Sample records for heavy element structure

  1. Multiphoton spectroscopy in heavy elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solarz, R.W.; Paisner, J.A.; Worden, E.F.


    Some recently discovered regularities in the spectra of heavy elements which are also applicable to the analysis of the spectra of lighter atoms are described. It is pointed out that stepwise resonant multiphoton methods are irreplaceable tools in the study of high lying states in a complex atomic system. Systematic applications of these methods has permitted regularities to be observed which also hold for the lighter elements. It is noted that greatly increased understanding of the excited state structure of heavy atoms is not possible. 8 references. (JFP)

  2. Heavy element nucleosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Schramm, D N


    A review is made of current nuclear astrophysical theory regarding the origin of the elements heavier than iron. The pre-supernova evolution of stars is very briefly described, and speculation is given regarding the supernova mechanism. In particular, the possible role of weak neutral currents is presented. The synthesis of the trans-iron nuclei via the s and r-processes is examined. Special emphasis is given to the r-process because it depends completely on the properties of nuclei off the valley of stability. Recent explosive r-process calculations are discussed, as well as plausible astrophysical sites. The alternative n-process is also described. The possible production by the r and/or n-processes of the almost mythical superheavy elements is reviewed. The sensitivity of the results to certain crudely estimated parameters is explicitly shown. Throughout the discussion, the importance of certain nuclear physics experiments and formalism is demonstrated. Areas where advances in nuclear physics will have a d...

  3. Electronic Structure Calculations for Heavy Elements: Radon (Z=86) and Francium (Z=87) (United States)

    Koufos, Alexander; Papaconstantopoulos, Dimitrios


    Electronic structure calculations allow scientists to predict the properties of solids without the use of physical material. Although the ability to manipulate matter has improved dramatically within the past couple decades, some matter is still hard to study. Modern computers not only let us study this matter, but allow us to do it more quickly and just as accurately. The electronic structure of two rare and mostly unstudied elements, Radon (Z=86) and Francium (Z=87), has been calculated. The augmented plane wave (APW) method with local density approximation (LDA) functional as well as the linearized augmented plane wave (LAPW) method with both LDA and generalized gradient approximation (GGA) functionals were used to perform the calculations. Francium total energy calculations gave the fcc structure slightly below the bcc structure with a minimal energy difference of δE=0.33mRy. The difference found is consistent with other alkali metal total energy calculations which do not verify the bcc structure to be the ground state. Radon was predicted to be an insulator with a gap of 0.931 Ry similar to the other noble gases.

  4. 3-D cohesive finite element model for application in structural analysis of heavy duty composite pavements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skar, Asmus; Poulsen, Peter Noe


    The problem of stiffness degradation in composite pavement systems from localised fracture damage in the quasibrittle cement bound granular mixture are today taken into account only by empirical formulas. These formulas deals with a limited number of materials in a restricted range of design...... this paper presents a numerical analysis of the fracture behaviour of cement bound granular mixtures in composite concrete block pavement systems applying a cohesive model. The functionality of the proposed model is compared to experimental investigations of beam bending tests. The pavement is modelled......, it can be shown that adequately good prediction of the structural response of composite pavements is obtained for monotonic loading without significant computational cost, making the model applicable for engineering design purpose. It is envisaged that the methodology implemented in this study can...

  5. Longitudinal heavy quark structure function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khorramian, Ali N. [Physics Department, Semnan University, Semnan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Particles and Accelerators, IPM - Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics, P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail:; Atashbar Tehrani, S. [Physics Department, Semnan University, Semnan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Particles and Accelerators, IPM - Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics, P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail:; Mirjalili, A. [Physics Department, Yazd University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Particles and Accelerators, IPM - Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics, P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail:


    In this paper we study the heavy-quark contribution to the proton non-singlet structure functions F{sub L}{sup NS}(x,Q{sup 2}). In this way we use very recently results for massive operator matrix elements, which contribute to the heavy flavor Wilson coefficients in unpolarized deeply inelastic scattering in the region Q{sup 2}>>m{sup 2}. The method of QCD analysis of non-singlet structure function, based on their Jacobi polynomials reconstruction from perturbative QCD predictions for the Mellin moments, is also described.

  6. Heavy Metals and Related Trace Elements. (United States)

    Leland, Harry V.; And Others


    Presents a literature review of heavy metals and related trace elements in the environment, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) trace treatment in natural water and in sediments; and (2) bioaccumulation and toxicity of trace elements. A list of 466 references is presented. (HM)

  7. Frontiers of heavy element nuclear and radiochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, D.C.


    The production and half-lives of the heaviest chemical elements, now known through Z = 112, are reviewed. Recent experimental evidence for the stabilization of heavy element isotopes due to proximity to deformed nuclear shells at Z = 108 and N = 162 is compared with the theoretical predictions. The possible existence of isotopes of elements 107--110 with half-lives of seconds or longer, and production reactions and experimental techniques for increasing the overall yields of such isotopes in order to study both their nuclear and chemical properties are discussed. The present status of studies of the chemical properties of Rf, Ha, and Sg is briefly summarized and prospects for extending chemical studies beyond Sg are considered.

  8. Survival Mediated Heavy Element Capture Cross Sections (United States)

    Loveland, Walter; Yao, Larry


    Formally, the cross section for producing a heavy evaporation residue, σEVR, in a fusion reaction can be written as where E is the center of mass energy, and T is the probability of the colliding nuclei to overcome the potential barrier in the entrance channel and reach the contact point. PCN is the probability that the projectile-target system will evolve from the contact point to the compound nucleus. Wsur is the probability that the compound nucleus will decay to produce an evaporation residue rather than fissioning. However, one must remember that the Wsur term effectively sets the allowed values of the spin, which in turn, restricts the values of the capture and fusion cross sections. We point out the implications of this fact for capture cross sections for heavy element formation reactions.

  9. Survival Mediated Heavy Element Capture Cross Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loveland Walter


    where E is the center of mass energy, and T is the probability of the colliding nuclei to overcome the potential barrier in the entrance channel and reach the contact point. PCN is the probability that the projectile-target system will evolve from the contact point to the compound nucleus. Wsur is the probability that the compound nucleus will decay to produce an evaporation residue rather than fissioning. However, one must remember that the Wsur term effectively sets the allowed values of the spin, which in turn, restricts the values of the capture and fusion cross sections. We point out the implications of this fact for capture cross sections for heavy element formation reactions.

  10. Structural elements design manual

    CERN Document Server

    Draycott, Trevor


    Gives clear explanations of the logical design sequence for structural elements. The Structural Engineer says: `The book explains, in simple terms, and with many examples, Code of Practice methods for sizing structural sections in timber, concrete,masonry and steel. It is the combination into one book of section sizing methods in each of these materials that makes this text so useful....Students will find this an essential support text to the Codes of Practice in their study of element sizing'.

  11. Actinide targets for the synthesis of super-heavy elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberto, J.B., E-mail:; Alexander, C.W.; Boll, R.A.; Burns, J.D.; Ezold, J.G.; Felker, L.K.; Hogle, S.L.; Rykaczewski, K.P.


    Since 2000, six new super-heavy elements with atomic numbers 113 through 118 have been synthesized in hot fusion reactions of {sup 48}Ca beams on actinide targets. These target materials, including {sup 242}Pu, {sup 244}Pu, {sup 243}Am, {sup 245}Cm, {sup 248}Cm, {sup 249}Cf, and {sup 249}Bk, are available in very limited quantities and require specialized production and processing facilities resident in only a few research centers worldwide. This report describes the production and chemical processing of heavy actinide materials for super-heavy element research, current availabilities of these materials, and related target fabrication techniques. The impact of actinide materials in super-heavy element discovery is reviewed, and strategies for enhancing the production of rare actinides including {sup 249}Bk, {sup 251}Cf, and {sup 254}Es are described.

  12. Element Distribution and Multiplicity of Heavy Fragments

    CERN Multimedia


    This experiment will measure the energy and angular distribution of heavy fragments produced in the reactions of |1|2C on several targets between |2|7Al and |2|3|8U at 86~MeV/u. The systematic investigation of a highly excited interaction region (fireball) by means of a clean N and Z identification of heavy tar fragments, may result in a better understanding of temperature concept and of the degree of equilibration of the local interaction region with respect to the total system. For this investigation a large-area position sensitive ionization chamber of 50~msr solid angle in conjunction with a time-of-flight telescope consisting of parallel-plate detectors will be used. \\\\ \\\\ In order to get information on the transverse momentum transfer and the inelasticity of the collision, the energy of the PROJECTILE-FRAGMENTS will be measured at forward angles with a plastic scintillator hodoscope. In addition to this inclusive measurement correlations between heavy fragments will be investigated by means of three pos...

  13. Heavy element research at FLNR (Dubna)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oganessian, Yu. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Moscow region, Dubna (Russian Federation)


    The setting of the experiments is described and the results obtained on the synthesis of the heaviest nuclides in reactions induced by {sup 48}Ca projectiles are presented. The decay properties of the new nuclei confirm the theoretical predictions about the new nuclear shells and the ''islands of stability'' of superheavy elements. Briefly, also the results of the first experiments aimed to study the atomic and chemical properties of element 112 are reported. (orig.)

  14. Heavy-element chemistry - Status and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuerler, A. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland); Bern univ. (Switzerland)


    In the past ten years, nuclear chemists have made considerable progress in developing fast on-line separation techniques, which allowed to chemically characterize the first four transactinide elements Rf (rutherfordium, Z=104), Db (dubnium, Z=105), Sg (seaborgium, Z=106), and recently also Bh (bohrium, Z=107). In all cases the isolated nuclides were unambiguously identified by observing genetically linked decay chains. Nuclides with production cross-sections of less than 100 pb and half-lives as short as a few seconds have been chemically isolated. Thus, chemists have discovered or significantly contributed to the characterization of the nuclear-decay properties of a number of transactinide nuclei. New techniques with greatly improved overall efficiencies should allow chemists to extend their studies to even heavier elements such as Hs (hassium, Z=108) and to the recently discovered superheavy elements with Z=112 and 114, which can be produced only with picobarn cross-sections. (orig.)

  15. Determination of heavy elements in Nigerian river sediments using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluoresecence (EDXRF) Technique was used to determine eleven heavy elements (K, Ca, Ti, V, Fe, Co, Zn, Rb, Sr, Zr, Nb) from sediments of the Kubanni river in Nigeria. Six of them (K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Co, Sr) were found to be depleted, while lthe others were enriched with respect to their Clarke values.

  16. Alpha decay properties of heavy and superheavy elements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    properties of very heavy atomic nuclei. Elements with Z = 107−112 have been synthe- sized at GSI, Darmstadt [1,2] and their results gave a pronounced enlargement of lifetimes for Z = 106 − 118 nuclei. Based on this, here we apply our well-known cubic plus. Yukawa plus exponential (CYE) model which is successful in ...

  17. Antioxidant, Heavy Metals and Elemental Analysis of Holoptelea integrifolia Planch


    Saraswathy, A.; Devi, S. Nandini; D. Ramasamy


    The ethanol crude extract of stem bark of Holoptelea integrifolia Planch. traditionally used in Indian system of medicine was screened for its antioxidant activity using α-tocopherol as standard antioxidant. The free radical scavenging potential of the extract was evaluated by two different antioxidant methods; ferric thiocyanate and thiobarbituric acid method. The ethanol extract was found to exhibit good antioxidant property. Further physicochemical constants, elemental and heavy metal anal...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weberg, Micah J. [PhD Candidate in Space Science, Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, 2134A Space Research Building, 2455 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143, USA. (United States); Lepri, Susan T. [Associate Professor, Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, 2429 Space Research Building, 2455 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143, USA. (United States); Zurbuchen, Thomas H., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Professor, Space Science and Aerospace Engineering, Associate Dean for Entrepreneurship Senior Counselor of Entrepreneurship Education, Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, 2431 Space Research Building, 2455 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143, USA. (United States)


    The elemental abundances of heavy ions (masses larger than He) in the solar wind provide information about physical processes occurring in the corona. Additionally, the charge state distributions of these heavy ions are sensitive to the temperature profiles of their respective source regions in the corona. Heavy ion dropouts are a relatively new class of solar wind events identified by both elemental and ionic charge state distributions. We have shown that their origins lie in large, closed coronal loops where processes such as gravitational settling dominate and can cause a mass-dependent fractionation pattern. In this study we consider and attempt to answer three fundamental questions concerning heavy ion dropouts: (1) 'where are the source loops located in the large-scale corona?'; (2) 'how does the interplay between coronal processes influence the end elemental abundances?'; and (3) 'what are the most probable release mechanisms'? We begin by analyzing the temporal and spatial variability of heavy ion dropouts and their correlation with heliospheric plasma and magnetic structures. Next we investigate the ordering of the elements inside dropouts with respect to mass, ionic charge state, and first ionization potential. Finally, we discuss these results in the context of the prevailing solar wind theories and the processes they posit that may be responsible for the release of coronal plasma into interplanetary space.

  19. The Zintl Chemistry of the Heavy Tetrel Elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klem, Michael Thomas [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Exploration of the alkali metal/alkaline-earth metal/heavy tetrel (Sn or Pb) systems has revealed a vast array of new chemistry and novel structure types. The structures and properties of these new materials have been studied in an attempt to understand the chemistry of these and other related systems. The first phase reported is Rb4Pb9 (K4Pb9 type). The compound contains two different types of Pb94- deltahedra, a monocapped square pyramid and a distorted tricapped trigonal prism. Both cluster geometries correspond to a nido assignment even though the tricapped trigonal prism is not the classic Wade's rules nido deltahedron expected for a monocapped square antiprism. Also, a series of compounds that contain square pyramidal Tt5 polyanions of tin and lead has been obtained in alkaline-earth or rare-earth metal-tetrel systems by direct fusion of the elements to yield Sr3Sn5, Ba3Pb5, and La3Sn5. These phases contain square pyramidal clusters of the tetrel elements that are weakly interlinked into chains via two types of longer intercluster interactions that are mediated by bridging cations and substantially influenced by cation size and the free electron count. Attempts at incorporating another main-group element to form heteroatomic clusters were also successful. In the case of A5InPb8 (A = K, Rb), the compounds contain clusters composed of two Pb4 tetrahedra that are interbridged by a lone μ6-In atom. The InPb8 units are weakly interlinked into sheets in the ab plane by long intercluster Pb-Pb interactions. Using As led to the formation of the compound K5As3Pb3 which is made up of As3Pb35- crown clusters that can be likened to a 6-atom hypho-cluster based on the tricapped trigonal parent as the closo

  20. Marine Structures with Heavy Overtopping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter


    An investigation of wave overtopping of marine structures is described. Focus is put on structures with realtively low crest levels and various slope layouts subjected to non-breaking waves. Influence of slope draught and angle is investigated.......An investigation of wave overtopping of marine structures is described. Focus is put on structures with realtively low crest levels and various slope layouts subjected to non-breaking waves. Influence of slope draught and angle is investigated....

  1. Superconducting heavy-ion accelerating structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.


    This paper briefly reviews the technical history of superconducting ion-accelerating structures. Various superconducting cavities currently used and being developed for use in ion linacs are discussed. Principal parameters and operational characteristics of superconducting structures in active use at various heavy-ion facilities are described.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roederer, Ian U.; Thompson, Ian B. [Carnegie Observatories, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Lawler, James E. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Sobeck, Jennifer S. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Beers, Timothy C. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Cowan, John J. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Frebel, Anna [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Ivans, Inese I. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Schatz, Hendrik [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, E. Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Sneden, Christopher [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)


    Elements heavier than the iron group are found in nearly all halo stars. A substantial number of these elements, key to understanding neutron-capture nucleosynthesis mechanisms, can only be detected in the near-ultraviolet. We report the results of an observing campaign using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope to study the detailed heavy-element abundance patterns in four metal-poor stars. We derive abundances or upper limits from 27 absorption lines of 15 elements produced by neutron-capture reactions, including seven elements (germanium, cadmium, tellurium, lutetium, osmium, platinum, and gold) that can only be detected in the near-ultraviolet. We also examine 202 heavy-element absorption lines in ground-based optical spectra obtained with the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle Spectrograph on the Magellan-Clay Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory and the High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer on the Keck I Telescope on Mauna Kea. We have detected up to 34 elements heavier than zinc. The bulk of the heavy elements in these four stars are produced by r-process nucleosynthesis. These observations affirm earlier results suggesting that the tellurium found in metal-poor halo stars with moderate amounts of r-process material scales with the rare earth and third r-process peak elements. Cadmium often follows the abundances of the neighboring elements palladium and silver. We identify several sources of systematic uncertainty that must be considered when comparing these abundances with theoretical predictions. We also present new isotope shift and hyperfine structure component patterns for Lu II and Pb I lines of astrophysical interest.

  3. Preparation of targets by electrodeposition for heavy element studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhardt, K. E-mail:; Schaedel, M.; Schimpf, E.; Thoerle, P.; Trautmann, N


    For heavy element studies at GSI, lanthanide and actinide targets have been prepared by molecular plating. The deposition occurs from an isopropanolic solution at 1000-1200 V with current densities of a few mA/cm{sup 2}. Several lanthanide targets have been prepared for test experiments. With {sup nat}Gd deposited on a 10 {mu}m thick Be backing foil a target density of 1100 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} could be achieved. Gd-targets were used for the production of {alpha}-emitting isotopes of Os, the homologue of hassium (Hs; Z=108), in order to develop a chemical separation procedure for Hs. {sup 248}Cm targets with densities up to 730 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} have been produced for recent experiments to investigate the chemical behaviour of Hs. Here, a rotating wheel system with a multi-target device has been applied enabling higher beam intensities, compared to a stationary target. The targets were irradiated with a pulsed {sup 26}Mg{sup 5+} beam applying beam currents up to 6.6 {mu}A{sub electr}. An {alpha}-spectroscopic investigation of the irradiated Cm-targets showed that the Cm-material is not evenly distributed over the entire target area. Very often, for heavy element investigations, chemical separation procedures are required to ensure high purity of the deposited actinide materials.

  4. Neutron Star Mergers and Nucleosynthesis of Heavy Elements (United States)

    Thielemann, F., -K.; Eichler, M.; Panov, I. V.; Wehmeyer, B.


    The existence of neutron star mergers has been supported since the discovery of the binary pulsar and the observation of its orbital energy loss, consistent with General Relativity. They are considered nucleosynthesis sites of the rapid neutron-capture process (r-process), which is responsible for creating approximately half of all heavy elements beyond Fe and is the only source of elements beyond Pb and Bi. Detailed nucleosynthesis calculations based on the decompression of neutron star matter are consistent with solar r-process abundances of heavy nuclei. Neutron star mergers have also been identified with short-duration {\\gamma}-ray bursts via their IR afterglow. The high neutron densities in ejected matter permit a violent r-process, leading to fission cycling of the heaviest nuclei in regions far from (nuclear) stability. Uncertainties in several nuclear properties affect the abundance distributions. The modeling of astrophysical events also depends on the hydrodynamic treatment, the occurrence of a neutrino wind after the merger and before the possible emergence of a black hole, and the properties of black hole accretion disks. We discuss the effect of nuclear and modeling uncertainties and conclude that binary compact mergers are probably a (or the) dominant site of the production of r-process nuclei in our Galaxy.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The application of finite element method is analytical when solutions can not be applied for deeper study analyzes static, dynamic or other types of requirements in different points of the structures .In practice it is necessary to know the behavior of the structure or certain parts components of the machine under the influence of certain factors static and dynamic . The application of finite element in the optimization of components leads to economic growth , to increase reliability and durability organs studied, thus the machine itself.

  6. ST-LIBS for heavy element detection in complex matrices (United States)

    Tamboli, M. M.; V. K., Unnikrishnan; Devangad, Praveen; K. M., Muhammed Shameem; Santhosh, C.


    Interest in the use of laser-based sensors operating in stand-off mode is increasing due to the wide range of options offered in the evaluation of distant targets. In this work, a stand-off laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (ST-LIBS) system has been developed and demonstrated to determine the heavy elements in soil samples. Initially, different parameters of the device have been optimized in ambient atmosphere and tested for quantitative analysis of Nickel and Chromium at two different stand-off distances (1 m and 6 m). The prepared concentrations were in the range of 100 ppm to 600 ppm. The laser energy of 150 mJ was maintained through out the experiment and to obtain a real time situation the target was in static state.

  7. Reliability-Based Optimization of Structural Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    In this paper structural elements from an optimization point of view are considered, i.e. only the geometry of a structural element is optimized. Reliability modelling of the structural element is discussed both from an element point of view and from a system point of view. The optimization...

  8. Review of even element super-heavy nuclei and search for element 120

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, S.; Heinz, S.; Mann, R.; Maurer, J.; Münzenberg, G.; Antalic, S.; Barth, W.; Burkhard, H. G.; Dahl, L.; Eberhardt, K.; Grzywacz, R.; Hamilton, J. H.; Henderson, R. A.; Kenneally, J. M.; Kindler, B.; Kojouharov, I.; Lang, R.; Lommel, B.; Miernik, K.; Miller, D.; Moody, K. J.; Morita, K.; Nishio, K.; Popeko, A. G.; Roberto, J. B.; Runke, J.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Saro, S.; Scheidenberger, C.; Schött, H. J.; Shaughnessy, D. A.; Stoyer, M. A.; Thörle-Pospiech, P.; Tinschert, K.; Trautmann, N.; Uusitalo, J.; Yeremin, A. V.


    The reaction 54Cr$ + $248Cm was investigated at the velocity filter SHIP at GSI, Darmstadt, with the intention to study production and decay properties of isotopes of element 120. Three correlated signals were measured, which occurred within a period of 279ms. The heights of the signals correspond with the expectations for a decay sequence starting with an isotope of element 120. However, a complete decay chain cannot be established, since a signal from the implantation of the evaporation residue cannot be identified unambiguously. Measured properties of the event chain are discussed in detail. The result is compared with theoretical predictions. Previously measured decay properties of even element super-heavy nuclei were compiled in order to find arguments for an assignment from the systematics of experimental data. In the course of this review, a few tentatively assigned data could be corrected. New interpretations are given for results which could not be assigned definitely in previous studies. The discussion revealed that the cross-section for production of element 120 could be high enough so that a successful experiment seems possible with presently available techniques. However, a continuation of the experiment at SHIP for a necessary confirmation of the results obtained in a relatively short irradiation of five weeks is not possible at GSI presently. Therefore, we decided to publish the results of the measurement and of the review as they exist now. In the summary and outlook section we also present concepts for the continuation of research in the field of super-heavy nuclei.

  9. Review of even element super-heavy nuclei and search for element 120

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, S. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt, Institut fuer Physik, Frankfurt (Germany); Heinz, S.; Mann, R.; Maurer, J.; Barth, W.; Burkhard, H.G.; Dahl, L.; Kindler, B.; Kojouharov, I.; Lang, R.; Lommel, B.; Runke, J.; Scheidenberger, C.; Schoett, H.J.; Tinschert, K. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Muenzenberg, G. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Manipal University, Manipal Centre for Natural Sciences, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Antalic, S.; Saro, S. [Comenius University, Department of Nuclear Physics and Biophysics, Bratislava (Slovakia); Eberhardt, K.; Thoerle-Pospiech, P.; Trautmann, N. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Grzywacz, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Hamilton, J.H. [Vanderbuilt University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nashville, TN (United States); Henderson, R.A.; Kenneally, J.M.; Moody, K.J.; Shaughnessy, D.A.; Stoyer, M.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Miernik, K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); University of Warsaw, Warsaw (Poland); Miller, D. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Morita, K. [RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Nishio, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Popeko, A.G.; Yeremin, A.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Roberto, J.B.; Rykaczewski, K.P. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Uusitalo, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)


    The reaction {sup 54}Cr + {sup 248}Cm was investigated at the velocity filter SHIP at GSI, Darmstadt, with the intention to study production and decay properties of isotopes of element 120. Three correlated signals were measured, which occurred within a period of 279ms. The heights of the signals correspond with the expectations for a decay sequence starting with an isotope of element 120. However, a complete decay chain cannot be established, since a signal from the implantation of the evaporation residue cannot be identified unambiguously. Measured properties of the event chain are discussed in detail. The result is compared with theoretical predictions. Previously measured decay properties of even element super-heavy nuclei were compiled in order to find arguments for an assignment from the systematics of experimental data. In the course of this review, a few tentatively assigned data could be corrected. New interpretations are given for results which could not be assigned definitely in previous studies. The discussion revealed that the cross-section for production of element 120 could be high enough so that a successful experiment seems possible with presently available techniques. However, a continuation of the experiment at SHIP for a necessary confirmation of the results obtained in a relatively short irradiation of five weeks is not possible at GSI presently. Therefore, we decided to publish the results of the measurement and of the review as they exist now. In the summary and outlook section we also present concepts for the continuation of research in the field of super-heavy nuclei. (orig.)

  10. Spallation RI beam facility and heavy element nuclear chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagame, Yuichiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    An outline of the spallation RI (Radioactive Ion) beam facility is presented. Neutron-rich nuclides are produced in the reaction of high intensity (10-1000 {mu}A) protons with energy of 1.5 GeV and an uranium carbide target. Produced nuclides are ionized in an isotope separator on-line (ISOL) and accelerated by the JAERI tandem and the booster linac. Current progress and a future project on the development of the RI beam facility are given. Studies of transactinide elements, including the synthesis of superheavy elements, nuclear structure far from stability, and RI-probed material science are planned with RI beams. An outlook of the transactinide nuclear chemistry studies using neutron-rich RI beams is described. (author)

  11. Cold fusion of heavy ions paving the way to superheavy elements

    CERN Document Server

    Münzenberg, G


    Significant progress has been made approaching superheavy elements. A shell-stabilized region near hassium has been discovered. Element 112 has been synthesized. Recently evidence for the creation of elements 114, 116, and 118 has been reported. The way to these superheavy nuclei was paved by the cold fusion of heavy ions. In this paper experimental methods for heavy-element research, which is essentially physics with single atoms, are presented together with recent experimental results. The observed nuclear properties are discussed in the framework of theoretical models. New instrumental developments including accelerators and radioactive beams are be addressed.

  12. Heavy metals and essential elements in Italian cereals. (United States)

    Brizio, P; Benedetto, A; Squadrone, S; Curcio, A; Pellegrino, M; Ferrero, M; Abete, M C


    Crops intended for human nutrition and food production containing different essential trace elements, such as copper and zinc, could be contaminated by toxic metals like cadmium and lead. The interrelationship between micronutrients and contaminant trace elements in different cereals was investigated in North-western Italy, where both agricultural and industrial activities are present. Elemental concentrations in sampled cereals were assessed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Rice, oats and barley reached the highest median levels for Al, Cd and Pb content, while corn samples were less contaminated by toxic metals. Regarding essential elements highest median values of Cu and Zn were both found in barley, while Ni median content was higher in oats. Rice had the lowest median levels of essential elements. The correlation study between toxic and essential elements seemed to demonstrate fixed trends in analysed samples, corroborating the importance of a different diet to limit potential adverse effects caused by toxic elements.

  13. Helioseismic models of the sun with a low heavy element abundance (United States)

    Ayukov, S. V.; Baturin, V. A.


    Helioseismology and neutrino experiments probing the internal structure of the Sun have yieldedmuch information, such as the adiabatic elasticity index, density, and sound speed in the convective and radiative zones, the depth of the convective zone, and the flux of neutrinos from the core. The standard model of the Sun does not adequately reproduce these characteristics, with models with low heavy element contents (mass fraction of metals Z = 0.013 in the convective zone) deviating from the helioseismic data appreciably more strongly than models with high heavy element contents ( Z = 0.018). However, a spectroscopic low Z value is supported by studies reconstructing the Γ 1 profile in the adiabatic part of the convective zone based on the oscillation frequencies. Models of the convective zone show a good agreement precisely for low Z values. This study attempts to construct a model for the Sun with low Z that satisfies the helioseismic constraints. This model requires changes in the p + p reaction cross section and the opacities in the radiative zone. In our view, the helioseismic result for the mass concentrated in the convective zone testifies that the p + p reaction cross section or the electron-screening coefficient in the solar core must be increased by several percent over the current values. This requires a comparatively small correction to the opacities (by less than 5%), in order to obtain a solar model with low Z that is in agreement with the results of helioseismology and the observed solar neutrino fluxes.

  14. Heavy Metals and Biogenic Elements in Aquatic Systems of the Don River Delta (United States)

    Tkachenko, Anna; Tkachenko, Oleg


    River deltas are located in the lower parts of the cascade landscape-geochemical systems of the river basins, so their geochemical conditions often characterize the anthropogenic impact on whole river system. The Don River runs through the one of the most agriculturally developed and densely populated area of Russia, and flows into the Azov Sea - the smallest and shallowest sea in the world. These factors determine the geochemical features of aquatic systems of the Don River mouth area and the specificity of the "river-sea" geochemical barrier zone. The paper presents results of the field studies of the geochemical structure of the Don River mouth area, which were conducted in frames of the RFBR project in 2012-2013. Major types of the deltaic water streams and bodies were studied in different hydrological seasons: spring floods, summer, autumn and winter low water periods. About 50 samples of water, suspended matter and 60 samples of bottom sediments have been collected and analyzed for heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb, Cr, Cd etc.) and biogenic elements (nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, phosphates, silica, total nitrogen and phosphorus, dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll) content. To assess the toxicity degree and nutrient potential of water, bioassay test conducted by growing daphnia in water samples were held. The study shows that the Don River delta water is characterized by the relatively low values of dissolved heavy metal content. Significantly higher values of heavy metals were determined in the vicinity of settlements only. Metal accumulation in bottom sediments can be associated mainly with the rate of water flow. Higher values were found in sediments of small channels with weak flow velocity and prevailing processes of the suspended matter deposition. The data on the seasonal dynamics of nutrients and spatial variability of their forms have been obtained. The maximum concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus, silicon, and other biogenic elements are

  15. Chemistry of heavy- and trans-actinide elements. Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukada, Kazuaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    Experimental results on the chemical properties of the transactinide element, Rf (Z=104), on an atom-at-a-time base are reviewed. Status and future plans for the study of chemical behavior of transactinide elements with the JAERI tandem accelerator are reported. (author)

  16. Elements of Regolith Simulant's Cost Structure (United States)

    Rickman, Douglas L.


    The cost of lunar regolith simulants is much higher than many users anticipate. After all, it is nothing more than broken rock. This class will discuss the elements which make up the cost structure for simulants. It will also consider which elements can be avoided under certain circumstances and which elements might be altered by the application of additional research and development.

  17. In-beam fission study for Heavy Element Synthesis


    Nishio Katsuhisa


    Fission fragment mass distributions were measured in heavy-ion induced fissions using 238U target nucleus. The measured mass distributions changed drastically with incident energy. The results are explained by a change of the ratio between fusion and qasifission with nuclear orientation. A calculation based on a fluctuation dissipation model reproduced the mass distributions and their incident energy dependence. Fusion probability was determined in the analysis. Evaporation residue cross sect...

  18. Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion Energy: Summaries of Program Elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, A; Barnard, J J; Kaganovich, I; Seidl, P A; Briggs, R J; Faltens, A; Kwan, J W; Lee, E P; Logan, B G


    The goal of the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) Program is to apply high-current accelerator technology to IFE power production. Ion beams of mass {approx}100 amu and kinetic energy {>=} 1 GeV provide efficient energy coupling into matter, and HIF enjoys R&D-supported favorable attributes of: (1) the driver, projected to be robust and efficient; see 'Heavy Ion Accelerator Drivers.'; (2) the targets, which span a continuum from full direct to full indirect drive (and perhaps fast ignition), and have metal exteriors that enable injection at {approx}10 Hz; see 'IFE Target Designs'; (3) the near-classical ion energy deposition in the targets; see 'Beam-Plasma Interactions'; (4) the magnetic final lens, robust against damage; see 'Final Optics-Heavy Ion Beams'; and (5) the fusion chamber, which may use neutronically-thick liquids; see 'Liquid-Wall Chambers.' Most studies of HIF power plants have assumed indirect drive and thick liquid wall protection, but other options are possible.

  19. Heavy element synthesis in the oldest stars and the early Universe. (United States)

    Cowan, John J; Sneden, Christopher


    The first stars in the Universe were probably quite different from those born today. Composed almost entirely of hydrogen and helium (plus a tiny trace of lithium), they lacked the heavier elements that determine the formation and evolution of younger stars. Although we cannot observe the very first stars--they died long ago in supernovae explosions--they created heavy elements that were incorporated into the next generation. Here we describe how observations of heavy elements in the oldest surviving stars in our Galaxy's halo help us understand the nature of the first stars--those responsible for the chemical enrichment of our Galaxy and Universe.

  20. In-beam fission study for Heavy Element Synthesis (United States)

    Nishio, Katsuhisa


    Fission fragment mass distributions were measured in heavy-ion induced fissions using 238U target nucleus. The measured mass distributions changed drastically with incident energy. The results are explained by a change of the ratio between fusion and qasifission with nuclear orientation. A calculation based on a fluctuation dissipation model reproduced the mass distributions and their incident energy dependence. Fusion probability was determined in the analysis. Evaporation residue cross sections were calculated with a statistical model in the reactions of 30Si + 238U and 34S + 238U using the obtained fusion probability in the entrance channel. The results agree with the measured cross sections for seaborgium and hassium isotopes.

  1. In-beam fission study for Heavy Element Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishio Katsuhisa


    Full Text Available Fission fragment mass distributions were measured in heavy-ion induced fissions using 238U target nucleus. The measured mass distributions changed drastically with incident energy. The results are explained by a change of the ratio between fusion and qasifission with nuclear orientation. A calculation based on a fluctuation dissipation model reproduced the mass distributions and their incident energy dependence. Fusion probability was determined in the analysis. Evaporation residue cross sections were calculated with a statistical model in the reactions of 30Si + 238U and 34S + 238U using the obtained fusion probability in the entrance channel. The results agree with the measured cross sections for seaborgium and hassium isotopes.

  2. Exploration of (super-)heavy elements using the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erler, Jochen


    Motivated by the steadily increasing number of known nuclei and nuclear properties, theories of nuclear structure are presently a field of intense research. This work concentrates on the self-consistent description of nuclei in terms of the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock (SHF) approach. The extrapolation of nuclear shell structure to the region of super-heavy elements (SHE) using the SHF model, the dependence on different parameterization and the influence of collective correlation will be studied. The general scope of this work are large scale calculation for a global survey of properties of SHE like binding energies, separation energies and decay characteristics and lifetimes. These calculations were done in a collaboration with the theory group of the GSI in Darmstadt and have the aim to develop a database of lifetimes and reaction rates for {alpha}, {beta}-decay and spontaneous fission in a very wide range with proton numbers 86 {<=} Z {<=} 120 and neutron numbers up to N {approx} 260 relevant for the astrophysical r-process. The results of this study for example predictions of a possible islands of very stable nuclei and information of favored decay mode for each nuclei are also applicable in the recent experimental synthesis of exotic SHE. For these calculation a framework to calculate {beta}-decay half-lives within the SHF model has been developed and the existing axial SHF code has been extended to compute {beta}-transition matrix elements and so to provide an estimation of half-lives. (orig.)

  3. Model Reduction in Dynamic Finite Element Analysis of Lightweight Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flodén, Ola; Persson, Kent; Sjöström, Anders


    . The objective of the analyses presented in this paper is to evaluate methods for model reduction of detailed finite element models of floor and wall structures and to investigate the influence of reducing the number of degrees of freedom and computational cost on the dynamic response of the models in terms....... The drawback of component mode synthesis compared to modelling with structural elements is the increased computational cost, although the number of degrees of freedom is small in comparison, as a result of the large bandwidth of the system matrices.......The application of wood as a construction material when building multi-storey buildings has many advantages, e.g., light weight, sustainability and low energy consumption during the construction and lifecycle of the building. However, compared to heavy structures, it is a greater challenge to build...

  4. Structural elements design manual working with Eurocodes

    CERN Document Server

    Draycott, Trevor


    Structural Elements Design Manual: Working With Eurocodes is the structural engineers 'companion volume' to the four Eurocodes on the structural use of timber, concrete, masonry and steelwork. For the student at higher technician or first degree level it provides a single source of information on the behaviour and practical design of the main elements of the building structure. With plenty of worked examples and diagrams, it is a useful textbook not only for students of structural and civil engineering, but also for those on courses in related subjects such as

  5. The effects of fuel characteristics and engine operating conditions on the elemental composition of emissions from heavy duty diesel buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.C.H. Lim; G.A. Ayoko; L. Morawska; Z.D. Ristovski; E.R. Jayaratne [Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia). International Laboratory for Air Quality and Health, School of Physical and Chemical Sciences


    The effects of fuel characteristics and engine operating conditions on elemental composition of emissions from twelve heavy duty diesel buses have been investigated. Two types of diesel fuels - low sulfur diesel (LSD) and ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuels with 500 ppm and 50 ppm sulfur contents respectively and 3 driving modes corresponding to 25%, 50% and 100% power were used. Elements present in the tailpipe emissions were quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and those found in measurable quantities included Mg, Ca, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ti, Ni, Pb, Be, P, Se, Ti and Ge. Multivariate analyses using multi-criteria decision making methods (MCDM), principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) facilitated the extraction of information about the structure of the data. MCDM showed that the emissions of the elements were strongly influenced by the engine driving conditions while the PCA loadings plots showed that the emission factors of the elements were correlated with those of other pollutants such as particle number, total suspended particles, CO, CO{sub 2} and NOx. Partial least square analysis revealed that the emission factors of the elements were strongly dependent on the fuel parameters such as the fuel sulfur content, fuel density, distillation point and cetane index. Strong correlations were also observed between these pollutants and the engine power or exhaust temperature. The study provides insights into the possible role of fuel sulfur content in the emission of inorganic elements from heavy duty diesel vehicles. 39 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  6. Borromean structures in medium-heavy nuclei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove, Dennis; Fedorov, Dmitri Vladimir; Fynbo, Hans Otto Uldall


    heavy nuclei. We find in all cases that the alpha-particles are located at the surface of the core-nucleus as dictated by Coulomb and centrifugal barriers. The two lowest three-body bound states resemble a slightly contracted 8Be nucleus outside the core. The next two excited states have more complex...

  7. Super heavy element Copernicium: Cohesive and electronic properties revisited (United States)

    Gyanchandani, Jyoti; Mishra, Vinayak; Dey, G. K.; Sikka, S. K.


    First principles scalar relativistic (SR) calculations with and without including the spin orbit (SO) interactions have been performed for solid Copernicium (Cn) to determine its ground state equilibrium structure, volume, bulk modulus, pressure derivative of the bulk modulus, density of states and band structure. Both SR and SR+SO calculations have been performed with 6p levels treated as part of core electrons and also as part of valence electrons. These calculations have been performed for the rhombohedral, BCT, FCC, HCP, BCC and SC structures. Results have been compared with the results for Hg which is lighter homologue of Cn in the periodic table. We find hcp to be the stable crystal structure at SR level of theory and also at SR+SO level of theory when the 6p electrons are treated as part of core electrons. With 6p as part of valence electrons, SR+SO level of computations, however, yield bcc structure to be the most stable structure. Equilibrium volume (V0) of the most stable crystal structure at SR level of theory viz. hcp structure is 188.66 a.u.3whereas its value for the bcc structure, the equilibrium ground state structure at SR+SO level of theory is 165.71 a.u.3 i.e a large change due to relativistic effects is seen. The density of states at Fermi level is much smaller in Cn than in Hg, making it a poorer metal than mercury. In addition the cohesive energy of Cn is computed to be almost two times that of Hg for SR+SO case.

  8. Advanced finite element method in structural engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Long, Yu-Qiu; Long, Zhi-Fei


    This book systematically introduces the research work on the Finite Element Method completed over the past 25 years. Original theoretical achievements and their applications in the fields of structural engineering and computational mechanics are discussed.

  9. Survival and compound nucleus probability of super heavy element Z = 117

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manjunatha, H.C. [Government College for Women, Department of Physics, Kolar, Karnataka (India); Sridhar, K.N. [Government First grade College, Department of Physics, Kolar, Karnataka (India)


    As a part of a systematic study for predicting the most suitable projectile-target combinations for heavy-ion fusion experiments in the synthesis of {sup 289-297}Ts, we have calculated the transmission probability (T{sub l}), compound nucleus formation probabilities (P{sub CN}) and survival probability (P{sub sur}) of possible projectile-target combinations. We have also studied the fusion cross section, survival cross section and fission cross sections for different projectile-target combination of {sup 289-297}Ts. These theoretical parameters are required before the synthesis of the super heavy element. The calculated probabilities and cross sections show that the production of isotopes of the super heavy element with Z = 117 is strongly dependent on the reaction systems. The most probable reactions to synthetize the super heavy nuclei {sup 289-297}Ts are worked out and listed explicitly. We have also studied the variation of P{sub CN} and P{sub sur} with the mass number of projectile and target nuclei. This work is useful in the synthesis of the super heavy element Z = 117. (orig.)

  10. Comparative assessment of mineral elements and heavy metals accumulation in vegetable species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Nataša P.


    Full Text Available The heavy metal (cadmium, lead, nickel, chromium and mineral element (potassium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium levels in edible parts of tomato, potato, spinach, beetroot, parsley, parsnip, carrot, cauliflower, pepper and broccoli were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Six samples for each species originating from different localities were collected from green markets. The heavy metal concentrations ranged from calcium > phosphorus > magnesium. The highest mean levels of the heavy metals, as well as of potassium, calcium and magnesium, were found in spinach. A large number of samples containing high levels of toxic heavy metals, especially of cadmium and lead, impose the necessity for strict regulative guidelines concerning individual vegetable crops production, harvest, handling and storing, in order to diminish possibility of contamination.

