Matthews, Sharon; Dietze, Paul; Room, Robin; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Jolley, Damien
To examine heavy episodic drinking across demographic subgroups to identify where heavy episodic drinking is socially located in an Australian state. Cross-sectional survey, 2483 adult Victorians using Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing. Two measures of heavy drinking were used: (i) heavy episodic drinking-more than five standard drinks at least weekly; and (ii) typically heavy drinking-50% or more of all drinking occasions involving consumption of 5+ standard drinks. Associations between heavy episodic drinking and eight potential sociodemographic correlates (gender, age, education, income, marital status, ethnic origin, religion and geographical remoteness) were examined. There were few significant correlates of heavy episodic drinking apart from gender and age, once gender and age were controlled. Men were more likely to report heavy episodic drinking than women, but this was attenuated in the measure of typically heavy drinking, suggesting that women reporting heavy episodic drinking were more likely to typically drink that much when they drank. Younger people were more likely to report weekly heavy episodic drinking and more likely to report engaging in this pattern on at least half of their drinking occasions, and this was also true for those unmarried or in de facto relationships. Those of Asian background were less likely to report heavy drinking. In multivariate analysis, the remaining sociodemographic variables were largely unrelated to the drinking measures. The study clearly shows that the prevalence of heavy episodic drinking varies particularly across gender and age groups in Victoria. These variations appear to hold across key sociodemographic variables such as income and education. © 2012 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Hill, Mallory K.
A total of 366 American Indian students in grades 7 through 12 completed the PRIDE questionnaire. Recent alcohol use was reported by 31.9% of students, whereas 26.7% reported frequent episodic heavy drinking. One in three students felt it was harmful/very harmful to use alcohol and less than half felt alcohol was easy/very easy to obtain. A series…
Lamis, Dorian A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Lochman, John E.
Objective: The current study addressed a gap in the literature by investigating the association between maternal depressive symptoms and subsequent timing of their children's alcohol use onset and heavy episodic drinking (HED). Childhood depression/dysthymia symptoms, harsh discipline, and parental positive regard were examined as potential…
Wells, Samantha; Flynn, Andrea; Tremblay, Paul F; Dumas, Tara; Miller, Peter; Graham, Kathryn
This study extends previous research on masculinity and negative drinking consequences among young men by considering mediating effects of heavy episodic drinking (HED) and alcohol expectancies. We hypothesized that masculinity would have a direct relationship with negative consequences from drinking as well as indirect relationships mediated by HED and alcohol expectancies of courage, risk, and aggression. A random sample of 1,436 college and university men ages 19-25 years completed an online survey, including conformity to masculine norms, alcohol-related expectancies, HED, and negative drinking consequences. Regression analyses and structural equation modeling were used. Six of seven dimensions of masculinity and the alcohol expectancy scales were significantly associated with both HED and negative consequences. In multivariate regression models predicting HED and negative consequences, the playboy and violence dimensions of masculinity and the risk/aggression alcohol expectancy remained significant. HED and the risk-taking dimension of masculinity were also significant in the model predicting negative consequences. The structural equation model indicated that masculinity was directly associated with HED and negative consequences but also influenced negative consequences indirectly through HED and alcohol expectancies. The findings suggest that, among young adult male college and university students, masculinity is an important factor related to both HED and drinking consequences, with the latter effect partly mediated by HED and alcohol expectancies. Addressing male norms about masculinity may help to reduce HED and negative consequences from drinking.
Caamaño-Isorna, Francisco; Moure-Rodríguez, Lucía; Doallo, Sonia; Corral, Montserrat; Rodriguez Holguín, Socorro; Cadaveira, Fernando
The objective of this study is to assess the effects of Heavy Episodic Drinking (HED) on the incidence of alcohol-related injuries among university students in Spain, taking sex into consideration. We carried out an open cohort study among college students in Spain (992 women and 371 men). HED and alcohol-related injuries were measured by question 3rd and 9th of Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test to every participant at the ages of 18, 20, 22, 24 and 27. For data analysis we used a Multilevel Logistic Regression for repeated measures adjusting for alcohol and cannabis use. The incidence rate of alcohol-related injuries was 0.028year -1 for females and 0.036year -1 for males. The multivariate analysis showed that among females a high frequency of HED and use of cannabis are risk factors for alcohol-related injuries (Odds Ratio [OR]=2.64 and OR=3.68), while being more than 23 is a protective factor (OR=0.34). For males, bivariate analysis also showed HED like risk factor (OR=4.69 and OR=2.51). Finally, the population attributable fraction for HED among females was 37.12%. HED leads to an increase of alcohol-related injuries in both sexes and being over 23 years old acts as a protective factor among women. Our results suggest that about one third of alcohol-related injuries among women could be avoided by removing HED. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Kaya, Aylin; Grivel, Margaux; Clinton, Lauren
, traditional norms that may directly pertain to hyperfemininzed Asian-American women, including modesty and sexual fidelity, may protect against heavy episodic drinking (Young et al. 2005). Conversely, the risk for heavy episodic drinking may be enhanced in men who strive to demonstrate traditional notions of masculinity through risk-taking and endorsement of playboy norms (Iwamoto et al. 2010). Although this review has illustrated the contemporary state of research on alcohol use among Asian Americans, it also highlights the significant limitations in this literature. Many of the studies reviewed here have used cross-sectional data, which do not allow researchers to infer causality between the various sociocultural factors and problematic alcohol use. One way of addressing this gap in the existing literature may be to implement longitudinal designs to further understand how the temporal relationship between sociocultural factors, including acculturation and gender norms, may impact alcohol use and alcohol-related problem trajectories. There also is a pressing need to develop greater understanding of within-group differences among U.S.-born and foreign-born Asian Americans as well as among as specific ethnic groups. To date, epidemiological research has largely neglected to examine these significant discrepancies. Given the growing prevalence of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among Asian-American women (Grant et al. 2004; Iwamoto et al. 2010), studies also should focus on this group and explore how the intersection of gender and culture may influence alcohol use. Finally, the majority of research on this population has been conducted in college samples; therefore, it is important to also examine community samples, including U.S.-born young adults who are not attending college and older adult Asian-American populations.
Doumas, Diana M.; Hausheer, Robin; Esp, Susan
Parents impact adolescent substance abuse, but sex-specific influences are not well-understood. This study examined parental influences on adolescent drinking behavior in a sample of ninth-grade students (N = 473). Hierarchical regression analyses indicated parental monitoring, disapproval of teen alcohol use, and quality of parent-teen general…
Hensing, Gunnel; Spak, Fredrik
The aim of this study was to analyse in women the association between four dimensions of gender identity, heavy episodic drinking (HED) and alcohol use disorders (AUD), taking into account age, personality, psychiatric co-morbidity and level of education. An initial screening of alcohol consumption was followed by a structured psychiatric interview in a sample of women drawn from the Gothenburg population and women attending primary care, maternity and hospital services (n = 930). Gender identity was assessed using the Masculinity-Femininity Questionnaire (M/F-Q) (items grouped into four dimensions: leadership, caring, self-assertiveness and emotionality). The Karolinska Scale of Personality was administered. Clinical psychiatric diagnoses according to DSM were made in face-to-face interviews. HED was defined as consumption of at least 60 g of ethanol on a single day at least once a month. Women who scored low on the leadership dimension were twice as likely to have AUD [age-adjusted odds1.98 (95% confidence interval 1.30-3.01)] compared to those with medium scores. These odds ratios were significant after adjustment for personality [2.21 (1.35-3.63)], psychiatric disorders [2.09 (1.25-3.47)] and level of education [1.95 (1.17-3.26)]. Low scores on the leadership dimension were associated with HED [1.55 (0.98-2.44)] after adjustment for age, personality, psychiatric disorders and level of education. High scores on leadership were not significantly associated with AUD or HED after these adjustments. The odds ratios for those who scored low on caring were non-significant throughout the analyses of associations with both AUD and HED. A similar pattern was found for the self-assertiveness dimension. Low emotionality was associated with decreased odds for AUD [0.42 (0.25-0.70)] and HED [0.66 (0.44-0.99)], and increased odds for AUD [2.14 (1.38-3.31)] and HED [2.33 (1.58-3.44)], after adjusting for age. These associations became non-significant after adjustment for
Brunborg, Geir Scott; Andreas, Jasmina Burdzovic; Kvaavik, Elisabeth
Objectives Little is known about the consequences of adolescent social media use. The current study estimated the association between the amount of time adolescents spend on social media and the risk of episodic heavy drinking. Methods A school-based self-report cross-sectional study including 851 Norwegian middle and high school students (46.1% boys). frequency and quantity of social media use. Frequency of drinking four or six (girls and boys, respectively) alcoholic drinks during a single day (episodic heavy drinking). The MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale - Brief, the Brief Sensation Seeking Scale, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 items for Adolescents, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire Peer Relationship problems scale, gender, and school grade. Results Greater amount of time spent on social media was associated with greater likelihood of episodic heavy drinking among adolescents ( OR = 1.12, 95% CI (1.05, 1.19), p = 0.001), even after adjusting for school grade, impulsivity, sensation seeking, symptoms of depression, and peer relationship problems. Conclusion The results from the current study indicate that more time spent on social media is related to greater likelihood of episodic heavy drinking among adolescents.
Barnett, Nancy P; Meade, E B; Glynn, Tiffany R
The objective of this investigation was to establish the ability of the Secure Continuous Remote Alcohol Monitoring (SCRAM) alcohol sensor to detect different levels of self-reported alcohol consumption, and to determine whether gender and body mass index, alcohol dependence, bracelet version, and age of bracelet influenced detection of alcohol use. Heavy drinking adults (N = 66, 46% female) wore the SCRAM for 1-28 days and reported their alcohol use in daily Web-based surveys. Participant reports of alcohol use were matched with drinking episodes identified from bracelet readings. On days when bracelets were functional, 690 drinking episodes were reported and 502 of those episodes (72.8%) were detected using sensor data. Using generalized estimating equations, we found no gender differences in detection of reported drinking episodes (77% for women, 69% for men). In univariate analyses, at the level of fewer than 5 drinks, women's episodes were more likely to be detected, likely because of the significantly higher transdermal alcohol concentration levels of these episodes, whereas at the level of 5 or more drinks, there was no gender difference in detection (92.6% for women, 93.4% for men). In multivariable analyses, no variables other than number of drinks significantly predicted alcohol detection. In summary, the SCRAM sensor is very good at detecting 5 or more drinks; performance of the monitor below this level was better among women because of their higher transdermal alcohol concentration levels. Individual person characteristics and bracelet features were not related to detection after number of drinks was included. Minimal bracelet malfunctions were noted.
Russell, Cristel Antonia; Russell, Dale Wesley; Grube, Joel W; McQuarrie, Edward
This experimental study assessed whether alcohol television storylines impact youth drinking attitudes and intentions and whether corrective epilogues can potentially moderate this impact. Television episodes were professionally produced to depict heavy drinking leading to either positive or negative consequences. The pro- and anti-alcohol episodes were shown alone or with an epilogue where a main character discussed the deleterious effects of excessive drinking. Attitudes toward drinkers and drinking intentions were measured subsequently, along with reactions to the episode and demographic data, among participants aged 14-17 using an online study. Exposure to the pro-alcohol episode was related to more positive attitudes toward drinkers. Including an epilogue after a pro-alcohol episode was related to more negative viewers' attitudes toward drinkers and lower drinking intentions compared to a pro-alcohol episode with no epilogue. By contrast, including an epilogue after an anti-alcohol episode was unrelated to attitudes toward drinkers or drinking intentions. Viewing a single television episode with a pro-alcohol message may lead to more positive attitudes toward drinkers. The finding that a brief epilogue may reduce the impact of the pro-alcohol storyline suggests easily implemented preventive strategies to counter the adverse impact of substance use portrayals in entertainment programming.
Martha, C; Grélot, L; Peretti-Watel, P
The relationships between involvement in sports and alcohol consumption appear to be complex in the alcohol literature. In this study we aimed to examine this link among French students, taking into account their sports characteristics. We also examined variations in alcohol use among sport sciences students between 2002 and 2006, and the difference in alcohol use and heavy episodic drinking among sport sciences, law and pharmacy students. repeated survey; cross-sectional study; self-questionnaire survey; French (south-east France) sport sciences (n=693), law (n=325) and pharmacy (n=338) students (females=58%). In 2002, 38% of the male sport sciences students reported repeated heavy episodic drinking, and this proportion has risen to 48% in 2006 (psport sciences students were less likely to report repeated heavy episodic drinking (part were negatively related to heavy episodic drinking (psport in a formal context, team sports, and competitive participation at a departmental or regional level represented risk factors (psport was a protective factor among females (psport practised to examine the link between sport participation and alcohol consumption. The normative context of peer socialization among competitive and team sports participants seemed to play a role in alcohol use. Further studies are needed to confirm the role of this putative factor.
Breslin, F Curtis; Adlaf, Edward M
Previous studies on part-time work and alcohol use suggest that teenagers who work longer hours drink more heavily. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether family- and community-level factors moderate the relationship between part-time work hours and heavy episodic drinking. Data were drawn from the Canadian Community Health Survey, a cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of Canadians. The survey included 8,080 respondents 15-19 years of age who reported work hours and frequency of heavy episodic drinking over the past 12 months. These respondents were located in 136 counties or municipalities across Canada. On average, work hours were positively associated with the frequency of heavy drinking by teenagers in the past 12 months. At the community level, the proportion of teenagers in each community drinking any alcohol was independently and positively associated with respondents' frequency of heavy drinking. In terms of moderating effects, we found that the work hours-drinking association was weaker among youth from low socioeconomic status families. Examination of community-level factors indicated that longer work hours were more strongly associated with heavy episodic drinking in communities with high rates of teen alcohol abstinence. Although the cross-sectional data prohibit any firm conclusions on how family and community factors influence the work-alcohol use relationship, these data suggest that interventions to reduce heavy episodic drinking among teens should address the broader environmental as well as the individual determinants.
Black, Nicola; Mullan, Barbara; Sharpe, Louise
Alcohol consumption contributes significantly to the global burden from disease and injury, and specific patterns of heavy episodic drinking contribute uniquely to this burden. Temporal self-regulation theory and the dual-process model describe similar theoretical constructs that might predict heavy episodic drinking. The aims of this study were to test the utility of temporal self-regulation theory in predicting heavy episodic drinking, and examine whether the theoretical relationships suggested by the dual-process model significantly extend temporal self-regulation theory. This was a predictive study with 149 Australian adults. Measures were questionnaires (self-report habit index, cues to action scale, purpose-made intention questionnaire, timeline follow-back questionnaire) and executive function tasks (Stroop, Tower of London, operation span). Participants completed measures of theoretical constructs at baseline and reported their alcohol consumption two weeks later. Data were analysed using hierarchical multiple linear regression. Temporal self-regulation theory significantly predicted heavy episodic drinking (R 2 =48.0-54.8%, ptheory and the extended temporal self-regulation theory provide good prediction of heavy episodic drinking. Intention, behavioural prepotency, planning ability and inhibitory control may be good targets for interventions designed to decrease heavy episodic drinking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Prentice, Christopher; Stannard, Stephen R; Barnes, Matthew J
This study investigated the effects of acute alcohol consumption, in a natural setting, on exercise performance in the 2 days after the drinking episode. Additionally, alcohol related behaviours of this group of rugby players were identified. Prospective cohort study. Nineteen male club rugby players volunteered for this study. Measures of counter movement jump, maximal lower body strength, repeated sprint ability and hydration were made 2 days before and in the 2 days following heavy episodic alcohol consumption. Participants completed a questionnaire at each time point so that alcohol consumption and sleep hours from the previous 24 h period could be quantified. Additionally, participants completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Test (AUDIT) prior to completing baseline measures of performance. Reported alcohol consumption ranged from 6 to >20 standard drinks (mean category scale score=11-19 standard drinks). A significant decrease in sleep hours (p=0.01) was reported after the drinking episode with participants reporting 1-3 h for the night. A significant reduction (-1.8±1.5 cm) in counter movement jump (p0.05). AUDIT scores for this group (18.2±4.3) indicate regular alcohol consumption at a hazardous level. Heavy episodic alcohol use, and associated reduced sleep hours, results in a reduction in lower body power output but not other measures of anaerobic performance the morning after a drinking session. Full recovery from this behaviour is achieved by 2 days post drinking episode. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Woodin, Erica M; Sukhawathanakul, Paweena; Caldeira, Valerie; Homel, Jacqueline; Leadbeater, Bonnie
Adolescent peer aggression is a well-established correlate of romantic relational aggression; however, the mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. Heavy episodic drinking (or "binge" alcohol use) was examined as both a prior and concurrent mediator of this link in a sample of 282 12-18 year old interviewed four times over 6 years. Path analyses indicated that early peer relational and physical aggression each uniquely predicted later romantic relational aggression. Concurrent heavy episodic drinking fully mediated this effect for peer physical aggression only. These findings highlight two important mechanisms by which peer aggression may increase the risk of later romantic relational aggression: a direct pathway from peer relational aggression to romantic relational aggression and an indirect pathway through peer physical aggression and concurrent heavy episodic drinking. Prevention programs targeting romantic relational aggression in adolescence and young adulthood may benefit from interventions that target multiple domains of risky behavior, including the heavy concurrent use of alcohol. Aggr. Behav. 42:563-576, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
This paper uses the widespread variation across states in the timing of adoption of tougher drunk driving laws that set very low legal blood alcohol limits for drivers under age 21--"zero tolerance" (ZT) laws--to provide new evidence on the causal effect of alcohol use on youth suicide. ZT laws reduced heavy episodic drinking by underage men, with…
Lisco, Claire G; Leone, Ruschelle M; Gallagher, Kathryn E; Parrott, Dominic J
The aim of the present study was to examine the mediational effect of masculine gender role stress on the relation between adherence to dimensions of a hegemonic masculinity and male-to-female intimate partner physical aggression. Men's history of heavy episodic drinking was also examined as a moderator of the proposed mediation effect. A sample of 392 heterosexual men from the southeastern United States who had been in an intimate relationship within the past year completed measures of hegemonic masculine norms (i.e., status, toughness, and antifemininity), masculine gender role stress, alcohol use patterns, and intimate partner physical aggression. Results indicated that the indirect effects of adherence to the antifemininity and toughness norms on physical aggression toward female intimate partners via masculine gender role stress were significant and marginal, respectively. A significant indirect effect of status was not detected. Moreover, subsequent analyses revealed that the indirect effects of antifemininity and toughness were significant only among men with a history of heavy episodic drinking. These findings suggest that heavy episodic drinking exacerbates a gender-relevant stress pathway for intimate partner aggression among men who adhere to specific norms of masculinity. Overall, results suggest that the proximal effect of heavy episodic drinking focuses men's attention on gender-based schemas associated with antifemininity and toughness, which facilitates partner-directed aggression as a means to demonstrate these aspects of their masculinity. Implications for the intersection between men's adherence to specific norms of hegemonic masculinity, cognitive appraisal of gender relevant situations, and characteristic patterns of alcohol consumption are discussed.
Lisco, Claire G.; Leone, Ruschelle M.; Gallagher, Kathryn E.; Parrott, Dominic J.
The aim of the present study was to examine the mediational effect of masculine gender role stress on the relation between adherence to dimensions of a hegemonic masculinity and male-to-female intimate partner physical aggression. Men’s history of heavy episodic drinking was also examined as a moderator of the proposed mediation effect. A sample of 392 heterosexual men from the southeastern United States who had been in an intimate relationship within the past year completed measures of hegemonic masculine norms (i.e., status, toughness, and antifemininity), masculine gender role stress, alcohol use patterns, and intimate partner physical aggression. Results indicated that the indirect effects of adherence to the antifemininity and toughness norms on physical aggression toward female intimate partners via masculine gender role stress were significant and marginal, respectively. A significant indirect effect of status was not detected. Moreover, subsequent analyses revealed that the indirect effects of antifemininity and toughness were significant only among men with a history of heavy episodic drinking. These findings suggest that heavy episodic drinking exacerbates a gender-relevant stress pathway for intimate partner aggression among men who adhere to specific norms of masculinity. Overall, results suggest that the proximal effect of heavy episodic drinking focuses men’s attention on gender-based schemas associated with antifemininity and toughness, which facilitates partner-directed aggression as a means to demonstrate these aspects of their masculinity. Implications for the intersection between men’s adherence to specific norms of hegemonic masculinity, cognitive appraisal of gender relevant situations, and characteristic patterns of alcohol consumption are discussed. PMID:26456996
Tahaney, K D; Palfai, T P
Heavy episodic drinking (4+/5+ drinks/occasion for females/males) is highly prevalent among college students and is influenced by social factors. Among these social risk factors, perceived peer drinking norms have been shown to significantly predict heavy episodic drinking across a number of studies. However, there is little known about which students may be most and least susceptible to these influences or why individual differences may moderate the impact of norms on heavy drinking. Recent work has suggested self-control may be an important individual difference factor in this regard. Working memory (WM) is a central component of self-control that has been shown to buffer the effect of social influence variables. This study examined whether WM, as measured by memory span tasks, moderates the relationship between perceived drinking norms and alcohol use among college students reporting one or more past month drinking occasions (n = 98). Hierarchical linear regression analyses were used to examine whether WM significantly moderated the relationship between perceived norms and heavy drinking episodes (HDEs) as well as number of drinking days in the past month. Analyses revealed a significant WM x norms interaction for both drinking indices. Simple slopes analyses suggested a buffering effect of WM as higher perceived norms predicted more HDEs and drinking days at low (-1SD) and mean WM scores but not high (+1SD) WM. These results suggest WM serves as a protective factor for the influence of norms such that individuals high in WM may be more able to inhibit the impact of norms on alcohol use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dingwall, Kylie M; Maruff, Paul; Cairney, Sheree
The cognitive impairment and recovery associated with chronic alcohol abuse and subsequent abstinence is well understood. However, the recovery profile following heavy episodic or 'binge' use, which is common among some Australian Aboriginal users, has not been investigated thoroughly and no empirical studies have examined chronic use in this population. The aim of this study was to identify and compare cognitive impairment and recovery associated with chronic and episodic alcohol use among Aboriginal Australians. Longitudinal case-control design. Residential alcohol treatment programmes in northern Australia. Forty chronic alcohol users, 24 episodic users and 41 healthy controls [mean age = 34.24; standard deviation (SD) = 9.73]. Cognitive assessments of visual motor, attention, memory, learning and executive functions at baseline (start of treatment), then 4 weeks and 8 weeks later. Reassessment of 31% of participants an average of 11 months later (SD = 4.4) comparing those who remained abstinent (n = 5), those who relapsed (n = 11) and healthy controls (n = 19). At baseline, chronic and episodic alcohol users showed impaired visual motor, learning, memory and executive functions. With the exception of visual motor impairment, all deficits had improved to normal levels within 4 weeks. Visual motor deficits had normalized within 11 months. Performances did not differ at any time between chronic and episodic alcohol groups. In Aboriginal Australians, episodic drinking is associated with similar patterns of impairment and recovery as chronic alcohol use. Most cognitive deficits appear to recover within the first month of abstinence, while persisting visual motor problems recover within 1 year. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Sylvers, Patrick; Landfield, Kristin E.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.
Objective: This study extends the college heavy episodic drinking literature by examining the associations between features of psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), on the one hand, and heavy episodic drinking and associated problem behaviors, on the other. Participants: Participants were 159 (85 male, 74 female) undergraduates…
McAlaney, John; McMahon, John
Numerous studies have demonstrated the existence and effect of normative misperceptions on heavy episodic drinking behavior. However, there has been little work on these processes or application of normative-belief interventions outside the U.S. college system. The aim of the current study, therefore, was to investigate heavy episodic drinking and normative misperceptions in a U.K. university setting. An email containing a link to a survey Web site was distributed to all current undergraduate students at the University of Paisley, Scotland. In addition to age and gender questions, the survey contained items on students' personal behavior and perception of the level of that behavior in three groups of increasing social distance: close friends, other students of the same age, and other people of the same age in U.K. society in general. Completed surveys from 500 respondents were returned. In keeping with previous research, significant correlations were found between the respondents' behavior and the perception of that behavior in others, with beliefs about the most proximal individuals being the most strongly correlated. The majority of respondents were also found to overestimate alcohol consumption in other students. An age effect was noted, in which misperceptions appeared to decrease with age but did not vary between genders. The findings of the study indicate that the normative-belief alcohol consumption processes that have been found on U.S. college campuses also operate in U.K. university settings. This raises the possibility of applying social-norms interventions from the United States to the United Kingdom and potentially elsewhere in the world. Furthermore, the study noted apparent age effects in the degree of misperception, the implications of which are discussed.
Hoffmann, John P; Bahr, Stephen J
The purpose of this research was to examine the associations of parenting style, religiosity, and peer alcohol use with alcohol use and heavy drinking. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate direct and indirect associations among 5,419 adolescents ages 12-14 years from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997. Adolescents whose parents were authoritative were less likely to drink heavily than adolescents who experienced neglectful or indulgent parenting styles. Religiosity was negatively associated with heavy drinking after other relevant variables were controlled for. Authoritative parenting appears to have both direct and indirect negative associations with the risk of heavy drinking among adolescents. Authoritative parenting, where monitoring and support are above average, and religiosity might help deter adolescents from heavy drinking, even when adolescents experience peer environments where alcohol use is common. Authoritarian parenting, although it was not associated with heavy drinking, was positively associated with alcohol use and peer alcohol use, thus placing adolescents at some risk.
Full Text Available Even though uncomplicated alcoholics may likely have episodic memory deficits, discrepancies exist regarding to the integrity of brain regions that underlie this function in healthy subjects. Possible relationships between episodic memory and 1 brain microstructure assessed by magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, 2 brain volumes assessed by voxel-based morphometry (VBM were investigated in uncomplicated, detoxified alcoholics.Diffusion and morphometric analyses were performed in 24 alcohol dependent men without neurological or somatic complications and in 24 healthy men. The mean apparent coefficient of diffusion (ADC and grey matter volumes were measured in the whole brain. Episodic memory performance was assessed using a French version of the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT. Correlation analyses between verbal episodic memory, brain microstructure, and brain volumes were carried out using SPM2 software.In those with alcohol dependence, higher ADC was detected mainly in frontal, temporal and parahippocampal regions, and in the cerebellum. In alcoholics, regions with higher ADC typically also had lower grey matter volume. Low verbal episodic memory performance in alcoholism was associated with higher mean ADC in parahippocampal areas, in frontal cortex and in the left temporal cortex; no correlation was found between regional volumes and episodic memory scores. Regression analyses for the control group were not significant.These findings support the hypothesis that regional microstructural but no macrostructural alteration of the brain might be responsible, at least in part, for episodic memory deficits in alcohol dependence.
Lisco, Claire G; Parrott, Dominic J; Tharp, Andra Teten
Research indicates that men's heavy episodic drinking is a significant risk factor for their perpetration of sexual aggression toward intimate partners. The aim of this investigation was to examine how hostile sexism (i.e., antipathy toward women) and benevolent sexism (i.e., subjectively positive, yet patriarchal, views of women) influence the relation between men's heavy episodic drinking and their perpetration of sexual aggression toward intimate partners. Participants were 205 heterosexual drinking men who completed self-report measures of quantity of alcohol consumption during the past 12 months, hostile sexism, and sexual aggression toward an intimate partner during the past 12 months. Men's heavy episodic drinking was positively associated with sexual aggression perpetration toward intimate partners amongst men who endorsed high, but not low, levels of hostile sexism. No such interactive effect emerged for men's endorsement of benevolent sexism. These results have important implications for understanding cumulative risk factors for the perpetration of sexual aggression toward intimates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brumback, Ty; Squeglia, Lindsay M; Jacobus, Joanna; Pulido, Carmen; Tapert, Susan F; Brown, Sandra A
Heavy drinking during adolescence is associated with increased reactivity to alcohol related stimuli and to differential neural development. Alcohol cue reactivity has been widely studied among adults with alcohol use disorders, but little is known about the neural substrates of cue reactivity in adolescent drinkers. The current study aimed to identify changes in blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal during a cue reactivity task pre- and post-monitored abstinence from alcohol. Demographically matched adolescents (16.0-18.9 years, 54% female) with histories of heavy episodic drinking (HD; n=22) and light or non-drinking control teens (CON; n=16) were recruited to participate in a month-long study. All participants completed a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scan with an alcohol cue reactivity task and substance use assessments at baseline and after 28 days of monitored abstinence from alcohol and drugs (i.e., urine toxicology testing every 48-72 h). Repeated-measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) examined main effects of group, time, and group×time interactions on BOLD signal response in regions of interest defined by functional differences at baseline. The HD group exhibited greater (pbrain regions, differences in BOLD response were no longer apparent following a month of abstinence, suggesting a decrease in alcohol cue reactivity among adolescent non-dependent heavy drinkers as a consequence of abstaining from alcohol. These results highlight the malleability of adolescent brain function despite no formal intervention targeting cue reactivity. Increased understanding of the neural underpinnings of cue reactivity could have implications for prevention and intervention strategies in adolescent heavy alcohol users. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Moure-Rodríguez, Lucía; Doallo, Sonia; Juan-Salvadores, Pablo; Corral, Montserrat; Cadaveira, Fernando; Caamaño-Isorna, Francisco
To determine the incidence of unsafe sex among university students and its association with heavy episodic drinking (HED) and cannabis use. A cohort study was carried out from 2005 to 2011 among university students of the Compostela Cohort (n=517). HED was measured using the third question of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Unsafe sex was considered to be sex under the influence of alcohol (SUA) and sex without a condom (SWC). Logistic regression models were created. The incidence of SUA was 40.9% for women and 53.0% for men, while the SWC incidence ranged from 13.7% for women to 25.7% for men. HED and cannabis use were associated with SUA in both women (OR=2.08, 95% CI: 1.03-4.21; OR=2.78, 95%CI: 1.57-4.92) and men (OR=4.74 (95%CI: 1.49-15.09; OR=4.37, 95%CI: 1.17- 16.36). Moreover, cannabis use in women was associated with SWC (OR=2.96, 95%CI: 1.52-5.75). The population attributable fractions of SUA for HED were 24.7% and 52.9% for women and men, respectively. HED and cannabis use represent a public health problem due to their association with a variety of problems, including engagement in unsafe sex. Our results suggest that a significant proportion of unsafe sex could be avoided by reducing this consumption pattern of alcohol. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Conclusion: We can conclude that heavy drinking leads to an increase of alcohol-related injuries. This shows a new dimension on the consequences of this public concern already related with a variety of health and social problems. Furthermore, our results allow us to suggest that about half of alcohol-related injuries could be avoided by removing this consumption pattern.
Pedrelli, Paola; Borsari, Brian; Lipson, Sarah Ketchen; Heinze, Justin E; Eisenberg, Daniel
Although major depressive disorder (MDD) and heavy episodic drinking (HED, 4+/5+ drinks in a single sitting for women/men) are common among young adults in college, the relationship between the two remains unclear. This study examined the association between MDD and HED in this population, the effect of gender on this association, and whether comorbid MDD and heavy alcohol use are associated with higher rates of mental health treatment engagement. The study comprised 61,561 (65.3% female) undergraduate students who answered an online survey on depression, alcohol use, and treatment engagement in the past year. Hierarchical linear regressions examined the association between MDD and alcohol use (HED and peak blood alcohol concentration [pBAC]) and whether gender moderated these associations. Logistic regressions were then conducted to examine the influence of MDD, heavy alcohol use, and gender on treatment engagement. Students with MDD reported more frequent HED and higher pBAC than did students without MDD; this was especially true for female students. Rates of treatment engagement were higher among women than men, among students with MDD than students without MDD, and among female students with HED than women without HED. The presence of an association between MDD and heavy alcohol use suggests the need for systematic screenings of both conditions. Low rates of treatment engagement in college students with MDD and heavy alcohol use calls for the development of strategies to engage this high-risk group in treatment.
Pitel, Anne Lise; Beaunieux, Hélène; Witkowski, Thomas; Vabret, François; de la Sayette, Vincent; Viader, Fausto; Desgranges, Béatrice; Eustache, Francis
The exact nature of episodic and working memory impairments in alcoholic Korsakoff patients (KS) remains unclear, as does the specificity of these neuropsychological deficits compared with those of non-Korsakoff alcoholics (AL). The goals of the present study were therefore to (1) specify the nature of episodic and working memory impairments in KS, (2) determine the specificity of the KS neuropsychological profile compared with the AL profile, and (3) observe the distribution of individual performances within the 2 patient groups. We investigated episodic memory (encoding and retrieval abilities, contextual memory and state of consciousness associated with memories), the slave systems of working memory (phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad and episodic buffer) and executive functions (inhibition, flexibility, updating and integration abilities) in 14 strictly selected KS, 40 AL and 55 control subjects (CS). Compared with CS, KS displayed impairments of episodic memory encoding and retrieval, contextual memory, recollection, the slave systems of working memory and executive functions. Although episodic memory was more severely impaired in KS than in AL, the single specificity of the KS profile was a disproportionately large encoding deficit. Apart from organizational and updating abilities, the slave systems of working memory and inhibition, flexibility and integration abilities were impaired to the same extent in both alcoholic groups. However, some KS were unable to complete the most difficult executive tasks. There was only a partial overlap of individual performances by KS and AL for episodic memory and a total mixture of the 2 groups for working memory. Korsakoff's syndrome encompasses impairments of the different episodic and working memory components. AL and KS displayed similar profiles of episodic and working memory deficits, in accordance with neuroimaging investigations showing similar patterns of brain damage in both alcoholic groups.
Ward, Brian W; Gryczynski, Jan
This study examined the relationship between living arrangement and heavy episodic drinking among college students in the United States. Using social learning theory as a framework, it was hypothesized that vicarious learning of peer and family alcohol-use norms would mediate the effects of living arrangement on heavy episodic drinking. Analyses were conducted using data from the 2001 Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study, a national survey of full-time undergraduate students attending 4-year colleges or universities in the United States (N = 10,008). Logistic regression models examined the relationship between heavy episodic drinking and various measures of living arrangement and vicarious learning/social norms. Mediation of the effects of living arrangement was tested using both indirect and direct methods. Both student living arrangement and vicarious-learning/social-norm variables remained significant predictors of heavy episodic drinking in multivariate models when controlling for a variety of individual characteristics. Slight mediation of the effects of living arrangement on heavy episodic drinking by vicarious learning/social norms was confirmed for some measures. Although vicarious learning of social norms does appear to play a role in the association between living arrangement and alcohol use, other processes may underlie the relationship. These findings suggest that using theory alongside empirical evidence to inform the manipulation of living environments could present a promising policy strategy to reduce alcohol-related harm in collegiate contexts.
Nazareth, Irwin; Walker, Carl; Ridolfi, Antonia; Aluoja, Anu; Bellon, Juan; Geerlings, Mirijam; Svab, Igor; Xavier, Miguel; King, Michael
Aims: We examined the prevalence of heavy episodic drinking in general practice attenders who were non-hazardous drinkers, the associated risk factors and the outcome over 6 months. Methods: Consecutive attenders aged 18-75 were recruited from the UK, Spain, Slovenia, Estonia, the Netherlands and
Barnett, Nancy P.; Meade, E.B.; Glynn, Tiffany R.
The objective of this investigation was to establish the ability of the Secure Continuous Remote Alcohol Monitoring (SCRAM) alcohol sensor to detect different levels of self-reported alcohol consumption, and to determine whether gender and body mass index, alcohol dependence, bracelet version, and age of bracelet influenced detection of alcohol use.
Jensen, M.K.; Andersen, A.T.; Sørensen, T.I.A.
Studies have suggested that wine drinkers are at lower risk of death than beer or spirits drinkers. The aim of this study is to examine whether the risk of becoming a heavy or excessive drinker differs among individuals who prefer different types of alcoholic beverages.......Studies have suggested that wine drinkers are at lower risk of death than beer or spirits drinkers. The aim of this study is to examine whether the risk of becoming a heavy or excessive drinker differs among individuals who prefer different types of alcoholic beverages....
Fama, Rosemary; Sullivan, Edith V; Sassoon, Stephanie A; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Zahr, Natalie M
Executive functioning and episodic memory impairment occur in HIV infection (HIV) and chronic alcoholism (ALC). Comorbidity of these conditions (HIV + ALC) is prevalent and heightens risk of vulnerability to separate and compounded deficits. Age and disease-related variables can also serve as mediators of cognitive impairment and should be considered, given the extended longevity of HIV-infected individuals in this era of improved pharmacological therapy. HIV, ALC, HIV + ALC, and normal controls (NC) were administered traditional and computerized tests of executive function and episodic memory. Test scores were expressed as age- and education-corrected Z-scores; selective tests were averaged to compute Executive Function and Episodic Memory Composite scores. Efficiency scores were calculated for tests with accuracy and response times. HIV, ALC, and HIV + ALC had lower scores than NC on Executive Function and Episodic Memory Composites, with HIV + ALC even lower than ALC and HIV on the Episodic Memory Composite. Impairments in planning and free recall of visuospatial material were observed in ALC, whereas impairments in psychomotor speed, sequencing, narrative free recall, and pattern recognition were observed in HIV. Lower decision-making efficiency scores than NC occurred in all 3 clinical groups. In ALC, age and lifetime alcohol consumption were each unique predictors of Executive Function and Episodic Memory Composite scores. In HIV + ALC, age was a unique predictor of Episodic Memory Composite score. Disease-specific and disease-overlapping patterns of impairment in HIV, ALC, and HIV + ALC have implications regarding brain systems disrupted by each disease and clinical ramifications regarding the complexities and compounded damping of cognitive functioning associated with dual diagnosis that may be exacerbated with aging. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Halonen, Jaana I; Kivimäki, Mika; Virtanen, Marianna; Pentti, Jaana; Subramanian, S V; Kawachi, Ichiro; Vahtera, Jussi
Availability of alcohol has been associated with alcohol consumption in cross-sectional studies. We examined longitudinally whether change in proximity to off-premise (i.e., no consumption on the premises) beer and liquor outlets is associated with heavy alcohol consumption. Distances from 54,778 Finnish Public Sector study participants' homes to the nearest off-premise beer and liquor outlets were calculated using Global Positioning System-coordinates. Between-individual analyses were used to study the effects of distance to the nearest outlet on heavy alcohol use, and within-individual analyses to study the effects of a change in distance on change in heavy use. Mean follow-up time in 2000-2009 was 6.8 (standard deviation 2.0) years. In a between-individual analysis, decrease from ≥500 m to alcohol use in women (odds ratio 1.23, 95% CI 1.05-1.44), but not in men. In a within-individual analysis decrease from 500 m to 0m in log-transformed continuous distance to the nearest beer outlet increased the odds of heavy alcohol consumption in women by 13% (odds ratio 1.13, 95% CI 1.01-1.27). For the corresponding change in distance to liquor outlet the increase was 3% (odds ratio 1.03, 95% CI 0.97-1.09). Change in distance from home to the nearest off-premise alcohol outlet affects the risk of heavy alcohol consumption in women. This evidence supports policies that restrict physical availability of alcohol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wilks, Chelsey R; Lungu, Anita; Ang, Sin Yee; Matsumiya, Brandon; Yin, Qingqing; Linehan, Marsha M
Given that alcohol misuse elevates risk of suicide death among ideators, the paucity of treatment outcome research for individuals presenting with both suicide ideation and problem drinking is particularly troubling. Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) skills training, which effectively targets behaviors associated with emotion dysregulation including addictive and suicidal behaviors, provides a fitting model amenable to computerization. As stigma and scarcity stand as potential barriers to treatment, online dissemination platforms provide means for efficient treatment delivery that can augment the utility of suitable interventions. This pilot RCT sought to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of an Internet-delivered DBT skills training intervention (iDBT-ST) for suicidal individuals who engage in heavy episodic drinking METHODS: Participants (N = 59) were randomized to receive iDBT-ST immediately or after an 8-week waiting period. Clinical outcomes were suicide ideation, alcohol use, and emotion dysregulation. Participants on average saw a significant reduction in all outcomes over the four-month study period. Compared to waitlist controls, individuals who received iDBT-ST immediately showed faster reductions in alcohol consumption. Preliminary results suggest that iDBT-ST may be a viable resource for the high-risk and underserved group represented in this study, and pathways for future development are suggested. There was difficulty retaining and engaging participants due to technological barriers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fama, Rosemary; Sullivan, Edith V.; Sassoon, Stephanie A.; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Zahr, Natalie M.
Background Executive functioning and episodic memory impairment occur in HIV infection (HIV) and chronic alcoholism (ALC). Comorbidity of these conditions (HIV+ALC) is prevalent and heightens risk for vulnerability to separate and compounded deficits. Age and disease-related variables can also serve as mediators of cognitive impairment and should be considered, given the extended longevity of HIV-infected individuals in this era of improved pharmacological therapy. Methods HIV, ALC, HIV+ALC, and normal controls (NC) were administered traditional and computerized tests of executive function and episodic memory. Test scores were expressed as age- and education-corrected Z-scores; selective tests were averaged to compute Executive Function and Episodic Memory Composite scores. Efficiency scores were calculated for tests with accuracy and response times. Results HIV, ALC, and HIV+ALC had lower scores than NC on Executive Function and Episodic Memory Composites, with HIV+ALC even lower than ALC and HIV on the Episodic Memory Composite. Impairments in planning and free recall of visuospatial material were observed in ALC, whereas impairments in psychomotor speed, sequencing, narrative free recall, and pattern recognition were observed in HIV. Lower decision-making efficiency scores than NC occurred in all three clinical groups. In ALC, age and lifetime alcohol consumption were each unique predictors of Executive Function and Episodic Memory Composite scores. In HIV+ALC, age was a unique predictor of Episodic Memory Composite score. Conclusions Disease-specific and disease-overlapping patterns of impairment in HIV,ALC, and HIV+ALC have implications regarding brain systems disrupted by each disease and clinical ramifications regarding the complexities and compounded damping of cognitive functioning associated with dual diagnosis that may be exacerbated with aging. PMID:27759882
Núñez, Christian; Ochoa, Susana; Huerta-Ramos, Elena; Baños, Iris; Barajas, Ana; Dolz, Montserrat; Sánchez, Bernardo; Del Cacho, Núria; Usall, Judith
First episode patients and patients with schizophrenia exhibit increased rates of cannabis use compared to the general population. Contrary to what has been reported in studies with healthy people, most of the published studies so far have reported no impairments or even beneficial effects on neurocognition associated with cannabis consumption in psychotic patients. However, these studies did not address the effects of very high cannabis consumption. Our aim in this study was to assess the effects on neurocognition of medium and heavy cannabis consumption in first psychotic episode patients. A total of 74 patients were included in the study and assigned to three different groups according to their mean cannabis consumption during the last year (non-users, medium users, and heavy users). Participants were administered verbal memory and other neurocognitive tasks. Heavy cannabis users were significantly impaired in all the verbal memory measures with respect to non-users, including immediate (p = .026), short-term (p = .005), and long-term (p = .002) memory. There were no significant differences between medium and non-users. Moreover, non-users performed better than all cannabis users in the arithmetic task (p = .020). Heavy cannabis consumption was associated with more commission errors in the continuous performance task (CPT) (p = .008) and more time to complete trail making test A (TMT-A) (p = .008), compared to the group of medium users. Heavy cannabis consumption seems to impair verbal memory in first psychotic episode patients. Heavy users also perform worse than medium users in other neurocognitive tasks. Based on the results and the available evidence, a dose-related effect of cannabis consumption is suggested.
Larbi, E B; Stamler, J; Dyer, A; Cooper, R; Paul, O; Shekelle, R B; Lepper, M
The association between alcohol consumption and hypertension was studied in 11,899 men aged 40-55 years. The prevalence of hypertension among heavy drinkers was significantly higher than among those who did not drink heavily. Heavy drinking was defined as consumption of five or more drinks daily or four or more drinks daily. A total of 136 persons fulfilled the five drinks or more per day definition and 230, the four drinks daily definition. The population-attributable risk of hypertension co...
Bedendo, André; Opaleye, Emérita S; Andrade, André Luiz Monezi; Noto, Ana Regina
Heavy episodic drinking (HED) (consumption of five or more drinks on the same occasion) among adolescents is related to several problems and partaking in sport or physical activities has been suggested as an option to prevent or reduce alcohol consumption among this population. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between soccer practice and heavy episodic drinking among high school students from Brazil. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional study among a representative sample of public and private high school students from all Brazilian state capitals (N=19,132). Only students aged from 14 to 18 who reported having taken part in soccer practice, other team sports or non-practicing sports in the last month were included. Characteristics of sport practice (frequency and motivation) and HED in the last month (type of drink; where and with whom they drank; frequency of HED) were also considered. Regression models were controlled for sociodemographic variables. For all groups studied most of the students reported drinking beer, with friends and at nightclubs or bars. Soccer practice was associated to HED when compared to non-practicing sports and to other team sports. Compared to other team sports, playing soccer for pleasure or profession, but not for keep fit or health reasons, were more associated to HED. Frequency of soccer practice from 1 to 5 days per month and 20 or more days per month, but not from 6 to 19 days per month, were also more associated to HED. The relationship between soccer and HED appears to be particularly stronger than in other team sports among adolescents in Brazil. Induced sociability of team sports practice cannot be assumed as the main reason for HED among soccer players. Possibly these results reflect the importance of a strong cultural association between soccer and beer in Brazil and these findings should be integrated to future prevention or intervention programs.
If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...
Stanger, Sarah; Abaied, Jamie; Wagner, Caitlin
Early age at onset of alcohol use is a risk factor for later heavy alcohol use, but some individuals are buffered from this risk. To better understand this process, this study investigated the interactive contributions of parental coping suggestions, skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR), and age at onset of alcohol use on heavy alcohol use in college students. College students (N = 146, 77% female) reported their age at onset of alcohol use, frequency of recent heavy alcohol use, and their parents' coping suggestions; SCLR was monitored as participants completed a laboratory challenge task. In addition, students' parents (N = 73, 77% mothers) reported on their coping suggestions. Results indicated that in the presence of physiological risk only (blunted SCLR, late age at onset of alcohol use), higher frequencies of engagement and disengagement parental coping suggestions were protective against heavy alcohol use in college students. However, if both risk factors were present (blunted SCLR, early age at onset of alcohol use), more engagement suggestions predicted more heavy alcohol use among college students. These findings extend previous findings on the impact of parenting on heavy alcohol use among college students and provide novel evidence for the moderating role of sympathetic stress reactivity.
Broome, Kirk M; Bennett, Joel B
Restaurant employees often have high rates of heavy drinking and problems with alcohol. This study evaluates reductions in drinking and associated problems at work, in connection with a new program for prevention and early intervention. The program, called Team Resilience, is designed for young restaurant workers. A cluster-randomized trial design was used, with 28 stores from a national casual-dining restaurant chain and 235 of their employees (54% male, 46% female). Fourteen stores received the Team Resilience training workshop, consisting of three 2-hour sessions held on 3 consecutive days. Sessions included group discussion, role-play and practice activities, and a learning game. Workers in trained stores reported significantly greater decreases in recurring heavy drinking (i.e., having five or more drinks on the same occasion, on 5 or more days in the past month) and work-related problems with alcohol than workers in control stores. In the intervention group, the odds of recurring heavy drinking declined by about one half and the number of work-related problem areas declined by one third following training. In addition, drinking behaviors and problems were tied to age and were most common among employees in their middle 20s. Findings support Team Resilience as an effective intervention for reducing drinking and associated problems among young restaurant workers, a population with substantial needs.
Jessor, Richard; Costa, Frances M; Krueger, Patrick M; Turbin, Mark S
A theory-based protection/risk model was applied to explain variation in college students' heavy episodic drinking. Key aims were (1) to establish that psychosocial and behavioral protective factors and risk factors can account for cross-sectional and developmental variation in heavy episodic drinking, and (2) to examine whether protection moderates the impact of risk on heavy episodic drinking. Random- and fixed-effects maximum likelihood regression analyses were used to examine data from a three-wave longitudinal study. Data were collected in fall of 2002, spring of 2003, and spring of 2004 from college students (N=975; 548 men) who were first-semester freshmen at Wave 1. Psychosocial and behavioral protective and risk factors accounted for substantial variation in college-student heavy episodic drinking, and protection moderated the impact of risk. Findings held for both genders and were consistent across the three separate waves of data. Key predictors of heavy episodic drinking were social and individual controls protection (e.g., parental sanctions for transgression and attitudinal intolerance of deviance, respectively); models risk (peer models for substance use); behavioral protection (attendance at religious services); and behavioral risk (cigarette smoking and marijuana use). Changes in controls protection, models risk, and opportunity risk were associated with change in heavy episodic drinking. An explanatory model based on both psychosocial and behavioral protective and risk factors was effective in accounting for variation in college-student heavy episodic drinking. A useful heuristic was demonstrated through the articulation of models, controls, support, opportunity, and vulnerability to characterize the social context, and of controls, vulnerability, and other behaviors to characterize individuals.
Full Text Available The concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM and ozone in Beijing often exceed healthful levels in recent years, therefore China is to taking steps to improve Beijing's air quality for the 2008 Olympic Games. In this paper, the Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ Modeling System was used to investigate a heavy air pollution episode in Beijing during 3–7 April 2005 to obtain the basic information of how heavy air pollution formed and the contributions of local sources and surround emissions. The modeling domain covered from East Asia with four nested grids with 81 to 3 km horizontal resolution focusing on urban Beijing. This was coupled with a regional emissions inventory with a 10 km resolution and a local 1 km Beijing emissions database. The trend of predicted concentrations of various pollutants agreed reasonably well with the observations and captured the main features of this heavy pollution episode. The simulated column concentration distribution of PM was correlated well with the MODIS remote sensing products. Control runs with and without Beijing emissions were conducted to quantify the contributions of non-Beijing sources (NBS to the Beijing local air pollution. The contributions of NBS to each species differed spatially and temporally with the order of PM2.5>PM10>SO2> soil for this episode. The percentage contribution of NBS to fine particle (PM2.5 in Beijing was averaged about 39%, up to 53% at the northwest of urban Beijing and only 15% at southwest. The spatial distribution of NBS contributions for PM10 was similar to that for PM2.5, with a slightly less average percentage of about 30%. The average NBS contributions for SO2 and soil (diameter between 2.5 μm and 10 μm were 18% and 10%. In addition, the pollutant transport flux was calculated and compared at different levels to investigate transport pathway and magnitude. It was found
Le Berre, Anne-Pascale; Pinon, Karine; Vabret, François; Pitel, Anne-Lise; Allain, Philippe; Eustache, Francis; Beaunieux, Hélène
Alcoholism affects various cognitive processes, including components of memory. Metamemory, though of particular interest for patient treatment, has not yet been extensively investigated. A feeling-of-knowing (FOK) measure of metamemory was administered to 28 alcoholic patients and 28 healthy controls during an episodic memory task including the learning of 20 pairs of items, followed by a 20-minute delayed recall and a recognition task. Prior to recognition, participants rated their ability to recognize each nonrecalled word among 4 items. This episodic FOK measure served to compare predictions of future recognition performance and actual recognition performance. Furthermore, a subjective measure of metamemory, the Metamemory In Adulthood (MIA) questionnaire, was completed by patients and controls. This assessment of alcoholic patients' metamemory profile was accompanied by an evaluation of episodic memory and executive functioning. FOK results revealed deficits in accuracy, with the alcoholic patients providing overestimations. There were also links between FOK inaccuracy, executive decline, and episodic memory impairment in patients. MIA results showed that although alcoholics did display memory difficulties, they did not differ from controls on questions about memory capacity. Chronic alcoholism affects both episodic memory and metamemory for novel information. Patients were relatively unaware of their memory deficits and believed that their memory was as good as that of the healthy controls. The monitoring measure (FOK) and the subjective measure of metamemory (MIA) showed that patients with chronic alcoholism overestimated their memory capacities. Episodic memory deficit and executive dysfunction would explain metamemory decline in this clinical population. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Jackson, Kristina; Wang, Heng; Miles, Thomas T; Mather, Frances; Shankar, Arti
The purpose of this study was to examine whether associations between perceived discrimination and heavy episodic drinking (HED) vary by age and by discrimination type (e.g., racial, age, physical appearance) among African-American youth. National data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics Transition to Adulthood Study were analyzed. Youth participated in up to four interviews (2005, 2007, 2009, 2011; n = 657) between ages 18 and 25 years. Respondents reported past-year engagement in HED (four or more drinks for females, five or more drinks for males) and frequency of discriminatory acts experienced (e.g., receiving poor service, being treated with less courtesy). Categorical latent growth curve models, including perceived discrimination types (racial, age, and physical appearance) as a time-varying predictors of HED, were run. Controls for gender, birth cohort, living arrangement in adolescence, familial wealth, parental alcohol use, and college attendance were explored. The average HED trajectory was curvilinear (increasing followed by flattening), whereas perceived discrimination remained flat with age. In models including controls, odds of HED were significantly higher than average around ages 20-21 years with greater frequency of perceived racial discrimination; associations were not significant at other ages. Discrimination attributed to age or physical appearance was not associated with HED at any age. Perceived racial discrimination may be a particularly salient risk factor for HED around the ages of transition to legal access to alcohol among African-American youth. Interventions to reduce discrimination or its impact could be targeted before this transition to ameliorate the negative outcomes associated with HED. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wechsler, Henry; Nelson, Toben E; Lee, Jae Eun; Seibring, Mark; Lewis, Catherine; Keeling, Richard P
To evaluate a widely used intervention to reduce college student alcohol use, we studied student drinking patterns at colleges that employed social norms marketing programs and those that did not. We examined responses of students in the Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study (CAS) 1997, 1999 and 2001 data sets at 37 colleges that employed social norms marketing programs and at 61 that did not. Information about the students' drinking behavior and their familiarity with social norms marketing messages at their schools was analyzed, as were college administrators' reports about the implementation of social norms marketing campaigns. Schools were grouped on the basis of student reports of exposure to programmatic materials. Trend analyses were conducted on seven standard measures of alcohol consumption, including annual and 30-day use, frequency, usual quantity and volume consumed, heavy episodic use, and drunkenness. Almost half of the CAS colleges sampled adopted social norms programs. Those that did were more likely to have large enrollments, not to be religiously affiliated and to have high rates of alcohol use. No decreases were noted in any of the seven measures of alcohol use at schools with social norms programs, even when student exposure and length of program existence were considered. Increases in measures of monthly alcohol use and total volume consumed, however, were observed at schools employing social norms programs. This study does not provide evidence to support the effectiveness of social norms marketing programs, as currently utilized, in reducing alcohol use among college students.
Gill, J; Chick, J; Black, H; Rees, C; O'May, F; Rush, R; McPake, B A
Potential strategies to address alcohol misuse remain contentious. We aim to characterise the drink purchases of one population group: heavy drinkers in contact with Scottish health services. We contrast our findings with national sales data and explore the impact of socio-economic status on purchasing behaviour. Cross-sectional study comparing alcohol purchasing and consumption by heavy drinkers in Edinburgh and Glasgow during 2012. 639 patients with serious health problems linked to alcohol (recruited within NHS hospital clinics (in- and out-patient settings) 345 in Glasgow, 294 in Edinburgh) responded to a questionnaire documenting demographic data and last week's or a 'typical' weekly consumption (type, brand, volume, price, place of purchase). Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation quintile was derived as proxy of sociodemographic status. Median consumption was 184.8 (IQR = 162.2) UK units/week paying a mean of 39.7 pence per alcohol unit (£0.397). Off-sales accounted for 95% of purchases with 85% of those purchase the majority of their drinks from off-sale settings seeking the cheapest drinks, often favouring local suppliers. While beer was popular, recent legislation impacting on the sale of multibuys may prevent the heaviest drinkers benefiting from the lower beer prices available in supermarkets. Non-etheless, drinkers were able to offset higher unit prices with cheaper drink types and maintain high levels of consumption. Whilst price is key, heavy drinkers are influenced by other factors and adapt their purchasing as necessary. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Clark, Trenette T; Yang, Chongming; McClernon, F Joseph; Fuemmeler, Bernard F
This study examines racial differences between Whites and Blacks in the association of parenting style typologies with changes in heavy episodic drinking from adolescence to young adulthood. The analytic sample consists of 9,942 adolescents drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, which followed respondents from ages 12 to 31 years. Confirmatory factor analysis and factor mixture modeling are used to classify parenting style typologies based on measures of parental acceptance and control. Heavy Episodic Drinking (HED) trajectories are evaluated using a zero-inflated Poisson multigroup latent growth curve modeling approach. The mixture model identified 4 heterogeneous groups that differed based on the 2 latent variables (parental acceptance and control): balanced (65.8% of the sample), authoritarian (12.2%), permissive (19.4%), and uninvolved or neglectful (2.7%). Regardless of race, we found that at age 12 years, children of authoritarian parents have a higher probability of not engaging in HED than children of parents with balanced, permissive, or neglectful parenting styles. However, among Black youth who reported HED at age 12, authoritarian parenting was associated with greater level of HED at age 12 but a less steep increase in level of HED as age increased yearly as compared with balanced parenting. For White adolescents, uninvolved, permissive, and authoritarian parenting were not associated with a greater level of HED as age increased yearly as compared with adolescents exposed to balanced parenting. The influence of parenting styles on HED during adolescence persists into young adulthood and differs by race for youth engaging in HED. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
Pitel, Anne Lise; Witkowski, Thomas; Vabret, François; Guillery-Girard, Bérengère; Desgranges, Béatrice; Eustache, Francis; Beaunieux, Hélène
Chronic alcoholism is known to impair the functioning of episodic and working memory, which may consequently reduce the ability to learn complex novel information. Nevertheless, semantic and cognitive procedural learning have not been properly explored at alcohol treatment entry, despite its potential clinical relevance. The goal of the present study was therefore to determine whether alcoholic patients, immediately after the weaning phase, are cognitively able to acquire complex new knowledge, given their episodic and working memory deficits. Twenty alcoholic inpatients with episodic memory and working memory deficits at alcohol treatment entry and a control group of 20 healthy subjects underwent a protocol of semantic acquisition and cognitive procedural learning. The semantic learning task consisted of the acquisition of 10 novel concepts, while subjects were administered the Tower of Toronto task to measure cognitive procedural learning. Analyses showed that although alcoholic subjects were able to acquire the category and features of the semantic concepts, albeit slowly, they presented impaired label learning. In the control group, executive functions and episodic memory predicted semantic learning in the first and second halves of the protocol, respectively. In addition to the cognitive processes involved in the learning strategies invoked by controls, alcoholic subjects seem to attempt to compensate for their impaired cognitive functions, invoking capacities of short-term passive storage. Regarding cognitive procedural learning, although the patients eventually achieved the same results as the controls, they failed to automate the procedure. Contrary to the control group, the alcoholic groups' learning performance was predicted by controlled cognitive functions throughout the protocol. At alcohol treatment entry, alcoholic patients with neuropsychological deficits have difficulty acquiring novel semantic and cognitive procedural knowledge. Compared with
Powers, Gregory; Berger, Lisa; Fuhrmann, Daniel; Fendrich, Michael
A family history of alcoholism has been found associated with problematic alcohol use among college students, but less research has examined the effects of family history density of substance use problems in this population. This study examined the prevalence of family history density of substance use problems and its associations with heavy alcohol use, negative alcohol consequences, and alcohol use disorder in a college sample. Based on a secondary analysis of a probability sample, data were analyzed from 606 undergraduate students. Family history density of substance use problems included both first and second degree biological relatives. Heavy alcohol use was the total number of days in which participants drank five/four or more drinks for men/women, negative alcohol consequences were derived from items commonly asked in college student surveys, and an alcohol use disorder was defined as meeting diagnostic criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence. Point prevalence estimated rates of family history density of substance use problems, and negative binomial, ANCOVA, and logistic regression models examined associations between family history density and the alcohol variables while adjusting for sociodemographic variables. Family history density of substance use problems was not significantly associated with total days of heavy alcohol use. Having a second degree, a first degree, or both a first and second degree relative(s) with a substance use problem, however, was significantly associated with experiencing negative alcohol consequences. In addition, having both a first and second degree relative(s) with a substance use problem significantly increased the odds of having an alcohol use disorder. Family history density of substance use problems may play a role in experiencing negative alcohol consequences and in having an alcohol use disorder among undergraduate college students and may be an important risk factor to assess by college health professionals. Copyright
Woud, M.L.; Fitzgerald, D.A.; Wiers, R.W.; Rinck, M.; Becker, E.S.
