wild-type and HvYS1 lines, but the transgenic endosperm contained significantly lower concentrations of Cu. Furthermore, the transgenic lines showed a significantly reduced Cd uptake, root-to-shoot translocation and accumulation in the seeds. The underlying mechanism of metal uptake and translocation reflects the down-regulation of promiscuous endogenous metal transporters revealing an internal feedback mechanism that limits seed loading with Fe. This promotes the preferential mobilization and loading of Fe, therefore displacing Cu and Cd in the seed. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination in Soils around Cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination in Soils around Cassava Processing Mills in Sub- Urban Areas of Delta State, Southern Nigeria. ... The percent anthropogenic fraction of metals in the soil follow the order Cd > Zn > Ni > Cu > Fe > Cr > Pb. Keywords: Anthropogenic input, cassava, heavy metals, pollution index ...

  6. Heavy metal ion uptake properties of polystyrene-supported ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    at pH 6 they are found to be Cd(II) and Cr(VI) selective. Metal ion uptake properties of resins follow Freundlich's equation. The resins are recyclable and are therefore employed for the removal of heavy metal pollutants from industrial waste water. Keywords. Uptake properties; heavy metal ion; selectivity; recyclability. 1.

  7. Fractionation, characterization and speciation of heavy metals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Speciation of heavy metals in soils determines the availability for metals for plant uptake and potential for contamination of groundwater following application of composts to agricultural lands. Methods used to characterize heavy metals in solid phase of composts and compost amended soils include physical fractionation ...

  8. Determination of heavy metals in water sediments and Tilapia zilli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the heavy metal concentration in Tilapia zilli and water sediments along Kolo Creek in Ogbia Local Government Area, Bayelsa State. Tilapia fish and sediment samples were collected from 5 stations, and analyzed for heavy metals following standard procedures. Four metals (Copper, Lead. Cadmium ...

  9. Assessment and bioremediation of heavy metals from crude oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The assessment of the levels of heavy metals present in crude oil contaminated soil and the application of the earthworm - Hyperiodrilus africanus with interest on the bioremediation of metals from the contaminated soil was investigated within a 90-days period under laboratory conditions. Selected heavy metals such as ...

  10. Heavy metals occurrence in Italian food supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brizio P.


    Full Text Available In recent years a significant increase in food supplements consumption has been observed, maybe in the belief that they couldn’t be dangerous for consumers health, even if they don’t achieved medical effects. However, environmental pollution can cause heavy metals contamination that could exceed maximum levels established by European legislation. Aim of this work was to evaluate arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead and mercury content in 12 food supplements seized in a Piedmont shop by the Italian authority against food adulteration. All metals were analysed after mineralization and dilution steps by ICP-MS, with the exception of mercury, detected by the direct analyser TDA-AAS. Only one sample exceed the European maximum limits for lead (3,00 mg/kg but warning levels of chromium (over 3,00 mg/Kg has been detected in three of them.

  11. Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Europe estimated by moss analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruehling, Aa. [Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Lund (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology


    Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Europe including 21 countries was monitored in 1990-1992 by the moss technique. This technique is based on the fact that the concentrations of heavy metals in moss are closely correlated to atmospheric deposition. This was the first attempt to map heavy metal deposition in this large area. The objectives of the project were to characterise qualitatively and quantitatively the regional atmospheric deposition pattern of heavy metals in background areas in Europe, to indicate the location of important heavy metal pollution sources and to allow retrospective comparisons with similar studies. The present survey is a follow-up of a joint Danish and Swedish project in 1980 and an extended survey in 1985 within the framework of the Nordic Council of Ministers. In Sweden, heavy-metal deposition was first mapped on a nation-wide scale in 1968-1971 and 1975. (author)

  12. Mechanisms of silicon-mediated alleviation of heavy metal toxicity in plants: A review. (United States)

    Adrees, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Rizwan, Muhammad; Zia-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Abbas, Farhat; Farid, Mujahid; Qayyum, Muhammad Farooq; Irshad, Muhammad Kashif


    In present era, heavy metal pollution is rapidly increasing which present many environmental problems. These heavy metals are mainly accumulated in soil and are transferred to food chain through plants grown on these soils. Silicon (Si) is the second most abundant element in the soil. It has been widely reported that Si can stimulate plant growth and alleviate various biotic and abiotic stresses, including heavy metal stress. Research to date has explored a number of mechanisms through which Si can alleviate heavy metal toxicity in plants at both plant and soil levels. Here we reviewed the mechanisms through which Si can alleviate heavy metal toxicity in plants. The key mechanisms evoked include reducing active heavy metal ions in growth media, reduced metal uptake and root-to-shoot translocation, chelation and stimulation of antioxidant systems in plants, complexation and co-precipitation of toxic metals with Si in different plant parts, compartmentation and structural alterations in plants and regulation of the expression of metal transport genes. However, these mechanisms might be associated with plant species, genotypes, metal elements, growth conditions, duration of the stress imposed and so on. Further research orientation is also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of heavy metal and EDTA application on heavy metal uptake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study investigates the effect of different concentration of heavy metals (Cd, Cr and Pb) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) application on two Brassica species (Brassica carinata and Brassica juncea). EDTA application had significant (p<0.05) effect on shoot length, shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, ...

  14. Characteristics of heavy metal pollution on roadside soil along highway (United States)

    Zheng, Chaocheng


    Highway traffic is the main source of heavy metal pollution. Due to limited cropland, it is very common to plant crops along the highways. So, in view of agricultural products safety, heavy metal pollution by highway traffic to soils along highway is widely concerned. Therefore, to study distribution traits, accumulative laws and influence factors of heavy metals in agricultural soils could provide scientific evidence and theoretical basis for environmental protection along express way.

  15. Heavy Metal Induced Antibiotic Resistance in Bacterium LSJC7


    Songcan Chen; Xiaomin Li; Guoxin Sun; Yingjiao Zhang; Jianqiang Su; Jun Ye


    Co-contamination of antibiotics and heavy metals prevails in the environment, and may play an important role in disseminating bacterial antibiotic resistance, but the selective effects of heavy metals on bacterial antibiotic resistance is largely unclear. To investigate this, the effects of heavy metals on antibiotic resistance were studied in a genome-sequenced bacterium, LSJC7. The results showed that the presence of arsenate, copper, and zinc were implicated in fortifying the resistance of...

  16. Impact of heavy metals on the female reproductive system


    Piotr Rzymski; Katarzyna Tomczyk; Pawel Rzymski; Barbara Poniedziałek; Tomasz Opala; Maciej Wilczak


    Introduction. It has been recognized that environmental pollution can affect the quality of health of the human population. Heavy metals are among the group of highly emitted contaminants and their adverse effect of living organisms has been widely studied in recent decades. Lifestyle and quality of the ambient environment are among these factors which can mainly contribute to the heavy metals exposure in humans. Objective. A review of literature linking heavy metals and the female repr...

  17. Heavy metal distribution of natural and reclaimed tidal riparian wetlands in south estuary, China. (United States)

    Zhang, Honggang; Cui, Baoshan; Zhang, Kejiang


    We evaluated the distribution and accumulation of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in two plant species (Scirpus tripueter Linn. and Cyperus malaccensis Lam.), in water and soils sampled from the reclaimed tidal riparian wetlands (RTRWs) and the natural riparian wetlands (NRWs) in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE). The results showed that the concentrations of studied heavy metals in soils exceeded the eco-toxic threshold recommended by US EPA. The concentrations of Cd, Cr and Zn in plants may lead to toxic effects. The heavy metal concentrations were high in water and low in soils of RTRWs compared with that in the NRWs. The accumulation of heavy metals in the roots of plants was higher in NRWs than those in RTRWs while the opposite result was found for heavy metal accumulation in shoots. Based on the bioaccumulation and translocation factors, the plants in NRWs had a higher capacity to accumulate heavy metals while higher abilities to transport heavy metals from roots to shoots were observed in RTRWs. Heavy metal contaminations in RTRWs were dominated by anthropogenic sources from both side uplands and river water, whereas in NRWs, the metal accumulations were simultaneously affected by anthropogenic and natural factors

  18. Effects of heavy metal adsorption on silicene

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.


    Based on first-principles calculations, we study the effects of heavy metal atoms (Au, Hg, Tl, and Pb) adsorbed on silicene. We find that the hollow site is energetically favorable in each case. We particulary address the question how the adsorption modifies the band structure in the vicinity of the Fermi energy. Our results demonstrate that the heavy metal adatoms result in substantial energy gaps and band splittings in the silicene sheet as long as the binding is strong, which, however, is not always the case. (© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH &Co. KGaA, Weinheim) Carbon nanotube flexible sponge was manufactured as high performance electromagnetic shielding material. Chemical vapour deposition (CVD) synthesized sponges with extreme light weight show an electromagnetic shielding above 20 dB and a specific electromagnetic shielding as high as 1100 dB cm3g-1 in the whole 1-18 GHz range. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Remediation of biochar on heavy metal polluted soils (United States)

    Wang, Shuguang; Xu, Yan; Norbu, Namkha; Wang, Zhan


    Unreasonable mining and smelting of mineral resources, solid waste disposal, sewage irrigation, utilization of pesticides and fertilizers would result in a large number of heavy metal pollutants into the water and soil environment, causing serious damage to public health and ecological safety. In recent years, a majority of scholars tried to use biochar to absorb heavy metal pollutants, which has some advantages of extensive raw material sources, low-cost and high environmental stability. This paper reviewed the definition, properties of biochar, the mechanism of heavy metal sorption by biochar and some related problems and prospects, to provide some technical support for the application of biochar into heavy metal polluted soils.

  20. Adsorption of heavy metal in freeway by asphalt block (United States)

    Zheng, Chaocheng


    Heavy metals are toxic, persistent, and carcinogenic in freeway. Various techniques are available for the removal of heavy metals from waste water among soils during freeway including ion-exchange, membrane filtration, electrolysis, coagulation, flotation, and adsorption. Among them, bio-sorption processes are widely used for heavy metal and other pollutant removal due to its sustainable, rapid and economic. In this paper, heavy metal removal facilitated by adsorption in plants during freeway was illustrated to provide concise information on exploring the adsorption efficiency.

  1. Comparison of Eleven Heavy Metals in Moringa Oleifera Lam. Products


    Limmatvapirat, C.; Limmatvapirat, S.; Charoenteeraboon, J.; Wessapan, C.; Kumsum, A.; Jenwithayaamornwech, S.; Luangthuwapranit, P.


    Eleven heavy metals in various products of Moringa oleifera were analyzed to determine eleven heavy metals (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, and Zn) using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. The products of M. oleifera were purchased in Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. All products were digested with nitric acid solution before determining the concentrations of heavy metals. The recoveries of all heavy metals were found to be in the range of 99.89-103.05%. Several criteria such as li...

  2. Climate change impact on the leaching of a heavy metal contamination in a small lowland catchment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.; Kroes, J.G.; Vliet, van M.T.H.; Blenkinsop, S.; Broers, H.P.


    The objective of this study was to assess the potential effects of climate change on the transport of pre-existing spatially-extensive trace metal contamination to a small lowland catchment in the south of the Netherlands. The area surrounding the Keersop has been contaminated with heavy metals by

  3. Review of Phosphate in soils: Interaction with micronutrients, radionuclides, and heavy metals (United States)

    Phosphate-phosphorus present in the vadose zone of soil as native, added, or residual fertilizer influences the retention, transport, and bioavailability of heavy metals, metalloids, or metallic radionuclides to aboveground vegetation, soil microorganisms, and fauna that browse that vegetation, or d...

  4. Heavy oil transportation - Challenges and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerez, John [Enbridge International (United States)


    Enbridge is a leading company in the transportation of oil and gas through pipelines, the company is also active in green energy projects. In North America, Enbridge has built a pipeline which provides the Canadian oil sands with diluent for the production of heavy oil. The heavy oil sector is confronted with technical, social, environmental, regulatory, commercial and diluent supply challenges. With the declining demand in North America, Enbridge has launched a pipeline project to link the Canadian oil sands to Canada's west coast and thereby gain better access to growing markets such as China and India. This project is expected to provide billions of dollars of benefits in the form of provincial and federal revenues and to increase Canada's gross domestic product over the next 30 years. A similar project, Oleoducto al Pacifico, is underway in Colombia to stimulate heavy oil exploration and production by connecting the oil plays to high growth Pacific markets; it is expected to provide long-term economic benefits to the country.

  5. Heavy metal accumulation by recombinant mammalian metallothionein within Escherichia coli protects against elevated metal exposure. (United States)

    Sauge-Merle, Sandrine; Lecomte-Pradines, Catherine; Carrier, Patrick; Cuiné, Stéphan; Dubow, Michael


    Metallothioneins (MTs) are ubiquitous metal-binding, cysteine-rich, small proteins known to provide protection against toxic heavy metals such as cadmium. In an attempt to increase the ability of bacterial cells to accumulate heavy metals, sheep MTII was produced in fusion with the maltose binding protein (MBP) and localized to the cytoplasmic or periplasmic compartments of Escherichia coli. For all metals tested, higher levels of bioaccumulation were measured with strains over-expressing MBP-MT in comparison with control strains. A marked bioaccumulation of Cd, As, Hg and Zn was observed in the strain over-expressing MBP-MT in the cytoplasm, whereas Cu was accumulated to higher levels when MBP-MT was over-expressed in the periplasm. Metal export systems may also play a role in this bioaccumulation. To illustrate this, we over-expressed MBP-MT in the cytoplasm of two mutant strains of E. coli affected in metal export. The first, deficient in the transporter ZntA described to export numerous divalent metal ions, showed increasing quantities of Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb being bioaccumulated. The second, strain LF20012, deficient in As export, showed that As was bioaccumulated in the form of arsenite. Furthermore, high quantities of accumulated metals, chelated by MBP-MT in the cytoplasm, conferred greater metal resistance levels to the cells in the presence of added toxic metals, such as Cd or Hg, while other metals showed toxic effects when the export systems were deficient. The strain over-expressing MBP-MT in the cytoplasm, in combination, with disruption of metal export systems, could be used to develop strategies for bioremediation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A review of heavy metals in indoor dust and its human health-risk implications. (United States)

    Tan, Sock Yin; Praveena, Sarva Mangala; Abidin, Emilia Zainal; Cheema, Manraj Singh


    Indoor dust acts as a media for heavy metal deposition. Past studies have shown that heavy metal concentration in indoor dust is affected by local human activities and atmospheric transport can have harmful effects on human health. Additionally, children are more sensitive to heavy metals due to their hand-to-mouth behaviour and rapid body development. However, limited information on health risks were found in past dust studies as these studies aimed to identify heavy metal concentrations and sources of indoor dust. The objective of this review is to discuss heavy metal concentration and sources influencing its concentration in indoor dust. Accordingly, high lead (Pb) concentration (639.10 μg/g) has been reported in heavy traffic areas. In addition, this review paper aims to estimate the health risk to children from heavy metals in indoor dust via multiple exposure pathways using the health-risk assessment (HRA). Urban areas and industrial sites have revealed high heavy metal concentration in comparison to rural areas. Hazard index (HI) values found in arsenic (As), chromium (Cr) and Pb were 21.30, 1.10 and 2.40, respectively, indicate that non-carcinogenic elements are found in children. Furthermore, most of the past studies have found that carcinogenic risks for As, cadmium (Cd), Cr and Pb were below the acceptable total lifetime cancer risk (TLCR) range (1×10-6-1×10-4). The results of health risk assessment in this review show that carcinogenic risk exists among children. Hence, this proves that future studies need to focus on children's carcinogenic risk in indoor dust studies in order to find out the sources of heavy metals in indoor dust. This review highlights the importance of having the HRA application using bioavailable heavy metal concentration as it provides more accurate health-risk estimation. Moreover, this review is also useful as a reference for policy decision making in protecting children's health.

  7. Remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil | Nanda | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates the plant-microbial interactions in reclaiming the metal contaminated soil with attention to some significant soil biochemical characteristics during the process. Keywords: Heavy metals, bioremediation, phytoremediation, rhizosphere, rhizobacteria, bioaugmentation. African Journal of Biotechnology ...

  8. Phytoremediation of heavy metals roadside contaminated soil using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Computing Services


    Oct 23, 2013 ... E. camaldeulensis. This suggests that E. camaldeulensis was the best candidate species for phytoremediation of HM contaminated soils. Key words: Keywords: Phytoextraction, Roadside soil, Heavy metal, ... production, construction, vehicle exhaust, waste disposal, ... Unlike organic pollutants, metals.

  9. Effect of heavy metals on enzymes production by Hebeloma crustuliniforme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Dahm


    Full Text Available Studies were carried out in order to dętermine the effect of some heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn on the production of enzymes (cellulases, peetinases. proteases by ectomycorrhizal fungus Hebeloma crusliliniforme (Buli.: Fr. Quél. All the heavy metals inhibited the general enzymatic activity regardless of the source of carbon used. The metals reduced the egzocellulolytic activity more in media with cellulose powder than with CMC (carboxymethylocellulosc. Among pectolytic enzymes heavy metals most strongly inhibited polygalacturonase (PG. The heavy metals did not harmful affect the activity of pectate lyase (PGL. Proteolytic activity of Hebeloma crustuliniforme was leasi affected by zinc (Zn. The degree of inhibition of enzymes by heavy metals can be presented in the following order Pb < Zn < Cd

  10. Heavy Metal Induced Antibiotic Resistance in Bacterium LSJC7. (United States)

    Chen, Songcan; Li, Xiaomin; Sun, Guoxin; Zhang, Yingjiao; Su, Jianqiang; Ye, Jun


    Co-contamination of antibiotics and heavy metals prevails in the environment, and may play an important role in disseminating bacterial antibiotic resistance, but the selective effects of heavy metals on bacterial antibiotic resistance is largely unclear. To investigate this, the effects of heavy metals on antibiotic resistance were studied in a genome-sequenced bacterium, LSJC7. The results showed that the presence of arsenate, copper, and zinc were implicated in fortifying the resistance of LSJC7 towards tetracycline. The concentrations of heavy metals required to induce antibiotic resistance, i.e., the minimum heavy metal concentrations (MHCs), were far below (up to 64-fold) the minimum inhibition concentrations (MIC) of LSJC7. This finding indicates that the relatively low heavy metal levels in polluted environments and in treated humans and animals might be sufficient to induce bacterial antibiotic resistance. In addition, heavy metal induced antibiotic resistance was also observed for a combination of arsenate and chloramphenicol in LSJC7, and copper/zinc and tetracycline in antibiotic susceptible strain Escherichia coli DH5α. Overall, this study implies that heavy metal induced antibiotic resistance might be ubiquitous among various microbial species and suggests that it might play a role in the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance in metal and antibiotic co-contaminated environments.

  11. Hydroponic phytoremediation of heavy metals and radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartong, J.; Szpak, J.; Hamric, T.; Cutright, T.


    It is estimated that the Departments of Defense, Energy, and Agriculture will spend up to 300 billion federal dollars on environmental remediation during the next century. Current remediation processes can be expensive, non-aesthetic, and non-versatile. Therefore, the need exists for more innovative and cost effective solutions. Phytoremediation, the use of vegetation for the remediation of contaminated sediments, soils, and ground water, is an emerging technology for treating several categories of persistent, toxic contaminants. Although effective, phytoremediation is still in a developmental stage, and therefore is not a widely accepted technology by regulatory agencies and public groups. Research is currently being conducted to validate the processes effectiveness as well as increase regulatory and community acceptance. This research will focus on the ability of plants to treat an aquifer contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclides. Specifically, the effectiveness of hydroponically grown dwarf sunflowers and mustard seed will be investigated.

  12. Heavy metals biogeochemistry in abandoned mining areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favas P. J. C.


    Full Text Available Plants growing on the abandoned Portuguese mines, highly contaminated with W, Sn, As, Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb, have been studied for their biogeochemical indication/prospecting and mine restoration potential. The results of analysis show that the species best suited for biogeochemical indicating are: aerial tissues of Halimium umbellatum (L. Spach, for As and W; leaves of Erica arborea L. for Bi, Sn, W and mostly Pb; stems of Erica arborea L. for Pb; needles of Pinus pinaster Aiton and aerial tissues of Pteridium aquilinum (L. Kuhn for W; and leaves of Quercus faginea Lam. for Sn. The aquatic plant studied (Ranunculus peltatus Schrank can be used to decrease the heavy metals, and arsenic amounts into the aquatic environment affected by acid mine drainages.

  13. Model systems to unravel the molecular mechanisms of heavy metal tolerance in the ericoid mycorrhizal symbiosis. (United States)

    Daghino, Stefania; Martino, Elena; Perotto, Silvia


    Ericoid mycorrhizal plants dominate in harsh environments where nutrient-poor, acidic soil conditions result in a higher availability of potentially toxic metals. Although metal-tolerant plant species and ecotypes are known in the Ericaceae, metal tolerance in these plants has been mainly attributed to their association with ericoid mycorrhizal fungi. The mechanisms underlying plant protection by the fungal symbiont are poorly understood, whereas some insights have been achieved regarding the molecular mechanisms of heavy metal tolerance in the fungal symbiont. This review will briefly introduce the general features of heavy metal tolerance in mycorrhizal fungi and will then focus on the use of "omics" approaches and heterologous expression in model organisms to reveal the molecular bases of fungal response to heavy metals. Functional complementation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has allowed the identification of several ericoid mycorrhizal fungi genes (i.e., antioxidant enzymes, metal transporters, and DNA damage repair proteins) that may contribute to metal tolerance in a metal-tolerant ericoid Oidiodendron maius isolate. Although a powerful system, the use of the yeast complementation assay to study metal tolerance in mycorrhizal symbioses has limitations. Thus, O. maius has been developed as a model system to study heavy metal tolerance mechanisms in mycorrhizal fungi, thanks to its high metal tolerance, easy handling and in vitro mycorrhization, stable genetic transformation, genomics, transcriptomic and proteomic resources.

  14. Structural and functional studies of heavy metal ATPases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sitsel, Oleg


    of SsZntA using a broad range of techniques reveals an array of unique Zn2+-ATPase features relating to ion uptake, binding, discharge and countertransport. These results are then used to comprehensively compare Zn2+-ATPases with their Cu+-transporting counterparts, showing how the two have managed...... to handle heavy metal ions. LpCopA is then compared to its two human homologues ATP7A and ATP7B, which cause the severe Menkes and Wilson diseases when malfunctioning. The differences between the three proteins are described and disease-causing mutations in the human proteins are analyzed. The crystal...... to adapt to transport of distinct ion types while still maintaining all the major features of the P1B-ATPase subclass....

  15. Factors Affecting the Binding of a Recombinant Heavy Metal-Binding Domain (CXXC motif) Protein to Heavy Metals


    Kamala Boonyodying; Thanakorn Watcharasupat; Waranan Yotpanya; Thawatchai Kitti; Wanna Kawang; Duangkamol Kunthalert; Sutthirat Sitthisak


    A number of heavy metal-binding proteins have been used to study bioremediation. CXXC motif, a metal binding domain containing Cys-X-X-Cys motif, has been identified in various organisms. These proteins are capable of binding various types of heavy metals. In this study, heavy metal binding domain (CXXC motif) recombinant protein encoded from mcsA gene of S. aureus were cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The factors involved in the metal-binding activity were determined in order to...

  16. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopic determination of heavy metals and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the heavy metal and trace element composition of the powdered aerial parts of Origanum sipyleum L. and its water extract. Methods: The heavy metal and trace elements content of the powdered plant material and 2 % aqueous extract were evaluated by x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy with silicon ...

  17. Assessment of heavy metals in Lake Uluabat, Turkey | Elmaci ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The accumulation of heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, B, As) was measured in water, plankton and sediment samples taken from different areas of Lake Uluabat during January 2003 to February 2004. The sequential extraction used in this study is useful to assess the potential mobility of heavy metals in the sediment ...

  18. Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals by Moringa Oleifera in Automobile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plants accumulate minerals essential for their growth from the environment alongside with heavy metals from contaminated areas.This study investigated bioaccumulation of heavy metals by Moringa oleifera in automobile workshops in three selected local government areas in Ibadan. This was done with a view to ...

  19. Sediment-Water Exchange of Selected Heavy Metals at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organic matter oxidation contributed to the mobilization of heavy metals, demonstrating the significant effect of atmospheric oxidation on heavy metals dynamics at the Makupa creek backwaters during low tide. Humic and fluvic acid mobilization did not have a significant effect in the mobilization of Fe (Pearson correlation ...

  20. Heavy Metals Pollution on Surface Water Sources in Kaduna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heavy Metals Pollution on Surface Water Sources in Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria. JA Aliyu, Y Saleh, S Kabiru. Abstract. This study examine the effects of heavy metal pollutants to aquatic ecosystems and the environment by considering the role of urban, municipal, agricultural, industrial and other anthropogenic processes ...

  1. Heavy metal contents of Azidirachta indica collected from Akungba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Azadirachta indica has many medicinal values, particularly among the Africans, and these have been reported [9, 10, 11, 12, 13]. Plants located along highways .... of heavy metals indicate that significant heavy metal pollution from extraneous source(s) has taken place. Table 6 showed correlation coefficients carried out.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Slávik,Tomáš Tóth


    Full Text Available In the middle area of Spiš, it is significantly burden by heavy metals what is documented by radical content of Hg in soil from Rudňany 58.583645 -1. On the content of heavy metals in vegetables grown in this soil it has the same effect. 61.5% samples exceeded the limit value of heavy metals. The most dangerous vegetables were Lactuca sativa L. The limit value was exceed in all determine heavy metals - Hg, Cd, Pb and Cu in this vegetables. In the case of Hg, the limit value exceed 93.86 times. For relatively safety is growing of Pisum sativum L., where there was no exceed any limits values. The root vegetables are dangerous, where the sample of Raphanus sativus L. exceed 6.71978 times the limit values for Pb although the content of lead in the soil was under hygienic limits. Transfer of heavy metals into consume parts of vegetables was no limited by high content of humus into soil. Transfer of heavy metals into consume parts of vegetables was no limited by weakly alkaline soil reaction. These factors are considered for factors limited mobility and input heavy metals into plants. We determined heavy metals by AAS method on a Varian 240 FS and method AMA 254.

  3. Physicochemical characteristics and heavy metal levels in soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Distribution pattern of heavy metals in petrol stations, abattoirs, mechanic workshops and hospital incinerator sites were Mn > Zn > Pb > Cd, while for dumpsites Zn > Mn > Pb > Cd. Pollution index indicated that soil qualities varied between slightly contaminated to severely polluted status. This showed that the heavy metal ...

  4. Characterization of Heavy Metals in Vegetables Using Inductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The heavy metals or trace elements play an important role in the metabolic pathways during the growth and development of plants, when available in required concentration. The heavy metal concentration of. Cadmium (Cd), Cobalt (Co), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn) was analyzed using ...

  5. Investigation of the origin and distribution of heavy metals around ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Apr 28, 2010 ... This study was based on the outcome of the soil geochemical survey which was conducted by the Council for Geoscience around Ebenezer Dam during .... Rock sampling: The concentrations of heavy metals in the soil were used to plot the .... Rose et al., 1979; Alloway et al., 1997). Heavy metals. Granitic.

  6. Ecological risk assessment of heavy metals pollution on irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper assessed the heavy metals pollution in irrigated soil of salanta river valley of Sharada industrial area with aim of assessing the potential ecological risk of Cd, Cu, Cr and Zn. Soil samples were collected from five plots randomly selected along the stream and heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Cr and Zn) and pH were ...

  7. Urban water pollution by heavy metals and health implication in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies of common heavy metals were conducted at Onitsha, Anambra State, the most urbanized city in Southeastern Nigeria. It was discovered that both surface and subsurface water were heavily polluted. Seven (7) heavy metals namely: arsenic (As+2), cadmium (Cd+2), lead (Pb+2), mercury (Hg+2), zinc (Zn+2), copper ...

