WorldWideScience

Sample records for heavy ion charge

  1. Heavy-ion radiography applied to charged particle radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, G.T.Y.; Fabrikant, J.I.; Holley, W.R.; Tobias, C.A.; Castro, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The objectives of the heavy-ion radiography research program applied to the clinical cancer research program of charged particle radiotherapy have a twofold purpose: (1) to explore the manner in which heavy-ion radiography and CT reconstruction can provide improved tumor localization, treatment planning, and beam delivery for radiotherapy with accelerated heavy charged particles; and (2) to explore the usefulness of heavy-ion radiography in detecting, localizing, and sizing soft tissue cancers in the human body. The techniques and procedures developed for heavy-ion radiography should prove successful in support of charged particle radiotherapy

  2. Mass and Charge Measurements on Heavy Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugai, Toshiki

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between mass and charge has been a crucial topic in mass spectrometry (MS) because the mass itself is typically evaluated based on the m/z ratio. Despite the fact that this measurement is indirect, a precise mass can be obtained from the m/z value with a high m/z resolution up to 105 for samples in the low mass and low charge region under 10,000 Da and 20 e, respectively. However, the target of MS has recently been expanded to the very heavy region of Mega or Giga Da, which includes large particles and biocomplexes, with very large and widely distributed charge from kilo to Mega range. In this region, it is necessary to evaluate charge and mass simultaneously. Recent studies for simultaneous mass and charge observation and related phenomena are discussed in this review. PMID:29302406

  3. Quantum electrodynamical effects in heavy highly-charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yerokhin, V.A.; Artemyev, A.N.; Indelicato, P.; Shabaev, V.M.

    2003-01-01

    The present status of theoretical calculations of QED effects in highly charged ions is reviewed for several important cases: the Lamb shift in heavy H-like ions, the 2p 1/2 -2s transition energy in heavy Li-like ions, and the bound-electron g factor in H-like ions. Theoretical predictions are compared with experimental results. Special attention is paid to the discussion of uncertainties of theoretical predictions

  4. Equilibrium charge state distributions of high energy heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.B.; Grant, I.S.; King, R.; Eastham, D.A.; Joy, T.

    1976-01-01

    Equilibrium charge state fractions have been measured for N, O, Ne, S, Ar and Kr ions at 1.04 MeV/nucleon after passing through various stripping materials. Further data were obtained at higher energy for S ions (4.12 MeV/nucleon) and Ar ions (4.12 and 9.6 MeV/nucleon). The mean charge fractions can be fitted to universal curves for both solid and gaseous strippers. Measurements of the equilibrium fraction of krypton ions at 1.04 MeV/nucleon passing through heavy vapours have shown that a higher average charge state is obtained than for lighter gaseous strippers. (Auth.)

  5. A high charge state heavy ion beam source for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.

    1996-01-01

    A high current, low emittance, high charge state heavy ion beam source is being developed. This is designed to deliver a heavy ion fusion (HIF) driver accelerator scale beam. Using a high charge state beam in a driver accelerator for HIF may increase the acceleration efficiency, leading to a reduction in the driver accelerator size and cost. The proposed source system, which consists of a gas beam electron stripper followed by a high charge state beam separator, can be added to existing single charge state, low emittance, high brightness ion sources and injectors. We shall report on the source physics design using 3D beam simulations and experimental feasibility study results using a neutral gas stripper and a beam separator at the exit of the LBL 2 MV injector. (orig.)

  6. A high charge state heavy ion beam source for HIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.

    1995-04-01

    A high current low emittance high charge state heavy ion beam source is being developed. This is designed to deliver HIF (heavy ion fusion) driver accelerator scale beam. Using high-charge-state beam in a driver accelerator for HIF may increase the acceleration efficiency, leading to a reduction in the driver accelerator size and cost. The proposed source system which consists of the gas beam electron stripper followed by a high charge state beam separator, can be added to existing single charge state, low emittance, high brightness ion sources and injectors. We shall report on the source physics design using 2D beam envelope simulations and experimental feasibility studies' results using a neutral gas stripper and a beam separator at the exit of the LBL 2 MV injector

  7. Mass and charge distribution in heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, F.; Dworzecka, M.; Feldmeier, H.

    1978-01-01

    A statistical model based on the independent particle picture is used to calculate mass and charge distributions in deep inelastic heavy-ion collisions. Different assumptions on volume and charge equilibrations are compared with measured variances of charge distributions. One combination of assumptions is clearly favoured by experiment, and gives a reasonable description of the variance versus energy loss curves up to energy losses of about 200 MeV in the heavy systems Kr+Ho and Xe+Bi, and up to about 60 MeV for the light system Ar+Ca [af

  8. Charged Hadron Multiplicity Distribution at Relativistic Heavy-Ion Colliders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reviews facts and problems concerning charge hadron production in high energy collisions. Main emphasis is laid on the qualitative and quantitative description of general characteristics and properties observed for charged hadrons produced in such high energy collisions. Various features of available experimental data, for example, the variations of charged hadron multiplicity and pseudorapidity density with the mass number of colliding nuclei, center-of-mass energies, and the collision centrality obtained from heavy-ion collider experiments, are interpreted in the context of various theoretical concepts and their implications. Finally, several important scaling features observed in the measurements mainly at RHIC and LHC experiments are highlighted in the view of these models to draw some insight regarding the particle production mechanism in heavy-ion collisions.

  9. Improvement of highly charged ion production in the ECR source of heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirkov, G.D.

    1996-01-01

    Some physical limitations of the highly charged ion production in the ECR source are analyzed in this report. A few possible ways to improve the output of highly charged ions from the ECR source for heavy ions are proposed. A new library of computer codes for the numerical simulation of heavy ion production in the ECR ion source is used to examine these ways to improve the ECR source operation according to the CERN program of heavy ion acceleration. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  10. Study of charge exchanges of heavy ions passing through solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, Eric.

    1975-01-01

    The charge state distributions of 1 to 6MeV/nucleon heavy ions (from oxygen to krypton) passing through thin targets of various materials (C, Cu, Ag, Au) are studied. The variation of the average charge state and of the charge state fractions as a function of the thickness of carbon targets ranging from zero to the equilibrium thickness is measured; this allows the calculation of effective cross-sections of the charge changing process. It is also shown that the lower the target atomic number, the higher the average charge state, which is explained by a decrease of the capture cross sections. Finally, a semi-empirical formula predicting the average charge state is proposed, as an extension of Betz's and Nikolaev and Dmitriev's formula [fr

  11. Total charge fluctuation in heavy ion collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, D.K.; Netrakanti, P.K.; Mohanty, A.K.; Garg, P.

    2014-01-01

    Event-by-event fluctuations of positive, negative, total and net charge produced in relativistic nuclear collisions have been of interest to explore phase transition and/or a critical end point (CEP) which is believed to exist somewhere between the hadronic phase and the quark-gluon phase of the QCD phase diagram. The entropy is closely related to the particle multiplicity, and it is expected to be approximately conserved during the evolution of the matter created at the early stage. The entropy fluctuations are not directly observed but can be inferred from the experimentally measured quantities. The final state mean multiplicity is proportional to the entropy of the initial state ( ∼ S). The particle multiplicity can be measured on an event-by-event basis, whereas the entropy is defined by averaging the particle multiplicities in the ensemble of events. Thus, the dynamical entropy fluctuations can be measured experimentally by measuring the fluctuations in the mean multiplicity

  12. Universal behavior of charged particle production in heavy ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phobos Collaboration; Steinberg, Peter A.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; Garcia, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2003-03-01

    The PHOBOS experiment at RHIC has measured the multiplicity of primary charged particles as a function of centrality and pseudorapidity in Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 19.6, 130 and 200 GeV. Two kinds of universal behavior are observed in charged particle production in heavy ion collisions. The first is that forward particle production, over a range of energies, follows a universal limiting curve with a non-trivial centrality dependence. The second arises from comparisons with pp/pbar-p and e+e- data. N_tot/(N_part/2) in nuclear collisions at high energy scales with sqrt(s) in a similar way as N_tot in e+e- collisions and has a very weak centrality dependence. This feature may be related to a reduction in the leading particle effect due to the multiple collisions suffered per participant in heavy ion collisions.

  13. Numerical simulation of heavy ion charge generation and collection dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dussault, H.; Howard, J.W. Jr.; Block, R.C.; Stapor, W.J.; Knudson, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a complete simulation approach to investigating the physics of heavy-ion charge generation and collection during a single event transient in a PN diode. The simulations explore the effects of different ion track models, applied biases, background dopings, and LET on the transient responses of a PN diode. The simulation results show that ion track structure and charge collection via diffusion-dominated processes play important roles in determining device transient responses. The simulations show no evidence of rapid charge collection in excess of that deposited in the device depletion region in typical funneling time frames (i.e., by time to peak current or in less than 500 ps). Further, the simulations clearly show that the device transient responses are not simple functions of the ion's incident LET. The simulation results imply that future studies and experiments should consider the effects of ion track structure in addition to LET and extend transient charge collection times to insure that reported charge collection efficiencies include diffusion-dominated collection processes

  14. Modeling space charge in beams for heavy-ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, W.M.

    1995-01-01

    A new analytic model is presented which accurately estimates the radially averaged axial component of the space-charge field of an axisymmetric heavy-ion beam in a cylindrical beam pipe. The model recovers details of the field near the beam ends that are overlooked by simpler models, and the results compare well to exact solutions of Poisson's equation. Field values are shown for several simple beam profiles and are compared with values obtained from simpler models

  15. Transfer of momentum, mass and charge in heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, F.; Feldmeier, H.; Dworzecka, M.

    1979-01-01

    A model for the first two phases of heavy ion collisions based on the transport of single nucleons through the window between the two scattering nuclei is described in some detail. It is pointed out that the model can account simultaneously for a large portion of the energy transfer from relative to intrinsic motion and for the observed variances in mass and charge numbers for reaction times up to the order of 10 -21 s. (P.L.)

  16. Momentum transfer in relativistic heavy ion charge-exchange reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.; Khan, F.; Khandelwal, G. S.

    1991-01-01

    Relativistic heavy ion charge-exchange reactions yield fragments (Delta-Z = + 1) whose longitudinal momentum distributions are downshifted by larger values than those associated with the remaining fragments (Delta-Z = 1, -2,...). Kinematics alone cannot account for the observed downshifts; therefore, an additional contribution from collision dynamics must be included. In this work, an optical model description of collision momentum transfer is used to estimate the additional dynamical momentum downshift. Good agreement between theoretical estimates and experimental data is obtained.

  17. Nonlinear energy loss of highly charged heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwicknagel, G.Guenter.

    2000-01-01

    For slow, highly charged heavy ions strong coupling effects in the energy transfer from the projectile-ion to an electron target plasma become important. A theoretical description of this nonlinear ion stopping has to go beyond the standard approaches like the dielectric linear response or the binary collision model which are strictly valid only at weak ion-target coupling. Here we outline an improved treatment which is based on a suitable combination of binary collision and linear response contributions. As has been verified for isotropic, nonmagnetized electron plasmas by comparison with simulations, this approach well reproduces the essential features of nonlinear stopping up to moderate coupling strength. Its extension to anisotropic, magnetized electron plasmas basically involves the fully numerical determination of the momentum and energy transfer in binary ion-electron collisions in the presence of a magnetic field. First results of such calculations are presented and discussed

  18. Dependence of anti W on the charge of heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, M.N.; Baum, J.J.

    1977-10-01

    Anti W values (average energy required to form an ion pair) were determined for 35 Cl ions in nitrogen and tissue-equivalent gas. These values were compared to previously reported anti W values for oxygen ions and alpha particles in the same media. This comparison was made at two specific values of energy per atomic mass unit of the incident ions. At an energy of 2.57 MeV/amu, the comparison shows anti W is 12% and 10% higher for oxygen ions in tissue-equivalent and nitrogen gas, respectively, relative to alpha particle anti W. At an energy of 0.77 MeV/amu, a similar comparison shows anti W is 20% higher for 35 Cl ions and 12% higher for 16 O ions in tissue-equivalent gas; and 13% and 10% higher, respectively, in nitrogen gas, relative to alpha particle anti W. These results indicate that anti W values depend not only on the energy per atomic mass unit of heavy ions but also on their charge

  19. RF plasma source for heavy ion beam charge neutralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efthimion, Philip C.; Gilson, Erik; Grisham, Larry; Davidson, Ronald C.; Yu, Simon S.; Logan, B. Grant

    2003-01-01

    Highly ionized plasmas are being used as a medium for charge neutralizing heavy ion beams in order to focus the ion beam to a small spot size. A radio frequency (RF) plasma source has been built at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in support of the joint Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to study ion beam neutralization with plasma. The goal is to operate the source at pressures ∼ 10 -5 Torr at full ionization. The initial operation of the source has been at pressures of 10 -4 -10 -1 Torr and electron densities in the range of 10 8 -10 11 cm -3 . Recently, pulsed operation of the source has enabled operation at pressures in the 10 -6 Torr range with densities of 10 11 cm -3 . Near 100% ionization has been achieved. The source has been integrated with the NTX facility and experiments have begun

  20. HIAF: New opportunities for atomic physics with highly charged heavy ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, X.; Wen, W. Q.; Zhang, S. F.; Yu, D. Y.; Cheng, R.; Yang, J.; Huang, Z. K.; Wang, H. B.; Zhu, X. L.; Cai, X.; Zhao, Y. T.; Mao, L. J.; Yang, J. C.; Zhou, X. H.; Xu, H. S.; Yuan, Y. J.; Xia, J. W.; Zhao, H. W.; Xiao, G. Q.; Zhan, W. L.

    2017-10-01

    A new project, High Intensity heavy ion Accelerator Facility (HIAF), is currently being under design and construction in China. HIAF will provide beams of stable and unstable heavy ions with high energies, high intensities and high quality. An overview of new opportunities for atomic physics using highly charged ions and radioactive heavy ions at HIAF is given.

  1. Review of highly charged heavy ion production with electron cyclotron resonance ion source (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, T.

    2014-01-01

    The electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) plays an important role in the advancement of heavy ion accelerators and other ion beam applications worldwide, thanks to its remarkable ability to produce a great variety of intense highly charged heavy ion beams. Great efforts over the past decade have led to significant ECRIS performance improvements in both the beam intensity and quality. A number of high-performance ECRISs have been built and are in daily operation or are under construction to meet the continuously increasing demand. In addition, comprehension of the detailed and complex physical processes in high-charge-state ECR plasmas has been enhanced experimentally and theoretically. This review covers and discusses the key components, leading-edge developments, and enhanced ECRIS performance in the production of highly charged heavy ion beams

  2. Measurement of charge of heavy ions in emulsion using a CCD camera

    CERN Document Server

    Kudzia, D; Dabrowska, A; Deines-Jones, P; Holynski, R; Olszewski, A; Nilsen, B S; Sen-Gupta, K; Szarska, M; Trzupek, A; Waddington, C J; Wefel, J P; Wilczynska, B; Wilczynski, H; Wolter, W; Wosiek, B; Wozniak, K

    1999-01-01

    A system has been developed for semi-automated determination of the charges of heavy ions recorded in nuclear emulsions. The profiles of various heavy ion tracks in emulsion, both accelerator beam ions and fragments of heavy projectiles, were obtained with a CCD camera mounted on a microscope. The dependence of track profiles on illumination, emulsion grain size and density, background in emulsion, and track geometry was analyzed. Charges of the fragments of heavy projectiles were estimated independently by the delta ray counting method. A calibration of both width and height of track profiles against ion charges was made with ions of known charges ranging from helium to gold nuclei. (author)

  3. RF Plasma Source for Heavy Ion Beam Charge Neutralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efthimion, P. C.; Gilson, E.; Grisham, L.; Davidson, R. C.

    2003-10-01

    Highly ionized plasmas are being employed as a medium for charge neutralizing heavy ion beams in order to focus to a small spot size. Calculations suggest that plasma at a density of 1 - 100 times the ion beam density and at a length 0.1-0.5 m would be suitable for achieving a high level of charge neutralization. An ECR source has been built at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in support of the joint Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to study ion beam neutralization with plasma. The ECR source operates at 13.6 MHz and with solenoid magnetic fields of 0-10 gauss. The goal is to operate the source at pressures 10-5 Torr at full ionization. The initial operation of the source has been at pressures of 10-4 - 10-1 Torr. Electron densities in the range of 10^8 - 10^11 cm-3 have been achieved. Recently, pulsed operation of the source has enabled operation at pressures in the 10-6 Torr range with densities of 10^11 cm-3. Near 100% ionization has been achieved. The source has been integrated with NTX and is being used in the experiments. The plasma is approximately 10 cm in length in the direction of the beam propagation. Modifications to the source will be presented that increase its length in the direction of beam propagation.

  4. Ferroelectric Plasma Source for Heavy Ion Beam Charge Neutralization

    CERN Document Server

    Efthimion, Philip; Gilson, Erik P; Grisham, Larry; Logan, B G; Waldron, William; Yu, Simon

    2005-01-01

    Plasmas are employed as a medium for charge neutralizing heavy ion beams to allow them to focus to a small spot size. Calculations suggest that plasma at a density of 1-100 times the ion beam density and at a length ~ 0.1-1 m would be suitable. To produce 1 meter plasma, large-volume plasma sources based upon ferroelectric ceramics are being considered. These sources have the advantage of being able to increase the length of the plasma and operate at low neutral pressures. The source will utilize the ferroelectric ceramic BaTiO3 to form metal plasma. The drift tube inner surface of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) will be covered with ceramic. High voltage (~ 1-5 kV) is applied between the drift tube and the front surface of the ceramic by placing a wire grid on the front surface. A prototype ferroelectric source 20 cm long produced plasma densities ~ 5x1011 cm-3. The source was integrated into the experiment and successfully charge neutralized the K ion beam. Presently, the 1 meter source ...

  5. ECR plasma source for heavy ion beam charge neutralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efthimion, Philip C.; Gilson, Erik; Grisham, Larry; Kolchin, Pavel; Davidson, Ronald C.; Yu, Simon; Logan, B. Grant

    2003-01-01

    Highly ionized plasmas are being considered as a medium for charge neutralizing heavy ion beams in order to focus beyond the space-charge limit. Calculations suggest that plasma at a density of 1 100 times the ion beam density and at a length [similar]0.1 2 m would be suitable for achieving a high level of charge neutralization. An Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) source has been built at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) to support a joint Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to study ion beam neutralization with plasma. The ECR source operates at 13.6 MHz and with solenoid magnetic fields of 1 10 gauss. The goal is to operate the source at pressures [similar]10[minus sign]6 Torr at full ionization. The initial operation of the source has been at pressures of 10[minus sign]4 10[minus sign]1 Torr. Electron densities in the range of 108 to 1011 cm[minus sign]3 have been achieved. Low-pressure operation is important to reduce ion beam ionization. A cusp magnetic field has been installed to improve radial confinement and reduce the field strength on the beam axis. In addition, axial confinement is believed to be important to achieve lower-pressure operation. To further improve breakdown at low pressure, a weak electron source will be placed near the end of the ECR source. This article also describes the wave damping mechanisms. At moderate pressures (> 1 mTorr), the wave damping is collisional, and at low pressures (< 1 mTorr) there is a distinct electron cyclotron resonance.

  6. Ferroelectric plasma source for heavy ion beam space charge neutralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efthimion, Philip C.; Gilson, Erik P.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Grisham, Larry; Grant Logan, B.; Seidl, Peter A.; Waldron, William; Yu, Simon S.

    2007-01-01

    Plasmas are a source of unbound electrons for charge neutralizing intense heavy ion beams to allow them to focus to a small spot size and compress their axial pulse length. The plasma source should be able to operate at low neutral pressures and without strong externally applied electric or magnetic fields. To produce 1 m-long plasma columns, sources based upon ferroelectric ceramics with large dielectric coefficients are being developed. The sources utilize the ferroelectric ceramic BaTiO 3 to form metal plasma. The drift tube inner surface of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) will be covered with ceramic material, and high voltage (∼7 kV) will be applied between the drift tube and the front surface of the ceramics. A prototype ferroelectric source, 20 cm in length, has produced plasma densities of 5x10 11 cm -3 . It was integrated into the Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX), and successfully charge neutralized the K + ion beam. A 1 m-long source comprised of five 20-cm-long sources has been tested. Simply connecting the five sources in parallel to a single pulse forming network power supply yielded non-uniform performance due to the time-dependent nature of the load that each of the five plasma sources experiences. Other circuit combinations have been considered, including powering each source by its own supply. The 1-m-long source has now been successfully characterized, producing relatively uniform plasma over the 1 m length of the source in the mid-10 10 cm -3 density range. This source will be integrated into the NDCX device for charge neutralization and beam compression experiments

  7. Long plasma source for heavy ion beam charge neutralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efthimion, Philip C.; Gilson, Erik P.; Grisham, Larry; Davidson, Ronald C.; Grant Logan, Larry B.; Seidl, Peter A.; Waldron, William

    2009-01-01

    Plasmas are a source of unbound electrons for charge neutralizing intense heavy ion beams to focus them to a small spot size and compress their axial length. The plasma source should operate at low neutral pressures and without strong externally applied fields. To produce long plasma columns, sources based upon ferroelectric ceramics with large dielectric coefficients have been developed. The source utilizes the ferroelectric ceramic BaTiO 3 to form metal plasma. The drift tube inner surface of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) is covered with ceramic material. High voltage (∼8 kV) is applied between the drift tube and the front surface of the ceramics. A BaTiO 3 source comprised of five 20-cm-long sources has been tested and characterized, producing relatively uniform plasma in the 5x10 10 cm -3 density range. The source was integrated into the NDCX device for charge neutralization and beam compression experiments, and yielded current compression ratios ∼120. Present research is developing multi-meter-long and higher density sources to support beam compression experiments for high-energy-density physics applications.

  8. Single ion induced surface nanostructures: a comparison between slow highly charged and swift heavy ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumayr, Friedrich; Facsko, Stefan; El-Said, Ayman S; Trautmann, Christina; Schleberger, Marika

    2011-10-05

    This topical review focuses on recent advances in the understanding of the formation of surface nanostructures, an intriguing phenomenon in ion-surface interaction due to the impact of individual ions. In many solid targets, swift heavy ions produce narrow cylindrical tracks accompanied by the formation of a surface nanostructure. More recently, a similar nanometric surface effect has been revealed for the impact of individual, very slow but highly charged ions. While swift ions transfer their large kinetic energy to the target via ionization and electronic excitation processes (electronic stopping), slow highly charged ions produce surface structures due to potential energy deposited at the top surface layers. Despite the differences in primary excitation, the similarity between the nanostructures is striking and strongly points to a common mechanism related to the energy transfer from the electronic to the lattice system of the target. A comparison of surface structures induced by swift heavy ions and slow highly charged ions provides a valuable insight to better understand the formation mechanisms. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd

  9. Lateral charge transport from heavy-ion tracks in integrated circuit chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoutendyk, J. A.; Schwartz, H. R.; Nevill, L. R.

    1988-01-01

    A 256K DRAM has been used to study the lateral transport of charge (electron-hole pairs) induced by direct ionization from heavy-ion tracks in an IC. The qualitative charge transport has been simulated using a two-dimensional numerical code in cylindrical coordinates. The experimental bit-map data clearly show the manifestation of lateral charge transport in the creation of adjacent multiple-bit errors from a single heavy-ion track. The heavy-ion data further demonstrate the occurrence of multiple-bit errors from single ion tracks with sufficient stopping power. The qualitative numerical simulation results suggest that electric-field-funnel-aided (drift) collection accounts for single error generated by an ion passing through a charge-collecting junction, while multiple errors from a single ion track are due to lateral diffusion of ion-generated charge.

  10. Kinetic energy and charge distributions of multiply charged ions produced by heavy ions and by synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, J.C.; Biedermann, C.; Cederquist, H.; Liljeby, L.; Short, R.T.; Sellin, I.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper contrasts two methods of production of multiply charged ions which may have application in future hot-atom chemistry experiments. Interest in extending the study of ion-atom collisions from MeV to keV to eV energies has grown rapidly in the last decade as previously inaccessible astrophysical, fusion, and spectroscopic problems have been addressed. One of these methods involves highly charged secondary beams formed from ions created in dilute gas samples irradiated by fast (MeV), high-charge-state, heavy ions. The measurements show, however, that such ions often have mean recoil energies two orders of magnitude higher than kinetic energies of ions in similar charge states resulting from vacancy cascades of atomic inner shells photoionized by synchrotron x rays. These results may be applicable to development of a cold source of highly charged ions featuring low energy spread and good angular definition. Results from other laboratories (Grandin et al at Ganil, Ullrich et al in Frankfurt, and Watson et al at Texas A ampersand M) will also be discussed

  11. Prospects for Parity Non-conservation Experiments with Highly Charged Heavy Ions

    OpenAIRE

    Maul, M.; Schäfer, A.; Greiner, W.; Indelicato, P.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the prospects for parity non-conservation experiments with highly charged heavy ions. Energy levels and parity mixing for heavy ions with two to five electrons are calculated. We investigate two-photon-transitions and the possibility to observe interference effects between weak-matrix elements and Stark matrix elements for periodic electric field configurations.

  12. Prospects for parity-nonconservation experiments with highly charged heavy ions

    OpenAIRE

    Maul, Martin; Schäfer, Andreas; Greiner, Walter; Indelicato, Paul

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the prospects for parity-nonconservation experiments with highly charged heavy ions. Energy levels and parity mixing for heavy ions with 2–5 electrons are calculated. We investigate two-photon transitions and the possibility of observing interference effects between weak-matrix elements and Stark matrix elements for periodic electric field configurations.

  13. Secondary ions produced from condensed rare gas targets under highly charged MeV/amu heavy ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawara, H.; Tonuma, T.; Kumagai, H.; Matsuo, T.

    1994-01-01

    Secondary ions produced from condensed rare gas targets are observed under MeV/amu, highly charged, heavy ion impact. The intensities of the observed cluster ions decrease smoothly as the cluster sizes become large but show some discontinuities at particular sizes of cluster ions. This seems to be closely related to the stabilities of cluster ion structures. It is also noted that very few doubly charged or practically no triply/higher charged ions have been observed, in sharp contrast to that of some condensed molecular targets. (orig.)

  14. Structure and dynamics of highly charged heavy ions studied with the electron beam ion trap in Tokyo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Hu, Zhimin; Watanabe, Hirofumi; Li, Yueming; Kato, Daiji; Currell, Fred J.; Tong Xiaomin; Watanabe, Tsutomu; Ohtani, Shunsuke

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present the structure and the dynamics of highly charged heavy ions studied through dielectronic recombination (DR) observations performed with the Tokyo electron beam ion trap. By measuring the energy dependence of the ion abundance ratio in the trap at equilibrium, we have observed DR processes for open shell systems very clearly. Remarkable relativistic effects due to the generalized Breit interaction have been clearly shown in DR for highly charged heavy ions. We also present the first result for the coincidence measurement of two photons emitted from a single DR event.

  15. Modifications of gallium phosphide single crystals using slow highly charged ions and swift heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Said, A.S., E-mail: elsaid@kfupm.edu.sa [Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Wilhelm, R.A.; Heller, R.; Akhmadaliev, Sh.; Schumann, E. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Sorokin, M. [National Research Centre ’Kurchatov Institute’, Kurchatov Square 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Facsko, S. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Trautmann, C. [GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-09-01

    GaP single crystals were irradiated with slow highly charged ions (HCI) using 114 keV {sup 129}Xe{sup (33–40)+} and with various swift heavy ions (SHI) of 30 MeV I{sup 9+} and 374 MeV–2.2 GeV {sup 197}Au{sup 25+}. The irradiated surfaces were investigated by scanning force microscopy (SFM). The irradiations with SHI lead to nanohillocks protruding from the GaP surfaces, whereas no changes of the surface topography were observed after the irradiation with HCI. This result indicates that a potential energy above 38.5 keV is required for surface nanostructuring of GaP. In addition, strong coloration of the GaP crystals was observed after irradiation with SHI. The effect was stronger for higher energies. This was confirmed by measuring an increased extinction coefficient in the visible light region.

  16. Proton and heavy ion beam (charged particle therapy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai, Tatsuaki

    2003-01-01

    There are distinguished therapeutic irradiation facilities of proton and heavy ion beam in Japan. The beam, due to its physical properties, is advantageous for focusing on the lesion in the body and for reducing the exposure dose to normal tissues, relative to X-ray. This makes it possible to irradiate the target lesion with the higher dose. The present review describes physical properties of the beam, equipments for the therapeutic irradiation, the respiratory-gated irradiation system, the layer-stacking irradiation system, therapy planning, and future prospect of the therapy. More than 1,400 patients have received the therapy in National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) and given a good clinical outcome. The targets are cancers of the head and neck, lung, liver, uterine and prostate, and osteosarcoma. The therapy of osteosarcoma is particularly important, which bringing about the high cure rate. Severe adverse effects are not seen with exception for the digestive tract ulcer. Many attempts like the respiratory-gated and layer-stacking systems and to shorten the therapy period to within 1 week are in progress. (N.I.)

  17. Charge exchange processes of high energy heavy ions channeled in crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriamonje, S.; Dural, J.; Toulemonde, M.; Groeneveld, K.O.; Maier, R.; Quere, Y.

    1990-01-01

    The interaction of moving ions with single crystals is very sensitive to the orientation of the incident beam with respect to the crystalline directions of the target. The experiments show that high energy heavy ion channeling deeply modifies the slowing down and charge exchange processes. In this review, we describe the opportunity offered by channeling conditions to study the charge exchange processes. Some aspects of the charge exchange processes with high energy channeled heavy ions are selected from the extensive literature published over the past few years on this subject. Special attention is given to the work performed at the GANIL facility on the study of Radiative Electron Capture (REG), Electron Impact Ionisation (EII), and convoy electron emission. Finally we emphasize the interest of studying resonant charge exchange processes such as Resonant Coherent Excitation (RCE), Resonant Transfer and Excitation (RTE) or Dielectronic Recombination (DR) and the recently proposed Nuclear Excitation by Electron Capture (NEEC)

  18. Heavy cosmic ions with charge Z = 3q-40 and their biological implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegan, D.; Dudkin, E.V.; Marenny, M.A.

    1979-01-01

    Heavy cosmic ions were studied by plastic detectors flown in cosmic space aboard the artificial Earth satellites COSMOS 690, 782 and 936. Charge spectra in the range of Z = 3q-40 of cosmic nuclei having energy E >= 1 GeV/nucleon are presented. LET spectra of heavy cosmic ions were measured in these experiments, as well as the LET variation inside the stacks of plastic detectors. The variation of the irreversible inactivation cross sections and the Fractional Cell Loss with depth are derived. Three-dimensional energy deposition around the trajectories of the particles, in the studied ranges of charges and energies, is computed using Katz's model. (author)

  19. High charge state heavy ion production from a PIG source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bex, L.; Clark, D.J.; Ellsworth, C.E.; Flood, W.S.; Gough, R.A.; Holley, W.R.; Meriwether, J.R.; Morris, D.

    1975-03-01

    The comparison of pulsed vs. dc arc operation for nitrogen and argon shows a shift in charge distribution toward the higher charge states for the pulsed case. Tests with various magnetic field shapes along the arc column show a significant increase in high charge state output for a uniform field compared to the case with a field low at the cathodes. (U.S.)

  20. The physics of highly charged heavy ions revealed by storage/cooler rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokler, P.H.; Stoehlker, T.

    1996-01-01

    With the successful commissioning of storage and cooler rings for bright beams of very heavy ions near the threshold of the last decade of this century, not only did a prosperous development in heavy ion accelerator technology come to its present summit, but also fundamental fields in heavy ion physics were opened widely for exciting explorations. Now, essential aspects in this area are accessible, aspects one only dared to dream of another decade ago. In the meantime, great progress already has been made in the fundamental physics in this field. This is particularly true for achievements in the atomic physics of highly charged heavy ions. In this chapter, we present a review of the current advances in this rapidly developing field. There are two general domains to be considered in the atomic physics of highly charged heavy ions: the fields of collisions and of atomic structure. Both aspects have to be explored equally, as they are strongly interconnected. One has to investigate the interaction processes to know, for instance, the population of excited states to help answer questions on the atomic structure; and conversely, one has to know the structure to understand the interactions. In both the fields, fundamental principles can be studied uniquely. This is in particular true for the heaviest ion species with only a few- or even zero-electrons left. 140 refs., 39 figs

  1. Light charged particle emission in heavy-ion reactions – What have ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    coincidence with gamma rays, fission products, evaporation residues have yielded interesting results which bring out the influence of nuclear structure, nuclear mean field and dynamics on the emission of these particles. Keywords. Light charged particles; heavy-ion induced reactions; particle spectra and angular distri-.

  2. Charge transfer to the continuum by heavy ions in atomic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellin, I.A.

    1981-01-01

    Design and installation of an atomic hydrogen target for measurements of charge transfer to the continuum by heavy ions are discussed. The design consists of a tungsten gas cell operated at temperatures of 2500 to 2600 0 K. Initial testing is underway

  3. Systematics of Charged Particle Production in Heavy-Ion Collisions with the PHOBOS Detector at Rhic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Peter A.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Corbo, J.; Decowski, M. P.; Garcia, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Henderson, C.; Hicks, D.; Hofman, D.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A.; Mülmenstädt, J.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Rafelski, M.; Rbeiz, M.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2002-03-01

    The multiplicity of charged particles produced in Au+Au collisions as a function of energy, centrality, rapidity and azimuthal angle has been measured with the PHOBOS detector at RHIC. These results contribute to our understanding of the initial state of heavy ion collisions and provide a means to compare basic features of particle production in nuclear collisions with more elementary systems.

  4. The average equilibrium charge-states of heavy ions with Z > 60 stripped in He and H2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oganessian, Yu.T.; Lobanov, Yu.V.; Popeko, A.G.; Abdullin, F.Sh.; Kharitonov, Yu.P.; Ledovskoy, A.A.; Tsyganov, Yu.S.

    1991-01-01

    The equilibrium charges of heavy ions (61 < Z < 101) with energies from 5 to 100 MeV stripped in He and H2 have been measured. New empirical formulae for the average charge state are presented. (orig.)

  5. Energy loss and charge exchange processes of high energy heavy ions channeled in crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poizat, J.C.; Andriamonje, S.; Anne, R.; Faria, N.V.d.C.; Chevallier, M.; Cohen, C.; Dural, J.; Farizon-Mazuy, B.; Gaillard, M.J.; Genre, R.; Hage-Ali, M.; Kirsch, R.; L'hoir, A.; Mory, J.; Moulin, J.; Quere, Y.; Remillieux, J.; Schmaus, D.; Toulemonde, M.

    1990-01-01

    The interaction of moving ions with single crystals is very sensitive to the orientation of the incident beam with respect to the crystalline directions of the target. Our experiments show that high energy heavy ion channeling deeply modifies their slowing down and charge exchange processes. This is due to the fact that channeled ions interact only with outershell target electrons, which means that the electron density they experience is very low and that the binding energy, and then the momentum distribution of these electrons, are quite different from the corresponding average values associated to random incidence. The two experimental studies presented here show the reduction of the energy loss rate for fast channeled heavy ions and illustrate the two aspects of channeling effects on charge exchange, the reduction of electron loss on one hand, and of electron capture on the other hand

  6. Proceedings of the 'INS workshop on ECR ion sources for multiply-charged heavy ions'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    This workshop was held on December 1 and 2, 1994 at the Institute for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo. The performance of ion sources is crucial for all researches and applications that use ion beam. The performance of ECR ion sources is strongly dependent on heuristic knowledge and innovation. From these viewpoints, it is useful to exchange information on the status of the existing sources, the performance of the new sources, and the design of the future sources between the source builders and the users. There were unexpected more than 70 participants and 20 contributions. The lectures were given on the present status of NIRS-ECR, SF-ECR, INS ISOL-ECR, RCNP ECR and EBIS ion sources, the production of multiply charged metallic ions with Hyper ECR or by plasma cathode method, the processing of ceramic rods and the ion production with OCTOPUS, the modeling of multi-charged ion production, the design of an advanced minimum B for ECR multi-charged ion source, the design, construction and operation of 18 GHz HiECR ion source, the construction and test operation of JAERI 18 GHz ion source, the design of an ECR ion source for the HIMAC, a 14.5 GHz ECR ion source at RIKEN, TMU 14 GHz ECR ion source, ''NANOGAN'' ECR ion source and its irradiation system, the optimization of the ECR ion source for optically pumped polarized ion source and so on. (K.I.)

  7. Proceedings of the `INS workshop on ECR ion sources for multiply-charged heavy ions`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    This workshop was held on December 1 and 2, 1994 at the Institute for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo. The performance of ion sources is crucial for all researches and applications that use ion beam. The performance of ECR ion sources is strongly dependent on heuristic knowledge and innovation. From these viewpoints, it is useful to exchange information on the status of the existing sources, the performance of the new sources, and the design of the future sources between the source builders and the users. There were unexpected more than 70 participants and 20 contributions. The lectures were given on the present status of NIRS-ECR, SF-ECR, INS ISOL-ECR, RCNP ECR and EBIS ion sources, the production of multiply charged metallic ions with Hyper ECR or by plasma cathode method, the processing of ceramic rods and the ion production with OCTOPUS, the modeling of multi-charged ion production, the design of an advanced minimum B for ECR multi-charged ion source, the design, construction and operation of 18 GHz HiECR ion source, the construction and test operation of JAERI 18 GHz ion source, the design of an ECR ion source for the HIMAC, a 14.5 GHz ECR ion source at RIKEN, TMU 14 GHz ECR ion source, ``NANOGAN`` ECR ion source and its irradiation system, the optimization of the ECR ion source for optically pumped polarized ion source and so on. (K.I.).

  8. Experiments with highly-charged heavy-ions performed at the storage ring ESR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokler, P.H.

    1992-01-01

    The new heavy ion accelerator facility SIS/ESR was inaugurated in April 1990. During 1991 the experimental storage ring, ESR, has been commissioned. Highly-charged heavy ions from O 8+ up to Bi 82+ were successfully accumulated, cooled, and stored in the ring. Now all highly-charged, heavy ions can be provided for experiments at comfortable storage times and at energies roughly between 100 and 500 MeV/u. A report on the achievements and on the first experimental results will be given. For the experiments, special emphasis is put on capture processes in the electron cooler, i.e. on radiative and dielectronic recombination processes as well as on capture events of bound target electrons from a gas jet. In this case, the capture leads either directly (REC) or by cascading to X-ray emission, which is also exploited for a precision spectroscopy of the structure of the heaviest ions. Another exciting topic is the radioactive decay of highly charged ions: For instance the β-decay into bound atomic states, which is not possible for neutral atoms, was studied for stored naked Dy ions. (orig.)

  9. Study of Doubly Charged Delta Baryons in Collisions of Copper Nuclei at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-22

    connecting the three quarks. Composite particles composed of partons are known as “hadrons” and must have a neutral color charge. There are six... neutral charge of neutrons. The up quark has positive charge equivalent to two-thirds the charge of an electron, and the down quark has negative...known as “heavy ions.” An ion is an atom or molecule with net electric charge, bare nuclei have a large positive charge due to the absence of

  10. Effect of position and momentum constraints on charge distribution in heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajni; Kumar, Suneel

    2012-01-01

    The rich phenomenology of multifragmentation has been widely explored after two decades of its discovery. It has been experimentally shown that in one single heavy ion collision many intermediate mass fragments (IMFs) are produced, where IMFs are defined as fragments with 5 ≤ A ≤ A tot /6. In the earlier literature, the multifragmentation was studied by Jakobsson et al. who measured the charge particle distribution along with their kinetic energy spectra in 16 O/ 36 Ar induced reaction between 25 and 200 MeV/nucleon representing the various phenomena in heavy ion collisions

  11. Charge state distributions for heavy ions in carbon stripper foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahan, M.A.; Lebed, R.F.; Feinberg, B.

    1989-03-01

    We have extended the database of measured charge state distributions available in the literature through measurements at the SuperHILAC using carbon stripper foils in the energy range 1.2--8.5 MeV/u. Modifying a semi-empirical model to include the effect of electronic shells, we are able to correctly predict the mean charge state to within 1/2 a charge state for 6≤Z≤92 and energies from 30 keV/u to 16 MeV/u. We have determined parameters for the widths of the distributions for each electronic shell. For distributions lying across a shell boundary, we join the two Gaussians of different widths to get an asymmetric distribution. 18 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Spectroscopic investigation of the charge dynamics of heavy ions penetrating solid and gaseous targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korostiy, S.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis presents the study of the slowing down process of fast heavy ions inside matter. In the framework of this research, the influence of the target density on the stopping process is investigated. Experiments on the interaction of 48 Ca 6+ - 48 Ca 10+ and 26 Mg 5+ ion beams with initial energies of 11.4 MeV/u and 5.9 MeV/u with solid and gaseous targets have been carried out. A novel diagnostic method, X-ray spectroscopy of K-shell projectile radiation, is used to determine the ion charge state in relation to its velocity during the penetration of fast heavy ions inside the stopping material. A spatially resolved analysis of the projectile and target radiation in solids is achieved for the first time. The application of low-density silica aerogels as stopping media provided a stretching of the ion stopping length by 20 - 100 times in comparison with solid quartz. The Doppler Effect observed on the projectile K-shell spectra is used to calculate the ion velocity in dependence on the ion penetration depth in the target material. A comparative analysis of K α spectra of fast heavy ions is performed in solid (silica aerogels) and gaseous targets (Ar and Ne gases) at the same ion energy. It is shown that the dominant role of collisions in dense matter leads to an increase of the effective ionization cross section at high ion velocity and suppression of the electron capture to the projectile ion excited states at low ion velocity. As a result, an increase of the ion charge state in dense matter is observed. The experimentally detected effects are interpreted with numerical calculations of the projectile population kinetics, which are in good agreement with measurements. (orig.)

  13. Spectroscopic investigation of the charge dynamics of heavy ions penetrating solid and gaseous targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korostiy, S

    2007-01-15

    This thesis presents the study of the slowing down process of fast heavy ions inside matter. In the framework of this research, the influence of the target density on the stopping process is investigated. Experiments on the interaction of {sup 48}Ca{sup 6+}-{sup 48}Ca{sup 10+} and {sup 26}Mg{sup 5+} ion beams with initial energies of 11.4 MeV/u and 5.9 MeV/u with solid and gaseous targets have been carried out. A novel diagnostic method, X-ray spectroscopy of K-shell projectile radiation, is used to determine the ion charge state in relation to its velocity during the penetration of fast heavy ions inside the stopping material. A spatially resolved analysis of the projectile and target radiation in solids is achieved for the first time. The application of low-density silica aerogels as stopping media provided a stretching of the ion stopping length by 20 - 100 times in comparison with solid quartz. The Doppler Effect observed on the projectile K-shell spectra is used to calculate the ion velocity in dependence on the ion penetration depth in the target material. A comparative analysis of K{sub {alpha}} spectra of fast heavy ions is performed in solid (silica aerogels) and gaseous targets (Ar and Ne gases) at the same ion energy. It is shown that the dominant role of collisions in dense matter leads to an increase of the effective ionization cross section at high ion velocity and suppression of the electron capture to the projectile ion excited states at low ion velocity. As a result, an increase of the ion charge state in dense matter is observed. The experimentally detected effects are interpreted with numerical calculations of the projectile population kinetics, which are in good agreement with measurements. (orig.)

  14. Collective charge and mass transfer in heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, J.

    1982-01-01

    In this thesis the dynamics of the charge and mass asymmetry degree of freedom was studied in the framework of the fragmentation theory by means of a time-dependent Schroedinger equation. New is the introduction of a friction potential which describes the coupling of these collective degrees of freedom to the not explicitely treated other collective respectively internal degrees of freedom. Thereby it was shown that the measured widths of the isobaric charge distributions in the 86 Kr+sup(92,98)Mo reaction can be explained mainly by the quantum mechanical uncertainty in the charge asymmetry degree of freedom. The charge equilibration occurring at the begin of a deep inelastic collision can therefore by considered as a quantum mechanical, collective, damped motion which is connected with the excitation of the isovector giant dipole resonance of the nucleus-nucleus system. The study of the mass transfer in the reactions 132 Xe+ 120 Sn and 86 Kr+ 166 Er shows, how important at the begin of a deep inelastic collision shell structures and their conservation are for a large part of the reaction, even if the elemental distribution show no maxima in the region of magic shell closures. The experimental width are up to 10 MeV/A well described under conservation of the shell structure. (orig./HSI) [de

  15. Constituent quarks and charge particle production in heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Aditya Nath; Mazumder, Rakesh; Sahoo, Raghunath; Nandi, Basanta Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Relativistic heavy-ion collisions aims at producing a state of matter which is governed by partonic degree of freedom. The pseudorapidity density of particle multiplicity and transverse energy are the key observables which provide the properties of matter produced in heavy-ion collisions. Study of their dependence on centrality and collision energy is of paramount importance to understand the particle production mechanism. This may provide insight into the partonic phase that might be created in nuclear collisions. Here, in a constituent quarks framework, charged particle and transverse energy production in heavy-ion collisions are studied both as a function of centrality and collision energy, and hence the study gives a prediction for Pb + Pb collisions

  16. Calibration of the photometric method of heavy ion charge measurements in emulsion using a CCD camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudzia, D.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.

    2002-01-01

    A previously developed method of heavy ion charge measurements in emulsion has been significantly improved. The charge measurements are based on analysis of photometric profiles of the particle tracks in emulsion. These profiles are obtained using a CCD camera mounted on an optical microscope. So far, the manual charge determination by delta ray counting had to be used for calibration of the photometric method. In this paper a complete procedure for calibration of the photometric method is shown, without resorting to the manual method

  17. Charge collection mechanisms in MOS/SOI transistors irradiated by energetic heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musseau, O.; Leray, J.L.; Ferlet, V.; Umbert, A.; Coic, Y.M.; Hesto, P.

    1991-01-01

    We have investigated with both experimental and numerical methods (Monte Carlo and drift-diffusion models) various charge collection mechanisms in NMOS/SOI transistors irradiated by single energetic heavy ions. Our physical interpretations of data emphasize the influence of various parasitic structures of the device. Two charge collection mechanisms are detailed: substrate funneling in buried MOS capacitor and latching of the parasitic bipolar transistor. Based on carrier transport and charge collection, the sensitivity of future scaled down CMOS/SOI technologies is finally discussed

  18. Charge states of fast heavy ions in solids; target atomic number dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shima, Kunihiro

    1985-01-01

    Discussions were carried out on the origin of Z 2 (atomic number) dependent charge states with respect to projectile electron loss and capture process, and on relationship between the Z 2 dependence and that of mean charge states for heavy ions of 1 MeV/u energy region. Present and previously reported results were examined on the equilibrium charge distributions, 9-bar, of 120 MeV 63 Cu, 25 and 40 MeV 35 Cl, 109 MeV Si and 59 MeV F ions. It was clarified that 9-bar became generally higher for lower Z 2 depending on increasing energy, and osillatory behavior with energy-depending amplitude was seen in 9-bar vs Z 2 . Discussions were carrid out on these phenomena and related matters. Z 2 oscillations of 9-bar of fast heavy ions might be due to those of electron capture cross section into projectile K and L vacancies for high and intermediate charge states, respectively. A quantitative interpretation of the Z 2 -dependent 9-bar values is in progress based on collision process and observation of projectile x-ray. The 9-bar value dependency on Z 2 in ion passing foils and decrease of Z 2 oscillation amplitude with increasing collision energy were quite similar to the Z 2 dependence in stopping powers or in effective charge states estimated from stopping powers. But there was some discrepancies in the Z 2 oscillation of 9-bar and that of stopping powers. (Takagi, S.)

  19. Charged Particle, Photon Multiplicity, and Transverse Energy Production in High-Energy Heavy-Ion Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghunath Sahoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the charged particle and photon multiplicities and transverse energy production in heavy-ion collisions starting from few GeV to TeV energies. The experimental results of pseudorapidity distribution of charged particles and photons at different collision energies and centralities are discussed. We also discuss the hypothesis of limiting fragmentation and expansion dynamics using the Landau hydrodynamics and the underlying physics. Meanwhile, we present the estimation of initial energy density multiplied with formation time as a function of different collision energies and centralities. In the end, the transverse energy per charged particle in connection with the chemical freeze-out criteria is discussed. We invoke various models and phenomenological arguments to interpret and characterize the fireball created in heavy-ion collisions. This review overall provides a scope to understand the heavy-ion collision data and a possible formation of a deconfined phase of partons via the global observables like charged particles, photons, and the transverse energy measurement.

  20. Intense beam production of highly charged heavy ions by the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source SECRAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H W; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Guo, X H; Cao, Y; Lu, W; Zhang, Z M; Yuan, P; Song, M T; Zhao, H Y; Jin, T; Shang, Y; Zhan, W L; Wei, B W; Xie, D Z

    2008-02-01

    There has been increasing demand to provide higher beam intensity and high enough beam energy for heavy ion accelerator and some other applications, which has driven electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source to produce higher charge state ions with higher beam intensity. One of development trends for highly charged ECR ion source is to build new generation ECR sources by utilization of superconducting magnet technology. SECRAL (superconducting ECR ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou) was successfully built to produce intense beams of highly charged ion for Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). The ion source has been optimized to be operated at 28 GHz for its maximum performance. The superconducting magnet confinement configuration of the ion source consists of three axial solenoid coils and six sextupole coils with a cold iron structure as field booster and clamping. An innovative design of SECRAL is that the three axial solenoid coils are located inside of the sextupole bore in order to reduce the interaction forces between the sextupole coils and the solenoid coils. For 28 GHz operation, the magnet assembly can produce peak mirror fields on axis of 3.6 T at injection, 2.2 T at extraction, and a radial sextupole field of 2.0 T at plasma chamber wall. During the commissioning phase at 18 GHz with a stainless steel chamber, tests with various gases and some metals have been conducted with microwave power less than 3.5 kW by two 18 GHz rf generators. It demonstrates the performance is very promising. Some record ion beam intensities have been produced, for instance, 810 e microA of O(7+), 505 e microA of Xe(20+), 306 e microA of Xe(27+), and so on. The effect of the magnetic field configuration on the ion source performance has been studied experimentally. SECRAL has been put into operation to provide highly charged ion beams for HIRFL facility since May 2007.

  1. Current signal of silicon detectors facing charged particles and heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamrita, H.

    2005-07-01

    This work consisted in collecting and studying for the first time the shapes of current signals obtained from charged particles or heavy ions produced by silicon detectors. The document is divided into two main parts. The first consisted in reducing the experimental data obtained with charged particles as well as with heavy ions. These experiments were performed at the Orsay Tandem and at GANIL using LISE. These two experiments enabled us to create a data base formed of current signals with various shapes and various times of collection. The second part consisted in carrying out a simulation of the current signals obtained from the various ions. To obtain this simulation we propose a new model describing the formation of the signal. We used the data base of the signals obtained in experiments in order to constrain the three parameters of our model. In this model, the charge carriers created are regarded as dipoles and their density is related to the dielectric polarization in the silicon detector. This phenomenon induces an increase in permittivity throughout the range of the incident ion and consequently the electric field between the electrodes of the detector is decreased inside the trace. We coupled with this phenomenon a dissociation and extraction mode of the charge carriers so that they can be moved in the electric field. (author)

  2. Universal behavior of charged particle production in heavy ion collisions at RHIC energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Peter A.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Holyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.; Phobos Collaboration

    2003-04-01

    The PHOBOS experiment at RHIC has measured the multiplicity of primary charged particles as a function of centrality and pseudorapidity in Au+Au collisions at √ SNN = 19.6, 130 and 200 GeV. Two kinds of universal behavior are observed in charged particle production in heavy ion collisions. The first is that forward particle production, over a range of energies, follows a universal limiting curve with a non-trivial centrality dependence. The second arises from comparisons with pp/ overlinepp and e +e - data. / in nuclear collisions at high energy scales with √ s in a similar way as Nch in e +e - collisions and has a very weak centrality dependence. This feature may be related to a reduction in the leading particle effect due to the multiple collisions suffered per participant in heavy ion collisions.