Alcohol misuse is characterized by patterns of selective information processing. The present study investigated whether heavy- compared with light-drinking students, show evidence of an alcohol-related interpretation bias to ambiguous, alcohol-related cues. Toward this aim, participants were asked
Munigala, Satish; Conwell, Darwin L; Gelrud, Andres; Agarwal, Banke
There is limited data on cigarette smoking and the risk of acute pancreatitis (AP). We evaluated the influence of cigarette smoking on AP risk and clinical presentation in a large cohort of Veteran's Administration (VA) patients. Retrospective study of VA patients from 1998 to 2007. Exclusion criteria included (1) history of chronic pancreatitis (n = 3222) or gallstones (n = 14,574) and (2) age younger than 15 years (n = 270). A 2-year washout period was used to exclude patients with pre-existing recurrent AP. The study included 484,624 patients. From 2001 to 2007, a total of 6799 (1.4%) patients had AP. Alcohol (risk ratio, 4.20) and smoking (risk ratio, 1.78) were independent significant risk factors of AP on multiple regression analysis. Smoking increased the risk of AP in both nonalcoholics (0.57% vs 1.1%) and alcoholics (2.6% vs 4.1%). Smoking was associated with younger mean age at first episode of AP and higher likelihood of recurrent AP (≥4 episodes) in both nonalcoholics and alcoholics. The interval between recurrent episodes was not altered by alcohol or smoking. In a large cohort of VA patients, smoking is an independent risk factor for AP and augmented the effect of alcohol on the risk, age of onset, and recurrence of AP.
Carlson, Emily; Holtyn, August F; Fingerhood, Michael; Friedman-Wheeler, Dara; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie S; Silverman, Kenneth
A clinical trial demonstrated that a therapeutic workplace could promote alcohol abstinence in homeless, alcohol-dependent adults. This secondary-data analysis examined rates of homelessness and their relation to the therapeutic workplace intervention and alcohol use during the trial. In the trial, homeless, alcohol-dependent adults could work in a therapeutic workplace for 6 months and were randomly assigned to Unpaid Training, Paid Training, or Contingent Paid Training groups. Unpaid Training participants were not paid for working. Paid Training participants were paid for working. Contingent Paid Training participants were paid for working if they provided alcohol-negative breath samples. Rates of homelessness during the study were calculated for each participant and the three groups were compared. Mixed-effects regression models were conducted to examine the relation between alcohol use (i.e., heavy drinking, drinks per drinking day, and days of alcohol abstinence) and homelessness. Unpaid Training, Paid Training, and Contingent Paid Training participants did not differ in the percentage of study days spent homeless (31%, 28%, 17%; respectively; F(2,94)=1.732, p=0.183). However, participants with more heavy drinking days (b=0.350, phomeless. Reducing heavy drinking and alcohol use may help homeless, alcohol-dependent adults transition out of homelessness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mohapatra, Satya; Patra, Jayadeep; Popova, Svetlana; Duhig, Amy; Rehm, Jürgen
A comprehensive review of cost drivers associated with alcohol abuse, heavy drinking, and alcohol dependence for high-income countries was conducted. The data from 14 identified cost studies were tabulated according to the potential direct and indirect cost drivers. The costs associated with alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence, and heavy drinking were calculated. The weighted average of the total societal cost due to alcohol abuse as percent gross domestic product (GDP)--purchasing power parity (PPP)--was 1.58%. The cost due to heavy drinking and/or alcohol dependence as percent GDP (PPP) was estimated to be 0.96%. On average, the alcohol-attributable indirect cost due to loss of productivity is more than the alcohol-attributable direct cost. Most of the countries seem to incur 1% or more of their GDP (PPP) as alcohol-attributable costs, which is a high toll for a single factor and an enormous burden on public health. The majority of alcohol-attributable costs incurred as a consequence of heavy drinking and/or alcohol dependence. Effective prevention and treatment measures should be implemented to reduce these costs.
Woods, Adam J; Porges, Eric C; Bryant, Vaughn E; Seider, Talia; Gongvatana, Assawin; Kahler, Christopher W; de la Monte, Suzanne; Monti, Peter M; Cohen, Ronald A
The acute consumption of excessive quantities of alcohol causes well-recognized neurophysiological and cognitive alterations. As people reach advanced age, they are more prone to cognitive decline. To date, the interaction of current heavy alcohol (ethanol [EtOH]) consumption and aging remains unclear. This study tested the hypothesis that negative consequences of current heavy alcohol consumption on neurocognitive function are worse with advanced age. Further, we evaluated the relations between lifetime history of alcohol dependence and neurocognitive function METHODS: Sixty-six participants underwent a comprehensive neurocognitive battery. Current heavy EtOH drinkers were classified using National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism criteria (EtOH heavy, n = 21) based on the Timeline follow-back and a structured clinical interview and compared to nondrinkers, and moderate drinkers (EtOH low, n = 45). Of the total population, 53.3% had a lifetime history of alcohol dependence. Neurocognitive data were grouped and analyzed relative to global and domain scores assessing: global cognitive function, attention/executive function, learning, memory, motor function, verbal function, and speed of processing. Heavy current EtOH consumption in older adults was associated with poorer global cognitive function, learning, memory, and motor function (ps alcohol dependence was associated with poorer function in the same neurocognitive domains, in addition to the attention/executive domain, irrespective of age (ps alcohol consumption is associated with significant impairment in a number of neurocognitive domains, history of alcohol dependence, even in the absence of heavy current alcohol use, is associated with lasting negative consequences for neurocognitive function. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Ren, Yan; Zheng, Shuwen; Wei, Wei; Wu, Bingui; Zhang, Hongsheng; Cai, Xuhui; Song, Yu
We analyzed the structure and evolution of turbulent transfer and the wind profile in the atmospheric boundary layer in relation to aerosol concentrations during an episode of heavy haze pollution from 6 December 2016 to 9 January 2017. The turbulence data were recorded at Peking University's atmospheric science and environment observation station. The results showed a negative correlation between the wind speed and the PM2.5 concentration. The turbulence kinetic energy was large and showed obvious diurnal variations during unpolluted (clean) weather, but was small during episodes of heavy haze pollution. Under both clean and heavy haze conditions, the relation between the non-dimensional wind components and the stability parameter z/ L followed a 1/3 power law, but the normalized standard deviations of the wind speed were smaller during heavy pollution events than during clean periods under near-neutral conditions. Under unstable conditions, the normalized standard deviation of the potential temperature σ θ /| θ *| was related to z/ L, roughly following a -1/3 power law, and the ratio during pollution days was greater than that during clean days. The three-dimensional turbulence energy spectra satisfied a -2/3 power exponent rate in the high-frequency band. In the low-frequency band, the wind velocity spectrum curve was related to the stability parameters under clear conditions, but was not related to atmospheric stratification under polluted conditions. In the dissipation stage of the heavy pollution episode, the horizontal wind speed first started to increase at high altitudes and then gradually decreased at lower altitudes. The strong upward motion during this stage was an important dynamic factor in the dissipation of the heavy haze.
McNaughton Reyes, Heathe Luz; Foshee, Vangie A.; Bauer, Daniel J.; Ennett, Susan T.
We examined the hypothesis that family, peer and neighborhood violence would moderate relations between heavy alcohol use and adolescent dating violence perpetration such that relations would be stronger for teens in violent contexts. Random coefficients growth models were used to examine the main and interaction effects of heavy alcohol use and four measures of violence (family violence, friend dating violence, friend peer violence and neighborhood violence) on levels of physical dating viol...
Clark, Trenette T.; Yang, Chongming; McClernon, F. Joseph; Fuemmeler, Bernard
Objective This study examines racial differences between Caucasians and African Americans in the association of parenting style typologies with changes in heavy episodic drinking from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods The analytic sample consists of 9,942 adolescents drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, which followed respondents from ages 12 to 31 years. Confirmatory factor analysis and factor mixture modeling are used to classify parenting style typologies based on measures of parental acceptance and control. HED trajectories are evaluated using a zero-inflated Poisson multigroup latent growth curve modeling approach. Results The mixture model identified four heterogeneous groups that differed based on the two latent variables (parental acceptance and control): balanced (65.8% of the sample), authoritarian (12.2%), permissive (19.4%), and uninvolved/neglectful (2.7%). Regardless of race, we found that at age 12 years, children of authoritarian parents have a higher probability of not engaging in HED than children of parents with balanced, permissive, or neglectful parenting styles. However, among African American youth who reported HED at age 12, authoritarian parenting was associated with greater level of HED at age 12 but a less steep increase in level of HED as age increased yearly as compared with balanced parenting. For Caucasian adolescents, uninvolved, permissive, and authoritarian parenting were not associated with a greater level of HED as age increased yearly as compared with adolescents exposed to balanced parenting. Conclusion The influence of parenting styles on HED during adolescence persists into young adulthood and differs by race for youth engaging in HED. PMID:25222086
McGee, Christie L.; Bjorkquist, Olivia A.; Price, Joseph M.; Mattson, Sarah N.; Riley, Edward P.
Based on caregiver report, children with prenatal alcohol exposure have difficulty with social functioning, but little is known about their social cognition. The current study assessed the social information processing patterns of school-age children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure using a paradigm based on Crick and Dodge's reformulated…
Cremeens, Jennifer L.; Usdan, Stuart L.; Brock-Martin, Amy; Martin, Ryan J.; Watkins, Ken
With extreme rates of binge drinking among young adults, college students continue to be a primary focus for a range of alcohol prevention efforts. Most universities are attempting to change the alcohol environment by implementing a variety of strategies to reduce heavy drinking among college students. With the exception of parental notification…
Hicks, Joshua A; Fields, Sherecce; Davis, William E; Gable, Philip A
Research shows that alcohol-related stimuli have the propensity to capture attention among individuals motivated to consume alcohol. Research has further demonstrated that impulsive individuals are especially prone to this type of attentional bias. Recently, it is suggested that alcohol cue exposure can also produce a general narrowing of attention consistent with the activation of approach motivational states. Based on previous models of addiction and recent research on the activation of approach motivational states, we predicted that impulsive individuals would demonstrate a constriction of attentional focus in response to alcohol cue exposure. Participants (n = 392) completed a task assessing attentional breadth in response to alcohol and non-alcohol cues, followed by measures of alcohol use and impulsivity. The findings revealed that impulsivity scores predicted narrowing of attentional scope following the presentation of alcohol cues for heavier drinkers but not for light drinkers. These results suggest that impulsive individuals who drink more heavily demonstrate a narrowing of attention in the presence of alcohol-related incentive cues. Implications for how these findings might account for the link between impulsivity and alcohol use and misuse are discussed.
Stautz, Kaidy; Frings, Daniel; Albery, Ian P.; Moss, Antony C.; Marteau, Theresa M.
Objectives There is sparse evidence regarding the effect of alcohol?advertising exposure on alcohol consumption among heavy drinkers. This study aimed to assess the immediate effects of alcohol?promoting and alcohol?warning video advertising on objective alcohol consumption in heavy?drinking young adults, and to examine underlying processes. Design Between?participants randomized controlled trial with three conditions. Methods Two hundred and four young adults (aged 18?25) who self?reported a...
Woods, Adam J.; Porges, Eric C.; Bryant, Vaughn E.; Seider, Talia; Gongvatana, Assawin; Kahler, Christopher W.; de la Monte, Suzanne; Monti, Peter M.; Cohen, Ronald A.
Background The acute consumption of excessive quantities of alcohol causes well-recognized neurophysiological and cognitive alterations. As people reach advanced age, they are more prone to cognitive decline. To date, the interaction of current heavy alcohol (ETOH) consumption and aging remain unclear. The current paper tested the hypothesis that negative consequences of current heavy alcohol consumption on neurocognitive function are worse with advanced age. Further, we evaluated the relations between lifetime history of alcohol dependence and neurocognitive function Methods Sixty-six participants underwent a comprehensive neurocognitive battery. Current heavy ETOH drinkers were classified using NIAAA criteria (ETOH Heavy, n = 21) based on the Timeline follow-back and a structured clinical interview and compared to non-drinkers, and moderate drinkers (ETOH Low, n = 45). Fifty-three-point-three percent of the total population had a lifetime history of alcohol dependence. Neurocognitive data were grouped and analyzed relative to global and domain scores assessing: global cognitive function, attention/executive function, learning, memory, motor function, verbal function, and speed of processing. Results Heavy current ETOH consumption in older adults was associated with poorer global cognitive function, learning, memory, and motor function (p’sfunction in the same neurocognitive domains, in addition to the attention/executive domain, irrespective of age (p’sfunction. PMID:27658235
Kennedy, Mary Clare; Marshall, Brandon D L; Hayashi, Kanna; Nguyen, Paul; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas
People who use illicit drugs (PWUD) are known to experience high rates of suicidal behavior. While heavy alcohol use has been associated with suicide risk, its impact on the suicidal behavior of PWUD has not been well characterized. Therefore, we examined the relationship between heavy alcohol use and suicidal behavior among PWUD in Vancouver, Canada. Data are derived from two prospective cohort studies of PWUD in Vancouver, Canada, from 2005 to 2013. Participants completed questionnaires that elicited information regarding sociodemographics, drug use patterns, and mental health problems, including suicidal behavior. We used recurrent event survival analyses to estimate the independent association between at-risk/heavy drinking (based on National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism [NIAAA] criteria) and risk of incident, self-reported suicide attempts. Of 1757 participants, 162 participants (9.2%) reported 227 suicide attempts over the 8-year study period, resulting in an incidence rate of 2.5 cases per 100 person-years. After adjusting for potential confounders, including intensive illicit drug use patterns, heavy alcohol use (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 1.97; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.39, 2.78) was positively associated with an increased risk of suicidal behavior. We observed a high burden of suicidal behavior among a community-recruited sample of PWUD. Heavy alcohol use predicted a higher risk of suicide attempt, independent of other drug use patterns. These findings demonstrate the need for evidence-based interventions to address suicide risk among PWUD, particularly those who are heavy consumers of alcohol. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
McNaughton Reyes, Heathe Luz; Foshee, Vangie A; Bauer, Daniel J; Ennett, Susan T
We examined the hypothesis that family, peer and neighborhood violence would moderate relations between heavy alcohol use and adolescent dating violence perpetration such that relations would be stronger for teens in violent contexts. Random coefficients growth models were used to examine the main and interaction effects of heavy alcohol use and four measures of violence (family violence, friend dating violence, friend peer violence and neighborhood violence) on levels of physical dating violence perpetration across grades 8 through 12. The effects of heavy alcohol use on dating violence tended to diminish over time and were stronger in the spring than in the fall semesters. Consistent with hypotheses, across all grades, relations between heavy alcohol use and dating violence were stronger for teens exposed to higher levels of family violence and friend dating violence. However, neither friend peer violence nor neighborhood violence moderated relations between alcohol use and dating violence. Taken together, findings suggest that as adolescents grow older, individual and contextual moderators may play an increasingly important role in explaining individual differences in relations between alcohol use and dating violence. Implications for the design and evaluation of dating abuse prevention programs are discussed.
Foshee, Vangie A.; Bauer, Daniel J.; Ennett, Susan T.
We examined the hypothesis that family, peer and neighborhood violence would moderate relations between heavy alcohol use and adolescent dating violence perpetration such that relations would be stronger for teens in violent contexts. Random coefficients growth models were used to examine the main and interaction effects of heavy alcohol use and four measures of violence (family violence, friend dating violence, friend peer violence and neighborhood violence) on levels of physical dating violence perpetration across grades 8 through 12. The effects of heavy alcohol use on dating violence tended to diminish over time and were stronger in the spring than in the fall semesters. Consistent with hypotheses, across all grades, relations between heavy alcohol use and dating violence were stronger for teens exposed to higher levels of family violence and friend dating violence. However, neither friend peer violence nor neighborhood violence moderated relations between alcohol use and dating violence. Taken together, findings suggest that as adolescents grow older, individual and contextual moderators may play an increasingly important role in explaining individual differences in relations between alcohol use and dating violence. Implications for the design and evaluation of dating abuse prevention programs are discussed. PMID:21494801
Grønbaek, Morten; Jensen, Majken K; Johansen, Ditte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Becker, Ulrik
Studies have suggested that wine drinkers are at lower risk of death than beer or spirit drinkers. The aim of this study is to examine whether the risk of becoming a heavy drinker or developing alcoholic cirrhosis differs among individuals who prefer different types of alcoholic beverages. In a longitudinal setting we found that both the risk of becoming a heavy or excessive drinker (above 14 and 21 drinks per week for women and above 21 and 35 drinks per week for men) and the risk of developing alcoholic cirrhosis depended on the individuals preference of wine, beer or spirits. We conclude that moderate wine drinkers appear to be at lower risk of becoming heavy and excessive drinkers and that this may add to the explanation of the reported beverage-specific differences in morbidity and mortality.
Full Text Available Studies have suggested that wine drinkers are at lower risk of death than beer or spirit drinkers. The aim of this study is to examine whether the risk of becoming a heavy drinker or developing alcoholic cirrhosis differs among individuals who prefer different types of alcoholic beverages. In a longitudinal setting we found that both the risk of becoming a heavy or excessive drinker (above 14 and 21 drinks per week for women and above 21 and 35 drinks per week for men and the risk of developing alcoholic cirrhosis depended on the individuals preference of wine, beer or spirits. We conclude that moderate wine drinkers appear to be at lower risk of becoming heavy and excessive drinkers and that this may add to the explanation of the reported beverage-specific differences in morbidity and mortality.
Roche, Daniel J O; Palmeri, Michael D; King, Andrea C
In 3 previously published works (Brumback et al., 2007, Drug Alcohol Depend 91:10-17; King et al., 2011a, Arch Gen Psychiatry 68:389-399; Roche and King, 2010, Psychopharmacology (Berl) 212:33-44), our group characterized acute alcohol responses in a large group of young, heavy binge drinkers (n = 104) across a variety of subjective, eye-tracking, and psychometric performance measures. The primary goal of the current study was to directly replicate prior findings of alcohol response in heavy social drinkers (HD) in a second independent cohort (n = 104) using identical methodology. A secondary goal was to examine the effects of family history (FH) of alcohol use disorders (AUD) on acute alcohol response in both samples. Participants attended 2 randomized laboratory sessions in which they consumed 0.8 g/kg alcohol or a taste-masked placebo. At pre- and post-drink time points, participants completed subjective scales, psychomotor performance and eye-movement tasks, and provided salivary samples for cortisol determination. Results showed that the second cohort of heavy drinkers exhibited a nearly identical pattern of alcohol responses to the original cohort, including sensitivity to alcohol's stimulating and hedonically rewarding effects during the rising breath alcohol content (BrAC) limb, increases in sedation during the declining BrAC limb, a lack of cortisol response, and psychomotor and eye-tracking impairment that was most evident at peak BrAC. The magnitude and temporal pattern of these acute effects of alcohol in the second cohort were similar to the first cohort across all measures, with the exception of 3 eye-movement measures: pro- and antisaccade accuracy and antisaccade velocity. FH of AUD did not affect alcohol response in the first cohort, and this was replicated in the second cohort. In sum, in 2 independent samples, we have demonstrated that HD display a consistent and reliable sensitivity to alcohol's subjective effects and impairment of eye
Boschloo, Lynn; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Licht, Carmilla M. M.; Vreeburg, Sophie A.; Smit, Johannes H.; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.
Heavy alcohol use as well as alcohol dependence (AD) have been associated with dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). However, the relative contribution of alcohol use and AD is unclear. Baseline data were derived from 2947 persons of
Duan, Jingchun; Tan, Jihua; Hao, Jiming; Chai, Fahe
Size segragated samples were collected during high polluted winter haze days in 2006 in Beijing, China. Twenty nine elements and 9 water soluble ions were determined. Heavy metals of Zn, Pb, Mn, Cu, As, Cr, Ni, V and Cd were deeply studied considering their toxic effect on human being. Among these heavy metals, the levels of Mn, As and Cd exceeded the reference values of National Ambient Air Quality Standard (GB3095-2012) and guidelines of World Health Organization. By estimation, high percentage of atmospheric heavy metals in PM2.5 indicates it is an effective way to control atmospheric heavy metals by PM2.5 controlling. Pb, Cd, and Zn show mostly in accumulation mode, V, Mn and Cu exist mostly in both coarse and accumulation modes, and Ni and Cr exist in all of the three modes. Considering the health effect, the breakthrough rates of atmospheric heavy metals into pulmonary alveoli are: Pb (62.1%) > As (58.1%) > Cd (57.9%) > Zn (57.7%) > Cu (55.8%) > Ni (53.5%) > Cr (52.2%) > Mn (49.2%) > V (43.5%). Positive matrix factorization method was applied for source apportionment of studied heavy metals combined with some marker elements and ions such as K, As, SO4(2-) etc., and four factors (dust, vehicle, aged and transportation, unknown) are identified and the size distribution contribution of them to atmospheric heavy metals are discussed.
Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Cherf, Nicholas; Gulati, Natasha K.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.
Because of high rates of heavy drinking and dating violence (psychological or physical aggression toward a dating partner) among college men, we examined whether emotion regulation difficulties moderated the association between heavy drinking and dating violence perpetration. One hundred and fifty-eight men were recruited from a large northwestern US university between April 2014 and August 2014. Participants completed an online survey that assessed their emotion regulation difficulties as well as their past year history of heavy episodic drinking (HED; consuming 5+ drinks in 2 hours) and dating violence perpetration. Generalized linear models revealed that the positive association between HED and dating violence perpetration was stronger for men with greater impulse control difficulties and for those who reported limited access to emotion regulation strategies. In addition to continued efforts to reduce heavy drinking among college men, interventions targeting emotion regulation difficulties should be incorporated into standard dating violence intervention and prevention efforts to further reduce the likelihood of dating violence perpetration in this population. PMID:29147076
Stautz, Kaidy; Frings, Daniel; Albery, Ian P; Moss, Antony C; Marteau, Theresa M
There is sparse evidence regarding the effect of alcohol-advertising exposure on alcohol consumption among heavy drinkers. This study aimed to assess the immediate effects of alcohol-promoting and alcohol-warning video advertising on objective alcohol consumption in heavy-drinking young adults, and to examine underlying processes. Between-participants randomized controlled trial with three conditions. Two hundred and four young adults (aged 18-25) who self-reported as heavy drinkers were randomized to view one of three sets of 10 video advertisements that included either (1) alcohol-promoting, (2) alcohol-warning, or (3) non-alcohol advertisements. The primary outcome was the proportion of alcoholic beverages consumed in a sham taste test. Affective responses to advertisements, implicit alcohol approach bias, and alcohol attentional bias were assessed as secondary outcomes and possible mediators. Typical alcohol consumption, Internet use, and television use were measured as covariates. There was no main effect of condition on alcohol consumption. Participants exposed to alcohol-promoting advertisements showed increased positive affect and an increased approach/reduced avoidance bias towards alcohol relative to those exposed to non-alcohol advertisements. There was an indirect effect of exposure to alcohol-warning advertisements on reduced alcohol consumption via negative affect experienced in response to these advertisements. Restricting alcohol-promoting advertising could remove a potential influence on positive alcohol-related emotions and cognitions among heavy-drinking young adults. Producing alcohol-warning advertising that generates negative emotion may be an effective strategy to reduce alcohol consumption. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Exposure to alcohol advertising has immediate and distal effects on alcohol consumption. There is some evidence that effects may be larger in heavy drinkers. Alcohol-warning advertising has
Summary Narcolepsy is a chronic neurological disorder, characterized by uncontrollable excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplectic episodes, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations, and night time sleep disruption. The paper reviewed the related literature and reported a case of long-term drinking induced narcolepsy which was significantly improved after treatment with paroxetine and dexzopiclone. PMID:25328357
Mankal, Pavan Kumar; Abed, Jean; Aristy, Jose David; Munot, Khushboo; Suneja, Upma; Engelson, Ellen S; Kotler, Donald P
Heavy alcohol use has been hypothesized to accelerate disease progression to end-stage liver disease in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. In this study, we estimated the relative influences of heavy alcohol use and HCV in decompensated chronic liver disease (CLD). Retrospectively, 904 patients with cirrhotic disease admitted to our hospitals during January 2010-December 2012 were identified based on ICD9 codes. A thorough chart review captured information on demographics, viral hepatitis status, alcohol use and progression of liver disease (i.e. decompensation). Decompensation was defined as the presence of ascites due to portal hypertension, bleeding esophageal varices, hepatic encephalopathy or hepatorenal syndrome. Heavy alcohol use was defined as a chart entry of greater than six daily units of alcohol or its equivalent. 347 patients were included based on our selection criteria of documented heavy alcohol use (n = 215; 62.0%), hepatitis titers (HCV: n = 182; 52.5%) and radiological evidence of CLD with or without decompensation (decompensation: n = 225; 64.8%). Independent of HCV infection, heavy alcohol use significantly increased the risk of decompensation (OR = 1.75, 95% CI 1.11-2.75, p < 0.02) relative to no heavy alcohol use. No significance was seen with age, sex, race, HIV, viral hepatitis and moderate alcohol use for risk for decompensation. Additionally, dose-relationship regression analysis revealed that heavy, but not moderate alcohol use, resulted in a three-fold increase (p = 0.013) in the risk of decompensation relative to abstinence. While both heavy alcohol use and HCV infection are associated with risk of developing CLD, our data suggest that heavy, but not moderate, alcohol consumption is associated with a greater risk for hepatic decompensation in patients with cirrhosis than does HCV infection.
Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A.; Bauer, Daniel J.; Ennett, Susan T.
The current study examined the role of heavy alcohol use in the developmental process of desistance in physical dating aggression during adolescence. Using longitudinal data spanning grades 8 through 12 we tested the hypotheses that (a) higher levels of early heavy alcohol use would be associated with decreased deceleration from dating aggression…
Zhang, Yangmei; Wang, Yaqiang; Zhang, Xiaoye; Shen, Xiaojing; Sun, Junying; Wu, Lingyan; Zhang, Zhouxiang; Che, Haochi
Air pollution is a current global concern. The heavy air pollution episodes (HPEs) in Beijing in December 2016 severely influenced visibility and public health. This study aims to survey the chemical compositions, sources, and formation processes of the HPEs. An aerodyne quadruple aerosol mass spectrometer (Q-AMS) was utilized to measure the non-refractory PM1 (NR-PM1) mass concentration and size distributions of the main chemical components including organics, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and chloride in situ during 15-23 December 2016. The NR-PM1 mass concentration was found to increase from 6 to 188 μg m-3 within 5 days. During the most serious polluted episode, the PM1 mass concentration was about 2.6 times that during the first pollution stage and even 40 times that of the clean days. The formation rates of PM2.5 in the five pollution stages were 26, 22, 22, 32, and 67 μg m-3 h-1, respectively. Organics and nitrate occupied the largest proportion in the polluted episodes, whereas organics and sulfate dominated the submicron aerosol during the clean days. The size distribution of organics is always broader than those of other species, especially in the clean episodes. The peak sizes of the interested species grew gradually during different HPEs. Aqueous reaction might be important in forming sulfate and chloride, and nitrate was formed via oxidization and condensation processes. PMF (positive matrix factorization) analysis on AMS mass spectra was employed to separate the organics into different subtypes. Two types of secondary organic aerosol with different degrees of oxidation consisted of 43% of total organics. By contrast, primary organics from cooking, coal combustion, and traffic emissions comprised 57% of the organic aerosols during the HPEs.
Objective: To establish the extent to which students typically overestimate normative drinking and to determine whether these estimates are uniquely implicated in alcohol consumption over and above the role of the various demographic and family variables. Method: An online survey was used to obtain a sample of 2 177 ...
Miller, Peter; Zinkiewicz, Lucy; Hayley, Alexa; Sonderlund, Anders; Litherland, Steven; Medew-Ewen, Tess; Wells, Samantha; Graham, Kathryn
Research suggests that heavy episodic drinking (HED), perceived peer norms, and personal approval of aggression influence male barroom aggression (MBA). Qualitative research suggests that conformity to hegemonic masculine gender norms also influences MBA; however, quantitative research on the direct and indirect influence of masculinity on MBA is limited. This study tested the relationships between HED, conformity to masculine gender norms, and personal approval and peer approval of MBA on MBA perpetration, as well as the indirect effect of masculine norms on MBA via HED. A convenience sample of Australian men (N = 322; mean age = 21.05 years, SD = 1.95; 76.9% university students) completed an online questionnaire, assessing HED and MBA over the previous year, and subscales of the Beliefs and Attitudes Towards Male Alcohol-Related Aggression Inventory and Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory-46. Negative binomial regression analyses found that, overall, HED, male peer approval, and personal approval of MBA directly predicted increased risk of verbal and physical MBA perpetration. Greater conformity to specific masculine norms also increased (Power Over Women) and decreased (Emotional Control, Heterosexual Self-Presentation) risk of MBA perpetration. The masculine norms Risk Taking, Playboy, and Emotional Control were found to be indirect predictors of MBA via HED. Risk of MBA perpetration is increased primarily by HED as a direct, but also mediating, predictor. Personal and male peer approval of MBA, and specific masculine norms, further increase this risk whereas other masculine norms appear protective.
Gryczynski, Jan; Ward, Brian W.
Previous research has found that religiosity may protect against risky alcohol and drug use behaviors among adolescents, but the social mechanics underpinning the relationship are not well understood. This study examined the relationship between religiosity, heavy drinking, and social norms among U.S. adolescents aged 12 to 17 years, using the…
Wiers, RW; van Woerden, N; Smulders, FTY; de Jong, Peter
Implicit and explicit alcohol-related cognitions were measured in 2 dimensions: positive-negative (valence) and arousal-sedation, with 2 versions of the Implicit Association Test (IAT; A. G. Greenwald, D. E. McGhee, & J. L. Schwartz) and related explicit measures. Heavy drinkers (h 24) strongly
Deng, Xueliang; Cao, Weihua; Huo, Yanfeng; Yang, Guanying; Yu, Caixia; He, Dongyan; Deng, Weitao; Fu, Wei; Ding, Heming; Zhai, Jing; Cheng, Long; Zhao, Xuhui
A severe, prolonged and harmful regional heavy air pollution episode occurred in eastern China from December 2016 to January 2017. In this paper, the pollutant characteristics and the meteorological formation mechanism of this pollution event, including climate anomalies, surface weather conditions, planetary boundary layer structure and large-scale circulation features, were analysed based on observational pollution data, surface meteorological data, sounding data and ERA-Interim reanalysis data. The results are as follows. (1) Five pollution stages were identified in eastern China. The two most severe episodes occurred from December 27, 2016 to January 4, 2017 and from January 8 to 12 2017. During these two pollution episodes, fine mode particles were major contributors, and hourly PM2.5 concentrations often exceeded 150 μg/m3, reaching a maximum of 333 μg/m3 at Fuyang station. Gaseous pollutants were transformed into secondary aerosols through heterogeneous reactions on the surface of PM2.5. (2) Compared with the same period over the years 2000-2016, 2017 presented meteorological field climate anomalies in conjunction with unfavourable surface conditions (weak winds, high relative humidity, fewer hours of sunshine, high cloud cover) and adverse atmospheric circulation (weak East Asian winter monsoon and an abnormal geopotential height of 500 hPa), which caused poorer visibility in 2017 than in the other analysed years. (3) During the development of heavy pollution event, unfavourable surface weather conditions, including poorer visibility, weaker pressure, higher relative humidity, lower wind speed with unfavourable wind direction and less precipitation suppressed the horizontal diffusion ability of air pollutants. Furthermore, the unfavourable structure of the atmospheric boundary layer was the key cause of the rapid PM2.5 increase. The deep, strong temperature inversion layer and weak vertical wind velocity could have suppressed vertical motion and enhanced
Gilles, Donna M; Turk, Cynthia L; Fresco, David M
Burke and Stephens (1999) [Burke, R.S., Stephens, R.S. Social anxiety and drinking in college students: A social cognitive theory analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 19, (1999) 513-530.] proposed a social cognitive theory of heavy drinking in college students. According to this theory, alcohol expectancies for social facilitation and self-efficacy for refusing heavy drinking in anxiety-producing social situations moderate the relationship between social anxiety and drinking. In the current study, a significant three-way interaction was observed among social anxiety, expectancies, and self-efficacy when amount and frequency of drinking was the dependent variable. As predicted by the model, socially anxious college students with low self-efficacy for avoiding heavy drinking in social situations and high positive expectancies for social facilitation reported more alcohol consumption than other socially anxious individuals.
Do Seon Song
Full Text Available Although a few studies have reported that sarcopenia is associated with alcoholic liver disease (ALD, no studies have investigated this association in a large sample representative of the elderly Korean population.This was a cross-sectional study that used data from the Fourth and Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES on subjects aged 65 years and older. Sarcopenia was defined as a skeletal muscle index (SMI more than 1 SD below the gender-specific mean for young adults; SMI was calculated as the appendicular muscle mass divided by height squared (ASM/Ht2. Heavy alcohol consumption was defined as consuming at least 210 g/week, and elevated liver enzymes were defined as alanine aminotransferase levels of at least 32 U/L or aspartate aminotransferase levels of at least 34 U/L. ALD was defined as heavy alcohol consumption and elevated liver enzymes.The mean age of the 1,151 elderly males was 71.6 ± 0.2 years, and the prevalence of heavy alcohol consumption was 11.8% (136 subjects. SMI did not differ between the non-heavy and heavy alcohol consumer groups (7.1 ± 0.0 kg/m2 vs. 7.3 ± 0.1 kg/m2, respectively, P = 0.145. However, after stratifying by the presence of liver disease and heavy alcohol consumption and adjusting for other confounders in the multivariate logistic regression, SMI was significantly lower among heavy alcohol consumers with ALD (all P < 0.05. Additionally, two-way ANOVA showed a significant interaction between heavy alcohol consumption and liver disease (P = 0.011.Sarcopenia was accelerated in the elderly male ALD group, with a significant interaction between alcohol consumption and liver disease.
Power, C; Rodgers, B; Hope, S
To investigate why alcohol consumption varies by marital status, assessing (i) differences in heavy consumption prior to changes in marital status (indicating selection) and increases or decreases in heavy consumption associated with changes in marital status (indicating causation), (ii) whether such increases or decreases are transient, and (iii) the possible mediating effect of parental status. Longitudinal cohort. Great Britain. Data from the 23- and 33-year surveys of the 1958 British birth cohort (all born in England, Wales and Scotland, 3-9 March 1958). Heavy drinking, defined as more than 35 (men) and 20 (women) units/week; changes between ages 23 and 33 in consumption and marital status. The divorced had the highest consumption levels at both ages, the married had the lowest. Selection effects were minimal in both sexes. Overall, heavy drinking declined between ages 23 and 33 (21.4-13.0% in men, 6.4-3.4% in women), but increased among individuals who divorced, compared to the continuously married (adjusted OR = 2.05, 95% CI = 1.49, 2.83 for men; OR = 2.61, 95% CI = 1.67, 4.09 for women), most strikingly for recent divorces (adjusted OR = 4.97, 95% CI = 2.86, 8.57 and OR = 5.25, 95% CI = 2.60, 10.65). High rates of heavy drinking persisted for never married men (19.1%) and women (5.2%). The heavy drinking level of divorced young adults was not due to selection. Marital separation was accompanied by increases in heavy drinking, with pronounced short-term effects. Adverse alcohol-related health consequences may occur in the immediate period around divorce. Individuals who never marry appear to have a chronic heavy consumption pattern that may contribute to their increased mortality.
Lown, E Anne; Mertens, Ann C; Korcha, Rachael A; Leisenring, Wendy; Hudson, Melissa M; Greenfield, Thomas K; Robison, Leslie L; Zeltzer, Lonnie K
To describe alcohol consumption patterns and risk factors for risky and heavy alcohol use among siblings of childhood cancer survivors compared with survivors and national controls. Secondary analysis of prospectively collected data from two national surveys was performed including a cohort of 3034 adult siblings of childhood cancer survivors (age 18-56 years) and 10,398 adult childhood cancer survivors, both from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, plus 5712 adult participants from the population-based National Alcohol Survey. Cancer-related experiences, self-reported current health, and mental health were examined in relation to alcohol consumption patterns including heavy and risky drinking. Adult siblings of childhood cancer survivors were more likely to be heavy drinkers (OR adj = 1.3; 1.0-1.6) and risky drinkers (OR adj = 1.3; 1.1-1.6) compared with controls from a national sample. Siblings were also more likely to drink at these two levels compared with survivors. Factors associated with heavy drinking among siblings included being 18-21 years old (OR adj = 2.9; 2.0-4.4), male (OR adj = 2.3; 1.7-3.0), having a high school education or less (OR adj = 2.4; 1.7-3.5), and drinking initiation at a young age (OR adj = 5.1; 2.5-10.3). Symptoms of depression, (OR adj = 2.1; 1.3-3.2), anxiety (OR adj = 1.9; 1.1-3.3), and global psychiatric distress (OR adj = 2.5; 1.5-4.3) were significantly associated with heavy alcohol use. Siblings of children with cancer are more likely to be risky and heavy drinkers as adults compared with childhood cancer survivors or national controls. Early initiation of drinking and symptoms of psychological distress should be identified during early adolescence and effective sibling-specific interventions should be developed and made available for siblings of children with cancer. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Radtke, Theda; Ostergaard, Mathias; Cooke, Richard; Scholz, Urte
Web-based alcohol interventions are a promising way to reduce alcohol consumption because of their anonymity and the possibility of reaching a high numbers of individuals including heavy drinkers. However, Web-based interventions are often characterized by high rates of attrition. To date, very few studies have investigated whether individuals with higher alcohol consumption show higher attrition rates in Web-based alcohol interventions as compared with individuals with lower alcohol consumption. The aim of this study was to examine the attrition rate and predictors of attrition in a Web-based intervention study on alcohol consumption. The analysis of the predictors of attrition rate was performed on data collected in a Web-based randomized control trial. Data collection took place at the University of Konstanz, Germany. A total of 898 people, which consisted of 46.8% males (420/898) and 53.2% females (478/898) with a mean age of 23.57 years (SD 5.19), initially volunteered to participate in a Web-based intervention study to reduce alcohol consumption. Out of the sample, 86.9% (781/898) were students. Participants were classified as non-completers (439/898, 48.9%) if they did not complete the Web-based intervention. Potential predictors of attrition were self-reported: alcohol consumption in the last seven days, per week, from Monday to Thursday, on weekends, excessive drinking behavior measured with the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), and drinking motives measured by the Drinking Motive Questionnaire (DMQ-R SF). Significant differences between completers and non-completers emerged regarding alcohol consumption in the last seven days (B=-.02, P=.05, 95% CI [0.97-1.00]), on weekends (B=-.05, P=.003, 95% CI [0.92-0.98]), the AUDIT (B=-.06, P=.007, 95% CI [0.90-0.98], and the status as a student (B=.72, P=.001, 95% CI [1.35-3.11]). Most importantly, non-completers had a significantly higher alcohol consumption compared with completers. Hazardous
Guadamuz, Thomas E; Clatts, Michael C; Goldsamt, Lloyd A
There is scarce research on male sex workers in the context of alcohol use. While heavy alcohol use has been established as a risk factor for HIV and STI infections among men who have sex with men (MSM), men who engage in sex work with other men, particularly from the Global South, have not been included in these studies. Moreover, studies among male sex workers in Asia often do not explore migration contexts of these men. The objective of this exploratory study is to examine the prevalence and correlates of heavy alcohol use among migrant and non-migrant male sex workers in Bangkok and Pattaya, Central Thailand. Between August and October 2015, 18-24 year-old migrant and non-migrant male sex workers (n = 212) were recruited from various male sex work-identified venues (bars, clubs, massage parlors, and go-go bars) to take an interviewer-administered cross-sectional survey in Bangkok and Pattaya, Thailand. Measures were adapted from previous studies in similar populations and included structured questions across four domains, including demographic characteristics, alcohol use, stimulant use, and sexual behaviors. Multivariable logistic regression assessed the independent associations between heavy alcohol use (heavy versus not heavy) and demographic characteristics, stimulant use and sexual behavior. Heavy alcohol use was prevalent among one-third of participants. Heavy alcohol use was positively associated with male sex workers who were non-migrant and Thai, currently using stimulants, having 15 or more male clients in the past month and having first consumed alcohol at age 15 years or younger. Current HIV prevention efforts should consider subpopulations of MSM, including male sex workers and migrants, as well as other risk behaviors like alcohol, as important contexts for HIV and STI risks.
Chan, Gary C K; Kelly, Adrian B; Toumbourou, John W
Heavy alcohol use increases dramatically at age 14, and there is emerging cross-sectional evidence that when girls experience family conflict at younger ages (11-13 years) the risk of alcohol use and misuse is high. This study evaluated the role of family conflict and subsequent depressed mood in predicting heavy alcohol use among adolescent girls. This was a three-wave longitudinal study with annual assessments (modal ages 12, 13, and 14 years). The participants (N = 886, 57% female) were from 12 metropolitan schools in Victoria, Australia, and participants completed questionnaires during school class time. The key measures were based on the Communities That Care Youth Survey and included family conflict (Wave 1), depressed mood (Wave 2), and heavy alcohol use (Wave 3). Control variables included school commitment, number of peers who consumed alcohol, whether parents were living together, and ethnic background. With all controls in the model, depressed mood at Wave 2 was predicted by family conflict at Wave 1. The interaction of family conflict with gender was significant, with girls showing a stronger association of family conflict and depressed mood. Depressed mood at Wave 2 predicted heavy alcohol use at Wave 3. Girls may be especially vulnerable to family conflict, and subsequent depressed mood increases the risk of heavy alcohol use. The results support the need for gender-sensitive family-oriented prevention programs delivered in late childhood and early adolescence.
Wang, Shan; Liao, Tingting; Wang, Lili; Sun, Yang
Ground observation data from 8 meteorological stations in Xi'an, air mass concentration data from 13 environmental quality monitoring sites in Xi'an, as well as radiosonde observation and wind profile radar data, were used in this study. Thereby, the process, causes and boundary layer meteorological characteristics of a heavy haze episode occurring from 16 to 25 December 2013 in Xi'an were analyzed. Principal component analysis showed that this haze pollution was mainly caused by the high-intensity emission and formation of gaseous pollutants (NO2, CO and SO2) and atmospheric particles (PM2.5 (fine particles) and PM10 (respirable suspended particle). The second cause was the relative humidity and continuous low temperature. The third cause was the allocation of the surface pressure field. The presence of a near-surface temperature inversion at the boundary layer formed favorable stratification conditions for the formation and maintenance of heavy haze pollution. The persistent thick haze layer weakened the solar radiation. Meanwhile, a warming effect in the urban canopy layer and in the transition zone from the urban friction sublayer to the urban canopy was indicated. All these conditions facilitated the maintenance and reinforcement of temperature inversion. The stable atmospheric stratification finally acted on the wind field in the boundary layer, and further weakened the exchange capacity of vertical turbulence. The superposition of a wind field with the horizontal gentle wind induced the typical air stagnation and finally caused the deterioration of air quality during this haze event. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Brunborg, Geir Scott; Mentzoni, Rune Aune; Frøyland, Lars Roar
While the relationships between video game use and negative consequences are debated, the relationships between video game addiction and negative consequences are fairly well established. However, previous studies suffer from methodological weaknesses that may have caused biased results. There is need for further investigation that benefits from the use of methods that avoid omitted variable bias. Two wave panel data was used from two surveys of 1,928 Norwegian adolescents aged 13 to 17 years. The surveys included measures of video game use, video game addiction, depression, heavy episodic drinking, academic achievement, and conduct problems. The data was analyzed using first-differencing, a regression method that is unbiased by time invariant individual factors. Video game addiction was related to depression, lower academic achievement, and conduct problems, but time spent on video games was not related to any of the studied negative outcomes. The findings were in line with a growing number of studies that have failed to find relationships between time spent on video games and negative outcomes. The current study is also consistent with previous studies in that video game addiction was related to other negative outcomes, but it made the added contribution that the relationships are unbiased by time invariant individual effects. However, future research should aim at establishing the temporal order of the supposed causal effects. Spending time playing video games does not involve negative consequences, but adolescents who experience problems related to video games are likely to also experience problems in other facets of life.
Peralta, Robert L; L Mulhollem, Marcella; Blue, Courtney; Stewart, Breanna C
Heavy episodic drinking (HED) remains a public health concern among college students. Sex differences are routinely reported in the literature although some evidence of convergence in drinking patterns has been observed. The association between sex and gender-orientation in HED remains unclear because sex and gender are often conflated. We examine the intersection of sex, gender-orientation and HED to determine if gender-orientation alone and/or in conjunction with sex play a role in HED among college students. Data were collected using a web-based self-administered survey made available to students enrolled in courses at a mid-sized Midwestern public university during the Fall of 2013 and the Spring of 2014 (N = 793). Multiple logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between HED, sex, and gender orientation (measured using the short-form Bem Sex Role Inventory). Our findings indicate that, regardless of sex, a masculine gender-orientation was positively associated with HED. Those who were found to have a feminine gender-orientation appeared to be at decreased risk for HED. Our findings indicate that sex and gender-orientation should be taken into account in prevention and intervention protocols at colleges and universities. Future work should examine the role of gender orientation among LGBTQ and ethno-racial minority populations.
Simmons, Roger W; Thomas, Jennifer D; Levy, Susan S; Riley, Edward P
The present experiment assessed motor response programming and movement time in children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (PEA). Alcohol-exposed children between the ages of 7 and 17 years were classified into two groups: Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS: n=9) and children with PEA (PEA: n=19) but who did not have the defining characteristics of FAS. The FAS and PEA children were compared with non-alcohol-exposed children (NC: n=23) when completing two tasks: a simple reaction time task (RT alone condition) and a reaction plus movement task (RT+Move condition). The movement involved responding to an imperative stimulus signal and depressing three target buttons in a set sequence. Participants completed 24 trials each for the RT alone and RT+Move response conditions. Results indicated no significant differences in performance among FAS, PEA, and NC groups during the RT alone condition. However, during the RT+Move condition, the FAS group produced significantly longer and more variable RTs than the PEA and NC groups, which produced comparable RTs. The FAS group also produced significantly slower movement times when moving to all three targets, whereas movement time variability did not significantly differ as a function of group. The observed results indicate children with FAS experience deficits in response programming and movement time production. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Brunborg, Geir Scott; Mentzoni, Rune Aune; Frøyland, Lars Roar
Background and aims: While the relationships between video game use and negative consequences are debated, the relationships between video game addiction and negative consequences are fairly well established. However, previous studies suffer from methodological weaknesses that may have caused biased results. There is need for further investigation that benefits from the use of methods that avoid omitted variable bias. Methods: Two wave panel data was used from two surveys of 1,928 Norwegian adolescents aged 13 to 17 years. The surveys included measures of video game use, video game addiction, depression, heavy episodic drinking, academic achievement, and conduct problems. The data was analyzed using first-differencing, a regression method that is unbiased by time invariant individual factors. Results: Video game addiction was related to depression, lower academic achievement, and conduct problems, but time spent on video games was not related to any of the studied negative outcomes. Discussion: The findings were in line with a growing number of studies that have failed to find relationships between time spent on video games and negative outcomes. The current study is also consistent with previous studies in that video game addiction was related to other negative outcomes, but it made the added contribution that the relationships are unbiased by time invariant individual effects. However, future research should aim at establishing the temporal order of the supposed causal effects. Conclusions: Spending time playing video games does not involve negative consequences, but adolescents who experience problems related to video games are likely to also experience problems in other facets of life. PMID:25215212
McCaul, Mary E; Hutton, Heidi E; Stephens, Mary Ann C; Xu, Xiaoqiang; Wand, Gary S
Stress and anxiety are widely considered to be causally related to alcohol craving and consumption, as well as development and maintenance of alcohol use disorder (AUD). However, numerous preclinical and human studies examining effects of stress or anxiety on alcohol use and alcohol-related problems have been equivocal. This study examined relationships between scores on self-report anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and stress measures and frequency and intensity of recent drinking, alcohol craving during early withdrawal, as well as laboratory measures of alcohol craving and stress reactivity among heavy drinkers with AUD. Media-recruited, heavy drinkers with AUD (N = 87) were assessed for recent alcohol consumption. Anxiety and stress levels were characterized using paper-and-pencil measures, including the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 (ASI-3), and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Eligible subjects (N = 30) underwent alcohol abstinence on the Clinical Research Unit; twice daily measures of alcohol craving were collected. On day 4, subjects participated in the Trier Social Stress Test; measures of cortisol and alcohol craving were collected. In multivariate analyses, higher BAI scores were associated with lower drinking frequency and reduced drinks/drinking day; in contrast, higher ASI-3 scores were associated with higher drinking frequency. BAI anxiety symptom and ASI-3 scores also were positively related to Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test total scores and AUD symptom and problem subscale measures. Higher BAI and ASI-3 scores but not PSS scores were related to greater self-reported alcohol craving during early alcohol abstinence. Finally, BAI scores were positively related to laboratory stress-induced cortisol and alcohol craving. In contrast, the PSS showed no relationship with most measures of alcohol craving or stress reactivity. Overall, clinically oriented measures of anxiety compared with perceived stress were more
Messman-Moore, Terri L; Ward, Rose Marie; DeNardi, Kathleen A
A structural equation model examined sexual enhancement alcohol expectancies, heavy episodic drinking (HED), and risky sexual behavior as correlates of alcohol-involved rape in a sample of 353 college women. Prevalence of alcohol-involved rape was 15.6%. Sexual enhancement alcohol expectancies were indirectly associated with alcohol-involved rape via increased levels of HED, greater likelihood of sex while intoxicated, and number of sex partners. All forms of risky behavior were associated with alcohol-involved rape although HED had the strongest relationship. Findings suggest continued focus on women's positive alcohol expectancies and HED as risk factors for alcohol-involved rape. Implications for intervention will be discussed.
Kolla, Bhanu Prakash; Schneekloth, Terry D; Biernacka, Joanna; Shah, Vijay; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N; Geske, Jennifer; Karpyak, Victor
Prior studies have established variation at the PNPLA3gene to be associated with a risk of developing alcoholic liver disease (ALD). We attempt to replicate this finding and other potential genetic variations previously associated with ALD utilizing a case-control design in a cohort of subjects with alcohol use disorders. This case-control study performed in a US clinical sample of heavy drinkers, replicates the previously reported association between ALD and rs738409 polymorphism in the PNPLA3gene in heavy drinkers. This association persisted after accounting for the subject's diabetes status. Patients of European ancestry with a history of ALD were identified (n = 169). Controls consisted of patients without ALD who were from the same cohorts and were ≥ 30 years of age, had lifetime total years drinking ≥20 and lifetime maximum drinks per day ≥12 (n = 259). Patients were genotyped for 40 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected for the purpose of testing their association with ALD. The association of each SNP with ALD was tested using a logistic regression model, assuming log-additive allele effects. Bonferroni correction was applied and multivariable logistic regression models were used to account for relevant covariates. Age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) distributions were similar between cases and controls. Diabetes was more prevalent in the ALD cases. Three SNPs were associated with ALD at the nominal significance level (rs738409 in PNPLA3, P = 0.00029; rs3741559 in AQP2, P = 0.0185; rs4290029 in NVL, P = 0.0192); only PNPLA3rs738409 SNP was significant at the Bonferroni-corrected P-value threshold of 0.00125. Association results remained significant after adjustment for diabetes status. Our case-control study confirmed that PNPLA3 rs738409 SNP is associated with ALD. This is an important replication in a US clinical sample with control subjects who had long histories of alcohol consumption.
Peters, Amy T; West, Amy E; Eisner, Lori; Baek, Jihyun; Deckersbach, Thilo
The aim of this study was to examine the association between previous mood episodes and clinical course/functioning in a community sample (National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions [NESARC]). Subjects (n = 909) met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, criteria for bipolar I disorder and provided data on number of previous episode recurrences. Number of previous mood episodes was used to predict outcomes at wave 1 and wave 2 of the NESARC. Previous mood episodes accounted for small but unique variance in outcomes. Recurrence was associated with poorer functioning, psychiatric and medical comorbidity, and increased odds of suicidality, disability, unemployment, and hospitalization at wave 1. Recurrences were associated with greater risk for new onset suicidality, psychiatric comorbidity, disability, unemployment, and poor functioning by wave 2. The course of bipolar disorder does worsen with progressive mood episodes but is attenuated in community, relative to clinical samples. Interventions to prevent future relapse may be particularly important to implement early in the course of illness.
Thurin, Kyle; Ceballos, Natalie A; Graham, Reiko
Research on attentional biases to alcohol images has used heterogeneous sets of stimuli (e.g., an isolated beer can or a group of people drinking). However, alcoholic beverage preferences play an important part in determining an individual's alcohol use pattern and may influence attentional biases, especially for inexperienced drinkers. The current study examined whether alcoholic beverage preferences affect event-related potential (ERP) indices of cue reactivity to different types of alcohol images (e.g., beer, wine, and distilled spirits) in heavy episodic drinkers. ERPs were recorded in 14 heavy episodic drinkers (7 male) who completed a Go/No-Go task using preferred and nonpreferred alcohol images with nonalcoholic beverage images as controls. Larger N2 amplitudes for preferred alcohol images were observed relative to control images and to nonpreferred alcohol images, indicating increased attentional capture by preferred beverages. P3 amplitudes and latencies were not sensitive to preferences, but latencies were delayed and amplitudes were enhanced on No-Go trials (i.e., trials requiring response inhibition). These results suggest that alcoholic beverage preference is a factor influencing alcohol cue reactivity in heavy-episodic-drinking college students. This information has methodological significance and may also be applied to improve treatment and prevention programs that focus on attentional bias modification and inhibitory control training.
Lu, Miaomiao; Tang, Xiao; Wang, Zifa; Gbaguidi, Alex; Liang, Shengwen; Hu, Ke; Wu, Lin; Wu, Huangjian; Huang, Zhen; Shen, Longjiao
Wuhan as a megacity of Central China was suffering from severe particulate matter pollution according to previous observation studies, however, the mechanism behind the pollution formation especially the impact of regional chemical transport is still unclear. This study, carried out on the Nested Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (NAQPMS) coupled with an on-line source-tagging module, explores different roles regional transport had in two strong haze episodes over Wuhan in October 2014 and quantitatively assesses the contributions from local and regional sources to PM 2.5 concentration. Validation of predictions based on observations shows modeling system good skills in reproducing key meteorological and chemical features. The first short-time haze episode occurred on 12 October under strong northerly winds, with a hourly PM 2.5 peak of 180 μg m −3 , and was found to be caused primarily by the long-range transport from the northern regions, which contributed 60.6% of the episode's PM 2.5 concentration (versus a total of 32.7% from sources in and near Wuhan). The second episode lasted from the 15–20 October under stable regional large-scale synoptic conditions and weak winds, and had an hourly PM 2.5 peak of 231.0 μg m −3 . In this episode, both the long-distance transport from far regions and short-range transport from the Wuhan-cluster were the primary causes of the haze episode and account for 24.8% and 29.2% of the PM 2.5 concentration respectively. Therefore, regional transport acts as a crucial driver of haze pollution over Wuhan through not only long-range transfer of pollutants, but also short-range aerosol movement under specific meteorological conditions. The present findings highlight the important role of regional transport in urban haze formation and indicate that the joint control of multi city-clusters are needed to reduce the particulate pollution level in Wuhan. - Highlights: • Regional transport impacts studied on two haze
Michélsen, H; Bildt, C
Psychiatric epidemiology has revealed a number of associations between gender, socioeconomic status, and psychiatric disorders. To examine psychosocial conditions on and off the job in relation to psychological ill health. Longitudinal design with 24 year follow up of employed persons (190 women, 177 men). Interview and questionnaire data on work and leisure conditions were collected in 1969 and 1993. Risk analyses were performed in relation to three outcomes in 1993: depression within the preceding 12 months, impaired psychological wellbeing, and heavy alcohol use. Thirteen per cent of the women and 11% of the men showed symptoms of depression, 21% and 22% had impaired psychological wellbeing, and 7% and 15% respectively were heavy alcohol users. Dissatisfaction with the quality (women) or quantity (men) of social contacts 24 years earlier was a significant risk factor for depression. Dissatisfaction with the quality of social contacts was also associated with impaired psychological wellbeing (among women), and dissatisfaction with leisure time activities was associated with heavy alcohol use (among men). Frequent overtime work 24 years earlier was associated with heavy alcohol use among women. Cross sectional analyses also showed associations between psychological ill health and some work related factors (mentally demanding work and lack of job pride). Perceived inadequacies in social contacts, and practical obstacles to social relationships are viewed as risk factors for depression. In this longitudinal study, work related factors, including mental demands and time pressure, do not appear sufficiently associated with psychological ill health.
Full Text Available According to the WHO report, alcohol is the third most significant health risk factor for the global population. There are contrary reports about heavy metals concentrations in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to investigate serum concentrations of selected heavy metals in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis living in the eastern part of Poland according to cirrhosis stage. The participants came from various hospitals of the Lublin region were enrolled. The study group included 46 male and 16 female patients. The control group consisted of 18 healthy individuals without liver disease. High Performance Ion Chromatography was used to determine the concentrations of metal ions (Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Mn, and Pb in serum samples. The concentrations of copper, zinc, nickel, and cobalt were found to be significantly lower in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis compared to the control group. The serum concentration of cadmium was significantly higher in patients with advanced alcoholic liver cirrhosis compared to the control group. We hypothesize that disorders of metabolism of heavy metals seem to be the outcome of impaired digestion and absorption, which are common in cirrhosis, improper diet, environmental and occupational exposure.
Findings from this recent literature indicate that while some Nigerian university students use alcohol to enhance sexual performance, boost confidence and reduce stress, others use heavy episodic drinking as means of constructing social identity. Other findings reveal that a majority combine alcohol with other drugs and ...
South Africa has one of world's highest levels of heavy episodic drinking among men and women. Alcohol has been identified as one of the country's leading risk factors for death and disability, accounting for 6.3% of disability-adjusted life years lost in 2004. Since 1994, South Africa has attempted to influence alcohol ...