  11. X-ray Ionization of Heavy Elements Applied to Protoplanetary Disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ádámkovics, Máté; Glassgold, Alfred E.; Meijerink, Rowin

    The consequences of the Auger effect on the population of heavy-element ions are analyzed for the case of relatively cool gas irradiated by keV X-rays with intended applications to the accretion disks of young stellar objects. Highly charged ions are rapidly reduced to the doubly charged state in

  12. Crystal structures and thermal decomposition of permanganates AE[MnO{sub 4}]{sub 2} . n H{sub 2}O with the heavy alkaline earth elements (AE=Ca, Sr and Ba)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, Harald; Bauchert, Joerg M.; Conrad, Maurice; Schleid, Thomas [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische Chemie


    Reexamination of the syntheses and crystal structures as well as studies of the thermal decomposition of the heavy alkaline earth metal permanganates Ca[MnO{sub 4}]{sub 2} . 4 H{sub 2}O, Sr[MnO{sub 4}]{sub 2} . 3 H{sub 2}O and Ba[MnO{sub 4}]{sub 2} are the focus of this work. As an alternative to the very inelegant Muthmann method, established for the synthesis of Ba[MnO{sub 4}]{sub 2} a long time ago, we employed a cation-exchange column loaded with Ba{sup 2+} cations and passed through an aqueous potassium-permanganate solution. We later used this alternative also with strontium- and calcium-loaded columns and all the compounds synthesized this way were indistinguishable from the products of the established methods. Ca[MnO{sub 4}]{sub 2} . 4 H{sub 2}O exhibiting [CaO{sub 8}] polyhedra crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pccn with the lattice parameters a=1397.15(9), b=554.06(4) and c=1338.97(9) pm with Z=4, whereas Sr[MnO{sub 4}]{sub 2} . 3 H{sub 2}O with [SrO{sub 10}] polyhedra adopts the cubic space group P2{sub 1}3 with a=964.19(7) pm and Z=4. So the harder the AE{sup 2+} cation, the higher its demand for hydration in aqueous solution. Consequently, the crystal structure of Ba[MnO{sub 4}]{sub 2} in the orthorhombic space group Fddd with a=742.36(5), b=1191.23(7) and c=1477.14(9) pm with Z=8 lacks any crystal water, but contains [BaO{sub 12}] polyhedra. During the thermal decomposition of Ca[MnO{sub 4}]{sub 2} . 4 H{sub 2}O, the compound expels up to two water molecules of hydration, before the crystal structure collapses after the loss of the third H{sub 2}O molecule at 157 C. The crystal structure of Sr[MnO{sub 4}]{sub 2} . 3 H{sub 2}O breaks down after the expulsion of the third water molecule as well, but this already occurs at 148 C. For both the calcium and the strontium permanganate samples, orthobixbyite-type α-Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} and the oxomanganates(III,IV) AEMn{sub 3}O{sub 6} (AE=Ca and Sr) remain as final decomposition products at 800 C

  13. Infinte Periodic Structure of Lightweight Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domadiya, Parthkumar Gandalal; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Sorokin, Sergey


    . Furthermore, lightweight building elements are typically periodic structures that behave as filters for sound propagation within certain frequency ranges (stop bands), thus only allowing transmission within the pass bands. Hence, traditional methods based on statistical energy analysis cannot be used...... for proper dynamic assessment of lightweight buildings. Instead, this paper discusses and compares the use of finite element analysis and a wave approach based on Floquet theory. The present analysis has focus on the effect of periodicity on vibration transmission within semi-infinite beam structures. Two...... models of a semi-infinite Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko beam structure with periodic variation of the cross-sectional properties are analyzed. In case of the Euler-Bernoulli beam, vibrational behavior is studied in two dimensions by finite element analysis and Floquet theory. Wave propagation within...

  14. The structural elements of the cosmic web (United States)

    Jones, Bernard J. T.; van de Weygaert, Rien


    In 1970 Zel'dovich published a far-reaching paper presenting a simple equation describing the nonlinear growth of primordial density inhomogeneities. The equation was remarkably successful in explaining the large scale structure in the Universe that we observe: a Universe in which the structure appears to be delineated by filaments and clusters of galaxies surrounding huge void regions. In order to concretise this impression it is necessary to define these structural elements through formal techniques with which we can compare the Zel'dovich model and N-body simulations with the observational data. We present an overview of recent efforts to identify voids, filaments and clusters in both the observed galaxy distribution and in numerical simulations of structure formation. We focus, in particular, on methods that involve no fine-tuning of parameters and that handle scale dependence automatically. It is important that these techniques should result in finding structures that relate directly to the dynamical mechanism of structure formation.

  15. Study of the Matrix Effect on the Plasma Characterization of Heavy Elements in Soil Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawfik W.


    Full Text Available Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS has been applied to perform a study of the matrix effect on the plasma characterization of soil sediment targets. The plasma is generated by focusing a pulsed Nd: YAG laser on the target in air at atmospheric pressure. The plasma emission spectrum was detected using a portable Echelle spectrometer (Mechelle 7500 — Multichannel Instruments, Stockholm, Sweden with intensified CCD camera. Spectroscopic analysis of plasma evolution of laser produced plasmas has been characterized in terms of their spectra, and electron temperature. Four heavy elements V, Pb, Mn and Co were determined in the obtained spectra. The LTE and optically thin plasma conditions were verified for the produced plasma. The electron temperature and density were determined using the emission intensity and stark broadening, respectively, of the spectral lines of the heavy elements in the soil sediments. The electron temperature does not change with concentration. For environmental applications, the obtained results showed the capability of the proposed LIBS setup with the portable Mechelle 7500 spectrometer to be applied in-situ for real-time measurements of the variation of the matrix elemental composition of soil sediments by following up only a single element as a marker for the composition of the soil sediment without need of analysis of the other elements.

  16. Innovative Structural and Joining Concepts for Lightweight Design of Heavy Vehicle Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacky C. Prucz; Samir N. Shoukry; Gergis W. William


    Recent advances in the area of Metal Matrix Composites (MMC's) have brought these materials to a maturity stage where the technology is ready for transition to large-volume production and commercialization. The new materials seem to allow the fabrication of higher quality parts at less than 50 percent of the weight as compared to steel, especially when they are selectively reinforced with carbon, silicon carbide, or aluminum oxide fibers. Most of the developments in the MMC materials have been spurred, mainly by applications that require high structural performance at elevated temperatures, the heavy vehicle industry could also benefit from this emerging technology. Increasing requirements of weight savings and extended durability are the main drivers for potential insertion of MMC technology into the heavy vehicle market. Critical elements of a typical tractor-trailer combination, such as highly loaded sections of the structure, engine components, brakes, suspensions, joints and bearings could be improved through judicious use of MMC materials. Such an outcome would promote the DOE's programmatic objectives of increasing the fuel efficiency of heavy vehicles and reducing their life cycle costs and pollution levels. However, significant technical and economical barriers are likely to hinder or even prevent broad applications of MMC materials in heavy vehicles. The tradeoffs between such expected benefits (lower weights and longer durability) and penalties (higher costs, brittle behavior, and difficult to machine) must be thoroughly investigated both from the performance and cost viewpoints, before the transfer of MMC technology to heavy vehicle systems can be properly assessed and implemented. MMC materials are considered to form one element of the comprehensive, multi-faceted strategy pursued by the High Strength/Weight Reduction (HS/WR) Materials program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for structural weight savings and quality enhancements in

  17. Structural Study of Asphaltenes from Iranian Heavy Crude Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davarpanah L.


    Full Text Available In the present study, asphaltene precipitation from Iranian heavy crude oil (Persian Gulf off-shore was performed using n-pentane (n-C5 and n-heptane (n-C7 as light alkane precipitants. Several analytical techniques, each following different principles, were then used to structurally characterize the precipitated asphaltenes. The yield of asphaltene obtained using n-pentane precipitant was higher than asphaltene precipitated with the use of n-heptane. The asphaltene removal affected the n-C5 and n-C7 maltene fractions at temperatures below 204°C, as shown by the data obtained through the simulated distillation technique. Viscosity of heavy oil is influenced by the asphaltene content and behavior. The viscosity dependence of the test heavy oil on the shear rate applied was determined and the flow was low at y. above 25 s-1 . The reconstituted heavy oil samples were prepared by adding different amounts of asphaltenes to the maltenes (deasphalted heavy oil and asphaltene effects were more pronounced at the low temperature of 25°C as compared with those at the higher temperatures. According to the power law model used in this study the flowability of the test heavy oil exhibited a pseudoplastic character. Structural results obtained from Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR spectroscopy showed the presence of the different functional groups in the precipitated asphaltenes. For instance, the presence of different hydrocarbons (aliphatic, aromatic and alicyclic based on their characteristics in the FTIR spectra was confirmed. Resins are effective dispersants, and removal of this fraction from the crude oil is disturbing to the colloidal nature of heavy oil; asphaltene flocculation and precipitation eventually occur. Appearance of pores in the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM images was used as an indicator of the resin detachment. With the use of 1H and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR spectroscopy, two important structural parameters of the

  18. Street as Sustainable City Structural Element (United States)

    Leyzerova, A. V.; Bagina, E. J.


    Sustainability in architecture is nowadays of particular significance in the course of globalization and information density. The technospehere spontaneous development poses a threat to the sustainability of traditional urban forms where a street is one of the essential forming elements in the urban structure. The article proposes to consider formally compositional street features in relation to one of the traditional streets in the historic center of Ekaterinburg. The study examines the street-planning structure, the development of its skeleton elements, silhouette and fabric elevation characteristics as well as the scale characteristics and visual complexity of objects. The study provided architectural and artistic aspects of street sustainability, and limits of the appropriate scale and composition consistency under which the compatibility of alternative compositional forms existing at different times is possible.

  19. Trace elements and heavy metals in hair of stage III breast cancer patients. (United States)

    Benderli Cihan, Yasemin; Sözen, Selim; Oztürk Yıldırım, Sema


    This prospective study was designed to compare the hair levels of 36 elements in 52 patients with stage III breast cancer to those of an equal number of healthy individuals. Principal component and cluster analysis were used for source of identification and apportionment of heavy metals and trace elements in these two groups. A higher average level of iron was found in samples from patients while controls had higher levels of calcium. Both patients and controls had elevated levels of tin, magnesium, zinc, and sodium. Almost all element values in cancer patients showed higher dispersion and asymmetry than in healthy controls. Between the two groups, there were statistically significant differences in the concentrations of silver, arsenic, gold, boron, barium, beryllium, calcium, cadmium, cerium, cobalt, cesium, gadolinium, manganese, nickel, lead, antimony, scandium, selenium, and zinc (p cancer group and between palladium and cobalt (r = 0.945) in the healthy individuals. Our results show that there are distinct patterns of heavy metals and trace elements in the hair of breast cancer patients in comparison to healthy controls. These results could be of significance in the diagnosis of breast cancer.

  20. Exploring Ultra-Heavy Cosmic Rays with the Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder (TIGER) (United States)

    Link, Jason; Supertiger Collaboration


    Elements heavier than iron are primarily synthesized by neutron capture. These elements can be accelerated as cosmic-rays and measuring their abundances at Earth can yield information about galactic cosmic-rays' sources, the acceleration processes and the composition of the universe beyond the boundaries of our solar system. The Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder (TIGER) and its larger successor SuperTIGER was designed to measure the abundance of these ultra-heavy cosmic rays between Z=10 and Z=60. These detectors utilize scintillators with a wavelength shifter bar and PMT readout system as well as aerogel and acrylic Cherenkov detectors to identify the charge and energy of a particle and utilize a scintillating fiber hodoscope to provide trajectory information. In this talk I will review the results from this highly successful program, give the status for the next SuperTIGER flight planned for a December 2017 launch from Antarctica, and discuss the future direction of the program.

  1. Contamination and Health Risks from Heavy Metals (Cd and Pb and Trace Elements (Cu and Zn in Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Ghafari


    Conclusion: Considering the serious contamination of some brands of butter and cheese by Cu and Pb, a control of heavy metals and trace elements levels during the whole production processing of dairy products must be applied.

  2. Study of heavy metals and other elements in macrophyte algae using energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, M.L.; Amorim, P.; Marques, M.I.M.; Ramos, M.T. [Univ. de Lisboa (Portugal); Ferreira, J.G. [Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Monte de Caparica (Portugal). Dept. Ciencias e Engenharia do Ambiente


    Fucus vesiculosus L. seaweeds from three estuarine stations were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence, providing results for the concentration of total K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Br, Sr, and Pb. Four different structures of the algae (base, stipe, reproductive organs, and growing tips) were analyzed to study the differential accumulation of heavy metals by different parts of Fucus. Some elements (e.g., Cu and Fe) are preferentially accumulated in the base of the algae, whereas others (e.g., As) exhibit higher concentrations in the reproductive organs and growing tips. The pattern of accumulation in different structures is similar for Cu, Zn, and Pb, but for other metals there is considerable variability in accumulation between parts of the plant. This is important in determining which structures of the plant should be used for biomonitoring. For samples collected at stations subject to differing metal loads, the relative elemental composition is approximately constant, notwithstanding significant variation in absolute values. The proportion of metals in Fucus is similar to that found in other estuaries, where metal concentrations are significantly lower. Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence has been shown to be a suitable technique for multielement analysis in this type of sample. No chemical pretreatment is required, minimizing sample contamination. The small amount of sample required, and the wide range of elements that can be detected simultaneously make energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence a valuable tool for pollution studies.

  3. Seismic monitoring of heavy oil reservoirs: Rock physics and finite element modelling (United States)

    Theune, Ulrich

    In the past decades, remote monitoring of subsurface processes has attracted increasing attention in geophysics. With repeated geophysical surveys one attempts to detect changes in the physical properties in the underground without directly accessing the earth. This technique has been proven to be very valuable for monitoring enhanced oil recovery programs. This thesis presents an modelling approach for the feasibility analysis for monitoring of a thermal enhanced oil recovery technique applied to heavy oil reservoirs in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin. In order to produce heavy oil from shallow reservoirs thermal oil recovery techniques such as the Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) are often employed. As these techniques are expensive and technically challenging, early detection of operational problems is without doubt of great value. However, the feasibility of geophysical monitoring depends on many factors such as the changes in the rock physical properties of the target reservoir. In order to access the feasibility of seismic monitoring for heavy oil reservoirs, a fluid-substitutional rock physical study has been carried out to simulate the steam injection. The second modelling approach is based on a modified finite element algorithm to simulate the propagation of elastic waves in the earth, which has been developed independently in the framework of this thesis. The work summarized in this thesis shows a possibility to access the feasibility of seismic monitoring for heavy oil reservoirs through an extensive rock-physical study. Seismic monitoring is a useful tool in reservoir management decision process. However, the work reported here suggests that seismic monitoring of SAGD processes in the heavy oil reservoirs of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin is only feasible in shallow, unconsolidated deposits. For deeper, but otherwise geological similar reservoirs, the SAGD does not create a sufficient change in the rock physical properties to be

  4. Electronic structure theory of the superheavy elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliav, Ephraim, E-mail: [School of Chemistry, Tel Aviv University, 6997801 Tel Aviv (Israel); Fritzsche, Stephan, E-mail: [Helmholtz-Institut Jena, Fröbelstieg 3, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Theoretisch-Physikalisches Institut, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Kaldor, Uzi, E-mail: [School of Chemistry, Tel Aviv University, 6997801 Tel Aviv (Israel)


    High-accuracy calculations of atomic properties of the superheavy elements (SHE) up to element 122 are reviewed. The properties discussed include ionization potentials, electron affinities and excitation energies, which are associated with the spectroscopic and chemical behavior of these elements, and are therefore of considerable interest. Accurate predictions of these quantities require high-order inclusion of relativity and electron correlation, as well as large, converged basis sets. The Dirac–Coulomb–Breit Hamiltonian, which includes all terms up to second order in the fine-structure constant α, serves as the framework for the treatment; higher-order Lamb shift terms are considered in some selected cases. Electron correlation is treated by either the multiconfiguration self-consistent-field approach or by Fock-space coupled cluster theory. The latter is enhanced by the intermediate Hamiltonian scheme, allowing the use of larger model (P) spaces. The quality of the calculations is assessed by applying the same methods to lighter homologs of the SHEs and comparing with available experimental information. Very good agreement is obtained, within a few hundredths of an eV, and similar accuracy is expected for the SHEs. Many of the properties predicted for the SHEs differ significantly from what may be expected by straightforward extrapolation of lighter homologs, demonstrating that the structure and chemistry of SHEs are strongly affected by relativity. The major scientific challenge of the calculations is to find the electronic structure and basic atomic properties of the SHE and assign its proper place in the periodic table. Significant recent developments include joint experimental–computational studies of the excitation spectrum of Fm and the ionization energy of Lr, with excellent agreement of experiment and theory, auguring well for the future of research in the field.

  5. Status of the low-energy super-heavy element facility at RIKEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schury, P., E-mail: [RIKEN, Nishina Center for Accelerator Based Science, Wako City, Saitama (Japan); Wada, M.; Ito, Y. [RIKEN, Nishina Center for Accelerator Based Science, Wako City, Saitama (Japan); Arai, F. [RIKEN, Nishina Center for Accelerator Based Science, Wako City, Saitama (Japan); Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba City, Ibaraki (Japan); Kaji, D. [RIKEN, Nishina Center for Accelerator Based Science, Wako City, Saitama (Japan); Kimura, S. [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba City, Ibaraki (Japan); Morimoto, K.; Haba, H. [RIKEN, Nishina Center for Accelerator Based Science, Wako City, Saitama (Japan); Jeong, S. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies (IPNS), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Koura, H. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Miyatake, H. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies (IPNS), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Morita, K.; Reponen, M. [RIKEN, Nishina Center for Accelerator Based Science, Wako City, Saitama (Japan); Ozawa, A. [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba City, Ibaraki (Japan); Sonoda, T.; Takamine, A. [RIKEN, Nishina Center for Accelerator Based Science, Wako City, Saitama (Japan); Wollnik, H. [Dept. Chemistry and BioChemistry, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM (United States)


    In order to investigate nuclei produced via fusion–evaporation reactions, especially super-heavy elements (SHE), we have begun construction of a facility for conversion of fusion–evaporation residues (EVR) to low-energy beams. At the base of this facility is a small cryogenic gas cell utilizing a traveling wave RF-carpet, located directly following the gas-filled recoil ion separator GARIS-II, which will thermalize EVRs to convert them into ion beams amenable to ion trapping. We present here the results of initial studies of this small gas cell.

  6. Long-lived heavy mass elements half-lives (A > 125)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, N.E.


    Reported values of half-lives of intermediate mass and heavy elements are evaluated. The evaluation analysis estimates the systematic error the resulting standard deviation. Recommended values are then presented for /sup 128/Te, /sup 130/Te, /sup 129/I, /sup 138/La, /sup 144/Nd, /sup 145/Nd, /sup 146,147,148/Sm, /sup 152/Gd, /sup 154/Dy, /sup 176/Lu, /sup 174/Hf, /sup 180/Ta, /sup 187/Re, /sup 186/Os, /sup 190/Pt, /sup 204,205/Pb, and /sup 230,232/Th. 103 refs., 21 tabs. (WRF)

  7. X-ray Ionization of Heavy Elements Applied to Protoplanetary Disks


    Ádámkovics, Máté; Glassgold, Alfred E.; Meijerink, Rowin


    The consequences of the Auger effect on the population of heavy element ions are analyzed for the case of relatively cool gas irradiated by keV X-rays, with intended applications to the accretion disks of young stellar ob jects. Highly charged ions are rapidly reduced to the doubly-charged state in neutral gas, so the aim here is to derive the production rates for these singly- and doubly-charged ions and to specify their transformation by recombination, charge transfer, and molecular reactio...

  8. Electrical connection structure for a superconductor element (United States)

    Lallouet, Nicolas; Maguire, James


    The invention relates to an electrical connection structure for a superconductor element cooled by a cryogenic fluid and connected to an electrical bushing, which bushing passes successively through an enclosure at an intermediate temperature between ambient temperature and the temperature of the cryogenic fluid, and an enclosure at ambient temperature, said bushing projecting outside the ambient temperature enclosure. According to the invention, said intermediate enclosure is filled at least in part with a solid material of low thermal conductivity, such as a polyurethane foam or a cellular glass foam. The invention is applicable to connecting a superconductor cable at cryogenic temperature to a device for equipment at ambient temperature.

  9. The 3D-structure of the Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Locus: implications for long-range genomic interactions [supplemental data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Jhunjhunwala (Suchit); M.C. van Zelm (Menno); M.M. Peak (Mandy); S. Cutchin (Steve); R. Riblet (Roy); J.J.M. van Dongen (Jacques); F.G. Grosveld (Frank); T.A. Knoch (Tobias); C. Murre (Cornelis)


    textabstractThe immunoglobulin heavy-chain (Igh) locus is organized into distinct regions that contain multiple variable (VH), diversity (DH), joining (JH) and constant (CH) coding elements. How the Igh locus is structured in 3D space is unknown. To probe the topography of the Igh locus,

  10. Motion Structural Optimization Strategy for Rhombic Element Based Foldable Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hyun Jeong


    Full Text Available This research presents a new systematical design approach of foldable structure composed of several rhombic elements by applying genetic algorithm. As structural shapes represented by a foldable structure can be easily and dramatically morphed by manipulating rotational directions and angle of joints, the foldable structure has been used for various elementary structural members and engineering mechanisms. However a systematic design approach determining detail rotational angle and directions of unit cells for arbitrary shaped target areas has not been proposed yet. This research contributes to it by developing a new structural optimization method determining optimal angle and rotation directions to cover arbitrary shaped target areas of interest with aggregated rhombic elements. To achieve this purpose, we present an optimization formulation minimizing the sum of distances between each reference joint of an arbitrary shaped target area and its closest outer joints of foldable structure. To find out the outer joint set of a given foldable structure, an efficient geometric analysis method based on Delaunay triangulation is also developed and implemented. To show the validity and limitations of the present approach, several foldable structure design problems for two-dimensional arbitrary shaped target areas are solved with the present optimization procedure.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Vasilevich


    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to reveal and analyze resonance modes of a large-scale milling-drilling-boring machine. The machine has a movable column with vertical slot occupied by a symmetrical carriage with horizontal ram. Static rigidity of the machine is relatively low due to its large dimensions. So it is necessary to assess possible vibration activity. Virtual and operational trials of the machine have been carried out simultaneously. Modeling has been executed with the help of a finite element method (FEM. The FEM-model takes into account not only rigidity of machine structures but also flexibility of bearings, feed drive systems and guides. Modal FEM-analysis has revealed eight resonance modes that embrace the whole machine tool. They form a frequency interval from 12 to 75 Hz which is undesirable for machining. Three closely located resonances (31-37 Hz are considered as the most dangerous ones. They represent various combinations of three simple motions: vertical oscillations of a carriage, horizontal vibrations of a ram and column torsion. Reliability of FEM- estimations has been proved by in-situ vibration measurements.An effect for stabilization of resonance modes has been detected while making variations in design parameters of the machine tool. For example, a virtual replacement of cast iron for steel in machine structures practically does not have any effect on resonance frequencies. Rigidity increase in some parts (e.g. a ram has also a small effect on a resonance pattern. On the other hand, resonance stability makes it possible to avoid them while selecting a spindle rotation frequency.It is recommended to set double feed drives for all axes. A pair of vertical screws prevents a “pecking” resonance of the carriage at frequency of 54 Hz. It is necessary to foresee an operation of a main drive of such heavy machine tool in the above resonance interval with the spindle frequency of more than 75 Hz. For this purpose it is necessary

  12. A Taxonomy for Heavy-Duty Telemanipulation Tasks Using Elemental Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Owen-Hill


    Full Text Available In the maintenance of large scientific facilities, telemanipulation procedures can involve various subprocedures which in turn are made up of a sequence of subtasks. This work presents a taxonomy which describes a set of elemental actions for heavy-duty telemanipulation, along with an example of these actions in a standard maintenance subprocedure. As maintenance tasks are often very different at high-level, this generalized way of deconstructing tasks allows a highly adaptable approach to describe the sequence of any procedure, which can then be used for such applications as task monitoring, automation or detection of incomplete tasks. We describe in detail the properties of each elemental action and apply the taxonomy to an example subprocedure to show how the process can be generalizable. An automatic state-machine creation stage is shown, which would be used at the task scheduling stage to simplify calculations carried out during the moment-by-moment execution of the task.

  13. Heavy metals and trace elements in atmospheric fall-out: Their relationship with topsoil and wheat element composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bermudez, Gonzalo M.A., E-mail: [Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Vegetal (IMBIV), CONICET (Argentina); Catedra de Quimica General, FCEFyN, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Avda. Velez Sarsfield 1611, Ciudad Universitaria (X5016 GCA), Cordoba (Argentina); Jasan, Raquel; Pla, Rita [Tecnicas Analiticas Nucleares, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CAE), Presbitero Gonzalez y Aragon N Degree-Sign 15 (B1802AYA), Ezeiza (Argentina); Pignata, Maria L. [Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Vegetal (IMBIV), CONICET (Argentina); Catedra de Quimica General, FCEFyN, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Avda. Velez Sarsfield 1611, Ciudad Universitaria (X5016 GCA), Cordoba (Argentina)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metal and trace element deposition rates and concentrations in bulk samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anthropogenic vs. natural sources were identified using enrichment factors and PCA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anthropogenic sources for Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, U, Zn and lanthanides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Main sources were a cement plant, chemical-mechanical industries, cities and mining. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metals in wheat grain were predicted by soil and bulk deposition composition. - Abstract: The objectives of this study were to determine the average concentrations and deposition rates of 28 elements in atmospheric bulk deposition and to elucidate associations among topsoil, bulk deposition and wheat element composition. The fluxes of arsenic (As), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) deposition in Cordoba were higher than in other agro-ecosystems, which reflects both natural (geochemistry and topsoil removal) and anthropogenic sources. High lanthanide, uranium (U) and thorium (Th) concentrations revealed the impact of an open cast uranium mine. The highest enrichment factors (EF) were those of Cu, Pb, Zn and nickel (Ni), with calcium (Ca) being the most prominent in the surroundings of a cement plant. Industries and the transport of airborne urban pollutants were the main anthropogenic sources for Ca, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, cadmium (Cd), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and antimony (Sb). The concentrations of metals in wheat grain were predicted using the topsoil and atmospheric fall-out composition with R{sup 2} = 0.90, with the latter being the best explanatory variable. The present study highlights the potential health hazards of wheat consumption (Environmental Protection Agency) by the assessment of heavy metals in bulk atmospheric deposition.

  14. Experimental investigation in separating the heavy metal elements of refuse incineration fly ashes by using molten iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J. [Chongqing Univ., Chongqing (China)]|[CPI-Yuanda Environmental-protection Engineering Co. Ltd., Chongqing (China); Liu, Q.; Dong, L. [Chongqing Univ., Chongqing (China); Du, Y. [CPI-Yuanda Environmental-protection Engineering Co. Ltd., Chongqing (China)


    One of the main waste treatment methods in the world for municipal solid waste (MSW) is incineration. It is effective in toxic substance destruction, waste volume reduction, and energy recovery. Some chemical substances are accumulated during incineration, most notably lead, zinc, chromium and cadmium, as well as other heavy metals. Untreated fly ash disposed in landfills can pollute the soil, surface water and groundwater because of the high levels of hazardous heavy metals and high salt concentration that can be leached out. This paper presented an experiment that melt-separated the heavy metal elements from fly ash generated during refuse incineration. Molted iron, was used as resolvent to dissolve the heavy metal elements in it. The paper described the materials and methods as well as the results of the study. It was concluded that using molted iron to separate the heavy metal elements from MSW incineration fly ash was feasible. The removal ratio of the main heavy metal elements was above 80 per cent, and some of it was above 99 per cent. 5 refs., 7 tabs., 1 fig.

  15. Electronic structure and chemistry of the heaviest elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pershina, V. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Fricke, B. [Kassel Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany)


    Progress in the development of relativistic molecular codes has allowed for an adequate description of the electronic structure of the very heavy element compounds, and for the interpretation and prediction of their molecular properties. Most of the theoretical investigations for compounds, interesting from the experimental point of view, have been carried out using the LDF methods. The studied species were group 4, 5 and 6 gas-phase compounds of the transactinides along with their lighter homologs, and their complexes in aqueous solutions. As a result of these calculations, trends within the transition-element groups and within the beginning of the transactinide series for molecular properties such as ionicity, covalence, stability towards oxidation or reduction, crystal-field and spin-orbit effects, bonding, and the influence of relativistic effects on them have been established. In combination with some other models, these calculations allowed for predicting properties measured experimentally: volatility of compounds, redox potentials in solutions and complex formation. Especially promising were predictions of equilibria of reaction using the DS-DV method. Agreement between results of the calculations and experiment confirmed the necessity of doing relativistic MO calculations and the unreliability of the straightforward extrapolations of properties within the chemical groups. (orig.)

  16. Heavy element accumulation in Evernia prunastri lichen transplants around a municipal solid waste landfill in central Italy. (United States)

    Nannoni, Francesco; Santolini, Riccardo; Protano, Giuseppe


    This paper presents the results of a biomonitoring study to evaluate the environmental impact of airborne emissions from a municipal solid waste landfill in central Italy. Concentrations of 11 heavy elements, as well as photosynthetic efficiency and cell membrane integrity were measured in Evernia prunastri lichens transplanted for 4months in 17 monitoring sites around the waste landfill. Heavy element contents were also determined in surface soils. Analytical data indicated that emissions from the landfill affected Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb and Zn concentrations in lichens transplanted within the landfill and along the fallout direction. In these sites moderate to severe accumulation of these heavy elements in lichens was coupled with an increase in cell membrane damage and decrease in photosynthetic efficiency. Nevertheless, results indicated that landfill emissions had no relevant impact on lichens, as heavy element accumulation and weak stress symptoms were detected only in lichen transplants from sites close to solid waste. The appropriate management of this landfill poses a low risk of environmental contamination by heavy elements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Kink structures induced in nickel-based single crystal superalloys by high-Z element migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Fei; Zhang, Jianxin [Key Laboratory for Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Mao, Shengcheng [Institute of Microstructure and Property of Advanced Materials, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Jiang, Ying [Center of Electron Microscopy and State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Feng, Qiang [National Center for Materials Service Safety, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Shen, Zhenju; Li, Jixue; Zhang, Ze [Center of Electron Microscopy and State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Han, Xiaodong [Institute of Microstructure and Property of Advanced Materials, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China)


    Highlights: • Innovative kink structures generate at the γ/γ′ interfaces in the crept superalloy. • Clusters of heavy elements congregate at the apex of the kinks. • Dislocation core absorbs hexagonal structural high-Z elements. - Abstract: Here, we investigate a new type of kink structure that is found at γ/γ′ interfaces in nickel-based single crystal superalloys. We studied these structures at the atomic and elemental level using aberration corrected high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM). The core of the dislocation absorbs high-Z elements (i.e., Co and Re) that adopt hexagonal arrangements, and it extrudes elements (i.e., Ni and Al) that adopt face centered cubic (fcc) structures. High-Z elements (i.e., Ta and W) and Cr, which is a low-Z element, are stabilized in body centered cubic (bcc) arrangements; Cr tends to behave like Re. High-Z elements, which migrate and adopt a hexagonal structure, induce kink formation at γ/γ′ interfaces. This process must be analyzed to fully understand the kinetics and dynamics of creep in nickel-based single crystal superalloys.

  18. Ionization potentials of the lanthanides and actinides - towards atomic spectroscopy of super-heavy elements (United States)

    Wendt, K.; Gottwald, T.; Mattolat, C.; Raeder, S.


    A study on the systematic of the atomic ionization potentials for both, the lanthanide and actinide elements have been performed. The existing experimental basis, predominantly relying on results from resonance ionization spectroscopy, has been extended by novel laser spectroscopic investigations on the elements Au, Dy, Pr and Pa. Conclusive results of suitable precision for the ionization potentials could be obtained except for Pa, due to the complexity of its atomic spectrum. Nevertheless, a consistent interpretation of the observed trends for the ionization potentials of lanthanides and actinides was attempted. The series of lanthanides depicts the two well-known, completely smooth, linear trends above and below half-shell closure, from which an expectation value for the missing ionization potential of the all radioactive element promethium of IP Pm= 44985(140) cm -1 was derived. In contrast, the lighter members of the actinide series below the half-filled shell exhibit a significant deviation from predictions, which are ascribed dominantly to relativistic influences affecting the energetic position of the multitude of low-lying configurations. With the assumption of removal of a 6d electron during the ionization process agreement between theory and experiment and a smooth, even though not linear behavior, is obtained also in this region of the Periodic Table. This new interpretation could help to better predict similar trends and systematics for elements heavier than the actinides. Particularly relevant in this respect are the super-heavy elements, which are produced only in minuscule atom numbers and thus were not accessible for any atomic physics study yet.

  19. Cluster Features in Reactions and Structure of Heavy Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Adamian, G G; Jolos, R V; Scheid, W; Shneidman, T M


    Cluster effects in the structure of heavy nuclei are considered. The properties of the states of the alternating parity bands in Ra, Th, U and Pu isotopes are analyzed within a cluster model. The model is based on the assumption that cluster type shapes are produced by the motion of the nuclear system in the mass asymmetry coordinate. The results of calculations of the spin dependence of the parity splitting and of the electric multipole transition moments are in agreement with the experimental data.

  20. Structural Variation of Element and Human Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songmi Kim


    Full Text Available Transposable elements are one of major sources to cause genomic instability through various mechanisms including de novo insertion, insertion-mediated genomic deletion, and recombination-associated genomic deletion. Among them is Alu element which is the most abundant element, composing ~10% of the human genome. The element emerged in the primate genome 65 million years ago and has since propagated successfully in the human and non-human primate genomes. Alu element is a non-autonomous retrotransposon and therefore retrotransposed using L1-enzyme machinery. The 'master gene' model has been generally accepted to explain Alu element amplification in primate genomes. According to the model, different subfamilies of Alu elements are created by mutations on the master gene and most Alu elements are amplified from the hyperactive master genes. Alu element is frequently involved in genomic rearrangements in the human genome due to its abundance and sequence identity between them. The genomic rearrangements caused by Alu elements could lead to genetic disorders such as hereditary disease, blood disorder, and neurological disorder. In fact, Alu elements are associated with approximately 0.1% of human genetic disorders. The first part of this review discusses mechanisms of Alu amplification and diversity among different Alu subfamilies. The second part discusses the particular role of Alu elements in generating genomic rearrangements as well as human genetic disorders.

  1. Applications of a global nuclear-structure model to studies of the heaviest elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, P.; Nix, J.R.


    We present some new results on heavy-element nuclear-structure properties calculated on the basis of the finite-range droplet model and folded-Yukawa single-particle potential. Specifically, we discuss calculations of nuclear ground-state masses and microscopic corrections, {alpha}-decay properties, {beta}-decay properties, fission potential-energy surfaces, and spontaneous-fission half-lives. These results, obtained in a global nuclear-structure approach, are particularly reliable for describing the stability properties of the heaviest elements.

  2. Performance assessment of geotechnical structural elements using distributed fiber optic sensing (United States)

    Monsberger, Christoph; Woschitz, Helmut; Lienhart, Werner; Račanský, Václav; Hayden, Martin


    Geotechnical structural elements are used to underpin heavy structures or to stabilize slopes and embankments. The bearing capacity of these components is usually verified by geotechnical load tests. It is state of the art to measure the resulting deformations with electronic sensors at the surface and therefore, the load distribution along the objects cannot be determined. This paper reports about distributed strain measurements with an optical backscatter reflectometer along geotechnical elements. In addition to the installation of the optical fiber in harsh field conditions, results of investigations of the fiber optic system in the laboratory and the most significant results of the field trials are presented.

  3. Finite Element Vibration and Dynamic Response Analysis of Engineering Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Mackerle


    Full Text Available This bibliography lists references to papers, conference proceedings, and theses/dissertations dealing with finite element vibration and dynamic response analysis of engineering structures that were published from 1994 to 1998. It contains 539 citations. The following types of structures are included: basic structural systems; ground structures; ocean and coastal structures; mobile structures; and containment structures.

  4. Trace Elements, Heavy Metals and Vitamin Levels in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease (United States)

    Cebi, Aysegul; Kaya, Yuksel; Gungor, Hasan; Demir, Halit; Yoruk, Ibrahim Hakki; Soylemez, Nihat; Gunes, Yilmaz; Tuncer, Mustafa


    Aim: In the present study, we aimed to assess serum concentrations of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), vitamins A (retinol), D (cholecalciferol) and E (α-tocopherol) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and to compare with healthy controls. Methods: A total of 30 CAD patients and 20 healthy subjects were included in this study. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry (UNICAM-929) was used to measure heavy metal and trace element concentrations. Serum α-tocopherol, retinol and cholecalciferol were measured simultaneously by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results: Demographic and baseline clinical characteristics were not statistically different between the groups. Serum concentrations of retinol (0.3521±0.1319 vs. 0.4313±0.0465 mmol/I, p=0.013), tocopherol (3.8630±1.3117 vs. 6.9124±1.0577 mmol/I, ptrace elements and vitamins may be changed in patients with CAD. In this relatively small study we found that serum levels of retinol, tocopherol, cholecalciferol, iron and copper may be lower whereas serum lead concentrations may be increased in patients with CAD. PMID:21850195

  5. Design and discovery of a novel half-Heusler transparent hole conductor made of all-metallic heavy elements. (United States)

    Yan, Feng; Zhang, Xiuwen; Yu, Yonggang G; Yu, Liping; Nagaraja, Arpun; Mason, Thomas O; Zunger, Alex


    Transparent conductors combine two generally contradictory physical properties, but there are numerous applications where both functionalities are crucial. Previous searches focused on doping wide-gap metal oxides. Focusing instead on the family of 18 valence electron ternary ABX compounds that consist of elements A, B and X in 1:1:1 stoichiometry, we search theoretically for electronic structures that simultaneously lead to optical transparency while accommodating intrinsic defect structures that produce uncompensated free holes. This leads to the prediction of a stable, never before synthesized TaIrGe compound made of all-metal heavy atom compound. Laboratory synthesis then found it to be stable in the predicted crystal structure and p-type transparent conductor with a strong optical absorption peak at 3.36 eV and remarkably high hole mobility of 2,730 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) at room temperature. This methodology opens the way to future searches of transparent conductors in unexpected chemical groups.

  6. Serum heavy metal and antioxidant element levels of children with recurrent wheezing. (United States)

    Razi, C H; Akin, O; Harmanci, K; Akin, B; Renda, R


    The aim of the study is to investigate the levels of toxic heavy metals related with environmental pollution and trace elements involved in antioxidant system in children suffering from recurrent wheezing. One hundred children with recurrent wheezing (at least three recurrences) between the ages from 1 to 6 years took part in the study, and also 116 age- and sex- matched healthy children were involved in the study as a control group. Venous blood samples were collected and serum mercury, lead, aluminium, zinc, selenium, and copper levels were studied using ICP-MS. Serum lead (0.76±0.15 vs. 0.27±0.01, p:0.001) and mercury levels (1.31±0.15 vs 0.71±0.05, p115.6±1.87 vs. 125.4±2.94, p:0.008) levels were lower in wheezy group than those acquired from the control group. Serum zinc levels were found to be correlated with number of ARTIs (r(p):-0.332, p:0.001) and the number of wheezy attacks (r(p):-0.776, p<0.001) during the previous year in the wheezy group. Elevated levels of serum lead and mercury and low levels of zinc and selenium may suggest some disturbances in the antioxidant system in children with recurrent wheezing. This means that children with recurrent wheezing are much more susceptible to environmental pollutants and respiratory tract infections than healthy children and this heavy metal-antioxidant relationship may play a role as a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of recurrent wheezing in children. Copyright © 2009 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Heavy metal and trace elements in riparian vegetation and macrophytes associated with lacustrine systems in Northern Patagonia Andean Range. (United States)

    Juárez, Andrea; Arribére, María A; Arcagni, Marina; Williams, Natalia; Rizzo, Andrea; Ribeiro Guevara, Sergio


    Vegetation associated with lacustrine systems in Northern Patagonia was studied for heavy metal and trace element contents, regarding their elemental contribution to these aquatic ecosystems. The research focused on native species and exotic vascular plant Salix spp. potential for absorbing heavy metals and trace elements. The native species studied were riparian Amomyrtus luma, Austrocedrus chilensis, Chusquea culeou, Desfontainia fulgens, Escallonia rubra, Gaultheria mucronata, Lomatia hirsuta, Luma apiculata, Maytenus boaria, Myrceugenia exsucca, Nothofagus antarctica, Nothofagus dombeyi, Schinus patagonicus, and Weinmannia trichosperma, and macrophytes Hydrocotyle chamaemorus, Isöetes chubutiana, Galium sp., Myriophyllum quitense, Nitella sp. (algae), Potamogeton linguatus, Ranunculus sp., and Schoenoplectus californicus. Fresh leaves were analyzed as well as leaves decomposing within the aquatic bodies, collected from lakes Futalaufquen and Rivadavia (Los Alerces National Park), and lakes Moreno and Nahuel Huapi (Nahuel Huapi National Park). The elements studied were heavy metals Ag, As, Cd, Hg, and U, major elements Ca, K, and Fe, and trace elements Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Na, Rb, Se, Sr, and Zn. Geochemical tracers La and Sm were also determined to evaluate contamination of the biological tissues by geological particulate (sediment, soil, dust) and to implement concentration corrections.