  3. K-Vacancy Production in the Collision of Highly Charged Relativistic Ions With Heavy Atoms

    OpenAIRE

    KHABIBULLAEV, P. K.

    2014-01-01

    A general expression for the cross section of the inelastic collision of relativistic highly charged ion with heavy (relativistic) atoms is obtained using the generalized eikonal approximation. In the ultrarelativistic limit, the obtained formula coincides with a known exact one. As an application of the obtained result, probability and cross section of the K-vacany production in the U92+ - U91+ collision are calculated.

  4. Excitation of the Δ resonance in heavy ion charge exchange reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy-Stephan, M.

    1987-06-01

    Results on the Δ excitation by heavy ion charge exchange are presented. 900 MeV per nucleon 12 C, 16 0, 20 Ne and 1100 MeV per nucleon 12 C have been used. The Δ excitation strength depends on the projectile - ejectile nature and on the incident energy. The role of the target mass is also discussed. The peak for the Δ in nuclei is energy shifted from the free Δ peak

  5. Charge-sign-clustering observed in high-multiplicity, high-energy heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Y.; Gregory, J.C.; Hayashi, T.

    1989-01-01

    Charge-sign distribution in 200 GeV/amu heavy-ion collisions is studied with the Magnetic-Interferometric-Emulsion-Chamber (MAGIC) for central collision events in 16 O + Pb and 32 S + Pb interactions. Charge-sign clustering is observed in most of the fully-analyzed events. A statistical 'run-test' is performed for each measured event, which shows significant deviation from a Gaussian distribution (0,1) expected for random-charge distribution. Candidates of charge clusters have 5 - 10 multiplicity of like-sign particles, and are often accompanied by opposite-sign clusters. Observed clustering of identical charges is more significant in the fragmentation region than in the central region. Two-particle Bose-Einstein interference and other effects are discussed for the run-test examination. (author)

  6. Charge-state related effects in sputtering of LiF by swift heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assmann, W. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Ban-d' Etat, B. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la photonique, CIMAP-GANIL, CEA–CNRS–ENSICAEN–Univ. Caen, 14070 Caen (France); Bender, M. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Boduch, P. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la photonique, CIMAP-GANIL, CEA–CNRS–ENSICAEN–Univ. Caen, 14070 Caen (France); Grande, P.L. [Univ. Fed. Rio Grande do Sul, BR-91501970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Lebius, H.; Lelièvre, D. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la photonique, CIMAP-GANIL, CEA–CNRS–ENSICAEN–Univ. Caen, 14070 Caen (France); Marmitt, G.G. [Univ. Fed. Rio Grande do Sul, BR-91501970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Rothard, H. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la photonique, CIMAP-GANIL, CEA–CNRS–ENSICAEN–Univ. Caen, 14070 Caen (France); Seidl, T.; Severin, D.; Voss, K.-O. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Toulemonde, M., E-mail: toulemonde@ganil.fr [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la photonique, CIMAP-GANIL, CEA–CNRS–ENSICAEN–Univ. Caen, 14070 Caen (France); Trautmann, C. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2017-02-01

    Sputtering experiments with swift heavy ions in the electronic energy loss regime were performed by using the catcher technique in combination with elastic recoil detection analysis. The angular distribution of particles sputtered from the surface of LiF single crystals is composed of a jet-like peak superimposed on a broad isotropic distribution. By using incident ions of fixed energy but different charges states, the influence of the electronic energy loss on both components is probed. We find indications that isotropic sputtering originates from near-surface layers, whereas the jet component may be affected by contributions from depth up to about 150 nm.

  7. Causal electric charge diffusion and balance functions in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapusta, Joseph I.; Plumberg, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    We study the propagation and diffusion of electric charge fluctuations in high-energy heavy-ion collisions using the Cattaneo form for the dissipative part of the electric current. As opposed to the ordinary diffusion equation this form limits the speed at which charge can propagate. Including the noise term in the current, which arises uniquely from the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, we calculate the balance functions for charged hadrons in a simple 1+1-dimensional Bjorken hydrodynamical model. Limiting the speed of propagation of charge fluctuations increases the height and reduces the width of these balance functions when plotted versus rapidity. We also estimate the numerical value of the associated diffusion time constant from anti-de Sitter-space/conformal-field theory.

  8. Van-de-Graaf accelerator operation with laser source of highly-charged heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabash, L.S.; Golubev, A.A.; Koshkarev, S.G.; Krechet, K.I.; Sharkov, B.Y.; Shumshurov, A.V.

    1988-01-01

    Multicharged ions (Z = +1 divided-by +10) of practically any elements of the periodical table have been generated by the laser source based on a simple in operation and fabrication laser. One of the features of the laser source is that the energy needed for plasma heating is transported to the target from a great distance. In this case the target can be placed under high voltage or in a magnetic field. These advantages of the laser source are particularly important for its application in the Van-de-Graaf accelerator, where absence of resonance units allows to accelerate ions with any charge-to-mass ratio. The goal of this paper consists in designing a laser source of highly- charged heavy ions in the Van-de-Graaf accelerator and in measuring charge spectra of the accelerated ion beam. The peculiarities of this accelerator are taken into account in the discussion of the source scheme. Such peculiarities include potential up to 5 MV on the high-voltage conductor, where the ion source is placed, and high up to 15 atm gas environment pressure

  9. Ion-atom charge-transfer system for a heavy-ion-beam pumped laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrich, A.; Gernhaeuser, R.; Kroetz, W.; Wieser, J.; Murnick, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    An Ar target to which Cs vapor could be added, excited by a pulsed beam of 100-MeV 32 S ions, was studied as a prototype ion-atom charge-transfer system for pumping short-wavelength lasers. Low-velocity Ar 2+ ions were efficiently produced; a huge increase in the intensity of the Ar II 4d-4p spectral lines was observed when Cs vapor was added to the argon. This observation is explained by a selective charge transfer of the Cs 6s electron into the upper levels of the observed transitions. A rate constant of (1.4±0.2)x10 -9 cm 3 /s for the transfer process was determined

  10. Conserved charge fluctuations using the D measure in heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, D. K.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Garg, P.

    2017-05-01

    We study the net-charge fluctuation D -measure variable, in high-energy heavy-ion collisions in heavy-ion jet interaction generator (HIJING), ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamics (UrQMD), and hadron resonance gas (HRG) models for various center-of-mass energies (√{sNN}). The effects of kinematic acceptance and resonance decay, in the pseudorapidity acceptance interval (Δ η ) and lower transverse momentum (pTmin) threshold, on fluctuation measures are discussed. A strong dependence of D with the Δ η in HIJING and UrQMD models is observed as opposed to results obtained from the HRG model. The dissipation of fluctuation signal is estimated by fitting the D measure as a function of the Δ η . An extrapolated function for higher Δ η values at lower √{sNN} is different from the results obtained from models. Particle species dependence of D and the effect of the pTmin selection threshold are discussed in HIJING and HRG models. The comparison of D , at midrapidity, of net-charge fluctuations at various √{sNN} obtained from the models with the data from the A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE) experiment is discussed. The results from the present paper as a function of Δ η and √{sNN} will provide a baseline for comparison to experimental measurements.

  11. Ion optics and beam dynamics optimization at the HESR storage ring for the SPARC experiments with highly charged heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, Oleksandr

    2015-01-01

    The High-Energy Storage Ring (HESR) is a part of an upcoming International Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI in Darmstadt. A key part of a scientific program, along with antiproton physics, will be physics with highly-charged heavy ions. Phase-space cooled beams together with fixed internal target will provide an excellent environment for storage ring experiments at the HESR for the SPARC collaboration. Until recently, however, the existing ion optical lattice for the HESR was designed only for the experiments with antiproton beams. The thesis presents a new ion optical mode developed specifically for the operation of the HESR with highly charged heavy ions. The presence of the errors, such as beam momentum spread, magnetic field impurities or magnets misalignments, leads to disruption of beam dynamics: exciting of resonant motion and loss of beam stability. Within the paper, these effects are investigated with the help of numerical codes for particle accelerator design and simulation MAD-X and MIRKO. A number of correction techniques are applied to minimize the nonlinear impact on the beam dynamics and improve the experimental conditions. The application of the analytical and numerical tools is demonstrated in the experiment with uranium U 90+ beam at the existing storage ring ESR, GSI.

  12. Ion optics and beam dynamics optimization at the HESR storage ring for the SPARC experiments with highly charged heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalenko, Oleksandr

    2015-06-24

    The High-Energy Storage Ring (HESR) is a part of an upcoming International Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI in Darmstadt. A key part of a scientific program, along with antiproton physics, will be physics with highly-charged heavy ions. Phase-space cooled beams together with fixed internal target will provide an excellent environment for storage ring experiments at the HESR for the SPARC collaboration. Until recently, however, the existing ion optical lattice for the HESR was designed only for the experiments with antiproton beams. The thesis presents a new ion optical mode developed specifically for the operation of the HESR with highly charged heavy ions. The presence of the errors, such as beam momentum spread, magnetic field impurities or magnets misalignments, leads to disruption of beam dynamics: exciting of resonant motion and loss of beam stability. Within the paper, these effects are investigated with the help of numerical codes for particle accelerator design and simulation MAD-X and MIRKO. A number of correction techniques are applied to minimize the nonlinear impact on the beam dynamics and improve the experimental conditions. The application of the analytical and numerical tools is demonstrated in the experiment with uranium U{sup 90+} beam at the existing storage ring ESR, GSI.

  13. Heavy-ion radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Tobias, C.A.; Holley, W.R.; Benton, E.V.; Woodruff, K.H.; MacFarland, E.W.

    1983-01-01

    High energy, heavy-ion beams offer superior discrimination of tissue electron densities at very low radiation doses. This characteristic has potential for diagnostic medical imaging of neoplasms arising in the soft tissues and organs because it can detect smaller inhomogeneities than x rays. Heavy-ion imaging may also increase the accuracy of cancer radiotherapy planning involving use of accelerated charged particles. In the current physics research program of passive heavy-ion imaging, critical modulation transfer function tests are being carried out in heavy-ion projection radiography and heavy-ion computerized tomography. The research goal is to improve the heavy-ion imaging method until it reaches the limits of its theoretical resolution defined by range straggling, multiple scattering, and other factors involved in the beam quality characteristics. Clinical uses of the imaging method include the application of heavy-ion computerized tomography to heavy-ion radiotherapy planning, to the study of brain tumors and other structures of the head, and to low-dose heavy-ion projection mammography, particularly for women with dense breasts where other methods of diagnosis fail. The ions used are primarily 300 to 570 MeV/amu carbon and neon ions accelerated at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Bevalac

  14. Low charge state heavy ion production with sub-nanosecond laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanesue, T; Kumaki, M; Ikeda, S; Okamura, M

    2016-02-01

    We have investigated laser ablation plasma of various species using nanosecond and sub-nanosecond lasers for both high and low charge state ion productions. We found that with sub-nanosecond laser, the generated plasma has a long tail which has low charge state ions determined by an electrostatic ion analyzer even under the laser irradiation condition for highly charged ion production. This can be caused by insufficient laser absorption in plasma plume. This property might be suitable for low charge state ion production. We used a nanosecond laser and a sub-nanosecond laser for low charge state ion production to investigate the difference of generated plasma using the Zirconium target.

  15. Low charge state heavy ion production with sub-nanosecond laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanesue, T., E-mail: tkanesue@bnl.gov; Okamura, M. [Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Kumaki, M. [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Ikeda, S. [Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Kanagawa 226-8503 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    We have investigated laser ablation plasma of various species using nanosecond and sub-nanosecond lasers for both high and low charge state ion productions. We found that with sub-nanosecond laser, the generated plasma has a long tail which has low charge state ions determined by an electrostatic ion analyzer even under the laser irradiation condition for highly charged ion production. This can be caused by insufficient laser absorption in plasma plume. This property might be suitable for low charge state ion production. We used a nanosecond laser and a sub-nanosecond laser for low charge state ion production to investigate the difference of generated plasma using the Zirconium target.

  16. Event-shape-engineering study of charge separation in heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Fufang; Bryon, Jacob; Wen, Liwen; Wang, Gang

    2018-01-01

    Recent measurements of charge-dependent azimuthal correlations in high-energy heavy-ion collisions have indicated charge-separation signals perpendicular to the reaction plane, and have been related to the chiral magnetic effect (CME). However, the correlation signal is contaminated with the background caused by the collective motion (flow) of the collision system, and an effective approach is needed to remove the flow background from the correlation. We present a method study with simplified Monte Carlo simulations and a multi-phase transport model, and develop a scheme to reveal the true CME signal via event-shape engineering with the flow vector of the particles of interest. Supported by a grant (DE-FG02-88ER40424) from U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Physics

  17. Electron capture rates in stars studied with heavy ion charge exchange reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertulani, C. A.

    2018-01-01

    Indirect methods using nucleus-nucleus reactions at high energies (here, high energies mean ~ 50 MeV/nucleon and higher) are now routinely used to extract information of interest for nuclear astrophysics. This is of extreme relevance as many of the nuclei involved in stellar evolution are short-lived. Therefore, indirect methods became the focus of recent studies carried out in major nuclear physics facilities. Among such methods, heavy ion charge exchange is thought to be a useful tool to infer Gamow-Teller matrix elements needed to describe electron capture rates in stars and also double beta-decay experiments. In this short review, I provide a theoretical guidance based on a simple reaction model for charge exchange reactions.

  18. A multiple sampling ionization chamber (MUSIC) for measuring the charge of relativistic heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christie, W.B.; Romero, J.L.; Brady, F.P.; Tull, C.E.; Castaneda, C.M.; Barasch, E.F.; Webb, M.L.; Drummond, J.R.; Sann, H.; Young, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    A large area (1 m x 2 m) multiple sampling ionization chamber (MUSIC) has been constructed and tested. The MUSIC detector makes multiple measurements of energy 'loss', dE/dx, for a relativistic heavy ion. Given the velocity, the charge of the ion can be extracted from the energy loss distributions. The widths of the distributions we observe are much narrower than predicted by Vavilov's theory for energy loss while agreeing well with the theory of Badhwar which deals with the energy deposited. The versatile design of MUSIC allows a variety of anode configurations which results in a large dynamic range of charge. In our tests to date we have observed charge resolutions of 0.25e fwhm for 727 MeV/nucleon 40 Ar and 0.30e fwhm for 1.08 GeV/nucleon 139 La and 139 La fragments. Vertical position and multiple track determination are obtained by using time projection chamber electronics. Preliminary tests indicate that the position resolution is also very good with σ≅100 μm. (orig.)

  19. Multiple sampling ionization chamber (MUSIC) for measuring the charge of relativistic heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christie, W.B.; Romero, J.L.; Brady, F.P.; Tull, C.E.; Castaneda, C.M.; Barasch, E.F.; Webb, M.L.; Drummond, J.R.; Crawford, H.J.; Flores, I.

    1987-04-01

    A large area (1 m x 2 m) multiple sampling ionization chamber (MUSIC) has been constructed and tested. The MUSIC detector makes multiple measurements of energy 'loss', dE/dx, for a relativistic heavy ion. Given the velocity, the charge of the ion can be extracted from the energy loss distributions. The widths of the distributions we observe are much narrower than predicted by Vavilov's theory for energy loss while agreeing well with the theory of Badhwar which deals with the energy deposited. The versatile design of MUSIC allows a variety of anode configurations which results in a large dynamic range of charge. In our tests to date we have observed charge resolutions of 0.25e fwhm for 727 MeV/nucleon /sup 40/Ar and 0.30e fwhm for 1.08 GeV/nucleon /sup 139/La and /sup 139/La fragments. Vertical position and multiple track determination are obtained by using time projection chamber electronics. Preliminary tests indicate that the position resolution is also very good with sigmaapprox. =100 ..mu..m.

  20. Irradiation effects induced by multiply charged heavy ions on astrophysical materials such as crystals and ices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langlinay, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The solar system and the interstellar medium are permanently exposed to radiations such as solar wind and cosmic rays. The interaction between energetic particles and astrophysical materials (ices, silicates and carbon-based materials) plays an important role in several astrophysical phenomena. Laboratory experiments correlated to observational data may allow a better understanding of these phenomena. The aim of this thesis was to study the effect of slow and fast heavy ions on lithium fluoride and on astrophysical materials such as ices and silicates. We focused on the sputtering phenomenon. The present study was performed with a time of flight imaging technique (XY-TOF-SIMS) at the CIMAP-GANIL laboratory. The major fraction of secondary ions is found to be emitted in the form of clusters. Several parameters affect sputtering: the stopping power regime, the thickness of the target, the incident angle and, for low highly charged ions, the projectile charge. Our laboratory simulations exhibit the possibility that sputtered particles contribute to the formation of Mercury's and Jupiter's moons exosphere. (author)

  1. Charge-changing processes of heavy ions in matter. Non-equilibrium charge state distribution of sulfur ions after carbon foil penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Makoto; Shibata, Hiromi; Sataka, Masao; Sugai, Hiroyuki; Nishio, Katsuhisa; Sugiyama, Koji; Komaki, Ken-ichiro

    2005-01-01

    Charge state distributions of 2.0 MeV/u (64 MeV) sulfur ions of various initial charge states (6+, 10+, 11+, 13+) after passing through 0.9, 1.1, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 4.7, 6.9 and 10 μg/cm 2 carbon foils have been studied experimentally using the heavy ion spectrometer 'ENMA'. Measured charge state distributions do not flat off to establish equilibrium within the measured thickness, proving to be the first systematic measurement of non-equilibrium charge state distribution using solid target at this energy range. The mean charge states and their distribution widths almost saturate to 12.4 and 1.03, respectively, for all initial charge states examined. Calculation with ETACHA code, developed by Rozet et al. [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 107 (1996) 67], is employed, although the present impact energy is lower than the assumed energy region for this code. It was also confirmed that a certain portion of 16 O q+ (q=3, 4, 7) beam is included in 32 S q+ (q=6, 8, 14) beam provided from the Tandem Accelerator, which originates in the Negative Ion Source forming O 2 - . (author)

  2. Heavy ion therapy: Bevalac epoch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, J.R.

    1993-10-01

    An overview of heavy ion therapy at the Bevelac complex (SuperHILac linear accelerator + Bevatron) is given. Treatment planning, clinical results with helium ions on the skull base and uveal melanoma, clinical results with high-LET charged particles, neon radiotherapy of prostate cancer, heavy charged particle irradiation for unfavorable soft tissue sarcoma, preliminary results in heavy charged particle irradiation of bone sarcoma, and irradiation of bile duct carcinoma with charged particles and-or photons are all covered

  3. Transverse energy and charged particle production in heavy-ion collisions: from RHIC to LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, Raghunath; Mishra, Aditya Nath

    2014-01-01

    We study the charged particle and transverse energy production mechanism from AGS, SPS, Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) to Large Hadron Collider (LHC) energies in the framework of nucleon and quark participants. At RHIC and LHC energies, the number of nucleons-normalized charged particle and transverse energy density in pseudorapidity, which shows a monotonic rise with centrality, turns out to be an almost centrality independent scaling behavior when normalized to the number of participant quarks. A universal function which is a combination of logarithmic and power-law, describes well the charged particle and transverse energy production both at nucleon and quark participant level for the whole range of collision energies. Energy dependent production mechanisms are discussed both for nucleonic and partonic level. Predictions are made for the pseudorapidity densities of transverse energy, charged particle multiplicity and their ratio (the barometric observable, [dE T /dη]/[dN ch /dη] ≡ E T /N ch ) at mid-rapidity for Pb + Pb collisions at √s NN = 5.5 TeV. A comparison with models based on gluon saturation and statistical hadron gas is made for the energy dependence of E T /N ch . (author)

  4. Hydrodynamics with chiral anomaly and charge separation in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Yi, E-mail: yyin@bnl.gov [Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Liao, Jinfeng, E-mail: liaoji@indiana.edu [Physics Department and Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, 2401 N Milo B. Sampson Lane, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); RIKEN BNL Research Center, Bldg. 510A, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2016-05-10

    Matter with chiral fermions is microscopically described by theory with quantum anomaly and macroscopically described (at low energy) by anomalous hydrodynamics. For such systems in the presence of external magnetic field and chirality imbalance, a charge current is generated along the magnetic field direction — a phenomenon known as the Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME). The quark–gluon plasma created in relativistic heavy ion collisions provides an (approximate) example, for which the CME predicts a charge separation perpendicular to the collisional reaction plane. Charge correlation measurements designed for the search of such signal have been done at RHIC and the LHC for which the interpretations, however, remain unclear due to contamination by background effects that are collective flow driven, theoretically poorly constrained, and experimentally hard to separate. Using anomalous (and viscous) hydrodynamic simulations, we make a first attempt at quantifying contributions to observed charge correlations from both CME and background effects in one and same framework. The implications for the search of CME are discussed.

  5. Investigation of the energy loss and the charge state of high energy heavy ions in a hydrogen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, K.G.

    1991-07-01

    For heavy ions with energy of 1.4 to 5.9 MeV/u the energy loss and charge state after transmission through a totally ionized hydrogen plasma are investigated. Plasma target was a Z-pinch device incorporated in the beam optics of the accelerator by a pumping system. In the 20 cm long pinch hydrogen plasmas with densities up to 1.5x10 19 cm -3 and temperatures above 5 eV are produced, with ionization efficiency higher than 99%. The ions pass the plasma on the symmetry axis of the plasma column through small apertures in the electrodes. The energy loss was measured by time-of-flight method, the plasma density by interferometry along the pinch axis. For the first time the ion charge after transmission through the plasma has been determined by a charge spectrometer being a combination of a dipole magnet and a position sensitive detector with high time resolution. A growth of the average charge of heavy ions in plasma higher than the equilibrium charge in cold gas was discovered, caused by a reduction of electron capture by fast heavy ions in ionized matter. The electron loss rates in plasma and cold gas are equal. (orig./AH) [de

  6. Heavy ions

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Antinori, Federico

    2001-01-01

    Colliding two heavy nuclei at ultrarelativistic energies allows to create in the laboratory a bulk system with huge density, pressure and temperature and to study its properties. It is estimated that in Pb-Pb collisions at CERN-SPS we reach over an appreciable volume an energy density which exceeds by more than a factor 20 that of normal nuclear matter. At such densities, the hadrons are so closely packed that they interpenetrate; novel physics phenomena are expected to appear. QCD predicts that under such conditions a phase transition from a system composed of colourless hadrons to a Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) should occur. A rich ultrarelativistic heavy-ion physics programme is under way both at BNL-AGS and at CERN-SPS since 1986. The results obtained so far have led CERN to officially announce evidence for a new state of matter last year. A long-range programme of heavy-ion physics at higher energies is under way (BNL-RHIC) and in preparation (CERN-LHC). These lectures are meant as an introduction to the phy...

  7. Heavy ions

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit

    2002-01-01

    Colliding two heavy nuclei at ultrarelativistic energies allows to create in the laboratory a bulk system with huge density, pressure and temperature and to study its properties. It is estimated that in Pb-Pb collisions at CERN-SPS we reach over an appreciable volume an energy density which exceeds by more than a factor 20 that of normal nuclear matter. At such densities, the hadrons are so closely packed that they interpenetrate; novel physics phenomena are expected to appear. QCD predicts that under such conditions a phase transition from a system composed of colourless hadrons to a Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) should occur. A rich ultrarelativistic heavy-ion physics programme is under way both at BNL-AGS and at CERN-SPS since 1986. The results obtained so far have led CERN to officially announce evidence for a new state of matter last year. A long-range programme of heavy-ion physics at higher energies is under way (BNL-RHIC) and in preparation (CERN-LHC). These lectures are meant as an introduction to the phy...

  8. Development of a 1-m plasma source for heavy ion beam charge neutralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efthimion, Philip C.; Gilson, Erik P.; Grisham, Larry; Davidson, Ronald C.; Yu, Simon; Waldron, William; Grant Logan, B.

    2005-05-01

    Highly ionized plasmas are being employed as a medium for charge neutralizing heavy ion beams in order to focus to a small spot size. Calculations suggest that plasma at a density of 1-100 times the ion beam density and at a length ˜0.1-1 m would be suitable for achieving a high level of charge neutralization. A radio frequency (RF) source was constructed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in support of the joint Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to study ion beam neutralization. Pulsing the source enabled operation at pressures ˜10 -6 Torr with plasma densities of 10 11 cm -3. Near 100% ionization was achieved. The plasma was 10 cm in length, but future experiments require a source 1 m long. The RF source does not easily scale to the length. Consequently, large-volume plasma sources based upon ferroelectric ceramics are being considered. These sources have the advantage of being able to increase the length of the plasma and operate at low neutral pressures. The source will utilize the ferroelectric ceramic BaTiO 3 to form metal plasma. A 1 m long section of the drift tube inner surface of NTX will be covered with ceramic. A high voltage (˜1-5 kV) is applied between the drift tube and the front surface of the ceramic by placing a wire grid on the front surface. Plasma densities of 10 12 cm -3 and neutral pressures ˜10 -6 Torr are expected. A test stand to produce 20 cm long plasma is being constructed and will be tested before a 1 m long source is developed.

  9. Development of a 1-m plasma source for heavy ion beam charge neutralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efthimion, Philip C.; Gilson, Erik P.; Grisham, Larry; Davidson, Ronald C.; Yu, Simon; Waldron, William; Grant Logan, B.

    2005-01-01

    Highly ionized plasmas are being employed as a medium for charge neutralizing heavy ion beams in order to focus to a small spot size. Calculations suggest that plasma at a density of 1-100 times the ion beam density and at a length ∼0.1-1 m would be suitable for achieving a high level of charge neutralization. A radio frequency (RF) source was constructed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in support of the joint Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to study ion beam neutralization. Pulsing the source enabled operation at pressures ∼10 -6 Torr with plasma densities of 10 11 cm -3 . Near 100% ionization was achieved. The plasma was 10 cm in length, but future experiments require a source 1 m long. The RF source does not easily scale to the length. Consequently, large-volume plasma sources based upon ferroelectric ceramics are being considered. These sources have the advantage of being able to increase the length of the plasma and operate at low neutral pressures. The source will utilize the ferroelectric ceramic BaTiO 3 to form metal plasma. A 1 m long section of the drift tube inner surface of NTX will be covered with ceramic. A high voltage (∼1-5 kV) is applied between the drift tube and the front surface of the ceramic by placing a wire grid on the front surface. Plasma densities of 10 12 cm -3 and neutral pressures ∼10 -6 Torr are expected. A test stand to produce 20 cm long plasma is being constructed and will be tested before a 1 m long source is developed

  10. Transverse energy per charged particle in heavy-ion collisions: Role of collective flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Tiwari, Swatantra; Sahoo, Raghunath

    2018-03-01

    The ratio of (pseudo)rapidity density of transverse energy and the (pseudo)rapidity density of charged particles, which is a measure of the mean transverse energy per particle, is an important observable in high energy heavy-ion collisions. This ratio reveals information about the mechanism of particle production and the freeze-out criteria. Its collision energy and centrality dependence is almost similar to the chemical freeze-out temperature until top Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) energy. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) measurement at √{s_{NN}} = 2.76 TeV brings up new challenges towards understanding the phenomena like gluon saturation and role of collective flow, etc. being prevalent at high energies, which could contribute to the above observable. Statistical Hadron Gas Model (SHGM) with a static fireball approximation has been successful in describing both the centrality and energy dependence until top RHIC energies. However, the SHGM predictions for higher energies lie well below the LHC data. In order to understand this, we have incorporated collective flow in an excluded-volume SHGM (EV-SHGM). Our studies suggest that the collective flow plays an important role in describing E T/ N ch and it could be one of the possible parameters to explain the rise observed in E T/ N ch from RHIC to LHC energies. Predictions are made for E T/ N ch , participant pair normalized-transverse energy per unit rapidity and the Bjorken energy density for Pb+Pb collisions at √{s_{NN}} = 5.02 TeV at the Large Hadron Collider.

  11. Visualization of heavy ion-induced charge production in a CMOS image sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Végh, J; Klamra, W; Molnár, J; Norlin, LO; Novák, D; Sánchez-Crespo, A; Van der Marel, J; Fenyvesi, A; Valastyan, I; Sipos, A

    2004-01-01

    A commercial CMOS image sensor was irradiated with heavy ion beams in the several MeV energy range. The image sensor is equipped with a standard video output. The data were collected on-line through frame grabbing and analysed off-line after digitisation. It was shown that the response of the image sensor to the heavy ion bombardment varied with the type and energy of the projectiles. The sensor will be used for the CMS Barrel Muon Alignment system.

  12. Charge collection characteristics of a super-thin diamond membrane detector measured with high-energy heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamoto, N.; Makino, T.; Onoda, S.; Ohshima, T.; Kamiya, T.; Kada, W.; Skukan, N.; Grilj, V.; Jaksic, M.; Pomorski, M.

    2014-01-01

    A transmission particle detector based on a super-thin diamond membrane film which can also be used simultaneously as a vacuum window for ion beam extraction has been developed. Charge collection characteristics of a μ-thick diamond membrane detector for high-energy heavy ions including 75 MeV Ne, 150 MeV Ar, 322 MeV Kr, and 454 MeV Xe have been investigated for the first time. Charge collection signals under single particle flux from the thin part are stable and are well distinguishable from background signals. This behavior suggests that the diamond membrane detector could be used for counting single ions. On the other hand, charge collection efficiency is found to decrease with increasing of charge generated in the diamond membrane detector. This suggests that the pulse height defect, which has been previously reported for Si and SiC detectors, also occurs in the diamond membrane detector. (authors)

  13. Heavy ion beam test results of the silicon charge detector for the CREAM cosmic ray balloon mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, I.H.; Ahn, H.S.; Bok, J.B.; Ganel, O.; Hahn, J.H.; Han, W.; Hyun, H.J.; Kim, H.J.; Kim, M.Y.; Kim, Y.J.; Lee, J.K.; Lee, M.H.; Lutz, L.; Min, K.W.; Malinine, A.; Nam, S.W.; Nam, W.; Park, H.; Park, N.H.; Seo, E.S.; Seon, K.I.; Sone, J.H.; Yang, J.; Zinn, S.Y.

    2004-01-01

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) experiment is designed to measure cosmic ray elemental spectra to help understand the source and acceleration mechanisms of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. The payload is planned to launch in December 2004 from McMurdo Station, Antarctica as a balloon mission. A Silicon Charge Detector (SCD) was designed and constructed for the CREAM experiment to provide precision charge measurements of incident cosmic rays with a resolution of 0.2 charge unit or better. The SCD was exposed to heavy ion beams at CERN's H2 beam line in November 2003. The results reported here show the SCD performs as designed

  14. Heavy ion beam test results of the silicon charge detector for the CREAM cosmic ray balloon mission

    CERN Document Server

    Park, I H; Bok, J B; Ganel, O; Hahn, J H; Han, W; Hyun, H J; Kim, H J; Kim, M Y; Kim, Y J; Lee, J K; Lutz, L; Malinine, A; Min, K W; Nam, S W; Nam, W; Park, H; Park, N H; Seo, E S; Seon, K I; Sone, J H; Yang, J; Zinn, S Y

    2004-01-01

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) experiment is designed to measure cosmic ray elemental spectra to help understand the source and acceleration mechanisms of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. The payload is planned to launch in December 2004 from McMurdo Station, Antarctica as a balloon mission. A Silicon Charge Detector (SCD) was designed and constructed for the CREAM experiment to provide precision charge measurements of incident cosmic rays with a resolution of 0.2 charge unit or better. The SCD was exposed to heavy ion beams at CERN's H2 beam line in November 2003. The results reported here show the SCD performs as designed.

  15. Three dimensional simulations of space charge dominated heavy ion beams with applications to inertial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grote, D.P.

    1994-01-01

    Heavy ion fusion requires injection, transport and acceleration of high current beams. Detailed simulation of such beams requires fully self-consistent space charge fields and three dimensions. WARP3D, developed for this purpose, is a particle-in-cell plasma simulation code optimized to work within the framework of an accelerator's lattice of accelerating, focusing, and bending elements. The code has been used to study several test problems and for simulations and design of experiments. Two applications are drift compression experiments on the MBE-4 facility at LBL and design of the electrostatic quadrupole injector for the proposed ILSE facility. With aggressive drift compression on MBE-4, anomalous emittance growth was observed. Simulations carried out to examine possible causes showed that essentially all the emittance growth is result of external forces on the beam and not of internal beam space-charge fields. Dominant external forces are the dodecapole component of focusing fields, the image forces on the surrounding pipe and conductors, and the octopole fields that result from the structure of the quadrupole focusing elements. Goal of the design of the electrostatic quadrupole injector is to produce a beam of as low emittance as possible. The simulations show that the dominant effects that increase the emittance are the nonlinear octopole fields and the energy effect (fields in the axial direction that are off-axis). Injectors were designed that minimized the beam envelope in order to reduce the effect of the nonlinear fields. Alterations to the quadrupole structure that reduce the nonlinear fields further were examined. Comparisons were done with a scaled experiment resulted in very good agreement

  16. HEAVY ION LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Atta, C.M.; Beringer, R.; Smith, L.

    1959-01-01

    A linear accelerator of heavy ions is described. The basic contributions of the invention consist of a method and apparatus for obtaining high energy particles of an element with an increased charge-to-mass ratio. The method comprises the steps of ionizing the atoms of an element, accelerating the resultant ions to an energy substantially equal to one Mev per nucleon, stripping orbital electrons from the accelerated ions by passing the ions through a curtain of elemental vapor disposed transversely of the path of the ions to provide a second charge-to-mass ratio, and finally accelerating the resultant stripped ions to a final energy of at least ten Mev per nucleon.

  17. Effect of electrode for producing the highly charged heavy ions from RIKEN 18 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurita, Tetsuro; Nakagawa, Takahide; Kidera, Masanori

    1999-01-01

    We successfully produced the intense beam of highly charged Kr ions using an electrode. Under the pulsed mode operation, we found that the depth of the plasma potential dip strongly depends on the duration of the microwave and takes about 40 ms to reach the equilibrium state. Taking these results into account, we compared the beam intensities of highly charged Kr ions with and without the use of an electrode under the pulsed mode operation. We observed that the density of highly charged Kr ions and ion confinement time increase with increasing mirror magnetic field strength. The plasma potential dip becomes shallower with insertion of the electrode. Consequently, when we increase the mirror magnetic field strength and insert the electrode into the plasma, the beam intensities of highly charged ions increase. (author)

  18. Properties of Laser-Produced Highly Charged Heavy Ions for Direct Injection Scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Sakakibara, Kazuhiko; Hayashizaki, Noriyosu; Ito, Taku; Kashiwagi, Hirotsugu; Okamura, Masahiro

    2005-01-01

    To accelerate highly charged intense ion beam, we have developed the Direct Plasma Injection Scheme (DPIS) with laser ion source. In this scheme an ion beam from a laser ion source is injected directly to a RFQ linac without a low energy beam transport (LEBT) and the beam loss in the LEBT can be avoided. We achieved high current acceleration of carbon ions (60mA) by DPIS with the high current optimized RFQ. As the next setp we will use heavier elements like Ag, Pb, Al and Cu as target in LIS (using CO2, Nd-YAG or other laser) for DPIS and will examine properties of laser-produced plasma (the relationship of between charge state and laser power density, the current dependence of the distance from the target, etc).

  19. EBIT spectroscopy of highly charged heavy ions relevant to hot plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Nobuyuki

    2013-05-01

    An electron beam ion trap (EBIT) is a versatile device for studying highly charged ions. We have been using two types of EBITs for the spectroscopic studies of highly charged ions. One is a high-energy device called the Tokyo-EBIT, and another is a compact low-energy device called CoBIT. Complementary use of them enables us to obtain spectroscopic data for ions over a wide charge-state range interacting with electrons over a wide energy range. In this talk, we present EBIT spectra of highly charged ions for tungsten, iron, bismuth, etc., which are relevant to hot plasmas. Tungsten is considered to be the main impurity in the ITER (the next generation nuclear fusion reactor) plasma, and thus its emission lines are important for diagnosing and controlling the ITER plasma. We have observed many previously unreported lines to supply the lack of spectroscopic data of tungsten ions. Iron is one of the main components of the solar corona, and its spectra are used to diagnose temperature, density, etc. The diagnostics is usually done by comparing observed spectra with model calculations. An EBIT can provide spectra under a well-defined condition; they are thus useful to test the model calculations. Laser-produced bismuth plasma is one of the candidates for a soft x-ray source in the water window region. An EBIT has a narrow charge state distribution; it is thus useful to disentangle the spectra of laser-produced plasma containing ions with a wide charge-state range. Performed with the support and under the auspices of the NIFS Collaboration Research program (NIFS09KOAJ003) and JSPS KAKENHI Number 23246165, and partly supported by the JSPS-NRF-NSFC A3 Foresight Program in the field of Plasma Physics.

  20. Heavy ion beam-ionosphere interactions: Charging and neutralizing the payload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, R.L.; Arnoldy, R.L.; Walker, D.N.; Holmes, J.C.; Pollock, C.J.; Cahill, L.J. Jr.; Kintner, P.M.

    1989-01-01

    The argon release controlled studies (ARCS 1-3) rocket flights carried ion generators to altitudes of 400-500 km in the nighttime auroral ionosphere. Three distinct electrical charging and neutralization processes were seen on the payloads during gun operation: steady or dc vehicle charging, brief charging at gun turn-on, and extended oscillatory sequences. Many of the unexpected consequences of gun firings are attributed to these payload charging and neutralization processes. Electrical charging is regulated by the rate at which low-energy electrons escape from the generator, which in turn is dependent on magnetic field geometry. Each ion generator produced a dipolar magnetic field which merged with the Earth's field near the rocket. The resulting local magnetic field guided electrons back to the rocket for certain gun orientations, thereby inhibiting neutralization. Transient charging was attributed to the formation of an electron cloud around at least some vehicles, while dc charging altered the rocket's surroundings until the electron escape rate balanced the ion beam flux. The authors concluded that during oscillatory events the entire environment of a payload could alternate between hot electron and cold electron configurations at very high rates, possibly exceeding 10 kHz. These changes in the plasma environment did not produce substantial electric field perturbations at the dc or ac high impedance electric field sensors, so were not seen in data from typical wave detectors. However, changes in plasma density and temperature produced dramatic effects on low impedance electric current sensors such as Langmuir probes

  1. The effective charge of heavy ions in hot, dense plasma, special attention being given to dielectronic recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, T.

    1985-11-01

    This work investigates the effective charge Zsub(eff) of heavy ion beams when passing through hot, dense matter. Major new results concern the temperature and high density effects on Zsub(eff), the importance of dielectronic recombination in the process where free electrons are captured by the projectile, and the corresponding shell oscillations in Zsub(eff), as well as the derivation of approximate scaling relations for Zsub(eff). (orig./GG) [de

  2. Charge state analysis of heavy ions after penetration of uncleaned and sputter cleaned conducting surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, M.; Schosnig, M.; Kroneberger, K.; Tobisch, M.; Maier, R.; Kuzel, M.; Fiedler, C.; Hofmann, D.; Groeneveld, K.O.

    1994-01-01

    The evolution of the charge state distribution of fast ions inside a solid is of basic interest in various research fields as stopping power measurements etc. The existing models for the charge state evolution differ in the treatment of the projectile-exit-surface interaction, which has a strong influence on the final charge state distributions. We measured the charge state distributions for C + , N + , and O + (30≤E/M≤130 keV/u) impact on thin C, Cu, and Au foils, where the surface properties were modified by sputter cleaning. The mesurements show a pronounced change of the mean projectile charge state to lower values in the case of sputter cleaned surfaces. This result underlines the importance of the projectile-surface interaction for the generation of the outcoming charge state distribution. (orig.)

  3. Heavy charged particle therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizoe, Jun-etsu

    1995-01-01

    A pilot study of heavy charged particles with heavy ion medical accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) for advanced H and N cancer has been carried out from June 1994 at National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). As of the beginning of August 1994, three patients were treated by 290 MeV carbon ions. The patients had adenocarcinoma of the cheek mucosa, squamous cell carcinoma of the ethmoid sinus and adenoid cystic carcinoma of the sublingual gland. Patients were immobilized by individual head coach and thermosplint facial shell. Individual collimators and bolus were also prepared for each ports. Dose fractionation for the initial pilot study group was 16.2 GyE/18 fractions/6 weeks, which would be equivalent to standard fractionation of 60.0 Gy/30 fractions/6 weeks with photons. This dose fractionation was considered to be 20% lesser than 75 GyE/37.5 fractions/7.5 weeks, which is estimated to be maximum tolerance dose for advanced H and N cancers. HIMAC worked well and there was no major trouble causing any treatment delay. Acute skin reactions of 3 patients were 2 cases of bright erythema with patchy moist desquamation and one of dull erythema, which were evaluated as equivalent reaction with irradiated dose. Acute mucosa reactions appeared to have lesser reaction than predicted mucositis. Tumor reactions of three patients were partial reaction (PR) at the end of treatment and nearly complete remission (CR) after 6 months of treatment. From October 1994, we started to treat patients with advanced H and N cancer with 10% high dose than previous dose. And new candidates of pilot study with non small cell lung cancer, brain tumor and carcinoma of the tongue were entered into pilot study. At the end of February 1995, a total of 21 patients were treated by carbon ions. (J.P.N.)

  4. Physics and radiobiology of heavy charged particles in relation to the use of ion beams for therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, G.; Haberer, T.; Schardt, D.; Scholz, M.

    1993-07-01

    Heavy charged particles are the most advanced tool of an external subcutane radiotherapy of deep seated tumors. Small angular- and lateral-scattering and the increase of the energy deposition with penetration depth are the physical basis for a more efficient tumor targeting. High biological efficiency in the tumor is the prerequisite for a successful treatment of tumors radioresistant against sparsely ionizing radiation. The possibility to perform target conform irradiation and to control the achieved/actual distribution using PET techniques guarantees that biological highly efficient stepping particles can be restricted to the tumor volume only. Although the physical and radiobiological properties of ion beams are very favourable for therapy, the necessity to produce these particles in an accelerator restricts a general application of heavy ions up to now. Presently the heavy ion accelerator SIS at GSI is the only source of heavy ion beams, sufficient in energy and intensity for therapy. A therapy unit is in preparation at GSI, the status of this project is given at the end of the paper. (orig.)

  5. Excessive Yield of Second Charged ions of Heavy Elements in Laser Plasma Expansion Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouznetsov, G.B.; Sysoev, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    LAMAS-IOM TOF-MS that was recently designed for inorganic quantitative analysis is also well suitable for investigation of laser irradiation interaction with solids. This feature allows one to analyze plasma on early stage and gives an excellent possibility to complete existent physical model. This work is dedicated to investigation of yield doubly charged ions for different elements

  6. Influence of the zero point oscillation on the charge transfer in the heavy-ion deep inelastic collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin-xiao, Ge; Wen-qing, Shen; Chao-fan, Yu

    1982-01-01

    We discuss the variance of the charge distribution in the heavy ion deep inelastic collision on the basis of the Langevin equation. In order to explain the difference of the inital slope (early stage) of the charge distribution for the different reaction systems and different bombarding energy, an initial condition of the charge drift in the early stage of Dic is introduced. It is given by the harmonic or inhamonic motion around the zero point and closely depends on the nuclear structure and incident energy. The difference of the inertial mass and stiffness parameter may be the one of the reasons for the difference of charge transfer. In addition we also analyse the characterstic of the inertial mass parameter.

  7. Analyzing heavy-ion-induced charge collection in Si devices by three-dimensional simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, P.E.

    1994-01-01

    Properties of charge collection in Si devices in response to single-ion bombardment have been studied using transient three-dimensional drift-diffusion simulation. In unloaded Si diodes, the funnel effect is particularly strong in lightly-doped materials for high-density strikes such as 100 MeV Fe, and essentially all charge collection is by funnel-assisted drift. This drift collection may occur at time scales as late as several nanoseconds, much later than is traditionally associated with drift. For more heavily-doped materials or lower-density strikes, such as 5-MeV α-particles, drift and diffusion play more equal roles. In epitaxial structures the funnel is truncated by the heavily-doped substrate, collapses quickly, and a great deal of charge is collected at late times by diffusion. Charge collection in Si circuitry is influenced by the circuit external to the struck device. Loading effects on charge collection were studied using passive external circuit elements as well as by mixed-mode simulation, which allows modeling of active external circuitry. Simulations indicate that the funnel can be significantly affected by the inclusion of passive loads, while active loads may prevent any direct charge collection by funneling. Finally, the use of three-dimensional device simulators is presented as a method of analyzing results obtained from focused ion microbeam experiments

  8. Effect of minimum strength of mirror magnetic field (Bmin) on production of highly charged heavy ions from RIKEN liquid-He-free super conducting electron-cyclotron resonance ion source (RAMSES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Hideyuki; Imanaka, Masashi; Lee, S.-M.Sang-Moo; Higurashi, Yoshihide; Nakagawa, Takahide; Kidera, Masanori; Kageyama, Tadashi; Kase, Masayuki; Yano, Yasushige; Aihara, Toshimitsu

    2002-01-01

    We measured the beam intensity of highly charged heavy ions (O, Ar and Kr ions) as a function of the minimum strength of mirror magnetic field (B min ) of the RIKEN liquid-He-free super conducting electron-cyclotron resonance ion source. In this experiment, we found that the optimum value of B min exists to maximize the beam intensity of highly charged heavy ions and the value was almost the same (∼0.49 T) for various charge state heavy ions

  9. Quantum–classical simulations of the electronic stopping force and charge on slow heavy channelling ions in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Race, C P; Mason, D R; Foo, M H F; Foulkes, W M C; Sutton, A P; Horsfield, A P

    2013-01-01

    By simulating the passage of heavy ions along open channels in a model crystalline metal using semi-classical Ehrenfest dynamics we directly investigate the nature of non-adiabatic electronic effects. Our time-dependent tight-binding approach incorporates both an explicit quantum mechanical electronic system and an explicit representation of a set of classical ions. The coupled evolution of the ions and electrons allows us to explore phenomena that lie beyond the approximations made in classical molecular dynamics simulations and in theories of electronic stopping. We report a velocity-dependent charge-localization phenomenon not predicted by previous theoretical treatments of channelling. This charge localization can be attributed to the excitation of electrons into defect states highly localized on the channelling ion. These modes of excitation only become active when the frequency at which the channelling ion moves from interstitial point to equivalent interstitial point matches the frequency corresponding to excitations from the Fermi level into the localized states. Examining the stopping force exerted on the channelling ion by the electronic system, we find broad agreement with theories of slow ion stopping (a stopping force proportional to velocity) for a low velocity channelling ion (up to about 0.5 nm fs −1 from our calculations), and a reduction in stopping power attributable to the charge localization effect at higher velocities. By exploiting the simplicity of our electronic structure model we are able to illuminate the physics behind the excitation processes that we observe and present an intuitive picture of electronic stopping from a real-space, chemical perspective. (paper)

  10. Density effects in heavy ion charge-exchange processes in gaseous and solid targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teplova, Ya.A.; Dmitriev, I.S.; Belkova, Yu.A.

    2000-01-01

    Experimental results on the pre-equilibrium and equilibrium charge distributions in celluloid films for incident Be, B, C, N, O ions are analyzed in order to obtain charge-exchange cross-sections. The determined 'effective' cross-sections of electron capture and loss in celluloid together with earlier measured analogous cross-sections in nitrogen allow us to calculate charge fractions F i (t) depending on the target thickness in solid (celluloid) and gaseous (nitrogen) matter. The absolute values and the ratios A cap =σ g i,i-1 /σ s i,i-1 and A loss =σ g i-1,i /σ s i-1,i of electron capture and loss cross-sections in {s} solids (celluloid, carbon) and {g} gases (nitrogen) are under consideration

  11. Current signal of silicon detectors facing charged particles and heavy ions; Reponse en courant des detecteurs silicium aux particules chargees et aux ions lourds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrita, H

    2005-07-01

    This work consisted in collecting and studying for the first time the shapes of current signals obtained from charged particles or heavy ions produced by silicon detectors. The document is divided into two main parts. The first consisted in reducing the experimental data obtained with charged particles as well as with heavy ions. These experiments were performed at the Orsay Tandem and at GANIL using LISE. These two experiments enabled us to create a data base formed of current signals with various shapes and various times of collection. The second part consisted in carrying out a simulation of the current signals obtained from the various ions. To obtain this simulation we propose a new model describing the formation of the signal. We used the data base of the signals obtained in experiments in order to constrain the three parameters of our model. In this model, the charge carriers created are regarded as dipoles and their density is related to the dielectric polarization in the silicon detector. This phenomenon induces an increase in permittivity throughout the range of the incident ion and consequently the electric field between the electrodes of the detector is decreased inside the trace. We coupled with this phenomenon a dissociation and extraction mode of the charge carriers so that they can be moved in the electric field. (author)

  12. Nuclear polarization study: new frontiers for tests of QED in heavy highly charged ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volotka, Andrey V; Plunien, Günter

    2014-07-11

    A systematic investigation of the nuclear polarization effects in one- and few-electron heavy ions is presented. The nuclear polarization corrections in the zeroth and first orders in 1/Z are evaluated to the binding energies, the hyperfine splitting, and the bound-electron g factor. It is shown that the nuclear polarization contributions can be substantially canceled simultaneously with the rigid nuclear corrections. This allows for new prospects for probing the QED effects in a strong electromagnetic field and the determination of fundamental constants.

  13. Dependence of asymmetries for charge distribution with respect to the reaction plane on initial energy in heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okorokov, V.A.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, two combinations of correlators are defined in order to investigate the evolution of possible C/CP invariance violation in strong interactions with initial energy for heavy-ion collisions. These combinations correspond to absolute and relative asymmetry of distribution of electrically charge particles with respect to the reaction plane in heavy-ion collisions. Energy dependence of parameters under study was derived from data of STAR and ALICE experiments. Significant decreasing both absolute and relative asymmetry is observed at energies √s NN < 20 GeV. This feature agrees qualitatively with other results of stage-I beam energy scan program in STAR experiment. General behavior of dependence of absolute asymmetry on initial energy agrees reasonably with behavior of similar dependence of Chern–Simons diffusion rate calculated at different values of external Abelian magnetic field. The observed behavior of parameters under study versus energy can be considered as indication on possible transition to predominance of hadronic states over quark–gluon degrees of freedom in the mixed phase created in heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies. (author)

  14. LINAC for charge-symmetrical four-isotopic heavy-ion driver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yudin, L.A. [MRTI RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kapchinsky, M.I. [MRTI RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Korenev, I.L. [MRTI RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Koshkarev, D.G. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1996-11-01

    A linear accelerator (linac) for single charged (positive and negative) ions of the four various Pt isotopes has been proposed. Eight beams of different charges and masses of ions are accelerated in parallel RFQ channels to an energy of 100 MeV. The beams are then brought together by a system of alternating gradient magnets for a 180 bending and matching of the beams. The main channel that accelerates all the beams together consists of three stages. The first stage (until 600 MeV) is a Wideroe structure, followed by two consecutive Alvarex channels (2.5 GeV and 10 GeV) that have different radio frequencies. The characteristics of the output beam for each kind of ions are as follows: average pulse current, 130 mA; horizontal emittance, 0.6{pi} cm mrad; vertical emittance, 0.4{pi} cm mrad; momentum spread, {+-}0.07%; bunch length, 3.6 cm; spacing between bunches of each kind, 15.3 m. (orig.)