Crocker, Nicole; Riley, Edward P; Mattson, Sarah N
The current study examined the relationship between mathematics and attention, working memory, and visual memory in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and controls. Subjects were 56 children (29 AE, 27 CON) who were administered measures of global mathematics achievement (WRAT-3 Arithmetic & WISC-III Written Arithmetic), attention, (WISC-III Digit Span forward and Spatial Span forward), working memory (WISC-III Digit Span backward and Spatial Span backward), and visual memory (CANTAB Spatial Recognition Memory and Pattern Recognition Memory). The contribution of cognitive domains to mathematics achievement was analyzed using linear regression techniques. Attention, working memory, and visual memory data were entered together on Step 1 followed by group on Step 2, and the interaction terms on Step 3. Model 1 accounted for a significant amount of variance in both mathematics achievement measures; however, model fit improved with the addition of group on Step 2. Significant predictors of mathematics achievement were Spatial Span forward and backward and Spatial Recognition Memory. These findings suggest that deficits in spatial processing may be related to math impairments seen in FASD. In addition, prenatal alcohol exposure was associated with deficits in mathematics achievement, above and beyond the contribution of general cognitive abilities. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
MacKillop, James; Amlung, Michael T; Acker, John; Gray, Joshua C; Brown, Courtney L; Murphy, James G; Ray, Lara A; Sweet, Lawrence H
Neuroeconomics integrates concepts and methods from psychology, economics, and cognitive neuroscience to understand how the brain makes decisions. In economics, demand refers to the relationship between a commodity's consumption and its cost, and, in behavioral studies, high alcohol demand has been consistently associated with greater alcohol misuse. Relatively little is known about how the brain processes demand decision making, and the current study is an initial investigation of the neural correlates of alcohol demand among heavy drinkers. Using an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm, participants (N=24) selected how much they would drink under varying levels of price. These choices determined access to alcohol during a subsequent bar laboratory self-administration period. During decisions to drink in general, greater activity was present in multiple distinct subunits of the prefrontal and parietal cortices. In contrast, during decisions to drink that were demonstrably affected by the cost of alcohol, significantly greater activation was evident in frontostriatal regions, suggesting an active interplay between cognitive deliberation and subjective reward value. These choices were also characterized by significant deactivation in default mode network regions, suggesting suppression resulting from greater cognitive load. Across choice types, the anterior insula was notably recruited in diverse roles, further implicating the importance of interoceptive processing in decision-making behavior. These findings reveal the neural signatures subserving alcohol cost-benefit decision making, providing a foundation for future clinical applications of this paradigm and extending this approach to understanding the neural correlates of demand for other addictive commodities.
Romosz, Ann Marie; Quigley, Brian M.
Approximately 80% of college students drink alcohol; almost half of these students reporting that they drink to get drunk and over 22% engage in heavy episodic drinking. Heavy alcohol consumption during the transition from high school to college is associated with negative personal and academic consequences. Sixty-seven freshmen volunteered to…
Purvis, Danielle M; Gallagher, Kathryn E; Parrott, Dominic J
Alcohol Myopia Theory (AMT; Steele & Josephs, 1990) purports that alcohol facilitates aggression by narrowing attentional focus onto salient and instigatory cues common to conflict situations. However, few tests of its counterintuitive prediction - that alcohol may decrease aggression when inhibitory cues are most salient - have been conducted. The present study examined whether an AMT-inspired self-awareness intervention manipulation would reduce heavy drinking men's intoxicated aggression toward women and also examined whether a relevant individual variable, locus of control, would moderate this effect. Participants were 102 intoxicated male heavy drinkers who completed a self-report measure of locus of control and completed the Taylor Aggression Paradigm (Taylor, 1967). In this task, participants administered electric shocks to, and received electric shocks from, a fictitious female opponent while exposed to an environment saturated with or devoid of self-awareness cues. Results indicated that the self-awareness manipulation was associated with less alcohol-related aggression toward the female confederate for men who reported an internal, but not an external, locus of control. Findings support AMT as a theoretical framework to inform preventative interventions for alcohol-related aggression and highlight the importance of individual differences in receptivity to such interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Salimun, Ester; Tangang, Fredolin; Juneng, Liew
A comparative study has been conducted to investigate the skill of four convection parameterization schemes, namely the Anthes-Kuo (AK), the Betts-Miller (BM), the Kain-Fritsch (KF), and the Grell (GR) schemes in the numerical simulation of an extreme precipitation episode over eastern Peninsular Malaysia using the Pennsylvania State University—National Center for Atmospheric Research Center (PSU-NCAR) Fifth Generation Mesoscale Model (MM5). The event is a commonly occurring westward propagating tropical depression weather system during a boreal winter resulting from an interaction between a cold surge and the quasi-stationary Borneo vortex. The model setup and other physical parameterizations are identical in all experiments and hence any difference in the simulation performance could be associated with the cumulus parameterization scheme used. From the predicted rainfall and structure of the storm, it is clear that the BM scheme has an edge over the other schemes. The rainfall intensity and spatial distribution were reasonably well simulated compared to observations. The BM scheme was also better in resolving the horizontal and vertical structures of the storm. Most of the rainfall simulated by the BM simulation was of the convective type. The failure of other schemes (AK, GR and KF) in simulating the event may be attributed to the trigger function, closure assumption, and precipitation scheme. On the other hand, the appropriateness of the BM scheme for this episode may not be generalized for other episodes or convective environments.
Kuerbis, Alexis; Mereish, Ethan H; Hayes, Marie; Davis, Christine M; Shao, Sijing; Morgenstern, Jon
Minority stress theory is one of the primary theories used to understand substance use among lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations. This study tested whether drinking to cope with stress (DTC), loneliness, and gay community participation (GCP) mediated the relationship between one type of minority stress (i.e., internalized heterosexism) and behavioral health outcomes. Using secondary data analysis and the PROCESS procedure, relationships between internalized heterosexism, the mediators (DTC, loneliness, and GCP), and outcomes (heavy drinking, alcohol problems, and psychological distress) were explored, both cross-sectionally and in a lagged manner, among both treatment-seeking and non-treatment-seeking problem drinking men who have sex with men. Problem drinkers (N = 187) were assessed, provided brief normative feedback about their drinking, given the choice to receive brief alcohol use disorder treatment or change on their own, and then followed for 9 months. Cross-sectional findings revealed that internalized heterosexism was significantly associated with heavy drinking, alcohol problems, and psychological distress. DTC emerged as a significant mediator of internalized heterosexism for all the health outcomes. Loneliness and GCP were significant mediators of internalized heterosexism for alcohol problems and psychological distress. Multiple mediation models reveal that all three mediators significantly contribute to internalized heterosexism's effect on health outcomes. Lagged analyses did not yield any significant indirect effects. DTC, loneliness, and GCP all play an integral, mediational role in the relationship between internalized heterosexism and alcohol problems and psychological distress. Findings underscore the necessity of addressing internalized heterosexism in psychosocial interventions along with coping skills training, emphasizing culturally relevant social support and loneliness.
Full Text Available Li-Tzy Wu1, George E Woody2, Chongming Yang3, Paolo Mannelli1, Dan G Blazer11Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania and Treatment Research Institute, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 3Social Science Research Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC, USAObjectives: To examine patterns of onset and abuse/dependence episodes of prescription opioid (PO and heroin use disorders in a national sample of adults, and to explore differences by gender and substance abuse treatment status.Methods: Analyses of data from the 2001–2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (N = 43,093.Results: Of all respondents, 5% (n = 1815 reported a history of nonmedical PO use (NMPOU and 0.3% (n = 150 a history of heroin use. Abuse was more prevalent than dependence among NMPOUs (PO abuse, 29%; dependence, 7% and heroin users (heroin abuse, 63%; dependence, 28%. Heroin users reported a short mean interval from first use to onset of abuse (1.5 years or dependence (2.0 years, and a lengthy mean duration for the longest episode of abuse (66 months or dependence (59 months; the corresponding mean estimates for PO abuse and dependence among NMPOUs were 2.6 and 2.9 years, respectively, and 31 and 49 months, respectively. The mean number of years from first use to remission from the most recent episode was 6.9 years for PO abuse and 8.1 years for dependence; the mean number of years from first heroin use to remission from the most recent episode was 8.5 years for heroin abuse and 9.7 years for dependence. Most individuals with PO or heroin use disorders were remitted from the most recent episode. Treated individuals, whether their problem was heroin or POs, tended to have a longer mean duration of an episode than untreated individuals.Conclusion: Periodic remissions
Teunissen, H.A.; Spijkerman, R.; Schoenmakers, T.M.; Vohs, K.D.; Engels, R.C.M.
Attentional bias for alcohol cues increases craving and subsequent alcohol consumption. Override processes can be used to disengage attention from alcohol cues. This requires self-control and implies that depletion of self-control would impair the ability to disengage attention from alcohol cues.
Newman, Emily L; Albrechet-Souza, Lucas; Andrew, Peter M; Auld, John G; Burk, Kelly C; Hwa, Lara S; Zhang, Eric Y; DeBold, Joseph F; Miczek, Klaus A
Episodic bouts of social stress can precede the initiation, escalation, or relapse to disordered alcohol intake. Social stress may engender neuroadaptations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and in extrahypothalamic stress circuitry to promote the escalation of alcohol intake. We aimed to (1) confirm a pattern of escalated drinking in socially defeated mice and to (2) test drugs that target distinct aspects of the HPA axis and extrahypothalamic neural substrates for their effectiveness in reducing murine, stress-escalated drinking. Male C57BL/6J (B6) mice were socially defeated by resident Swiss-derived males for ten consecutive days receiving 30 bites/day. Ten days after the final defeat, cohorts of B6 mice received continuous or intermittent access to 20% EtOH (w/v) and water. After 4 weeks of drinking, mice were injected with weekly, systemic doses of the CRF-R1 antagonist, CP376395; the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, mifepristone; the 11-beta-hydroxylase inhibitor, metyrapone; or the 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor, finasteride. Prior to drug treatments, defeated mice reliably consumed more EtOH than non-defeated controls, and mice given alcohol intermittently consumed more EtOH than those with continuous access. CP376395 (17-30 mg/kg) reduced continuous, but not intermittent EtOH intake (g/kg) in socially defeated mice. Mifepristone (100 mg/kg), however, increased drinking by defeated mice with intermittent access to alcohol while reducing drinking during continuous access. When administered finasteride (100 mg/kg) or metyrapone (50 mg/kg), all mice reduced their EtOH intake while increasing their water consumption. Mice with a history of episodic social defeat stress were selectively sensitive to the effects of CRF-R1 antagonism, suggesting that CRF-R1 may be a potential target for treating alcohol use disorders in individuals who escalate their drinking after exposure to repeated bouts of psychosocial stress. Future studies will clarify
... because that's how many accidents occur. What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...
Navarro Junior, L.
The alcohol production as a secondary energy source, the participation of the alcohol in Brazilian national economic and social aspects are presented. Statistical data of alcohol demand compared with petroleum by-products and electricity are also included. (author)
Hansen, Anders Blædel Gottlieb; Becker, Ulrik; Nielsen, Anette Søgaard
Aims: To test if a brief motivational intervention (BMI) in a non-treatment seeking population of heavy drinkers results in a reduced alcohol intake. Methods: Screening of 12,364 participants in a Danish health examination survey led to 1026 heavy drinkers of whom 772 were included and randomized...
Kerr, David C R; Bae, Harold; Phibbs, Sandi; Kern, Adam C
Recreational marijuana legalization (RML) went into effect in Oregon in July 2015. RML is expected to influence marijuana use by adolescents and young adults in particular, and by those with a propensity for substance use. We sought to quantify changes in rates of marijuana use among college students in Oregon from pre- to post-RML relative to college students in other states across the same time period. Repeated cross-sectional survey data from the 2012-16 administrations of the Healthy Minds Study. Seven 4-year universities in the United States. There were 10 924 undergraduate participants. One large public Oregon university participated in 2014 and 2016 (n = 588 and 1115, respectively); six universities in US states where recreational marijuana use was illegal participated both in 2016 and at least once between 2012 and 2015. Self-reported marijuana use in the past 30 days (yes/no) was regressed on time (pre/post 2015), exposure to RML (i.e. Oregon students in 2016) and covariates using mixed-effects logistic regression. Moderation of RML effects by recent heavy alcohol use was examined. Rates of marijuana use increased from pre- to post-2015 at six of the seven universities, a trend that was significant overall. Increases in rates of marijuana use were significantly greater in Oregon than in comparison institutions, but only among students reporting recent heavy alcohol use. Rates of Oregon college students' marijuana use increased (relative to that of students in other states) following recreational marijuana legislation in 2015, but only for those who reported recent heavy use of alcohol. Such alcohol misuse may be a proxy for vulnerabilities to substance use or lack of prohibitions (e.g. cultural) against it. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Full Text Available PM2.5 samples were collected in the rural and urban areas of Taiyuan, China during a typical haze episode and the heavy metals (Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb in PM2.5 were analyzed. The haze was characterized by start-up stage with a daily mean PM2.5 of 149.34 ± 52.33 and 146.73 ± 18.96 μg m−3 in the rural and urban sites, respectively, a peak stage (288.20 ± 12.43 and 323.44 ± 5.23 μg m−3, and a weakening stage (226.59 ± 12.43 and 195.60 ± 2.93 μg m−3. The concentrations of PM2.5 in the rural and urban sites in the peak stage were 5.9 and 5.5 times higher than those in the normal stage, respectively. The order of concentrations of heavy metals in PM2.5 at the rural and urban sites were the same and are listed as follows: Zn > Pb > Mn > Cr > Cu > Ni > Cd > As. Pb at the rural site, As at the urban site, and Cd at the both sites failed to meet the air quality standard. The concentrations of Pb and Zn were higher at the rural site than those at the urban site. Principal component analysis indicated that the main sources of heavy metals for the rural area were raw coal combustion and soil/road dust, and for the urban area were coal combustion/industrial emissions, road/soil dust, and vehicle emissions/oil combustion.
Pomerleau, Joceline; McKee, Martin; Rose, Richard; Haerpfer, Christian W; Rotman, David; Tumanov, Sergej
Hazardous consumption of large quantities of alcohol is a major cause of ill-health in the former Soviet Union (fSU). The objective of this study was to describe episodic heavy drinking and other hazardous drinking behaviors in eight countries of the fSU. Data from national surveys of adults conducted in Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine in 2001 were used (overall sample size 18,428; response rates 71-88%). Heavy episodic drinking, high alcohol intake, drinking alcohol during the working day, and using illegally produced strong spirits were examined. On average, 23% of men and 2% of women were defined as heavy episodic drinkers (> or = 2 l of beer or > or = 750 g bottle of wine or > or = 200 g strong spirits at least once every 2-3 weeks). This was more common in young males, women who are single or who are divorced/separated/widowed, in smokers, and in frequent alcohol drinkers. About half the respondents who drank strong spirits obtained at least some alcohol from private sources. Among drinkers, 11% of males and 7% of women usually took their first drink before the end of working day. Heavy episodic alcohol drinking is frequent in males throughout the region--although prevalence rates may have been affected by underreporting--but is still relatively rare in women. Alcohol policies in the region should address hazardous drinking patterns and the common use of illegally produced alcohol.
Kirill V. Istomin
Full Text Available Although the notion of responsibility is often invoked by mass-media reports, activists and lay people when discussing alcoholism and suicides, anthropological discussions of this topic seem to deliberately avoid the notion. Based on the example of the Taz Nenets of western Sibera, this paper explores how cross-cultural differences in the notion of responsibility, if approached in a non-moralising way, can enrich our understanding of several aspects of the drinking and suicidal behaviours of native northerners. The Nenets seem to believe that both positive and negative events in their lives happen more due to chance or for highly localised reasons that they do not control rather than being caused by their own informed and wilful actions (external locus of control. Particularly, acts of suicide and binge drinking episodes just happen to people and, therefore, people cannot be held responsible for them. This attitude can be a compensatory mechanism for the flat attribution style observed among Nenets in previous studies. It should be taken into account in programs of suicide prevention and the treatment of alcoholism.
Li, L.; An, J. Y.; Zhou, M.; Yan, R. S.; Huang, C.; Lu, Q.; Lin, L.; Wang, Y. J.; Tao, S. K.; Qiao, L. P.; Zhu, S. H.; Chen, C. H.
An extremely high PM2.5 pollution episode occurred over the eastern China in January 2013. In this paper, the particulate matter source apportionment technology (PSAT) method coupled within the Comprehensive air quality model with extensions (CAMx) is applied to study the source contributions to PM2.5 and its major components at six receptors (Urban Shanghai, Chongming, Dianshan Lake, Urban Suzhou, Hangzhou and Zhoushan) in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region. Contributions from 4 source areas (including Shanghai, South Jiangsu, North Zhejiang and Super-region) and 9 emission sectors (including power plants, industrial boilers and kilns, industrial processing, mobile source, residential, volatile emissions, dust, agriculture and biogenic emissions) to PM2.5 and its major components (sulfate, nitrate, ammonia, organic carbon and elemental carbon) at the six receptors in the YRD region are quantified. Results show that accumulation of local pollution was the largest contributor during this air pollution episode in urban Shanghai (55%) and Suzhou (46%), followed by long-range transport (37% contribution to Shanghai and 44% to Suzhou). Super-regional emissions play an important role in PM2.5 formation at Hangzhou (48%) and Zhoushan site (68%). Among the emission sectors contributing to the high pollution episode, the major source categories include industrial processing (with contributions ranging between 12.7 and 38.7% at different receptors), combustion source (21.7-37.3%), mobile source (7.5-17.7%) and fugitive dust (8.4-27.3%). Agricultural contribution is also very significant at Zhoushan site (24.5%). In terms of the PM2.5 major components, it is found that industrial boilers and kilns are the major source contributor to sulfate and nitrate. Volatile emission source and agriculture are the major contributors to ammonia; transport is the largest contributor to elemental carbon. Industrial processing, volatile emissions and mobile source are the most significant
Christiansen, Matthew; Vik, Peter W; Jarchow, Amy
Heavy drinking is common among college students and typically occurs in social contexts. Heavy drinking when alone, however, is less common. The present study hypothesized that students who drink heavily when alone (HD-Alone) would differ from college students who only drink heavily in social contexts (Social HD). Forty-nine HD-Alone students (at least one heavy-drinking episode when alone), 213 Social HDs, and 63 non-heavy drinkers (Non-HDs) were compared on alcohol-related consequences, drinking milestones, alcohol-outcome expectancies, and symptoms of depression. HD-Alone students reported more negative drinking consequences, earlier onset of regular drinking, more alcohol expectancies, less self-efficacy and motivation to reduce drinking, and higher depression scores than Social HDs and Non-HDs. Findings imply individual differences among heavy-drinking college students according to their drinking context.
Sharma, Anurag; Vandenberg, Brian; Hollingsworth, Bruce
We estimate the effect on light, moderate and heavy consumers of alcohol from implementing a minimum unit price for alcohol (MUP) compared with a uniform volumetric tax. We analyse scanner data from a panel survey of demographically representative households (n = 885) collected over a one-year period (24 Jan 2010-22 Jan 2011) in the state of Victoria, Australia, which includes detailed records of each household's off-trade alcohol purchasing. The heaviest consumers (3% of the sample) currently purchase 20% of the total litres of alcohol (LALs), are more likely to purchase cask wine and full strength beer, and pay significantly less on average per standard drink compared to the lightest consumers (A$1.31 [95% CI 1.20-1.41] compared to $2.21 [95% CI 2.10-2.31]). Applying a MUP of A$1 per standard drink has a greater effect on reducing the mean annual volume of alcohol purchased by the heaviest consumers of wine (15.78 LALs [95% CI 14.86-16.69]) and beer (1.85 LALs [95% CI 1.64-2.05]) compared to a uniform volumetric tax (9.56 LALs [95% CI 9.10-10.01] and 0.49 LALs [95% CI 0.46-0.41], respectively). A MUP results in smaller increases in the annual cost for the heaviest consumers of wine ($393.60 [95% CI 374.19-413.00]) and beer ($108.26 [95% CI 94.76-121.75]), compared to a uniform volumetric tax ($552.46 [95% CI 530.55-574.36] and $163.92 [95% CI 152.79-175.03], respectively). Both a MUP and uniform volumetric tax have little effect on changing the annual cost of wine and beer for light and moderate consumers, and likewise little effect upon their purchasing. While both a MUP and a uniform volumetric tax have potential to reduce heavy consumption of wine and beer without adversely affecting light and moderate consumers, a MUP offers the potential to achieve greater reductions in heavy consumption at a lower overall annual cost to consumers.
Full Text Available We estimate the effect on light, moderate and heavy consumers of alcohol from implementing a minimum unit price for alcohol (MUP compared with a uniform volumetric tax.We analyse scanner data from a panel survey of demographically representative households (n = 885 collected over a one-year period (24 Jan 2010-22 Jan 2011 in the state of Victoria, Australia, which includes detailed records of each household's off-trade alcohol purchasing.The heaviest consumers (3% of the sample currently purchase 20% of the total litres of alcohol (LALs, are more likely to purchase cask wine and full strength beer, and pay significantly less on average per standard drink compared to the lightest consumers (A$1.31 [95% CI 1.20-1.41] compared to $2.21 [95% CI 2.10-2.31]. Applying a MUP of A$1 per standard drink has a greater effect on reducing the mean annual volume of alcohol purchased by the heaviest consumers of wine (15.78 LALs [95% CI 14.86-16.69] and beer (1.85 LALs [95% CI 1.64-2.05] compared to a uniform volumetric tax (9.56 LALs [95% CI 9.10-10.01] and 0.49 LALs [95% CI 0.46-0.41], respectively. A MUP results in smaller increases in the annual cost for the heaviest consumers of wine ($393.60 [95% CI 374.19-413.00] and beer ($108.26 [95% CI 94.76-121.75], compared to a uniform volumetric tax ($552.46 [95% CI 530.55-574.36] and $163.92 [95% CI 152.79-175.03], respectively. Both a MUP and uniform volumetric tax have little effect on changing the annual cost of wine and beer for light and moderate consumers, and likewise little effect upon their purchasing.While both a MUP and a uniform volumetric tax have potential to reduce heavy consumption of wine and beer without adversely affecting light and moderate consumers, a MUP offers the potential to achieve greater reductions in heavy consumption at a lower overall annual cost to consumers.
Seid, Abdu Kedir
The association of social capital and alcohol consumption is one of the most robust empirical findings in health economics of the past decade. However, the direction of the relationship between the two is heavily dependent on which dimension of social capital is studied and which alcohol measure is used. In this paper, we examine the effect of social interactions and generalised trust on drinking in the general Danish population survey. Participants (n = 2569) were recruited as part of a larger study. The double-hurdle model for the volume of alcohol consumption and the multivariate logistic model for heavy episodic drinking were estimated. We found evidence that social networking with male friends, membership in voluntary organisations, and generalised trust were significantly associated with the mean volume of alcohol consumption and heavy drinking. We also observed that social support at the community level had a buffering effect against heavy episodic drinking. The findings support previous findings in which social interactions and generalised trust were found to predict individuals' volume of drinking and heavy episodic drinking. However, the results varied across the indicators.
Landgren, Sara; Jerlhag, Elisabet; Zetterberg, Henrik; Gonzalez-Quintela, Arturo; Campos, Joaquin; Olofsson, Ulrica; Nilsson, Staffan; Blennow, Kaj; Engel, Jörgen A
Ghrelin, an orexigenic peptide, acts on growth hormone secretagogue receptors (GHS-R1A), expressed in the hypothalamus as well as in important reward nodes such as the ventral tegmental area. Interestingly, ghrelin has been found to activate an important part of the reward systems, i.e., the cholinergic-dopaminergic reward link. Additionally, the rewarding and neurochemical properties of alcohol are, at least in part, mediated via this reward link. There is comorbidity between alcohol dependence and eating disorders. Thus, plasma levels of ghrelin are altered in patients with addictive behaviors such as alcohol and nicotine dependence and in binge eating disorder. This overlap prompted as to investigate the pro-ghrelin and GHS-R1A genes in a haplotype analysis of heavy alcohol-using individuals. A total of 417 Spanish individuals (abstainers, moderate, and heavy alcohol drinkers) were investigated in a haplotype analysis of the pro-ghrelin and GHS-R1A genes. Tag SNPs were chosen using HapMap data and the Tagger and Haploview softwares. These SNPs were then genotyped using TaqMan Allelic Discrimination. SNP rs2232165 of the GHS-R1A gene was associated with heavy alcohol consumption and SNP rs2948694 of the same gene as well as haplotypes of both the pro-ghrelin and the GHS-R1A genes were associated with body mass in heavy alcohol consuming individuals. The present findings are the first to disclose an association between the pro-ghrelin and GHS-R1A genes and heavy alcohol use, further strengthening the role of the ghrelin system in addictive behaviors and brain reward.
Bartel, Sara J; Sherry, Simon B; Molnar, Danielle S; Mushquash, Aislin R; Leonard, Kenneth E; Flett, Gordon L; Stewart, Sherry H
Approximately one in five adults engage in heavy episodic drinking (HED), a behavior with serious health and social consequences. Environmental, intrapersonal, and interpersonal factors contribute to and perpetuate HED. Prior research supports the partner influence hypothesis where partners influence each other's HED. We examined the partner influence hypothesis longitudinally over three years in heterosexual couples in serious romantic relationships, while exploring possible sex differences in the magnitude of partner influence. One-hundred-and-seventy-nine heterosexual couples in serious relationships (38.5% married at baseline) completed a measure of HED at baseline and again three years later. Using actor-partner interdependence modelling, results showed actor effects for both men and women, with HED remaining stable for each partner from baseline to follow-up. Significant partner effects were found for both men and women, who both positively influenced their partners' HED over the three-year follow-up. The partner influence hypothesis was supported. Results indicated partner influences on HED occur over the longer term and apply to partners in varying stages of serious romantic relationships (e.g., cohabiting, engaged, married). Women were found to influence their partners' HED just as much as men influence their partners' HED. Findings suggest HED should be assessed and treated as a couples' issue rather than simply as an individual risky behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gilchrist, Heidi; Smith, Kylie; Magee, Christopher A.; Jones, Sandra
Excessive alcohol consumption and heavy episodic drinking is increasingly common among female university students. This trend is concerning given that excessive alcohol consumption and binge drinking have several adverse effects, including increased levels of risky sexual behaviour. The findings presented here are the first step in establishing an…
Campbell-Sills, Laura; Ursano, Robert J; Kessler, Ronald C; Sun, Xiaoying; Heeringa, Steven G; Nock, Matthew K; Sampson, Nancy A; Jain, Sonia; Stein, Murray B
Investigations of drinking behavior across military deployment cycles are scarce, and few prospective studies have examined risk factors for post-deployment alcohol misuse. Prevalence of alcohol misuse was estimated among 4645 US Army soldiers who participated in a longitudinal survey. Assessment occurred 1-2 months before soldiers deployed to Afghanistan in 2012 (T0), upon their return to the USA (T1), 3 months later (T2), and 9 months later (T3). Weights-adjusted logistic regression was used to evaluate associations of hypothesized risk factors with post-deployment incidence and persistence of heavy drinking (HD) (consuming 5 + alcoholic drinks at least 1-2×/week) and alcohol or substance use disorder (AUD/SUD). Prevalence of past-month HD at T0, T2, and T3 was 23.3% (s.e. = 0.7%), 26.1% (s.e. = 0.8%), and 22.3% (s.e. = 0.7%); corresponding estimates for any binge drinking (BD) were 52.5% (s.e. = 1.0%), 52.5% (s.e. = 1.0%), and 41.3% (s.e. = 0.9%). Greater personal life stress during deployment (e.g., relationship, family, or financial problems) - but not combat stress - was associated with new onset of HD at T2 [per standard score increase: adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.20, 95% CI 1.06-1.35, p = 0.003]; incidence of AUD/SUD at T2 (AOR = 1.54, 95% CI 1.25-1.89, p risk of alcohol-related problems post-deployment.
Gilbert, Paul A; Perreira, Krista; Eng, Eugenia; Rhodes, Scott D
We sought to quantify the association of social stressors with alcohol use among immigrant sexual and gender minority Latinos in North Carolina (n = 190). We modeled any drinking in past year using logistic regression and heavy episodic drinking in past 30 days using Poisson regression. Despite a large proportion of abstainers, there were indications of hazardous drinking. Among current drinkers, 63% reported at least one heavy drinking episode in past 30 days. Ethnic discrimination increased, and social support decreased, odds of any drinking in past year. Social support moderated the associations of English use and ethnic discrimination with heavy episodic drinking.
Gilbert, Paul A.; Perreira, Krista; Eng, Eugenia; Rhodes, Scott D.
We sought to quantify the association of social stressors with alcohol use among immigrant sexual and gender minority Latinos in North Carolina (n = 190). We modeled any drinking in past year using logistic regression and heavy episodic drinking in past 30 days using Poisson regression. Despite a large proportion of abstainers, there were indications of hazardous drinking. Among current drinkers, 63% reported at least one heavy drinking episode in past 30 days. Ethnic discrimination increased...
Graciele Cadahaiane de Oliveira
Full Text Available Este estudo descritivo, exploratório, objetivou caracterizar as mulheres atendidas em um Hospital de Ensino do Noroeste do Paraná, por abuso de álcool, nos anos de 1999 a 2008, segundo variáveis sociodemográficas e dados da intoxicação. Dos 823 atendimentos, a faixa etária mais frequente foi dos 20 aos 49 anos (58,32%. 13 (1,58% mulheres estavam grávidas; 12,5% apresentavam de 9 a 12 anos de estudo. Os destilados foram a principal bebida utilizada, e a ingestão foi mais prevalente no período noturno. Cerca de 156 (18,96% mulheres necessitaram de internamento hospitalar. Evasão hospitalar foi observada em 8,5% dos casos. Conclui-se que a população feminina representa um subgrupo da população suscetível ao abuso do álcool, e, com o perfil descrito neste estudo, foi possível descrever as áreas de impacto na saúde da mulher, possibilitando a implementação de medidas preventivas para diminuir a ocorrência, as complicações e a reincidência nessa população.Este estudio descriptivo, exploratorio tiene por objetivo caracterizar las mujeres que acuden a Hospital Universitario de Paraná en el Noroeste, por abuso de alcohol en los años de 1999 a 2008, según los datos sociodemográficos de la intoxicación y se asocia con trauma y violencia. De los 823 atendimentos la faja de edad más frecuente fue de los 20 a los 49 años (58,32%. 13 (1,58% mujeres estaban embarazadas; 12,5% presentaban de 9 a 12 años de escolaridad.. fonéticamente Los destilados fueron la bebida principal y más prevalente en la noche. Cerca de 156 (18,96% mujeres requirieron hospitalización. La evasión hospitalaria se observó en el 8,5% de los casos. Se concluye que la población femenina representa un subgrupo de la población susceptible al abuso del alcohol y, con el perfil descrito en este estudio, fue posible describir las áreas de impacto en la salud de la mujer, posibilitando la implementación de medidas preventivas para disminuir el
Silva, Camile S; Dias, Vaneria R; Almeida, Juliane A Regis; Brazil, Jamile M; Santos, Ramon A; Milagres, Maria P
To determine the threshold index of sweet and salty tastes in alcoholics undergoing treatment. Taste threshold was assessed using type 3-Alternative Forced Choice in a control group (92 non-alcoholic volunteers) and a test group (92 alcoholics in therapy). The test group completed a structured questionnaire on lifestyle and habits. Significant difference were found between the threshold rates found in the test (3.78) and control groups (1.39). In the salty stimulus, no significant difference was noted in the threshold detection between the control (0.17) and test groups (0.30). A significant correlation was observed between the index Pearson's threshold to sweet taste in the test group and their reported alcohol consumption. The test group reported characteristics such as loss of appetite (93%), weight loss during consumption (62%) and weight gain after quitting drinking (72%). That the alcoholic group reported less sensitivity to sweet taste suggests that drinking habits may influence choice of foods, with a greater preference for foods with higher sucrose concentration. This contribute to poor health, because excess consumption of sugar raises risk for several diseases. No conclusive results were found for the salty stimulus. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
Volkow, Nora D.; Fowler, Joanna S.; Wang, Gene-Jack; Kojori, Eshan Shokri; Benveniste, Helene; Tomasi, Dardo
During alcohol intoxication the human brain increases metabolism of acetate and decreases metabolism of glucose as energy substrate. Here we hypothesized that chronic heavy drinking facilitates this energy substrate shift both for baseline and stimulation conditions. To test this hypothesis we compared the effects of alcohol intoxication (0.75g/kg alcohol versus placebo) on brain glucose metabolism during video-stimulation (VS) versus when given with no-stimulation (NS), in 25 heavy drinkers (HD) and 23 healthy controls each of whom underwent four PET- 18 FDG scans. We showed that resting whole-brain glucose metabolism (placebo-NS) was lower in HD than controls (13%, p=0.04); that alcohol (compared to placebo) decreased metabolism more in HD (20±13%) than controls (9±11%, p=0.005) and in proportion to daily alcohol consumption (r=0.36, p=0.01) but found that alcohol did not reduce the metabolic increases in visual cortex from VS in either group. Instead, VS reduced alcohol-induced decreases in whole-brain glucose metabolism (10±12%) compared to NS in both groups (15±13%, p=0.04), consistent with stimulation-related glucose metabolism enhancement. These findings corroborate our hypothesis that heavy alcohol consumption facilitates use of alternative energy substrates (i.e. acetate) for resting activity during intoxication, which might persist through early sobriety, but indicate that glucose is still favored as energy substrate during brain stimulation. Our findings are consistent with reduced reliance on glucose as the main energy substrate for resting brain metabolism during intoxication (presumably shifting to acetate or other ketones) and a priming of this shift in heavy drinkers, which might make them vulnerable to energy deficits during withdrawal
Dresler, Emma; Anderson, Margaret
Purpose: Heavy episodic drinking in young women has caused concern among many groups including public health professionals. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the experiences of young women's alcohol consumption so as to facilitate better health education targeting. Design/methodology/approach: This qualitative descriptive study examines…
Alcohol is one of the most widely used addictive substances. It can be assumed that everybody encounters alcohol--ethanol in various forms and concentrations in the course of their lives. A global and social problem of our civilization is alcohol consumption which has a rising trend. Since 1989 the consumption of alcoholic beverages is rising and the mean annual consumption of concentrated ethanol per head is cea 10 litres. In ethanol abuse the organism is damaged not only by ethanol alone but in particular by substances formed during its metabolism. Its detailed knowledge is essential for the knowledge and investigations of the metabolic and toxic effect of ethanol on the organism. Ingested alcohol is in 90-98% eliminated from the organism by three known metabolic pathways: 1-alcohol dehydrogenase, 2-the microsomal ethanol oxidizing system and 3-catalase. Alcohol is a frequent important risk factor of serious "diseases of civilization" such as IHD, hypertension, osteoporosis, neoplastic diseases. Cirrhosis of the liver and chronic pancreatitis are the well known diseases associated with alcohol ingestion and also their most frequent cause. It is impossible to list all organs and diseases which develop as a result of alcohol consumption. It is important to realize that regular and "relatively" small amounts in the long run damage the organism and may be even fatal.
Archie, Suzanne; Boydell, Katherine M; Stasiulis, Elaine; Volpe, Tiziana; Gladstone, Brenda M
To identify factors that contribute to the initiation of alcohol and street drug use from the perspective of people who were enrolled in early intervention programmes for a first episode of psychosis. Eight focus groups were conducted involving an average of four to six participants per group, with each group consisting of young people who met provincial inclusion criteria for early intervention programmes. Thematic analysis was used to systematically code transcripts from the focus groups for concepts, patterns and themes related to early use of illicit substances. Participants included 45 young people diagnosed with affective psychosis or non-affective spectrum disorders. Seventy-three percent were male, with a median age of 23 years. In general, substance use was an important topic that emerged across all focus groups. Participants talked about three main factors attracting them to initiate use of substances, most predominantly cannabis: (i) using within a social context; (ii) using as a self-medication strategy; and (iii) using to alter their perceptions. The need for social relationships, coping strategies and pleasurable experiences appear to be important reasons for initiating substance use. Additional research is needed to identify whether prodromal youth report the same factors that attract them to initiate use in order to develop more effective prevention strategies. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Full Text Available A Hogewoning,1,* AJAE Van de Loo,1,* M Mackus,1 SJ Raasveld,1 R De Zeeuw,1 ER Bosma,1 NH Bouwmeester,1 KA Brookhuis,2 J Garssen,1,3 JC Verster1,4 1Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, 2Faculty of Behavioral and Social Sciences, Groningen University, Groningen, 3Nutricia Research, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 4Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: A number of social drinkers claim that they do not experience next-day hangovers despite consuming large quantities of alcohol. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of drinkers who claim to be hangover immune and compare them with drinkers who do report having hangovers. Methods: A total of 36 social drinkers participated in a naturalistic study consisting of a hangover day (alcohol consumed and a control day (no alcohol consumed. Data were collected on alcohol consumption, demographics, sleep, next-day adverse effects, and mood. Data from drinkers with a hangover (N=18 were compared with data from drinkers who claim to be hangover immune (N=18. Results: Drinkers with a hangover reported drowsiness-related symptoms, symptoms related to reduced cognitive functioning, and classic hangover symptoms such as headache, nausea, dizziness, weakness, and stomach pain. Corresponding mood changes comprised increased feelings of depression, anger–hostility, fatigue, and reduced vigor–activity. In contrast, hangover-immune drinkers reported relatively few hangover symptoms, with only mild corresponding severity scores. The reported symptoms were limited to drowsiness-related symptoms such as sleepiness and being tired. The classic hangover symptoms were usually not reported by these drinkers. Conclusion: In contrast to drinkers with a hangover, for those who claim to be hangover immune, next-day adverse effects of alcohol consumption are limited to a mild increase in
Conway, Martin A.
An account of episodic memories is developed that focuses on the types of knowledge they represent, their properties, and the functions they might serve. It is proposed that episodic memories consist of "episodic elements," summary records of experience often in the form of visual images, associated to a "conceptual frame" that provides a…
Voica, Cezara; Dehelean, Adriana; Pamula, A, E-mail: email@example.com [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)
The Organisation International de la Vigne et du Vin (OIV) fixed an uppermost level for some heavy metals in wine. Consequently, the need to determine very low concentration of elements that may be present in wine in trace and ultra trace levels occurred. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry ICP-MS is considered an excellent tool for detailed characterization of the elementary composition of many samples, including samples of drinks. In this study a method of quantitative analysis for the determination of toxic metals (Cr, As, Cd, Ni, Hg, Pb) in wines and slightly alcoholic beverages by ICP-MS was validated. Several parameters have been taken into account and evaluated for the validation of method, namely: linearity, the minimum detection limit, the limit of quantification, accuracy and uncertainty.
Voica, Cezara; Dehelean, Adriana; Pamula, A
The Organisation International de la Vigne et du Vin (OIV) fixed an uppermost level for some heavy metals in wine. Consequently, the need to determine very low concentration of elements that may be present in wine in trace and ultra trace levels occurred. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry ICP-MS is considered an excellent tool for detailed characterization of the elementary composition of many samples, including samples of drinks. In this study a method of quantitative analysis for the determination of toxic metals (Cr, As, Cd, Ni, Hg, Pb) in wines and slightly alcoholic beverages by ICP-MS was validated. Several parameters have been taken into account and evaluated for the validation of method, namely: linearity, the minimum detection limit, the limit of quantification, accuracy and uncertainty.
Volkow, Nora D; Wang, Gene-Jack; Shokri Kojori, Ehsan; Fowler, Joanna S; Benveniste, Helene; Tomasi, Dardo
During alcohol intoxication, the human brain increases metabolism of acetate and decreases metabolism of glucose as energy substrate. Here we hypothesized that chronic heavy drinking facilitates this energy substrate shift both for baseline and stimulation conditions. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effects of alcohol intoxication (0.75 g/kg alcohol vs placebo) on brain glucose metabolism during video stimulation (VS) versus when given with no stimulation (NS), in 25 heavy drinkers (HDs) and 23 healthy controls, each of whom underwent four PET-(18)FDG scans. We showed that resting whole-brain glucose metabolism (placebo-NS) was lower in HD than controls (13%, p = 0.04); that alcohol (compared with placebo) decreased metabolism more in HD (20 ± 13%) than controls (9 ± 11%, p = 0.005) and in proportion to daily alcohol consumption (r = 0.36, p = 0.01) but found that alcohol did not reduce the metabolic increases in visual cortex from VS in either group. Instead, VS reduced alcohol-induced decreases in whole-brain glucose metabolism (10 ± 12%) compared with NS in both groups (15 ± 13%, p = 0.04), consistent with stimulation-related glucose metabolism enhancement. These findings corroborate our hypothesis that heavy alcohol consumption facilitates use of alternative energy substrates (i.e., acetate) for resting activity during intoxication, which might persist through early sobriety, but indicate that glucose is still favored as energy substrate during brain stimulation. Our findings are consistent with reduced reliance on glucose as the main energy substrate for resting brain metabolism during intoxication (presumably shifting to acetate or other ketones) and a priming of this shift in HDs, which might make them vulnerable to energy deficits during withdrawal. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/353248-08$15.00/0.
... created when grains, fruits, or vegetables are fermented . Fermentation is a process that uses yeast or bacteria to change the sugars in the food into alcohol. Fermentation is used to produce many necessary items — everything ...
Migliorini, Robyn; Moore, Eileen M; Glass, Leila; Infante, M Alejandra; Tapert, Susan F; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Mattson, Sarah N; Riley, Edward P
Prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with behavioral disinhibition, yet the brain structure correlates of this deficit have not been determined with sufficient detail. We examined the hypothesis that the structure of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) relates to inhibition performance in youth with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (AE, n = 32) and non-exposed controls (CON, n = 21). Adolescents (12-17 years) underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging yielding measures of gray matter volume, surface area, and thickness across four ACC subregions. A subset of subjects were administered the NEPSY-II Inhibition subtest. MANCOVA was utilized to test for group differences in ACC and inhibition performance and multiple linear regression was used to probe ACC-inhibition relationships. ACC surface area was significantly smaller in AE, though this effect was primarily driven by reduced right caudal ACC (rcACC). AE also performed significantly worse on inhibition speed but not on inhibition accuracy. Regression analyses with the rcACC revealed a significant group × ACC interaction. A smaller rcACC surface area was associated with slower inhibition completion time for AE but was not significantly associated with inhibition in CON. After accounting for processing speed, smaller rcACC surface area was associated with worse (i.e., slower) inhibition regardless of group. Examining processing speed independently, a decrease in rcACC surface area was associated with faster processing speed for CON but not significantly associated with processing speed in AE. Results support the theory that caudal ACC may monitor reaction time in addition to inhibition and highlight the possibility of delayed ACC neurodevelopment in prenatal alcohol exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Emiliussen, Jakob; Nielsen, Anette Søgaard; Andersen, Kjeld
This systematic review seeks to expand the description and understanding of late-onset AUD and asks "Which risk factors have been reported for late-onset heavy drinking and AUD?" Using PRISMA guidelines, a literature review and search was performed on May 19, 2015 using the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, and PsychInfo. Nine studies were included in the final review. The search revealed that only very few studies have been conducted. Hence, the evidence is limited but suggests that stress, role/identity loss, and friends' approval of drinking are associated with an increased risk for late-onset AUD or heavy drinking, whereas retirement, death of a spouse or a close relative does not increase the risk. Inherent differences in measurements and methodologies precluded a meta-analysis. Therefore, the results presented here are descriptive in nature. Most studies base their conclusions on a certain preconception of older adults with alcohol problems, which leads to a row of circular arguments. The factors that have been measured seem to have changed over time. There has been a lack of focus on the field of late-onset AUD since the 1970s, which possibly has led to misrepresentations and preconceptions on the complex nature of late-onset AUD. There is limited evidence for any specific risk factor for late-onset AUD or heavy drinking. We suggest the adoption of a qualitative approach to uncover what is intrinsic to late-onset AUD followed by quantitative studies with more agreement on methods and definitions.
Hui G. Cheng
Full Text Available Background. State-level ‘age 21’ drinking laws conform generally with the United States National Minimum Drinking Age Act of 1984 (US, and are thought to protect young people from adverse drinking experiences such as heavy episodic drinking (HED, sometimes called ‘binge drinking’. We shed light on this hypothesis while estimating the age-specific risk of transitioning from 1st full drink to 1st HED among 12-to-23-year-old newly incident drinkers, with challenge to a “gender gap” hypothesis and male excess described in HED prevalence reports. Methods. The study population consisted of non-institutionalized civilians in the United States, with nine independently drawn nationally representative samples of more than 40,000 12-to-23-year-olds (2006–2014. Standardized audio computer-assisted self-interviews identified 43,000 newly incident drinkers (all with 1st HED evaluated within 12 months of drinking onset. Estimated age-specific HED risk soon after first full drink is evaluated for males and females. Results. Among 12-to-23-year-old newly incident drinkers, an estimated 20–30% of females and 35–45% of males experienced their 1st HED within 12 months after drinking onset. Before mid-adolescence, there is no male excess in such HED risk. Those who postponed drinking to age 21 are not spared (27% for ‘postponer’ females; 95% CI [24–30]; 42% for ‘postponer’ males; 95% CI [38–45]. An estimated 10–18% females and 10–28% males experienced their 1st HED in the same month of their 1st drink; peak HED risk estimates are 18% for ‘postponer’ females (95% CI [15–21] and 28% for ‘postponer’ males (95% CI [24–31]. Conclusions. In the US, one in three young new drinkers transition into HED within 12 months after first drink. Those who postpone the 1st full drink until age 21 are not protected. Furthermore, ‘postponers’ have substantial risk for very rapid transition to HED. A male excess in this transition to HED
Emiliussen, Jakob; Nielsen, Anette Søgaard; Andersen, Kjeld
databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, and PsychInfo. Nine studies were included in the final review. Results: The search revealed that only very few studies have been conducted. Hence, the evidence is limited but suggests that stress, role/identity loss, and friends’approval of drinking are associated...... base their conclusions on a certain preconception of older adults with alcohol problems, which leads to a rowof circular arguments. The factors that have been measured seem to have changed over time. Conclusion: There has been a lack of focus on the field of late-onset AUD since the 1970s, which...
Pastuszka, Jozef S; Rogula-Kozłowska, Wioletta; Zajusz-Zubek, Elwira
The concentrations of seven heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, and Pb) associated with PM10 and PM2.5 at the crossroads and the background sites have been studied in Zabrze, Poland, during smog episodes. Although the background level was unusually elevated due to both high particulate emission from the industrial and municipal sources and smog favorable meteorological conditions, significant increase of the concentration of PM2.5 and PM10 as well as associated heavy metals in the roadside air compared to the urban background has been documented. The average daily difference between the roadside and corresponding urban background aerosol concentration was equal to 39.5 microg m(-3) for PM10 and 41.2 microg m(-3) for PM2.5. The highest levels of the studied metals in Zabrze appeared for iron carried by PM10 particles: 1,706 (background) and 28,557 ng m(-3) (crossroads). The lowest concentration level (in PM10) has been found for cadmium: 7 and 77 ng m(-3) in the background and crossroads site, respectively. Also the concentrations of heavy metals carried by the fine particles (PM2.5) were very high in Zabrze during the smog episodes. Concentrations of all studied metals associated with PM10 increased at the roadside compared to the background about ten times (one order) while metals contained in PM2.5 showed two to three times elevated concentrations (except Fe-five times and Cr-no increase).
Pál, László; Árnyas, Ervin M; Bujdosó, Orsolya; Baranyi, Gergő; Rácz, Gábor; Ádány, Róza; McKee, Martin; Szűcs, Sándor
A large volume of alcoholic beverages containing aliphatic alcohols is consumed worldwide. Previous studies have confirmed the presence of ethanol-induced immunosuppression in heavy drinkers, thereby increasing susceptibility to infectious diseases. However, the aliphatic alcohols contained in alcoholic beverages might also impair immune cell function, thereby contributing to a further decrease in microbicidal activity. Previous research has shown that aliphatic alcohols inhibit phagocytosis by granulocytes but their effect on human monocytes has not been studied. This is important as they play a crucial role in engulfment and killing of pathogenic microorganisms and a decrease in their phagocytic activity could lead to impaired antimicrobial defence in heavy drinkers. The aim of this study was to measure monocyte phagocytosis following their treatment with those aliphatic alcohols detected in alcoholic beverages. Monocytes were separated from human peripheral blood and phagocytosis of opsonized zymosan particles by monocytes treated with ethanol and aliphatic alcohols individually and in combination was determined. It was shown that these alcohols could suppress the phagocytic activity of monocytes in a concentration-dependent manner and when combined with ethanol, they caused a further decrease in phagocytosis. Due to their additive effects, it is possible that they may inhibit phagocytosis in a clinically meaningful way in alcoholics and episodic heavy drinkers thereby contribute to their increased susceptibility to infectious diseases. However, further research is needed to address this question.
Shield, Kevin D; Monteiro, Maristela; Roerecke, Michael; Smith, Blake; Rehm, Jürgen
To describe the volume and patterns of alcohol consumption up to and including 2012, and to estimate the burden of disease attributable to alcohol consumption as measured in deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost in the Americas in 2012. Measures of alcohol consumption were obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Information System on Alcohol and Health (GISAH). The burden of alcohol consumption was estimated in both deaths and DALYs lost based on mortality data obtained from WHO, using alcohol-attributable fractions. Regional groupings for the Americas were based on the WHO classifications for 2004 (according to child and adult mortality). Regional variations were observed in the overall volume of alcohol consumed, the proportion of the alcohol market attributable to unrecorded alcohol consumption, drinking patterns, prevalence of drinking, and prevalence of heavy episodic drinking, with inhabitants of the Americas consuming more alcohol (8.4 L of pure alcohol per adult in 2012) compared to the world average. The Americas also experienced a high burden of disease attributable to alcohol consumption (4.7% of all deaths and 6.7% of all DALYs lost), especially in terms of injuries attributable to alcohol consumption. Alcohol is consumed in a harmful manner in the Americas, leading to a high burden of disease, especially in terms of injuries. New cost-effective alcohol policies, such as increasing alcohol taxation, increasing the minimum legal age to purchase alcohol, and decreasing the maximum legal blood alcohol content while driving, should be implemented to decrease the harmful consumption of alcohol and the resulting burden of disease.
Kevin D. Shield
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:To describe the volume and patterns of alcohol consumption up to and including 2012, and to estimate the burden of disease attributable to alcohol consumption as measured in deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs lost in the Americas in 2012. METHODS: Measures of alcohol consumption were obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO Global Information System on Alcohol and Health (GISAH. The burden of alcohol consumption was estimated in both deaths and DALYs lost based on mortality data obtained from WHO, using alcohol-attributable fractions. Regional groupings for the Americas were based on the WHO classifications for 2004 (according to child and adult mortality. RESULTS: Regional variations were observed in the overall volume of alcohol consumed, the proportion of the alcohol market attributable to unrecorded alcohol consumption, drinking patterns, prevalence of drinking, and prevalence of heavy episodic drinking, with inhabitants of the Americas consuming more alcohol (8.4 L of pure alcohol per adult in 2012 compared to the world average. The Americas also experienced a high burden of disease attributable to alcohol consumption (4.7% of all deaths and 6.7% of all DALYs lost, especially in terms of injuries attributable to alcohol consumption. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol is consumed in a harmful manner in the Americas, leading to a high burden of disease, especially in terms of injuries. New cost-effective alcohol policies, such as increasing alcohol taxation, increasing the minimum legal age to purchase alcohol, and decreasing the maximum legal blood alcohol content while driving, should be implemented to decrease the harmful consumption of alcohol and the resulting burden of disease.
Voogt, Carmen V; Poelen, Evelien A P; Kleinjan, Marloes; Lemmers, Lex A C J; Engels, Rutger C M E
In the Netherlands, young adults' drinking practices have become an issue of public concern since their drinking levels are high. Heavy drinking can place young adults at an increased risk for developing short- and long-term health-related problems. Current national alcohol prevention programmes focus mainly on adolescents and their parents and paying less systematic attention to young adults. The present study describes the theory and evidence-based development of a web-based brief alcohol intervention entitled What Do You Drink (WDYD). We applied the Intervention Mapping (IM) protocol to combine theory and evidence in the development and implementation of WDYD. The WDYD intervention aims to detect and reduce heavy drinking of young adults who are willing to decrease their alcohol consumption, preferably below the Dutch guidelines of low-risk drinking. According to the IM protocol, the development of WDYD resulted in a structured intervention. Reducing heavy drinking to low-risk drinking was proposed as the behavioural outcome. Motivational interviewing principles and parts of the I-Change Model were used as methods in the development of WDYD, whereas computer tailoring was selected as main strategy. An effect and a process evaluation of the intervention will be conducted. IM was found to be a practical instrument for developing the WDYD intervention tailored to a specific target population in the area of alcohol prevention. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Lundin, Andreas; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Halldin, Jan; Theobald, Holger
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of alcoholism, alcohol consumption amount, and alcohol consumption pattern on mortality in a general population sample. This study used a 1970 prospective population sample (double-phase random sample) of 2,300 individuals ages 18-65 years in Stockholm County, which was also linked to mortality registers. A total of 1,895 individuals participated in a semi-structured, baseline psychiatric interview with a psychiatrist and social worker. Alcoholism and other mental disorders were recorded according to the eighth revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-8). Information on the usual amount and frequency of alcohol consumption was collected at the psychiatric interview. Mortality up to year 2011 was assessed with Cox proportional hazard regression models. At baseline, there were 65 men and 21 women diagnosed with alcoholism. During followup, there were 873 deaths in the study population of 1,895. Alcoholism was associated with increased mortality rate. Former drinkers, but not never-drinkers, also had increased risk for mortality compared with moderate drinkers. We found no associations between heavy consumption and mortality. Frequent heavy episodic drinking was uncommon but related to mortality before, but not after, adjusting for an alcoholism diagnosis. Our results demonstrated that alcoholism—but not a reported high consumption of alcohol or frequent heavy episodic drinking—predicted a long-term risk of death.
... to do. Wondering if adding a glass of wine or beer might help lower your blood glucose if it is high? The effects of alcohol can be unpredictable and it is not recommended as a treatment for high blood glucose. The risks likely outweigh any benefit that may be seen in blood glucose alone. ...
Bonnet, Udo; Selle, Claudia; Isbruch, Katrin; Isbruch, Katrin
It is unusual for purpura to emerge as a result of drinking alcohol. Such a peculiarity was observed in a 55-year-old man with a 30-year history of heavy alcohol use. The Caucasian patient was studied for 11 years during several detoxification treatments. During the last 2 years of that period, purpuric rashes were newly observed. The asymptomatic purpura was limited to both lower limbs, self-limiting with abstinence, and reoccurring swiftly with alcohol relapse. This sequence was observed six times, suggesting a causative role of alcohol or its metabolites. A skin biopsy revealed histological features of purpura pigmentosa progressiva (termed Schamberg's disease). Additionally, alcoholic fatty liver disease markedly elevated serum immunoglobulins (immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin E), activated T-lymphocytes, and increased C-reactive protein. In addition, moderate combined (cellular and humoral) immunodeficiency was found. Unlike the patient's immunoglobulin A level, his serum immunoglobulin E level fell in the first days of abstinence, which corresponded to the time of purpura decline. Systemic vasculitis and clotting disorders were excluded. The benign character of the purpura was supported by missing circulating immune complexes or complement activation. An alcohol provocation test with vinegar was followed by the development of fresh "cayenne pepper" spots characteristic of Schamberg's disease. This case report demonstrates that Schamberg's disease can be strongly related to alcohol intake, in our patient most likely as a late complication of severe alcoholism with alcoholic liver disease. Immunologic disturbances thereby acquired could have constituted a basis for a hypersensitivity-like reaction after ingestion of alcohol. Schamberg's disease induction by vinegar may point to an involvement of acetate, a metabolite of ethanol.
Ray, Lara A
Neurobiological theories of addiction have highlighted disruption in stress pathways as a central feature of addictive disorders, and pharmacological treatments targeting stress mechanisms hold great promise. This study examines genetic determinants of stress-induced and cue-induced craving in heavy drinkers by testing single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the corticotrophin-releasing hormone binding protein (CRH-BP) gene and the mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1) gene. This study combines guided imagery stress exposure and in vivo alcohol cue exposure in a sample of 64 (23 women) non-treatment-seeking heavy drinkers. Analyses, uncorrected for multiple comparisons, revealed that a tag SNP of the CRH-BP gene (rs10055255) moderated stress-induced craving in this sample. The same SNP predicted greater affective responses to the stress manipulation, including greater levels of subjective tension and negative mood. The Asp40 allele of the OPRM1 was associated with greater cue-induced alcohol craving following the neutral imagery condition. These initial results extend recent preclinical and clinical findings implicating the CRH-BP in stress-related alcoholism and confirm the role of the Asp40 allele of the OPRM1 gene in reward-driven alcohol phenotypes. Human laboratory models of stress and cue-induced craving may be useful in pharmacotherapy development targeting dysregulation of stress systems. Larger studies are needed to validate these preliminary findings, which should also be extended to clinical samples. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Siegel, Michael; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S.; Heeren, Timothy; Rosenbloom, David L.; Ross, Craig; Ostroff, Joshua; Jernigan, David H.
This study is the first investigation to explore the alcohol brand preferences of underage youth via a national survey. We conducted a pilot study of a new, internet-based alcohol brand survey with 108 youth ages 16–20 years who were recruited from an existing panel and had consumed alcohol in the past month. We ascertained respondents’ consumption of each of 380 alcohol brands during the past 30 days, including which brands of alcohol were consumed during heavy drinking episodes. Our findings suggest that, despite the wide variety of alcohol brands consumed by older adolescents in this study, alcohol preferences are concentrated among a relatively small number of brands. Accurate measurements of alcohol brand preferences will enable important new research into the factors that influence youth drinking behavior. This study establishes the feasibility and validity of a new methodology to determine patterns of brand-specific alcohol consumption among underage drinkers. PMID:22014249
Roberts, Bayard; Murphy, Adrianna; Chikovani, Ivdity; Makhashvili, Nino; Patel, Vikram; McKee, Martin
The evidence on alcohol use disorder among conflict-affected civilian populations remains extremely weak, despite a number of potential risk-factors. The aim of this study is to examine patterns of alcohol use disorder among conflict-affected persons in the Republic of Georgia. A cross-sectional survey of 3600 randomly selected internally displaced persons (IDPs) and former IDPs. Two alcohol use disorder outcomes were measured: (i) having at least hazardous alcohol use (AUDIT score ≥ 8); (ii) episodic heavy drinking (consuming >60 grams of pure alcohol per drinking session at least once a week). Individual level demographic and socio-economic characteristics were also recorded, including mental disorders. Community level alcohol environment characteristics relating to alcohol availability, marketing and pricing were recorded in the respondents' communities and a factor analysis conducted to produce a summary alcohol environment factor score. Logistic regression analyses examined associations between individual and community level factors with the alcohol use disorder outcomes (among men only). Of the total sample, 71% of men and 16% of women were current drinkers. Of the current drinkers (N = 1386), 28% of men and 1% of women were classified as having at least hazardous alcohol use; and 12% of men and 2% of women as episodic heavy drinkers. Individual characteristics significantly associated with both outcomes were age and experiencing a serious injury, while cumulative trauma events and depression were also associated with having at least hazardous alcohol use. For the community level analysis, a one unit increase in the alcohol environment factor was associated with a 1.27 fold increase in episodic heavy drinking among men (no significant association with hazardous alcohol use). The findings suggest potential synergies for treatment responses for alcohol use disorder and depression among conflict-affected populations in Georgia, as well as the need for stronger
Full Text Available The evidence on alcohol use disorder among conflict-affected civilian populations remains extremely weak, despite a number of potential risk-factors. The aim of this study is to examine patterns of alcohol use disorder among conflict-affected persons in the Republic of Georgia.A cross-sectional survey of 3600 randomly selected internally displaced persons (IDPs and former IDPs. Two alcohol use disorder outcomes were measured: (i having at least hazardous alcohol use (AUDIT score ≥ 8; (ii episodic heavy drinking (consuming >60 grams of pure alcohol per drinking session at least once a week. Individual level demographic and socio-economic characteristics were also recorded, including mental disorders. Community level alcohol environment characteristics relating to alcohol availability, marketing and pricing were recorded in the respondents' communities and a factor analysis conducted to produce a summary alcohol environment factor score. Logistic regression analyses examined associations between individual and community level factors with the alcohol use disorder outcomes (among men only.Of the total sample, 71% of men and 16% of women were current drinkers. Of the current drinkers (N = 1386, 28% of men and 1% of women were classified as having at least hazardous alcohol use; and 12% of men and 2% of women as episodic heavy drinkers. Individual characteristics significantly associated with both outcomes were age and experiencing a serious injury, while cumulative trauma events and depression were also associated with having at least hazardous alcohol use. For the community level analysis, a one unit increase in the alcohol environment factor was associated with a 1.27 fold increase in episodic heavy drinking among men (no significant association with hazardous alcohol use.The findings suggest potential synergies for treatment responses for alcohol use disorder and depression among conflict-affected populations in Georgia, as well as the need for
Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the patterns of alcohol use among households in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T and to estimate the association between alcohol use and negative psychological, social, or physical events experienced by the household. Methods A convenience sample of 1837 households across T&T. We identified bivariate correlates of alcohol use, and heavy episodic drinking using chi-square and t-test analyses and used multivariable logistic regression to estimate adjusted associations between household alcohol use and experiences within the past 12 months adjusted for sociodemographic covariates. Results One thousand five hundred two households had complete data for all variables (82% response rate. Nearly two thirds (64% of households included alcohol users; 57% of household that consumed alcohol also reported heavy episodic drinking. Households that reported alcohol consumption were significantly more likely to report illnesses within the households, relationship problems, and behavioral and antisocial problems with children. Among households where a member was employed, those who consumed alcohol were nearly twice as likely (OR = 1.98; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.03, 3.82 to have a household member call in sick to work and 2.9 times as likely (OR = 2.9; CI 1.19, 7.04 to have a household member suffer work related problems compared with households who reported not consuming alcohol. Conclusions Approximately two thirds of households in T&T reported using alcohol. These households were more likely to report psychological, physical, and social problems. These findings would support efforts to enforce current policies, laws, and regulations as well as new strategies to reduce the impact of harmful alcohol consumption on households in T&T.