  8. Trace elements and heavy metals in the Grand Bay National Estuarine Reserve in the northern Gulf of Mexico (United States)

    The Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve has the highest biotic diversity of habitats and offer a reserve of food resources and commercially significant species. Rapid human civilization has led to accumulation of heavy metals and trace elements in estuaries. The Grand Bay National Estuarin...

  9. Origin of the heavy elements in binary neutron-star mergers from a gravitational-wave event (United States)

    Kasen, Daniel; Metzger, Brian; Barnes, Jennifer; Quataert, Eliot; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico


    The cosmic origin of elements heavier than iron has long been uncertain. Theoretical modelling shows that the matter that is expelled in the violent merger of two neutron stars can assemble into heavy elements such as gold and platinum in a process known as rapid neutron capture (r-process) nucleosynthesis. The radioactive decay of isotopes of the heavy elements is predicted to power a distinctive thermal glow (a ‘kilonova’). The discovery of an electromagnetic counterpart to the gravitational-wave source GW170817 represents the first opportunity to detect and scrutinize a sample of freshly synthesized r-process elements. Here we report models that predict the electromagnetic emission of kilonovae in detail and enable the mass, velocity and composition of ejecta to be derived from observations. We compare the models to the optical and infrared radiation associated with the GW170817 event to argue that the observed source is a kilonova. We infer the presence of two distinct components of ejecta, one composed primarily of light (atomic mass number less than 140) and one of heavy (atomic mass number greater than 140) r-process elements. The ejected mass and a merger rate inferred from GW170817 imply that such mergers are a dominant mode of r-process production in the Universe.

  10. Origin of the heavy elements in binary neutron-star mergers from a gravitational-wave event. (United States)

    Kasen, Daniel; Metzger, Brian; Barnes, Jennifer; Quataert, Eliot; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico


    The cosmic origin of elements heavier than iron has long been uncertain. Theoretical modelling shows that the matter that is expelled in the violent merger of two neutron stars can assemble into heavy elements such as gold and platinum in a process known as rapid neutron capture (r-process) nucleosynthesis. The radioactive decay of isotopes of the heavy elements is predicted to power a distinctive thermal glow (a 'kilonova'). The discovery of an electromagnetic counterpart to the gravitational-wave source GW170817 represents the first opportunity to detect and scrutinize a sample of freshly synthesized r-process elements. Here we report models that predict the electromagnetic emission of kilonovae in detail and enable the mass, velocity and composition of ejecta to be derived from observations. We compare the models to the optical and infrared radiation associated with the GW170817 event to argue that the observed source is a kilonova. We infer the presence of two distinct components of ejecta, one composed primarily of light (atomic mass number less than 140) and one of heavy (atomic mass number greater than 140) r-process elements. The ejected mass and a merger rate inferred from GW170817 imply that such mergers are a dominant mode of r-process production in the Universe.

  11. Effects of heavy metal and other elemental additives to activated sludge on growth of Eisenia foetida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartenstein, R. (State Univ. of New York, Syracuse); Neuhauser, E.F.; Narahara, A.


    The approximate level at which added concentrations of certain elements would cause an activated sludge to induce a toxic effect upon the growth of Eisenia foetida was determined. During 43 trials on sludge samples obtained throughout 1 year of study, earthworms grew from 3 to 10 mg live wt at hatching to 792 mg +- 18% (mean +- C.V.) in 8 weeks, when sludge was 24/sup 0/C and contained no additives. None of several elements commonly used in microbial growth media enhanced the growth rate of the earthworm. At salt concentrations up to about 6.6% on a dry wt basis, none of six anions tested was in and of itself toxic, while five of 15 cations - Co, Hg, Cu, Ni, and Cd - appeared specifically to inhibit growth rate or cause death. Manganese, Cr, and Pb were innocuous even at the highest levels of application - 22,000, 46,000, and 52,000 mg/kg, respectively. Neither the anionic nor cationic component of certain salts, such as NaCl or NH/sub 4/Cl, could be said to inhibit growth, which occurred only at high concentrations of these salts (about 3.3 and/or 6.6%). Below 7 mmho/cm, toxicity could not be correlated with electrolytic conductance, though higher values may help to explain the nonspecific growth inhibitory effects of salts like NaCl and KCl. Nor could toxicity ever be ascribed to hydrogen ion activity, since sludge pH was not altered even at the highest salt dose. It is concluded that except under very extreme conditions, the levels of heavy metals and salts generally found in activated sludges will not have an adverse affect on the growth of E. foetida.

  12. Marine phosphorites as potential resources for heavy rare earth elements and yttrium (United States)

    Hein, James; Koschinsky, Andrea; Mikesell, Mariah; Mizell, Kira; Glenn, Craig R.; Wood, Ray


    Marine phosphorites are known to concentrate rare earth elements and yttrium (REY) during early diagenetic formation. Much of the REY data available are decades old and incomplete, and there has not been a systematic study of REY distributions in marine phosphorite deposits that formed over a range of oceanic environments. Consequently, we initiated this study to determine if marine phosphorite deposits found in the global ocean host REY concentrations of high enough grade to be of economic interest. This paper addresses continental-margin (CM) and open-ocean seamount phosphorites. All 75 samples analyzed are composed predominantly of carbonate fluorapatite and minor detrital and authigenic minerals. CM phosphorites have low total REY contents (mean 161 ppm) and high heavy REY (HREY) complements (mean 49%), while seamount phosphorites have 4–6 times higher individual REY contents (except for Ce, which is subequal; mean ΣREY 727 ppm), and very high HREY complements (mean 60%). The predominant causes of higher concentrations and larger HREY complements in seamount phosphorites compared to CM phosphorites are age, changes in seawater REY concentrations over time, water depth of formation, changes in pH and complexing ligands, and differences in organic carbon content in the depositional environments. Potential ore deposits with high HREY complements, like the marine phosphorites analyzed here, could help supply the HREY needed for high-tech and green-tech applications without creating an oversupply of the LREY.

  13. Marine Phosphorites as Potential Resources for Heavy Rare Earth Elements and Yttrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Hein


    Full Text Available Marine phosphorites are known to concentrate rare earth elements and yttrium (REY during early diagenetic formation. Much of the REY data available are decades old and incomplete, and there has not been a systematic study of REY distributions in marine phosphorite deposits that formed over a range of oceanic environments. Consequently, we initiated this study to determine if marine phosphorite deposits found in the global ocean host REY concentrations of high enough grade to be of economic interest. This paper addresses continental-margin (CM and open-ocean seamount phosphorites. All 75 samples analyzed are composed predominantly of carbonate fluorapatite and minor detrital and authigenic minerals. CM phosphorites have low total REY contents (mean 161 ppm and high heavy REY (HREY complements (mean 49%, while seamount phosphorites have 4–6 times higher individual REY contents (except for Ce, which is subequal; mean ΣREY 727 ppm, and very high HREY complements (mean 60%. The predominant causes of higher concentrations and larger HREY complements in seamount phosphorites compared to CM phosphorites are age, changes in seawater REY concentrations over time, water depth of formation, changes in pH and complexing ligands, and differences in organic carbon content in the depositional environments. Potential ore deposits with high HREY complements, like the marine phosphorites analyzed here, could help supply the HREY needed for high-tech and green-tech applications without creating an oversupply of the LREY.

  14. Heavy-ion radiation induces both activation of multiple endogenous transposable elements and alterations in DNA methylation in rice (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Sun, Yeqing; Li, Xishan; Xiaolin, Cui; Li, Xiang


    Space radiation represents a complex environmental condition in which several interacting factors such as electron, neutron, proton, heavy-ion are involved, which may provoke stress responses and jeopardize genome integrity. Given the inherent property of epigenetic modifications to respond to intrinsic aswell as external perturbations, it is conceivable that epigenetic markers like DNA methylation and transposition may undergo alterations in response to space radiation. Cytosine DNA methylation plays important roles in maintaining genome stability and controlling gene expression. A predominant means for Transposable elements (TEs) to cause genetic instability is via their transpositional activation. To find the detailed molecular characterization of the nature of genomic changes induced by space radiation, the seeds of rice were exposed to 0.02, 0.2, 1, 2 and 20 Gy dose of ^{12}C heavy-ion radiation, respectively. We found that extensive alteration in both DNA methylation and gene expression occurred in rice plants after different dose of heavy-ion radiation. Here we shown that heavy-ion radiation has induced transposition of mPing and Tos17 in rice, which belong to distinct classes including the miniature inverted terminal repeat TEs (MITEs) and long-terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons, respectively. mPing and Tos17 mobility were found to correlate with cytosine methylation alteration detected by MSAP and genetic variation detected by AFLP. The result showed that at least in some cases transposition of TEs was associated with cytosine demethylation within the elements. Our results implicate that the heavy-ion radiation represents a potent mutagenic agent that can cause genomic instabilities by eliciting transposition of endogenous TEs in rice. Keywords: Heavy-ion radiation, DNA methylation, Transposable elements, mPing, Tos17

  15. Five heavy metallic elements and age-related macular degeneration: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2011. (United States)

    Park, Sang Jun; Lee, Ju Hyun; Woo, Se Joon; Kang, Se Woong; Park, Kyu Hyung


    To investigate the association between age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and 5 heavy metallic elements (lead, mercury, cadmium, manganese, and zinc). A cross-sectional study using a complex, stratified, multistage, probability cluster survey. Participants of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2011. Using a standardized protocol, AMD was determined by fundus photograph grading. Blood concentrations of lead, mercury, cadmium, manganese, and zinc were measured. Associations between AMD and these 5 elements were estimated using logistic regression analyses (LRAs). The distributions of the 5 metallic elements in blood were analyzed, and the same set of LRAs estimating the association between AMD and logarithmic-transformed blood concentrations of the 5 elements were also conducted. Association between AMD and 5 heavy metals. Lead was positively associated with both early AMD and late AMD in all LRAs. Mercury and cadmium also had a positive association with late AMD in all LRAs, but not with early AMD. In contrast, manganese and zinc had an inverse association with late AMD in all LRAs. Manganese and zinc were not associated with early AMD. Using logarithmic-transformed blood concentrations for each metallic element, the LRAs showed similar results compared with those of the LRAs using nontransformed blood concentrations, despite the skewed distribution of these metallic elements in the blood. This study suggests that the toxic heavy metals (lead, mercury, and cadmium) may negatively influence late AMD, whereas essential heavy metals (manganese and zinc) may favorably influence late AMD. Lead may widely affect the pathogenesis of both early and late AMD. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Reliability of Structural Systems with Correlated Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard


    Calculation of the probability of failure of a system with correlation members is usually a difficult and time-consuming numerical problem. However, for some types of systems with equally correlated elements this calculation can be performed in a simple way. This has suggested two new methods bas...

  17. Binary morphology with spatially variant structuring elements: algorithm and architecture. (United States)

    Hedberg, Hugo; Dokladal, Petr; Owall, Viktor


    Mathematical morphology with spatially variant structuring elements outperforms translation-invariant structuring elements in various applications and has been studied in the literature over the years. However, supporting a variable structuring element shape imposes an overwhelming computational complexity, dramatically increasing with the size of the structuring element. Limiting the supported class of structuring elements to rectangles has allowed for a fast algorithm to be developed, which is efficient in terms of number of operations per pixel, has a low memory requirement, and a low latency. These properties make this algorithm useful in both software and hardware implementations, not only for spatially variant, but also translation-invariant morphology. This paper also presents a dedicated hardware architecture intended to be used as an accelerator in embedded system applications, with corresponding implementation results when targeted for both field programmable gate arrays and application specific integrated circuits.

  18. Nuclear microscopy of sperm cell elemental structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bench, G.S.; Balhorn, R.; Friz, A.M.; Freeman, S.P.H.T.


    Theories suggest there is a link between protamine concentrations in individual sperm and male fertility. Previously, biochemical analyses have used pooled samples containing millions of sperm to determine protamine concentrations. These methods have not been able to determine what percentage of morphologically normal sperm are biochemically defective and potentially infertile. Nuclear microscopy has been utilized to measure elemental profiles at the single sperm level. By measuring the amount of phosphorus and sulfur, the total DNA and protamine content in individual sperm from fertile bull and mouse semen have been determined. These values agree with results obtained from other biochemical analyses. Nuclear microscopy shows promise for measuring elemental profiles in the chromatin of individual sperm. The technique may be able to resolve theories regarding the importance of protamines to male fertility and identify biochemical defects responsible for certain types of male infertility.

  19. Structural and electrical properties of swift heavy ion beam irradiated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Synthesis of swift heavy ion induced metal silicide is a new advancement in materials science research. We have investigated the mixing at Co/Si interface by swift heavy ion beam induced irradiation in the electronic stopping power regime. Irradiations were undertaken at room temperature using 120 MeV Au ions at the ...

  20. The structural elements of the cosmic web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Bernard J. T.; van de Weygaert, Rien; Shandarin, S.; Saar, E.; Einasto, J.


    In 1970 Zel'dovich published a far-reaching paper presenting a simple equation describing the nonlinear growth of primordial density inhomogeneities. The equation was remarkably successful in explaining the large scale structure in the Universe that we observe: a Universe in which the structure

  1. Structural analysis with the finite element method linear statics

    CERN Document Server

    Oñate, Eugenio


    STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS WITH THE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD Linear Statics Volume 1 : The Basis and Solids Eugenio Oñate The two volumes of this book cover most of the theoretical and computational aspects of the linear static analysis of structures with the Finite Element Method (FEM). The content of the book is based on the lecture notes of a basic course on Structural Analysis with the FEM taught by the author at the Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) in Barcelona, Spain for the last 30 years. Volume1 presents the basis of the FEM for structural analysis and a detailed description of the finite element formulation for axially loaded bars, plane elasticity problems, axisymmetric solids and general three dimensional solids. Each chapter describes the background theory for each structural model considered, details of the finite element formulation and guidelines for the application to structural engineering problems. The book includes a chapter on miscellaneous topics such as treatment of inclined supports, elas...

  2. Heavy rare earth elements affect early life stages in Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula sea urchins. (United States)

    Oral, Rahime; Pagano, Giovanni; Siciliano, Antonietta; Gravina, Maria; Palumbo, Anna; Castellano, Immacolata; Migliaccio, Oriana; Thomas, Philippe J; Guida, Marco; Tommasi, Franca; Trifuoggi, Marco


    Heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) have been scarcely studied for their toxicity, in spite of their applications in several technologies. Thus HREEs require timely investigations for their adverse health effects. Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula embryos and sperm were exposed to trichloride salts of five HREEs (Dy, Ho, Er, Yb and Lu) and to Ce(III) as a light REE (LREE) reference to evaluate: 1) developmental defects (% DD) in HREE-exposed larvae or in the offspring of HREE-exposed sperm; 2) mitotic anomalies; 3) fertilization success; and 4) reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, and nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Nominal HREE concentrations were confirmed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). HREEs induced concentration-related DD increases in P. lividus and A. lixula larvae, ranging from no significant DD increase at 10-7M HREEs up to ≅100% DD at 10-5M HREE. Larvae exposed to 10-5M Ce(III) resulted in less severe DD rates compared to HREEs. Decreased mitotic activity and increased aberration rates were found in HREE-exposed P. lividus embryos. Significant increases in ROS formation and NO levels were found both in HREE-exposed and in Ce(III) embryos, whereas only Ce(III), but not HREEs resulted in significant increase in MDA levels. Sperm exposure to HREEs (10-5-10-4M) resulted in a concentration-related decrease in fertilization success along with increase in offspring damage. These effects were significantly enhanced for Dy(III), Ho(III), Er(III) and Yb(III), compared to Lu(III) and to Ce(III). HREE-associated toxicity affected embryogenesis, fertilization, cytogenetic and redox endpoints showing different toxicities of tested HREEs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. MEGHNAD – A multi element detector array for heavy ion collision ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    gamma, heavy ion and neutron array of detectors (MEGHNAD) to detect and study the properties of a wide variety of ... The gamma detector array consists of four numbers of Clover detectors, a few high efficiency HPGe ... chamber (IC) for measurement of energy and charge of the heavy ions stopping within the active gas ...

  4. Finite Element Estimation of Meteorite Structural Properties (United States)

    Hart, Kenneth Arthur


    The goal of the project titled Asteroid Threat Assessment at NASA Ames Research Center is to develop risk assessment tools. The expertise in atmospheric entry in the Entry Systems and Technology Division is being used to describe the complex physics of meteor breakup in the atmosphere. The breakup of a meteor is dependent on its structural properties, including homogeneity of the material. The present work describes an 11-week effort in which a literature survey was carried for structural properties of meteoritic material. In addition, the effect of scale on homogeneity isotropy was studied using a Monte Carlo approach in Nastran. The properties were then in a static structural response simulation of an irregularly-shape meteor (138-scale version of Asteroid Itokawa). Finally, an early plan was developed for doctoral research work at Georgia Tech. in the structural failure fragmentation of meteors.

  5. [Determination of six heavy metal elements in Zanthoxylum nitidum in twelve habitats of guangxi by ICP-AES]. (United States)

    Wang, Dong-Mei; Feng, Jie; Qin, Fu-Jing; Mo, Yi-Sheng


    To determine the contents of six heavy metal elements in traditional Chinese medicine of Zanthoxylum nitidum in twelve habitats by ICP-AES. Nitric acid- perchloric acid mixed acid digested system was used to completely decomposed the organic compounds effectually. The As, Cr, Hg, Ni, Cd and Pb were determined by the absorption spectroscopy under set up working conditions. An efficient, simple and accurate method was established. The recoveries were 90.82%-101.21% and RSDs were within 3.0%. The contents of six heavy metal elements are different in Zanthoxylum nitidum from different habitats. As, Cr and Hg were not detected. The content of Pb which from eleven habitats is consistent with the standards of medicine and export except from Nanning habitats, meanwhile the content of Cd all exceeds those standards.

  6. HAT-P-26b: A Neptune-mass exoplanet with a well-constrained heavy element abundance. (United States)

    Wakeford, Hannah R; Sing, David K; Kataria, Tiffany; Deming, Drake; Nikolov, Nikolay; Lopez, Eric D; Tremblin, Pascal; Amundsen, David S; Lewis, Nikole K; Mandell, Avi M; Fortney, Jonathan J; Knutson, Heather; Benneke, Björn; Evans, Thomas M


    A correlation between giant-planet mass and atmospheric heavy elemental abundance was first noted in the past century from observations of planets in our own Solar System and has served as a cornerstone of planet-formation theory. Using data from the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes from 0.5 to 5 micrometers, we conducted a detailed atmospheric study of the transiting Neptune-mass exoplanet HAT-P-26b. We detected prominent H2O absorption bands with a maximum base-to-peak amplitude of 525 parts per million in the transmission spectrum. Using the water abundance as a proxy for metallicity, we measured HAT-P-26b's atmospheric heavy element content ([Formula: see text] times solar). This likely indicates that HAT-P-26b's atmosphere is primordial and obtained its gaseous envelope late in its disk lifetime, with little contamination from metal-rich planetesimals. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. HAT-P-26b: A Neptune-mass exoplanet with a well-constrained heavy element abundance (United States)

    Wakeford, Hannah R.; Sing, David K.; Kataria, Tiffany; Deming, Drake; Nikolov, Nikolay; Lopez, Eric D.; Tremblin, Pascal; Amundsen, David S.; Lewis, Nikole K.; Mandell, Avi M.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Knutson, Heather; Benneke, Björn; Evans, Thomas M.


    A correlation between giant-planet mass and atmospheric heavy elemental abundance was first noted in the past century from observations of planets in our own Solar System and has served as a cornerstone of planet-formation theory. Using data from the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes from 0.5 to 5 micrometers, we conducted a detailed atmospheric study of the transiting Neptune-mass exoplanet HAT-P-26b. We detected prominent H2O absorption bands with a maximum base-to-peak amplitude of 525 parts per million in the transmission spectrum. Using the water abundance as a proxy for metallicity, we measured HAT-P-26b’s atmospheric heavy element content (4.8-4.0+21.5 times solar). This likely indicates that HAT-P-26b’s atmosphere is primordial and obtained its gaseous envelope late in its disk lifetime, with little contamination from metal-rich planetesimals.

  8. Structural properties of the lattice heavy quark effective theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandula, J.E. [Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of High Energy Physics; Ogilvie, M.C. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States)


    We discuss two related aspects of the lattice version of the heavy quark effective theory (HQET). They are the effects of heavy quark modes with large momenta, near the boundary of the Brillouin zone, and the renormalization of the lattice HQET. We argue that even though large momentum modes are present, their contributions to heavy-light bound states and perturbative loop integrals are dynamically suppressed and vanish in the continuum limit. We also discuss a new feature of the renormalization of the lattice HQET not present in the continuum theory, namely that the classical velocity is finitely renormalized. ((orig.)).

  9. Structural Properties of the Lattice Heavy Quark Effective Theory (United States)

    Mandula, Jeffrey E.; Ogilvie, Michael C.


    We discuss two related aspects of the lattice version of the heavy quark effective theory (HQET). They are the effects of heavy quark modes with large momenta, near the boundary of the Brillouin zone, and the renormalization of the lattice HQET. We argue that even though large momentum modes are present, their contributions to heavy-light bound states and perturbative loop integrals are dynamically suppressed and vanish in the continuum limit. We also discuss a new feature of the renormalization of the lattice HQET not present in the continuum theory, namely that the classical velocity is finitely renormalized.

  10. Optimum element density studies for finite-element thermal analysis of hypersonic aircraft structures (United States)

    Ko, William L.; Olona, Timothy; Muramoto, Kyle M.


    Different finite element models previously set up for thermal analysis of the space shuttle orbiter structure are discussed and their shortcomings identified. Element density criteria are established for the finite element thermal modelings of space shuttle orbiter-type large, hypersonic aircraft structures. These criteria are based on rigorous studies on solution accuracies using different finite element models having different element densities set up for one cell of the orbiter wing. Also, a method for optimization of the transient thermal analysis computer central processing unit (CPU) time is discussed. Based on the newly established element density criteria, the orbiter wing midspan segment was modeled for the examination of thermal analysis solution accuracies and the extent of computation CPU time requirements. The results showed that the distributions of the structural temperatures and the thermal stresses obtained from this wing segment model were satisfactory and the computation CPU time was at the acceptable level. The studies offered the hope that modeling the large, hypersonic aircraft structures using high-density elements for transient thermal analysis is possible if a CPU optimization technique was used.

  11. Nuclear structure notes on element 115 decay chains (United States)

    Rudolph, D.; Sarmiento, L. G.; Forsberg, U.


    Hitherto collected data on more than hundred α-decay chains stemming from element 115 are combined to probe some aspects of the underlying nuclear structure of the heaviest atomic nuclei yet created in the laboratory.

  12. Nuclear Structure Notes on Element 115 Decay Chains


    Rudolph, Dirk; Sarmiento, Luis; Forsberg, Ulrika


    Hitherto collected data on more than hundred α-decay chains stemming from element 115 are combined to probe some aspects of the underlying nuclear structure of the heaviest atomic nuclei yet created in the laboratory.

  13. Effect of heavy metals on silencing of engineered long interspersed element-1 retrotransposon in nondividing neuroblastoma cell line. (United States)

    Habibi, Laleh; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Motamedi, Mahdieh; Akrami, Seyed Mohammad


    L1 retrotransposons are the most active mobile DNA elements in human genome. Unregulated L1 retrotransposition may have deleterious effect by disrupting vital genes and inducing genomic instabilities. Therefore, human cells control L1 elements by silencing their activities through epigenetic mechanisms. It has been shown that cell division and heavy metals stimulate the frequency of L1 activities. Removal of silencing by L1 motivators may restart L1 element functions. Here, we have proposed that weather neurotoxic environmental heavy metals (as L1 stimulating factors) have a role in removing L1 silencing and restating its activities in nondividing neuronal cells. L1-RP green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged knock-in human neuroblastoma clones were prepared. Single-cell clone was treated with mitomycin-c combined with nontoxic and toxic concentrations of iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and mercury (Hg). Silencing status of engineered L1 elements in dividing and nondividing cells was determined through measuring the amount of GFP expressing cells with flow cytometry. The cytotoxic effect of mitomycin-c combined with metals was measured by MTT assay. Hg in nondividing cells and Fe, Cu, and Hg in dividing neuroblastoma cells could significantly remove L1 silencing. Also, mitomycin-c treatment did not have any effect on metal toxicity status in neuroblastoma cells. Totally, our findings have shown that cell division has a role in removing L1 silencing as well as L1 retrotransposition induced by environmental heavy metals. It has been also indicated that Hg at all concentrations could remove silencing of engineered L1 element regardless of cell cycle state.

  14. [Comparison of heavy metal elements between natural and plantation forests in a subtropical Montane forest]. (United States)

    Nie, Ming; Wan, Jia-Rong; Chen, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Li; Li, Bo; Chen, Jia-Kuan


    Heavy metals as one of major pollutants is harmful to the health of forest ecosystems. In the present paper, the concentrations of thirteen heavy metals (Fe, Al, Ti, Cr, Cu, Mn, V, Zn, Ni, Co, Pb, Se and Cd) were compared between natural and plantation forests in the Mt. Lushan by ICP-AES and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results suggest that the soil of natural forest had higher concentrations of Fe, Al, Ti, Cu, Mn, V, Zn, Ni, Co, Pb, Se, and Cd than the plantation forest except for Cr. The soil of natural forest had a higher level of heavy metals than that of the plantation forest as a whole. This might be due to that the natural forest has longer age than the plantation forest, and fixed soil heavy metals take a longer period of time than the plantation forest.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Vasilevich


    Full Text Available Virtual testing of portal machine tool has been carried out with the help of finite elements method (FEM. Static, modal and harmonic analyses have been made for a heavy planer. The paper reveals influence of concrete filler on machine tool dynamic flexibility. A peculiar feature of the simulation is concrete filling of a high-level transverse beam. Such approach oes look a typical one for machine-tool industry. Concrete has been considered as generalized material in two variants. It has been established that concrete application provides approximately 3-fold increase in machine tool rigidity per each coordinate. In this regard it is necessary to arrange closure of rigidity contour by filling all the cavities inside of the portal. Modal FEA makes it possible to determine that concrete increases comparatively weakly (1.3–1.4-fold frequencies of resonance modes. Frequency of the lowest mode rises only from 30.25 to 42.86 Hz. The following most active whole-machine eigenmodes have been revealed in the paper: “Portal pecking”, “Parallelogram” and “Traverse pecking”. In order to restrain the last mode it is necessary to carry out concrete filling of the traverse, in particular. Frequency-response characteristics and curves of dynamic rigidity for a spindle have been plotted for 0–150 Hz interval while using harmonic FEM. It has been determined that concrete increases dynamic machine tool rigidity by 2.5–3.5-fold. The effect is obtained even in the case when weakly damping concrete (2 % is used. This is due to distribution of vibrational energy flow along concrete and along cast iron as well. Thus energy density and vibration amplitudes must decrease. The paper shows acceptability for internal reinforcement of high-level machine tool parts (for example, portal traverses and fillers are applied for this purpose. Traverse weighting is compensated by additional torsional, shear and bending rigidity. The machine tool obtains the

  16. Finite-element method for above-core structures. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, J.M.; Belytschko, T.B.


    Three-dimensional finite-element models for the treatment of the nonlinear, transient response of a fast breeder reactor's above-core structures are described. For purposes of treating arbitrarily large rotations, node orientations are described by unit vectors and the deformable elements are treated by a corotational formulation in which the coordinate system is embedded in the elements. Deformable elements may be connected either to nodes directly or through rigid bodies. The time integration is carried out by the Newmark ..beta.. method. These features have been incorporated to form the finite-element program SAFE/RAS (Safety Analysis by Finite Elements/Reactor Analysis and Safety Division). Computations are presented for semianalytical comparisons, simple scoping studies, and Stanford Research Institute (SRI) test comparisons.

  17. Nuclear structure effects in quasifission – understanding the formation of the heaviest elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinde D. J.


    Full Text Available Quasifission is an important process suppressing the fusion of two heavy nuclei in reactions used to create superheavy elements. Quasifission results in rapid separation of the dinuclear system initially formed at contact. Achieving reliable a priori prediction of quasifission probabilities is a very diffcult problem. Through measurements with projectiles from C to Ni, the Australian National University’s Heavy Ion Accelerator Facility and CUBE spectrometer have been used to map out mass-angle distributions (MAD - the fission mass-ratio as a function of centre-of-mass angle. These provide information on quasifission dynamics in the least modeldependent way. Average quasifission time-scales have been extracted, and compared with TDHF calculations of the collisions, with good agreement being found. With the baseline information from the survey of experimental MAD, strong influences of the nuclear structure of the projectile and target nuclei can be clearly determined.

  18. Fluid-structure finite-element vibrational analysis (United States)

    Feng, G. C.; Kiefling, L.


    A fluid finite element has been developed for a quasi-compressible fluid. Both kinetic and potential energy are expressed as functions of nodal displacements. Thus, the formulation is similar to that used for structural elements, with the only differences being that the fluid can possess gravitational potential, and the constitutive equations for fluid contain no shear coefficients. Using this approach, structural and fluid elements can be used interchangeably in existing efficient sparse-matrix structural computer programs such as SPAR. The theoretical development of the element formulations and the relationships of the local and global coordinates are shown. Solutions of fluid slosh, liquid compressibility, and coupled fluid-shell oscillation problems which were completed using a temporary digital computer program are shown. The frequency correlation of the solutions with classical theory is excellent.

  19. Lower bound plane stress element for modelling 3D structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herfelt, Morten Andersen; Poulsen, Peter Noe; Hoang, Linh Cao


    In-plane action is often the primary load-carrying mechanism of reinforced concrete structures. The plate bending action will be secondary, and the behaviour of the structure can be modelled with a reasonable accuracy using a generalised three-dimensional plane stress element. In this paper...

  20. Stochastic Finite Elements in Reliability-Based Structural Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Engelund, S.


    Application of stochastic finite elements in structural optimization is considered. It is shown how stochastic fields modelling e.g. the modulus of elasticity can be discretized in stochastic variables and how a sensitivity analysis of the reliability of a structural system with respect...

  1. Stochastic Finite Elements in Reliability-Based Structural Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Engelund, S.

    Application of stochastic finite elements in structural optimization is considered. It is shown how stochastic fields modelling e.g. the modulus of elasticity can be discretized in stochastic variables and how a sensitivity analysis of the reliability of a structural system with respect...

  2. Hybrid open public space of landscape elements and built structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Bence


    Full Text Available The trend today in the cities in Europe and elsewhere is in combining landscape elements, built structure and different uses into a complex urban structure. Physical and program interweaving of landscape elements and built structure enables the consumers daily practice of leisure programs – relaxation, recreation and experiencing other cultural, educational and social events in the public green space. On the basis of determinate social changes and new approaches in urban planning practice, analyses of architectural and urban case studies from the point of view of integrating the landscape elements into the urban structure, the article defines the phenomenon of hybrid open public space and proposes methodical guidelines for the planning.

  3. Finite element thermal analysis of convectively-cooled aircraft structures (United States)

    Wieting, A. R.; Thornton, E. A.


    The design complexity and size of convectively-cooled engine and airframe structures for hypersonic transports necessitate the use of large general purpose computer programs for both thermal and structural analyses. Generally thermal analyses are based on the lumped-parameter finite difference technique, and structural analyses are based on the finite element technique. Differences in these techniques make it difficult to achieve an efficient interface. It appears, therefore, desirable to conduct an integrated analysis based on a common technique. A summary is provided of efforts by NASA concerned with the development of an integrated thermal structural analysis capability using the finite element method. Particular attention is given to the development of conduction/forced-convection finite element methodology and applications which illustrate the capabilities of the developed concepts.

  4. Structural and electrical properties of swift heavy ion beam irradiated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    search. We have investigated the mixing at Co/Si interface by swift heavy ion beam induced irradiation in the ... films are often employed in semiconductor technology and are used as ... rements at Co/Si interface were carried out online in the.

  5. LINE-1 elements in structural variation and disease. (United States)

    Beck, Christine R; Garcia-Perez, José Luis; Badge, Richard M; Moran, John V


    The completion of the human genome reference sequence ushered in a new era for the study and discovery of human transposable elements. It now is undeniable that transposable elements, historically dismissed as junk DNA, have had an instrumental role in sculpting the structure and function of our genomes. In particular, long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) and short interspersed elements (SINEs) continue to affect our genome, and their movement can lead to sporadic cases of disease. Here, we briefly review the types of transposable elements present in the human genome and their mechanisms of mobility. We next highlight how advances in DNA sequencing and genomic technologies have enabled the discovery of novel retrotransposons in individual genomes. Finally, we discuss how L1-mediated retrotransposition events impact human genomes.

  6. MEGHNAD–A multi element detector array for heavy ion collision ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Nov 27, 2015 ... In the coming decade, the expanding field of experimental nuclear physics in our country is going to see a quantum leap in research and developmental activities with new accelerator facilities like the variable energy cyclotron with ECR heavy ion source, the upcoming K-500 superconducting cyclotron, ...

  7. Mobilization of heavy metals from contaminated paddy soil by EDDS, EDTA, and elemental sulfur

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, G.; Koopmans, G.F.; Song, J.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Luo, Y.; Zhao, Q.; Japenga, J.


    For enhanced phytoextraction, mobilization of heavy metals (HMs) from the soil solid phase to soil pore water is an important process. A pot incubation experiment mimicking field conditions was conducted to investigate the performance of three soil additives in mobilizing HMs from contaminated paddy

  8. Nuclear structure of light Ca and heavy Cr isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buerger, A.


    In the present thesis, the shell structure in exotic nuclei has been investigated. The focus of the work was on finding new experimental data in neutron-rich Cr and proton-rich Ca isotopes. The investigation of light Ca isotopes concentrated on the nucleus {sup 36}Ca which was produced in a knockout reaction from a radioactive {sup 37}Ca beam. For {sup 36}Ca, the excitation energy of the first 2{sup +} state has been measured for the first time. Furthermore, momentum distributions were analyzed using a Monte-Carlo simulation of the knockout reaction. This analysis yielded the contributions of neutrons from individual orbitals to the total knockout cross section. In principle, these may be used to calculate spectroscopic factors, but such a calculation is hampered by difficulties of present knockout-reaction models in predicting precise single-particle cross sections. The measured branching ratio to the ground and excited states, on the other hand, is close to the predicted value. A remaining difference might be due to emission of protons which cannot be detected with the present experimental setup. Both the branching ratio and the large excitation energy are compatible with a large N=16 gap in {sup 36}Ca that leads to relatively pure configurations both in the ground state and the excited 2{sup +} state. As a by-product of the experiment, two excitation energies in the T=2 nuclei {sup 32}Ar and {sup 28}S have been confirmed, and two {gamma}-ray transitions have been observed for the first time in {sup 37}Ca. While the mirror energy differences in the T=2 pairs {sup 36}Ca-{sup 36}S, {sup 32}Ar-{sup 32}Si, and {sup 28}S-{sup 28}Mg can be reproduced in shell model calculations using a modified USD interaction, these modifications are not sufficient to explain the mirror energy differences for the pair {sup 37}Ca-{sup 37}Cl. In the heavy Cr isotopes, new experimental evidence for a sub-shell closure at N=32 was found in a measurement of B(E2) values using high

  9. Distribution of heavy elements in urban and rural surface soils: the Novi Sad city and the surrounding settlements, Serbia. (United States)

    Škrbić, Biljana; Đurišić-Mladenović, Nataša


    Concentrations of ten heavy elements (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn), as well as the pH values, organic matter contents, and electrical conductivities were measured in the surface soil samples collected from 21 sites of urban areas in the city of Novi Sad, the second largest city in Serbia, its suburban settlement and the nearby villages. Range of the heavy element concentrations was from 0.16 mg/kg (for Hg) to 18,994 mg/kg (for Fe). Significantly higher Hg and Mn concentrations were observed in subgroups with rural and market garden samples in comparison to the subgroups with urban and grassland samples, respectively, while the contents of Pb found in the grasslands subgroup were significantly higher than in the subgroup with market garden soils. Only one sample of urban soil exceeded the maximum permissible value for Zn set by the relevant Serbian legislation. According to the Dutch soil quality standard, the Cd and Co concentrations in majority of the examined soils were higher than the target values for unpolluted soil. The content of Hg was above the target value in 52% of the samples, most of them belonging to the subgroup of market garden soils. The results for the Novi Sad city area were compared to the relevant data available for other cities in the Western Balkan Countries. Principal component analysis of data revealed seven outlying samples, while the rest of the analyzed samples were grouped together indicating similar heavy element patterns most probably due to mixed emission sources.

  10. The Origins of Light and Heavy R-process Elements Identified by Chemical Tagging of Metal-poor Stars (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Takuji; Shigeyama, Toshikazu


    Growing interests in neutron star (NS) mergers as the origin of r-process elements have sprouted since the discovery of evidence for the ejection of these elements from a short-duration γ-ray burst. The hypothesis of a NS merger origin is reinforced by a theoretical update of nucleosynthesis in NS mergers successful in yielding r-process nuclides with A > 130. On the other hand, whether the origin of light r-process elements are associated with nucleosynthesis in NS merger events remains unclear. We find a signature of nucleosynthesis in NS mergers from peculiar chemical abundances of stars belonging to the Galactic globular cluster M15. This finding combined with the recent nucleosynthesis results implies a potential diversity of nucleosynthesis in NS mergers. Based on these considerations, we are successful in the interpretation of an observed correlation between [light r-process/Eu] and [Eu/Fe] among Galactic halo stars and accordingly narrow down the role of supernova nucleosynthesis in the r-process production site. We conclude that the tight correlation by a large fraction of halo stars is attributable to the fact that core-collapse supernovae produce light r-process elements while heavy r-process elements such as Eu and Ba are produced by NS mergers. On the other hand, stars in the outlier, composed of r-enhanced stars ([Eu/Fe] gsim +1) such as CS22892-052, were exclusively enriched by matter ejected by a subclass of NS mergers that is inclined to be massive and consist of both light and heavy r-process nuclides.

  11. Augmented weak forms and element-by-element preconditioners: Efficient iterative strategies for structural finite elements. A preliminary study (United States)

    Muller, A.; Hughes, T. J. R.


    A weak formulation in structural analysis that provides well conditioned matrices suitable for iterative solutions is presented. A mixed formulation ensures the proper representation of the problem and the constitutive relations are added in a penalized form. The problem is solved by a double conjugate gradient algorithm combined with an element by element approximate factorization procedure. The double conjugate gradient strategy resembles Uzawa's variable-length type algorithms the main difference is the presence of quadratic terms in the mixed variables. In the case of shear deformable beams these terms ensure that the proper finite thickness solution is obtained.

  12. Application of global elements to a reinforced concrete structure; Application des elements globaux a une structure en beton arme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morand, O


    The dimensioning of nuclear facilities requires to take into account the possible risk of earthquakes. However such installations are generally complex structures with reinforced concrete poles, walls, beams and porches. In this study, a seismic analysis of such a structure is proposed. The use of the Castem 2000 global element code was attempted to dynamically simulate the behaviour of the reinforced concrete elements. However, no suitable modeling has been found for the storeys, the functioning of which being dominated by carrying walls. Concerning the porch-type storeys, monotonous static loads were simulated and provided information on the local and global behaviour of these structures. Thus, representative global elements could be realized for these structures. Results obtained are satisfactory for these storeys which essentially undergo a bending deformation. (J.S.)

  13. Behavior and Distribution of Heavy Metals Including Rare Earth Elements, Thorium, and Uranium in Sludge from Industry Water Treatment Plant and Recovery Method of Metals by Biosurfactants Application (United States)

    Gao, Lidi; Kano, Naoki; Sato, Yuichi; Li, Chong; Zhang, Shuang; Imaizumi, Hiroshi


    In order to investigate the behavior, distribution, and characteristics of heavy metals including rare earth elements (REEs), thorium (Th), and uranium (U) in sludge, the total and fractional concentrations of these elements in sludge collected from an industry water treatment plant were determined and compared with those in natural soil. In addition, the removal/recovery process of heavy metals (Pb, Cr, and Ni) from the polluted sludge was studied with biosurfactant (saponin and sophorolipid) elution by batch and column experiments to evaluate the efficiency of biosurfactant for the removal of heavy metals. Consequently, the following matters have been largely clarified. (1) Heavy metallic elements in sludge have generally larger concentrations and exist as more unstable fraction than those in natural soil. (2) Nonionic saponin including carboxyl group is more efficient than sophorolipid for the removal of heavy metals in polluted sludge. Saponin has selectivity for the mobilization of heavy metals and mainly reacts with heavy metals in F3 (the fraction bound to carbonates) and F5 (the fraction bound to Fe-Mn oxides). (3) The recovery efficiency of heavy metals (Pb, Ni, and Cr) reached about 90–100% using a precipitation method with alkaline solution. PMID:22693485

  14. An efficient structural finite element for inextensible flexible risers (United States)

    Papathanasiou, T. K.; Markolefas, S.; Khazaeinejad, P.; Bahai, H.


    A core part of all numerical models used for flexible riser analysis is the structural component representing the main body of the riser as a slender beam. Loads acting on this structural element are self-weight, buoyant and hydrodynamic forces, internal pressure and others. A structural finite element for an inextensible riser with a point-wise enforcement of the inextensibility constrain is presented. In particular, the inextensibility constraint is applied only at the nodes of the meshed arc length parameter. Among the virtues of the proposed approach is the flexibility in the application of boundary conditions and the easy incorporation of dissipative forces. Several attributes of the proposed finite element scheme are analysed and computation times for the solution of some simplified examples are discussed. Future developments aim at the appropriate implementation of material and geometric parameters for the beam model, i.e. flexural and torsional rigidity.