  15. LINAC for charge-symmetrical four-isotopic heavy-ion driver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yudin, L.A.; Kapchinsky, M.I.; Korenev, I.L. [MRTI RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Koshkarev, D.G. [ITEP, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    A linear accelerator (linac) for single charged (positive and negative) ions of the four various Pt isotopes has been proposed. Eight beams of different charges and masses of ions are accelerated in parallel RFQ channels to an energy of 100 MeV. The beams are then brought together by a system of alternating gradient magnets for a 180{degrees} bending and matching of the beams. The main channel that accelerates all the beams together consists of three stages. The first stage (until 600 MeV) is a Wideroe structure, followed by two consecutive Alvarex channels (2.5 GeV and 10 GeV) that have different radio frequencies. The characteristics of the output beam for each kind of ions are as follows: average pulse current, 130 mA; horizontal emittance, 0.6{pi} cm mrad; vertical emittance, 0.4{pi} cm mrad; momentum spread, {+-}0.07%; bunch length, 3.6 cm; spacing between bunches of each kind, 15.3 m.

  16. Recoil ion spectroscopy with heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, H.F.; Mann, R.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter examines the production of very high charge state ions in single ion-atom collisions. Topics considered include some aspects of highly ionized atoms, experimental approaches, the production of highly charged target ions (monoatomic targets, recoil energy distribution, molecular fragmentation, outer-shell rearrangement, lifetime measurements, a comparison of projectile-, target-, and plasma-ion stripping), and secondary collision experiments (selective electron capture, potential applications). The heavy-ion beams for the described experiments were provided by accelerators such as tandem Van de Graaff facility and the UNILAC

  17. Quadrupole beam-transport experiment for heavy ions under extreme space charge conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chupp, W.; Faltens, A.; Hartwig, E.C.

    1983-03-01

    A Cs ion-beam-transport experiment is in progress to study beam behavior under extreme space-charge conditions. A five-lens section matches the beam into a periodic electrostatic quadrupole FODO channel and its behavior is found to agree with predictions. With the available parameters (less than or equal to 200 keV, less than or equal to 20 mA, πepsilon/sub n/ greater than or equal to 10 - 7 π rad-m, up to 41 periods) the transverse (betatron) occillation frequency (nu) can be depressed down to one-tenth of its zero current value (nu/sub 0/), where nu/sup 2/ = nu/sub 0//sup 2/ -#betta#/sub p/ 2 /2, and #betta#/sub p/ is the beam plasma frequency. The current can be controlled by adjustment of the gun and the emittance can be controlled independently by means of a set of charged grids

  18. Radiobiology of heavy charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, G.

    1996-11-01

    The increase in the biological efficiency is the major motivation to use ions heavier than protons for therapy. Therefore, the detailed understanding of the radiobiological potential of heavy ions like carbon or oxygen is the basic condition of a proper application of these ions in therapy. But also for the lightest ion, the proton, evidence accumulates that changes in the radiobiological properties at the end of the particle range influence the therapeutic effect. Compared to sparsely ionizing radiation heavy charged particles exhibit a different physical interaction with the target material: The highly charged ions interact mostly via Coulomb forces with the electrons of the target material producing a track of ionizations and highly kinetic electrons along the path of the primary ion. In these tracks damage to the biological structures like the DNA occurs in a non stochastic, but spatially correlated way yielding a dramatic variation in the biological severity of the created damage. In cell-experiments the variation in the relative biological efficiency has been measured for many biological reactions like cell inactivation, chromosome aberrations and DNA damage. An overview on the inactivation data will be given and theoretical approaches will be discussed and compared to experimental data. (orig.)

  19. Transport, charge exchange and loss of energetic heavy ions in the earth's radiation belts - Applicability and limitations of theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spjeldvik, W. N.

    1981-01-01

    Computer simulations of processes which control the relative abundances of ions in the trapping regions of geospace are compared with observations from discriminating ion detectors. Energy losses due to Coulomb collisions between ions and exospheric neutrals are considered, along with charge exchange losses and internal charge exchanges. The time evolution of energetic ion fluxes of equatorially mirroring ions under radial diffusion is modelled to include geomagnetic and geoelectric fluctutations. Limits to the validity of diffusion transport theory are discussed, and the simulation is noted to contain provisions for six ionic charge states and the source effect on the radiation belt oxygen ion distributions. Comparisons are made with ion flux data gathered on Explorer 45 and ISEE-1 spacecraft and results indicate that internal charge exchanges cause the radiation belt ion charge state to be independent of source charge rate characteristics, and relative charge state distribution is independent of the radially diffusive transport rate below the charge state redistribution zone.

  20. Simulations of longitudinal beam dynamics of space-charge dominated beams for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.A.C.

    1994-12-01

    The longitudinal instability has potentially disastrous effects on the ion beams used for heavy ion driven inertial confinement fusion. This instability is a open-quotes resistive wallclose quotes instability with the impedance coining from the induction modules in the accelerator used as a driver. This instability can greatly amplify perturbations launched from the beam head and can prevent focusing of the beam onto the small spot necessary for fusion. This instability has been studied using the WARPrz particle-in-cell code. WARPrz is a 2 1/2 dimensional electrostatic axisymmetric code. This code includes a model for the impedance of the induction modules. Simulations with resistances similar to that expected in a driver show moderate amounts of growth from the instability as a perturbation travels from beam head to tail as predicted by cold beam fluid theory. The perturbation reflects off the beam tail and decays as it travels toward the beam head. Nonlinear effects cause the perturbation to steepen during reflection. Including the capacitive component of the, module impedance. has a partially stabilizing effect on the longitudinal instability. This reduction in the growth rate is seen in both cold beam fluid theory and in simulations with WARPrz. Instability growth rates for warm beams measured from WARPrz are lower than cold beam fluid theory predicts. Longitudinal thermal spread cannot account for this decrease in the growth rate. A mechanism for coupling the transverse thermal spread to decay of the longitudinal waves is presented. The longitudinal instability is no longer a threat to the heavy ion fusion program. The simulations in this thesis have shown that the growth rate for this instability will not be as large as earlier calculations predicted

  1. Results of heavy ion radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, J.R.

    1994-04-01

    The potential of heavy ion therapy for clinical use in cancer therapy stems from the biological parameters of heavy charged particles, and their precise dose localization. Biologically, carbon, neon and other heavy ion beams (up to about silicon) are clinically useful in overcoming the radioresistance of hypoxic tumors, thus increasing biological effectiveness relative to low-LET x-ray or electron beams. Cells irradiated by heavy ions show less variation in cell-cycle related radiosensitivity and decreased repair of radiation injury. The physical parameters of these heavy charged particles allow precise delivery of high radiation doses to tumors while minimizing irradiation of normal tissues. Clinical use requires close interaction between radiation oncologists, medical physicists, accelerator physicists, engineers, computer scientists and radiation biologists

  2. Charge-state correlated cross sections for the production of low-velocity highly charged Ne ions by heavy-ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, T.J.; Cocke, C.L.; Justiniano, E.

    1980-01-01

    We report measured cross sections for the collisional production of highly charged low-velocity Ne recoil ions resulting from the bombardment of a thin Ne gas target by highly charged 1-MeV/amu C, N, O, and F projectiles. The measurements were made using time-of-flight techniques which allowed the simultaneous identification of the final charge state of both the low-velocity recoil ion and the high-velocity projectile for each collision event. For a given incident-projectile charge state, the recoil charge-state distribution is very dependent upon the final charge state of the projectile. Single- and double-electron capture events by incident bare nuclei and projectile K-shell ionization during the collision cause large shifts in the recoil charge-state distributions toward higher charge states. A previously proposed energy-deposition model is modified to include the effects of projectile charge-changing collisions during the collision for bare and hydrogenlike projectiles and is used to discuss the present experimental results

  3. ECRIS sources for highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geller, R.

    1991-01-01

    The so-called Philips ionization gauge ion sources (PIGIS) were used until quite recently in heavy ion accelerators so multiply charged ions could only be obtained by incorporating a stripper to remove electrons. Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) now dominate as they produce more highly charged ions. (orig.)

  4. Development of a pepper-pot emittance meter for diagnostics of low-energy multiply charged heavy ion beams extracted from an ECR ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagatomo, T., E-mail: nagatomo@riken.jp; Kase, M.; Kamigaito, O.; Nakagawa, T. [Nishina Center for Accelerator Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Tzoganis, V. [Nishina Center for Accelerator Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, Merseyside L69 3BX (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-15

    Several fluorescent materials were tested for use in the imaging screen of a pepper-pot emittance meter that is suitable for investigating the beam dynamics of multiply charged heavy ions extracted from an ECR ion source. SiO{sub 2} (quartz), KBr, Eu-doped CaF{sub 2}, and Tl-doped CsI crystals were first irradiated with 6.52-keV protons to determine the effects of radiation damage on their fluorescence emission properties. For such a low-energy proton beam, only the quartz was found to be a suitable fluorescent material, since the other materials suffered a decay in fluorescence intensity with irradiation time. Subsequently, quartz was irradiated with heavy {sup 12}C{sup 4+}, {sup 16}O{sup 4+}, and {sup 40}Ar{sup 11+} ions, but it was found that the fluorescence intensity decreased too rapidly to measure the emittance of these heavy-ion beams. These results suggest that a different energy loss mechanism occurs for heavier ions and for protons.

  5. BNL heavy ion fusion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maschke, A.W.

    1978-01-01

    A principal attraction of heavy ion fusion is that existing accelerator technology and theory are sufficiently advanced to allow one to commence the design of a machine capable of igniting thermonuclear explosions. There are, however, a number of features which are not found in existing accelerators built for other purposes. The main thrust of the BNL Heavy Ion Fusion program has been to explore these features. Longitudinal beam bunching, very low velocity acceleration, and space charge neutralization are briefly discussed

  6. Heavy ion medical accelerator, HIMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Satoru

    1993-01-01

    The heavy ion beam is undoutedly suitable for the cancer treatment. The supriority of the heavy ions over the conventional radiations including protons and neutrons comes mainly from physical characteristics of a heavy particle with multiple charges. A straggling angle due to a multiple Coulomb scattering process in a human body is small for heavy ions, and the small scattering angle results in a good dose localization in a transverse direction. An ionization ratio of the heavy ion beam makes a very sharp peak at the ends of their range. The height of the peak is higher for the heavier ions and shows excellent biomedical effects around Ne ions. In order to apply heavy ion beams to cancer treatment, Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) has been constructed at National Institute of Radiological Sciences. The accelerator complex consists of two ion sources, two successive linac tanks, a pair of synchrotron rings, a beam transport system and an irradiation system. An operation frequency is 100 MHz for two linacs, and the ion energy is 6.0 MeV/u at the output end of the linac. The other four experimental rooms are prepared for basic experiments. The synchrotron accelerates ions up to 800 MeV/u for a charge to mass ratio of 1/2. The long beam transport line provides two vertical beams in addition with two horizontal beams for the treatment. The three treatment rooms are prepared one of which is equipped with both horizontal and vertical beam lines. The whole facility will be open for all scientists who have interests in the heavy ion science as well as the biophysics. The conceptual design study of HIMAC started in 1984, and the construction of the accelerator complex was begun in March 1988. The beam acceleration tests of the injector system was successfully completed in March of this year, and tests of the whole system will be finished throughout this fyscal year. (author)

  7. Laser-produced multi-charged heavy ions as efficient soft x-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Suzuki, Yuhei; Kawasaki, Masato

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate EUV and soft x-ray sources in the 2 to 7 nm spectral region related to the beyond EUV (BEUV) question at 6x nm and a water window source based on laser-produced high-Z plasmas. Resonance emission from multiply charged ions merges to produce intense unresolved transition arrays (UTAs), extending below the carbon K edge (4.37 nm). An outline of a microscope design for single-shot live cell imaging is proposed based on a high-Z plasma UTA source, coupled to x-ray optics. We will discuss the progress and Z-scaling of UTA emission spectra to achieve lab-scale table-top, efficient, high-brightness high-Z plasma EUV-soft x-ray sources for in vivo bio-imaging applications. (author)

  8. Production of intense beams of highly charged heavy ions from RIKEN 18 GHz ECRIS and liquid He free SC-ECRIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, T.; Kidera, M.; Kageyama, T.; Kase, M.; Yano, Y.; Higurashi, Y.; Kurita, T.; Imanaka, M.

    2001-01-01

    We have constructed the high performance ECRISs for RIKEN RI Beam factory project and successfully produced intense beams of highly charged heavy ions. RIKEN 18 GHz ECRIS can especially produce intense beams of medium charge states of heavy ions (1.3 mA of Ar 8+ , 200 eμA of Xe 20+ ) by applying the various techniques, e.g., Al cylinder method, biased electrode method, optimization of the plasma electrode position. Very recently, we successfully produced intense beams of highly charged heavy ions (10 eμA of Xe 30+ , 1 eμA of Xe 36+ ) from the Liquid He free SC-ECRIS with operational frequency of 14 GHz

  9. Charged particle yields and spectra in p+p and Heavy Ion Collisions with ATLAS at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Dolejší, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment has extensive charged particle tracking over full azimuth and within |eta|<2.5. The spectrometer consists of three pixel layers and four double-layer strip layers, giving 11 space points in all. The existing tracking software used for proton-proton collisions has been optimized for the high-multiplicity heavy ion environment. Extensions of the existing tracking to lower pT (100 MeV) using tracks and pixel tracklets, work underway for p+p, will be discussed in the context of heavy ion collisions. Finally, by correlating high momentum tracks with the ATLAS calorimetry, fake tracks can also be rejected at very high pT. The physics performance of the ATLAS inner detector for dN/deta, inclusive particle spectra, and two-particle correlations (in delta-eta and delta-phi) will be discussed. The tracking performance within jets, which is essential for the measurement of jet fragmentation functions, will also be presented.

  10. Modifications of poly (vinilydene fluoride) under electronic excitations produced by charged particles (heavy ions and electrons)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fina, A.

    1990-04-01

    Some of the physico-chemical properties of organic solids like conductivity or permeation can be improved by irradiation. The aim of this work is to characterize modifications induced in poly (vinylidene fluoride) films (PVDF) by charged particles (ions and electrons), with electronic stopping power, for doses ranging from zero to twenty G-Grays. Influence of dose, density of electronic excitations, and flux (in particles per square centimeter), and the nature of defects induced by the beam, were studied with two methods: X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (or XPS) for surface analysis, and electron Spin Resonance (or ESR) to probe the bulk of the film. Three ranges of doses are revealed in view of experimental results. At lower doses, PVDF undergoes deshydrofluorination induced by desorption; it is a low modifications regime. For intermediate range doses, conjugated carbon backbones of polyene compounds are produced. At higher doses, intermolecular interactions between the resulting fragments give a crosslinked network. For the upper limit of doses used, bond breaking results in a non reversible degradation of PVDF. In this last situation, direct atomic displacement of target atoms, is not negligible [fr

  11. Heavy-ion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adair, H.L.; Kobisk, E.H.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter examines the characteristics of targets required in heavy-ion accelerator physics experiments. The effects of target parameters on heavy-ion experimental results are reviewed. The target fabrication and characterization techniques used to minimize experimental problems during heavy-ion bombardment are described. Topics considered include target thickness and uniformity, target lifetime, target purity, substrate materials, Doppler shift effects, metal preparations, and target preparation methods

  12. From heavy ions to exotic atoms

    OpenAIRE

    Indelicato, Paul; Trassinelli, Martino

    2005-01-01

    We review a number of experiments and theoretical calculations on heavy ions and exotic atoms, which aim at providing informations on fundamental interactions. Among those are propositions of experiments for parity violation measurements in heavy ions and high-precision mesurements of He-like transition energies in highly charged ions. We also describe recent experiments on pionic atoms, that make use of highly-charged ion transitions to obtain accurate measurements of strong interaction shif...

  13. Studies for the development of a micro-focus monochromatic x-ray source with making use of a highly charged heavy ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Yoshiyasu, Nobuo; Nakayama, Ryo; Watanabe, Hirofumi

    2008-01-01

    We propose a new scheme for a micro-focus monochromatic X-ray source using a focused highly charged ion beam colliding with a solid surface. When highly charged ion approaches a surface, many electrons are captured into the ion and the so-called hollow atom is produced. The hollow atom will decay by emitting X-rays before and after hitting the surface. Such X-rays do not contain any contribution from bremsstrahlung, so that monochromatic X-rays can be obtained by using proper filters. For the first step of realizing the proposed scheme, an ion focusing system with a glass capillary has been developed. In order to study the monochromaticity of the emission, X-ray spectra from hollow atoms produced in the collisions between highly charged heavy ions and several surfaces have been observed. (author)

  14. Heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangerter, R.O.

    1986-01-01

    This report on the International Symposium on Heavy Ion Fusion held May 27-29, 1986 summarizes the problems and achievements in the areas of targets, accelerators, focussing, reactor studies, and system studies. The symposium participants recognize that there are large uncertainties in Heavy Ion Fusion but many of them are also optimistic that HIF may ultimately be the best approach to fusion

  15. Heavy ion physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalpakchieva, R.; Cherepanov, E.A.

    1993-01-01

    The international school-seminar on heavy ion physics had been organized in Dubna in may of 1993. The scientific program of reports covers the following main topics: synthesis and properties of heavy nuclei; synthesis and investigation of properties of exotic nuclei; experiments with radioactive nuclear beams; interaction between complex nuclei at low and intermediate energies. It also includes reports on laser spectroscopy and exotic nuclear beams, on some application of heavy ion beams for the problems of solid state physics, on construction of multidetector facilities and on developing of heavy ion accelerator complexes. Short communication

  16. Recent performances of the multiple charged heavy-ion source - triple mafios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briand, P.; Chan-tung, N.; Geller, R.; Jacquot, B.

    1977-01-01

    The principle and the characteristics of the ion source are described. We also furnish upto date performances concerning ion currents, globale emittances of the beam as well as the emittances of Ar 1+ to Ar 10+ in the radial and axial planes. (orig./WL) [de

  17. Heavy-ion dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimmerling, W.

    1980-03-01

    This lecture deals with some of the more important physical characteristics of relativistic heavy ions and their measurement, with beam delivery and beam monitoring, and with conventional radiation dosimetry as used in the operation of the BEVALAC biomedical facility for high energy heavy ions (Lyman and Howard, 1977; BEVALAC, 1977). Even so, many fundamental aspects of the interaction of relativistic heavy ions with matter, including important atomic physics and radiation chemical considerations, are not discussed beyond the reminder that such additional understanding is required before an adequte perspective of the problem can be attained

  18. Large Acceptance Measurement of Photons and Charged Particles in Heavy Ion Reactions

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % WA98 \\\\ \\\\ The aim of the experiment is the high statistics study of photons and neutral hadrons, as well as of charged particles, and their correlations in Pb~-~Pb collisions. The photons are measured by: \\begin{enumerate}[-] \\item a 10~000 module LEADGLASS SPECTROMETER yielding high precision data on $ \\pi ^0 $ and $ \\eta $ at midrapidity (with transverse momenta 0.3 GeV/c $>$ p$ _{T} $ $>$ 4.5 GeV/c for $\\pi ^0 $ and 1.5~GeV/c~$>$~p$ _{T}~$ $>$~4.0~GeV/c for $ \\eta $ covering the $^{\\prime\\prime}$thermal$^{\\prime\\prime}$ as well as the $^{\\prime\\prime}$hard scattering$^{\\prime\\prime}$ regime beyond 3~GeV/c) and determination of the thermal and direct photon to $ \\pi ^0 $ ratio. \\item a pad preshower PHOTON MULTIPLICITY DETECTOR which, by comparing with the charged particle multiplicity measurement allows to determine the photon enrichment in an event or event class. \\end{enumerate}\\\\ \\\\The charged particle setup contains:\\\\ \\\\\\begin{enumerate}[-] \\item a 4000 element SILICON PAD DETECTOR and a 4-inch SIL...

  19. Centrality and energy dependence of charged-particle multiplicities in heavy ion collisions in the context of elementary reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; Nieuwenhuizen, G. J. Van; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2006-08-01

    The PHOBOS experiment at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider has measured the total multiplicity of primary charged particles as a function of collision centrality in Au+Au collisions at sNN= 19.6, 130, and 200 GeV. An approximate independence of / on the number of participating nucleons is observed, reminiscent of “wounded nucleon” scaling (Nch∝Npart) observed in proton-nucleus collisions. Unlike p+A, the constant of proportionality does not seem to be set by the pp/p¯p data at the same energy. Rather, there seems to be a surprising correspondence with the total multiplicity measured in e+e- annihilations, as well as the rapidity shape measured over a large range. The energy dependence of the integrated multiplicity per participant pair shows that e+e- and A+A data agree over a large range of center-of-mass energies (s>20 GeV), and pp/p¯p data can be brought to agree approximately with the e+e- data by correcting for the typical energy taken away by leading particles. This is suggestive of a mechanism for soft particle production that depends mainly on the amount of available energy. It is conjectured that the dominant distinction between A+A and p+p collisions is the multiple collisions per participant, which appears to be sufficient to substantially reduce the energy taken away by leading particles.

  20. Heavy ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmelzer, C.

    1974-01-01

    This review of the present state of work on heavy-ion accelerators pays particular attention to the requirements for nuclear research. It is divided into the following sections: single-particle versus collective acceleration, heavy-ion accelerators, beam quality, and a status report on the UNILAC facility. Among the topics considered are the recycling cyclotron, linacs with superconducting resonators, and acceleration to the GeV/nucleon range. (8 figures, 2 tables) (U.S.)

  1. Evidence for strong Breit interaction in dielectronic recombination of highly charged heavy ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Kavanagh, Anthony P; Watanabe, Hirofumi; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A; Li, Yueming; Kato, Daiji; Currell, Fred J; Ohtani, Shunsuke

    2008-02-22

    Resonant strengths have been measured for dielectronic recombination of Li-like iodine, holmium, and bismuth using an electron beam ion trap. By observing the atomic number dependence of the state-resolved resonant strength, clear experimental evidence has been obtained that the importance of the generalized Breit interaction (GBI) effect on dielectronic recombination increases as the atomic number increases. In particular, it has been shown that the GBI effect is exceptionally strong for the recombination through the resonant state [1s2s(2)2p(1/2)](1).

  2. Recent developments in high charge state heavy ion beams at the LBL 88-inch Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gough, R.A.; Clark, D.J.; Glasgow, L.R.

    1978-01-01

    Recent advances in design and operation of the internal PIG sources at the LBL 88-Inch Cyclotron have led to the development of high charge state (0.4 16 O 8+ . Total external intensities of these beams range from 10 12 particles/s for 6 Li 3+ to 0.1 particles/s for 16 O 8+ . Techniques have been developed for routine tune-out of the low intensity beams. These include use of model beams and reliance on the large systematic data base of cyclotron parameters which has been developed over many years of operation. Techniques for delivery of these weak beams to the experimental target areas are presented. Source design and operation, including special problems associated with Li, Be, and B beams are discussed

  3. Atomic collision studies at moderate projectile velocities using highly charged, decelerated heavy ions from the GSI-UNILAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokler, P.H.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Schoenfeldt, W.A.; Maor, D.

    1984-01-01

    Beams of highly ionized, very heavy atoms at moderate velocities have been produced at the UNILAC using the acceleration-stripping-deceleration method. The available ion species range from Kr 33+ to U 66+ in the energy region between 2 and 5 MeV/u. A survey on first experiments at GSI using these moderate velocity, few electron, heavy ion beams is given. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated for Xesup(q+)-Xe collision experiments with 41 <= q <= 45. Results on vacancy transfer between inner quasimolecular levels for close collisions, and on distant collision electron capture are reported. (orig.)

  4. Working group report: Heavy ion physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The 8th workshop on high energy physics phenomenology (WHEPP-8) was ... by two plenary talks on experimental overview of heavy ion collisions and ... charge. At low temperature and density the quarks and gluons are confined within.

  5. Beam losses in heavy ion drivers

    CERN Document Server

    Mustafin, E R; Hofmann, I; Spiller, P J

    2002-01-01

    While beam loss issues have hardly been considered in detail for heavy ion fusion scenarios, recent heavy ion machine developments in different labs (European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC)) have shown the great importance of beam current limitations due to ion losses. Two aspects of beam losses in heavy ion accelerators are theoretically considered: (1) secondary neutron production due to lost ions, and (2) vacuum pressure instability due to charge exchange losses. Calculations are compared and found to be in good agreement with measured data. The application to a Heavy-Ion Driven Inertial Fusion (HIDIF) scenario is discussed. 12 Refs.

  6. Calorimetric Low-Temperature Detectors for X-Ray Spectroscopy on Trapped Highly-Charged Heavy Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne, Caroline; Kraft-Bermuth, S.; Andrianov, V.; Bleile, A.; Echler, A.; Egelhof, P.; Ilieva, S.; Kilbourne, C.; McCammon, D.

    2012-01-01

    The application of Calorimetric Low-Temperature Detectors (CLTDs) has been proposed at the Heavy-Ion TRAP facility HITRAP which is currently being installed at the Helmholtz Research Center for Heavy Ion Research GSI. This cold ion trap setup will allow the investigation of X-rays from ions practically at rest, for which the excellent energy resolution of CLTDs can be used to its full advantage. However, the relatively low intensities at HITRAP demand larger solid angles and an optimized cryogenic setup. The influence of external magnetic fields has to be taken into account. CLTDs will also be a substantial part of the instrumental equipment at the future Facility for Antiproton and Heavy Ion Research (FAIR), for which a wide variety of high-precision X-ray spectroscopy experiments has been proposed. This contribution will give an overview on the chances and challenges for the application of CLTDs at HITRAP as well as perspectives for future experiments at the FAIR facility.

  7. Treatment of cancer with heavy charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    The clinical radiotherapy trial has accured 243 patients irradiated with particles and 13 patients irradiated as controls in randomized studies. Of the 243 particle patients, 194 have been treated with helium ions, either solely or in combination with photon irradiation, and 49 have received all or part of their irradiation with one of the heavier particles, either carbon, neon, or argon ions. The project thus can be divided into two general phases: (1) evaluation of improved dose distribution without significant biologic advantage by use of helium ion irradiation; and (2) evaluation of improved dose distribution and enhanced biologic effect by irradiation with heavy charged particles such as carbon, neon, and argon ions

  8. Relativistic heavy ion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Experimental work is reported on the following topics: transverse energy production in 10.7-GeV/c/u Au on Au collisions; first results on delta ray production and charged particle multiplicities with the Au beam at 10.7 GeV/c/A; preliminary studies on the feasibility of flow measurement with the E814 participant calorimeter; preliminary results from the E877 telescope; and low-p t baryon distribution in Si+Al, Pb collisions at the AGS. Then the status of the Hadronic Calorimeter project of AGS Experiment E864 (ECOS--Exotic Composite Object Spectrometer) is reviewed. Next, the same is done for work of the STAR RHIC collaboration (Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) project evolution and development in FY92, SVT software results from 1992, SVT instrumentation, FY93 SVT pion test beam). The instrumentation section deals with the design and installation of a target rapidity telescope for BNL experiment 814/877 and a repair scheme for the E814/E877 participant calorimeter. Finally, the theory part addresses bosonic kinetics: thermalization of mesons and the pion p perpendicular spectrum in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions and non-equilibrium properties of hadronic mixtures

  9. Heavy ion inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fessenden, T.J.; Friedman, A.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the research status in the following areas of research in the field of heavy ion inertial fusion: (1) RF accelerators, storage rings, and synchrotrons; (2) induction linacs; (3) recirculation induction accelerator approach; (4) a new accelerator concept, the ''Mirrortron''; (5) general issues of transport, including beam merging, production of short, fat quadrupoles with nearly linear focusing, calculations of beam behaviour in image fields; 3-D electrostatic codes on drift compression with misalignments and transport around bends; (6) injectors, ion sources and RFQs, a.o., on the development of a 27 MHz RFQ to be used for the low energy portion of a new injector for all ions up to Uranium, and the development of a 2 MV carbon ion injector to provide 16 C + beams of 0.5 A each for ILSE; (7) beam transport from accelerator to target, reporting, a.o., the feasibility to suppress third-order aberrations; while Particle-in-Cell simulations on the propagation of a non-neutral ion beam in a low density gas identified photo-ionization by thermal X-rays from the target as an important source of defocusing; (9) heavy ion target studies; (10) reviewing experience with laser drivers; (11) ion cluster stopping and muon catalyzed fusion; (12) heavy ion systems, including the option of a fusion-fission burner. 1 tab

  10. Heavy-ion radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Tobias, C.A.; Holley, W.R.; Benton, E.V.

    1981-01-01

    Heavy-particle radiography has clinical potential as a newly developed noninvasive low-dose imaging procedure that provides increased resolution of minute density differences in soft tissues of the body. The method utilizes accelerated high-energy ions, primarily carbon and neon, at the Bevalac accelerator at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The research program for medicine utilizes heavy-ion radiography for low-dose mammography, for treatment planning for cancer patients, and for imaging and accurate densitometry of skeletal structures, brain and spinal neoplasms, and the heart. The potential of heavy-ion imaging, and particularly reconstruction tomography, is now proving to be an adjunct to existing diagnostic imaging procedures in medicine, both for applications to the diagnosis, management and treatment of clinical cancer in man, and for the early detection of small soft-tissue tumors at low radiation dose

  11. Heavy ion storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuch, R.

    1987-01-01

    A brief overview of synchrotron storage rings for heavy ions, which are presently under construction in different accelerator laboratories is given. Ions ranging from protons up to uranium ions at MeV/nucleon energies will be injected into these rings using multiturn injection from the accelerators available or being built in these laboratories. After injection, it is planned to cool the phase space distribution of the ions by merging them with cold electron beams or laser beams, or by using stochastic cooling. Some atomic physics experiments planned for these rings are presented. 35 refs

  12. [Relativistic heavy ion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    At Brookhaven National Laboratory, participation in the E802 Experiment, which is the first major heavy-ion experiment at the BNL-AGS, was the main focus of the group during the past four years. The emphases of the E802 experiment were on (a) accurate particle identification and measurements of spectra over a wide kinematical domain (5 degree LAB < 55 degree, p < 20 GeV/c); and (b) measurements of small-angle two-particle correlations, with event characterization tools: multiplicity array, forward and large-angle calorimeters. This experiment and other heavy ion collision experiments are discussed in this report

  13. Heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacak, B.V.

    1994-01-01

    Heavy ion collisions at very high energies provide an opportunity to recreate in the laboratory the conditions which existed very early in the universe, just after the big bang. We prepare matter at very high energy density and search for evidence that the quarks and gluons are deconfined. I describe the kinds of observables that are experimentally accessible to characterize the system and to search for evidence of new physics. A wealth of information is now available from CERN and BNL heavy ion experiments. I discuss recent results on two particle correlations, strangeness production, and dilepton and direct photon distributions

  14. Heavy ion accelerator GANIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-04-01

    This article presents GANIL, a large national heavy ion accelerator. The broad problems of nuclear physics, atomic physics, astrophysics and physics of condensed media which can be approached and studied with this machine are discussed first, after which the final construction project is described. The project comprises a circular injector, a separated sector cyclotron up beam stripper, and a second separated cyclotron downstream [fr

  15. Heavy-ion microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, G.; Yang, T.C.H.; Richards, T.; Tobias, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    This chapter briefly describes the techniques of optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, soft x-ray microscopy and compares these latter techniques with heavy-ion microscopy. The resolution obtained with these various types of microscopy are compared and the influence of the etching procedure on total resolution is discussed. Several micrographs of mammalian cells are included

  16. Relativisitic heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannenbaum, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    Some of the objectives and observables of Relativistic Heavy Ion Physics are presented. The first experimental results from oxygen interactions at CERN, 200 GeV/c per nucleon, and BNL, 14.5 GeV/c per nucleon are shown. The data indicate more energy emission than was originally predicted. 25 refs., 19 figs

  17. Heavy-ion radiography and heavy-ion computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Holley, W.R.; McFarland, E.W.; Tobias, C.a.

    1982-02-01

    Heavy-ion projection and CT radiography is being developed into a safe, low-dose, noninvasive radiological procedure that can quantitate and image small density differences in human tissues. The applications to heavy-ion mammography and heavy-ion CT imaging of the brain in clinical patients suggest their potential value in cancer diagnosis

  18. Experiments with stored heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fick, D.; Habs, D.; Jaeschke, E.

    1985-02-01

    The success of newly-developed methods of phase space cooling in proton and antiproton storage rings was sufficient for an examination of whether these methods could also be applied in storage rings for heavy ions. An expansion of these methods to heavy ion beams seems attractive for all sorts of reasons. Recently, this area was extensively discussed in a series of working meetings with the result that heavy ion storage rings are to be built for use in atomic and nuclear physics, with integrated radiation cooling and stochastic cooling, but primarily electron cooling. The current state of research and planning for the storage experiment is described. It is not intended to be a structural specification worked out in detail. The general design of the ring, however, has been established, and experimental details have deliberately been kept flexible, to thereby allow very different sorts of experiments to be conducted. The ring described with a maximum magnetic rigidity of Bp = 1.5 Tm, is designed in quadripartite symmetry. The total circumference is approximately 35 m, and there are four straight sections each 3.5 m long for the electron cooling sections, the experimental equipment, as well as HF system and injection. One of the most desirable properties of the reservoir is the multi-charge mode, which will significantly improve the operation which heavy ion beams, which reverse charge in electron cooling sections, target and residual vacuum. Initial considerations are presented with regard to stochastic and electron cooling. A review of possible classes of experiments is given and the schedule and financing of the project is outlined. 46 refs

  19. Production of highly charged ion beams from ECR ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.Q.

    1997-09-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source development has progressed with multiple-frequency plasma heating, higher mirror magnetic fields and better technique to provide extra cold electrons. Such techniques greatly enhance the production of highly charged ions from ECR ion sources. So far at cw mode operation, up to 300 eμA of O 7+ and 1.15 emA of O 6+ , more than 100 eμA of intermediate heavy ions for charge states up to Ar 13+ , Ca 13+ , Fe 13+ , Co 14+ and Kr 18+ , and tens of eμA of heavy ions with charge states to Kr 26+ , Xe 28+ , Au 35+ , Bi 34+ and U 34+ have been produced from ECR ion sources. At an intensity of at least 1 eμA, the maximum charge state available for the heavy ions are Xe 36+ , Au 46+ , Bi 47+ and U 48+ . An order of magnitude enhancement for fully stripped argon ions (I ≥ 60 enA) also has been achieved. This article will review the ECR ion source progress and discuss key requirement for ECR ion sources to produce the highly charged ion beams

  20. Study of uranium dioxyde sputtering induced by multicharged heavy ions at low and very low kinetic energy: projectile charge effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haranger, F.

    2003-12-01

    Ion beam irradiation of a solid can lead to the emission of neutral or ionized atoms, molecules or clusters from the surface. This comes as a result of the atomic motion in the vicinity of the surface, induced by the transfer of the projectile energy. Then, the study of the sputtering process appears as a means to get a better understanding of the excited matter state around the projectile trajectory. In the case of slow multicharged ions, a strong electronic excitation can be achieved by the projectile neutralization above the solid surface and / or its deexcitation below the surface. Parallel to this, the slowing down of such ions is essentially related to elastic collision with the target atoms. The study of the effect of the initial charge state of slow multicharged ions, in the sputtering process, has been carried out by measuring the absolute angular distributions of emission of uranium atoms from a uranium dioxide surface. The experiments have been performed in two steps. First, the emitted particles are collected onto a substrate during irradiation. Secondly, the surface of the collectors is analyzed by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). This method allows the characterization of the emission of neutrals, which are the vast majority of the sputtered particles. The results obtained provide an access to the evolution of the sputtering process as a function of xenon projectile ions charge state. The measurements have been performed over a wide kinetic energy range, from 81 down to 1.5 keV. This allowed a clear separation of the contribution of the kinetic energy and initial projectile charge state to the sputtering phenomenon. (author)

  1. Heavy ion transfer reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisser, D.C.

    1977-06-01

    To complement discussions on the role of γ rays in heavy ion induced reactions, the author discusses the role played by particle detection. Transfer reactions are part of this subject and are among those in which one infers the properties of the residual nucleus in a reaction by observing the emerging light nucleus. Inelastic scattering ought not be excluded from this subject, although no particles are transferred, because of the role it plays in multistep reactions and in fixing O.M. parameters describing the entrance channel of the reaction. Heavy ion transfer reaction studies have been under study for some years and yet this research is still in its infancy. The experimental techniques are difficult and the demands on theory rigorous. One of the main products of heavy ion research has been the thrust to re-examine the assumptions of reaction theory and now include many effects neglected for light ion analysis. This research has spurred the addition of multistep processes to simple direct processes and coupled channel calculations. (J.R.)

  2. Heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Ingo

    1993-01-01

    With controlled thermonuclear fusion holding out the possibility of a prolific and clean new source of energy, the goal remains elusive after many years of continual effort. While the conventional Tokamak route with magnetic confinement continues to hit the headlines, other alternatives are now becoming competitive. One possible solution is to confine the thermonuclear fuel pellet by high power beams. Current research and perspectives for future work in such inertial confinement was the subject of the 'Prospects for Heavy Ion Fusion' European Research Conference held in Aghia Pelaghia, Crete, last year. Its main focus was on the potential of heavy ion accelerators as well as recent advances in target physics with high power lasers and light ion beams. Carlo Rubbia declared that high energy accelerators, with their high efficiency, are the most promising approach to economical fusion energy production. However the need for cost saving in the driver accelerator requires new ideas in target design tailored to the particularities of heavy ion beams, which need to be pushed to the limits of high current and phase space density at the same time

  3. Improvement of highly charged ion output from an ECR source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirkov, G.D.

    1995-01-01

    The physical limitations of the highly charged ion production in the ECR source is analyzed in this report. General methods to increase the output ion current and the attainable charged states of heavy ions are discussed. Some new ways to improve the output of highly charged ions from the ECR source for heavy ions are proposed. A new library of computer codes for the mathematical simulation of heavy ion production in the ECR ion source is used for numerical experiments to test these ways for improving the operation of the ECR source. (orig.)

  4. Production of highly charged heavy ions by 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance at Research Center for Nuclear Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorita, Tetsuhiko; Hatanaka, Kichiji; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Kibayashi, Mitsuru; Morinobu, Shunpei; Okamura, Hiroyuki; Tamii, Atsushi

    2010-02-01

    An 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source has been installed as a subject of the azimuthally varying field cyclotron upgrade project (K. Hatanaka et al., in Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Cyclotrons and Their Applications, Tokyo, Japan, 18-22 October 2004, pp. 115-117), in order to increase beam currents and to extend the variety of ions. The production development of several ions has been performed since 2006 and some of them have already been used for user experiments [T. Yorita et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 02A311 (2008)]. Further optimizations for each component such as the material of plasma electrode, material, and shape of bias probe and mirror field have been continued and more intense ion beams have been obtained for O, N, and Ar. For the purpose of obtaining highly charged Xe with several microamperes, the optimization of position and shape of plasma electrode and bias disk has also been done and highly charged Xe(32+) beam has been obtained successfully.

  5. [Relativistic heavy ion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The present document describes our second-year application for a continuation grant on relativistic heavy-ion research at Nevis Laboratories, Columbia University, over the two-year period starting from November 15, 1990. The progress during the current budget year is presented. This year, construction of RHIC officially began. As a result, the entire Nevis nuclear physics group has made a coherent effort to create new proposal for an Open Axially Symmetric Ion Spectrometer (OASIS) proposal. Future perspectives and our plans for this proposal are described

  6. Heavy ion fusion III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, D.; Max, C.; Perkins, F.; Rosenbluth, M.

    1987-03-01

    This report updates Heavy Ion Fusion, JSR-82-302, dated January, 1983. During the last four years, program management and direction has been changed and the overall Inertial Confinement Program has been reviewed. This report therefore concentrates on accelerator physics issues, how the program has addressed those issues during the last four years, and how it will be addressing them in the future. 8 refs., 3 figs

  7. Relativistic heavy ion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brink, D M

    1989-08-01

    The theory of quantum chromodynamics predicts that if nuclear matter is heated to a sufficiently high temperature then quarks might become deconfined and a quark-gluon plasma could be produced. One of the aims of relativistic heavy ion experiments is to search for this new state of matter. These lectures survey some of the new experimental results and give an introduction to the theories used to interpret them. 48 refs., 4 tabs., 11 figs.

  8. Relativistic heavy ion physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, O.

    1985-01-01

    In the fall of 1986 beams of heavy ions up to A ∼ 40 at total energies up to E ∼ 225 GeV/-nucleon will become available for experiments at CERN (60 and 225 GeV/nucleon) and at Brookhaven (15.5 GeV/nucleon). Are these energies interesting in relation to the ideas of creating quark deconfinement? An energy consideration of the planned experiments is presented, as well as a description of the experimental arrangement. (Auth.)

  9. Relativistic heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brink, D.M.

    1989-08-01

    The theory of quantum chromodynamics predicts that if nuclear matter is heated to a sufficiently high temperature then quarks might become deconfined and a quark-gluon plasma could be produced. One of the aims of relativistic heavy ion experiments is to search for this new state of matter. These lectures survey some of the new experimental results and give an introduction to the theories used to interpret them. 48 refs., 4 tabs., 11 figs

  10. Heavy ion inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.; Sessler, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    Inertial fusion has not yet been as well explored as magnetic fusion but can offer certain advantages as an alternative source of electric energy for the future. Present experiments use high-power beams from lasers and light-ion diodes to compress the deuterium-tritium (D-T) pellets but these will probably be unsuitable for a power plant. A more promising method is to use intense heavy-ion beams from accelerator systems similar to those used for nuclear and high-energy physics; the present paper addresses itself to this alternative. As will be demonstrated the very high beam power needed poses new design questions, from the ion-source through the accelerating system, the beam transport system, to the final focus. These problems will require extensive study, both theoretically and experimentally, over the next several years before an optimum design for an inertial fusion driver can be arrived at. (Auth.)

  11. Heavy ion inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.; Sessler, A.M.

    1980-07-01

    Inertial fusion has not yet been as well explored as magnetic fusion but can offer certain advantages as an alternative source of electric energy for the future. Present experiments use high-power beams from lasers and light-ion diodes to compress the deuterium-tritium (D-T) pellets but these will probably be unsuitable for a power plant. A more promising method is to use intense heavy-ion beams from accelerator systems similar to those used for nuclear and high-energy physics; the present paper addresses itself to this alternative. As will be demonstrated the very high beam power needed poses new design questions, from the ion source through the accelerating system, the beam transport system, to the final focus. These problems will require extensive study, both theoretically and experimentally, over the next several years before an optimum design for an inertial fusion driver can be arrived at

  12. Energy straggling of heavy ions in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowern, N.E.B.

    1979-08-01

    The energy-loss straggling of heavy ions has been studied, principally in the Born Approximation region v > zv 0 . Measurements were made with 5.486 MeV α particles, 5 - 48 MeV 16 0 ions, and 3 - 36 MeV 12 C ions, incident on thin uniform Al foils. The thickness uniformity of the foils was studied with a proton microbeam and a surface profiler, and their homogeneity, purity and isotropy were investigated by electron microscope, proton backscattering, and X-ray diffraction studies. Using the Bethe theory of energy loss the charge-exchange model of energy straggling for heavy ions is confirmed. (author)

  13. Charge fraction of 6.0 MeV/n heavy ions with a carbon foil: Dependence on the foil thickness and projectile atomic number

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, Y; Muramatsu, M; Murakami, T; Yamada, S; Kobayashi, C; Kageyama, Y; Miyoshi, T; Ogawa, H; Nakabushi, H; Fujimoto, T; Miyata, T; Sano, Y

    2003-01-01

    We measured the charge fraction of 6.0 MeV/n heavy ions (C, Ne, Si, Ar, Fe and Cu) with a carbon foil at the NIRS-HIMAC injector. At this energy they are stripped with a carbon foil before being injected into two synchrotron rings with a maximum energy of 800 MeV/n. In order to find the foil thickness (D sub E) at which an equilibrium charge state distribution occurs, and to study the dependence of the D sub E -values on the projectile atomic number, we measured the exit charge fractions for foil thicknesses of between 10 and 350 mu g/cm sup 2. The results showed that the D sub E -values are 21.5, 62.0, 162, 346, 121, 143 mu g/cm sup 2 for C, Ne, Si, Ar, Fe, Cu, respectively. The fraction of Ar sup 1 sup 8 sup + ions was actually improved to 33% at 320 mu g/cm sup 2 from approx 15% at 100 mu g/cm sup 2. For Fe and Cu ions, the D sub E -values were found to be only 121 and 143 mu g/cm sup 2; there is a large gap between Ar and Fe, which is related to the differences in the ratio of the binding energy of the K-...

  14. Active Radiation Detectors for Use in Space Beyond Low Earth Orbit: Spatial and Energy Resolution Requirements and Methods for Heavy Ion Charge Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBeth, Rafe A.

    Space radiation exposure to astronauts will need to be carefully monitored on future missions beyond low earth orbit. NASA has proposed an updated radiation risk framework that takes into account a significant amount of radiobiological and heavy ion track structure information. These models require active radiation detection systems to measure the energy and ion charge Z. However, current radiation detection systems cannot meet these demands. The aim of this study was to investigate several topics that will help next generation detection systems meet the NASA objectives. Specifically, this work investigates the required spatial resolution to avoid coincident events in a detector, the effects of energy straggling and conversion of dose from silicon to water, and methods for ion identification (Z) using machine learning. The main results of this dissertation are as follows: 1. Spatial resolution on the order of 0.1 cm is required for active space radiation detectors to have high confidence in identifying individual particles, i.e., to eliminate coincident events. 2. Energy resolution of a detector system will be limited by energy straggling effects and the conversion of dose in silicon to dose in biological tissue (water). 3. Machine learning methods show strong promise for identification of ion charge (Z) with simple detector designs.

  15. Nuclear research with heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, M.

    1991-08-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Asymmetric fission of 149 Tb* from the finite-range, rotating-liquid-drop model: mean total kinetic energies for binary fragmentation; charged-particle evaporation from hot composite nuclei: evidence over a broad Z range for distortions from cold nuclear profiles; the role of reversed kinematics and double kinematic solutions in nuclear reactions studies; production of intermediate-mass-fragments in the reaction 98 Mo + 51 V at an excitation energy E* = 224-MeV; emission of light charged particles in the reaction 344-MeV 28 Si + 121 Sb; continued developments of the statistical evaporation code LILITA N90; and planning for heavy-ion-collision studies at very high energies: the STAR collaboration at RHIC

  16. Penetrating heavy ion charge and velocity discrimination with a TimePix-based Si detector (for space radiation applications)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinsky, Lawrence S., E-mail: pinsky@uh.edu [University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun Blvd., Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Empl, Anton [University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun Blvd., Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Gutierrez, Andrea [University of Montreal, 2905 Chemin des services, Montreal, Que., H3T 1J4 (Canada); Jakubek, Jan [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University, Horska 3a/22, CZ-12800 Prague 2-Albertov (Czech Republic); Kitamura, Hisashi [National Institute for Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Miller, Jack [Space Sciences Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Leroy, Claude [University of Montreal, 2905 Chemin des services, Montreal, Que., H3T 1J4 (Canada); Stoffle, Nicholas [University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun Blvd., Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Pospisil, Stanislav [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University, Horska 3a/22, CZ-12800 Prague 2-Albertov (Czech Republic); Uchihori, Yukio; Yasuda, Nakahiro [National Institute for Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Zeitlin, Cary [Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Rd., San Antonio, TX 78238-5166 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Exposures were made with Medipix2 TimePix-based Si detectors at the HIMAC facility in Japan to explore the potential for discrimination between tracks with differing charges and energies, but with very similar dE/dx values. Data were taken at 15 deg. increments for a number of different beams including 600 and 800 MeV/A Si, 180 MeV/A Ne and 100 MeV/A O. Data were also obtained for 400 MeV/A Si and 500 MeV/A Fe along with 290 and 180 MeV/A N. The TimePix chips have been calibrated to achieve the maximum resolution. Estimates for the angular resolution for these types of tracks are also possible from these data, which are essential in the development of a TimePix-based dosimetric device for use in a space radiation environment. One of the principal objectives of these data runs was to explore the resolution of TimePix-based Si detectors to discriminate between various ions with different energies and charges, but with similar dE/dx values in Si. Analysis of the images obtained shows the clear differences in the {delta}-ray halos for particles with similar dE/dx values but for differing charges and energies. These measurements are part of an ongoing program to explore the range of capabilities of the TimePix-based detector with respect to dosimetry uses in space.

  17. Relativistic heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barz, H.W.; Kaempfer, B.; Schulz, H.

    1984-12-01

    An elementary introduction is given into the scenario of relativistic heavy ion collisions. It deals with relativistic kinematics and estimates of energy densities, extrapolations of the present knowledge of hadron-hadron and hadron-nuleus to nucleus-nucleus collisions, the properties of the quark-gluon plasma and the formation of the plasma and possible experimental signatures. Comments are made on a cosmic ray experiment which could be interpreted as a first indication of the quark-gluon phase of the matter. (author)

  18. A heavy load for heavy ions

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 25 September, the two large coils for the dipole magnet of ALICE, the LHC experiment dedicated to heavy ions, arrived at Point 2 on two heavy load trucks after a 1200 km journey from their assembly in Vannes, France.

  19. Cooled heavy ion beams at the ESR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steck, M.; Beckert, K.; Bosch, F.; Eickhoff, H.; Franzke, B.; Klepper, O.; Nolden, F.; Reich, H.; Schlitt, B.; Spaedtke, P.; Winkler, T.

    1996-01-01

    The storage ring ESR has been used in various operational modes for experiments with electron cooled heavy ion beams. Besides the standard storage mode including injection and beam accumulation the deceleration of highly charged ions has been demonstrated. Beams of highly charged ions have been injected and accumulated and finally decelerated to a minimum energy of 50 MeV/u. An ultraslow extraction method using charge changing processes is now also available for cooled beams of highly charged ions. For in ring experiments the internal gas jet and the cold electron beam of the cooling system are applied as targets. High precision mass spectrometry by Schottky noise detection has been demonstrated. Operation at transition energy has been achieved with cooled beams opening the field for experiments which require an isochronous revolution of the ions. (orig.)