Soltis, Kathryn E; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E; Murphy, James G
Elevated depression and stress have been linked to greater levels of alcohol problems among young adults even after taking into account drinking level. This study attempts to elucidate variables that might mediate the relation between symptoms of depression and stress and alcohol problems, including alcohol demand, future time orientation, and craving. Participants were 393 undergraduates (60.8% female, 78.9% White/Caucasian) who reported at least 2 binge-drinking episodes (4/5+ drinks for women/men, respectively) in the previous month. Participants completed self-report measures of stress and depression, alcohol demand, future time orientation, craving, and alcohol problems. In separate mediation models that accounted for gender, race, and weekly alcohol consumption, future orientation and craving significantly mediated the relation between depressive symptoms and alcohol problems. Alcohol demand, future orientation, and craving significantly mediated the relation between stress symptoms and alcohol problems. Heavy-drinking young adults who experience stress or depression are likely to experience alcohol problems, and this is due in part to elevations in craving and alcohol demand, and less sensitivity to future outcomes. Interventions targeting alcohol misuse in young adults with elevated levels of depression and stress should attempt to increase future orientation and decrease craving and alcohol reward value. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Hegazy El-Sayed, A.; Abd El-Rehim, H.A.; Ali, A.M.; Aly, H.F.
A study has been made to modify water-soluble poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), by grafting acrylic acid and styrene (AAc/Sty) binary monomers using gamma rays as initiator. The factors that affect the preparation process and grafting yield were studied and more economical grafts under the most favorable reaction conditions were obtained. It was found that the high degree of grafting of such system was obtained in presence of ethanol-water mixture in which water plays a significant role in enhancing the graft copolymerization. The critical amount of water to afford maximum grafting yield has been evaluated. The effect of comonomer composition on the grafting yield was also investigated and it was observed that using a mixture of AAc/Sty monomers influence the extent of grafting of each monomer onto the PVA substrate and the phenomenon of synergism occurs during such reaction. Also, degree of grafting increases as the content of the solvent decreases in the reaction medium. The permeation of heavy metals such as Ni and Co through the grafted membranes was investigated and efficiency of separation process is also determined
White, Helene Raskin; McMorris, Barbara J; Catalano, Richard F; Fleming, Charles B; Haggerty, Kevin P; Abbott, Robert D
This study examined the effects of leaving home and going to college on changes in the frequency of alcohol use, heavy episodic drinking, and marijuana use shortly after leaving high school. We also examined how protective factors in late adolescence predict post-high school substance use and moderate the effects of leaving home and going to college. Data came from subjects (N = 319; 53% male) interviewed at the end of 12th grade and again approximately 6 months later, as part of the Raising Healthy Children project. Leaving home and going to college were significantly related to increases in the frequency of alcohol use and heavy episodic drinking from high school to emerging adulthood but not to changes in marijuana use. Having fewer friends who used each substance protected against increases in the frequency of alcohol use, heavy episodic drinking, and marijuana use. Higher religiosity protected against increases in alcohol-and marijuana-use frequency. Higher parental monitoring protected against increases in heavy episodic drinking and moderated the effect of going to college on marijuana use. Lower sensation seeking lessened the effect of going to college on increases in alcohol use and heavy episodic drinking. To prevent increases in substance use in emerging adulthood, interventions should concentrate on strengthening prosocial involvement and parental monitoring during high school. In addition, youths with high sensation seeking might be targeted for added intervention.
Vidourek, Rebecca A.; King, Keith A.; Merianos, Ashley L.
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of school violence on recent alcohol use and episodic heavy drinking among seventh- through 12th-grade students. A total of 54,631 students completed a survey assessing substance use and other risky behaviors. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the research questions. Results…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol use and misuse and their relation to sociodemograhic factors are well studied among university students in Western European countries and the USA, but less is known about students in Eastern Europe. The historical past as communistic countries might have affected the social life among these populations, which is again one of the main factors determining the alcohol consumption among university students. The aim of our study was to assess the association of selected sociodemographic factors with different patterns of alcohol use among university students in Slovakia. Methods A sample of 813 young adults (mean age 21.1 years, 63.8% females; response rate of 71% from four universities in Kosice answered questions about their sociodemographic background and about alcohol use. To obtain a detailed picture of different aspects, alcohol use was measured by four variables: frequency of alcohol use, heavy episodic drinking, frequency of drunkenness and problem drinking. Four separate logistic regression models were used to assess the association between sociodemographic and alcohol-related variables. To assess the potentially different effects in both genders, all two-way interactions with gender were tested. Results While 41% of the students drank alcohol once a week or more often, 77% reported heavy episodic drinking and 49% had been drunk more than once in the last month. Problem drinking existed in 23.3% of the sample. Gender was consistently associated with all four alcohol-related variables, with males being at higher risk. A higher study year was associated only with lower levels of heavy episodic drinking, but displayed no association with the other studied variables. Living with parents during the semester was consistently associated with less frequent heavy episodic drinking, drunkenness episodes, and problem drinking while having an intimate relationship was associated with less problem drinking only. Conclusions
Wang, He Joe; Murray, Gary J; Jung, Mary Katherine
Humans develop various clinical phenotypes of severe alcoholic liver disease, including alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis, generally after decades of heavy drinking. In such individuals, following each episode of drinking, their livers experience heightened intracellular and extracellular stresses that are closely associated with alcohol consumption and alcohol metabolism. This article focuses on the latest advances made in animal models on evolutionarily conserved homeostatic mechanisms for coping with and resolving these stress conditions. The mechanisms discussed include the stress-activated protein kinase JNK, energy regulator AMPK, autophagy and the inflammatory response. Over time, the host may respond variably to stress with protective mechanisms that are critical in determining an individual's vulnerability to developing severe alcoholic liver disease. A systematic review of these mechanisms and their temporal changes in animal models provides the basis for general conclusions, and raises questions for future studies. The relevance of these data to human conditions is also discussed.
Hahn, Judith A; Woolf-King, Sarah E; Muyindike, Winnie
Alcohol consumption adds fuel to the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). SSA has the highest prevalence of HIV infection and heavy episodic drinking in the world. Alcohol consumption is associated with behaviors such as unprotected sex and poor medication adherence, and biological factors such as increased susceptibility to infection, comorbid conditions, and infectiousness, which may synergistically increase HIV acquisition and onward transmission. Few interventions to decrease alcohol consumption and alcohol-related sexual risk behaviors have been developed or implemented in SSA, and few HIV or health policies or services in SSA address alcohol consumption. Structural interventions, such as regulating the availability, price, and advertising of alcohol, are challenging to implement due to the preponderance of homemade alcohol and beverage industry resistance. This article reviews the current knowledge on how alcohol impacts the HIV epidemic in SSA, summarizes current interventions and policies, and identifies areas for increased research and development.
Moan, Inger Synnøve; Norström, Thor; Storvoll, Elisabet E
The aim of this study was twofold: (a) to examine how an increase in the frequency of heavy drinking episodes affects the incidence of drunk driving and (b) to examine whether the effect of alcohol use on drunk driving is contingent on impulsivity. Two waves of the Young in Norway Longitudinal Study were applied (N = 2,603; response rate: 67%), when the respondents were on average 17 (1994) and 28 (2005) years of age. Measurements consisted of self-reported heavy episodic drinking, drunk driving, and impulsivity. The first difference method was applied to estimate the association between heavy episodic drinking and drunk driving. This means that changes in the frequency of drunk driving were regressed on changes in the frequency of drinking. In this way, the effects of time-invariant confounders were eliminated. The results showed that every additional episode of heavy drinking was associated with a 2.6% increase in the frequency of drunk driving. The increase for males was significantly higher than among females. The analyses supported the hypothesis that impulsivity modifies the association between alcohol use and drunk driving. The association between drinking and drunk driving is significantly stronger among those with a high score on impulsivity compared with those who have a low score.
McCaul, Mary E.; Hutton, Heidi E.; Stephens, Mary Ann C.; Xu, Xiaoqiang; Wand, Gary S.
Background Stress and anxiety are widely considered to be causally related to alcohol craving and consumption, as well as development and maintenance of alcohol use disorder (AUD). However, numerous preclinical and human studies examining effects of stress or anxiety on alcohol use and alcohol?related problems have been equivocal. This study examined relationships between scores on self?report anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and stress measures and frequency and intensity of recent drinking, al...
Yves K. Kouadio
Full Text Available Relationships between simultaneous occurrences of distinctive atmospheric easterly wave (EW signatures that cross the south-equatorial Atlantic, intense mesoscale convective systems (lifespan > 2 hour that propagate westward over the western south-equatorial Atlantic, and subsequent strong rainfall episodes (anomaly > 10 mm·day−1 that occur in eastern Northeast Brazil (ENEB are investigated. Using a simple diagnostic analysis, twelve cases with EW lifespan ranging between 3 and 8 days and a mean velocity of 8 m·s−1 were selected and documented during each rainy season of 2004, 2005, and 2006. These cases, which represent 50% of the total number of strong rainfall episodes and 60% of the rainfall amount over the ENEB, were concomitant with an acceleration of the trade winds over the south-equatorial Atlantic, an excess of moisture transported westward from Africa to America, and a strengthening of the convective activity in the oceanic region close to Brazil. Most of these episodes occurred during positive sea surface temperature anomaly patterns over the entire south-equatorial Atlantic and low-frequency warm conditions within the oceanic mixing layer. A real-time monitoring and the simulation of this ocean-atmosphere relationship could help in forecasting such dramatic rainfall events.
Fairman, Brian J; Furr-Holden, C Debra; Johnson, Renee M
Recent loosening of state and federal policy restrictions on marijuana, along with changes in social norms regarding marijuana use and decreases in prevalence of other types of substance use, may lead to increases in youth initiating marijuana before other types of substances such as alcohol and tobacco. We investigated predictors and potential consequences of initiating marijuana before other drugs for youth aged 12-21-years in the USA. Nationally representative, cross-sectional survey data from the US National Survey on Drug Use and Health supplied self-reported age of first marijuana, cigarettes, alcohol, other tobacco, and other illegal drug use among 12-21-year-old samples from 2004 to 2014 (n = 275,559). We first examined the degree to which initiating marijuana use first was associated with sex, age, race/ethnicity, and survey year. Then, we examined whether using marijuana first predicted heavy marijuana use, cannabis use disorder (CUD), alcohol use disorder (AUD), nicotine dependence (ND), or lifetime use of other illegal drugs. Among all survey youth (substance users and non-users), the proportion using marijuana first increased from 4.8 to 8.8% from 2004 to 2014. Those using marijuana first (vs. alcohol or cigarettes first) were more likely to be male and older and Black, American Indian/Alaskan Native, multiracial, or Hispanic than White or Asian. Among substance users and adjusting for age of onset and the number of substances used, using marijuana first was associated higher odds of heavy current marijuana use and CUD. In recent years, youth have been increasingly likely to use marijuana as their first drug and sequence of initiation is associated with race/ethnicity, gender, and age. Using marijuana first might increase the chance of heavy use and CUD.
Voogt, Carmen; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Kleinjan, Marloes; Poelen, Evelien; Engels, Rutger
Web-based brief alcohol interventions are effective in reducing alcohol use among students when measured at limited follow-up time points. To date, no studies have tested Web-based brief alcohol intervention effectiveness over time by using a large number of measurements. Testing whether the What Do You Drink (WDYD) Web-based brief alcohol intervention can sustain a reduction in alcohol use among heavy-drinking students aged 18-24 years at 1-, 3-, and 6-month follow-up intervals. A purely Web-based, 2-arm, parallel-group randomized controlled trial applying an ecological momentary assessment approach with 30 weekly measurements was conducted in the Netherlands (2010-2011). Participants were recruited offline and online. A total of 907 participants were randomized into the experimental condition (n=456) including the single-session and fully automated WDYD intervention, or into the control condition (n=451) including assessment only. Weekly alcohol consumption and frequency of binge drinking were the self-assessed outcome measures. Attrition rates of the 907 participants were 110 (12.1%), 130 (14.3%), and 162 (17.9%) at 1-, 3-, and 6-month follow-up intervals, respectively. Latent growth curve analyses according to the intention-to-treat principle revealed that participants in the experimental condition had significantly lower weekly alcohol consumption compared to participants in the control condition that was sustained at 3-month follow-up (intercept=-2.60, Padmin/rctview.asp?TC=2665 (Archived by WebCite at http://webcitation.org/6LuQVn12M).
Add-on high frequency deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (dTMS) to bilateral prefrontal cortex in depressive episodes of patients with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder I, and major depressive with alcohol use disorders.
Rapinesi, Chiara; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Ferracuti, Stefano; Girardi, Nicoletta; Zangen, Abraham; Sani, Gabriele; Raccah, Ruggero N; Girardi, Paolo; Pompili, Maurizio; Del Casale, Antonio
Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is critically involved in mood and alcohol use disorders. We aimed to investigate the safety of intervention with add-on bilateral prefrontal high-frequency deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (dTMS) and between-group differences in treatment response in patients with different types of depressive episodes, including major depressive episodes in the course of major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder, type I (BD-I), and MDD with alcohol use disorder (MDAUD). We conducted a 6-month open-label study, involving 82 patients with DSM-5 Depressive Episode. Of these, 41 had diagnosis of MDD, 20 BD-I, and 21 MDAUD. All patients received standard drug treatment and add-on dTMS over the bilateral DLPFC with left prevalence for four weeks, with five sessions in each week. We rated mood state with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) at baseline, one-month, and six-month follow-up visits. Mean total HDRS scores dropped from 22.8 (SD = 5.9) at baseline to 10.4 (SD = 3.6) at 1 month, to 10.0 (SD = 4.5) at 6 months, while response/remission were 70.73% (N = 58) and 19.51% (N = 16) at 1 month and 76.83% (N = 63) and 32.93% (27) at 6 months, respectively, with no between-group differences. No patient experienced any side effects. High-frequency DLPFC dTMS was well tolerated and did not significantly differ on improvement of depression in MDD, BD-I, and MDAUD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Miller, Peter; Hargreaves, Jessica; Curtis, Ashlee; Zinkiewicz, Lucy
While alcohol consumption and heavy episodic (binge) drinking are well-established predictors of male-to-male alcohol-related aggression (MMARA), the role of the father-son relationship in MMARA has yet to be explored. This study therefore examined whether fathering by the biological father rather than another father figure, negative fathering, and gender role modeled by the father figure were significant predictors of involvement in MMARA, once drinking frequency and quantity and heavy episodic drinking were controlled for. A total of 121 university students aged 18 to 25 years (M = 20.63, SD = 1.77 years) voluntarily completed the online questionnaire. The only significant predictors of perpetration of MMARA were a more abusive paternal relationship and drinking quantity (number of standard drinks usually consumed when drinking). Negative father-son relationships may play a role in fostering young men's perpetration of MMARA in the barroom context. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Fatores associados ao uso pesado de álcool entre estudantes das capitais brasileiras Factores asociados al uso pesado de alcohol entre estudiantes de las capitales brasileras Factors associated with heavy alcohol use among students in Brazilian capitals
José Carlos F Galduróz
el uso pesado de alcohol y los factores estudiados fueron analizadas por medio de regresión logística, considerando nivel de significancia de 5%. RESULTADOS: Del total de estudiantes, 4.286 (8,9% hicieron uso pesado de alcohol en el mes anterior a la entrevista. El análisis por regresión logística mostró asociación entre relaciones malas o regulares con padre (OR= 1,46 y madre (OR =1,61 y uso pesado de alcohol. Seguir una religión (OR=0,83 se mostró inversamente asociado a este tipo de consumo de alcohol. La práctica de deportes y el hecho de que la madre se perciba como liberal, no mostraron significancia en el modelo. Hubo mayor prevalencia del uso pesado de alcohol entre los estudiantes que trabajaban. CONCLUSIONES: Uniones familiares más coherentes y seguir una religión pueden prevenir el uso abusivo de alcohol entre estudiantes.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between heavy use of alcohol among students and family, personal and social factors. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including public school students aged ten to 18 from 27 Brazilian capital cities in 2004. Data was collected using an anonymous, self-report questionnaire that was adapted from a World Health Organization instrument. A representative sample comprising 48,155 students was stratified by census tracts and clusters (schools. The associations between heavy alcohol use and the factors studied were analyzed using logistic regression at a 5% significance level. RESULTS: Of all students, 4,286 (8.9% reported heavy alcohol use in the month prior to the interview. The logistic regression analysis showed an association between fair or poor relationship with the father (OR = 1.46 and the mother (OR = 1.61 and heavy use of alcohol. Following a religion (OR = 0.83 was inversely associated with heavy alcohol consumption. Sports practice and mother perceived as a "liberal" person had no significance in the model. However, a higher prevalence of heavy use of alcohol was seen among working
Kopera, Maciej; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Suszek, Hubert; Glass, Jennifer M; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Wnorowska, Anna; Brower, Kirk J; Wojnar, Marcin
Growing data reveals deficits in perception, understanding and regulation of emotions in alcohol dependence (AD). The study objective was to explore the relationships between emotional processing, drinking history and relapse in a clinical sample of alcohol-dependent patients. A group of 80 inpatients entering an alcohol treatment program in Warsaw, Poland was recruited and assessed at baseline and follow-up after 12 months. Baseline information about demographics, psychopathological symptoms, personality and severity of alcohol problems was obtained. The Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence (EI) Test and Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS) were utilized for emotional processing assessment. Follow-up information contained data on drinking alcohol during the last month. At baseline assessment, the duration of alcohol drinking was associated with lower ability to utilize emotions. Patients reporting more difficulties with describing feelings drank more during their last episode of heavy drinking, and had a longer duration of intensive alcohol use. A longer duration of the last episode of heavy drinking was associated with more problems identifying and regulating emotions. Poor utilization of emotions and high severity of depressive symptoms contributed to higher rates of drinking at follow-up. These results underline the importance of systematic identification of discrete emotional problems and dynamics related to AD. This knowledge has implications for treatment. Psychotherapeutic interventions to improve emotional skills could be utilized in treatment of alcohol-dependent patients. © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
Targeting young drinkers online: the effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention in reducing heavy drinking among college students: study protocol of a two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial
Lemmers Lex ACJ
Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of heavy drinking among college students and its associated health related consequences highlights an urgent need for alcohol prevention programs targeting 18 to 24 year olds. Nevertheless, current alcohol prevention programs in the Netherlands pay surprisingly little attention to the drinking patterns of this specific age group. The study described in this protocol will test the effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention that is aimed at reducing alcohol use among heavy drinking college students aged 18 to 24 years old. Methods/Design The effectiveness of the What Do You Drink web-based brief alcohol intervention will be tested among 908 heavy drinking college students in a two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial. Participants will be allocated at random to either the experimental (N = 454: web-based brief alcohol intervention or control condition (N = 454: no intervention. The primary outcome measure will be the percentage of participants who drink within the normative limits of the Dutch National Health Council for low-risk drinking. These limits specify that, for heavy alcohol use, the mean consumption cannot exceed 14 or 21 glasses of standard alcohol units per week for females and males, respectively, while for binge drinking, the consumption cannot exceed five or more glasses of standard alcohol units on one drinking occasion at least once per week within one month and six months after the intervention. Reductions in mean weekly alcohol consumption and frequency of binge drinking are also primary outcome measures. Weekly Ecological Momentary Assessment will measure alcohol-related cognitions, that is, attitudes, self-efficacy, subjective norms and alcohol expectancies, which will be included as the secondary outcome measures. Discussion This study protocol describes the two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial developed to evaluate the effectiveness of a web-based brief
Winward, Jennifer L; Bekman, Nicole M; Hanson, Karen L; Lejuez, Carl W; Brown, Sandra A
Negative affect and low distress tolerance have been associated with increased likelihood of alcohol consumption and relapse. This study utilized the Paced Auditory Serial Attention Test - Computerized Version (PASAT-C) to examine affective reactivity, cognitive performance, and distress tolerance during early abstinence among heavy drinking adolescents. Participants, ages 16 to 18 (50% female), were 23 heavy episodic drinking youth (HED) and 23 demographically matched, nondrinking teens (CON). Both groups were drawn from the same schools and assessed at 3 time points: HED was first studied within 10 days (M = 4.26, SD = 4.4) of heavy episodic drinking and then at two 2-week intervals over 4 subsequent weeks of abstinence from alcohol and drugs. CON were studied at the same 2-week intervals. From the findings, it was observed that HED responded with greater emotional response to the PASAT-C (i.e., greater increases in frustration and irritability and greater decreases in happiness) at the initial assessment, but their affective responses diminished with sustained abstinence. CON and HED task performance did not differ at the initial assessment or across time. HED showed faster task discontinuation times to the PASAT-C at the first assessment, and both groups reduced task persistence across testings. Among HED, greater lifetime and recent alcohol consumption, alcohol-induced blackouts, and withdrawal symptoms were associated with increases in negative affect with PASAT-C exposure. Earlier age of onset of alcohol use was linked to poorer performance. Heavy episodic drinking adolescents demonstrated heightened emotional reactivity and poorer distress tolerance to a cognitively challenging task during early abstinence. The combination of elevated negative affect and low distress tolerance may place adolescents at a heightened risk of escalations in or return to alcohol involvement. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Kypri, Kypros; Bell, Melanie L; Cousins, Kimberly
Objectives To examine the role of alcohol at the time of aggressive incidents between intimate partners in the general population by gender, by estimating (1) prevalence and severity of aggression, and drinking at the time, (2) associations of drinking at the time of the aggression with reported severity, anger and fear, and (3) association of usual drinking patterns with partner aggression. Design A national survey of 18–70-year-olds using an electoral roll sample obtained self-reported alcohol consumption, partner's alcohol consumption and details of the most severe partner aggression by the respondent and towards the respondent in the past 2 years. The mean scores for associated severity, anger and fear were analysed by gender and alcohol involvement. Multinomial models estimated associations of drinking patterns with aggression to and from the respondent. Results The response rate was 49% (n=1925). Men and women reported similar prevalence of victimisation and perpetration of aggression (11–15%). Alcohol was involved in more than 25% of incidents, and reported more by women than by men, particularly male-only drinking when the respondent was the victim. Women reported greater severity, anger and fear with victimisation than men, and drinking was associated with greater reported severity. Heavy episodic drinking by respondents was associated with a threefold increase in victimisation and doubling of perpetration of aggression involving alcohol. Heavy episodic drinking by either partner was also associated with drinking being involved in reported aggression. Conclusions The experience of intimate-partner aggression in a cross-section of households differs by gender and the involvement of alcohol, and ‘counts’ of aggressive acts in a population-based survey do not reflect the reality of gender differences. Heavy episodic drinking patterns are associated with more aggression involving alcohol within relationships, and alcohol involvement is associated
... Home » Living with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Alcohol Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... heavy drinking, most heavy drinkers have developed cirrhosis. Hepatitis C and cirrhosis In general, someone with hepatitis ...
Kopera, Maciej; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Suszek, Hubert; Glass, Jennifer M.; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Wnorowska, Anna; Brower, Kirk J.; Wojnar, Marcin
Aims: Growing data reveals deficits in perception, understanding and regulation of emotions in alcohol dependence (AD). The study objective was to explore the relationships between emotional processing, drinking history and relapse in a clinical sample of alcohol-dependent patients. Methods: A group of 80 inpatients entering an alcohol treatment program in Warsaw, Poland was recruited and assessed at baseline and follow-up after 12 months. Baseline information about demographics, psychopathological symptoms, personality and severity of alcohol problems was obtained. The Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence (EI) Test and Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS) were utilized for emotional processing assessment. Follow-up information contained data on drinking alcohol during the last month. Results: At baseline assessment, the duration of alcohol drinking was associated with lower ability to utilize emotions. Patients reporting more difficulties with describing feelings drank more during their last episode of heavy drinking, and had a longer duration of intensive alcohol use. A longer duration of the last episode of heavy drinking was associated with more problems identifying and regulating emotions. Poor utilization of emotions and high severity of depressive symptoms contributed to higher rates of drinking at follow-up. Conclusions: These results underline the importance of systematic identification of discrete emotional problems and dynamics related to AD. This knowledge has implications for treatment. Psychotherapeutic interventions to improve emotional skills could be utilized in treatment of alcohol-dependent patients. PMID:25543129
Peeters, Margot; Janssen, Tim; Monshouwer, Karin; Boendermaker, Wouter; Pronk, Thomas; Wiers, Reinout; Vollebergh, Wilma
Recently, it has been suggested that impairments in executive functioning might be risk factors for the onset of alcohol use rather than a result of heavy alcohol use. In the present study, we examined whether two aspects of executive functioning, working memory and response inhibition, predicted the first alcoholic drink and first binge drinking episode in young adolescents using discrete survival analyses. Adolescents were selected from several Dutch secondary schools including both mainstream and special education (externalizing behavioral problems). Participants were 534 adolescents between 12 and 14 years at baseline. Executive functioning and alcohol use were assessed four times over a period of two years. Working memory uniquely predicted the onset of first drink (p=.01) and first binge drinking episode (p=.04) while response inhibition only uniquely predicted the initiating of the first drink (p=.01). These results suggest that the association of executive functioning and alcohol consumption found in former studies cannot simply be interpreted as an effect of alcohol consumption, as weaknesses in executive functioning, found in alcohol naïve adolescents, predict the initiating of (binge) drinking. Though, prolonged and heavy alcohol use might further weaken already existing deficiencies. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
The effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention in reducing heavy drinking among adolescents aged 15 to 20 years with a low educational background: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
Voogt Carmen V
Full Text Available Abstract Background The serious negative health consequences of heavy drinking among adolescents is cause for concern, especially among adolescents aged 15 to 20 years with a low educational background. In the Netherlands, there is a lack of alcohol prevention programs directed to the drinking patterns of this specific target group. The study described in this protocol will test the effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention that aims to reduce alcohol use among heavy drinking adolescents aged 15 to 20 years with a low educational background. Methods/design The effectiveness of the What Do You Drink (WDYD web-based brief alcohol intervention will be tested among 750 low-educated, heavy drinking adolescents. It will use a two-arm parallel group cluster randomized controlled trial. Classes of adolescents from educational institutions will be randomly assigned to either the experimental (n = 375: web-based brief alcohol intervention or control condition (n = 375: no intervention. Primary outcomes measures will be: 1 the percentage of participants who drink within the normative limits of the Dutch National Health Council for low-risk drinking, 2 reductions in mean weekly alcohol consumption, and 3 frequency of binge drinking. The secondary outcome measures include the alcohol-related cognitions, attitudes, self-efficacy, and subjective norms, which will be measured at baseline and at one and six months after the intervention. Discussion This study protocol presents the study design of a two-arm parallel-group randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of the WDYD web-based brief alcohol intervention. We hypothesized a reduction in mean weekly alcohol consumption and in the frequency of binge drinking in the experimental condition, resulting from the web-based brief alcohol intervention, compared to the control condition. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register NTR2971
The effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention in reducing heavy drinking among adolescents aged 15 to 20 years with a low educational background: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Voogt, Carmen V; Poelen, Evelien A P; Lemmers, Lex A C J; Engels, Rutger C M E
The serious negative health consequences of heavy drinking among adolescents is cause for concern, especially among adolescents aged 15 to 20 years with a low educational background. In the Netherlands, there is a lack of alcohol prevention programs directed to the drinking patterns of this specific target group. The study described in this protocol will test the effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention that aims to reduce alcohol use among heavy drinking adolescents aged 15 to 20 years with a low educational background. The effectiveness of the What Do You Drink (WDYD) web-based brief alcohol intervention will be tested among 750 low-educated, heavy drinking adolescents. It will use a two-arm parallel group cluster randomized controlled trial. Classes of adolescents from educational institutions will be randomly assigned to either the experimental (n = 375: web-based brief alcohol intervention) or control condition (n = 375: no intervention). Primary outcomes measures will be: 1) the percentage of participants who drink within the normative limits of the Dutch National Health Council for low-risk drinking, 2) reductions in mean weekly alcohol consumption, and 3) frequency of binge drinking. The secondary outcome measures include the alcohol-related cognitions, attitudes, self-efficacy, and subjective norms, which will be measured at baseline and at one and six months after the intervention. This study protocol presents the study design of a two-arm parallel-group randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of the WDYD web-based brief alcohol intervention. We hypothesized a reduction in mean weekly alcohol consumption and in the frequency of binge drinking in the experimental condition, resulting from the web-based brief alcohol intervention, compared to the control condition. Netherlands Trial Register NTR2971.
Marczinski, Cecile A
Consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has been associated with both short- and long-term risks beyond those observed with alcohol alone. AmED use has been associated with heavy episodic (binge) drinking, risky behaviors, and risk of alcohol dependence. Laboratory research has demonstrated that AmED beverages lead to greater motivation to drink versus the same amount of alcohol consumed alone. However, the reason consumers find AmED beverages particularly appealing has been unclear. A recent report by Droste and colleagues (Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2014; 38:2087-2095) is the first study to investigate motivations related to AmED consumption and to determine which motives predict AmED consumption patterns, experience of drinking-related harms, and risk of alcohol dependence. The findings of this study significantly enhance our understanding of why AmED consumption is related to the risk of alcohol dependence and change our understanding of why consumers choose AmED beverages. The authors report that hedonistic motives strongly predicted AmED use and the harms associated with use. While intoxication-reduction motives predicted self-reported accidents and injuries, these motives did not predict AmED consumption patterns and risk of dependence. The risk of alcohol dependence may arise from repeated experiences when drinking alcohol is more pleasurable when energy drinks are consumed with the alcohol. This commentary will focus on why energy drinks might increase the rewarding properties of alcohol in social drinkers. In addition, discussion is provided explaining why more research on the neurotransmitter, adenosine, may actually inform us about the mechanisms contributing to the development of alcohol dependence. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Francis, Joel M; Weiss, Helen A; Mshana, Gerry; Baisley, Kathy; Grosskurth, Heiner; Kapiga, Saidi H
Alcohol use is a global public health problem, including as a risk factor for HIV infection, but few data are available on the epidemiology of alcohol use and alcohol use disorders (AUD) among young people in sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 4 groups of young people aged 15-24 years old (secondary school students, college/university students, employees of local industries and casual labourers) in two regions (Kilimanjaro and Mwanza) of northern Tanzania. Using a multistage stratified random sampling strategy, we collected information on demographics, alcohol use, and behavioural factors. We screened severity of alcohol use using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) and estimated the quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption using the timeline-follow-back-calendar (TLFB) method. A total of 1954 young people were surveyed. The prevalence of reported alcohol use was higher among males (47-70% ever users and 20-45% current users) than females (24-54% ever users and 12-47% current users). Prevalence of use was substantially higher in Kilimanjaro than Mwanza region. In both regions, participants reported high exposure to alcohol advertisements, and wide alcohol availability. College students reported the highest prevalence of current alcohol use (45% among males; 26% among females) and of heavy episodic drinking (71% among males; 27% among females) followed by casual labourers. Males were more likely to have AUD (an AUDIT score ≥8) than females, with 11-28% of males screening positive for AUD. Alcohol use was associated with male gender, being in a relationship, greater disposable income, non-Muslim religion and a higher number of sexual partners. Alcohol use is a significant problem among young people in northern Tanzania. There is an urgent need to develop, pilot and deliver interventions to help young people delay initiation and reduce levels of harmful drinking, particularly among college students and casual
Joel M Francis
Full Text Available Alcohol use is a global public health problem, including as a risk factor for HIV infection, but few data are available on the epidemiology of alcohol use and alcohol use disorders (AUD among young people in sub-Saharan Africa.We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 4 groups of young people aged 15-24 years old (secondary school students, college/university students, employees of local industries and casual labourers in two regions (Kilimanjaro and Mwanza of northern Tanzania. Using a multistage stratified random sampling strategy, we collected information on demographics, alcohol use, and behavioural factors. We screened severity of alcohol use using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT and estimated the quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption using the timeline-follow-back-calendar (TLFB method.A total of 1954 young people were surveyed. The prevalence of reported alcohol use was higher among males (47-70% ever users and 20-45% current users than females (24-54% ever users and 12-47% current users. Prevalence of use was substantially higher in Kilimanjaro than Mwanza region. In both regions, participants reported high exposure to alcohol advertisements, and wide alcohol availability. College students reported the highest prevalence of current alcohol use (45% among males; 26% among females and of heavy episodic drinking (71% among males; 27% among females followed by casual labourers. Males were more likely to have AUD (an AUDIT score ≥8 than females, with 11-28% of males screening positive for AUD. Alcohol use was associated with male gender, being in a relationship, greater disposable income, non-Muslim religion and a higher number of sexual partners.Alcohol use is a significant problem among young people in northern Tanzania. There is an urgent need to develop, pilot and deliver interventions to help young people delay initiation and reduce levels of harmful drinking, particularly among college students and casual
Tikkanen, Roope; Ducci, Francesca; Goldman, David; Holi, Matti; Lindberg, Nina; Tiihonen, Jari; Virkkunen, Matti
A polymorphism in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) has been shown to alter the effect of persistent drinking and childhood maltreatment on the risk for violent and antisocial behaviors. These findings indicate that MAOA could contribute to inter-individual differences in stress resiliency. Recidivism in severe violent crimes was assessed after 8 years of nonincarcerated follow-up in a male sample of 174 impulsive Finnish alcoholic violent offenders, the majority of whom exhibited antisocial (ASPD) or borderline personality disorder (BPD) or both. We examined whether MAOA genotype alters the effects of heavy drinking and childhood physical abuse (CPA) on the risk for committing impulsive recidivistic violent crimes. Logistic regression analyses showed that both heavy drinking and CPA were significant independent predictors of recidivism in violent behavior (OR 5.2, p = 0.004 and OR 5.3, p = 0.003) among offenders having the high MAOA activity genotype (MAOA-H), but these predictors showed no effect among offenders carrying the low MAOA activity genotype (MAOA-L). Carriers of the MAOA-H allele have a high risk to commit severe recidivistic impulsive violent crimes after exposure to heavy drinking and CPA.
Zhai, Shixian; An, Xingqin; Zhao, Tianliang; Sun, Zhaobin; Wang, Wei; Hou, Qing; Guo, Zengyuan; Wang, Chao
Air pollution sources and their regional transport are important issues for air quality control. The Global-Regional Assimilation and Prediction System coupled with the China Meteorological Administration Unified Atmospheric Chemistry Environment (GRAPES-CUACE) aerosol adjoint model was applied to detect the sensitive primary emission sources of a haze episode in Beijing occurring between 19 and 21 November 2012. The high PM2.5 concentration peaks occurring at 05:00 and 23:00 LT (GMT+8) over Beijing on 21 November 2012 were set as the cost functions for the aerosol adjoint model. The critical emission regions of the first PM2.5 concentration peak were tracked to the west and south of Beijing, with 2 to 3 days of cumulative transport of air pollutants to Beijing. The critical emission regions of the second peak were mainly located to the south of Beijing, where southeasterly moist air transport led to the hygroscopic growth of particles and pollutant convergence in front of the Taihang Mountains during the daytime on 21 November. The temporal variations in the sensitivity coefficients for the two PM2.5 concentration peaks revealed that the response time of the onset of Beijing haze pollution from the local primary emissions is approximately 1-2 h and that from the surrounding primary emissions it is approximately 7-12 h. The upstream Hebei province has the largest impact on the two PM2.5 concentration peaks, and the contribution of emissions from Hebei province to the first PM2.5 concentration peak (43.6 %) is greater than that to the second PM2.5 concentration peak (41.5 %). The second most influential province for the 05:00 LT PM2.5 concentration peak is Beijing (31.2 %), followed by Shanxi (9.8 %), Tianjin (9.8 %), and Shandong (5.7 %). The second most influential province for the 23:00 LT PM2.5 concentration peak is Beijing (35.7 %), followed by Shanxi (8.1 %), Shandong (8.0 %), and Tianjin (6.7 %). The adjoint model results were compared with the forward
Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Monakhova, Yulia B; Rehm, Jürgen
Unrecorded alcohol includes illegally distributed alcohol as well as homemade or surrogate alcohol which is unintended for consumption by humans (e.g., cosmetics containing alcohol). The highest unrecorded alcohol consumption occurs in Eastern Europe and some of these countries have an over proportional liver cirrhosis mortality. Compounds besides ethanol have been hypothesized as being responsible for this observation. On the other hand, chemical investigations were unable to prove that unrecorded alcohol regularly contains contaminants above toxicological thresholds. However, illegally produced spirits regularly contain higher percentages of alcohol (above 45% by volume), but for considerably less costs compared with licit beverages, potentially causing more problematic patterns of drinking. In this review, it is investigated whether patterns of drinking rather than product composition can explain the liver cirrhosis mortality rates. Statistical examination of World Health Organization country data shows that the originally detected correlation of the percentage of unrecorded alcohol consumption and liver cirrhosis mortality rates disappears when the data is adjusted for the prevalence of heavy episodic drinking. It may be concluded that there is currently a lack of data to demonstrate causality between the composition of illicit spirits (e.g., higher levels of certain contaminants in home-produced products) and liver toxicity on a population scale. Exceptions may be cases of poisoning with antiseptic liquids containing compounds such as polyhexamethyleneguanidine, which were reported to be consumed as surrogate alcohol in Russia, leading to an outbreak of acute cholestatic liver injury, histologically different from conventional alcoholic liver disease.
Intoxication with alcohol at the time of self-harm and pre-existing involvement with mental health services are associated with a pre-disposition to repetition of self-harming behavior in a large cohort of older New Zealanders presenting with an index episode of self-harm.
The paper on predictors of repeat self-harm and suicide by Cheung et al. (2017), which has been chosen by the editorial team as paper of the month for this issue of International Psychogeriatrics, makes a very useful contribution to the study of self-harm and suicide in late life. Of 339 individuals presenting with an index episode of self-harm to one of seven Emergency Departments (EDs) in New Zealand, close to 15% harmed themselves again within one year and for nearly one in six of these 50 people, the repeat episode was fatal. Having alcohol in the blood and already being engaged with mental health services at the time of the index episode both had some utility in predicting the occurrence of a further self-harm episode. While it is encouraging that mental health services look to have been focusing on those who turned out to be at highest risk, clinicians may need to be particularly vigilant when following up individuals who had been drinking alcohol at the time of an initial self-harm presentation. This study also emphasizes the high risk of recurrent self-harm and completed suicide in those older adults who harm themselves and survive the initial episode. It deserves to be widely cited and gives some direction for future research on interventions designed to diminish the recurrence of self-harm in those of our patients who have presented to an ED with an initial self-harm episode.
Mundt, Marlon P.; Zakletskaia, Larissa I.; Brown, David D.; Fleming, Michael F.
Objective An alcohol-induced memory blackout represents an amnesia to recall events but does not involve a loss of consciousness. Memory blackouts are a common occurrence among college drinkers, but it is not clear if a history of memory blackouts is predictive of future alcohol-related injury above and beyond the risk associated with heavy drinking episodes. This analysis sought to determine if baseline memory blackouts can prospectively identify college students with alcohol-related injury in the next 24 months after controlling for heavy drinking days. Methods Data were analyzed from the College Health Intervention Project Study (CHIPS), a randomized controlled trial of screening and brief physician intervention for problem alcohol use among 796 undergraduate and 158 graduate students at four university sites in the US and one in Canada, conducted from 2004 to 2009. Multivariate analyses used generalized estimating equations (GEE) with the logit link. Results The overall 24-month alcohol-related injury rate was 25.6%, with no significant difference between males and females (p=.51). Alcohol-induced memory blackouts at baseline exhibited a significant dose-response on odds of alcohol-related injury during follow-up, increasing from 1.57 (95% CI: 1.13–2.19) for subjects reporting 1–2 memory blackouts at baseline to 2.64 (95% CI: 1.65–4.21) for students acknowledging 6+ memory blackouts at baseline. The link between memory blackouts and injury was mediated by younger age, prior alcohol-related injury, heavy drinking, and sensation-seeking disposition. Conclusions Memory blackouts are a significant predictor of future alcohol-related injury among college drinkers after adjusting for heavy drinking episodes. PMID:21708813
Sarria-Villa, Rodrigo; Ocampo-Duque, William; Páez, Martha; Schuhmacher, Marta
In Colombia little attention has been paid to river pollution with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). Low environmental control and legislation in such emerging region could significantly contribute to high PAHs releases. In this study, we report the presence of PAHs in water and sediments of the Cauca River (Colombia). Three sampling campaigns were carried out between May 2010 and June 2011, and the samples were collected at eight relevant sites. The sampling time included measuring before, during, and after a season of heavy rains, which were influenced by the global coupled ocean-atmospheric phenomenon, which affected tropical countries with huge flooding, commonly called "La Niña", and/or "El Niño" Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The highest mean ∑PAH concentrations were 4476.5 ng/l and 1582.7 ng/g in water and sediments, respectively. The PAHs most detected were Benzo[b]fluoranthene, Benzo[k]fluoranthene, and Pyrene in sediments; and Fluorene, Acenaphtylene, and Anthracene in water. After the season of rains statistically significant higher PAH concentrations were detected. The results of the study were compared to other rivers worldwide at both environmental compartments, and did not show concentrations of special concern. In some sites, concentrations detected of PAHs were higher than screening benchmarks for ecological protection. Estimation of human health risks was carried out, and the results suggested some likely carcinogenic effects due to PAHs especially in children exposed during current recreational swimming and adults working in low technology sand extraction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Whitehill, Jennifer M; Pumper, Megan A; Moreno, Megan A
Emerging adults have high rates of heavy episodic drinking (binge drinking) and related risks including alcohol-impaired driving. To understand whether social networking sites (SNSs) used on mobile devices represent a viable platform for real-time interventions, this study measured emerging adults' use of two popular SNSs (Facebook and Twitter) during the Mifflin Street Block Party. This annual festival is held in Madison, Wisconsin and is known for high alcohol consumption. Event attendees ages 18-23 years were recruited by young adult research assistants (>21 years). Participants completed a brief in-person interview assessing drinking intensity, use of SNSs, and use of SNSs to plan transportation. Analyses included t-tests, chi-squared tests, and Fisher's exact tests. At the event, nearly all of the 200 participants (97 %) consumed alcohol and 18 % met criteria for heavy episodic drinking. Approximately one-third of participants had used Facebook or Twitter on the day of the event. Facebook use (23 %) was more prevalent than Twitter use (18 %), especially among heavy episodic drinkers. Use of either SNS was 41 % among females and 24 % among males (χ (2)=6.01; df=1; p=0.01). Plans to use a SNS to arrange transportation were relatively uncommon (4 %), but this was more frequent among heavy episodic drinkers (11 %) compared to non-heavy episodic drinkers (2 %) (Fisher's exact p=0.02). These results indicate that SNSs are used during alcohol consumption and warrant exploration as a way to facilitate connections to resources like safe ride services.
Woolsey, Conrad L; Williams, Ronald D; Housman, Jeff M; Barry, Adam E; Jacobson, Bert H; Evans, Marion W
A recent study suggested that college students who combined alcohol and energy drinks were more likely than students who consumed only alcohol to drive when their blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was higher than the .08% limit and to choose to drive despite knowing they had too much alcohol to drive safely. This study sought to replicate those findings with a larger sample while also exploring additional variables related to impaired driving. College students (N = 549) completed an anonymous online survey to assess differences in drinking and driving-related behaviors between alcohol-only users (n = 281) and combined alcohol-energy drink users (n = 268). Combined users were more likely than alcohol-only users to choose to (a) drive when they perceived they were over the .08% BAC limit (35.0% vs. 18.1%, p drinks consumed, number of days drinking, number of days drunk, number of heavy episodic drinking episodes, greatest number of drinks on one occasion, and average hours of consumption. Combined use of alcohol and energy drinks may place drinkers at greater risk when compared with those who consume only alcohol. College students in this sample who combined alcohol and energy drinks were more likely to participate in high-risk driving behaviors than those who consumed only alcohol.
Madsen, Marie Henriette; Grønbæk, Morten; Bjerregaard, Peter
and self-administered questionnaires. METHODS: The association between different aspects of alcohol intake (quantity of intake, occasional heavy drinking, and the modified CAGE questionnaire) and place of living were analysed using a chi-square test and logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The population...... living in Denmark had a higher mean alcohol intake than those living in Greenland. Drinking above the sensible drinking limits (21 drinks per week for men and 14 drinks per week for women; where one drink contains 12 g alcohol) was also more prevalent in the population living in Denmark, whereas a higher...... proportion of those living in Greenland was abstaining. In contrast to the higher alcohol intake in the population living in Denmark, a higher proportion of individuals with episodes of heavy drinking (binge drinking), was observed in both large and small communities in Greenland. A higher proportion...
The effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention in reducing heavy drinking among adolescents aged 15 to 20 years with a low educational background: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
Voogt, C.V.; Poelen, E.A.P.; Lemmers, A.C.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.
The serious negative health consequences of heavy drinking among adolescents is cause for concern, especially among adolescents aged 15 to 20 years with a low educational background. In the Netherlands, there is a lack of alcohol prevention programs directed to the drinking patterns of this specific
Takahashi, Traci; Lapham, Gwen; Chavez, Laura J; Lee, Amy K; Williams, Emily C; Richards, Julie E; Greenberg, Diane; Rubinsky, Anna; Berger, Douglas; Hawkins, Eric J; Merrill, Joseph O; Bradley, Katharine A
Criteria for alcohol use disorders (AUD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5) were intended to result in a similar prevalence of AUD as DSM-IV. We evaluated the prevalence of AUD using DSM-5 and DSM-IV criteria, and compared characteristics of patients who met criteria for: neither DSM-5 nor DSM-IV AUD, DSM-5 alone, DSM-IV alone, or both, among Veterans Administration (VA) outpatients in the Considering Healthier drinking Options In primary CarE (CHOICE) trial. VA primary care patients who reported frequent heavy drinking and enrolled in the CHOICE trial were interviewed at baseline using the DSM-IV Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for AUD, as well as questions about socio-demographics, mental health, alcohol craving, and substance use. We compared characteristics across 4 mutually exclusive groups based on DSM-5 and DSM-IV criteria. Of 304 participants, 13.8% met criteria for neither DSM-5 nor DSM-IV AUD; 12.8% met criteria for DSM-5 alone, and 73.0% met criteria for both DSM-IV and DSM-5. Only 1 patient (0.3%) met criteria for DSM-IV AUD alone. Patients meeting both DSM-5 and DSM-IV criteria had more negative drinking consequences, mental health symptoms and self-reported readiness to change compared with those meeting DSM-5 criteria alone or neither DSM-5 nor DSM-IV criteria. In this sample of primary care patients with frequent heavy drinking, DSM-5 identified 13% more patients with AUD than DSM-IV. This group had a lower mental health symptom burden and less self-reported readiness to change compared to those meeting criteria for both DSM-IV and DSM-5 AUD. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01400581. 2011 February 17.
Full Text Available To examine the associations between job exposure to the public (e.g., customers, guests, users of a public service, patients and alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use.From the French population-based CONSTANCES cohort, 16,566 men and 17,426 women currently working were included between 2012 and 2016. They reported their exposure to the public (daily versus no daily, and among the daily exposed participants (10,323 men and 13,318 women, the frequency of stressful exposure (often versus rarely. Dependent variables were: chronic alcohol consumption (42(28 drinks per week in men(women, heavy episodic drinking (never, at most once a month, more than once a month, alcohol use risk with Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (mild, dangerous, problematic or dependence, tobacco use (non-smoker, former smoker, 1-9, 10-19, >19 cigarettes per day and cannabis use (never, not in past year, less than once a month, once a month or more. Logistic regressions provided odds ratios of substance use, stratifying for gender and adjusting for sociodemographic confounders, depression, effort-reward imbalance and perceived health status.Exposed men had higher risks of alcohol (chronic alcohol consumption, heavy episodic drinking and alcohol use risk, tobacco and cannabis use. Exposed women had higher risks of tobacco and cannabis use. In men, stressful exposure was associated with increased risks of heavy episodic drinking, tobacco and cannabis use. In women, stressful exposure was associated with increased risks of chronic alcohol consumption, alcohol use risk, tobacco and cannabis use. All these findings remained significant in multivariable analyses, taking into account sociodemographic variables, depressive symptoms, perceived health status and effort-reward imbalance.Interventions to reduce emotional job demand should systematically integrate assessment and prevention measures of addictive behaviors. Vulnerable workers may be offered more specific interventions to
Airagnes, Guillaume; Lemogne, Cédric; Goldberg, Marcel; Hoertel, Nicolas; Roquelaure, Yves; Limosin, Frédéric; Zins, Marie
To examine the associations between job exposure to the public (e.g., customers, guests, users of a public service, patients) and alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use. From the French population-based CONSTANCES cohort, 16,566 men and 17,426 women currently working were included between 2012 and 2016. They reported their exposure to the public (daily versus no daily), and among the daily exposed participants (10,323 men and 13,318 women), the frequency of stressful exposure (often versus rarely). Dependent variables were: chronic alcohol consumption (42(28) drinks per week in men(women)), heavy episodic drinking (never, at most once a month, more than once a month), alcohol use risk with Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (mild, dangerous, problematic or dependence), tobacco use (non-smoker, former smoker, 1-9, 10-19, >19 cigarettes per day) and cannabis use (never, not in past year, less than once a month, once a month or more). Logistic regressions provided odds ratios of substance use, stratifying for gender and adjusting for sociodemographic confounders, depression, effort-reward imbalance and perceived health status. Exposed men had higher risks of alcohol (chronic alcohol consumption, heavy episodic drinking and alcohol use risk), tobacco and cannabis use. Exposed women had higher risks of tobacco and cannabis use. In men, stressful exposure was associated with increased risks of heavy episodic drinking, tobacco and cannabis use. In women, stressful exposure was associated with increased risks of chronic alcohol consumption, alcohol use risk, tobacco and cannabis use. All these findings remained significant in multivariable analyses, taking into account sociodemographic variables, depressive symptoms, perceived health status and effort-reward imbalance. Interventions to reduce emotional job demand should systematically integrate assessment and prevention measures of addictive behaviors. Vulnerable workers may be offered more specific interventions to
Viacava, Keitiline R; Weydmann, Gibson J; de Vasconcelos, Mailton F; Jaboinski, Juliana; Batista, Graziele D; de Almeida, Rosa Maria M; Bizarro, Lisiane
The tactical use of visuoperceptual content in marketing may encourage impulsive consumption of unhealthy products. In this study, the application of visuoperceptual content was compared in advertisements used by industries of tobacco, alcohol and food. The aim was to ascertain whether similarities exist in the strategies used as variables for the selection of commercial stimuli, such as color, position and size. Scion Image and Corel Draw Graphics Suite software were used to analyze the content of a non-probabilistic sample of advertising images (N = 150). Differences were identified in the use of the colors green (p = 0.04) and red (p = 0.01), but not in the use of the color blue (p = 0.64), suggesting that induction of feelings of pleasantness resulting from the use of the color blue may be associated with the advertising in the alcohol and tobacco industries. Regarding the position of the commercial stimuli, a predominance of the use of quadrants 'C' (p = 0.00) and 'D' (p = 0.01) was found in all three industries, indicating a similar use of areas perceived as being 'heavier'. As to the size, 78% of advertisements placed the commercial stimuli within a range of 0-25% of the total image. The results showed some similarities in the use of visuoperceptual content in advertisements for tobacco, alcohol and food, especially between tobacco and alcohol. The article offers a convergence analysis of these three industries altogether, providing additional subsidies for the formulation of protection policies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Attwood, Angela S.; Munafò, Marcus R.
The negative consequences of chronic alcohol abuse are well known, but heavy episodic consumption ("binge drinking") is also associated with significant personal and societal harms. Aggressive tendencies are increased after alcohol but the mechanisms underlying these changes are not fully understood. While effects on behavioural control are likely to be important, other effects may be involved given the widespread action of alcohol. Altered processing of social signals is associated with changes in social behaviours, including aggression, but until recently there has been little research investigating the effects of acute alcohol consumption on these outcomes. Recent work investigating the effects of acute alcohol on emotional face processing has suggested reduced sensitivity to submissive signals (sad faces) and increased perceptual bias towards provocative signals (angry faces) after alcohol consumption, which may play a role in alcohol-related aggression. Here we discuss a putative mechanism that may explain how alcohol consumption influences emotional processing and subsequent aggressive responding, via disruption of OFC-amygdala connectivity. While the importance of emotional processing on social behaviours is well established, research into acute alcohol consumption and emotional processing is still in its infancy. Further research is needed and we outline a research agenda to address gaps in the literature. PMID:24920135
Griffin, Christine; Lyons, Antonia
The high level of alcohol consumption amongst young people in countries with more liberal alcohol policies has been a focus of public health concern for some time. Many young adults regularly engage in heavy drinking episodes with groups of friends to ‘have fun’ and ‘be sociable’. More recently, this population has increased their use of new mobile and digital technologies (such as smartphones), and social networking Internet sites (such as Facebook and YouTube). Major alcohol companies are n...
Marczinski, Cecile A.
Consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has been associated with both short and long-term risks beyond those observed with alcohol alone. AmED use has been associated with heavy episodic (binge) drinking, risky behaviors, and risk of alcohol dependence. Laboratory research has demonstrated that AmED beverages lead to greater motivation to drink versus the same amount of alcohol consumed alone. However, the reason consumers find AmED beverages particularly appealing has been unclear. A recent report by Droste and colleagues (2014) is the first study to investigate motivations related to AmED consumption and to determine which motives predict AmED consumption patterns, experience of drinking-related harms, and risk of alcohol dependence. The findings of this study significantly enhance our understanding of why AmED consumption is related to the risk of alcohol dependence and change our understanding of why consumers chose AmED beverages. The authors report that hedonistic motives strongly predicted AmED use and the harms associated with use. While intoxication-reduction motives predicted self-reported accidents and injuries, these motives did not predict AmED consumption patterns and risk of dependence. The risk of alcohol dependence may arise from repeated experiences when drinking alcohol is more pleasurable when energy drinks are consumed with the alcohol. This commentary will focus on why energy drinks might increase the rewarding properties of alcohol in social drinkers. In addition, discussion is provided explaining why more research on the neurotransmitter, adenosine, may actually inform us about the mechanisms contributing to the development of alcohol dependence. PMID:25040590
Harris Sion K
Full Text Available Abstract Background Heavy alcohol use among U.S. college students is a major contributor to young adult morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to examine whether college alcohol policy enforcement levels predict changes in student drinking and related behaviors in a state system of public colleges and universities, following a system-wide change to a stricter policy. Methods Students and administrators at 11 Massachusetts public colleges/universities completed surveys in 1999 (N of students = 1252, one year after the policy change, and again in 2001 (N = 1074. We calculated policy enforcement scores for each school based on the reports of deans of students, campus security chiefs, and students, and examined the correlations between perceived enforcement levels and the change in student drinking rates over the subsequent two year period, after weighting the 2001 data to adjust for demographic changes in the student body. Results Overall rates of any past-30-days drinking, heavy episodic drinking, and usual heavy drinking among past-30-days drinkers were all lower in 2001 compared to 1999. School-level analyses (N = 11 found deans' baseline reports of stricter enforcement were strongly correlated with subsequent declines in heavy episodic drinking (Pearson's r = -0.73, p = 0.011. Moreover, consistently high enforcement levels across time, as reported by deans, were associated with greater declines in heavy episodic drinking. Such relationships were not found for students' and security chiefs' reports of enforcement. Marijuana use did not rise during this period of decline in heavy drinking. Conclusions Study findings suggest that stronger enforcement of a stricter alcohol policy may be associated with reductions in student heavy drinking rates over time. An aggressive enforcement stance by deans may be an important element of an effective college alcohol policy.
Full Text Available Glutamate signaling in the brain is one of the most studied targets in the alcohol research field. Here, we report the current understanding of how the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, its receptors, and its transporters are involved in low, episodic, and heavy alcohol use. Specific animal behavior protocols can be used to assess these different drinking levels, including two-bottle choice, operant self-administration, drinking in the dark, the alcohol deprivation effect, intermittent access to alcohol, and chronic intermittent ethanol vapor inhalation. Importantly, these methods are not limited to a specific category, since they can be interchanged to assess different states in the development from low to heavy drinking. We encourage a circuit-based perspective beyond the classic mesolimbic-centric view, as multiple structures are dynamically engaged during the transition from positive- to negative-related reinforcement to drive alcohol drinking. During this shift from lower-level alcohol drinking to heavy alcohol use, there appears to be a shift from metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent behaviors to N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-related processes. Despite high efficacy of the glutamate-related pharmaceutical acamprosate in animal models of drinking, it is ineffective as treatment in the clinic. Therefore, research needs to focus on other promising glutamatergic compounds to reduce heavy drinking or mediate withdrawal symptoms or both.