  15. Structural elements of critical thinking of nurses in emergency care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Graça Oliveira Crossetti

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the structural elements of critical thinking (CT of nurses in the clinical decision-making process. This exploratory, qualitative study was conducted with 20 emergency care nurses in three hospitals in southern Brazil. Data were collected from April to June 2009, and a validated clinical case was applied from which nurses listed health problems, prescribed care and listed the structural elements of CT. Content analysis resulted in categories used to determine priority structural elements of CT, namely theoretical foundations and practical relationship to clinical decision making; technical and scientific knowledge and clinical experience, thought processes and clinical decision making: clinical reasoning and basis for clinical judgments of nurses: patient assessment and ethics. It was concluded that thinking critically is a skill that enables implementation of a secure and effective nursing care process.

  16. Finite element analysis of structures through unified formulation

    CERN Document Server

    Carrera, Erasmo; Petrolo, Marco; Zappino, Enrico


    The finite element method (FEM) is a computational tool widely used to design and analyse  complex structures. Currently, there are a number of different approaches to analysis using the FEM that vary according to the type of structure being analysed: beams and plates may use 1D or 2D approaches, shells and solids 2D or 3D approaches, and methods that work for one structure are typically not optimized to work for another. Finite Element Analysis of Structures Through Unified Formulation deals with the FEM used for the analysis of the mechanics of structures in the case of linear elasticity. The novelty of this book is that the finite elements (FEs) are formulated on the basis of a class of theories of structures known as the Carrera Unified Formulation (CUF). It formulates 1D, 2D and 3D FEs on the basis of the same ''fundamental nucleus'' that comes from geometrical relations and Hooke''s law, and presents both 1D and 2D refined FEs that only have displacement variables as in 3D elements. It also covers 1D...

  17. Structural and electrical properties of swift heavy ion beam irradiated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. The present work deals with the mixing of iron and silicon by swift heavy ions in high-energy range. The thin film was deposited on a n-Si (111) substrate at 10. –6 torr and at room temperature. Irradia- tions were undertaken at room temperature using 120 MeV Au. +9 ions at the Fe/Si interface to investigate ion.

  18. Competitive adsorption of dyes and heavy metals on zeolitic structures. (United States)

    Hernández-Montoya, V; Pérez-Cruz, M A; Mendoza-Castillo, D I; Moreno-Virgen, M R; Bonilla-Petriciolet, A


    The adsorption of Acid blue 25, basic blue 9, basic violet 3, Pb(2+), Ni(2+), Zn(2+) and Cd(2+) ions has been studied in single and dye-metal binary solutions using two mineral materials: Clinoptilolite (CL) and ER (Erionite). These zeolites were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy; potentiometric titration and nitrogen adsorption isotherms at 77 K to obtain their textural parameters. Results indicated that ER has an acidic character and a high specific surface (401 m(2) g(-1)) in contrast with the zeolite CL (21 m(2) g(-1)). Surprisingly, the removal of dyes was very similar for the two zeolites and they showed a considerable selectivity by the basic dyes in comparison with the acid dyes. In the case of heavy metals, ER was more effective in the adsorption process showing a selectivity of: Pb(2+) > Ni(2+) > Zn(2+) > Cd(2+). In the multicomponent adsorption experiments an antagonistic effect was observed in the removal of basic dyes and heavy metals. Particularly, the adsorbed amount of basic violet 3 decreased more significantly when the heavy metals are presents in contrast with the basic blue 9. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A study on the nonlinear finite element analysis of reinforced concrete structures: shell finite element formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Jin; Seo, Jeong Moon


    The main goal of this research is to establish a methodology of finite element analysis of containment building predicting not only global behaviour but also local failure mode. In this report, we summerize some existing numerical analysis techniques to be improved for containment building. In other words, a complete description of the standard degenerated shell finite element formulation is provided for nonlinear stress analysis of nuclear containment structure. A shell finite element is derived using the degenerated solid concept which does not rely on a specific shell theory. Reissner-Mindlin assumptions are adopted to consider the transverse shear deformation effect. In order to minimize the sensitivity of the constitutive equation to structural types, microscopic material model is adopted. The four solution algorithms based on the standard Newton-Raphson method are discussed. Finally, two numerical examples are carried out to test the performance of the adopted shell medel.

  20. Causation as an Element of Civil Structure of Damages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliya M. Lipen


    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of causal nexus in the civil law. Based on analysis of respective regulations similar in their contents in both Russian and Belarusian civil law, the author comes to conclusion that casual nexus is both a condition of contractual liability and an element of civil structure of damages at the same time. Emphasizing the fact that neither legislation nor judicial enforcement require a researcher to make a strict separation between these aspects both in Belarus and Russia, the author argues that accentuation of one of the above aspects (namely, casual nexus as an element of civil structure of damages does have its own significance

  1. Electronic structure of eka-thorium (element 122) compared with thorium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliav, Ephraim; Landau, Arie; Kaldor, Uzi [School of Chemistry, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel)]. E-mail:; Ishikawa, Yasuyuki [Department of Chemistry, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico (United States)


    The electronic levels of thorium and eka-thorium (element 122) are calculated in the framework of the Dirac-Coulomb-Breit Hamiltonian using a large Gaussian-spinor basis. Correlation is included by the Fock-space or intermediate Hamiltonian coupled-cluster method. The 51 reported levels of thorium and its ions are compared with experiment, giving an average error of 0.062 V for Fock space and 0.051 V for the intermediate Hamiltonian method. Predicted E122 levels are expected to have similar accuracy. The ground state of E122 is 8s{sup 2}7d8p, to be contrasted with 7s{sup 2}6d{sup 2} for Th. Increased relativistic effects in the super-heavy element lead to major differences between the level structure of these two atoms and their ions. The effects of Breit and QED terms are discussed. (author)

  2. Sources and contents of heavy metals and other trace elements in animal manure (United States)

    Trace elements take part in various physiological functions including enzyme formation, vitamin formation, metabolism, and electron transport in animals. Thus, trace elements are added to livestock and poultry diets to prevent diseases, improve weight gains and feed conversion, and increase egg prod...

  3. Exploring Elements of Fun to Motivate Heavy Drinking Youth to (retrain Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter Boendermaker


    Adding (social game elements can increase motivation to train, and while the mobile training did not appear to be more motivating, it also did not underperform compared to the regular training in this sample. This warrants more research into motivational elements for CBM training in younger audiences.

  4. Finite element modeling simulation-assisted design of integrated microfluidic chips for heavy metal ion stripping analysis (United States)

    Hong, Ying; Zou, Jianhua; Ge, Gang; Xiao, Wanyue; Gao, Ling; Shao, Jinjun; Dong, Xiaochen


    In this article, a transparent integrated microfluidic device composed of a 3D-printed thin-layer flow cell (3D-PTLFC) and an S-shaped screen-printed electrode (SPE) has been designed and fabricated for heavy metal ion stripping analysis. A finite element modeling (FEM) simulation is employed to optimize the shape of the electrode, the direction of the inlet pipeline, the thin-layer channel height and the sample flow rate to enhance the electron-enrichment efficiency for stripping analysis. The results demonstrate that the S-shaped SPE configuration matches the channel in 3D-PTLFC perfectly for the anodic stripping behavior of the heavy metal ions. Under optimized conditions, a wide linear range of 1-80 µg l-1 is achieved for Pb2+ detection with a limit of 0.3 µg l-1 for the microfluidic device. Thus, the obtained integrated microfluidic device proves to be a promising approach for heavy metal ions stripping analysis with low cost and high performance.

  5. The ultrasound assisted extraction of matrix elements and heavy metal fractions associated with Fe, Al and Mn oxyhydroxides from soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanišić Svetlana M.


    Full Text Available The single agent extractions of major and trace metals from soil sample were conducted by means of rotary mixer and ultrasonic bath with sonication time of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 min. The sequential extraction according to the BCR scheme was undertaken. The obtained soil extracts were analyzed by ICP-OES and according to the results the rotary mixer assisted extraction was more efficient in the case of alkaline-earth elements. However, by the use of ultrasound several times higher amounts of matrix elements (Fe, Al and Mn and heavy metals predominantly associated with Fe, Al and Mn oxyhydroxides were extracted. The increase of the sonication time failed to improve extraction yields. The changes of the conductivity, pH, oxidoreduction potential, particle size diameter and zeta potential of colloid particles, with the sonication time increase were measured. The extraction mechanism and expressed selectivity of ultrasound is discussed and explanation is suggested.

  6. The Effect of Cocoa Beans Heavy and Trace Elements on Safety and Stability of Confectionery Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vītola Vineta


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate cocoa beans quality produced in Cameroon, Ecuador, Nigeria and Ghana from safety position determining heavy and trace metals concentration and evaluating the oxidative stability of confectionery products prototypes (trials with analysing cocoa beans. For evaluation of oxidative stability of confectionery products, the main ingredients - butter and cocoa beans kernels were tested making trials as milk chocolate prototype.

  7. Effects of alloying elements on the formation of < c >-component loops in Zr alloy Excel under heavy ion irradiation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idrees, Yasir; Francis, Elisabeth M.; Yao, Zhongwen; Korinek, Andreas; Kirk, Marquis A.; Sattari, Mohammad; Preuss, Michael; Daymond, M. R.


    We report here the microstructural changes occurring in the zirconium alloy Excel (Zr-3.5 wt% Sn-0.8Nb-0.8Mo-0.2Fe) during heavy ion irradiation. In situ irradiation experiments were conducted at reactor operating temperatures on two Zr Excel alloy microstructures with different states of alloying elements, with the states achieved by different solution heat treatments. In the first case, the alloying elements were mostly concentrated in the beta (beta) phase, whereas, in the second case, large Zr-3(Mo,Nb,Fe)(4) secondary phase precipitates (SPPs) were grown in the alpha (alpha) phase by long term aging. The heavy ion induced damage and resultant compositional changes were examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in combination with scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM)-energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) mapping. Significant differences were seen in microstructural evolution between the two different microstructures that were irradiated under similar conditions. Nucleation and growth of < c >-component loops and their dependence on the alloying elements are a major focus of the current investigation. It was observed that the < c >-component loops nucleate readily at 100, 300, and 400 degrees C after a threshold incubation dose (TID), which varies with irradiation temperature and the state of alloying elements. It was found that the TID for the formation of < c >-component loops increases with decrease in irradiation temperature. Alloying elements that are present in the form of SPPs increase the TID compared to when they are in the beta phase solid solution. Dose and temperature dependence of loop size and density are presented. Radiation induced redistribution and clustering of alloying elements (Sn, Mo, and Fe) have been observed and related to the formation of < c >-component loops. It has been shown that at the higher temperature tests, irradiation induced dissolution of precipitates occurs whereas irradiation induced

  8. New structure for accelerating heavy ions; Une nouvelle structure acceleratrice d'ions lourds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pottier, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    A new type of accelerating structure is described which is particular suited to heavy ions (high wavelength, high shunt impedance, small size). Its properties are analyzed and compared to those of other structures (more particularly the lines). It is shown that a mode of operation exists of which the shunt impedance in the station mode has 80 per cent of its value for the progressive mode. Finally results are given obtained with a small experimental apparatus which uses this structure. (author) [French] On decrit un nouveau type de structure acceleratrice, particulierement appropriee aux ions lourds (grande longueur d'onde, forte impedance-shunt, faibles dimensions). Ses proprietes sont analysees et comparees a celles d'autres structures (plus particulierement les lignes). On met en evidence un mode de fonctionnement pour lequel l'impedance shunt en regime stationnaire vaut 80 pour cent de l'impedance shunt en regime progressif. Enfin on decrit les resultats obtenus a l'aide d'une petite machine experimentale mettant en oeuvre cette structure. (auteur)

  9. Better Finite-Element Analysis of Composite Shell Structures (United States)

    Clarke, Gregory


    A computer program implements a finite-element-based method of predicting the deformations of thin aerospace structures made of isotropic materials or anisotropic fiber-reinforced composite materials. The technique and corresponding software are applicable to thin shell structures in general and are particularly useful for analysis of thin beamlike members having open cross-sections (e.g. I-beams and C-channels) in which significant warping can occur.

  10. Analysis of Nuclear Reactions Used for the Synthesis of Heavy and Superheavy Elements in the Framework of the Dinuclear System Concept

    CERN Document Server

    Volkov, V V


    Reactions used for the synthesis of heavy and superheavy elements are analyzed within the framework of the dinuclear system concept. The important role of quasi- fission and the inner fusion potential barrier is emphasized. The results of calculation of the production cross sections for heavy and superheavy elements synthesized in cold and hot fusion reactions are given in comparison with experimental data. The minimum value of compound nucleus excitation energy is calculated for elements from 104 to 114, produced in cold fusion reactions. This article is a short survey of some results obtained by a group of physicists, using the dinuclear system concept.

  11. 2-D Finite Element Analysis of Massive RC Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saabye Ottosen, Niels


    Nonlinear analysis of concrete structures using finite elements is discussed. The applications include a thick-walled top-closure for a pressure vessel as well as the delicate problems of beams failing in shear. The top-closure analysis evaluates the effect of two different failure criteria...

  12. Inverse boundary element calculations based on structural modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Peter Møller


    The inverse problem of calculating the flexural velocity of a radiating structure of a general shape from measurements in the field is often solved by combining a Boundary Element Method with the Singular Value Decomposition and a regularization technique. In their standard form these methods sol...

  13. (ajst) finite element analysis of a fluid-structure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    6th International Conference on Pressure. Surges, Cambridge, England C2. [9] Wiggert, D. C., Tijsseling, A. S. Fluid transients and fluid-structure interaction in flexible liquid-filled piping. 2001. ASME Applied Mechanics Reviews. Vol. 54. PP455-481. [10] Zienkiewicz O. C. and Taylor, R. L. The finite element method 1989.

  14. Structure of nuclear transition matrix elements for neutrinoless ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The structure of nuclear transition matrix elements (NTMEs) required for the study of neutrinoless double- decay within light Majorana neutrino mass mechanism is disassembled in the PHFB model. The NTMEs are calculated using a set of HFB intrinsic wave functions, the reliability of which has been previously ...

  15. Structure of nuclear transition matrix elements for neutrinoless ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The structure of nuclear transition matrix elements (NTMEs) required for the study of neutrinoless double-β decay within light Majorana neutrino mass mechanism is disassembled in the PHFB model. The NTMEs are calculated using a set of HFB intrinsic wave functions, the reliability of which has been previously ...

  16. Structural elements recognized by abacavir-induced T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yerly, Daniel; Pompeu, Yuri Andreiw; Schutte, Ryan J.


    of autoimmune destruction. The structural elements recognized by drug-specific T cell receptors (TCRs) in vivo are poorly defined. Drug-stimulated T cells express TCRs specific for peptide/HLA complexes, but the characteristics of peptides (sequence, or endogenous or exogenous origin) presented in the context...

  17. Curved Thermopiezoelectric Shell Structures Modeled by Finite Element Analysis (United States)

    Lee, Ho-Jun


    "Smart" structures composed of piezoelectric materials may significantly improve the performance of aeropropulsion systems through a variety of vibration, noise, and shape-control applications. The development of analytical models for piezoelectric smart structures is an ongoing, in-house activity at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field focused toward the experimental characterization of these materials. Research efforts have been directed toward developing analytical models that account for the coupled mechanical, electrical, and thermal response of piezoelectric composite materials. Current work revolves around implementing thermal effects into a curvilinear-shell finite element code. This enhances capabilities to analyze curved structures and to account for coupling effects arising from thermal effects and the curved geometry. The current analytical model implements a unique mixed multi-field laminate theory to improve computational efficiency without sacrificing accuracy. The mechanics can model both the sensory and active behavior of piezoelectric composite shell structures. Finite element equations are being implemented for an eight-node curvilinear shell element, and numerical studies are being conducted to demonstrate capabilities to model the response of curved piezoelectric composite structures (see the figure).

  18. Model Reduction in Dynamic Finite Element Analysis of Lightweight Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flodén, Ola; Persson, Kent; Sjöström, Anders


    models may be created by assembling models of floor and wall structures into large models of complete buildings. When assembling the floor and wall models, the number of degrees of freedom quickly increases to exceed the limits of computer capacity, at least in a reasonable amount of computational time....... The objective of the analyses presented in this paper is to evaluate methods for model reduction of detailed finite element models of floor and wall structures and to investigate the influence of reducing the number of degrees of freedom and computational cost on the dynamic response of the models in terms....... The drawback of component mode synthesis compared to modelling with structural elements is the increased computational cost, although the number of degrees of freedom is small in comparison, as a result of the large bandwidth of the system matrices....

  19. Finite element solution of transient fluid-structure interaction problems (United States)

    Everstine, Gordon C.; Cheng, Raymond S.; Hambric, Stephen A.


    A finite element approach using NASTRAN is developed for solving time-dependent fluid-structure interaction problems, with emphasis on the transient scattering of acoustic waves from submerged elastic structures. Finite elements are used for modeling both structure and fluid domains to facilitate the graphical display of the wave motion through both media. For the liquid, the use of velocity potential as the fundamental unknown results in a symmetric matrix equation. The approach is illustrated for the problem of transient scattering from a submerged elastic spherical shell subjected to an incident tone burst. The use of an analogy between the equations of elasticity and the wave equation of acoustics, a necessary ingredient to the procedure, is summarized.

  20. Structural Elements Regulating AAA+ Protein Quality Control Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiung-Wen Chang


    Full Text Available Members of the ATPases Associated with various cellular Activities (AAA+ superfamily participate in essential and diverse cellular pathways in all kingdoms of life by harnessing the energy of ATP binding and hydrolysis to drive their biological functions. Although most AAA+ proteins share a ring-shaped architecture, AAA+ proteins have evolved distinct structural elements that are fine-tuned to their specific functions. A central question in the field is how ATP binding and hydrolysis are coupled to substrate translocation through the central channel of ring-forming AAA+ proteins. In this mini-review, we will discuss structural elements present in AAA+ proteins involved in protein quality control, drawing similarities to their known role in substrate interaction by AAA+ proteins involved in DNA translocation. Elements to be discussed include the pore loop-1, the Inter-Subunit Signaling (ISS motif, and the Pre-Sensor I insert (PS-I motif. Lastly, we will summarize our current understanding on the inter-relationship of those structural elements and propose a model how ATP binding and hydrolysis might be coupled to polypeptide translocation in protein quality control machines.

  1. Structural and functional studies of heavy metal ATPases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sitsel, Oleg


    of SsZntA using a broad range of techniques reveals an array of unique Zn2+-ATPase features relating to ion uptake, binding, discharge and countertransport. These results are then used to comprehensively compare Zn2+-ATPases with their Cu+-transporting counterparts, showing how the two have managed...... to handle heavy metal ions. LpCopA is then compared to its two human homologues ATP7A and ATP7B, which cause the severe Menkes and Wilson diseases when malfunctioning. The differences between the three proteins are described and disease-causing mutations in the human proteins are analyzed. The crystal...... to adapt to transport of distinct ion types while still maintaining all the major features of the P1B-ATPase subclass....

  2. Glann Seaborg's Contributions to Heavy Element Science and the Periodic Table

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobart, David E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    In celebrating the centennial anniversary of the birth of Glenn T. Seaborg it is fitting that we recount and pay tribute to his legacy. Many know of the scientific accomplishments of this man who became a legend and anyone who has attended his lectures can attest to how informative, educational, and entertaining he was. He had a beguiling and whimsical sense of humor and used this to drive home his points and share his passion and quest for discovery. The periodic table is a fundamental cornerstone of science and remains a central unifying principal. Seaborg was the architect of the actinide series of elements and their proper placement in the periodic table and co-discoverer of ten transuranium elements - one of which bears his name, element 106, seaborgium. The work and achievements of this Nobel laureate have touched the lives of many and his legacy will continue for generations to come.

  3. The 3-loop pure singlet heavy flavor contributions to the structure function F2(x,Q2 and the anomalous dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ablinger


    Full Text Available The pure singlet asymptotic heavy flavor corrections to 3-loop order for the deep-inelastic scattering structure function F2(x,Q2 and the corresponding transition matrix element AQq(3,PS in the variable flavor number scheme are computed. In Mellin-N space these inclusive quantities depend on generalized harmonic sums. We also recalculate the complete 3-loop pure singlet anomalous dimension for the first time. Numerical results for the Wilson coefficients, the operator matrix element and the contribution to the structure function F2(x,Q2 are presented.

  4. Engineering computation of structures the finite element method

    CERN Document Server

    Neto, Maria Augusta; Roseiro, Luis; Cirne, José; Leal, Rogério


    This book presents theories and the main useful techniques of the Finite Element Method (FEM), with an introduction to FEM and many case studies of its use in engineering practice. It supports engineers and students to solve primarily linear problems in mechanical engineering, with a main focus on static and dynamic structural problems. Readers of this text are encouraged to discover the proper relationship between theory and practice, within the finite element method: Practice without theory is blind, but theory without practice is sterile. Beginning with elasticity basic concepts and the classical theories of stressed materials, the work goes on to apply the relationship between forces, displacements, stresses and strains on the process of modeling, simulating and designing engineered technical systems. Chapters discuss the finite element equations for static, eigenvalue analysis, as well as transient analyses. Students and practitioners using commercial FEM software will find this book very helpful. It us...

  5. Quantitative analysis of some oligo-elements and heavy metals in some species of Thymus from Morocco. (United States)

    Bennouna, M A; Belaqziz, R; Arjouni, M Y; Romane, A


    In order to valorise natural substances, concentrations of 20 mineral elements were evaluated in five species of Moroccan thyme. These species which belong to the Lamiaceae family are Thymus leptobotrys, Thymus broussonetii, Thymus maroccanus, Thymus pallidus and Thymus satureioïdes growing in different regions of central and southern Morocco. Samples of plants were subjected to digestion and heavy metals were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The highest concentrations of calcium, iron, zinc, cobalt and chromium were registered in T. broussonetii, T. pallidus, T. leptobotrys, T. maroccanus and T. satureioïdes with respective values of 1991, 423, 73, 6 and 11 mg/kg. Furthermore, silicium and boron were analysed only for the species T. broussonetii and their respective concentrations were found to be 112 and 43 mg/kg. The ultra trace elements Si, B, Ni, Ni, As, Li, V and toxic elements Cd and Pb were also evaluated. The results were treated by the method of principal components analysis.

  6. Finite Element Based HWB Centerbody Structural Optimization and Weight Prediction (United States)

    Gern, Frank H.


    This paper describes a scalable structural model suitable for Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) centerbody analysis and optimization. The geometry of the centerbody and primary wing structure is based on a Vehicle Sketch Pad (VSP) surface model of the aircraft and a FLOPS compatible parameterization of the centerbody. Structural analysis, optimization, and weight calculation are based on a Nastran finite element model of the primary HWB structural components, featuring centerbody, mid section, and outboard wing. Different centerbody designs like single bay or multi-bay options are analyzed and weight calculations are compared to current FLOPS results. For proper structural sizing and weight estimation, internal pressure and maneuver flight loads are applied. Results are presented for aerodynamic loads, deformations, and centerbody weight.

  7. Structure of High Energy, Heavy Ions in Venus' Upper Ionosphere (United States)

    Persson, Moa; Futaana, Yoshifumi; Nilsson, Hans; Stenberg Wieser, Gabriella; Hamrin, Maria; Fedorov, Andrei; Barabash, Stas


    The solar wind interacts with the atmosphere of Venus, and can reach directly down to the ionosphere. The interaction has previously been studied using the Pioneer Venus mission (PVO) and is now known to cause variations in the density in the ionosphere [Taylor et al., 1980], a transport of ions towards the night side [Knudsen et al., 1980], and an outflow of ions from the atmosphere [Barabash et al., 2007]. Measurements made by PVO showed that the main constituents of Venus ionosphere in the altitude range 150-400 km is the O+ and O2+ ions, where the former dominates from 180 km and higher, and the latter dominates from 180 km down to 150 km [Taylor et al., 1980]. New measurements, made by the Ion Mass Analyzer (IMA) onboard the Venus Express spacecraft, reveal the high-energy (10 eV to 15 keV) plasma characteristics in the ionosphere of Venus. Using the data collected during the low altitude (down to 130 km) pericentre passages during the aerobraking time period, we are able to extract the height profile of the total heavy ion content (O+ and O2+ ions) of Venus ionosphere. The results show two scale heights separated at 200 km; 10 km for 200 km. We interpret the results as two heavy ion components, namely, the O+ ions are dominant for >200 km, while the O2+ is dominant for methods of mass separation, to extract the two ion components of the scale height profiles, (O+ and O2+). First method is to use the moderate mass separation capabilities of the IMA instrument. The individual mass spectra are fitted by two Gaussian curves, representing O+ and O2+, derived from ground calibration information. The second method uses the energy spectrum, which sometimes has two discrete peaks. By assuming the same velocity for different components in the spacecraft reference frame (resulting in different energy for different masses), we can separate the composition. We will discuss the results of the obtained mass separated height profiles.

  8. Trace elements and heavy metals in the Grand Bay National Estuarine Reserve in the northern Gulf of Mexico (United States)

    McComb, Jacqueline Q.; Han, Fengxiang X.; Rogers, Christian; Thomas, Catherine; Arslan, Zikri; Ardeshir, Adeli; Tchounwou, Paul B.


    The objectives of this study are to investigate distribution of trace elements and heavy metals in the salt marsh and wetland soil and biogeochemical processes in the Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve of the northern Gulf of Mexico. The results show that Hg, Cd and to some extent, As and Pb have been significantly accumulated in soils. The strongest correlations were found between concentrations of Ni and total organic matter contents. The correlations decreased in the order: Ni > Cr > Sr > Co > Zn, Cd > Cu > Cs. Strong correlations were also observed between total P and concentrations of Ni, Co, Cr, Sr, Zn, Cu, and Cd. This may be related to the P spilling accident in 2005 in the Bangs Lake site. Lead isotopic ratios in soils matched well those of North American coals, indicating the contribution of Pb through atmospheric fallout from coal power plants. PMID:26238403

  9. Heavy Metals and Trace Elements Atmospheric Deposition Studies in Tula Region Using Moss Biomonitors Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Ermakova, E V; Steinnes, E


    For the first time the moss biomonitors technique was used in air pollution studies in Tula Region (Central Russia), applying NAA, AAS. Moss samples were collected at 83 sites in accordance with the sampling strategy adopted in European projects on biomonitoring atmospheric deposition. A wide set of trace elements in mosses was determined. The method of epithermal neutron activation at IBR-2 reactor of FLNP JINR has made it possible to identify 33 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Th, U) in the large-scale concentration range - from 10000 ppm for K to 0,001 ppm for Tb and Ta. Cu, Cd and Pb were determined by the flame AAS in the Norwegian Institute of Science and Technology. Using the graphical technique and principal component analysis allowed to separate plant, crustal and general pollution components in the moss. The obtained data will be used for constructing coloured maps of the distribution of elements over t...

  10. Songs as Elements in the Generic Structure of Film Musicals


    Katja Plemenitaš


    The paper focuses on the description of film musicals as a subgenre of the genre family of musicals. Their dramatic structure is examined in terms of the generic elements that constitute the progression of a story expressed through the combination of spoken dialogue, songs and dance. The function of songs in the generic structure of film musicals is examined in the framework of the systemic-functional theory of register and genre. Special attention is given to the role of songs in the unfoldi...

  11. Sandwich Panel as a Structural Element of Overlap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novikov Maxim


    Full Text Available This paper considers the issue of sandwich panels using as load-bearing structural elements. The comparison of deflections and critical failure loads were obtained by the results of the full-scale roof sandwich panels tests conducted by the company “Joris Ide” and the theoretical design, according to the calculation method described in Euronorms. Based on these results it was concluded that sandwich panels can be treated as a load-bearing structure only with more taught manufacturing requirements. Thus, the reduced spread of critical loads can be achieved.

  12. Multiplet splitting for the XPS of heavy elements: Dependence on oxidation state (United States)

    Bagus, Paul S.; Nelin, Connie J.; Al-Salik, Yahya; Ilton, Eugene S.; Idriss, Hicham


    Multiplet splittings in X-ray Photo-electron Spectroscopy, XPS, are a means of distinguishing different open shell occupations, or different oxidation states, in a material being studied. Indeed, especially for 3d transition metal complexes, they have provided fingerprints of the metal oxidation state. The present work provides theoretical and experimental evidence that it may also be possible to use multiplets to characterize the oxidation state of heavy metal, lanthanide and actinide, cations in complexes. However, it is important to make a proper choice of the XPS region to study in order to obtain large multiplet splittings. We identify a low binding energy, BE, peak that had been observed for Ce(III) in CeOx as a high spin coupled multiplet. Furthermore, we show that a low BE feature with reasonable intensity is characteristic of other XPS regions and of other metals. This feature arises from a high spin multiplet and serves as a fingerprint to distinguish closed shell from open shell cations. Evidence is presented that it may also be possible to distinguish different open shell occupations.

  13. Structural elements and joints - a generator for design explorations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Thøger; Damkilde, Lars


    throughout the early design process. Thus, the methodology conceives design as a combination of a top-down and a bottom-up approach. Furthermore, the paper suggests forms of representation to investigate the different scales and ensure that joint, structure and architecture inform each other. Results from......The paper introduces a methodology for structural elements and joints to become a generator for design explorations in the early conceptual design of buildings. To make the design team think about structure and joints, the authors propose to look at design from both the small and the big scale...... using this methodology are exemplified using a group of students in architectural engineering. In the process of designing a proposal for a temporary pavilion in timber, they learnt how design of joints influences structural strength and architectural expression. Implementation of the methodology may...

  14. Selective small-molecule inhibition of an RNA structural element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, John A.; Wang, Hao; Fischmann, Thierry O.; Balibar, Carl J.; Xiao, Li; Galgoci, Andrew M.; Malinverni, Juliana C.; Mayhood, Todd; Villafania, Artjohn; Nahvi, Ali; Murgolo, Nicholas; Barbieri, Christopher M.; Mann, Paul A.; Carr, Donna; Xia, Ellen; Zuck, Paul; Riley, Dan; Painter, Ronald E.; Walker, Scott S.; Sherborne, Brad; de Jesus, Reynalda; Pan, Weidong; Plotkin, Michael A.; Wu, Jin; Rindgen, Diane; Cummings, John; Garlisi, Charles G.; Zhang, Rumin; Sheth, Payal R.; Gill, Charles J.; Tang, Haifeng; Roemer , Terry (Merck)


    Riboswitches are non-coding RNA structures located in messenger RNAs that bind endogenous ligands, such as a specific metabolite or ion, to regulate gene expression. As such, riboswitches serve as a novel, yet largely unexploited, class of emerging drug targets. Demonstrating this potential, however, has proven difficult and is restricted to structurally similar antimetabolites and semi-synthetic analogues of their cognate ligand, thus greatly restricting the chemical space and selectivity sought for such inhibitors. Here we report the discovery and characterization of ribocil, a highly selective chemical modulator of bacterial riboflavin riboswitches, which was identified in a phenotypic screen and acts as a structurally distinct synthetic mimic of the natural ligand, flavin mononucleotide, to repress riboswitch-mediated ribB gene expression and inhibit bacterial cell growth. Our findings indicate that non-coding RNA structural elements may be more broadly targeted by synthetic small molecules than previously expected.

  15. Finite element structural study of the VGOT wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otero, A.D. [University of Buenos Aires (Argentina). College of Engineering; Ponta, F.L. [University of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics


    We analyse the implementation of the finite element method to simulate the structural behaviour of the blade-wagons of variable-geometry oval-trajectory (VGOT) Darrieus wind turbines. The key feature of a VGOT machine is that each blade, instead of rotating around a central vertical axis, slides over rails mounted on a wagon formed by a tubular reticulated structure supported by standard train bogies. The structure should be designed to absorb the efforts in the vertical and traverse directions of the railroad due to the aerodynamic loads, the weight of the components and the centrifugal acceleration along the curved tracks. We show some results for the tip deflection and the tip torsion of the blade, the frontal and lateral angle variations in the blade bottom and the Von Misses tensions of five sample beams, all of them in function of the trajectory-length parameter; and some examples of the deformed configuration of the reticulated structure. (author)

  16. Heavy metal incorporation in foraminiferal calcite: results from multi-element enrichment culture experiments with Ammonia tepida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.-J. Reichart


    Full Text Available The incorporation of heavy metals into carbonate tests of the shallow water benthic foraminifer Ammonia tepida was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions. Temperature, salinity, and pH of the culture solutions were kept constant throughout the duration of this experiment, while trace metal concentrations were varied. Concentrations of Ni, Cu, and Mn were set 5-, 10-, and 20 times higher than levels found in natural North Sea water; for reference, a control experiment with pure filtered natural North Sea water was also analysed. The concentrations of Cu and Ni from newly grown chambers were determined by means of both μ-synchrotron XRF and Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (LA-ICP-MS. The results of both independent analytical techniques agreed within the analytical uncertainty. In general, the concentration of the analysed elements in the tests increased in line with their concentration in the culture solutions. Potential toxic and/or chemical competition effects might have resulted in the decreased incorporation of Ni and Cu into the calcite of the specimens exposed to the highest elemental concentrations. Mn incorporation exhibited large variability in the experiment with the 20-fold increased element concentrations, potentially due to antagonistic effects with Cu. The partition coefficients of Cu and Ni were calculated to be 0.14 ± 0.02 and 1.0 ± 0.5, respectively, whereas the partition coefficient of Mn was estimated to be least 2.4. These partition coefficients now open the way for reconstructing past concentrations for these elements in sea water.

  17. Micro structured coupling elements for 3D silicon optical interposer (United States)

    Charania, Sujay; Lüngen, Sebastian; Al-Husseini, Zaid; Killge, Sebastian; Nieweglowski, Krzysztof; Neumann, Niels; Plettemeier, Dirk; Bock, Karlheinz; Bartha, Johann W.


    Current trends in electronic industry, such as Internet of Things (IoT) and Cloud Computing call for high interconnect bandwidth, increased number of active devices and high IO count. Hence the integration of on silicon optical waveguides becomes an alternative approach to cope with the performance demands. The application and fabrication of horizontal (planar) and vertical (Through Silicon Vias - TSVs) optical waveguides are discussed here. Coupling elements are used to connect both waveguide structures. Two micro-structuring technologies for integration of coupling elements are investigated: μ-mirror fabrication by nanoimprint (i) and dicing technique (ii). Nanoimprint technology creates highly precise horizontal waveguides with polymer (refractive index nC = 1.56 at 650 nm) as core. The waveguide ends in reflecting facets aligned to the optical TSVs. To achieve Total Internal Reflection (TIR), SiO2 (nCl = 1.46) is used as cladding. TSVs (diameter 20-40μm in 200-380μm interposer) are realized by BOSCH process1, oxidation and SU-8 filling techniques. To carry out the imprint, first a silicon structure is etched using a special plasma etching process. A polymer stamp is then created from the silicon template. Using this polymer stamp, SU-8 is imprinted aligned to vertical TSVs over Si surface.Waveguide dicing is presented as a second technology to create coupling elements on polymer waveguides. The reflecting mirror is created by 45° V-shaped dicing blade. The goal of this work is to develop coupling elements to aid 3D optical interconnect network on silicon interposer, to facilitate the realization of the emerging technologies for the upcoming years.

  18. Heavy metal, trace element and petroleum hydrocarbon pollution in the Arabian Gulf: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afnan Mahmood Freije


    Full Text Available The Arabian Gulf environmental status was assessed based on studies conducted in Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and United Arab Emirates (UAE during 1983–2011. This review examines all sorts of pollutions in the Arabian Gulf area over the last three decades. Approximately 50 published studies were reviewed in order to determine the pollution status in the Arabian Gulf regarding heavy metals and organic substances. Three types of environmental pollutions including marine and coastal, soil, and air were addressed in this review as well as sources of pollutants and their effect on biological systems, marine organisms, and human health. Emphasis is placed on marine pollution, particularly toxic metal, and petroleum hydrocarbon contaminations. Major parts of this review discuss the consequences of the 1991 Gulf War on the environment, and the substantial changes associated with the marine habitats. The effects of oil field fires in Kuwait following the 1991 Gulf War were evaluated through studies that investigated hydrocarbons concentration and trace metals in samples of near shore sediments, bivalves, and fish collected from Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, UAE, and Oman. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were discussed in biota (fish and various bivalves and coastal sediments from six countries in the Gulf. The review has revealed different concentrations of pollutants, low, moderately, and chronically contaminated areas from oil and metals. It has also outlined effective sustainable management measures and goals as a first step in the evaluation of coastal, marine, soil, and air environment in the Arabian Gulf area.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Vasilevich


    Full Text Available Dynamics of huge renovated lathe is simulated. Turning scheme concerns to heavy rotor shaft finishing. Lofty parts and milling head may create dynamic problems. Static, modal and harmonic frequency response function simulations were provided. Bearing system consists of bed, support, tool, lunettes, tailstock. Headstock didn’t take part in shaft holding. Static and dynamic rigidities founded 3–4 times less for support than for shaft. Tool rigidity lessens from 186.5 to 11.9 N/µm for speeding from slow to near resonance turning. Twelve lathe eigenmodes were evaluated. Two eigenmodes are most dangerous. It is “shaft swinging on lunettes” (M1, 26.7 Hz and “support pecking” (M3, 54.4 Hz. Bed has excessive flexibility due to through holes and lack of inner ribbing. Polymer concrete filling is moderately effective. Changing two-lunette (2L scheme to three-lunette (3L increases rigidity of shaft at 2.09 times at statics but gives limited action in dynamics. Resonant peaks on frequency response function are lowered only at 1.32 times for M1, M3. Effect of dynamic damping is revealed under condition of proximity middle lunette to lofty support. Support serves as tuned mass damper. Measures of machine tool reinforcement are simulated. Shaft swinging according to M1 may hardly be blocked by passive means. It would be better to bypass it. “Support pecking” resonance (M3 succumbs to only full set of measures. Small effect of partial reinforcement is predicted. Three frequency intervals are recommended for turn-milling at huge lathe: pre-resonant (<20 Hz, inter-resonant (35–45 Hz and post-resonant (>65 Hz. The last one is more suited. Next design step is to create triangle inner ribbing system or caissons inside of bed.

  20. Contents of selected elements in the mineral structure of gallstones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwapuliński Jerzy


    Full Text Available Introduction. In this work, the problem of occurrence and co-occurrence of titanium, lithium, molybdenum, strontium, calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium in the choleliths of the inhabitants of Częstochowa and Bielsko-Biała district has been presented. The choice of research area was determined by the different mineral structure of suspended dust in the air, as well as the average different occurrence of some other minerals in suspended dust in the air. The aim of the studies was to define the level of accumulation and coincidention of Ti, Li, Mo, Sr, Ca, Mg, Na, K in deposits in the gallbladder. Materials and methods. The content of these particular elements in the gall bladder deposits obtained during cholecystectomy was assessed by means of inductive coupled plasma – atomic emission spectrometry (ICP – AES with accuracy to 0,01 µg/g. Results. The presence of selected elements in the mineral structure of gall bladder deposits is illustrated by the vast statistical characteristic of their occurrence in the inhabitants of Częstochowa and Bielsko-Biała district. This is also documented by the course of quotient changes of the individual element’s content, compared to their sum in the function of changes of their average content in the gall bladder deposits. Conclusions. The level of examined elements in gallbladder deposits was different according to place of living and gender, those differences being better discriminated by geometrical averages.

  1. Swift heavy ion irradiation induced modification of structure and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Modification of structure and surface morphology of the films under irradiation was studied using glancing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and atomic force microscope (AFM). Fluence dependence of GIXRD peak intensity indicated formation of 10 nm diameter cylindrical amorphous columns in crystalline BFO due to ...

  2. Accumulation of heavy metals and trace elements in fluvial sediments received effluents from traditional and semiconductor industries. (United States)

    Hsu, Liang-Ching; Huang, Ching-Yi; Chuang, Yen-Hsun; Chen, Ho-Wen; Chan, Ya-Ting; Teah, Heng Yi; Chen, Tsan-Yao; Chang, Chiung-Fen; Liu, Yu-Ting; Tzou, Yu-Min


    Metal accumulation in sediments threatens adjacent ecosystems due to the potential of metal mobilization and the subsequent uptake into food webs. Here, contents of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and trace elements (Ga, In, Mo, and Se) were determined for river waters and bed sediments that received sewage discharged from traditional and semiconductor industries. We used principal component analysis (PCA) to determine the metal distribution in relation to environmental factors such as pH, EC, and organic matter (OM) contents in the river basin. While water PCA categorized discharged metals into three groups that implied potential origins of contamination, sediment PCA only indicated a correlation between metal accumulation and OM contents. Such discrepancy in metal distribution between river water and bed sediment highlighted the significance of physical-chemical properties of sediment, especially OM, in metal retention. Moreover, we used Se XANES as an example to test the species transformation during metal transportation from effluent outlets to bed sediments and found a portion of Se inventory shifted from less soluble elemental Se to the high soluble and toxic selenite and selenate. The consideration of environmental factors is required to develop pollution managements and assess environmental risks for bed sediments.