  8. Species sensitivity analysis of heavy metals to freshwater organisms. (United States)

    Xin, Zheng; Wenchao, Zang; Zhenguang, Yan; Yiguo, Hong; Zhengtao, Liu; Xianliang, Yi; Xiaonan, Wang; Tingting, Liu; Liming, Zhou


    Acute toxicity data of six heavy metals [Cu, Hg, Cd, Cr(VI), Pb, Zn] to aquatic organisms were collected and screened. Species sensitivity distributions (SSD) curves of vertebrate and invertebrate were constructed by log-logistic model separately. The comprehensive comparisons of the sensitivities of different trophic species to six typical heavy metals were performed. The results indicated invertebrate taxa to each heavy metal exhibited higher sensitivity than vertebrates. However, with respect to the same taxa species, Cu had the most adverse effect on vertebrate, followed by Hg, Cd, Zn and Cr. When datasets from all species were included, Cu and Hg were still more toxic than the others. In particular, the toxicities of Pb to vertebrate and fish were complicated as the SSD curves of Pb intersected with those of other heavy metals, while the SSD curves of Pb constructed by total species no longer crossed with others. The hazardous concentrations for 5 % of the species (HC5) affected were derived to determine the concentration protecting 95 % of species. The HC5 values of the six heavy metals were in the descending order: Zn > Pb > Cr > Cd > Hg > Cu, indicating toxicities in opposite order. Moreover, potential affected fractions were calculated to assess the ecological risks of different heavy metals at certain concentrations of the selected heavy metals. Evaluations of sensitivities of the species at various trophic levels and toxicity analysis of heavy metals are necessary prior to derivation of water quality criteria and the further environmental protection.

  9. Assessment of toxic heavy metal loading in topsoil samples within ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    There is dearth in information on the impact of lime- stone and other mineral explorations on the surrounding environment in terms of heavy metals pollution in Nigeria. ... grinded using agate mortar. They were sieved using nylon sieve with 0.5 mm mesh size. Analyses of heavy metals and other soil properties. The pH of soil ...

  10. Removal of heavy metals from waste water of tanning leather ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unguis. The isolated fungi were investigated for their potential to remove heavy metals from wastewater effluent of tanning leather industry. Such effluent was alkaline (pH, 8.2) with high content of total soluble salts (30.6 mS/cm) and heavy metals ...

  11. Fungicide, antibiotic, heavy metal resistance and salt tolerance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fungicide, antibiotic, heavy metal resistance and salt tolerance of root nodule isolates from Vicia palaestina. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of fungicides, antibiotics, heavy metal and salt on growth of Rhizobium isolates which isolated from the Vicia palaestina ...

  12. Heavy metal bioaccumulation in the fish communities of Areba River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All the 22 fish species analysed were contaminated with heavy metals ranging from 2 to 7 times above the WHO and New Zealand maximum acceptable limits for food. Fe and Zn were the highest bioaccumulated heavy metals while Mn and V where generally the lowest. Ni was not detected in Ischthys henryi, so also were ...

  13. Heavy metal biosorption sites in Penicillium cyclopium | Tsekova ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biomass of Penicillium cyclopium was subjected to chemical treatment to study the role of the functional groups in the biosorption of heavy metal ions. The modifications of the functional groups were examined with infrared spectroscopy. Hydroxyl groups were identified as providing the major sites of heavy metal ...

  14. Relationships between heavy metals in the catfish, Chrysicthys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationships between heavy metals in the catfish, Chrysicthys nigrodigitatus , water column and sediments of taylor creek, southern Nigeria. ... The best relationships were observed for Ni-Zn (r=0.72) and Cd-Pb (r=0.65). Partitioning coefficients (£d) of heavy metals between dissolved phase and SPM were generally low, ...

  15. urban dietary heavy metal intake from protein foods and vegetables

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. Contamination of food and food products by heavy metals has made dietary intake as one of the major routes of these harmful elements to human beings. The human dietary intake of heavy metals cadmium, copper, lead and zinc from protein-foods (beans, meat, fish, milk) and green vegetables consumed daily ...

  16. Urban Dietary Heavy Metal Intake from Protein Foods and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contamination of food and food products by heavy metals has made dietary intake as one of the major routes of these harmful elements to human beings. The human dietary intake of heavy metals cadmium, copper, lead and zinc from protein-foods (beans, meat, fish, milk) and green vegetables consumed daily from ...

  17. assessment of heavy metals concentrations in the surface water of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    This work aimed at assessing the concentrations of heavy metals in the surface water of Bompai-. Jakara drainage basin. The points of ... Keywords: Heavy metals, surface water, drainage basin, standard limit. INTRODUCTION. Water pollution in .... discrepancies in values obtained. Pb concentrations recorded in this study ...

  18. Sorption of Heavy Metal Ions from Mine Wastewater by Activated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 2, 2016 ... Buah, W. K. and Dankwah, J. R. (2016), “Sorption of Heavy Metals from Mine Wastewater by Activated. Carbons Prepared ... A study on sorption of heavy metal ions: Lead (Pb2+), Copper (Cu2+) and Cadmium (Cd2+) from mine wastewater by activated ... (Pb), having relatively high densities and are toxic.

  19. A bioseparation process for removing heavy metals from waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A bioseparation process for removing heavy metals from waste water using biosorbents. ... The presence of heavy metals in the environment is of major concern because of their toxicity, bioaccumulating tendency, and threat to human life and the environment. In recent years, many low cost sorbents such as algae, fungi ...

  20. Heavy Metals Levels in Fish Samples from North Central Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heavy Metals Levels in Fish Samples from North Central Nigerian Rivers. IS Eneji, E Ogah, R Vesuwe, LA Nnamonu, R Sha'Ato. Abstract. Most aquatic organisms are capable of accumulating heavy metals to concentrations much higher than those present in water and sediments in their environment. In this piece of work, ...

  1. Heavy Metals in Soils and Tomatoes Grown in Urban Fringe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Heavy metals are ubiquitous in the environment, as a result of both natural and anthropogenic activities, and humans are exposed to them through various pathways. (Wilson and Pyatt, 2007). Heavy metals like iron, tin, copper, manganese and vanadium occur naturally in the environment and could serve as plant nutrients.

  2. Concentrations of Heavy Metals in Some Important Rivers of Owerri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water samples from Rivers Azaraegbelu, Ogochie, Okatankwu and Otamiri were analyzed for lead (Pb), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn). The concentration of lead was highest in water samples ... values of the heavy metals analyzed. Keywords: Heavy metals, concentration, river, pollution, bioavailability, toxicity ...

  3. Heavy Metal Concentrations In A West African Sahel Reservoir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... mean concentrations varied significantly between stations (P<0.05). The concentrations of heavy metals were below contamination levels and fall within the limits reported for other West African small sahel reservoirs. Keywords: Heavy metals, Pollutants, Environment, Alau reservoir, Sahel, Enrichment Animal Research ...

  4. Concentration of heavy metals in a Niger Delta Mangrove Creek ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... was no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) in the concentration of heavy metals at the study stations. The EDTA hardness depicts hard water condition. The extremely low levels of the toxic heavy metals, Ni, Cr, Pb, Cd, and Hg, and total hydrocarbon content (THC) of <1 mg/l indicate that the water was not polluted.

  5. Heavy metal bioaccumulation and biomarkers of oxidative stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human activities can have dramatic effects on animal populations around urban areas with heavy metal contamination being a primary cause of harm. Amphibians, as residents of aquatic systems and with their semi-permeable skin are especially susceptible to heavy metal contamination. To better understand the effect of ...

  6. Assessment of heavy metal contamination in raw milk for human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of heavy metals in various farm inputs, including feed, fertilizer, water and environment leads to excretion of the residues in animals' milk. Because consumption of milk contaminated with heavy metals poses serious threats to consumers' health, a study was conducted in 2012 – 2013 in Pakistan to evaluate ...

  7. Heavy metals in soils of cocoa plantation (Theobroma cacao L.) (United States)

    Cocoa has experienced significant growth in recent years in Peru and the presence of heavy metals in the soils of these plantations is a potential problem for the export of this product. Contents of heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Pb, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn) in soils from 19 plantations that have been in production f...

  8. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in soils along major roadside ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    living organisms, when permissible concentration levels are exceeded. Heavy ... index (Igeo), and (3) Classify heavy metals by their similarities and ..... and classify metals. Statistical analysis. Analysis of variance was employed to determine whether groups of variables have the same mean. Sites showed no significant ...

  9. Influence of different concentration of heavy metals on the seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Some heavy metals in higher doses may cause metabolic disorders and growth inhibition for most of the plant species. This study was performed in order to evaluate two tomato varieties (Barakat and. Local tomato) response to ordinary Heavy Metals (Fe, Pb and Cu) in northern of Iran. Five doses (0,. 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and ...

  10. Comparative assessment of heavy metal removal by immobilized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microorganisms play a vital role in heavy metal contaminated soil and wastewater by the mechanisms of biosorption. In this study, heavy metal resistant bacteria were isolated from an electroplating industrial effluent samples that uses copper, cadmium and lead for plating. These isolates were characterized to evaluate their ...

  11. Comparative Studies on Mosses for Heavy Metals Pollution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ekiti, a rural town was investigated using mosses grown in the localities as possible bio-indicators. The sources of these heavy metals were discovered to include: vehicular emission and incineration of domestic wastes and the heavy metals from ...

  12. Determination of heavy metals and genotoxicity of water from an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, the present study aimed to quantify and evaluate the heavy metal genotoxicity of artesian water in the city by Atomic absorption spectrophotometer analysis and testing with the Allium cepa test, respectively. This study reveals a chemical contamination in well water in the city, caused by the presence of heavy metals.

  13. Heavy Metal Music and Adolescent Suicidality: An Empirical Investigation. (United States)

    Scheel, Karen R.; Westefeld, John S.


    Investigates the relationship between preference for heavy metal music and vulnerability to suicide among high school students. Results indicate that preference for heavy metal music among adolescents may be sign of increased suicidal vulnerability, but also suggests that the source of the problem may lie more in personal and familial…

  14. heavy metals pollution on surface water sources in kaduna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. This study examine the effects of heavy metal pollutants to aquatic ecosystems and the environment by considering the role of urban, municipal, agricultural, industrial and other anthropogenic processes as sources of heavy metal pollution in surface water sources of Kaduna metropolis. Samples of the polluted ...

  15. Assessment of heavy metals concentrations in coastal sediments in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    This study was undertaken to evaluate the heavy metals contamination of copper, zinc, manganese, iron, chromium ... Key words: Marine pollution, heavy metals, coastal sediments, toxicity, Nosy Be, Mahajanga, Madagascar. INTRODUCTION .... source of Cd and Pb in sediments come from ferry port activities and from the ...

  16. Heavy metal contamination of selected spices obtained from Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    KEYWORDS: heavy metal; contamination; Nigeria; spices; health; daily intake. Over the millennia, spices have been used in changing world's cuisine and medicine (Dukes,. 2003). Regrettably, significant quantities of heavy metals have been detected in natural food spices such as pepper and mustard (Krejpcio, 2007; ...

  17. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopic determination of heavy metals and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the heavy metal and trace element composition of the powdered aerial parts of. Origanum sipyleum L. and its water extract. Methods: The heavy metal and trace elements content of the powdered plant material and 2 % aqueous extract were evaluated by x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy with silicon ...

  18. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in soils along major roadside ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to create awareness of vehicular heavy metal pollution to Botswana policy makers in the mitigation of vehicular pollution, as it is barely monitored. Key words: Heavy metal contamination, roadside soils, enrichment factors, contamination factor, pollution load index, geoaccumulation index, cluster analysis, factor analysis.

  19. Heavy Metals Accumulation Characteristics of Vegetables in Hangzhou City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GU Yan-qing


    Full Text Available A field survey of heavy metal concentrations in soils and vegetables grown in 30 vegetable farmlands of Hangzhou City were carried out. Through calculating the bioconcentration factor(BCFand transfer factor(TFfor different heavy metals(Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr and Pbin 27 kinds of different vegetables which belong to leafy vegetables, root vegetables or eggplant fruit vegetables, assessing their accumulation characteristics of heavy metals according to the differences of the bio-concentration factor, the reasonable proposals were put forward to optimize the planting structure of vegetables in mild and middle-level heavy metal contamination soils. The experimental results were as follows: In soils with mild and middle-level heavy metal contamination, leafy vegetables, such as crown daisy, cabbage, celery and Chinese long cabbage, had relatively low enrichment ability of heavy metals, so as the root and fruit vegetables like white radish, carrot, tomatoes, hence these vegetables could be planted preferentially. In contrast, some kinds of vegetables, including white amaranth, red amaranth, tatsoi, broccoli, gynura, brassica juncea and lettuce of leafy vegetables, lactuca sativa, taro, red radish and cherry radish of rhizome vegetables and sweet pepper of fruit vegetables, had relatively high accumulation ability of heavy metal, which should be avoided to be planted in soils with mild and middle-level heavy metal contamination.

  20. Heavy metal contamination of soil and sediment in Zambia | Ikenaka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heavy metal pollution is one of the most important problems in Zambia and causes serious effects to humans and animals. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of heavy metals in main areas of Zambia and understand the characteristics of the pollution in each area. River and lake sediments ...

  1. Heavy metals accumulation in edible part of vegetables irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hassana Ibrahim Mustapha

    In this present study, the quality of municipal wastewater used for irrigation of spinach was investigated for its heavy metal build-up. The municipal wastewater used for irrigation and the irrigated spinach samples were collected and analyzed for their heavy metal concentrations. The results indicate that the municipal ...

  2. Heavy metal accumulation in Melilotus officinalis under crown Olea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Nov 5, 2008 ... wastewater has been applied for 7 years. This would provide knowledge that guides future research into the protection of the environment and domestic animals from exposure to heavy metals with potential to cause health problems. Although total concentrations of heavy metals in soil poorly indicate their ...

  3. Classification of Plants According to Their Heavy Metal Content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The classes of plant species according to their accumulated heavy metals around North Mara Gold Mine were not known. ... requirements, optimizations, growth rates and the incidence of pests and diseases are required on the identified heavy metal hyperaccumulator plants for possible future remediation of the study area.

  4. Uptake and elimination kinetics of heavy metals by earthworm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Earthworm inoculation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil is thought to catalyze the bioremediation. Most bioremediation studies focus on the petroleum hydrocarbon content and not on the heavy metals. Here, the uptake kinetics of heavy metals by earthworm in used engine oil contaminated soil was investigated.

  5. Utilization of Plant Refuses as Component of Heavy Metal Ion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Waste materials like fruit and vegetable refuses were utilized as component of sensors capable of detecting heavy metals like lead ions and mercury ions by electrochemical method. The ability of the fabricated sensors to detect the presence of heavy metals was analyzed using electrochemical methods like cyclic ...

  6. assessment of heavy metal concentration in water around the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    lead, nickel and zinc (EU 1998, TBS 2005,. WHO 2008).When heavy metal concentrations in water exceed ... that the dependency of heavy metal concentration on rainfall variations can be complex (Meybeck ..... IAEA 2009 Nuclear energy series establishment of uranium mining and processing operations in the context of ...

  7. Determination of Heavy Metal Genotoxicity and their Accumulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT: This study investigated bioaccumulation of heavy metals and cytogenotoxic effects that could result from exposure of fish to heavy metals in the Asa River, Ilorin, Nigeria. The three different fish species, Tilapia zilli, Oreochromis niloticus and Sarotherodon galilaeus were obtained from the Asa River and the ...

  8. Determination of heavy metals in chinese prickly ash from different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The highest concentrations of Pb and As in CPA exceeded the maximum permissible limits in China. Based on current safety standards, the concentrations of heavy metals in these CPA samples mean they are safe for human consumption. Conclusions: The status of heavy metal concentrations of CPA should be further ...

  9. Study on physicochemical and heavy metals (Pb, Fe, Mn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on the physicochemical and heavy metals concentration of drinking water in Dutse Jigawa State was conducted between May, 2010 and February 2011. The parameters analyzed were the colour, odour, taste, temperature, turbidity, conductivity, pH, alkalinity, total hardness, dissolved oxygen and some heavy metals ...

  10. Levels of some heavy metals in cassava and plantain from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT: The concentrations of heavy metals (Ni, Zn, Cu, Pb and Fe) were determined in cassava and plantain from farmlands in kaani and Kpean Communities in Khana Local. Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. Samples were collected, prepared, digested and analyzed using AAS. The levels of heavy metals ...

  11. Heavy Metal Pollution of Vegetable Crops Irrigated with Wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    exotic and traditional vegetables (samples = 240) irrigated with wastewater from some parts of Accra were studied. ... pesticides (McBride, 2003), as well as ...... Chemical speciation of heavy metals in sewage sludge and related matrices. In. Heavy Metals in Wastewater and Sludge. Treatment Process. (J. N. Lester, ed.), pp ...

  12. Heavy metal accumulation in Melilotus officinalis under crown Olea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Nov 5, 2008 ... This study was conducted to investigate heavy metal accumulation in Melilotus officinalis under crown. Olea europaea L forest in Rey town (Tehran, Iran), irrigated with wastewater and well water. Zn, Pb, Cr and Ni were determined at two sites. Heavy metal total concentrations (mg kg-1) in clay soils of pH ...

  13. Heavy metals accumulation in vegetables grown along the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heavy metals accumulation in vegetables grown along the Msimbazi River in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. ... International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences ... With exception to Ipomea batata, other vegetables contained at least two types of heavy metals with high concentrations beyond the permissible values ...

  14. Synergistic Effects of Heavy Metals and Pesticides in Living Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitika Singh


    Full Text Available There is a widespread repeated exposure of the population to the pesticides and heavy metals of occupational and environmental origin. Such population is forced to undergo continuous stress imposed by combined exposure of the heavy metals and different classes of the pesticides used in agricultural as well as health practices. The existing reports from several workers have indicated that heavy metals and pesticides in combination may lead more severe impact on the human health when compared to their individual effects. Such a combination of pesticides and heavy metals may also change or influence the detection of exposure. Several studies in past have shown the synergistic toxic effects of heavy metals and pesticides. Such evaluations have revealed the synergistic interactions of various heavy metals and pesticides in animals as well as humans. The aim of the present article is to provide a synthesis of existing knowledge on the synergistic effects of heavy metal and pesticides in living systems. The information included in this article may be useful for different environment protection agencies and policy makers to consider the combined effects of heavy metals and pesticides on humans while designing strategies toward environmental protection and safety regulations about human health.

  15. Removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution by using mango ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 14, 2011 ... waste pollution, thermal pollution, shipping water pollution and radioactive wastes (Tyagi and Mehra, 1994). Heavy metals such as zinc, lead and chromium ... alkalis, acids, detergents and heat, which may enhance the amount of the metal sorbed. When non-viable biomass is used in the removal of heavy ...

  16. Distribution of Heavy Metals in the Coastal Marine Surficial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the trend of pollution in coastal areas has been increasing over time. In Tanzania, heavy metals in sediments have been determined in the Dar es. Salaam harbour (Machiwa 1992, 2000) and along. River Msimbazi (A'khabuhaya and Lodenius. 1988). Heavy metals concentration have also been measured from sediments ...

  17. Assessment of Heavy Metal Status of Boreholes in Calabar South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of Heavy Metal Status of Boreholes in Calabar South Local Government Area, Cross River State, Nigeria. GN Njar, AI Iwara, RA Offiong, TD Deekor. Abstract. Although, many heavy metals are necessary in small amounts for the normal development of the biological cycles, most of them become toxic at high ...

  18. Design of Heavy Metals Monitoring System in Water Based on WSN and GPRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Lin


    Full Text Available In order to realize the real-time monitoring of heavy metals in water environment, a new type of heavy metal monitoring system was developed. The system was composed of monitoring terminal, gateway, GPRS network and upper computer monitoring center. The system detected the heavy metal ion concentrations by ion-selective electrode array and came into the system error automatic compensation method in the detection process. The collecting data was transported to the monitoring center through the cooperation between the wireless sensor network constituted by CC2530 and General Packet Radio Service network. The test result shows that the system can increased precision dramatically and strengthens the real-time transmission capacity effectively. The system is reliable in transmission, high real-time performance, flexible in networking and can be applied to continuous remote monitoring of heavy metals pollution.

  19. Reducing hazardous heavy metal ions using mangium bark waste. (United States)

    Khabibi, Jauhar; Syafii, Wasrin; Sari, Rita Kartika


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of mangium bark and its biosorbent ability to reduce heavy metal ions in standard solutions and wastewater and to assess changes in bark characteristics after heavy metal absorption. The experiments were conducted to determine heavy metal absorption from solutions of heavy metals alone and in mixtures as well as from wastewater. The results show that mangium bark can absorb heavy metals. Absorption percentages and capacities from single heavy metal solutions showed that Cu(2+) > Ni(2+) > Pb(2+) > Hg(2+), while those from mixture solutions showed that Hg(2+) > Cu(2+) > Pb(2+) > Ni(2+). Wastewater from gold mining only contained Cu, with an absorption percentage and capacity of 42.87 % and 0.75 mg/g, respectively. The highest absorption percentage and capacity of 92.77 % and 5.18 mg/g, respectively, were found for Hg(2+) in a mixture solution and Cu(2+) in single-metal solution. The Cu(2+) absorption process in a single-metal solution changed the biosorbent characteristics of the mangium bark, yielding a decreased crystalline fraction; changed transmittance on hydroxyl, carboxyl, and carbonyl groups; and increased the presence of Cu. In conclusion, mangium bark biosorbent can reduce hazardous heavy metal ions in both standard solutions and wastewater.

  20. Heavy metals in the environment; uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of spatial predictions of heavy metals in wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.; Jansen, M.J.W.


    Heavy metals seriously threaten the health of human beings when they enter the food chain. Therefore, policymakers require precise predictions of heavy metal concentrations in agricultural crops. In this paper we quantify the uncertainty of regression predictions of Cd and Pb in wheat (Triticum

  1. Modeling of Heavy Metal Transformation in Soil Ecosystem (United States)

    Kalinichenko, Kira; Nikovskaya, Galina N.


    The intensification of industrial activity leads to an increase in heavy metals pollution of soils. In our opinion, sludge from biological treatment of municipal waste water, stabilized under aerobic-anaerobic conditions (commonly known as biosolid), may be considered as concentrate of natural soil. In their chemical, physical and chemical and biological properties these systems are similar gel-like nanocomposites. These contain microorganisms, humic substances, clay, clusters of nanoparticles of heavy metal compounds, and so on involved into heteropolysaccharides matrix. It is known that microorganisms play an important role in the transformation of different nature substances in soil and its health maintenance. The regularities of transformation of heavy metal compounds in soil ecosystem were studied at the model of biosolid. At biosolid swelling its structure changing (gel-sol transition, weakening of coagulation contacts between metal containing nanoparticles, microbial cells and metabolites, loosening and even destroying of the nanocomposite structure) can occur [1, 2]. The promotion of the sludge heterotrophic microbial activities leads to solubilization of heavy metal compounds in the system. The microbiological process can be realized in alcaligeneous or acidogeneous regimes in dependence on the type of carbon source and followed by the synthesis of metabolites with the properties of flocculants and heavy metals extragents [3]. In this case the heavy metals solubilization (bioleaching) in the form of nanoparticles of hydroxycarbonate complexes or water soluble complexes with oxycarbonic acids is observed. Under the action of biosolid microorganisms the heavy metals-oxycarbonic acids complexes can be transformed (catabolised) into nano-sizing heavy metals- hydroxycarbonates complexes. These ecologically friendly complexes and microbial heteropolysaccharides are able to interact with soil colloids, stay in the top soil profile, and improve soil structure due

  2. Biomedical Implications of Heavy Metals Induced Imbalances in Redox Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bechan Sharma


    Full Text Available Several workers have extensively worked out the metal induced toxicity and have reported the toxic and carcinogenic effects of metals in human and animals. It is well known that these metals play a crucial role in facilitating normal biological functions of cells as well. One of the major mechanisms associated with heavy metal toxicity has been attributed to generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, which develops imbalance between the prooxidant elements and the antioxidants (reducing elements in the body. In this process, a shift to the former is termed as oxidative stress. The oxidative stress mediated toxicity of heavy metals involves damage primarily to liver (hepatotoxicity, central nervous system (neurotoxicity, DNA (genotoxicity, and kidney (nephrotoxicity in animals and humans. Heavy metals are reported to impact signaling cascade and associated factors leading to apoptosis. The present review illustrates an account of the current knowledge about the effects of heavy metals (mainly arsenic, lead, mercury, and cadmium induced oxidative stress as well as the possible remedies of metal(s toxicity through natural/synthetic antioxidants, which may render their effects by reducing the concentration of toxic metal(s. This paper primarily concerns the clinicopathological and biomedical implications of heavy metals induced oxidative stress and their toxicity management in mammals.

  3. Biomedical implications of heavy metals induced imbalances in redox systems. (United States)

    Sharma, Bechan; Singh, Shweta; Siddiqi, Nikhat J


    Several workers have extensively worked out the metal induced toxicity and have reported the toxic and carcinogenic effects of metals in human and animals. It is well known that these metals play a crucial role in facilitating normal biological functions of cells as well. One of the major mechanisms associated with heavy metal toxicity has been attributed to generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, which develops imbalance between the prooxidant elements and the antioxidants (reducing elements) in the body. In this process, a shift to the former is termed as oxidative stress. The oxidative stress mediated toxicity of heavy metals involves damage primarily to liver (hepatotoxicity), central nervous system (neurotoxicity), DNA (genotoxicity), and kidney (nephrotoxicity) in animals and humans. Heavy metals are reported to impact signaling cascade and associated factors leading to apoptosis. The present review illustrates an account of the current knowledge about the effects of heavy metals (mainly arsenic, lead, mercury, and cadmium) induced oxidative stress as well as the possible remedies of metal(s) toxicity through natural/synthetic antioxidants, which may render their effects by reducing the concentration of toxic metal(s). This paper primarily concerns the clinicopathological and biomedical implications of heavy metals induced oxidative stress and their toxicity management in mammals.

  4. Biomedical Implications of Heavy Metals Induced Imbalances in Redox Systems (United States)

    Singh, Shweta; Siddiqi, Nikhat J.


    Several workers have extensively worked out the metal induced toxicity and have reported the toxic and carcinogenic effects of metals in human and animals. It is well known that these metals play a crucial role in facilitating normal biological functions of cells as well. One of the major mechanisms associated with heavy metal toxicity has been attributed to generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, which develops imbalance between the prooxidant elements and the antioxidants (reducing elements) in the body. In this process, a shift to the former is termed as oxidative stress. The oxidative stress mediated toxicity of heavy metals involves damage primarily to liver (hepatotoxicity), central nervous system (neurotoxicity), DNA (genotoxicity), and kidney (nephrotoxicity) in animals and humans. Heavy metals are reported to impact signaling cascade and associated factors leading to apoptosis. The present review illustrates an account of the current knowledge about the effects of heavy metals (mainly arsenic, lead, mercury, and cadmium) induced oxidative stress as well as the possible remedies of metal(s) toxicity through natural/synthetic antioxidants, which may render their effects by reducing the concentration of toxic metal(s). This paper primarily concerns the clinicopathological and biomedical implications of heavy metals induced oxidative stress and their toxicity management in mammals. PMID:25184144

  5. Mitigation of heavy metals in different vegetables through biological washing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Umair Sattar


    Full Text Available Availability of nutritious and healthy food is the foremost challenging issue in all over the word. Vegetables are essential part in human diet and considered as natural reserves of nutrients gifted by Almighty Allah to human beings. Heavy metals are among the most toxic food pollutants and their intake through diet leads to several disorders. The sources of heavy metal contamination include waste water irrigation, industrial emissions, transportation and application of metal-based pesticides. In Pakistan this situation is more alarming as vegetables grown in peri-urban areas have shown high incidence of heavy metals accumulation. In this study effort was made to mitigate different heavy metals (Ar, Cd, Cr and Pb in cauliflower, spinach, okra and brinjal collected from peri-urban areas through washing with different biological solutions. Heavy metals contents were determined by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS. Vegetable showed high load of heavy metals in unwashed form that reduced significantly by washing with different biological solutions. Among the different biological solutions, washing of vegetables with 8% ginger solution was found to be more effective.