  20. Phenomenological approaches of dissipative heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo, C.

    1983-09-01

    These lectures describe the properties of dissipative heavy ion collisions observed in low bombarding energy heavy ion reactions. These dissipative collisions are of two different types: fusion and deep inelastic reactions. Their main experimental properties are described on selected examples. It is shown how it is possible to give a simple interpretation to the data. A large number of phenomenological models have been developped to understand dissipative heavy ion collisions. The most important are those describing the collision by classical mechanics and friction forces, the diffusion models, and transport theories which merge both preceding approaches. A special emphasis has been done on two phenomena observed in dissipative heavy ion collisions: charge equilibratium for which we can show the existence of quantum fluctuations, and fast fission which appears as an intermediate mechanism between deep inelastic reactions and compound nucleus formation [fr

  1. Precision laser spectroscopy of highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehl, T.; Borneis, S.; Becker, S.; Dax, A.; Engel, T.; Grieser, R.; Huber, G.; Klaft, I.; Klepper, O.; Kohl, A.; Marx, D.; Meier, K.; Neumann, R.; Schmitt, F.; Seelig, P.; Voelker, L.

    1996-01-01

    Recently, intense beams of highly charged ions have become available at heavy ion cooler rings. The obstacle for producing these highly interesting candidates is the large binding energy of K-shell electrons in heavy systems in excess of 100 keV. One way to remove these electrons is to strip them off by passing the ion through material. In the cooler ring, the ions are cooled to a well defined velocity. At the SIS/ESR complex it is possible to produce, store, and cool highly charged ions up to bare uranium with intensities exceeding 10 8 atoms in the ring. This opens the door for precision laser spectroscopy of hydrogenlike-heavy ions, e.g. 209 Bi 82+ , and allows to examine the interaction of the single electron with the large fields of the heavy nucleus, exceeding any artificially produced electric and magnetic fields by orders of magnitude. In the electron cooler the interaction of electrons and highly charged ions otherwise only present in the hottest plasmas can be studied. (orig.)

  2. Relativistic heavy-ion physics

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera Corral, G

    2010-01-01

    The study of relativistic heavy-ion collisions is an important part of the LHC research programme at CERN. This emerging field of research focuses on the study of matter under extreme conditions of temperature, density, and pressure. Here we present an introduction to the general aspects of relativistic heavy-ion physics. Afterwards we give an overview of the accelerator facility at CERN and then a quick look at the ALICE project as a dedicated experiment for heavy-ion collisions.

  3. Relativistic heavy ion physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.C.; Wohn, F.K.

    1992-01-01

    In 1992 a proposal by the Iowa State University experimental nuclear physics group entitled ''Relativistic Heavy Ion Physics'' was funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Energy Research, for a three-year period beginning November 15, 1991. This is a progress report for the first six months of that period but, in order to give a wider perspective, we report here on progress made since the beginning of calendar year 1991. In the first section, entitled ''Purpose and Trends,'' we give some background on the recent trends in our research program and its evolution from an emphasis on nuclear structure physics to its present emphasis on relativistic heavy ion and RHIC physics. The next section, entitled, ''Physics Research Programs,'' is divided into three parts. First, we discuss our participation in the program to develop a large detector named PHENIX for the RHIC accelerator. Second, we outline progress made in the study of electromagnetic dissociation (ED). A highlight of this endeavor is experiments carried out with the 197 Au beam from the AGS accelerator in April 1991. Third, we discuss progress in completion of our nuclear structure studies. In the final section a list of publications, invited talks and contributed talks starting in 1991 is given

  4. Heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, R.

    1983-01-01

    Two accelerator scenarios for heavy ion fusion are considered as driver candidates for an ICF power plant: the RF linac with storage rings and the induction linac. The necessary beam intensity and beam quality requirements are already believed to be achievable in the long run; repetition rate and accelerator efficiency are not critical issues. Conceptual design studies have indicated that the technical problems of the ICF concept with a heavy ion driver can be solved and that the economical aspects are not prohibitive as compared to other ICF concepts. Nevertheless, many open problems still exist, and some new ones have exhibited themselves, and it has become evident that most of them cannot be investigated with existing facilities and at the present level of effort. The first section of this paper deals with current conceptual design studies and focuses on the interface between the accelerator and the reactor. The second section summarizes the present research programs and recommends that their scope should be expanded and intensified in the areas of accelerator physics and beam-target interaction and target physics. In the third section the author calls for a dedicated facility and reports on the plans and ideas for such a facility. Schematics of two proposed accelerator driver systems--the driver for HIBALL (5 MJ/pulse) and a single-pass four-beam induction linac (3 MJ/pulse)--are provided

  5. Heavy ion accelerating structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pottier, Jacques.

    1977-01-01

    The heavy ion accelerating structure concerned in this invention is of the kind that have a resonance cavity inside which are located at least two longitudinal conducting supports electrically connected to the cavity by one of their ends in such a way that they are in quarter-wavelength resonance and in phase opposition. Slide tubes are electrically connected alternatively to one or the other of the two supports, they being electrically connected respectively to one or the other end of the side wall of the cavity. The feature of the structure is that it includes two pairs of supports symmetrically placed with respect to the centre line of the cavity, the supports of one pair fitted overhanging being placed symmetrically with respect to the centre line of the cavity, each slide tube being connected to the two supports of one pair. These support are connected to the slide wall of the cavity by an insulator located at their electrically free end. The accelerator structure composed of several structures placed end to end, the last one of which is fed by a high frequency field of adjustable amplitude and phase, enables a heavy ion linear accelerator to be built [fr

  6. Heavy-ion driver design and scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieri, R.; Monsler, M.; Meier, W.; Stewart, L.

    1992-01-01

    Parametric models for scaling heavy-ion driver designs are described. Scaling of target performance and driver cost is done for driver parameters including driver energy, number of beams, type of superconductor used in focusing magnets, maximum magnetic field allowed at the superconducting windings, linear quadrupole array packing fraction mass, and ion charge state. The cumulative accelerator voltage and beam currents are determined from the Maschke limits on beam current for each choice of driver energy and post-acceleration pulse duration. The heavy-ion driver is optimized over the large available driver parameter space. Parametric studies and the choice of a base driver model are described in a companion paper

  7. Short and long term ionizing radiation effects on charge-coupled devices in radiation environment of high-intensity heavy ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belousov, A; Mustafin, E; Ensinger, W

    2012-01-01

    Radiation effects on semiconductor devices is a topical issue for high-intensity accelerator projects. In particular it concerns Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) cameras, which are widely used for beam profile monitoring and surveillance in high radiation environment. One should have a clear idea of short and long term radiation effects on such devices. To study these effects, a CCD camera was placed in positions less than half meter away from beam loss point. Primary heavy ion beam of 0.95GeV/n Uranium was dumped into a thick aluminium target creating high fluences of secondary particles (e.g., gammas, neutrons, protons). Effects of these particles on CCD camera were scored with LabView based acquisition software. Monte Carlo calculations with FLUKA code were performed to obtain fluence distributions for different particles and make relevant comparisons. Long term total ionising dose effects are represented by dark current increase, which was scored throughout experiment. Instant radiation effects are represented by creation of charge in CCD cells by ionising particles. Relation of this charge to beam intensity was obtained for different camera positions and fluences within 5 orders of magnitude ranges. With high intensities this charge is so high that it may dramatically influence data obtained from CCD camera used in high radiation environment. The linearity of described above relation confirms linear response of CCD to ionizing radiation. It gives an opportunity to find a new application to CCD cameras as beam loss monitors (BLM).

  8. Net-baryon-, net-proton-, and net-charge kurtosis in heavy-ion collisions within a relativistic transport approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahrgang, Marlene; Schuster, Tim; Stock, Reinhard; Mitrovski, Michael; Bleicher, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    We explore the potential of net-baryon, net-proton and net-charge kurtosis measurements to investigate the properties of hot and dense matter created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Contrary to calculations in a grand-canonical ensemble we explicitly take into account exact electric and baryon charge conservation on an event-by-event basis. This drastically limits the width of baryon fluctuations. A simple model to account for this is to assume a grand-canonical distribution with a sharp cut-off at the tails. We present baseline predictions of the energy dependence of the net-baryon, net-proton and net-charge kurtosis for central (b≤2.75 fm) Pb+Pb/Au+Au collisions from E lab =2A GeV to √(s NN )=200 GeV from the UrQMD model. While the net-charge kurtosis is compatible with values around zero, the net-baryon number decreases to large negative values with decreasing beam energy. The net-proton kurtosis becomes only slightly negative for low √(s NN ). (orig.)

  9. Detection of heavy-metal ions using liquid crystal droplet patterns modulated by interaction between negatively charged carboxylate and heavy-metal cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Gyeo-Re; Jang, Chang-Hyun

    2014-10-01

    Herein, we demonstrated a simple, sensitive, and rapid label-free detection method for heavy-metal (HM) ions using liquid crystal (LC) droplet patterns on a solid surface. Stearic-acid-doped LC droplet patterns were spontaneously generated on an n-octyltrichlorosilane (OTS)-treated glass substrate by evaporating a solution of the nematic LC, 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB), dissolved in heptane. The optical appearance of the droplet patterns was a dark crossed texture when in contact with air, which represents the homeotropic orientation of the LC. This was caused by the steric interaction between the LC molecules and the alkyl chains of the OTS-treated surface. The dark crossed appearance of the acid-doped LC patterns was maintained after the addition of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution (pH 8.1 at 25°C). The deprotonated stearic-acid molecules self-assembled through the LC/aqueous interface, thereby supporting the homeotropic anchoring of 5CB. However, the optical image of the acid-doped LC droplet patterns incubated with PBS containing HM ions appeared bright, indicating a planar orientation of 5CB at the aqueous/LC droplet interface. This dark to bright transition of the LC patterns was caused by HM ions attached to the deprotonated carboxylate moiety, followed by the sequential interruption of the self-assembly of the stearic acid at the LC/aqueous interface. The results showed that the acid-doped LC pattern system not only enabled the highly sensitive detection of HM ions at a sub-nanomolar concentration but it also facilitated rapid detection (<10 min) with simple procedures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Study of elementary transfer mechanisms during a collision between a swift multi-charged heavy ion and a neutral atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardin, P.

    1995-01-01

    This work is dedicated to the study of the energy transfer mechanisms which occur during a collision between a swift multicharged heavy ion and a neutral atom. The elementary energy energy transfer mechanisms (scattering, excitation, ionization, capture) and their consequences on the target velocity after the collision (recoil velocity) are recalled in the first chapter. In the case of small projectile diffusion angles, we show that the recoil velocity component, transverse to the incident projectile direction, results principally from the diffusion mechanism, while the longitudinal component is due essentially to the mass transfer and the inelastic energy transfer mechanisms. Since the target recoil velocities are very small, we have built an experimental set-up which reduces the impreciseness on their measurement due to the target thermal spread using, as targets, cooled atoms of a supersonic jet (temperature 44+ (6.7 MeV/A) + Ar => Xe 44 + Ar q+ +qe - (q ranging from 1 to 7); Xe 44+ (6.7 MeV/A) + He => Xe 44+ He 1+,2+ +1e - ,2e - . We show that it is possible to interpret the recoil velocity in terms of kinetic energy transferred to the target and to the electrons ejected from the target. (author)

  11. Charge and angular distributions as well as sequential decay and γ-ray emission in heavy ion collisions viewed in the light of the diffusion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto, L.G.

    1977-08-01

    The hierarchy of the collective relaxation times in heavy ion reactions is briefly reviewed. An improved diffusion model is introduced and applied to interpret the fragment Z and angular distributions for some typical reactions. The equilibrium in the neutron-to-proton ratio as well as the sharing of the excitation energy between fragments is studied by a coincidence method which leads to the measurement of the charge, mass and mean number of nucleons emitted by each fragment. The final destiny of the dissipative energy is determined by measuring the atomic number of two coincident fragments, thus obtaining the missing charge as a function of bombarding energy and the Q of the reaction. The sequential fission probability of the heavy recoil is established as a function of the Z and kinetic energy of the light partner. The out-of-plane angular distribution of the fission fragments is correlated with the fissionability and interpreted in terms of various sources of angular momentum misalignment. The γ-ray multiplicities and the γ-ray angular distributions associated with deep inelastic event are discussed in terms of the angular momentum transfer and in terms of the diffusion model

  12. Construction and building of a compact RFQ spiral structure for the stopping of highly charged heavy ion beams for the HITRAP project of the GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, B.

    2007-01-01

    For experiments of the atomic-physics group of the GSI in Darmstadt an ion stopper is built, which will make low-energetic, extremely highly charged ions available. The plannings for the so-called HITRAP (highly charged ion's trap) began at the beginning of the ninetieth. With this facility highly-charged heavy ions shall be stopped in two stages to very low, thermal velocities, and be available for highly precise mass spectroscopy, measurements of the g factor of the bound electron of hydrogen-like ions, and other atomic-physics experiments. This decelerator facility shall first be built in the reinjection channel behind the ESR with the possibility, to apply all components later in teh extension of the GSI in the framework of the FAIR project in the facility for low-energetic antiprotons and ions to be newly built. the present thesis treats the development and the building of an integrated RFQ debuncher stopping accelerator, which represents a part of the HITRAP stopping structures. By this the ion beam is stopped from the IH stopping accelerator with an energy of 500 keV/u to 5 keV/u. By the integrated spiral buncher the beam can be fitted in energy and energy deviation to the subsequent cooler trap. In this thesis the foundations of the particle dynamics in a RFQ accelerator for the stopping of particle beams were worked out and realized, the particle-dynamics calculations necessary for the lay-out of such a structure performed with RFQSim, suitable RF structures with the simulation program Microwave Studio developed and studied, as well as the thermal load of the structures studied with the finite-element code ALGOR. A further, central topic of this thesis is the building and the tuning of the RFQ structure in order to reach a homogeneous as possible field distribution along the electrodes. Measurements of the fields in the RFQ were performed with a disturbing condenser, at the debuncher with a disturbing body. After successfully performed vacuum tests at the

  13. High current vacuum arc ion source for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, N.; Schein, J.; Gensler, S.; Prasad, R.R.; Krishnan, M.; Brown, I.

    1999-01-01

    Heavy Ion fusion (HIF) is one of the approaches for the controlled thermonuclear power production. A source of heavy ions with charge states 1+ to 2+, in ∼0.5 A current beams with ∼20 micros pulse widths and ∼10 Hz repetition rates are required. Thermionic sources have been the workhorse for the HIF program to date, but suffer from sloe turn-on, heating problems for large areas, are limited to low (contact) ionization potential elements and offer relatively low ion fluxes with a charge state limited to 1+. Gas injection sources suffer from partial ionization and deleterious neutral gas effects. The above shortcomings of the thermionic ion sources can be overcome by a vacuum arc ion source. The vacuum arc ion source is a good candidate for HIF applications. It is capable of providing ions of various elements and different charge states, in short and long pulse bursts, with low emittance and high beam currents. Under a Phase-I STTR from DOE, the feasibility of the vacuum arc ion source for the HIF applications is investigated. An existing ion source at LBNL was modified to produce ∼0.5 A, ∼60 keV Gd (A∼158) ion beams. The experimental effort concentrated on beam noise reduction, pulse-to-pulse reproducibility and achieving low beam emittance at 0.5 A ion current level. Details of the source development will be reported

  14. Relativistic heavy ion physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.C.; Wohn, F.K.

    1993-01-01

    This is a progress report for the period May 1992 through April 1993. The first section, entitled ''Purpose and Trends, gives background on the recent trends in the research program and its evolution from an emphasis on nuclear structure physics to its present emphasis on relativistic heavy ion and RHIC physics. The next section, entitled ''Physics Research Progress'', is divided into four parts: participation in the program to develop a large detector named PHENIX for the RHIC accelerator; joining E864 at the AGS accelerator and the role in that experiment; progress made in the study of electromagnetic dissociation highlight of this endeavor is an experiment carried out with the 197 Au beam from the AGS accelerator in April 1992; progress in completion of the nuclear structure studies. In the final section a list of publications, invited talks, and contributed talks is given

  15. Heavy ion beam probing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickok, R.L.

    1980-07-01

    This report consists of the notes distributed to the participants at the IEEE Mini-Course on Modern Plasma Diagnostics that was held in Madison, Wisconsin in May 1980. It presents an overview of Heavy Ion Beam Probing that briefly describes the principles and discuss the types of measurements that can be made. The problems associated with implementing beam probes are noted, possible variations are described, estimated costs of present day systems, and the scaling requirements for large plasma devices are presented. The final chapter illustrates typical results that have been obtained on a variety of plasma devices. No detailed calculations are included in the report, but a list of references that will provide more detailed information is included

  16. Heavy Ion Physics at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Veres, Gabor

    2017-01-01

    In the present proceedings recent heavy ion results from the Compact Muon Solenoid collaboration at the LHC are presented. These contain comparisons between small and large collision systems, as well as studies of energy evolution, thus include data collected in proton-proton collisions at 13 TeV (2015 and 2016), proton-proton and lead-lead collisions at 5 TeV (2015), and proton-lead collisions at 5 TeV and 8 TeV (2016) center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair. They provide new insights into the properties of the extremely high density and high temperature matter created in heavy ion collisions, while pointing out similarities and differences in comparison to smaller collision systems. These include gluon distribution functions in the lead nucleus; the azimuthal anisotropy of final state particle distributions in all the three different collision systems; charge separation signals from proton-lead collisions and consequences for the Chiral Magnetic Effect; new studies of parton energy loss and its dependence on...

  17. Ultrarelativistic heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugh, H.G.

    1980-12-01

    Studies with ultrarelativistic heavy ions combine aspects of cosmic ray physics, particle physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics and cosmogenesis. The leading theoretical concerns are the behavior of matter at very high-energy density and flux, the general behavior of space time in collisions, relativistic nuclear theory, and quantum chromodynamics. The field has developed over a period of more than thirty years, since the first observation of heavy nuclei in cosmic rays and the major developments of understanding of high-energy collisions made by Fermi and Landau in the early fifties. In the late sixties the discovery of the parton content of nucleons was rapidly followed by a great extension of high-energy collision phenomenology at the CERN ISR and subsequent confirmation of the QCD theory. In parallel the study of p-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at very high energies, especially at the CERN PS, Fermilab and the Bevalac, and in cosmic rays demonstrated that studies involving the nucleus opened up a new dimension in studies of the hadronic interaction. It is now at a high level of interest on an international scale, with major new accelerators being proposed to dedicate to this kind of study

  18. Heavy-ion superconducting linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delayen, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the status of the superconducting heavy-ion accelerators. Most of them are linacs used as boosters for tandem electrostatic accelerators, although the technology is being extended to very low velocity to eliminate the need for an injector. The characteristics and features of the various superconducting heavy-ion accelerators are discussed. 45 refs

  19. Heavy-ion superconducting linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delayen, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the status of the superconducting heavy-ion accelerators. Most of them are linacs used as boosters for tandem electrostatic accelerators, although the technology is being extended to very low velocity to eliminate the need for an injector. The characteristics and features of the various superconducting heavy-ion accelerators are discussed. 45 refs.

  20. Production of highly ionized recoil ions in heavy ion impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawara, H.; Tonuma, T.; Be, S.H.; Shibata, H.; Kase, M.; Kambara, T.; Kumagai, H.; Kohno, I.

    1985-01-01

    The production mechanisms of highly ionized recoil ions in energetic, highly charged heavy ion impact are compared with those in photon and electron impact. In addition to the innershell ionization processes which are important in photon and electron impact, the electron transfer processes are found to play a key role in heavy ion impact. In molecular targets are also observed highly ionized monoatomic ions which are believed to be produced through production of highly ionized molecular ions followed by prompt dissociation. The observed N 6+ ions produced in 1.05MeV/amu Ar 12+ ions on N 2 molecules are produced through, for example, N 2 12+ *→N 6+ +N 6+ process. (author)

  1. Short term ionizing radiation impact on charge-coupled devices in radiation environment of high-intensity heavy ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belousov, A.; Mustafin, E.; Ensinger, W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a first approach on studies of the results of short term ionizing radiation impact on charge-coupled device (CCD) chips in conditions typical for high-intensity ion accelerator areas. Radiation effects on semiconductor devices are a topical issue for high-intensity accelerator projects. In particular it concerns CCD cameras that are widely used for beam profile monitoring and surveillance in high radiation environment. 65 CCD cameras are going to be installed in the FAIR machines. It is necessary to have good understanding of radiation effects and their contribution to measured signal in CCD chips. A phenomenon of single event upset (SEU) in CCD chips is studied in the following experiment. By SEU in CCD chip we mean an event when an ionizing particle hits the CCD matrix cell and produces electron-hole pairs that are then collected and converted to a signal that is higher than certain level defined by author. Practically, it means that a certain cell will appear as a bright pixel on the resulting image from a chip. (authors)

  2. Heavy ion fusion experiments at LLNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, J.J.; Cable, M.D.; Callahan, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    We review the status of the experimental campaign being carried out at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, involving scaled investigations of the acceleration and transport of space-charge dominated heavy ion beams. The ultimate goal of these experiments is to help lay the groundwork for a larger scale ion driven inertial fusion reactor, the purpose of which is to produce inexpensive and clean electric power

  3. Mechanisms for production of highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    Various experimental data at high collision velocity are interpreted in terms of direct (D) and rearrangement (R) mechanisms for production of multiply charged ions. We consider double ionization in helium by protons, electrons, heavy ions, antiprotons, positrons and photons. Qualitative differences are discussed in the context of the R and D mechanisms. Multiple ionization in many electron atoms is considered as is simultaneous capture and ionization and fragmentation of methane molecules. Some other theoretical methods are briefly discussed. (orig.)

  4. Heavy ion driver technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.

    1988-09-01

    Major differences between fusion drivers and traditional accelerators include the following. The final beam current needed (/approximately/20 kA in a short pulse) is very much larger for a driver; such beams are dominated by repulsive space-charge effects since, even at 10 GeV, the ions are non-relativistic (v/c = 0.3). Also, the optical quality of the beams (called emittance by accelerator people) must be extremely good to ensure a suitably small focal spot at the pellet. Two schemes, one with a rf linac and storage rings, the other with a single-pass current-amplifying induction linac, are under study, the latter exclusively in the US. The induction linac approach lends itself to an examination in a sequence of scaled-down laboratory experiments since the most difficulties are expected to occur at the low energy end. Experiments and simulation have centered on a study of the transverse and longitudinal control of space-charge-dominated beams which are best described in terms of a non-neutral plasma rather than the traditional single-particle dynamics picture. An understanding of the high-current instability limits is required for arriving at a safe driver design. The final on-target beam current is so high that it must be carried in 16 separate focusing channels leading into the combustion chamber. While the energy deposition of the ions is expected to be entirely classical, there is a wealth of plasma physics phenomena to be explored (by theory and simulation) in the final propagation of these beams through the low-density gas in the chamber and in the environment of the hot target; it is important that none of these could result in a significant portion of the beam missing the focal spot. 13 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  5. Heavy ion fusion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grote, D.P.; Kwan, J.; Westenskow, G.

    2003-01-01

    In Heavy-Fusion and in other applications, there is a need for high brightness sources with both high current and low emittance. The traditional design with a single monolithic source, while very successful, has significant constraints on it when going to higher currents. With the Child-Langmuir current-density limit, geometric aberration limits, and voltage breakdown limits, the area of the source becomes a high power of the current, A ∼ I 8/3 . We are examining a multi-beamlet source, avoiding the constraints by having many beamlets each with low current and small area. The beamlets are created and initially accelerated separately and then merged to form a single beam. This design offers a number of potential advantages over a monolithic source, such as a smaller transverse footprint, more control over the shaping and aiming of the beam, and more flexibility in the choice of ion sources. A potential drawback, however, is the emittance that results from the merging of the beamlets. We have designed injectors using simulation that have acceptably low emittance and are beginning to examine them experimentally

  6. Heavy ion elastic scatterings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mermaz, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    Diffraction and refraction play an important role in particle elastic scattering. The optical model treats correctly and simultaneously both phenomena but without disentangling them. Semi-classical discussions in terms of trajectories emphasize the refractive aspect due to the real part of the optical potential. The separation due to to R.C. Fuller of the quantal cross section into two components coming from opposite side of the target nucleus allows to understand better the refractive phenomenon and the origin of the observed oscillations in the elastic scattering angular distributions. We shall see that the real part of the potential is responsible of a Coulomb and a nuclear rainbow which allows to determine better the nuclear potential in the interior region near the nuclear surface since the volume absorption eliminates any effect of the real part of the potential for the internal partial scattering waves. Resonance phenomena seen in heavy ion scattering will be discussed in terms of optical model potential and Regge pole analysis. Compound nucleus resonances or quasi-molecular states can be indeed the more correct and fundamental alternative

  7. Study on broad beam heavy ion CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Yumiko; Kohno, Toshiyuki; Sasaki, Hitomi; Nanbu, S.; Kanai, Tatsuaki

    2003-01-01

    To achieve the heavy ion radiotherapy more precisely, it is important to know the distribution of the electron density in a human body, which is highly related to the range of charged particles. From a heavy ion CT image, we can directly obtain the 2-D distribution of the electron density in a sample. For this purpose, we have developed a broad beam heavy ion CT system. The electron density was obtained using some kinds of solutions targets. Also the dependence of the spatial resolution on the target size and the kinds of beams was estimated in this work using cylinders targets of 40, 60 and 80 mm in diameter, each of them has a hole of 10 mm in diameter at the center of it. (author)

  8. Prospects for high energy heavy ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leemann, C.

    1979-03-01

    The acceleration of heavy ions to relativistic energies (T greater than or equal to 1 GeV/amu) at the beam intensities required for fundamental research falls clearly in the domain of synchrotons. Up to date, such beams have been obtained from machines originally designed as proton acccelerators by means of modified RF-programs, improved vacuum and, most importantly, altered or entirely new injector systems. Similarly, for the future, substantial changes in synchrotron design itself are not foreseen, but rather the judicious application and development of presently known principles and technologies and a choice of parameters optimized with respect to the peculiarities of heavy ions. The low charge to mass ratio, q/A, of very heavy ions demands that superconducting magnets be considered in the interest of the highest energies for a given machine size. Injector brightness will continue to be of highest importance, and although space charge effects such as tune shifts will be increased by a factor q 2 /A compared with protons, advances in linac current and brightness, rather than substantially higher energies are required to best utilize a given synchrotron acceptance. However, high yeilds of fully stripped, very heavy ions demand energies of a few hundred MeV/amu, thus indicating the need for a booster synchrotron, although for entirely different reasons than in proton facilities. Finally, should we consider colliding beams, the high charge of heavy ions will impose severe current limitations and put high demands on system design with regard to such quantities as e.g., wall impedances or the ion induced gas desorption rate, and advanced concepts such as low β insertions with suppressed dispersion and very small crossing angles will be essential to the achievement of useful luminosities

  9. Spectroscopy with trapped highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiersdorfer, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We give an overview of atomic spectroscopy performed on electron beam ion traps at various locations throughout the world. Spectroscopy at these facilities contributes to various areas of science and engineering, including but not limited to basic atomic physics, astrophysics, extreme ultraviolet lithography, and the development of density and temperature diagnostics of fusion plasmas. These contributions are accomplished by generating, for example, spectral surveys, making precise radiative lifetime measurements, accounting for radiative power emitted in a given wavelength band, illucidating isotopic effects, and testing collisional-radiative models. While spectroscopy with electron beam ion traps had originally focused on the x-ray emission from highly charged ions interacting with the electron beam, the operating modes of such devices have expanded to study radiation in almost all wavelength bands from the visible to the hard x-ray region; and at several facilities the ions can be studied even in the absence of an electron beam. Photon emission after charge exchange or laser excitation has been observed; and the work is no longer restricted to highly charged ions. Much of the experimental capabilities are unique to electron beam ion traps, and the work performed with these devices cannot be undertaken elsewhere. However, in other areas the work on electron beam ion traps rivals the spectroscopy performed with conventional ion traps or heavy-ion storage rings. The examples we present highlight many of the capabilities of the existing electron beam ion traps and their contributions to physics.

  10. HISTRAP proposal: heavy-ion storage ring for atomic physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, D K; Alton, G D; Datz, S; Dittner, P F; Dowling, D T; Haynes, D L; Hudson, E D; Johnson, J W; Lee, I Y; Lord, R S

    1987-04-01

    HISTRAP, Heavy-Ion Storage Ring for Atomic Physics, is a proposed 46.8-m-circumference synchrotron-cooling-storage ring optimized to accelerate, decelerate, and store beams of highly charge very-heavy ions at energies appropriate for advanced atomic physics research. The ring is designed to allow studies of electron-ion, photon-ion, ion-atom, and ion-ion interactions. An electron cooling system will provide ion beams with small angular divergence and energy spread for precision spectroscopic studies and also is necessary to allow the deceleration of heavy ions to low energies. HISTRAP will have a maximum bending power of 2.0 T m and will be injected with ions from either the existing Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility 25-MV tandem accelerator or from a dedicated ECR source and 250 keV/nucleon RFQ linac.

  11. Progress in understanding heavy-ion stopping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigmund, P., E-mail: sigmund@sdu.dk [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Schinner, A. [Institut für Experimentalphysik, Johannes Kepler Universität, A-4040 Linz (Austria)

    2016-09-01

    We report some highlights of our work with heavy-ion stopping in the energy range where Bethe stopping theory breaks down. Main tools are our binary stopping theory (PASS code), the reciprocity principle, and Paul’s data base. Comparisons are made between PASS and three alternative theoretical schemes (CasP, HISTOP and SLPA). In addition to equilibrium stopping we discuss frozen-charge stopping, deviations from linear velocity dependence below the Bragg peak, application of the reciprocity principle in low-velocity stopping, modeling of equilibrium charges, and the significance of the so-called effective charge.

  12. Progress in understanding heavy-ion stopping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigmund, P.; Schinner, A.

    2016-01-01

    We report some highlights of our work with heavy-ion stopping in the energy range where Bethe stopping theory breaks down. Main tools are our binary stopping theory (PASS code), the reciprocity principle, and Paul’s data base. Comparisons are made between PASS and three alternative theoretical schemes (CasP, HISTOP and SLPA). In addition to equilibrium stopping we discuss frozen-charge stopping, deviations from linear velocity dependence below the Bragg peak, application of the reciprocity principle in low-velocity stopping, modeling of equilibrium charges, and the significance of the so-called effective charge.

  13. Observations of Heavy Ions in the Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, L. M.

    2017-12-01

    There are two sources for the hot ions in the magnetosphere: the solar wind and the ionosphere. The solar wind is predominantly protons, with about 4% He++ and less than 1% other high charge state heavy ions. The ionospheric outflow is also predominantly H+, but can contain a significant fraction of heavy ions including O+, N+, He+, O++, and molecular ions (NO+, N2+, O2+). The ionospheric outflow composition varies significantly both with geomagnetic activity and with solar EUV. The variability in the contribution of the two sources, the variability in the ionospheric source itself, and the transport paths of the different species are all important in determining the ion composition at a given location in the magnetosphere. In addition to the source variations, loss processes within the magnetosphere can be mass dependent, changing the composition. In particular, charge exchange is strongly species dependent, and can lead to heavy ion dominance at some energies in the inner magnetosphere. In this talk we will review the current state of our understanding of the composition of the magnetosphere and the processes that determine it.

  14. Heavy Ion Physics at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Valenti, G.

    2002-01-01

    The study of heavy ion interactions constitutes an important part of the experimental program outlined for the Large Hadron Collider under construction at CERN and expected to be operational by 2006. ALICE 1 is the single detector having the capabilities to explore at the same time most of the characteristics of high energy heavy ion interactions. Specific studies of jet quenching and quarkonia production, essentially related to µ detection are also planned by CMS 2 .

  15. Fundamental processes determining the highly charged ion production in ECR ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirkov, G.D.

    1992-01-01

    The ion confinement and loss conditions in the open magnetic traps have been analyzed in this article. In EGRIS the the ions are confined in the negative potential well. The simultaneous application of ion cooling and pulse regime is proposed for pulse injection of highly charged ions in heavy ion accelerators and storage rings. 14 refs.; 3 figs

  16. Stopping power for heavy ions in low energy region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Mitsuo

    1983-01-01

    Review is made for the study on the power for stopping heavy ions. The studies on the power for stopping heavy ions passing through materials have been developed in the last twenty years due to the accuracy improvement in the data analysis of the power for stopping light ions, the requirement of data establishment on the power for stopping heavy ions from fusion research and the development of the experimental studies by heavy-ion accelerators. The relation between the analysis of the power for stopping heavy ions and the power for stopping light ions is described from the standpoint that the results on the power for stopping light ions serve as the guide for the study on the power for stopping heavy ions. Both at present and in future. The analysis of stopping power data with the accuracy from +-10 to 20 % is possible from the theoretical analysis of effective electric charge and its systematic table of the numerical data. The outline of the scaling rule on effective electric charge is discussed. The deviation of the experimental data from the scaling rule is discussed by comparing with the measured values of effective electric charge ratio. Various analyses of the power for stopping heavy ions are summarized. (Asami, T.)

  17. Multiple Electron Stripping of Heavy Ion Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, D.; Grisham, L.; Kaganovich, I.; Watson, R. L.; Horvat, V.; Zaharakis, K. E.; Peng, Y.

    2002-01-01

    One approach being explored as a route to practical fusion energy uses heavy ion beams focused on an indirect drive target. Such beams will lose electrons while passing through background gas in the target chamber, and therefore it is necessary to assess the rate at which the charge state of the incident beam evolves on the way to the target. Accelerators designed primarily for nuclear physics or high energy physics experiments utilize ion sources that generate highly stripped ions in order to achieve high energies economically. As a result, accelerators capable of producing heavy ion beams of 10 to 40 Mev/amu with charge state 1 currently do not exist. Hence, the stripping cross-sections used to model the performance of heavy ion fusion driver beams have, up to now, been based upon theoretical calculations. We have investigated experimentally the stripping of 3.4 Mev/amu Kr 7+ and Xe +11 in N2; 10.2 MeV/amu Ar +6 in He, N2, Ar and Xe; 19 MeV/amu Ar +8 in He, N2, Ar and Xe; 30 MeV He 1 + in He, N2, Ar and Xe; and 38 MeV/amu N +6 in He, N2, Ar and Xe. The results of these measurements are compared with the theoretical calculations to assess their applicability over a wide range of parameters

  18. Heavy-ion dominance near Cluster perigees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferradas, C. P.; Zhang, J.-C.; Kistler, L. M.; Spence, H. E.

    2015-12-01

    Time periods in which heavy ions dominate over H+ in the energy range of 1-40 keV were observed by the Cluster Ion Spectrometry (CIS)/COmposition DIstribution Function (CODIF) instrument onboard Cluster Spacecraft 4 at L values less than 4. The characteristic feature is a narrow flux peak at around 10 keV that extends into low L values, with He+ and/or O+ dominating. In the present work we perform a statistical study of these events and examine their temporal occurrence and spatial distribution. The observed features, both the narrow energy range and the heavy-ion dominance, can be interpreted using a model of ion drift from the plasma sheet, subject to charge exchange losses. The narrow energy range corresponds to the only energy range that has direct drift access from the plasma sheet during quiet times. The drift time to these locations from the plasma sheet is > 30 h, so that charge exchange has a significant impact on the population. We show that a simple drift/loss model can explain the dependence on L shell and MLT of these heavy-ion-dominant time periods.

  19. Atomic physics with highly-charged heavy ions at the GSI future facility: The scientific program of the SPARC collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoehlker, Th.; Beier, T.; Beyer, H.F.; Bosch, F.; Braeuning-Demian, A.; Gumberidze, A.; Hagmann, S.; Kozhuharov, C.; Kuehl, Th.; Liesen, D.; Mann, R.; Mokler, P.H.; Quint, W.; Schuch, R.; Warczak, A.

    2005-01-01

    In the current report a short overview about the envisioned program of the atomic physics research collaboration SPARC (Stored Particle Atomic Research Collaboration, at the new international accelerator Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI is given. In addition, a condensed description of the planned experimental areas devoted to atomic physics research at the new facility is presented

  20. Production of Highly Charged Heavy Ions by Means of a Hybrid Source in DC Mode and in Afterglow Mode

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gammino, S.; Ciavola, G.; Torrisi, L.; Celona, L.; Andó, L.; Manciagli, S.; Consoli, F.; Galatá, A.; Picciotto, A.; Mezzasalma, A. M.; Krása, Josef; Láska, Leoš; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Rohlena, Karel; Wolowski, J.; Woryna, E.; Parys, P.; Shirkov, G. D.; Hitz, D.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 6 (2005), s. 458-463 ISSN 1612-8850 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME 238 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : afterglow plasma processes * electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) * ion beams * laser ablation Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.846, year: 2005

  1. Ion sources for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, S.S.; Eylon, S.; Chupp, W.

    1995-09-01

    The development of ion sources for heavy ion fusion will be reported with particular emphasis on a recently built 2 MV injector. The new injector is based on an electrostatic quadrupole configuration, and has produced pulsed K + ions of 950 mA peak from a 6.7 inch curved alumino silicate source. The ion beam has reached 2.3 MV with an energy flatness of ±0.2% over 1 micros. The measured normalized edge emittance of less than 1 π mm-mr is close to the source temperature limit. The design, construction, performance, and comparisons with three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations will be described

  2. Cell inactivation by heavy charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakely, E A [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Cell and Molecular Biology Div.

    1992-06-01

    The inactivation of cells resulting in lethal or aberrant effects by charged particles is of growing interest. Charged particles at extremely high LET are capable of completely eliminating cell-type and cell-line differences in repair capacity. It is still not clear however whether the repair systems are inactivated, or merely that heavy-ion lesions are less repairable. Studies correlating the particle inactivation dose of radioresistant cells with intact DNA analyzed with pulse field gel electrophoresis and other techniques may be useful, but more experiments are also needed to assess the fidelity of repair. For particle irradiations between 40-100 keV/{mu}m there is however evidence for particle-induced activation of specific genes in mammalian cells, and certain repair processes in bacteria. New data are available on the inactivation of developmental processes in several systems including seeds, and cells of the nematode C. elegans. Future experimental and theoretical modeling research emphasis should focus on exploring particle-induced inactivation of endpoints assessing functionality and not just lethality, and on analyzing molecular damage and genetic effects arising in damage but non-inactivated survivors. The discrete nature of selective types of particle damage as a function of radiation quality indicates the value of accelerated ions as probes of normal and aberrant biological processes. Information obtained from molecular analyses of damage and repair must however be integrated into the context of cellular and tissue functions of the organism. (orig.).

  3. Observation of Charge Asymmetry Dependence of Pion Elliptic Flow and the Possible Chiral Magnetic Wave in Heavy-Ion Collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, L; Adkins, J K; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Alford, J; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Averichev, G S; Banerjee, A; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Bunzarov, I; Burton, T P; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Campbell, J M; Cebra, D; Cervantes, M C; Chakaberia, I; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, J H; Chen, X; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Christie, W; Contin, G; Crawford, H J; Das, S; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Esha, R; Evdokimov, O; Eyser, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Federic, P; Fedorisin, J; Feng, Z; Filip, P; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Fulek, L; Gagliardi, C A; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Greiner, L; Grosnick, D; Gunarathne, D S; Guo, Y; Gupta, S; Gupta, A; Guryn, W; Hamad, A; Hamed, A; Haque, R; Harris, J W; He, L; Heppelmann, S; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Horvat, S; Huang, H Z; Huang, B; Huang, X; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jang, H; Jiang, K; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Khan, Z H; Kikola, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Kosarzewski, L K; Kotchenda, L; Kraishan, A F; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kulakov, I; Kumar, L; Kycia, R A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; Li, W; Li, Y; Li, C; Li, N; Li, Z M; Li, X; Li, X; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Lomnitz, M; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Ma, L; Ma, R; Ma, Y G; Ma, G L; Magdy, N; Majka, R; Manion, A; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; Meehan, K; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D A; Mustafa, M K; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nigmatkulov, G; Nogach, L V; Noh, S Y; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Okorokov, V; Olvitt, D L; Page, B S; Pak, R; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Peterson, A; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Poljak, N; Poniatowska, K; Porter, J; Posik, M; Poskanzer, A M; Pruthi, N K; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Raniwala, S; Raniwala, R; Ray, R L; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Roy, A; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Rusnakova, O; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, B; Sharma, M K; Shen, W Q; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Sikora, R; Simko, M; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, D; Smirnov, N; Song, L; Sorensen, P; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stepanov, M; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Sumbera, M; Summa, B J; Sun, X; Sun, X M; Sun, Z; Sun, Y; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Szelezniak, M A; Tang, Z; Tang, A H; Tarnowsky, T; Tawfik, A N; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Tripathy, S K; Trzeciak, B A; Tsai, O D; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Upsal, I; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vandenbroucke, M; Varma, R; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbaek, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Vossen, A; Wang, F; Wang, Y; Wang, H; Wang, J S; Wang, Y; Wang, G; Webb, G; Webb, J C; Wen, L; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y F; Xiao, Z; Xie, W; Xin, K; Xu, Y F; Xu, N; Xu, Z; Xu, Q H; Xu, H; Yang, Y; Yang, Y; Yang, C; Yang, S; Yang, Q; Ye, Z; Yepes, P; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Yu, N; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, X P; Zhang, J B; Zhang, J; Zhang, Z; Zhang, S; Zhang, Y; Zhang, J L; Zhao, F; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhou, L; Zhu, X; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M

    2015-06-26

    We present measurements of π(-) and π(+) elliptic flow, v(2), at midrapidity in Au+Au collisions at √[s(NN)]=200, 62.4, 39, 27, 19.6, 11.5, and 7.7 GeV, as a function of event-by-event charge asymmetry, A(ch), based on data from the STAR experiment at RHIC. We find that π(-) (π(+)) elliptic flow linearly increases (decreases) with charge asymmetry for most centrality bins at √[s(NN)]=27  GeV and higher. At √[s(NN)]=200  GeV, the slope of the difference of v(2) between π(-) and π(+) as a function of A(ch) exhibits a centrality dependence, which is qualitatively similar to calculations that incorporate a chiral magnetic wave effect. Similar centrality dependence is also observed at lower energies.

  4. Observation of Charge Asymmetry Dependence of Pion Elliptic Flow and the Possible Chiral Magnetic Wave in Heavy-Ion Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Averichev, G. S.; Banerjee, A.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A. V.; Bunzarov, I.; Burton, T. P.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chakaberia, I.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, X.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Christie, W.; Contin, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, S.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Esha, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Federic, P.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, Z.; Filip, P.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Fulek, L.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Greiner, L.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, S.; Gupta, A.; Guryn, W.; Hamad, A.; Hamed, A.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; He, L.; Heppelmann, S.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Horvat, S.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, B.; Huang, X.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Jiang, K.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikola, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kotchenda, L.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, L.; Kycia, R. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, W.; Li, Y.; Li, C.; Li, N.; Li, Z. M.; Li, X.; Li, X.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, L.; Ma, R.; Ma, Y. G.; Ma, G. L.; Magdy, N.; Majka, R.; Manion, A.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; Meehan, K.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Okorokov, V.; Olvitt, D. L.; Page, B. S.; Pak, R.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Peterson, A.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Poljak, N.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Posik, M.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, S.; Raniwala, R.; Ray, R. L.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, B.; Sharma, M. K.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Sikora, R.; Simko, M.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, D.; Smirnov, N.; Song, L.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stepanov, M.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sumbera, M.; Summa, B. J.; Sun, X.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Z.; Sun, Y.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Szelezniak, M. A.; Tang, Z.; Tang, A. H.; Tarnowsky, T.; Tawfik, A. N.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Tripathy, S. K.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Upsal, I.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Varma, R.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbaek, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wang, F.; Wang, Y.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, Y.; Wang, G.; Webb, G.; Webb, J. C.; Wen, L.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y. F.; Xiao, Z.; Xie, W.; Xin, K.; Xu, Y. F.; Xu, N.; Xu, Z.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, H.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Yang, C.; Yang, S.; Yang, Q.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhao, F.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhu, X.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration

    2015-06-01

    We present measurements of π- and π+ elliptic flow, v2, at midrapidity in Au +Au collisions at √{sNN }=200 , 62.4, 39, 27, 19.6, 11.5, and 7.7 GeV, as a function of event-by-event charge asymmetry, Ach, based on data from the STAR experiment at RHIC. We find that π- (π+) elliptic flow linearly increases (decreases) with charge asymmetry for most centrality bins at √{sNN }=27 GeV and higher. At √{sNN }=200 GeV , the slope of the difference of v2 between π- and π+ as a function of Ach exhibits a centrality dependence, which is qualitatively similar to calculations that incorporate a chiral magnetic wave effect. Similar centrality dependence is also observed at lower energies.

  5. BREIT code: Analytical solution of the balance rate equations for charge-state evolutions of heavy-ion beams in matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winckler, N., E-mail: n.winckler@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Rybalchenko, A. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Shevelko, V.P. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Al-Turany, M. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); CERN, European Organization for Nuclear Research, 1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Kollegger, T. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Stöhlker, Th. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Helmholtz-Institute Jena, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Institut für Optik und Quantenelektronik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität, D-07743 Jena (Germany)

    2017-02-01

    A detailed description of a recently developed BREIT computer code (Balance Rate Equations of Ion Transportation) for calculating charge-state fractions of ion beams passing through matter is presented. The code is based on the analytical solutions of the differential balance equations for the charge-state fractions as a function of the target thickness and can be used for calculating the ion evolutions in gaseous, solid and plasma targets. The BREIT code is available on-line and requires the charge-changing cross sections and initial conditions in the input file. The eigenvalue decomposition method, applied to obtain the analytical solutions of the rate equations, is described in the paper. Calculations of non-equilibrium and equilibrium charge-state fractions, performed by the BREIT code, are compared with experimental data and results of other codes for ion beams in gaseous and solid targets. Ability and limitations of the BREIT code are discussed in detail.

  6. submitter BREIT code: Analytical solution of the balance rate equations for charge-state evolutions of heavy-ion beams in matter

    CERN Document Server

    Winckler, N; Shevelko, V P; Al-Turany, M; Kollegger, T; Stöhlker, Th

    2017-01-01

    A detailed description of a recently developed BREIT computer code (Balance Rate Equations of Ion Transportation) for calculating charge-state fractions of ion beams passing through matter is presented. The code is based on the analytical solutions of the differential balance equations for the charge-state fractions as a function of the target thickness and can be used for calculating the ion evolutions in gaseous, solid and plasma targets. The BREIT code is available on-line and requires the charge-changing cross sections and initial conditions in the input file. The eigenvalue decomposition method, applied to obtain the analytical solutions of the rate equations, is described in the paper. Calculations of non-equilibrium and equilibrium charge-state fractions, performed by the BREIT code, are compared with experimental data and results of other codes for ion beams in gaseous and solid targets. Ability and limitations of the BREIT code are discussed in detail.

  7. Kinetic and Potential Sputtering of Lunar Regolith: The Contribution of the Heavy Highly Charged (Minority) Solar Wind Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, F. W.; Barghouty, A. F.

    2012-01-01

    Solar wind sputtering of the lunar surface helps determine the composition of the lunar exosphere and contributes to surface weathering. To date, only the effects of the two dominant solar wind constituents, H+ and He+, have been considered. The heavier, less abundant solar wind constituents have much larger sputtering yields because they have greater mass (kinetic sputtering) and they are highly charged (potential sputtering) Their contribution to total sputtering can therefore be orders of magnitude larger than their relative abundances would suggest

  8. The heavy ion therapy project at GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, G.; Becher, W.; Blasche, K.; Boehne, D.; Fischer, B.; Geissel, H.; Haberer, T.; Klabunde, J.; Kraft-Weyrather, W.; Langenbeck, G.; Muenzenberg, G.; Ritter, S.; Roesch, W.; Schardt, D.; Stelzer, H.; Schwab, T.; Gademann, G.

    1991-03-01

    The use of heavy charged particles in radiotherapy has two major advantages: Firstly, particle beams exhibit a superior dose distribution because of reduced lateral scattering, the finite range of the particles and the increased dose deposition towards the end of the particle track. Secondly, heavy ions exhibit an increased biological efficiency in the region of the increased energy deposition. This diminishes the differences in the radio response between well oxygenated and hypoxic cells as well as differences between fast and slowly proliferating cells. In addition, with high values for relative biological efficiencies, the repair capacity of cells in the tumor are selectively reduced. Both effects, the high energy deposition and the increased RBE values at the end of the particle tracks, are due to the different interaction mechanism of heavy ions with the target material and open a new field of precision and efficiency in radiotherapy. (orig.)

  9. Pion correlations in heavy ion collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venema, L.

    1991-01-01

    Charged π-correlations are a well established experimental technique to obtain information about π-source sizes. This is, however, not the case for π 0 's, as they decay into photons, resulting in measurements of 4 photon correlations. Here is described what these correlations are, what the problems are to detect and interpret them. These correlations are an additional way to get more information out of the heavy ion collisions. (orig.)

  10. New experimental initiatives using very highly charged ions from an 'electron beam ion trap'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, D.

    1996-01-01

    A short review of the experimental program in highly-charged heavy ion physics conducted at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) facility is presented. The heavy-ion research, involving ions up to fully stripped U 92+ , includes precision x-ray spectroscopy and lifetime studies, electron impact ionization and excitation cross section measurements. The investigations of ion-surface interactions following the impact of high-Z highly charged ions on surfaces are aimed to study the neutralization dynamics effecting the ion and the response of the surface as well. (author)

  11. Beta decay of highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvinov, Yuri A; Bosch, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    Beta decay of highly charged ions has attracted much attention in recent years. An obvious motivation for this research is that stellar nucleosynthesis proceeds at high temperatures where the involved atoms are highly ionized. Another important reason is addressing decays of well-defined quantum-mechanical systems, such as one-electron ions where all interactions with other electrons are excluded. The largest modifications of nuclear half-lives with respect to neutral atoms have been observed in beta decay of highly charged ions. These studies can be performed solely at ion storage rings and ion traps, because there high atomic charge states can be preserved for extended periods of time (up to several hours). Currently, all experimental results available in this field originate from experiments at the heavy-ion complex GSI in Darmstadt. There, the fragment separator facility FRS allows the production and separation of exotic, highly charged nuclides, which can then be stored and investigated in the storage ring facility ESR. In this review, we present and discuss in particular two-body beta decays, namely bound-state beta decay and orbital electron capture. Although we focus on experiments conducted at GSI, we will also attempt to provide general requirements common to any other experiment in this context. Finally, we address challenging but not yet performed experiments and we give prospects for the new radioactive beam facilities, such as FAIR in Darmstadt, IMP in Lanzhou and RIKEN in Wako.

  12. Basic atomic interactions of accelerated heavy ions in matter atomic interactions of heavy ions

    CERN Document Server

    Tolstikhina, Inga; Winckler, Nicolas; Shevelko, Viacheslav

    2018-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the recent experimental and theoretical results on interactions of heavy ions with gaseous, solid and plasma targets from the perspective of atomic physics. The topics discussed comprise stopping power, multiple-electron loss and capture processes, equilibrium and non-equilibrium charge-state fractions in penetration of fast ion beams through matter including relativistic domain. It also addresses mean charge-states and equilibrium target thickness in ion-beam penetrations, isotope effects in low-energy electron capture, lifetimes of heavy ion beams, semi-empirical formulae for effective cross sections. The book is intended for researchers and graduate students working in atomic, plasma and accelerator physics.