Scribner, Richard; Ackleh, Azmy S; Fitzpatrick, Ben G; Jacquez, Geoffrey; Thibodeaux, Jeremy J; Rommel, Robert; Simonsen, Neal
The misuse and abuse of alcohol among college students remain persistent problems. Using a systems approach to understand the dynamics of student drinking behavior and thus forecasting the impact of campus policy to address the problem represents a novel approach. Toward this end, the successful development of a predictive mathematical model of college drinking would represent a significant advance for prevention efforts. A deterministic, compartmental model of college drinking was developed, incorporating three processes: (1) individual factors, (2) social interactions, and (3) social norms. The model quantifies these processes in terms of the movement of students between drinking compartments characterized by five styles of college drinking: abstainers, light drinkers, moderate drinkers, problem drinkers, and heavy episodic drinkers. Predictions from the model were first compared with actual campus-level data and then used to predict the effects of several simulated interventions to address heavy episodic drinking. First, the model provides a reasonable fit of actual drinking styles of students attending Social Norms Marketing Research Project campuses varying by "wetness" and by drinking styles of matriculating students. Second, the model predicts that a combination of simulated interventions targeting heavy episodic drinkers at a moderately "dry" campus would extinguish heavy episodic drinkers, replacing them with light and moderate drinkers. Instituting the same combination of simulated interventions at a moderately "wet" campus would result in only a moderate reduction in heavy episodic drinkers (i.e., 50% to 35%). A simple, five-state compartmental model adequately predicted the actual drinking patterns of students from a variety of campuses surveyed in the Social Norms Marketing Research Project study. The model predicted the impact on drinking patterns of several simulated interventions to address heavy episodic drinking on various types of campuses.
Scribner, Richard; Ackleh, Azmy S.; Fitzpatrick, Ben G.; Jacquez, Geoffrey; Thibodeaux, Jeremy J.; Rommel, Robert; Simonsen, Neal
Objective: The misuse and abuse of alcohol among college students remain persistent problems. Using a systems approach to understand the dynamics of student drinking behavior and thus forecasting the impact of campus policy to address the problem represents a novel approach. Toward this end, the successful development of a predictive mathematical model of college drinking would represent a significant advance for prevention efforts. Method: A deterministic, compartmental model of college drinking was developed, incorporating three processes: (1) individual factors, (2) social interactions, and (3) social norms. The model quantifies these processes in terms of the movement of students between drinking compartments characterized by five styles of college drinking: abstainers, light drinkers, moderate drinkers, problem drinkers, and heavy episodic drinkers. Predictions from the model were first compared with actual campus-level data and then used to predict the effects of several simulated interventions to address heavy episodic drinking. Results: First, the model provides a reasonable fit of actual drinking styles of students attending Social Norms Marketing Research Project campuses varying by “wetness” and by drinking styles of matriculating students. Second, the model predicts that a combination of simulated interventions targeting heavy episodic drinkers at a moderately “dry” campus would extinguish heavy episodic drinkers, replacing them with light and moderate drinkers. Instituting the same combination of simulated interventions at a moderately “wet” campus would result in only a moderate reduction in heavy episodic drinkers (i.e., 50% to 35%). Conclusions: A simple, five-state compartmental model adequately predicted the actual drinking patterns of students from a variety of campuses surveyed in the Social Norms Marketing Research Project study. The model predicted the impact on drinking patterns of several simulated interventions to address heavy
Full Text Available Background/Aims: Heavy ethanol consumption is a risk factor for hypertension and prompts organ damage. There is no information regarding the impact of long-term heavy ethanol consumption on kidney structure and function linking to their hypertensive effects nor the repercussions after withdrawal. Methods: Rats were exposed to ethanol for 24 weeks and, afterwards, a group was assigned to withdrawal for 8 weeks. Blood pressure (BP was measured and serum biochemical parameters were quantified. Glomerular volume density, areal density of glomerular tuft and renal corpuscles were determined. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R protein expression was evaluated. Results: Twenty-four weeks of ethanol consumption causes atrophy of renal corpuscles and glomeruli and reduces the volume of glomeruli. Glomerular changes induced by ethanol consumption were still evident after withdrawal. Renal AT1R levels were increased in ethanol-treated rats and returned to control levels during withdrawal. Ethanol consumption also induced an increase in BP, uric acid and albumin levels. Upon withdrawal, systolic and mean arterial pressures decreased, but were still higher than in controls rats. Conclusion: Ethanol consumption induces changes in glomerular morphology associated with increased BP and AT1R expression. Long-term withdrawal was inefficient to restore the structural integrity of renal corpuscles and in lowering systolic pressure.
Tolstrup, J.S.; Rasmussen, S.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.
Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. By genotyping 9,080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow versus fast alcohol...... degradation drank approximately 30% more alcohol per week and had a higher risk of everyday and heavy drinking, and of alcoholism. Individuals with ADH1C slow versus fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy drinking Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8/25...
Barsties, Lisa S.; Walsh, Sophie D.; Huijts, Tim
and proportions of heavy episodic drinkers (HED) are associated with immigrant adolescents’ alcohol consumption. Design and Methods: We used cross-sectional survey data from the 2013/2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. Applying multilevel regression analyses, we investigated the lifetime......Introduction and Aims: This internationally comparative study examines differences in alcohol consumption between first- and second-generation immigrant and native adolescents. We also investigate to what extent origin and receiving country alcohol per capita consumption (APCC) rates...... frequency of alcohol use and drunkenness in 69 842 13- to 15-year-olds in 23 receiving countries, with immigrants from over 130 origin countries (82% natives, 6% first-generation immigrants and 12% second-generation immigrants). Results: The lifetime frequency of alcohol use was higher among natives than...
Choi, Hye Jeong; Elmquist, JoAnna; Shorey, Ryan C; Rothman, Emily F; Stuart, Gregory L; Temple, Jeff R
Alcohol use is one of the most widely accepted and studied risk factors for teen dating violence (TDV). Too little research has explored longitudinally if it is true that an adolescent's alcohol use and TDV involvement simultaneously occur. In the current study, we examined whether there were latent status based on past-year TDV and alcohol use and whether female adolescents changed their statuses of TDV and alcohol use over time. The sample consisted of 583 female youths in seven public high schools in Texas. Three waves of longitudinal data collected from 2011 to 2013 were utilised in this study. Participants completed self-report assessments of alcohol use (past-year alcohol use, number of drinks in the past month and episodic heavy drinking within the past month) and psychological and physical TDV victimisation and perpetration. Latent transition analysis was used to examine if the latent status based on TDV and alcohol use changed over time. Five separate latent statuses were identified: (i) no violence, no alcohol; (ii) alcohol; (iii) psychological violence, no alcohol; (iv) psychological violence, alcohol; and (v) physical and psychological violence, alcohol. Latent transition analysis indicated that adolescents generally remained in the same subgroup across time. This study provides evidence on the co-occurrence of alcohol use and teen dating violence, and whether teens' status based on dating violence and alcohol use are stable over time. Findings from the current study highlight the importance of targeting both TDV and substance use in intervention and prevention programs. [Choi HJ, Elmquist J, Shorey RC, Rothman EF, Stuart GL,Temple JR. Stability of alcohol use and teen dating violence for female youth: Alatent transition analysis. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:80-87]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Nesi, Jacqueline; Rothenberg, W Andrew; Hussong, Andrea M; Jackson, Kristina M
Adolescents' increased use of social networking sites (SNS) coincides with a developmental period of heightened risk for alcohol use initiation. However, little is known regarding associations between adolescents' SNS use and drinking initiation nor the mechanisms of this association. This study examined longitudinal associations among adolescents' exposure to friends' alcohol-related SNS postings, alcohol-favorable peer injunctive norms, and initiation of drinking behaviors. Participants were 658 high-school students who reported on posting of alcohol-related SNS content by self and friends, alcohol-related injunctive norms, and other developmental risk factors for alcohol use at two time points, 1 year apart. Participants also reported on initiation of three drinking behaviors: consuming a full drink, becoming drunk, and heavy episodic drinking (three or more drinks per occasion). Probit regression analyses were used to predict initiation of drinking behaviors from exposure to alcohol-related SNS content. Path analyses examined mediation of this association by peer injunctive norms. Exposure to friends' alcohol-related SNS content predicted adolescents' initiation of drinking and heavy episodic drinking 1 year later, controlling for demographic and known developmental risk factors for alcohol use (i.e., parental monitoring and peer orientation). In addition, alcohol-favorable peer injunctive norms statistically mediated the relationship between alcohol-related SNS exposure and each drinking milestone. Results suggest that social media plays a unique role in contributing to peer influence processes surrounding alcohol use and highlight the need for future investigative and preventive efforts to account for adolescents' changing social environments. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur; Frederiksen, M.E.; Thygesen, L.C.
significant higher incidence rates than would be expected in a standard population were observed for cardiovascular diseases (e.g., ischemic heart diseases, men: SIR = 1.76; 95% CI 1.69-1.83; women: SIR = 2.44; 95% CI 2.19-2.73) and cerebrovascular diseases (e.g., hemorrhagic stroke, men: SIR = 2.71; 95% CI 2...... rates of cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases than the population in general. METHODS: The cohort comprised 19,185 subjects (15,368 men and 3,817 women) who attended outpatient clinics for alcohol abusers within the Copenhagen Hospital Corporation (1954 to 1992). Incidence rates were standardized (SIR......) according to sex, age and calendar time to compare subjects' cardio- and cerebrovascular incidence with that of the general population of Copenhagen. RESULTS: During the period 1977 to 2001 a total of 9,397 events of cardio- and cerebrovascular disease were observed. In both men and women, statistically...
Van Reen, Eliza; Roane, Brandy M; Barker, David H; McGeary, John E; Borsari, Brian; Carskadon, Mary A
To examine whether differences exist in self-reported sleep patterns and self-reported alcohol use for first-semester college students who do or do not report drinking during the last 6 months (mo) of high school. Participants were 878 first-year college students. Students completed a survey in late May/early June about alcohol use and consequences, during the last 6 mo of high school; they later completed a daily record of sleep behavior and alcohol use across the first 9 weeks of the first semester of college. High school drinking status (past 6 mo) was classified as positive (HS-6 mo+) or negative (HS-6mo-) based on any indication of drinking on the May/June survey. Collegiate drinking was determined from first-semester daily diary alcohol reports as non-drinkers (0 reported drinks), drinkers (one or fewer heavy episodic drinking episodes (HED)), and drinkers reporting more than one HED episode. Sleep patterns were compared for non-drinkers, drinkers, and HED with no high school drinking history (HS-6mo-/HED). In addition, a separate analysis compared sleep patterns for college HED with (HS-6mo+/HED) and without (HS-6mo-/HED) high school self-reported alcohol use. Increased alcohol consumption in the first semester of college was associated with later bedtimes and rise times. We found no association of high school alcohol use and sleep in those with collegiate HED. Later sleep timing in those with greater alcohol use, supports a connection between sleep patterns and alcohol use. Such an early appearance of this connection may herald the development of alcohol use disorder in some individuals. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol misuse is a key factor underlying the remarkable vulnerability to HIV infection among men and women in sub-Saharan Africa, especially within urban settings. Its effects, however, vary by type of drinking, population group and are modified by socio-cultural co-factors. Methods We interviewed a random sample of 1465 men living in single-sex hostels and 1008 women in adjacent informal settlements in inner-city, Johannesburg, South Africa. Being drunk in the past week was used as an indicator of heavy episodic drinking, and frequency of drinking and number of alcohol units/week used as measures of volume. Associations between dimensions of alcohol use (current drinking, volume of alcohol consumed and heavy episodic drinking patterns and sexual behaviours were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Results Most participants were internal migrants from KwaZulu Natal province. About half of men were current drinkers, as were 13% of women. Of current male drinkers, 18% drank daily and 23% were drunk in the past week (women: 14% and 29% respectively. Among men, associations between heavy episodic drinking and sexual behaviour were especially pronounced. Compared with non-drinkers, episodic ones were 2.6 fold more likely to have transactional sex (95%CI = 1.7–4.1 and 2.2 fold more likely to have a concurrent partner (95%CI = 1.5–3.2. Alcohol use in men, regardless of measure, was strongly associated with having used physical force to have sex. Overall effects of alcohol on sexual behaviour were larger in women than men, and associations were detected between all alcohol measures in women, and concurrency, transactional sex and having been forced to have sex. Conclusions Alcohol use and sexual behaviours are strongly linked among male and female migrant populations in inner-city Johannesburg. More rigorous interventions at both local and macro level are needed to alleviate alcohol harms and mitigate the alcohol
... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... the liver, brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the ...
Miranda, Robert; MacKillop, James; Treloar, Hayley; Blanchard, Alexander; Tidey, Jennifer W; Swift, Robert M; Chun, Thomas; Rohsenow, Damaris J; Monti, Peter M
Topiramate reduces drinking, but little is known about the mechanisms that precipitate this effect. This double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study assessed the putative mechanisms by which topiramate reduces alcohol use among 96 adult non-treatment-seeking heavy drinkers in a laboratory-based alcohol cue reactivity assessment and in the natural environment using ecological momentary assessment methods. Topiramate reduced the quantity of alcohol heavy drinkers consumed on drinking days and reduced craving while participants were drinking but did not affect craving outside of drinking episodes in either the laboratory or in the natural environment. Topiramate did not alter the stimulant or sedative effects of alcohol ingestion during the ascending limb of the blood alcohol curve. A direct test of putative mechanisms of action using multilevel structural equation mediation models showed that topiramate reduced drinking indirectly by blunting alcohol-induced craving. These findings provide the first real-time prospective evidence that topiramate reduces drinking by reducing alcohol's priming effects on craving and highlight the importance of craving as an important treatment target of pharmacotherapy for alcoholism. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Milletich, Robert J; Linden, Ashley N
Growing evidence suggests that the consumption of caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CAB) may be riskier than alcohol alone. Efforts to identify patterns of CAB use and the correlates of such drinking patterns could further our conceptualization of and intervention for this health issue. Consequently, the current study aimed to (1) identify distinct classes of CAB users, (2) examine differences between classes on measures of alcohol and caffeine problems, and (3) compare distinct classes of CAB users on caffeine and alcohol outcome expectancies. Participants were 583 (31% men) undergraduate students from a psychology research pool. Latent profile analysis models were derived using four indicators: CAB use quantity, CAB use frequency, alcohol use quantity, and alcohol use frequency. Finding revealed four classes of drinkers: High Alcohol/High CAB (6.00%), High Alcohol/Moderate CAB (5.15%), High Alcohol/Low CAB (22.99%), and Low Alcohol/Low CAB (65.87%). The Low Alcohol/Low CAB class reported the lowest relative levels of caffeine dependence symptoms, caffeine withdrawal, alcohol use problems, and heavy episodic drinking frequency. Further, results indicated differential expectancy endorsement based on use profiles. CAB users in the High Alcohol/Low CAB class endorsed more positive alcohol expectancies than the Low Alcohol/Low CAB group. Those in the High Alcohol/High CAB class endorsed stronger withdrawal symptom caffeine expectancies than all other classes. Inclusion of substance-specific expectancies into larger theoretical frameworks in future work of CAB use may be beneficial. Findings may inform intervention efforts for those at greatest risk related to CAB consumption. © 2013.
Jacobus, Joanna; Castro, Norma; Squeglia, Lindsay M; Meloy, M J; Brumback, Ty; Huestis, Marilyn A; Tapert, Susan F
Cortical thickness abnormalities have been identified in youth using both alcohol and marijuana. However, limited studies have followed individuals pre- and post initiation of alcohol and marijuana use to help identify to what extent discrepancies in structural brain integrity are pre-existing or substance-related. Adolescents (N=69) were followed from ages 13 (pre-initiation of substance use, baseline) to ages 19 (post-initiation, follow-up). Three subgroups were identified, participants that initiated alcohol use (ALC, n=23, >20 alcohol use episodes), those that initiated both alcohol and marijuana use (ALC+MJ, n=23, >50 marijuana use episodes) and individuals that did not initiate either substance regularly by follow-up (CON, n=23, marijuana use episodes). All adolescents underwent neurocognitive testing, neuroimaging, and substance use and mental health interviews. Significant group by time interactions and main effects on cortical thickness estimates were identified for 18 cortical regions spanning the left and right hemisphere (pseffect, in cortical thickness by follow-up for individuals who have not initiated regular substance use or alcohol use only by age 19; modest between-group differences were identified at baseline in several cortical regions (ALC and CON>ALC+MJ). Minimal neurocognitive differences were observed in this sample. Findings suggest pre-existing neural differences prior to marijuana use may contribute to initiation of use and observed neural outcomes. Marijuana use may also interfere with thinning trajectories that contribute to morphological differences in young adulthood that are often observed in cross-sectional studies of heavy marijuana users. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fairbairn, Catharine E; Bresin, Konrad; Kang, Dahyeon; Rosen, I Gary; Ariss, Talia; Luczak, Susan E; Barnett, Nancy P; Eckland, Nathaniel S
Regular alcohol consumption in unfamiliar social settings has been linked to problematic drinking. A large body of indirect evidence has accumulated to suggest that alcohol's rewarding emotional effects-both negative-mood relieving and positive-mood enhancing-will be magnified when alcohol is consumed within unfamiliar versus familiar social contexts. But empirical research has never directly examined links between contextual familiarity and alcohol reward. In the current study, we mobilized novel ambulatory technology to examine the effect of social familiarity on alcohol reward in everyday drinking contexts while also examining how alcohol reward observed in these field contexts corresponds to reward observed in the laboratory. Heavy social drinking participants (N = 48, 50% male) engaged in an intensive week of ambulatory assessment. Participants wore transdermal alcohol sensors while they reported on their mood and took photographs of their social contexts in response to random prompts. Participants also attended 2 laboratory beverage-administration sessions, during which their emotional responses were assessed and transdermal sensors were calibrated to estimate breathalyzer readings (eBrACs). Results indicated a significant interaction between social familiarity and alcohol episode in everyday drinking settings, with alcohol enhancing mood to a greater extent in relatively unfamiliar versus familiar social contexts. Findings also indicated that drinking in relatively unfamiliar social settings was associated with higher eBrACs. Finally, results indicated a correspondence between some mood effects of alcohol experienced inside and outside the laboratory. This study presents a novel methodology for examining alcohol reward and indicates social familiarity as a promising direction for research seeking to explain problematic drinking. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Rees Helen V
Full Text Available Abstract Sub-Saharan Africa carries a massive dual burden of HIV and alcohol disease, and these pandemics are inextricably linked. Physiological and behavioural research indicates that alcohol independently affects decision-making concerning sex, and skills for negotiating condoms and their correct use. More than 20 studies in Africa have reported higher occurrence of HIV among people with problem drinking; a finding strongly consistent across studies and similar among women and men. Conflation of HIV and alcohol disease in these setting is not surprising given patterns of heavy-episodic drinking and that drinking contexts are often coterminous with opportunities for sexual encounters. HIV and alcohol also share common ground with sexual violence. Both perpetrators and victims of sexual violence have a high likelihood of having drunk alcohol prior to the incident, as with most forms of violence and injury in sub-Saharan Africa. Reducing alcohol harms necessitates multi-level interventions and should be considered a key component of structural interventions to alleviate the burden of HIV and sexual violence. Brief interventions for people with problem drinking (an important component of primary health care, must incorporate specific discussion of links between alcohol and unsafe sex, and consequences thereof. Interventions to reduce alcohol harm among HIV-infected persons are also an important element in positive-prevention initiatives. Most importantly, implementation of known effective interventions could alleviate a large portion of the alcohol-attributable burden of disease, including its effects on unsafe sex, unintended pregnancy and HIV transmission.
Fortin, Marilyn; Bélanger, Richard E; Boucher, Olivier; Muckle, Gina
Alcohol and drug use is a serious health problem for many indigenous populations across Canada, including Inuit. The literature on substance use in these populations is too sparse to devise public health interventions. The present article portrays alcohol and drug use among Inuit living in Nunavik (Northern Quebec) between the 1990s and 2000s, and identifies socio-demographic characteristics related to substance use. The Santé Québec Health Survey (1992) and the Nunavik Inuit Health Survey Qanuippitaa (2004) served as databases for this empirical work. Statistical comparisons were made of substance use variables in the 2 samples. Proportions were compared by chi-square tests (p≤0.05) with benchmarking of statistics for all of Quebec and, when available, all of Canada. Alcohol and drug use among Inuit increased significantly between 1992 and 2004, particularly among young adults. Alcohol users consumed significantly more alcohol per drinking episode than other Canadians in both time periods. Considerable cannabis use was widespread. In 2004, no significant differences in frequencies of heavy drinking episodes were observed by gender, with 60% of drug users consuming alcohol on a regular basis. As in other populations from North America, this study profiles the increase in substance use among Inuit from Nunavik in the first part of the last 20 years. We observed distinct substance use patterns among them in comparison to other Canadians. Such findings, if replicated in the coming years, emphasize the need for major, culturally-relevant public health interventions in this population.
Alcohol abusers have a threefold increased risk of post-operative morbidity after surgery. The most frequent complications are infections, cardiopulmonary insufficiency, and bleeding episodes. Pathogenesis is suppressed immune capacity, subclinical cardiac dysfunction, and haemostatic imbalance...
... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... 466 KB] No. 81: Exploring Treatment Options for Alcohol Use Disorders [ PDF - 539K] No. 80: Alcohol and HIV/AIDS: ...
Antabuse treatment has mostly been applied to alcohol dependent patients although the heavy users of alcohol are responsible for the major parts of alcohol related problems in our societies. The heavy users of alcohol should be identified both by the general practitioners and the hospital doctors...... in any field and the first intervention should be a health interview connected with a biological monitoring of alcohol damages and thereby many patients would be motivated for moderate drinking. If this is not the case, heavy users should be encouraged to a 6 or better a 12 months supervised treatment...... with Antabuse. This treatment has especially been effective in employees with work-related alcohol problems....
Crooke, Alexander H D; Reid, Sophie C; Kauer, Sylvia D; McKenzie, Dean P; Hearps, Stephen J C; Khor, Angela S; Forbes, Andrew B
Alcohol use during adolescence is associated with the onset of alcohol use disorders, mental health disorders, substance abuse as well as socially and physically damaging behaviours, the effects of which last well into adulthood. Nevertheless, alcohol use remains prevalent in this population. Understanding motivations behind adolescent alcohol consumption may help in developing more appropriate and effective interventions. This study aims to increase this understanding by exploring the temporal relationship between mood and different levels of alcohol intake in a sample of young people. Forty-one secondary school students used a purpose-designed mobile phone application to monitor their daily mood and alcohol use for 20 random days within a 31 day period. Generalised estimating equations were used to examine the relationship between differing levels of alcohol consumption (light, intermediate and heavy) and positive and negative mood three days before and after drinking episodes. While there was no relationship between light and heavy drinking and positive mood, there was an increase in positive mood before and after the drinking event for those that drank intermediate amounts. No statistically significant relationships were found between negative mood and any of the three drinking categories. Adolescents who drank in intermediate amounts on a single drinking occasion experienced an increase in positive mood over the three days leading up to and three days following a drinking event. These findings contribute to an understanding of the motivations that underpin adolescent alcohol use, which may help inform future interventions. © 2013 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Lown, E Anne; Nayak, Madhabika B; Korcha, Rachael A; Greenfield, Thomas K
Previous research has documented a relationship between child sexual abuse and alcohol dependence. This paper extends that work by providing a comprehensive description of past year and lifetime alcohol consumption patterns, consequences, and dependence among women reporting either physical and sexual abuse in a national sample. This study used survey data from 3,680 women who participated in the 2005 U.S. National Alcohol Survey. Information on physical and sexual child abuse and its characteristics were assessed in relation to 8 past year and lifetime alcohol consumption measures. Child physical or sexual abuse was significantly associated with past year and lifetime alcohol consumption measures. In multivariate analyses, controlling for age, marital status, employment status, education, ethnicity, and parental alcoholism or problem drinking, women reporting child sexual abuse vs. no abuse were more likely to report past year heavy episodic drinking (OR(adj) = 1.7; 95% CI 1.0 to 2.9), alcohol dependence (OR(adj) = 7.2; 95% CI 3.2 to 16.5), and alcohol consequences (OR(adj) = 3.6; 95% CI 1.8 to 7.3). Sexual abuse (vs. no abuse) was associated with a greater number of past year drinks (124 vs. 74 drinks, respectively, p = 0.002). Sexual child abuse was also associated with lifetime alcohol-related consequences (OR(adj) = 3.5; 95% CI 2.6 to 4.8) and dependence (OR(adj) = 3.7; 95% CI 2.6 to 5.3). Physical child abuse was associated with 4 of 8 alcohol measures in multivariate models. Both physical and sexual child abuse were associated with getting into fights, health, legal, work, and family alcohol-related consequences. Alcohol-related consequences and dependence were more common for women reporting sexual abuse compared to physical abuse, 2 or more physical abuse perpetrators, nonparental and nonfamily physical abuse perpetrators, and women reporting injury related to the abuse. Both child physical and sexual abuse were associated with many alcohol outcomes in
Maggs, Jennifer L; Williams, Lela Rankin; Lee, Christine M
Given the dynamic fluctuating nature of alcohol use among emerging adults (Del Boca, Darkes, Greenbaum, & Goldman, 2004), patterns of alcohol use were modeled across 70 days in an intensive repeated-measures diary design. Two hundred first-year college students provided 10 weekly reports of their daily alcohol consumption via computer-assisted telephone interviews. Multi-level models demonstrated large within-person variability across days in drinks consumed, binge drinking, and days exceeding self-reported limits for stumbling around and passing out; these outcome variables were predicted by weekdays vs. weekend days (within-person) and gender, age of drinking initiation, fraternity/sorority membership, and alcohol motivations (between-persons). Repeated measurement of alternate indicators of alcohol use permits the examination of novel and important questions about alcohol use and abuse particularly in young adult and other erratically drinking populations. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lowe, Eden; Britton, John; Cranwell, Jo
Aim: To quantify the occurrence of alcohol content, including alcohol branding, in the popular primetime television UK Reality TV show 'Geordie Shore' Series 11. \\ud \\ud Methods: A 1-min interval coding content analysis of alcohol content in the entire DVD Series 11 of 'Geordie Shore' (10 episodes). Occurrence of alcohol use, implied use, other alcohol reference/paraphernalia or branding was recorded. \\ud \\ud Results: All categories of alcohol were present in all episodes. 'Any alcohol' conte...
Roberts, Sarah P; Siegel, Michael B; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S; Jernigan, David H
A significant body of research has demonstrated an association between adolescent alcohol consumption and subsequent fights and injuries. To date, however, no research has identified which brands are associated with alcohol-related fights and injuries among underage drinkers. We aimed to: (1) report the prevalence of alcohol-related fights and injuries among a national sample of underage drinkers in the U.S. and (2) describe the relationship between specific alcohol brand consumption and these alcohol-related negative consequences. We recruited 1,031 self-reported drinkers (ages 13-20 years) via an internet panel maintained by Knowledge Networks to complete an online survey. Respondents reported their past-month overall and brand-specific alcohol consumption, risky drinking behavior, and past-year alcohol-related fights and injuries. Over one-quarter of the respondents (26.7%, N = 232) reported at least one alcohol-related fight or injury in the past year. Heavy episodic drinkers were over six times more likely to report one of these negative alcohol-related consequences (AOR: 6.4, 95% CI: 4.1-9.9). Respondents of black race and those from higher-income households were also significantly more likely to report that experience (AOR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3-3.7; AOR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-3.0 and 1.1-3.2, respectively). We identified eight alcohol brands that were significantly associated with alcohol-related fights and injuries. CONCLUSIONS/IMPORTANCE: Alcohol-related fights and injuries were frequently reported by adolescent respondents. Eight alcohol brands were significantly more popular among drinkers who experienced these adverse consequences. These results point to the need for further research on brand-specific correlates of underage drinking and negative health outcomes.
Ghetti, Simona; Lee, Joshua
Episodic memory develops during childhood and adolescence. This trajectory depends on several underlying processes. In this article, we first discuss the development of the basic binding processes (e.g., the processes by which elements are bound together to form a memory episode) and control processes (e.g., reasoning and metamemory processes) involved in episodic remembering. Then, we discuss the role of these processes in false-memory formation. In the subsequent sections, we examine the neural substrates of the development of episodic memory. Finally, we discuss atypical development of episodic memory. As we proceed through the article, we suggest potential avenues for future research. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 365-373 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.114 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Gilbertson, Rebecca J; Norton, Tina R; Beery, Susan H; Lee, Kassandra R
Commercially available, web-based interventions for the prevention of alcohol use are being adopted for universal use with first-year college students, yet few have received empirical evaluation. This randomized controlled trial investigated the effectiveness of a novel, commercially available, personalized web-based alcohol intervention, Alcohol-Wise (version 4.0, 3 rd Millennium Classrooms), on multiple measures of alcohol consumption, alcohol consequences, alcohol expectancies, academic achievement, and adaptation to college in first-year students. Participants received Alcohol-Wise either prior to first semester or were waitlisted and received the intervention second semester. As longitudinal effectiveness was of interest, follow-up surveys were conducted 10 weeks (n = 76) and 24 weeks (n = 64) following the web-based alcohol intervention. Completion of Alcohol-Wise had effects on academic achievement. Specifically, at the 24 week follow-up, academic achievement was higher in participants who received the intervention first semester of their freshman year as compared to the waitlist control. The incremental rise in heavy episodic drinking during the first semester of college was also reduced in waitlisted participants by Alcohol-Wise administration prior to second semester. Conclusion/Importance: Implications for the timing of web-based alcohol interventions to include administration prior to both first and second semesters of the freshman year are discussed.
Parents influence adolescent drinking behavior, but to what extent does this association diminish with age, however? The cross-sectional data was drawn from the Scania drug use survey 2007, consisting of 4,828 secondary education students in the 9th and 11th grade. The age- and gender-adjusted findings indicate that having parents who are consenting to alcohol use (OR 1.4), having been provided with alcohol by one's parents (OR 1.8), having parents with an authoritarian (OR 1.5) or neglectful (OR 2.1) parenting style, and having parents who both have a university degree (OR 1.3) were factors significantly associated with monthly heavy episodic drinking. These findings lead to the conclusion that parenting styles as well as parental attitudes and behaviors are important throughout the high school years. Thus, prevention targeting parents should emphasize both these domains. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Alcohol abusers have a threefold increased risk of post-operative morbidity after surgery. The most frequent complications are infections, cardiopulmonary insufficiency, and bleeding episodes. Pathogenesis is suppressed immune capacity, subclinical cardiac dysfunction, and haemostatic imbalance....... The economic implications of alcohol abuse in surgical patients are tremendous. Interventional studies are required to reduce future increases in post-operative morbidity....
Pendorf, James E.
Provides outline narrative of most possible outcomes of regular heavy alcohol use, regular alcohol abuse, or chronic alcoholism. A systems analysis approach is used to expose conditions that may result when a human organism is subjected to excessive and chronic alcohol consumption. Such an approach illustrates the detrimental effects which alcohol…
Nicholas W Gilpin
Full Text Available Heavy episodic drinking early in adolescence is associated with increased risk of addiction and other stress-related disorders later in life. This suggests that adolescent alcohol abuse is an early marker of innate vulnerability and/or binge exposure impacts the developing brain to increase vulnerability to these disorders in adulthood. Animal models are ideal for clarifying the relationship between adolescent and adult alcohol abuse, but we show that methods of involuntary alcohol exposure are not effective. We describe an operant model that uses multiple bouts of intermittent access to sweetened alcohol to elicit voluntary binge alcohol drinking early in adolescence (~postnatal days 28-42 in genetically heterogeneous male Wistar rats. We next examined the effects of adolescent binge drinking on alcohol drinking and anxiety-like behavior in dependent and non-dependent adult rats, and counted corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF cell in the lateral portion of the central amygdala (CeA, a region that contributes to regulation of anxiety- and alcohol-related behaviors. Adolescent binge drinking did not alter alcohol drinking under baseline drinking conditions in adulthood. However, alcohol-dependent and non-dependent adult rats with a history of adolescent alcohol binge drinking did exhibit increased alcohol drinking when access to alcohol was intermittent. Adult rats that binged alcohol during adolescence exhibited increased exploration on the open arms of the elevated plus maze (possibly indicating either decreased anxiety or increased impulsivity, an effect that was reversed by a history of alcohol dependence during adulthood. Finally, CRF cell counts were reduced in the lateral CeA of rats with adolescent alcohol binge history, suggesting semi-permanent changes in the limbic stress peptide system with this treatment. These data suggest that voluntary binge drinking during early adolescence produces long-lasting neural and behavioral effects
Palfai, T P; Cheng, D M; Coleman, S M; Bridden, C; Krupitsky, E; Samet, J H
Depressive symptoms have been linked to HIV progression through a number of biobehavioral mechanisms including increased alcohol use. Although research supports an association between alcohol use and depressive symptoms among HIV patients, there have been few studies that have examined whether depressive symptoms predict subsequent drinking, especially among heavy drinking HIV-infected patients. Heavy drinking Russian HIV-infected patients (n=700) were recruited from addiction and HIV care settings for a randomized controlled trial of a risk reduction intervention [HERMITAGE]. GEE overdispersed Poisson regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between depressive symptoms and alcohol consumption 6-months later. In adjusted analyses, depressive symptom severity was significantly associated with drinks per day (global p=.02). Compared to the non-depressed category, mild depressive symptoms were significantly associated with more drinks per day [IRR=1.55, (95% CI: 1.14, 2.09)], while moderate [IRR=1.14, (95% CI: 0.83, 1.56)] and severe [IRR=1.48, (95% CI: 0.93, 2.34)] depressive symptoms were not. Associations between depressive symptom severity and heavy drinking days were not statistically significant (global p=.19). Secondary analyses using the BDI-II screening threshold (BDI-II>14) and the BDI-II cognitive subscale suggested an association between depressive symptoms and drinks per day over time but not heavy episodic drinking. Among heavy drinking HIV-infected patients, elevated depressive symptoms were associated with greater subsequent alcohol use. These findings suggest that depressive symptoms may be important to address in efforts to reduce alcohol-related risks among HIV-infected populations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dougherty, Donald M; Lake, Sarah L; Hill-Kapturczak, Nathalie; Liang, Yuanyuan; Karns, Tara E; Mullen, Jillian; Roache, John D
Treatments for alcohol use disorders typically have been abstinence based, but harm reduction approaches that encourage drinkers to alter their drinking behavior to reduce the probability of alcohol-related consequences, have gained in popularity. This study used a contingency management procedure to determine its effectiveness in reducing alcohol consumption among heavy drinkers. Eighty-two nontreatment-seeking heavy drinkers (ages 21 to 54, M = 30.20) who did not meet diagnostic criteria for alcohol dependence participated in the study. The study had 3 phases: (i) an Observation phase (4 weeks) where participants drank normally; (ii) a Contingency Management phase (12 weeks) where participants were paid $50 weekly for not exceeding low levels of alcohol consumption as measured by transdermal alcohol concentrations, contingencies were removed. Transdermal alcohol monitors were used to verify meeting contingency requirements; all other analyses were conducted on self-reported alcohol use. On average 42.3% of participants met the contingency criteria and were paid an average of $222 during the Contingency Management phase, with an average $1,998 in total compensation throughout the study. Compared to the Observation phase, the percent of any self-reported drinking days significantly decreased from 59.9 to 40.0% in the Contingency Management and 32.0% in the Follow-up phases. The percent of self-reported heavy drinking days reported also significantly decreased from 42.4% in the Observation phase to 19.7% in the Contingency Management phase, which was accompanied by a significant increase in percent days of self-reported no (from 40.1 to 60.0%) and low-level drinking (from 9.9 to 15.4%). Self-reported reductions in drinking either persisted, or became more pronounced, during the Follow-up phase. Contingency management was associated with a reduction in self-reported episodes of heavy drinking among nontreatment-seeking heavy drinkers. These effects persisted even
... About Psychosis Treatment Share Fact Sheet: First Episode Psychosis Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy En Español Facts About Psychosis The word psychosis is used to describe conditions ...
Proctor, Dwayne C; Babor, Thomas F; Xuan, Ziming
This study examined how individual difference vulnerability factors affect college students' perceptions of beer commercial actors' age, attractiveness and drinking. We were also interested in whether viewers' exposure to a cautionary message would affect their perceptions of the actors' drinking behavior. Three groups of college students were exposed to the same set of two alcohol advertisements. After watching the ads, each group received a different cautionary message prior to answering questions about the ad's content: (1) a neutral message (viewed by 42% [n = 119] of the sample), (2) a U.S. federal warning (viewed by 31% [n = 89]) and (3) an industry message (viewed by 27% [n = 76]). We also examined three putative vulnerability factors: age (underage 21 or not), gender and family history of alcohol problems (yes or no) as well as the effects of quantity-frequency of alcohol consumption, episodic heavy drinking, severity of alcohol dependence, disinhibition sensation seeking and the eight factors of the Alcohol Expectancy Scale. The cautionary messages had no effect on viewers' perceptions of characters' age, attractiveness and drinking behavior. Although neither of the commercials depicted the physical act of drinking, the student raters nevertheless perceived the characters to be heavy episodic drinkers. Those reporting more alcohol dependence symptoms perceived increased drinking for the male characters, as did females and viewers with expectancies for social and physical pleasure. Perceptions of the drinking in beer commercials are based in part on the character depicted in the ad and in part on the demographic and personal vulnerability factors of the viewer.
Gomes de Matos, Elena; Kraus, Ludwig; Hannemann, Tessa-Virginia; Soellner, Renate; Piontek, Daniela
This study estimates cross-country variation in socioeconomic disparities in adolescent alcohol use and identifies country-level characteristics associated with these disparities. The association between socioeconomic status (family wealth and parental education) and alcohol use (lifetime use and episodic heavy drinking) of 15- to 16-year-olds from 32 European countries was investigated. Country-level characteristics were national income, income inequality and per capita alcohol consumption. Multilevel modelling was applied. Across countries, lifetime use was lower in wealthy than in less wealthy families (odds ratio [OR] (girls) = 0.95, OR (boys) = 0.94). The risk of episodic heavy drinking, in contrast, was higher for children from wealthier families (OR (girls) = 1.04, OR (boys) = 1.08) and lower when parents were highly educated (ORs = 0.95-0.98). Socioeconomic disparities varied substantially between countries. National wealth and income inequality were associated with cross-country variation of disparities in lifetime use in few comparisons, such that among girls, the (negative) effect of family wealth was greatest in countries with unequally distributed income (OR = 0.86). Among boys, the (negative) effect of family wealth was greatest in low-income countries (OR = 1.00), and the (positive) effect of mothers' education was greatest in countries with high income inequality (OR = 1.11). Socioeconomic disparities in adolescent alcohol use vary across European countries. Broad country-level indicators can explain this variation only to a limited extent, but results point towards slightly greater socioeconomic disparities in drinking in countries of low national income and countries with a high income inequality. [Gomes de Matos E, Kraus L, Hannemann T-V, Soellner R, Piontek D. Cross-cultural variation in the association between family's socioeconomic status and adolescent alcohol use. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and
Jernigan, David H; Babor, Thomas F
To describe the penetration and expansion of the global alcohol industry into the African region, as a context for exploring the implications for public health. Source materials for this study came primarily from market research and the business press. This was supplemented by industry sources (from websites, company annual reports), World Health Organization reports and the scientific literature. Drinking in Africa is characterized by high rates of abstention and a high prevalence of heavy episodic consumption among those who drink. Much of the region is currently experiencing a rapid rise in consumption. Rising populations and income and the rapid pace of urbanization make Africa very attractive to the global alcohol industry, and industry leaders have identified Africa as a key area for growth. The shift from collaboration to competition in Africa among the global alcohol companies has prompted increasing alcohol production, promotion, new product development, pricing schemes and stakeholder lobbying. Beer consumption has increased across most of the continent, and global brewers view themselves as legitimate players at the alcohol policy table. Weak alcohol policy environments may be compromised further in terms of public health protections by alcohol industry opposition to effective measures such as marketing regulations, availability controls and taxation. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Larsen, Tor K; Melle, Ingrid; Auestad, Bjørn
Abuse of alcohol and drugs is an important and clinically challenging aspect of first-episode psychosis. Only a few studies have been carried out on large-sized and reliably characterized samples. These are reviewed, and the results are compared with a sample of 300 first-episode psychosis patients...... recruited for the TIPS (Early Treatment and Identification of Psychosis) study from Norway and Denmark. Prevalence rates from the literature vary from 6% to 44% for drugs and 3% to 35% for alcohol. In our sample, 23% abused drugs and 15% abused alcohol during the last 6 months. When compared to non......-abusers, the drug-abusing group is characterized by the following: male gender, younger age, better premorbid social, poor premorbid academic functioning, and more contact with friends in the last year before onset. Alcohol abusers were the oldest group and they had the least contact with friends. A group...
Milman, N.; Pedersen, Agnes N.
The blood haemoglobin concentration is one of the most frequently used laboratory parameters in clinical practice. There is evidence that haemoglobin levels are influenced by tobacco smoking. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of smoking and alcohol consumption on haemoglobin.......001) and women (r = 0.08, p = 0.05). In non-smokers, alcohol consumption > 14 drinks/week and more than seven drinks/week for men and women, respectively, increased mean haemoglobin by 1.3% in men and by average 1.9% in women compared with those consuming a parts per thousand currency sign14 and less than...... small changes in haemoglobin do not justify the use of separate reference ranges in smokers and alcohol consumers....
Stickley, Andrew; Jukkala, Tanya; Norström, Thor
Previous research suggests that a strong relation exists between alcohol consumption and suicide in Soviet and post-Soviet Russia. This study extends this analysis across a much longer historical time frame by examining the relationship between heavy drinking and suicide in tsarist and post-World War II Russia. Using alcohol poisoning mortality data as a proxy for heavy drinking, time-series analytical modeling techniques were used to examine the strength of the alcohol-suicide relation in the provinces of European Russia in the period 1870-1894 and for Russia in 1956-2005. During 1870-1894, a decreasing trend was recorded in heavy drinking in Russia that contrasted with the sharp increase observed in this phenomenon in the post-World War II period. A rising trend in suicide was recorded in both study periods, although the increase was much greater in the latter period. The strength of the heavy drinking-suicide relation nevertheless remained unchanged across time, with a 10% increase in heavy drinking resulting in a 3.5% increase in suicide in tsarist Russia and a 3.8% increase in post-World War II Russia. Despite the innumerable societal changes that have occurred in Russia across the two study periods and the growth in the level of heavy drinking, the strength of the heavy drinking-suicide relation has remained unchanged across time. This suggests the continuation of a highly detrimental drinking culture where the heavy episodic drinking of distilled spirits (vodka) is an essential element in the alcohol-suicide association.
Parimal Chowdhury; Priya Gupta
Use of alcohol is a worldwide habit regardless of socioeconomic background. Heavy alcohol consumption is a potential risk factor for induction of pancreatitis. The current review cites the updated literature on the alcohol metabolism, its effects on gastrointestinal and pancreatic function and in causing pancreatic injury, genetic predisposition of alcohol induced pancreatitis. Reports describing prospective mechanisms of action of alcohol activating the signal transduction pathways, induction of oxidative stress parameters through the development of animal models are being presented.
Rambaldi, A; Todisco, N; Gluud, C
The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) and the response to a question about heavy alcohol consumption were used to assess the prevalence of alcohol problems in consecutive patients (77 males and 46 females) consulting a general practitioner in an urban area in the South of Italy (Castellam...... as a screening question in order to detect alcohol problems and give advice regarding reduction of alcohol consumption....
Full Text Available Alcohol consumption in adolescents causes negative effects on familiar, social, academic life, as well as neurocognitive alterations. The binge drinking (BD pattern of alcohol is characterized by the alternation of episodes of heavy drinking in a short interval of time, and periods of abstinence, a practice that can result in important brain alterations; even more than regular alcohol consumption. The prefrontal cortex, which acts as neural support for the executive processes, is particularly affected by alcohol; however, not all studies are in agreement about how BD alcohol consumption affects executive functioning. Some research has found that alcohol consumption in adolescence does not significantly affect executive functioning while others found it does. It is possible that these discrepancies could be due to the history of alcohol consumption, that is, at what age the subjects started drinking. The aim of our study is to assess the performance on executive functioning tasks of 13–19-year-old adolescents according to their pattern of alcohol consumption. We hypothesize that BD adolescents will perform worse than non-BD subjects in tasks that evaluate executive functions, and these differences will increase depending on how long they have been consuming alcohol. Three hundred and twenty-two students (48.14% females; age range 13–22 years; mean aged 16.7 ± 2.59 participated in the study; all of them had begun drinking at the age of 13 years. Participant were divided into three groups, according to their age range (13–15, 16–18, and 19–22 years and divided according to their pattern of alcohol consumption (BD and control groups. Then, the subjects were evaluated with neuropsychological tasks that assess executive functions like working memory, inhibition, cognitive flexibility, or self-control among others. The entire sample showed a normal improvement in their executive performance, but this improvement was more stable and robust in
with schizophrenia present clinically with psychotic, negative and cognitive ... changes in their emotions, cognition or behaviour which may indicate a ... contribute 80% to the risk of schizophrenia developing. A number of .... Positive symptoms ... Depression ... treatment of first episode schizophrenia is of critical importance.
Navarro, Héctor José; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Doran, Christopher M; Petrie, Dennis J
Approximately half of all alcohol-related crime is violent crime associated with heavy episodic drinking. Multi-component interventions are highly acceptable to communities and may be effective in reducing alcohol-related crime generally, but their impact on alcohol-related violent crime has not been examined. This study evaluated the impact and benefit-cost of a multi-component intervention (increasing community and liquor licensees' awareness, police activity, and feedback) on crimes typically associated with alcohol-related violence. The intervention was tailored to weekends identified as historically problematic in 10 experimental communities in NSW, Australia, relative to 10 control ones. There was no effect on alcohol-related assaults and a small, but statistically significant and cost-beneficial, effect on alcohol-related sexual assaults: a 64% reduction in in the experimental relative to control communities, equivalent to five fewer alcohol-related sexual assaults, with a net social benefit estimated as AUD$3,938,218. The positive benefit-cost ratio was primarily a function of the value that communities placed on reducing alcohol-related harm: the intervention would need to be more than twice as effective for its economic benefits to be comparable to its costs. It is most likely that greater reductions in crimes associated with alcohol-related violence would be achieved by a combination of complementary legislative and community-based interventions.
Navarro, Héctor José; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Doran, Christopher M.; Petrie, Dennis J.
Approximately half of all alcohol-related crime is violent crime associated with heavy episodic drinking. Multi-component interventions are highly acceptable to communities and may be effective in reducing alcohol-related crime generally, but their impact on alcohol-related violent crime has not been examined. This study evaluated the impact and benefit-cost of a multi-component intervention (increasing community and liquor licensees’ awareness, police activity, and feedback) on crimes typically associated with alcohol-related violence. The intervention was tailored to weekends identified as historically problematic in 10 experimental communities in NSW, Australia, relative to 10 control ones. There was no effect on alcohol-related assaults and a small, but statistically significant and cost-beneficial, effect on alcohol-related sexual assaults: a 64% reduction in in the experimental relative to control communities, equivalent to five fewer alcohol-related sexual assaults, with a net social benefit estimated as AUD$3,938,218. The positive benefit-cost ratio was primarily a function of the value that communities placed on reducing alcohol-related harm: the intervention would need to be more than twice as effective for its economic benefits to be comparable to its costs. It is most likely that greater reductions in crimes associated with alcohol-related violence would be achieved by a combination of complementary legislative and community-based interventions. PMID:24169411
Dennis J. Petrie
Full Text Available Approximately half of all alcohol-related crime is violent crime associated with heavy episodic drinking. Multi-component interventions are highly acceptable to communities and may be effective in reducing alcohol-related crime generally, but their impact on alcohol-related violent crime has not been examined. This study evaluated the impact and benefit-cost of a multi-component intervention (increasing community and liquor licensees’ awareness, police activity, and feedback on crimes typically associated with alcohol-related violence. The intervention was tailored to weekends identified as historically problematic in 10 experimental communities in NSW, Australia, relative to 10 control ones. There was no effect on alcohol-related assaults and a small, but statistically significant and cost-beneficial, effect on alcohol-related sexual assaults: a 64% reduction in in the experimental relative to control communities, equivalent to five fewer alcohol-related sexual assaults, with a net social benefit estimated as AUD$3,938,218. The positive benefit-cost ratio was primarily a function of the value that communities placed on reducing alcohol-related harm: the intervention would need to be more than twice as effective for its economic benefits to be comparable to its costs. It is most likely that greater reductions in crimes associated with alcohol-related violence would be achieved by a combination of complementary legislative and community-based interventions.
Bocquier, Aurélie; Fressard, Lisa; Verger, Pierre; Legleye, Stéphane; Peretti-Watel, Patrick
Worldwide, millions of deaths each year are attributed to alcohol. We sought to examine French people's beliefs about the risks of alcohol, their correlates, and their associations with alcohol use. Data came from the 2010 Baromètre Cancer survey, a random cross-sectional telephone survey of the French general population (n = 3359 individuals aged 15-75 years). Using principal component analysis of seven beliefs about alcohol risks, we built two scores (one assessing risk denial based on self-confidence and the other risk relativization). Two multiple linear regressions explored these scores' socio-demographic and perceived information level correlates. Multiple logistic regressions tested the associations of these scores with daily drinking and with heavy episodic drinking (HED). About 60% of the respondents acknowledged that alcohol increases the risk of cancer, and 89% felt well-informed about the risks of alcohol. Beliefs that may promote risk denial were frequent (e.g. 72% agreed that soda and hamburgers are as bad as alcohol for your health). Both risk denial and risk relativization scores were higher among men, older respondents and those of low socioeconomic status. The probability of daily drinking increased with the risk relativization score and that of HED with both scores. Beliefs that can help people to deny the cancer risks due to alcohol use are common in France and may exist in many other countries where alcoholic beverages have been an integral part of the culture. These results can be used to redesign public information campaigns about the risks of alcohol. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
The possibility that a new lepton may exist is discussed under the headings; theoretical reasons for the introduction of heavy leptons, classification of heavy leptons (ortho and paraleptons), discrimination between different types of lepton, decays of charged heavy leptons, production of charged heavy leptons (in e + e - storage rings, neutrino production, photoproduction, and hadroproduction), neutral heavy leptons, and hadroleptons. (U.K.)
Dai Jin Kim
Full Text Available For a long time, alcohol was thought to exert a general depressant effect on the central nervous system (CNS. However, currently the consensus is that specific regions of the brain are selectively vulnerable to the acute effects of alcohol. An alcohol-induced blackout is the classic example; the subject is temporarily unable to form new long-term memories while relatively maintaining other skills such as talking or even driving. A recent study showed that alcohol can cause retrograde memory impairment, that is, blackouts due to retrieval impairments as well as those due to deficits in encoding. Alcoholic blackouts may be complete (en bloc or partial (fragmentary depending on severity of memory impairment. In fragmentary blackouts, cueing often aids recall. Memory impairment during acute intoxication involves dysfunction of episodic memory, a type of memory encoded with spatial and social context. Recent studies have shown that there are multiple memory systems supported by discrete brain regions, and the acute effects of alcohol on learning and memory may result from alteration of the hippocampus and related structures on a cellular level. A rapid increase in blood alcohol concentration (BAC is most consistently associated with the likelihood of a blackout. However, not all subjects experience blackouts, implying that genetic factors play a role in determining CNS vulnerability to the effects of alcohol. This factor may predispose an individual to alcoholism, as altered memory function during intoxication may affect an individual‟s alcohol expectancy; one may perceive positive aspects of intoxication while unintentionally ignoring the negative aspects. Extensive research on memory and learning as well as findings related to the acute effects of alcohol on the brain may elucidate the mechanisms and impact associated with the alcohol- induced blackout.
Bettina M Pause; Armin eZlomuzica; Kiyoka eKinugawa; Jean eMariani; Reinhard ePietrowsky; Ekrem eDere
Episodic memory refers to the conscious recollection of a personal experience that contains information on what has happened and also where and when it happened. Recollection from episodic memory also implies a kind of first-person subjectivity that has been termed autonoetic consciousness. Episodic memory is extremely sensitive to cerebral aging and neurodegenerative diseases. In Alzheimer’s disease deficits in episodic memory function are among the first cognitive symptoms observed. Further...
Martin-Ordas, Gema; Atance, Cristina M.; Louw, Alyssa
In this paper we describe a special form of future thinking, termed "episodic foresight" and its relation with episodic and semantic memory. We outline the methodologies that have largely been developed in the last five years to assess this capacity in young children and non-human animals. Drawing on Tulving's definition of episodic and semantic…
Pause, Bettina M.; Zlomuzica, Armin; Kinugawa, Kiyoka; Mariani, Jean; Pietrowsky, Reinhard; Dere, Ekrem
Episodic memory refers to the conscious recollection of a personal experience that contains information on what has happened and also where and when it happened. Recollection from episodic memory also implies a kind of first-person subjectivity that has been termed autonoetic consciousness. Episodic memory is extremely sensitive to cerebral aging and neurodegenerative diseases. In Alzheimer’s disease deficits in episodic memory function are among the first cognitive symptoms observed. Furthermore, impaired episodic memory function is also observed in a variety of other neuropsychiatric diseases including dissociative disorders, schizophrenia, and Parkinson disease. Unfortunately, it is quite difficult to induce and measure episodic memories in the laboratory and it is even more difficult to measure it in clinical populations. Presently, the tests used to assess episodic memory function do not comply with even down-sized definitions of episodic-like memory as a memory for what happened, where, and when. They also require sophisticated verbal competences and are difficult to apply to patient populations. In this review, we will summarize the progress made in defining behavioral criteria of episodic-like memory in animals (and humans) as well as the perspectives in developing novel tests of human episodic memory which can also account for phenomenological aspects of episodic memory such as autonoetic awareness. We will also define basic behavioral, procedural, and phenomenological criteria which might be helpful for the development of a valid and reliable clinical test of human episodic memory. PMID:23616754
Froehlich, Janice C; Nicholson, Emily R; Dilley, Julian E; Filosa, Nick J; Rademacher, Logan C; Smith, Teal N
Most alcoholics experience periods of voluntary alcohol abstinence or imposed alcohol deprivation followed by a return to alcohol drinking. This study examined whether varenicline (VAR) reduces alcohol intake during a return to drinking after periods of alcohol deprivation in rats selectively bred for high alcohol drinking (the alcohol preferring or "P" rats). Alcohol-experienced P rats were given 24-hour access to food and water and scheduled access to alcohol (15% and 30% v/v) for 2 h/d. After 4 weeks, rats were deprived of alcohol for 2 weeks, followed by reaccess to alcohol for 2 weeks, and this pattern was repeated for a total of 3 cycles. Rats were fed either vehicle (VEH) or VAR, in doses of 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 mg/kg BW, at 1 hour prior to onset of the daily alcohol reaccess period for the first 5 days of each of the 3 alcohol reaccess cycles. Low-dose VAR (0.5 mg/kg BW) reduced alcohol intake during the 5 days of drug treatment in alcohol reaccess cycles 1 and 2. Higher doses of VAR (1.0 mg/kg BW and 2.0 mg/kg BW) reduced alcohol intake during the 5 days of treatment in all 3 alcohol reaccess cycles. The decrease in alcohol intake disappeared with termination of VAR treatment in all alcohol reaccess cycles. The results demonstrate that VAR decreases alcohol intake during multiple cycles of alcohol reaccess following alcohol deprivation in rats and suggests that it may prevent a return to heavy alcohol drinking during a lapse from alcohol abstinence in humans with alcohol use disorder. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Full Text Available We describe a novel computational theory of how individuals segment perceptual information into representations of events. The theory is inspired by recent findings in the cognitive science and cognitive neuroscience of event segmentation. In line with recent theories, it holds that online event segmentation is automatic, and that event segmentation yields mental simulations of events. But it posits two novel principles as well: first, discrete episodic markers track perceptual and conceptual changes, and can be retrieved to construct event models. Second, the process of retrieving and reconstructing those episodic markers is constrained and prioritized. We describe a computational implementation of the theory, as well as a robotic extension of the theory that demonstrates the processes of online event segmentation and event model construction. The theory is the first unified computational account of event segmentation and temporal inference. We conclude by demonstrating now neuroimaging data can constrain and inspire the construction of process-level theories of human reasoning.
environments and encounter new social and institutional factors that may foster heavy alcohol use. Little is known about alcohol use disorders in non-western cultures. Aims This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and examine the socio-demographic correlates of alcohol use disorders among students in Nigerian ...
Walsh, Sophie D; Sagis-Krebs, Maya; Gross, Ashi
Perceived discrimination has been found to be a predictor of immigrant adolescent involvement in alcohol use, yet the psychological mechanism behind this relationship has not been well explored. Drawing on strain theory and the motivational model of alcohol use, the current study aimed to develop and test a concept of emotional alienation. In the proposed model, it is when experiences of discrimination are internalized into painful feelings of detachment, anger, rejection, and failure that the immigrant adolescent may turn to alcohol use. The study involved 365 at-risk immigrant adolescents, aged 15-19 (62% male, mean age 17.1) from the Former Soviet Union and Ethiopia in Israel, from low SES neighborhoods and community centers for youth at risk. The young people self-reported on experiences of discrimination, daily alcohol use, heavy episodic drinking (HED), and drunkenness, together with a new questionnaire examining emotional alienation developed for the study. Findings showed that experiences of alienation fully mediated the relationship between discrimination and problematic alcohol use (drunkenness and HED). In particular, feelings of self-detachment, failure, and rejection were strongly related to alcohol use. Results suggest an importance of understanding the way in which negative reactions from the host society may be internalized into destructive feelings of failure, shame, and rejection, which may lead a young person to involvement in alcohol use.
Thomas, Kristin; Bendtsen, Marcus; Linderoth, Catharina; Karlsson, Nadine; Bendtsen, Preben; Müssener, Ulrika
Despite significant health risks, heavy drinking of alcohol among university students is a widespread problem; excessive drinking is part of the social norm. A growing number of studies indicate that short message service (SMS)-based interventions are cost-effective, accessible, require limited effort by users, and can enable continuous, real-time, brief support in real-world settings. Although there is emerging evidence for the effect of SMS-based interventions in reducing alcohol consumption, more research is needed. This study aims to test the effectiveness of a newly developed SMS-based intervention targeting excessive alcohol consumption among university and college students in Sweden. The study is a two-arm randomized controlled trial with an intervention (SMS programme) and a control (treatment as usual) group. Outcome measures will be investigated at baseline and at 3-month follow up. The primary outcome is total weekly alcohol consumption. Secondary outcomes are frequency of heavy episodic drinking, highest estimated blood alcohol concentration and number of negative consequences due to excessive drinking. This study contributes knowledge on the effect of automatized SMS support to reduce excessive drinking among students compared with existing support such as Student Health Centres. ISRCTN.com, ISRCTN95054707 . Registered on 31 August 2016.
Underwood, Benton J.; And Others
This study examined the interrelationships among a number of episodic memory tasks and among various attributes of memory. A sample of 200 college students was tested for ten sessions; 28 different measures of episodic memory were obtained. In addition, five measures of semantic memory were available. Results indicated that episodic and semantic…
Alshaarawy, Omayma; Breslau, Naomi; Anthony, James C
Taking a step beyond prior alcohol research on pregnancy trimesters, we produced pregnancy month-specific drinking estimates for women in the United States in order to shed light on time variations of alcohol drinking during pregnancy, as might be determined by alcohol dependence. We posited that (a) pregnancy might prompt cessation of drinking soon after pregnancy status is discovered, a finding obscured in trimester-specific estimates, and (b) a possible alcohol-dependence effect on drinking persistence among pregnant women might be observed via the monthly approach. Data are from the 2002-2011 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (Restricted-Data Analysis System [R-DAS]), with large nationally representative samples of U.S. civilians, including 12- to 44-year-old females stratified by pregnancy status and month of pregnancy, and with assessment of recent alcohol dependence as well as heavy episodic drinking (HED). Pregnancy's possibly protective constraints on drinking can be seen as early as Month 2. We observed considerable variability of drinking prevalence (%) before Trimester 1 ended, with no appreciable variation across Months 4-9. A possible alcohol-dependence effect on drinking persistence is seen when the contrast is made in relation to expected values for pregnant women without alcohol dependence. We detected a possibly ameliorative pregnancy effect on alcohol use and HED, with variation in drinking prevalence across the months of the first trimester. Alcohol dependence might be affecting drinking persistence among pregnant women, but this effect cannot account for the drinking persistence observed here.