  6. Cell surface engineering of microorganisms towards adsorption of heavy metals. (United States)

    Li, Peng-Song; Tao, Hu-Chun


    Heavy metal contamination has become a worldwide environmental concern due to its toxicity, non-degradability and food-chain bioaccumulation. Conventional physical and chemical treatment methods for heavy metal removal have disadvantages such as cost-intensiveness, incomplete removal, secondary pollution and the lack of metal specificity. Microbial biomass-based biosorption is one of the approaches gaining increasing attention because it is effective, cheap, and environmental friendly and can work well at low concentrations. To enhance the adsorption properties of microbial cells to heavy metal ions, the cell surface display of various metal-binding proteins/peptides have been performed using a cell surface engineering approach. The surface engineering of Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria and yeast towards the adsorption of heavy metals are reviewed in this article. The problems and future perspectives of this technology are discussed.

  7. Human health risk assessment of heavy metals in urban stormwater. (United States)

    Ma, Yukun; Egodawatta, Prasanna; McGree, James; Liu, An; Goonetilleke, Ashantha


    Toxic chemical pollutants such as heavy metals (HMs) are commonly present in urban stormwater. These pollutants can pose a significant risk to human health and hence a significant barrier for urban stormwater reuse. The primary aim of this study was to develop an approach for quantitatively assessing the risk to human health due to the presence of HMs in stormwater. This approach will lead to informed decision making in relation to risk management of urban stormwater reuse, enabling efficient implementation of appropriate treatment strategies. In this study, risks to human health from heavy metals were assessed as hazard index (HI) and quantified as a function of traffic and land use related parameters. Traffic and land use are the primary factors influencing heavy metal loads in the urban environment. The risks posed by heavy metals associated with total solids and fine solids (metal does not pose a significant risk, the presence of multiple heavy metals could be detrimental to human health. These findings suggest that stormwater guidelines should consider the combined risk from multiple heavy metals rather than the threshold concentration of an individual species. Furthermore, it was found that risk to human health from heavy metals in stormwater is significantly influenced by traffic volume and the risk associated with stormwater from industrial areas is generally higher than that from commercial and residential areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaporation as the transport mechanism of metals in arid regions

    KAUST Repository

    Lima, Ana T.


    Soils of arid regions are exposed to drought and drastic temperature oscillations throughout the year. Transport mechanisms in these soils are therefore very different from the ones in temperate regions, where rain dictates the fate of most elements in soils. Due to the low rainfall and high evaporation rates in arid regions, groundwater quality is not threatened and all soil contamination issues tend to be overlooked. But if soil contamination happens, where do contaminants go? This study tests the hypothesis of upward metal movement in soils when evaporation is the main transport mechanism. Laboratory evaporation tests were carried out with heavy metal spiked Saudi soil, using circulation of air as the driving force (Fig. 1). Main results show that loamy soil retains heavy metals quite well while evaporation drives heavy metals to the surface of a sandy soil. Evaporation transports heavy metals upward in sandy soils of arid regions, making them accumulate at the soil surface. Sand being the dominating type of soil in arid regions, soils can then be a potential source of contaminated aerosols and atmospheric pollution - a transboundary problem. Some other repercussions for this problem are foreseen, such as the public ingestion or inhalation of dust. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Multiple heavy metal removal using an entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana. (United States)

    Gola, Deepak; Dey, Priyadarshini; Bhattacharya, Arghya; Mishra, Abhishek; Malik, Anushree; Namburath, Maneesh; Ahammad, Shaikh Ziauddin


    Towards the development of a potential remediation technology for multiple heavy metals [Zn(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), Cr(VI) and Ni(II)] from contaminated water, present study examined the growth kinetics and heavy metal removal ability of Beauveria bassiana in individual and multi metals. The specific growth rate of B. bassiana varied from 0.025h(-1) to 0.039h(-1) in presence of individual/multi heavy metals. FTIR analysis indicated the involvement of different surface functional groups in biosorption of different metals, while cellular changes in fungus was reflected by various microscopic (SEM, AFM and TEM) analysis. TEM studies proved removal of heavy metals via sorption and accumulation processes, whereas AFM studies revealed increase in cell surface roughness in fungal cells exposed to heavy metals. Present study delivers first report on the mechanism of bioremediation of heavy metals when present individually as well as multi metal mixture by entomopathogenic fungi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of sulfate on heavy metal release from iron corrosion scales in drinking water distribution system. (United States)

    Sun, Huifang; Shi, Baoyou; Yang, Fan; Wang, Dongsheng


    Trace heavy metals accumulated in iron corrosion scales within a drinking water distribution system (DWDS) could potentially be released to bulk water and consequently deteriorate the tap water quality. The objective of this study was to identify and evaluate the release of trace heavy metals in DWDS under changing source water conditions. Experimental pipe loops with different iron corrosion scales were set up to simulate the actual DWDS. The effects of sulfate levels on heavy metal release were systemically investigated. Heavy metal releases of Mn, Ni, Cu, Pb, Cr and As could be rapidly triggered by sulfate addition but the releases slowly decreased over time. Heavy metal release was more severe in pipes transporting groundwater (GW) than in pipes transporting surface water (SW). There were strong positive correlations (R 2  > 0.8) between the releases of Fe and Mn, Fe and Ni, Fe and Cu, and Fe and Pb. When switching to higher sulfate water, iron corrosion scales in all pipe loops tended to be more stable (especially in pipes transporting GW), with a larger proportion of stable constituents (mainly Fe 3 O 4 ) and fewer unstable compounds (β-FeOOH, γ-FeOOH, FeCO 3 and amorphous iron oxides). The main functional iron reducing bacteria (IRB) communities were favorable for the formation of Fe 3 O 4 . The transformation of corrosion scales and the growth of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) accounted for the gradually reduced heavy metal release with time. The higher metal release in pipes transporting GW could be due to increased Fe 6 (OH) 12 CO 3 content under higher sulfate concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Chelation: Harnessing and Enhancing Heavy Metal Detoxification—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret E. Sears


    Full Text Available Toxic metals such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury are ubiquitous, have no beneficial role in human homeostasis, and contribute to noncommunicable chronic diseases. While novel drug targets for chronic disease are eagerly sought, potentially helpful agents that aid in detoxification of toxic elements, chelators, have largely been restricted to overt acute poisoning. Chelation, that is multiple coordination bonds between organic molecules and metals, is very common in the body and at the heart of enzymes with a metal cofactor such as copper or zinc. Peptides glutathione and metallothionein chelate both essential and toxic elements as they are sequestered, transported, and excreted. Enhancing natural chelation detoxification pathways, as well as use of pharmaceutical chelators against heavy metals are reviewed. Historical adverse outcomes with chelators, lessons learned in the art of using them, and successes using chelation to ameliorate renal, cardiovascular, and neurological conditions highlight the need for renewed attention to simple, safe, inexpensive interventions that offer potential to stem the tide of debilitating, expensive chronic disease.

  12. Heavy metal sensitivity and bioconcentration in oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skubala, Piotr, E-mail: [Department of Ecology, University of Silesia, Bankowa 9, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Zaleski, Tomasz [Department of Soil Science and Soil Protection, Agricultural University in Krakow, Mickiewicza 21, 31-120 Cracow (Poland)


    In this study we aimed to identify different reactions of oribatid species to heavy metal pollution and to measure concentrations of cadmium, zinc and copper in oribatid species sampled along a gradient. Oribatid mites were sampled seasonally during two years in five meadows located at different distances from the zinc smelter in the Olkusz District, southern Poland. Oribatids were shown to withstand critical metal concentration and established comparatively abundant and diverse communities. The highest abundance and species richness of oribatids were recorded in soils with moderate concentrations of heavy metals. Four different responses of oribatid species to heavy metal pollution were recognized. Heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni) and various physical (bulk density, field capacity, total porosity) and chemical (K{sub av}, P{sub av}, N, C, pH) factors were recognized as the structuring forces that influence the distribution of oribatid species. Analysis by atomic absorption spectrophotometry revealed large differences in metal body burdens among species. None of the species can be categorized as accumulators or non-accumulators of the heavy metals - the pattern depends on the metal. The process of bioconcentration of the toxic metal (regulated) and essential elements (accumulated) was generally different in the five oribatid species studied. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Responses of oribatid mites to metal contamination along a gradient in meadow soils were studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Small concentrations of heavy metals positively influenced the abundance of oribatid mites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four different responses of oribatid species to heavy metal pollution were recognised. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bioaccumulation of the toxic metal and essential elements proceeded differently in oribatid species. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Five studied oribatid species were deconcentrators of cadmium.

  13. Comparative genomics of regulation of heavy metal resistance in Eubacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalinina OV


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heavy metal resistance (HMR in Eubacteria is regulated by a variety of systems including transcription factors from the MerR family (COG0789. The HMR systems are characterized by the complex signal structure (strong palindrome within a 19 or 20 bp promoter spacer, and usually consist of transporter and regulator genes. Some HMR regulons also include detoxification systems. The number of sequenced bacterial genomes is constantly increasing and even though HMR resistance regulons of the COG0789 type usually consist of few genes per genome, the computational analysis may contribute to the understanding of the cellular systems of metal detoxification. Results We studied the mercury (MerR, copper (CueR and HmrR, cadmium (CadR, lead (PbrR, and zinc (ZntR resistance systems and demonstrated that combining protein sequence analysis and analysis of DNA regulatory signals it was possible to distinguish metal-dependent members of COG0789, assign specificity towards particular metals to uncharacterized loci, and find new genes involved in the metal resistance, in particular, multicopper oxidase and copper chaperones, candidate cytochromes from the copper regulon, new cadmium transporters and, possibly, glutathione-S-transferases. Conclusion Our data indicate that the specificity of the COG0789 systems can be determined combining phylogenetic analysis and identification of DNA regulatory sites. Taking into account signal structure, we can adequately identify genes that are activated using the DNA bending-unbending mechanism. In the case of regulon members that do not reside in single loci, analysis of potential regulatory sites could be crucial for the correct annotation and prediction of the specificity.

  14. Heavy metals in vegetables and potential risk for human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Guerra


    Full Text Available Ingestion of vegetables containing heavy metals is one of the main ways in which these elements enter the human body. Once entered, heavy metals are deposited in bone and fat tissues, overlapping noble minerals. Slowly released into the body, heavy metals can cause an array of diseases. This study aimed to investigate the concentrations of cadmium, nickel, lead, cobalt and chromium in the most frequently consumed foodstuff in the São Paulo State, Brazil and to compare the heavy metal contents with the permissible limits established by the Brazilian legislation. A value of intake of heavy metals in human diets was also calculated to estimate the risk to human health. Vegetable samples were collected at the São Paulo General Warehousing and Centers Company, and the heavy metal content was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. All sampled vegetables presented average concentrations of Cd and Ni lower than the permissible limits established by the Brazilian legislation. Pb and Cr exceeded the limits in 44 % of the analyzed samples. The Brazilian legislation does not establish a permissible limit for Co contents. Regarding the consumption habit of the population in the São Paulo State, the daily ingestion of heavy metals was below the oral dose of reference, therefore, consumption of these vegetables can be considered safe and without risk to human health.

  15. Microalgae - A promising tool for heavy metal remediation. (United States)

    Suresh Kumar, K; Dahms, Hans-Uwe; Won, Eun-Ji; Lee, Jae-Seong; Shin, Kyung-Hoon


    Biotechnology of microalgae has gained popularity due to the growing need for novel environmental technologies and the development of innovative mass-production. Inexpensive growth requirements (solar light and CO2), and, the advantage of being utilized simultaneously for multiple technologies (e.g. carbon mitigation, biofuel production, and bioremediation) make microalgae suitable candidates for several ecofriendly technologies. Microalgae have developed an extensive spectrum of mechanisms (extracellular and intracellular) to cope with heavy metal toxicity. Their wide-spread occurrence along with their ability to grow and concentrate heavy metals, ascertains their suitability in practical applications of waste-water bioremediation. Heavy metal uptake by microalgae is affirmed to be superior to the prevalent physicochemical processes employed in the removal of toxic heavy metals. In order to evaluate their potential and to fill in the loopholes, it is essential to carry out a critical assessment of the existing microalgal technologies, and realize the need for development of commercially viable technologies involving strategic multidisciplinary approaches. This review summarizes several areas of heavy metal remediation from a microalgal perspective and provides an overview of various practical avenues of this technology. It particularly details heavy metals and microalgae which have been extensively studied, and provides a schematic representation of the mechanisms of heavy metal remediation in microalgae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Results of examinations on the amount, and spatial distribution of heavy metal compounds in the soil of Debrecen, their geographic, pedologic and ecologic aspects are presented in this study. The effects of the differences in traffic conditions, build-up/land use and the density of vegetation on the heavy metal content of the soils have been examined in city of Debrecen and its closer environment.Cadmium-, cobalt-, nickel-, lead-, and copper-contents of the soil samples taken from 88 sites of the sample area have been studied after acidic extraction, using atomic absorption spectrometer with the flame technique. Close-to-background concentrations of heavy metals in unpolluted soils of the forested area of the Nagyerd were determined. Spatial differences in the heavy metal content of the soils for the whole area of Debrecen have been studied. Influence of soil properties (humus, Calcium- Carbonate content, pH and grain-size distribution on the binding and mobility of heavy metals in the soil has been examined. Vertical distribution and mobility of heavy metal compounds in acid sandy soils was determined. Heavy metal content of soil in the most sensitive areas, playgrounds, recreational areas, urban gardens and grazing fields along busy roads has been surveyed.

  17. Heavy-metal-induced reactive oxygen species: phytotoxicity and physicochemical changes in plants. (United States)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Pourrut, Bertrand; Dumat, Camille; Nadeem, Muhammad; Aslam, Muhammad; Pinelli, Eric


    biomolecules. Heavy-metal-induced ROS cause lipid peroxidation, membrane dismantling and damage to DNA, protein and carbohydrates. Plants have very well-organized defense systems, consisting of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidation processes. The primary defense mechanism for heavy metal detoxification is the reduced absorption of these metals into plants or their sequestration in root cells.Secondary heavy metal tolerance mechanisms include activation of antioxidant enzymes and the binding of heavy metals by phytochelatins, glutathione and amino acids. These defense systems work in combination to manage the cascades of oxidative stress and to defend plant cells from the toxic effects of ROS.In this review, we summarized the biochemiCal processes involved in the over production of ROS as an aftermath to heavy metal exposure. We also described the ROS scavenging process that is associated with the antioxidant defense machinery.Despite considerable progress in understanding the biochemistry of ROS overproduction and scavenging, we still lack in-depth studies on the parameters associated with heavy metal exclusion and tolerance capacity of plants. For example, data about the role of glutathione-glutaredoxin-thioredoxin system in ROS detoxification in plant cells are scarce. Moreover, how ROS mediate glutathionylation (redox signalling)is still not completely understood. Similarly, induction of glutathione and phytochelatins under oxidative stress is very well reported, but it is still unexplained that some studied compounds are not involved in the detoxification mechanisms. Moreover,although the role of metal transporters and gene expression is well established for a few metals and plants, much more research is needed. Eventually, when results for more metals and plants are available, the mechanism of the biochemical and genetic basis of heavy metal detoxification in plants will be better understood. Moreover, by using recently developed genetic and biotechnological tools it

  18. Pollution distribution of heavy metals in surface soil at an informal electronic-waste recycling site. (United States)

    Fujimori, Takashi; Takigami, Hidetaka


    We studied distribution of heavy metals [lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn)] in surface soil at an electronic-waste (e-waste) recycling workshop near Metro Manila in the Philippines to evaluate the pollution size (spot size, small area or the entire workshop), as well as to assess heavy metal transport into the surrounding soil environment. On-site length-of-stride-scale (~70 cm) measurements were performed at each surface soil point using field-portable X-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF). The surface soil at the e-waste recycling workshop was polluted with Cu, Zn and Pb, which were distributed discretely in surface soil. The site was divided into five areas based on the distance from an entrance gate (y-axis) of the e-waste recycling workshop. The three heavy metals showed similar concentration gradients in the y-axis direction. Zn, Pb and Cu concentrations were estimated to decrease to half of their maximum concentrations at ~3, 7 and 7 m from the pollution spot, respectively, inside the informal e-waste recycling workshop. Distance from an entrance may play an important role in heavy metal transport at the soil surface. Using on-site FP-XRF, we evaluated the metal ratio to characterise pollution features of the solid surface. Variability analysis of heavy metals revealed vanishing surficial autocorrelation over metre ranges. Also, the possibility of concentration prediction at unmeasured points using geostatistical kriging was evaluated, and heavy metals had a relative "small" pollution scales and remained inside the original workshop compared with toxic organohalogen compounds. Thus, exposure to heavy metals may directly influence the health of e-waste workers at the original site rather than the surrounding habitat and environmental media.

  19. Heavy metals, PAHs and toxicity in stormwater wet detention ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Tove; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild


    Concentrations of 6 different heavy metals and total Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) were determined in stormwater runoff and in the pond water of two Danish wet detention ponds. The pond water samples were analyzed for toxic effects, using the algae Selenastrum capricornutum as a test...... organism. Stormwater and pond water from a catchment with light industry showed high levels of heavy metals, especially zinc and copper. The pond water showed high toxic effects and copper were found to be the main toxicant. Additionally, a large part of the copper was suspected to be complex bound......, reducing the potential toxicity of the metal. Another catchment (residential) produced stormwater and pond water with moderate concentration of heavy metals. The pond water occasionally showed toxic effects but no correlation between heavy metals and toxicity was identified. PAHs concentrations were...

  20. [Soil Heavy Metal Spatial Distribution and Source Analysis Around an Aluminum Plant in Baotou]. (United States)

    Zhang, Lian-ke; Li, Hai-peng; Huang, Xue-min; Li, Yu-mei; Jiao, Kun-ling; Sun, Peng; Wang, Wei-da


    The soil with 500 m distance from an aluminum plant in Baotou was studied. A total of 64 soil samples were taken from the 0-5 cm, 5-20 cm, 20-40 cm and 40-60 cm layers, and the contents of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, Ni and Mn were tested, respectively. The correlation analysis and principal component analysis were used to identify the sources of these heavy metals in soils. The results suggested that the contents of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, Ni and Mn in study area were 32.9, 50.35, 69.92, 43.78, 0.54, 554.42 and 36.65 mg · kg⁻¹ respectively. All seven heavy metals tested were overweight compared with the background values of soil in Inner Mongolia. The spatial distribution of heavy metals showed that the horizontal distribution of heavy metals was obviously enriched in the southwest, while in vertical distribution, the heavy metal content (0 to 5 cm) was highest in the surface soil, and the heavy metal content decreased with increasing depth and tended to be stabilized when the depth was over 20 cm. Source analysis showed that the source of Cu, Zn, Cr and Mn might be influenced by the aluminum plant and the surrounding industrial activity. The source of Pb and Cd might be mainly related to road transportation. The source of Ni may be affected by agricultural activities and soil parent material together.

  1. [Heavy metal pollution characteristics and ecological risk analysis for soil around Haining electroplating industrial park]. (United States)

    Li, Jiong-Hui; Weng, Shan; Fang, Jing; Huang, Jia-Lei; Lu, Fang-Hua; Lu, Yu-Hao; Zhang, Hong-Ming


    The pollution status and potential ecological risks of heavy metal in soils around Haining electroplating industrial park were studied. Hakanson index approach was used to assess the ecological hazards of heavy metals in soils. Results showed that average concentrations of six heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd and Cr) in the soils were lower than the secondary criteria of environmental quality standard for soils, indicating limited harmful effects on the plants and the environment in general. Though the average soil concentrations were low, heavy metal concentrations in six sampling points located at the side of road still exceeded the criteria, with excessive rate of 13%. Statistic analysis showed that concentrations of Cu and Cd in roadside soils were significantly higher than those in non-roadside soils, indicating that the excessive heavy metal accumulations in the soil closely related with traffic transport. The average potential ecological hazard index of soils around Haining electroplating industrial park was 46.6, suggesting a slightly ecological harm. However, the potential ecological hazard index of soils with excessive heavy metals was 220-278, suggesting the medium ecological hazards. Cd was the most seriously ecological hazard factor.

  2. Heavy Metal Contents in Some Commonly Consumed Vegetables

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    effects on consumers of the vegetables. The regulations on food quality have lowered the maximum permissible levels of toxic metals in human food and this call for a good and vigorous food quality control on the concentrations of trace metals in food. The mean and range of heavy metals concentrations in eight green ...

  3. Heavy metal content of selected African leafy vegetables planted in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Data analysis. Data on metal content obtained from the AAS was analyzed for variance using ANOVA and multiple mean comparisons were done using Tukeys at 5% level. Pearson's Product Moment was used to correlate the amount of metal in soil to that in the plant. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. Heavy metals in soils.

  4. Heavy metal music and adolescent suicidality: an empirical investigation. (United States)

    Scheel, K R; Westefeld, J S


    This study investigated the relationship between preference for heavy metal music and vulnerability to suicide among 121 high school students. Heavy metal fans had less strong reasons for living (especially male fans) and had more thoughts of suicide (especially female fans). For a large majority, listening to music (all types) had a positive effect on mood. Overall, the results indicate that preference for heavy metal music among adolescents may be a "red flag" for increased suicidal vulnerability, but also suggest that the source of the problem may lie more in personal and familial characteristics than in any direct effects of the music. Implications for intervention and for future research are discussed.

  5. Variegate porphyria and heavy metal poisoning from ingestion of "moonshine". (United States)

    Hughes, G S; Davis, L


    A patient with cavitary tuberculosis, hepatic cirrhosis, bullous skin lesions over sun-exposed surfaces, disorientation, and a chronic, as well as recent, history of illicit alcohol consumption was found to have acute variegate porphyria by characteristic fecal and urinary porphyrin studies. Elevated levels of lead and arsenic were found in serum and urine without evidence of heavy metal storage in hair and liver. We suspect that the variegate porphyria was precipitated by the ingestion of heavy metals contained in illicit alcohol. In a patient with disorientation, bullous skin lesions, and a history of illicit alcohol ingestion, one must consider heavy metal intoxication and secondary porphyrin abnormalities.

  6. Silicon mitigates heavy metal stress by regulating P-type heavy metal ATPases, Oryza sativa low silicon genes, and endogenous phytohormones. (United States)

    Kim, Yoon-Ha; Khan, Abdul Latif; Kim, Duk-Hwan; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Kim, Kyung-Min; Waqas, Muhammad; Jung, Hee-Young; Shin, Jae-Ho; Kim, Jong-Guk; Lee, In-Jung


    Silicon (Si) application has been known to enhance the tolerance of plants against abiotic stresses. However, the protective mechanism of Si under heavy metals contamination is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to assess the role of Si in counteracting toxicity due to cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) in rice plants (Oryza sativa). Si significantly improved the growth and biomass of rice plants and reduced the toxic effects of Cd/Cu after different stress periods. Si treatment ameliorated root function and structure compared with non-treated rice plants, which suffered severe root damage. In the presence of Si, the Cd/Cu concentration was significantly lower in rice plants, and there was also a reduction in lipid peroxidation and fatty acid desaturation in plant tissues. The reduced uptake of metals in the roots modulated the signaling of phytohormones involved in responses to stress and host defense, such as abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid. Furthermore, the low concentration of metals significantly down regulated the mRNA expression of enzymes encoding heavy metal transporters (OsHMA2 and OsHMA3) in Si-metal-treated rice plants. Genes responsible for Si transport (OsLSi1 and OsLSi2), showed a significant up-regulation of mRNA expression with Si treatment in rice plants. The present study supports the active role of Si in the regulation of stresses from heavy metal exposure through changes in root morphology.

  7. Pollution and pollution tolerance in the case of heavy metals; Schadstoffbelastung und -belastbarkeit. Schwermetalle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kretschmer, H.; Neumann, A.; Surkus, A.E. [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Bodenkunde


    Urban soils often have high concentrations of heavy metals. This is particularly true of the technogenic substrates often found in cities and industrial and trading estates. The aim of the present project was therefore to mitigate the deficits of our present knowledge on problems relating to heavy metals in technogenic substrates. The studies presented in the following were carried out in pursuit of the following tasks: determination of the total concentration and mobility of the elements Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, and Ni in 11 lead soil profiles from technogenic substrates in Rostock, Kiel, Eckernfjoerde and Halle/Saale; study of the dependence of heavy metal mobility on different soil characteristics (e.g. pH, clay, organic carbon, and total heavy metal content); recording of adsorption isotherms characterising the sorption and desorption behaviour of heavy metals; estimation of the heavy metal binding capacity of technogenic substrates following the method quoted by DVWK (1988) for heavy metals; and performance of percolation experiments on soil columns for deriving material transport parameters and of model calculations on heavy metal migration. [Deutsch] Urbane Boeden, besonders die in Staedten, Industrie- und Gewerbegebieten verbreitet lagernden technogenen Substrate, weisen oft hohe Schwermetallgehalte auf. Ziel dieses Projektes ist daher, Erkenntnisdefizite zur Schwermetallproblematik technogener Substrate zu verringern. Den nachfolgend dargestellten Untersuchungen liegt folgende Aufgabenstellung zugrunde: - Bestimmung der Gesamtgehalte und Mobilitaeten der Elemente Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn und Ni an 11 Leitprofilen aus technogenen Substraten in Rostock, Kiel, Eckernfoerde und Halle/Saale, - Untersuchung der Abhaengigkeit der Schwermetallmobilitaet von verschiedenen Bodenkennwerten (pH-Wert, Ton-, Corg-, Kalkgehalt, KAK, Schwermetall-Gesamtgehalt), - Aufnahme von Adsorptionsisothermen zur Kennzeichnung des Sorptions- und Desorptionsverhaltens von Schwermetallen, - Schaetzung

  8. Heavy Metals in Marine Pollution Perspective-A Mini Review (United States)

    Ansari, T. M.; Marr, I. L.; Tariq, N.

    Anthropogenic inputs of pollutants such as heavy metals into the marine environment have increased their levels to large extents within past a few decades. These pollutants tend to accumulate in the bottom sediments. As a result, ecosystems such as seaports or other industrialized coastal areas that have chronic inputs of metals have highly contaminated sediments. This characteristic has led to concerns over the ecological effects that may be associated with sediment quality. Of particular concern are toxic effects and the potential for bioaccumulation of metals in biota exposed to the sediments. The availability of heavy metals to the biomass of a polluted region is the prime concern both in terms of the prediction of the effects of metal pollution on an ecosystem and in terms of possible human health risks. With growing interest on environmental issues, several intriguing questions related to heavy metals are often raised. This review addresses the basic concepts, sources, speciation, mode of action, levels, analytical measurement, bioavailability, bioaccumulation, biological role and toxicity of heavy metals in the marine environment. Lead, Cadmium, Zinc, Copper, Manganese, Iron, Mercury, Arsenic and Barium are selected because these metals are common and are often at measurable levels in marine samples. An attempt has been made to answer the queries presented by the environmentalists working on various aspects of heavy metal pollution in the marine environment

  9. Toxicity, accumulation, and removal of heavy metals by three aquatic macrophytes. (United States)

    Basile, A; Sorbo, S; Conte, B; Cobianchi, R Castaldo; Trinchella, F; Capasso, C; Carginale, V


    A comprehensive understanding of the uptake, tolerance, and transport of heavy metals by plants will be essential for the development of phytoremediation technologies. In the present paper, we investigated accumulation, tissue and intracellular localization, and toxic effects of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) in three aquatic macrophytes (the angiosperms Lemna minor and Elodea canadensis, and the moss Leptodictyum riparium). We also tested and compared their capacity to absorb heavy metal from water under laboratory conditions. Our data showed that all the three species examined could be considered good bioaccumulators for the heavy metals tested. L. riparium was the most resistant species and the most effective in accumulating Cu, Zn, and Pb, whereas L. minor was the most effective in accumulating Cd. Cd was the most toxic metal, followed by Pb, Cu, and Zn. At the ultrastructural level, sublethal concentrations of the heavy metals tested caused induced cell plasmolysis and alterations of the chloroplast arrangement. Heavy metal removal experiments revealed that the three macrophytes showed excellent performance in removing the selected metals from the solutions in which they are maintained, thus suggesting that they could be considered good candidates for wastewaters remediation purpose.