  3. Levels and spatial distribution of airborne chemical elements in a heavy industrial area located in the north of Spain. (United States)

    Lage, J; Almeida, S M; Reis, M A; Chaves, P C; Ribeiro, T; Garcia, S; Faria, J P; Fernández, B G; Wolterbeek, H T


    The adverse health effects of airborne particles have been subjected to intense investigation in recent years; however, more studies on the chemical characterization of particles from pollution emissions are needed to (1) identify emission sources, (2) better understand the relative toxicity of particles, and (3) pinpoint more targeted emission control strategies and regulations. The main objective of this study was to assess the levels and spatial distribution of airborne chemical elements in a heavy industrial area located in the north of Spain. Instrumental and biomonitoring techniques were integrated and analytical methods for k0 instrumental neutron activation analysis and particle-induced x-ray emission were used to determine element content in aerosol filters and lichens. Results indicated that in general local industry contributed to the emissions of As, Sb, Cu, V, and Ni, which are associated with combustion processes. In addition, the steelwork emitted significant quantities of Fe and Mn and the cement factory was associated with Ca emissions. The spatial distribution of Zn and Al also indicated an important contribution of two industries located outside the studied area.

  4. Accumulation of heavy metals and trace elements in fluvial sediments received effluents from traditional and semiconductor industries (United States)

    Hsu, Liang-Ching; Huang, Ching-Yi; Chuang, Yen-Hsun; Chen, Ho-Wen; Chan, Ya-Ting; Teah, Heng Yi; Chen, Tsan-Yao; Chang, Chiung-Fen; Liu, Yu-Ting; Tzou, Yu-Min


    Metal accumulation in sediments threatens adjacent ecosystems due to the potential of metal mobilization and the subsequent uptake into food webs. Here, contents of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and trace elements (Ga, In, Mo, and Se) were determined for river waters and bed sediments that received sewage discharged from traditional and semiconductor industries. We used principal component analysis (PCA) to determine the metal distribution in relation to environmental factors such as pH, EC, and organic matter (OM) contents in the river basin. While water PCA categorized discharged metals into three groups that implied potential origins of contamination, sediment PCA only indicated a correlation between metal accumulation and OM contents. Such discrepancy in metal distribution between river water and bed sediment highlighted the significance of physical-chemical properties of sediment, especially OM, in metal retention. Moreover, we used Se XANES as an example to test the species transformation during metal transportation from effluent outlets to bed sediments and found a portion of Se inventory shifted from less soluble elemental Se to the high soluble and toxic selenite and selenate. The consideration of environmental factors is required to develop pollution managements and assess environmental risks for bed sediments.

  5. Light element analysis in steel by high-energy heavy-ion time of flight elastic recoil detection analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, W.; Hayakawa, S.; Gohshi, Y. [University of Tokyo, 3-1, Hongo 7 chome, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo (Japan); Maeda, K.; Fukuda, S. [The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Wako, Saitama (Japan)


    Time of flight elastic recoil detection analysis (TOF-ERDA) using high-energy heavy ions has been applied to determining the composition of light elements in stainless-steel (SUS304) samples before and after welding in order to monitor the variation in the composition of light elements in sample surfaces during a welding process. An argon-welding method using a welding rod (SUS304) and an arc-welding method using a welding rod were used to prepare samples. Four samples, welded and non-welded using two welding methods, were measured. {sup 40}Ar ions accelerated to 40.3 MeV were used as a probe. Carbon, oxygen and sodium were measured. It was found that the oxygen distributions near to the surfaces of the welded samples increased compared with those of the non-welded samples. However, variations in the carbon distributions were relatively smaller than that of oxygen distributions. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  6. The 3D structure of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus: implications for long-range genomic interactions. (United States)

    Jhunjhunwala, Suchit; van Zelm, Menno C; Peak, Mandy M; Cutchin, Steve; Riblet, Roy; van Dongen, Jacques J M; Grosveld, Frank G; Knoch, Tobias A; Murre, Cornelis


    The immunoglobulin heavy-chain (Igh) locus is organized into distinct regions that contain multiple variable (V(H)), diversity (D(H)), joining (J(H)) and constant (C(H)) coding elements. How the Igh locus is structured in 3D space is unknown. To probe the topography of the Igh locus, spatial distance distributions were determined between 12 genomic markers that span the entire Igh locus. Comparison of the distance distributions to computer simulations of alternative chromatin arrangements predicted that the Igh locus is organized into compartments containing clusters of loops separated by linkers. Trilateration and triple-point angle measurements indicated the mean relative 3D positions of the V(H), D(H), J(H), and C(H) elements, showed compartmentalization and striking conformational changes involving V(H) and D(H)-J(H) elements during early B cell development. In pro-B cells, the entire repertoire of V(H) regions (2 Mbp) appeared to have merged and juxtaposed to the D(H) elements, mechanistically permitting long-range genomic interactions to occur with relatively high frequency.

  7. Multibody Finite Element Method and Application in Hydraulic Structure Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Su


    Full Text Available Multibody finite element method is proposed for analysis of contact problems in hydraulic structure. This method is based on the block theory of discontinuous deformation analysis (DDA method and combines advantages of finite element method (FEM and the displacement compatibility equation in classical elastic mechanics. Each single block is analyzed using FEM in corresponding local coordinate system and all contacting blocks need to satisfy the displacement compatibility requirement between any two blocks in a blocky system. It is proved that this method is very efficient and practical to overcome the limitations in DDA method when tackling contact problems, such as the overlap problem and the equal strain assumption. In this paper, detailed theoretical basis and formulations are given. Two numerical examples are performed to verify the proposed method successfully. Furthermore, this method is adopted to study the stability issues of underground houses of a large hydropower station.

  8. Effect heating dwell time has on the retention of heavy metals in the structure of lightweight aggregates manufactured from wastes. (United States)

    González-Corrochano, Beatriz; Alonso-Azcárate, Jacinto; Rodríguez, Luis; Pérez Lorenzo, Agripino; Fernández Torío, María; Tejado Ramos, Juan José; Corvinos, María Dolores; Muro, Carlos


    The main objective of this paper was to study how effective thermal treatment is in the retention of different heavy metals (HMs) within the structure of artificial lightweight aggregates (LWAs). These LWAs were manufactured by washing aggregate sludge and sewage sludge. The consequence of increasing the heating dwell time whilst manufacturing these LWAs was also determined. Partitioning of the HMs (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) was studied by means of the optimized BCR sequential extraction procedure. Then, the leaching ratio (LRx,y) was calculated. Thermal treatment was totally effective for immobilizing most of the elements studied except for a part of the non-residual Zn and Cd fraction which could volatilize, and the fractions of Pb which were water- and acid-soluble, weakly adsorbed, exchangeable, and oxidable. These were more highly concentrated in the LWAs than in the initial waste mixture. The effect of increasing heating dwell time on the retention of heavy metals in the LWAs depended on both the chemical element studied and the heating dwell time. This study is very important since certain rises in the heating dwell time caused a decrease in retention of some specific heavy metals in the LWAs. BCR-SEP: optimized BCR sequential extraction procedure; b.d.l: below the detection limit; F1: weakly adsorbed, exchangeable and water- and acid- soluble fraction; F2: reducible fraction; F3: oxidable fraction; F4: residual fraction; HM: heavy metal; ICP-MS: inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy; LOI: loss on ignition; LWA: lightweight aggregate; LWA-5: lightweight aggregate sintered for 5 min; LWA-10: lightweight aggregate sintered for 10 min; LWA-20: lightweight aggregate sintered for 20 min; LWA-30: lightweight aggregate sintered for 30 min; LRx,y: leaching ratio of the element x in the fraction y; n.e: not established; S: compressive strength; SS: sewage sludge; WA24h: water absorption after 24 hours; WAS: washing aggregate sludge; W75S25: mixture of

  9. Site specific incorporation of heavy atom-containing unnatural amino acids into proteins for structure determination (United States)

    Xie, Jianming [San Diego, CA; Wang, Lei [San Diego, CA; Wu, Ning [Boston, MA; Schultz, Peter G [La Jolla, CA


    Translation systems and other compositions including orthogonal aminoacyl tRNA-synthetases that preferentially charge an orthogonal tRNA with an iodinated or brominated amino acid are provided. Nucleic acids encoding such synthetases are also described, as are methods and kits for producing proteins including heavy atom-containing amino acids, e.g., brominated or iodinated amino acids. Methods of determining the structure of a protein, e.g., a protein into which a heavy atom has been site-specifically incorporated through use of an orthogonal tRNA/aminoacyl tRNA-synthetase pair, are also described.

  10. Heavy metals and trace elements in hair and urine of a sample of arab children with autistic spectrum disorder. (United States)

    Blaurock-Busch, Eleonor; Amin, Omnia R; Rabah, Thanaa


    General information: Autism is a severe developmental disorder which involves social withdrawal, communication deficits, and stereotypic/repetitive behavior. The pathophysiological etiologies which precipitate autism symptoms remain elusive and controversial in many cases, but both genetic and environmental factors (and their interactions) have been implicated. While autism is considered multicausal, environmental factors have received significant attention. International discussion has ocused on neurotoxins such as mercury and lead, suggesting that these and other toxic metals contribute to the development of the disorder. An epidemiological study released in 2006 (Palmer et al.) linking Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) data on mercury to special education data in Texas reported a 61% increase in autism prevalence rates (or 17% adjusted) per 1000 pounds of mercury released into the environment (1). We attempted to further evaluate whether exposure to variable environmental contributes to the genesis of autistic spectrum disorder, and thus is a factor increasing the risk for developing autism symptoms in utero or in early childhood. The purpose of this study is to examine possible environmental risk factors and sources of exposure to mercury and other heavy metals in children with autism spectrum disorder versus controls. Through laboratory diagnostics we are able to distinguish between present and past exposure (i.e. hair analysis measurements reflect past exposure), urinary excretion levels of unprovoked urine represent immediate exposure. By assessing a spectrum of trace elements and heavy metals in hair and urine of both autistic and control groups, we focused on the participants≈ past and present exposure. The participants were 25 Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) children (22 boys and 3 girls) between the age of 3 and 9 years. They were either diagnosed previously by other psychiatrist, psychologist, and developmental pediatrician or suspected by their parents

  11. Hubble Space Telescope observations of cool white dwarf stars: Detection of new species of heavy elements (United States)

    Shipman, Harry; Barnhill, Maurice; Provencal, Judi; Roby, Scott; Bues, Irmela; Cordova, France; Hammond, Gordon; Hintzen, Paul; Koester, Detlev; Liebert, James


    Observations of cool white dwarf stars with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has uncovered a number of spectral features from previouslly unobserved species. In this paper we present the data on four cool white dwarfs. We present identifications, equivalent width measurements, and brief summaries of the significance of our findings. The four stars observed are GD 40 (DBZ3, G 74-7 (DAZ), L 745-46A (DZ), and LDS 749B (DBA). Many additional species of heavey elements were detected in GD 40 and G 74-7. In L 745-46A, while the detections are limited to Fe 1, Fe II, and Mg II, the quality of the Mg II h and K line profiles should permit a test of the line broadening theories, which are so crucial to abundance determinations. The clear detection of Mg II h and k in LDS 749 B should, once an abundance determination is made, provide a clear test of the hypothesis that the DBA stars are the result of accretion from the interstellar medium. This star contains no other clear features other than a tantalizing hint of C II 1335 with a P Cygni profile, and some expected He 1 lines.

  12. Heavy-ion double charge exchange reactions: A tool toward 0 νββ nuclear matrix elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappuzzello, F.; Bondi, M. [Universita di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Catania (Italy); INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Cavallaro, M.; Agodi, C.; Carbone, D.; Cunsolo, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Foti, A. [Universita di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Catania (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy)


    The knowledge of the nuclear matrix elements for the neutrinoless double beta decay is fundamental for neutrino physics. In this paper, an innovative technique to extract information on the nuclear matrix elements by measuring the cross section of a double charge exchange nuclear reaction is proposed. The basic point is that the initial- and final-state wave functions in the two processes are the same and the transition operators are similar. The double charge exchange cross sections can be factorized in a nuclear structure term containing the matrix elements and a nuclear reaction factor. First pioneering experimental results for the {sup 40}Ca({sup 18}O,{sup 18}Ne){sup 40}Ar reaction at 270 MeV incident energy show that such cross section factorization reasonably holds for the crucial 0{sup +} → 0{sup +} transition to {sup 40}Ar{sub gs}, at least at very forward angles. (orig.)

  13. Extended Finite Element Method for Fracture Analysis of Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Mohammadi, Soheil


    This important textbook provides an introduction to the concepts of the newly developed extended finite element method (XFEM) for fracture analysis of structures, as well as for other related engineering applications.One of the main advantages of the method is that it avoids any need for remeshing or geometric crack modelling in numerical simulation, while generating discontinuous fields along a crack and around its tip. The second major advantage of the method is that by a small increase in number of degrees of freedom, far more accurate solutions can be obtained. The method has recently been

  14. The Distinct Element Method - Application to Structures in Jointed Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, J.P.; Glen, L.; Blair, S.; Heuze, F.


    The Distinct Element Method (DEM) is a meshfree method with applications to rock mechanics, mining sciences, simulations of nuclear repositories, and the stability of underground structures. Continuum mesh-based methods have been applied successfully to many problems in geophysics. Even if the geology includes fractures and faults, when sufficiently large length scales are considered a continuum approximation may be sufficient. However, a large class of problems exist where individual rock joints must be taken into account. This includes problems where the structures of interest have sizes comparable with the block size. In addition, it is possible that while the structure may experience loads which do no measurable damage to individual blocks, some joints may fail. This may launch smaller blocks as dangerous projectiles or even cause total failure of a tunnel. Traditional grid-based continuum approaches are wholly unsuited to this class of problem. It is possible to introduce discontinuities or slide lines into existing grid-based methods, however, such limited approaches can break down when new contacts form between blocks. The distinct element method (DEM) is an alternative, meshfree approach. The DEM can directly approximate the block structure of the jointed rock using arbitrary polyhedra. Using this approach, preexisting joints are readily incorporated into the DEM model. In addition, the method detects all new contacts between blocks resulting from relative block motion. We will describe the background of the DEM and review previous application of the DEM to geophysical problems. Finally we present preliminary results from a investigation into the stability of underground structures subjected to dynamic loading.

  15. Analysis of the presence of small admixtures of heavy elements in the solar plasma by using the SAHA-S equation of state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayukov, SV; Baturin, VA; Gryaznov, VK; Iosilevskii, IL; Starostin, AN; Fortov, VE


    The thermodynamic functions of a weakly nonideal plasma are extensively calculated for conditions typical of the depths of stars by using the SAHA-S equation of state. These calculations ensure precise analysis of the effect of the heavy-element content on adiabatic compressibility in the depths of

  16. Impact of Aerodynamics and Structures Technology on Heavy Lift Tiltrotors (United States)

    Acree, C. W., Jr.


    Rotor performance and aeroelastic stability are presented for a 124,000-lb Large Civil Tilt Rotor (LCTR) design. It was designed to carry 120 passengers for 1200 nm, with performance of 350 knots at 30,000 ft altitude. Design features include a low-mounted wing and hingeless rotors, with a very low cruise tip speed of 350 ft/sec. The rotor and wing design processes are described, including rotor optimization methods and wing/rotor aeroelastic stability analyses. New rotor airfoils were designed specifically for the LCTR; the resulting performance improvements are compared to current technology airfoils. Twist, taper and precone optimization are presented, along with the effects of blade flexibility on performance. A new wing airfoil was designed and a composite structure was developed to meet the wing load requirements for certification. Predictions of aeroelastic stability are presented for the optimized rotor and wing, along with summaries of the effects of rotor design parameters on stability.

  17. Power flows and Mechanical Intensities in structural finite element analysis (United States)

    Hambric, Stephen A.


    The identification of power flow paths in dynamically loaded structures is an important, but currently unavailable, capability for the finite element analyst. For this reason, methods for calculating power flows and mechanical intensities in finite element models are developed here. Formulations for calculating input and output powers, power flows, mechanical intensities, and power dissipations for beam, plate, and solid element types are derived. NASTRAN is used to calculate the required velocity, force, and stress results of an analysis, which a post-processor then uses to calculate power flow quantities. The SDRC I-deas Supertab module is used to view the final results. Test models include a simple truss and a beam-stiffened cantilever plate. Both test cases showed reasonable power flow fields over low to medium frequencies, with accurate power balances. Future work will include testing with more complex models, developing an interactive graphics program to view easily and efficiently the analysis results, applying shape optimization methods to the problem with power flow variables as design constraints, and adding the power flow capability to NASTRAN.

  18. Songs as Elements in the Generic Structure of Film Musicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Plemenitaš


    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the description of film musicals as a subgenre of the genre family of musicals. Their dramatic structure is examined in terms of the generic elements that constitute the progression of a story expressed through the combination of spoken dialogue, songs and dance. The function of songs in the generic structure of film musicals is examined in the framework of the systemic-functional theory of register and genre. Special attention is given to the role of songs in the unfolding of the narrative. The theoretical observations about the role of songs in the register and genre of film musicals are then illustrated with an analysis of the use of songs in the TV musical High School Musical 2.

  19. Chromatin structure and transposable elements in organismal aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason G. Wood


    Full Text Available Epigenetic regulatory mechanisms are increasingly appreciated as central to a diverse array of biological processes, including aging. An association between heterochromatic silencing and longevity has long been recognized in yeast, and in more recent years evidence has accumulated of age-related chromatin changes in C. elegans, Drosophila, and mouse model systems, as well as in the tissue culture-based replicative senescence model of cell aging. In addition, a number of studies have linked expression of transposable elements (TEs, as well as changes in the RNAi pathways that cells use to combat TEs, to the aging process. This review summarizes the recent evidence linking chromatin structure and function to aging, with a particular focus on the relationship of heterochromatin structure to organismal aging.

  20. A Novel Synthesis Routine for Woodwardite and Its Affinity towards Light (La, Ce, Nd and Heavy (Gd and Y Rare Earth Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirio Consani


    Full Text Available A synthetic Cu-Al-SO4 layered double hydroxide (LDH, analogue to the mineral woodwardite [Cu1−xAlx(SO4x/2(OH2·nH2O], with x < 0.5 and n ≤ 3x/2, was synthesised by adding a solution of Cu and Al sulphates to a solution with NaOH. The pH values were kept constant at 8.0 and 10.0 by a continuous addition of NaOH. The material obtained had poor crystallinity, turbostratic structure, and consisted of nanoscopic crystallites. The analyses performed in order to characterise the obtained materials (X-ray diffraction (XRD, thermogravimetry (TG, and Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR spectroscopy showed that the Cu-Al-SO4 LDH is very similar to woodwardite, although it has a smaller layer spacing, presumably due to a lesser water content than in natural samples. The synthesis was performed by adding light rare earth elements (LREEs (La, Ce, and Nd and heavy rare earth elements (HREEs (Gd and Y in order to test the affinity of the Cu-Al-SO4 LDH to the incorporation of REEs. The concentration of rare earth elements (REEs in the solid fraction was in the range of 3.5–8 wt %. The results showed a good affinity for HREE and Nd, especially for materials synthesised at pH 10.0, whereas the affinities for Ce and La were much lower or non-existent. The thermal decomposition of the REE-doped materials generates a mixture of Cu, Al, and REE oxides, making them interesting as precursors in REE oxide synthesis.

  1. Finite element model updating of natural fibre reinforced composite structure in structural dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sani M.S.M.


    Full Text Available Model updating is a process of making adjustment of certain parameters of finite element model in order to reduce discrepancy between analytical predictions of finite element (FE and experimental results. Finite element model updating is considered as an important field of study as practical application of finite element method often shows discrepancy to the test result. The aim of this research is to perform model updating procedure on a composite structure as well as trying improving the presumed geometrical and material properties of tested composite structure in finite element prediction. The composite structure concerned in this study is a plate of reinforced kenaf fiber with epoxy. Modal properties (natural frequency, mode shapes, and damping ratio of the kenaf fiber structure will be determined using both experimental modal analysis (EMA and finite element analysis (FEA. In EMA, modal testing will be carried out using impact hammer test while normal mode analysis using FEA will be carried out using MSC. Nastran/Patran software. Correlation of the data will be carried out before optimizing the data from FEA. Several parameters will be considered and selected for the model updating procedure.

  2. Thermomechanical finite element analysis of hot water boiler structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Dragoljub S.


    Full Text Available The paper presents an application of the Finite Elements Method for stress and strain analysis of the hot water boiler structure. The aim of the research was to investigate the influence of the boiler scale on the thermal stresses and strains of the structure of hot water boilers. Results show that maximum thermal stresses appear in the zone of the pipe carrying wall of the first reversing chamber. This indicates that the most critical part of the boiler are weld spots of the smoke pipes and pipe carrying plate, which in the case of significant scale deposits can lead to cracks in the welds and water leakage from the boiler. The nonlinear effects were taken into account by defining the bilinear isotropic hardening model for all boiler elements. Temperature dependency was defined for all relevant material properties, i. e. isotropic coefficient of thermal expansion, Young’s modulus, and isotropic thermal conductivity. The verification of the FEA model was performed by comparing the measured deformations of the hot water boiler with the simulation results. As a reference object, a Viessmann - Vitomax 200 HW boiler was used, with the installed power of 18.2 MW. CAD modeling was done within the Autodesk Inventor, and stress and strain analysis was performed in the ANSYS Software.

  3. 47 CFR 51.509 - Rate structure standards for specific elements. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rate structure standards for specific elements... SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Pricing of Elements § 51.509 Rate structure standards for specific elements. In addition to the general rules set forth in § 51.507, rates for specific elements shall comply...

  4. Detailed chemical abundances in NGC 5824: another metal-poor globular cluster with internal heavy element abundance variations (United States)

    Roederer, Ian U.; Mateo, Mario; Bailey, John I.; Spencer, Meghin; Crane, Jeffrey D.; Shectman, Stephen A.


    We present radial velocities, stellar parameters, and detailed abundances of 39 elements derived from high-resolution spectroscopic observations of red giant stars in the luminous, metal-poor globular cluster NGC 5824. We observe 26 stars in NGC 5824 using the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System (M2FS) and two stars using the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle spectrograph. We derive a mean metallicity of [Fe/H] = -1.94 ± 0.02 (statistical) ±0.10 (systematic). The metallicity dispersion of this sample of stars, 0.08 dex, is in agreement with previous work and does not exceed the expected observational errors. Previous work suggested an internal metallicity spread only when fainter samples of stars were considered, so we cannot exclude the possibility of an intrinsic metallicity dispersion in NGC 5824. The M2FS spectra reveal a large internal dispersion in [Mg/Fe], 0.28 dex, which is found in a few other luminous, metal-poor clusters. [Mg/Fe] is correlated with [O/Fe] and anticorrelated with [Na/Fe] and [Al/Fe]. There is no evidence for internal dispersion among the other α- or Fe-group abundance ratios. 25 of the 26 stars exhibit a n-capture enrichment pattern dominated by r-process nucleosynthesis ( = +0.11 ± 0.12; = -0.66 ± 0.05). Only one star shows evidence of substantial s-process enhancement ([Ba/Fe] = +0.56 ± 0.12; [Ba/Eu] = +0.38 ± 0.14), but this star does not exhibit other characteristics associated with s-process enhancement via mass transfer from a binary companion. The Pb and other heavy elements produced by the s-process suggest a time-scale of no more than a few hundred Myr for star formation and chemical enrichment, like the complex globular clusters M2, M22, and NGC 5286.

  5. Response of rhizosphere microbial community structure and diversity to heavy metal co-pollution in arable soil. (United States)

    Deng, Linjing; Zeng, Guangming; Fan, Changzheng; Lu, Lunhui; Chen, Xunfeng; Chen, Ming; Wu, Haipeng; He, Xiaoxiao; He, Yan


    Due to the emerging environmental issues related to heavy metals, concern about the soil quality of farming lands near manufacturing district is increasing. Investigating the function of soil microorganisms exposed to long-term heavy metal contamination is meaningful and important for agricultural soil utilization. This article studied the potential influence of several heavy metals on microbial biomass, activity, abundance, and community composition in arable soil near industrial estate in Zhuzhou, Hunan province, China. The results showed that soil organic contents (SOC) were significantly positive correlated with heavy metals, whereas dehydrogenase activity (DHA) was greatly depressed by the heavy metal stress. Negative correlation was found between heavy metals and basal soil respiration (BSR), and no correlation was found between heavy metals and microbial biomass content (MBC). The quantitative PCR (QPCR) and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis could suggest that heavy metal pollution has significantly decreased abundance of bacteria and fungi and also changed their community structure. The results could contribute to evaluate heavy metal pollution level in soil. By combining different environmental parameters, it would promote the better understanding of heavy metal effect on the size, structure, and activity of microbial community in arable soil.

  6. Multiscale Finite-Element Modeling of Sandwich Honeycomb Composite Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Dimitrienko


    Full Text Available The paper presents a developed multi-scale model of sandwich honeycomb structures. The model allows us both to calculate effective elastic-strength characteristics of honeycomb and forced covering of sandwich, and to find a 3D stress-strain state of structures using the threedimensional elastic theory for non- homogeneous media. On the basis of finite element analysis it is shown, that under four-point bending the maximal value of bending and shear stresses in the sandwich honeycomb structures are realized in the zone of applied force and plate support. Here the local stress maxima approximately 2-3 times exceed the “engineering” theoretical plate values of bending and shear stresses in the middle of panel. It is established that at tests for fourpoint bending there is a failure of the honeycomb sandwich panels because of the local adhesion failure rather than because of the covering exfoliation off the honeycomb core in the middle of panel.

  7. Exploring the QCD Phase Structure with Beam Energy Scan in Heavy-ion Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Xiaofeng, E-mail:


    Beam energy scan programs in heavy-ion collisions aim to explore the QCD phase structure at high baryon density. Sensitive observables are applied to probe the signatures of the QCD phase transition and critical point in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and SPS. Intriguing structures, such as dip, peak and oscillation, have been observed in the energy dependence of various observables. In this paper, an overview is given and corresponding physics implications will be discussed for the experimental highlights from the beam energy scan programs at the STAR, PHENIX and NA61/SHINE experiments. Furthermore, the beam energy scan phase II at RHIC (2019–2020) and other future experimental facilities for studying the physics at low energies will be also discussed.

  8. Exploring the QCD Phase Structure with Beam Energy Scan in Heavy-ion Collisions (United States)

    Luo, Xiaofeng


    Beam energy scan programs in heavy-ion collisions aim to explore the QCD phase structure at high baryon density. Sensitive observables are applied to probe the signatures of the QCD phase transition and critical point in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and SPS. Intriguing structures, such as dip, peak and oscillation, have been observed in the energy dependence of various observables. In this paper, an overview is given and corresponding physics implications will be discussed for the experimental highlights from the beam energy scan programs at the STAR, PHENIX and NA61/SHINE experiments. Furthermore, the beam energy scan phase II at RHIC (2019-2020) and other future experimental facilities for studying the physics at low energies will be also discussed.

  9. Effects of Contamination and Cleaning on Parachute Structural Textile Elements (United States)

    Mollmann, Catherine


    Throughout their lifecycle, parachute textiles come into contact with various other substances. This contact may occur during manufacturing and repair, storage and transportation, packing, or actual use. While this interaction does not always result in negative repercussions, it may cause a loss in material strength. This paper examines the strength degradation due to several contaminants as well as the effects of cleaning agents on common parachute materials. Materials tested were: Kevlar cord and webbing, Nylon broadcloth and webbing, and Vectran cord; all of these constitute the major structural elements for CPAS (Capsule Parachute Assembly System), the parachute system for the NASA Orion Crew Module. Contaminants tested were: sewing machine oil, dried stamping ink, dirt, basting glue, Sergene, and rust. Recommendations for cleaning (or not cleaning) these materials with respect to each of the contaminants are given in this paper, as well as recommendations for future tests.

  10. Distortional Mechanics of Thin-Walled Structural Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Michael Joachim

    In several industries such as civil, mechanical, and aerospace, thin-walled structures are often used due to the high strength and effective use of the materials. Because of the increased consumption there has been increasing focus on optimizing and more detailed calculations. However, finely...... eigenmodes and may be used in the automatic meshing of approximate distortional beam elements. The magnitude of the eigenvalues thus also gives the natural ordering of the modes. The results are compared to results found using other computational methods taking distortion of the cross section into account...... provides reasonable results with a very small computational cost making it a good alternative to the classical FE calculations and other available methods....

  11. Analyses of the temporal and spatial structures of heavy rainfall from a catalog of high-resolution radar rainfall fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Smith, James A.; Baeck, Mary Lynn


    that relate to size, structure and evolution of heavy rainfall. Extreme rainfall is also linked with severe weather (tornados, large hail and damaging wind). The diurnal cycle of rainfall for heavy rain days is characterized by an early peak in the largest rainfall rates, an afternoon-evening peak in rain...

  12. Deterioration Models for Cement Bound Materials in Structural Design and Evaluation of Heavy Duty Pavements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skar, Asmus; Holst, Mogens Løvendorf

    Ports and industries require special types of pavements to resist the heavy static load from containers and continuous loads from operation vehicles. To reduce the risk of rutting and settlements over time concrete or compositepavement systems are typically applied. The structural design of such ......Ports and industries require special types of pavements to resist the heavy static load from containers and continuous loads from operation vehicles. To reduce the risk of rutting and settlements over time concrete or compositepavement systems are typically applied. The structural design...... of such pavements are today based on Mechanistic-Empirical (M-E) methods. The M-E method is appropriate for many situations, in other situations it may lead to overdesign, or maybe worse, underdesign. The method has limited capabilities and cannot account for signicant factors affecting the pavement response...... number of model parameters. In order to move a step towards more generalised structural design methods for analysis of heavy duty pavements, this study aims at developing a mechanistic approach based on constitutive models. A simple framework for engineering application is sought; creating a rational...

  13. Adsorption of heavy metal ions by hierarchically structured magnetite-carbonaceous spheres. (United States)

    Gong, Jingming; Wang, Xiaoqing; Shao, Xiulan; Yuan, Shuang; Yang, Chenlin; Hu, Xianluo


    Magnetically driven separation technology has received considerable attention in recent decade for its great potential application. In this work, hierarchically structured magnetite-carbonaceous microspheres (Fe(3)O(4)-C MSs) have been synthesized for the adsorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution. Each sphere contains numerous unique rattle-type structured magnetic particles, realizing the integration of rattle-type building unit into microspheres. The as-prepared composites with high BET surface area, hierarchical as well as mesoporous structures, exhibit an excellent adsorption capacity for heavy metal ions and a convenient separation procedure with the help of an external magnet. It was found that the maximum adsorption capacity of the composite toward Pb(2+) was ∼126mgg(-1), displaying a high efficiency for the removal of heavy metal ions. The Freundlich adsorption isotherm was applicable to describe the removal processes. Kinetics of the Pb(2+) removal was found to follow pseudo-second-order rate equation. The as-prepared composite of Fe(3)O(4)-C MSs as well as Pb(2+)-adsorbed composite were carefully examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Zeta potential measurements, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), nitrogen sorption measurements, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Based on the characterization results, a possible mechanism of Pb(2+) removal with the composite of Fe(3)O(4)-C MSs was proposed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Future Launch Vehicle Structures - Expendable and Reusable Elements (United States)

    Obersteiner, M. H.; Borriello, G.


    Further evolution of existing expendable launch vehicles will be an obvious element influencing the future of space transportation. Besides this reusability might be the change with highest potential for essential improvement. The expected cost reduction and finally contributing to this, the improvement of reliability including safe mission abort capability are driving this idea. Although there are ideas of semi-reusable launch vehicles, typically two stages vehicles - reusable first stage or booster(s) and expendable second or upper stage - it should be kept in mind that the benefit of reusability will only overwhelm if there is a big enough share influencing the cost calculation. Today there is the understanding that additional technology preparation and verification will be necessary to master reusability and get enough benefits compared with existing launch vehicles. This understanding is based on several technology and system concepts preparation and verification programmes mainly done in the US but partially also in Europe and Japan. The major areas of necessary further activities are: - System concepts including business plan considerations - Sub-system or component technologies refinement - System design and operation know-how and capabilities - Verification and demonstration oriented towards future mission mastering: One of the most important aspects for the creation of those coming programmes and activities will be the iterative process of requirements definition derived from concepts analyses including economical considerations and the results achieved and verified within technology and verification programmes. It is the intention of this paper to provide major trends for those requirements focused on future launch vehicles structures. This will include the aspects of requirements only valid for reusable launch vehicles and those common for expendable, semi-reusable and reusable launch vehicles. Structures and materials is and will be one of the

  15. Contamination level, distribution and health risk assessment of heavy and toxic metallic and metalloid elements in a cultivated mushroom Pleurotus florida (Mont.) singer. (United States)

    Khani, Rouhollah; Moudi, Maryam; Khojeh, Vahid


    There are great concentrations of toxic metallic and metalloid elements such as lead, arsenic, mercury, cadmium or silver in many species of mushrooms comparative to other fruits and vegetables. In this study, contamination with heavy and toxic metallic and metalloid elements in the cultivated mushroom of (Pleurotus florida (Mont.) Singer) is investigated. P. florida was cultivated on different substrates; wheat straw (as blank), wheat straw + pine cone, wheat straw + soybean straw and wheat straw + urea and the effects of these substrates on contamination levels of Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb were analyzed. The results showed that the concentrations of essential elements (Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn) in the target mushroom are at the typical levels. The estimated daily intakes of studied metallic and metalloid elements were below their oral reference dosage mentioned by the international regulatory bodies. Health risk index (HRI) was calculated to evaluate the consumer's health risk assessment from the metal intake that contaminated in the cultivated mushroom of P. florida on the different nutrient sources. In this study, the individual HRIs were less than 1, which indicates insignificant potential health risk associated with the consumption of target mushroom from the studied substrates. Based on the HRIs values among the toxic metallic and metalloid elements, As in the target mushroom in the substrate of the wheat straw + pine cone is the main sources of risk, and it may cause severe health problems. Thus, this study suggests that the concentrations of heavy and toxic elements should be periodically monitored in cultivated mushrooms.

  16. Finite element analysis of CFRP reinforced silo structure design method (United States)

    Yuan, Long; Xu, Xinsheng


    Because of poor construction, there is a serious problem of concrete quality in the silo project, which seriously affects the safe use of the structure. Concrete quality problems are mainly seen in three aspects: concrete strength cannot meet the design requirements, concrete cracking phenomenon is serious, and the unreasonable concrete vibration leads to a lot of honeycombs and surface voids. Silos are usually reinforced by carbon fiber cloth in order to ensure the safe use of silos. By the example of an alumina silo in a fly ash plant in Binzhou, Shandong Province, the alumina silo project was tested and examined on site. According to filed test results, the actual concrete strength was determined, and the damage causes of the silo was analysed. Then, a finite element analysis model of this silo was established, the CFRP cloth reinforcement method was adopted to strengthen the silo, and other technology like additional reinforcement, rebar planting, carbon fiber bonding technology was also expounded. The research of this paper is of great significance to the design and construction of silo structure.

  17. Experimental evaluation of the structural behaviour of adobe masonry structural elements


    H. Varum; Costa, A; Pereira, H; Almeida, J; Rodrigues, H.; D. Silveira


    Rehabilitation and strengthening of existing adobe masonry constructions have been neglected during the last decades. In Aveiro, Portugal, many adobe buildings present an important level of structural damage and, in many cases, are even near to ruin, having the majority a high vulnerability to seismic actions. To face the lack of information concerning the mechanical properties and structural behaviour of adobe elements, it was developed an experimental campaign. The composition and mechanica...

  18. Validating Finite Element Models of Assembled Shell Structures (United States)

    Hoff, Claus


    The validation of finite element models of assembled shell elements is presented. The topics include: 1) Problems with membrane rotations in assembled shell models; 2) Penalty stiffness for membrane rotations; 3) Physical stiffness for membrane rotations using shell elements with 6 dof per node; and 4) Connections avoiding rotations.

  19. Structural elements of ancient armies of Northern Black Sea Region: ethnic, social and functional peculiarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Kolesnykov


    Full Text Available This article deal with the description, analysis and generalization of features organization of command structure of the army ancient states of the Northern Black Sea region: Olbia, Chersonese, Bosporus. Author sure that the foundation of the armed forces of these states was a civil militia – free, economically independent landowners, endowed with the broadest volume of political and social rights men – full citizens. Accordingly, the assemblies of citizens were electing strategists, who led militia forces. In case of need the people also claimed commanders’ mercenary troops. Bosporus kings have attracted a significant number of hired troops that held by the royal treasury income and special direct tax. Some structural elements of ancient armies had different ethnic origin and could specialize in different types of weapons. For example, the Scythians mainly famous as archers (bowmen, “toxots”, Sarmatians – heavy horsemen (“cataphractarii”, the Celts – shield-holders and swordsman (“thyureoforoi” etc. Representatives of the Bosporus aristocratic families, who served in the army, came from Hellenic and barbarian ethnic groups. For example, in the Roman period on the Bosporus fixed formation units of cathafractarian cavalry. The weapons and tactics of the Sarmatian nomadic nobility (Aspurhianian, Sirak, Aorsy and more were served as a model for Bosporus cataphractarian horsemen. Among the military allies of the ancient states of the Northern Black Sea region were leaders of local tribes, the barbarian lords of neighboring countries and the powerful monarchs of Pontus and Rome.

  20. Grain boundary engineering in sintered Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets for efficient utilization of heavy rare earth elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewe, Konrad


    The first part of the thesis investigates the diffusion of rare-earth (RE) elements in commercial sintered Nd-Fe-B based permanent magnets. A strong temperature dependence of the diffusion distance and resulting change in magnetic properties were found. A maximum increase in coercivity of ∼+350 kA/m using a Dy diffusion source occurred at the optimum annealing temperature of 900 C. After annealing for 6 h at this temperature, a Dy diffusion distance of about 4 mm has been observed with a scanning Hall probe. Consequently, the maximum thickness of grain boundary diffusion processed magnets with homogeneous properties is also only a few mm. The microstructural changes in the magnets after diffusion were investigated by electron microscopy coupled with electron probe microanalysis. It was found that the diffusion of Dy into sintered Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets occurs along the grain boundary phases, which is in accordance with previous studies. A partial melting of the Nd-Fe-B grains during the annealing process lead to the formation of so - called (Nd,Dy)-Fe-B shells at the outer part of the grains. These shells are μm thick at the immediate surface of the magnet and become thinner with increasing diffusion distance towards the center of the bulk. With scanning transmission electron microscopy coupled with electron probe analysis a Dy content of about 1 at.% was found in a shell located about 1.5 mm away from the surface of the magnet. The evaluation of diffusion speeds of Dy and other RE (Tb, Ce, Gd) in Nd-Fe-B magnets showed that Tb diffuses significantly faster than Dy, and Ce slightly slower than Dy, which is attributed to differences in the respective phase diagrams. The addition of Gd to the grain boundaries has an adverse effect on coercivity. Exemplary of the heavy rare earth element Tb, the nano - scale elemental distribution around the grain boundaries after the diffusion process was visualized with high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy

  1. Parallel Finite Element Domain Decomposition for Structural/Acoustic Analysis (United States)

    Nguyen, Duc T.; Tungkahotara, Siroj; Watson, Willie R.; Rajan, Subramaniam D.


    A domain decomposition (DD) formulation for solving sparse linear systems of equations resulting from finite element analysis is presented. The formulation incorporates mixed direct and iterative equation solving strategics and other novel algorithmic ideas that are optimized to take advantage of sparsity and exploit modern computer architecture, such as memory and parallel computing. The most time consuming part of the formulation is identified and the critical roles of direct sparse and iterative solvers within the framework of the formulation are discussed. Experiments on several computer platforms using several complex test matrices are conducted using software based on the formulation. Small-scale structural examples are used to validate thc steps in the formulation and large-scale (l,000,000+ unknowns) duct acoustic examples are used to evaluate the ORIGIN 2000 processors, and a duster of 6 PCs (running under the Windows environment). Statistics show that the formulation is efficient in both sequential and parallel computing environmental and that the formulation is significantly faster and consumes less memory than that based on one of the best available commercialized parallel sparse solvers.

  2. Vibroacoustic Modeling of Mechanically Coupled Structures: Artificial Spring Technique Applied to Light and Heavy Mediums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cheng


    Full Text Available This article deals with the modeling of vibrating structures immersed in both light and heavy fluids, and possible applications to noise control problems and industrial vessels containing fluids. A theoretical approach, using artificial spring systems to characterize the mechanical coupling between substructures, is extended to include fluid loading. A structure consisting of a plate-ended cylindrical shell and its enclosed acoustic cavity is analyzed. After a brief description of the proposed technique, a number of numerical results are presented. The analysis addresses the following specific issues: the coupling between the plate and the shell; the coupling between the structure and the enclosure; the possibilities and difficulties regarding internal soundproofing through modifications of the joint connections; and the effects of fluid loading on the vibration of the structure.

  3. Distribution of rare earth elements and heavy metals in the surficial sediments of the Himalayan river system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ramesh, R; Ramanathan, Al; Ramesh, S; Purvaja, R; Subramanian, V


    .... REEs and heavy metals (V, Pb, Cr, Co, Ag, Zn, Cd, Ni) were analyzed from the suspended sediments of Ganges and surficial sediments of Yamuna, Brahmaputra, Jamuna, Padma and Meghna, using VG Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer...