Aims: Little is known about specific Danish drinking patterns. This paper investigates how various socio-demographic factors are related to Danish alcohol consumption with special focus on age and sex. Methods: Data come from a national telephone survey of the Danish general population conducted...... in 2003 with a final sample size of 2,030 cases. Measures of beverage specific current drinking, overall drinking, daily drinking, heavy episodic drinking, mean consumption, volume per drinking occasion and frequency of drinking were analysed. Results: A little over 5% of the population are abstainers...... than age and sex, classical socioeconomic factors do not play a great a role in determining drinking patterns. Social integrative factors in particular influence women's drinking. Conclusions: With respect to the rest of Europe and North America, Danes consume high levels of alcohol with a large...
DA LUZ PROTASIO L.
Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is manifested as coronary artery disease (CAD, ischemic stroke and peripheral vascular disease. Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with reduction of CAD complications. Apparently, red wine offers more benefits than any other kind of drinks, probably due to flavonoids. Alcohol alters lipoproteins and the coagulation system. The flavonoids induce vascular relaxation by mechanisms that are both dependent and independent of nitric oxide, inhibits many of the cellular reactions associated with atherosclerosis and inflammation, such as endothelial expression of vascular adhesion molecules and release of cytokines from polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Hypertension is also influenced by the alcohol intake. Thus, heavy alcohol intake is almost always associated with systemic hypertension, and hence shall be avoided. In individuals that ingest excess alcohol, there is higher risk of coronary occlusion, arrhythmias, hepatic cirrhosis, upper gastrointestinal cancers, fetal alcohol syndrome, murders, sex crimes, traffic and industrial accidents, robberies, and psychosis. Alcohol is no treatment for atherosclerosis; but it doesn't need to be prohibited for everyone. Thus moderate amounts of alcohol (1-2 drinks/day, especially red wine, may be allowed for those at risk for atherosclerosis complications.
Full Text Available A brief account is presented of the three-component working memory model proposed by Baddeley and Hitch. This is followed by an account of some of the problems it encountered in explaining how information from different subsystems with different codes could be combined, and how it was capable of communicating with long-term memory. In order to account for these, a fourth component was proposed, the episodic buffer. This was assumed to be a multidimensional store of limited capacity that can be accessed through conscious awareness. In an attempt to test and develop the concept, a series of experiments have explored the role of working memory in the binding of visual features into objects and verbal sequences into remembered sentences. The experiments use a dual task paradigm to investigate the role of the various subcomponents of working memory in binding. In contrast to our initial assumption, the episodic buffer appears to be a passive store, capable of storing bound features and making them available to conscious awareness, but not itself responsible for the process of binding.
This paper is part of an ongoing mixed methods project about untreated heavy alcohol consumption amongst adult Danes. It is based upon 21 in-depth qualitative interviews with convicted drink drivers. All interviewees were contacted while attending mandatory courses in “Alcohol and Traffic safety...... on the interviewee’s risk behaviour, especially in relation to driving. The interviewees are first divided into 1) a group of young “edgeworkers” with pronounced general risk behaviour, 2) a group of middle-aged “post-edgeworkers”, most with criminal records, and 3) a group of middle-aged and older heavy consumers...
Huo, Hai-Feng; Cui, Fang-Fang; Xiang, Hong
A novel SAITS alcoholism model on networks is introduced, in which alcoholics are divided into light problem alcoholics and heavy problem alcoholics. Susceptible individuals can enter into the compartment of heavy problem alcoholics directly by contacting with light problem alcoholics or heavy problem alcoholics and the heavy problem alcoholics who receive treatment can relapse into the compartment of heavy problem alcoholics are also considered. First, the dynamics of our model on unweighted networks, including the basic reproduction number, existence and stability of equilibria are studied. Second, the models with fixed weighted and adaptive weighted networks are introduced and investigated. At last, some simulations are presented to illustrate and extend our results. Our results show that it is very important to treat alcoholics to quit the drinking.
Dawson, Deborah A.; Goldstein, Rise B.; Saha, Tulshi D.; Grant, Bridget F.
Background Documenting changes in alcohol consumption is critical for assessing future health service and alcohol treatment needs, evaluating efforts to modify drinking behavior and understanding the impact of shifting demographics and social norms. For the period since the year 2000, published data on drinking trends have been scarce and inconsistent. Methods Using data from two large, nationally representative surveys of U.S. adults (2001-2002 and 2012-2013) that contained virtually identical questions on consumption, we assessed differences by period in the prevalence of drinking, volume of intake, frequency of drinking and prevalence of ≥monthly heavy episodic drinking (HED) and determined whether changes in consumption were consistent across beverage types and in population subgroups. Results Between 2001-2002 and 2012-2013, the prevalence of drinking increased, as did volume and frequency of drinking and prevalence of ≥monthly HED among drinkers. Increases were greater for women than men for all measures and smaller among the formerly married for consumption among drinkers. The increase in overall drinking prevalence was magnified among all race-ethnic minorities, whereas the increase in ≥monthly HED was magnified only among Blacks (all relative to Whites). Conclusions Our findings are suggestive of a “wetter” drinking climate in 2012-2013 than in 2001-2002, indicating the need for continued and expanded efforts to prevent chronic and episodic heavy alcohol consumption. Given the across-the-board increases in alcohol consumption in recent years, policy efforts that address drinking at the population level are supported, even if specific drinking behaviors and subgroups of drinkers are additionally targeted for individualized approaches. PMID:25620731
Pál, László; Árnyas, Ervin M; Tóth, Béla; Ádám, Balázs; Rácz, Gábor; Ádány, Róza; McKee, Martin; Szűcs, Sándor
Unregulated production of spirits in many countries leads to products containing appreciable levels of aliphatic alcohols (AAs) and is the main source of human exposure to these substances worldwide. Previous studies have confirmed that alcohol abuse can lead to ethanol-induced immunosuppression and thereby increased susceptibility to infectious diseases. Granulocytes, as professional phagocytic cells, play a crucial role in engulfment and killing of pathogenic microorganisms. Thus, a decrease in their phagocytic activity has been invoked as a factor in the impaired antimicrobial defense observed in alcoholics. However, AAs consumed as contaminants of illicit spirits may also influence phagocytosis, thereby contributing to a further decrease in microbicidal activity but, so far, this has not been studied. Therefore, the aim of this study was to measure granulocyte phagocytosis following treatment of granulocytes with those higher alcohols found in illegal spirits. Granulocytes were isolated from human peripheral blood. Then phagocytosis of opsonized zymosan particles by granulocytes treated with AAs individually and in combination was determined. These alcohols inhibited phagocytosis in a concentration-dependent manner and at lower concentrations when combined than when tested individually. Due to their synergistic effects, it is possible that, in combination with ethanol, they may inhibit phagocytosis in a clinically meaningful way in episodic heavy drinkers.
Borsari, Brian; Magill, Molly; Mastroleo, Nadine R; Hustad, John T P; Tevyaw, Tracy O'Leary; Barnett, Nancy P; Kahler, Christopher W; Eaton, Erica; Monti, Peter M
Students referred to school administration for alcohol policies violations currently receive a wide variety of interventions. This study examined predictors of response to 2 interventions delivered to mandated college students (N = 598) using a stepped care approach incorporating a peer-delivered 15-min brief advice (BA) session (Step 1) and a 60- to 90-min brief motivational intervention (BMI) delivered by trained interventionists (Step 2). Analyses were completed in 2 stages. First, 3 types of variables (screening variables, alcohol-related cognitions, mandated student profile) were examined in a logistic regression model as putative predictors of lower risk drinking (defined as 3 or fewer heavy episodic drinking [HED] episodes and/or 4 or fewer alcohol-related consequences in the past month) 6 weeks following the BA session. Second, we used generalized estimating equations to examine putative moderators of BMI effects on HED and peak blood alcohol content compared with assessment only (AO) control over the 3-, 6-, and 9-month follow-ups. Participants reporting lower scores on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, more benefits to changing alcohol use, and those who fit the "Bad Incident" profile at baseline were more likely to report lower risk drinking 6 weeks after the BA session. Moderation analyses revealed that Bad Incident students who received the BMI reported more HED at 9-month follow-up than those who received AO. Current alcohol use as well as personal reaction to the referral event may have clinical utility in identifying which mandated students benefit from treatments of varying content and intensity. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Tahaney, Kelli D; Palfai, Tibor P
Brief, web-based motivational interventions have shown promising results for reducing alcohol use and associated harm among college students. However, findings regarding which alcohol use outcomes are impacted are mixed and effects tend to be small to moderate, with effect sizes decreasing over longer-term follow-up periods. As a result, these interventions may benefit from adjunctive strategies to bolster students' engagement with intervention material and to extend interventions beyond initial contacts into student's daily lives. This study tested the efficacy of text messaging as an adjunct to a web-based intervention for heavy episodic drinking college students. One-hundred and thirteen undergraduate student risky drinkers recruited from an introductory psychology class were randomly assigned to one of three conditions-assessment only (AO), web intervention (WI), and web intervention plus text messaging (WI+TXT). Heavy drinking episodes (HDEs), weekend quantity per occasion, and alcohol-related consequences were assessed at baseline and one month follow-up. Univariate analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to assess the influence of condition assignment on 1-month outcomes, controlling for baseline variables. Planned contrasts showed that those in the WI+TXT condition showed significantly less weekend drinking than those in the AO and WI conditions. Although those in the WI+TXT condition showed significantly fewer HDEs compared to AO, it was not significantly different than the WI only condition. No differences were observed on alcohol-related problems. These findings provide partial support for the view that text messaging may be a useful adjunct to web-based interventions for reducing alcohol consumption among student drinkers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
. Patients with first-episode psychosis had significantly high NEO-PI-R scores for neuroticism and agreeableness, and lower scores for conscientiousness and extroversion. The median time for remission in the total sample was three months. Female gender and better premorbid functioning were predictive of less...... negative symptoms and shorter duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) was predictive for shorter time to remission, stable remission, less severe positive psychotic symptoms, and better social functioning. Female gender, better premorbid social functioning and more education also contributed to a better...... should warn clinicians to pay attention to the more elaborate needs of these patients. A re-evaluation at three months should reveal that non-remitted patients with longer DUPs indicate high risk of continuous non-remission. A possible shift to clozapine for this group should be strongly considered....
Pinquart, Martin; Pfeiffer, Jens P.
We compared alcohol use among adolescents with and without hearing loss. Adolescents with hearing loss reported consuming less alcohol, less binge drinking, fewer episodes of drunkenness, and a higher age at first drunkenness than their hearing peers. Alcohol use did not vary between students who were deaf or hard of hearing or between students…
Lorant, Vincent; Nicaise, Pablo; Soto, Victoria Eugenia; d'Hoore, William
One young adult in two has entered university education in Western countries. Many of these young students will be exposed, during this transitional period, to substantial changes in living arrangements, socialisation groups, and social activities. This kind of transition is often associated with risky behaviour such as excessive alcohol consumption. So far, however, there is little evidence about the social determinants of alcohol consumption among college students. We set out to explore how college environmental factors shape college students' drinking behaviour. In May 2010 a web questionnaire was sent to all bachelor and master students registered with an important Belgian university; 7,015 students participated (participation = 39%). The survey looked at drinking behaviour, social involvement, college environmental factors, drinking norms, and positive drinking consequences. On average each student had 1.7 drinks a day and 2.8 episodes of abusive drinking a month. We found that the more a student was exposed to college environmental factors, the greater the risk of heavy, frequent, and abusive drinking. Alcohol consumption increased for students living on campus, living in a dormitory with a higher number of room-mates, and having been in the University for a long spell. Most such environmental factors were explained by social involvement, such as participation to the student folklore, pre-partying, and normative expectations. Educational and college authorities need to acknowledge universities' responsibility in relation to their students' drinking behaviour and to commit themselves to support an environment of responsible drinking.
Craver, Carl F; Keven, Nazim; Kwan, Donna; Kurczek, Jake; Duff, Melissa C; Rosenbaum, R Shayna
To investigate the role of episodic thought about the past and future in moral judgment, we administered a well-established moral judgment battery to individuals with hippocampal damage and deficits in episodic thought (insert Greene et al. 2001). Healthy controls select deontological answers in high-conflict moral scenarios more frequently when they vividly imagine themselves in the scenarios than when they imagine scenarios abstractly, at some personal remove. If this bias is mediated by episodic thought, individuals with deficits in episodic thought should not exhibit this effect. We report that individuals with deficits in episodic memory and future thought make moral judgments and exhibit the biasing effect of vivid, personal imaginings on moral judgment. These results strongly suggest that the biasing effect of vivid personal imagining on moral judgment is not due to episodic thought about the past and future. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Kremer, Peter; Toumbourou, John W
The impact of alcohol-related violence on individuals and society continues to receive attention from both media and policy makers. However, the longitudinal relationship between alcohol consumption and violence is unclear, with findings from prospective studies producing mixed results. The current study utilized Australian data from the International Youth Development Study to examine longitudinal relationships between alcohol consumption and severe interpersonal violence across the developmental periods of early adolescence to late adolescence/emerging adulthood. The full sample comprised 849 adolescents (53.8 % female) who had been followed up over a 5 year period, from Grade 7 secondary school (age 13) until Grade 11 secondary school (age 17). Cross-lagged path analysis was used to examine reciprocal relationships between alcohol consumption and interpersonal violence; analyses controlled for a range of covariates considered to be common risk factors for both behaviors. Alcohol use during early and mid adolescence was found to predict violence 2 years later, whereas a bi-directional relationship between adolescent heavy episodic drinking and violence was observed. Some of these relationships were not significant when covariates such as family conflict and affiliation with antisocial and drug using friends were included in the models. These findings suggest that risk processes begin in late childhood or very early adolescence; efforts to reduce one problem behavior are likely to reduce the other. Further, the role that social and family contexts have in influencing the relationships between alcohol use and interpersonal violence should be considered in future research to better inform preventive efforts.
Episodic memory, i.e. memorization of information within a spatiotemporal environment, is affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD) but its loss may also occur in the normal aging process. The purpose of this study is to analyze and evaluate episodic memory in patients with AD by examining their cognitive skills in episodic memory through the introspection technique. A new method was used, wherein we assessed mental images of the subject's own past recalled in the mind like projected pictures and ...
Allen, Timothy A.; Fortin, Norbert J.
One prominent view holds that episodic memory emerged recently in humans and lacks a “(neo)Darwinian evolution” [Tulving E (2002) Annu Rev Psychol 53:1–25]. Here, we review evidence supporting the alternative perspective that episodic memory has a long evolutionary history. We show that fundamental features of episodic memory capacity are present in mammals and birds and that the major brain regions responsible for episodic memory in humans have anatomical and functional homologs in other species. We propose that episodic memory capacity depends on a fundamental neural circuit that is similar across mammalian and avian species, suggesting that protoepisodic memory systems exist across amniotes and, possibly, all vertebrates. The implication is that episodic memory in diverse species may primarily be due to a shared underlying neural ancestry, rather than the result of evolutionary convergence. We also discuss potential advantages that episodic memory may offer, as well as species-specific divergences that have developed on top of the fundamental episodic memory architecture. We conclude by identifying possible time points for the emergence of episodic memory in evolution, to help guide further research in this area. PMID:23754432
Despite the increase in alcohol marketing activities by the transnational alcohol corporations in Nigeria .... were recorded with a digital device with ..... era (i.e., before alcohol industry was es- tablished in ..... university student drinking: A na-.
Easton, Alexander; Webster, Lisa A. D.; Eacott, Madeline J.
Studying episodic memory in nonhuman animals has proved difficult because definitions in humans require conscious recollection. Here, we assessed humans' experience of episodic-like recognition memory tasks that have been used with animals. It was found that tasks using contextual information to discriminate events could only be accurately…
Kessing, L V
BACKGROUND: Studies of the effect of comorbid alcoholism on the risk of recurrence in affective disorder have given contradictory results. METHOD: Using survival analysis, the rate of recurrence was calculated in a case register study including all hospital admissions with primary affective...... an auxiliary diagnosis of alcoholism. Patients with a current auxiliary diagnosis of alcoholism had increased rate of recurrence following the first three affective episodes but not following subsequent episodes compared with patients without auxiliary diagnoses. The effect of alcoholism declined...... with the number of episodes. In contrast, no effect was found of other auxiliary diagnoses on the rate of recurrence. CONCLUSION: Rehospitalisation data suggest that concurrent alcoholism increases the risk of recurrence of affective episodes during the initial course of unipolar and bipolar disorder but has...
Ross, Craig S.; Ostroff, Josh; Naimi, Timothy S.; DeJong, William; Siegel, Michael B.; Jernigan, David H.
Purpose To identify reasons why youth choose to drink specific brands of alcohol and to determine if these reasons are associated with problem drinking patterns and outcomes. Methods We conducted an Internet survey of 1,031 youth ages 13 to 20 who reported drinking within the past 30 days. Of these, 541 youth who reported having a choice of multiple brands of alcohol the last time they drank stated (yes/no) whether each of 16 different reasons had influenced their choice of a specific brand. We reduced these 16 reasons to three principle components and used Latent Class Modeling to identify five groups of youth with similar reasons for selecting a brand, which we then profiled. Results We grouped respondents into the following brand selection groups: “Brand Ambassadors” who were distinguished from other clusters by selecting a brand because they identified with it (32.5% of respondents), “Tasters” who selected a brand because they expected it to taste good (27.2%), “Bargain Hunters” who selected a brand because it was inexpensive (18.5%), “Copycats” who selected a brand because they’d seen adults drinking it or seen it consumed in movies or other media (10.4%), and “Others” (11.5%). Brand Ambassadors and Copycats reported the largest amount of alcohol consumed and had the greatest prevalence of both heavy episodic drinking and negative alcohol-related health consequences. Conclusions Underage drinkers who cite marketing influences and adult or media modeling of brand choices as their reasons for selecting alcohol brands are likely to drink more and incur adverse consequences from drinking. PMID:25907655
... of heavy chain produced: Alpha Gamma Mu Alpha Heavy Chain Disease Alpha heavy chain disease (IgA heavy ... the disease or lead to a remission. Gamma Heavy Chain Disease Gamma heavy chain disease (IgG heavy ...
Full Text Available AIM – This article explores the multiplicity of former heavy drinkers’ narratives. The focus lies on turning points from heavy drinking among people who have recovered through self-change and among those who recovered by participating in Alcoholics Anonymous (AA meetings.
Uso pesado de álcool por estudantes dos ensinos fundamental e médio de escolas centrais e periféricas de Campinas (SP: prevalência e fatores associados Heavy alcohol use among elementary and high-school students in downtown and outskirts of Campinas City - São Paulo: prevalence and related factors
Full Text Available O conhecimento de fatores associados ao uso de álcool na adolescência é de grande relevância, pois permite intervenções visando reduzir comportamentos de risco e o possível início de um uso de álcool progressivamente deletério. OBJETIVOS: Determinar a prevalência do uso pesado de álcool e verificar se variáveis sociodemográficas, culturais e psicopatológicas podem estar influenciando este uso por estudantes dos ensinos fundamental e médio de escolas públicas e particulares da cidade de Campinas (SP. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo transversal com uma técnica de amostragem do tipo intencional. Foi utilizado um questionário anônimo, de autopreenchimento, baseado no questionário do Centro Brasileiro de Informações sobre Drogas Psicotrópicas (CEBRID. A amostra foi constituída por 2.287 estudantes dos ensinos fundamental e médio de escolas públicas e particulares da cidade de Campinas (SP, no ano de 1998. Considerou-se uso pesado, de acordo com a World Health Organization (WHO (1981, o uso de álcool em 20 dias ou mais nos 30 dias que antecederam a pesquisa. Para identificar os fatores que influenciam o uso de drogas, utilizou-se a "Análise de Regressão Logística Politômica - Modelo de Logitos Generalizados". RESULTADOS: O uso pesado de álcool foi de 11,9%, tendo sido maior nos estudantes da escola pública central, do período vespertino, que trabalhavam, de nível socioeconômico A e B, que se sentiam pouco apoiados e compreendidos pela família e que apresentavam maior defasagem escolar. CONCLUSÕES: Os dados deste estudo indicam que fatores como disponibilidade de dinheiro, trabalho, situações pessoais e familiares desfavoráveis e mau desempenho escolar estão associados ao uso pesado de álcool em estudantes.It is important to identify factors related to heavy alcohol use among adolescents, as this allows interventions aimed at reducing risk behavior and possible increasing harmful use of alcohol. OBJECTIVES
Martinez, Priscilla; Neupane, Sudan Prasad; Perlestenbakken, Berit; Toutoungi, Christina; Bramness, Jørgen G
Little population-based data among middle-aged adults exists examining the relationships between depressive symptoms, alcohol use, and socio-economic status (SES). This study aimed to describe the relationships between depressive symptoms and alcohol use at different levels of SES and to determine differences across SES levels among a population-based sample of 40 and 45 year old adults in Norway. This analysis was based on data from two Norwegian health studies conducted in 2000 and 2001, and included community-dwelling Norwegian men and women aged 40 and 45 years. Self-reported frequency and quantity of alcoholic drinks was used to calculate past-year typical quantity of drinks consumed and frequency of 5+ drinks per occasion, or heavy episodic drinking (HED). Depressive symptoms were assessed with the 10-item Hopkins Symptom Checklist, and SES was measured as education level and employment status. To observe the association between depressive symptoms and alcohol use at each level of SES we fitted multinomial logistic regression models using each alcohol outcome as a dependent variable stratified by level of education and employment. To observe differences across levels of SES, we examined the interaction between depressive symptoms and SES level in multinomial logistic regression models for each alcohol measures. Having depressive symptoms was significantly associated with an increased risk of 5+ typical drinks among people in the lowest (RRR = 1.60, p ≤ 0.05) education level, and not among people in the highest. Conversely, significant associations were observed among all levels of employment. For frequency of HED, depressive symptoms was not significantly associated with frequency of HED at any education level. Depressive symptoms was associated with 13+ past year HED episodes among people with no employment (RRR = 1.97, p ≤ 0.05), and part-time employment (RRR = 2.33, p ≤ 0.01), and no association was observed among people
Dopkins, Stephen; Sargent, Jesse; Ngo, Catherine T.
We explored the effect of superficial priming in episodic recognition and found it to be different from the effect of semantic priming in episodic recognition. Participants made recognition judgments to pairs of items, with each pair consisting of a prime item and a test item. Correct positive responses to the test item were impeded if the prime…
Wyble, Brad; Potter, Mary C.; Bowman, Howard; Nieuwenstein, Mark
Is one's temporal perception of the world truly as seamless as it appears? This article presents a computationally motivated theory suggesting that visual attention samples information from temporal episodes (episodic simultaneous type/serial token model; Wyble, Bowman, & Nieuwenstein, 2009). Breaks
Turrisi, Rob; Mallett, Kimberly A.; Cleveland, Michael J.; Varvil-Weld, Lindsey; Abar, Caitlin; Scaglione, Nichole; Hultgren, Brittney
Objective: The study evaluated the timing and dosage of a parent-based intervention to minimize alcohol consumption for students with varying drinking histories. Method: First-year students (N = 1,900) completed Web assessments during the summer before college (baseline) and two follow-ups (fall of first and second years). Students were randomized to one of four conditions (pre-college matriculation [PCM], pre-college matriculation plus boosters [PCM+B], after college matriculation [ACM], and control conditions). Seven indicators of drinking (drink in past month, been drunk in past month, weekday [Sunday to Wednesday] drinking, Thursday drinking, weekend [Friday, Saturday] drinking, heavy episodic drinking in past 2 weeks, and peak blood alcohol concentration students. PMID:23200148
Turrisi, Rob; Mallett, Kimberly A; Cleveland, Michael J; Varvil-Weld, Lindsey; Abar, Caitlin; Scaglione, Nichole; Hultgren, Brittney
The study evaluated the timing and dosage of a parent-based intervention to minimize alcohol consumption for students with varying drinking histories. First-year students (N = 1,900) completed Web assessments during the summer before college (baseline) and two follow-ups (fall of first and second years). Students were randomized to one of four conditions (pre-college matriculation [PCM], pre-college matriculation plus boosters [PCM+B], after college matriculation [ACM], and control conditions). Seven indicators of drinking (drink in past month, been drunk in past month, weekday [Sunday to Wednesday] drinking, Thursday drinking, weekend [Friday, Saturday] drinking, heavy episodic drinking in past 2 weeks, and peak blood alcohol concentration students.
Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt
Examines some aspects of the problem of alcoholism among Blacks, asserting that Black alcoholism can best be considered in an ecological, environmental, sociocultural, and public health context. Notes need for further research on alcoholism among Blacks and for action to reduce the problem of Black alcoholism. (NB)
We review the experimental and theoretical status of baryons containing one heavy quark. The charm and bottom baryon states are classified and their mass spectra are listed. The appropriate theoretical framework for the description of heavy baryons is the Heavy Quark Effective Theory, whose general ideas and methods are introduced and illustrated in specific examples. We present simple covariant expressions for the spin wave functions of heavy baryons including p-wave baryons. The covariant spin wave functions are used to determine the Heavy Quark Symmetry structure of flavour-changing current-induced transitions between heavy baryons as well as one-pion and one-photon transitions between heavy baryons of the same flavour. We discuss 1/m Q corrections to the current-induced transitions as well as the structure of heavy to light baryon transitions. Whenever possible we attempt to present numbers to compare with experiment by making use of further model-dependent assumptions as e.g. the constituent picture for light quarks. We highlight recent advances in the theoretical understanding of the inclusive decays of hadrons containing one heavy quark including polarization. For exclusive semileptonic decays we discuss rates, angular decay distributions and polarization effects. We provide an update of the experimental and theoretical status of lifetimes of heavy baryons and of exclusive nonleptonic two body decays of charm baryons. (orig.)
Patrick, Megan E; Evans-Polce, Rebecca; Kloska, Deborah D; Maggs, Jennifer L; Lanza, Stephanie T
Analyses focus on whether self-reported reasons for drinking alcohol change in their associations with high-intensity drinking across the transition to adulthood. Self-report data on high-intensity drinking (10+ drinks) collected from the national Monitoring the Future study in 2005 to 2014 from those ages 18-26 were used (N = 2,664 [60% women] for all drinkers and 1,377 for heavy episodic [5+] drinkers; up to 6,541 person-waves). Time-varying effect modeling examined changes in the direction and magnitude of associations between eight reasons for drinking and high-intensity alcohol use across continuous age. Four reasons to drink showed quite stable associations with high-intensity drinking across age: drinking to get away from problems, to get high, to relax, and to sleep. Associations between two reasons and high-intensity drinking decreased with age: anger/frustration and to have a good time. The association between drinking because of boredom and high-intensity drinking increased with age. Drinking because it tastes good had a weak association with high-intensity drinking. Among heavy episodic drinkers, reasons for use also differentiated high-intensity drinking, with two exceptions: drinking to have a good time and to relax did not distinguish drinking 10+ drinks from drinking 5-9 drinks. Reasons for drinking are differentially associated with high-intensity drinking, compared with any other drinking and compared with lower intensity heavy drinking, across age during the transition to adulthood. Intervention programs seeking to mitigate alcohol-related harms should focus on reasons for use when they are the most developmentally salient.
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Heavy bodied blending wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.213 Heavy bodied blending wine. Heavy bodied blending wine is wine made for blending purposes from grapes or other fruit without...
Crombie, Iain K; Irvine, Linda; Falconer, Donald W; Williams, Brian; Ricketts, Ian W; Jones, Claire; Humphris, Gerry; Norrie, John; Slane, Peter; Rice, Peter
Disadvantaged men suffer substantial harm from heavy drinking. This feasibility study developed and evaluated the methods for a trial of a brief intervention delivered by text messages to disadvantaged men. It aimed to test the methods for recruitment and retention, to monitor engagement with the intervention and assess the overall acceptability of study methods. Disadvantaged men aged 25-44 years who had ≥2 episodes of binge drinking (≥8 units in one session) in the preceding month were recruited. Two recruitment strategies were assessed: recruitment from general practice registers and by a community outreach strategy. Theoretically and empirically based text messages were tailored to the target group. The study recruited 67 disadvantaged men at high risk of alcohol-related harm, exceeding the target of 60. Evaluation showed that 95% of text messages were delivered, and the men engaged enthusiastically with the intervention. Retention at follow up was 96%. Outcomes were successfully measured on all men followed up. This provided data for the sample size calculation for the full trial. Post-study evaluation showed high levels of satisfaction with the study. This study has shown that disadvantaged men can be recruited and follow-up data obtained in an alcohol intervention study. The study methods were acceptable to the participants. The men recruited were at high risk of alcohol-related harms. It also clarified ways in which the recruitment strategy, the baseline questionnaire and the intervention could be improved. The full trial is currently underway. [Crombie IK, Irvine L, Falconer DW, Williams B, Ricketts IW, Jones C, Humphris G, Norrie J, Slane P, Rice P. Alcohol and disadvantaged men: A feasibility trial of an intervention delivered by mobile phone. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:468-476]. © 2017 The Authors. Drug and Alcohol Review published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Chiodo, Lisa M; Bailey, Beth A; Sokol, Robert J; Janisse, James; Delaney-Black, Virginia; Hannigan, John H
Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is one potential risk factor for spontaneous abortion (SAb). Prior research suggested that heavy drinking during pregnancy was associated with significantly increased rates of SAb, but results for lower levels of drinking have been inconsistent. We examined the association between different levels and patterns of prenatal alcohol consumption and SAb in a high-risk inner-city sample. We hypothesized that higher levels, binge patterns, and more frequent drinking would be associated with increased rates of SAb. The quantity and frequency of self-reported peri-conceptional and repeated in-pregnancy maternal drinking volumes per beverage type were assessed with semi-structured interviews in a prospective subsample of 302 African-American mothers. Relations between various measures of prenatal alcohol exposure and SAb were assessed using logistic regression. After controlling for various potential confounders, there was a significant positive relation between average absolute alcohol use per day across pregnancy and SAb. Greater frequency of drinking episodes also predicted SAb: an average of even one day of drinking per week across pregnancy was associated with an increase in the incidence of SAb. However, contrary to our hypothesis, neither the amount of alcohol drunk per drinking day nor a measure of binge drinking was significantly related to SAb after controlling for confounders. Differences in when women who drank at risk levels initiated antenatal care may have under-estimated the impact of alcohol on SAb in this low-SES urban African-American sample. Some drinking measures averaged across pregnancy may have under-estimated consumption and overestimated risk of SAb, but other risk drinking measures that avoid this limitation show similar relations to SAb. Identifying fetal risk drinking in pregnant women is critical to increasing the effectiveness of interventions that reduce risk level alcohol consumption and protect from
Kuo, Meichun; Wechsler, Henry; Greenberg, Patty; Lee, Hang
Heavy episodic or binge drinking has been recognized as a major problem on American college campuses affecting the health, safety, and education of students. The present study examines the alcohol environment surrounding college campuses and assesses the impact on students' drinking. This environment includes alcohol promotions, price specials, and advertising at drinking establishments that serve beer for on-premise consumption as well as retail outlets that sell beer for off-premise consumption. The study used student self-report data from the 2001 College Alcohol Study (CAS) and direct observational assessments by trained observers who visited alcohol establishments in communities where the participating colleges were located. The analytic sample included more than 10,000 students as well as 830 on-premise and 1684 off-premise establishments at 118 colleges. Alcohol specials, promotions, and advertisements were prevalent in the alcohol outlets around college campuses. Almost three quarters of on-premise establishments offered specials on weekends, and almost one half of the on-premise establishments and more than 60% of off-premise establishments provided at least one type of beer promotion. The availability of large volumes of alcohol (24- and 30-can cases of beer, kegs, party balls), low sale prices, and frequent promotions and advertisements at both on- and off-premise establishments were associated with higher binge drinking rates on the college campuses. In addition, an overall measure of on- and off-premise establishments was positively associated with the total number of drinks consumed. The regulation of marketing practices such as sale prices, promotions, and advertisements may be important strategies to reduce binge drinking and its accompanying problems.
McClatchley, Kirstie; Shorter, Gillian W; Chalmers, Jenny
To examine alcohol consumed during a drinking event (a single drinking occasion) by those attending public house/on-trade establishments on nights with standard pricing and nights with promotional prices. Data (n = 425) were collected in an ecological momentary assessment over eight nights in two locations (Midlands and London) on both promotional and standard (Saturday) nights. Multiple regression was used to predict event alcohol consumption by sex, age, type of night, alcohol preloading behaviour, marital and employment status, education, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test alcohol consumption questions separately or total AUDIT-C and social group size. Mean (UK) units consumed were 11.8 (London) and 14.4 (Midlands). In London, consumption was similar on promotional and standard nights, but in the Midlands, standard night consumption was three units higher. Preloading was reported by 30%; more common on standard nights. Regression analyses revealed being male, preloading and past-year total AUDIT-C were associated with higher event consumption. However, when AUDIT-C questions were added separately, being a standard night was associated with increased event consumption and different AUDIT-C questions were significantly associated with event consumption in each location. Event consumption reflected heavy episodic drinking and was influenced by price. Promotional night consumption either matched standard Saturday night consumption or was slightly lower. In London, there was a significant preference for drinking at least one promotional beverage on promotional nights. On standard nights, consumption was over a wider range of venues, and preloading with off-trade alcohol was more likely. © 2014 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Full Text Available Alcohol, primarily in the form of ethyl alcohol (ethanol, has occupied an important place in the history of humankind for at least 8,000 years. In most Western societies, at least 90% of people consume alcohol at some time during their lives, and 30% or more of drinkers develop alcohol-related problems. Severe alcohol-related life impairment, alcohol dependence (alcoholism, is observed at some time during their lives in about 10% of men and 3—5% of women. An additional 5—10% of each sex develops persistent, but less intense, problems that are diagnosed as alcohol abuse. It this review, neurobiological aspects of suicidal behavior in alcoholism is discussed. In individuals with comorbid depression and alcoholism, greater serotonergic impairment may be associated with higher risk of completed suicide. Dopaminergic dysfunction may play an important role in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior in alcoholism. Brain damage and neurobehavioral deficits are associated with alcohol use disorders and may contribute to suicidal behavior in persons with alcohol dependence or abuse. Aggression/impulsivity and alcoholism severity affect risk for suicide among individuals with alcoholism. Major depressive episodes and stressful life events particularly, partner-relationship disruptions, may precipitate suicidal behavior in individuals with alcohol use disorders. Alcohol misuse and psychosocial adversity can combine to increase stress on the person, and, thereby, potentially, increase the risk for suicidal behavior. The management of suicidal patients with alcohol use disorders is also discussed. It is to be hoped that the efforts of clinicians will reduce morbidity and mortality associated with alcohol misuse.
Cox, B.; Gilman, F.J.; Gottschalk, T.D.
A range of issues pertaining to heavy flavors at the SSC is examined including heavy flavor production by gluon-gluon fusion and by shower evolution of gluon jets, flavor tagging, reconstruction of Higgs and W bosons, and the study of rare decays and CP violation in the B meson system. A specific detector for doing heavy flavor physics and tuned to this latter study at the SSC, the TASTER, is described. 36 refs., 10 figs
Dvorak, Robert D; Kramer, Matthew P; Stevenson, Brittany L; Sargent, Emily M; Kilwein, Tess M
Spring break (SB) can lead to heavy episodic drinking and increased alcohol-related risks. This may be especially relevant for women. The current study utilized deviance regulation theory to increase the use of protective behavioral strategies (PBSs) among female college students on SB. Female college students going on SB (n = 62) completed a screening, a pre-SB intervention (where they were randomly assigned to receive either a positively or negatively framed message about individuals who do or do not use PBS), and a post-SB assessment that provided alcohol and PBS use data for each day of SB (n = 620 person-days). Data were analyzed using a multilevel structural equation model. In the negative frame, SB PBS use was higher among those who perceived SB PBS norms to be more common on SB relative to non-SB. In the positive frame, SB PBS use was higher among those who perceived SB PBS norms to be less common on SB relative to non-SB. These associations did not result in lower alcohol consumption, but did result in a lower likelihood of experiencing alcohol-related problems during SB. These results suggest that a brief online intervention, that utilizes targeted messages based on normative perceptions of SB PBS use, could be an effective strategy for reducing alcohol-related consequences among college student women during SB. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Templer, Victoria L; Hampton, Robert R
Episodic memories differ from other types of memory because they represent aspects of the past not present in other memories, such as the time, place, or social context in which the memories were formed. Focus on phenomenal experience in human memory, such as the sense of 'having been there', has resulted in conceptualizations of episodic memory that are difficult or impossible to apply to nonhuman species. It is therefore a significant challenge for investigators to agree on objective behavioral criteria that can be applied in nonhuman animals and still capture features of memory thought to be critical in humans. Some investigators have attempted to use neurobiological parallels to bridge this gap; however, defining memory types on the basis of the brain structures involved rather than on identified cognitive mechanisms risks missing crucial functional aspects of episodic memory, which are ultimately behavioral. The most productive way forward is likely a combination of neurobiology and sophisticated cognitive testing that identifies the mental representations present in episodic memory. Investigators that have refined their approach from asking the naïve question "do nonhuman animals have episodic memory" to instead asking "what aspects of episodic memory are shared by humans and nonhumans" are making progress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Daunais, James B; Davenport, April T; Helms, Christa M; Gonzales, Steven W; Hemby, Scott E; Friedman, David P; Farro, Jonathan P; Baker, Erich J; Grant, Kathleen A
An estimated 18 million adults in the United States meet the clinical criteria for diagnosis of alcohol abuse or alcoholism, a disorder ranked as the third leading cause of preventable death. In addition to brain pathology, heavy alcohol consumption is comorbid with damage to major organs including heart, lungs, liver, pancreas, and kidneys. Much of what is known about risk for and consequences of heavy consumption derive from rodent or retrospective human studies. The neurobiological effects of chronic intake in rodent studies may not easily translate to humans due to key differences in brain structure and organization between species, including a lack of higher-order cognitive functions, and differences in underlying prefrontal cortical neural structures that characterize the primate brain. Further, rodents do not voluntarily consume large quantities of ethanol (EtOH) and they metabolize it more rapidly than primates. The basis of the Monkey Alcohol Tissue Research Resource (MATRR) is that nonhuman primates, specifically monkeys, show a range of drinking excessive amounts of alcohol (>3.0 g/kg or a 12 drink equivalent per day) over long periods of time (12 to 30 months) with concomitant pathological changes in endocrine, hepatic, and central nervous system (CNS) processes. The patterns and range of alcohol intake that monkeys voluntarily consume parallel what is observed in humans with alcohol use disorders and the longitudinal experimental design spans stages of drinking from the EtOH-naïve state to early exposure through chronic abuse. Age- and sex-matched control animals self-administer an isocaloric solution under identical operant procedures. The MATRR is a unique postmortem tissue bank that provides CNS and peripheral tissues, and associated bioinformatics from monkeys that self-administer EtOH using a standardized experimental paradigm to the broader alcohol research community. This resource provides a translational platform from which we can better
Arnyas, Ervin M; Pál, László; Kovács, Csilla; Adány, Róza; McKee, Martin; Szűcs, Sándor
Aliphatic alcohols present in illegally produced spirits in a large number of low and middle income countries have been implicated in the etiology of chronic liver disease and cirrhosis. Previous studies have confirmed that chronic alcoholism can lead to increased susceptibility to infectious diseases. Reduced superoxide-anion (O(2)·(-)) production by granulocytes could provide a mechanism by which antimicrobial defense is impaired in alcoholics. In vitro experiments have also demonstrated that ethanol can inhibit granulocyte O(2)·(-) generation. Aliphatic alcohols consumed as contaminants of illicit spirits may also influence O(2)·(-) production thereby contributing to a decrease in microbicidal activity. The aim of this study was to investigate this possibility. It measured the O(2)·(-) production by human granulocytes following treatment of the cells with aliphatic alcohol contaminants found in illicit spirits. Granulocytes were isolated from human buffy coats with centrifugal elutriation and then treated with individual aliphatic alcohols and their mixture. The O(2)·(-) production was stimulated with phorbol-12-13-dibutyrate and N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) and measured by superoxide dismutase inhibitable reduction of ferricytochrome c. Aliphatic alcohols of illegally produced spirits inhibited the FMLP-induced O(2)·(-) production in a concentration dependent manner. They suppressed O(2)·(-) generation at 2.5-40 times lower concentrations when combined than when tested individually. Aliphatic alcohols found in illegally produced spirits can inhibit FMLP-induced O(2)·(-) production by granulocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. Due to their synergistic effects, it is possible that, in combination with ethanol, they may inhibit O(2)·(-) formation in heavy episodic drinkers.
Tønnesen, H; Kaiser, A H; Nielsen, B B
Alcohol abusers have suppressed cellular immune function. The aim of the study was to investigate the time of sobriety required to normalize immune function. Delayed hypersensitivity was investigated during disulfiram controlled abstinence in ten heavy alcoholics and in seven moderate drinkers...... months of abstinence. The results suggest that while 2 weeks of abstinence from alcohol will improve the depressed cellular immunity, 2 months of sobriety is necessary to normalize it....
Ojea Ortega, T; González Álvarez de Sotomayor, M M; Pérez González, O; Fernández Fernández, O
The purpose of the episodic memory test and the caregiver's episodic memory test is to evaluate episodic memory according to its definition in a way that is feasible for families and achieves high degrees of sensitivity and specificity. We administered a test consisting of 10 questions about episodic events to 332 subjects, of whom 65 had Alzheimer's disease (AD), 115 had amnestic MCI (aMCI) and 152 showed no cognitive impairment according to Reisberg's global deterioration scale (GDS). We calculated the test's sensitivity and specificity to distinguish AD from episodic aMCI and from normal ageing. The area under the ROC curve for the diagnosis of aMCI was 0.94 and the best cut-off value was 20; for that value, sensitivity was 89% and specificity was 82%. For a diagnosis of AD, the area under the ROC curve was 0.99 and the best cut-off point was 17, with a sensitivity of 98% and a specificity of 91%. A subsequent study using similar methodology yielded similar results when the test was administered directly by the caregiver. The episodic memory test and the caregiver's episodic memory test are useful as brief screening tools for identifying patients with early-stage AD. It is suitable for use by primary care medical staff and in the home, since it can be administered by a caregiver. The test's limitations are that it must be administered by a reliable caregiver and the fact that it measures episodic memory only. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
He was an alcoholic receiving psychiatric care for alcoholism. They both presented separately at different hospitals with decompensated diabetes following heavy alcohol consumption. The history and clinico-laboratory picture of both patients are presented and brief management programme and outcome are also given.
... breakdown. Because of the effects of alcohol on balance and gait, people with alcoholism tend to fall more frequently than those without the disorder. Heavy alcohol consumption has been linked to an increase in the risk of fracture, including the most serious kind—hip ...
Islam, N.; Ferdous, N.; Nesha, K.; Rasker, Johannes J.
Objectives: This study was aimed to determine the names and alcohol content or strength of different alcoholic beverages used in different parts of Bangladesh and also to determine contamination with heavy metals and bacteria in some samples. Methods: Eight different types of alcoholic beverages
Ferrari, P.; McKay, J. D.; Jenab, M.
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Heavy alcohol drinking is a risk factor of colorectal cancer (CRC), but little is known on the effect of polymorphisms in the alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) on the alcohol-related risk of CRC in Caucasian populati...
The thesis concerns itself with alcohol advertising. Alcohol is the most widespread habit-forming substance, yet its consumption is permitted in most countries all around the world, possibly restricted by the age of consumers only. Drinking alcohol cannot be either regulated or prohibited today. It has become commonplace for the majority of our lives. Being aware of its apparent risks, however, there is an effort to regulate at least alcohol advertising. The main objective of this work was to...
The work deals with the heavy metal subculture. In the first part it introduces the term, history of heavy metal, heavy metal sub-genres, social roles in the subcul-ture (who is band member, headbanger, groupie, etc.) and collective dances which are taking part in concerts of heavy metal bands. The second part is devoted to con-troversial topics connected to heavy metal like: gender, religion, violence, death, drugs and alcohol. Next it describes relationship between heavy metal subculture an...
Full Text Available Mistaking psychogenic nonepileptic paroxysmal episodes (PNEPEs for epileptic seizures (ES is potentially dangerous, and certain features should alert physicians to a possible PNEPE diagnosis. Psychogenic nonepileptic paroxysmal episodes due to factitious seizures carry particularly high risks of morbidity or mortality from nonindicated emergency treatment and, often, high costs in wasted medical treatment expenditures. We report a case of a 28-year-old man with PNEPEs that were misdiagnosed as ES. The patient had been on four antiseizure medications (ASMs with therapeutic serum levels and had had multiple intubations in the past for uncontrolled episodes. He had no episodes for two days of continuous video-EEG monitoring. He then disconnected his EEG cables and had an episode of generalized stiffening and cyanosis, followed by jerking and profuse bleeding from the mouth. The manifestations were unusually similar to those of ES, except that he was clearly startled by spraying water on his face, while he was stiff in all extremities and unresponsive. There were indications that he had sucked blood from his central venous catheter to expel through his mouth during his PNEPEs while consciously holding his breath. Normal video-EEG monitoring; the patient's volitional and deceptive acts to fabricate the appearance of illness, despite pain and personal endangerment; and the absence of reward other than remaining in a sick role were all consistent with a diagnosis of factitious disorder.
Jacofsky, D J
Episodic, or bundled payments, is a concept now familiar to most in the healthcare arena, but the models are often misunderstood. Under a traditional fee-for-service model, each provider bills separately for their services which creates financial incentives to maximise volumes. Under a bundled payment, a single entity, often referred to as a convener (maybe the hospital, the physician group, or a third party) assumes the risk through a payer contract for all services provided within a defined episode of care, and receives a single (bundled) payment for all services provided for that episode. The time frame around the intervention is variable, but defined in advance, as are included and excluded costs. Timing of the actual payment in a bundle may either be before the episode occurs (prospective payment model), or after the end of the episode through a reconciliation (retrospective payment model). In either case, the defined costs over the defined time frame are borne by the convener. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:1280-5. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.
Eva M. Marco
Full Text Available Alcohol is a serious public health concern that has a differential impact on individuals depending upon age and sex. Patterns of alcohol consumption have recently changed: heavy episodic drinking—known as binge-drinking—has become most popular among the youth. Herein, we aimed to investigate the consequences of intermittent adolescent alcohol consumption in male and female animals. Thus, Wistar rats were given free access to ethanol (20% in drinking water or tap water for 2-h sessions during 3 days, and for an additional 4-h session on the 4th day; every week during adolescence, from postnatal day (pnd 28–52. During this period, animals consumed a moderate amount of alcohol despite blood ethanol concentration (BEC did not achieve binge-drinking levels. No withdrawal signs were observed: no changes were observed regarding anxiety-like responses in the elevated plus-maze or plasma corticosterone levels (pnd 53–54. In the novel object recognition (NOR test (pnd 63, a significant deficit in recognition memory was observed in both male and female rats. Western Blot analyses resulted in an increase in the expression of synaptophysin in the frontal cortex (FC of male and female animals, together with a decrease in the expression of the CB2R in the same brain region. In addition, adolescent alcohol induced, exclusively among females, a decrease in several markers of dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmission, in which epigenetic mechanisms, i.e., histone acetylation, might be involved. Taken together, further research is still needed to specifically correlate sex-specific brain and behavioral consequences of adolescent alcohol exposure.
Buvik, Kristin; Bye, Elin K; Gripenberg, Johanna
There is increased concern about the use of alcohol and illicit drugs in nightlife settings. Most studies of substance use in nightlife settings are from the patrons' perspective, which leaves an understudied population - the nightclub staff. The aim of this paper is to study self-reported alcohol and substance use among staff at licensed premises in Norway: types of illicit drugs used, attitudes towards drugs, and observed drug use among patrons. A survey was conducted at server-training courses in 20 different cities in Norway during 2015. The survey included: demographics, respondents' own alcohol and drug experience, attitudes towards drug use, and observed drug use among patrons at licensed premises. Data were collected from 912 staff working at licensed premises. A majority reported alcohol use in the past year, and 61% reported alcohol use two or more times a month. Overall, 45% of the respondents reported ever-used of illicit drugs. The four most commonly used drugs among staff were cannabis, cocaine, ecstasy/MDMA, and amphetamine. The majority of respondents supported Norway's strict drug laws, and 63% reported observing drug-intoxicated patrons at licensed premises during the past six months. The proportion of frequent drinkers and heavy episodic drinking among staff at licensed premises was high, and the prevalence of illicit drug use was much higher compared with the general population. Thus, staff at licensed premises can be considered a risk-group for alcohol and illicit drug use and therefore represent an important target population in club drug-prevention programmes.
Evensen, Julie; Røssberg, Jan Ivar; Barder, Helene
Apathy is a common symptom in first episode psychosis (FEP), and is associated with poor functioning. Prevalence and correlates of apathy 10 years after the first psychotic episode remain unexplored.......Apathy is a common symptom in first episode psychosis (FEP), and is associated with poor functioning. Prevalence and correlates of apathy 10 years after the first psychotic episode remain unexplored....
Objective: To analyse the impact of the alcohol market on the implementation of strong-willed public alcohol abuse prevention policies based on a critical review of the literature. Method: Documentary research and analysis of the alcohol market economic data were performed. An overview of public alcohol abuse prevention policies was conducted from a historical perspective by distinguishing drunkenness control policies, protection of vulnerable populations, and the fight against drink driving and drinking in the workplace. Results: Public alcohol abuse prevention policies are primarily designed to reduce the harmful consequences of alcohol occurring as a result of a drinking episode (motor vehicle accident, highway accidents, etc.), while neglecting the long-term consequences (cancer, cirrhosis, etc.). Moreover, while taxation is one of the major public health tools used to reduce the costs of alcohol-related damage on society, the State exercises legislative and tax protection for alcoholic beverages produced in France. In particular, wine benefits from a lower tax rate than other stronger forms of alcohol (spirits, liquors, etc.). The economic weight of the alcohol market can provide an explanation for these public alcohol abuse prevention policies. Conclusion: In view of the mortality caused by alcohol abuse, France must implement a proactive public policy. An alcohol taxation policy based on the alcohol content, a minimum unit pricing for alcohol, or higher taxes on alcohol are public policies that could be considered in order to reduce alcohol-related mortality.
Martin-Ordas, Gema; Call, Josep
Historically, episodic memory has been described as autonoetic, personally relevant, complex, context-rich, and allowing mental time travel. In contrast, semantic memory, which is theorized to be free of context and personal relevance, is noetic and consists of general knowledge of facts about the world. The field of comparative psychology has adopted this distinction in order to study episodic memory in non-human animals. Our aim in this article is not only to reflect on the concept of episodic memory and the experimental approaches used in comparative psychology to study this phenomenon, but also to provide a critical analysis of these paradigms. We conclude the article by providing new avenues for future research. PMID:23781179
The addition of C/sub 6-10/ alcohols to the fermenting sugar solutions, increased the yield of alcohol by 1.5 to 5%. The best additives were (additive, % additive in sugar solution, % increased in yield of alcohol): hexanol, 0.03, 2.5; heptanol, 0.05, 3; nonanol, 0.01, 3; 2-ethylbutanol, 0.05, 4; 2-ethylhexanol, 0.05, 5; a mixture of C/sub 7-9/ alcohols from the Oxo synthesis, 0.05, 4.5, and a mixture of C/sub 10/ alcohols 0.05, 3.
Full Text Available Objective. To estimate if there is a non-linear association between varying levels of alcohol use and poor mental health (depressive and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms in university students from low-, middle- and high-income countries. Methods. Using anonymous questionnaires, data were collected from 19 238 undergraduate university students (mean age 20.8; standard deviation (SD 2.8 from 27 universities in 26 countries across Asia, Africa and the Americas. Alcohol use was assessed in terms of number of drinks in the past 2 weeks and number of drinks per episode, and measures of depression and PTSD symptoms were administered. Results. The proportion of students with elevated depression scores was 12.3%, 16.9%, and 11.5% for non-drinkers, moderate drinkers, and heavy drinkers, respectively, while the proportion of students with high PTSD symptoms was 20.6%, 20.4% and 23.1% for non-drinkers, moderate drinkers, and heavy drinkers, respectively. Logistic regression found that non-drinkers and heavy drinkers had a lower odds than moderate drinkers to have severe depression, after adjusting for sociodemographic variables, social support and subjective health status. Further, heavy, more frequent drinkers and more frequent binge drinkers had a higher odds to have elevated PTSD symptoms than moderate and non-drinkers, after adjusting for sociodemographic variables, social support and subjective health status. Conclusion. The results suggest a reverse U-shaped association between recent alcohol use volume and frequency and depressive symptoms (unlike that previously identified, and a J-shaped association between binge drinking frequency and depressive symptoms and alcohol use and PTSD symptoms.
Damgaard Sandahl, Thomas
Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute inflammatory syndrome causing significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis is strongly dependent on disease severity, as assessed by clinical scoring systems. Reliable epidemiological data as well as knowledge of the clinical course of AH are essential for planning and resource allocation within the health care system. Likewise, individual evaluation of risk is desirable in the clinical handling of patients with AH as it can guide treatment, improve patient information, and serve as strata in clinical trials. The present PhD thesis is based on three studies using a cohort of nearly 2000 patients diagnosed with AH in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 as a cohort, in a population-based study design. The aims of this thesis were as follows. (1) To describe the incidence and short- and long-term mortality, of AH in Denmark (Study I). (2) To validate and compare the ability of the currently available prognostic scores to predict mortality in AH (Study II). (3) To investigate the short- and long-term causes of death of patients with AH (Study III). During the study decade, the annual incidence rate in the Danish population rose from 37 to 46 per 106 for men and from 24 to 34 per 106 for women. Both short- and long-term mortality rose for men and women, and the increase in short-term mortality was attributable to increasing patient age and prevalence of cirrhosis. Our evaluation of the most commonly used prognostic scores for predicting the mortality of patients with AH showed that all scores performed similarly, with Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristics curves giving values between 0.74 and 0.78 for 28-day mortality assessed on admission. Our study on causes of death showed that in the short-term (thesis provides novel warranted epidemiological information about AH that shows increasing incidence and mortality rates. Consequently, it reiterates the fact that AH is a life-threatening disease and suggests that AH is an
Kupari, M; Koskinen, P
Studies in experimental animals have shown varying and apparently opposite effects of alcohol on cardiac rhythm and conduction. Given acutely to non-alcoholic animals, ethanol may even have anti-arrhythmic properties whereas chronic administration clearly increases the animals' susceptibility to cardiac arrhythmias. Chronic heavy alcohol use has been incriminated in the genesis of cardiac arrhythmias in humans. The evidence has come from clinical observations, retrospective case-control studies, controlled studies of consecutive admissions for arrhythmias, and prospective epidemiological investigations. Furthermore, electrophysiological studies have shown that acute alcohol administration facilitates the induction of tachyarrhythmias in selected heavy drinkers. The role of alcohol appears particularly conspicuous in idiopathic atrial fibrillation. Occasionally, ventricular tachyarrhythmias have also been provoked by alcohol intake. Several lines of evidence suggest that heavy drinking increases the risk of sudden cardiac death with fatal arrhythmia as the most likely mechanism. According to epidemiological studies this effect appears most prominent in middle-aged men and is only partly explained by confounding traits such as smoking and social class. The basic arrhythmogenic effects of alcohol are still insufficiently delineated. Subclinical heart muscle injury from chronic heavy use may be instrumental in producing patchy delays in conduction. The hyperadrenergic state of drinking and withdrawal may also contribute, as may electrolyte abnormalities, impaired vagal heart rate control, repolarization abnormalities with prolonged QT intervals and worsening of myocardial ischaemia or sleep apnoea. Most of what we know about alcohol and arrhythmias relates to heavy drinking. The effect of social drinking on clinical arrhythmias in non-alcoholic cardiac patients needs to be addressed further.
de Bruijn, H.; Korzec, A.; Arndt, T.; van den Brink, W.
The purpose of this study was to establish the discriminant validity of alcohol use disorder (AUD) diagnoses within a population of well-functioning male heavy drinkers. A group of 57 subjects with a consumption of at least 28 alcoholic units (AU)/week was recruited from wine-tasting clubs. Within
Glassman, Tavis; Werch, Chudley Chad; Jobli, Edessa
The aims of the present study were to: (1) factor analyze a 13-item adolescent alcohol self-control behavior scale, (2) examine associations between frequency of self-control behavior use and alcohol consumption, and (3) to determine which self-control behaviors best predict alcohol use and consequences. A confidential standardized survey was used to collect data on participant's 30-day frequency, quantity, and heavy use of alcohol; alcohol-related consequences; and alcohol self-control behaviors. A principal component factor analysis produced the following three components: Healthy Alternatives (alpha=.81), Self-regulation (alpha=.72), and Assertive Communication (alpha=.73). MANOVAs indicated strong associations between frequency of use of the three types of self-control behaviors and alcohol consumption (p valuesadolescents, followed by Healthy Alternatives.
Children and adolescents are particularly vulnerable to the harmful effects of alcohol, with heavy drinking risking impaired brain development and future alcohol dependence. Advertisements increase expectancies about alcohol, leading to a greater likelihood of drinking. A systematic review of 13 longitudinal studies of over 38,000 young people found convincing evidence of an impact of media exposure and alcohol advertising on subsequent alcohol use, including initiation of drinking and heavier drinking among existing drinkers. All European countries, with the exception of the UK, have a ban on one or more types of advertising. Since self-regulation is reported as failing to prevent marketing which has an impact on younger people, and since advertising commonly crosses country borders, there is an argument to approximate advertising rules across Europe banning alcohol advertising targeted at young people, a highly cost-effective measure to reduce harmful alcohol use, and one supported by European citizens and case law.
Özbek, Müge; Bohn, Annette; Berntsen, Dorthe
Episodic counterfactuals are imagined events that could have happened, but did not happen, in a person’s past. Such imagined past events are important aspects of mental life, affecting emotions, decisions, and behaviors. However, studies examining their phenomenological characteristics and content...... are few. Here we introduced a new method to systematically compare self-generated episodic counterfactuals to self-generated episodic memories and future projections with regard to their phenomenological characteristics (e.g., imagery, emotional valence, rehearsal) and content (e.g., reference to cultural...... distance. The findings show that imagined events are phenomenologically different from memories of experienced events, consistent with reality monitoring theory, and that imagined future events are different from both actual and imagined past events, consistent with some theories of motivation....