  10. Coupling bioleaching and electrokinetics to remediate heavy metal contaminated soils. (United States)

    Huang, Qingyun; Yu, Zhen; Pang, Ya; Wang, Yueqiang; Cai, Zhihong


    In this study, bioleaching was coupled with electrokinetics (BE) to remove heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cr and Pb) from contaminated soil. For comparison, bioleaching (BL), electrokinetics (EK), and the chemical extraction method were also applied alone to remove the metals. The results showed that the BE method removed more heavy metals from the contaminated soil than the BL method or the EK method alone. The BE method was able to achieve metal solubilization rates of more than 70 % for Cu, Zn and Cr and of more than 40 % for Pb. Within the range of low current densities (electrokinetics can effectively remediate heavy metal-contaminated soils and that preliminary tests should be conducted before field operation to detect the lowest current density for the greatest metal removal.

  11. Selection of ectomycorrhizal willow genotype in phytoextraction of heavy metals. (United States)

    Hrynkiewicz, Katarzyna; Baum, Christel


    Willow clones are used for the phytoextraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils and are usually mycorrhizal. The receptiveness of willow clones for mycorrhizal inoculum varies specific to genotype; however, it is unknown if this might have a significant impact on their efficiency in phytoextraction of heavy metals. Therefore, a model system with mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal willows of two different genotypes--one with usually stronger natural mycorrhizal colonization (Salix dasyclados), and one with lower natural mycorrhizal colonization (S. viminalis)--was investigated for its efficiency of phytoextraction of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) from contaminated soil. Inoculation with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita muscaria significantly decreased the biomass of leaves of both inoculated willow clones, and increased or had no effect on the biomass of trunks and roots of S. dasyclados and S. viminalis, respectively. The concentrations of heavy metals in the biomass of S. dasyclados were in general higher than in S. viminalis irrespective of inoculation with the ectomycorrhizal fungus. Inoculation with A. muscaria significantly decreased the concentration of Cu in the trunks of both Salix taxa, but did not affected the concentrations of other heavy metals in the biomass. In conclusion, stronger receptiveness of willow clones for mycorrhizal inoculum was correlated with an increased total extraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils. Therefore, this seems to be a suitable criterion for effective willow clone selection for phytoremediation. Increased biomass production with relatively constant metal concentrations seems to be a major advantage of mycorrhizal formation of willows in phytoremediation of contaminated soils.

  12. The stress analysis of a heavy liquid metal pump impeller (United States)

    Ma, X. D.; Li, X. L.; Zhu, Z. Q.; Li, C. J.; Gao, S.


    Lead-based coolant reactor is a promising Generation-IV reactor. In the lead-based coolant reactor, the coolant is liquid lead or lead-bismuth eutectic. The main pump in the reactor is a very important device. It supplies force for the coolant circulation. The liquid metal has a very large density which is about ten times of the water. Also, the viscosity of the coolant is small which is about one sixth of the water. When the pump transports heavy liquid, the blade loading is heavy. The large force can cause the failure of the blade when the fatigue stress exceeds the allowable stress. The impeller fraction is a very serious accident which is strictly prohibited in the nuclear reactor. In this paper, the numerical method is used to simulate the flow field of a heavy liquid metal pump. The SST k-w turbulent model is used in the calculation to get a more precise flow structure. The hydraulic force is obtained with the one way fluid solid coupling. The maximum stress in the impeller is analyzed. The stress in the liquid metal pump is compared with that in the water pump. The calculation results show that the maximum stress of the impeller blade increases with increase of flow rate. In the design of the impeller blade thickness, the impeller strength in large operating condition should be considered. The maximum stress of the impeller blade located in the middle and near the hub of the leading edge. In this position, the blade is easy to fracture. The maximum deformation of the impeller firstly increase with increase of flow rate and then decrease with increase of flow rate. The maximum deformation exists in the middle of the leading edge when in small flow rate and in the out radius of the impeller when in large flow rate. Comparing the stress of the impeller when transporting water and LBE, the maximum stress is almost one-tenth of that in the LBE impeller which is the same ratio of the density. The static stress in different medium is proportional to the pressure

  13. Heavy metal contamination of groundwater resources in a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conductivity meter (Jenway model), while the concentrations of the heavy metals (Co, Fe, Pb and Cu) were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The trend of dispersion of each variable was demonstrated on Landsat ETM+ ...

  14. Seasonal variation in heavy metal concentration in mangrove foliage

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A; Wafar, S.; Bhosle, N

    Seasonal variation in the concentration of some heavy metals in the leaves of seven species of mangrove vegetation from Goa, revealed that maximum concentration of iron and manganese occurs during the monsoon season without any significant toxic...

  15. Adsorption of heavy metals by agroforestry waste derived activated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adsorption of heavy metals by agroforestry waste derived activated carbons applied to aqueous solutions. Jane M Misihairabgwi, Abisha Kasiyamhuru, Peter Anderson, Colin J Cunningham, Tanya A Peshkur, Ignatious Ncube ...

  16. Heavy metal pollution of vegetable crops irrigated with wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    144) and edible parts of both exotic and traditional vegetables (samples = 240) irrigated with wastewater from some parts of Accra were studied. The concentrations of heavy metals in mg/l were quantified in wastewater from Accra and ...

  17. De novo transcriptome assembly of heavy metal tolerant Silene dioica

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čegan, R.; Hudzieczek, V.; Hobza, Roman


    Roč. 11, MAR (2017), s. 118-119 ISSN 2213-5960 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : genome * Silene dioica * RNA-Seq * Transcriptome * Heavy metal tolerance * Sex chromosomes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  18. Baby Teeth Link Autism and Heavy Metals, NIH Study Suggests (United States)

    ... Release Thursday, June 1, 2017 Baby teeth link autism and heavy metals, NIH study suggests Cross-section ... Sinai Health System Baby teeth from children with autism contain more toxic lead and less of the ...

  19. Polysiloxane based CHEMFETs for the detection of heavy metal ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugtenberg, R.J.W.; Antonisse, M.M.G.; Egberink, Richard J.M.; Engbersen, Johannes F.J.; Reinhoudt, David


    The development of polysiloxane based chemically modified field effect transistors (CHEMFETs) for heavy metal ions is described. Different polar siloxane copolymers have been synthesized via an anionic copolymerization of hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane,

  20. Estimation of Heavy Metals in Neem Tree Leaves along Katsina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Garcia and Millan, 1998). The Nigerian situation is further exacerbated by the reality of increasing large-scale importation of old/fairly used vehicles for use on the Nigerian highways (Alo, 2008). Heavy metals are important group of pollutants.

  1. Antimicrobial, heavy metal resistance and plasmid profile of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antimicrobial, heavy metal resistance patterns and plasmid profiles of Coliforms (Enterobacteriacea) isolated from nosocomial infections and healthy human faeces were compared. Fifteen of the 25 isolates from nosocomial infections were identified as Escherichia coli, and remaining as Kelebsiella pneumoniae.

  2. 255 effects of some heavy metal pollutants on fertility characteristics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    ) and Zinc (Zn). As Aydinalp and Marinova (2003) observe, a precise knowledge of heavy metals concentration and the forms in which they are found, their dependence on soil's physico-chemical properties provide a basis.

  3. Phycoremediation of Wastewater: Heavy Metal and Nutrient Removal Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwarciak-Kozłowska Anna


    Full Text Available Phycoremediation is the use of algae for the removal or biotrans-formation of pollutants from wastewater. The study is a novel at-tempt to integrate nutrient (N and P removal and some heavy met-als (iron, manganese and zinc bioaccumulation from municipal wastewater using two microalgae species: Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus armatus. The Chlorella vulgaris showed higher re-moval of total nitrogen (TN both in influent and effluent waste water than Scenedesmus armatus. Nevertheless, more than 51% of total phosphorus (TP in effluent and 36% in influent wastewaters were removed by Scenedesmus armatus. More efficient microalga in heavy metal removal in influent wastewater was Scenedesmus armatus. The results showed that Chlorella vulgaris was appropriate for TN removal and bioaccumulation of heavy metals from effluent wastewater. Nevertheless, Scenedesmus armatus was highly pref-erable for heavy metals removal from influent wastewater.

  4. Removal of nutrient and heavy metal loads from sewage effluent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jul 4, 2015 ... tial of vetiver grass in removing nutrient and heavy metal loads from wastewater ... retention using the methods of water analysis described by. Sauter and ..... forming an immobilised microbial biomass on supporting surfaces ...

  5. Study of Correlation Between Heavy Metal Concentration, Street ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: This study was aimed at evaluating heavy metal contents in street dust of five major roads within the trunk of Kano metropolis. The dust were collected from heavy traffic roads of the city which include Zaria road (ZR), Maiduguri road (MR), Katsina road (KR), Hadejia road (HR) and Bayero University Kano road ...

  6. Effect of irrigation on heavy metals content of wastewater irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is an urgent need to educate farmers on the dangers of the presence of heavy metals in soils as well as the quality of irrigation water especially if it comes from tanning industries for increased crop production. Accordingly, soil and irrigation wastewater study was conducted to assess the concentrations of heavy ...

  7. Studies of heavy metal contents and microbial composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Waste engine oil in soil creates unsatisfactory conditions for plant growth ranging from heavy metal toxicity to ... perennial which grows best in warm frost-free areas. Guinea grass can withstood continuous heavy grazing .... These identified as active members ofbioremediation microbial consortia by Ekundayo and Obuekwe.

  8. Heavy metal contamination of amaranthus grown along major ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consumption of food contaminated with heavy metals is a major source of health problems for man and animals. Vegetable cropping along major highways with heavy vehicular movement has been a serious concern to food safety experts in large cities. A study was, therefore, carried out in two major highways in Lagos, ...

  9. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in soils along major roadside ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    1Department of Agricultural Engineering and Land Planning, Botswana College of Agriculture, Private Bag 0027,. Gaborone, Botswana. 2Department of Basic Sciences, Botswana College of ... residents along roads with heavy traffic loads are subjected to increasing levels of contamination with heavy metals (Ghrefat and ...

  10. Study of Correlation Between Heavy Metal Concentration, Street ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at evaluating heavy metal contents in street dust of five major roads within the trunk of Kano metropolis. The dust were collected from heavy traffic roads of the city which include Zaria road (ZR), Maiduguri road (MR), Katsina road (KR), Hadejia road (HR) and Bayero University Kano road (BR).

  11. Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in the Copenhagen area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Allan; Hovmand, Mads Frederik; Johnsen, Ib


    Atmospheric dry and wet deposition (bulk precipitation) of the heavy metals Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, V and Fe over the Copenhagen area was measured by sampling in plastic funnels from 17 stations during a twelve-month period. Epigeic bryophytes from 100 stations in the area were analysed for the heavy met...

  12. Level of heavy metals in soil and some vegetables irrigated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The level of some heavy metals in soil and plant samples from Sharada Industrial Area was analyzed. Plants absorb contaminants through root systems and store them in the root biomass and/or transport them to the stem and/or leaves. The waste water generated by industries was used to irrigate plants; onion (Alium cepa) ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    metals in O. sativa grains harvested locally as well as to set the baseline levels of some heavy ... Machiwa – Heavy Metal Levels in Paddy Soils and Rice … .... where 0.5 g of dried soil or rice (polished rice and paddy rice) samples were weighed in 50 ml volumetric flasks. De-ionized water. (1 ml) was added, the flasks were ...

  14. Heavy metal adsorption by montmorillonites modified with natural organic cations


    Cruz-Guzmán Alcalá, M.; Celis, R.; Hermosín, M.C.; Koskinen, W. C.; Nater, E. A.; Cornejo, J.


    Agricultural and industrial pollution release large amounts of heavy metals into the atmosphere, surface water, soil, and plants. The protection and restoration of soils and water contaminated with heavy metals generate a great need to develop efficient adsorbents for these pollutants. This study reports the adsorption of Pb(II) and Hg(II) by two reference montmorillonites, Wyoming (SWy-2) and Arizona (SAz-1), that were pretreated with various natural organic cations containing different func...

  15. Antibiogram and heavy metal tolerance of bullfrog bacteria in Malaysia


    M. Najiah; Tee, L.W.


    Bacterial isolates from 30 farmed bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) weighing 500-600 g at Johore, Malaysia with external clinical signs of ulcer, red leg and torticollis were tested for their antibiograms and heavy metal tolerance patterns. A total of 17 bacterial species with 77 strains were successfully isolated and assigned to 21 antibiotics and 4 types of heavy metal (Hg2+, Cr6+, Cd2+, Cu2+). Results revealed that bacteria were resistant against lincomycin (92%), oleandomycin (72.7%) an...

  16. Spatiotemporal Analysis of Heavy Metal Water Pollution in Transitional China


    Huixuan Li; Yingru Li; Ming-Kuo Lee; Zhongwei Liu; Changhong Miao


    China’s socioeconomic transitions have dramatically accelerated its economic growth in last three decades, but also companioned with continuous environmental degradation. This study will advance the knowledge of heavy metal water pollution in China from a spatial–temporal perspective. Specifically, this study addressed the following: (1) spatial patterns of heavy metal water pollution levels were analyzed using data of prefecture-level cities from 2004 to 2011; and (2) spatial statistical met...

  17. Phytochelatin biosynthesis and function in heavy-metal detoxification. (United States)

    Cobbett, C S


    Plants respond to heavy-metal toxicity via a number of mechanisms. One such mechanism involves the chelation of heavy metals by a family of peptide ligands, the phytochelatins. Molecular genetic approaches have resulted in important advances in our understanding of phytochelatin biosynthesis. In particular, genes encoding the enzyme phytochelatin synthase have been isolated from plant and yeast species. Unexpectedly, genes with similar sequences to those encoding phytochelatin synthase have been identified in some animal species.

  18. Heavy Metals in Soils of auto- mechanic shops and refuse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (UnicamSolaar32 model) was used for analyzing the digested soil samples for heavy metal content. Mean concentrations of the selected heavy metals in the dumpsite soil at Apir were 0.003 mg/Kg, 0.2414 mg/Kg, 0.2552 mg/Kg, 0.1882 mg/Kg and 0.0210 mg/Kg for Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and ...

  19. Distribution of heavy metals from flue gas in algal bioreactor (United States)

    Napan, Katerine

    Flue gas from coal-fired power plants is a major source of CO2 to the atmosphere. Microalgae can use this enriched form of CO2 as carbon source and in turn the biomass can be used to produce food, feed, fertilizer and biofuels. However, along with CO2, coal-based flue gas will inevitably introduce heavy metals, which have a high affinity to bind algal cells, could be toxic to the organisms and if transferred to the products could limit their uses. This study seeks to address the distribution and impact of heavy metals present in flue gas on microalgae production systems. To comprehend its effects, algae Scenedesmus obliquus was grown in batch reactors in a multimetal system. Ten heavy metals (Cu, Co, Zn, Pb, As, Se, Cr, Hg, Ni and Cd) were selected and were evaluated at four concentrations (1X, 2X, 5X and 10X). Results show that most heavy metals accumulated mainly in biomass and were found in very low concentrations in media. Hg was shown to be lost from the culture, with low amounts present in the biomass. An upper limit for As uptake was observed, suggesting its likelihood to build-up in the system during medium recycle. The As limited bioaccumulation was overcome by addition of sulfur to the algal medium. Heavy metal at 2X, 5X and 10X inhibited both growth and lipid production, while at the reference concentration both biomass and lipids yields were increased. Heavy metal concentrations in the medium and biomass were time dependent, and at the end of the cultivation most heavy metals in the supernatant solution complied with the recommendations for irrigation water, while biomass was below limits for cattle and poultry feed, fertilizer, plastic and paper. This research shows that bioremediation of CO2 and heavy metals in combination with energy production can be integrated, which is an environmentally friendly form of biotechnology.

  20. Research on heavy metal pollution of river Ganga: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak Paul


    Full Text Available River Ganga is considered sacred by people of India for providing life sustenance to environment and ecology. Anthropogenic activities have generated important transformations in aquatic environments during the last few decades. Advancement of human civilization has put serious questions to the safe use of river water for drinking and other purposes. The river water pollution due to heavy metals is one of the major concerns in most of the metropolitan cities of developing countries. These toxic heavy metals entering the environment may lead to bioaccumulation and biomagnifications. These heavy metals are not readily degradable in nature and accumulate in the animal as well as human bodies to a very high toxic amount leading to undesirable effects beyond a certain limit. Heavy metals in riverine environment represent an abiding threat to human health. Exposure to heavy metals has been linked to developmental retardation, kidney damage, various cancers, and even death in instances of very high exposure. The following review article presents the findings of the work carried out by the various researchers in the past on the heavy metal pollution of river Ganga.

  1. Content of some heavy metals in soil and corn grain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, K.L. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington (United States)); Henson, G.; Kelley, G. (McLean and Hopkins Counties, KY (United States))


    In an attempt to find causes for lower than expected corn (Zea mays L.) production along the bottomlands of the Green and Pond Rivers in western Kentucky, corn fields were sampled for soil and corn grain to determine heavy metal content. Samples from sixteen carefully selected fields were analyzed for Cd, Cr, Pb, and Ni content. Yield of corn was not related to either soil or grain content of these heavy metals. There was also not relationship between soil pH and heavy metal accumulation by grain or heavy metal accumulation by grain and soil and Ni were within the range of values reported in the literature for uncontaminated soils. However, soil content of Cd was near or above the upper end of the ranges reported in the literature, even on control samples taken upstream from sites of potential heavy metal pollution. Karnak soils (fine, montmorillonitic, nonacid, mesic Vertic Haplaquepts), which are high in montmorillonitic clay content and have high cation exchange capacities, had higher Cd content than the other soils sampled. Except for two sites, grain Cd content was similar to values reported in the literature. Corn yields were found to be generally lower on Karnak soils than on other soils, raising the possibility that observed lower than expected yields are related to the poor physical characteristics of these soils rather than heavy metal pollutants in floodwaters. 8 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  2. Comparison of Eleven Heavy Metals in Moringa Oleifera Lam. Products. (United States)

    Limmatvapirat, C; Limmatvapirat, S; Charoenteeraboon, J; Wessapan, C; Kumsum, A; Jenwithayaamornwech, S; Luangthuwapranit, P


    Eleven heavy metals in various products of Moringa oleifera were analyzed to determine eleven heavy metals (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, and Zn) using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. The products of M. oleifera were purchased in Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. All products were digested with nitric acid solution before determining the concentrations of heavy metals. The recoveries of all heavy metals were found to be in the range of 99.89-103.05%. Several criteria such as linearity, limits of detection, limits of quantification, specificity, precision under repeatability conditions and intermediate precision reproducibility were evaluated. Results indicate that this method could be used in the laboratory for determination of eleven heavy metals in M. oleifera products with acceptable analytical performance. The results of analysis showed that the highest concentrations of As, Cr, Hg, and Mn were found in tea leaves while the highest concentrations of Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn were found in leaf capsules. Continuous monitoring of heavy metals in M. oleifera products is crucial for consumer health.

  3. Spreading and accumulation of heavy metals in soils of railway-side areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bobryk


    frequently registered for zinc (76%, nickel (76% and lead (60%; less frequently for copper (32%. Thus, heavy metals may be ranked by their contents in excess to background values in soils of railway-side areas as follows: Zn = Ni > Pb > Cu. Due to the contents of mobile forms of heavy metals that exceed background values, these metals may be referred to as pollutants. Results obtained for heavy metal distribution in soils of railway-side areas are of importance for the identification of reaction of biotic component of the ecosystems exposed to rail transport, and identification of pollutant-reactive and pollutant-sensitive indicators of the environmental health.

  4. Factors Affecting the Binding of a Recombinant Heavy Metal-Binding Domain (CXXC motif Protein to Heavy Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamala Boonyodying


    Full Text Available A number of heavy metal-binding proteins have been used to study bioremediation. CXXC motif, a metal binding domain containing Cys-X-X-Cys motif, has been identified in various organisms. These proteins are capable of binding various types of heavy metals. In this study, heavy metal binding domain (CXXC motif recombinant protein encoded from mcsA gene of S. aureus were cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The factors involved in the metal-binding activity were determined in order to analyze the potential of recombinant protein for bioremediation. A recombinant protein can be bound to Cd2+, Co2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+. The thermal stability of a recombinant protein was tested, and the results showed that the metal binding activity to Cu2+ and Zn2+ still exist after treating the protein at 85ºC for 30 min. The temperature and pH that affected the metal binding activity was tested and the results showed that recombinant protein was still bound to Cu2+ at 65ºC, whereas a pH of 3-7 did not affect the metal binding E. coli harboring a pRset with a heavy metal-binding domain CXXC motif increased the resistance of heavy metals against CuCl2 and CdCl2. This study shows that metal binding domain (CXXC motif recombinant protein can be effectively bound to various types of heavy metals and may be used as a potential tool for studying bioremediation.

  5. Heavy metal contents in whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) along a pollution gradient in a subarctic watercourse. (United States)

    Amundsen, Per-Arne; Kashulin, Nikolay A; Terentjev, Petr; Gjelland, Karl Øystein; Koroleva, Irina M; Dauvalter, Vladimir A; Sandimirov, Sergey; Kashulin, Alexander; Knudsen, Rune


    Metallurgic industry is a source of serious environmental pollution related to the emission of heavy metals. Freshwater systems are focal points for pollution, acting as sinks for contaminants that may end up in fish and humans. The Pasvik watercourse in the border area between Finland, Norway and Russia is located in the vicinity of the Pechenganickel metallurgic enterprises, and the lower part of the watershed drains the Nikel smelters directly through Lake Kuetsjarvi. Heavy metal (Ni, Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb and Hg) concentrations in environment (water and sediments) and whitefish Coregonus lavaretus tissue (gills, liver, kidney and muscle) were contrasted between five lake localities situated along a spatial gradient of increasing distance (5-100 km) to the smelters. The heavy metal concentrations, in particular Ni, Cu and Cd, were highly elevated in Kuetsjarvi, but steeply declined with increasing distance to the smelters and were moderate or low in the other four localities. The study demonstrates that the majority of metal emissions and runoffs are deposited near the pollution source, and only moderate amounts of the heavy metal contaminants seem to be transported at further distances. Bioaccumulation of Hg occurred in all investigated tissues, and higher Hg concentrations in planktivorous versus benthivorous whitefish furthermore indicated that pelagic foraging is associated with higher levels of Hg biomagnification. Potential population ecology impacts of high heavy metal contaminations where mainly observed in whitefish in Kuetsjarvi, which showed depletions in growth rate, condition factor and size and age at maturation.

  6. Heavy metals in five Sabellidae species (Annelida, Polychaeta): ecological implications. (United States)

    Giangrande, Adriana; Licciano, Margherita; Del Pasqua, Michela; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo; Migoni, Danilo; Stabili, Loredana


    The present work analyzed three hard-bottom and two soft-bottom species of sabellid polychaetes to determine the content of several heavy metals in their branchial crown and body. The highest concentrations of heavy metals were recorded in the hard-bottom species Branchiomma bairdi, a recent Mediterranean introduction. Differences in the metal concentrations were most notable in the high trace metal levels of the branchial crown for all the studied species. Statistical analysis showed that the Mediterranean hard-bottom species were similar each other in their heavy metal content in the body as well as in the branchial crown and appeared separated from all the other species. Arsenic and vanadium hyperaccumulation in the branchial crowns of the considered sabellid species probably acts as a deterrent for predation. The observed differences among the examined species were discussed not only at the light of habitat colonization but also in terms of the phylogeny.

  7. Phytoremediation of heavy metals--concepts and applications. (United States)

    Ali, Hazrat; Khan, Ezzat; Sajad, Muhammad Anwar


    The mobilization of heavy metals by man through extraction from ores and processing for different applications has led to the release of these elements into the environment. Since heavy metals are nonbiodegradable, they accumulate in the environment and subsequently contaminate the food chain. This contamination poses a risk to environmental and human health. Some heavy metals are carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic and endocrine disruptors while others cause neurological and behavioral changes especially in children. Thus remediation of heavy metal pollution deserves due attention. Different physical and chemical methods used for this purpose suffer from serious limitations like high cost, intensive labor, alteration of soil properties and disturbance of soil native microflora. In contrast, phytoremediation is a better solution to the problem. Phytoremediation is the use of plants and associated soil microbes to reduce the concentrations or toxic effects of contaminants in the environments. It is a relatively recent technology and is perceived as cost-effective, efficient, novel, eco-friendly, and solar-driven technology with good public acceptance. Phytoremediation is an area of active current research. New efficient metal hyperaccumulators are being explored for applications in phytoremediation and phytomining. Molecular tools are being used to better understand the mechanisms of metal uptake, translocation, sequestration and tolerance in plants. This review article comprehensively discusses the background, concepts and future trends in phytoremediation of heavy metals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Heavy metal music meets complexity and sustainability science. (United States)

    Angeler, David G


    This paper builds a bridge between heavy metal music, complexity theory and sustainability science to show the potential of the (auditory) arts to inform different aspects of complex systems of people and nature. The links are described along different dimensions. This first dimension focuses on the scientific aspect of heavy metal. It uses complex adaptive systems theory to show that the rapid diversification and evolution of heavy metal into multiple subgenres leads to a self-organizing and resilient socio-musicological system. The second dimension builds on the recent use of heavy metal as a critical thinking model and educational tool, emphasizing the artistic component of heavy metal and its potential to increase people's awareness of environmental sustainability challenges. The relationships between metal, complexity theory and sustainability are first discussed independently to specifically show mechanistic links and the reciprocal potential to inform one domain (science) by the other (metal) within these dimensions. The paper concludes by highlighting that these dimensions entrain each other within a broader social-cultural-environmental system that cannot be explained simply by the sum of independent, individual dimensions. Such a unified view embraces the inherent complexity with which systems of people and nature interact. These lines of exploration suggest that the arts and the sciences form a logical partnership. Such a partnership might help in endeavors to envision, understand and cope with the broad ramifications of sustainability challenges in times of rapid social, cultural, and environmental change.

  9. Heavy metal adsorption of Streptomyces chromofuscus K101

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Mohamed Daboor


    Full Text Available Objective: To find the best actinomycete that has potential application value in the heavy metal remediation due to its special morphological and physiological metabolism. Methods: In some areas of River Nile, Egypt, a total of 67 actinomycete isolates (17 isolates from surface water and 50 from sediment were identified. In addition, the studied area was characterized by a large amount of submerged macrophyte species Ceratophyllum demersum, one free floating species Eichhornia crassipes and two emergent species Polygonum tomentosum and Saccharum spontaneum with the highest biomass production values. Many methods are used in this research like qualitative evaluation of heavy metals, minimum inhibitory concentration of heavy metal determination, metal binding assay, heavy metal assessment, etc. Results: Many actinomycetes isolates were isolated from River Nile, Egypt, the absorbent efficiency of one isolate Streptomyces chromofuscusK101 showed the most efficient metal binding activity. The adsorption process of Zn2+ , Pb2+ and Fe 2+ single or mixture metal ions was investigated, where the order of adsorption potential ( Zn2+ >Pb2+ >Fe 2+ was observed in single metal reaction. The adsorption in mixed metal reactions was the same order as in single-metal ion with a significant decrease in Fe 2+ and Pb2+ adsorption. Conclusions: In conclusion the metal adsorption reactions were very fast, pH dependent and culture age-independent, suggestive of a physicochemical reaction between cell wall components and heavy metal ions. The absorbent removal efficiency was determined as a function of ion concentration, pH and temperature.