  4. The effect of heavy metal contamination on the bacterial community structure at Jiaozhou Bay, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie-feng Yao

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, determination of heavy metal parameters and microbiological characterization of marine sediments obtained from two heavily polluted sites and one low-grade contaminated reference station at Jiaozhou Bay in China were carried out. The microbial communities found in the sampled marine sediments were studied using PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting profiles in combination with multivariate analysis. Clustering analysis of DGGE and matrix of heavy metals displayed similar occurrence patterns. On this basis, 17 samples were classified into two clusters depending on the presence or absence of the high level contamination. Moreover, the cluster of highly contaminated samples was further classified into two sub-groups based on the stations of their origin. These results showed that the composition of the bacterial community is strongly influenced by heavy metal variables present in the sediments found in the Jiaozhou Bay. This study also suggested that metagenomic techniques such as PCR-DGGE fingerprinting in combination with multivariate analysis is an efficient method to examine the effect of metal contamination on the bacterial community structure.

  5. Intriguing structures and magic sizes of heavy noble metal nanoclusters around size 55 governed by relativistic effect and covalent bonding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, X. J.; Xue, X. L.; Jia, Yu [International Laboratory for Quantum Functional Materials of Henan and School of Physics and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Guo, Z. X. [International Laboratory for Quantum Functional Materials of Henan and School of Physics and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Department of Chemistry and London Centre for Nanotechnology, University College London, London WC1H (United Kingdom); Li, S. F., E-mail: [International Laboratory for Quantum Functional Materials of Henan and School of Physics and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); ICQD, Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zhang, Zhenyu, E-mail: [ICQD, Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Gao, Y. F., E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)


    Nanoclusters usually display exotic physical and chemical properties due to their intriguing geometric structures in contrast to their bulk counterparts. By means of first-principles calculations within density functional theory, we find that heavy noble metal Pt{sub N} nanoclusters around the size N = 55 begin to prefer an open configuration, rather than previously reported close-packed icosahedron or core-shell structures. Particularly, for Pt{sub N}, the widely supposed icosahedronal magic cluster is changed to a three-atomic-layered structure with D{sub 6h} symmetry, which can be well addressed by our recently established generalized Wulff construction principle (GWCP). However, the magic number of Pt{sub N} clusters around 55 is shifted to a new odd number of 57. The high symmetric three-layered Pt{sub 57} motif is mainly stabilized by the enhanced covalent bonding contributed by both spin-orbital coupling effect and the open d orbital (5d{sup 9}6s{sup 1}) of Pt, which result in a delicate balance between the enhanced Pt–Pt covalent bonding of the interlayers and negligible d dangling bonds on the cluster edges. These findings about Pt{sub N} clusters are also applicable to Ir{sub N} clusters, but qualitatively different from their earlier neighboring element Os and their later neighboring element Au. The magic numbers for Os and Au are even, being 56 and 58, respectively. The findings of the new odd magic number 57 are the important supplementary of the recently established GWCP.

  6. Fluid-structural interactions using Navier-Stokes flow equations coupled with shell finite element structures (United States)

    Guruswamy, Guru P.; Byun, Chansup


    A computational procedure is presented to study fluid-structural interaction problems for three-dimensional aerospace structures. The flow is modeled using the three-dimensional unsteady Euler/Navier-Stokes equations and solved using the finite-difference approach. The three dimensional structure is modeled using shell/plate finite-element formulation. The two disciplines are coupled using a domain decomposition approach. Accurate procedures both in time and space are developed to combine the solutions from the flow equations with those of the structural equations. Time accuracy is maintained using aeroelastic configuration-adaptive moving grids that are computed every time step. The work done by aerodynamic forces due to structural deformations is preserved using consistent loads. The present procedure is validated by computing the aeroelastic response of a wing and comparing with experiment. Results are illustrated for a typical wing-body configuration.

  7. Finite element analysis of tubular joints in offshore structures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research work was involved in the finite element tool to determine the ultimate strength of initially uncorked joints, which fail by development of tearing fracture at the weld toe. The local approach methodology in contrast to classical fracture mechanics was used. Finite element analysis was done of T-joint plate ...

  8. Short-Term Effects of Low-Level Heavy Metal Contamination on Soil Health Analyzed by Nematode Community Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byeong-Yong Park


    Full Text Available The short-term effects of low-level contamination by heavy metals (As, Cd, Cu, and Pb on the soil health were examined by analyzing soil nematode community in soils planted with tomatoes. For this, the soils were irrigated with five metal concentrations ([1, 1/4, 1/4², 1/4³, and 0] × maximum concentrations [MC] detected in irrigation waters near abandoned mine sites for 18 weeks. Heavy metal concentrations were significantly increased in soils irrigated with MC of heavy metals, among which As and Cu exceeded the maximum heavy metal residue contents of soil approved in Korea. In no heavy metal treatment controls, nematode abundances for all trophic groups (except omnivorous-predatory nematodes [OP] and colonizer-persister (cp values (except cp-4–5 were significantly increased, and all maturity indices (except maturity index [MI] of plant-parasitic nematodes and structure index (SI were significantly decreased, suggesting the soil environments might have been disturbed during 18 weeks of tomato growth. There were no concentration-dependent significant decreases in richness, abundance, or MI for most heavy metals; however, their significant decreases occurred in abundance and richness of OP and cp-4, MI2–5 (excluding cp-1 and SI, indicating disturbed soil ecosystems, at the higher concentrations (MC and MC/4 of Pb that had the most significant negative correlation coefficients for heavy metal concentrations and nematode community among the heavy metals. Therefore, the short-term effects of low-level heavy metal contamination on soil health can be analyzed by nematode community structures before the appearance of plant damages caused by the abiotic agents, heavy metals.

  9. Stochastic collocation-based finite element of structural nonlinear dynamics with application in composite structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepahvand K.


    Full Text Available Stochastic analysis of structures having nonlinearity by means of sampling methods leads to expensive cost in term of computational time. In contrast, non-sampling methods based on the spectral representation of uncertainty are very efficient with comparable accurate results. In this pa- per, the application of spectral methods to nonlinear dynamics of structures with random parameters is investigated. The impact of the parameter randomness on structural responses has been consid- ered. To this end, uncertain parameters and the structure responses are represented using the gPC expansions with unknown deterministic coefficients and random orthogonal polynomial basis. The deterministic finite element model of the structure is used as black-box and it is executed on a set of random collocation points. As the sample structure responses are estimated, a nonlinear optimization process is employed to calculate the unknown coefficients. The method has this main advantage that can be used for complicated nonlinear structural dynamic problems for which the deterministic FEM model has been already developed. Furthermore, it is very time efficient in comparison with sampling methods, as MC simulations. The application of the method is applied to the nonlinear transient analysis of composite beam structures including uncertain quadratic random damping. The results show that the proposed method can capture the large range of uncertainty in input parameters as well as in structural dynamic responses while it is too time-efficient.

  10. A Novel Synthesis Routine for Woodwardite and Its Affinity towards Light (La, Ce, Nd) and Heavy (Gd and Y) Rare Earth Elements. (United States)

    Consani, Sirio; Balić-Žunić, Tonci; Cardinale, Anna Maria; Sgroi, Walter; Giuli, Gabriele; Carbone, Cristina


    A synthetic Cu-Al-SO₄ layered double hydroxide (LDH), analogue to the mineral woodwardite [Cu1-xAlx(SO₄)x/2(OH)₂·nH₂O], with x rare earth elements (LREEs) (La, Ce, and Nd) and heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) (Gd and Y) in order to test the affinity of the Cu-Al-SO₄ LDH to the incorporation of REEs. The concentration of rare earth elements (REEs) in the solid fraction was in the range of 3.5-8 wt %. The results showed a good affinity for HREE and Nd, especially for materials synthesised at pH 10.0, whereas the affinities for Ce and La were much lower or non-existent. The thermal decomposition of the REE-doped materials generates a mixture of Cu, Al, and REE oxides, making them interesting as precursors in REE oxide synthesis.

  11. Top or Bottom-Heavy? Observational Constraints on the Vertical Structure of the Eastern Pacific ITCZ (United States)

    Takahashi, K.; Huaman, L.


    The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is a key component of the eastern Pacific ocean-atmosphere system and its variability on seasonal to inter-annual and longer time scales. This feature is generally misrepresented in climate models, which show an excessively strong branch south of the equator. On the other hand, there is debate on what is the structure of the ITCZ in nature, particularly whether the latent heating and vertical velocity profiles are top or bottom-heavy. This knowledge is probably key to validate and improve the models. Most methods for estimating the vertical structure of the rate of latent heating
rely on profiles from field campaigns in other regions, combined with convective/stratiform fractions from the TRMM satellite.
In this study we use the precipitation profiles from the TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR), with approximations to the moisture conservation equation and the first law of thermodynamic, to directly estimate the vertical profiles of latent heating and vertical air velocity, respectively, in the ITCZ for the period 1998-2010. Due to limitations in the PR sensitivity and the inability to quantify solid precipitation, our results are restricted to the layer between the altitudes of 2 and 2.75 km. Nevertheless, we show that our results provide a strong constraint on the profiles and help determine which of the other estimates are more realistic. Our preliminary results for the northern hemisphere ITCZ in austral winter/spring are closer to the top-heavy estimations using TRMM-based algorithms (CSH, SLH and PRH) than to the bottom-heavy atmospheric reanalysis (ERA Interim and NCEP-NCAR), providing indirect evidence for a top-heavy profile. However, using the meridional wind measurements during the EPIC field campaign we find evidence that shallow ascent does exist below 2 km, consistent with the previously reported shallow meridional circulation but not as strong as the Reanalysis products indicate. Thus, our results support the

  12. Degradation of Mechanical Properties of Multi Perforated Structural Elements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jaeger, Zeev


    ...: This work shall demonstrate the feasibility of an inventive method for a quantitative determination of residual strength of a punctured mechanical element due to holes perforated by many solid fragments...

  13. Neutrinoless ββ decay mediated by the exchange of light and heavy neutrinos: the role of nuclear structure correlations (United States)

    Menéndez, J.


    Neutrinoless β β decay nuclear matrix elements calculated with the shell model and energy-density functional theory typically disagree by more than a factor of two in the standard scenario of light-neutrino exchange. In contrast, for a decay mediated by sterile heavy neutrinos the deviations are reduced to about 50%, an uncertainty similar to the one due to short-range effects. We compare matrix elements in the light- and heavy-neutrino-exchange channels, exploring the radial, momentum transfer and angular momentum-parity matrix element distributions, and considering transitions that involve correlated and uncorrelated nuclear states. We argue that the shorter-range heavy-neutrino exchange is less sensitive to collective nuclear correlations, and that discrepancies in matrix elements are mostly due to the treatment of long-range correlations in many-body calculations. Our analysis supports previous studies suggesting that isoscalar pairing correlations, which affect mostly the longer-range part of the neutrinoless β β decay operator, are partially responsible for the differences between nuclear matrix elements in the standard light-neutrino-exchange mechanism.

  14. [Application of ICP-MS to detection of mineral elements and heavy metals in transgenic cotton seeds]. (United States)

    Rui, Yu-Kui; Zhang, Fu-Suo; Wang, Zheng-Rui


    With the rapid development of transgenic cotton, people begin to focus on its physiology and ecology. The present paper studied the contents of heavy metals and microelements in transgenic cotton seeds by ICP-MS/ICP-AES. The results showed that the content of most microelements detected in transgenic cotton seeds, B, Na, Si, P, K, Ca, Mn, Co, Ni, Zn, Se and Mo was lower than that in regular cotton seeds, except Mg, Fe and Cu. And the content of most heavy metals detected in transgenic cotton seeds, Al, As, Cd, Sb, Tl, Pb and Bi, was higher than that in regular cotton seeds, except Cr and Hg. All the data showed that the accumulation of heavy metals and microelements in transgenic cotton seeds is disadvantageous to itself.

  15. Systematic model calculations of the hyperfine structure in light and heavy ions

    CERN Document Server

    Tomaselli, M; Nörtershäuser, W; Ewald, G; Sánchez, R; Fritzsche, S; Karshenboim, S G


    Systematic model calculations are performed for the magnetization distributions and the hyperfine structure (HFS) of light and heavy ions with a mass close to A ~ 6 208 235 to test the interplay of nuclear and atomic structure. A high-precision measurement of lithium-isotope shifts (IS) for suitable transition, combined with an accurate theoretical evaluation of the mass-shift contribution in the respective transition, can be used to determine the root-mean-square (rms) nuclear-charge radius of Li isotopes, particularly of the halo nucleus /sup 11/Li. An experiment of this type is currently underway at GSI in Darmstadt and ISOLDE at CERN. However, the field-shift contributions between the different isotopes can be evaluated using the results obtained for the charge radii, thus casting, with knowledge of the ratio of the HFS constants to the magnetic moments, new light on the IS theory. For heavy charged ions the calculated n- body magnetization distributions reproduce the HFS of hydrogen-like ions well if QED...

  16. The Complete Heavy-Atom Structure of a Cp-Ftmw Chiral Tag Precursor, Verbenone (United States)

    Marshall, Frank E.; West, Channing; Sedo, Galen; Pate, Brooks; Grubbs, G. S., II


    The microwave spectrum of the chiral molecule verbenone has been recorded from 2-18 GHz using two CP-FTMW spectrometers. 2-8 GHz data has been acquired on a 2-8 GHz CP-FTMW located at the University of Virginia and 8-18 data has been acquired on a 6-18 GHz spectrometer located at Missouri S&T. From the experiments the authors were able to assign and fit isotopologues corresponding to each heavy atom position (either ^{13}C or ^{18}O), providing for the heavy-atom structure. Previous studies by Evans and coworkers have been added to these measurements in a global fit of the parent species. The measurement and assignment of these transitions provide preliminary information needed for enatiomeric excess experiments using CP-FTMW van der Waals-type chiral tagging processes already being performed at UVa. Details of the experiment, fits, and structure will be discussed. C. J. Evans, S. M. Allpress, P. D. Godfrey, D. McNaughton, 67th International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, 2012, RH13 S. M. Allpress, Spectroscopic and Computational Chemistry Studies on Terpene Related Compounds, University of Leicester, 2015, Chapter 6: Microwave Spectroscopy of Verbenone

  17. Multilayer Finite-Element Model Application to Define the Bearing Structure Element Stress State of Launch Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Zverev


    Full Text Available The article objective is to justify the rationale for selecting the multilayer finite element model parameters of the bearing structure of a general-purpose launch complex unit.A typical design element of the launch complex unit, i.e. a mount of the hydraulic or pneumatic cylinder, block, etc. is under consideration. The mount represents a set of the cantilevered axis and external structural cage. The most loaded element of the cage is disk to which a moment is transferred from the cantilevered axis due to actuator effort acting on it.To calculate the stress-strain state of disk was used a finite element method. Five models of disk mount were created. The only difference in models was the number of layers of the finite elements through the thickness of disk. There were models, which had one, three, five, eight, and fourteen layers of finite elements through the thickness of disk. For each model, we calculated the equivalent stresses arising from the action of the test load. Disk models were formed and calculated using the MSC Nastran complex software.The article presents results in the table to show data of equivalent stresses in each of the multi-layered models and graphically to illustrate the changing equivalent stresses through the thickness of disk.Based on these results we have given advice on selecting the proper number of layers in the model allowing a desirable accuracy of results with the lowest run time. In addition, it is concluded that there is a need to use the multi-layer models in assessing the performance of structural elements in case the stress exceeds the allowable one in their surface layers.

  18. Fluid-structure interaction simulations of deformable structures with non-linear thin shell elements (United States)

    Asgharzadeh, Hafez; Hedayat, Mohammadali; Borazjani, Iman; Scientific Computing; Biofluids Laboratory Team


    Large deformation of structures in a fluid is simulated using a strongly coupled partitioned fluid-structure interaction (FSI) approach which is stabilized with under-relaxation and the Aitken acceleration technique. The fluid is simulated using a recently developed implicit Newton-Krylov method with a novel analytical Jacobian. Structures are simulated using a triangular thin-shell finite element formulation, which considers only translational degrees of freedom. The thin-shell method is developed on the top of a previously implemented membrane finite element formulation. A sharp interface immersed boundary method is used to handle structures in the fluid domain. The developed FSI framework is validated against two three-dimensional experiments: (1) a flexible aquatic vegetation in the fluid and (2) a heaving flexible panel in fluid. Furthermore, the developed FSI framework is used to simulate tissue heart valves, which involve large deformations and non-linear material properties. This work was supported by American Heart Association (AHA) Grant 13SDG17220022 and the Center of Computational Research (CCR) of University at Buffalo.

  19. Elements of Regolith Simulant's Cost Structure--Why Rock Is NOT Cheap (United States)

    Rickman, Douglas L.


    The cost of lunar regolith simulants is much higher than many users anticipate. After all, it is nothing more than broken rock. This class will discuss the elements which make up the cost structure for simulants. It will also consider which elements can be avoided under certain circumstances and which elements might be altered by the application of additional research and development.

  20. Heavy ion track-structure calculations for radial dose in arbitrary materials (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Katz, Robert; Wilson, John W.; Dubey, Rajendra R.


    The delta-ray theory of track structure is compared with experimental data for the radial dose from heavy ion irradiation. The effects of electron transmission and the angular dependence of secondary electron ejection are included in the calculations. Several empirical formulas for electron range and energy are compared in a wide variety of materials in order to extend the application of the track-structure theory. The model of Rudd for the secondary electron-spectrum in proton collisions, which is based on a modified classical kinematics binary encounter model at high energies and a molecular promotion model at low energies, is employed. For heavier projectiles, the secondary electron spectrum is found by scaling the effective charge. Radial dose calculations for carbon, water, silicon, and gold are discussed. The theoretical data agreed well with the experimental data.

  1. The Least Squares Stochastic Finite Element Method in Structural Stability Analysis of Steel Skeletal Structures (United States)

    Kamiński, M.; Szafran, J.


    The main purpose of this work is to verify the influence of the weighting procedure in the Least Squares Method on the probabilistic moments resulting from the stability analysis of steel skeletal structures. We discuss this issue also in the context of the geometrical nonlinearity appearing in the Stochastic Finite Element Method equations for the stability analysis and preservation of the Gaussian probability density function employed to model the Young modulus of a structural steel in this problem. The weighting procedure itself (with both triangular and Dirac-type) shows rather marginal influence on all probabilistic coefficients under consideration. This hybrid stochastic computational technique consisting of the FEM and computer algebra systems (ROBOT and MAPLE packages) may be used for analogous nonlinear analyses in structural reliability assessment.

  2. Structural Responses and Finite Element Modeling of Hakka Tulou Rammed Earth Structures (United States)

    Sranislawski, Daniel

    Hakka Tulous are rammed earth structures that have survived the effects of aging and natural elements upwards of even over a thousand years. These structures have housed the Hakka people of the Fujian Province, China in natural yet modern housing that has provided benefits over newer building materials. The key building material, rammed earth, which is used for the walls of the Hakka Tulou structures, has provided structural stability along with thermal comfort to the respective inhabitants of the Hakka Tulous. Through material testing and analysis this study has examined how the Tulou structures have maintained their structural stability while also providing thermal comfort. Reports of self healing cracks in the rammed earth walls were also analyzed for their validity in this study. The study has found that although the story of the self healing crack cannot be validated, there is reason to believe that with the existence of lime, some type of autogenous healing could occur on a small scale. The study has also found, through the use of nondestructive testing, that both the internal wooden systems (flooring, roof, and column support) and the rammed earth walls, are still structurally sound. Also, rammed earth's high thermal mass along with the use of sufficient shading has allowed for a delay release of heat energy from the walls of the Tulous, thus providing thermal comfort that can be felt during both night and day temperatures. The Hakka Tulou structures have been found to resist destruction from natural disasters such as strong earthquakes even when more modern construction has not. Through finite element modeling, this study has shown that the high volume of rammed earth used in the construction of the Hakka Tulous helps dissipate lateral force energy into much lower stresses for the rammed earth wall. This absorption of lateral force energy allows the rammed earth structures to survive even the strongest of earthquakes experienced in the region. The Hakka

  3. Innovative Structural and Joining Concepts for Lightweight Design of Heavy Vehicle Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prucz, Jacky C; Shoukry, Samir N; William, Gergis W; Evans, Thomas H


    The extensive research and development effort was initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in 2002 at West Virginia University (WVU) in order to investigate practical ways of reducing the structural weight and increasing the durability of heavy vehicles through the judicious use of lightweight composite materials. While this project was initially focused on specific Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) material, namely Aluminum/Silicon Carbide (Al/SiC) commercially referenced as ''LANXIDE'', the current research effort was expanded from the component level to the system level and from MMC to other composite material systems. Broadening the scope of this research is warranted not only by the structural and economical deficiencies of the ''LANXIDE'' MMC material, but also by the strong coupling that exists between the material and the geometric characteristics of the structure. Such coupling requires a truly integrated design approach, focused on the heaviest sections of a van trailer. Obviously, the lightweight design methods developed in this study will not be implemented by the commercial industry unless the weight savings are indeed impressive and proven to be economically beneficial in the context of Life Cycle Costs (LCC). ''Bulk Haul'' carriers run their vehicles at maximum certified weight, so that each pound saved in structural weight would translate into additional pound of cargo, and fewer vehicles necessary to transport a given amount of freight. It is reasonable to ascertain that a typical operator would be ready to pay a premium of about $3-4 for every additional pound of cargo, or every pound saved in structural weight. The overall scope of this project is to devise innovative, lightweight design and joining concepts for heavy vehicle structures, including cost effective applications of components made of metal matrix composite (MMC) and other composite materials in selected sections of such

  4. Finite element normal mode analysis of resistance welding jointed of dissimilar plate hat structure (United States)

    Nazri, N. A.; Sani, M. S. M.


    Structural joints offer connection between structural element (beam, plate, solid etc.) in order to build a whole assembled structure. The complex behaviour of connecting elements plays a valuable role in characteristics of dynamic such as natural frequencies and mode shapes. In automotive structures, the trustworthiness arrangement of the structure extremely depends on joints. In this paper, top hat structure is modelled and designed with spot welding joint using dissimilar materials which is mild steel 1010 and stainless steel 304, using finite element software. Different types of connector elements such as rigid body element (RBE2), welding joint element (CWELD), and bar element (CBAR) are applied to represent real connection between two dissimilar plates. Normal mode analysis is simulated with different types of joining element in order to determine modal properties. Natural frequencies using RBE2, CBAR and CWELD are compared to equivalent rigid body method. Connection that gives the lowest percentage error among these three will be selected as the most reliable joining for resistance spot weld. From the analysis, it is shown that CWELD is better compared to others in term of weld joining among dissimilar plate materials. It is expected that joint modelling of finite element plays significant role in structural dynamics.

  5. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Florida Peninsula Province (050) Positive Structural Elements (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Positive Structural Elements coverage maps, in the form of polygons, are known structural highs within the province that commonly define a basin proper or...

  6. Finite element analysis of ship structural connections (fracture of ships)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The stress analysis for a right angled welded joint is characterized with some level of difficulty when assessing results from finite element analysis. Setting up the model itself and undertaking the analysis needs some skill and also takes longer time to interpret the results. This paper, reports of some work done to derive ...

  7. Heavy fermion behaviour in the high pressure structure of CeSb{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedoseev, Vitaly; Feng, Zhuo; Zou, Yang; Grosche, F. Malte [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Giles, Terence; Niklowitz, Philipp [Department of Physics, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham TW20 0EX (United Kingdom); Wilhelm, Heribert [Beamline I15, Diamond Light Source, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Lampronti, Giulio [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EQ (United Kingdom)


    The Kondo lattice system CeSb{sub 2} crystallises in the orthorhombic SmSb{sub 2} structure and exhibits a series of magnetic phase transitions at low temperature. It has been reported to become ferromagnetic below 15 K, with the ordered moment oriented within the basal plane, and to undergo two further transitions at 9K and 12K. These transition are suppressed above a hydrostatic pressure p{sub c} ≅ 16 kbar. We present high pressure transport and x-ray diffraction results, which examine the high pressure state of CeSb{sub 2}. Our findings suggest that CeSb{sub 2} undergoes a drastic structural change at p{sub c} into a new and now fully resolved crystal structure. Whereas in the low pressure structure, CeSb{sub 2} is a local moment magnet, in the high pressure structure it exhibits transport properties characteristic of a heavy fermion material with a low Kondo temperature scale of the order of 10 K.

  8. From molecules to rainbows and Airy structures in light heavy ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, F.; Nicoli, M.P.; Freeman, R.M. [Inst. de Rech. Subatomiques, CNRS-IN2P3/ULP, Strasbourg (France); Szilner, S.; Basrak, Z. [Ruder Boskovic Institute HR-10 001 Zagreb (Croatia); Morsad, A. [Universite Hassan II, Casablanca (Morocco); Brandan, M.E. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM (Mexico); Satchler, G.R. [University of Tennessee Knoxville and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States)


    Full text: Heavy ion interactions are usually dominated by strong absorption. This is not the case for certain light heavy ion collisions where the number of open channels is small and the absorption weak. Consequently, resonance phenomena are observed in these systems at bombarding energies lower than {approx} 5 MeV per nucleon. At higher energies, the weak absorption results in the observation of refractive effects which are very important to determine the nucleus-nucleus potential. In the present study, the refractive effects have been searched for in {sup 12} C + {sup 12} C, {sup 16} O + {sup 16} O, {sup 12} C + {sup 16} O and {sup 12} C + {sup 18} O reactions where the exit binary channels have been measured at several laboratory energies between 5 and 10 MeV per nucleon. The experiments have been performed at the Strasbourg Vivitron accelerator in the bombarding energy range where the reported experimental results are rather scarce. Detailed elastic scattering angular distributions up to large angles (crucial for the refractive effects) have been obtained. Their optical model analysis allowed to extract rather unique potentials which have strongly attractive real parts and relatively weakly absorbing imaginary parts. The energy and system dependence of the obtained potentials have been established. The elastic scattering angular distributions not only show the usual Fraunhofer diffraction pattern but also, at larger angles, refractive effects under the form of the nuclear rainbow Airy structures. For the systems studied, the existence and properties of the Airy minima will be discussed. (Author)

  9. Heavy Grignard Reagents: Synthesis, Physical and Structural Properties, Chemical Behavior, and Reactivity. (United States)

    Westerhausen, Matthias; Koch, Alexander; Görls, Helmar; Krieck, Sven


    The Grignard reaction offers a straight forward atom-economic synthesis of organomagnesium halides, which undergo redistribution reactions (Schlenk equilibrium) yielding diorganylmagnesium and magnesium dihalides. The homologous organocalcium complexes (heavy Grignard reagents) gained interest only quite recently owing to several reasons. The discrepancy between the inertness of this heavy alkaline earth metal and the enormous reactivity of its organometallics hampered a vast and timely development after the first investigation more than 100 years ago. In this overview the synthesis of organocalcium reagents is described as is the durability in ethereal solvents. Aryl-, alkenyl-, and alkylcalcium halides are prepared by direct synthesis. Characteristic structural features and NMR parameters are discussed. Ligand redistribution reactions can be performed by addition of potassium tert-butanolate to ethereal solutions of arylcalcium iodides yielding soluble diarylcalcium, whereas sparingly soluble potassium iodide and calcium bis(tert-butanolate) precipitate. Furthermore, reactivity studies with respect to metalation and addition to unsaturated organic compounds and metal-based Lewis acids, leading to the formation of heterobimetallic complexes, are presented. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Effects of track structure and cell inactivation on the calculation of heavy ion mutation rates in mammalian cells (United States)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.; Shavers, M. R.; Katz, R.


    It has long been suggested that inactivation severely effects the probability of mutation by heavy ions in mammalian cells. Heavy ions have observed cross sections of inactivation that approach and sometimes exceed the geometric size of the cell nucleus in mammalian cells. In the track structure model of Katz the inactivation cross section is found by summing an inactivation probability over all impact parameters from the ion to the sensitive sites within the cell nucleus. The inactivation probability is evaluated using the dose-response of the system to gamma-rays and the radial dose of the ions and may be equal to unity at small impact parameters for some ions. We show how the effects of inactivation may be taken into account in the evaluation of the mutation cross sections from heavy ions in the track structure model through correlation of sites for gene mutation and cell inactivation. The model is fit to available data for HPRT mutations in Chinese hamster cells and good agreement is found. The resulting calculations qualitatively show that mutation cross sections for heavy ions display minima at velocities where inactivation cross sections display maxima. Also, calculations show the high probability of mutation by relativistic heavy ions due to the radial extension of ions track from delta-rays in agreement with the microlesion concept. The effects of inactivation on mutations rates make it very unlikely that a single parameter such as LET or Z*2/beta(2) can be used to specify radiation quality for heavy ion bombardment.

  11. Structural optimisation of cage induction motors using finite element analysis (United States)

    Palko, S.

    The current trend in motor design is to have highly efficient, low noise, low cost, and modular motors with a high power factor. High torque motors are useful in applications like servo motors, lifts, cranes, and rolling mills. This report contains a detailed review of different optimization methods applicable in various design problems. Special attention is given to the performance of different methods, when they are used with finite element analysis (FEA) as an objective function, and accuracy problems arising from the numerical simulations. Also an effective method for designing high starting torque and high efficiency motors is presented. The method described in this work utilizes FEA combined with algorithms for the optimization of the slot geometry. The optimization algorithm modifies the position of the nodal points in the element mesh. The number of independent variables ranges from 14 to 140 in this work.

  12. Application of Finite Element Method to Analyze Inflatable Waveguide Structures (United States)

    Deshpande, M. D.


    A Finite Element Method (FEM) is presented to determine propagation characteristics of deformed inflatable rectangular waveguide. Various deformations that might be present in an inflatable waveguide are analyzed using the FEM. The FEM procedure and the code developed here are so general that they can be used for any other deformations that are not considered in this report. The code is validated by applying the present code to rectangular waveguide without any deformations and comparing the numerical results with earlier published results.

  13. Parametric dynamic structural components for prefabricated reinforced concrete elements


    Česnik, Jure


    Advanced 3D modelling computer programs for authoring of building projects are gaining on popularity among civil engineers and architects and are thus developing with lightning speed. One of the main areas of development are parametric dynamic components and their use in BIM environments. The first part of the presented work deals with the development and use of parametric dynamic components in BIM software, focusing on prefabricated construction elements. It also explains how ...

  14. On modelling three-dimensional piezoelectric smart structures with boundary spectral element method (United States)

    Zou, Fangxin; Aliabadi, M. H.


    The computational efficiency of the boundary element method in elastodynamic analysis can be significantly improved by employing high-order spectral elements for boundary discretisation. In this work, for the first time, the so-called boundary spectral element method is utilised to formulate the piezoelectric smart structures that are widely used in structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. The resultant boundary spectral element formulation has been validated by the finite element method (FEM) and physical experiments. The new formulation has demonstrated a lower demand on computational resources and a higher numerical stability than commercial FEM packages. Comparing to the conventional boundary element formulation, a significant reduction in computational expenses has been achieved. In summary, the boundary spectral element formulation presented in this paper provides a highly efficient and stable mathematical tool for the development of SHM applications.

  15. Voltage-Controlled Magnetic Anisotropy in Heavy Metal/Ferromagnet/Insulator-Based Structures (United States)

    Li, Xiang

    Electric-field assisted writing of magnetic memory that exploits the voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy (VCMA) effect offers a great potential for high density and low power applications. Magnetoelectric Random Access Memory (MeRAM) has been investigated due to its lower switching current, compared with traditional current-controlled devices utilizing spin transfer torque (STT) or spin-orbit torque (SOT) for magnetization switching. It is of great promise to integrate MeRAM into the advanced CMOS back-end-of-line (BEOL) processes for on-chip embedded applications, and enable non-volatile electronic systems with low static power dissipation and instant-on operation capability. In this thesis, different heavy metal|ferromagnet|insulator-based structures are grown by magnetron sputtering to improve the VCMA effect over the traditional Ta|CoFeB|MgO-based structures. We also established an accurate measurement technique for VCMA characterization. An improved thermal annealing stability of VCMA over 400°C is achieved in Mo|CoFeB|MgO-based structures. In addition, we observed a weak CoFeB thickness dependence of both VCMA coefficient and interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in both Ta|CoFeB|MgO and Mo|CoFeB|MgO-based structures.

  16. Extension of the Limits of the Xdh Structural Element in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER (United States)

    Gelbart, William; McCarron, Margaret; Chovnick, Arthur


    Experiments expanding the array of mutants affecting the xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) structural element in Drosophila melanogaster are described. These include rosy eye color mutants which exhibit interallelic complementation, and mutants with normal eye color but lowered levels of XDH. Evidence is presented which argues that these are structural alterations in the enzyme. Recombination experiments were performed using these mutants as well as some electrophoretic variants. The two ends of the rosy locus are marked with mutant sites which are clearly structural in nature; the XDH structural element and the rosy null mutant map are completely concordant. A possible procedure to recover control element mutants is described. PMID:826444

  17. Impact of heavy hole-light hole coupling on the exciton fine structure in quantum dots (United States)

    Tsitsishvili, E.


    We present analytical results which describe the properties of the exciton ground state in a single semiconductor quantum dot (QD). Calculations are performed within the Luttinger-Kohn and Bir-Pikus Hamiltonian theory. We show in an explicit form that an interplay of the exchange interaction and the heavy hole-light hole coupling, which is due to the in-plane asymmetries of the dot shape and the strain distribution, plays an essential role. For both the bright and dark exciton, this combined effect leads to a dependence of the fine structure splitting and polarizations on the main anisotropy axis direction relative to the dot orientation. Basing on the obtained analytical expressions, we discuss some special cases in details.

  18. Differences in hyporheic-zone microbial community structure along a heavy-metal contamination gradient. (United States)

    Feris, Kevin; Ramsey, Philip; Frazar, Chris; Moore, Johnnie N; Gannon, James E; Holben, William E


    The hyporheic zone of a river is nonphotic, has steep chemical and redox gradients, and has a heterotrophic food web based on the consumption of organic carbon entrained from downwelling surface water or from upwelling groundwater. The microbial communities in the hyporheic zone are an important component of these heterotrophic food webs and perform essential functions in lotic ecosystems. Using a suite of methods (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, 16S rRNA phylogeny, phospholipid fatty acid analysis, direct microscopic enumeration, and quantitative PCR), we compared the microbial communities inhabiting the hyporheic zone of six different river sites that encompass a wide range of sediment metal loads resulting from large base-metal mining activity in the region. There was no correlation between sediment metal content and the total hyporheic microbial biomass present within each site. However, microbial community structure showed a significant linear relationship with the sediment metal loads. The abundances of four phylogenetic groups (groups I, II, III, and IV) most closely related to alpha-, beta-, and gamma-proteobacteria and the cyanobacteria, respectively, were determined. The sediment metal content gradient was positively correlated with group III abundance and negatively correlated with group II abundance. No correlation was apparent with regard to group I or IV abundance. This is the first documentation of a relationship between fluvially deposited heavy-metal contamination and hyporheic microbial community structure. The information presented here may be useful in predicting long-term effects of heavy-metal contamination in streams and provides a basis for further studies of metal effects on hyporheic microbial communities.

  19. New X-ray microprobe system for trace heavy element analysis using ultraprecise X-ray mirror optics of long working distance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terada, Yasuko, E-mail: yterada@spring8.or.j [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Yumoto, Hirokatsu; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Suzuki, Yoshio [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Yamauchi, Kazuto [Department of Precision Science and Technology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Uruga, Tomoya [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)


    A new X-ray microprobe system for trace heavy element analysis using ultraprecise X-ray mirror optics of 300 mm long working distance has been developed at beamline 37XU of SPring-8. A focusing test has been performed in the X-ray energy range 20-37.7 keV. A focused beam size of 1.3 mum (V)x1.5 mum (H) has been achieved at an X-ray energy of 30 keV, and a total photon flux of the focused beam was about 2.7x10{sup 10} photons/s. Micro-X-ray fluorescence (mu-XRF) analysis of eggplant roots has been carried out using the developed microprobe. It is clearly observed in the XRF images that cadmium is highly accumulated in the endodermis, exodermis and epidermis of roots. This study demonstrates the potential of scanning microscopy for heavy elements analysis in the high-energy X-ray region.

  20. Language specific narrative text structure elements in multilingual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    structure' to both teach narrative structure to children as well as to assess children's narrative skills in ..... that events have to be “construed” as they are often seen as entities which only exist in the mind of sapient beings and not as entities .... One-to-many mappings are evident, for example, in narratives elicited by using the.

  1. Philosophy of mathematics and deductive structure in Euclid's elements

    CERN Document Server

    Mueller, Ian


    A survey of Euclid's Elements, this text provides an understanding of the classical Greek conception of mathematics. It offers a well-rounded perspective, examining similarities to modern views as well as differences. Rather than focusing strictly on historical and mathematical issues, the book examines philosophical, foundational, and logical questions.Although comprehensive in its treatment, this study represents a less cumbersome, more streamlined approach than the classic three-volume reference by Sir Thomas L. Heath (also available from Dover Publications). To make reading easier and to f

  2. Inverse Finite Element Method Investigation for Adaptive Structures Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This research project is evaluating an innovative technique that uses fiber optic strain sensors to measure structural deformations and full field strains. An...

  3. Colloidal structure of heavy petroleum products; Structure colloidale des produits petroliers lourds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenistein, D.


    Asphaltenes, the heaviest components of petroleum products, are defined as insoluble in an alkane excess. Their aggregation state, which depends on the thermodynamic conditions (solvent composition, temperature) has been characterized using scattering techniques and viscosimetry. In a solvent (toluene) asphaltenes are stable aggregates. The shape of the scattering spectra, their sensitivity to concentration on the one hand the values of intrinsic viscosities on the other hand, are compatible with a structure of solvated fractal aggregates. The mass distribution of asphaltene aggregates has been evaluated using ultracentrifugation. An increasing addition of flocculant (heptane) induces the extension of asphaltene aggregation. When approaching the flocculation threshold, their structure can be compared to the predictions of the RLCA theoretical model. Crossing the flocculation threshold induces the two phase separation of the system. The flocculated phase of compact aggregates undergoes fast sedimentation if the medium viscosity allows it. The study of asphaltenes in their natural medium (the maltenes) enables to recognize the solvated structures of the non - flocculated asphaltenes in other fluids. (author) 140 refs.

  4. Nuclear structure features of very heavy and superheavy nuclei—tracing quantum mechanics towards the ‘island of stability’ (United States)

    Ackermann, D.; Theisen, Ch


    The quantum-mechanic nature of nuclear matter is at the origin of the vision of a region of enhanced stability at the upper right end of the chart of nuclei, the so-called ‘island of stability’. Since the 1960s in the early second half of the last century, various models predict closed shells for proton numbers 114-126 and neutron numbers such as 172 or 184. Being stabilized by quantum-mechanic effects only, those extremely heavy man-made nuclear species are an ideal laboratory to study the origin of the strong nuclear interaction which is the driving force for matter properties in many fields ranging from microscopic scales like hadronic systems to cosmic scales in stellar environments like neutron stars. Since the 1950s, experiments on the synthesis of new elements and isotopes have also revealed various exciting nuclear structure features. The contribution of Bohr, Mottelson and Rainwater with, in particular, the development of the unified model played an essential role in this context. Although not anticipated in the region of the heaviest nuclei, many phenomena were subsequently discovered like the interplay of collective features manifesting themselves e.g. in nuclear deformation, ranging from spherical to prolate and oblate shapes with the possible occurrence of triaxial symmetries, and single particle states and their excitation into quasiparticle configurations. The continuous development of modern experimental techniques employing advanced detection set-ups was essential to reveal these exciting nuclear structure aspects in the actinide and transactinide regions since the production cross-section becomes extremely small with increasing mass and charge. Further technological progress, in particular, high intensity stable ion beam accelerator facilities presently under construction, as well as potentially in the farther future radioactive neutron rich ion beams provide a high discovery potential for the basic understanding of nuclear matter.

  5. HELAC-Onia 2.0: an upgraded matrix-element and event generator for heavy quarkonium physics

    CERN Document Server

    Shao, Hua-Sheng


    We present an upgraded version (denoted as version 2.0) of the program HELAC-Onia for the automated computation of heavy-quarkonium helicity amplitudes within non-relativistic QCD framework. The new code has been designed to include many new and useful features for practical phenomenological simulations. It is designed for job submissions under cluster enviroment for parallel computations via Python scripts. We have interfaced HELAC-Onia to the parton shower Monte Carlo programs Pythia 8 and QEDPS to take into account the parton-shower effects. Moreover, the decay module guarantees that the program can perform the spin-entangled (cascade-)decay of heavy quarkonium after its generation. We have also implemented a reweighting method to automatically estimate the uncertainties from renormalization and/or factorization scales as well as parton-distribution functions to weighted or unweighted events. A futher update is the possiblity to generate one-dimensional or two-dimensional plots encoded in the analysis file...

  6. Preparation and structure of carbonated calcium hydroxyapatite substituted with heavy rare earth ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasukawa, Akemi, E-mail: [School of Home Economics, Faculty of Education, Hirosaki University, 1-bunkyo, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8560 (Japan); Kandori, Kazuhiko [School of Chemistry, Osaka University of Education, 4-698-1 Asahigaoka, Kashiwara, Osaka 582-8582 (Japan); Tanaka, Hidekazu [Department of Material Science, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Shimane University, 1060 Nishikawatsu, Matsue, Shimane 690-8504 (Japan); Gotoh, Keiko [Faculty of Human Life and Environment, Nara Women' s University, Kita-uoya-nishi, Nara 630-8506 (Japan)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LnCaHap solid solution particles were prepared using five types of heavy rare earth ions by a precipitation method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The length and the crystallinity of the LnCaHap particles first increased and then decreased with increasing Ln{sup 3+} contents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A series of YCaHap solid solution particles formed with Y/(Y + Ca) = 0-0.10 were investigated using various methods in detail. -- Abstract: Calcium hydroxyapatite (CaHap) particles substituted five types of heavy rare earth ions (Ln: Y{sup 3+}, Gd{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+}) were synthesized using a precipitation method and characterized using various means. These Ln ions strongly affected the crystal phases and the structures of the products. With increasing Ln/(Ln + Ca) in the starting solution ([X{sub Ln}]), the length and the crystallinity of the particles first increased and then decreased. The rare earth metal-calcium hydroxyapatite (LnCaHap) solid solution particles were obtained at [X{sub Y}] {<=} 0.10 for substituting Y system and at [X{sub Ln}] {<=} 0.01-0.03 for substituting the other Ln systems. LnPO{sub 4} was mixed with LnCaHap at higher [X{sub Ln}] for all Ln systems. A series of yttrium-calcium hydroxyapatite (YCaHap) solid solutions with [X{sub Y}] = 0-0.10 were investigated using XRD, TEM, ICP-AES, IR and TG-DTA in detail.