Moreno, Megan A; Cox, Elizabeth D; Young, Henry N; Haaland, Wren
College is often a time of alcohol use initiation and displayed Facebook alcohol references. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to determine associations between initial references to alcohol on social media and college students' self-reported recent drinking, binge drinking, and excessive drinking. First-year students from two U.S. public universities were randomly selected from registrar lists for recruitment. Data collection included 2 years of monthly Facebook evaluation. When an initial displayed Facebook alcohol reference was identified, these "New Alcohol Displayers" were contacted for phone interviews. Phone interviews used the validated timeline followback method to evaluate recent alcohol use, binge episodes, and excessive drinking. Analyses included calculation of positive predictive value and Poisson regression. A total of 338 participants were enrolled; 56.1% participants were female, 74.8% were Caucasian, and 58.8% were from the Midwestern University. A total of 167 (49.4%) participants became new alcohol displayers during the first 2 years of college. Among new alcohol displayers, 78.5% reported past 28-day alcohol use. Among new alcohol displayers who reported recent alcohol use, 84.9% reported at least one binge episode. Posting an initial Facebook alcohol reference as a profile picture or cover photo was positively associated with excessive drinking (risk ratio = 2.34; 95% confidence interval, 1.54-3.58). Findings suggest positive associations between references to alcohol on social media and self-reported recent alcohol use. Location of initial reference as a profile picture or cover photo was associated with problematic drinking and may suggest that a student would benefit from clinical investigation or resources. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Read, Jennifer P; Haas, Amie L; Radomski, Sharon; Wickham, Robert E; Borish, Sarah E
Heavy and problematic drinking is common on college campuses and is associated with myriad hazardous outcomes. The Young Adult Alcohol Consequences Questionnaire (YAACQ; Read et al., 2006) was developed to provide comprehensive and expedient assessment of negative consequences of young adult drinking and has been used in a number of research and clinical settings. To date, no empirically derived cutoffs for the YAACQ have been available for use in the identification of those drinkers at greatest risk. This was the objective of the present study. In a large (N = 1,311) and demographically heterogeneous multisite sample, we identified cutoff scores for the YAACQ, and the contrasted detection of hazardous drinking using these cutoffs with those recommended for the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). We also examined whether cutoffs differed by gender. Results of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis yielded cutoffs that delineate 3 levels (or zones) of hazardous drinking risk: low, moderate, and high. A cutoff of 8 differentiated those at low risk from those at moderate risk or greater, and a cutoff of 16 differentiated between moderate and high risk. These zones corresponded to other indices of risky drinking, including heavy episodic "binge" drinking, more frequent alcohol consumption, and engagement in alcohol risk behaviors. Scores differentiating low to moderate risk differed for men (8) and women (10), whereas the cutoff for high risk was the same (16) across the sexes. Findings suggest that the YAACQ can be used to reliably assess level of drinking risk among college students. Furthermore, these cut scores may be used to refer to interventions varying in intensity level, based on level of indicated alcohol risk. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Burke, Sloane C.; Cremeens, Jennifer; Vail-Smith, Karen; Woolsey, Conrad
Using a sample of 692 freshmen at a southeastern university, this study examined caloric restriction among students prior to planned alcohol consumption. Participants were surveyed for self-reported alcohol consumption, binge drinking, and caloric intake habits prior to drinking episodes. Results indicated that 99 of 695 (14%) of first year…
Cousijn, J.; Luijten, M.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.
The tendency to approach alcohol-related stimuli is known as the alcohol-approach bias and has been related to heavy alcohol use. It is currently unknown whether the alcohol-approach bias is more pronounced after emotional priming. The main aim of this study was to investigate whether positive and
Cousijn, Janna; Luijten, Maartje; Wiers, Reinout W
The tendency to approach alcohol-related stimuli is known as the alcohol-approach bias and has been related to heavy alcohol use. It is currently unknown whether the alcohol-approach bias is more pronounced after emotional priming. The main aim of this study was to investigate whether positive and
Cousijn, J.; Luijten, M.; Wiers, R.W.
The tendency to approach alcohol-related stimuli is known as the alcohol-approach bias and has been related to heavy alcohol use. It is currently unknown whether the alcohol-approach bias is more pronounced after emotional priming. The main aim of this study was to investigate whether positive and
J. Cousijn (Janna); M. Luijten (Maartje); R.W. Wiers (Reinout)
textabstractThe tendency to approach alcohol-related stimuli is known as the alcohol-approach bias and has been related to heavy alcohol use. It is currently unknown whether the alcohol-approach bias is more pronounced after emotional priming. The main aim of this study was to investigate whether
Houben, K.; Nederkoorn, C.; Wiers, R.W.; Jansen, A.
According to dual-process models, excessive alcohol use emerges when response inhibition ability is insufficient to inhibit automatic impulses to drink alcohol. This study examined whether strengthening response inhibition for alcohol-related cues decreases alcohol intake. Fifty-two heavy drinking
Moos, Rudolf H.; Moos, Bernice S.
This study examined the influence of the duration and frequency of a baseline episode of participation in Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) among 473 individuals with alcohol use disorders on 1-year and 8-year outcomes and the effect of additional participation and delayed participation on outcomes. Compared with individuals who did not participate,…
Glass, Joseph E.; Rathouz, Paul J.; Gattis, Maurice; Joo, Young Sun; Nelson, Jennifer C.; Williams, Emily C.
We examine whether intersectionality theory—which formalizes the notion that adverse health outcomes owing to having a marginalized social status, identity, or characteristic, may be magnified for individuals with an additional marginalized social status, identity, or characteristic —can be applied using quantitative methods to describe the differential effects of poverty on alcohol consumption across sex and race/ethnicity. Using the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, we analyze longitudinal data from Black, Hispanic, and White drinkers (n = 21,140) to assess multiplicative interactions between poverty, as defined by the U.S. Census Bureau, sex, and race/ethnicity, on adverse alcohol outcomes. Findings indicated that the effect of poverty on the past-year incidence of heavy episodic drinking was stronger among Black men and Black women in comparison to men and women of other racial/ethnic groups. Poverty reduction programs that are culturally informed may help reduce racial/ethnic disparities in the adverse outcomes of alcohol consumption. PMID:28349171
Full Text Available Alcohol abuse is a serious medical and social problem. Although light to moderate alcohol consumption is beneficial to cardiovascular health, heavy drinking often results in organ damage and social problems. In addition, genetic susceptibility to the effect of alcohol on cancer and coronary heart disease differs across the population. A number of mechanisms including direct the toxicity of ethanol, its metabolites [e.g., acetaldehyde and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs] and oxidative stress may mediate alcoholic complications. Acetaldehyde, the primary metabolic product of ethanol, is an important candidate toxin in developing alcoholic diseases. Meanwhile, free radicals produced during ethanol metabolism and FAEEs are also important triggers for alcoholic damages.
Guo, Rui; Ren, Jun
Alcohol abuse is a serious medical and social problem. Although light to moderate alcohol consumption is beneficial to cardiovascular health, heavy drinking often results in organ damage and social problems. In addition, genetic susceptibility to the effect of alcohol on cancer and coronary heart disease differs across the population. A number of mechanisms including direct the toxicity of ethanol, its metabolites [e.g., acetaldehyde and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs)] and oxidative stress may mediate alcoholic complications. Acetaldehyde, the primary metabolic product of ethanol, is an important candidate toxin in developing alcoholic diseases. Meanwhile, free radicals produced during ethanol metabolism and FAEEs are also important triggers for alcoholic damages.
Buras, Andrzej J
This volume is a collection of review articles on the most outstanding topics in heavy flavour physics. All the authors have made significant contributions to this field. The book reviews in detail the theoretical structure of heavy flavour physics and confronts the Standard Model and some of its extensions with existing experimental data.This new edition covers new trends and ideas and includes the latest experimental information. Compared to the previous edition interesting new activities are included and some of the key contributions are updated. Particular attention is paid to the discover
Lee, Kai H; Qiu, Michael; Sun, Jiandong
This study aimed to address 2 important aspects of temporal pattern in alcohol-related facial fractures: (1) comparison of temporal pattern of alcohol-related facial fracture (alcohol group) presentation with non-alcohol-related fracture (non-alcohol group) presentation; (2) temporal pattern of patient demographic characteristics, injury characteristics, and surgical management in the alcohol group presentation. This study retrospectively examined the Victorian admitted episodes data set (VAED) for the years 2010 to 2013. VAED is a standardized set of data collected during all hospital presentations in Victoria. The study found higher incidence of alcohol-related facial fracture presentations during weekends and during the summer and spring months compared with non-alcohol-related fractures (statistically significant). Alcohol-related facial fractures are more likely to involve male patients in the 20- to 29-year age group, occur as a result of interpersonal violence, and require shorter hospital stays during weekend admissions (statistically significant). No statistically significant relationship has been observed in seasonal variation across all variables. This study found distinct characteristics in temporal distribution of alcohol-related facial fractures. These characteristics are, in particular, significant in weekend trauma admissions. Such information is important in workforce planning, resource distribution, and implementation of injury prevention programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ramo, Danielle E; Kaur, Manpreet; Corpuz, Ella S; Satre, Derek D; Delucchi, Kevin; Brown, Sandra A; Prochaska, Judith J
Tobacco and alcohol often are used simultaneously by young adults, and their co-use is associated with greater health consequences than from single use. Social media platforms offer low cost and highly accessible channels to reach and engage young people in substance use interventions. The current trial seeks to compare the Facebook Tobacco Status Project (TSP) smoking cessation intervention to an intervention targeting both tobacco use and heavy episodic drinking (TSP + ALC) among young adults who use both substances. This randomized clinical trial will evaluate the feasibility and initial efficacy of TSP + ALC compared to TSP with 225 US young adult smokers reporting heavy drinking. Participants will be recruited online and randomized to one of two conditions (TSP or TSP + ALC), both with assignment to a Facebook group tailored to readiness to quit smoking. Groups will receive a 90-day intervention including daily Facebook postings and weekly live counseling sessions. The TSP + ALC group will include content related to alcohol use. All participants will be offered a 2-week introductory supply of nicotine patch. Participants will complete baseline, 3-, 6-, and 12-month online assessments of substance use and other health risk behaviors. The primary efficacy outcome is biochemically-verified 7-day point prevalence abstinence. Secondary outcomes include alcohol and tobacco use, combined use, and thoughts about each substance. This trial examines an innovative and scalable approach to engaging young adults online in tobacco and alcohol use treatment. Study findings will inform digital health interventions and best practices for treating multiple substance use in young adults. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Loprinzi, Paul D; Frith, Emily
Obesity-related lifestyle factors, such as physical activity behavior and dietary intake, have been shown to be associated with episodic memory function. From animal work, there is considerable biological plausibility linking obesity with worse memory function. There are no published systematic reviews evaluating the effects of obesity on episodic memory function among humans, and examining whether physical activity and diet influences this obesity-memory link. Thus, the purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the totality of research examining whether obesity is associated with episodic memory function, and whether physical activity and dietary behavior confounds this relationship. A review approach was employed, using PubMed, PsychInfo, and Sports Discus databases. Fourteen studies met our criteria. Among these 14 reviewed studies, eight were cross-sectional, four were prospective, and two employed a randomized controlled experimental design. Twelve of the 14 studies did not take into consideration dietary behavior in their analysis, and similarly, nine of the 14 studies did not take into consideration participant physical activity behavior. Among the 14 studies, ten found an inverse association of weight status on memory function, but for one of these studies, this association was attenuated after controlling for physical activity. Among the 14 evaluated studies, four did not find a direct effect of weight status on memory. Among the four null studies, one, however, found an indirect effect of BMI on episodic memory and another found a moderation effect of BMI and age on memory function. It appears that obesity may be associated with worse memory function, with the underlying mechanisms discussed herein. At this point, it is uncertain whether adiposity, itself, is influencing memory changes, or rather, whether adiposity-related lifestyle behaviors (e.g., physical inactivity and diet) are driving the obesity-memory relationship.
Rehm, Jürgen; Kailasapillai, Shalini; Larsen, Elisabeth; Rehm, Maximilien X; Samokhvalov, Andriy V; Shield, Kevin D; Roerecke, Michael; Lachenmeier, Dirk W
Unrecorded alcohol constitutes about 30% of all alcohol consumed globally. The aims of this systematic review were to determine the epidemiology (occurrence, types, prevalence) of unrecorded alcohol consumption in different countries/regions, analyse the chemical composition of unrecorded alcohol and examine health outcomes caused by the consumption of unrecorded alcohol, based on either epidemiology or toxicology. A systematic search for, and qualitative analysis of, papers with empirical results on the different categories of unrecorded alcohol, based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Unrecorded alcohol was widespread in all regions of the world. Artisanal fermented beverages and spirits were the most common categories of unrecorded alcohol globally, and were available on all continents. In India, industrially produced spirits (country spirits) were most prevalent. In Russia and countries of the former Soviet Union, surrogate alcohols complemented artisanal spirits. Cross-border shopping was the most prevalent method of obtaining unrecorded alcohol in parts of Europe. Ethanol was the most harmful ingredient of unrecorded alcohol, and health consequences due to other ingredients found in unrecorded alcohol were scarce. However, as unrecorded alcohol is usually the least expensive form of alcohol available in many countries, it may contribute to higher rates of chronic and irregular heavy drinking. Very large amounts of alcohol are produced globally that go unrecorded. The primary harm from this kind of alcohol arises from the fact that it is typically much cheaper than licit alcohol. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.
We discuss the results accumulated during the last five years in heavy quark physics and try to draw a simple general picture of the present situation. The survey is based on a unified point of view resulting from quantum chromodynamics. (orig.)
Larsen, Tor K; Melle, Ingrid; Auestad, Bjørn
Early intervention is assumed to improve outcome in first-episode psychosis, but this has not been proven.......Early intervention is assumed to improve outcome in first-episode psychosis, but this has not been proven....
Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to assess alcohol consumption and the occurrence of alcohol-related seizures in patients with epilepsy within the last 12 months.Methods: In an epilepsy outpatient clinic, a standardized questionnaire was used to collect data retrospectively from consecutive adult epilepsy patients who had been suffering from the disease for at least 1 year. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify independent predictors.Results: A total of 310 patients with epilepsy were included. Of these, 204 subjects (65.8% consumed alcohol within the last 12 months. Independent predictors for alcohol use were antiepileptic drug monotherapy (OR 1.901 and physicians' advice that a light alcohol intake is harmless (OR 4.102. Seizure worsening related to alcohol consumption was reported by 37 of the 204 patients (18.1% who had used alcohol. All 37 subjects had consumed large quantities of alcohol prior to the occurrence of alcohol-related seizures regardless of their usual alcohol-drinking behavior. The amount of alcohol intake prior to alcohol-related seizures was at least 7 standard drinks, which is equivalent to 1.4 L of beer or 0.7 L of wine. In 95% of cases, alcohol-related seizures occurred within 12 h after cessation of alcohol intake. Independent predictors for alcohol-related seizures were generalized genetic epilepsy (OR 5.792 and chronic heavier alcohol use (OR 8.955.Conclusions: Two-thirds of interviewed subjects had consumed alcohol within the last 12 months. This finding may be an underestimate due to patients' self-reporting and recall error. In all cases, the occurrence of alcohol related-seizures was associated with timely consumption of considerably large amounts of alcohol. Thus, a responsible alcohol intake seems to be safe for most patients with epilepsy. However, subjects with epilepsy and especially those with generalized genetic epilepsy should be made aware of an increased risk for seizures related to heavy
Kingsbury, John H; Gibbons, Frederick X; Gerrard, Meg
Many interventions targeting college student drinking have focused on negative health effects of drinking heavily; however, some research suggests that social factors may have a stronger influence on the drinking behaviour of young people. Moreover, few studies have examined message framing effects in the context of alcohol consumption. This study investigated the effects of social and health consequence framing on college students' intentions to engage in heavy drinking. This study used a 2 × 2 experimental design with an appended control condition. One hundred and twenty-four college students (74 women; M(age) = 18.9) participated in this study for course credit. Participants read vignettes that were ostensibly written by a recent graduate from the university, who described an episode of drinking in which he or she experienced either social or health consequences. These consequences were framed as either a gain (i.e., positive consequences of not drinking heavily) or a loss (i.e., negative consequences of drinking heavily). After reading the vignette, participants completed a measure of heavy drinking intentions. Regression analyses revealed that social consequences were associated with lower heavy drinking intentions when framed as a loss and that health consequences were associated with lower heavy drinking intentions when framed as a gain. These effects were stronger among those who reported higher (vs. lower) levels of previous drinking. Results suggest that interventions that focus on the negative health effects of heavy drinking may be improved by instead emphasizing the negative social consequences of drinking heavily and the positive health consequences of avoiding this behaviour. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Previous studies have shown that gain frames are more effective than loss frames when highlighting the health consequences of health risk behaviours, such as heavy drinking. The heavy drinking behaviour of young
Boendermaker, W.J.; Sanchez Maceiras, S.; Boffo, M.; Wiers, R.W.
Objective Young adults often experiment with heavy use of alcohol, which poses severe health risks and increases the chance of developing addiction problems. In clinical patients, cognitive re-training of automatic appetitive processes, such as selective attention towards alcohol (known as
Bertha Lidia Nuño Gutiérrez
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify psychological and related factors linked with drunkenness episodes in 1134 adoles-cent students in Guadalajara, Mexico. The study evaluated ten psychological and related factors. The outcome variable was the number of episodes of drunkenness in the last month. We found 26.5% more episodes of drunkenness in men. A logistic regression analysis indicated that factors associated with drunkenness were smoking, high self-esteem, high impulsiveness, low self-control, presence of daily stress and distant relationship with father. The study concluded that the psychological and related factors associated with drunkenness episodes were related to a highly impressionable omnipo-tence profile and emotional indifference, with excessive consumption of alcohol as a safety strategy.
Understanding the effect of higher alcohol prices on alcohol demand according to oneâ€™s level of alcohol consumption is crucial while evaluating the effectiveness of using alcohol taxes as an alcohol-control medium. In this study, I estimate the differential responses to alcohol prices on alcohol demand for young adults by asking whether heavy drinkers are more responsive to higher alcohol prices than light and moderate drinkers. To conduct the analysis, I use the data from the National Long...
I summarize the theory talks given in the Heavy Flavours Working Group. In particular, I discuss heavy-flavour parton distribution functions, threshold resummation for heavy-quark production, progress in fragmentation functions, quarkonium production, heavy-meson hadroproduction.
Rubbing alcohol poisoning; Isopropyl alcohol poisoning ... Isopropyl alcohol can be harmful if it is swallowed or gets in the eyes. ... These products contain isopropanol: Alcohol swabs Cleaning supplies ... Rubbing alcohol Other products may also contain isopropanol.
... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 33960 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...
Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... lead to lifelong damage. DANGERS OF ALCOHOL DURING PREGNANCY Drinking a lot of alcohol during pregnancy can ...
... What to Know About Alcohol Treatment What Is Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD)? What Types of Alcohol Treatment Are Available? ... What to Know About Alcohol Treatment What is alcohol use disorder (AUD)? A health condition that can improve with ...
Acuff, Samuel F; Soltis, Kathryn E; Dennhardt, Ashley A; Berlin, Kristoffer S; Murphy, James G
Heavy drinking among college students is a significant public health concern that can lead to profound social and health consequences, including alcohol use disorder. Behavioral economics posits that low future orientation and high valuation of alcohol (alcohol demand) combined with deficits in alternative reinforcement increase the likelihood of alcohol misuse (Bickel et al., 2011). Despite this, no study has examined the incremental utility of all three variables simultaneously in a comprehensive model METHOD: The current study uses structural equation modeling to test the associations between behavioral economic variables - alcohol demand (latent), future orientation (measured with a delay discounting task and the Consideration of Future Consequences (CFC) scale), and proportionate substance-related reinforcement - and alcohol consumption and problems among 393 heavy drinking college students. Two models are tested: 1) an iteration of the reinforcer pathology model that includes an interaction between future orientation and alcohol demand; and 2) an alternative model evaluating the interconnectedness of behavioral economic variables in predicting problematic alcohol use RESULTS: The interaction effects in model 1 were nonsignificant. Model 2 suggests that greater alcohol demand and proportionate substance-related reinforcement is associated with greater alcohol consumption and problems. Further, CFC was associated with alcohol-related problems and lower proportionate substance-related reinforcement but was not significantly associated with alcohol consumption or alcohol demand. Finally, greater proportionate substance-related reinforcement was associated with greater alcohol demand CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the validity of the behavioral economic reinforcer pathology model as applied to young adult heavy drinking. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
The paper mentions the important thing that it was for the country, exporting the first shipping of crude de Castilla to a company of asphalts in United States. It was not a common sale, as those that it carries out the company with the crude of Cusiana or Cano Limon. The new of this shipping is that it was the first successful test of marketing the Colombian heavy crude in the exterior, since previously it was almost considered a curse to find heavy crude by the difficulties of its transport. Today it can be taken to any refinery of the world and the best test is that, after almost a year of efforts to overcome the barriers of the transport, the company achieved its conduction from the Castilla Field, in proximities to Villavicencio, until the Covenas Port, in the Caribbean Colombian coast
Wierzbiński, Piotr; Zdanowicz, Anna; Klekowska, Justyna; Broniarczyk-Czarniak, Marta; Zboralski, Krzysztof
Suicide is among ten leading causes of death in each country and the third most common cause of death in the age group 16-35. The presence of mental illness is the most important risk factor for suicide. Affective disorders contribute to 15-25% of deaths due to suicide attempts. Depression is the most likely cause of the patients attempt on his life. Contrary to popular opinion, manic episode can also increase the risk of suicide, especially if the patient dominates by productive symptoms in the form of delusions. The aim of study was to determine the frequency of suicide attempts and their determinants in an episode of mania in bipolar disorder. The study included 16 people with a diagnosed bipolar disorder, hospitalized with manic episode at the age of 28-76. Patients hospitalized in the Department of Adult Psychiatry were selected randomly. The number of suicide attempts, comorbid conditions, and basic epidemiological data were estimated. Five patients declared suicide attempt, one of which wanted to make more than one attempt at suicide. 3 people took it during an episode of depression, two in an episode of mania. The methods of suicide were associated with an overdose of medication and this was accompanied by a greater amount of alcohol intake. 11 persons did not declare any willingness to attempt suicide. A mania episode did not increase the risk of suicide in bipolar disorder compared to an episode of depression in the study conducted. The importance of somatic illness in patients with bipolar disorder is increased if the suicide attempt occurs in an episode of depression. Alcohol abuse showed no negative effects on suicidal behavior of patients. During abuse was the most common way of commit suicide.
Branas, Charles C; Han, SeungHoon; Wiebe, Douglas J
Although the misuse of firearms is necessary to the occurrence of firearm violence, there are other contributing factors beyond simply firearms themselves that might also be modified to prevent firearm violence. Alcohol is one such key modifiable factor. To explore this, we undertook a 40-year (1975-2014) systematic literature review with meta-analysis. One large group of studies showed that over one third of firearm violence decedents had acutely consumed alcohol and over one fourth had heavily consumed alcohol prior to their deaths. Another large group of studies showed that alcohol was significantly associated with firearm use as a suicide means. Two controlled studies showed that gun injury after drinking, especially heavy drinking, was statistically significant among self-inflicted firearm injury victims. A small group of studies investigated the intersection of alcohol and firearms laws and alcohol outlets and firearm violence. One of these controlled studies found that off-premise outlets selling takeout alcohol were significantly associated with firearm assault. Additional controlled, population-level risk factor and intervention studies, including randomized trials of which only 1 was identified, are needed. Policies that rezone off-premise alcohol outlets, proscribe blood alcohol levels and enhance penalties for carrying or using firearms while intoxicated, and consider prior drunk driving convictions as a more precise criterion for disqualifying persons from the purchase or possession of firearms deserve further study. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J; Roberts, Sarah C M; Bond, Jason
We examined the relationship between state-level income inequality and alcohol outcomes and sought to determine whether associations of inequality with alcohol consumption and problems would be more evident with between-race inequality measures than with the Gini coefficient. We also sought to determine whether inequality would be most detrimental for disadvantaged individuals. Data from 2 nationally representative samples of adults (n = 13,997) from the 2000 and 2005 National Alcohol Surveys were merged with state-level inequality and neighborhood disadvantage indicators from the 2000 US Census. We measured income inequality using the Gini coefficient and between-race poverty ratios (Black-White and Hispanic-White). Multilevel models accounted for clustering of respondents within states. Inequality measured by poverty ratios was positively associated with light and heavy drinking. Associations between poverty ratios and alcohol problems were strongest for Blacks and Hispanics compared with Whites. Household poverty did not moderate associations with income inequality. Poverty ratios were associated with alcohol use and problems, whereas overall income inequality was not. Higher levels of alcohol problems in high-inequality states may be partly due to social context.
CERN. Geneva; Antinori, Federico
Colliding two heavy nuclei at ultrarelativistic energies allows to create in the laboratory a bulk system with huge density, pressure and temperature and to study its properties. It is estimated that in Pb-Pb collisions at CERN-SPS we reach over an appreciable volume an energy density which exceeds by more than a factor 20 that of normal nuclear matter. At such densities, the hadrons are so closely packed that they interpenetrate; novel physics phenomena are expected to appear. QCD predicts that under such conditions a phase transition from a system composed of colourless hadrons to a Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) should occur. A rich ultrarelativistic heavy-ion physics programme is under way both at BNL-AGS and at CERN-SPS since 1986. The results obtained so far have led CERN to officially announce evidence for a new state of matter last year. A long-range programme of heavy-ion physics at higher energies is under way (BNL-RHIC) and in preparation (CERN-LHC). These lectures are meant as an introduction to the phy...
CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit
Colliding two heavy nuclei at ultrarelativistic energies allows to create in the laboratory a bulk system with huge density, pressure and temperature and to study its properties. It is estimated that in Pb-Pb collisions at CERN-SPS we reach over an appreciable volume an energy density which exceeds by more than a factor 20 that of normal nuclear matter. At such densities, the hadrons are so closely packed that they interpenetrate; novel physics phenomena are expected to appear. QCD predicts that under such conditions a phase transition from a system composed of colourless hadrons to a Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) should occur. A rich ultrarelativistic heavy-ion physics programme is under way both at BNL-AGS and at CERN-SPS since 1986. The results obtained so far have led CERN to officially announce evidence for a new state of matter last year. A long-range programme of heavy-ion physics at higher energies is under way (BNL-RHIC) and in preparation (CERN-LHC). These lectures are meant as an introduction to the phy...
Martin, Richard J; Di Fiore, Juliann M; Walsh, Michele C
Hypoxic episodes are troublesome components of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants. Immature respiratory control seems to be the major contributor, superimposed on abnormal respiratory function. Relatively short respiratory pauses may precipitate desaturation and bradycardia. This population is predisposed to pulmonary hypertension; it is likely that pulmonary vasoconstriction also plays a role. The natural history has been well-characterized in the preterm population at risk for BPD; however, the consequences are less clear. Proposed associations of intermittent hypoxia include retinopathy of prematurity, sleep disordered breathing, and neurodevelopmental delay. Future study should address whether these associations are causal relationships. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fernandez, A C; Wood, M D; Laforge, R; Black, J T
Matriculation from high school to college is typified by an increase in alcohol use and related harm for many students. Therefore, this transition period is an ideal time for preventive interventions to target alcohol use and related problems. The purpose of this report is to describe the design and methods used in the Transitions Project, a randomized controlled trial of two interventions designed to prevent and reduce heavy episodic drinking and alcohol-related negative consequences among incoming college students. This study used a 2 × 2 factorial design to investigate the effects of a two-session brief motivational intervention delivered to students and a handbook-based parent intervention. Interventions were administered to students and parents. Follow-up assessment took place at 10- and 22-months post-baseline. The Transitions Project successfully recruited and retained participants across a major transition period (i.e., entering college), administered and compared two distinct but complementary interventions, and collected and analyzed highly skewed data. The application of a factorial design and two-part latent growth curve modeling allowed us to examine main and interactive intervention effects in terms of both initiation and growth in heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems. While we conducted successful tests of our primary and secondary study hypotheses over a lengthy follow-up period, our study design did not permit full interpretation of null findings. We suggest that researchers carefully consider assessment timing, tests of assessment reactivity, and ensure objective tests of intervention efficacy when conducting clinical trials of motivational interventions. The lessons we learned while conducting this trial have the potential to assist other researchers designing and conducting future preventive interventions targeting parents and college students. The data analytic procedures presented can also help guide trials that plan to analyze
Zlomuzica, Armin; Dere, Dorothea; Machulska, Alla; Adolph, Dirk; Dere, Ekrem; Margraf, Jürgen
The aim of this review is to summarize research on the emerging role of episodic memories in the context of anxiety disorders (AD). The available literature on explicit, autobiographical, and episodic memory function in AD including neuroimaging studies is critically discussed. We describe the methodological diversity of episodic memory research in AD and discuss the need for novel tests to measure episodic memory in a clinical setting. We argue that alterations in episodic memory functions might contribute to the etiology of AD. We further explain why future research on the interplay between episodic memory function and emotional disorders as well as its neuroanatomical foundations offers the promise to increase the effectiveness of modern psychological treatments. We conclude that one major task is to develop methods and training programs that might help patients suffering from AD to better understand, interpret, and possibly actively use their episodic memories in a way that would support therapeutic interventions and counteract the occurrence of symptoms. PMID:24795583
Full Text Available The aim of this review is to summarize research on the emerging role of episodic memories in the context of anxiety disorders (AD. The available literature on explicit-, autobiographical- and episodic memory function in AD including neuroimaging studies is critically discussed. We describe the methodological diversity of episodic memory research in AD and discuss the need for novel tests to measure episodic memory in a clinical setting. We argue that alterations in episodic memory functions might contribute to the etiology of AD. We further explain why future research on the interplay between episodic memory function and emotional disorders as well as its neuroanatomical foundations offers the promise to increase the effectiveness of modern psychological treatments. We conclude that one major task is to develop methods and training programs that might help patients suffering from AD to better understand, interpret and possibly actively use their episodic memories in a way that would support therapeutic interventions and counteract the occurrence of symptoms.
Tolstrup, J.S.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Rasmussen, S.
Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 whi...
Tong Wang; Tong Yue; Xi ting Huang
Abstract Increasing evidence indicates that episodic future thinking (EFT) relies on both episodic and semantic memory; however, event familiarity may importantly affect the extent to which episodic and semantic memory contribute to EFT. To test this possibility, two behavioral experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, we directly compared the proportion of episodic and semantic memory used in an EFT task. The results indicated that more episodic memory was used when imagining familiar fut...
Janna eCousijn; Janna eCousijn; Maartje eLuijten; Maartje eLuijten; Reinout eWiers
The tendency to approach alcohol-related stimuli is known as the alcohol approach bias and has been related to heavy alcohol use. It is currently unknown whether the alcohol approach bias is more pronounced after emotional priming. The main aim of this study was to investigate whether positive and negative emotional primes would modulate the alcohol approach bias. For this purpose a new contextual Emotional Prime - Approach Avoidance Task (EP-AAT) was developed, containing both negative and p...
... ingredients commonly found in alcoholic beverages, especially in beer or wine, can cause intolerance reactions. These include: Sulfites or other preservatives Chemicals, grains or other ingredients Histamine, a byproduct of fermentation or brewing In some cases, reactions can be ...
... than eight breaths a minute) Irregular breathing (a gap of more than 10 seconds between breaths) Blue- ... about alcohol by their parents and who report close relationships with their parents are less likely to ...
... Frequently inspecting the feet and shoes to reduce injury caused by pressure or objects in the shoes Guarding the extremities to prevent injury from pressure Alcohol must be stopped to prevent ...
Full Text Available Alcoholism is associated with susceptibility to infectious disease, particularly bacterial pneumonia. In the present study we described characteristics in alcoholic patients with bacterial meningitis and delineate the differences with findings in non-alcoholic adults with bacterial meningitis.This was a prospective nationwide observational cohort study including patients aged >16 years who had bacterial meningitis confirmed by culture of cerebrospinal fluid (696 episodes of bacterial meningitis occurring in 671 patients. Alcoholism was present in 27 of 686 recorded episodes of bacterial meningitis (4% and alcoholics were more often male than non-alcoholics (82% vs 48%, P = 0.001. A higher proportion of alcoholics had underlying pneumonia (41% vs 11% P<0.001. Alcoholics were more likely to have meningitis due to infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae (70% vs 50%, P = 0.01 and Listeria monocytogenes (19% vs 4%, P = 0.005, whereas Neisseria meningitidis was more common in non-alcoholic patients (39% vs 4%, P = 0.01. A large proportion of alcoholics developed complications during clinical course (82% vs 62%, as compared with non-alcoholics; P = 0.04, often cardiorespiratory failure (52% vs 28%, as compared with non-alcoholics; P = 0.01. Alcoholic patients were at risk for unfavourable outcome (67% vs 33%, as compared with non-alcoholics; P<0.001.Alcoholic patients are at high risk for complications resulting in high morbidity and mortality. They are especially at risk for cardiorespiratory failure due to underlying pneumonia, and therefore, aggressive supportive care may be crucial in the treatment of these patients.
Schacter, Daniel L; Benoit, Roland G; De Brigard, Felipe; Szpunar, Karl K
This article considers two recent lines of research concerned with the construction of imagined or simulated events that can provide insight into the relationship between memory and decision making. One line of research concerns episodic future thinking, which involves simulating episodes that might occur in one's personal future, and the other concerns episodic counterfactual thinking, which involves simulating episodes that could have happened in one's personal past. We first review neuroimaging studies that have examined the neural underpinnings of episodic future thinking and episodic counterfactual thinking. We argue that these studies have revealed that the two forms of episodic simulation engage a common core network including medial parietal, prefrontal, and temporal regions that also supports episodic memory. We also note that neuroimaging studies have documented neural differences between episodic future thinking and episodic counterfactual thinking, including differences in hippocampal responses. We next consider behavioral studies that have delineated both similarities and differences between the two kinds of episodic simulation. The evidence indicates that episodic future and counterfactual thinking are characterized by similarly reduced levels of specific detail compared with episodic memory, but that the effects of repeatedly imagining a possible experience have sharply contrasting effects on the perceived plausibility of those events during episodic future thinking versus episodic counterfactual thinking. Finally, we conclude by discussing the functional consequences of future and counterfactual simulations for decisions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Millwood, Iona Y; Li, Liming; Smith, Margaret; Guo, Yu; Yang, Ling; Bian, Zheng; Lewington, Sarah; Whitlock, Gary; Sherliker, Paul; Collins, Rory; Chen, Junshi; Peto, Richard; Wang, Hongmei; Xu, Jiujiu; He, Jian; Yu, Min; Liu, Huilin; Chen, Zhengming; Li, Liming; Chen, Zhengming; Chen, Junshi; Collins, Rory; Wu, Fan; Peto, Richard; Chen, Zhengming; Lancaster, Garry; Yang, Xiaoming; Williams, Alex; Smith, Margaret; Yang, Ling; Chang, Yumei; Millwood, Iona; Chen, Yiping; Zhang, Qiuli; Lewington, Sarah; Whitlock, Gary; Guo, Yu; Zhao, Guoqing; Bian, Zheng; Wu, Lixue; Hou, Can; Pang, Zengchang; Wang, Shaojie; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Kui; Liu, Silu; Zhao, Zhonghou; Liu, Shumei; Pang, Zhigang; Feng, Weijia; Wu, Shuling; Yang, Liqiu; Han, Huili; He, Hui; Pan, Xianhai; Wang, Shanqing; Wang, Hongmei; Hao, Xinhua; Chen, Chunxing; Lin, Shuxiong; Hu, Xiaoshu; Zhou, Minghao; Wu, Ming; Wang, Yeyuan; Hu, Yihe; Ma, Liangcai; Zhou, Renxian; Xu, Guanqun; Dong, Baiqing; Chen, Naying; Huang, Ying; Li, Mingqiang; Meng, Jinhuai; Gan, Zhigao; Xu, Jiujiu; Liu, Yun; Wu, Xianping; Gao, Yali; Zhang, Ningmei; Luo, Guojin; Que, Xiangsan; Chen, Xiaofang; Ge, Pengfei; He, Jian; Ren, Xiaolan; Zhang, Hui; Mao, Enke; Li, Guanzhong; Li, Zhongxiao; He, Jun; Liu, Guohua; Zhu, Baoyu; Zhou, Gang; Feng, Shixian; Gao, Yulian; He, Tianyou; Jiang, Li; Qin, Jianhua; Sun, Huarong; Liu, Liqun; Yu, Min; Chen, Yaping; Hu, Zhixiang; Hu, Jianjin; Qian, Yijian; Wu, Zhiying; Chen, Lingli; Liu, Wen; Li, Guangchun; Liu, Huilin; Long, Xiangquan; Xiong, Youping; Tan, Zhongwen; Xie, Xuqiu; Peng, Yunfang
Background Drinking alcohol has a long tradition in Chinese culture. However, data on the prevalence and patterns of alcohol consumption in China, and its main correlates, are limited. Methods During 2004–08 the China Kadoorie Biobank recruited 512 891 men and women aged 30–79 years from 10 urban and rural areas of China. Detailed information on alcohol consumption was collected using a standardized questionnaire, and related to socio-demographic, physical and behavioural characteristics in men and women separately. Results Overall, 76% of men and 36% of women reported drinking some alcohol during the past 12 months, with 33% of men and 2% of women drinking at least weekly; the prevalence of weekly drinking in men varied from 7% to 51% across the 10 study areas. Mean consumption was 286 g/week and was higher in those with less education. Most weekly drinkers habitually drank spirits, although this varied by area, and beer consumption was highest among younger drinkers; 37% of male weekly drinkers (12% of all men) reported weekly heavy drinking episodes, with the prevalence highest in younger men. Drinking alcohol was positively correlated with regular smoking, blood pressure and heart rate. Among male weekly drinkers, each 20 g/day alcohol consumed was associated with 2 mmHg higher systolic blood pressure. Potential indicators of problem drinking were reported by 24% of male weekly drinkers. Conclusion The prevalence and patterns of drinking in China differ greatly by age, sex and geographical region. Alcohol consumption is associated with a number of unfavourable health behaviours and characteristics. PMID:23918852
Bruno Pontecorvo was a freshly graduated twenty one years old physicist when he joined, in the summer of 1934, the research group led by Enrico Fermi. In October the Panisperna boys would make their most important discovery – radioactivity induced by slow neutrons – and shortly thereafter would be parted by personal and historical events. This paper describes some episodes of those early years and of later periods, sketching a portrait of the team: starting from the extraordinary human and scientific experience of via Panisperna, up to the patent negotiations in USA, to which Pontecorvo’s flight to URSS put an end with unexpected consequences; getting to his first return in Italy, allowed by the sovietic government in 1978, on the occasion of the conference celebrating Edoardo Amaldi’s 70. anniversary. That was the first of several encounters of the author of this paper with Bruno Pontecorvo, which are here briefly recounted, as minor episodes giving a personal perspective on the man.
Osler, M; Jørgensen, Torben; Grønbaek, M
AIMS: To examine trends in alcohol drinking in different educational groups. METHODS: Data from three cross-sectional WHO MONICA surveys conducted in 1982-84, 1987, and 1991-92 were analysed to estimate trends in abstention, moderate, heavy, and sporadic heavy alcohol use in relation to level of ...
Wall, Andrew F.; BaileyShea, Chelsea; McIntosh, Scott
The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of heavy alcohol use, related harm, and implications for prevention among community college students. We used data from 7,965 students at 19 community colleges who responded to the Core Alcohol and Other Drug Survey. This secondary analysis of the survey data found heavy consumption among…
GREKIN, EMILY R.; ONDERSMA, STEVEN J.
Aims Nearly one-fourth of African-American women receive no prenatal care during the first trimester of pregnancy. The aim of the current study is to identify factors that underlie inadequate prenatal care among African-American women. Maternal alcohol abuse has been examined as one risk factor for inadequate prenatal care, but findings have been inconsistent, perhaps because (a) alcohol use during pregnancy is substantially under-reported and (b) studies have not considered the wider social network in which maternal alcohol use takes place. The current study attempts to clarify relationships between personal alcohol use, alcohol use in the home environment, and prenatal care in a sample of post-partum women. Methods Participants were 107 low-income, primarily African-American women. All participants completed a computer-based screening which assessed personal and environmental alcohol use, prenatal care and mental health. Findings Environmental alcohol use was related to delayed prenatal care while personal alcohol use was not. More specifically, after controlling for demographic variables, the presence of more than three person-episodes of binge drinking in a woman’s home environment increased the odds of seriously compromized prenatal care by a factor of seven. Conclusions Findings suggest the need to further assess environmental alcohol use and to examine the reliability of personal alcohol use measures. PMID:24391354
Xiang, Hong; Liu, Ying-Ping; Huo, Hai-Feng
A new SAIRS alcoholism model with birth and death on complex heterogeneous networks is proposed. The total population of our model is partitioned into four compartments: the susceptible individual, the light problem alcoholic, the heavy problem alcoholic and the recovered individual. The spread of alcoholism threshold R0 is calculated by the next generation matrix method. When R0 alcohol free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable, then the alcoholics will disappear. When R0 > 1, the alcoholism equilibrium is global attractivity, then the number of alcoholics will remain stable and alcoholism will become endemic. Furthermore, the modified SAIRS alcoholism model on weighted contact network is introduced. Dynamical behavior of the modified model is also studied. Numerical simulations are also presented to verify and extend theoretical results. Our results show that it is very important to treat alcoholics to control the spread of the alcoholism.
... daily rhythm for various functions (e.g., body temperature or blood pressure) that is controlled by certain “ ... A special section delves more deeply into specific classes of genes and their relationship to alcoholism. The ...
The heavy quark effective theory (HQET) is applied to study the weak decay of heavy mesons and heavy baryons and to predict the form factors for heavy to heavy and heavy to light transitions. 28 refs, 10 figs, 2 tabs
Nelson, Jon P
Heavy episodic ("binge") drinking of alcohol has serious public health implications, especially for youth and young adults. Previous summaries and surveys have failed to address in a comprehensive manner the effects of alcohol prices on binge drinking by gender or age group. A qualitative systematic review is performed for effects of alcohol prices (or tax surrogates) on binge drinking for three age groups: youth, young adults, and adults. Outcomes examined include binge participation, intensity and frequency. Criteria for data collection and potential sources of bias are discussed, including adequacy of price data. Price-binge relationships are judged using a 95% confidence interval (p ≤ 0.05) for statistical significance. Fifty-six relevant econometric studies were found, with studies and results distributed equally among three age groups. Also found were five natural experiments for tax reductions and six field studies. Null results or mixed results are found in more than half of the studies. The body of evidence indicates that binge drinkers are not highly-responsive to increased prices. Non-responsiveness holds generally for younger and older drinkers and for male and female binge drinkers alike. A limitation of the current literature is that results are only available for higher-income countries. Increased alcohol taxes or prices are unlikely to be effective as a means to reduce binge drinking, regardless of gender or age group.
Wang, Tong; Yue, Tong; Huang, Xi Ting
Increasing evidence indicates that episodic future thinking (EFT) relies on both episodic and semantic memory; however, event familiarity may importantly affect the extent to which episodic and semantic memory contribute to EFT. To test this possibility, two behavioral experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, we directly compared the proportion of episodic and semantic memory used in an EFT task. The results indicated that more episodic memory was used when imagining familiar future events compared with novel future events. Conversely, significantly more semantic memory was used when imagining novel events compared with familiar events. Experiment 2 aimed to verify the results of Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, we found that familiarity moderated the effect of priming the episodic memory system on EFT; particularly, it increased the time required to construct a standard familiar episodic future event, but did not significantly affect novel episodic event reaction time. Collectively, these findings support the hypothesis that event familiarity importantly moderates episodic and semantic memory's contribution to EFT.
There is now conclusive evidence of a causal linkage between heavy drinking patterns and/or alcohol use disorders and the worsening of the disease course for HIV. However, while alcohol usage is consistently associated with the prevalence and incidence of HIV, further research is needed to substantiate causality in ...
Background. Alcohol consumption patterns in South Africa (SA) tend to be characterised by risky patterns of drinking. Taken together with the large burden of disease associated with HIV and tuberculosis (TB), heavy alcohol consumption patterns with these chronic conditions has the potential to compromise the efficacy of ...
Manimunda, Sathya Prakash; Sugunan, Attayuru Purushottaman; Thennarasu, Kandavelu; Pandian, Dhanasekara; Pesala, Kasturi S; Benegal, Vivek
Harmful use of alcohol is one of the globally recognized causes of health hazards. There are no data on alcohol consumption from Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The objective of the study was to assess the prevalence and pattern of alcohol use among the population of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. A representative sample of 18,018 individuals aged ≥14 years were chosen by multistage random sampling and administered a structured instrument, a modified version of the Gender, Alcohol, and Culture: An International Study (GENACIS) which included sociodemographic details and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). The overall prevalence of alcohol consumption was 35% among males and over 6.0% in females, aged 14 and above. Two out of every five alcohol users fit into a category of hazardous drinkers. One-fourth of the total users (23%) are alcohol dependents. Both the hazardous drinking and dependent use are high among males compared to females. Almost 18.0% of male drinkers and 12.0% of female drinkers reported heavy drinking on typical drinking occasions. The predominant beverages consumed were in the category of homebrews such as toddy and handia. The present study highlights the magnitude of hazardous drinking and alcohol dependence in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India and the complex sociocultural differences in the pattern of alcohol use. Based on the AUDIT data, among the population of Andaman and Nicobar Islands (aged 14 and above), one out of ten requires active interventions to manage the harmful impact of alcohol misuse.
Jernigan, D. H.; Monteiro, M.; Room, R.; Saxena, S.
In 1983 the World Health Assembly declared alcohol-related problems to be among the world's major health concerns. Since then, alcohol consumption has risen in developing countries, where it takes a heavy toll. Alcohol-related problems are at epidemic levels in the successor states of the Soviet Union and are responsible for 3.5% of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost globally. Substantial evidence exists of the relationship between the levels and patterns of alcohol consumption on the one hand and the incidence of alcohol-related problems on the other. Over the past 20 years, research has demonstrated the effectiveness of public policies involving, for example, taxation and restrictions on alcohol availability, in reducing alcohol-related problems. In the wake of rapid economic globalization, many of these policies at national and subnational levels have been eroded, often with the support of international financial and development organizations. Development agencies and international trade agreements have treated alcohol as a normal commodity, overlooking the adverse consequences of its consumption on productivity and health. WHO is in a strong position to take the lead in developing a global alcohol policy aimed at reducing alcohol-related problems, providing scientific and statistical support, capacity-building, disseminating effective strategies and collaborating with other international organizations. Such leadership can play a significant part in diminishing the health and social problems associated with alcohol use. PMID:10885168
Lowe, Eden; Britton, John; Cranwell, Jo
To quantify the occurrence of alcohol content, including alcohol branding, in the popular primetime television UK Reality TV show 'Geordie Shore' Series 11. A 1-min interval coding content analysis of alcohol content in the entire DVD Series 11 of 'Geordie Shore' (10 episodes). Occurrence of alcohol use, implied use, other alcohol reference/paraphernalia or branding was recorded. All categories of alcohol were present in all episodes. 'Any alcohol' content occurred in 78%, 'actual alcohol use' in 30%, 'inferred alcohol use' in 72%, and all 'other' alcohol references occurred in 59% of all coding intervals (ACIs), respectively. Brand appearances occurred in 23% of ACIs. The most frequently observed alcohol brand was Smirnoff which appeared in 43% of all brand appearances. Episodes categorized as suitable for viewing by adolescents below the legal drinking age of 18 years comprised of 61% of all brand appearances. Alcohol content, including branding, is highly prevalent in the UK Reality TV show 'Geordie Shore' Series 11. Two-thirds of all alcohol branding occurred in episodes age-rated by the British Board of Film Classification (BBFC) as suitable for viewers aged 15 years. The organizations OfCom, Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) and the Portman Group should implement more effective policies to reduce adolescent exposure to on-screen drinking. The drinks industry should consider demanding the withdrawal of their brands from the show. Alcohol content, including branding, is highly prevalent in the MTV reality TV show 'Geordie Shore' Series 11. Current alcohol regulation is failing to protect young viewers from exposure to such content.
Girard, D E; Carlton, B E
There are important measurements of alcoholism that are poorly understood by physicians. Professional attitudes toward alcoholic patients are often counterproductive. Americans spend about $30 billion on alcohol a year and most adults drink alcohol. Even though traditional criteria allow for recognition of the disease, diagnosis is often made late in the natural course, when intervention fails. Alcoholism is a major health problem and accounts for 10 percent of total health care costs. Still, this country's 10 million adult alcoholics come from a pool of heavy drinkers with well defined demographic characteristics. These social, cultural and familial traits, along with subtle signs of addiction, allow for earlier diagnosis. Although these factors alone do not establish a diagnosis of alcoholism, they should alert a physician that significant disease may be imminent. Focus must be directed to these aspects of alcoholism if containment of the problem is expected.
Miller, Peter G; Butler, Erin; Richardson, Ben; Staiger, Petra K; Youssef, George J; Macdonald, Jacqui A; Sanson, Ann; Edwards, Ben; Olsson, Craig A
Heavy episodic drinking (HED) has been associated with increased risk for short- and long-term injury and harms, such as violence and delinquent behaviour; however, the temporal relationship between the two remains unclear, particularly on transition to young adulthood. This study investigates transactional pathways between HED and delinquent behaviour from adolescence to emerging adulthood. Data were drawn from the Australian Temperament Project; a population-based longitudinal study that has followed the health and development of participants (and parents) across 30 years from birth in 1982. The analytic sample was 1650 participants and included five measurement waves spanning adolescence (3 waves: 13-18 years) and young adulthood (2 waves; 19-24 years). There was strong continuity across waves of both HED and delinquency, as well as across-time associations between them. Delinquent behaviour in adolescence was associated with up to twofold increases in the odds of HED at each subsequent adolescent wave. HED in the late teens was associated with over fourfold increases in the odds of persistent (two waves) HED in young adulthood. HED in the late teens was associated with increases in the odds of delinquent behaviour in young adulthood (over twofold for male and one and a half-fold for female participants). While delinquent behaviour predicts both future HED and future delinquent behaviour in adolescence, once young people reach the legal drinking age of 18 years, HED becomes a predictor of current and future delinquent behaviour and future HED, suggesting that increased access to alcohol increases the likelihood of young people engaging in delinquent behaviour. [Miller PG, Butler E, Richardson B, Staiger PK, Youssef GJ, Macdonald JA, Sanson A, Edwards B, Olsson CA. Relationships between problematic alcohol consumption and delinquent behaviour from adolescence to young adulthood. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:317-325]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on
International best-practice guidelines for the management of first-episode psychosis have recommended the provision of psychoeducation for multifamily groups. While there is ample evidence of their efficacy in multiepisode psychosis, there is a paucity of evidence supporting this approach specifically for first-episode psychosis. We sought to determine whether a six-week caregiver psychoeducation programme geared specifically at first-episode psychosis improves caregiver knowledge and attitudes.
EDWARDS, ELLEN PETERSON; LEONARD, KENNETH E.; EIDEN, RINA DAS
This study examined the association between paternal alcoholism and 12-month infant temperament and 18-month behavior problems. The role of associated parental psychopathology and maternal drinking in exacerbating risk for maladaptive behavioral outcomes was also examined. Participants were 213 families (102 control families, 94 paternal alcoholic families, and 17 families with alcoholic fathers and heavy drinking mothers) who were assessed when their child was 12 months old and reassessed ag...
Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Jensen, Morten Søndergaard; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst
estimated by Cox regression. RESULTS: Average weekly alcohol consumption as well as frequency of binge drinking at any time during pregnancy was not associated with risk of cryptorchidism. Binge drinking in gestational weeks 7-15 was associated with a slightly increased risk of cryptorchidism with adjusted......BACKGROUND: Recent studies have suggested gestational weeks 8-14 as a time window of particular importance to the intrauterine development of the male genitalia, and prenatal exposure to alcohol is under suspicion as a risk factor for cryptorchidism. We examined if prenatal exposure to alcohol...... of cryptorchidism were identified and 398 of these were orchiopexy verified. Maternal alcohol consumption including number and timing of binge drinking episodes was assessed in two computer-assisted telephone interviews around gestational weeks 17 and 32. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of cryptorchidism were...
Gavin Edward Arteel
Full Text Available Alcohol consumption is customary in most cultures and alcohol abuse is common worldwide. For example, more than 50% of Americans consume alcohol, with an estimated 23.1% of Americans participating in heavy and/or binge drinking at least once a month. A safe and effective therapy for alcoholic liver disease (ALD in humans is still elusive, despite significant advances in our understanding of how the disease is initiated and progresses. It is now clear that acute alcohol binges not only can be acutely toxic to the liver, but also can contribute to the chronicity of ALD. Potential mechanisms by which acute alcohol causes damage include steatosis, dysregulated immunity and inflammation and altered gut permeability. Recent interest in modeling acute alcohol exposure has yielded new insights into potential mechanisms of acute injury, that also may well be relevant for chronic ALD. Recent work by this group on the role of PAI-1 and fibrin metabolism in mediating acute alcohol-induced liver damage serve as an example of possible new targets that may be useful for alcohol abuse, be it acute or chronic.
Beulens, J.W.J.; Rimm, E.B.; Ascherio, A.; Spiegelman, D.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Mukamal, K.J.
Background: Heavy alcohol consumption increases risk for hypertension, which is in itself a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, data on the association between alcohol consumption and CVD among individuals with hypertension are scarce. Objective: To assess whether alcohol
Beulens, J.W.J.; Rimm, E.B.; Ascherio, A.; Spiegelman, D.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Mukamal, K.J.
Background: Heavy alcohol consumption increases risk for hypertension, which is in itself a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, data on the association between alcohol consumption and CVD among individuals with hypertension are scarce. Objective: To assess whether alcohol
Peeters, M.; Monshouwer, K.; van de Schoot, R.; Janssen, T.; Vollebergh, W.A.; Wiers, R.W.
Objective: Early onset of alcohol use and persistent use of alcohol during adolescence have been associated with later problem behavior, such as heavy drinking and the use of other substances. Several personality characteristics have been related to the onset and persistent use of alcohol during
Hildebrandt, H.; Brokate, B.; Hoffmann, E.; Kröger, B.; Eling, P.A.T.M.
Bechara (2003) describes a model for disturbances in executive functions related to addiction. This model involves deficits in decision-making and in suppressing pre-potent representations or response patterns. We tested this model in 29 individuals with longterm heavy alcohol dependency and
Wakefield, J C; Schmitz, M F
To establish which symptoms of major depressive episode (MDE) predict postremission suicide attempts in complicated single-episode cases. Using the nationally representative two-wave National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions data set, we identified wave 1 lifetime single-episode MDE cases in which the episode remitted by the beginning of the wave 2 three-year follow-up period (N = 2791). The analytic sample was further limited to 'complicated' cases (N = 1872) known to have elevated suicide attempt rates, defined as having two or more of the following: suicidal ideation, marked role impairment, feeling worthless, psychomotor retardation, and prolonged (>6 months) duration. Logistic regression analyses showed that, after controlling for wave 1 suicide attempt which significantly predicted postremission suicide attempt (OR = 10.0), the additional complicated symptom 'feelings of worthlessness' during the wave 1 index episode significantly and very substantially predicted postremission suicide attempt (OR = 6.96). Neither wave 1 psychomotor retardation nor wave 1 suicidal ideation nor any of the other wave 1 depressive symptoms were significant predictors of wave 2 suicide attempt. Among depressive symptoms during an MDE, feelings of worthlessness is the only significant indicator of elevated risk of suicide attempt after the episode has remitted, beyond previous suicide attempts. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Johnson, Sean J; Alford, Chris; Stewart, Karina; Verster, Joris C
Previous research has suggested that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED) increases overall alcohol consumption. However, there is limited research examining whether energy drinks are unique in their effects when mixed with alcohol, when compared with alcohol mixed with other caffeinated mixers (AOCM). Therefore, the aim of this survey was to investigate alcohol consumption on AMED occasions, to that on other occasions when the same individuals consumed AOCM or alcohol only (AO). A UK-wide online student survey collected data on the frequency of alcohol consumption and quantity consumed, as well as the number of negative alcohol-related consequences reported on AO, AMED and AOCM occasions (N=250). Within-subjects analysis revealed that there were no significant differences in the number of alcoholic drinks consumed on a standard and a heavy drinking session between AMED and AOCM drinking occasions. However, the number of standard mixers typically consumed was significantly lower on AMED occasions compared with AOCM occasions. In addition, when consuming AMED, students reported significantly fewer days consuming 5 or more alcohol drinks, fewer days mixing drinks, and fewer days being drunk, compared with when consuming AOCM. There were no significant differences in the number of reported negative alcohol-related consequences on AMED occasions to AOCM occasions. Of importance, alcohol consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences were significantly less on both AMED and AOCM occasions compared with AO occasions. The findings that heavy alcohol consumption occurs significantly less often on AMED occasions compared with AOCM occasions is in opposition to some earlier claims implying that greatest alcohol consumption occurs with AMED. The overall greatest alcohol consumption and associated negative consequences were clearly associated with AO occasions. Negative consequences for AMED and AOCM drinking occasions were similar, suggesting that energy
Kilburn, Tina R.
Objectives The objective of this PhD. was to examine the relation between low weekly average maternal alcohol consumption and ‘Binge drinking' (defined as intake of 5 or more drinks per occasion) during pregnancy and information processing time (IPT) in children aged five years. Since a method...... that provided detailed information on maternal alcohol drinking patterns before and during pregnancy and other lifestyle factors. These women were categorized in groups of prenatally average alcohol intake and binge drinking, timing and number of episodes. At the age of five years the children of these women...... and number of episodes) and between simple reaction time (SRT) and alcohol intake or binge drinking (timing and number of episodes) during pregnancy. Conclusion This was one of the first studies investigating IPT and prenatally average alcohol intake and binge drinking in early pregnancy. Daily prenatal...
Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2004, tuberculosis (TB was responsible for 2.5% of global mortality (among men 3.1%; among women 1.8% and 2.2% of global burden of disease (men 2.7%; women 1.7%. The present work portrays accumulated evidence on the association between alcohol consumption and TB with the aim to clarify the nature of the relationship. Methods A systematic review of existing scientific data on the association between alcohol consumption and TB, and on studies relevant for clarification of causality was undertaken. Results There is a strong association between heavy alcohol use/alcohol use disorders (AUD and TB. A meta-analysis on the risk of TB for these factors yielded a pooled relative risk of 2.94 (95% CI: 1.89-4.59. Numerous studies show pathogenic impact of alcohol on the immune system causing susceptibility to TB among heavy drinkers. In addition, there are potential social pathways linking AUD and TB. Heavy alcohol use strongly influences both the incidence and the outcome of the disease and was found to be linked to altered pharmacokinetics of medicines used in treatment of TB, social marginalization and drift, higher rate of re-infection, higher rate of treatment defaults and development of drug-resistant forms of TB. Based on the available data, about 10% of the TB cases globally were estimated to be attributable to alcohol. Conclusion The epidemiological and other evidence presented indicates that heavy alcohol use/AUD constitute a risk factor for incidence and re-infection of TB. Consequences for prevention and clinical interventions are discussed.
Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Corbin, William; Lejuez, Carl; MacPherson, Laura
College men are more likely to engage in health-compromising behaviors including risky drinking behavior, and experience more alcohol-related problems, including violence and arrest, as compared to women. The study of masculine norms or societal expectations, defined as beliefs and values about what it means to be a man, is one promising area of investigation that may help explain within-group differences and differential rates of alcohol use among men. Using the gender social learning model, we investigated the role of positive alcohol expectancies as an underlying mediator between masculine norms and alcohol use among college men. Data from 804 college adult men ( Mean age = 20.43) were collected through a web-based assessment. Participants completed a self-report measure of binge drinking, frequency of drinking, quantity of drinks, conformity to masculine norms, and positive alcohol expectancies measures. Structural equation modeling was used to examine relations between masculine norms, alcohol expectancies and alcohol use. The masculine norms of "Playboy" and Risk-Taking were positively related to heavy alcohol use, while Emotional Control and Heterosexual Presentation were both negatively associated with alcohol use, after controlling for fraternity Greek status and positive expectancies. Playboy and Winning norms were positively associated with positive expectancies while Power Over Women was inversely related to positive expectancies which, in turn, were associated with heavier alcohol use. This study was a novel exploration into the multiple pathways and mediators through which positive alcohol expectancies may help explain and provide specificity to the masculinity and alcohol use relationship among college men.
... Us Information For… Media Policy Makers Blood Disorders Heavy Menstrual Bleeding Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... It can also be bleeding that is very heavy. How do you know if you have heavy ...
Bendtsen, L; Ashina, S; Moore, A; Steiner, T J
Tension-type headache (TTH) imposes a heavy burden on the global population but remains incompletely understood and poorly managed. Here, we review current knowledge of peripheral factors involved in the mechanism of TTH and make recommendations for the treatment of episodic TTH based on these. Peripheral activation or sensitization of myofascial nociceptors is most probably involved in the development of muscle pain and the acute episode of TTH. Repetitive episodes of muscle pain may sensitize the central nervous system resulting in progression of TTH to the chronic form. Thus, muscular factors may be responsible not only for the acute headache episode but also for chronification of the disorder. Simple analgesics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the mainstays of management of individual headache episodes. Ibuprofen 400 mg and aspirin 1000 mg are recommended as drugs of first choice based on treatment effect, safety profile and costs. Non-pharmacological therapies include electromyographic biofeedback, physiotherapy and muscle relaxation therapy. Future studies should aim to identify the triggers of peripheral nociception and how to avoid peripheral and central sensitization. There is a need for more effective, faster acting drugs for acute TTH. Muscular factors play an important role in episodic TTH. Ibuprofen 400 mg and aspirin 1000 mg are recommended as drugs of first choice. © 2015 European Pain Federation - EFIC®
Lowe, Eden; Britton, John
Abstract Aim To quantify the occurrence of alcohol content, including alcohol branding, in the popular primetime television UK Reality TV show ‘Geordie Shore’ Series 11. Methods A 1-min interval coding content analysis of alcohol content in the entire DVD Series 11 of ‘Geordie Shore’ (10 episodes). Occurrence of alcohol use, implied use, other alcohol reference/paraphernalia or branding was recorded. Results All categories of alcohol were present in all episodes. ‘Any alcohol’ content occurred in 78%, ‘actual alcohol use’ in 30%, ‘inferred alcohol use’ in 72%, and all ‘other’ alcohol references occurred in 59% of all coding intervals (ACIs), respectively. Brand appearances occurred in 23% of ACIs. The most frequently observed alcohol brand was Smirnoff which appeared in 43% of all brand appearances. Episodes categorized as suitable for viewing by adolescents below the legal drinking age of 18 years comprised of 61% of all brand appearances. Conclusions Alcohol content, including branding, is highly prevalent in the UK Reality TV show ‘Geordie Shore’ Series 11. Two-thirds of all alcohol branding occurred in episodes age-rated by the British Board of Film Classification (BBFC) as suitable for viewers aged 15 years. The organizations OfCom, Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) and the Portman Group should implement more effective policies to reduce adolescent exposure to on-screen drinking. The drinks industry should consider demanding the withdrawal of their brands from the show. Short Summary Alcohol content, including branding, is highly prevalent in the MTV reality TV show ‘Geordie Shore’ Series 11. Current alcohol regulation is failing to protect young viewers from exposure to such content. PMID:29365032
... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... experience alcohol’s longer-term effects, which can include: Alcohol use disorder Health problems Increased risk for certain cancers In ...
Klingmüller, Angela; Caplan, Jeremy B.; Sommer, Tobias
It would be profoundly important if reconsolidation research in animals and other memory domains generalized to human episodic memory. A 3-d-list-discrimination procedure, based on free recall of objects, with a contextual reminder cue (the testing room), has been thought to demonstrate reconsolidation of human episodic memory (as noted in a…
Crystal, Jonathon D
Humans encounter a myriad of actions or events and later recall some of these events using episodic memory. New research suggests that dogs can imitate recently encountered actions using episodic memory. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gillund, Gary; Perlmutter, Marion
Although research in episodic recall memory, comparing younger and older adults, favors the younger adults, findings in semantic memory research are less consistent. To examine age differences in semantic and episodic memory recall, 72 young adults (mean age, 20.8) and 72 older adults (mean age 71) completed three memory tests under varied…
Henry, Jeremy; Craver, Carl
We accept Mahr & Csibra's (M&C's) causal claim that episodic memory provides humans with the means for evaluating the veracity of reports about non-occurrent events. We reject their evolutionary argument that this is the proper function of episodic memory. We explore three intriguing implications of the causal claim, for cognitive neuropsychology, comparative psychology, and philosophy.
Bahr, Stephen J; Hoffmann, John P
The purpose of this research was to examine whether authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful parenting styles were associated with adolescent alcohol use and heavy drinking, after controlling for peer use, religiosity, and other relevant variables. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate direct and indirect associations of parenting style with alcohol use and heavy drinking among 4,983 adolescents in Grades 7-12. Adolescents whose parents were authoritative were less likely to drink heavily than adolescents from the other three parenting styles, and they were less likely to have close friends who used alcohol. In addition, religiosity was negatively associated with heavy drinking after controlling for other relevant variables. Authoritative parenting appears to have both direct and indirect associations with the risk of heavy drinking among adolescents. Authoritative parenting, where monitoring and support are above average, might help deter adolescents from heavy alcohol use, even when adolescents have friends who drink. In addition, the data suggest that the adolescent's choice of friends may be an intervening variable that helps explain the negative association between authoritative parenting and adolescent heavy drinking.
Open heavy flavours and heavy quarkonium states are expected to provide essential informa- tion on the properties of the strongly interacting system fo rmed in the early stages of heavy-ion collisions at very high energy density. Such probes are espe cially promising at LHC energies where heavy quarks (both c and b) are copiously produced. The ALICE detector shall measure the production of open heavy flavours and heavy quarkonium st ates in both proton-proton and heavy-ion collisions at the LHC. The expected performances of ALICE for heavy flavour physics is discussed based on the results of simulation studies on a s election of benchmark channels
Barnett, Nancy P; Tidey, Jennifer; Murphy, James G; Swift, Robert; Colby, Suzanne M
Contingency management (CM) has not been thoroughly evaluated as a treatment for alcohol abuse or dependence, in part because verification of alcohol use reduction requires frequent in-person breath tests. Transdermal alcohol sensors detect alcohol regularly throughout the day, providing remote monitoring and allowing for rapid reinforcement of reductions in use. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of CM for reduction in alcohol use, using a transdermal alcohol sensor to provide a continuous measure of alcohol use. Participants were 13 heavy drinking adults who wore the Secure Continuous Remote Alcohol Monitoring (SCRAM) bracelet for three weeks and provided reports of alcohol and drug use using daily web-based surveys. In Week 1, participants were asked to drink as usual; in Weeks 2 and 3, they were reinforced on an escalating schedule with values ranging from $5 to $17 per day on days when alcohol use was not reported or detected by the SCRAM. Self-reports of percent days abstinent and drinks per week, and transdermal measures of average and peak transdermal alcohol concentration and area under the curve declined significantly in Weeks 2-3. A nonsignificant but large effect size for reduction in days of tobacco use also was found. An adjustment to the SCRAM criteria for detecting alcohol use provided an accurate but less conservative method for use with non-mandated clients. Results support the efficacy of CM for alcohol use reductions and the feasibility of using transdermal monitoring of alcohol use for clinical purposes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Barnett, Nancy P.; Tidey, Jennifer; Murphy, James G.; Swift, Robert; Colby, Suzanne M.
Background Contingency management (CM) has not been thoroughly evaluated as a treatment for alcohol abuse or dependence, in part because verification of alcohol use reduction requires frequent in-person breath tests. Transdermal alcohol sensors detect alcohol regularly throughout the day, providing remote monitoring and allowing for rapid reinforcement of reductions in use. Methods The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of CM for reduction in alcohol use, using a transdermal alcohol sensor to provide a continuous measure of alcohol use. Participants were 13 heavy drinking adults who wore the Secure Continuous Remote Alcohol Monitoring (SCRAM) bracelet for three weeks and provided reports of alcohol and drug use using daily web-based surveys. In Week 1, participants were asked to drink as usual; in Weeks 2 and 3, they were reinforced on an escalating schedule with values ranging from $5-$17 per day on days when alcohol use was not reported or detected by the SCRAM. Results Self-reports of percent days abstinent and drinks per week, and transdermal measures of average and peak transdermal alcohol concentration and area under the curve declined significantly in Weeks 2-3. A nonsignificant but large effect size for reduction in days of tobacco use also was found. An adjustment to the SCRAM criteria for detecting alcohol use provided an accurate but less conservative method for use with non-mandated clients. Conclusion Results support the efficacy of CM for alcohol use reductions and the feasibility of using transdermal monitoring of alcohol use for clinical purposes. PMID:21665385
Addis, Donna Rose; Pan, Ling; Musicaro, Regina; Schacter, Daniel L
Divergent thinking likely plays an important role in simulating autobiographical events. We investigated whether divergent thinking is differentially associated with the ability to construct detailed imagined future and imagined past events as opposed to recalling past events. We also examined whether age differences in divergent thinking might underlie the reduced episodic detail generated by older adults. The richness of episodic detail comprising autobiographical events in young and older adults was assessed using the Autobiographical Interview. Divergent thinking abilities were measured using the Alternative Uses Task. Divergent thinking was significantly associated with the amount of episodic detail for imagined future events. Moreover, while age was significantly associated with imagined episodic detail, this effect was strongly related to age-related changes in episodic retrieval rather than divergent thinking.
Full Text Available The transition from high school to college is a high-risk stage for the initiation and escalation of substance use. Substance use and its associated risk factors have been thoroughly described in developed countries, such as the United States, but largely neglected in Argentina, a South American country with patterns of a collectivist culture. The present cross-sectional study describes the occurrence of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use and the association between these behaviors and the age of onset of substance use and cognitive (i.e., risk perception and social (i.e., prescriptive variables in a large sample of Argentinean college freshmen (n = 4083, 40.1% men; mean age = 19.39 ± 2.18 years. The response rate across courses was ≥90% and was similarly distributed across sex. Participants completed a survey that measured substance use (alcohol [with a focus on heavy drinking and binge drinking behaviors], tobacco, and marijuana, age of onset of the use of each substance, perceived risk associated with various substance use behaviors, prescriptive norms associated with substance use, and descriptive norms for alcohol use (AU. The results indicated that AU is nearly normative (90.4 and 80.3% with last year and last month use, respectively in this population, and heavy drinking is highly prevalent (68.6 and 54.9% with heavy episodic and binge drinking, respectively, especially among those with an early drinking onset (97.8 and 93.6% with last year and last month use and 87.8 and 76.3% with heavy episodic and binge drinking, respectively. The last-year occurrence of tobacco and marijuana use was 36 and 28%, respectively. Early substance use was associated with the greater use of that specific substance. The students overestimated their same-sex friend’s AU, and women overestimated the level of AU of their best male friend. At the multivariate level, all of the predictors, with the exception of the parents’ prescriptive norms
Carbia, Carina; Cadaveira, Fernando; Caamaño-Isorna, Francisco; Rodríguez-Holguín, Socorro; Corral, Montse
Binge drinking (BD), a harmful pattern of alcohol consumption, is common during adolescence. Young adults with alcohol use disorders exhibit hippocampal alterations and episodic memory deficits. However, it is not known how these difficulties progress in community BD adolescents. Our objective was to analyze the relationship between BD trajectory and verbal episodic memory during the developmental period spanning from adolescence and to early adulthood. An initial sample of 155 male and female first-year university students with no other risk factors were followed over six years. Participants were classified as stable non-BDs, stable BDs and ex-BDs according to the third AUDIT item. At baseline, participants comprised 36 ♂/ 40 ♀ non-BDs (18.58 years), 40 ♂/ 39 ♀ BDs (18.87 years), and at the third follow-up, they comprised 8 ♂/ 8 ♀ stable non-BDs (25.49 years), 2 ♂/ 2 ♀ stable BDs (25.40) and 8 ♂/ 12 ♀ ex-BDs (24.97 years). Episodic memory was assessed four times with the Logical Memory subtest (WMS-III) and the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). Generalized linear mixed models were applied. The results showed that, relative to non-BDs, stable BDs presented difficulties in immediate and delayed recall in the Logical Memory subtest. These difficulties remained stable over time. The short-term ex-BDs continued to display difficulties in immediate and delayed recall in the Logical Memory subtest, but long-term ex-BDs did not. The effects were not influenced by age of alcohol onset, frequency of cannabis use, tobacco use or psychopathological distress. In conclusion, BD during adolescence and young adulthood is associated with episodic memory deficits. Abandoning the BD pattern may lead to partial recovery. These findings are consistent with the vulnerability of the adolescent hippocampus to the neurotoxic effects of alcohol.
Egli, Mark; Koob, George F.; Edwards, Scott
Dysregulation of pain neurocircuitry and neurochemistry has been increasingly recognized as playing a critical role in a diverse spectrum of diseases including migraine, fibromyalgia, depression, and PTSD. Evidence presented here supports the hypothesis that alcohol dependence is among the pathologies arising from aberrant neurobiological substrates of pain. In this review, we explore the possible influence of alcohol analgesia and hyperalgesia in promoting alcohol misuse and dependence. We examine evidence that neuroanatomical sites involved in the negative emotional states of alcohol dependence also play an important role in pain transmission and may be functionally altered under chronic pain conditions. We also consider possible genetic links between pain transmission and alcohol dependence. We propose an allostatic load model in which episodes of alcohol intoxication and withdrawal, traumatic stressors, and injury are each capable of dysregulating an overlapping set of neural substrates to engender sensory and affective pain states that are integral to alcohol dependence and comorbid conditions such as anxiety, depression, and chronic pain. PMID:22975446
Kenney, Shannon R; Napper, Lucy E; LaBrie, Joseph W; Martens, Matthew P
College students' use of protective behavioral strategies (PBS; e.g., determining not to exceed a set number of drinks, avoiding drinking games) is related to lower levels of alcohol consumption and problems. The present study evaluated the efficacy of a novel brief, single-session group PBS skills training intervention aimed at increasing college students' use of PBS and reducing risky drinking and consequences. Participants (N = 226) were heavy-drinking incoming first-year college women randomized to either a PBS skills training intervention or study skills control condition. Participants attended a 45-min group session and completed online surveys pre- and postintervention (1 month and 6 months). We conducted a series of 2 × 2 × 3 repeated-measures ANCOVAs with condition and baseline mental health (anxiety/depression) as the between-subjects factors and time as the within-subjects factor. Intervention participants, relative to controls, reported significantly greater increases in PBS use and reductions in both heavy episodic drinking and alcohol consequences. The intervention was particularly effective in increasing PBS use at 1 month among participants with high anxiety. Further, tests of moderated mediation showed a significant conditional indirect effect of condition on 1-month consequences through PBS use among participants with high levels of anxiety. Findings provide preliminary support for a brief PBS-specific group intervention to reduce alcohol risk among college women, particularly anxious women. Future research is needed to strengthen the long-term effectiveness of the present approach and further explore the moderating effects of mental health.
Nelson, Toben F; Wechsler, Henry
While studies have addressed alcohol use and related problems among college athletes, little is known about the drinking patterns of non-athletes who are sports fans. This study examines the relationship between alcohol use and interest in collegiate sports on two levels. First, do sports fans in college binge drink more and exhibit more negative alcohol-related outcomes than other students? Second, do colleges with large numbers of sports fans have higher rates of heavy drinking and accompanying secondhand effects affecting other students? The study analyzed the responses of a nationally representative sample of students who completed questionnaires in the spring of 1999 regarding their extracurricular activities and substance use. The responses of 3445 student sports fans were compared to those of 8405 students who were not sports fans. More sports fans drank alcohol, engaged in binge drinking, had a heavy drinking style and reported alcohol-related problems than nonfans. The percentage of sports fans at a school was associated with binge drinking rates and the secondhand effects. The implications for those working with college athletics and for alcohol prevention personnel are discussed. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.
Cancer is a multifactorial disease that results from complex interactions of numerous risk factors - genetic and environmental - over time, eventually leading to the diseased phenotypes. Thus, while epidemiological studies can point to risk factors, they cannot determine cause and effect relationships, and are unable to give biological and clinical insights into carcinogenesis. The link between any risk factor and carcinogenesis needs to be validated in experimental models. This is particularly true in epidemiological studies on alcohol consumption and its consequences. While there is no doubt that heavy alcohol consumption has devastating health effects, the inconsistencies in alcohol-related epidemiological studies and cancer suffer from possible sources of the variability in outcomes, ranging from inaccuracy of self-report of consumption to the problem of correlating cancer that started decades earlier to current or recent alcohol consumption. To further study the interactions between alcohol and cancer, the use of "Molecular Pathological Epidemiology" (MPE) advocated by Ogino et al. for dissecting the interplay between etiological factors, cellular and molecular characteristics, and disease progression in cancer is appropriate. MPE does not consider cancer as a single entity, rather it integrates analyses of epidemiological studies with the macroenvironment and molecular and microenvironment. This approach allows investigating the relationships between potential etiological agents and cancer based on molecular signatures. More research is needed to fully elucidate the link between heavy alcohol consumption and pancreatic cancer, and to further investigate the roles of acetaldehyde and FAEEs in pancreatic carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Renaud, S C; Ruf, J C
Recent epidemiologic studies have consistently shown that moderate intake of alcoholic beverages protect against morbidity and mortality from coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke. By contrast, alcohol drinking may also predispose to cerebral hemorrhage. These observations suggest an effect of alcohol similar to that of aspirin. Several studies in humans and animals have shown that the immediate effect of alcohol, either added in vitro to platelets or 10 to 20 min after ingestion, is to decrease platelet aggregation in response to most agonists (thrombin, ADP, epinephrine, collagen). Several hours later, as, in free-living populations deprived of drinking since the previous day it is mostly secondary aggregation to ADP and epinephrine and aggregation to collagen that are still inhibited in alcohol drinkers. By contrast, in binge drinkers or in alcoholics after alcohol withdrawal, response to aggregation, especially that induced by thrombin, is markedly increased. This rebound phenomenon, easily reproduced in rats, may explain ischemic strokes or sudden death known to occur after episodes of drunkenness. The platelet rebound effect of alcohol drinking was not observed with moderate red wine consumption in man. The protection afforded by wine has been recently duplicated in rats by grape tannins added to alcohol. This protection was associated with a decrease in the level of conjugated dienes, the first step in lipid peroxidation. In other words, wine drinking does not seem to be associated with the increased peroxidation usually observed with spirit drinking. Although further studies are required, the platelet rebound effect of alcohol drinking could be associated with an excess of lipid peroxides known to increase platelet reactivity, especially to thrombin.
Martin-Ordas, Gema; Atance, Cristina M; Caza, Julian S
Humans are able to transcend the present and mentally travel to another time, place, or perspective. Mentally projecting ourselves backwards (i.e., episodic memory) or forwards (i.e., episodic foresight) in time are crucial characteristics of the human memory system. Indeed, over the past few years, episodic memory has been argued to be involved both in our capacity to retrieve our personal past experiences and in our ability to imagine and foresee future scenarios. However, recent theory and findings suggest that semantic memory also plays a significant role in imagining future scenarios. We draw on Tulving's definition of episodic and semantic memory to provide a critical analysis of their role in episodic foresight tasks described in the developmental literature. We conclude by suggesting future directions of research that could further our understanding of how both episodic memory and semantic memory are intimately connected to episodic foresight.
Gema eMartin Ordas
Full Text Available Humans are able to transcend the present and mentally travel to another time, place, or perspective. Mentally projecting ourselves backwards (i.e., episodic memory or forwards (i.e., episodic foresight in time are crucial characteristics of the human memory system. Indeed, over the past few years, episodic memory has been argued to be involved both in our capacity to retrieve our personal past experiences and in our ability to imagine and foresee future scenarios. However, recent theory and findings suggest that semantic memory also plays a significant role in imagining future scenarios. We draw on Tulving’s definition of episodic and semantic memory to provide a critical analysis of their role in episodic foresight tasks described in the developmental literature. We conclude by suggesting future directions of research that could further our understanding of how both episodic memory and semantic memory are intimately connected to episodic foresight.
Martin-Ordas, Gema; Atance, Cristina M.; Caza, Julian S.
Humans are able to transcend the present and mentally travel to another time, place, or perspective. Mentally projecting ourselves backwards (i.e., episodic memory) or forwards (i.e., episodic foresight) in time are crucial characteristics of the human memory system. Indeed, over the past few years, episodic memory has been argued to be involved both in our capacity to retrieve our personal past experiences and in our ability to imagine and foresee future scenarios. However, recent theory and findings suggest that semantic memory also plays a significant role in imagining future scenarios. We draw on Tulving’s definition of episodic and semantic memory to provide a critical analysis of their role in episodic foresight tasks described in the developmental literature. We conclude by suggesting future directions of research that could further our understanding of how both episodic memory and semantic memory are intimately connected to episodic foresight. PMID:25071690
Background. This study evaluated the incidence of rebleeding and death at 6 weeks after a first episode of acute variceal haemorrhage (AVH) treated by emergency endoscopic sclerotherapy in a large cohort of alcoholic cirrhotic patients. Methods. From January 1984 to December 2006, 310 alcoholic cirrhotic patients (242 ...
Full Text Available A subsample (n = 2,550 of the 2005 US National Alcohol Survey of adults was used to estimate prevalence and correlates of six externalities from alcohol abuse—family problems, assaults, accompanying intoxicated driver, vehicular accident, financial problems and vandalized property—all from another‘s drinking. On a lifetime basis, 60% reported externalities, with a lower 12-month rate (9%. Women reported more family/marital and financial impacts and men more assaults, accompanying drunk drivers, and accidents. Being unmarried, older, white and ever having monthly heavy drinking or alcohol problems was associated with more alcohol externalities. Publicizing external costs of drinking could elevate political will for effective alcohol controls.
Greenfield, Thomas K.; Ye, Yu; Kerr, William; Bond, Jason; Rehm, Jürgen; Giesbrecht, Norman
A subsample (n = 2,550) of the 2005 US National Alcohol Survey of adults was used to estimate prevalence and correlates of six externalities from alcohol abuse––family problems, assaults, accompanying intoxicated driver, vehicular accident, financial problems and vandalized property––all from another’s drinking. On a lifetime basis, 60% reported externalities, with a lower 12-month rate (9%). Women reported more family/marital and financial impacts and men more assaults, accompanying drunk drivers, and accidents. Being unmarried, older, white and ever having monthly heavy drinking or alcohol problems was associated with more alcohol externalities. Publicizing external costs of drinking could elevate political will for effective alcohol controls. PMID:20049257
This bachelor thesis deals with heavy metal subculture. Its aim is to introduce the most important branches and to show broadness of heavy metal. This bachelor thesis describes development and history, briefly shows Czech heavy metal history alongside with the biggest and most popular Czech heavy metal festivals. It shows the most dressing concerns of society against this style.
Rehm, Jürgen; Gmel, Gerhard E; Gmel, Gerrit; Hasan, Omer S M; Imtiaz, Sameer; Popova, Svetlana; Probst, Charlotte; Roerecke, Michael; Room, Robin; Samokhvalov, Andriy V; Shield, Kevin D; Shuper, Paul A
Alcohol use is a major contributor to injuries, mortality and the burden of disease. This review updates knowledge on risk relations between dimensions of alcohol use and health outcomes to be used in global and national Comparative Risk Assessments (CRAs). Systematic review of reviews and meta-analyses on alcohol consumption and health outcomes attributable to alcohol use. For dimensions of exposure: volume of alcohol use, blood alcohol concentration and patterns of drinking, in particular heavy drinking occasions were studied. For liver cirrhosis, quality of alcohol was additionally considered. For all outcomes (mortality and/or morbidity): cause of death and disease/injury categories based on International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes used in global CRAs; harm to others. In total, 255 reviews and meta-analyses were identified. Alcohol use was found to be linked causally to many disease and injury categories, with more than 40 ICD-10 three-digit categories being fully attributable to alcohol. Most partially attributable disease categories showed monotonic relationships with volume of alcohol use: the more alcohol consumed, the higher the risk of disease or death. Exceptions were ischaemic diseases and diabetes, with curvilinear relationships, and with beneficial effects of light to moderate drinking in people without heavy irregular drinking occasions. Biological pathways suggest an impact of heavy drinking occasions on additional diseases; however, the lack of medical epidemiological studies measuring this dimension of alcohol use precluded an in-depth analysis. For injuries, except suicide, blood alcohol concentration was the most important dimension of alcohol use. Alcohol use caused marked harm to others, which has not yet been researched sufficiently. Research since 2010 confirms the importance of alcohol use as a risk factor for disease and injuries; for some health outcomes, more than one dimension of use needs to be considered. Epidemiological
Vasaru, G.; Ursu, D.; Mihaila, A.; Szentgyorgyi, P.
This bibliography on deuterium and heavy water contains 3763 references (1932-1974) from 43 sources of information. An author index and a subject index are given. The latter contains a list of 136 subjects, arranged in 13 main topics: abundance of deuterium , catalysts, catalytic exchange, chemical equilibria, chemical kinetics, deuterium and heavy water analysis, deuterium and heavy water properties, deuterium and heavy water separation, exchange reactions, general review, heavy water as moderator, isotope effects, synthesis of deuterium compounds
Smith, Gabie; Klein, Sarah
Numerous studies have examined risk factors that are associated with heavy alcohol use; however, much of this research has not addressed factors that specifically relate to women's alcohol use. The current study has extended the previous literature on women's alcohol-use behavior by examining factors associated with risky drinking in young women traveling abroad (n = 55). Using a pretest-posttest design, we examined the influence of disinhibition sensation-seeking and endorsement of social enhancement alcohol expectancies in relation to participation in risky alcohol use while abroad for three weeks. Analyses confirmed that disinhibition sensation-seeking and social enhancement alcohol expectancies were associated with participation in risky alcohol-use behaviors while abroad (controlling for alcohol-use at the pretest). Analysis of qualitative data reinforced the importance of social facilitation in women's alcohol risk-taking. Participants' qualitative data also emphasized characteristics of situational disinhibition relating to travel as well as culturally-specific motivations for alcohol-use behaviors. Further research examining women's personal need for disinhibition and the role of situational disinhibition in motivating alcohol risk-taking is warranted. In addition, the current findings suggest that interventions focusing on the connections between alcohol use and enhancement of social relationships and the potential isolating effects of non-use are necessary.
Sisson, Joseph H
The volatility of alcohol promotes the movement of alcohol from the bronchial circulation across the airway epithelium and into the conducting airways of the lung. The exposure of the airways through this route likely accounts for many of the biologic effects of alcohol on lung airway functions. The effect of alcohol on lung airway functions is dependent on the concentration, duration, and route of exposure. Brief exposure to mild concentrations of alcohol may enhance mucociliary clearance, stimulates bronchodilation, and probably attenuates the airway inflammation and injury observed in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Prolonged and heavy exposure to alcohol impairs mucociliary clearance, may complicate asthma management, and likely worsens outcomes including lung function and mortality in COPD patients. Nonalcohol congeners and alcohol metabolites act as triggers for airway disease exacerbations especially in atopic asthmatics and in Asian populations who have a reduced capacity to metabolize alcohol. Research focused on the mechanisms of alcohol-mediated changes in airway functions has identified specific mechanisms that mediate alcohol effects within the lung airways. These include prominent roles for the second messengers calcium and nitric oxide, regulatory kinases including PKG and PKA, alcohol- and acetaldehyde-metabolizing enzymes such as aldehyde dehydrogenase 2. The role alcohol may play in the pathobiology of airway mucus, bronchial blood flow, airway smooth muscle regulation, and the interaction with other airway exposure agents, such as cigarette smoke, represents opportunities for future investigation.
McKoon, Gail; Ratcliff, Roger
Four experiments examined priming between newly learned paired associates through two procedures, lexical decision and item recognition. Results argue against a functional separation of the semantic and episodic memory systems. (Author/AM)
Summerfield, Christopher; Greene, Matthew; Wager, Tor; Egner, Tobias; Hirsch, Joy; Mangels, Jennifer
During the formation of new episodic memories, a rich array of perceptual information is bound together for long-term storage. However, the brain mechanisms by which sensory representations (such as colors, objects, or individuals) are selected for episodic encoding are currently unknown. We describe a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment in which participants encoded the association between two classes of visual stimuli that elicit selective responses in the extrastriate visual cortex (faces and houses). Using connectivity analyses, we show that correlation in the hemodynamic signal between face- and place-sensitive voxels and the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is a reliable predictor of successful face-house binding. These data support the view that during episodic encoding, "top-down" control signals originating in the prefrontal cortex help determine which perceptual information is fated to be bound into the new episodic memory trace.
Full Text Available During the formation of new episodic memories, a rich array of perceptual information is bound together for long-term storage. However, the brain mechanisms by which sensory representations (such as colors, objects, or individuals are selected for episodic encoding are currently unknown. We describe a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment in which participants encoded the association between two classes of visual stimuli that elicit selective responses in the extrastriate visual cortex (faces and houses. Using connectivity analyses, we show that correlation in the hemodynamic signal between face- and place-sensitive voxels and the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is a reliable predictor of successful face-house binding. These data support the view that during episodic encoding, "top-down" control signals originating in the prefrontal cortex help determine which perceptual information is fated to be bound into the new episodic memory trace.
Roy, Alec; Linnoila, Markku
Reviews knowledge about suicide in alcoholism: how commonly suicide among alcoholics occurs; which alcoholics commit suicide and why; suicide among alcoholic women and alcoholic physicians; possible predisposing biological factors; possible linkages with depression, adverse life events, and personality disorder; and future research and directions.…
Fortunato, Erin K.; Siegel, Michael; Ramirez, Rebecca L.; Ross, Craig; DeJong, William; Albers, Alison B.; Jernigan, David H.
Background Although several studies have identified flavored alcoholic beverages (FABs) as being popular among underage drinkers, no previous study has ascertained the prevalence of brand-specific FAB consumption among a national sample of underage youth. Objectives To ascertain the brand-specific consumption prevalence and consumption share of FABs among a national sample of underage drinkers in the United States. Methods In 2012, we conducted an online, self-administered survey of a national sample of 1,031 underage drinkers, ages 13-20, to determine the prevalence of past 30-day consumption for each of 898 alcoholic beverage brands, including 62 FABs, and each brand’s youth consumption share, based on the estimated total number of standard drinks consumed. There were three brand-specific outcome measures: prevalence of consumption, prevalence of consumption during heavy episodic drinking, and consumption share, defined as the percentage of the total drinks consumed by all respondents combined that was attributable to a particular brand. Results The FAB brands with the highest prevalence of past 30-day consumption were Smirnoff Malt Beverages, 17.7%; Mike’s, 10.8%; Bacardi Malt Beverages, 8.0%; and Four Loko/Four MaXed, 6.1%. Just five brands accounted for almost half (49.1%) of the total consumption share by volume within the FAB category. Conclusion Flavored alcoholic beverages are highly popular among underage drinkers, and their FAB brand preferences are highly concentrated among a small number of brands. To decrease the consumption of FABs by underage youth, all states should re-classify these beverages as distilled spirits rather than beer. PMID:24266600
Mariana M. Wolski
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Scott Fitzgerald, a world-renowned American writer, suffered from various health problems, particularly alcohol dependence, and died suddenly at the age of 44. According to descriptions in A Moveable Feast, by Ernest Hemingway, Fitzgerald had episodes resembling complex partial seizures, raising the possibility of temporal lobe epilepsy.
Squire, L R; Zola, S M
Episodic memory and semantic memory are two types of declarative memory. There have been two principal views about how this distinction might be reflected in the organization of memory functions in the brain. One view, that episodic memory and semantic memory are both dependent on the integrity of medial temporal lobe and midline diencephalic structures, predicts that amnesic patients with medial temporal lobe/diencephalic damage should be proportionately impaired in both episodic and semantic memory. An alternative view is that the capacity for semantic memory is spared, or partially spared, in amnesia relative to episodic memory ability. This article reviews two kinds of relevant data: 1) case studies where amnesia has occurred early in childhood, before much of an individual's semantic knowledge has been acquired, and 2) experimental studies with amnesic patients of fact and event learning, remembering and knowing, and remote memory. The data provide no compelling support for the view that episodic and semantic memory are affected differently in medial temporal lobe/diencephalic amnesia. However, episodic and semantic memory may be dissociable in those amnesic patients who additionally have severe frontal lobe damage.
Adams, Sally; Attwood, Angela S; Munafò, Marcus R
The aim of this study was to investigate the following: (a) the effects of acute alcohol on delay discounting; (b) the effects of drinking status on delayed discounting; and (c) whether these effects differ according to reward type (alcohol vs. money). Heavy and light social alcohol users (n = 96) were randomized to receive either an acute dose of alcohol at 0.4 or 0.6 g/kg or placebo in a between-subjects, double-blind design. Delay discounting of alcohol and monetary rewards was measured using a hyperbolic model, with higher scores indicative of greater delay discounting. ANOVA of discount scores indicated a main effect of reward type, where all participants had higher discount scores for alcohol versus money rewards. A main effect of drinking status was also observed, where heavier drinkers had higher discount scores compared with lighter drinkers. We did not observe a main effect of acute alcohol use on delay discounting or the hypothesized interactions between acute alcohol use and drinking status with reward type. Our data suggest that heavier drinkers discount the value of delayed rewards more steeply than lighter drinkers. Delay discounting may therefore be a promising marker of heavy alcohol consumption in social drinkers. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Martin-Ordas, Gema; Atance, Cristina M.; Caza, Julian S.
Humans are able to transcend the present and mentally travel to another time, place, or perspective. Mentally projecting ourselves backwards (i.e., episodic memory) or forwards (i.e., episodic foresight) in time are crucial characteristics of the human memory system. Indeed, over the past few years, episodic memory has been argued to be involved both in our capacity to retrieve our personal past experiences and in our ability to imagine and foresee future scenarios. However, recent theory and...
Squeglia, Lindsay M; Rinker, Daniel A; Bartsch, Hauke; Castro, Norma; Chung, Yoonho; Dale, Anders M; Jernigan, Terry L; Tapert, Susan F
Brain abnormalities in adolescent heavy drinkers may result from alcohol exposure, or stem from pre-existing neural features. This longitudinal morphometric study investigated 40 healthy adolescents, ages 12-17 at study entry, half of whom (n=20) initiated heavy drinking over the 3-year follow-up. Both assessments included high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. FreeSurfer was used to segment brain volumes, which were measured longitudinally using the newly developed quantitative anatomic regional change analysis (QUARC) tool. At baseline, participants who later transitioned into heavy drinking showed smaller left cingulate, pars triangularis, and rostral anterior cingulate volume, and less right cerebellar white matter volumes (pteens. Over time, participants who initiated heavy drinking showed significantly greater volume reduction in the left ventral diencephalon, left inferior and middle temporal gyrus, and left caudate and brain stem, compared to substance-naïve youth (pbrain regions in future drinkers and greater brain volume reduction in subcortical and temporal regions after alcohol use was initiated. This is consistent with literature showing pre-existing cognitive deficits on tasks recruited by frontal regions, as well as post-drinking consequences on brain regions involved in language and spatial tasks. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
... may be increased in women because their digestive system may be less able to process alcohol, thus increasing the amount of alcohol reaching the liver. Genetic makeup Genetic makeup is thought to be involved because alcoholic liver disease often ...
... Depression Screening Substance Abuse Screening Alcohol Use Screening Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Instructions The following questions ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Manual Instructions The following ...
... alcohol use disorder” or AUD. AUD is a chronic relapsing brain disease characterized by compulsive alcohol use, loss of control over alcohol intake, and a negative emotional state when not using. ...
Cicognani, Elvira; Zani, Bruna
This study investigated the role of sensation seeking, peer group drinking and self-efficacy in refusing to drink alcohol in influencing alcohol consumption of a sample of 588 Italian university students. Results confirmed that heavy drinkers are typically males living in university residences. Alcohol use is more frequent among students with…
Ganis, Giorgio; Schendan, Haline E
Electrophysiology-based concealed information tests (CIT) try to determine whether somebody possesses concealed information about a crime-related item (probe) by comparing event-related potentials (ERPs) between this item and comparison items (irrelevants). Although the broader field is sometimes referred to as "memory detection," little attention has been paid to the precise type of underlying memory involved. This study begins addressing this issue by examining the key distinction between semantic and episodic memory in the autobiographical domain within a CIT paradigm. This study also addresses the issue of whether multiple repetitions of the items over the course of the session habituate the brain responses. Participants were tested in a 3-stimulus CIT with semantic autobiographical probes (their own date of birth) and episodic autobiographical probes (a secret date learned just before the study). Results dissociated these two memory conditions on several ERP components. Semantic probes elicited a smaller frontal N2 than episodic probes, consistent with the idea that the frontal N2 decreases with greater pre-existing knowledge about the item. Likewise, semantic probes elicited a smaller central N400 than episodic probes. Semantic probes also elicited a larger P3b than episodic probes because of their richer meaning. In contrast, episodic probes elicited a larger late positive complex (LPC) than semantic probes, because of the recent episodic memory associated with them. All these ERPs showed a difference between probes and irrelevants in both memory conditions, except for the N400, which showed a difference only in the semantic condition. Finally, although repetition affected the ERPs, it did not reduce the difference between probes and irrelevants. These findings show that the type of memory associated with a probe has both theoretical and practical importance for CIT research.
Full Text Available Electrophysiology-based concealed information tests (CIT try to determine whether somebody possesses concealed information about a probe item by comparing event-related potentials (ERPs between this item and comparison items (irrelevants. Although the broader field is sometimes referred to as memory detection, little attention has been paid to the precise type of underlying memory involved. This study begins addressing this issue by examining the key distinction between semantic and episodic memory in the autobiographical domain within a CIT paradigm. This study also addressed the issue of whether multiple repetitions of the items over the course of the session habituate the brain responses. Participants were tested in a 3-stimulus CIT with semantic autobiographical probes (their own date of birth and episodic autobiographical probes (a secret date learned just before the study. Results dissociated these two memory conditions on several ERP components. Semantic probes elicited a smaller frontal N2 than episodic probes, consistent with the idea that the frontal N2 decreases with greater pre-existing semantic knowledge about the item. Likewise, semantic probes elicited a smaller central N400 than episodic probes. Semantic probes also elicited a larger P3b than episodic probes because of their richer meaning. In contrast, episodic probes elicited a larger late positive component (LPC than semantic probes, because of the recent episodic memory associated with them. All these ERPs showed a difference between probes and irrelevants in both memory conditions, except for the N400, which showed a difference only in the semantic condition. Finally, although repetition affected the ERPs, it did not reduce the difference between probes and irrelevants. Thus, the type of memory associated with a probe has both theoretical and practical importance for CIT research.
Ganis, Giorgio; Schendan, Haline E.
Electrophysiology-based concealed information tests (CIT) try to determine whether somebody possesses concealed information about a crime-related item (probe) by comparing event-related potentials (ERPs) between this item and comparison items (irrelevants). Although the broader field is sometimes referred to as “memory detection,” little attention has been paid to the precise type of underlying memory involved. This study begins addressing this issue by examining the key distinction between semantic and episodic memory in the autobiographical domain within a CIT paradigm. This study also addresses the issue of whether multiple repetitions of the items over the course of the session habituate the brain responses. Participants were tested in a 3-stimulus CIT with semantic autobiographical probes (their own date of birth) and episodic autobiographical probes (a secret date learned just before the study). Results dissociated these two memory conditions on several ERP components. Semantic probes elicited a smaller frontal N2 than episodic probes, consistent with the idea that the frontal N2 decreases with greater pre-existing knowledge about the item. Likewise, semantic probes elicited a smaller central N400 than episodic probes. Semantic probes also elicited a larger P3b than episodic probes because of their richer meaning. In contrast, episodic probes elicited a larger late positive complex (LPC) than semantic probes, because of the recent episodic memory associated with them. All these ERPs showed a difference between probes and irrelevants in both memory conditions, except for the N400, which showed a difference only in the semantic condition. Finally, although repetition affected the ERPs, it did not reduce the difference between probes and irrelevants. These findings show that the type of memory associated with a probe has both theoretical and practical importance for CIT research. PMID:23355816
Aiello, Marilena; Vignando, Miriam; Foroni, Francesco; Pergola, Giulio; Rossi, Paola; Silveri, Maria Caterina; Rumiati, Raffaella I
It has been proposed that the conceptual knowledge of food and its putative subdivision into natural (i.e., fruit/vegetables) and transformed (i.e., food that underwent thermic or non-thermic processing) may follow the living/non-living distinction. In the present study, we investigated whether the advantage for living things compared to non-living things observed in episodic memory (the so-called animacy effect) extends to natural foods and transformed foods respectively. We pursued this issue in two experiments. In Experiment 1, we measured episodic memory for natural and transformed foods in young participants. In Experiment 2, we enrolled dementia-free centenarians, patients with Alzheimer's disease (DAT), Progressive primary aphasia (PPA), and healthy controls whose episodic memory was also tested for living/non-living things. Results showed that young participants had better recognition memory for transformed foods compared to natural foods. This difference disappeared in centenarians and patients. However, centenarians and PPA exhibited enhanced levels of false alarms (FA) with natural food, and DAT patients with both natural and transformed food. As far as the living/non-living distinction is concerned, the episodic memory for the living category appears more resilient to the decline compared to the non-living category in patients, particularly those with PPA. In conclusion, our study shows that transformed food is better remembered than natural food, suggesting that it is more salient and possibly relevant from an evolutionary perspective. The natural/transformed distinction appears susceptible to erosion only in the presence of a high degree of episodic memory impairment. These results offer novel insight on episodic memory of food, and also extend the current knowledge on the animacy effect in episodic memory. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Atkinson, Amanda Marie; Sumnall, Harry; Measham, Fiona
Aims: This study analysed the depiction of alcohol in an online government partnered social marketing campaign: Hollyoaks "The Morning After the Night Before". This was a new initiative, providing Internet-delivered episodes of a popular terrestrial drama targeted at young people. Methods: All the 12 episodes were coded for "visual…
Pani, Pier Paolo; Trogu, Emanuela; Pacini, Matteo; Maremmani, Icro
anticonvulsants reduced drinks/drinking days (11 studies, 1126 participants, mean difference (MD) -1.49, 95% Cl -2.32 to -0.65) and heavy drinking (12 studies, 1129 participants, standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.35, 95% Cl -0.51 to -0.19). Moreover, withdrawal for medical reasons (12 studies, 1410 participants, RR 1.22, 95% Cl 0.58 to 2.56, moderate-quality evidence) showed no evidence of difference, but for specific adverse effects (nine studies, 1164 participants), two of 18 adverse event outcomes favoured placebo. The direction of results was confirmed by subgroup analyses for topiramate and partially for gabapentin and valproate.Anticonvulsants versus naltrexone: No evidence of difference was shown in dropout rates (five studies, 528 participants, RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.52 to 1.06), severe relapse rates (four studies, 427 participants, RR 0.69, 95% Cl 0.44 to 1.07) and continuous abstinence rates (five studies, 528 participants, RR 1.21, 95% Cl 0.99 to 1.49); anticonvulsants were associated with fewer heavy drinking days (three studies, 308 participants, MD -5.21, 95% Cl -8.58 to -1.83), more days to severe relapse (three studies, 244 participants, MD 11.88, 95% Cl 3.29 to 20.46) and lower withdrawal for medical reasons (three studies, 245 participants, RR 0.13, 95% Cl 0.03 to 0.58). At the current stage of research, randomised evidence supporting the clinical use of anticonvulsants to treat alcohol dependence is insufficient. Results are conditioned by heterogeneity and by the low number and quality of studies comparing anticonvulsants with other medications. The uncertainty associated with these results leaves to clinicians the need to balance possible benefits/risks of treatment with anticonvulsants versus other medications as supported by evidence of efficacy.
On 25 September, the two large coils for the dipole magnet of ALICE, the LHC experiment dedicated to heavy ions, arrived at Point 2 on two heavy load trucks after a 1200 km journey from their assembly in Vannes, France.
Mäkelä, Pia; Osterberg, Esa
To review the consequences of the changes in Finnish alcohol policy in 2004, when quotas for travellers' tax-free imports of alcoholic beverages from other European Union (EU) countries were abolished, Estonia joined the EU and excise duties on alcoholic beverages were reduced in Finland by one-third, on average. A review of published research and routinely available data. Finland. Prices of alcoholic beverages, recorded and unrecorded alcohol consumption, data on criminality and other police statistics, alcohol-related deaths and hospitalizations, service use. Alcohol consumption increased 10% in 2004, clearly more than in the early 2000s. With few exceptions, alcohol-related harms increased. Alcohol-induced liver disease deaths increased the most, by 46% in 2004-06 compared to 2001-03, which indicates a strong effect on pre-2004 heavy drinkers. Consumption and harms increased most among middle-aged and older segments of the population, and harms in the worst-off parts of the population in particular. Alcohol taxation and alcohol prices affect consumption and related harms, and heavy drinkers are responsive to price. In Finland in 2004, the worst-off parts of the population paid the highest price in terms of health for cuts in alcohol prices. The removal of travellers' import quotas, which was an inherent part of creating the single European market, had serious public health consequences in Finland.
Ness-Jensen, Eivind; Lagergren, Jesper
Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) develops when reflux of gastric content causes troublesome symptoms or complications. The main symptoms are heartburn and acid regurgitation and complications include oesophagitis, strictures, Barrett's oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma. In addition to hereditary influence, GORD is associated with lifestyle factors, mainly obesity. Tobacco smoking is regarded as an aetiological factor of GORD, while alcohol consumption is considered a triggering factor of reflux episodes and not a causal factor. Yet, both tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption can reduce the lower oesophageal sphincter pressure, facilitating reflux. In addition, tobacco smoking reduces the production of saliva rich in bicarbonate, which is important for buffering and clearance of acid in the oesophagus. Alcohol also has a direct noxious effect on the oesophageal mucosa, which predisposes to acidic injury. Tobacco smoking cessation reduces the risk of GORD symptoms and avoidance of alcohol is encouraged in individuals where alcohol consumption triggers reflux. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Walitzer, Kimberly S; Dearing, Ronda L
This review explores gender differences in relapse and characteristics of relapse events in alcohol and substance use. For alcohol, relapse rates were similar across gender. Although negative mood, childhood sexual abuse, alcohol-related self-efficacy, and poorer coping strategies predicted alcohol relapse, gender did not moderate these effects. Gender did moderate the association between marriage and alcohol relapse. For women, marriage and marital stress were risk factors for alcohol relapse; among men, marriage lowered relapse risk. This gender difference in the role of marriage in relapse may be a result of partner differences in problem drinking. Alcoholic women are more likely to be married to heavy drinking partners than are alcoholic men; thus, alcoholic women may be put at risk of relapse by marriage and alcoholic men may be protected by marriage. There are fewer studies documenting gender differences in substance abuse relapse so conclusions are limited and tentative. In contrast to the lack of gender differences in alcohol relapse rates, women appear less likely to experience relapse to substance use, relative to men. Women relapsing to substance use appear to be more sensitive to negative affect and interpersonal problems. Men, in contrast, may be more likely to have positive experiences prior to relapse.
Dencker, Ditte; Molander, Anna; Thomsen, Morgane; Schlumberger, Chantal; Wortwein, Gitta; Weikop, Pia; Benveniste, Helene; Volkow, Nora D; Fink-Jensen, Anders
Alcohol use disorder is underdiagnosed and undertreated, and up to 50% of alcohol-abstinent patients diagnosed with alcohol dependence relapse within the first year of treatment. Current treatments for the maintenance of alcohol abstinence in patients with alcohol use disorder have limited efficacy, and there is an urgent need for novel treatment strategies. Decreased cerebral glucose metabolism and increased brain uptake of acetate were recently reported in heavy drinkers, relative to controls. Given the switch of metabolic fuel from glucose to acetate in the alcohol-dependent brain, we investigated the potential therapeutic benefit of a ketogenic diet in managing alcohol withdrawal symptoms during detoxification. Male Sprague Dawley rats fed either ketogenic or regular diet were administered ethanol or water orally, twice daily for 6 days while the diet conditions were maintained. Abstinence symptoms were rated 6, 24, 48, and 72 hours after the last alcohol administration. Maintenance on a ketogenic diet caused a significant decrease in the alcohol withdrawal symptoms' "rigidity" and "irritability." Our preclinical pilot study suggests that a ketogenic diet may be a novel approach for treating alcohol withdrawal symptoms in humans. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Claudia Liana SALANTA
Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze and compare the beverage alcohol choice among university students. The study was carried out on a total of 1069 students (men and women from University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca, Romania. A general questionnaire assessed alcoholic beverage consumption, perception and preference. The main reasons associated with alcohol consumption were relaxation and socialization followed by taste and flavour. The most respondents are attracted by flavor and aroma of the favourite beverage. The participants in the study were not heavy social drinkers (only 1.7 % of participants consume alcohol every day. Beer and wine, were the alcoholic beverages ranked in the top of preferences. Our findings can provide information for educators and policymakers in Romania to implement target-orientated interventions against alcohol abuse at universities. The results of this study may also add evidence to university administrators and public health educators elsewhere dealing with students from Romania.
Witkiewitz, Katie; Desai, Sruti A; Bowen, Sarah; Leigh, Barbara C; Kirouac, Megan; Larimer, Mary E
Nearly all college student smokers also drink alcohol, and smoking and heavy episodic drinking (HED) commonly co-occur. However, few studies have examined the factors that concurrently influence smoking and HED among college students and, to date, no interventions have been developed that target both HED and smoking in this population. The objective of the current study was to develop and evaluate a mobile feedback intervention that targets HED and smoking. Participants (N = 94) were non-treatment-seeking college students (M(age) = 20.5 years, SD = 1.7) who engaged in at least a single HED episode in the past 2 weeks and reported concurrent smoking and drinking at least once a week. Participants were randomized to receive either the mobile intervention for 14 days, complete mobile assessments (without intervention) for 14 days, or complete minimal assessments (without intervention or mobile assessments). At a 1-month follow-up, compared with the minimal assessment condition, we observed significant reductions in the number of cigarettes per smoking day in both the mobile intervention (d = 0.55) and mobile assessment (d = 0.45) conditions. Among those randomized to the mobile intervention, receiving more modules of the intervention was significantly associated with a lower likelihood of any drinking during the 14-day assessment period and significant reductions in smoking at 1-month follow-up. The mobile intervention did not result in significant reductions in HED or concurrent smoking and drinking. Future research should continue to examine ways of using technology and the real-time environment to improve interventions for HED and smoking.
Babb, Stephanie J; Crystal, Jonathon D
A fundamental question in comparative cognition is whether animals remember unique, personal past experiences. It has long been argued that memories for specific events (referred to as episodic memory) are unique to humans. Recently, considerable evidence has accumulated to show that food-storing birds possess critical behavioral elements of episodic memory, referred to as episodic-like memory in acknowledgment of the fact that behavioral criteria do not assess subjective experiences. Here we show that rats have a detailed representation of remembered events and meet behavioral criteria for episodic-like memory. We provided rats with access to locations baited with distinctive (e.g., grape and raspberry) or nondistinctive (regular chow) flavors. Locations with a distinctive flavor replenished after a long but not a short delay, and locations with the nondistinctive flavor never replenished. One distinctive flavor was devalued after encoding its location by prefeeding that flavor (satiation) or by pairing it with lithium chloride (acquired taste aversion), while the other distinctive flavor was not devalued. The rats selectively decreased revisits to the devalued distinctive flavor but not to the nondevalued distinctive flavor. The present studies demonstrate that rats selectively encode the content of episodic-like memories.
Sharma, H K; Tripathi, B M; Pelto, Pertti J
This paper traces the role of alcohol production and use in the daily lives of people in India, from ancient times to the present day. Alcohol use has been an issue of great ambivalence throughout the rich and long history of the Indian subcontinent. The behaviors and attitudes about alcohol use in India are very complex, contradictory and convoluted because of the many different influences in that history. The evolution of alcohol use patterns in India can be divided into four broad historical periods (time of written records), beginning with the Vedic era (ca. 1500-700 BCE). From 700 BCE to 1100 CE, ("Reinterpretation and Synthesis") is the time of emergence of Buddhism and Jainism, with some new anti-alcohol doctrines, as well as post-Vedic developments in the Hindu traditions and scholarly writing. The writings of the renowned medical practitioners, Charaka and Susruta, added new lines of thought, including arguments for "moderate alcohol use." The Period of Islamic Influence (1100-1800 CE), including the Mughal era from the 1520s to 1800, exhibited a complex interplay of widespread alcohol use, competing with the clear Quranic opposition to alcohol consumption. The fourth period (1800 to the present) includes the deep influence of British colonial rule and the recent half century of Indian independence, beginning in 1947. The contradictions and ambiguities-with widespread alcohol use in some sectors of society, including the high status caste of warriors/rulers (Kshatriyas), versus prohibitions and condemnation of alcohol use, especially for the Brahmin (scholar-priest) caste, have produced alcohol use patterns that include frequent high-risk, heavy and hazardous drinking. The recent increases in alcohol consumption in many sectors of the general Indian population, coupled with the strong evidence of the role of alcohol in the spread of HIV/STI infections and other health risks, point to the need for detailed understanding of the complex cross
Introduction Although alcohol consumption is a common lifestyle behavior with previous studies reporting positive effects of alcohol on chronic pain and rheumatoid arthritis, no studies to this date have examined alcohol consumption in patients with fibromyalgia. We examined the association between alcohol consumption and symptom severity and quality of life (QOL) in patients with fibromyalgia. Methods Data on self-reported alcohol consumption from 946 patients were analyzed. Subjects were grouped by level of alcohol consumption (number of drinks/week): none, low (≤3), moderate (>3 to 7), and heavy (>7). Univariate analyses were used to find potential confounders, and analysis of covariance was used to adjust for these confounders. Tukey HSD pairwise comparisons were used to determine differences between alcohol groups. Results Five hundred and forty-six subjects (58%) did not consume alcohol. Low, moderate, and heavy levels of alcohol consumption were reported for 338 (36%), 31 (3%), and 31 patients (3%), respectively. Employment status (P FIQ total score (P = 0.01), physical function (P fibromyalgia symptoms and better physical QOL than nondrinkers. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that low and moderate alcohol consumption was associated with lower fibromyalgia symptoms and better QOL compared to no alcohol consumption. The reasons for these results are unclear. Since recent studies have demonstrated that γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) levels are low in fibromyalgia, and alcohol is known to be a GABA-agonist, future studies should examine whether alcohol could have a salutary effect on pain and other symptoms in fibromyalgia. PMID:23497427
Panadero, Sonia; Vázquez, José Juan; Martín, Rosa María
The work analyzes different aspects related to alcohol consumption among homeless people and people at risk of social exclusion. The data was gathered from a representative sample of homeless people in Madrid (n = 188) and a sample of people at risk of social exclusion (n = 164) matched in sex, age, and origin (Spaniards vs. foreigners). The results showed that homeless people present a greater consumption of alcohol and have experienced more problems derived from its consumption than people at risk of social exclusion. Most of the homeless people who had alcohol-related problems had had them prior to their homelessness, and they stated they had poorer health and had experienced a greater number of homelessness episodes. Despite the relevance of problems related to alcohol among our sample, only a small percentage of the sample had participated in treatment programs for alcohol consumption.
Hayne, Harlene; Gross, Julien; McNamee, Stephanie; Fitzgibbon, Olivia; Tustin, Karen
In the present study, we examined the development of episodic memory and episodic foresight. Three- and 5-year-olds were interviewed individually using a personalised timeline that included photographs of them at different points in their life. After constructing the timeline with the experimenter, each child was asked to discuss a number of…
McCormack, Clare; Hutchinson, Delyse; Burns, Lucy; Wilson, Judy; Elliott, Elizabeth; Allsop, Steve; Najman, Jake; Jacobs, Sue; Rossen, Larissa; Olsson, Craig; Mattick, Richard
Current estimates of the rates of alcohol-exposed pregnancies may underestimate prenatal alcohol exposure if alcohol consumption in early trimester 1, prior to awareness of pregnancy, is not considered. Extant literature describes predictors of alcohol consumption during pregnancy; however, alcohol consumption prior to awareness of pregnancy is a distinct behavior from consumption after becoming aware of pregnancy and thus may be associated with different predictors. The purpose of this study was therefore to examine prevalence and predictors of alcohol consumption by women prior to awareness of their pregnancy, and trajectories of change to alcohol use following pregnancy recognition. Pregnant women (n = 1,403) were prospectively recruited from general antenatal clinics of 4 public hospitals in Australian metropolitan areas between 2008 and 2013. Women completed detailed interviews about alcohol use before and after recognition of pregnancy. Most women (n = 850, 60.6%) drank alcohol between conception and pregnancy recognition. Binge and heavy drinking were more prevalent than low-level drinking. The proportion of women who drank alcohol reduced to 18.3% (n = 257) after recognition of pregnancy. Of women who drank alcohol, 70.5% ceased drinking, 18.3% reduced consumption, and 11.1% made no reduction following awareness of pregnancy. Socioeconomic status (SES) was the strongest predictor of alcohol use, with drinkers more likely to be of high rather than low SES compared with abstainers (OR = 3.30, p alcohol use prior to pregnancy recognition, age, pregnancy planning, and illicit substance use. In this sample of relatively high SES women, most women ceased or reduced drinking once aware of their pregnancy. However, the rate of alcohol-exposed pregnancies was higher than previous estimates when the period prior to pregnancy recognition was taken into account. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Gilmore, Ian; Britton, John
Exposure to alcohol products in feature films is a risk factor for use of alcohol by young people. This study was designed to document the extent to which alcohol imagery and brand appearances occur in popular UK films, and in relation to British Board of Film Classification (BBFC) age ratings intended to protect children and young people from harmful imagery. Alcohol appearances (classified as 'alcohol use, inferred alcohol use, other alcohol reference and alcohol brand appearances') were measured using 5-min interval coding of 300 films, comprising the 15 highest grossing films at the UK Box Office each year over a period of 20 years from 1989 to 2008. At least one alcohol appearance occurred in 86% of films, at least one episode of alcohol branding in 35% and nearly a quarter (23%) of all intervals analysed contained at least one appearance of alcohol. The occurrence of 'alcohol use and branded alcohol appearances' was particularly high in 1989, but the frequency of these and all other appearance categories changed little in subsequent years. Most films containing alcohol appearances, including 90% of those including 'alcohol brand appearances', were rated as suitable for viewing by children and young people. The most frequently shown brands were American beers: Budweiser, Miller and Coors. Alcohol appearances were similarly frequent in films originating from the UK, as from the USA. Alcohol imagery is extremely common in all films popular in the UK, irrespective of BBFC age classification. Given the relationship between exposure to alcohol imagery in films and use of alcohol by young people, we suggest that alcohol imagery should be afforded greater consideration in determining the suitability of films for viewing by children and young people.