  10. Assessment of heavy metal removal technologies for biowaste by physico-chemical fractionation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, A.H.M.; Hamelers, H.V.M.


    In the Netherlands, the heavy metal content of biowaste-compost frequently exceeds the legal standards for heavy metals. In order to assess heavy metal removal technologies, a physico-chemical fractionation scheme was developed to gain insight into the distribution of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and

  11. Heavy Metals Induce Iron Deficiency Responses at Different Hierarchic and Regulatory Levels1[OPEN (United States)


    In plants, the excess of several heavy metals mimics iron (Fe) deficiency-induced chlorosis, indicating a disturbance in Fe homeostasis. To examine the level at which heavy metals interfere with Fe deficiency responses, we carried out an in-depth characterization of Fe-related physiological, regulatory, and morphological responses in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) exposed to heavy metals. Enhanced zinc (Zn) uptake closely mimicked Fe deficiency by leading to low chlorophyll but high ferric-chelate reductase activity and coumarin release. These responses were not caused by Zn-inhibited Fe uptake via IRON-REGULATED TRANSPORTER (IRT1). Instead, Zn simulated the transcriptional response of typical Fe-regulated genes, indicating that Zn affects Fe homeostasis at the level of Fe sensing. Excess supplies of cobalt and nickel altered root traits in a different way from Fe deficiency, inducing only transient Fe deficiency responses, which were characterized by a lack of induction of the ethylene pathway. Cadmium showed a rather inconsistent influence on Fe deficiency responses at multiple levels. By contrast, manganese evoked weak Fe deficiency responses in wild-type plants but strongly exacerbated chlorosis in irt1 plants, indicating that manganese antagonized Fe mainly at the level of transport. These results show that the investigated heavy metals modulate Fe deficiency responses at different hierarchic and regulatory levels and that the interaction of metals with physiological and morphological Fe deficiency responses is uncoupled. Thus, this study not only emphasizes the importance of assessing heavy metal toxicities at multiple levels but also provides a new perspective on how Fe deficiency contributes to the toxic action of individual heavy metals. PMID:28500270

  12. Body burdens of heavy metals in Lake Michigan wetland turtles. (United States)

    Smith, Dayna L; Cooper, Matthew J; Kosiara, Jessica M; Lamberti, Gary A


    Tissue heavy metal concentrations in painted (Chrysemys picta) and snapping (Chelydra serpentina) turtles from Lake Michigan coastal wetlands were analyzed to determine (1) whether turtles accumulated heavy metals, (2) if tissue metal concentrations were related to environmental metal concentrations, and (3) the potential for non-lethal sampling techniques to be used for monitoring heavy metal body burdens in freshwater turtles. Muscle, liver, shell, and claw samples were collected from painted and snapping turtles and analyzed for cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, and zinc. Turtle tissues had measurable quantities of all eight metals analyzed. Statistically significant correlations between tissue metal concentrations and sediment metal concentrations were found for a subset of metals. Metals were generally found in higher concentrations in the larger snapping turtles than in painted turtles. In addition, non-lethal samples of shell and claw were found to be possible alternatives to lethal liver and muscle samples for some metals. Human consumption of snapping turtles presents potential health risks if turtles are harvested from contaminated areas. Overall, our results suggest that turtles could be a valuable component of contaminant monitoring programs for wetland ecosystems.

  13. Transport models for relativistic heavy-ion collisions at Relativistic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Apr 29, 2015 ... Transport models for relativistic heavy-ion collisions at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and Large Hadron Collider. Subrata Pal. Volume 84 Issue 5 May 2015 pp ... Subrata Pal1. Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005, India ...

  14. Determination of trace heavy metals in some textile products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentrations of trace heavy metals in textile samples collected from Tokat, Turkey, were determined by flame and/or graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion. The relative standard deviations for the determinations were found to be lower than 10 %. The concentrations of trace metals ...

  15. Assessment of heavy metals concentration in water, soil sediment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The term heavy metal refers to any metallic chemical element that has a relatively high density and is toxic at low concentrations. This study was conducted in four eastern Rift Valley lakes which included Lakes Oloidien, Crater, Elementaita and Nakuru, to determine the presence and levels of lead, arsenic, cadmium and ...

  16. Potential Human Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals Intake via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Key Words: Heavy Metals, leafy vegetable, daily intake of metals, health risk index, target hazard quotient. (THQ), zinc, lead .... Family. Parts used/ consumed. 1. Telferia occidentalis. Fluted pumpkin. Ugu. Cucurbitaceae ..... Characterization and functional properties. .... Science and Total Environment, 350: 28–37. Zhou, H ...

  17. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in water, sediment and fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The highest levels of heavy metal accumulated in the liver of C. anguillaris were Fe, Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn than accumulated in O. niloticus. In gills of C. anguillaris, the highest accumulation of metal levels were Zn, Fe, Pb, Cd and Cu than accumulation in gills of O. niloticus. In muscles of C. anguillaris, the highest accumulation ...

  18. Biomonitoring of heavy metals pollution in Lake Burullus, Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Aquatic macrophytes and benthos are unchangeable biological filters and they carry out purification of the water bodies by accumulating dissolved metals and toxins in their tissues. In view of their potential to entrap several toxic heavy metals, 3 groups of benthos and 6 macrophytes (submerged species: Potamogeton.

  19. Speciation of Heavy Metals in Sediment of Agbabu Bitumen deposit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Speciation of heavy metals Cu, Cd, Pb, Ni, Zn, Mn, Fe, Cr and Hg was carried out on sediment of Agbabu with a sequential extraction procedure in the dry and rainy seasons of year 2008. Hg was not detected in all the fractions in the two seasons. In the dry season, all the metals were mostly abundant in Fraction-5, however ...

  20. Heavy metal speciation and their accumulation in sediments of Lake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several sediment samples in Lake Burullus have been affected by the discharges of heavy metals through different drains. The study aimed to analyze the chemical speciation of these metals. In particular, the chemical forms of Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn in sediments collected in spring season were studied using a ...

  1. Assessment of Heavy Metal Content of Branded Pakistani Herbal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The plants imbibe toxic metals in various ways including the environment they grow in, contaminated water, agricultural expedients, storage environment and manufacturing processes [7]. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the heavy metals contents of some selected herbal products available in the Pakistani market.

  2. Tolerance and Accumulation of Heavy Metals by Descurainia sophia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Karamooz


    Full Text Available Today, biosphere pollution has accelerated strongly with start of industrial revolution by toxicity of heavy metals. One of existing pollution is soil pollution. Unfortunately, soil pollution by metals is as intensive environmental stress for plant hence for human. Plants, which are able to store heavy metals in their organs, can be used for phytoremediation of polluted soils and utilization of these plants is effective for phytoremediation as a cheap and economic method. In this research, the absorption rate of Cd (II, Ni (II by Descurainia sophia was considered in hydroponic conditions. Plants were grown in Hoagland media containing different concentrations of Cd (II, Ni (II. An experiment in a completely randomized design with three replications was conducted. Two weeks after treatment of plants the sample were gathered and metal concentration was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Besides, the content of chlorophyll and proline was measured. The results showed the chlorophyll content in high concentrations of the metals (Cd (II, Ni (II was decreased in plants that were sign of pigment degradation in presence of heavy metals. Similarly, the proline content in plants was increased under stress which was sign of damage of heavy metal stress on plant and activation of defensive mechanisms in this condition. The effects of toxic concentration of nickel and cadmium on metal accumulation in these plants showed that roots were able to absorb more than shoots, which is sign of elements connection to root cell wall.

  3. Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination in Soils around Cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wageningen, the Netherlands. Sheppard, D.S., Claridge, G.G.C. and Campbell,. I.B.(2000). Metal contribution of soil at Scott urban-rural land use gradients. Applied. Geochemistry, 15: 513-530. Umoren, I.U. and Onianwa, P.C. (2005). Concentrations and distribution of some heavy metals in urban soils of Ibadan, Nigeria.

  4. Modeling effluent heavy metal concentrations in a bioleaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Artifical neural networks practices were used to predict the recovery of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd and Cr) from dewatered metal plating sludge (with no sulfide or sulfate compounds) using bioleaching process involving Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The bioleaching process was operated as a completely mixed batch ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    People want to be able to buy clothing, bedding and household textiles that have been tested and are not dyed in any way with harmful substances [6-8]. Textile products contain some organic and inorganic substance including trace metal ions. Especially, reactive and pigment dyes contain trace heavy metals at high level.

  6. Toxic effect of heavy metals on aquatic environment | Baby ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The indiscriminate discharge of industrial effluents, raw sewage wastes and other waste pollute most of the environments and affect survival and physiological activities of target organisms. Metals in particular have a tendency to accumulate and undergo food chain magnification. Heavy metals affect all groups of organisms ...

  7. Nutrients and heavy metal distribution in thermally treated pig manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuligowski, Ksawery; Poulsen, Tjalfe G.; Stoholm, Peder


    Ash from pig manure treated by combustion and thermal gasification was characterized and compared in terms of nutrient, i.e., potassium (K), phosphorus (P) and heavy metal, i.e., cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) contents. Total nutrient and metal concentrations...

  8. Determination of Some Heavy Metals Levels in Funaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This was attributed to the concentrations of motor vehicles and some industries that have increased in the town over time. Other heavy metals (Cd and Ni) were found in relatively smaller concentrations. The absorption of these metals was related to their concentrations in the atmosphere as a result of industrial and ...

  9. Determination of essential and heavy metals in Kenyan honey by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this project, honey samples collected from different parts of Kenya, namely, Laikipia, Baringo, Nairobi, Ngong, Mbeere, Embu, Kitui, Kibwezi and Lamu were analysed to determine the levels of selected heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, As) and essential metals (K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe). The samples were analysed using flame ...

  10. Electrochemical activity of heavy metal oxides in the process of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The influence of heavy metal oxides on the chloride induced corrosion of steel reinforcement in concrete was studied. Significant inhibition and stimulation of chloride induced corrosion have been observed. Basicity and acidity of the relevant metal ions, and their ability to form complexes are considered as the main factors ...

  11. Determination of some heavy metals in spinach and lettuce from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heavy metals such as copper, zinc, cadmium and lead were analyzed in vegetable samples (lettuce and spinach) obtained from ten major markets within Kaduna ... From the stipulated limits set by WHO/FAO, consumers of vegetables from this study areas were likely to be liable to copper toxicity and some few metals as ...

  12. Analysis of Some Heavy Metals in Grass ( Paspalum Orbiculare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increased deposition of trace metals from vehicle exhausts on plants has raised concerns about the risks of the quality of food consumed by humans since the heavy metals emitted through the exhaust by vehicles can enter food chain through deposition on grass grazed by animals. Grass (Paspalum Orbiculare) and ...

  13. Assessment of Heavy Metals Pollution in Dumpsites in Ilorin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Speciation and distribution of heavy metals in soil controls the degree to which metals and their compounds are mobile, extractable, and plant available. Eight strategically located dumpsites in Ilorin metropolis (an averagely growing city and a state capital) were chosen for dumpsites-soil characteristics study. Both the ...

  14. Heavy metals burden in Kidney and heart tissues of Scarus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Levels of selected heavy metals (Pb, Co, Cu, Ni, Zn, Mn and Cd) in the heart and kidney tissues of parrot fish, collected from the Arabian Gulf, Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, were determined by wet-digestion based atomic absorption method. The results showed that accumulation pattern of analyzed metals in the kidney ...

  15. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in Amaranthus sp. L sold at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was design to assess the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in spinach sold at vegetable farms at Katsina metropolis, using Atomic absorption spectrometer VPG 210 model for the metals analysis.The study reveals that cadmium has recorded highest concentration followed by chromium and zinc, at Kofar ...

  16. Concentration of heavy metals from traffic emissions on plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent years, emission and combustion of fossils and fuels have been identified as primary sources of atmospheric metallic burden. Detailed information about this is not readily available in Nigeria. This study was therefore carried out to determine the concentration of heavy metals (e.g. lead, mercury and cadmium} ...

  17. Levels of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and some Heavy Metals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    water bodies receiving effluents is emphasized in order to forestall cumulative effects of pollutants which may lead to sub-lethal consequences in the aquatic ... heavy metal pollution (Osibanjo and Ajayi, 1980,. Foulkes. 1990). Bioaccumulation in ... Soluble metallic soaps were hydrolyzed by acidification. Oils and solids or ...

  18. Geospatial analyses in support of heavy metal contamination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed that NDVI values increased with distance from roads (R2 0.508-0.965; p < 0.05), indicating that proximity to roads reduced grass vigour. Metal concentrations in grass tissue were lower than in soil by an average factor of nine, but varied as the soil concentrations. The concentrations of the heavy metals ...

  19. Removal Of Heavy Metals From Industrial Wastewaters Using Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wastewater samples from battery, paint and textile industries were treated with different doses of locally available alum, aluminum sulphate and ferric chloride in order to determine and compare their effectiveness in removing heavy metal contents from the wastewaters. The percentage removal of the metals from the ...

  20. Assessment of heavy metal contents of green leafy vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Jena


    Full Text Available Vegetables are rich sources of vitamins, minerals, and fibers, and have beneficial antioxidative effects. Ingestion of vegetables containing heavy metals is one of the main routes through which these elements enter the human body. Slowly released into the body, however, heavy metals can cause an array of diseases. In this study we investigated the concentrations of copper, chromium, zinc, and lead in the most frequently consumed vegetables including Pimpinella anisum, Spinacia oleracea, Amaranthus viridis, Coriandrum sativum, and Trigonella foenum graecum in various sites in Raipur city, India. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to estimate the levels of these metals in vegetables. The mean concentration for each heavy metal in the samples was calculated and compared with the permissible levels set by the Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization. The intake of heavy metals in the human diet was also calculated to estimate the risk to human health. Our findings indicated the presence of heavy metals in vegetables in the order of Cr > Zn > Cu > Pb. Based on these findings, we conclude that the vegetables grown in this region are a health hazard for human consumption.

  1. Heavy Metals Contamination of Table Salt Consumed in Iran (United States)

    Cheraghali, Abdol Majid; Kobarfard, Farzad; Faeizy, Noroldin


    Lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic are the most important heavy metals which may cause health risks following consumption of contaminated foods. Table salt is one the mostly used food additive with unique place in food consumption. Although purified table salt is expected to have lower level of contamination, some Iranians still prefer to use rock salt. Use of rock salt for food purposes has been banned by Iranian health authorities. In this study, heavy metal contamination of table salt consumed in Iran has been investigated. One hundred samples of rock and refined table salts were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometeric methods for the presence of toxic heavy metals. The mean concentration of tested tracer metals including Cd, Pb, Hg and As was 0.024, 0.438, 0.021 and 0.094 μg/g, respectively. The concentrations of tested heavy metals were well below the maximum levels set by Codex. However, no statistically significant difference was found between contamination of rock salt and refined salt to heavy metals. PMID:24363718

  2. Mosses accumulate heavy metals from the substrata of coal ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukojević Vanja


    Full Text Available Plants that are able to accumulate and tolerate extraordinarily high concentrations of heavy metals (hyperaccumulators can be used for phytoremediation (removal of contaminants from soils or phytomining (growing a crop of plants to harvest the metals. Two moss species, Bryum capillare Hedw. and Ceratodon purpureus Hedw., were tested as potential phytoremedies under in vivo conditions on a coal ash disposal site in the surroundings of Obrenovac (NW Serbia. The content of various heavy metals (iron, manganese zinc, lead, nickel, cadmium, and copper in the mosses and substrata were investigated over a period of three years. Iron and zinc were found to have the highest concentration in the mosses.

  3. Ecotoxicology of heavy metals: Liquid-phase extraction by nanosorbents (United States)

    Burakov, A.; Romantsova, I.; Babkin, A.; Neskoromnaya, E.; Kucherova, A.; Kashevich, Z.


    The paper considers the problem of extreme toxicity heavy metal compounds dissolved in wastewater and liquid emissions of industrial enterprises to living organisms and environment as a whole. The possibility of increasing extraction efficiency of heavy metal ions by sorption materials was demonstrated. The porous space of the latter was modified by carbon nanotubes (CNTs) during process of the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of carbon on metal oxide catalysts. The increasing of the sorption capacity (10-30%) and the sorption rate of nanomodified activated carbons in comparison with standard materials in the example of absorption of Co2+ and Ni2+ ions from aqueous solutions was proven.

  4. Heavy metals contamination of Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In each case, four tissues; gills, bone, intestine and muscle were compared with the level of metals in the water. Lower concentrations of metals were recorded in water than in fish. Lower concentration of the metals found in fish and water was less than that recommended by the World Health Organisation (WHO) guideline ...

  5. Critical loads of heavy metals for soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Groenenberg, J.E.; Lofts, S.; Tipping, E.; Posch, M.


    To enable a precautionary risk assessment for future inputs of metals, steady-state methods have been developed to assess critical loads of metals avoiding long-term risks to food quality and eco-toxicological effects on organisms in soils and surface waters. A critical load for metals equals the

  6. Predatory insects as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nummelin, Matti [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 65, University of Helsinki, FIN-00014 (Finland)]. E-mail:; Lodenius, Martin [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 65, University of Helsinki, FIN-00014 (Finland); Tulisalo, Esa [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 65, University of Helsinki, FIN-00014 (Finland); Hirvonen, Heikki [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 65, University of Helsinki, FIN-00014 (Finland); Alanko, Timo [Statistics Finland, FIN-00022 (Finland)


    Heavy metal concentrations of different predatory insects were studied near by a steel factory and from control sites. Waterstriders (Gerridae), dragon fly larvae (Odonata), antlion larvae (Myrmeleontidae) and ants (Formicidae) were analyzed by AAS. In most cases the metal concentrations were higher near the factory, but e.g. waterstriders had higher cadmium concentrations in control area. Discriminant analysis clearly reveals that all these insect groups can be used as heavy metal indicators. However, the commonly used ants were the least effective in indicating the differences between the factory and control sites. Waterstriders are good in detecting differences in iron and manganese, but seem to be poor in accumulating nickel and lead. Antlions are efficient in detecting differences in iron. Antlions and ants are effective in accumulating manganese; as well antlions are efficient in accumulating cadmium. Waterstriders are poor in accumulating lead, but antlions and ants are effective. - Waterstriders, dragon fly larvae, antlion larvae, and ants can be used as heavy metal indicators.

  7. Preparation of Dithizone Functionalized Polystyrene for Detecting Heavy Metal Ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hyeon Ho; Kim, Younghun [Kwangwoon University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Colorimetric sensors were usually used to detect specific metal ions using selective color change of solutions. While almost organic dye in colorimetric sensors detected single molecule, dithizone (DTZ) solution could be separately detected above 5 kinds of heavy metal ions by the change of clear color. Namely, DTZ could be used as multicolorimetric sensors. However, DTZ was generally used as aqueous type and paper/pellet-type DTZ was not reported yet. Therefore, in this work, polystyrene (PS) was prepared to composite with DTZ and then DTZ/PS pellet was obtained, which was used to selectively detect 10 kinds of heavy metal ions. When 10 ppm of Hg and Co ions was exposed in DTZ/PS pellets, clear color change was revealed. It is noted that DTZ/PS pellet could be used in detecting of heavy metal ion as dry type.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa de Souza Oliveira


    Full Text Available Soils under natural conditions have heavy metals in variable concentrations and there may be an increase in these elements as a result of the agricultural practices adopted. Transport of heavy metals in soil mainly occurs in forms dissolved in the soil solution or associated with solid particles, water being their main means of transport. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the heavy metal and micronutrient content in the soil and in the grapevine plant and fruit under different irrigation strategies. The experiment was carried out in Petrolina, PE, Brazil. The treatments consisted of three irrigation strategies: full irrigation (FI, regulated deficit irrigation (RDI, and deficit irrigation (DI. During the period of grape maturation, soil samples were collected at the depths of 0-10, 10-20, 20-40, 40-60, and 60-80 cm. In addition, leaves were collected at the time of ripening of the bunches, and berries were collected at harvest. Thus, the heavy metal and micronutrient contents were determined in the soil, leaves, and berries. The heavy metal and micronutrient contents in the soil showed a stochastic pattern in relation to the different irrigation strategies. The different irrigation strategies did not affect the heavy metal and micronutrient contents in the vine leaves, and they were below the contents considered toxic to the plant. In contrast, the greater availability of water in the FI treatment favored a greater Cu content in the grape, which may be a risk to vines, causing instability and turbidity. Thus, adoption of deficit irrigation is recommended so as to avoid compromising the stability of tropical wines of the Brazilian Northeast.

  9. Heavy metal pollution and genetic adaptations in ectomycorrhizal fungi




    Heavy metal toxicity is a strong trigger for evolutionary adaptation in terrestrial biota that colonise metalliferous soils. Here, I will focus on the occurrence of metal tolerance in ectomycorrhizal fungi, the predominant group of root symbionts of pioneer trees that try to colonise severely polluted sites. A considerable amount of literature exists on metal-tolerant plants, which is in sharp contrast to what we know about the tolerance in the fungal symbiotic partners that associate with th...

  10. Heavy metals in the volcanic environment and thyroid cancer. (United States)

    Vigneri, R; Malandrino, P; Gianì, F; Russo, M; Vigneri, P


    In the last two decades thyroid cancer incidence has increased worldwide more than any other cancer. Overdiagnosis of subclinical microcarcinomas has certainly contributed to this increase but many evidences indicate that a true increase, possibly due to environmental factors, has also occurred. Thyroid cancer incidence is markedly increased in volcanic areas. Thus, the volcanic environment is a good model to investigate the possible factors favoring thyroid cancer. In the volcanic area of Mt. Etna in Sicily, as well as in other volcanic areas, a non-anthropogenic pollution with heavy metals has been documented, a consequence of gas, ash and lava emission. Soil, water and atmosphere contamination, via the food chain, biocontaminate the residents as documented by high levels in the urines and the scalp hair compared to individuals living in adjacent non-volcanic areas. Trace amounts of metals are essential nutrients but, at higher concentrations, can be toxic for living cells. Metals can behave both as endocrine disruptors, perturbing the hormonal system, and as carcinogens, promoting malignant transformation. Similarly to other carcinogens, the transforming effect of heavy metals is higher in developing organisms as the fetus (contaminated via the mother) and individuals in early childhood. In the last decades environment metal pollution has greatly increased in industrialized countries. Although still within the "normal" limits for each single metal the hormesis effect (heavy metal activity at very low concentration because of biphasic, non linear cell response) and the possible potentiation effect resulting from the mixture of different metals acting synergistically can explain cell damage at very low concentrations. The effect of metals on the human thyroid is poorly studied: for some heavy metals no data are available. The scarce studies that have been performed mainly focus on metal effect as thyroid endocrine disruptors. The metal concentration in tissues has

  11. Heavy Metals in ToxCast: Relevance to Food Safety (SOT) (United States)

    Human exposure to heavy metals occurs through food contamination due to industrial processes, vehicle emissions and farming methods. Specific toxicity endpoints have been associated with metal exposures, e.g. lead and neurotoxicity; however, numerous varieties of heavy metals hav...

  12. High-resolution insight into the competitive adsorption of heavy metals on natural sediment by site energy distribution. (United States)

    Huang, Limin; Jin, Qiang; Tandon, Puja; Li, Aimin; Shan, Aidang; Du, Jiajie


    Investigating competitive adsorption on river/lake sediments is valuable for understanding the fate and transport of heavy metals. Most studies have studied the adsorption isotherms of competitive heavy metals, which mainly comparing the adsorption information on the same concentration. However, intrinsically, the concentration of each heavy metal on competitive adsorption sites is different, while the adsorption energy is identical. Thus, this paper introduced the site energy distribution theory to increase insight into the competitive adsorption of heavy metals (Cu, Cd and Zn). The site energy distributions of each metal with and without other coexisting heavy metals were obtained. It illustrated that site energy distributions provide much more information than adsorption isotherms through screening of the full energy range. The results showed the superior heavy metal in each site energy area and the influence of competitive metals on the site energy distribution of target heavy metal. Site energy distributions can further help in determining the competitive sites and ratios of coexisting metals. In particular, in the high-energy area, which has great environmental significance, the ratios of heavy metals in the competitive adsorption sites obtained for various competitive systems were as follows: slightly more than 3:1 (Cu-Cd), slightly less than 3:1 (Cu-Zn), slightly more than 1:1 (Cd-Zn), and nearly 7:2:2 (Cu-Cd-Zn). The results from this study are helpful to deeply understand competitive adsorption of heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Zn) on sediment. Therefore, this study was effective in presenting a general pattern for future reference in competitive adsorption studies on sediments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Perspectives in endocrine toxicity of heavy metals--a review. (United States)

    Rana, S V S


    An attempt has been made to review the endocrine/hormonal implications of a few environmentally significant metals, viz, lead, mercury, cadmium, copper, arsenic and nickel, in man and animals. Special emphasis has been given to the adrenals, thyroid, testis, ovary and pancreas. Toxic metals can cause structural and functional changes in the adrenal glands. Their effects on steroidogenesis have been reviewed. It has been reported that thyroid hormone kinetics are affected by a number of metallic compounds. Occupational exposure to a few of these metals can cause testicular injury and sex hormone disturbances. Protective effects of a few antioxidants on their reproductive toxicity have also been discussed. Information gathered on female reproductive toxicity of heavy metals shows that exposure to these metals can lead to disturbances in reproductive performance in exposed subjects. Certain metals can cause injury to the endocrine pancreas. Exposure to them can cause diabetes mellitus and disturb insulin homeostasis. The need to develop molecular markers of endocrine toxicity of heavy metals has been suggested. Overall information described in this review is expected to be helpful in planning future studies on endocrine toxicity of heavy metals.

  14. Heavy metal contamination in the Western Indian Ocean (a review) (United States)

    Mamboya, F. A.; Pratap, H. B.; Björk, M.


    Western Indian Ocean Coast has many potential marine ecosystems such as mangrove, seagrass meadows, macroalgae, and coral reefs. It is largely unspoiled environment however, tourism and population growth in coastal urban centres, industrialization, are presenting a risk of pollutants input to the marine environment of the Western Indian Ocean. Mining, shipping and agricultural activities also input contaminants into the marine environment via runoff, vessel operations and accidental spillage. Heavy metals are among the pollutants that are expected to increase in the marine environment of the Western Indian Ocean. The increase in heavy metal pollution can pose a serious health problem to marine organism and human through food chain. This paper reviews studies on heavy metal contamination in the Western Indian Ocean. It covers heavy metal studies in the sediments, biota, particulates and seawater collected in different sites. In comparison to other regions, only few studies have been conducted in the Western Indian Ocean and are localized in some certain areas. Most of these studies were conducted in Kenyan and Tanzanian coasts while few of them were conducted in Mauritius, Somalia and Reunion. No standard or common method has been reported for the analysis or monitoring of heavy metals in the Western Indian Ocean.