  7. Fluid-structure interactions models, analysis and finite elements

    CERN Document Server

    Richter, Thomas


    This book starts by introducing the fundamental concepts of mathematical continuum mechanics for fluids and solids and their coupling. Special attention is given to the derivation of variational formulations for the subproblems describing fluid- and solid-mechanics as well as the coupled fluid-structure interaction problem. Two monolithic formulations for fluid-structure interactions are described in detail: the well-established ALE formulation and the modern Fully Eulerian formulation, which can effectively deal with problems featuring large deformation and contact. Further, the book provides details on state-of-the-art discretization schemes for fluid- and solid-mechanics and considers the special needs of coupled problems with interface-tracking and interface-capturing techniques. Lastly, advanced topics like goal-oriented error estimation, multigrid solution and gradient-based optimization schemes are discussed in the context of fluid-structure interaction problems.

  8. Impact of heavy metal contamination on oxidative stress of Eisenia andrei and bacterial community structure in Tunisian mine soil. (United States)

    Boughattas, Iteb; Hattab, Sabrine; Boussetta, Hamadi; Banni, Mohamed; Navarro, Elisabeth


    The aims of this work were firstly to study the effect of heavy metal-polluted soils from Tunisian mine on earthworm biochemical biomarkers and on bacterial communities and therefore to analyze the interaction between earth worms and bacterial communities in these contaminated soils. For this purpose, we had introduced earthworm Eisenia andrei in six soils: one from mine spoils and five from agricultural soils, establishing a gradient of contamination. The response of worms to the presence of heavy metal was analyzed at the biochemical and transcriptional levels. In a second time, the impact of worm on bacterial community structure was investigated using automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) fingerprinting. An impact of heavy metal-contaminated soils on the oxidative status of E. andrei was observed, but this effect was dependent of the level of heavy metal contamination. Moreover, our results demonstrate that the introduction of earthworms E. andrei has an impact on bacterial community; however, the major change was observed in the less contaminated site. Furthermore, a significant correlation between earthworm oxidative status biomarkers and bacterial community structure was observed, mainly in the mine spoils. Therefore, we contribute to a better understanding of the relationships between epigenic earthworms and bacterial communities in heavy metal-contaminated soils.

  9. sp3-hybridized framework structure of group-14 elements discovered by genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Manh Cuong [Ames Laboratory; Zhao, Xin [Ames Laboratory; Wang, Cai-Zhuang [Ames Laboratory; Ho, Kai-Ming [Ames Laboratory


    Group-14 elements, including C, Si, Ge, and Sn, can form various stable and metastable structures. Finding new metastable structures of group-14 elements with desirable physical properties for new technological applications has attracted a lot of interest. Using a genetic algorithm, we discovered a new low-energy metastable distorted sp3-hybridized framework structure of the group-14 elements. It has P42/mnm symmetry with 12 atoms per unit cell. The void volume of this structure is as large as 139.7Å3 for Si P42/mnm, and it can be used for gas or metal-atom encapsulation. Band-structure calculations show that P42/mnm structures of Si and Ge are semiconducting with energy band gaps close to the optimal values for optoelectronic or photovoltaic applications. With metal-atom encapsulation, the P42/mnm structure would also be a candidate for rattling-mediated superconducting or used as thermoelectric materials.

  10. Probabilistic finite element analysis of high strength steel structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waarts, P.H.; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.


    In structural steel design the ultimate design limit is governed by full cross-sectional plasticity, where an elastic-perfectly plastic material behaviour is used. Hardening of the material is not used. Some loads are not considered such as settlements of supports and temperature loads in static

  11. Structural elements of the right to the truth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Andrés Fajardo Arturo


    Full Text Available This article refers specifically to the current state of the discussion on the basic legal structure of the right to truth, its size and degree of legality and reports initial results on the evaluation of the models adopted for peace in Colombia, in light of the international standards and practices.

  12. Effects of heavy metals on the structure and functioning of detrivore communities in a contaminated floodplain area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hobbelen, P.H.F.; Brink, van den P.J.; Hobbelen, J.F.; Gestel, van C.A.M.


    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of heavy metal pollution on the structure and functioning of detritivore soil communities that consist of isopods, millipedes and earthworms, in 15 heavily polluted flood plain soils, located in the delta area of the rivers Rhine and Meuse, in the

  13. Tests of a niobium split-ring superconducting heavy ion accelerating structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benaroya, R.; Bollinger, L.M.; Jaffey, A.H.; Khoe, T.K.; Olesen, M.C.; Scheibelhut, C.H.; Shepard, K.W.; Wesolowski, W.A.


    A niobium split-ring accelerating structure designed for use in the Argonne superconducting heavy-ion energy booster was successfully tested. The superconducting resonator has a resonant frequency of 97 MHz and an optimum particle velocity ..beta.. = 0.11. Ultimate performance is expected to be limited by peak surface fields, which in this structure are 4.7 E/sub a/ electric and 170 E/sub a/ (Gauss) magnetic, where E/sub a/ is the effective accelerating gradient in MV/m. The rf losses in two demountable superconducting joints severely limited performance in initial tests. Following independent measurements of the rf loss properties of several types of demountable joints, one demountable joint was eliminated and the other modified. Subsequently, the resonator could be operated continuously at E/sub a/ = 3.6 MV/m (corresponding to an energy gain of 1.3 MeV per charge) with 10W rf input power. Maximum field level was limited by electron loading. The mechanical stability of the resonator under operating conditions is excellent: vibration induced eigenfrequency noise is less than 120 Hz peak to peak, and the radiation pressure induced frequency shift is = 1.6 x 10/sup -6/ E/sub a//sup 2/.

  14. Material model for non-linear finite element analyses of large concrete structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engen, Morten; Hendriks, M.A.N.; Øverli, Jan Arve; Åldstedt, Erik; Beushausen, H.


    A fully triaxial material model for concrete was implemented in a commercial finite element code. The only required input parameter was the cylinder compressive strength. The material model was suitable for non-linear finite element analyses of large concrete structures. The importance of including

  15. Structure and transcriptional impact of divergent repetitive elements inserted within Phanerochaete chrysosporium strain RP-78 genes (United States)

    Luis F. Larrondo; Paulo Canessa; Rafael Vicuna; Philip Stewart; Amber Vanden Wymelenberg; Dan Cullen


    We describe the structure, organization, and transcriptional impact of repetitive elements within the lignin-degrading basidiomycete, Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Searches of the P. chrysosporium genome revealed five copies of pce1, a 1,750-nt non-autonomous, class II element. Alleles encoding a putative glucosyltransferase and a cytochrome P450 harbor pce insertions...

  16. Elements Of The Arabian Syiir In The Qurans Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masan Hamid


    Full Text Available The Quran is a Muslim holy book using Arabic with the dialect of the Quraish tribe. Textually the composition or sequence in verses of the Quran contains musicality which when combined with the musicality of poetry or Arabic syiir rhyme both have suitability especially in conformity with 5 five elements of poetry namely Sentence Rhythm Poems Imagination and Deliberate. The opinion of the scholars and the Arabic experts on the existence of poetic aspects in the language of the Quran has occurred in contradictory form some agree and some are not. For those who agree thought one form of the beauty of the Quranic language is a match between the musicality contained in the composition of the verses of the Quran with the musicals of the traditional Arab syiir syiir multazam especially in terms of rhythm And his poem. Meanwhile for the scholars who refuse they argue the Quran is a divine word while the syiir and the poems are human words all types or genres of literature are the creation of shamans imaginers and fanciers.

  17. Considerations Regarding the Damage of the Constructions Structural Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Corobceanu


    Full Text Available The damage processes of the reinforced concrete constructions are very complex due to the relationship between the adopted structural conceptions, the climate conditions for display, the composition of the concrete, the quality of the execution process and the synergetic action of the destructive agents. The measures to be taken against premature damage of the reinforced concrete regard the design, the execution process, the exploitation conditions and the protection techniques.

  18. Finite Element Study of Container Structure under Normal and High Temperature

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zha, Xiaoxiong; Zuo, Yang


    ...) are obtained and compared with the standard temperature curve of ISO-834. Secondly, using the software of Abaqus, a full scale finite element model of multilayer container structure is established...

  19. Mitigation of Flanking Noise Transmission in Periodic Structures of Lightweight Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domadiya, Parthkumar Gandalal

    through structural junctions and radiates into neighbouring rooms. To diminish the flanking transmission of sound, frames are usually designed with single or double studs or constructed with layers of foam or another viscoelastic material. This thesis is investigating the behaviour of flanking noise...... transmission in periodic structures of lightweight elements by employing various numerical, analytical and experimental methods. At first, three dimensional finite-element (FE) models of a Z-shaped lightweight panel structure based on various frame designs, inclusion of air and structural coupling between...... elements are considered for describing flanking noise transmission through panels. It is assumed that the ribs are fully fixed to the plates in case of various frame designs, and a parametric study is carried out on the centre panel with regard to various spacing between the ribs. Solid finite elements...

  20. Description of selected structural elements of composite foams using statistical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gawdzińska


    Full Text Available This article makes use of images from a computer tomograph for the description of selected structure elements of metal and compositefoams by means of statistical methods. Besides, compression stress of the tested materials has been determined.

  1. Design of three-element dynamic vibration absorber for damped linear structures (United States)

    Anh, N. D.; Nguyen, N. X.; Hoa, L. T.


    The standard type of dynamic vibration absorber (DVA) called the Voigt DVA is a classical model and has long been investigated. In the paper, we will consider an optimization problem of another model of DVA that is called three-element type DVA for damped primary structures. Unlike the standard absorber configuration, the three-element DVA contains two spring elements in which one is connected to a dashpot in series and the other is placed in parallel. There have been some studies on the design of the three-element DVA for undamped primary structures. Those studies have shown that the three-element DVA produces better performance than the Voigt DVA does. When damping is present at the primary system, to the best knowledge of the authors, there has been no study on the three-element dynamic vibration absorber. This work presents a simple approach to determine the approximate analytical solutions for the H∞ optimization of the three-element DVA attached to the damped primary structure. The main idea of the study is based on the criteria of the equivalent linearization method in order to replace approximately the original damped structure by an equivalent undamped one. Then the approximate analytical solution of the DVA's parameters is given by using known results for the undamped structure obtained. The comparisons have been done to verify the effectiveness of the obtained results.

  2. Non-Linear Three Dimensional Finite Elements for Composite Concrete Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Kohnehpooshi

    Full Text Available Abstract The current investigation focused on the development of effective and suitable modelling of reinforced concrete component with and without strengthening. The modelling includes physical and constitutive models. New interface elements have been developed, while modified constitutive law have been applied and new computational algorithm is utilised. The new elements are the Truss-link element to model the interaction between concrete and reinforcement bars, the interface element between two plate bending elements and the interface element to represent the interfacial behaviour between FRP, steel plates and concrete. Nonlinear finite-element (FE codes were developed with pre-processing. The programme was written using FORTRAN language. The accuracy and efficiency of the finite element programme were achieved by analyzing several examples from the literature. The application of the 3D FE code was further enhanced by carrying out the numerical analysis of the three dimensional finite element analysis of FRP strengthened RC beams, as well as the 3D non-linear finite element analysis of girder bridge. Acceptable distributions of slip, deflection, stresses in the concrete and FRP plate have also been found. These results show that the new elements are effective and appropriate to be used for structural component modelling.

  3. The effects of swift heavy ion irradiation on the structural properties of poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/clay nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Manpreet, E-mail: [ABES Institute of Technology,Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh (India); Singh, Surinder [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar (India); Mehta, Rajeev [Department of Chemical Engineering, Thapar University, Patiala (India)


    Radiation has been used as a processing technique to modify structural, chemical, physical and morphological properties of polymers and its nanocomposite and can thus be used as a method to control the rate of degradation. The swift heavy ions (SHI) irradiation effects on the structural properties of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanocomposites containing 5 wt% organo-montmorillonite (OMMT) clay by irradiating with 50 MeV Li{sup 3+} and 180 MeV Ag{sup 8+} ions has been studied at different fluences. The structural responses of PLGA nanocomposite under the influence of SHI were studied using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The presence of clay and irradiation by swift heavy ions (SHI) brings out interesting changes in structural properties of nanocomposite.

  4. Finite element modeling of nanotube structures linear and non-linear models

    CERN Document Server

    Awang, Mokhtar; Muhammad, Ibrahim Dauda


    This book presents a new approach to modeling carbon structures such as graphene and carbon nanotubes using finite element methods, and addresses the latest advances in numerical studies for these materials. Based on the available findings, the book develops an effective finite element approach for modeling the structure and the deformation of grapheme-based materials. Further, modeling processing for single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes is demonstrated in detail.

  5. Non-linear finite element analysis in structural mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Rust, Wilhelm


    This monograph describes the numerical analysis of non-linearities in structural mechanics, i.e. large rotations, large strain (geometric non-linearities), non-linear material behaviour, in particular elasto-plasticity as well as time-dependent behaviour, and contact. Based on that, the book treats stability problems and limit-load analyses, as well as non-linear equations of a large number of variables. Moreover, the author presents a wide range of problem sets and their solutions. The target audience primarily comprises advanced undergraduate and graduate students of mechanical and civil engineering, but the book may also be beneficial for practising engineers in industry.

  6. Specific elements in the functional structure of Ljubljane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Pak


    Full Text Available The functional structure of Ljubljana is predominated by supply activities which form its own new city network. Particular attention shall be paid to four big supply centres and the interdependence of their development with the commercial function within the city centre. This has also been confirmed on the basis of the results of a questionnaire, with the reasons for the development processes pointed out, which are in favour of the big trade centres in Šiška, Moste, Rakovnik and Vič.

  7. Finite Element Modeling of Acoustic Shielding via Phononic Crystal structures


    Lipp, Clémentine Sophie Sarah; Lozzi, Andrea


    Quality factor of Contour Mode Resonators (CMR) are mainly affected by energy losses due to acoustic waves leaving the resonator through the anchors. An engineering of the anchors in order to create a periodic variation in the acoustic impedance of the material, structures known as Phononic Crystals (PnCs), can help improve the Q factor by reflecting part of the acoustic waves. During this project, FEM models have been validated for both 1D and 2D PnCs. The behavior of the band diagram and qu...

  8. G-quadruplex structures within the 3' UTR of LINE-1 elements stimulate retrotransposition. (United States)

    Sahakyan, Aleksandr B; Murat, Pierre; Mayer, Clemens; Balasubramanian, Shankar


    Long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs) are ubiquitous transposable elements in higher eukaryotes that have a significant role in shaping genomes, owing to their abundance. Here we report that guanine-rich sequences in the 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) of hominoid-specific LINE-1 elements are coupled with retrotransposon speciation and contribute to retrotransposition through the formation of G-quadruplex (G4) structures. We demonstrate that stabilization of the G4 motif of a human-specific LINE-1 element by small-molecule ligands stimulates retrotransposition.

  9. Development of a finite dynamic element for free vibration analysis of two-dimensional structures (United States)

    Gupta, K. K.


    The paper develops an efficient free-vibration analysis procedure of two-dimensional structures. This is achieved by employing a discretization technique based on a recently developed concept of finite dynamic elements, involving higher order dynamic correction terms in the associated stiffness and inertia matrices. A plane rectangular dynamic element is developed in detail. Numerical solution results of free-vibration analysis presented herein clearly indicate that these dynamic elements combined with a suitable quadratic matrix eigenproblem solution technique effect a most economical and efficient solution for such an analysis when compared with the usual finite element method.

  10. Structured Extended Finite Element Methods of Solids Defined by Implicit Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belytschko, T; Mish, K; Moes, N; Parimi, C


    A paradigm is developed for generating structured finite element models from solid models by means of implicit surface definitions. The implicit surfaces are defined by radial basis functions. Internal features, such as material interfaces, sliding interfaces and cracks are treated by enrichment techniques developed in the extended finite element method (X-FEM). Methods for integrating the weak form for such models are proposed. These methods simplify the generation of finite element models. Results presented for several examples show that the accuracy of this method is comparable to standard unstructured finite element methods.

  11. Concentration of heavy metals and trace elements in soils, waters and vegetables and assessment of health risk in the vicinity of a lignite-fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noli, Fotini, E-mail:; Tsamos, Panagiotis, E-mail:


    The pollution of agricultural soils, waters and products in the regions of lignite mines and fired power plants is of great importance. The concentration of As, Βa, Co, Cr, Sr, Sc, Th, U, Zn in soils and waters in the vicinity of a lignite-fired power plant in Northern Greece was determined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The determination frequency was every three months during a period of one year in order to evaluate the seasonal impact of the pollution to the environment. Measurements were performed in three locations around the lignite mine as well as in one reference location at a certain distance from the mine. The results, which exhibited a slight seasonal variation, were compared, where possible, with literature values from other countries. The obtained data in most of the cases did not exceed the normal levels and indicated that the investigated area was only slightly contaminated. The concentration of heavy and trace metals was also measured in three common garden crops (tomato, cucumber and parsley) grown in this area. The calculated transfer factors (TF) from soil to vegetables and health risk quotients (HQ) do not denote a health risk. - Highlights: • Seasonal variation of heavy metals concentrations in soils and waters in a lignite mining area. • The elevated concentrations detected by NAA indicating minor contamination of the studied area. • Determination of minor and trace elements in vegetables. • The transfer factors and health risk quotients indicating a possible slight contamination in the area.

  12. Levels of rare earth elements, heavy metals and uranium in a population living in Baiyun Obo, Inner Mongolia, China: a pilot study. (United States)

    Hao, Zhe; Li, Yonghua; Li, Hairong; Wei, Binggan; Liao, Xiaoyong; Liang, Tao; Yu, Jiangping


    The Baiyun Obo deposit is the world's largest rare earth elements (REE) deposit. We aimed to investigate levels of REE, heavy metals (HMs) and uranium (U) based on morning urine samples in a population in Baiyun Obo and to assess the possible influence of rare earth mining processes on human exposure. In the mining area, elevated levels were found for the sum of the concentrations of light REE (LREE) and heavy REE (HREE) with mean values at 3.453 and 1.151 μg g(-1) creatinine, which were significantly higher than those in the control area. Concentrations of HMs and U in the population increased concomitantly with increasing REE levels. The results revealed that besides REE, HMs and U were produced with REE exploitation. Gender, age, educational level, alcohol and smoking habit were major factors contributing to inter-individual variation. Males were more exposed to these metals than females. Concentrations in people in the senior age group and those with only primary education were low. Drinking and smoking were associated with the levels of LREE, Cr, Cu, Cd and Pb in morning urine. Hence this study provides basic and useful information when addressing public and environmental health challenges in the areas where REE are mined and processed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Structural elements of construction of individual and group exercises’ competition compositions in calisthenics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.O. Kovalenko


    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze content of individual and group exercises’ competition compositions in calisthenics. Material: in the research HEEs’ girl students (n=20, junior sportswomen (n=10, experts (n=30, coaches with 10-40 years’ working experience participated. Results: it was found that temporary indicators permit to assess level of female gymnasts’ readiness for fulfillment of competition compositions’ elements; facilitated rational correlation of body and object’s elements of complexity. Quickness of preparation to elements and directly time of exercise’s fulfillment acquire great importance. In individual and group exercises the most important are distribution of sportswoman’s moving on all site with frequent change of directions. It was established that realization of structural elements facilitates full opening of female gymnast’s artistic image. Conclusions: for building of competition compositions coaches shall fully use indicators of space and time structural elements.

  14. Efficient Analysis of Structures with Rotatable Elements Using Model Order Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Fotyga


    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel full-wave technique which allows for a fast 3D finite element analysis of waveguide structures containing rotatable tuning elements of arbitrary shapes. Rotation of these elements changes the resonant frequencies of the structure, which can be used in the tuning process to obtain the S-characteristics desired for the device. For fast commutations of the response as the tuning elements are rotated, the 3D finite element method is supported by multilevel model-order reduction, orthogonal projection at the boundaries of macromodels and the operation called macromodels cloning. All the time-consuming steps are performed only once in the preparatory stage. In the tuning stage, only small parts of the domain are updated, by means of a special meshing technique. In effect, the tuning process is performed extremely rapidly. The results of the numerical experiments confirm the efficiency and validity of the proposed method.

  15. STARS: A general-purpose finite element computer program for analysis of engineering structures (United States)

    Gupta, K. K.


    STARS (Structural Analysis Routines) is primarily an interactive, graphics-oriented, finite-element computer program for analyzing the static, stability, free vibration, and dynamic responses of damped and undamped structures, including rotating systems. The element library consists of one-dimensional (1-D) line elements, two-dimensional (2-D) triangular and quadrilateral shell elements, and three-dimensional (3-D) tetrahedral and hexahedral solid elements. These elements enable the solution of structural problems that include truss, beam, space frame, plane, plate, shell, and solid structures, or any combination thereof. Zero, finite, and interdependent deflection boundary conditions can be implemented by the program. The associated dynamic response analysis capability provides for initial deformation and velocity inputs, whereas the transient excitation may be either forces or accelerations. An effective in-core or out-of-core solution strategy is automatically employed by the program, depending on the size of the problem. Data input may be at random within a data set, and the program offers certain automatic data-generation features. Input data are formatted as an optimal combination of free and fixed formats. Interactive graphics capabilities enable convenient display of nodal deformations, mode shapes, and element stresses.

  16. Structural elements regulating amyloidogenesis: a cholinesterase model system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Létitia Jean


    Full Text Available Polymerization into amyloid fibrils is a crucial step in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative syndromes. Amyloid assembly is governed by properties of the sequence backbone and specific side-chain interactions, since fibrils from unrelated sequences possess similar structures and morphologies. Therefore, characterization of the structural determinants driving amyloid aggregation is of fundamental importance. We investigated the forces involved in the amyloid assembly of a model peptide derived from the oligomerization domain of acetylcholinesterase (AChE, AChE(586-599, through the effect of single point mutations on beta-sheet propensity, conformation, fibrilization, surfactant activity, oligomerization and fibril morphology. AChE(586-599 was chosen due to its fibrilization tractability and AChE involvement in Alzheimer's disease. The results revealed how specific regions and residues can control AChE(586-599 assembly. Hydrophobic and/or aromatic residues were crucial for maintaining a high beta-strand propensity, for the conformational transition to beta-sheet, and for the first stage of aggregation. We also demonstrated that positively charged side-chains might be involved in electrostatic interactions, which could control the transition to beta-sheet, the oligomerization and assembly stability. Further interactions were also found to participate in the assembly. We showed that some residues were important for AChE(586-599 surfactant activity and that amyloid assembly might preferentially occur at an air-water interface. Consistently with the experimental observations and assembly models for other amyloid systems, we propose a model for AChE(586-599 assembly in which a steric-zipper formed through specific interactions (hydrophobic, electrostatic, cation-pi, SH-aromatic, metal chelation and polar-polar would maintain the beta-sheets together. We also propose that the stacking between the strands in the beta-sheets along the fiber axis could

  17. Mass measurements of exotic ions in the heavy mass region for nuclear structure studies at ISOLTRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgmann, Christopher


    The mass is a unique fingerprint of each nucleus as it reflects the sum of all interactions within it. Comparing experimental mass values with theoretical calculations provides an important benchmark of how well the role of these interactions is already understood. By investigating differences of experimental binding energies, such as two-neutron separation energies (S{sub 2n}), valuable indications for nuclear-structure studies are provided. The present thesis contributes to these studies providing new high-precision mass measurements especially in the heavy-mass region. Here, nuclear theory is heavily challenged due to the large number of nucleons. The data have been obtained at the Penning-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP located at the radioactive-ion-beam facility Isolde at CERN. For the determination of the masses, the time-of-flight ion-cyclotron-resonance technique has been applied. While the new mass data for {sup 122-124}Ag continue existing trends in the S{sub 2n} energies, the new mass values for {sup 207,208}Fr render them more precisely. In the case of the mass values for {sup 184,186,190,193-195}Tl a new interesting odd-even effect has been revealed. The comparison of the measured mass values with theoretical models furthermore demonstrates significant problems in reproducing the strength of the pairing correctly. This is of special interest for the discussion about shape coexistence in the region around the doubly-magic {sup 208}Pb.

  18. Spin Hall magnetoresistance in heavy-metal/metallic-ferromagnet multilayer structures (United States)

    Choi, Jong-Guk; Lee, Jae Wook; Park, Byong-Guk


    We investigate spin Hall magnetoresistance (SMR) in heavy-metal (HM)/metallic-ferromagnet (FM) multilayers as a function of the FM thickness. We observe that the SMR is considerably modified when the FM layer is thinner than ˜1.5 nm, which is a critical thickness of a FM for the absorption or reflection of spin current generated from the spin Hall effect in a HM. Moreover, the FM thickness dependence of the SMR in HM/FM/HM trilayer structures relies on the relative signs of the spin Hall angle in HMs, indicating that there is non-negligible interaction between the accumulated spins at each HM/FM interface. We propose an analytical model of the SMR in a HM/FM/HM trilayer by incorporating the spin transmission through the HM/FM interfaces and the resultant interaction in the FM layer, which can explain the variation of the SMR with the relative signs of the spin Hall angle in HMs.

  19. Evolution of the surface structures of solids under irradiation with high energy heavy ions

    CERN Document Server

    Didyk, A Y; Cheblukov, Y N; Dmitriev, S N; Hofmann, A; Semina, V K; Suvorov, A L


    The results on the study of surface structure of solids, like metals, metal alloys, amorphous metal alloys and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) under irradiation with heavy sup 8 sup 6 Kr ions (ion energy is 245 MeV, irradiation fluences are 10 sup 1 sup 3 , 10 sup 1 sup 4 , 10 sup 1 sup 5 cm sup - sup 2) and sup 2 sup 0 sup 9 Bi (ion energy is 705 MeV, irradiation fluences are 10 sup 1 sup 2 , 10 sup 1 sup 3 cm sup - sup 2) are presented. The sputtering coefficients for metals (Ni, W, Au), stainless steel Cr18Ni10, amorphous alloy Ni sub 5 sub 8 Nb sub 4 sub 2 and HOPG are measured. It is shown that the sputtering coefficients of annealed polycrystals (Ni, Au) and single crystals (W, HOPG) are not large at low defect concentration in materials. At this stage, the sputtering of grain boundaries predominantly takes place. The sputtering yields become to increase significantly with the growth of damage concentration at ion fluences of the order of 10 sup 1 sup 5 cm sup - sup 2. Analogous results were o...

  20. Mass measurements of exotic Ions in the heavy mass region for nuclear structure studies at ISOLTRAP

    CERN Document Server

    Borgmann, Christopher

    The mass is a unique fingerprint of each nucleus as it reflects the sum of all interactions within it. Comparing experimental mass values with theoretical calculations provides an important benchmark of how well the role of these interactions is already understood. By investigating differences of experimental binding energies, such as two-neutron separation energies (S$_{2n}$), valuable indications for nuclear-structure studies are provided. The present thesis contributes to these studies providing new high-precision mass measurements especially in the heavy-mass region. Here, nuclear theory is heavily challenged due to the large number of nucleons. The data have been obtained at the Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP located at the radioactive-ion-beam facility ISOLDE at CERN. For the determination of the masses, the time-of-flight ion-cyclotron-resonance technique has been applied. While the new mass data for $^{122−124}$Ag continue existing trends in the S$_{2n}$ energies, the new mass values for $...

  1. Finite Element Analysis for Satellite Structures Applications to Their Design, Manufacture and Testing

    CERN Document Server

    Abdelal, Gasser F; Gad, Ahmed H


    Designing satellite structures poses an ongoing challenge as the interaction between analysis, experimental testing, and manufacturing phases is underdeveloped. Finite Element Analysis for Satellite Structures: Applications to Their Design, Manufacture and Testing explains the theoretical and practical knowledge needed to perform design of satellite structures. By layering detailed practical discussions with fully developed examples, Finite Element Analysis for Satellite Structures: Applications to Their Design, Manufacture and Testing provides the missing link between theory and implementation.   Computational examples cover all the major aspects of advanced analysis; including modal analysis, harmonic analysis, mechanical and thermal fatigue analysis using finite element method. Test cases are included to support explanations an a range of different manufacturing simulation techniques are described from riveting to shot peening to material cutting. Mechanical design of a satellites structures are covered...

  2. Effect of Large Negative Phase of Blast Loading on Structural Response of RC Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Zubair Iman


    Full Text Available Structural response of reinforced concrete (RC elements for analysis and design are often obtained using the positive phase of the blast pressure curve disregarding the negative phase assuming insignificant contribution from the negative phase of the loading. Although, some insight on the effect of negative phase of blast pressure based on elastic single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF analysis was presented before, the influence of negative phase on different types of resistance functions of SDOF models and on realistic finite element analysis has not been explored. In this study, the effects of inclusion of pulse negative phase on structural response of RC elements from SDOF analysis and from more detailed finite element analysis have been investigated. Investigation of SDOF part has been conducted using MATLAB code that utilizes non-linear resistance functions of SDOF model. Detailed numerical investigation using finite element code DIANA was conducted on the significance of the negative phase on structural response. In the FE model, different support stiffness was used to explore the effect of support stiffness on the structural response due to blast negative phase. Results from SDOF and FE analyses present specific situations where the effect of large negative phase was found to be significant on the structural response of RC elements.

  3. The Burden of Binge and Heavy Drinking on the Brain: Effects on Adolescent and Young Adult Neural Structure and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Cservenka


    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescence and young adulthood are periods of continued biological and psychosocial maturation. Thus, there may be deleterious effects of consuming large quantities of alcohol on neural development and associated cognition during this time. The purpose of this mini review is to highlight neuroimaging research that has specifically examined the effects of binge and heavy drinking on adolescent and young adult brain structure and function.Methods: We review cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of young binge and heavy drinkers that have examined brain structure (e.g., gray and white matter volume, cortical thickness, white matter microstructure and investigated brain response using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI.Results: Binge and heavy-drinking adolescents and young adults have systematically thinner and lower volume in prefrontal cortex and cerebellar regions, and attenuated white matter development. They also show elevated brain activity in fronto-parietal regions during working memory, verbal learning, and inhibitory control tasks. In response to alcohol cues, relative to controls or light-drinking individuals, binge and heavy drinkers show increased neural response mainly in mesocorticolimbic regions, including the striatum, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, hippocampus, and amygdala. Mixed findings are present in risky decision-making tasks, which could be due to large variation in task design and analysis.Conclusions: These findings suggest altered neural structure and activity in binge and heavy-drinking youth may be related to the neurotoxic effects of consuming alcohol in large quantities during a highly plastic neurodevelopmental period, which could result in neural reorganization, and increased risk for developing an alcohol use disorder (AUD.

  4. Heavy Menstrual Bleeding (United States)

    ... can cause heavy bleeding. • Medications—Blood thinners and aspirin can cause heavy menstrual bleeding. The copper intrauterine ... on the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and other pelvic structures. Endometrium: The lining of the uterus. Fibroids: Growths, ...

  5. Batch leaching tests of motherboards to assess environmental contamination by bromine, platinum group elements and other selected heavy metals. (United States)

    Almeida, César; Grosselli, Melina; González, Patricia; Martínez, Dante; Gil, Raúl


    In this study, a batch leaching test was executed to evaluate the toxicity associated with chemicals contained in motherboards. The leaching solutions used were distilled water, nitric acid, acetic acid and synthetic acid rain solution. A total of 21 elements including Ag, As, Au, Br, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hf, Ir, Mn, Ni, Os, Pb, Pd, Pt, Rd, Rh, Se, U and Zn were analyzed. In this study, the pH values of all the leachates fell within the range of 2.33-4.88. The highest concentrations of metals were obtained from the acid rain solution, whilst the maximum value of bromine was achieved with solution of acetic acid. Appreciable concentrations of platinum group elements were detected with concentrations around 3.45, 1.43, 1.21 and 22.19 µg L(-1) for Ir, Pd, Pt and Rh, respectively. The different leaching of the motherboards revealed the predominant presence of the toxic substances in the leached from the e-waste. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Structures des fractions lourdes. Méthodes d'analyse et préparation des charges Structures of Heavy Fractions. Feedstock Analysis and Preparation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vercier P.


    Full Text Available Après avoir défini les termes fractions lourdes et pétroles bruts lourds, et avoir souligné l'intérêt économique qu'il y a à utiliser ces matériaux, on passera en revue les techniques analytiques disponibles pour aborder les difficiles problèmes technologiques que soulève l'emploi des équipements et des méthodes conventionnels. On montrera que les analystes auront besoin de techniques améliorées ou même entièrement nouvelles pour séparer ces produits en des fractions plus simples, susceptibles d'être alors analysées par les méthodes plus traditionnelles : distillation à haute température (jusqu'à 650 °C ; séparation en asphaltènes, résines et huile ; séparation en acides, bases, neutres, saturés, mono-, di-, poly-aromatiques ; analyses structurales (analyses élémentaires, détermination des masses moléculaires, spectrométrie de masse, RMN, pyrolyse et détection à l'aide de détecteurs spécifiques pour le soufre et l'azote. Comme le facteur temps est important dans les études pilote, il sera montré que la mise au point des méthodes rapides et modernes de chromatographie liquide sera l'objectif prioritaire de la recherche analytique dans le futur proche. After defining the terms heavy fractionsand heavy crudesand then stressing the economic interest there is in using such materials, a survey is made of the analytical techniques available for tackling the difficult technological problems arising from the use of conventional equipment and methods. It is shown that analysts will need improved or even completely new techniques for separating such products into simpler fractions so that they can be analyzed by more traditional methods, i. e. high-temperature distillation (up to 650°C; separation into asphaltenes, resins and oils; structural analyses (elemental analyses, determining molecular weights, mass spectrometry, NMR, pyrolysis and detection with specific sulfur and nitrogen detectors. Since the time

  7. Structure of Hybrid Interpolymeric Complexes of Polyvinyl Alcohol and Halides of Second Group Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Yu. Prosanov


    Full Text Available Density functional theory was used to investigate structure and properties of polyvinyl alcohol complexes with halides of second group elements XHal2 (X = Be, Mg, Ca, Zn, Sr, Cd, Ba, and Hg; Hal = F, Cl, Br, and I. PVA can form hybrid interpolymeric complexes with some of them. These complexes show double spiral structure of two types.

  8. Structural and Economic Viability of 2D/3D Finite Element Analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consequently, this paper examines the structural and economic viability of arched conical roof truss system based on 2D/3D finite element method analysis. Analysis of the results showed that truss members were subjected to higher axial forces in 2D analysis than 3D analysis, which will result to overdesign of the structural ...

  9. Finite element based electrostatic-structural coupled analysis with automated mesh morphing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    A co-simulation tool based on finite element principles has been developed to solve coupled electrostatic-structural problems. An automated mesh morphing algorithm has been employed to update the field mesh after structural deformation. The co-simulation tool has been successfully applied to the hysteric behavior of a MEMS switch.

  10. Molecules and Models The molecular structures of main group element compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Haaland, Arne


    This book provides a systematic description of the molecular structures and bonding in simple compounds of the main group elements with particular emphasis on bond distances, bond energies and coordination geometries. The description includes the structures of hydrogen, halogen and methyl derivatives of the elements in each group, some of these molecules are ionic, some polar covalent. The survey of molecules whose structures conform to well-established trends is followed byrepresentative examples of molecules that do not conform. We also describe electron donor-acceptor and hydrogen bonded co

  11. Finite Element Approach for Analyses of Flanking Noise Transmission within Lightweight Panel Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domadiya, Parthkumar Gandalal; Dickow, Kristoffer Ahrens; Andersen, Lars


    This paper concerns the analysis of noise transmission in a lightweight panel structure. The analysis is based on Finite Element Analysis (FEA) employing solid elements for the structure. The analysis focuses on flanking noise transmission in panel structures of finite size. A parametric study...... and different designs of the ribs regarding the energy contained within the panel strip. The paper presents an analysis of vibrational energy transmission for an isotropic periodic panel strip excited by a concentrated force. The computations are carried out in frequency domain in the range below 2 kHz....

  12. Adaptive Crack Modeling with Interface Solid Elements for Plain and Fiber Reinforced Concrete Structures. (United States)

    Zhan, Yijian; Meschke, Günther


    The effective analysis of the nonlinear behavior of cement-based engineering structures not only demands physically-reliable models, but also computationally-efficient algorithms. Based on a continuum interface element formulation that is suitable to capture complex cracking phenomena in concrete materials and structures, an adaptive mesh processing technique is proposed for computational simulations of plain and fiber-reinforced concrete structures to progressively disintegrate the initial finite element mesh and to add degenerated solid elements into the interfacial gaps. In comparison with the implementation where the entire mesh is processed prior to the computation, the proposed adaptive cracking model allows simulating the failure behavior of plain and fiber-reinforced concrete structures with remarkably reduced computational expense.

  13. Adaptive Crack Modeling with Interface Solid Elements for Plain and Fiber Reinforced Concrete Structures (United States)

    Zhan, Yijian


    The effective analysis of the nonlinear behavior of cement-based engineering structures not only demands physically-reliable models, but also computationally-efficient algorithms. Based on a continuum interface element formulation that is suitable to capture complex cracking phenomena in concrete materials and structures, an adaptive mesh processing technique is proposed for computational simulations of plain and fiber-reinforced concrete structures to progressively disintegrate the initial finite element mesh and to add degenerated solid elements into the interfacial gaps. In comparison with the implementation where the entire mesh is processed prior to the computation, the proposed adaptive cracking model allows simulating the failure behavior of plain and fiber-reinforced concrete structures with remarkably reduced computational expense. PMID:28773130

  14. Re-evaluation of interferences of doubly charged ions of heavy rare earth elements on Sr isotopic analysis using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (United States)

    Yang, Yue-Heng; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Xie, Lie-Wen; Chu, Zhu-Yin; Yang, Jin-Hui


    We re-evaluate the interference of doubly charged heavy rare earth elements during Sr isotopic analysis using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). A series of mixed solutions of standard reference material SRM 987, rare earth elements, and Sr separated from rock reference materials are measured to assess the influence of isobaric interferences on the MC-ICP-MS analysis of Sr isotopes. After sample dissolution, conventional cation-exchange chromatography is employed for Sr purification of rock reference materials prior to MC-ICP-MS measurement. It has been demonstrated that if the natural abundances of Er and Yb are used to correct for doubly charged ion interferences on Sr, an overcorrection results. In contrast, the use of measured doubly charged ion ratios results in an accurate and precise correction of isobaric interference. This finding is confirmed by analytical results for several certified reference materials from mafic (basaltic) to felsic (granitic) silicate rocks. It is noteworthy that, because Er is more prone to doubly charged ion formation, it dominates over Yb doubly charged ions as an interference source.

  15. Study the chemical composition and biological outcomes resulting from the interaction of the hormone adrenaline with heavy elements: Infrared, Raman, electronic, 1H NMR, XRD and SEM studies (United States)

    Ibrahim, Omar B.; Mohamed, Mahmoud A.; Refat, Moamen S.


    Heavy metal adrenaline complexes formed from the reaction of adrenaline with Al3+, Zn2+, Sn2+, Sb3+, Pb2+and Bi3+ ions in methanolic solvent at 60 °C. The final reaction products have been isolated and characterization using elemental analyses (% of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen), conductivity measurements, mid infrared, Raman laser, UV-Vis, 1H NMR spectra, X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Upon the spectroscopic, conductivity and elemental analyses, the stoichiometric reactions indicated that the data obtained refer to 1:2 (M:L) for Zn2+, Sn2+, Pb2+and Bi3+ complexes [Zn(Adr)2(Cl)2], [Sn(Adr)2]Cl2, [Pb(Adr)2](NO3)2 and [Bi(Adr)2(Cl)2]Cl, while the molar ratio 1:3 (M:L) for Al3+ and Sb3+ with formulas [Al(Adr)3](NO3)3 and [Sb(Adr)3]Cl3. The infrared and Raman laser spectra interpreted the mode of interactions which associated through the two phenolic groups of catechol moiety. The adrenaline chelates have been screened for their in vitro antibacterial activity against four bacteria, Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and two strains of fungus (Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans). The metal chelates were shown to possess more antibacterial and antifungal activities than the free adrenaline chelate.