  13. Measurement of stopping power of heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitahara, Tetsuo

    1981-01-01

    The stopping power of heavy ions is discussed. In the low energy region, heavy ions keep some of their orbital electrons, and have equilibrium electron charge. The stopping power of penetrating particles depends on this effective charge. At present, it is hard to estimate this effective charge theoretically, accordingly, the estimation is made experimentally. Another difficulty in this estimation is that the Born approximation is not effective for heavy ions. In the low energy region, electronic stopping and nuclear stopping contribute to the stopping power. For the electronic stopping, a formula for the stopping power was given by Lindhard et al. The experimental values were obtained at GSI, and are inconsistent with the estimation by the Lindhard's formula. In the high energy region, where the Born approximation can be used, the Bethe's formula is applied, but the experimental data are scarce. Oscillations are seen in the Z dependence graph of the experimental stopping cross sections. Experimental works on the stopping power have been done. The differential and the integral methods were carried out. (Kato, T.)

  14. Heavy ion fusion- Using heavy ions to make electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celata, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    The idea of using nuclear fusion as a source of commercial electrical power has been pursued worldwide since the 1950s. Two approaches, using magnetic and inertial confinement of the reactants, are under study. This paper describes the difference between the two approaches, and discusses in more detail the heavy-ion-driven inertial fusion concept. A multibeam induction linear accelerator would be used to bring ∼100 heavy ion beams to a few GeV. The beams would then heat and compress a target of solid D-T. This approach is unique among fusion concepts in its ability to protect the reaction chamber wall from neutrons and debris

  15. Beam-energy dependence of charge balance functions from Au + Au collisions at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Averichev, G. S.; Banerjee, A.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A. V.; Bunzarov, I.; Burton, T. P.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chakaberia, I.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, H. F.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Christie, W.; Codrington, M. J. M.; Contin, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Cui, X.; Das, S.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Derradi de Souza, R.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Esha, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Federic, P.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, Filip, P.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Greiner, L.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, S.; Guryn, W.; Hamad, A.; Hamed, A.; Han, L.-X.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Horvat, S.; Huang, B.; Huang, X.; Huang, H. Z.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikola, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Klein, S. R.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kotchenda, L.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, L.; Kycia, R. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, Z. M.; Li, X.; Li, W.; Li, Y.; Li, X.; Li, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, R. M.; Ma, Y. G.; Magdy, N.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Majka, R.; Manion, A.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Okorokov, V.; Olvitt, D. L.; Page, B. S.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlak, T.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Poljak, N.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Przybycien, M.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandacz, A.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, B.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Simko, M.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, N.; Smirnov, D.; Solanki, D.; Song, L.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sumbera, M.; Summa, B. J.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Z.; Sun, Y.; Sun, X.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Szelezniak, M. A.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, Z.; Tang, A. H.; Tarnowsky, T.; Tawfik, A. N.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Tripathy, S. K.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Turnau, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Upsal, I.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Varma, R.; Vasconcelos, G. M. S.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbæk, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y.; Wang, H.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Webb, G.; Webb, J. C.; Wen, L.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y. F.; Xiao, Z.; Xie, W.; Xin, K.; Xu, N.; Xu, Z.; Xu, H.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Q. H.; Yan, W.; Yang, Y.; Yang, C.; Yang, Y.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, S.; Zhao, F.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhu, Y. H.; Zhu, X.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration

    2016-08-01

    Balance functions have been measured in terms of relative pseudorapidity (Δ η ) for charged particle pairs at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider from Au + Au collisions at √{sNN}=7.7 GeV to 200 GeV using the STAR detector. These results are compared with balance functions measured at the CERN Large Hadron Collider from Pb + Pb collisions at √{sNN}=2.76 TeV by the ALICE Collaboration. The width of the balance function decreases as the collisions become more central and as the beam energy is increased. In contrast, the widths of the balance functions calculated using shuffled events show little dependence on centrality or beam energy and are larger than the observed widths. Balance function widths calculated using events generated by UrQMD are wider than the measured widths in central collisions and show little centrality dependence. The measured widths of the balance functions in central collisions are consistent with the delayed hadronization of a deconfined quark gluon plasma (QGP). The narrowing of the balance function in central collisions at √{sNN}=7.7 GeV implies that a QGP is still being created at this relatively low energy.

  16. RHIC heavy ion operations performance

    CERN Document Server

    Satogata, T; Ferrone, R; Pilat, F

    2006-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) completed its fifth year of operation in 2005, colliding copper ion beams with ps=200 GeV/u and 62.4 GeV/u[1]. Previous heavy ion runs have collided gold ions at ps=130 GeV/u, 200 GeV/u, and 62.4 GeV/u[2], and deuterons and gold ions at ps=200 GeV/u[3]. This paper discusses operational performance statistics of this facility, including Cu- Cu delivered luminosity, availability, calendar time spent in physics stores, and time between physics stores. We summarize the major factors affecting operations efficiency, and characterize machine activities between physics stores.

  17. Heavy ion collisions and cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floerchinger, Stefan

    2016-12-15

    There are interesting parallels between the physics of heavy ion collisions and cosmology. Both systems are out-of-equilibrium and relativistic fluid dynamics plays an important role for their theoretical description. From a comparison one can draw interesting conclusions for both sides. For heavy ion physics it could be rewarding to attempt a theoretical description of fluid perturbations similar to cosmological perturbation theory. In the context of late time cosmology, it could be interesting to study dissipative properties such as shear and bulk viscosity and corresponding relaxation times in more detail. Knowledge and experience from heavy ion physics could help to constrain the microscopic properties of dark matter from observational knowledge of the cosmological fluid properties.

  18. Swift Heavy Ions in Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothard, Hermann; Severin, Daniel; Trautmann, Christina

    2015-12-01

    The present volume contains the proceedings of the Ninth International Symposium on Swift Heavy Ions in Matter (SHIM). This conference was held in Darmstadt, from 18 to 21 May 2015. SHIM is a triennial series, which started about 25 years ago by a joint initiative of CIRIL - Caen and GSI - Darmstadt, with the aim of promoting fundamental and applied interdisciplinary research in the field of high-energy, heavy-ion interaction processes with matter. SHIM was successively organized in Caen (1989), Bensheim (1992), Caen (1995), Berlin (1998), Catania (2002), Aschaffenburg (2005), Lyon (2008), and Kyoto (2012). The conference attracts scientists from many different fields using high-energy heavy ions delivered by large accelerator facilities and characterized by strong and short electronic excitations.

  19. Beam analysis spectrometer for relativistic heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimmerling, W.; Subramanian, T.S.; McDonald, W.J.; Kaplan, S.N.; Sadoff, A.; Gabor, G.

    1983-01-01

    A versatile spectrometer useful for measuring the mass, charge, energy, fluence and angular distribution of primaries and fragments associated with relativistic heavy ion beams is described. The apparatus is designed to provide accurate physical data for biology experiments and medical therapy planning as a function of depth in tissue. The spectrometer can also be used to measure W, the average energy to produce an ion pair, range-energy, dE/dx, and removal cross section data of interest in nuclear physics. (orig.)

  20. Time resolved ion beam induced charge collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sexton W, Frederick; Walsh S, David; Doyle L, Barney; Dodd E, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Under this effort, a new method for studying the single event upset (SEU) in microelectronics has been developed and demonstrated. Called TRIBICC, for Time Resolved Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection, this technique measures the transient charge-collection waveform from a single heavy-ion strike with a -.03db bandwidth of 5 GHz. Bandwidth can be expanded up to 15 GHz (with 5 ps sampling windows) by using an FFT-based off-line waveform renormalization technique developed at Sandia. The theoretical time resolution of the digitized waveform is 24 ps with data re-normalization and 70 ps without re-normalization. To preserve the high bandwidth from IC to the digitizing oscilloscope, individual test structures are assembled in custom high-frequency fixtures. A leading-edge digitized waveform is stored with the corresponding ion beam position at each point in a two-dimensional raster scan. The resulting data cube contains a spatial charge distribution map of up to 4,096 traces of charge (Q) collected as a function of time. These two dimensional traces of Q(t) can cover a period as short as 5 ns with up to 1,024 points per trace. This tool overcomes limitations observed in previous multi-shot techniques due to the displacement damage effects of multiple ion strikes that changed the signal of interest during its measurement. This system is the first demonstration of a single-ion transient measurement capability coupled with spatial mapping of fast transients

  1. Time resolved ion beam induced charge collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SEXTON,FREDERICK W.; WALSH,DAVID S.; DOYLE,BARNEY L.; DODD,PAUL E.

    2000-04-01

    Under this effort, a new method for studying the single event upset (SEU) in microelectronics has been developed and demonstrated. Called TRIBICC, for Time Resolved Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection, this technique measures the transient charge-collection waveform from a single heavy-ion strike with a {minus}.03db bandwidth of 5 GHz. Bandwidth can be expanded up to 15 GHz (with 5 ps sampling windows) by using an FFT-based off-line waveform renormalization technique developed at Sandia. The theoretical time resolution of the digitized waveform is 24 ps with data re-normalization and 70 ps without re-normalization. To preserve the high bandwidth from IC to the digitizing oscilloscope, individual test structures are assembled in custom high-frequency fixtures. A leading-edge digitized waveform is stored with the corresponding ion beam position at each point in a two-dimensional raster scan. The resulting data cube contains a spatial charge distribution map of up to 4,096 traces of charge (Q) collected as a function of time. These two dimensional traces of Q(t) can cover a period as short as 5 ns with up to 1,024 points per trace. This tool overcomes limitations observed in previous multi-shot techniques due to the displacement damage effects of multiple ion strikes that changed the signal of interest during its measurement. This system is the first demonstration of a single-ion transient measurement capability coupled with spatial mapping of fast transients.

  2. Accelerators for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangerter, R.O.

    1985-10-01

    Large fusion devices will almost certainly produce net energy. However, a successful commercial fusion energy system must also satisfy important engineering and economic constraints. Inertial confinement fusion power plants driven by multi-stage, heavy-ion accelerators appear capable of meeting these constraints. The reasons behind this promising outlook for heavy-ion fusion are given in this report. This report is based on the transcript of a talk presented at the Symposium on Lasers and Particle Beams for Fusion and Strategic Defense at the University of Rochester on April 17-19, 1985

  3. Relativistic heavy ion facilities: worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, L.S.

    1986-05-01

    A review of relativistic heavy ion facilities which exist, are in a construction phase, or are on the drawing boards as proposals is presented. These facilities span the energy range from fixed target machines in the 1 to 2 GeV/nucleon regime, up to heavy ion colliders of 100 GeV/nucleon on 100 GeV/nucleon. In addition to specifying the general features of such machines, an outline of the central physics themes to be carried out at these facilities is given, along with a sampling of the detectors which will be used to extract the physics. 22 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Central collisions of heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fung, Sun-yiu.

    1991-10-01

    This report describes the activities of the Heavy Ion Physics Group at the University of California, Riverside from October 1, 1990 to September 30, 1991. During this period, our program focuses on particle production at AGS energies, and correlation studies at the Bevalac in nucleus central collisions. We participated in the preparation of letters of intent for two RHIC experiments -- the OASIS proposal and the Di-Muon proposal -- and worked on two RHIC R ampersand D efforts -- a silicon strip detector project and a muon-identifier project. A small fraction of time was also devoted to physics programs outside the realm of heavy ion reactions by several individuals

  5. Exotic phenomena in collisions of heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soff, G.; Schramm, S.; Reus, T. de; Mehler, G.; Reinhardt, J.; Mueller, B.; Greiner, W.; Mueller, U.

    1985-08-01

    To exemplify current theoretical investigations we discuss three different topics. After a presentation of the underlying theoretical framework for ionization processes we will sketch the possibility to employ delta-electron emission as a clock to measure nuclear reaction times in intermediate energy collisions of very heavy ions. Besides the phenomenon of vacuum decay into a new twofold negatively charged stable vacuum ground state, electron excitation in heavy ion collisions may be employed for the determination of delay and deceleration times on the nuclear time scale, i.e. offering an atomic clock, operating in the range 10 -21 -10 -24 s. In deep-inelastic heavy ion collisions this provides a test for classical nuclear reaction models. In collisions at intermediate energies an independent measurement of the deceleration time is of interest for comparison, e.g., with the results of the pion bremsstrahlung model. After that we investigate the influence of one or more pockets in the ion scattering potential on the energy distribution of emitted positrons within a quantum mechanical framework. Finally we very briefly consider some phenomenological corrections to the Dirac equation and its consequences on electron binding energies in heavy and superheavy atoms. (orig./HSI)

  6. Physical aspects of heavy charged particle beams for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Katsuhiro

    1989-01-01

    Physical properties of heavy ion beams are discussed to improve the physical dose distributions in view of radiotherapy. Preservation of the structural and functional integrity of adjacent normal tissue is required to achieve great probability of tumor control. This will be accomplished with the reduction of irradiated volume of normal tissues and with greater relative biological effectiveness (RBE) on tumor cells than that on surrounding normal cells. This suggests the use of heavy ion beams as new source of radiation that increases the therapeutic ratio. The basis of the improvement in the physical dose distribution by use of heavy charged particles is due to the finite range of the beams and to the less multiple coulomb scattering of the particles having a heavier atomic mass than proton. The depth dose distributions and dose profiles of heavy particle beams are discussed in this article. The lateral sharpness of heavy charged particles is comparable to the penumbra of high energy photon and electron beams and is not of clinical concern due to less coulomb scattering of heavy ions to lateral direction in traversing a medium. The dose gradient at the end of range of primary beam is dependent upon the energy spread and range straggling of the particles. The magnitude of range straggling is nearly proportional to the range and inversely proportional to the inverse square root of the particle mass. Heavy ion beams also undergo nuclear interactions, in which the primary beam may produce lower atomic number particles. Therefore, the dose beyond the Bragg peak is due to those fragments. Fragmentation increases as a function of the atomic mass to the 2/3 power and with the energy of the particles. Thus, the production of fragments diminishes the depth dose advantages of heavy ions. The choice of ion for radiotherapy may depend on evaluation of important parameter for tumor control. (J.P.N.)

  7. Heavy Flavor Production in Heavy Ion Collisions at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Studies of Heavy flavor production are of great interest in heavy ion collisions. In the produced medium, the binding potential between a quark and antiquark in quarkonium is screened by surrounding light quarks and antiquarks. Thus, the various quarkonium states are expected to be melt at different temperatures depending on their binding energies, which allows us to characterize the QCD phase transition. In addition, open heavy flavor production are relevant for flavor-dependence of the in-medium parton energy loss. In QCD, gluons are expected to lose more energy compared to quarks when passing through the QGP due to the larger color charge. Compared to light quarks, heavy quarks are expected to lose less radiative energy because gluon radiation is suppressed at angles smaller than the ratio of the quark mass to its energy. This dead cone effect (and its disappearance at high transverse momentum) can be studied using open heavy flavor mesons and heavy flavor tagged jets. With CMS detector, quarkonia, open he...

  8. Radiation from heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kast, J.R.; Lee, Y.K.

    1975-01-01

    A study of x rays produced in heavy ion collisions has led to a search for molecular orbital x rays, concentrating on 35 Cl ions on Al, NaCl, and C targets. Preliminary analysis of the angular dependence of continuum x rays has tentatively identified quasi-molecular K x rays. Other work completed and in progress is discussed. (3 figures) (U.S.)

  9. Overview of US heavy ion fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, G.; Bieniosek, F.; Celata, C.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.; Prost, L.; Roy, P.; Seidl, P.A.; Eylon, S.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W.; Yu, S.; Barnard, J.; Callahan, D.; Cohen, R.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Meier, W.R.; Molvik, A.; Lund, S.; Davidson, R.; Efthimion, P.; Gilson, E.; Grisham, L.; Kaganovich, I.; Qin, H.; Startsev, E.; Rose, D.; Welch, D.; Olson, C.; Kishek, R.; O'Shea, P.; Haber, I.

    2005-01-01

    Significant experimental and theoretical progress has been made in the U.S. heavy ion fusion program on high-current sources, injectors, transport, final focusing, chambers and targets for high energy density physics (HEDP) and inertial fusion energy (IFE) driven by induction linac accelerators. One focus of present research is the beam physics associated with quadrupole focusing of intense, space-charge dominated heavy-ion beams, including gas and electron cloud effects at high currents, and the study of long-distance-propagation effects such as emittance growth due to field errors in scaled experiments. A second area of emphasis in present research is the introduction of background plasma to neutralize the space charge of intense heavy ion beams and assist in focusing the beams to a small spot size. In the near future, research will continue in the above areas, and a new area of emphasis will be to explore the physics of neutralized beam compression and focusing to high intensities required to heat targets to high energy density conditions as well as for inertial fusion energy. (author)

  10. Overview of US heavy ion fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, B.G.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.; Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Eylon, S.; Vay, J-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Yu, S.S.; Barnard, J.J.; Callahan, D.A.; Cohen, R.H.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P; Covo, Kireeff M.; Meier, W.R.; Molvik, A.W.; Lund, S.M.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Gilson, E.P.; Grisham, L.R.; Kaganovich, I.D.; Qin, H.; Startsev, E.A.; Rose, D.V.; Welch, D.R.; Olson, C.L.; Kishek, R.A.; O'Shea, P.; Haber, I.; Prost, L.R.; Prost, L.

    2004-01-01

    Significant experimental and theoretical progress has been made in the U.S. heavy ion fusion program on high-current sources, injectors, transport, final focusing, chambers and targets for high energy density physics (HEDP) and inertial fusion energy (IFE) driven by induction linac accelerators. One focus of present research is the beam physics associated with quadrupole focusing of intense, space-charge dominated heavy-ion beams, including gas and electron cloud effects at high currents, and the study of long-distance-propagation effects such as emittance growth due to field errors in scaled experiments. A second area of emphasis in present research is the introduction of background plasma to neutralize the space charge of intense heavy ion beams and assist in focusing the beams to a small spot size. In the near future, research will continue in the above areas, and a new area of emphasis will be to explore the physics of neutralized beam compression and focusing to high intensities required to heat targets to high energy density conditions as well as for inertial fusion energy

  11. Future relativistic heavy ion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugh, H.G.

    1980-12-01

    Equations of state for nuclear matter and ongoing experimental studies are discussed. Relativistic heavy ion physics is the only opportunity to study in the laboratory the properties of extended multiquark systems under conditions such that quarks might run together into new arrangements previously unobserved. Several lines of further study are mentioned

  12. Summary of heavy ion theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavin, S.

    1994-09-01

    Can we study hot QCD using nuclear collisions? Can we learn about metallic hydrogen from the impact of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 on Jupiter? The answer to both questions may surprise you exclamation point I summarize progress in relativistic heavy ion theory reported at DPF '94 in the parallel sessions

  13. Heavy-ion radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, Masashi

    1975-01-01

    New aspect of heavy ion radiation chemistry is reviewed. Experiment has been carried out with carbon ions and nitrogen ions accelerated by a 160 cm cyclotron of the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research. The results of experiments are discussed, taking into consideration the effects of core radius depending on heavy ion energy and of the branch tracks of secondary electrons outside the core on chemical reaction and the yield of products. The effect of core size on chemical reaction was not able to be observed, because the incident energy of heavy ions was only several tens of MeV. Regarding high radical density, attention must be given to the production of oxygen in the core. It is possible to produce O 2 in the core in case of high linear energy transfer (LET), while no production of O 2 in case of low LET radiation. This may be one of study problems in future. LET effects on the yield of decomposed products were examined on acetone, methyl-ethyl-ketone and diethyl ketone, using heavy ions (C and N) as well as gamma radiation and helium ions. These three ketones showed that the LET change of two gaseous products, H 2 and CO, was THF type. There are peaks at 50-70 eV/A in the yield of both products. The peaks suggest the occurrence of ''saturation'' in decomposition. Attention was drawn to acetone containing a small amount (2 wt.%) of H 2 O. H 2 O and CO produced from this system differ from those in the pure system. The hydrogen connection formed by such a small amount of H 2 O may mediate the energy transfer. Sodium acetate tri-hydrate produces CH 3 radical selectively by gamma-ray irradiation at 77 K. In this case, the production of CH 2 COO - increases with the increase of LET of radiation. This phenomenon may be an important study problem. (Iwakiri, K.)

  14. Chamber transport for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, Craig L.

    2014-01-01

    A brief review is given of research on chamber transport for HIF (heavy ion fusion) dating from the first HIF Workshop in 1976 to the present. Chamber transport modes are categorized into ballistic transport modes and channel-like modes. Four major HIF reactor studies are summarized (HIBALL-II, HYLIFE-II, Prometheus-H, OSIRIS), with emphasis on the chamber transport environment. In general, many beams are used to provide the required symmetry and to permit focusing to the required small spots. Target parameters are then discussed, with a summary of the individual heavy ion beam parameters required for HIF. The beam parameters are then classified as to their line charge density and perveance, with special emphasis on the perveance limits for radial space charge spreading, for the space charge limiting current, and for the magnetic (Alfven) limiting current. The major experiments on ballistic transport (SFFE, Sabre beamlets, GAMBLE II, NTX, NDCX) are summarized, with specific reference to the axial electron trapping limit for charge neutralization. The major experiments on channel-like transport (GAMBLE II channel, GAMBLE II self-pinch, LBNL channels, GSI channels) are discussed. The status of current research on HIF chamber transport is summarized, and the value of future NDCX-II transport experiments for the future of HIF is noted

  15. Electron spectroscopy with fast heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, D.

    1983-01-01

    Since about 1970 the spectroscopy of Auger-electrons and characteristic x-rays following energetic ion-atom collisions has received a great deal of attention. An increasing number of accelerators, capable of providing a large number of projectile ion species over a wide range of projectile energies, became available for studying ion-atom collision phenomena. Many charged particles from protons up to heavy ions like uranium can be accelerated to energies ranging over six orders of magnitude. This allows us to study systematically a great variety of effects accompanied by dynamic excitation processes of the atomic shells in either the projectile- or target-atoms. The studies yield fundamental information regarding the excitation mechanism (e.g., Coulomb and quasi-molecular excitation) and allow sensitive tests of atomic structure theories. This information in turn is valuable to other fields in physics like plasma-, astro-, or solid-state (surface) physics. It is a characteristic feature of fast heavy-ion accelerators that they can produce highly stripped ion species which have in turn the capability to highly ionize neutral target atoms or molecules in a single collision. The ionization process, mainly due to the strong electrical fields that are involved, allows us to study few-electron atoms with high atomic numbers Z. High resolution spectroscopy performed with these atoms allows a particularly good test of relativistic and QED effects. The probability of producing these few electron systems is determined by the charge state and the velocity of the projectile ions. In this contribution the possibilities of using electron spectroscopy as a tool to investigate fast ion-atom collisions is discussed and demonstrated with a few examples. 30 references

  16. Heavy ion accelerators at GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angert, N.

    1984-01-01

    The status of the Unilac heavy ion linear accelerator at GSI, Darmstadt is given. A schematic overall plan view of the Unilac is shown and its systems are described. List of isotopes and intensities accelerated at the Unilac is presented. The experimental possibilities at GSI should be considerably extended by a heavy ion synchrotron (SIS 18) in combination with an experimental storage ring (ESR). A prototype of the rf-accelerating system of the synchrotron has been built and tested. Prototypes for the quadrupole and dipole magnets for the ring are being constructed. The SIS 18 is desigmed for a maximum magnetic rigidity of 18Tm so that neon can be accelerated to 2 GeV/W and uranium to 1 GeV/u. The design allows also the acceleration of protons up to 4.5 GeV. The ESR permits to storage fully stripped uranium ions up to an energy of approximately R50 MeV/u

  17. Maximizing Ion Current by Space Charge Neutralization using Negative Ions and Dust Particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, A.; Raitses, Y.; Fisch, N.J.

    2005-01-01

    Ion current extracted from an ion source (ion thruster) can be increased above the Child-Langmuir limit if the ion space charge is neutralized. Similarly, the limiting kinetic energy density of the plasma flow in a Hall thruster might be exceeded if additional mechanisms of space charge neutralization are introduced. Space charge neutralization with high-mass negative ions or negatively charged dust particles seems, in principle, promising for the development of a high current or high energy density source of positive light ions. Several space charge neutralization schemes that employ heavy negatively charged particles are considered. It is shown that the proposed neutralization schemes can lead, at best, only to a moderate but nonetheless possibly important increase of the ion current in the ion thruster and the thrust density in the Hall thruster

  18. Design study of primary ion provider for relativistic heavy ion collider electron beam ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, K; Kanesue, T; Tamura, J; Okamura, M

    2010-02-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory has developed the new preinjector system, electron beam ion source (EBIS) for relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Radiation Laboratory. Design of primary ion provider is an essential problem since it is required to supply beams with different ion species to multiple users simultaneously. The laser ion source with a defocused laser can provide a low charge state and low emittance ion beam, and is a candidate for the primary ion source for RHIC-EBIS. We show a suitable design with appropriate drift length and solenoid, which helps to keep sufficient total charge number with longer pulse length. The whole design of primary ion source, as well as optics arrangement, solid targets configuration and heating about target, is presented.

  19. Nuclear physics with heavy ions. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reif, R.; Schmidt, R.

    1981-01-01

    Some results obtained in nuclear physics with heavy ions in the energy range up to 10 MeV/nucleon are summarized. A short review of the tendencies in the development of heavy ion accelerators is followed by a classification of the mechanisms observed in heavy ion interactions. The characteristics of the various types of reactions are presented. Applications of heavy ion beams in other branches of sciences are discussed. (author)

  20. Charged state distributions of swift heavy ions behind various solid targets (36 ≤ Zp ≤ 92, 18 MeV/u ≤ E ≤ 44 MeV/u)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, A.; Melki, S.; Lisfi, D.; Grandin, J.P.; Jardin, P.; Suraud, M.G.; Cassimi, A.

    1998-01-01

    Noting the lack of and the increasing need for information concerning heavy ion stripping in the intermediate velocity regime, the authors have studied a large number of ion-target systems experimentally. They present experimental charge state distributions obtained at the GANIL accelerator for several projectiles (36 ≤ Z p ≤ 92) with energies ranging from 18 MeV/u to 44 MeV/u, emerging from various target foils (4 ≤ Z t ≤ 79) of natural isotopic composition. The target thicknesses (from 1 microg/cm 2 up to several mg/cm 2 ) are chosen to cover the pre- and post-charge-state equilibrium regimes. Charge state fractions, mean charge state, charge distribution width, and emerging ion energy are tabulated for each of the 107 projectile-target element-target thickness combinations. They also present an improvement of the semi-empirical formulae proposed by Baron et al. to predict the mean charge states and the distribution widths at equilibrium. These formulae are compared with the available experimental data

  1. BROOKHAVEN: Looking towards heavy ion physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    July 11-22 were busy days at Brookhaven with a two-week Summer Institute on Relativistic Heavy Ion Physics. After an intensive first week designed to introduce young physicists to high energy heavy ion research, the second week was a workshop on detector technology for Brookhaven's proposed Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), attended by some 150 physicists

  2. Therapy tumor with the heavy ions beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang Bingrong; Wei Zengquan; Li Wenjian

    2002-01-01

    As physical characteristic of heavy ions Bragg peak, therapy tumor with heavy ions is becoming advanced technology. So, many countries have developed the technology and used to treat tumor, the societal and economic effects are beneficial to people. The authors show the development, present situation and information of research in world of advanced radiotherapy with heavy ions

  3. Spectroscopy of heavy few-electron ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokler, P.H.

    1986-07-01

    In this paper we ask first, why is it interesting to investigate heavy-few electron ions. Then the various accelerator-based methods to produce heavy few-electron ions are discussed. In the main part an overview on available heavy few-electron ion data and current experiments is given. The summary will end up with future aspects in this field. (orig.)

  4. Polarization phenomena in heavy-ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, K.; Ishihara, M.; Takahashi, N.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter presents a few key experiments which provide direct evidence of the polarization phenomena in heavy-ion reactions. The theory of polarization observables and measurements is given with the necessary formulae. The polarization phenomena is described and studies of product nuclear polarization in heavy-ion reactions are discussed. Studies of heavy-ion reactions induced by polarized beams are examined

  5. Heavy ions: Report from Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-12

    Oct 12, 2012 ... Experiments using ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions study nuclear matter under ... sN N = 10 GeV for Pb+Pb collisions, corresponding to an initial .... quenching through systematic comparisons of data to models, and .... the RdAu and RCP = (0−20%)/(60−80%) factors for the J/ψ production in d+Au col-.

  6. Charge state of ions scattered by metal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishinevsky, L.M.; Parilis, E.S.; Verleger, V.K.

    1976-01-01

    A model for description of charge distributions for scattering of heavy ions in the keV region, on metal surfaces developing and improving the method of Van der Weg and Bierman, and taking into account the connection between the ion charge state and scattering kinematics, is proposed. It is shown that multiple charged particles come from ions with a vacancy in the inner shell while the outer shell vacancies give only single charged ions and neutrals. The approximately linear increase of degree of ionization with normal velocity, and the non-monotonic charge dependence of the energy spectrum established by Chicherov and Buck et al is explained by considering irreversible neutralization in the depth of the metal, taking into account the connection of the charge state with the shape of trajectory and its location relative to the metal surface. The dependence of charge state on surface structure is discussed. Some new experiments are proposed. (author)

  7. Production, transport and charge capture measurements of highly charged recoil ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trebus, U.E.

    1989-05-01

    An experiment is described to study highly charged recoil ions on-line to the heavy ion accelerator UNILAC at GSI. The highly charged recoil ions are produced by heavy ion bombardment of a gas target. Subsequently the slow highly charged recoil ions are extracted from the ionization volume, and guided through a beam transport line to a Wien filter for charge state selection and to a collision region to study charge transfer processes. Several experiments were carried out to show the efficient charge state separation. Charge states up to q=15 were observed. When using a retarding field analyzer cross sections for single electron capture were determined for different charge states of Xe q+ for q=4 to 11 and He gas. The experiments demonstrated increasing charge transfer cross sections with increasing charge state q and indicated the effect of near resonant charge capture for q=6. The flexible data acquisition system used, is described and other future experiments, such as for instance in flight ion-trapping are indicated in the appendix. (orig.)

  8. ERC sources for the production of highly charged ions (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyneis, C.M.; Antaya, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) using rf between 5 and 16 GHz have been developed into stable, reliable sources of highly charged ions produced from a wide range of elements. These devices are currently used as ion sources for cyclotrons, synchrotrons, and heavy-ion linacs for nuclear and relativistic heavy-ion physics. They also serve the atomic physics community as a source of low energy multiply charged ions. In order to improve their performance both with respect to maximum charge state and beam intensity, ECRIS builders are now designing and constructing sources which will operate at frequencies up to 30 GHz. In this article we review the present status of operating ECRIS, review recent experimental measurements on plasma parameters, and look at the technology and potential of sources operating at frequencies up to 30 GHz

  9. Cherenkov particle identifier for relativistic heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dufour, J P; Olson, D L; Baumgartner, M; Girard, J G; Lindstrom, P J; Greiner, D E; Symons, T J.M.; Crawford, H J

    1985-12-01

    A total internal reflection Cherenkov detector is described. A figure of merit of 84Z/sup 2/sin/sup 2/theta photoelectrons/cm has been measured and the application of the device to charge and velocity measurements of relativistic heavy ions has been tested. We have achieved a charge resolution of ..delta..Zsub(rms)=0.15e for Z=20 with a 3 mm thick glass detector and a velocity resolution of ..delta beta..sub(rms)=2x10/sup -4/ at ..beta..=0.93 and Z=26 with a 6 mm thick fused silica detector. Combining charge and velocity measurements with a magnetic rigidity selection, we have achieved an isotopic mass resolution of ..delta..Msub(rms)=0.1 u with a 2 mm thick fused silica detector for 20

  10. Cherenkov particle identifier for relativistic heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dufour, J P; Olson, D L; Baumgartner, M; Girard, J G; Lindstrom, P J; Greiner, D E; Symons, T J.M.; Crawford, H J

    1985-12-01

    A total internal reflection Cherenkov detector is described. A figure of merit of 84Z/sup 2/sin/sup 2/theta photoelectrons/cm has been measured and the application of the device to charge and velocity measurements of relativistic heavy ions has been tested. We have achieved a charge resolution of ..delta..Zsub(rms)=0.15e for Z=20 with a 3 mm thick glass detector and a velocity resolution of ..delta beta..sub(rms)=2 x 10/sup -4/ at ..beta..=0.93 and Z=26 with a 6 mm thick fused silica detector. Combining charge and velocity measurements with a magnetic rigidity selection, we have achieved an isotopic mass resolution of ..delta..Msub(rms)=0.1 u with a 2 mm thick fused silica detector for 20 < A < 40.

  11. Heavy ion activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lass, B.D.; Roche, N.G.; Sanni, A.O.; Schweikert, E.A.; Ojo, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    A report on radioactivation with ion beams of 3 6 Li and 14 N is presented with some analytical applications: the determination of C via 12 C( 6 Li,αn) 13 N; the determination of Li and Be, using 14 N activation. Next, examples, with limitations in selectivity. The detection limits using a 1 μA h of activation irradiation are 5 ppm for C and 1 ppm for Li or Be. With 9 Be suitable for analytical applications are: sup(10,11)B( 9 Be,xn) 18 F and 14 N( 9 Be,αn) 18 F. Assuming a 1 μA h irradiation the detection limits for N and B are 1.5 ng and 0.5 ng, respectively, using a 7.8 MeV 9 Be beam. For activation with 12 C, experimental results with 12 MeV 12 C beam demonstrate that the beam is best suited for 7 Li analysis by the reaction 7 Li( 12 C,n) 18 F. The detection limit for a 1 μA h irradiation is 1 ng and the only other low Z elements activated are B and C. Finally, 12 C radioactivation was further combined with autoradiography for positional analysis. The spatial resolution of the technique was estimated to be 40 μm for an exposure corresponding to 6x10 5 disintegrations. As low as 10 -12 g of Li was readily detected by autoradiography. (author)

  12. Intermediate energies heavy ion collisions : study of the charged particles emission dynamics and emitters characterization; Collisions d`ions lourds aux energies intermediaires: etude de la dynamique d`emission des particules chargees et caracterisation des emetteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauge, E

    1994-07-01

    In heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies, reaction processes are ranging from slow processes where equilibrium is achieved between every emission, up to direct processes where nucleon nucleon scattering and phase space availability are the deciding factors. In order to investigate this transition, both the emission dynamics and the characteristics of the emitter have been studied, both theoretically and experimentally in the AMPHORA detector, for the systems 7, 17, 27 and 34 AMeV, {sup 40}Ar+Al, {sup 40}Ar+Cu and {sup 40}Ar+Ag. First, the linear momentum transfer of the most central collisions has been evaluated for these systems, by measuring the velocity of heavy residues. Then, by measuring azimuthal angle correlations functions, and by comparing them with statistical model predictions, the average angular momentum of the emitter has been evaluated. To study the charged particles emission dynamics, experimental azimuthal angle and relative momentum correlation functions have been compared with simulations based on a classical trajectory model. Finally, predictions of an advanced BUU model have been studied for the system 34 AMeV 40 Ar+Al. (authors). 69 refs., 52 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Heavy ion source and preaccelerator for the NUMATRON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurada, Yuzo; Mizobuchi, Akira

    1982-01-01

    This paper discusses the present status of the heavy ion source and the preaccelerator for the NUMATRON. It has become clear that a combination of different types of ion sources gives much advantage for optimum operations: a use of the PIG source is best suited for metallic ions, while the duoplasmatron and the single stage ECR source provide better gaseous ions with low charge states. It is suggested that an increase of the preacceleration up to 750kV by the cockcroft-Walton enables acceptance of lower charge states from the ion source. (author)

  14. Calorimetric cryodetectors for heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egelhof, P; Henning, W; Kienlin, A v; Meier, J; Truebenbacher, V [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany, F.R.) Mainz Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Physik; Azgui, F [CDTN, Algiers (Algeria); Shepard, K [Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)

    1990-01-01

    Status and first test results are reported for a project to develop calorimetric cryodetectors for heavy ions. The special conditions for the detection of energetic heavy ions are discussed. Presently the investigations are focussed on semiconductor bolometers and aluminium-strip superconducting phase-transition thermometers that are cooled with liquid {sup 4}He and operate in the temperature range 1.3-4.2 K. For a germanium bolometer the temperature dependence of the resistance, voltage-current curves, the time response to heating by voltage pulses and the response to ionizing {alpha}-radiation are reported. First tests on phase transition thermometers using thin aluminum strips yield a transition width of {Delta}T=8.6 mK at T{sub c}=1.467 K. (orig.).

  15. Physics of Ultrarelativistic Heavy Ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giubellino, P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is devoted to a general presentation of the physics of Ultrarelativistic Heavy Ions, as seen from the experimentalist close-quote s point of view. The aim of this research is the study of nuclear matter under extreme conditions of temperature and pressure, extending in this way our understanding of the strong interactions in general, and of colour confinement in particular. This young field of Physics has been growing rapidly in the past years, and any attempt to cover it in few pages will be rather sketchy and many important aspects will have to be left out. I will mainly try to cover the general motivations to undertake this study, and just mention the experimental challenges to be faced, the results from the experiments at CERN and BNL, and finally the fascinating program ahead of us, with a glimpse at the CERN LHC used as a heavy-ion collider. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  16. Mutation induction by heavy ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, J.; Stoll, U.; Schneider, E.

    1994-10-01

    Mutation induction by heavy ions is compared in yeast and mammalian cells. Since mutants can only be recovered in survivors the influence of inactivation cross sections has to be taken into account. It is shown that both the size of the sensitive cellular site as well as track structure play an important role. Another parameter which influences the probability of mutation induction is repair: Contrary to naive assumptions primary radiation damage does not directly lead to mutations but requires modification to reconstitute the genetic machinery so that mutants can survive. The molecular structure of mutations was analyzed after exposure to deuterons by amplification with the aid of polymerase chain reaction. The results-although preliminary-demonstrate that even with densely ionizing particles a large fraction does not carry big deletions which suggests that point mutations may also be induced by heavy ions.

  17. Semiholography for heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Ayan

    2017-01-01

    The formation of QGP in heavy ion collisions gives us a great opportunity for learning about nonperturbative dynamics of QCD. Semiholography provides a new consistent framework to combine perturbative and non-perturbative effects in a coherent way and can be applied to obtain an effective description for heavy ion collisions. In particular, it allows us to include nonperturbative effects in existing glasma effective theory and QCD kinetic theory for the weakly coupled saturated degrees of freedom liberated by the collisions in the initial stages in a consistent manner. We argue why the full framework should be able to confront experiments with only a few phenomenological parameters and present feasibility tests for the necessary numerical computations. Furthermore, we discuss that semiholography leads to a new description of collective flow in the form of a generalised non-Newtonian fluid. We discuss some open questions which we hope to answer in the near future.

  18. Spectroscopy of multi-charged ions: a short review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, H.G.

    1983-01-01

    Recent and future applications of multiply charged ions to spectroscopy and atomic structure are discussed. The experimental techniques use either very fast ions produced in heavy ion accelerators, or slow ions produced directly both in electron beam ion sources and from collisions of fast accelerated ions. For the accelerated fast ions, spectroscopic measurements on using gas target excitation, solid foil excitation and laser excitation. In gas target excitation, both X-ray and electron spectroscopy have been applied to analyse atomic structures and secondary collision effects. Highlycharged secondary ions have also been trapped electro-magnetically for further similar studies in controlled conditions. Spectroscopic detection following solid foil interaction has led to atomic lifetime measurements, principally of metastable level, analysis of complex highly-ionized heavy ion spectra, and investigations of relativistic and QED effects in few electron ions

  19. Heavy flavour production at CMS in heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    We review recent results relating to beauty production in heavy-ion collisions, in both the closed and open heavy flavor sectors, from the CMS experiment at the LHC. The sequential suppression of the ° states in PbPb collisions is thought to be evidence of the dissociation of quarkonia bound states in deconfined matter. Data from pPb collisions demonstrate that while cold nuclear effects appear to be subdominant in minimum bias collisions, there exists a non-trivial dependence on collision multiplicity that remains to be understood. The suppression of high p T particles in heavy-ion collisions, relative to the expectation from pp collisions, is typically interpreted in terms of energy loss of hard scattered parton in the dense nuclear medium. The flavor dependence of the energy loss may be accessed via measurements of b hadrons and b-tagged jets. Measurement of B mesons, via non-prompt J = y , at relatively low p T indicate a smaller suppression factor than D meson or inclusive charged hadrons. Data on b jet...

  20. Science with multiply-charged ions at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.W.; Johnson, B.M.; Meron, M.; Thieberger, P.

    1987-01-01

    The production of multiply-charged heavy ions at Brookhaven National Laboratory and their use in different types of experiments are discussed. The main facilities that are used are the Double MP Tandem Van de Graaff and the National Synchrotron Light Source. The capabilities of a versatile Atomic Physics Facility based on a combination of the two facilities and a possible new heavy-ion storage ring are summarized. It is emphasized that the production of heavy ions and the relevant science necessitates very flexible and diverse apparatus

  1. Heavy-ion-spectrometer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-05-01

    LBL safety policy (Pub 300 Appendix E) states that every research operation with a Class A risk potential (DOE 5484.1) should identify potentially hazardous procedures associated with the operation and develop methods for accomplishing the operation safely without personnel injury or property damage. The rules and practices that management deems to be minimally necessary for the safe operations of the Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) in the Bevatron Experimental Hall (51B) are set forth in this Operation Safety Procedures

  2. Heavy-ion-spectrometer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-01

    LBL safety policy (Pub 300 Appendix E) states that every research operation with a Class A risk potential (DOE 5484.1) should identify potentially hazardous procedures associated with the operation and develop methods for accomplishing the operation safely without personnel injury or property damage. The rules and practices that management deems to be minimally necessary for the safe operations of the Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) in the Bevatron Experimental Hall (51B) are set forth in this Operation Safety Procedures (OSP).

  3. Effective stopping of relativistic structural heavy ions at collisions with atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveev, V.I.

    2002-01-01

    One develops the unperturbed theory of energy losses at collision of atoms with structural high-charged heavy ions moving with relativistic velocity. One derived a simple formula for efficient braking. The structural ions in terms of this paper are considered to mean partially ionized ions of heavy elements compressing ion nucleus and some bound electrons compensating partially for ion nucleus charge. Account of ion charge magnitude is determined to result in essential increase of efficient braking of ion in contrast to braking of point nucleus of Z* charge [ru

  4. Progress Toward Heavy Ion IFE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, W.R.; Logan, B.G.; Waldron, W.L.; Sabbi, G.L.; Callahan-Miller, D.A.; Peterson, P.F.; Goodin, D.T.

    2002-01-01

    Successful development of Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) will require scientific and technology advances in areas of targets, drivers and chambers. Design work on heavy ion targets indicates that high gain (60-130) may be possible with a -3-6 MJ driver depending on the ability to focus the beams to small spot sizes. Significant improvements have been made on key components of heavy ion drivers, including sources, injectors, insulators and ferromagnetic materials for long-pulse induction accelerator cells, solid-state pulsers, and superconducting quadrupole magnets. The leading chamber concept for HIF is the thick-liquid-wall HYLEE-II design, which uses an array of flibe jets to protect chamber structures from x-ray, debris, and neutron damage. Significant progress has been made in demonstrating the ability to create and control the types of flow needed to form the protective liquid blanket. Progress has also been made on neutron shielding for the final focus magnet arrays with predicted lifetimes now exceeding the life of the power plant. Safety analyses have been completed for the HYLEE-II design using state-of-the-art codes. Work also continues on target fabrication and injection for HE. A target injector experiment capable of > 5 Hz operation has been designed and construction will start in 2002. Methods for mass production of hohlraum targets are being evaluated with small-scale experiments and analyses. Progress in these areas will be reviewed

  5. Beam modulation for heavy ion radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai, T.; Minohara, S.; Sudou, M.

    1993-01-01

    The first clinical trial of heavy ion radiation therapy is scheduled in 1994 by using the heavy ion medical accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC). In order to start the clinical trial, first, it is necessary to know the physical characteristics of high energy heavy ions in human bodies, for example, dose and linear energy transfer (LET) distribution. Also the knowledge on the biological effectiveness of heavy ions is required. Based on these biophysical properties of heavy ions, monoenergetic heavy ion beam should be modulated so as to make the spread Bragg peak suitable to heavy ion radiation therapy. In order to establish a methodology to obtain the most effective spread Bragg peak for heavy ion radiation therapy, a heavy ion irradiation port at the RIKEN ring cyclotron facility was constructed. By using a 135 MeV/u carbon beam, the biophysical properties of the heavy ions were investigated, and a range modulator was designed to have uniform biological response in the spread Bragg peak. The physical and biological rationality of the spread Bragg peak were investigated. The dose, LET and biological effect of a monoenergetic heavy ion beam, the design of the range modulator, and the distributions of LET and biological dose for the spread Bragg peak are reported. (K.I.)

  6. Medical heavy ion accelerator proposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gough, R.A.

    1985-05-01

    For several decades, accelerators designed primarily for research in nuclear and high energy physics have been adapted for biomedical research including radiotherapeutic treatment of human diseases such as pituitary disorders, cancer, and more recently, arteriovascular malformations. The particles used in these treatments include pions, protons and heavier ions such as carbon, neon, silicon and argon. Maximum beam energies must be available to penetrate into an equivalent of about 30 cm of water, requiring treatment beams of 250 to 1000 MeV/nucleon. Certain special treatments of superficial melanoma, however, require that beam energies as low as 70 MeV/nucleon also be available. Intensities must be adequate to complete a 100 rad treatment fraction in about 1 minute. For most heavy ion treatments, this corresponds to 10 7 -10 9 ions/second at the patient. Because this research is best conducted in a dedicated, hospital-based facility, and because of the clinical need for ultra-high reliability, the construction of new and dedicated facilities has been proposed. Heavy ion accelerators can provide a variety of ions and energies, permitting treatment plans that exploit the properties of the ion best suited to each individual treatment, and that employ radioactive beams (such as 11 C and 19 Ne) to precisely confirm the dose localization. The favored technical approach in these proposals utilizes a conventional, strong-focusing synchrotron capable of fast switching between ions and energies, and servicing multiple treatment rooms. Specialized techniques for shaping the dose to conform to irregularly-shaped target volumes, while simultaneously sparing surrounding, healthy tissue and critical structures, are employed in each treatment room, together with the sophisticated dosimetry necessary for verification, monitoring, and patient safety. 3 refs., 8 figs

  7. Production, transport and charge capture measurements of highly charged recoil ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trebus, U.E.

    1989-01-01

    An experiment is described to study highly charged recoil ions on-line to the heavy accelerator UNILAC at GSI. The highly charged recoil ions are produced by heavy-ion bombardment of a gas target. Subsequently the slow highly charged recoil ions are extracted from the ionization volume, and guided through a beam transport line to a Wien filter for charge state selection and to a collision region to study charge transfer processes. Several experiments were carried out to show the efficient charge state separation. Charge states up to q = 15 were observed. When using a retarding field analyzer cross sections for single electron capture were determined for different charge states of Xe q+ for q = 4 to 11 and He gas. The experiments demonstrated increasing charge transfer cross sections with increasing charge state q and indicated the effect of near resonant charge capture for q = 6. The flexible data acquisition system used, is described and other future experiments, such as for instance in flight ion-trapping are indicated in the appendix

  8. A singly charged ion source for radioactive 11C ion acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, K.; Noda, A.; Nagatsu, K.; Nakao, M.; Hojo, S.; Muramatsu, M.; Suzuki, K.; Wakui, T.; Noda, K.

    2016-02-01

    A new singly charged ion source using electron impact ionization has been developed to realize an isotope separation on-line system for simultaneous positron emission tomography imaging and heavy-ion cancer therapy using radioactive 11C ion beams. Low-energy electron beams are used in the electron impact ion source to produce singly charged ions. Ionization efficiency was calculated in order to decide the geometric parameters of the ion source and to determine the required electron emission current for obtaining high ionization efficiency. Based on these considerations, the singly charged ion source was designed and fabricated. In testing, the fabricated ion source was found to have favorable performance as a singly charged ion source.

  9. HITRAP: A Facility for Experiments with Trapped Highly Charged Ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quint, W.; Dilling, J.; Djekic, S.; Haeffner, H.; Hermanspahn, N.; Kluge, H.-J.; Marx, G.; Moore, R.; Rodriguez, D.; Schoenfelder, J.; Sikler, G.; Valenzuela, T.; Verdu, J.; Weber, C.; Werth, G.

    2001-01-01

    HITRAP is a planned ion trap facility for capturing and cooling of highly charged ions produced at GSI in the heavy-ion complex of the UNILAC-SIS accelerators and the ESR storage ring. In this facility heavy highly charged ions up to uranium will be available as bare nuclei, hydrogen-like ions or few-electron systems at low temperatures. The trap for receiving and studying these ions is designed for operation at extremely high vacuum by cooling to cryogenic temperatures. The stored highly charged ions can be investigated in the trap itself or can be extracted from the trap at energies up to about 10 keV/q. The proposed physics experiments are collision studies with highly charged ions at well-defined low energies (eV/u), high-accuracy measurements to determine the g-factor of the electron bound in a hydrogen-like heavy ion and the atomic binding energies of few-electron systems, laser spectroscopy of HFS transitions and X-ray spectroscopy

  10. Heavy ion physics at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesztergombi, G.

    1991-01-01

    A summary of the present status and future plans for heavy ion experiments at CERN-SPS and CERN-LHC accelerators is given. The planned three phases give possibilities to study the properties of the quark-gluon-plasma (QGP). At the present stage the feasibility of high energy ion-ion experiments with their very abundant secondary hadron production, shows that there is a chance to obtain high densities, and to look for the onset of new, collective phenomena. In a second phase, there should be a chance to obtain more conclusive evidence for the onset of quark deconfinement. In the third stage, the average energy densities rise above the deconfinement threshold, so that a study of the properties of QGP should become possible. (G.P.)

  11. Heavy Ion Current Transients in SiGe HBTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellish, Jonathan A.; Reed, Robert A.; Vizkelethy, Gyorgy; McMorrow, Dale; Ferlet-Cavrois, Veronique; Baggio, Jacques; Paillet, Philipe; Duhanel, Olivier; Phillips, Stanley D.; Sutton, Akil K.; hide

    2009-01-01

    Time-resolved ion beam induced charge reveals heavy ion response of IBM 5AM SiGe HBT: a) Position correlation[ b) Unique response for different bias schemes; c) Similarities to TPA pulsed-laser data. Heavy ion broad-beam transients provide more realistic device response: a) Feedback using microbeam data; b) Overcome issues of LET and ion range with microbeam. Both micro- and broad-beam data sets yield valuable input for TCAD simulations. Uncover detailed mechanisms for SiGe HBTs and other devices fabricated on lightly-doped substrates.

  12. Detector issues for relativistic heavy ion experimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, H.

    1986-04-01

    Several aspects of experiments using relativistic heavy ion beams are discussed. The problems that the current generation of light ion experiments would face in using gold beams are noted. A brief review of colliding beam experiments for heavy ion beams is contrasted with requirements for SSC detectors. 11 refs., 13 figs

  13. Superconducting heavy-ion linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, L.M.

    1977-01-01

    A summary is given of plans developed by four different groups for the construction of small superconducting linacs to boost the energy of heavy ions from existing tandem electrostatic accelerators. The projects considered are the linac under construction at Argonne and the design efforts at Karlsruhe, at Stanford, and by a Cal Tech-Stony Brook collaboration. The intended uses of the accelerator systems are stated. Beam dynamics of linacs formed of short independently-phased resonators are reviewed, and the implications for performance are discussed. The main parameters of the four linacs are compared, and a brief analysis of accelerating structures is given

  14. Thermal spike analysis of highly charged ion tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlušić, M.; Jakšić, M.