  15. Heavy metal accumulation by carrageenan and agar producing algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdin, K.S. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Faculty of Biology; Bird, K.T. [North Carolina Univ., Wilmington, NC (United States). Center for Marine Science Research


    The accumulation of six heavy metals Cu, Cd, Ni, Zn, Mn and Pb was measured in living and lzophilized algal thalli. The agar producing algae were Gracilaria tikvahiae and Gelidium pusillum. The carrageenan producing macroalgae were Agardhiella subulata and the gametophyte and tetrasporophyte phases of Chondrus crispus. These produce primarily iota, kappa and lambda carrageenans, respectively. At heavy metal concentrations of 0.5 mg L{sup -1}, living thalli of Gracilaria tikvahiae generally showed the greatest amount of accumulation of the 6 heavy metals tested. The accumulation of Pb was greater in the living thalli of all four species than in the lyophilized thalli. Except for Agardhiella subulata, lyophilized thalli showed greater accumulation of Ni, Cu and Zn. There was no difference in heavy metal accumulation between living and lyophilized thalli in the accumulation of Cd. Manganese showed no accumulation at the tested concentration. There did not appear to be a relationship between algal hydrocolloid characteristics and the amounts of heavy metals accumulated. (orig.)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Ferronato


    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to understand the equilibrium relationship between the heavy metals concentrations in superficial water and pore water. At  water-sediment interface, the equilibrium rapidly changed and it is influenced by chemico-physical parameters of aquatic ecosystems. The hydraulic safety of Bologna plain (North Italy depends on network of artificial canals and they are related with natural rivers of Reno basin (Reno river and its tributaries. The natural and artificial water courses flowed in agricultural, urban and industrial land. The heavy metals concentration in water and sediment discriminated the human pressure on the land and their spatial distribution in sediment could predict the hazard of pollution in aquatic ecosystems. We compared the heavy metals concentrations in pore water and superficial water determined in natural rivers and artificial canals, and more pollution in artificial canals than natural rivers was found. Furthermore, the coefficient of partition (log Kd between water and sediments was calculated to evaluate the bioavailability of heavy metals adsorbed on the sediments. The heavy metals extracted in deionised water at equilibrium after 16 h showed higher concentrations than those determined directly on water samples.

  17. New trends in removing heavy metals from wastewater. (United States)

    Zhao, Meihua; Xu, Ying; Zhang, Chaosheng; Rong, Hongwei; Zeng, Guangming


    With the development of researches, the treatments of wastewater have reached a certain level. Whereas, heavy metals in wastewater cause special concern in recent times due to their recalcitrance and persistence in the environment. Therefore, it is important to get rid of the heavy metals in wastewater. The previous studies have provided many alternative processes in removing heavy metals from wastewater. This paper reviews the recent developments and various methods for the removal of heavy metals from wastewater. It also evaluates the advantages and limitations in application of these techniques. A particular focus is given to innovative removal processes including adsorption on abiological adsorbents, biosorption, and photocatalysis. Because these processes have leaded the new trends and attracted more and more researches in removing heavy metals from wastewater due to their high efficency, pluripotency and availability in a copious amount. In general, the applicability, characteristic of wastewater, cost-effectiveness, and plant simplicity are the key factors in selecting the most suitable method for the contaminated wastewater.

  18. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from different fly ashes. Influence of heavy metal speciation in the ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne


    in lab scale, and the results were discussed in relation to the expected heavy metal speciation in the ashes. In initial leaching experiments the pH-dependent desorption characteristics of the heavy metals Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu were analogous in the two MSWI ashes, and thus it was expected...... that the speciation of these metals was similar in the two ashes. On the other hand, the leaching behaviour (and concentration) of Cr was diverse. The apparent similar speciation of Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu was only partly confirmed in the following electrodialytic remediation experiments. Significant differences in re......Electrodialytic Remediation has recently been suggested as a potential method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. In this work electrodialytic remediation of three different fly ashes, i.e. two municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ashes and one wood combustion fly ash was studied...

  19. Heavy metal contamination of vegetables from green markets in Novi Sad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsenov Danijela D.


    Full Text Available are valuable source of vitamins, minerals and fibers important for healthy human nutrition. However, an increased level of heavy metals in vegetables has been noticed in recent years. This study was conducted with an aim to analyze content of heavy metals, cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb, and chromium (Cr in 11 vegetable species which are the most common in human diet. Vegetables were collected from three green markets (Limanska, Futoška and Riblja pijaca in Novi Sad, during September and October, from 2009 to 2011. Heavy metal contents were analyzed in edible parts of tomato, potato, spinach, onion, beetroot, parsley, parsnip, carrot, cauliflower, pepper and broccoli using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Varian, AAS 240FS. The results showed statistically significant differences in element concentrations among analyzed vegetables. In general, the highest metal pollution was observed in the year of 2011. Spinach was found to contain the highest metals content - 0.89 μg/g for Cd, 5.81 μg/g for Pb, and 3.67 μg/g for Cr. According to Serbian official regulations, 18.18% of all analyzed species exceeded maximum permissible level for Cd, 9.09% for Pb, while for Cr these limits are not defined. Elevated content of heavy metals in vegetables might be related to soil contamination, atmospheric depositions during transportation and marketing. Thus, a continuous monitoring of vegetables on markets should be performed in order to prevent potential health risks to consumers.

  20. Impact of humic/fulvic acid on the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions using nanomaterials: a review. (United States)

    Tang, Wang-Wang; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Gong, Ji-Lai; Liang, Jie; Xu, Piao; Zhang, Chang; Huang, Bin-Bin


    Nowadays nanomaterials have been widely used to remove heavy metals from water/wastewater due to their large surface area and high reactivity. Humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) exist ubiquitously in aquatic environments and have a variety of functional groups which allow them to complex with metal ions and interact with nanomaterials. These interactions can not only alter the environmental behavior of nanomaterials, but also influence the removal and transportation of heavy metals by nanomaterials. Thus, the interactions and the underlying mechanisms involved warrant specific investigations. This review outlined the effects of HA/FA on the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions by various nanomaterials, mainly including carbon-based nanomaterials, iron-based nanomaterials and photocatalytic nanomaterials. Moreover, mechanisms involved in the interactions were discussed and potential environmental implications of HA/FA to nanomaterials and heavy metals were evaluated. © 2013.

  1. Precipitation of heavy metals in waste waters; Precipitacion de metales pesados en las aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stutzel, K.; Peldszus, R.


    Heavy metals content in effluents is regulated due to their toxicity. To minimized them different precipitating agents are used. A comparison between some precipitating agents (the most common is H{sub 2}S) wit trimercapto-s-triazine (TMT 15) is shown. Solubility products of TMT 15 with divalent metals are very low: the precipitation with TMT 15 gives a heavy metal concentration in effluents below regulated levels. (Author)

  2. Removal of heavy metals from synthetic solution by electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ilou


    Full Text Available The objective of this work concerns the optimization of the operating conditions for the removal of heavy metals from synthetic solution by Electrocoagulation (EC. To reach this purpose, we prepared a synthetic wastewater containing certain heavy metals (Ni, Cu, Zn, Fe and Pb to study the influence of various parameters (conductivity, pH, time of electrolysis, current density and the initial concentration of the metal on the rate of removal of these metals. The results show that this rate of removal can reach 99.9 % in the following optimal conditions: pH included between 6 and 8 and a density of the current of 1~1.5A / dm2. This study shows that it is possible to remove metals in aqueous solution by the technique of electrocoagulation. 

  3. Magnetic fluctuations in heavy-fermion metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mason, T.E.; Petersen, T.; Aeppli, G.


    Elastic and inelastic neutron scattering have been used to study the antiferromagnetic ordering and magnetic excitations of the U heavy-fermion superconductors UPd2Al3 and URu2Si2 above and below T-N. While both materials exhibit the coexistence of superconductivity and antiferromagnetic order, t...

  4. 100 - 107_Funtua_Heavy metals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    were washed with soap and rinsed with distilled water to avoid sample contamination(Awofolu,2005) . Five soil samples from each sampling location and depths were randomly collected and pooled together to form a composite from each of the sampling locations. The control samples were collected to validate the heavy.

  5. Transport models for relativistic heavy-ion collisions at Relativistic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We review the transport models that are widely used to study the properties of the quark-gluon plasma formed in relativistic heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and LHC. We show that transport model analysis of two important and complementary observables, the anisotropic flow of bulk hadrons and suppression of ...

  6. Heavy metal biosorption by bacterial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vecchio, A; Finoli, C; Di Simine, D; Andreoni, [No Value

    Microbial biomass provides available ligand groups on which metal ions bind by different mechanisms. Biosorption of these elements from aqueous solutions represents a remediation technology suitable for the treatment of metal-contaminated effluents. The purpose of the present investigation was the

  7. The environmental impact of gold mines: pollution by heavy metals (United States)

    Abdul-Wahab, Sabah; Marikar, Fouzul


    The gold mining plant of Oman was studied to assess the contribution of gold mining on the degree of heavy metals into different environmental media. Samples were collected from the gold mining plant area in tailings, stream waters, soils and crop plants. The collected samples were analyzed for 13 heavy metals including vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), aluminium (Al), strontium (Sr), iron (Fe) and barium (Ba). The water in the acid evaporation pond showed a high concentration of Fe as well as residual quantities of Zn, V, and Al, whereas water from the citizens well showed concentrations of Al above those of Omani and WHO standards. The desert plant species growing closed to the gold pit indicated high concentrations of heavy metals (Mn, Al, Ni, Fe, Cr, and V), while the similar plant species used as a control indicated lesser concentrations of all heavy metals. The surface water (blue) indicated very high concentrations of copper and significant concentrations of Mn, Ni, Al, Fe, Zn, lead, Co and Cd. The results revealed that some of the toxic metals absorbed by plants indicated significant metal immobilization.

  8. Clostridia initiate heavy metal bioremoval in mixed sulfidogenic cultures. (United States)

    Alexandrino, Maria; Costa, Rodrigo; Canário, Adelino V M; Costa, Maria C


    Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) are widely used for attenuating heavy metal pollution by means of sulfide generation. Due to their low metal tolerance, several SRB species depend on associated bacteria in mixed cultures to cope with metal-induced stress. Yet the identity of the SRB protecting bacteria is largely unknown. We aimed to identify these associated bacteria and their potential role in two highly metal-resistant mixed SRB cultures by comparing bacterial community composition and SRB activity between these cultures and two sensitive ones. The SRB composition in the resistant and sensitive consortia was similar. However, whereas the SRB in the sensitive cultures were strongly inhibited by a mixture of copper, zinc, and iron, no influence of these metals was detected on SRB growth and activity in the resistant cultures. In the latter, a Gram-positive population mostly assigned to Clostridium spp. initiated heavy metal bioremoval based on sulfide generation from components of the medium (mainly sulfite) but not from sulfate. After metal levels were lowered by the Clostridium spp. populations, SRB started sulfate reduction and raised the pH of the medium. The combination of sulfite reducing Clostridium spp. with SRB may improve green technologies for removal of heavy metals.

  9. Evaluation of the pollution and the transport of heavy metals in the Lerma river, through nuclear analytical techniques (Second stage); Evaluacion de la contaminacion y el transporte de metales pesados en el rio Lerma, a traves de tecnicas analiticas nucleares (Segunda etapa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldape U, F. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    In this stage of the investigation work, the water quality indexes, the heavy metals concentration in the dissolved phase and in the sediments of the four samplings were determined, it was determined too the texture of the one sediment and the analyses of the suspended matter of the water and the relative abundance relative of particles by scanning electron microscopy and the determination of the crystalline structures of the sediment by means of X-ray diffraction. (Author)

  10. Fluorescent and Colorimetric Electrospun Nanofibers for Heavy-Metal Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idelma A. A. Terra


    Full Text Available The accumulation of heavy metals in the human body and/or in the environment can be highly deleterious for mankind, and currently, considerable efforts have been made to develop reliable and sensitive techniques for their detection. Among the detection methods, chemical sensors appear as a promising technology, with emphasis on systems employing optically active nanofibers. Such nanofibers can be obtained by the electrospinning technique, and further functionalized with optically active chromophores such as dyes, conjugated polymers, carbon-based nanomaterials and nanoparticles, in order to produce fluorescent and colorimetric nanofibers. In this review we survey recent investigations reporting the use of optically active electrospun nanofibers in sensors aiming at the specific detection of heavy metals using colorimetry and fluorescence methods. The examples given in this review article provide sufficient evidence of the potential of optically electrospun nanofibers as a valid approach to fabricate highly selective and sensitive optical sensors for fast and low-cost detection of heavy metals.

  11. Phytochelatins and metallothioneins: roles in heavy metal detoxification and homeostasis. (United States)

    Cobbett, Christopher; Goldsbrough, Peter


    Among the heavy metal-binding ligands in plant cells the phytochelatins (PCs) and metallothioneins (MTs) are the best characterized. PCs and MTs are different classes of cysteine-rich, heavy metal-binding protein molecules. PCs are enzymatically synthesized peptides, whereas MTs are gene-encoded polypeptides. Recently, genes encoding the enzyme PC synthase have been identified in plants and other species while the completion of the Arabidopsis genome sequence has allowed the identification of the entire suite of MT genes in a higher plant. Recent advances in understanding the regulation of PC biosynthesis and MT gene expression and the possible roles of PCs and MTs in heavy metal detoxification and homeostasis are reviewed.

  12. Deena Weinstein, Heavy Metal: The Music and Its Culture


    Grassy, Elsa


    Au moment où la sociologue Deena Weinstein publie Heavy Metal : The Music and Its Culture, en 1991, le heavy metal fait l’objet de controverses très médiatisées aux États-Unis. Le procès de Judas Priest pour incitation au suicide vient de faire les gros titres, et tous les conservateurs du pays passent leurs journées à écouter des disques à l’envers, à la recherche de paroles sataniques. Le livre de Weinstein s’inspire de ce climat sulfureux qui entoure le heavy metal depuis ses débuts mais a...

  13. Electrodialytic Removal of Heavy Metals from Different Solid Waste Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Christensen, Iben Vernegren; Pedersen, Anne Juul


    A variety of heavy metal polluted waste products must be handled today. Electrochemical methods have been developed for remediation of polluted soil. One of the methods is the electrodialytic remediation method that is based on electromigration of heavy metal ions and ionic species within the soil...... matrix, and a separation of the soil and the process solutions, where the heavy metals are concentrated, with ion exchange membranes. For remediation of some soils, such as calcareous soils, it is necessary to add an enhancement solution. It was shown in a laboratory experiment that ammonium citrate...... could be used when removing Cu and Cr from a soil with 25% carbonates. The final concentrations of the elements were below the target values after the remediation. A question of whether the electrodialytic remediation method can be used for other waste products arose. Preliminary experiments showed...

  14. Effect of Heavy Metals in Plants of the Genus Brassica. (United States)

    Mourato, Miguel P; Moreira, Inês N; Leitão, Inês; Pinto, Filipa R; Sales, Joana R; Martins, Luisa Louro


    Several species from the Brassica genus are very important agricultural crops in different parts of the world and are also known to be heavy metal accumulators. There have been a large number of studies regarding the tolerance, uptake and defense mechanism in several of these species, notably Brassica juncea and B. napus, against the stress induced by heavy metals. Numerous studies have also been published about the capacity of these species to be used for phytoremediation purposes but with mixed results. This review will focus on the latest developments in the study of the uptake capacity, oxidative damage and biochemical and physiological tolerance and defense mechanisms to heavy metal toxicity on six economically important species: B. juncea, B. napus, B. oleracea, B. carinata, B. rapa and B. nigra.

  15. Effect of heavy metals on growth and heavy metal content of Allium porrum L. and Pisum sativum L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenhage, L.; Jaeger, H.J.


    The effects of cadmium, lead, zinc and copper, singly and in combination, on yield, heavy metal content and the mineral composition of Allium porrum L. and Pisum sativum L. have been investigated. The Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu concentrations of shoots and roots of Allium porrum increased with increasing heavy metal contamination of soil. However, no visible symptoms of heavy metal toxicity were recognized. The dry matter production was reduced as a function of heavy metal concentration and combination. The mechanisms of combinations were mostly synergistic. The correlation between pollutant contents (nmol/shoot) and yield was higher than the correlation between heavy metal concentrations of soil or shoots (ppm) and yield. Results of regression analyses showed that the inhibition of copper translocation caused by Cd, Pb and Zn was responsible for the yield depressions. The antagonism between Cd and N-deficiency showed that the level of N-supply was without negative effects on yield depressions of Pisum sativum caused by Cd. In contrast to this, the N-form played an important role in Cd-toxicity as the synergism between Cd and NH4 illustrated. K-deficiency as well as acidic nutrient solution (pH=4) diminished the root/shoot-barrier for Cd and therefore Cd-translocation from roots to shoots increased. Concerning calcium, magnesium and iron the decrease of ion uptake caused by Cd was statistically significant higher than yield depression.

  16. Characterization of a heavy metal translocating P-type ATPase gene from an environmental heavy metal resistance Enterobacter sp. isolate. (United States)

    Chien, Chih-Ching; Huang, Chia-Hsuan; Lin, Yi-Wei


    Heavy metals are common contaminants found in polluted areas. We have identified a heavy metal translocating P-type ATPase gene (hmtp) via fosmid library and in vitro transposon mutagenesis from an Enterobacter sp. isolate. This gene is believed to participate in the bacterium's heavy metal resistance traits. The complete gene was identified, cloned, and expressed in a suitable Escherichia coli host cell. E. coli W3110, RW3110 (zntA::Km), GG48 (ΔzitB::Cm zntA::Km), and GG51 (ΔzitB::Cm) were used to study the possible effects of this gene for heavy metal (cadmium and zinc in particular) resistance. Among the E. coli strains tested, RW3110 and GG48 showed more sensitivity to cadmium and zinc compared to the wild-type E. coli W3110 and strain GG51. Therefore, strains RW3110 and GG48 were chosen for the reference hosts for further evaluation of the gene's effect. The results showed that expression of this heavy metal translocating P-type ATPase gene could increase the ability for zinc and cadmium resistance in the tested microorganisms.

  17. Upgrading of heavy crude oil with supported and unsupported transition metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nares, H.R.; Schacht-Hernandez, P.; Cabrera-Reyes, M.C.; Ramirez-Garnica, M.; Cazarez-Candia, O. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Atepehuacan (Mexico)


    Heavy crude oil presents many problems such as difficulty in transportation, low processing capacity in refineries, and low mobility through the reservoir due to high viscosity which affects the index of productivity of the wells. Because of these challenges, it is necessary to enhance heavy crude oil, both aboveground and underground. The effects of several metallic oxides used to upgrade heavy crude oil properties were examined in order to increase the mobility of reservoir oil by reducing viscosity and improving the quality of the oil. This can be accomplished by reducing the asphaltene and sulfur contents and increasing the American Petroleum Institute (API) gravity using transition metal supported in alumina and unsupported from transition metals derived from either acetylacetonate or alkylhexanoate in liquid phase homogeneously mixed with heavy crude oil as well as metal transition supported in alumina. KU-H heavy crude oil from the Golf of Mexico was studied. The results were obtained by Simulated Distillation and True Boiling Point (TBP). It was concluded that the use of crude oil thermal hydrocracking allowed the API gravity to increase and considerably reduce the viscosity. As a result, the productivity index in wells was increased. However there is a high formation of coke that could damage the conductivity of the rock and then reduce the potential of oil recovery. 27 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  18. Heavy metal pollution in coastal areas of South China: a review. (United States)

    Wang, Shuai-Long; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Sun, Yu-Xin; Liu, Jin-Ling; Li, Hua-Bin


    Coastal areas of South China face great challenges due to heavy metal contamination caused by rapid urbanization and industrialization. In this paper, more than 90 articles on levels, distributions, and sources of heavy metals in sediments and organisms were collected to review the status of heavy metal pollution along coastal regions of South China. The results show that heavy metal levels were closely associated with local economic development. Hong Kong and the Pearl River Estuary were severely contaminated by heavy metals. However, concentrations of heavy metals in sediments from Hong Kong have continually decreased since the early 1990 s. High levels of heavy metals were found in biota from Lingdingyang in Guangdong province. Mollusks had higher concentrations of heavy metals than other species. Human health risk assessments suggested that levels of heavy metals in some seafood from coastal areas of South China exceeded the safety limit. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Using microbiological leaching method to remove heavy metals from sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuyu Gu


    Full Text Available Microbial leaching is one of the most effective methods to remove heavy metals from sludge. In the conducted researches, the sludge samples were processed with Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans obtained via cultivation, extraction and purification processes. Heavy metals such as Pb, Cd, Cu and Ni were leached from sludge by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans within different substrate concentration and pH value conditions. It is defined that from the point of view of economy and efficiency the optimal concentration of FeSO4.7H2O and sulfur for bio-leaching process was 0.2 g. The leaching rates of heavy metals such as Pb, Cd, Cu and Ni of the same concentration were 74.72%, 81.54%, 70.46% and 77.35% respectively. However, no significant differences depending on the pH value among the leaching rates were defined, even for the pH value of 1.5. Along with the removal of heavy metals from sludge, the organic matter, N, P, K were also leached to some extent. The losing rate of phosphorus was the highest and reached 38.44%. However, the content of organic matter, N, P, K in the processed sludge were higher in comparison with level I of the National Soil Quality Standards of China. Ecological risk of heavy metals in sludge before and after leaching was assessed by Index of Geo-accumulation (Igeo and comprehensive potential risk (RI. The results of research defined that the content of heavy metals in sludge meets the level of low ecological risk after leaching and their contents is lower in comparison with the National Agricultural Sludge Standard of China. Sludge leached by biological methods is possible to use for treatment for increasing soil fertility.

  20. Heavy metals accumulation affects bone microarchitecture in osteoporotic patients. (United States)

    Scimeca, Manuel; Feola, Maurizio; Romano, Lorenzo; Rao, Cecilia; Gasbarra, Elena; Bonanno, Elena; Brandi, Maria Luisa; Tarantino, Umberto


    Bone metabolism is affected by mechanical, genetic, and environmental factors and plays a major role in osteoporosis. Nevertheless, the influence of environmental pollution on the occurrence of osteoporosis is still unclear and controversial. In this context, heavy metals are the most important pollutants capable to affect bone mass. The aim of this study was to investigate whether heavy metals accumulation in bone tissues could be related to the altered bone metabolism and architecture of osteoporotic patients. To this end, we analyzed 25 bone head biopsies osteoporotic patients and 25 bone head biopsies of osteoarthritic patients. Moreover we enrolled 15 patients underwent hip arthroplasty for high-energy hip fracture or osteonecrosis of the femoral head as a control group. Bone head biopsies were studied by BioQuant-osteo software, scanning electron microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray microanalysis. We found a prevalence of lead, cadmium and chromium accumulation in osteoporotic patients. Noteworthy, high levels of sclerostin, detected by immunohistochemistry, correlate with the accumulation of heavy metal found in the bone of osteoporotic patients, suggesting a molecular link between heavy metal accumulation and bone metabolism impairment. In conclusion, the presence of heavy metals into bone shed new light on the comprehension of the pathogenesis of osteoporosis since these elements could play a non redundant role in the development of osteoporosis at cellular/molecular and epigenetic level. Nevertheless, in vivo and in vitro studies need to better elucidate the molecular mechanism in which heavy metals can participate to osteoporosis. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 1333-1342, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Novel forward osmosis process to effectively remove heavy metal ions

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Yue


    In this study, a novel forward osmosis (FO) process for the removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater was demonstrated for the first time. The proposed FO process consists of a thin-film composite (TFC) FO membrane made from interfacial polymerization on a macrovoid-free polyimide support and a novel bulky hydroacid complex Na4[Co(C6H4O7)2]·r2H2O (Na-Co-CA) as the draw solute to minimize the reverse solute flux. The removal of six heavy metal solutions, i.e., Na2Cr2O7, Na2HAsO4, Pb(NO3)2, CdCl2, CuSO4, Hg(NO3)2, were successfully demonstrated. Water fluxes around 11L/m2/h (LMH) were harvested with heavy metals rejections of more than 99.5% when employing 1M Na-Co-CA as the draw solution to process 2000ppm(1 ppm=1 mg/L) heavy metal solutions at room temperature. This FO performance outperforms most nanofiltration (NF) processes. In addition, the high rejections were maintained at 99.5% when a more concentrated draw solution (1.5M) or feed solution (5000ppm) was utilized. Furthermore, rejections greater than 99.7% were still achieved with an enhanced water flux of 16.5LMH by operating the FO process at 60°C. The impressive heavy metal rejections and satisfactory water flux under various conditions suggest great potential of the newly developed FO system for the treatment of heavy metal wastewater. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  2. Spatial distribution of heavy metals in surface soil, plant and mushroom beside high-frequency road (United States)

    Krbić, Biljana Å.; Milovac, Snežana; Stošić, Dušan; Zorić, Miroslav; Matavulj, Milan


    One of the undesirable aspects of urbanization process is the introduction of potentially harmful pollutants into environment. Urban soils are often contaminated by metals deriving from industry, transportation and other human activities. In this study, concentration of heavy metals were investigated in roadside surface soil, linden tree bark (Tilia sp.), mushroom Schizophyllum commune and dust samples collected at different distances (0.2 - 200 m) from main high-frequency road. The samples were microwave digested in accordance to US EPA 3051 method and analyzed by flame (Cd, Cu, Co, Fe, Ni, Mn, Pb and Zn), graphite furnace (Cr) and cold vapor (Hg) atomic absorption spectrometry. The results of the analysis were used to determine major sources and distribution of heavy metals pollution. The obtained results showed significant decrease of traffic-related metals (Fe, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cu and Cd) in soil samples with increasing distance from road edge. In order to assess possible pollution, heavy metal contents in soil were compared with the National legislation and Netherlands soil quality standards. Also, elevated concentrations of traffic-related metals, especially Pb and Cr in analyzed tree bark, mushroom and dust samples, indicate the obvious roadside contamination whose primary contributors appear to be vehicular local traffic. In addition, Index of Bioaccumulation (IBA) was calculated in order to estimate plant and mushroom ability of heavy metals accumulation. Assessment of statistical differences among samples was performed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey honestly significant difference (HSD) test. Moreover, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed on the heavy metals content allowed a meaningful classification of the samples according to the main sources of pollution.

  3. Sorption of heavy metal ions on new metal-ligand complexes chemically derived from Lycopodium clavatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pehlivan, E.; Ersoz, M.; Yildiz, S. [Univ. of Selcuk, Konya (Turkey); Duncan, H.J. [Univ. of Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)


    Sorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution has been investigated as a function of pH using a novel exchanger system whereby Lycopodium clavatum is functionalized with carboxylate and glyoxime metal-ligand complexes. The new ligand exchangers were prepared using a reaction of diaminosporopollenin with various metal-ligand complexes of glyoxime and monocarboxylic acid. The sorptive behavior of these metal-ligand exchangers and the possibilities to remove and to recover selectively heavy metal cations using these systems are discussed on the basis of their chemical natures and their complexing properties.

  4. Geopolymer as an adsorbent of heavy metal: A review (United States)

    Ariffin, Nurliyana; Abdullah, Mohamad Mustafa Al Bakri; Zainol, Remy Rozainy Mohd Arif; Murshed, Mohd Fared


    This paper reviews about geopolymer based adsorbent focusing in the removal of heavy metal. The reviews include fundamental and types of material used in the formation of adsorbents. Geopolymer based adsorbent got attention recently due to its unique three-dimensional network structure, with fixed size pores and paths that allow certain heavy metal to pass through. Most materials that applied as adsorbent such as fly ash, metakaolin, kaolin and dolomite. A lot of sludge nowadays only dumped in the landfill which can be used as one of new materials as geopolymer based adsorbent.

  5. Improved inventory for heavy metal emissions from stationary combustion plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Malene; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Hoffmann, Leif

    On behalf of the Ministry of the Environment DCE at Aarhus University annually reports heavy metals (HM) emissions to the UNECE CLRTAP (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution). This report presents updated heavy metal emission factors...... for stationary combustion plants and the corresponding improved emission inventories for the following HMs: Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Mercury (Hg), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb), Selenium (Se) and Zinc (Zn). The report presents data for the year 2009 and time series for 1990...

  6. Assessing fly ash treatment: Remediation and stabilization of heavy metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, A.T.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.


    Fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), straw (ST) and co-combustion of wood (CW) are here analyzed with the intent of reusing them. Two techniques are assessed, a remediation technique and a solidification/stabilization one. The removal of heavy metals from fly ashes through...... the electrodialytic process (EDR) has been tried out before. The goal of removing heavy metals has always been the reuse of fly ash, for instance in agricultural fields (BEK). The best removal rates are here summarized and some new results have been added. MSW fly ashes are still too hazardous after treatment to even...

  7. Photoelectrochemical detection of toxic heavy metals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chamier, J


    Full Text Available atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (CVAFS). These techniques are sensitive and accurate in their detection of metals in the environment but are expensive to maintain, immobile and require sample preparation. Immobilisation of cation-selective flourophores...

  8. Metal transformation as a strategy for bacterial detoxification of heavy metals. (United States)

    Essa, Ashraf M M; Al Abboud, Mohamed A; Khatib, Sayeed I


    Microorganisms can modify the chemical and physical characters of metals leading to an alteration in their speciation, mobility, and toxicity. Aqueous heavy metals solutions (Hg, Cd, Pb, Ag, Cu, and Zn) were treated with the volatile metabolic products (VMPs) of Escherichia coli Z3 for 24 h using aerobic bioreactor. The effect of the metals treated with VMPs in comparison to the untreated metals on the growth of E. coli S1 and Staphylococcus aureus S2 (local isolates) was examined. Moreover, the toxic properties of the treated and untreated metals were monitored using minimum inhibitory concentration assay. A marked reduction of the treated metals toxicity was recorded in comparison to the untreated metals. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis revealed the formation of metal particles in the treated metal solutions. In addition to heavy metals at variable ratios, these particles consisted of carbon, oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen elements. The inhibition of metal toxicity was attributed to the existence of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and carbon dioxide in the VMPs of E. coli Z3 culture that might responsible for the transformation of soluble metal ions into metal complexes. This study clarified the capability of E. coli Z3 for indirect detoxification of heavy metals via the immobilization of metal ions into biologically unavailable species. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Heavy metal biosorption by bacterial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vecchio, A.; Finoli, C.; Di Simine, D.; Andreoni, V. [Department of Food Science and Microbiology, State University, Milan (Italy)


    Microbial biomass provides available ligand groups on which metal ions bind by different mechanisms. Biosorption of these elements from aqueous solutions represents a remediation technology suitable for the treatment of metal-contaminated effluents. The purpose of the present investigation was the assessment of the capability of Brevibacterium sp. cells to remove bivalent ions, when present alone or in pairs, from aqueous solutions, using immobilized polyacrylamide cells of the microorganism in a flow-through system. The biosorption capacity of Brevibacterium cells was studied for lead, cadmium and copper. The metal cell binding capacity followed the order Cu > Pb > Cd, based on estimated q{sub max}. These values, expressed as mmol metal/g dry weight cells, were 0.54 for Cu, 0.36 for Pb and 0.14 for Cd. Polyacrylamide-gel immobilized cells were effective in Pb, Cu and Cd removal. Lead removal was not affected by the presence of Cd and Cu; lead instead inhibited Cd and Cu removal. The desorption of the metal, by fluxing a chelating solution, restored the metal binding capacity of the cells, thus affording the multiple use of the same biomass in the remediation treatment. (orig.) (orig.) With 5 figs., 4 tabs., 23 refs.

  10. Toxicity assessment of heavy metal mixtures by Lemna minor L. (United States)

    Horvat, Tea; Vidaković-Cifrek, Zeljka; Orescanin, Visnja; Tkalec, Mirta; Pevalek-Kozlina, Branka


    The discharge of untreated electroplating wastewaters directly into the environment is a certain source of heavy metals in surface waters. Even though heavy metal discharge is regulated by environmental laws many small-scale electroplating facilities do not apply adequate protective measures. Electroplating wastewaters contain large amounts of various heavy metals (the composition depending on the facility) and the pH value often bellow 2. Such pollution diminishes the biodiversity of aquatic ecosystems and also endangers human health. The aim of our study was to observe/measure the toxic effects induced by a mixture of seven heavy metals on a bioindicator species Lemna minor L. Since artificial laboratory metal mixtures cannot entirely predict behaviour of metal mixtures nor provide us with informations relating to the specific conditions in the realistic environment we have used an actual electroplating wastewater sample discharged from a small electroplating facility. In order to obtain three more samples with the same composition of heavy metals but at different concentrations, the original electroplating wastewater sample has undergone a purification process. The purification process used was developed by Orescanin et al. [Orescanin V, Mikelić L, Lulić S, Nad K, Rubcić M, Pavlović G. Purification of electroplating wastewaters utilizing waste by-product ferrous sulphate and wood fly ash. J Environ Sci Health A 2004; 39 (9): 2437-2446.] in order to remove the heavy metals and adjust the pH value to acceptable values for discharge into the environment. Studies involving plants and multielemental waters are very rare because of the difficulty in explaining interactions of the combined toxicities. Regardless of the complexity in interpretation, Lemna bioassay can be efficiently used to assess combined effects of multimetal samples. Such realistic samples should not be avoided because they can provide us with a wide range of information which can help explain

  11. Rhizobacteria of Populus euphratica Promoting Plant Growth Against Heavy Metals. (United States)

    Zhu, Donglin; Ouyang, Liming; Xu, Zhaohui; Zhang, Lili


    The heavy metal-resistant bacteria from rhizospheric soils of wild Populus euphratica forest growing in arid and saline area of northwestern China were investigated by cultivation-dependent methods. After screening on medium sparked with zinc, copper, nickel and lead, 146 bacteria strains with different morphology were isolated and most of them were found to be resistant to at least two kinds of heavy metals. Significant increase in fresh weight and leaf surface area of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings under metal stress were noticed after inoculated with strains especially those having multiple-resistance to heavy metals such as Phyllobacterium sp. strain C65. Investigation on relationship between auxin production and exogenous zinc concentration revealed that Phyllobacterium sp. strain C65 produced auxin, and production decreased as the concentration of zinc in medium increased. For wheat seedlings treated with zinc of 2 mM, zinc contents in roots of inoculated plants decreased by 27% (P < 0.05) compared to the uninoculated control. Meanwhile, zinc accumulation in the above-ground tissues increased by 22% (P < 0.05). The translocation of zinc from root to above-ground tissues induced by Phyllobacterium sp. strain C65 helped host plants extract zinc from contaminated environments more efficiently thus alleviated the growth inhibition caused by heavy metals.

  12. Normal concentrations of heavy metals in autistic spectrum disorders. (United States)

    Albizzati, A; Morè, L; Di Candia, D; Saccani, M; Lenti, C


    Autism is a neurological-psychiatric disease. In the last 20 years we witnessed a strong increase of autism diagnoses. To explain this increase, some scientists put forward the hypothesis that heavy metal intoxication may be one of the causes of autism. The origin of such an intoxication was hypothesised to be vaccines containing thimerosal as antimicrobic preservative. This preservative is mainly made up of mercury. The aim of our research was to investigate the correlation between autism and high biological concentrations of heavy metals. Seventeen autistic patients, between 6 and 16 years old (average: 11.52 DS: 3.20) (15 males and 2 females), were investigated, as well as 20 non autistic subjects from neuropsychiatric service between 6 and 16 years (average: 10.41 DS: 3.20) (15 males and 2 females). In both groups blood, urine and hair samples were analysed trough means of a semiquantitative analysis of heavy metal dosing. The metals analysed were Lead, mercury, cadmium and aluminium, since their build-up may give both neurological and psychiatric symptoms. The comparison of the mean values of the concentrations between the groups, performed with ANOVA test, has shown no statistically relevant differences. There wasn't correlation between autism and heavy metal concentration.

  13. Shrimp--a dynamic model of heavy-metal uptake in aquatic macrofauna. (United States)

    Simas, T C; Ribeiro, A P; Ferreira, J G


    A dynamic model for prediction of bioaccumulation in aquatic macrofauna is described. The model, entitled SHRIMP (Simulation of Heavy-metal Rate of Intake for Macrofaunal sPecies), consists of five coupled submodels, which simulate individual growth, population dynamics, metal transport in the abiotic part of the system, metal bioaccumulation at the organism level, and upscaling of individual contamination to the population scale. The sublethal effects of metal toxicity on individual and population levels are shown to act through the reduction of individual growth rates. The model was tested for cadmium and mercury using epibenthic crustacea from an estuarine system. Individual and population patterns of bioaccumulation were analyzed by comparing the simulated results of five different scenarios of dissolved metal concentrations. Model results suggest that the subtle effect of growth reduction due to metal toxicity is sufficient to cause a decrease on population numbers simply by affecting the growth of the mature females and males.

  14. Phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil by Jatropha curcas. (United States)

    Chang, Fang-Chih; Ko, Chun-Han; Tsai, Ming-Jer; Wang, Ya-Nang; Chung, Chin-Yi


    This study employed Jatropha curcas (bioenergy crop plant) to assist in the removal of heavy metals from contaminated field soils. Analyses were conducted on the concentrations of the individual metals in the soil and in the plants, and their differences over the growth periods of the plants were determined. The calculation of plant biomass after 2 years yielded the total amount of each metal that was removed from the soil. In terms of the absorption of heavy metal contaminants by the roots and their transfer to aerial plant parts, Cd, Ni, and Zn exhibited the greatest ease of absorption, whereas Cu, Cr, and Pb interacted strongly with the root cells and remained in the roots of the plants. J. curcas showed the best absorption capability for Cd, Cr, Ni, and Zn. This study pioneered the concept of combining both bioremediation and afforestation by J. curcas, demonstrated at a field scale.

  15. Heavy Metals Speciation in Dust Samples from Various Parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dust samples were collected using 1m2 HDPE containers, oven dried at 70OC and sieved through 100ìm nylon sieve. 1g of each sample was digested using HCl/HNO3/H2O2 acid mixture and the concentration levels of 8 selected metals were measured using ICP-MS. Average concentrations of heavy metals in dust ...

  16. Nanopolysaccharides for adsorption of heavy metal ions from water


    Liu, Peng


    With population expansion and industrialization, heavy metal has become one of the biggest and most toxic water pollutants, which is a serious problem for human society today. The aim of this work is to explore the potential of nanopolysaccharides including nanocellulose and nanochitin to remove metal ions from contaminated water. The above nano-polysaccharides are of interest in water purification technologies due to their high surface area, high mechanical properties, and versatile surface ...

  17. Heavy metals status of street roaming ruminants in north western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) levels were determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy (Alpha Star Model 4, Chem Tech Analytical) after acid digestion. The results showed that heavy metals concentration in cow blood ranged from 1.53+1.20 to 29.92+2.60 mg/L, goats from 3.11+0.02 to 17.57+0.05 ...

  18. Evidence of heavy metal accumulations in sooty terns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoneburner, D.L.; Patty, P.C.; Robertson, W.B.


    Research report: Sooty terns nesting at Dry Tortugas, Fla., were analyzed to determine levels of heavy metal bioaccumulation. Tissues, feces, and eggs were analyzed by neutron activation techniques. The highest levels of mercury were found in eggs, feathers, and blood; of cadmium in kidney and bone; and of selenium in kidney, liver, and feathers. The concentrations of metals found in the eggs indicate that they are being transmitted to succeeding generations. (29 references, 1 table)

  19. Catalog of selected heavy duty transport energy management models (United States)

    Colello, R. G.; Boghani, A. B.; Gardella, N. C.; Gott, P. G.; Lee, W. D.; Pollak, E. C.; Teagan, W. P.; Thomas, R. G.; Snyder, C. M.; Wilson, R. P., Jr.


    A catalog of energy management models for heavy duty transport systems powered by diesel engines is presented. The catalog results from a literature survey, supplemented by telephone interviews and mailed questionnaires to discover the major computer models currently used in the transportation industry in the following categories: heavy duty transport systems, which consist of highway (vehicle simulation), marine (ship simulation), rail (locomotive simulation), and pipeline (pumping station simulation); and heavy duty diesel engines, which involve models that match the intake/exhaust system to the engine, fuel efficiency, emissions, combustion chamber shape, fuel injection system, heat transfer, intake/exhaust system, operating performance, and waste heat utilization devices, i.e., turbocharger, bottoming cycle.

  20. TiO2nanoparticles in sediments: Effect on the bioavailability of heavy metals in the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea. (United States)

    Fan, Xiulei; Wang, Chao; Wang, Peifang; Hu, Bin; Wang, Xun


    Most studies investigating the influence of TiO 2 NPs on heavy metal bioavailability have focused on the aqueous phase; however, few have examined the sediments containing more nanoparticles. Here, we investigated the effects of TiO 2 NPs on heavy metal bioavailability in C. fluminea in sediments. The interactions between the TiO 2 NPs and metals in sediments, the influence of TiO 2 NPs on metals levels in aqueous phase and geochemical speciation were also explored. The results indicated the large adsorption capacity of TiO 2 NPs and the strong adsorption affinity to metals caused the metals adsorbed on nanoparticles, which decreased the metals concentrations in water phase. Changes in metal speciation caused by metals in EXC, CAR, and IMO partly transported from sediments to TiO 2 NPs during the aging of sediments. Heavy metals contents in C. fluminea tissues were in the order of gill>visceral mass>mantle>foot and increased with the increasing TiO 2 NPs contents in sediments. TiO 2 NPs enhanced the bioavailability of metals in the speciation of EXC, CAR, and IMO in sediments by the Trojan horse effects. The results can facilitate a more realistic evaluation of the environmental risks of TiO 2 NPs to benthic organisms in heavy metal-contaminated sediments. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Heavy Metal Contaminated Soil Treatment: Conceptual Development (United States)


    scrubbers . Metal containing dusts may be recoveredý and could require landfill disposal’ or further treatment. 3.3.5 Flexibility. T,.sts have c:learly...extract metals from soils. The following are brief descriptions of these methods. Acids/ NH3 . Both strong and weak acid solutions have been...ammonia leaching and solvent extraction. The basic reactions are as follows.’ Cu + Cu(NH 3 )4 2 + 4NH40H- b2Ca( NH3 )* + 4H 2 O 4Cu( NH3 )* + Oz + H20

  2. Ancient Heavy Metal Contamination in Soils as a Driver of Tolerant Anthyllis vulneraria Rhizobial Communities. (United States)

    Mohamad, Roba; Maynaud, Geraldine; Le Quéré, Antoine; Vidal, Céline; Klonowska, Agnieszka; Yashiro, Erika; Cleyet-Marel, Jean-Claude; Brunel, Brigitte


    Anthyllis vulneraria is a legume associated with nitrogen-fixing rhizobia that together offer an adapted biological material for mine-soil phytostabilization by limiting metal pollution. To find rhizobia associated with Anthyllis at a given site, we evaluated the genetic and phenotypic properties of a collection of 137 rhizobia recovered from soils presenting contrasting metal levels. Zn-Pb mine soils largely contained metal-tolerant rhizobia belonging to Mesorhizobium metallidurans or to another sister metal-tolerant species. All of the metal-tolerant isolates harbored the cadA marker gene (encoding a metal-efflux PIB-type ATPase transporter). In contrast, metal-sensitive strains were taxonomically distinct from metal-tolerant populations and consisted of new Mesorhizobium genospecies. Based on the symbiotic nodA marker, the populations comprise two symbiovar assemblages (potentially related to Anthyllis or Lotus host preferences) according to soil geographic locations but independently of metal content. Multivariate analysis showed that soil Pb and Cd concentrations differentially impacted the rhizobial communities and that a rhizobial community found in one geographically distant site was highly divergent from the others. In conclusion, heavy metal levels in soils drive the taxonomic composition of Anthyllis-associated rhizobial populations according to their metal-tolerance phenotype but not their symbiotic nodA diversity. In addition to heavy metals, local soil physicochemical and topoclimatic conditions also impact the rhizobial beta diversity. Mesorhizobium communities were locally adapted and site specific, and their use is recommended for the success of phytostabilization strategies based on Mesorhizobium-legume vegetation. Phytostabilization of toxic mine spoils limits heavy metal dispersion and environmental pollution by establishing a sustainable plant cover. This eco-friendly method is facilitated by the use of selected and adapted cover crop legumes

  3. Study on Spatial and Seasonal Behavior of Heavy Metals in the Abandoned Mine, Geopung Watershed, Korea (United States)

    Pak, G.; HAN, K.; Kim, H.; Yeum, Y.; Hong, Y.; Kim, Y.; Yoon, J.


    Abandoned mine areas have increased the pollution problem through waste tailings, rock wastes, and acid mine drainage (AMD), all of which contain high amounts of heavy metals. They have various spatial and seasonal characteristics that can significantly affect water quality in the stream so it is important to assess these characteristics of AMD. The aim of this work is to study the characteristics of the spatial and seasonal behavior of heavy metals through the sediment and dissolved metal concentrations in the Geopung Mine Watershed, Korea. Seasonal variation of metal concentration in the stream sediment was found to be elevated during the summer than during any other seasons (at GP-5: 17.5 mg/kg for As, 7.5 mg/kg for Cd, 1,313 mg/kg for Zn). Similarly, heavy metal concentration in the water was also higher during the summer season (at GP-5: 0.283 mg/L for Cd, 2.554 mg/L for Cu, 12.354 mg/L for Zn). Moreover, the metal loadings were found to be increased during the summer season at the all of the point. The loading of Cd during this season was about 150 times higher than during the other seasons. This phenomenon is correlated with the pattern of the pH and TDS concentration at the upstream during summer. Low pH and High TDS concentrations significantly affect in-stream mechanisms which contribute to the fate and transport of metals. In addition, the concentration of spatial variation in sediment and water, most of the metal concentration decrease with distance from the tailing due to a dilution effect by the mixing of uncontaminated water and sediment. These study revealed that heavy metals in the stream coming from AMD and contaminant soil loss from the mine area are affected by physical influences such as rainfall intensity and velocity, and chemical influences such as pH.

  4. Removal of heavy metal from industrial effluents using Baker's yeast (United States)

    Ferdous, Anika; Maisha, Nuzhat; Sultana, Nayer; Ahmed, Shoeb


    Bioremediation of wastewater containing heavy metals is one of the major challenges in environmental biotechnology. Heavy metals are not degraded and as a result they remain in the ecosystem, and pose serious health hazards as it comes in contact with human due to anthropogenic activities. Biological treatment with various microorganisms has been practiced widely in recent past, however, accessing and maintaining the microorganisms have always been a challenge. Microorganisms like Baker's yeast can be very promising biosorbents as they offer high surface to volume ratio, large availability, rapid kinetics of adsorption and desorption and low cost. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the applicability of the biosorption process using baker's yeast. Here we present an experimental investigation of biosorption of Chromium (Cr) from water using commercial Baker's Yeast. It was envisaged that yeast, dead or alive, would adsorb heavy metals, however, operating parameters could play vital roles in determining the removal efficiency. Parameters, such as incubation time, pH, amount of biosorbent and heavy metal concentration were varied to investigate the impacts of those parameters on removal efficiency. Rate of removal was found to be inversely proportional to the initial Cr (+6) concentrations but the removal rate per unit biomass was a weakly dependent on initial Cr(+6) concentrations. Biosorption process was found to be more efficient at lower pH and it exhibited lower removal with the increase in solution pH. The optimum incubation time was found to be between 6-8 hours and optimum pH for the metal ion solution was 2. The effluents produced in leather industries are the major source of chromium pollution in Bangladesh and this study has presented a very cost effective yet efficient heavy metal removal approach that can be adopted for such kind of wastewater.

  5. Use of cestodes as indicator of heavy-metal pollution. (United States)

    Yen Nhi, Tran Thi; Mohd Shazili, Noor Azhar; Shaharom-Harrison, Faizah


    Thirty snakehead fish, Channa micropeltes (Cuvier, 1831) were collected at Lake Kenyir, Malaysia. Muscle, liver, intestine and kidney tissues were removed from each fish and the intestine was opened to reveal cestodes. In order to assess the concentration of heavy metal in the environment, samples of water in the surface layer and sediment were also collected. Tissues were digested and the concentrations of manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were analysed by using inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS) equipment. The results demonstrated that the cestode Senga parva (Fernando and Furtado, 1964) from fish hosts accumulated some heavy metals to a greater extent than the water and some fish tissues, but less than the sediment. In three (Pb, Zn and Mn) of the five elements measured, cestodes accumulated the highest metal concentrations, and in remaining two (Cu and Cd), the second highest metal accumulation was recorded in the cestodes when compared to host tissues. Therefore, the present study indicated that Senga parva accumulated metals and might have potential as a bioindicator of heavy-metal pollution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Selected heavy metals speciation in chemically stabilised sewage sludge (United States)

    Wiśniowska, Ewa; Włodarczyk-Makuła, Marła


    Selected heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Cd) were analysed in soil, digested sewage sludge as well as in the sludge stabilised with CaO or Fenton's reagent. The dose of Fenton's reagent was as follows: Fe2+ = 1g.L-1, Fe2+/H2O2=1:100; stabilisation lasted for 2 h. Dose of CaO was equal to 1 g CaO.g d.m.-1 Total concentration of all metals in the digested sewage sludge was higher than in the soil. Chemical stabilisation of sludge with Fenton's reagent increased total metal content in the sludge as a result of total solids removal. Opposite effect was stated when the sludge was mixed with CaO. Also chemical fractions of heavy metals were identified (exchangeable, carbonate bound, iron oxides bound, organic and residual). The results indicate that stabilisation of the sludge with Fenton's reagent increased mobility of heavy metals compared to the digested sludge. Amendment of CaO increased percent share of examined metals in residual fraction, thus immobilised them and decreased their bioavailability.

  7. Speciation of heavy metals in River Rhine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vega, F.A.; Weng, L.


    Chemical speciation of Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd and Pb in River Rhine was studied by measuring free ion concentration and distribution in nanoparticles, and by comparing the measurement with speciation modeling. Concentrations of free metal ions were determined in situ using Donnan Membrane Technique (DMT).

  8. Effect of pulse current on energy consumption and removal of heavy metals during electrodialytic soil remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Tian Ran

    Contamination of soils and groundwater keep attracting attention of worldwide. The contaminants of concern include a wide range of toxic pollutants such as heavy metals, radionuclides, and organic compounds. The environment and humans are exposed to these pollutants through different exposure...... pathways to unacceptable dosages, leading to intolerable adverse effects on both public health and the environment. In the last decades, soil and water remediation have gained growing awareness, as the necessity becomes clearer for development of such techniques for elimination of the negative impact from......: transport of water (electroosmosis) and ions (electromigration), with electromigration being the most important transport process when treating heavy metal contaminated soils. Electrodialytic remediation (EDR), one of the enhanced electrochemical remediation techniques, is developed at the Technical...

  9. Concentrations of heavy metals in effluent discharges downstream ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jan 18, 2010 ... Various effluent samples were collected from their sources of discharge to the Ikpoba river in Benin. City, Edo State between September and October, 2008. Six heavy metals (cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc) in the effluents and receiving water were analyzed by atomic absorption.

  10. Tree Leaves as Bioindicator of Heavy Metal Pollution in Mechanic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heavy metal accumulation in soils is of concern in agricultural production due to the adverse effects on food safety and marketability, crop growth due to phytotoxicity, and environmental health of soil organisms. Soil and plant samples were collected from mechanic village in Odeda local Government of Ogun State. The soil ...

  11. Assessment of Leaching of some Heavy Metals from Domestic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to assess the possible leaching of heavy metals from ceramic wares into different solutions. Ceramic spoon, pot, soup bowl, plate, mug and cup were leached in batch process using hot water and 4 % solutions of glacial acetic acid, HCl acid, NaOH and Na2CO3 respectively. Chromium, manganese ...

  12. Levels of heavy metals, total hydrocarbon and organic carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sediment samples of River Ethiope and Ikpoba River were collected and extracted using n-hexane (BDH, England) and the resulting extracts were read at 460nm with a spectrophotometer. The heavy metal analysis was carried out by using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The organic carbon was determined by ...

  13. Trend of Heavy Metal Concentrations in Lagos Lagoon Ecosystem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    of Physical and Chemical Oceanography, Bar Beach, Victoria Island, Lagos,. Nigeria. *Corresponding author. Email: Abstract. The distribution and occurrence of heavy metals in the sediment, water and benthic animals of the Lagos lagoon during the dry and rainy seasons were investigated over a ...

  14. Removal of nutrient and heavy metal loads from sewage effluent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A deliberate lowering of effluent pH may increase root uptake thereby possibly reducing the clean-up time and improving effluent quality. There is potential for application of this technology in cities struggling with the cost of conventional sewage treatment. Keywords: bio-accumulation, bio-sorption, heavy metals, hydroponic, ...


    Case reports of individuals taking Ayurvedic herbal medicine products (HMPs) suggest that they may contain lead, mercury, and/or arsenic. We analyzed the heavy metal content of Ayurvedic HMPs manufactured in India and Pakistan, available in South Asian grocery stores in the Bost...

  16. Determination of Some Heavy Metals in Selected Beauty and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of Some Heavy Metals in Selected Beauty and African Black Soaps Commonly Used in Kano – Nigeria. ... HNO3 and HCl (5:5:1 ratio) and analyzed for Ni, Cu, Fe, Co, Pb and Mn contents using air-acetylene flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Alpha 4) model by the standard calibration technique.

  17. Bait preference in basket trap fishing operation and heavy metal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bait preference of basket traps fishing operation and heavy metal contamination in the trap catches from Lagos Lagoon were carried out between January and June 2011. Sixty baskets traps were used for the fishing operation, twenty basket traps were baited each with soap, coconut and maize. Clibanarius africanus ...

  18. Safety Evaluation of Osun River Water Containing Heavy Metals and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    1Environmental, Analytical and Nutritional Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Chemical Sciences,. Osun State University ... Summary: This study evaluated the pH, heavy metals and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Osun river water. It also evaluated its ..... toxicity of pollutants. ALT and AST are markers of.

  19. Variations in the mineral composition and heavy metals content of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The parts of Moringa oleifera were assessed for mineral composition and some heavy metal contents in this study, which included Ca, Mg, K, Na, Mn, Fe, Zn, Co, Se, Pb and Cd. Parts of the plant were obtained from Badagry in Lagos State, Nigeria. The samples were digested with HNO3 and analysed for the mineral ...

  20. INTRODUCTION Heavy metal pollution of water has become a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    major environmental problem almost since the advent of agricultural ... Nations state that monitoring eight elements in fish Hg, Cd, Pb, As, Cu, ..... Research J. Environ. Science, 3 (5):522-529. Staniskiene, B.; Matusevicius, P.; Budreckiene, R. and Skibniewska, K.A. 2006. Distribution of heavy metals in tissues of freshwater.

  1. A Review of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Heavy Metal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    attention is focused on the reduction of anthropogenic pollutants such as industrial effluents, domestic sewage and mining wastes which are the main sources of heavy metal contaminants in the ocean. Concordantly, most of the human aquaculture activities such as the use of chemicals like feed additives, antibiotics, soil ...

  2. levels of heavy metals in gubi dam water bauchi, nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    rivers to the ocean is in the form of particulate ... B.M. Wufem, Chemistry Programme, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, P.M.B. 0248, Bauchi. A.Q. Ibrahim ..... Chemistry. Wiley Interscience NY, p. 780. Sukiman, S.B., 1989. The determination of heavy metals in water, suspended materials and sediments from Langat River,.

  3. Heavy Metal Concentrations around a Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Basorun market Dumpsite and UI football field (Mean ± Standard deviation) and USEPA Upper Limit for Heavy Metals in Soil. Parameter. UCH. Bottom Ash. BASORUN. U.I.. USEPA. (Incinerator) ... unconnected with the fact that wastes are not allowed to be decomposed at the UCH incinerator, the point only serves as a ...

  4. Heavy Metals Levels in Fish Samples from North Central Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 24, 2014 ... liver of Tilapia zilli has the highest level of heavy metals with the concentration of ... This indicates that the fish samples could be used to monitor Mn and Cr pollution levels ... Many studies have implicated industrial or human.