    2012-01-01

    The irradiation of material using swift heavy ion or highly charged ion causes excitation of the electron subsystem at nanometer scale along the ion trajectory. According to the thermal spike model, energy deposited into the electron subsystem leads to temperature increase due to electron–phonon coupling. If ion-induced excitation is sufficiently intensive, then melting of the material can occur, and permanent damage (i.e., ion track) can be formed upon rapid cooling. We present an extension of the analytical thermal spike model of Szenes for the analysis of surface ion track produced after the impact of highly charged ion. By applying the model to existing experimental data, more than 60% of the potential energy of the highly charged ion was shown to be retained in the material during the impact and transformed into the energy of the thermal spike. This value is much higher than 20–40% of the transferred energy into the thermal spike by swift heavy ion. Thresholds for formation of highly charged ion track in different materials show uniform behavior depending only on few material parameters.

  15. Triplemafios: a multicharged heavy ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briand, P.; Geller, R.; Jacquot, B.

    1976-01-01

    The principle and the characteristics of the ion source 'Triplemafios' are described. We also furnish the upto date performances concerning the ion charge states, ion currents and globale emittances of the beam [fr

  16. Heavy-ion-induced, gate-rupture in power MOSFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, T.A.

    1987-01-01

    A new, heavy-ion-induced, burnout mechanism has been experimentally observed in power metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). This mechanism occurs when a heavy, charged particle passes through the gate oxide region of n- or p-channel devices having sufficient gate-to-source or gate-to-drain bias. The gate-rupture leads to significant permanent degradation of the device. A proposed failure mechanism is discussed and experimentally verified. In addition, the absolute immunity of p-channel devices to heavy-ion-induced, semiconductor burnout is demonstrated and discussed along with new, non-destructive, burnout testing methods

  17. The charge spectrum of positive ions in a hydrogen aurora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, J.; Pulliam, D.; Leach, R.; Scherb, F.

    1976-01-01

    An auroral ion charge spectrometer was flown into a hydrogen aurora on a Javelin sounding rocket launched from Churchill, Manitoba. The instrument contained an electrostatic analyzer which selected particles with incident energy per unit charge up to 20 keV/charge and an 80-kV power supply which accelerated these ions onto an array of solid state detectors. Ions tentatively identified as H(+), He(+2), and O(+) were detected from 225 to 820 km in altitude. The experiment did not discriminate between H(+) and He(+), or between O(+), N(+), and C(+). Upper limits of highly charged heavy ion abundances have been set at 20% of the He(+2) and 0.15% of the H(+). It is concluded that both terrestrial and solar wind sources play significant roles in auroral ion precipitation.

  18. Dosimetry and radiobiology of negative pions and heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, M.R.

    1978-01-01

    The depth dose distribution of pion beams has not been found superior to protons. Pion radiation quality at the plateau region is comparable to conventional low-LET radiations, and radiobiology results also indicate RBE values close to unity. In the pion stopping region, the radiation quality increases considerably. Radiobiology data for negative pions at the Bragg peak position clearly indicate the increase in RBE and the reduction in OER. Even at the Bragg peak position, compared to fast neutrons, the average LET of negative pions is lower. Pion radiobiology data have indicated lower RBE values and higher OER values compared to fast neutrons. The radiation quality of fast neutrons is in between that of carbon and neon ions at the peak region and that of neon ions at the plateau is lower than for fast neutrons. The mean LET value for helium ions, even at the distal end of the peak, is lower than for fast neutrons. Dose localization of heavy ions has been found to decrease slowly with increasing charge of the heavy ion. The intercellular contact that protects cells after exposure to low-LET radiations is not detected after exposure to heavy ions. Single and fractionated doses of heavy ions produce dose-response curves for heavy ions having reduced shoulders but similar slopes when compared to gamma rays. Fractionated treatments of heavy ions produce an enhanced effect in the peak region compared to the plateau region and could lead to a substantial gain in therapeutic ratio. The OER for protons was similar to that for x rays. The OER values for negative pions, helium ions, and carbon ions were larger, for neon ions similar, and for argon ions smaller when compared to fast neutrons.Negative pions, helium ions, and carbon ions may be very effective clinically because the radiation quality of these beams is similar to that of the mixed scheme of neutrons and x rays

  19. Cataractogenic effects of heavy charged particles in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsworth, E.J.; Jose, J.G.; Yang, V.V.; Barker, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of heavy charged particles on the crystalline lens of the eye of mice are important because this tissue has proven susceptible to other forms of high-LET radiation. This report summarizes the results currently available from a prospectively designed study to explore the LET dependence of the cataractogenic process. The present results are consistent with a high cataractogenic effect at 100 keV/μm, because plateau argon 40 ions, with an LET in this range, produce higher average cataracts scores at 9, 11 and 13 months than do carbon 12 or neon 20 ions. In the electron micrographs, significant changes were observed from the controls

  20. Experimental study on the secondary emission (atomic and molecular ions, aggregates, electrons) induced by the bombardment of surfaces by means of energetic heavy ions (∼ MeV/u). Effects of the charge state of the projectiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monart, B.

    1988-05-01

    The ionic and electronic emissions, induced by the sputtering of solid targets (organic and inorganic) with 1 MeV/u projectiles. The time-of-flight spectrometry is applied to the secondary emission analysis. The projectile velocity, the angle of attack (between the beam and the target), and the projectile's incident charge state, are taken into account. It is shown that the secondary emission depends on the charge of the incident ion and on the charge state changement in the material's bulk. A model, applying the theoretical calculations concerning the charge in the material's bulk, is proposed. The existence of an interaction depth, for the incident ion and the material, which depends on the secondary ions type and on the incident ion charge, is suggested. The calculated depth is about 200 angstroms for the aggregates ejected from a CsI target, sputtered with 14 Kr 18+ . The H + yield (coming from ∼ 10 angstroms) is used as a projectile charge probe, at the material surface. The experimental method allows, for the first time, the obtention of the equilibrium charge state in the condensed matter. The same method is applied to determine the non-equilibrium charges in the bulk of thin materials. The results show that, after leaving the material, the projectile presents a post-ionization state [fr

  1. Summary of the relativistic heavy ion sessions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    The topics covered in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Sessions span four orders of magnitude in energy in the laboratory and a few more in theory. In the two years since the last Intersections conference, experiments in the field of very high energy heavy ion research have begun at CERN and Brookhaven. The prime motivation for these experiments is the possibility of forming quark matter. This paper is a review of the topics covered in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Sessions

  2. International cooperation in heavy-ion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobias, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    The rapidly growing research applications of heavy ions in basic biology and medicine have stimulated interest in this field in many countries. LBL, with its unique facilities and its scientific programs, is the focal point of interest. Plans are underway in several countries, including France, Japan, West Germany, and Canada, to build heavy-ion facilities, and to collaborate with our staff at LBL in heavy-ion research in physics, biology, and medicine

  3. Centroid and Envelope Eynamics of Charged Particle Beams in an Oscillating Wobbler and External Focusing Lattice for Heavy Ion Fusion Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, Ronald C.; Logan, B. Grant

    2011-01-01

    Recent heavy ion fusion target studies show that it is possible to achieve ignition with direct drive and energy gain larger than 100 at 1MJ. To realize these advanced, high-gain schemes based on direct drive, it is necessary to develop a reliable beam smoothing technique to mitigate instabilities and facilitate uniform deposition on the target. The dynamics of the beam centroid can be explored as a possible beam smoothing technique to achieve a uniform illumination over a suitably chosen region of the target. The basic idea of this technique is to induce an oscillatory motion of the centroid for each transverse slice of the beam in such a way that the centroids of different slices strike different locations on the target. The centroid dynamics is controlled by a set of biased electrical plates called 'wobblers'. Using a model based on moments of the Vlasov-Maxwell equations, we show that the wobbler deflection force acts only on the centroid motion, and that the envelope dynamics are independent of the wobbler fields. If the conducting wall is far away from the beam, then the envelope dynamics and centroid dynamics are completely decoupled. This is a preferred situation for the beam wobbling technique, because the wobbler system can be designed to generate the desired centroid motion on the target without considering its effects on the envelope and emittance. A conceptual design of the wobbler system for a heavy ion fusion driver is briefly summarized.

  4. An attempt to apply the inelastic thermal spike model to surface modifications of CaF2 induced by highly charged ions: comparison to swift heavy ions effects and extension to some others material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, C; Khomrenkov, V; Wang, Y Y; Wang, Z G; Aumayr, F; Toulemonde, M

    2017-03-08

    Surface damage appears on materials irradiated by highly charged ions (HCI). Since a direct link has been found between surface damage created by HCI with the one created by swift heavy ions (SHI), the inelastic thermal spike model (i-TS model) developed to explain track creation resulting from the electron excitation induced by SHI can also be applied to describe the response of materials under HCI which transfers its potential energy to electrons of the target. An experimental description of the appearance of the hillock-like nanoscale protrusions induced by SHI at the surface of CaF 2 is presented in comparison with track formation in bulk which shows that the only parameter on which we can be confident is the electronic energy loss threshold. Track size and electronic energy loss threshold resulting from SHI irradiation of CaF 2 is described by the i-TS model in a 2D geometry. Based on this description the i-TS model is extended to three dimensions to describe the potential threshold of appearance of protrusions by HCI in CaF 2 and to other crystalline materials (LiF, crystalline SiO 2 , mica, LiNbO 3 , SrTiO 3 , ZnO, TiO 2 , HOPG). The strength of the electron-phonon coupling and the depth in which the potential energy is deposited near the surface combined with the energy necessary to melt the material defines the classification of the material sensitivity. As done for SHI, the band gap of the material may play an important role in the determination of the depth in which the potential energy is deposited. Moreover larger is the initial potential energy and larger is the depth in which it is deposited.

  5. The Solar Connection of Enhanced Heavy Ion Charge States in the Interplanetary Medium: Implications for the Flux-Rope Structure of CMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Makela, P.; Akiyama, S.; Xie, H.; Yashiro, S.; Reinard, A. A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated a set of 54 interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) events whose solar sources are very close to the disk center (within +/- 15deg from the central meridian). The ICMEs consisted of 23 magnetic-cloud (MC) events and 31 non-MC events. Our analyses suggest that the MC and non-MC ICMEs have more or less the same eruption characteristics at the Sun in terms of soft X-ray flares and CMEs. Both types have significant enhancements in ion charge states, although the non-MC structures have slightly lower levels of enhancement. The overall duration of charge-state enhancement is also considerably smaller than that in MCs as derived from solar wind plasma and magnetic signatures. We find very good correlation between the Fe and O charge-state measurements and the flare properties such as soft X-ray flare intensity and flare temperature for both MCs and non-MCs. These observations suggest that both MC and non-MC ICMEs are likely to have a flux-rope structure and the unfavorable observational geometry may be responsible for the appearance of non-MC structures at 1 AU. We do not find any evidence for an active region expansion resulting in ICMEs lacking a flux-rope structure because the mechanism of producing high charge states and the flux-rope structure at the Sun is the same for MC and non-MC events.

  6. Calorimetric low temperature detectors for heavy ion physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egelhof, P.; Kraft-Bermuth, S. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany)]|[Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik

    2005-05-01

    provides considerable advantage for X-ray spectroscopy in atomic physics with highly charged heavy ions. Such detectors are to be used in near future for sensitive tests of quantum electrodynamics in very strong electromagnetic fields by a precise determination of the 1s Lamb shift in hydrogen-like heavy ions. The status of development of a high-resolution and highly efficient detector for hard X-rays is reported, the performance of which is with {delta}E/E = 1.1 x 10{sup -3} for E{sub {gamma}} = 60 keV close to fulfill the demands of the Lamb shift experiment. (orig.)

  7. Calorimetric low temperature detectors for heavy ion physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egelhof, P.; Kraft-Bermuth, S.; Mainz Univ.

    2005-07-01

    -ray spectroscopy in atomic physics with highly charged heavy ions. Such detectors are to be used in near future for sensitive tests of quantum electrodynamics in very strong electromagnetic fields by a precise determination of the 1s Lamb shift in hydrogen-like heavy ions. The status of development of a high-resolution and highly efficient detector for hard X-rays is reported, the performance of which is with ΔE/E = 1.1 x 10 -3 for E γ = 60 keV close to fulfill the demands of the Lamb shift experiment. (orig.)

  8. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory heavy ion fusion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangerter, R.O.; Lee, E.P.; Monsler, M.J.; Yu, S.S.

    1978-01-01

    Target design at LLL for heavy ion fusion power production is discussed, including target development and beam-target interaction. The energy conversion chamber design, which utilizes a liquid lithium blanket, is described. Ion beam transport theory is discussed

  9. Elastic and inelastic heavy ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toepffer, C.; University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg; Richter, A.

    1977-02-01

    In the field of elastic and inelastic heavy ion scattering, the following issues are dealt with: semiclassical descriptive approximations, optical potentials, barriers, critical radii and angular momenta, excitation functions and the application to superheavy ions and high energies. (WL) [de

  10. Giant resonances in heavy-ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, M.S.

    1982-11-01

    The several roles of multipole giant resonances in heavy-ion reactions are discussed. In particular, the modifications in the effective ion-ion potencial due to the virtual excitation of giant resonances at low energies, are considered and estimated for several systems. Real excitation of giant resonances in heavy-ion reactions at intermediate energies are then discussed and their importance in the approach phase of deeply inelastic processes in emphasized. Several demonstrative examples are given. (Author) [pt

  11. Heavy Ion Injection Into Synchrotrons, Based On Electron String Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Donets, E E; Syresin, E M

    2004-01-01

    A possibility of heavy ions injection into synchrotrons is discussed on the base of two novel ion sources, which are under development JINR during last decade: 1) the electron string ion source (ESIS), which is a modified version of a conventional electron beam ion source (EBIS), working in a reflex mode of operation, and 2) the tubular electron string ion source (TESIS). The Electron String Ion Source "Krion-2" (VBLHE, JINR, Dubna) with an applied confining magnetic field of 3 T was used for injection into the superconducting JINR synchrotron - Nuclotron and during this runs the source provided a high pulse intensity of the highly charged ion beams: Ar16+

  12. Production of highly charged ion beams from electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.Q.

    1998-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) development has progressed with multiple-frequency plasma heating, higher mirror magnetic fields, and better technique to provide extra cold electrons. Such techniques greatly enhance the production of highly charged ions from ECRISs. So far at continuous wave (CW) mode operation, up to 300 eμA of O 7+ and 1.15 emA of O 6+ , more than 100 eμA of intermediate heavy ions for charge states up to Ar 13+ , Ca 13+ , Fe 13+ , Co 14+ , and Kr 18+ , and tens of eμA of heavy ions with charge states to Kr 26+ , Xe 28+ , Au 35+ , Bi 34+ , and U 34+ were produced from ECRISs. At an intensity of at least 1 eμA, the maximum charge state available for the heavy ions are Xe 36+ , Au 46+ , Bi 47+ , and U 48+ . An order of magnitude enhancement for fully stripped argon ions (I≥60enA) were also achieved. This article will review the ECR ion source progress and discuss key requirement for ECRISs to produce the highly charged ion beams. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  13. Leptonic and charged kaon decay modes of the $\\phi$ meson measured in heavy-ion collisions at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2073202; Antonczyk, D; Appelshäuser, H; Belaga, V; Bielcikova, J; Braun-Munzinger, P; Busch, O; Cherlin, A; Damjanovic, S; Dietel, T; Dietrich, L; Drees, A; Esumi, S I; Filimonov, K; Fomenko, K; Fraenkel, Zeev; Garabatos, C; Glässel, P; Hering, G; Holeczek, J; Kushpil, V; Ludolphs, W; Maas, A; Marin, A; Milosevic, J; Miskowiec, D; Ortega, R; Panebratsev, Yu A; Petchenova, O Yu; Petracek, V; Radomski, S; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Rehak, P; Sako, H; Schmitz, W; Schükraft, J; Sedykh, S; Shimansky, S S; Stachel, J; Sumbera, M; Tilsner, H; Tserruya, Itzhak; Tsiledakis, G; Wessels, J P; Wienold, T; Wurm, J P; Yurevich, S; Yurevich, V

    2006-01-01

    We report a measurement of $\\phi$ meson production in central Pb+Au collisions at E$_{lab}$/A=158 GeV. For the first time in heavy-ion collisions, $\\phi$ mesons were reconstructed in the same experiment both in the K$^+$K$^-$ and the dilepton decay channel. Near mid-rapidity, this yields rapidity densities, corrected for production at the same rapidity value, of 2.05 +- 0.14(stat) +- 0.25(syst) and 2.04 +- 0.49(stat)+-{0.32}(syst), respectively. The shape of the measured transverse momentum spectra is also in close agreement in both decay channels. The data rule out a possible enhancement of the $\\phi$ yield in the leptonic over the hadronic channel by a factor larger than 1.6 at 95% CL.

  14. QCD in heavy ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iancu, Edmond [IPhT, Saclay (France)

    2014-07-01

    These lectures provide a modern introduction to selected topics in the physics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions which shed light on the fundamental theory of strong interactions, the Quantum Chromodynamics. The emphasis is on the partonic forms of QCD matter which exist in the early and intermediate stages of a collision -- the colour glass condensate, the glasma, and the quark-gluon plasma -- and on the effective theories that are used for their description. These theories provide qualitative and even quantitative insight into a wealth of remarkable phenomena observed in nucleus-nucleus or deuteron-nucleus collisions at RHIC and/or the LHC, like the suppression of particle production and of azimuthal correlations at forward rapidities, the energy and centrality dependence of the multiplicities, the ridge effect, the limiting fragmentation, the jet quenching, or the dijet asymmetry.

  15. QCD in heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iancu, Edmond

    2014-01-01

    These lectures provide a modern introduction to selected topics in the physics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions which shed light on the fundamental theory of strong interactions, the Quantum Chromodynamics. The emphasis is on the partonic forms of QCD matter which exist in the early and intermediate stages of a collision -- the colour glass condensate, the glasma, and the quark-gluon plasma -- and on the effective theories that are used for their description. These theories provide qualitative and even quantitative insight into a wealth of remarkable phenomena observed in nucleus-nucleus or deuteron-nucleus collisions at RHIC and/or the LHC, like the suppression of particle production and of azimuthal correlations at forward rapidities, the energy and centrality dependence of the multiplicities, the ridge effect, the limiting fragmentation, the jet quenching, or the dijet asymmetry

  16. Progress in Heavy Ion Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1988-09-01

    The progress of the field of Heavy Ion Fusion has been documented in the proceedings of the series of International Symposia that, in recent years, have occurred every second year. The latest of these conferences was hosted by Gesellshaft fuer Schwerionenforshung (GSI) in Darmstadt, West Germany, June 28-30, 1988. For this report, a few highlights from the conference are selected, stressing experimental progress and prospects for future advances. A little extra time is devoted to report on the developments at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) which is the center for most of the HIFAR program. The Director of the HIFAR program at LBL is Denis Keefe, who presented the HIF report at the last two of the meetings in this series, and in whose place the author is appearing now. 4 refs., 1 fig

  17. Multiturn Injection into Accumulators for Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Prior, C R

    1996-01-01

    The injection of heavy ions into high current rings is complicated because it is impossible to use charge exchange in material foils to produce the singly charged heavy ions needed to keep space charge manageable on the one hand, and because losses need to be rigorously restricted to < 1 % on the other. With these constraints, the number of turns that may be injected by conventional multiturn injection is limited. This paper describes how the number may be increased by a two-dimensional technique of painting Lissajous-like patterns in x-y space, using an inclined or a corner septum. Simulation examples are presented showing the nature of the beam created in the accumulator and the likely effects of space charge forces.

  18. Induction accelerator development for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reginato, L.L.

    1993-05-01

    For approximately a decade, the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) group at LBL has been exploring the use of induction accelerators with multiple beams as the driver for inertial fusion targets. Scaled experiments have investigated the transport of space charge dominated beams (SBTE), and the current amplification and transverse emittance control in induction linacs (MBE-4) with very encouraging results. In order to study many of the beam manipulations required by a driver and to further develop economically competitive technology, a proposal has been made in partnership with LLNL to build a 10 MeV accelerator and to conduct a series of experiments collectively called the Induction Linac System Experiments (ILSE). The major components critical to the ILSE accelerator are currently under development. We have constructed a full scale induction module and we have tested a number of amorphous magnetic materials developed by Allied Signal to establish an overall optimal design. The electric and magnetic quadrupoles critical to the transport and focusing of heavy ion beams are also under development The hardware is intended to be economically competitive for a driver without sacrificing any of the physics or performance requirements. This paper will concentrate on the recent developments and tests of the major components required by the ILSE accelerator

  19. Induction accelerator development for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reginato, L.L.

    1993-05-01

    For approximately a decade, the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) group at LBL has been exploring the use of induction accelerators with multiple beams as the driver for inertial fusion targets. Scaled experiments have investigated the transport of space charge dominated beams (SBTE), and the current amplification and transverse emittance control in induction linacs (MBE-4) with very encouraging results. In order to study many of the beam manipulations required by a driver and to further develop economically competitive technology, a proposal has been made in partnership with LLNL to build a 10 MeV accelerator and to conduct a series of experiments collectively called the Induction Linac System Experiments (ILSE).The major components critical to the ILSE accelerator are currently under development. We have constructed a full scale induction module and we have tested a number of amorphous magnetic materials developed by Allied Signal to establish an overall optimal design. The electric and magnetic quadrupoles critical to the transport and focusing of heavy ion beams are also under development. The hardware is intended to be economically competitive for a driver without sacrificing any of the physics or performance requirements. This paper will concentrate on the recent developments and tests of the major components required by the ILSE accelerator

  20. Hydrodynamic modelling for relativistic heavy-ion collisions at RHIC ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    model, to describe the microscopic evolution and decoupling of the hadronic ... progress on hydrodynamic modelling, investigation on the flow data and the ... and to describe and predict the soft particle physics in relativistic heavy-ion collisions [4]. It is based on the conservation laws of energy, momentum and net charge ...

  1. Properties of exotic matter for heavy-ion searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffner-Bielich, J.; Greiner, C.; Stoecker, H.; Vischer, A.P.

    1997-01-01

    We examine the properties of both forms of strange matter, small lumps of strange quark matter (strangelets) and of strange hadronic matter (metastable exotic multihypernuclear objects (MEMOs)) and their relevance for present and future heavy-ion searches. The strong and weak decays are discussed separately to distinguish between long- and short-lived candidates where the former ones are detectable in present heavy-ion experiments while the latter ones are present in future heavy-ion experiments, respectively. We find some long-lived strangelet candidates which are highly negatively charged with a mass-to-charge ratio like a anti deuteron (M/Z approx.= -2) but masses of A 10-16. We also predict many short-lived candidates, both in quark and hadronic form, which can be highly charged. Purely hyperonic nuclei such as the Ξα (2Ξ 0 2Ξ - ) are bound and have a negative charge while carrying a positive baryon number. We also demonstrate that multiply charmed exotics (charmlets) might be bound and can be produced at future heavy-ion colliders. (author)

  2. Application of laplace transform method in heavy ion reaction research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinchuan; Xi Hongfei; Guo Zhongyan; Zhan Wenlong; Zhu Yongtai; Zhou Jianqun; Liu Guanhua

    1993-01-01

    Laplace transform method (LTM) is applied to investigate the effects of different spectroscopy amplifiers parameters on identification of the light charged particles (LCP) emitted from 12 C(46,7 MeV/u) + 58 Ni reaction. The significance of application of LTM in heavy ion experimental nuclear physics is also discussed

  3. Event by event fluctuations in heavy ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Volker

    2001-01-01

    The authors discuss the physics underlying event-by-event fluctuations in relativistic heavy ion collisions. We will argue that the fluctuations of the ratio of positively over negatively charged particles may serve as a unique signature for the Quark Gluon Plasma.

  4. RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION COLLISIONS: EXPERIMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedlander, Erwin M.; Heckman, Harry H.

    1982-04-01

    Relativistic heavy ion physics began as a 'no man's land' between particle and nuclear physics, with both sides frowning upon it as 'unclean', because on one hand, hadronic interactions and particle production cloud nuclear structure effects, while on the other, the baryonic environment complicates the interpretation of production experiments. They have attempted to review here the experimental evidence on RHI collisions from the point of view that it represents a new endeavor in the understanding of strong interaction physics. Such an approach appears increasingly justified; first, by the accumulation of data and observations of new features of hadronic interactions that could not have been detected outside a baryonic environment; second, by the maturation of the field owing to the advances made over the past several years in experimental inquiries on particle production by RHI, including pions, kaons, hyperons, and searches for antiprotons; and third, by the steady and progressive increase in the energy and mass ranges of light nuclear beams that have become available to the experiment; indeed the energy range has widened from the {approx} 0.2 to 2 AGeV at the Bevalac to {approx}4 AGeV at Dubna and recently, to the quantum jump in energies to {approx} 1000 equivalent AGeV at the CERN PS-ISR. Accompanying these expansions in the energy frontier are the immediate prospects for very heavy ion beams at the Bevalac up to, and including, 1 AGeV {sup 238}U, thereby extending the 'mass frontier' to its ultimate extent.

  5. Topical problems of accelerator and applied heavy ion physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, R.; Deitinghoff, H.; Junior, P.H.; Schempp, A.

    1990-12-01

    These proceedings contain the articles presented at the named seminar. They deal with high-intensity linacs for heavy ions, the free-electron laser, applications of heavy-ion beams, MEQALAC, the ESR Schottky-diagnosis system, the analysis of GaAs by ion-beam methods, a light-ion synchrotron for cancer therapy, a device for the measurement of the momentum spread of ion beams, the European Hadron facility, the breakdown fields at electrons in high vacuum, a computer program for the calculation of electric quadrupoles, a focusing electrostatic mirror, storage and cooling of Ar beams, the visualization of heavy ion tracks in photographic films, the motion of ions in magnetic fields, the CERN heavy ion program, linear colliders, the beam injection from a linac into a storage ring, negative-ion sources, wake field acceleration, RFQ's, a dense electron target, the matching of a DC beam into the RFQ, electron emission and breakdown in vacuum, and 1-1.5 GeV 300 mA linear accelerator, the production of high-current positive-ion beams, high-current beam experiments at GSI, improvement of the Frankfurt EBIS, the physics of the violin, double layers, beam formation with coupled RFQ's, atomic nitrogen beam for material modification, compact superconducting synchrotron-radiation sources, industrial property rights, a RF ion source for thin film processes, beam-cavity interactions in the RFQ linac, atomic physics with crossed uranium beams, proton linacs, the interdigital H-type structure, injection of H - beams into a RFQ accelerator, the production of MOS devices by ion implantation, the application of RFQ's, the Frankfurt highly-charged ion facility, RF acceleration techniques for beam current drive in tokamaks, space-charge neutralized transport, and storage rings for synchrotron radiation and free electron lasers. (HSI)

  6. Relativistic heavy ion research at Berkeley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The project of a superconducting synchrotron for heavy ions with 1 TeV/amu is described. In this connection the physics is discussed which can be studied by this accelerator. Furthermore, the HISS-heavy ion spectrometer system and the Plastic Ball detector are described. (HSI).

  7. Highlights of the heavy ion fusion symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.

    1986-01-01

    The current status and prospects for inertial confinement fusion based on the use of intense beams of heavy ions will be described in the light of results presented at the International Symposium on Heavy Ion Fusion, (Washington, DC, May 27-29, 1986)

  8. Highlights of the heavy ion fusion symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.

    1986-07-01

    The current status and prospects for inertial confinement fusion based on the use of intense beams of heavy ions will be described in the light of results presented at the International Symposium on Heavy Ion Fusion, (Washington, DC, May 27-29, 1986)

  9. Heavy ion reactions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakobsson, Bo.

    1977-01-01

    A review on heavy ion experiments at energies >0.1GeV/nucleon is presented. Reaction cross-sections, isotope production cross-sections and pion production in nucleus-nucleus collisions are discussed. Some recent models for heavy ion reactions like the abrasion-ablation model, the fireball model and the different shock-wave models are also presented

  10. 7th high energy heavy ion study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, R.; Gutbrod, H.H.; Stock, R.

    1985-03-01

    These proceedings contain the articles presented at the named conference. They deal with relativistic heavy ion reactions, the expansion and freeze-out of nuclear matter, anomalon experiments, and multifragmentation and particle correlations in heavy ion reactions. See hints under the relevant topics. (HSI)

  11. Searching for Jets in Heavy Ion Collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salur, Sevil

    2008-01-01

    Jet quenching measurements using leading particles and their correlations suffer from known biases, which can be removed via direct reconstruction of jets in central heavy ion collisions. In this talk, we discuss several modern jet reconstruction algorithms and background subtraction techniques that are appropriate to heavy ion collisions

  12. Dynamical limitations to heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Back, B.B.

    1983-01-01

    Dynamical limitations to heavy ion fusion reaction are considered. The experimental signatures and the importance of a quasi-fission process are examined. The anaular distributions of fission fragments for the 32 S+ 208 Pb and 16 O+ 238 U systems are presented. It is shown that the observations of quasi-fission for even rather ''light'' heavy ions poeess severe limitations on the fusion process. This result may consequently be responsible for the lack of success of the search for super heavy elements in heavy ion fusion reactions

  13. Nuclear structure and heavy-ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokstad, R.G.

    1980-10-01

    A series of lectures is presented on experimental studies of heavy-ion fusion reactions with emphasis on the role of nuclear structure in the fusion mechanism. The experiments considered are of three types: the fusion of lighter heavy ions at subcoulomb energies is studied with in-beam γ-ray techniques; the subbarrier fusion of 16 O and 40 Ar with the isotopes of samarium is detected out of beam by x-radiation from delayed activity; and measurements at very high energies, again for the lighter ions, employ direct particle identification of evaporation residues. The experimental data are compared with predictions based on the fusion of two spheres with the only degree of freedom being the separation of the centers, and which interact via potentials that vary smoothly with changes in the mass and charge of the projectile and target. The data exhibit with the isotopes of samarium, a portion of these deviations can be understood in terms of the changing deformation of the target nucleus, but an additional degree of freedom such as neck formation appears necessary. The results on 10 B + 16 O and 12 C + 14 N → 26 Al at high bombarding energies indicate a maximum limiting angular momentum characteristic of the compound nucleus. At lower energies the nuclear structure of the colliding ion seems to affect strongly the cross section for fusion. Measurements made at subbarrier energies for a variety of projectile-target combinations in the 1p and 2s - 1d shell also indicate that the valence nucleons can affect the energy dependence for fusion. About half the systems studied so far have structureless excitation functions which follow a standard prediction. The other half exhibit large variations from this prediction. The possible importance of neutron transfer is discussed. The two-center shell model appears as a promising approach for gaining a qualitative understanding of these phenomena. 95 references, 52 figures, 1 table

  14. Dynamics of heavy ion beams during longitudinal compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, D.D.M.; Bangerter, R.O.; Lee, E.P.; Brandon, S.; Mark, J.W.K.

    1987-01-01

    Heavy ion beams with initially uniform line charge density can be compressed longitudinally by an order of magnitude in such a way that the compressed beam has uniform line charge density and velocity-tilt profiles. There are no envelope mismatch oscillations during compression. Although the transverse temperature varies along the beam and also varies with time, no substantial longitudinal and transverse emittance growth has been observed. Scaling laws for beam radius and transport system parameters are given

  15. Applications of heavy ion microprobe for single event effects analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, Robert A.; Vizkelethy, Gyorgy; Pellish, Jonathan A.; Sierawski, Brian; Warren, Kevin M.; Porter, Mark; Wilkinson, Jeff; Marshall, Paul W.; Niu, Guofu; Cressler, John D.; Schrimpf, Ronald D.; Tipton, Alan; Weller, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    The motion of ionizing-radiation-induced rogue charge carriers in a semiconductor can create unwanted voltage and current conditions within a microelectronic circuit. If sufficient unwanted charge or current occurs on a sensitive node, a variety of single event effects (SEEs) can occur with consequences ranging from trivial to catastrophic. This paper describes the application of heavy ion microprobes to assist with calibration and validation of SEE modeling approaches

  16. Progress in heavy ion fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celata, C.M.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Logan, G.; Prost, L.; Seidl, P.A.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Yu, S.S.; Barnard, J.J.; Callahan, D.A.; Cohen, R.H.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.; Lund, S.M.; Molvik, A.; Sharp, W.M.; Westenskow, G.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Heavy Ion Fusion program has recently commissioned several new experiments. In the High Current Experiment [P. A. Seidl et al., Laser Part. Beams 20, 435 (2003)], a single low-energy beam with driver-scale charge-per-unit-length and space-charge potential is being used to study the limits to transportable current posed by nonlinear fields and secondary atoms, ions, and electrons. The Neutralized Transport Experiment similarly employs a low-energy beam with driver-scale perveance to study final focus of high perveance beams and neutralization for transport in the target chamber. Other scaled experiments--the University of Maryland Electron Ring [P. G. O'Shea et al., accepted for publication in Laser Part. Beams] and the Paul Trap Simulator Experiment [R. C. Davidson, H. Qin, and G. Shvets, Phys. Plasmas 7, 1020 (2000)]--will provide fundamental physics results on processes with longer scale lengths. An experiment to test a new injector concept is also in the design stage. This paper will describe the goals and status of these experiments, as well as progress in theory and simulation. A proposed future proof-of-principle experiment, the Integrated Beam Experiment, will also be described

  17. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    This report discusses the following topics: emittance variations in current-amplifying ion induction lina; transverse emittance studies of an induction accelerator of heavy ions; drift compression experiments on MBE-4 and related emittance; low emittance uniform- density C s + sources for heavy ion fusion accelerator studies; survey of alignment of MBE-4; time-of-flight dependence on the MBE-4 quadrupole voltage; high order calculation of the multiple content of three dimensional electrostatic geometries; an induction linac injector for scaled experiments; induction accelerator test module for HIF; longitudinal instability in HIF beams; and analysis of resonant longitudinal instability in a heavy ion induction linac

  18. Heavy flavours in ultra-relativistic heavy ions collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosnet, Ph.

    2008-01-01

    The ultra-relativistic collisions of heavy ions are the today's only means to tackle in laboratory conditions the phase diagram in quantum chromodynamics and the strong interaction. The most recent theoretical studies predict a phase transition between the cold nuclear matter (a hadronic gas) and a plasma of quarks and gluons. Heavy flavour can characterize the nuclear matter produced in a heavy ion collision as well as its spatial-temporal evolution. Their study can be made through their decay into muons. The first part of this work presents the issue of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions and the role of heavy flavours. In the second part the author reviews the results of experiments performed at RHIC and particularly presents the analysis of the mass spectrum of dimuons in the Phenix experiment. The third part describes the muon trigger system of the Alice experiment at CERN and the expected performances for the study of di-muons

  19. Heavy ion program at BNL: AGS, RHIC [Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    With the recent commissioning of fixed target, heavy ion physics at the AGS, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has embarked on a long range program in support of relativistic heavy ion research. Acceleration of low mass heavy ions (up to sulfur) to an energy of about 14.5 GeV/nucleon is possible with the direct connection of the BNL Tandem Van de Graaff and AGS accelerators. When completed, the new booster accelerator will provide heavy ions over the full mass range for injection and subsequent acceleration in the AGS. BNL is now engaged in an active R and D program directed toward the proposed Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The results of the first operation of the low mass heavy ion program will be reviewed, and future expectations discussed. The expected performance for the heavy ion operation of the booster will be described and finally, the current status and outlook for the RHIC facility will be presented

  20. Realistic modeling of chamber transport for heavy-ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, W.M.; Grote, D.P.; Callahan, D.A.; Tabak, M.; Henestroza, E.; Yu, S.S.; Peterson, P.F.; Welch, D.R.; Rose, D.V.

    2003-01-01

    Transport of intense heavy-ion beams to an inertial-fusion target after final focus is simulated here using a realistic computer model. It is found that passing the beam through a rarefied plasma layer before it enters the fusion chamber can largely neutralize the beam space charge and lead to a usable focal spot for a range of ion species and input conditions

  1. Effective charge of energetic ions in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, M.; Brandt, W.

    1983-01-01

    The effective charge of energetic ion, as derived from stopping power of metals, is calculated by use of a dielectronic-response function method. The electronic distribution in the ion is described through the variational principle in a statistical approximation. The dependences of effective charge on the ion velocity, atomic number and r/sub s/-value of metal are derived at the low-velocity region. The effective charge becomes larger than the real charge of ion due to the close collisions. We obtain the quasi-universal equation of the fractional effective electron number of ion as a function of the ratio between the ionic size and the minimum distance approach. The comparsion between theoretical and experimental results of the effective charge is performed for the cases of N ion into Au, C and Al. We also discuss the equipartition rule of partially ionized ion at the high-velocity region

  2. Cellular radiobiology of heavy-ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobias, C.A.; Blakely, E.A.; Ngo, F.Q.H.; Roots, R.J.; Yang, T.C.

    1981-01-01

    Progress is reported in the following areas of this research program: relative biological effectiveness and oxygen enhancement ratio of silicon ion beams; heavy ion effects on the cell cycle; the potentiation effect (2 doses of high LET heavy-ion radiations separated by 2 to 3 hours); potentially lethal damage in actively growing cells and plateau growth cells; radiation induced macromolecular lesions and cellular radiation chemistry; lethal effects of dual radiation; and the development of a biophysical repair/misrepair model

  3. Electron capture by highly charged low-velocity ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cocke, C.L.; Dubois, R.; Justiniano, E.; Gray, T.J.; Can, C.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a fast heavy ion beam to produce, by bombardment of gaseous targets, highly-charged low-velocity recoil ions, and the use of these secondary ions in turn as projectiles in studies of electron capture and ionization in low-energy collision systems. The interest in collisions involving low-energy highly-charged projectiles comes both from the somewhat simplifying aspects of the physics which attend the long-range capture and from applications to fusion plasmas, astrophysics and more speculative technology such as the production of X-ray lasers. The ions of interest in such applications should have both electronic excitation and center-of-mass energies in the keV range and cannot be produced by simply stripping fast heavy ion beams. Several novel types of ion source have been developed to produce low-energy highly-charged ions, of which the secondary ion recoil source discussed in this paper is one. (Auth.)

  4. Funny hills in pion spectra from heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, J.O.

    1982-03-01

    A discussion of some of the systematic features of the pion spectra in heavy-ions reactions is given. A discussion of the hills and valleys in heavy ion pion spectra that show up at the lower pion energies is given. The following topics are discussed: (1) three kinds of funny hills; (2) π - / + ratios near center of mass; (3) new Monte Carlo studies of charged pion spectra; and (4) pion orbiting about fireballs and Bose-Einstein behavior as explanation for the mid-rapidity P/sub perpendicular to/ approx. = 0.4 to 0.5 m/sub π/c hill

  5. Recent advances in high current vacuum arc ion sources for heavy ion fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Qi Nian Sheng; Prasad, R R; Krishnan, M S; Anders, A; Kwan, J; Brown, I

    2001-01-01

    For a heavy ion fusion induction linac driver, a source of heavy ions with charge states 1+-3+, approx 0.5 A current beams, approx 20 mu s pulse widths and approx 10 Hz repetition rates is required. Thermionic sources have been the workhorse for the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) program to date, but suffer from heating problems for large areas and contamination. They are limited to low (contact) ionization potential elements and offer relatively low ion fluxes with a charge state limited to 1+. Gas injection sources suffer from partial ionization and deleterious neutral gas effects. The above shortcomings of the thermionic ion sources can be overcome by a vacuum arc ion source. The vacuum arc ion source is a good candidate for HIF applications. It is capable of providing ions of various elements and different charge states in short and long pulse bursts and high beam current density. Under a Phase-I STTR from DOE, the feasibility of the vacuum arc ion source for the HIF applications was investigated. We have modifie...

  6. Accelerator development for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbert, W.L. Jr.; Sawyer, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    Accelerator technology development is presented for heavy ion drivers used in inertial confinement fusion. The program includes construction of low-velocity ''test bed'' accelerator facilities, development of analytical and experimental techniques to characterize ion beam behavior, and the study of ion beam energy deposition

  7. Heavy-ion mammography and breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Tobias, C.A.; Capp, M.P.; Holley, W.R.; Woodruff, K.H.; Sickles, E.A.

    1980-01-01

    Heavy-ion radiography is a new diagnostic imaging technique developed in our laboratory that produces superior density resolution at low radiation doses. Heavy-ion mammography has now emerged as a low-dose, safe, reliable, noninvasive diagnostic radiological procedure that can quantitate and image very small differences in soft tissue densities in the breast tissues of patients with clinical breast disease. The improved density resolution of heavy-ion mammography over conventional X-ray mammography and breast xerography provides the potential of detecting small breast cancers of less than 1 cm diameter. The radiation dose to the breast from carbon-ion mammorgraphy is about 50 mrad or less, and can potentially be only a fraction of this level. The results of the present clinical trial in progress of heavy-ion mammography in 37 patients, thus far studied, are extremely encouraging, and warrant continued study for application to the early diagnosis of breast cancer in women

  8. Leptonic and charged kaon decay modes of the phi meson measured in heavy-ion collisions at the CERN super proton synchrotron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamová, D; Agakichiev, G; Antończyk, D; Appelshäuser, H; Belaga, V; Bielcíková, J; Braun-Munzinger, P; Busch, O; Cherlin, A; Damjanovic, S; Dietel, T; Dietrich, L; Drees, A; Esumi, S I; Filimonov, K; Fomenko, K; Fraenkel, Z; Garabatos, C; Glässel, P; Hering, G; Holeczek, J; Krobath, G; Kushpil, V; Ludolphs, W; Maas, A; Marín, A; Milosević, J; Miśkowiec, D; Ortega, R; Panebrattsev, Y; Petchenova, O; Petrácek, V; Radomski, S; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Rehak, P; Sako, H; Schmitz, W; Schukraft, J; Sedykh, S; Shimansky, S; Stachel, J; Sumbera, M; Tilsner, H; Tserruya, I; Tsiledakis, G; Wessels, J P; Wienold, T; Wurm, J P; Yurevich, S; Yurevich, V

    2006-04-21

    We report on results of a measurement of meson production in central Pb-Au collisions at E(lab) = 158A GeV. For the first time in the history of high energy heavy-ion collisions, phi mesons were reconstructed both in the K+K- and the dilepton decay channels in the same experiment. This measurement yields rapidity densities near midrapidity, from the two decay channels, of 2.05 +/- 0.14(stat) +/- 0.25(syst) and 2.04 +/- 0.49(stat) +/- 0.32(syst), respectively. The shape of the measured transverse momentum spectrum is also in close agreement in both decay channels. The data rule out a possible enhancement of the phi yield in the leptonic over the hadronic decay channel of a factor 1.6 or larger at the 95% C.L. This rules out the discrepancy reported in the literature between measurements of the hadronic and dimuon decay channels by two different experiments.

  9. QED in highly-charged high Z ions - experiments at the storage ring ESR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokler, P.H.

    1996-01-01

    A survey on the fundamental structure aspects of very heavy few -electron ions, in particular H-like systems, is presented. Special emphasis is given to contribution from quantum-electro-dynamics at strong central potentials. The technical possibilities to produce highly-charged heavy ions are reviewed and the ground-state Lamb-shift experiments performed at the heavy ion storage ring ESR are summarized. A short outlook on further developments in this field is added. (author). 23 refs, 9 figs

  10. Means for obtaining a metal ion beam from a heavy-ion cyclotron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, E.D.; Mallory, M.L.

    1975-08-01

    A description is given of a modification to a cyclotron ion source used in producing a high intensity metal ion beam. A small amount of an inert support gas maintains the usual plasma arc, except that it is necessary for the support gas to have a heavy mass, e.g., xenon or krypton as opposed to neon. A plate, fabricated from the metal (or anything that can be sputtered) to be ionized, is mounted on the back wall of the ion source arc chamber and is bombarded by returning energetic low-charged gas ions that fail to cross the initial accelerating gap between the ion source and the accelerating electrode. Some of the atoms that are dislodged from the plate by the returning gas ions become ionized and are extracted as a useful beam of heavy ions. (auth)

  11. Relativistic theory of stopping for heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindhard, J.; So/rensen, A.H.

    1996-01-01

    We calculate the electronic stopping power and the corresponding straggling for ions of arbitrary charge number, penetrating matter at any relativistic energy. The stopping powers are calculated by a simple method. Its starting point is the deviation of the precise theory from first-order quantum perturbation. We show that this deviation can be expressed in terms of the transport cross section, σ tr , for scattering of a free electron by the ion. In the nonrelativistic case the deviation is precisely the Bloch correction to Bethe close-quote s formula; we look into the nonrelativistic case in order to clarify both some features of our method and a seeming paradox in Rutherford scattering. The corresponding relativistic correction is obtained from σ tr for scattering of a Dirac electron in the ion potential. Here, the major practical advantage of the method shows up; we need not find the scattering distribution, but merely a single quantity, σ tr , determined by differences of successive phase shifts. For a point nucleus our results improve and extend those of Ahlen. Our final results, however, are based on atomic nuclei with standard radii. Thereby, the stopping is changed substantially already for moderate values of γ=(1-v 2 /c 2 ) -1/2 . An asymptotic saturation in stopping is obtained. Because of finite nuclear size, recoil corrections remain negligible at all energies. The average square fluctuation in energy loss is calculated as a simple fluctuation cross section for a free electron. The fluctuation in the relativistic case is generally larger than that of the perturbation formula, by a factor of ∼2 endash 3 for heavy ions. But the finite nuclear radius leads to a strong reduction at high energies and the elimination of the factor γ 2 belonging to point nuclei. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  12. Development of heavy ion linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bomko, V.A.; Khizhnyak, N.A.

    1981-01-01

    A review of the known heavy ion accelerators is given. It is stated that cyclic and linear accelerators are the most perspective ones in the energy range up to 10 MeV/nucleon according to universality in respect with the possibility of ion acceleration of the wide mass range. However, according to the accelerated beam intensity of the heavier ions the linear accelerators have considerable advantages over any other types of accelerators. The review of the known heavy ion linac structures permits to make the conclusion that a new modification of an accelerating structure of opposite pins excited on a H-wave is the most perspective one [ru

  13. High Intensity High Charge State ECR Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Leitner, Daniela

    2005-01-01

    The next-generation heavy ion beam accelerators such as the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA), the Radioactive Ion Beam Factory at RIKEN, the GSI upgrade project, the LHC-upgrade, and IMP in Lanzhou require a great variety of high charge state ion beams with a magnitude higher beam intensity than currently achievable. High performance Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion sources can provide the flexibility since they can routinely produce beams from hydrogen to uranium. Over the last three decades, ECR ion sources have continued improving the available ion beam intensities by increasing the magnetic fields and ECR heating frequencies to enhance the confinement and the plasma density. With advances in superconducting magnet technology, a new generation of high field superconducting sources is now emerging, designed to meet the requirements of these next generation accelerator projects. The talk will briefly review the field of high performance ECR ion sources and the latest developments for high intens...

  14. Heavy ion facility for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leemann, C.; Alonso, J.; Clark, D.; Grunder, H.; Hoyer, E.; Lou, K.; Staples, J.; Voelker, F.

    1977-03-01

    The accelerator requirements of particle radiation therapy are reviewed and a preliminary design of a heavy ion synchrotron for hospital installation is presented. Beam delivery systems and multi-treatment room arrangements are outlined

  15. Historical aspects of heavy ion radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents historical developments of heavy-ion radiotherapy including discussion of HILAC and HIMAC and discussion of cooperation between Japan and the United States, along with personal reflections

  16. Scattering and transfer reactions with heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, M.S.

    From the elastic scattering analysis the input parameters are found for the inelastic scattering analysis and the transfer reactions of the heavy ion reactions. The main theme reported is the likeness and conection among these processes. (L.C.) [pt

  17. Proceedings of the heavy ion fusion workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, R C [ed.

    1978-01-01

    These proceedings contain reviews of current laboratory programs dealing with inertial fusion driven by beams of heavy ions, as well as several individually abstracted invited talks, workshop reports and contributed papers.

  18. Heavy-Ion Fusion Accelerator Research, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This report discusses the following topics: research with multiple- beam experiment MBE-4; induction linac systems experiments; and long- range research and development of heavy-ion fusion accelerators

  19. Radiobiological comparison of pions and heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, M.R.

    1981-01-01

    The physical and radiobiological differences between some aspects of pions and heavy ions are discussed, followed by a discussion of acute and late effects of high LET radiations compared to low LET radiations

  20. Study on laser plasma as an ion source for the controlled fasion with heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabash, L.Z.; Bykovskij, Yu.A.; Golubev, A.A.; Kozyrev, Yu.P.; Krechet, K.I.; Lapitskij, Yu.Ya.; Sharkov, B.Yu.

    1981-01-01

    The results of experimental investigations of Pb 208 multiply- charged lead ions, obtained in the course of CO 2 laser radiation effect on a solid target are presented. The experimental installation, the basic units of which are CO 2 - laser with transverse discharge, ion source chamber, time- of-flight space, 9-channel electrostatic mirror type mass-analyser with a detection unit, is described. Physical characteristics of a freely spreading laser plasma, ion distribution over energies, velocities and Z charges from Z=+1 to Z=+10 are investigated. Absolute values of ion number of each charge property as well as absolute values of currents are obtained, the laser plasma temperature is estimated. The analysis of time distribution of ion quantity permits to point out the following regularities: with Z increase the ion current duration decreases according to the Δt approximately Z -1 law, with Z increase, the moment of the ion pulse beginning approaches to the moment of target irradiation which testifies that multiply-charged ions have high velocities and energies. The velocity distribution analysis permits to obtain ion velocity dependence in the field of maximum distribution on charge properties. The results presented are obtained at the temperature of hot unspreaded plasma about 60 eV. The data obtained are a basis for development of a real laser forinjector for the problems of the controlled fusion with heavy ions [ru

  1. Jet-Underlying Event Separation Method for Heavy Ion Collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    OpenAIRE

    Hanks, J. A.; Sickles, A. M.; Cole, B. A.; Franz, A.; McCumber, M. P.; Morrison, D. P.; Nagle, J. L.; Pinkenburg, C. H.; Sahlmueller, B.; Steinberg, P.; von Steinkirch, M.; Stone, M.

    2012-01-01

    Reconstructed jets in heavy ion collisions are a crucial tool for understanding the quark-gluon plasma. The separation of jets from the underlying event is necessary particularly in central heavy ion reactions in order to quantify medium modifications of the parton shower and the response of the surrounding medium itself. There have been many methods proposed and implemented for studying the underlying event substructure in proton-proton and heavy ion collisions. In this paper, we detail a me...

  2. Heavy-Ion Fusion Accelerator Research, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    The National Energy Strategy calls for a demonstration IFE power plant by the year 2025. The cornerstone of the plan to meet this ambitious goal is research and development for heavy-ion driver technology. A series of successes indicates that the technology being studied by the HIFAR Group -- the induction accelerator -- is a prime candidate for further technology development toward this long-range goal. The HIFAR program addresses the generation of high-power, high-brightness beams of heavy ions; the understanding of the scaling laws that apply in this hitherto little-explored physics regime; and the validation of new, potentially more economical accelerator strategies. Key specific elements to be addressed include: fundamental physical limits of transverse and longitudinal beam quality; development of induction modules for accelerators, along with multiple-beam hardware, at reasonable cost; acceleration of multiple beams, merging of the beams, and amplification of current without significant dilution of beam quality; final bunching, transport, and focusing onto a small target. In 1992, the HIFAR Program was concerned principally with the next step toward a driver: the design of ILSE, the Induction Linac Systems Experiments. ILSE will address most of the remaining beam-control and beam-manipulation issues at partial driver scale. A few parameters -- most importantly, the line charge density and consequently the size of the ILSE beams -- will be at full driver scale. A theory group closely integrated with the experimental groups continues supporting present-day work and looking ahead toward larger experiments and the eventual driver. Highlights of this long-range, driver-oriented research included continued investigations of longitudinal instability and some new insights into scaled experiments with which the authors might examine hard-to-calculate beam-dynamics phenomena

  3. Bremsstrahlung from relativistic bare heavy ions: Nuclear and electronic contributions in amorphous and crystalline materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tue Vissing; Sørensen, Allan Hvidkjær

    2013-01-01

    A charged particle emits bremsstrahlung while traversing matter. We calculate the radiation cross section for bare heavy ions penetrating amorphous materials and single crystals at highly relativistic energies. The main component originates in scattering of the virtual photons of screened target...... in a pronounced directional dependence of the energy loss of bare heavy ions at extreme relativistic energies....

  4. Heavy-ion-linac post-accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, L.M.

    1979-01-01

    The main features of the tandem-linac system for heavy-ion acceleration are reviewed and illustrated in terms of the technology and performance of the superconducting heavy-ion energy booster at Argonne. This technology is compared briefly with the corresponding technologies of the superconducting linac at Stony Brook and the room-temperature linac at Heidelberg. The performance possibilities for the near-term future are illustrated in terms of the proposed extension of the Argonne booster to form ATLAS

  5. Heavy ion collisions with the ATLAS detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevski, Pavel

    2004-01-01

    The ATLAS detector is designed to study high-p T physics in proton-proton collisions at the LHC design luminosity. The detector capabilities for heavy-ion physics are now being evaluated. This paper reports on a preliminary assessment of the baseline ATLAS detector potential for heavy-ion physics. The ATLAS sensitivity to some of the expected signatures from the quark-gluon plasma (e.g. jet quenching, Υ suppression) is discussed. (orig.)

  6. Jets in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xin-Nian; Gyulassy, M.

    1990-09-01

    Several aspects of hard and semihard QCD jets in relativistic heavy ion collisions are discussed, including multiproduction of minijets and the interaction of a jet with dense nuclear matter. The reduction of jet quenching effect in deconfined phase of nuclear matter is speculated to provide a signature of the formation of quark gluon plasma. HIJING Monte Carlo program which can simulate events of jets production and quenching in heavy ion collisions is briefly described. 35 refs., 13 figs

  7. Heavy ion drivers for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.

    1983-01-01

    The advantages of heavy ion beams as a way of delivering the needed energy and power to an inertial fusion target are surveyed. The existing broad technology base of particle accelerators provides an important foundation for designing, costing, and evaluating proposed systems. The sequence of steps needed for the verification of the heavy ion approach is described; recent research results are even more encouraging than had been assumed hitherto

  8. Heavy ion drivers for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.

    1983-12-01

    The advantages of heavy ion beams as a way of delivering the needed energy and power to an inertial fusion target are surveyed. The existing broad technology base of particle accelerators provides an important foundation for designing, costing, and evaluating proposed systems. The sequence of steps needed for the verification of the heavy ion approach is described; recent research results are even more encouraging than had been assumed hitherto

  9. Validating PHITS for heavy ion fragmentation reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronningen, Reginald M.

    2015-01-01

    The performance of the Monte Carlo code system PHITS is validated for heavy-ion transport capabilities by performing simulations and comparing results against experimental data from heavy-ion reactions of benchmark quality. These data are from measurements of isotope yields produced in the fragmentation of a 140 MeV/u "4"8Ca beam on a beryllium target and on a tantalum target. The results of this study show that PHITS performs reliably. (authors)

  10. Beam dynamics in heavy ion induction LINACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.

    1981-10-01

    Interest in the use of an induction linac to accelerate heavy ions for the purpose of providing the energy required to initiate an inertially confined fusion reaction has stimulated a theoretical effort to investigate various beam dynamical effects associated with high intensity heavy ion beams. This paper presents a summary of the work that has been done so far; transverse, longitudinal and coupled longitudinal transverse effects are discussed

  11. Localization effects in heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donangelo, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    Radial and angular localization in heavy ion reactions on deformed nuclei is discussed. A theoretical method appropriate to study these localization effects is briefly described and then applied to the determination of deformed heavy ion potentials from inclastic scattering data. It is argued that one-and two-nucleon transfer reactions on deformed nuclei can provide a probe of nuclear structure in high angular momentum states and be at least qualitatively analyzed in the light of these localization concepts. (Author) [pt

  12. Now day methods for heavy ion monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luk'yanov, S.M.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.Eh.; Chubaryan, G.G.

    1984-01-01

    Up-to-date methods for identification of products yield as a result of heavy ion interaction with nuclei are described. Monitoring of total ionization has been realized by gas-filled ionization chambers semiconductor detectors, scintillators. A method for specific ionization loss monitoring and time-of-flight technique for heavy-ion mass identification are considered. Advantages of the method for identification of nuclear reaction prodUcts by means of a magnetic analyzer are displayed

  13. Review of heavy ion reaction mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo, C.

    1986-04-01

    We review some of the many aspects of heavy-ion reaction mechanisms observed at bombarding energies smaller than approximately 50 MeV/u that is to say in what is called the low bombarding energy domain and the intermediate bombarding energy domain. We emphasize the results concerning the use of very heavy projectiles which has led to the observation of new mechanisms

  14. Physics with heavy ions at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safarik, K.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the motivation to study heavy ion collisions at LHC, and the experimental conditions under which detectors will have to operate. A short description of the detectors under construction is given. Physics performance is illustrated in two examples, which will become accessible at LHC energies, jet quenching and heavy-flavor production. (author)

  15. Elastic and radiative heavy quark interactions in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uphoff, Jan; Fochler, Oliver; Xu, Zhe; Greiner, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Elastic and radiative heavy quark interactions with light partons are studied with the partonic transport model named the Boltzmann approach to multiparton scatterings (BAMPSs). After calculating the cross section of radiative processes for finite masses in the improved Gunion–Bertsch approximation and verifying this calculation by comparing to the exact result, we study elastic and radiative heavy quark energy loss in a static medium of quarks and gluons. Furthermore, the full 3 + 1D space–time evolution of gluons, light quarks, and heavy quarks in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) and the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are calculated with BAMPS including elastic and radiative heavy flavor interactions. Treating light and heavy particles on the same footing in the same framework, we find that the experimentally measured nuclear modification factor of charged hadrons and D mesons at the LHC can be simultaneously described. In addition, we calculate the heavy flavor evolution with an improved screening procedure from hard-thermal-loop calculations and confront the results with experimental data of the nuclear modification factor and the elliptic flow of heavy flavor particles at the RHIC and the LHC. (paper)

  16. Plasma focus as an heavy ion source in the problem of heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribkov, V.A.; Dubrovskij, A.V.; Kalachev, N.V.; Krokhin, O.N.; Silin, P.V.; Nikulin, V.Ya.; Cheblukov, Yu.N.

    1984-01-01

    Results of experiments on the ion flux formation in a plasma focus (PF) to develop a multicharged ion source for thermonuclear facility driver are presented. In plasma focus accelerating section copper ions were injected. Advantages of the suggested method of ion beam formation are demonstrated. Beam emittance equalling < 0.1 cmxmrad is obtained. Plasma focus ion energy exceeds 1 MeV. Plasma focus in combination with a neodymium laser is thought to be a perspective ion source for heavy ion fusion

  17. Dynamics of electrons and heavy ions in Mercury's magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ip, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    The present investigation of Mercury magnetosphere processes employs simple models for the adiabatic acceleration and convection of equatorially mirroring charged particles, as well as the current sheet acceleration effect and the acceleration of such exospheric ions as that of Na(+) by both electric and magnetic magnetospheric fields near Mercury's surface. The large gyroradii of such heavy ions as those of Na allow surface reimpact as well as magnetopause-interception losses to occur; gyromotion-derived kinetic energy could in the case of the latter process account for the loss of as many as half of the planet's exospheric ions. 27 references

  18. Cyclotron method for heavy ion acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gikal, B.N.; Gul'bekyan, G.G.; Kutner, V.B.; Oganesyan, R.Ts.

    1984-01-01

    Studies on heavy ion beams in a wide range of masses (up to uranium) and energies disclose essential potential opportunities for solution of both fundamental scientific and significant economical problems. A cyclotron method for heavy ion acceleration is considered. Development of low and medium energy heavy ion accelerators is revealed. The design of a complex comprising two isochronous cyclotrons which is planned to be constrdcted 1n the JINR is described. The cyclotron complex includes the U-400 and the U-400 M cyclotrons and it is intended for acceleration of both 35-20 MeV/nucleon superheavy ions such as Xe-U and 120 MeV/nucleon light ions. Certain systems of the accelerators are described. Prospects of the U-400 and the U-400 M development are displayed

  19. Atomic structure of highly-charged ions. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, A. Eugene

    2002-01-01

    Atomic properties of multiply charged ions have been investigated using excitation of energetic heavy ion beams. Spectroscopy of excited atomic transitions has been applied from the visible to the extreme ultraviolet wavelength regions to provide accurate atomic structure and transition rate data in selected highly ionized atoms. High-resolution position-sensitive photon detection has been introduced for measurements in the ultraviolet region. The detailed structures of Rydberg states in highly charged beryllium-like ions have been measured as a test of long-range electron-ion interactions. The measurements are supported by multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock calculations and by many-body perturbation theory. The high-angular-momentum Rydberg transitions may be used to establish reference wavelengths and improve the accuracy of ionization energies in highly charged systems. Precision wavelength measurements in highly charged few-electron ions have been performed to test the most accurate relativistic atomic structure calculations for prominent low-lying excited states. Lifetime measurements for allowed and forbidden transitions in highly charged few-electron ions have been made to test theoretical transition matrix elements for simple atomic systems. Precision lifetime measurements in laser-excited alkali atoms have been initiated to establish the accuracy of relativistic atomic many-body theory in many-electron systems

  20. Highly charged ions generated with intense laser beams

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krása, Josef; Jungwirth, Karel; Králiková, Božena; Láska, Leoš; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Rohlena, Karel; Skála, Jiří; Ullschmied, Jiří; Hnatowicz, Vladimír; Peřina, Vratislav; Badziak, J.; Parys, P.; Wolowski, J.; Woryna, E.; Szydlowski, A.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 205, - (2003), s. 355-359 ISSN 0168-583X. [International Symposium on Swift Heavy Ions in Matter /5./. Taormina-Giardini Naxos, 22.05.2002-25.05.2002] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A100 Grant - others:HPRI(XE) CT-1999-00053; IAEA(XE) 11535/RO Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910; CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : laser-produced plasma * highly charged ions * ion implantation * windowless electron multiplier Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.041, year: 2003

  1. Search for new heavy charged gauge bosons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magass, Carsten Martin [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany)

    2007-11-02

    Additional gauge bosons are introduced in many theoretical extensions to the Standard Model. A search for a new heavy charged gauge boson W' decaying into an electron and a neutrino is presented. The data used in this analysis was taken with the D0 detector at the Fermilab proton-antiproton collider at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of about 1 fb-1. Since no significant excess is observed in the data, an upper limit is set on the production cross section times branching fraction σW'xBr (W' → ev). Using this limit, a W' boson with mass below ~1 TeV can be excluded at the 95% confidence level assuming that the new boson has the same couplings to fermions as the Standard Model W boson.

  2. Highly charged ions at rest: The HITRAP project at GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herfurth, F.; Beier, T.; Dahl, L.; Eliseev, S.; Heinz, S.; Kester, O.; Kluge, H.-J.; Kozhuharov, C.; Maero, G.; Quint, W.

    2005-01-01

    A decelerator will be installed at GSI in order to provide and study bare heavy nuclei or heavy nuclei with only few electrons at very low energies or even at rest. Highly-charged ions will be produced by stripping at relativistic energies. After electron cooling and deceleration in the Experimental Storage Ring the ions are ejected out of the storage ring at 4 MeV/u and further decelerated in a combination of an IH and RFQ structure. Finally, they are injected into a Penning trap where the ions are cooled to 4 K. From here, the ions can be transferred in a quasi dc or in a pulsed mode to different experimental setups. This article describes the technical concepts of this project as well as planned key experiments

  3. X-ray emission in heavy ion collisions. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed accounting of the yearly activities of the research program entitled X-ray Emission in Heavy Ion Collisions may be found in the annual progress reports submitted in accordance with the terms of the contract. The principal goals of the program to be summarized herein were (a) to delineate the mechanisms whereby highly ionized atoms in the condensed phase deexcite and return to charge neutrality, (b) to investigate the charge quenching processes acting to reduce the charge states of highly ionized projectiles, and (c) to attain a better understanding of the interactions occurring between highly charged ions and solid surfaces. These projects all relate to problems associated with the ultimate application of controlled thermonuclear reactions as a practical energy source

  4. Respectives of heavy ion physics in JINR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flerov, G.N.

    1983-01-01

    Perspectives of heavy ion physics in JINR are discussed. The main attention is paid to directions that are connected with the application of intensive beams of U-400 cyclotron. Experiments into studying stability limits of heavy atomic nuclei are considered. The possibility of using beams of heavy ions in applied fields, particularly for the production of very thin nuclear filters is noted. Prospects of synthesis of superheavy elements (SHE) and SHE search in nature are also considered. The data on the events of spontaneous fission found in meteorite and hydrotherms and the data on lengths of tracks in olivines from meteorite prove the possibility of obtaining evidences of SHE existence in nature

  5. Three-dimensional thermal simulations of thin solid carbon foils for charge stripping of high current uranium ion beams at a proposed new heavy-ion linac at GSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Tahir

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an extensive numerical study of heating of thin solid carbon foils by 1.4  MeV/u uranium ion beams to explore the possibility of using such a target as a charge stripper at the proposed new Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung high energy heavy–ion linac. These simulations have been carried out using a sophisticated 3D computer code that accounts for physical phenomena that are important in this problem. A variety of beam and target parameters have been considered. The results suggest that within the considered parameter range, the target will be severely damaged by the beam. Thus, a carbon foil stripper does not seem to be a reliable option for the future Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung high energy heavy–ion linac, in particular, at FAIR design beam intensities.

  6. Resolving key heavy-ion fusion target issues with relativistic heavy-ion research accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    Heavy-ion accelerators designed for relativistic nuclear research experiments can also be adapted for target research in heavy-ion driver inertial fusion. Needle-shaped plasmas can be created that are adequate for studying basic properties of matter at high energy density. Although the ion range is very long, the specific deposited power nevertheless increases with kinetic energy, as the focus spot can be made smaller and more ions can be accumulated in larger rings

  7. Ballistic-neutralized chamber transport of intense heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, D.V.; Welch, D.R.; Oliver, B.V.; Clark, R.E.; Sharp, W.M.; Friedman, A.

    2001-01-01

    Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of intense heavy ion beams propagating in an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor chamber are presented. The ballistic-neutralized transport scheme studied uses 4 GeV Pb +1 ion beams injected into a low-density, gas-filled reactor chamber and the beam is ballistically focused onto an ICF target before entering the chamber. Charge and current neutralization of the beam is provided by the low-density background gas. The ballistic-neutralized simulations include stripping of the beam ions as the beam traverses the chamber as well as ionization of the background plasma. In addition, a series of simulations are presented that explore the charge and current neutralization of the ion beam in an evacuated chamber. For this vacuum transport mode, neutralizing electrons are only drawn from sources near the chamber entrance

  8. Convoy electron production by heavy ions in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellin, I.A.

    1984-01-01

    The term convoy electron refers to those electrons ejected in fast ion-atom and ion-solid collisions closely matched in vector velocity to that of the incident heavy particles responsible for their ejection. Similarities and differences among electrons ejected into such states through binary electron capture to continuum and electron loss to continuum processes in single ion-atom encounters are compared and contrasted to more complex ejection processes occurring in solid targets. Puzzles posed by the apparent strong projectile Z dependence but weak emergent ion charge dependence of the yield in the case of solid targets are reviewed. Very recent progress in resolving these puzzles has been made by recent observations that the apparent mean free path for electron scattering out of the forward direction within the target is observed to be an order of magnitude greater than that for free electrons of equal velocity provided the projectile charge is high. 13 references, 2 figures, 1 table

  9. Heavy-ion fusion accelerator research, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    This report discusses the following topics on heavy-ion fusion accelerator research: MBE-4: the induction-linac approach; transverse beam dynamics and current amplification; scaling up the results; through ILSE to a driver; ion-source and injector development; and accelerator component research and development

  10. Search for new heavy charged gauge bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magass, Carsten Martin

    2007-01-01

    The TEVATRON proton-antiproton collider at FERMILAB (near Chicago/USA) is operating at a center-of-mass energy of √(s)=1.96 TeV since March 2001. This analysis uses data taken with the DOe detector until February 2006 corresponding to an integrated luminosity of about ∫Ldt=1 fb -1 . Using this dataset, a search for a new heavy charged gauge boson W ' and its subsequent decay into an electron and a neutrino is performed: p anti p→W ' +X→eν+X. Additional gauge bosons (including the equivalent to the Z, the Z ' ) are introduced in many extensions to the Standard Model of particle physics. Assuming the most general case, the new gauge group can comprise a new mixing angle and new couplings. Here, the Altarelli Reference Model is considered which represents a generalization of the Manifest Left-Right Symmetric Model with light right-handed neutrinos. This model makes the assumptions that the new gauge boson W ' has the same couplings as the Standard Model W boson and that there is no mixing. Hence, the W ' is a heavy copy of the Standard Model W boson. The clear decay signature (in analogy to the decay of the W) contains an isolated electron with extreme high energy which is important for triggering. The neutrino can not be detected, but it gives rise to missing energy in the detector. The Jacobian peak in the transverse mass distribution stemming from the W decay is used for calibration, whereas the tail of the transverse mass distribution is searched for a possible W ' signal. The data agrees with the expectation from background processes. For instance, in the data 37 events are reconstructed with transverse masses above 300 GeV compared to a prediction of 37.1±2.1(stat) +6.0 -3.7 (sys) background events. Since no significant excess is found in the data, an upper limit is set on the production cross section for heavy charged gauge bosons decaying into electron and neutrino, σ W ' x Br(W ' →eν). Using this limit, a lower bound on the mass of the new gauge

  11. Search for new heavy charged gauge bosons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magass, Carsten Martin

    2007-11-02

    The TEVATRON proton-antiproton collider at FERMILAB (near Chicago/USA) is operating at a center-of-mass energy of {radical}(s)=1.96 TeV since March 2001. This analysis uses data taken with the DOe detector until February 2006 corresponding to an integrated luminosity of about {integral}Ldt=1 fb{sup -1}. Using this dataset, a search for a new heavy charged gauge boson W{sup '} and its subsequent decay into an electron and a neutrino is performed: p anti p{yields}W{sup '}+X{yields}e{nu}+X. Additional gauge bosons (including the equivalent to the Z, the Z{sup '}) are introduced in many extensions to the Standard Model of particle physics. Assuming the most general case, the new gauge group can comprise a new mixing angle and new couplings. Here, the Altarelli Reference Model is considered which represents a generalization of the Manifest Left-Right Symmetric Model with light right-handed neutrinos. This model makes the assumptions that the new gauge boson W{sup '} has the same couplings as the Standard Model W boson and that there is no mixing. Hence, the W{sup '} is a heavy copy of the Standard Model W boson. The clear decay signature (in analogy to the decay of the W) contains an isolated electron with extreme high energy which is important for triggering. The neutrino can not be detected, but it gives rise to missing energy in the detector. The Jacobian peak in the transverse mass distribution stemming from the W decay is used for calibration, whereas the tail of the transverse mass distribution is searched for a possible W{sup '} signal. The data agrees with the expectation from background processes. For instance, in the data 37 events are reconstructed with transverse masses above 300 GeV compared to a prediction of 37.1{+-}2.1(stat){sup +6.0}{sub -3.7}(sys) background events. Since no significant excess is found in the data, an upper limit is set on the production cross section for heavy charged gauge bosons decaying into electron and neutrino, {sigma}{sub W

  12. Search for new heavy charged gauge bosons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magass, Carsten Martin

    2007-11-02

    The TEVATRON proton-antiproton collider at FERMILAB (near Chicago/USA) is operating at a center-of-mass energy of {radical}(s)=1.96 TeV since March 2001. This analysis uses data taken with the DOe detector until February 2006 corresponding to an integrated luminosity of about {integral}Ldt=1 fb{sup -1}. Using this dataset, a search for a new heavy charged gauge boson W{sup '} and its subsequent decay into an electron and a neutrino is performed: p anti p{yields}W{sup '}+X{yields}e{nu}+X. Additional gauge bosons (including the equivalent to the Z, the Z{sup '}) are introduced in many extensions to the Standard Model of particle physics. Assuming the most general case, the new gauge group can comprise a new mixing angle and new couplings. Here, the Altarelli Reference Model is considered which represents a generalization of the Manifest Left-Right Symmetric Model with light right-handed neutrinos. This model makes the assumptions that the new gauge boson W{sup '} has the same couplings as the Standard Model W boson and that there is no mixing. Hence, the W{sup '} is a heavy copy of the Standard Model W boson. The clear decay signature (in analogy to the decay of the W) contains an isolated electron with extreme high energy which is important for triggering. The neutrino can not be detected, but it gives rise to missing energy in the detector. The Jacobian peak in the transverse mass distribution stemming from the W decay is used for calibration, whereas the tail of the transverse mass distribution is searched for a possible W{sup '} signal. The data agrees with the expectation from background processes. For instance, in the data 37 events are reconstructed with transverse masses above 300 GeV compared to a prediction of 37.1{+-}2.1(stat){sup +6.0}{sub -3.7}(sys) background events. Since no significant excess is found in the data, an upper limit is set on the production cross section for heavy charged gauge bosons decaying into electron

  13. Production of highly charged ion beams with SECRAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, L. T.; Zhao, H. W.; Zhang, X. Z.; Feng, Y. C.; Li, J. Y.; Guo, X. H.; Ma, H. Y.; Zhao, H. Y.; Ma, B. H.; Wang, H.; Li, X. X.; Jin, T.; Xie, D. Z.; Lu, W.; Cao, Y.; Shang, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL) is an all-superconducting-magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) for the production of intense highly charged ion beams to meet the requirements of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). To further enhance the performance of SECRAL, an aluminum chamber has been installed inside a 1.5 mm thick Ta liner used for the reduction of x-ray irradiation at the high voltage insulator. With double-frequency (18+14.5 GHz) heating and at maximum total microwave power of 2.0 kW, SECRAL has successfully produced quite a few very highly charged Xe ion beams, such as 10 e μA of Xe 37+ , 1 e μA of Xe 43+ , and 0.16 e μA of Ne-like Xe 44+ . To further explore the capability of the SECRAL in the production of highly charged heavy metal ion beams, a first test run on bismuth has been carried out recently. The main goal is to produce an intense Bi 31+ beam for HIRFL accelerator and to have a feel how well the SECRAL can do in the production of very highly charged Bi beams. During the test, though at microwave power less than 3 kW, more than 150 e μA of Bi 31+ , 22 e μA of Bi 41+ , and 1.5 e μA of Bi 50+ have been produced. All of these results have again demonstrated the great capability of the SECRAL source. This article will present the detailed results and brief discussions to the production of highly charged ion beams with SECRAL.

  14. Photon and dilepton production in high-energy heavy-ion collisions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-05-07

    May 7, 2015 ... Photons; dileptons; Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider; Large Hadron Collider; quark ... the collisions produces relatively high pT photons, often referred to ..... energy have been found for identified charged hadrons at RHIC [25].

  15. Intriguing aspects in baryon production at relativistic heavy-ion collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The commencement of the relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) operation at Brookhaven ... that an unprecedented high-energy density has been achieved in ... for charged particles and measurement of ionization energy loss (dE/dx) for limited ...

  16. Probing of complete and incomplete fusion dynamics in heavy-ion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-04-04

    Apr 4, 2014 ... Heavy-ion induced reactions; complete and incomplete fusion; ... CF reaction the projectile completely fuses with the target nucleus and the highly excited .... input parameters have been used as default except the charge and ...

  17. Characteristic effects of heavy ion irradiation on the rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, X.Z.; Takahashi, S.; Kubota, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Takeda, H.; Zhang, R.; Fukui, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Heavy ion irradiation has the feature to administer a large radiation dose in the vicinity of the endpoint in the beam range, and its irradiation system and biophysical characteristics are different from ordinary irradiation instruments like X- or gamma-rays. Using this special feature, heavy ion irradiation has been applied for cancer treatment. The safety and efficacy of heavy ion irradiator have been demonstrated to a great extent. For instance, brain tumors treated by heavy-ion beams became smaller or disappearance. However, fundamental research related to such clinical phenotypes and their underlying mechanisms are little known. In order to clarify characteristic effects of heavy ion irradiation on the brain, we developed an experimental system for irradiating a restricted region of the rat brain using heavy ion beams. The characteristics of the heavy ion beams, histological, behavioral and elemental changes were studied in the rat following heavy ion irradiation. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, aged 12 weeks and weighing 260-340 g (Shizuoka Laboratory Animal Center, Hamamatsu, Japan) were used. Rats were deeply anesthetized 10-15 minutes before irradiation with ketamine (40 mg/kg) and xylazine (10 mg/kg), immobilized in a specifically designed jig, and irradiated with 290 MeV/nucleon charged carbon beams in a dorsal-to ventral direction, The left cerebral hemispheres of the brain were irradiated at doses of 100 Gy charged carbon particles. The depth-dose distribution of the heavy ion beams was modified to make a spread-out bragg peak of 5 mm wide with a range modulator. The characteristics of the heavy-ion beams (field and depth of the heavy-ion beams) were examined by a measuring paraffin section of rat brain at different thickness. That extensive necrosis was observed between 2.5 mm and 7.5 mm depth from the surface of the rat head, suggesting a relatively high dose and uniform dose was delivered among designed depths and the spread-out bragg peak used here

  18. Heavy ion induced mutation in arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tano, Shigemitsu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Heavy ions, He, C, Ar and Ne were irradiated to the seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana for inducing the new mutants. In the irradiated generation (M{sub 1}), germination and survival rate were observed to estimate the relative biological effectiveness in relation to the LET including the inactivation cross section. Mutation frequencies were compared by using three kinds of genetic loci after irradiation with C ions and electrons. Several interesting new mutants were selected in the selfed progenies of heavy ion irradiated seeds. (author)

  19. Improvement of herbage by heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Hongmei; Hao Jifang; Wei Zengquan; Xie Zhongkui; Li Fengqin; Wang Yajun

    2004-01-01

    Herbage seeds of legume and grass were irradiated in penetration by 80 MeV/u 20 Ne 10+ ions. The results of field tests and observations of the root-tip cells showed that growth of the seedling was obviously weakened with increasing doses. Frequencies of chromosomal aberration and micronucleus increased significantly with increasing doses. According to the field growth tests, radiation sensitivity of grass herbage to the heavy ion beams was much higher than leguminous herbage, and suitable dose of the heavy ion irradiation for the grass and leguminous herbage is 20-30 Gy and 150 Gy, respectively

  20. Heavy ion medical accelerator in chiba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirao, Y.; Ogawa, H.; Yamada, S.

    1992-12-01

    The HIMAC (Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba) construction project has been promoted by NIRS (National Institute of Radiological Sciences) as one of the projects of 'Comprehensive 10 year Strategy for Cancer Control' HIMAC is the first heavy-ion accelerator dedicated to medicine in the world, and its design parameters are based on the radiological requirements. It consists of two types of ion sources, an RFQ and an Alvarez linacs, dual synchrotron rings, high energy beam transport lines, and irradiation facilities for treatment and experiments. This report mainly describes the outline of the structure and performance of each HIMAC subsystem. (J.P.N.)

  1. Nuclear fission induced by heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, J.O.

    1988-09-01

    Because the accelerators of the 50's and 60's mostly provided beams of light ions, well suited for studying individual quantum states of low angular momentum or reactions involving the transfer of one or two nucleons, the study of fission, being an example of large-scale collective motion, has until recently been outside of the mainstream of nuclear research. This situation has changed in recent years, due to the new generation of accelerators capable of producing beams of heavy ions with energies high enough to overcome the Coulomb barriers of all stable nuclei. These have made possible the study of new examples of large-scale collective motions, involving major rearrangements of nuclear matter, such as deep-inelastic collisions and heavy-ion fusion. Perhaps the most exciting development in the past few years is the discovery that dissipative effects (nuclear viscosity) play an important role in fission induced by heavy ions, contrary to earlier assumptions that the viscosity involved in fission was very weak and played only a minor role. This review will be mainly concerned with developments in heavy-ion induced fission during the last few years and have an emphasis on the very recent results on dissipative effects. Since heavy-ion bombardment usually results in compound systems with high excitation energies and angular momenta, shell effects might be expected to be small, and the subject of low energy fission, where they are important, will not be addressed. 285 refs., 58 figs

  2. COLLIMATORS AND MATERIALS FOR HIGH INTENSITY HEAVY ION SYNCHROTRONS

    CERN Document Server

    Stadlmann, J; Kollmus, H; Spiller, P; Strasik, I; Tahir, N A; Tomut, M; Trautmann, C

    2012-01-01

    The operation of high power high brightness accelerators requires huge efforts for beam cleaning and machine protection. Within the WP 8 (ColMat) of the EU research framework EuCARD[1] we investigate new materials and methods for beam collimation and machine protection. We present an overview of these activities at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum f¨ur Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt. Simulations of accidental beam losses in LHC and SIS100 have been performed. Scenarios for halo collimation of heavy ions and protons in SIS100 routine operation have been investigated. A prototype of a cryogenic collimator for charge exchange losses during intermediate charge state heavy ion operation in SIS100 has been build and tested with beam. Several candidates of advanced composite materials for collimation system upgrades of present and future high power accelerators have been irradiated and their properties are being characterized. Most deliverables and milestones of the R&D programme were already reached before the end of...

  3. Charge states of ions, and mechanisms of charge ordering transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Warren E.; Quan, Yundi; Pardo, Victor

    2014-07-01

    To gain insight into the mechanism of charge ordering transitions, which conventionally are pictured as a disproportionation of an ion M as 2Mn+→M(n+1)+ + M(n-1)+, we (1) review and reconsider the charge state (or oxidation number) picture itself, (2) introduce new results for the putative charge ordering compound AgNiO2 and the dual charge state insulator AgO, and (3) analyze the cationic occupations of the actual (not formal) charge, and work to reconcile the conundrums that arise. We establish that several of the clearest cases of charge ordering transitions involve no disproportion (no charge transfer between the cations, and hence no charge ordering), and that the experimental data used to support charge ordering can be accounted for within density functional-based calculations that contain no charge transfer between cations. We propose that the charge state picture retains meaning and importance, at least in many cases, if one focuses on Wannier functions rather than atomic orbitals. The challenge of modeling charge ordering transitions with model Hamiltonians isdiscussed.

  4. Surface charge compensation for a highly charged ion emission microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.W.; Hamza, A.V.; Newman, M.W.; Holder, J.P.; Schneider, D.H.G.; Schenkel, T.

    2003-01-01

    A surface charge compensation electron flood gun has been added to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) highly charged ion (HCI) emission microscope. HCI surface interaction results in a significant charge residue being left on the surface of insulators and semiconductors. This residual charge causes undesirable aberrations in the microscope images and a reduction of the Time-Of-Flight (TOF) mass resolution when studying the surfaces of insulators and semiconductors. The benefits and problems associated with HCI microscopy and recent results of the electron flood gun enhanced HCI microscope are discussed

  5. High energy heavy ions: techniques and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, J.R.

    1985-04-01

    Pioneering work at the Bevalac has given significant insight into the field of relativistic heavy ions, both in the development of techniques for acceleration and delivery of these beams as well as in many novel areas of applications. This paper will outline our experiences at the Bevalac; ion sources, low velocity acceleration, matching to the synchrotron booster, and beam delivery. Applications discussed will include the observation of new effects in central nuclear collisions, production of beams of exotic short-lived (down to 1 μsec) isotopes through peripheral nuclear collisions, atomic physics with hydrogen-like uranium ions, effects of heavy ''cosmic rays'' on satellite equipment, and an ongoing cancer radiotherapy program with heavy ions. 39 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  6. Beamline for low-energy transport of highly charged ions at HITRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andelkovic, Z.; Herfurth, F.; Kotovskiy, N.; König, K.; Maaß, B.; Murböck, T.; Neidherr, D.; Schmidt, S.; Steinmann, J.; Vogel, M.; Vorobjev, G.

    2015-01-01

    A beamline for transport of highly charged ions with energies as low as a few keV/charge has been constructed and commissioned at GSI. Complementary to the existing infrastructure of the HITRAP facility for deceleration of highly charged ions from the GSI accelerator, the new beamline connects the HITRAP ion decelerator and an EBIT with the associated experimental setups. Therefore, the facility can now transport the decelerated heavy highly charged ions to the experiments or supply them offline with medium-heavy highly charged ions from the EBIT, both at energies as low as a few keV/charge. Here we present the design of the 20 m long beamline with the corresponding beam instrumentation, as well as its performance in terms of energy and transport efficiency

  7. Emittance growth from rotated quadrupoles in heavy ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    We derive a set of moment equations which incorporates linear quadrupolar focusing and space-charge defocusing, in the presence of rotational misalignments of the quadrupoles about the direction of beam propagation. Although the usual beam emittance measured relative to fixed transverse x and y coordinate axes is not constant, a conserved emittance-like quantity has been found. Implications for alignment tolerances in accelerators for heavy-ion inertial fusion are discussed

  8. Transport and error sensitivity in a heavy-ion recirculator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, W.M.; Barnard, J.J.; Yu, S.S.

    1991-05-01

    An envelope code has been developed to facilitate the design of a recirculating accelerator for a heavy-ion fusion reactor. A novel feature of the model is the treatment of the beam charge density as a Lagrangian fluid in the axial direction. Transport results for a preliminary recirculator design are presented, and sensitivity of the transport to errors in the magnet strength is discussed. 4 refs., 4 figs

  9. Transverse flow of kaons in heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng Yu Ming; Fuchs, C; Faessler, A; Xiao Wu; Hua Da Ping; Yan Yu Peng

    2002-01-01

    The transverse flow of positively charged kaons from heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energy is investigated within the framework of the quantum molecular dynamics model. The calculated results show that the experimental data are only consistent with those including the kaon mean-field potential from the chiral Lagrangian. This indicates that the transverse flow pattern of kaons is a useful probe of the kaon potential in a nuclear medium

  10. Atomic collisions in fusion plasmas involving multiply charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salzborn, E.

    1980-01-01

    A short survey is given on atomic collisions involving multiply charged ions. The basic features of charge transfer processes in ion-ion and ion-atom collisions relevant to fusion plasmas are discussed. (author)

  11. Two-photon decay in heavy atoms and ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokler, P.H.; Dunford, R.W

    2003-08-01

    We review the status of and comment on current developments in the field of two-photon decay in atomic physics research. Recent work has focused on two-photon decays in highly-charged ions and two-photon decay of inner-shell vacancies in heavy neutral atoms. We emphasize the importance of measuring the shape of the continuum emission in two-photon decay as a probe of relativistic effects in the strong central fields found in heavy atomic systems. New experimental approaches and their consequences will be discussed. (orig.)

  12. Generation of fast multiply charged ions in conical targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demchenko, V.V.; Chukbar, K.V.

    1990-01-01

    So-called conical targets, when the thermonuclear fuel is compressed and heated in a conical cavity in a heavy material (lead, gold, etc.) with the help of a spherical segment that is accelerated by a laser pulse or a beam of charged particles, are often employed in experimental studies of inertial-confinement fusion. In spite of the obvious advantages of such a scheme, one of which is a significant reduction of the required energy input compared with the complete spherical target, it also introduces additional effects into the process of cumulation of energy. In this paper the authors call attention to an effect observed in numerical calculations: the hydrodynamic heating of a small group of multiply charged heavy ions of the walls of the conical cavity up to high energies (T i approx-gt 100 keV). This effect ultimately occurs as a result of the high radiation losses of a multiply charged plasma

  13. CERN Heavy-Ion Facility design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, D.; Angert, N.; Bourgarel, M.P.; Brouzet, E.; Cappi, R.; Dekkers, D.; Evans, J.; Gelato, G.; Haseroth, H.; Hill, C.E.; Hutter, G.; Knott, J.; Kugler, H.; Lombardi, A.; Lustig, H.; Malwitz, E.; Nitsch, F.; Parisi, G.; Pisent, A.; Raich, U.; Ratzinger, U.; Riccati, L.; Schempp, A.; Schindl, K.; Schoenauer, H.; Tetu, P.; Umstaetter, H.H.; Rooij, M. van; Weiss, M.

    1993-01-01

    The design of the CERN Heavy-Ion Facility is described. This facility will be based on a new ion linear accelerator (Linac 3), together with improvements to the other accelerators of the CERN complex to allow them to cope with heavy ions, i.e. to the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB), the Proton Synchrotron (PS) and the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). For this reference design, the pure isotope of lead, 208 Pb, is considered. The bulk of the report describes Linac 3, a purpose-built heavy-ion linac mainly designed and constructed in collaboration with several CERN member state laboratories, but also with contributions from non-member states. Modifications and improvements to existing CERN accelerators essentially concern the RF acceleration, beam control and beam monitoring (all machines), beam kickers and septa at the input and output of the PSB, and major vacuum improvements, aiming to reduce the pressure by factors of at least seven and three in the PSB and PS respectively. After injection from the Electron Cyclotron Resonance source at 2.5 keV/u the partially stripped heavy-ion beam is accelerated successively by a Radio Frequency Quadrupole and an Interdigital-H linac to 4.2 MeV/u. After stripping to 208 Pb 53+ , the beam is again accelerated, firstly in the PSB (to 98.5 MeV/u), then in the PS (to 4.25 GeV/u). The final stage of acceleration in the SPS takes the fully stripped 208 Pb 82+ ions to 177 GeV/u, delivering a beam of 4.10 8 ions per SPS supercycle (15.2 s) to the experiments. The first physics run with lead ions is scheduled for the end of 1994. Finally, some requirements for carrying out heavy-ion physics at the Large Hadron Collider are mentioned. (orig.)

  14. Heavy quark photoproduction in ultraperipheral heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Spencer R.; Nystrand, Joakim; Vogt, Ramona

    2002-01-01

    Heavy quarks are copiously produced in ultraperipheral heavy ion collisions. In the strong electromagnetic fields, cc-bar and bb-bar are produced by photonuclear and two-photon interactions. Hadroproduction can also occur in grazing interactions. We calculate the total cross sections and the quark transverse momentum and rapidity distributions, as well as the QQ-bar invariant mass spectra from the three production channels. We consider AA and pA collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and the Large Hadron Collider. We discuss techniques for separating the three processes and describe how the AA to pA production ratios might be measured accurately enough to study nuclear shadowing

  15. Nonextensive electron and ion dust charging currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amour, Rabia; Tribeche, Mouloud

    2011-01-01

    The correct nonextensive electron and ion charging currents are presented for the first time based on the orbit motion limited approach. For -1< q<1, where q measures the amount of plasma nonextensivity, the nonextensive electron charging current is expressed in terms of the hypergeometric function. The variable dust charge is expressed in terms of the Lambert function and we take advantage of this transcendental function to investigate succinctly the effects of nonextensive charge carriers. The obtained formulas bring a possibility to build theories on nonlinear collective process in variable charge nonextensive dusty plasmas.

  16. Reaction mechanisms in heavy ion fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubian J.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the reaction mechanisms involved in heavy ion fusion. We begin with collisions of tightly bound systems, considering three energy regimes: energies above the Coulomb barrier, energies just below the barrier and deep sub-barrier energies. We show that channel coupling effects may influence the fusion process at above-barrier energies, increasing or reducing the cross section predicted by single barrier penetration model. Below the Coulomb barrier, it enhances the cross section, and this effect increases with the system’s size. It is argued that this behavior can be traced back to the increasing importance of Coulomb coupling with the charge of the collision partners. The sharp drop of the fusion cross section observed at deep sub-barrier energies is addressed and the theoretical approaches to this phenomenon are discussed. We then consider the reaction mechanisms involved in fusion reactions of weakly bound systems, paying particular attention to the calculations of complete and incomplete fusion available in the literature.

  17. Targets for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauser, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes some of the basic principles of fusion target implosions, using some simple targets designed for irradiation by ion beams. Present estimates are that ion beams with 1-5 MJ, and 100-500 TW will be required to ignite high gain targets. (orig.) [de

  18. Intense highly charged ion beam production and operation with a superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. W. Zhao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL is a superconducting-magnet-based electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS for the production of intense highly charged heavy ion beams. It is one of the best performing ECRISs worldwide and the first superconducting ECRIS built with an innovative magnet to generate a high strength minimum-B field for operation with heating microwaves up to 24–28 GHz. Since its commissioning in 2005, SECRAL has so far produced a good number of continuous wave intensity records of highly charged ion beams, in which recently the beam intensities of ^{40}Ar^{12+} and ^{129}Xe^{26+} have, for the first time, exceeded 1 emA produced by an ion source. Routine operations commenced in 2007 with the Heavy Ion accelerator Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL, China. Up to June 2017, SECRAL has been providing more than 28,000 hours of highly charged heavy ion beams to the accelerator demonstrating its great capability and reliability. The great achievement of SECRAL is accumulation of numerous technical advancements, such as an innovative magnetic system and an efficient double-frequency (24+18  GHz heating with improved plasma stability. This article reviews the development of SECRAL and production of intense highly charged ion beams by SECRAL focusing on its unique magnet design, source commissioning, performance studies and enhancements, beam quality and long-term operation. SECRAL development and its performance studies representatively reflect the achievements and status of the present ECR ion source, as well as the ECRIS impacts on HIRFL.

  19. Intense highly charged ion beam production and operation with a superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. W.; Sun, L. T.; Guo, J. W.; Lu, W.; Xie, D. Z.; Hitz, D.; Zhang, X. Z.; Yang, Y.

    2017-09-01

    The superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL) is a superconducting-magnet-based electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) for the production of intense highly charged heavy ion beams. It is one of the best performing ECRISs worldwide and the first superconducting ECRIS built with an innovative magnet to generate a high strength minimum-B field for operation with heating microwaves up to 24-28 GHz. Since its commissioning in 2005, SECRAL has so far produced a good number of continuous wave intensity records of highly charged ion beams, in which recently the beam intensities of 40Ar+ and 129Xe26+ have, for the first time, exceeded 1 emA produced by an ion source. Routine operations commenced in 2007 with the Heavy Ion accelerator Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL), China. Up to June 2017, SECRAL has been providing more than 28,000 hours of highly charged heavy ion beams to the accelerator demonstrating its great capability and reliability. The great achievement of SECRAL is accumulation of numerous technical advancements, such as an innovative magnetic system and an efficient double-frequency (24 +18 GHz ) heating with improved plasma stability. This article reviews the development of SECRAL and production of intense highly charged ion beams by SECRAL focusing on its unique magnet design, source commissioning, performance studies and enhancements, beam quality and long-term operation. SECRAL development and its performance studies representatively reflect the achievements and status of the present ECR ion source, as well as the ECRIS impacts on HIRFL.

  20. Heavy-ion induced current through an oxide layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Ohki, Takahiro; Nagasawa, Takaharu; Nakajima, Yasuhito; Kawanabe, Ryu; Ohnishi, Kazunori; Hirao, Toshio; Onoda, Shinobu; Mishima, Kenta; Kawano, Katsuyasu; Itoh, Hisayoshi

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the heavy-ion induced current in MOS structure is investigated. We have measured the transient gate current in a MOS capacitor and a MOSFET induced by single heavy-ions, and found that a transient current can be observed when the semiconductor surface is under depletion condition. In the case of MOSFET, a transient gate current with both positive and negative peaks is observed if the ion hits the gate area, and that the total integrated charge is almost zero within 100-200 ns after irradiation. From these results, we conclude that the radiation-induced gate current is dominated by a displacement current. We also discuss the generation mechanism of the radiation-induced current through the oxide layer by device simulation

  1. 0,01-5 MeV heavy ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubev, V.P.; Ivanov, A.S.; Nikiforov, S.A.; Svin'in, M.P.; Tarvid, G.V.; Troshikhin, A.G.; Fedotov, M.T.

    1983-01-01

    The results of development of an accelerating complex on the base of the UP-2-1 heavy ion charge exchange accelerator and IMPLANT-500 high-voltage heavy ion accelerator are given. The accelerating complex provides overlapping of the 0.01 MeV to 5 MeV energy range at accelerated beam currents of 10 -3 -10 -6 A order. The structural features of accelerators and their basic units and systems are considered. The UP-2-1 accelerator is designed for researches in the field of experimental physics and applied problem solutions. The IMPLANT-500 accelerator is designed for commercial ion-beam facilities with closed loop of silicon plate treatment

  2. Charge-exchange collisions of multiply charged ions with atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grozdanov, T.P.; Janev, R.K.

    1978-01-01

    The problem of electron transfer between neutral atoms and multiply charged ions is considered at low and medium energies. It is assumed that a large number of final states are available for the electron transition so that the electron-capture process is treated as a tunnel effect caused by the strong attractive Coulomb field of the multicharged ions. The electron transition probability is obtained in a closed form using the modified-comparison-equation method to solve the Schroedinger equation. An approximately linear dependence of the one-electron transfer cross section on the charge of multicharged ion is found. Cross-section calculations of a number of charge-exchange reactions are performed

  3. Techniques for enhancing the performance of high charge state ECR ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.Q.

    1999-01-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source (ECRIS), which produces singly to highly charged ions, is widely used in heavy ion accelerators and is finding applications in industry. It has progressed significantly in recent years thanks to a few techniques, such as multiple-frequency plasma heating, higher mirror magnetic fields and a better cold electron donor. These techniques greatly enhance the production of highly charged ions. More than 1 emA of He 2+ and O 6+ , hundreds of eμA of O 7+ , Ne 8+ , Ar 12+ , more than 100 eμA of intermediate heavy ions with charge states up to Ne 9+ , Ar 13+ , Ca 13+ , Fe 13+ , Co 14+ and Kr 18+ , tens of eμA of heavy ions with charge states up to Xe 28+ , Au 35+ , Bi 34+ and U 34+ were produced at cw mode operation. At an intensity of about 1 eμA, the charge states for the heavy ions increased up to Xe 36+ , Au 46+ , Bi 47+ and U 48+ . More than an order of magnitude enhancement of fully stripped argon ions was achieved (I≥0.1 and h;eμA). Higher charge state ions up to Kr 35+ , Xe 46+ and U 64+ at low intensities were produced for the first time from an ECRIS. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  4. Heavy-ion performance of the LHC and future colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaumann, Michaela

    2015-04-29

    In 2008 the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and its experiments started operation at the European Centre of Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva with the main aim of finding or excluding the Higgs boson. Only four years later, on the 4th of July 2012, the discovery of a Higgs-like particle was proven and first published by the two main experiments ATLAS and CMS. Even though proton-proton collisions are the main operation mode of the LHC, it also acts as an heavy-ion collider. Here, the term ''heavy-ion collisions'' refers to the collision between fully stripped nuclei. While the major hardware system of the LHC is compatible with heavy-ion operation, the beam dynamics and performance limits of ion beams are quite different from those of protons. Because of the higher mass and charge of the ions, beam dynamic effects like intra-beam scattering and radiation damping are stronger. Also the electromagnetic cross-sections in the collisions are larger, leading to significantly faster intensity decay and thus shorter luminosity lifetimes. As the production cross-sections for various physics processes under study of the experiments are still small at energies reachable with the LHC and because the heavy-ion run time is limited to a few days per year, it is essential to obtain the highest possible collision rate, i.e. maximise the instantaneous luminosity, in order to obtain enough events and therefore low statistical errors. Within this thesis, the past performance of the LHC in lead-lead (Pb-Pb) collisions, at a centre-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV per colliding nucleon pair, is analysed and potential luminosity limitations are identified. Tools are developed to predict future performance and techniques are presented to further increase the luminosity. Finally, a perspective on the future of high energy heavy-ion colliders is given.

  5. Data acquisition for the HILI [Heavy Ion Light Ion] detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teh, K.M.; Shapira, D.; McConnell, J.W.; Kim, H.; Novotny, R.

    1987-01-01

    A large acceptance, multi-segmented detector system capable of the simultaneous detection of heavy and light ions has been constructed. The heavy ions are detected with a segmented gas ionization chamber and a multiwire proportional counter while the light ions are detected with a 192 element plastic phoswich hodoscope. Processing the large number of signals is accomplished through a combination of CAMAC and FASTBUS modules and preprocessors, and a Host minicomputer. Details of the data acquisition system and the reasons for adopting a dual standards system are discussed. In addition, a technique for processing signals from an individual hodoscope detector is presented. 4 refs., 3 figs

  6. Smart responsive microcapsules capable of recognizing heavy metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Shuo-Wei; Ju, Xiao-Jie; Wu, Han-Guang; Xie, Rui; Chu, Liang-Yin

    2010-09-15

    Smart responsive microcapsules capable of recognizing heavy metal ions are successfully prepared with oil-in-water-in-oil double emulsions as templates for polymerization in this study. The microcapsules are featured with thin poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-benzo-18-crown-6-acrylamide) (P(NIPAM-co-BCAm)) membranes, and they can selectively recognize special heavy metal ions such as barium(II) or lead(II) ions very well due to the "host-guest" complexation between the BCAm receptors and barium(II) or lead(II) ions. The stable BCAm/Ba(2+) or BCAm/Pb(2+) complexes in the P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membrane cause a positive shift of the volume phase transition temperature of the crosslinked P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) hydrogel to a higher temperature, and the repulsion among the charged BCAm/Ba(2+) or BCAm/Pb(2+) complexes and the osmotic pressure within the P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membranes result in the swelling of microcapsules. Induced by recognizing barium(II) or lead(II) ions, the prepared microcapsules with P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membranes exhibit isothermal and significant swelling not only in outer and inner diameters but also in the membrane thickness. The proposed microcapsules in this study are highly attractive for developing smart sensors and/or carriers for detection and/or elimination of heavy metal ions. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The ECR heavy-ion source for ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo, R.C.; Billquist, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    The ATLAS PII-ECR ion source is the first ECR ion source to be designed for operation in a high voltage platform. The source system is required to provide beams of heavy ions with a velocity of 0.01c for subsequent acceleration by the superconducting ATLAS Positive Ion Injector Linac. At present, the ability of the system to provide high charge state ions with velocities up to .01c is probably unique and as such has generated significant interest in the atomic physics community. A beamline for atomic physics has been installed and is now in use. The source began operation in October, 1987. The source capabilities and operating experiences to date will be discussed. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Performance on the low charge state laser ion source in BNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamura, M.; Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Costanzo, M.; DeSanto, L.; Jamilkowski, J.; Kanesue, T.; Lambiase, R.; Lehn, D.; Liaw, C. J.; McCafferty, D.; Morris, J.; Olsen, R.; Pikin, A.; Raparia, D.; Steszyn, A.; Ikeda, S.