  5. Heavy Metals Accumulation In Roadside Soil And Vegetation Along ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Levels of some heavy metals in soil and vegetation along a major highway in Libya were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The concentrations of Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn, Cu, Cr and Mn in soil and vegetation all decreased with distance from the road, indicating their relation to traffic. The concentrations of the ...

  6. Heavy metal contamination of Clarias gariepinus from a lake and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heavy metal contamination of Clarias gariepinus from a lake and fish farm in Ibadan, Nigeria. FE Olaifa, AK Olaifa, AA Adelaja, AG Owolabi. Abstract. Adult Clarias gariepinus (African Catfish) were purchased from Eleiyele Lake and Zartech fish farm in Ibadan. Water samples were also collected in February (dry season) ...

  7. Determination of some heavy metals concentration in the tissues of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lead (Pb), Cobalt (Co), and Copper (Cu) concentrations were determined in bone, muscle and gill of two fish species (tilapia fish and cat-fish) collected from Tiga dam Kano, Nigeria during October, 2010. The mean concentrations of the heavy metals varied depending on the type of the tissue and fish species. Generally ...

  8. Assessment of heavy metals leachability from traditional clay pots ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The clay pots may transfer ones of their constituents into foodstuffs when they are coated with glazes which are said to contain heavy metals like Pb and Cd. This study was conducted to determine if traditional clay pots (unglazed) can also behave the same way. Leachate from the clay raw pulp material was initially ...

  9. Assessment of heavy metals leachability from traditional clay pots ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The clay pots may transfer ones of their constituents into foodstuffs when they are coated with glazes which are said to contain heavy metals like Pb and Cd. This study was conducted to determine if traditional clay pots (unglazed) can also behave the same way. Leachate from the clay raw pulp material was initially ...

  10. Heavy Metals and Microbial Contaminants in a Commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The heavy metal and microbial contaminants levels were evaluated in a commercial polyherbal product against the backdrop of reports of high levels of such contaminants in similar herbal products elsewhere in Nigeria, India and China. Atomic absorption spctrophotometric technique was used for the analysis of the herbal ...

  11. Microbial and heavy metal contamination of pineapple products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The samples were tested for yeasts and moulds, total plate counts, Faecal coliforms, total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella and Staphylococcus aureus using tested International Organization for Standardization (ISO) microbial determination methods. Quantitative determination of heavy metals: zinc, iron, ...

  12. Microbial and heavy metal contamination of pineapple products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    plate counts, Faecal coliforms, total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella and Staphylococcus aureus using tested International Organization for Standardization (ISO) microbial determination methods. Quantitative determination of heavy metals: zinc, iron, lead, copper, cadmium and aluminium was carried out by ...

  13. Comparative study of Heavy Metals Distribution in a Mechanic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study of heavy metals; Lead, Chromium, Arsenic, Nickel, Cadmium and Mercury distribution was carried out in Oluku and Otofure both in Metropolitan Benin City, Edo State Nigeria with the view to determine the level of concentration and contribution of each site investigated. Thirty eight (38) soil samples were ...

  14. Water quality characteristics and pollution levels of heavy metals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main aim of this study was to assess the level of water quality of Lake Haiq, Ethiopia with respect to selected physical parameters and heavy metals. Parameters such as temperature, pH, turbidity, electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids were measured in situ. While total alkalinity, chloride, ammonia, nitrate and ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    and minerals which is required for human health. They are made up of chiefly cellulose, hemicelluloses and pectin substances that give them their texture and ..... heavy Metals from Long-Range. Transboundary Air Pollution. Joint. Task Force on the Health Aspects of Long-Range Transboundary Air. Pollution, Geneva. 8.

  16. Assessment of Heavy Metal Content of Branded Pakistani Herbal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the heavy metals present in branded Pakistani herbal medicines used in the management of various human ailments. Method: The herbal dosage forms assessed were tablets, capsules and syrups. The samples were prepared for analysis by wet digestion method using nitric acid and perchloric acid ...

  17. Distribution of Heavy Metals in Organs of Freshwater Fishes from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 24, 2015 ... ABSTRACT. This work was carried out to investigate the accumulation profile of heavy metals in three fish species namely;. Albula vulpe, Clarias gariepinus and Tilapia zilli. The maximum mean concentration, 53.95 mg/kg was recorded for Mn in the liver. Cd, Cr and Pb, measured relatively lower ...

  18. heavy metal pollution asse al pollution assessment in the sediments

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. Sediments were collected from Dumba and to assess the pollution statusof the sedim. Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu. (Zn) and Arsenic (As) were analysed using concentration of heavy metals varies bet with standard average shale to assess pollution in Dumba and KwataYobe sedi assessed ...

  19. Heavy metal analyses and nutritional composition of raw and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In view of this study and the importance of fish in human diet, it is recommended that biological monitoring of fishes meant for consumption from these two water bodies be carried out regularly to ensure human safety. Keywords: Nutritional composition, heavy metals, fresh water fishes, marine water fishes, lagoons ...

  20. Problem of landfilling environments pollution by heavy metals (United States)

    Zilenina, V. G.; Ulanova, O. V.; Begunova, L. A.


    The article discusses the problems of snow and soil pollution by heavy metals. The results of physical and chemical special features of the deposit environment are given. Also, the results of snow mantle research in Irkutsk are described. The problem of manganese degradation from electrochemical cells disposed in the SMW areas is being discussed.

  1. Electrodialytic Remediation of Heavy Metal Polluted Soil. An Innovative Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Henrik; Karlsmose, Bodil


    Electrodialytic remediationof heavy metal polluted soil is a newly developed method which combines the electrokinetic movement of ions in soil with the principle of electrodialysis. The method has prowen to work in laboratorscale and at presnet two types of pilot plants are build....

  2. speciation of heavy metals in street dust samples from sakarya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    SPECIATION OF HEAVY METALS IN STREET DUST SAMPLES FROM SAKARYA. I. ORGANIZED INDUSTRIAL DISTRICT USING THE BCR SEQUENTIAL. EXTRACTION PROCEDURE BY ICP-OES. Nilufer Ozcan and Huseyin Altundag*. Sakarya University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, 54187, ...

  3. Heavy metal pollution assessment in the sediments of lake Chad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sediments were collected from Dumba and KwataYobe of Lake Chad, Nigerian Sector.The aim was to assess the pollution statusof the sediments of the lake. The concentration of heavy metals, Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), Z (Zn) and Arsenic (As) were ...

  4. Heavy metals pollution at municipal solid waste dumpsites in Kano ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil samples collected from two major dumpsites each in Kano and Kaduna states were investigated for heavy metals pollution. Each of the dumpsite was divided into north, south, east and west. Four soil samples were collected at a depth of 0-15 cm from each part and pooled to form a composite sample. Soil samples from ...

  5. Phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil using different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pot experiment was conducted to compare the plant biomass accumulation and heavy metal (HM) uptake by plant species grown in HM contaminated soils. The shoot dry weights of Eucalyptus camaldeulensis, Medicago sativum, and Brassica juncea grown in contaminated soils were reduced by 8, 5, and 3-fold, ...

  6. Suppressing Heavy Metal Leaching through Ball Milling of Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiliang Chen


    Full Text Available Ball milling is investigated as a method of reducing the leaching concentration (often termed stablilization of heavy metals in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI fly ash. Three heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Pb loose much of their solubility in leachate by treating fly ash in a planetary ball mill, in which collisions between balls and fly ash drive various physical processes, as well as chemical reactions. The efficiency of stabilization is evaluated by analysing heavy metals in the leachable fraction from treated fly ash. Ball milling reduces the leaching concentration of Cu, Cr, and Pb, and water washing effectively promotes stabilization efficiency by removing soluble salts. Size distribution and morphology of particles were analysed by laser particle diameter analysis and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals significant reduction of the crystallinity of fly ash by milling. Fly ash particles can be activated through this ball milling, leading to a significant decrease in particle size, a rise in its BET-surface, and turning basic crystals therein into amorphous structures. The dissolution rate of acid buffering materials present in activated particles is enhanced, resulting in a rising pH value of the leachate, reducing the leaching out of some heavy metals.

  7. Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals in Soil Invertebrates: Part 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals in Soil Invertebrates: Part 2: Uptake and Accumulation of Lead and Chromium by Achatina marginata (Linnaeus) and Lymnaea ... On the basis of elimination factors, the gut tissues of A. marginata gave low elimination factors, implying that these tissues in this species accumulated these ...

  8. Assessment of heavy metals in chicken feeds available in Sokoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 8, 2014 ... Abstract. In the present work six metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Mn and Ni) were analyzed for, using atomic absorption ... been detected in liver, kidney and muscle of broilers. (Coleman et al., 1992). Evidence of nickel deficiencies in chicks has been reported (NAS, 1980) ..... pollution on the levels of some heavy.

  9. Concentration of Heavy Metals in Drinking Water from Urban Areas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    such as temperature, conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), salinity, pH, and turbidity and ten heavy metals ... highlighted recently in Bangladesh where natural levels of arsenic in groundwater were found to be causing ... could be soil erosion, domestic waste from urban and rural areas and industrial wastes. So far, no ...

  10. Heavy Metal uptake Potentials of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uptake of heavy metals, silver and cadmium by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (a Gram negative bacterium) and Micrococcus luteus (a Gram positive bacterium) was investigated in Cadmium and Silver stock solution using ion selective electrodes. Silver and cadmium uptake by the two organisms was described by Langmuir ...

  11. Distribution of Heavy Metals in the Coastal Marine Surficial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concentrations of. Cd, Ni, and Pb in sediments above background level indicate that these sediments are polluted. Although the current concentration of most heavy metals in sediments is low, suggesting low levels of pollution in the study area, the increasing trend in dumping untreated wastes, driven by the demographic ...

  12. Chemical Speciation and Mobility of Some Heavy Metals in Soils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mobility of some heavy metals (Fe, Co, Ni and Mn) in soils around automobile waste dumpsites in Northern part of Niger Delta was assessed using Tessier et al. five syteps sequential chemical extraction procedure. The results showed that majority of iron and manganese were associated with the residual fraction with ...

  13. Heavy metal and proximate composition associated with the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    May 8, 2014 ... Changes in the heavy metal content and proximate composition during the 28 day composting of cassava peels used in the cultivation of the oyster mushrooms Pleurotus ostreatus strain EM-1 was studied. Significant dry weight variations of cellulose, hemicellulose and fat contents were observed from day ...

  14. Spatiotemporal Analysis of Heavy Metal Water Pollution in Transitional China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixuan Li


    Full Text Available China’s socioeconomic transitions have dramatically accelerated its economic growth in last three decades, but also companioned with continuous environmental degradation. This study will advance the knowledge of heavy metal water pollution in China from a spatial–temporal perspective. Specifically, this study addressed the following: (1 spatial patterns of heavy metal water pollution levels were analyzed using data of prefecture-level cities from 2004 to 2011; and (2 spatial statistical methods were used to examine the underlying socioeconomic and physical factors behind water pollution including socioeconomic transitions (industrialization, urbanization, globalization and economic development, and environmental characteristic (natural resources, hydrology and vegetation coverage. The results show that only Cr pollution levels increased over the years. The individual pollution levels of the other four heavy metals, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb, declined. High heavy metal water pollution levels are closely associated with both anthropogenic activities and physical environments, in particular abundant mineral resources and industrialization prosperity. On the other hand, economic development and urbanization play important roles in controlling water pollution problems. The analytical findings will provide valuable information for policy-makers to initiate and adjust protocols and strategies for protecting water sources and controlling water pollution; thus improving the quality of living environments.

  15. Determination of heavy metals in chinese prickly ash from different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the heavy metal content of Chinese prickly ash (CPA) produced in various areas of China. Methods: CPA samples collected from different production areas in China were subjected to microwave digestion, and the contents of copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic.

  16. Physico-chemical parameters and heavy metal contents of Ibuya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physico-chemical parameters and heavy metal contents of Ibuya River were investigated between September 2012 and August 2013 from four stations using standard methods to etermine acceptable water quality standards and evaluate possible sustainability of a thriving fisheries cum tourist sport fishing venture.

  17. Isolation and characterization of heavy metal tolerant bacteria from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Panteka stream is a flowing stream polluted with wastes from the activities of mechanics. Water samples collected at different points of the stream were analysed in order to determine the level of heavy metal contamination and bacteria diversity with the view to elucidating the bioremediating potentials of the bacteria isolates ...

  18. Environmental study of heavy metals influence on soil and Tansy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... work was to define the correlation between heavy metal (mercury, lead, cadmium, chrome and nickel) concentration changes (in soil, leaf, stem, root and essential oil in Tansy) and type and distance from source pollution. The concentration was monitored on different locations: 1) Chemical industry panevo (with accident ...

  19. Growth response and heavy metals tolerance of Axonopus affinis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 20, 2010 ... Different microorganisms have been used for bioremediation based on their resistance and ability to sequester heavy metals. ... agrochemicals and sewage sludge poses a major threat to the soil environment. ... DNA, the molecular target gene 16S rRNA was amplified using the universal primers set, fD1 ...

  20. Biomonitoring of some heavy metal contaminations from a steel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil and plants growing in the vicinity of industrial areas display increased concentrations of heavy metals and give an indication of the environmental quality. The contamination source for aluminum, iron, nickel and lead in the Botanical garden of Mobarakeh Steel Company was recognized by analyzing the leaves and ...

  1. Heavy metals in green vegetables and soils from vegetable gardens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Edible portions of five varieties of green vegetables, namely amaranth, chinese cabbage, cowpea leaves, leafy cabbage and pumpkin leaves, collected from several areas in Dar es Salaam, were analyzed for lead, cadmium, chromium, zinc, nickel and copper. Except for zinc, the levels of heavy metals in the vegetables ...

  2. Potential Human Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals Intake via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT: This work investigated six heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Zn, Cd, Ni and Cu) accumulation in five popular leafy vegetables: Telferia occidentalis (fluted pumpkin), Talinum triangulare. (waterleaf), Ocimum gratissimum (scent leaves), Celosia argentea (plumed cockscomb), and. Amaranthus viridis (slender amaranth) ...

  3. Evaluating the Heavy Metal Constituents of Pre-Treated Produced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    proportions. Produced water undergoes changes in its physical chemistry including precipitation of heavy metals after being discharged and mixed with ambient seawater (Azetsu-Scott et al.,. 2007). It has been noted by some workers that with effective dilution, acute toxic effects of this and other types of effluent water are ...

  4. Improving crop tolerance to heavy metal stress by polyamine application

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soudek, Petr; Ursu, Marina; Petrová, Šárka; Vaněk, Tomáš


    Roč. 213, DEC 15 (2016), s. 223-229 ISSN 0308-8146 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13029 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Vegetables * Heavy metal * Accumulation Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 4.529, year: 2016

  5. Comparative assessment of heavy metal removal by immobilized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    application for the removal of Cu, Cd and Pb from industrial wastewater than the dead bacterial cells. Key words: Biosorption, bacteria, heavy metal, dead bacterial cells, immobilization. INTRODUCTION. The current pattern of industrial activity allows the natural flow of materials and introduces novel toxic chemicals into the ...

  6. Removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution by using mango ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution by using mango biomass. MA Ashraf, A Wajid, K Mahmood, MJ Maah, I Yusoff. Abstract. Biosorbent and unfertilizable flowering buds of mango plant, a local agrowaste in Multan, Pakistan known as battoor is used in this study. Efficacy of the biosorbent is tested in batch for ...

  7. Short Communication Effects of heavy metals on the development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite a growing abalone Haliotis midae industry in South Africa, few studies have measured the effects of heavy metals on larval survival and growth in the face of recent increases in marine pollution. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of copper on survival and zinc on development of H. midae larvae. Larvae ...

  8. Determination of Some Heavy Metals in Selected Poultry Feeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Apr 22, 2014 ... K.T. Radhakrishnan, (2008). Presence of heavy metals in pork products in Chennai. (India). Am J. food Technol., 3(3):192-199. SCAN (2003), Scientific Committee on animal. Nutrition: Opinion of the undesirable substance in feed. Retrieved from: http:/

  9. Heavy metal influence from anaerobic digestion. Tungmetalpaavirkning af anaerob udraadning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westermann, P. (Afd. for Generel Mikrobiologi, Koebenhavns Universitet (DK)); Ahring, B. (Institut for Bioteknologi, DTH (DK))


    The increased use of anaerobic digestion in farming and industry, and in connection with sewage sludge, has created the need for an understanding of the biological processes in the process tanks/biomass conversion plants. It is important to understand the weaknesses of the physical and chemical processes. The article deals with the influence of heavy metals from anaerobic digestion. (CLS).

  10. Impact of heavy metals on the rhizosphere microflora of Jatropha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pot culture experiment of J. multifida dealt with the biochemical characteristics of heavy metals contaminated soil amended with waste water biosludge and biofertilizer (Azotobacter vinelandii). Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria such as Pseudomonas, Azotobacter and Rhizobium were isolated, characterized and ...

  11. Concentration of Heavy Metals in Drinking Water from Urban Areas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    highlighted recently in Bangladesh where natural levels of arsenic in groundwater were found to be causing harmful ... are higher than the recommended limits, their roles change to a negative dimension. Human. © CNCS .... Analytical grade chemicals (HNO3, Sigma chemicals, Australia and standard heavy metal solutions ...

  12. Concentration of Heavy Metals in Drinking Water from Urban Areas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    implications. This study, therefore, recommends the government and other responsible authorities to take appropriate corrective measures. Key words: Drinking water quality, Heavy metals, Maximum admissible limit, World health organization, Tigray. 1. INTRODUCTION. Safe drinking water is a human birthright – as much ...

  13. Heavy metals concentrations in water bodies around aquamarine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water samples from three streams in the mining area of Eggon Hill were analysed. The Physicochemical values obtained were compared with WHO permissible standards in drinking water. Except for Cu and Zn with levels within permissible limits, other heavy metals determined were found to have levels above the WHO ...

  14. Heavy metal contamination of mangrove sediments and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crabs generally contained higher concentrations of heavy metals (pb, zn and cu) on dry weight basis compared with sediment and mangrove plant parts. Copper enrichment in crabs, for example, was more than six times compared with the concentration in sediment samples from msimbazi mangrove mangrove forest.

  15. Heavy metal accumulation in under crown Olea europaea L forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zn, Pb and Ni exceeded their permitted limits in soils and Pb, Cr and Ni exceeded their permitted limits in roots of plants irrigated with wastewater. It was concluded that the use of wastewater in urban forest enriched the soils with heavy metals to concentrations that may pose potential environmental and health risks on the ...

  16. Levels of some heavy metals in cassava and plantain from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    systemic health problems can develop as a result of excessive dietary accumulation of heavy metals such as Cd and Pb in the human body (Oliver 1997). Lacatusu et al., (1996) reported that soil and vegetables polluted with Pb and Cd significantly contributed to decreased human life expectancy within the affected areas of ...

  17. Deposition of sediment and associated heavy metals on floodplains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thonon, Ivo


    In recent years, floodplains have become widely acknowledged as important natural sinks for sediments and associated substances like nutrients, PAHs, PCBs and heavy metals. The character of floodplains will change in the near future because of landscaping measures (excavation of secondary channels,

  18. Concentrations of heavy metals in untreated produced water from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    product, residue or waste. One of such is an effluent from the mining of crude oil and gas, known as produced water, which contains varying quantities of hydrocarbons and heavy metals, thereby making it to require proper treatment in order to ...

  19. Determination of Some Heavy Metals in Selected Poultry Feeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of Some Heavy Metals in Selected Poultry Feeds Available in Kano Metropolis, Nigeria. ... The levels of Zinc, Iron, Manganese and Copper were found to be below the requirement set by SON. Cadmium levels were found in all samples to exceed the permissible limits FAO/WHO which both are 1mg/kg; with ...

  20. Patterns of Heavy Metals Contents in Urban Soils of Vasileostrovsky ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentration of Pb in soil samples varied from 0.6-110 mg/kg within the limits of Vasilesostrovvsky. and 0.3 -80 mg/kg in recreational zone of Elagin Ostrov, which is approximately ... Elagin Ostrov, generally, registered lower contents or total heavy metals and this might be attributed to its location and nature of land use.

  1. Short communication Assessment of heavy metal contamination in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    May 27, 2016 ... 2 University College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Bahawalpur, Pakistan. 3 University of ... there is a critical need to set legal limits and surveillance for heavy metals in an animal's milk. ..... Effects of environmental temperature change on mercury absorption in aquatic organisms with respect to climate ...

  2. Heavy metals accumulation in edible part of vegetables irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hassana Ibrahim Mustapha

    In this present study, the quality of municipal wastewater used for irrigation of spinach was investigated for its heavy metal build-up. .... digested samples were filtered with a 0.45 µm pore size cellulose nitrate membrane filter paper. ... irrigation with partially treated or untreated sewage. This was reported by Farooq et al.

  3. Increased heavy metal tolerance of cowpea plants by dual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Through biological inoculation technology, the bacterial-mycorrhizal-legume tripartite symbiosis in artificially heavy metal polluted soil was documented and the effects of dual inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus and Rhizobium (N-fixing bacteria, NFB) on the host plant cowpea (Vigna sinensis) in pot ...

  4. Fate of heavy metals and agrochemicals in biochar amended soils (United States)

    Heavy metals and agrochemicals are the key targets for biochar-induced mitigation of runoff/groundwater contamination. Inorganic and organic contaminants interact differently with biochars as well as soil components. Mechanistic understandings are needed on sorption, desorption, and competitive sor...

  5. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals by Dyera costulata cultivated in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High concentrations of heavy metals are harmful to plants, animals and humans and their potential accumulation in human tissues and bio-magnification through the food chain cause serious health hazards. An experiment was conducted in the glasshouse to evaluate the potential of Dyera costulata as a bioaccumulator to ...

  6. Effects of nitrogen enrichment on heavy metals content of cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research was carried out at John Ker Nigeria Organo-Mineral Company site at Ikot Ekpene, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, to investigate the effect of nitrogen enrichment on contents of heavy metals in cattle dung/poultry manure compost and the growth of maize. Cattle dung was mixed with poultry manure in the ratio of 3:1 ...

  7. Removal of heavy metals from waste water of tanning leather ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jul 3, 2013 ... are expensive, need energy and can produce waste products that require careful disposal (Ahalya et al.,. 2003). Therefore, the biological approaches have been considered as an alternative remediation for heavy metals removal from wastewaters (Pena-Castro et al.,. 2004). One of these methods is the ...

  8. Antibiogram and heavy metal tolerance of bullfrog bacteria in Malaysia. (United States)

    Tee, L W; Najiah, M


    Bacterial isolates from 30 farmed bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) weighing 500-600 g at Johore, Malaysia with external clinical signs of ulcer, red leg and torticollis were tested for their antibiograms and heavy metal tolerance patterns. A total of 17 bacterial species with 77 strains were successfully isolated and assigned to 21 antibiotics and 4 types of heavy metal (Hg(2+), Cr(6+), Cd(2+), Cu(2+)). Results revealed that bacteria were resistant against lincomycin (92%), oleandomycin (72.7%) and furazolidone (71.4%) while being susceptible to chloramphenicol and florfenicol at 97.4%. The multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index for C. freundii, E. coli and M. morganii was high with the value up to 0.71. Bacterial strains were found to exhibit 100 % resistance to chromium and mercury. High correlation of resistance against both antibiotics and heavy metals was found (71.4 to 100%) between bullfrog bacteria isolates, except bacteria that were resistant to kanamycin showed only 25% resistance against Cu(2+). Based on the results in this study, bacterial pathogens of bullfrog culture in Johore, Malaysia, were highly resistant to both antibiotics and heavy metals.

  9. Heavy metal induced ecophysiological function alterations in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Heavy metal accumulation affects the physiological status of plants. Suaeda salsa L. is used to investigate the toxic effects of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) either alone or mixtures under the static test conditions. Cd-Pb mixture exposure can decrease lignin content and weaken the increase. Mitochondrial calcium content ...

  10. Accumulation of Proline under Salinity and Heavy metal stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    1Department of Biotechnology, Prathyusha Institute of Technology and Management, Tiruvallur – 602 025, India. 2School of ... ABSTRACT: Salinity and heavy metals affect the growth and development of higher plants and also their ... be the most toxic one with 94% inhibition in seed germination at 250 µM concentrations.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Feb 13, 2012 ... biological cycles, most of them become toxic at high concentrations. The major sources of heavy metal pollution in urban areas of Nigeria are anthropogenic, while contamination from natural sources predominates in the rural areas. The study ... University of Port Harcourt Nigeria. *Corresponding author ...

  12. Evaluation of antibiotic resistance patterns and heavy metals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work investigated the antibiotic resistance patterns and heavy metals such as Lead (Pb), Zinc (Zn), Cadmium (Cd) and iron (Fe) tolerance of selected bacteria isolated from contaminated soils and sediments around Warri area of Delta State. The heterotrophic bacterial counts for the sampled soils and sediments ranged ...

  13. Antibiogram and heavy metal tolerance of bullfrog bacteria in Malaysia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 17 bacterial species with 77 strains were successfully isolated and assigned to 21 antibiotics and 4 types of heavy metal (Hg2+, Cr6+, Cd2+, Cu2+). Results revealed that bacteria were resistant against lincomycin (92%), oleandomycin (72.7%) and furazolidone (71.4%) while being susceptible to chloramphenicol ...

  14. Evaluation of heavy metals' health risk index in vegetable amaranth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The lack of regular Control of pollution produce from industries affects both air and soil in the environment. Vegetable Amaranth and Sunflower flower were used to study the presence of heavy metals (Mn, Zn, Cr, Fe, Cd, Pb, Ni and Cu) produced as pollutants, within five (5) selected areas in Kano state, Nigeria. Atomic ...

  15. Spatial variation in Heavy Metal residue in Corchorus olitorious ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    the vegetable Corchorus olitorius (C.olitorius) leaves cultivated along a major road. Samples the vegetable, C. olitorius leaves) were ... also poses risk to animals and human health. High concentrations of heavy metals such as ... In many cities in the developing world, lack of access to land make other lands including ...

  16. Safety Evaluation of Osun River Water Containing Heavy Metals and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Male and female rats were exposed to Osun river water for three weeks and then sacrificed. The abundance of heavy metals in Osun river followed the trend Pb > Cd > Zn > Fe > Cr > Cu while VOCs followed the trend benzene < ethylbenzene < toluene < xylene. The concentrations of Pb, Cd and benzene were higher than ...

  17. Assessment of Heavy Metals and Their Estimated Daily Intakes from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most foodstuffs sold in Nigerian outdoor markets are often susceptible to pollution due to poor packaging. As a case study, this work was aimed at the evaluation of heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Zn, As, Pb and Ni) content of two widely consumed snack foods in the country, namely melon (robo) and groundnut (kulikuli). The Robo ...

  18. Heavy metals contamination of topsoil and dispersion in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growing concern about reclamation of auto-repair workshop areas for residential and agricultural purposes makes risk assessment of heavy metal contamination of the study area imperative. In addition, the study is aimed at ascertaining the dispersion of contaminated Zn, Ni, Cr, Hg, and Pb within the soil profile. A total of 75 ...

  19. Biomonitoring of heavy metals using Usnea antarctica lichens (extended abstract)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zvěřina, O.; Coufalík, Pavel; Barták, M.; Komárek, J.


    Roč. 6, č. 2 (2016), s. 238-239 ISSN 1805-0689. [Biosciences in Polar and Alpine Research. Workshop 2016. Brno, 23.11.2016-23.11.2016] Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : heavy metal * lichen * Antarctica Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry

  20. Study of heavy metals bioaccumulation in the process of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Cd, Zn, Ni, Pb and Cr) and the relationship between them was investigated on earthworm (Eisenia fetida) physiology during the process of vermicomposting. The soil samples were obtained from Roudehen city in the eastern area of Tehran. E. fetida specimens were exposed to a ...