    2015-09-07

    On March 2014, a Laser Ion Source (LIS) was commissioned which delivers high-brightness, low-charge-state heavy ions for the hadron accelerator complex in Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Since then, the LIS has provided many heavy ion species successfully. The low-charge-state (mostly singly charged) beams are injected to the Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), where ions are then highly ionized to fit to the following accelerator’s Q/M acceptance, like Au32+. Recently we upgraded the LIS to be able to provide two different beams into EBIS on a pulse-to-pulse basis. Now the LIS is simultaneously providing beams for both the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL).

  9. Experiments on ion space-charge neutralization with pulsed electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herleb, U; Riege, H [CERN LHC-Division, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1997-12-31

    The method of space-charge neutralization of heavy ion beams with electron beam pulses generated with electron guns incorporating ferroelectric cathodes was investigated experimentally. Several experiments are described, the results of which prove that the intensity of selected ion beam parts with defined charge states generated in a laser ion source can be increased by an order of magnitude. For elevated charge states the intensity amplification is more significant and may reach a factor of 4 for highly charged ions from an Al target. (author). 7 figs., 3 -refs.

  10. Heavy ion induction linacs for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangerter, R.O.; Ho, D.D.M.

    1991-01-01

    In 1976 Denis Keefe proposed the heavy ion induction linac as a driver for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) power plants. Subsequent research has established that heavy ion fusion (HIF) is potentially an attractive energy source and has identified the issues that must be resolved to make HIF a reality. The principal accelerator issues are achieving adequately low transverse and longitudinal emittance and acceptable cost. Results from the single and multiple beam experiments at LBL on transverse emittance are encouraging. A predicted high current longitudinal instability that can affect longitudinal emittance is currently being studied. This paper presents an overview of economics and ICF target requirements and their relationship to accelerator design. It also presents a summary of the status of heavy ion induction linac research. It concludes with a discussion of research plans, including plans for the proposed Induction Linac Systems Experiments (ILSE)

  11. Synchrotrons for heavy ions: Bevalac experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunder, H.A.; Gough, R.A.; Alonso, J.R.

    1980-10-01

    The Bevalac should be viewed not as a model of accelerator hardware - a modern heavy ion complex will look quite different, but as a model for an operating versatile multifaceted, multiuser heavy ion facility. Of value to the planning of a new accelerator such as MARIA is the knowledge of operating modes peculiar to heavy ions and specific hardware requirements to carry out its mission with the mandated flexibility and reliability. This paper starts with a discussion of parameters and machine characteristics most suitable for medical and nuclear science applications. It then covers experience in interleaving these two research programs, and finally, concentrates on accelerator configuratin questions; injectors, repetition rate, vacuum systems and cost criteria which will be relevant to the design of MARIA

  12. Specific gene mutations induced by heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeling, M.; Karoly, C.W.; Cheng, D.S.K.

    1980-01-01

    This report summarizes our heavy-ion research rationale, progress, and plans for the near future. The major project involves selecting a group of maize Adh1 mutants induced by heavy ions and correlating their altered behavior with altered DNA nucleotide sequences and sequence arrangements. This research requires merging the techniques of classical genetics and recombinant DNA technology. Our secondary projects involve (1) the use of the Adh gene in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, as a second system with which to quantify the sort of specific gene mutants induced by heavy ions as compared to x rays, and (2) the development of a maize Adh1 pollen in situ monitor for environmental mutagens

  13. Limitations of heavy ion synchrotron acceleration for inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berley, D.; Danby, G.T.

    1977-01-01

    The potential benefits from heavy ion inertial fusion motivate the rapid development of a program to test the principle. To define the program, accelerator parameters which have not hitherto been commonly considered must be studied interactively with basic questions of space charge limitations and charge exchange. Beam lifetime and power output efficiency may ultimately lead to a linear accelerator as the choice for an ignition device. For proof of principle, however, at power levels way beyond present inertial fusion experience, synchrotrons may have applicability at lower cost. The power and energy which can be delivered by the accelerating system to the reaction chamber are limited by space charge defocussing and intra beam charge exchange scattering, both of which are beam density dependent. These put constraints on linac injector energy, synchrotron aperture, synchrotron magnetic rigidity, acceleration time, ion species and charge to mass ratio. The accelerator system considered is classical. A linear accelerator injects into a synchrotron which accelerates the ion beam to the full energy delivered to the target. The maximum energy deliverable by a synchrotron is treated in section I. The targetting parameters and the energy gained through synchrotron acceleration completely determine the synchrotron aperture. These are discussed in sections II and III. The ion range in material is treated in section IV. The problem of intrabeam scattering is considered in section V. Finally, in section VI is a discussion of examples to meet specified goals

  14. Interaction of heavy ions with hot ionized matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Dietrich, K.G.; Laux, W.; Boggasch, E.; Mahrt-Olt, K.; Wahl, H.; Golubev, A.A.; Dubenkov, V.P.

    1991-01-01

    The energy loss of heavy ions in a hydrogen plasma has been measured in an energy range from 1.4 to 6 MeV/u. A z-pinch has been used as a plasma target with a maximum free electron density of 1.5x10 19 cm -3 . Our data show a strong enhancement of the stopping power of the plasma compared to that of a cold gas with equal density. Charge state analysis of the ions also show a higher charge state of the ions in the plasma target, relative to the cold hydrogen gas targets. A plasma lens effect of the high power z-pinch discharge was observed in our experiments. (orig.)

  15. Electron cyclotron resonance multiply charged ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geller, R.

    1975-01-01

    Three ion sources, that deliver multiply charged ion beams are described. All of them are E.C.R. ion sources and are characterized by the fact that the electrons are emitted by the plasma itself and are accelerated to the adequate energy through electron cyclotron resonance (E.C.R.). They can work without interruption during several months in a quasi-continuous regime. (Duty cycle: [fr

  16. HIGH DENSITY QCD WITH HEAVY-IONS

    CERN Multimedia

    The Addendum 1 to Volume 2 of the CMS Physics TDR has been published The Heavy-Ion analysis group completed the writing of a TDR summarizing the CMS plans in using heavy ion collisions to study high density QCD. The document was submitted to the LHCC in March and presented in the Open Session of the LHCC on May 9th. The study of heavy-ion physics at the LHC is promising to be very exciting. LHC will open a new energy frontier in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion physics. The collision energy of heavy nuclei at sNN = 5.5 TeV will be thirty times larger than what is presently available at RHIC. We will certainly probe quark and gluon matter at unprecedented values of energy density. The prime goal of this research programme is to study the fundamental theory of the strong interaction - Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) - in extreme conditions of temperature, density and parton momentum fraction (low-x). Such studies, with impressive experimental and theoretical advances in recent years thanks to the wealth of high-qua...

  17. Heavy ion beams from the new Hungarian ECR ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biri, S.; Valek, A.; Ditroi, F.; Koivisto, H.; Arje, J.; Stiebing, K.; Schmidt, L.

    1998-01-01

    The first beams of highly charged ions in Hungary were obtained in fall of 1996. The new 14.5 GHz ECR ion source of ATOMKI produced beams of multiply charged ions with remarkable intensities at first experiments. Since then, numerous further developments were carried out. An external electrondonor electrode drastically increased the plasma density and, consequently, the intensity of highly charged ions. These upgrades concentrated mainly on beams from gaseous elements and were carried out by the ECRIS team of ATOMKI. Another series of experiments - ionising from solids - however, was done in the framework of an international collaboration. The first metal ion beam has been extracted from the ECRIS in November 1997 using the known method of Metal Ions from Volatile Compounds (MIVOC). The possibility to put the MIVOC chamber inside the ion source was also tested and the dosing regulation problem of metal vapours inside the ion source was solved. As a result, beams of more than 10 μA of highly charged Fe and Ni ions were produced. (author)

  18. Heavy ion source support gas mixing experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, E.D.; Mallory, M.L.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments on mixing an easily ionized support gas with the primary ion source gas have produced large beam enhancements for high charge state light ions (masses less than or equal to 20). In the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC), the beam increase has been a factor of 5 or greater, depending on ion species and charge state. Approximately 0.1 cc/min of the easily ionized support gas (argon, krypton, or xenon) is supplied to the ion source through a separate gas line and the primary gas flow is reduced by approximately 30 percent. The proposed mechanism for increased intensity is as follows: The heavier support gas ionizes readily to a higher charge state, providing increased cathode heating. The increased heating permits a reduction in primary gas flow (lower pressure) and the subsequent beam increase

  19. Induction linacs for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.

    1986-11-01

    Experimental progress to date has strengthened our belief in the soundness and attractiveness of the heavy ion method for fusion. What surprises that have shown up in the laboratory (e.g., in SBTE) have all been of the pleasant kind so far. The systems assessment has supported the view that the heavy ion approach can lead to economically attractive electric power and that a wide variety of options exists in all parameters. The systems work has also been of great help in pointing the way for the research and development activities

  20. Penetration of relativistic heavy ions through matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheidenberger, C.; Geissel, H.

    1997-07-01

    New heavy-ion accelerators covering the relativistic and ultra-relativistic energy regime allow to study atomic collisions with bare and few-electron projectiles. High-resolution magnetic spectrometers are used for precise stopping-power and energy-loss straggling measurements. Refined theories beyond the Born approximation have been developed and are confirmed by experiments. This paper summarizes the large progress in the understanding of relativistic heavy-ion penetration through matter, which has been achieved in the last few years. (orig.)

  1. Next generation of relativistic heavy ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunder, H.; Leemann, C.; Selph, F.

    1978-06-01

    Results are presented of exploratory and preliminary studies of a next generation of heavy ion accelerators. The conclusion is reached that useful luminosities are feasible in a colliding beam facility for relativistic heavy ions. Such an accelerator complex may be laid out in such a way as to provide extractebeams for fixed target operation, therefore allowing experimentation in an energy region overlapping with that presently available. These dual goals seem achievable without undue complications, or penalties with respect to cost and/or performance

  2. Heavy ion and hadron reactions in emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otterlund, I.

    1979-04-01

    Recent results from heavy ion and hadron reactions in emulsion are reviewed. General properties of hadron-reaction multiplicities and their correlation to the production of recoiling protons are given. Properties of pseudo-rapidity distributions of shower-particles especially the particle production in the central region of pseudo-rapidity will be discussed. Non-peripheral heavy ion reactions are compared to recent participant-spectator model calculations. Very energetic cosmic ray events will be examined in the light of recent results from hadron-nucleus reactions. (author)

  3. European heavy ion ICF driver development

    CERN Document Server

    Plass, Günther

    1996-01-01

    Approaches in Europe to heavy ion induced Inertial Confinement Fusion are oriented toward the linac-plus- storage ring technique. Despite the very limited support of this work, technical pro gress was achieved in some important areas. For the immediate future, a substantial intensity upgrade of the GSI accelerator facilities at Darmstadt is being implemented, leading to specific energy depositions of the order of 100 kJ/g and plasma temperatures of 10 to 20 eV. For the longer term, a conceptual design study of a heavy ion based Ignition Facility is being initiated.

  4. Review of BNL heavy ion physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miake, Yasuo.

    1990-01-01

    With an intent to search for a new state of matter, a relativistic heavy ion program was started in 1986 at BNL. Several interesting features have been reported from BNL-AGS heavy ion experiments, among which are: the enhanced K + /π + ratio and the larger left-angle m t right-angle for K + and proton. Comparisons between ∼pp, pA and SiA collisions are discussed for m t and dn/dy distributions. 33 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  5. Bremsstrahlung from relativistic heavy ions in matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan Hvidkjær

    2010-01-01

    The emission of electromagnetic radiation by relativistic bare heavy ions penetrating ordinary matter is investigated. Our main aim is to determine the bremsstrahlung which we define as the radiation emitted when the projectile does not break up. It pertains to collisions without nuclear contact....... As a result of its relative softness, bremsstrahlung never dominates the energy-loss process for heavy ions. As to the emission of electromagnetic radiation in collisions with nuclear break-up, it appears modest when pertaining to incoherent action of the projectile nucleons in noncontact collisions...

  6. Hadron chemistry in heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montvay, I.; Zimanyi, J.

    1978-06-01

    In the models for energetic heavy ion reactions it is assumed that during the reaction a hot and dense nuclear matter, a fireball is formed from all or a part of nucleons of the target and projectile nuclei. The process is similar to the chemical processes leading to dynamical equilibrium. The relaxation times necessary to establish ''chemical'' equilibrium among different hadrons in hot, dense hadronic matter is deducted in a statistical model. Consequences for heavy ion collisions are discussed. The possibility of Bose-Einstein pion condensation around the break-up time of the nuclear fireball is pointed out. (D.P.)

  7. Jets in heavy ion collisions with CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Salur, Sevil

    2016-01-01

    Jet physics in heavy ion collisions is a rich field which has been rapidly evolving since the first observations of medium interactions at RHIC through back-to-back hadron correlations and at LHC via reconstructed jets. In order to completely characterize the final state via jet-medium interactions and distinguish between competing energy loss mechanisms complementary and robust jet observables are investigated. Latest developments of jet finding techniques and their applications to heavy ion environments are discussed with an emphasis given on experimental results from CMS experiment.

  8. New developments in heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1984-01-01

    Beginning in 1984, the US Department of Energy plans a program aimed at determining the feasibility of using heavy ion accelerators as pellet drivers for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). This paper will describe the events in the field of Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) that have occurred in the three years since the Lausanne Conference in this series. The emphasis will be on the events leading towards the energy oriented program. In addition to providing an overview of progress in HIF, such a discussion may prove useful for promoters of any ''emerging'' energy technology. (orig.) [de

  9. Reaction mechanism in high energy heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanihata, Isao.

    1982-04-01

    The reaction mechanism in high energy heavy-ion collision is discussed. The discussion is mainly based on the experimental data. Empirical equations have been given for the total cross-sections of nucleus-nucleus reactions and the reaction cross-sections. These cross-sections are well described by the geometrical size of the colliding nuclei. The cross-sections are also understood by microscopic calculation. The charged particle multiplicity gives additional information about the geometrical aspect of heavy ion collision. The data suggested that the total energy, independent of projectile size, is most important for determining the multiplicity. The inclusive proton spectrum in a heavy ion collision showed two distinct regions. The one is the fragment region, and the other the participant region. The spectral shapes of inclusive pion spectra are reasonably well explained by the Coulomb interaction of pions with nuclear fragments. The high energy heavy ion reaction occurs in the overlap region of the projectile and target. This has been tested by measuring the number of participants for various reactions. The space and the time structure of the collision are also discussed in this paper as well as the dynamical aspects of the collision. (Kato, T.)

  10. Structure of very heavy few-electron ions - new results from the heavy ion storage ring, ESR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokler, P.H.; Stoehlker, T.; Kozhuharov, C.; Moshammer, R.; Rymuza, P.; Bosch, F.; Kandler, T.

    1993-08-01

    The heavy ion synchrotron/storage ring facility at GSI, SIS/ESR, provides intense beams of cooled, highly-charged ions up to naked uranium (U 92+ ). By electron capture during ion-atom collisions in the gas target of the ESR or by recombination at ion-electron encounters in the ''electron cooler'' excited states are populated. The detailed structure of very heavy one-, two- and three-electron ions is studied. The different mechanisms leading to the excited states are described, as well as the new experimental tools now available for a detailed spectroscopy of these interesting systems. Special emphasis is given to X-ray transitions to the groundstates in H- and He-like systems. For the heaviest species the groundstate Lambshift can now be probed on an accuracy level of better than 10% using solid-state X-ray detectors. Applying dispersive X-ray analyzing techniques, this accuracy will certainly be improved in future. However, utilizing the dielectronic resonances for a spectroscopy, the structure in Li-like heavy ions can already be probed now on the sub eV level. (orig.)

  11. Heavy ion acceleration at the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.Y.

    1989-01-01

    The Brookhaven AGS is alternating gradient synchrotron, 807 meters in circumference, which was originally designed for only protons. Using the 15 MV Brookhaven Tandem Van de Graaff as an injector, the AGS started to accelerate heavy ions of mass lighter than sulfur. Because of the relatively poor vacuum (∼10 -8 Torr), the AGS is not able to accelerate heavier ions which could not be fully stripped of electrons at the Tandem energy. When the AGS Booster, which is under construction, is completed the operation will be extended to all species of heavy ions including gold and uranium. Because ultra-high vacuum (∼10 -11 Torr) is planned, the Booster can accelerate partially stripped elements. The operational experience, the parameters, and scheme of heavy ion acceleration will be presented in detail from injection to extraction, as well as future injection into the new Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). A future plan to improve intensity of the accelerator will also be presented. 5 figs., 4 tabs

  12. Highly charged ion trapping and cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, B. R.; Church, D. A.; Gruber, L.; Holder, J. P.; Schneider, D.; Steiger, J.

    1998-01-01

    In the past few years a cryogenic Penning trap (RETRAP) has been operational at the Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The combination of RETRAP and EBIT provides a unique possibility of producing and re-trapping highly charged ions and cooling them to very low temperatures. Due to the high Coulomb potentials in such an ensemble of cold highly charged ions the Coulomb coupling parameter (the ratio of Coulomb potential to the thermal energy) can easily reach values of 172 and more. To study such systems is not only of interest in astrophysics to simulate White Dwarf star interiors but opens up new possibilities in a variety of areas (e.g. laser spectroscopy), cold highly charged ion beams

  13. Space-charge compensation of highly charged ion beam from laser ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrashev, S.A.; Collier, J.; Sherwood, T.R.

    1996-01-01

    The problem of matching an ion beam delivered by a high-intensity ion source with an accelerator is considered. The experimental results of highly charged ion beam transport with space-charge compensation by electrons are presented. A tungsten thermionic cathode is used as a source of electrons for beam compensation. An increase of ion beam current density by a factor of 25 is obtained as a result of space-charge compensation at a distance of 3 m from the extraction system. The process of ion beam space-charge compensation, requirements for a source of electrons, and the influence of recombination losses in a space-charge-compensated ion beam are discussed. (author)

  14. Coherent instability of the heavy ion beam in the storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, A.

    1981-01-01

    The storage ring as the final part of a driver for heavy ion fusion is required to provide heavy ions (A asymptotically equals 200) with energy of 5 -- 10 GeV and such a high intensity as 1 -- 6 x 10 15 ions/pulse. So as to raise the number of ions which can be accumulated in a ring, singlly charged heavy ion is used for its relatively smaller incoherent space charge force compared with higher charge states. The intensity limit due to incoherent space charge force is 0.7 -- 1.4 x 10 15 ions for U 1 + . Much more severe limits exist due to coherent motion of heavy ion beams (0.8 -- 2 x 10 13 for longitudinal motion and 0.9 -- 1.1 x 10 12 for transverse motion), because of the relatively lower velocity of the accumulated ions. It seems unrealistic to use a lot of rings in order to operate below such intensity limits of the above instability. Therefore the number of the storage rings is constrained within a reasonable value (3 -- 7) and the possibility of compressing the bunches of heavy ion beams before the instability grows fatally large is studied. (author)

  15. Computing for Heavy Ion Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, G.; Schiff, D.; Hristov, P.; Menaud, J.M.; Hrivnacova, I.; Poizat, P.; Chabratova, G.; Albin-Amiot, H.; Carminati, F.; Peters, A.; Schutz, Y.; Safarik, K.; Ollitrault, J.Y.; Hrivnacova, I.; Morsch, A.; Gheata, A.; Morsch, A.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Lauret, J.; Nief, J.Y.; Pereira, H.; Kaczmarek, O.; Conesa Del Valle, Z.; Guernane, R.; Stocco, D.; Gruwe, M.; Betev, L.; Baldisseri, A.; Vilakazi, Z.; Rapp, B.; Masoni, A.; Stoicea, G.; Brun, R.

    2005-01-01

    This workshop was devoted to the computational technologies needed for the heavy quarkonia and open flavor production study at LHC (large hadron collider) experiments. These requirements are huge: peta-bytes of data will be generated each year. Analysing this will require the equivalent of a few thousands of today's fastest PC processors. The new developments in terms of dedicated software has been addressed. This document gathers the transparencies that were presented at the workshop

  16. Computing for Heavy Ion Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, G.; Schiff, D.; Hristov, P.; Menaud, J.M.; Hrivnacova, I.; Poizat, P.; Chabratova, G.; Albin-Amiot, H.; Carminati, F.; Peters, A.; Schutz, Y.; Safarik, K.; Ollitrault, J.Y.; Hrivnacova, I.; Morsch, A.; Gheata, A.; Morsch, A.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Lauret, J.; Nief, J.Y.; Pereira, H.; Kaczmarek, O.; Conesa Del Valle, Z.; Guernane, R.; Stocco, D.; Gruwe, M.; Betev, L.; Baldisseri, A.; Vilakazi, Z.; Rapp, B.; Masoni, A.; Stoicea, G.; Brun, R

    2005-07-01

    This workshop was devoted to the computational technologies needed for the heavy quarkonia and open flavor production study at LHC (large hadron collider) experiments. These requirements are huge: peta-bytes of data will be generated each year. Analysing this will require the equivalent of a few thousands of today's fastest PC processors. The new developments in terms of dedicated software has been addressed. This document gathers the transparencies that were presented at the workshop.

  17. Computing for Heavy Ion Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, G; Schiff, D; Hristov, P; Menaud, J M; Hrivnacova, I; Poizat, P; Chabratova, G; Albin-Amiot, H; Carminati, F; Peters, A; Schutz, Y; Safarik, K; Ollitrault, J Y; Hrivnacova, I; Morsch, A; Gheata, A; Morsch, A; Vande Vyvre, P; Lauret, J; Nief, J Y; Pereira, H; Kaczmarek, O; Conesa Del Valle, Z; Guernane, R; Stocco, D; Gruwe, M; Betev, L; Baldisseri, A; Vilakazi, Z; Rapp, B; Masoni, A; Stoicea, G; Brun, R

    2005-07-01

    This workshop was devoted to the computational technologies needed for the heavy quarkonia and open flavor production study at LHC (large hadron collider) experiments. These requirements are huge: peta-bytes of data will be generated each year. Analysing this will require the equivalent of a few thousands of today's fastest PC processors. The new developments in terms of dedicated software has been addressed. This document gathers the transparencies that were presented at the workshop.

  18. Experimental aspects of S.H.I.C. (Swift Heavy Ion Channeling)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quere, Y.; Mory, J.; Castro Faria, N.V. de; Chevallier, M.; Gaillard, M.J.; Genre, R.; Farizon-Mazuy, B.; Poizat, J.C.; Remillieux, J.; Dural, J.; Toulemonde, M.; Hage-Ali, M.

    1989-01-01

    We have studied the behaviour of swift heavy ions, of initial charge Z 0 , transmitted in a crystal. More precisely we have measured, for various values of Z 0 , the mean stopping power experienced by the ions of exit charge Z, together with the charge distribution n(Z). In this short note, we describe briefly the instrumental set-up, and give two specific results which make it possible to appreciate the accuracy and sensitivity of the experiment

  19. Design status of heavy ion injector program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballard, E.O.; Meyer, E.A.; Rutkowski, H.L.; Shurter, R.P.; Van Haaften, F.W.; Riepe, K.B.

    1985-01-01

    Design and development of a sixteen beam, heavy ion injector is in progress at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to demonstrate the injector technology for the High Temperature Experiment (HTE) proposed by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LBL). The injector design provides for individual ion sources mounted to a support plate defining the sixteen beam array. The beamlets are electrostatically accelerated through a series of electrodes inside an evacuated (10 -7 torr) high voltage (HV) accelerating column

  20. High resolution spectrometry for relativistic heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabor, G; Schimmerling, W; Greiner, D; Bieser, F; Lindstrom, P [California Univ., Berkeley (USA). Lawrence Berkeley Lab.

    1975-12-01

    Several techniques are discussed for velocity and energy spectrometry of relativistic heavy ions with good resolution. A foil telescope with chevron channel plate detectors is described. A test of this telescope was performed using 2.1 GeV/A C/sup 6 +/ ions, and a time-of-flight resolution of 160 ps was measured. Qualitative information on the effect of foil thickness was also obtained.

  1. Faster Heavy Ion Transport for HZETRN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaba, Tony C.

    2013-01-01

    The deterministic particle transport code HZETRN was developed to enable fast and accurate space radiation transport through materials. As more complex transport solutions are implemented for neutrons, light ions (Z heavy ion (Z > 2) transport algorithm in HZETRN is reviewed, and a simple modification is shown to provide an approximate 5x decrease in execution time for galactic cosmic ray transport. Convergence tests and other comparisons are carried out to verify that numerical accuracy is maintained in the new algorithm.

  2. New development of laser ion source for highly charged ion beam production at Institute of Modern Physics (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H Y; Zhang, J J; Jin, Q Y; Liu, W; Wang, G C; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Zhao, H W

    2016-02-01

    A laser ion source based on Nd:YAG laser has been being studied at the Institute of Modern Physics for the production of high intensity high charge state heavy ion beams in the past ten years, for possible applications both in a future accelerator complex and in heavy ion cancer therapy facilities. Based on the previous results for the production of multiple-charged ions from a wide range of heavy elements with a 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser [Zhao et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 02B910 (2014)], higher laser energy and intensity in the focal spot are necessary for the production of highly charged ions from the elements heavier than aluminum. Therefore, the laser ion source was upgraded with a new Nd:YAG laser, the maximum energy of which is 8 J and the pulse duration can be adjusted from 8 to 18 ns. Since then, the charge state distributions of ions from various elements generated by the 8 J Nd:YAG laser were investigated for different experimental conditions, such as laser energy, pulse duration, power density in the focal spot, and incidence angle. It was shown that the incidence angle is one of the most important parameters for the production of highly charged ions. The capability of producing highly charged ions from the elements lighter than silver was demonstrated with the incidence angle of 10° and laser power density of 8 × 10(13) W cm(-2) in the focal spot, which makes a laser ion source complementary to the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the future accelerator complex especially in terms of the ion beam production from some refractory elements. Nevertheless, great efforts with regard to the extraction of intense ion beams, modification of the ion beam pulse duration, and reliability of the ion source still need to be made for practical applications.

  3. Heavy-ion performance of the LHC and future colliders

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)696614; Stahl, Achim; Jowett, John M

    2015-10-09

    In 2008 the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and its experiments started operation at the European Centre of Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva with the main aim of finding or excluding the Higgs boson. Only four years later, on the 4th of July 2012, the discovery of a Higgs-like particle was proven and first published by the two main experiments ATLAS and CMS. Even though proton–proton collisions are the main operation mode of the LHC, it also acts as an heavy-ion collider. Here, the term “heavy-ion collisions” refers to the collision between fully stripped nuclei. While the major hardware system of the LHC is compatible with heavy-ion operation, the beam dynamics and performance limits of ion beams are quite different from those of protons. Because of the higher mass and charge of the ions, beam dynamic effects like intra-beam scattering and radiation damping are stronger. Also the electromagnetic cross-sections in the collisions are larger, leading to significantly faster intensity decay and thus shorter l...

  4. Relativistic, QED and nuclear effects in highly charged ions revealed by resonant electron-ion recombination in storage rings

    OpenAIRE

    Schippers, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Dielectronic recombination (DR) of few-electron ions has evolved into a sensitive spectroscopic tool for highly charged ions. This is due to technological advances in electron-beam preparation and ion-beam cooling techniques at heavy-ion storage rings. Recent experiments prove unambiguously that DR collision spectroscopy has become sensitive to 2nd order QED and to nuclear effects. This review discusses the most recent developments in high-resolution spectroscopy of low-energy DR resonances, ...

  5. Heavy ion driven LMF design concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.P.

    1991-08-01

    The USA Department of Energy has conducted a multi-year study of the requirements, designs and costs for a Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF). The primary purpose of the LMF would be testing of weapons physics and effects simulation using the output from microexplosions of inertial fusion pellets. It does not need a high repetition rate, efficient driver system as required by an electrical generating plant. However there would be so many features in common that the design, construction and operation of an LMF would considerably advance the application of inertial confinement fusion to energy production. The DOE study has concentrated particularly on the LMF driver, with design and component development undertaken at several national laboratories. Principally, these are LLNL (Solid State Laser), LANL (Gas Laser), and SNLA (Light Ions). Heavy Ions, although considered a possible LMF driver did not receive attention until the final stages of this study since its program management was through the Office of Energy Research rather than Defense Programs. During preparation of a summary report for the study it was decided that some account of heavy ions was needed for a complete survey of the driver candidates. A conceptual heavy ion LMF driver design was created for the DOE report which is titled LMC Phase II Design Concepts. The heavy ion driver did not receive the level of scrutiny of the other concepts and, unlike the others, no costs analysis by an independent contractor was performed. Since much of heavy ion driver design lore was brought together in this exercise it is worthwhile to make it available as an independent report. This is reproduced here as it appears in the DOE report

  6. Heavy ion irradiation of astrophysical ice analogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, Eduardo Seperuelo; Domaracka, Alicja; Boduch, Philippe; Rothard, Hermann; Balanzat, Emmanuel; Dartois, Emmanuel; Pilling, Sergio; Farenzena, Lucio; Frota da Silveira, Enio

    2009-01-01

    Icy grain mantles consist of small molecules containing hydrogen, carbon, oxygen and nitrogen atoms (e.g. H 2 O, GO, CO 2 , NH 3 ). Such ices, present in different astrophysical environments (giant planets satellites, comets, dense clouds, and protoplanetary disks), are subjected to irradiation of different energetic particles: UV radiation, ion bombardment (solar and stellar wind as well as galactic cosmic rays), and secondary electrons due to cosmic ray ionization of H 2 . The interaction of these particles with astrophysical ice analogs has been the object of research over the last decades. However, there is a lack of information on the effects induced by the heavy ion component of cosmic rays in the electronic energy loss regime. The aim of the present work is to simulate of the astrophysical environment where ice mantles are exposed to the heavy ion cosmic ray irradiation. Sample ice films at 13 K were irradiated by nickel ions with energies in the 1-10 MeV/u range and analyzed by means of FTIR spectrometry. Nickel ions were used because their energy deposition is similar to that deposited by iron ions, which are particularly abundant cosmic rays amongst the heaviest ones. In this work the effects caused by nickel ions on condensed gases are studied (destruction and production of molecules as well as associated cross sections, sputtering yields) and compared with respective values for light ions and UV photons. (authors)

  7. Two-photon processes in highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahrsetz, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Two-photon processes are atomic processes in which an atom interacts simultaneously with two photons. Such processes describe a wide range of phenomena, such as two-photon decay and elastic or inelastic scattering of photons. In recent years two-photon processes involving highly charged heavy ions have become an active area of research. Such studies do not only consider the total transition or scattering rates but also their angular and polarization dependence. To support such examinations in this thesis I present a theoretical framework to describe these properties in all two-photon processes with bound initial and final states and involving heavy H-like or He-like ions. I demonstrate how this framework can be used in some detailed studies of different two-photon processes. Specifically a detailed analysis of two-photon decay of H-like and He-like ions in strong external electromagnetic fields shows the importance of considering the effect of such fields for the physics of such systems. Furthermore I studied the elastic Rayleigh as well as inelastic Raman scattering by heavy H-like ions. I found a number of previously unobserved phenomena in the angular and polarization dependence of the scattering cross-sections that do not only allow to study interesting details of the electronic structure of the ion but might also be useful for the measurement of weak physical effects in such systems.

  8. Two-photon processes in highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahrsetz, Thorsten

    2015-03-05

    Two-photon processes are atomic processes in which an atom interacts simultaneously with two photons. Such processes describe a wide range of phenomena, such as two-photon decay and elastic or inelastic scattering of photons. In recent years two-photon processes involving highly charged heavy ions have become an active area of research. Such studies do not only consider the total transition or scattering rates but also their angular and polarization dependence. To support such examinations in this thesis I present a theoretical framework to describe these properties in all two-photon processes with bound initial and final states and involving heavy H-like or He-like ions. I demonstrate how this framework can be used in some detailed studies of different two-photon processes. Specifically a detailed analysis of two-photon decay of H-like and He-like ions in strong external electromagnetic fields shows the importance of considering the effect of such fields for the physics of such systems. Furthermore I studied the elastic Rayleigh as well as inelastic Raman scattering by heavy H-like ions. I found a number of previously unobserved phenomena in the angular and polarization dependence of the scattering cross-sections that do not only allow to study interesting details of the electronic structure of the ion but might also be useful for the measurement of weak physical effects in such systems.

  9. Multiply charged carbon-ion production for medical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, A.; Muramatsu, M.; Sasaki, N.; Takasugi, W.; Wakaisami, S.; Biri, S.; Drentje, A. G.

    2008-01-01

    Over 3000 cancer patients have already been treated by the heavy-ion medical accelerator in Chiba at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences since 1994. The clinical results have clearly verified the effectiveness and safety of heavy-ion radiotherapy. The most important result has been to establish that the carbon ion is one of the most effective radiations for radiotherapy. The ion source is required to realize a stable beam with the same conditions for daily operation. However, the deposition of carbon ions on the wall of the plasma chamber is normally unavoidable. This causes an ''anti-wall-coating effect,'' i.e., a decreasing of the beam, especially for the higher charge-state ions due to the surface material of the wall. The ion source must be required to produce a sufficiently intense beam under the bad condition. Other problems were solved by improvements and maintenance, and thus we obtained enough reproducibility and stability along with decreased failures. We summarize our over 13 years of experience, and show the scope for further developments

  10. The GOES-16 Energetic Heavy Ion Sensor (EHIS) Ion Composition and Flux Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, J. J.; Lopate, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Energetic Heavy Ion Sensor (EHIS) was built by the University of New Hampshire, subcontracted to Assurance Technology Corporation, as part of the Space Environmental In-Situ Suite (SEISS) on the new GOES-16 satellite (formerly GOES-R) in Geostationary orbit. EHIS measures energetic ions over the range 10-200 MeV for protons, and energy ranges for heavy ions corresponding to the same stopping range (e.g., 19-207 MeV/u for carbon and 38-488 MeV/u for iron). EHIS uses the Angle Detecting Inclined Sensors (ADIS) technique to provide single-element charge resolution. Though on an operational mission for Space Weather monitoring, EHIS can thus provide a new source of high quality Solar Particle Event (SPE) data for science studies. With a high rate of on-board processing ( 2000 events/s), EHIS will provide exceptional statistics for ion composition measurements in large SPEs. For the GOES Level 1-B and Level 2 data products, heavy ions are distinguished in EHIS using pulse-height analysis with on-board processing producing charge histograms for five energy bands. Fits to these data are normalized to priority rate data on the ground. The instrumental cadence for histograms is 1 minute and the primary Level 1-B heavy ion data products are 1-minute and 5-minute averages. We discuss the preliminary EHIS heavy ion data results which show elemental peaks from H to Fe, with peaks for the isotopes D and 3He. (GOES-16 was launched in 19 November, 2016 and data has, though July 2017, been dominated by Galactic Cosmic Rays.) The EHIS instrument development project was funded by NASA under contract NNG06HX01C.

  11. Experimental characterization of the Hitrap Cooler trap with highly charged ions.

    OpenAIRE

    Fedotova, Svetlana

    2013-01-01

    The HITRAP (Highly charged Ions TRAP)facility is being set up and commissioned at GSI, Darmstadt. It will provide heavy, highly charged ions at low velocities to high-precision atomic physics experiments. Within this work the Cooler trap- the key element of the HITRAP facility was tested. The Cooler trap was assembled, aligned, and commissioned in trapping experiments with ions from off-line sources.The work performed within the scope of this thesis provided the baseline for further operation...

  12. Overview of US heavy-ion fusion progress and plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, G.; Bieniosek, F.; Celata, C.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.; Prost, L.; Roy, P.; Seidl, P.A.; Eylon, S.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W.; Yu, S.; Barnard, J.; Callahan, D.; Cohen, R.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Meier, W.R.; Molvik, A.; Lund, S.; Davidson, R.; Efthimion, P.; Gilson, E.; Grisham, L.; Kaganovich, I.; Qin, H.; Startsev, E.; Rose, D.; Welch, D.; Olson, C.; Kishek, R.; O'Shea, P.; Haber, I.

    2005-01-01

    Significant experimental and theoretical progress has been made in the US heavy-ion fusion program on high-current sources, injectors, transport, final focusing, chambers and targets for high-energy density physics (HEDP) and inertial fusion energy (IFE) driven by induction linac accelerators. One focus of present research is the beam physics associated with quadrupole focusing of intense, space-charge dominated heavy-ion beams, including gas and electron cloud effects at high currents, and the study of long-distance-propagation effects such as emittance growth due to field errors in scaled experiments. A second area of emphasis in present research is the introduction of background plasma to neutralize the space charge of intense heavy-ion beams and assist in focusing the beams to a small spot size. In the near future, research will continue in the above areas, and a new area of emphasis will be to explore the physics of neutralized beam compression and focusing to high intensities required to heat targets to high-energy density conditions as well as for inertial fusion energy

  13. Heavy ion results from CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Milosevic, Jovan

    2016-01-01

    Two- and multi-particle angular correlations in pp, pPb and PbPb collisions at the LHC energies are presented as a function of centrality, charged-particle multiplicity and transverse momentum ($p_{T}$). The data were collected using the CMS detector. The Fourier coefficents in PbPb collisions are measured over an extended $p_{T}$ range up to 100 GeV/c. These $v_{n}$ measurements at high-$p_{T}$ are complementary to the $R_{AA}$ measurements. The elliptic flow of charged and strange particles and the triangular flow of charged particles in pp collisions is measured using the two-particle correlations. A clear mass ordering effect is observed for low-$p_{T}$ $v_{2}$ values. For the first time, in 13 TeV pp collisions, the $v_{2}$ is extracted from four- and six-particle correlations, and is comparable to the $v_{2}$ from two-particle correlations. This supports the collective nature of the long-range correlations in high-multiplicity pp collisions. A Principle Component Analysis (PCA) of two-particle correlati...

  14. Comparison of the ion induced charge collection in Si epilayer and SOI devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirao, Toshio; Mori, Hidenobu; Laird, Jamie Stuart; Onoda, Shinobu; Itoh, Hisayoshi

    2003-01-01

    It is known that the single-event phenomena (SEP) are the malfunction of micro electronics devices caused by the impact of an energetic heavy ion. Improving the tolerance of devices to the SEP requires a better understanding of basic charge collection mechanisms on the timescales of the order of picoseconds. In order to better elucidate these mechanisms, we measure the fast transient current resulting from heavy ion strikes with a fast sampling data collection system and a heavy ion microbeam line at JAERI. In this paper we report on differences in both the transient current and charge collection from 15 MeV carbon ions on silicon-on-insulator, Si epilayer and bulk p + n junction diodes and charge transportation under MeV ion injection is discussed

  15. rf linac approach to heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swenson, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    The necessary properties of funneling particle beams from multiple accelerators into combined beams having higher current are outlined, and methods are proposed which maximize the efficiency of this process. A heavy ion fusion driver system example is presented which shows the large advantages in system efficiency to be gained by proper funneling

  16. New generation of heavy ion facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    A report is given on the status of major heavy ion accelerator projects that are funded and under construction and a few still in the proposal state. New facilities that are expected to become operational between now and the mid-1980's are reviewed. The major directions being pursued by this next generation of machines and new features being introduced are discussed

  17. Prospects for Heavy Ion Physics with LHCb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manca, Giulia

    2016-12-15

    We will discuss the potential of the LHCb experiment in the field of Heavy Ion physics. We will analyse three different scenarios which can be explored by the experiment, namely collisions of protons with lead, lead with lead and proton or lead beams with a gas injected in the interaction region. We will also show results in some of these configurations.

  18. Detectors for relativistic heavy-ion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun-Munzinger, P.; Cleland, W.; Young, G.R.

    1989-04-01

    We present in some detail an overview of the detectors currently used in relativistic heavy-ion research at the BNL AGS and the CERN SPS. Following that, a detailed list of RandD projects is given, including specific areas of work which need to be addressed in preparation for further experiments at the AGS and SPS for the upcoming experiments at RHIC

  19. Heavy ion measurements at ATLAS and CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Chapon, Emilien

    2018-01-01

    We present an overview of recent results from the ATLAS and CMS collaborations on heavy ion physics. Using data from proton-proton, proton-lead and lead-lead collisions at the LHC, these results help to shed light on the properties of nuclear matter.

  20. Jet Tomography in Heavy Ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2003-01-01

    We review recent calculations of the probability that a hard parton radiates an additional energy fraction due to scattering in spatially extended matter, and we discuss their application to the suppression of leading hadron spectra in heavy ion collisions at collider energies.

  1. Recirculating induction accelerators for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, J.J.; Deadrick, F.; Bangerter, R.O.

    1993-01-01

    We have recently completed a two-year study of recirculating induction heavy-ion accelerators (recirculators) as low-cost drivers for inertial-fusion-energy power plants. We present here a summary of that study and other recent work on recirculators

  2. Heavy ion elastic scattering of code : OPTHI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, M.; Divatia, A.S.

    1982-01-01

    A computer code, OPTHI has been designed to calculate nuclear optical model elastic cross sections for the scattering of heavy ions. The program has been designed to be utilitarian rather than capable of giving an exact description of elastic scattering. Input format is described and the program listing is given. (M.G.B.)

  3. RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION PHYSICS: A THEORETICAL OVERVIEW.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KHARZEEV,D.

    2004-03-28

    This is a mini-review of recent theoretical work in the field of relativistic heavy ion physics. The following topics are discussed initial conditions and the Color Glass Condensate; approach to thermalization and the hydrodynamic evolution; hard probes and the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma. Some of the unsolved problems and potentially promising directions for future research are listed as well.

  4. Beginnings and advances in heavy ion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brix, P.

    1979-01-01

    The very important field of heavy ion research is briefly reviewed from the beginnings up to the present time. The article was intended to be a scientific lecture for the general public read on the occasion of the 70th birthday of Prof. Schmelzer. (KBE)

  5. The technology of heavy-ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, J.D.

    1980-09-01

    The concept of inertial confinement fusion using heavy ion beams as a driver is surveyed, with reference to parameters which might ultimately be suitable for a commercial power station. Particular attention is drawn to the parameters associated with the final focusing of the beam on the target. (author)

  6. Experiments on very high energy heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    In this paper I describe experimental techniques which could be used to investigate central collision of very high energy heavy ions. For my purposes, the energy range is defined by the number of pions produced, Nsub(π) >> 100, and consequently Nsub(π) >> Nsub(nucleon). In this regime we may expect that new phenomena will appear. (orig.)

  7. Summary of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Sessions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.W.

    1988-07-01

    This paper briefly discusses the topics covered in the relativistic heavy ion in sessions. The prime motivation for these investigations is the possibility of forming quark matter, therefore the formation of a quark-gluon plasma. Topics on suppression of J//psi/ production, th equation of state of nuclear matter, transverse energy distributions and two pion interferometry techniques are discussed. 38 refs

  8. Research in heavy-ion nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, S.J.; Prosser, F.W.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Fusion-fission in light nuclear systems; High-resolution Q-value measurement for the 24 Mg+ 24 Mg reaction; Heavy-ion reactions and limits to fusion; and Hybrid MWPC-Bragg curve detector development

  9. Heavy ion fragmentation in high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemes, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    A review is made on the theoretical aspects of heavy ion collisions at high energies. A comparison with several experimental data obtained in a large variety of experiments is present. An emphasis is given on the basis of Glauber's theory of scattering. (L.C.) [pt

  10. Sigma meson in heavy ion collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristian, Ivan; Fuchs, Christian

    2004-01-01

    We want to present a short theoretical prediction of the behaviour of the sigma meson in heavy ion collisions. It is considered that the sigma meson is a pion-pion correlation, resulting from the decay of the N*(1440) resonance. There will be presented some QMD simulations. (authors)

  11. Heavy ion reactions at low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemes, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    Some general features of the heavy ion reactions at low energies are presented. Some kinds of processes are studied, such as: elastic scattering, peripherical reactions, deep inelastic collisions and fusion. Both, theoretical and experimental perspectives on this field are discussed. (L.C.) [pt

  12. Review of heavy ion collider proposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper we review proposals for heavy-ion colliders generated during the last few years for several national laboratories. The proposals span over a large range of energy and luminosity to accommodate the experimental needs of both the nuclear and the high-energy physicists. We report also briefly efforts in the same field happening in Europe

  13. Ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions Theoretical overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaizot, Jean-Paul

    2006-01-01

    This is a short review of some theoretical aspects of the physics of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. I review the main properties of the QCD phase diagram and recent developments in the physics of high gluon densities in the hadronic wavefunctions at high energy. Then I comment salient results obtained at RHIC

  14. Study of heavy ion collisions with TAPS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löhner, H.

    The photon spectrometer TAPS is a versatile instrument to measure nuclear bremsstrahlung and neutral mesons via their gamma decay. The formation and evolution of compressed nuclear matter is studied in heavy ion collisions at relativistic energies by analyzing the yield and spectral distribution of

  15. Study on possibility of development of a laser multicharged ion source for a heavy ion fusion driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabash, L.Z.; Krechet, K.I.; Lapitskij, Yu.Ya.; Latyshev, S.V.; Shumshurov, A.V.

    1983-01-01

    The results of studying laser produced plasma ion sources for a heavy ion accelerating-storage complex used as a heavy ion fusion driver are presented. The following parameters were measured on an installation aimed for studying physical characteristics of heavy ion laser plasma for a lead target at laser radiation flux density of approximately 3x10 10 W/cm 2 : scattered ion charge composition, energy spectra and scattering angle distributions, ion currents, absolute number of ions in every charge state, plasma electron temperature. The ion current pulse duration varied from 3x10 -4 s at Z +1 to 2x10 -5 s at Z +10 . The maximum current amplitude of 2 mA corresponded to Z +7 charge. The scattering velocity increased with charge. The total number of ions that could be used for acceleration was approximately 5x10 13 for Z +2 and 5x10 12 for Z +6 per pulse. The ion laser source brightness was 2x10 11 A/cm 2 , the particle phase density was 10 18 (cmxrad) -1

  16. Jason: heavy-ion-driven inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callan, C.G. Jr.; Dashen, R.F.; Garwin, R.L.; Muller, R.A.; Richter, B.; Rosenbluth, M.N.

    1978-02-01

    A few of the problems in heavy-ion-driven inertial-fusion systems are reviewed. Nothing was found within the scope of this study that would in principle bar such systems from delivering the energy and peak power required to ignite the fuel pellet. Indeed, ion-fusion seems to show great promise, but the conceptual design of ion-fusion systems is still in a primitive state. A great deal of work, mostly theoretical, remains to be done before proceeding with massive hardware development. Conclusions are given about the state of the work

  17. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, H.

    1989-01-01

    The conceptual design of a collider capable of accelerating and colliding heavy ions and to be constructed in the existing 3.8 km tunnel at Brookhaven has been developed. The collider has been designed to provide collisions of gold ions at six intersection points with a luminosity of about 2 x 10 26 cm -2 sec -1 at an energy per nucleon of 100 GeV in each beam. Collisions with different ion species, including protons, will be possible. The salient design features and the reasons for major design choices of the proposed machine are discussed in this paper. 28 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  18. Vacuum improvements for ultra high charge state ion acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.Q.; Lyneis, C.M.; Clark, D.J.; Guy, A.; Lundgren, S.A

    1998-06-01

    The installation of a second cryo panel has significantly improved the vacuum in the 88-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The neutral pressure in the extraction region decreased from 1.2 x 10 -6 down to about 7 x 10 -7 Torr. The vacuum improvement reduces beam loss from charge changing collisions and enhances the cyclotron beam transmission, especially for the high charge state heavy ions. Tests with improved vacuum show the cyclotron transmission increased more than 50% (from 5.7% to 9.0%) for a Xe 27+ at 603 MeV, more than doubled for a Bi 41+ beam (from 1.9% to 4.6%) at 904 MeV and tripled for a U 47+ beam (from 1.2% to 3.6%) at 1,115 MeV. At about 5 NeV/nucleon 92 enA (2.2 pnA) for Bi 41+ and 14 enA (0.3 pnA) for U 47+ were extracted ut of the 88-Inch Cyclotron Ion beams with charge states as high as U 64+ have been produced by the LBNL AECR-U ion source and accelerated through the cyclotron for the first time. The beam losses for a variety of ultra high charge state ions were measured as a function of cyclotron pressure and compared with the calculations from the existing models

  19. Vacuum improvements for ultra high charge state ion acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.Q.; Lyneis, C.M.; Clark, D.J.; Guy, A.; Lundgren, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    The installation of a second cryo panel has significantly improved the vacuum in the 88-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The neutral pressure in the extraction region decreased from 1.2 x 10 -6 down to about 7 x 10 -7 Torr. The vacuum improvement reduces beam loss from charge changing collisions and enhances the cyclotron beam transmission, especially for the high charge state heavy ions. Tests with improved vacuum show the cyclotron transmission increased more than 50% (from 5.7% to 9.0%) for a Xe 27+ at 603 MeV, more than doubled for a Bi 41+ beam (from 1.9% % to 4.6%) at 904 MeV and tripled for a U 47+ beam (from 1.2% to 3.6%) at 1115 MeV. At about 5 MeV/nucleon 92 enA (2.2 pnA) for Bi 41+ and 14 enA (0.3 pnA) for U 47+ were extracted out of the 88-Inch Cyclotron Ion beams with charge states as high as U 64+ have been produced by the LBNL AECR-U ion source and accelerated through the cyclotron for the first time. The beam losses for a variety of ultra high charge state ions were measured as a function of cyclotron pressure and compared with the calculations from the existing models. (authors)

  20. Exotic phenomena in collisions of very heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soff, G.; Mueller, U.; Schramm, S.; de Reus, T.; Mehler, G.; Reinhardt, J.; Mueller, B.; Greiner, W.

    1987-01-01

    Over the last decade their knowledge on atomic structure of superheavy quasimolecules in the range 110 ≤ Z/sub tot/ ≤ 188 has increased considerably. Heavy ion collisions, in which superheavy quasimolecules are formed for a short period of time, offer them a unique tool to investigate the electronic structure of ultra-high Z-systems, which are not otherwise accessible to experiment. Comparison of K-vacancy formation, δ-electron and positron emission with available experimental data suggests the validity of the quasimolecular picture, which will be taken as the theoretical framework of these calculations. To exemplify current theoretical investigations three different topics will be discussed. After a presentation of the underlying theoretical framework for ionization processes the possibility to employ δ-electron emission as a clock to measure nuclear reaction times in intermediate energy collisions of very heavy ions will be sketched. Besides the phenomenon of vacuum decay into a new twofold negatively charged stable vacuum ground state, electron excitation in heavy ion collisions may be employed for the determination of delay and deceleration times on the nuclear time scale, i.e. offering an atomic clock, operating in the range 10 -21 - 10 -24 s. In deep-inelastic heavy ion collisions this provides a test for classical nuclear reaction models. In collisions at intermediate energies an independent measurement of the deceleration time is of interest for comparison, e.g., with the results of the pion bremsstrahlung model. After that the influence of one or more pockets in the ion scattering potential on the energy distribution of emitted positrons within a quantum mechanical framework is investigated. Finally phenomenological corrections to the Dirac equation and its consequences on electron binding energies in heavy and superheavy atoms is briefly considered. 42 references, 5 figures