  16. Airborne heavy metal pollution and its effects on foliar elemental composition of Empetrum hermaphroditum and Vaccinium myrtillus in Sør-Varanger, northern Norway. (United States)

    Uhlig, C; Junttila, O


    Uptake of Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Ca, K, Mg, P, and S in Empetrum nigrum L. ssp. hermaphroditum Hagerup and Vaccinium myrtillus L. from Ni, Cu and SO2 contaminated sites in Sør-Varanger, northern Norway, were investigated. The primary objective was to study the effect of airborne heavy metal pollution on foliar element composition of these two dwarf shrubs. Ni distribution and availability in soils clearly indicate atmospheric deposition of Ni particulates in Sør-Varanger. Foliar Ni concentrations in E. hermaphroditum and V. myrtillus increased in relation to plant available Ni in corresponding soils. Leaves of E. hermaphroditum generally contained higher concentrations of Ni than leaves of V. myrtillus. Emissions influenced some features of leaf elemental composition of the two species in very different ways. In leaves of V. myrtillus, S increased in proportion to Ni and Cu, while levels of Mn decreased. In leaves of E. hermaphroditum, Fe increased in proportion to Ni and Cu, while levels of Ca decreased.

  17. Abundances of the heavy elements in the Magellanic Clouds. I. Metal abundances of F-type supergiants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, S.C.; Bessell, M.S. (Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories, Canberra (Australia))


    Metal abundances of eight F-type supergiants in each of the Magellanic Clouds were determined using the results of high-resolution spectroscopy analysis of these stars, together with new Stromgren uvby and Cousins (1980) BVRI photometry. It was found that the mean Fe abundance (Fe/H) for the SMC is -0.65 + or - 0.2 dex, and the mean Fe abundance for the LMC is -0.30 + or - 0.2 dex. The abundances of stars in both the SMC and LMC appear relatively uniform, and the abundances of the elements relative to Fe are very similar in both Magellanic Clouds and in Canopus (the carbon-to-iron abundances are the same for all three). It was also found that Nd and Sm are overabundant in both clouds, supporting the trends found by Spite et al. (1988) for the three SMC stars they studied. 140 refs.

  18. Bioavailability of heavy metals, germanium and rare earth elements at Davidschacht dump-field in mine affected area of Freiberg (Saxony) (United States)

    Midula, Pavol; Wiche, Oliver


    Bioavailability research presents an essential tool, in modern phytoremediation and phytomining technologies, allowing the estimation of plant available fractions of elements in soils. However, up to date, sufficient interdisciplinary knowledge on the biogeochemically impacted behavior of specific target elements, in particular Ge and REEs in mining affected soils and their uptake into strategically used plants is lacking. This presented work is focused on a correlation study between the concentrations of selected heavy metals, Ge and REEs in soils formed on the top of the dump-field of Davidschacht and the corresponding their concentrations in 12 vascular plant species. The mine-dump of Davidschacht, situated in the Freiberg (Saxony, Germany) municipality area was chosen as the study area, which has been considered to be a high contaminated enclave, due to the mining history of the region. In total 12 sampling sites with differing composition of plant species were selected. At each sampling site soil samples from a soil depth of 0 - 10 cm and samples of plant material (shoots) were taken. The soil samples were analysed for total concentration of elements, pH (H2O) and consequently analysed by 4-step sequential extraction (SE) to determine fractions of elements that are mobile (fraction 1), acid soluble (pH 5) (fraction 2), bound to organic and oxidizable matter (fraction 3) and bound to amorphic oxides (fraction 4). The plant material was decomposed by hydrofluoric acid in order to extract the elements. Concentrations of elements in soil extracts and digestion solutions were analysed by ICP-MS. For all species bioconcentration factor (BCF) was calculated of the total concentration of elements in order to investigate the bioaccumulation potential. Arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were chosen as the representative heavy metals. Within the REEs neodymium (Nd) and cerium (Ce) were selected as representatives for all REEs, since Nd and Ce correlated significant

  19. Investor's and procurement guide South Africa. Pt. 1. Heavy minerals, rare earth elements, antimony

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graupner, Torsten; Schwarz-Schampera, Ulrich [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Berlin (Germany); Hammond, Napoleon Q.; Opperman, Rehan; Long' a Tongu, Elisa; Kenan, Abdul O.; Nondula, Unathi; Tsanwani, Matamba [Council for Geoscience (CGS), Pretoria (South Africa). Dept. of Mineral Resources Development; Liedke, Maren; Marbler, Herwig [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Berlin (Germany). Deutsche Rohstoffagentur (DERA)


    This is the first part of the ''Investor's and Procurement Guide South Africa'', a handbook for investing and doing business in South Africa's mineral industry. It is anticipated that this publication will aid potential investors into considering South Africa as an investment destination, not only for raw materials, but also for related industries. This manual supplements the many publications available on the economic geology and mineral wealth in South Africa and has been designed to guide prospective and current investors, suppliers and mine equipment exporters through the process of doing business in Africa's biggest and dynamic economy. As well as detailing the mineral raw materials heavy minerals, rare-earth metals and antimony, the handbook provides a general introduction to South Africa and its infrastructure, the economical, political and judicial frame of the South African mining industry and an overview of the economic geology. South Africa has a long and complex geological history which dates back in excess of 3.6 billion years. The country has a vast mineral wealth, undoubtedly due to the fact that a significant proportion of the Archaean and younger rocks have been preserved. The mining of the enormous Witwatersrand gold deposits, commencing in 1886, has led to the establishment of South Africa's well-developed infrastructure and to the sustained growth of an industrial and service sector in the country. With the world's largest resources of PGMs, gold, chromite, vanadium and manganese and significant resources of iron, coal and numerous other minerals and metals, the minerals industry will continue to play a pivotal role in the growth of South Africa's economy in the foreseeable future. South Africa is one of the top destinations in Africa for foreign direct investments. South African headquartered companies have been major investors into foreign direct investments on the African continent in the past

  20. Finite element model updating of concrete structures based on imprecise probability (United States)

    Biswal, S.; Ramaswamy, A.


    Imprecise probability based methods are developed in this study for the parameter estimation, in finite element model updating for concrete structures, when the measurements are imprecisely defined. Bayesian analysis using Metropolis Hastings algorithm for parameter estimation is generalized to incorporate the imprecision present in the prior distribution, in the likelihood function, and in the measured responses. Three different cases are considered (i) imprecision is present in the prior distribution and in the measurements only, (ii) imprecision is present in the parameters of the finite element model and in the measurement only, and (iii) imprecision is present in the prior distribution, in the parameters of the finite element model, and in the measurements. Procedures are also developed for integrating the imprecision in the parameters of the finite element model, in the finite element software Abaqus. The proposed methods are then verified against reinforced concrete beams and prestressed concrete beams tested in our laboratory as part of this study.

  1. Optimal Layout Design using the Element Connectivity Parameterization Method: Application to Three Dimensional Geometrical Nonlinear Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoon, Gil Ho; Joung, Young Soo; Kim, Yoon Young


    of freedom of the element-connectivity parameterizing links are eliminated in element level before the total system matrix is assembled. In terms of implementation, however, the E-ECP is easier to use because the sensitivity analysis in E-ECP does not require the explicit expression of the (tangent......The topology design optimization of “three-dimensional geometrically-nonlinear” continuum structures is still a difficult problem not only because of its problem size but also the occurrence of unstable continuum finite elements during the design optimization. To overcome this difficulty......) stiffness matrix of continuum finite elements. Therefore, any finite element code, including commercial codes, can be readily used for the ECP implementation. The key ideas and characteristics of these methods will be presented in this paper....

  2. Challenges in Integrating Nondestructive Evaluation and Finite Element Methods for Realistic Structural Analysis (United States)

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Baaklini, George Y.; Zagidulin, Dmitri; Rauser, Richard W.


    Capabilities and expertise related to the development of links between nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and finite element analysis (FEA) at Glenn Research Center (GRC) are demonstrated. Current tools to analyze data produced by computed tomography (CT) scans are exercised to help assess the damage state in high temperature structural composite materials. A utility translator was written to convert velocity (an image processing software) STL data file to a suitable CAD-FEA type file. Finite element analyses are carried out with MARC, a commercial nonlinear finite element code, and the analytical results are discussed. Modeling was established by building MSC/Patran (a pre and post processing finite element package) generated model and comparing it to a model generated by Velocity in conjunction with MSC/Patran Graphics. Modeling issues and results are discussed in this paper. The entire process that outlines the tie between the data extracted via NDE and the finite element modeling and analysis is fully described.

  3. Assessment of Structural Behavior of Non-corroded and Corroded RCC Beams Using Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Parande


    Full Text Available A three dimensional finite element model is developed to examine the structural behaviour of corroded reinforced concrete beam and non corroded reinforced concrete beam. Non linear finite element analysis is performed using the ANSYS program. SOLID 65, LINK 8 element represent concrete and discrete reinforcing steel bars, based on each component actual characteristics, non linear material properties are defined for both elements. The effect of corrosion in reinforced concrete is studied by finite element analysis; an approach is developed to model the corrosion product expansion causing concrete cover cracking for this, beam has been modeled using ANSYS and using this data the beam has been casted with M20 concrete after 28 days the beam will be tested for flexural strength. The comparison between ANSYS prediction and field data are made in terms of deflection, stress, strain, bond strength and crack pattern of concrete beam.

  4. Development of Practical Finite Element Models for Collapse of Reinforced Concrete Structures and Experimental Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Bermejo


    Full Text Available This paper describes two practical methodologies for modeling the collapse of reinforced concrete structures. They are validated with a real scale test of a two-floor structure which loses a bearing column. The objective is to achieve accurate simulations of collapse phenomena with moderate computational cost. Explicit finite element models are used with Lagrangian meshes, modeling concrete, and steel in a segregated manner. The first model uses 3D continuum finite elements for concrete and beams for steel bars, connected for displacement compatibility using a penalty method. The second model uses structural finite elements, shells for concrete, and beams for steel, connected in common nodes with an eccentricity formulation. Both are capable of simulating correctly the global behavior of the structural collapse. The continuum finite element model is more accurate for interpreting local failure but has an excessive computational cost for a complete building. The structural finite element model proposed has a moderate computational cost, yields sufficiently accurate results, and as a result is the recommended methodology.

  5. Kneelike structure in the spectrum of the heavy component of cosmic rays observed with KASCADE-Grande. (United States)

    Apel, W D; Arteaga-Velázquez, J C; Bekk, K; Bertaina, M; Blümer, J; Bozdog, H; Brancus, I M; Buchholz, P; Cantoni, E; Chiavassa, A; Cossavella, F; Daumiller, K; de Souza, V; Di Pierro, F; Doll, P; Engel, R; Engler, J; Finger, M; Fuhrmann, D; Ghia, P L; Gils, H J; Glasstetter, R; Grupen, C; Haungs, A; Heck, D; Hörandel, J R; Huber, D; Huege, T; Isar, P G; Kampert, K-H; Kang, D; Klages, H O; Link, K; Łuczak, P; Ludwig, M; Mathes, H J; Mayer, H J; Melissas, M; Milke, J; Mitrica, B; Morello, C; Navarra, G; Oehlschläger, J; Ostapchenko, S; Over, S; Palmieri, N; Petcu, M; Pierog, T; Rebel, H; Roth, M; Schieler, H; Schröder, F G; Sima, O; Toma, G; Trinchero, G C; Ulrich, H; Weindl, A; Wochele, J; Wommer, M; Zabierowski, J


    We report the observation of a steepening in the cosmic ray energy spectrum of heavy primary particles at about 8×10(16) eV. This structure is also seen in the all-particle energy spectrum, but is less significant. Whereas the "knee" of the cosmic ray spectrum at 3-5×10(15) eV was assigned to light primary masses by the KASCADE experiment, the new structure found by the KASCADE-Grande experiment is caused by heavy primaries. The result is obtained by independent measurements of the charged particle and muon components of the secondary particles of extensive air showers in the primary energy range of 10(16) to 10(18) eV. The data are analyzed on a single-event basis taking into account also the correlation of the two observables. © 2011 American Physical Society

  6. Structural analysis of composite wind turbine blades nonlinear mechanics and finite element models with material damping

    CERN Document Server

    Chortis, Dimitris I


    This book concerns the development of novel finite elements for the structural analysis of composite beams and blades. The introduction of material damping is also an important aspect of composite structures and it is presented here in terms of their static and dynamic behavior. The book thoroughly presents a new shear beam finite element, which entails new blade section mechanics, capable of predicting structural blade coupling due to composite coupling and/or internal section geometry. Theoretical background is further expanded towards the inclusion of nonlinear structural blade models and damping mechanics for composite structures. The models effectively include geometrically nonlinear terms due to large displacements and rotations, improve the modeling accuracy of very large flexible blades, and enable the modeling of rotational stiffening and buckling, as well as, nonlinear structural coupling. Validation simulations on specimen level study the geometric nonlinearities effect on the modal frequencies and...

  7. Quantitative Evaluation of Heavy Metals and Trace Elements in the Urinary Bladder: Comparison Between Cancerous, Adjacent Non-cancerous and Normal Cadaveric Tissue. (United States)

    Abdel-Gawad, Mahmoud; Elsobky, Emad; Shalaby, Mahmoud M; Abd-Elhameed, Mohamed; Abdel-Rahim, Mona; Ali-El-Dein, Bedeir


    The role of heavy metals and trace elements (HMTE) in the development of some cancers has been previously reported. Bladder carcinoma is a frequent malignancy of the urinary tract. The most common risk factors for bladder cancer are exposure to industrial carcinogens, cigarette smoking, gender, and possibly diet. The aim of this study was to evaluate HTME concentrations in the cancerous and adjacent non-cancerous tissues and compare them with those of normal cadaveric bladder. This prospective study included 102 paired samples of full-thickness cancer and adjacent non-cancerous bladder tissues of radical cystectomy (RC) specimens that were histologically proven as invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). We used 17 matched controls of non-malignant bladder tissue samples from cadavers. All samples were processed and evaluated for the concentration of 22 HMTE by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES). Outcome analysis was made by the Mann-Whitney U, chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis, and Wilcoxon signed ranks tests. When compared with cadaveric control or cancerous, the adjacent non-cancerous tissue had higher levels of six elements (arsenic, lead, selenium, strontium, zinc, and aluminum), and when compared with the control alone, it had a higher concentration of calcium, cadmium, chromium, potassium, magnesium, and nickel. The cancerous tissue had a higher concentration of cadmium, lead, chromium, calcium, potassium, phosphorous, magnesium, nickel, selenium, strontium, and zinc than cadaveric control. Boron level was higher in cadaveric control than cancerous and adjacent non-cancerous tissue. Cadmium level was higher in cancerous tissue with node-positive than node-negative cases. The high concentrations of cadmium, lead, chromium, nickel, and zinc, in the cancerous together with arsenic in the adjacent non-cancerous tissues of RC specimens suggest a pathogenic role of these elements in BC. However, further work-up is needed to support this

  8. Water contamination with heavy metals and trace elements from Kilembe copper mine and tailing sites in Western Uganda; implications for domestic water quality. (United States)

    Abraham, Mwesigye R; Susan, Tumwebaze B


    The mining and processing of copper in Kilembe, Western Uganda, from 1956 to 1982 left over 15 Mt of cupriferous and cobaltiferous pyrite dumped within a mountain river valley, in addition to mine water which is pumped to the land surface. This study was conducted to assess the sources and concentrations of heavy metals and trace elements in Kilembe mine catchment water. Multi-element analysis of trace elements from point sources and sinks was conducted which included mine tailings, mine water, mine leachate, Nyamwamba River water, public water sources and domestic water samples using ICP-MS. The study found that mean concentrations (mg kg-1) of Co (112), Cu (3320), Ni (131), As (8.6) in mine tailings were significantly higher than world average crust and were being eroded and discharged into water bodies within the catchment. Underground mine water and leachate contained higher mean concentrations (μg L-1) of Cu (9470), Co (3430) and Ni (590) compared with background concentrations (μg L-1) in un contaminated water of 1.9, 0.21 and 0.67 for Cu, Co and Ni respectively. Over 25% of household water samples exceeded UK drinking water thresholds for Al of 200 μg L-1, Co exceeded Winsconsin (USA drinking) water thresholds of 40 μg L-1 in 40% of samples while Fe in 42% of samples exceeded UK thresholds of 200 μg L-1. The study however found that besides mining activities, natural processes of geological weathering also contributed to Al, Fe, and Mn water contamination in a number of public water sources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Adaptive Finite Element Technology in Integrated Design and Analysis. [aircraft structures design (United States)

    Szabo, B. A.; Basu, P. K.; Dunavant, D. A.; Vasilopoulos, D.


    An assessment of the potential impact of adaptive finite element technology on the analysis part of the aircraft structural synthesis process is presented. The main conclusion is that adaptive application of the p-version of the finite element method based on indirect error estimation procedures results in substantial cost reduction and increased reliability of the computed data. Adaptivity based on direct a posteriori error estimation has the potential for additional savings.

  10. Parameterized Automated Generic Model for Aircraft Wing Structural Design and Mesh Generation for Finite Element Analysis


    Sohaib, Muhammad


    This master thesis work presents the development of a parameterized automated generic model for the structural design of an aircraft wing. Furthermore, in order to perform finite element analysis on the aircraft wing geometry, the process of finite element mesh generation is automated. Aircraft conceptual design is inherently a multi-disciplinary design process which involves a large number of disciplines and expertise. In this thesis work, it is investigated how high-end CAD software‟s can b...

  11. Stochastic Finite Element Analysis of Non-Linear Structures Modelled by Plasticity Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frier, Christian; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard


    A Finite Element Reliability Method (FERM) is introduced to perform reliability analyses on two-dimensional structures in plane stress, modeled by non-linear plasticity theory. FERM is a coupling between the First Order Reliability Method (FORM) and the Finite Element Method (FEM). FERM can be used...... Method (DDM), here adapted to work with a generally formulated plasticity based constitutive model. The approach is exemplified with a steel plate with a hole in bending subjected to a displacement based limit state function....

  12. Neuronal process structure and growth proteins are targets of heavy PTM regulation during brain development. (United States)

    Edwards, Alistair V G; Schwämmle, Veit; Larsen, Martin R


    Brain development is a process requiring precise control of many different cell types. One method to achieve this is through specific and temporally regulated modification of proteins in order to alter structure and function. Post-translational modification (PTM) of proteins is known to have wide-ranging and substantial effects on cellular function, both as part of signalling network modulation and more directly by modifying the function of key proteins. In this study, we show that PTM regulation is differentially targeted at different areas of the proteome, and that cytoskeletal proteins involved in neuronal process extension and maintenance are both more heavily modified and more frequently regulated at a PTM level. This suggests a clear role not only for PTMs in these processes, but possibly also for heavy protein modification in general. This study provides one of the most comprehensive sets of individual PTM site regulation data for mammalian brain tissue. This will provide a valuable resource for those wishing to perform comparisons or meta-analyses of large scale PTMomic data, as are becoming increasingly common. Furthermore, being focussed on protein-level events, this study also provides significant insight into detailed roles for individual modified proteins in the developing brain, helping to advance the understanding of the complex protein-driven processes that underlie development. Finally, the use of a novel bioinformatic analytical tool provides information regarding aspects of the PTMome which are not normally examined, and illuminates the role of PTMs on a more detailed, protein-centric and site-specific level in a biological context. The widespread yet uneven distributions observed will be relevant to those readers with an interest in the mechanisms of distribution of PTMS and their functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. On a finite dynamic element method for free vibration analysis of structures (United States)

    Gupta, K. K.


    This paper explores the concept of finite dynamic elements involving higher order dynamic correction terms in the associated stiffness and mass matrices. Such matrices are then developed for a rectangular prestressed membrane element. Next, efficient analysis techniques for the eigenproblem solution of the resulting quadratic matrix equations are described in detail. These are followed by suitable numerical examples which indicate that employment of such dynamic elements in conjunction with an efficient quadratic matric solution technique will result in a most significant economy in the free vibration analysis of structures.

  14. Uniform Distribution of Yttrium and Heavy Rare Earth Elements in Round Top Mountain Rhyolite Deposit , Sierra Blanca Texas, USA: Data, Significance, and Origin (United States)

    Pingitore, N. E., Jr.; Clague, J. W.; Gorski, D.


    The Round Top Mountain peraluminous rhyolite, exposed at the surface in Sierra Blanca, Hudspeth County, west Texas, USA, is enriched in yttrium and heavy rare earth elements (YHREEs). Other potentially valuable elements in the deposit include Be, Li, U, Th, Sn, F, Nb, and Ta. Texas Rare Earth Resources Corp. proposes to extract the YHREEs from the host mineral variety yttrofluorite by inexpensive heap leaching with dilute sulfuric acid, which also releases some of the Be, Li, U, F, and Th from other soluble minor minerals. Data: Feldspars and quartz comprise 90-95% of the rhyolite, with pheonocrysts of up to 250 microns set in an aphanitic matrix that hosts the typically sub-micron target yttrofluorite. Reverse circulation cuttings from some 100 drill holes, two drill cores, and outcrop and trench observations suggest striking physical homogeneity through this billion-plus ton surface-exposed laccolith, about 1200 feet high and a mile in diameter (375 x 1600 m). Gray to pink, and other minor hues, color variation derives from magnetite—hematite redox reaction. Plots of Y, 13 REEs, U, Th, and Nb analyses from over 1500 samples collected from 64 drill holes (color codes in figure) exhibit remarkably little variation in the concentration of these elements with geographic position or depth within the laccolith. Importance: Uniform mineralization grades help insure against the mining production surprises often associated with vein deposits and heterogeneous open pit deposits. At Round Top, mine feedstock can be relatively constant over the life of the mine (multiple decades), so the mechanical mining process can be optimized early on and not need expensive alterations later. Likewise, the chemical and physical parameters of the heap leach can be perfected. The sensitive and expensive process of extraction of elements and element groups from the pregnant leach solution and purification also can be optimized. Origin: The remarkable homogeneity of the YHREE distribution

  15. Ecotoxicological characteristic of a soil polluted by radioactive elements and heavy metals before and after its bioremediation (United States)

    Georgiev, P.; Groudev, S.; Spasova, I.; Nikolova, M.


    Cinnamon soils from southeastern Bulgaria are heavily polluted with radionuclides (uranium, radium) and toxic heavy metals (copper and lead) due to the winds transportation of fine particles from flotation dumps to the soil surface. As a result of this, the polluted soils are characterized by a slightly alkaline pH (7.82) and positive net neutralization potential (+136.8 kg CaCO3/t). A fresh sample of cinnamon soil was subjected to remediation under laboratory conditions in four lysimeters each containing 70 kg of soil. The preliminary study revealed that most of the pollutants were presented as carbonate, reducible and oxidisable mobility fractions, i.e. pollutants ions were specifically adsorbed by carbonate and ferric iron minerals or were capsulated in sulfides. The applied soil treatment was connected with leaching of the pollutants located mainly in the horizon A, their transportation through the soil profile as soluble forms, and their precipitation in the rich-in-clay subhorizon B3. The efficiency of leaching depended on the activity of the indigenous microflora and on the chemical processes connected with solubilization of pollutants and formation of stable complexes with some organic compounds, chloride and hydrocarbonate ions. These processes were considerably enhanced by adding hay to the horizon A and irrigating the soil with water solutions containing the above-mentioned ions and some nutrients. After 18 months of treatment, each of the soil profiles in the different lysimeters was divided into five sections reflecting the different soil layers. The soil in these sections was subjected to a detailed chemical analysis and the data obtained were compared with the relevant data obtained before the start of the experiment. The best leaching of pollutants from horizon A was measured in the variants where soil mulching was applied. For example, the best leaching of lead (54.5 %) was found in the variant combining this technique and irrigation with solutions

  16. Quasi one-dimensional electronic structure of ferromagnetic heavy fermion YbNi{sub 4}P{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedemann, Sven; Goh, Swee K.; Sutherland, Michael; Grosche, F. Malte [University of Cambridge, Cavendish Laboratory (United Kingdom); Krellner, Cornelius [Physikalisches Institut, Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Geibel, Christoph; Rosner, Helge; Brando, Manuel; Steglich, Frank [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Dresden (Germany)


    Quantum critical phenomena can be studied in great detail in lanthanide based heavy-fermion systems. Up to now, however, only materials with antiferromagnetic ground state were found. In the new heavy fermion material YbNi{sub 4}P{sub 2} a clear ferromagnetic transition is observed at T{sub C} = 0.17 K. YbNi{sub 4}P{sub 2} has the prospect for studying ferromagnetic quantum criticality. Above the transition temperature strong evidence is found for the vicinity of YbNi{sub 4}P{sub 2} to a quantum critical point: the specific heat diverges in a power-law form and the resistivity follows a linear temperature dependence. We present first Shubnikov-de Haas measurements in combination with electronic band structure calculations. The electronic structure is dominated by parallel disconnected sheets in accordance with the crystal structure featuring quasi-one-dimensional chains of Yb. The observed Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations are assigned to small quasi-two-dimensional portions of the Fermi surface. The experimentally observed mass enhancement of these orbits reflects the heavy-fermion character of YbNi{sub 4}P{sub 2}.

  17. Finite-element based perturbation analysis of wave propagation in nonlinear periodic structures (United States)

    Manktelow, Kevin; Narisetti, Raj K.; Leamy, Michael J.; Ruzzene, Massimo


    Wave propagation in continuous, periodic structures subject to weak nonlinearities is studied using a finite-element discretization of a single unit cell followed by a perturbation analysis. The dispersion analysis is integrated with commercial finite-element analysis (FEA) software to expedite nonlinear analysis of geometrically-complex unit cells. A simple continuous multilayer system is used to illustrate the principle aspects of the procedure. A periodic structure formed by membrane elements on nonlinear elastic supports is used to demonstrate the versatility of the procedure. Weakly nonlinear band diagrams are generated in which amplitude-dependent bandgaps and group velocities are identified. The nonlinear dispersion analysis procedure described, coupled with commercial FEA software, should facilitate the study of wave propagation in a wide-variety of geometrically-complex, nonlinear periodic structures.

  18. Shape and Stress Sensing of Multilayered Composite and Sandwich Structures Using an Inverse Finite Element Method (United States)

    Cerracchio, Priscilla; Gherlone, Marco; Di Sciuva, Marco; Tessler, Alexander


    The marked increase in the use of composite and sandwich material systems in aerospace, civil, and marine structures leads to the need for integrated Structural Health Management systems. A key capability to enable such systems is the real-time reconstruction of structural deformations, stresses, and failure criteria that are inferred from in-situ, discrete-location strain measurements. This technology is commonly referred to as shape- and stress-sensing. Presented herein is a computationally efficient shape- and stress-sensing methodology that is ideally suited for applications to laminated composite and sandwich structures. The new approach employs the inverse Finite Element Method (iFEM) as a general framework and the Refined Zigzag Theory (RZT) as the underlying plate theory. A three-node inverse plate finite element is formulated. The element formulation enables robust and efficient modeling of plate structures instrumented with strain sensors that have arbitrary positions. The methodology leads to a set of linear algebraic equations that are solved efficiently for the unknown nodal displacements. These displacements are then used at the finite element level to compute full-field strains, stresses, and failure criteria that are in turn used to assess structural integrity. Numerical results for multilayered, highly heterogeneous laminates demonstrate the unique capability of this new formulation for shape- and stress-sensing.

  19. Dynamic Shape Reconstruction of Three-Dimensional Frame Structures Using the Inverse Finite Element Method (United States)

    Gherlone, Marco; Cerracchio, Priscilla; Mattone, Massimiliano; Di Sciuva, Marco; Tessler, Alexander


    A robust and efficient computational method for reconstructing the three-dimensional displacement field of truss, beam, and frame structures, using measured surface-strain data, is presented. Known as shape sensing , this inverse problem has important implications for real-time actuation and control of smart structures, and for monitoring of structural integrity. The present formulation, based on the inverse Finite Element Method (iFEM), uses a least-squares variational principle involving strain measures of Timoshenko theory for stretching, torsion, bending, and transverse shear. Two inverse-frame finite elements are derived using interdependent interpolations whose interior degrees-of-freedom are condensed out at the element level. In addition, relationships between the order of kinematic-element interpolations and the number of required strain gauges are established. As an example problem, a thin-walled, circular cross-section cantilevered beam subjected to harmonic excitations in the presence of structural damping is modeled using iFEM; where, to simulate strain-gauge values and to provide reference displacements, a high-fidelity MSC/NASTRAN shell finite element model is used. Examples of low and high-frequency dynamic motion are analyzed and the solution accuracy examined with respect to various levels of discretization and the number of strain gauges.

  20. Mechanical properties of UO2 thin films under heavy ion irradiation using nanoindentation and finite element modeling (United States)

    Elbakhshwan, Mohamed S.; Miao, Yinbin; Stubbins, James F.; Heuser, Brent J.


    The mechanical response of UO2 to irradiation is becoming increasingly important due to the shift to higher burn-up rates in the next generation of nuclear reactors. In the current study, thin films of UO2 were deposited on YSZ substrates using reactive-gas magnetron sputtering. Nanoindentation was used to measure the mechanical properties of the as-grown and irradiated films. Finite element modeling was used to account for the substrate effect on the measurements. In order to study the effect of displacement cascades accompanying gas bubbles, 5000 Å UO2 films were irradiated with 600 keV Kr+ ions at 25 °C and 600 °C. These irradiation conditions were used to confine radiation damage effects and implanted gas within the film. Results showed an increase in the film hardness and yield strength with dose, while elastic modulus initially decreased with irradiation and then kept increasing with dose. The change in hardness and elastic modulus is attributed to the introduction of gas bubbles and displacement cascade damage. Irradiation at 600 °C resulted in a decrease in the hardness and elastic modulus after irradiation using 600 keV Kr+ at a dose of 1E14 ions/cm2. Both hardness and elastic modulus then increased with irradiation dose. This behavior is attributed to recrystallization during irradiation at 600 °C and the formation of nanocrystallite regions with diameter and density that increase with dose. The calculation of the critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) demonstrated that nanocrystals are the primary cause for film hardening based on the Orowan hardening mechanism.

  1. Mechanical properties of UO{sub 2} thin films under heavy ion irradiation using nanoindentation and finite element modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elbakhshwan, Mohamed S., E-mail:; Miao, Yinbin; Stubbins, James F.; Heuser, Brent J.


    The mechanical response of UO{sub 2} to irradiation is becoming increasingly important due to the shift to higher burn-up rates in the next generation of nuclear reactors. In the current study, thin films of UO{sub 2} were deposited on YSZ substrates using reactive-gas magnetron sputtering. Nanoindentation was used to measure the mechanical properties of the as-grown and irradiated films. Finite element modeling was used to account for the substrate effect on the measurements. In order to study the effect of displacement cascades accompanying gas bubbles, 5000 Å UO{sub 2} films were irradiated with 600 keV Kr{sup +} ions at 25 °C and 600 °C. These irradiation conditions were used to confine radiation damage effects and implanted gas within the film. Results showed an increase in the film hardness and yield strength with dose, while elastic modulus initially decreased with irradiation and then kept increasing with dose. The change in hardness and elastic modulus is attributed to the introduction of gas bubbles and displacement cascade damage. Irradiation at 600 °C resulted in a decrease in the hardness and elastic modulus after irradiation using 600 keV Kr{sup +} at a dose of 1E14 ions/cm{sup 2}. Both hardness and elastic modulus then increased with irradiation dose. This behavior is attributed to recrystallization during irradiation at 600 °C and the formation of nanocrystallite regions with diameter and density that increase with dose. The calculation of the critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) demonstrated that nanocrystals are the primary cause for film hardening based on the Orowan hardening mechanism.

  2. Structural Health Monitoring Using High-Density Fiber Optic Strain Sensor and Inverse Finite Element Methods (United States)

    Vazquez, Sixto L.; Tessler, Alexander; Quach, Cuong C.; Cooper, Eric G.; Parks, Jeffrey; Spangler, Jan L.


    In an effort to mitigate accidents due to system and component failure, NASA s Aviation Safety has partnered with industry, academia, and other governmental organizations to develop real-time, on-board monitoring capabilities and system performance models for early detection of airframe structure degradation. NASA Langley is investigating a structural health monitoring capability that uses a distributed fiber optic strain system and an inverse finite element method for measuring and modeling structural deformations. This report describes the constituent systems that enable this structural monitoring function and discusses results from laboratory tests using the fiber strain sensor system and the inverse finite element method to demonstrate structural deformation estimation on an instrumented test article


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Valvano


    Full Text Available In this paper a new plate finite element (FE for the analysis of composite and sandwich plates is proposed. By making use of the node-variable plate theory assumptions, the new finite element allows for a simultaneous analysis of different subregions of the problem domain with different kinematics and accuracy, in a global/local sense. In particular higher-order theories with an Equivalent-Single-Layer (ESL approach are simultaneously used with advanced Layer-Wise (LW models. As a consequence, the computational costs can be reduced drastically by assuming refined theories only in those zones/nodes of the structural domain where the resulting strain and stress states present a complex distribution. On the contrary, computationally cheaper, low-order kinematic assumptions can be used in the remaining parts of the plate where a localized detailed analysis is not necessary. The primary advantage of the present variable-kinematics element and related global/local approach is that no ad-hoc techniques and mathematical artifices are required to mix the fields coming from two different and kinematically incompatible adjacent elements, because the plate structural theory varies within the finite element itself. In other words, the structural theory of the plate element is a property of the FE node in this present approach, and the continuity between two adjacent elements is ensured by adopting the same kinematics at the interface nodes. According to the Unified Formulation by Carrera, the through-the-thickness unknowns are described by Taylor polynomial expansions with ESL approach and by Legendre polynomials with LW approach. Furthermore, the Mixed Interpolated Tensorial Components (MITC method is employed to contrast the shear locking phenomenon. Several numerical investigations are carried out to validate and demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the present plate element, including comparison with various closed-form and FE solutions from the

  4. [Effects of rare earth elements on soil fauna community structure and their ecotoxicity to Holotrichia parallela]. (United States)

    Li, Guiting; Jiang, Junqi; Chen, Jie; Zou, Yunding; Zhang, Xincai


    By the method of OECD filter paper contact, this paper studied the effects of applied rare earth elements on soil fauna community structure and their ecological toxicity to Holotrichia parallela in bean field. The results showed that there were no significant differences between the treatments and the control in soil fauna species, quantity of main species, and diversity index. Urgent and chronic toxic test showed that the differences between the treatments and the control were not significant. It was suggested that within the range of test dosages, rare earth elements had little ecological toxicity to Holotrichia parallela, and did not change the soil fauna community structure.

  5. The O(αs3) massive operator matrix elements of O(nf) for the structure function F2(x,Q2) and transversity (United States)

    Ablinger, J.; Blümlein, J.; Klein, S.; Schneider, C.; Wißbrock, F.


    The contributions ∝nf to the O(αs3) massive operator matrix elements describing the heavy flavor Wilson coefficients in the limit Q2≫m2 are computed for the structure function F2(x,Q2) and transversity for general values of the Mellin variable N. Here, for two matrix elements, Aqq,QPS(N) and Aqg,Q(N), the complete result is obtained. A first independent computation of the contributions to the 3-loop anomalous dimensions γqg(N), γqqPS(N), and γqqNS,(TR)(N) is given. In the computation advanced summation technologies for nested sums over products of hypergeometric terms with harmonic sums have been used. For intermediary results generalized harmonic sums occur, while the final results can be expressed by nested harmonic sums only. PMID:27293308

  6. From heavy nuclei to super-heavy nuclei; Des noyaux lourds aux super-lourds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theisen, Ch


    The existence of super-heavy nuclei has been predicted nearly fifty years ago. Due to the strong coulomb repulsion, the stabilisation of these nuclei is possible only through shell effects. The reasons for this fragile stability, as well as the theoretical predictions concerning the position of the island of stability are presented in the first part of this lecture. In the second part, experiments and experimental techniques which have been used to synthesize or search for super-heavy elements are described. Spectroscopic studies performed in very heavy elements are presented in the following section. We close this lecture with techniques that are currently being developed in order to reach the superheavy island and to study the structure of very-heavy nuclei. (author)

  7. Dynamic thermal wave response and propagation through building structures using infinite elements in time and frequency domain (United States)

    Kazakov, Konstantin S.; Stoynova, Iliana Y.


    This paper is devoted to a new approach the dynamic termal response and the factor of termal wave propagation through of complex building structure to be evaluated using infinite elements. The far field of such structures is discretized by decay or mapped infinite elements. These elements are appropriate for complex building structures, subjected to termal wave propagation and solved in time or frequency domain. Such infinite elements can be treated as new modified forms of the recently proposed by the first author infinite elements with united shape functions. In the research the time domain form of the equations is demonstrated and used in the numerical example. Only 2D horizontal type infinite elements is used, but by similar techniques 2D vertical and 2D corner infinite elements can also be formulated. The application of the proposed elements in the Finite element method is demonstrated in brief.

  8. On location of piezoelectric element in a smart-structure: numerical investigation and experiment (United States)

    Oshmarin, D.; Iurlov, M.


    In this paper, based on some example problems it was demonstrated that in examining the possibilities of smart structure applications, the matter of considerable researchers’ concern is the problem of location of piezoelectric elements in the structure to allow effective realization of its smart functions in the framework of the specified strategy of structure control and target purposes (vibration damping, defectoscopy, etc.) The numerical and experimental investigations have shown that for structures with the elements made of piezoelectric materials, it is more convenient to use as a parameter, specifying the best location of the piezoelectric element for damping the vibrations at the prescribed frequency, the coefficient of electromechanical coupling, which is evaluated by the values of eigenfrequencies of the structure in the short-circuit and open-circuit regimes. The values of eigenfrequencies of vibrations are evaluated by solving the problem of natural vibrations of electromechanical systems by the finite element method using the applied ANSYS package. The investigation were conducted for a thin-walled aluminum shell in the form of half-cylinder.

  9. Creating a Test-Validated Finite-Element Model of the X-56A Aircraft Structure (United States)

    Pak, Chan-Gi; Truong, Samson


    Small modeling errors in a finite-element model will eventually induce errors in the structural flexibility and mass, thus propagating into unpredictable errors in the unsteady aerodynamics and the control law design. One of the primary objectives of the X-56A Multi-Utility Technology Testbed aircraft is the flight demonstration of active flutter suppression and, therefore, in this study, the identification of the primary and secondary modes for the structural model tuning based on the flutter analysis of the X-56A aircraft. The ground-vibration test-validated structural dynamic finite-element model of the X-56A aircraft is created in this study. The structural dynamic finite-element model of the X-56A aircraft is improved using a model-tuning tool. In this study, two different weight configurations of the X-56A aircraft have been improved in a single optimization run. Frequency and the cross-orthogonality (mode shape) matrix were the primary focus for improvement, whereas other properties such as c.g. location, total weight, and off-diagonal terms of the mass orthogonality matrix were used as constraints. The end result was an improved structural dynamic finite-element model configuration for the X-56A aircraft. Improved frequencies and mode shapes in this study increased average flutter speeds of the X-56A aircraft by 7.6% compared to the baseline model.

  10. Creating a Test Validated Structural Dynamic Finite Element Model of the X-56A Aircraft (United States)

    Pak, Chan-Gi; Truong, Samson


    Small modeling errors in the finite element model will eventually induce errors in the structural flexibility and mass, thus propagating into unpredictable errors in the unsteady aerodynamics and the control law design. One of the primary objectives of the Multi Utility Technology Test-bed, X-56A aircraft, is the flight demonstration of active flutter suppression, and therefore in this study, the identification of the primary and secondary modes for the structural model tuning based on the flutter analysis of the X-56A aircraft. The ground vibration test-validated structural dynamic finite element model of the X-56A aircraft is created in this study. The structural dynamic finite element model of the X-56A aircraft is improved using a model tuning tool. In this study, two different weight configurations of the X-56A aircraft have been improved in a single optimization run. Frequency and the cross-orthogonality (mode shape) matrix were the primary focus for improvement, while other properties such as center of gravity location, total weight, and offdiagonal terms of the mass orthogonality matrix were used as constraints. The end result was a more improved and desirable structural dynamic finite element model configuration for the X-56A aircraft. Improved frequencies and mode shapes in this study increased average flutter speeds of the X-56A aircraft by 7.6% compared to the baseline model.

  11. Three Dimensional Viscous Finite Element Formulation For Acoustic Fluid Structure Interaction (United States)

    Cheng, Lei; White, Robert D.; Grosh, Karl


    A three dimensional viscous finite element model is presented in this paper for the analysis of the acoustic fluid structure interaction systems including, but not limited to, the cochlear-based transducers. The model consists of a three dimensional viscous acoustic fluid medium interacting with a two dimensional flat structure domain. The fluid field is governed by the linearized Navier-Stokes equation with the fluid displacements and the pressure chosen as independent variables. The mixed displacement/pressure based formulation is used in the fluid field in order to alleviate the locking in the nearly incompressible fluid. The structure is modeled as a Mindlin plate with or without residual stress. The Hinton-Huang’s 9-noded Lagrangian plate element is chosen in order to be compatible with 27/4 u/p fluid elements. The results from the full 3d FEM model are in good agreement with experimental results and other FEM results including Beltman’s thin film viscoacoustic element [2] and two and half dimensional inviscid elements [21]. Although it is computationally expensive, it provides a benchmark solution for other numerical models or approximations to compare to besides experiments and it is capable of modeling any irregular geometries and material properties while other numerical models may not be applicable. PMID:20174602


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef SZALA


    Full Text Available Calculation results are the base for evaluation of fatigue life of structural elements during machine design processes. It results from the fact that there are no material objects in the phase of existence of a product. Reliability of tests results is an essential element in the calculation fatigue life evaluation method and it can be evaluated by comparison of the results with experimental ones. In the paper there was performed an analysis of the chosen factors essentially influencing conformity of calculation results and experimental test ones connected with basic elements of a calculation algorithm including: - elaboration and analysis of service loadings of a structural element, - determination and analysis of cyclic properties of structural elements, - selection of fatigue damage accumulation hypothesis being a description of fatigue life processes. The mentioned analysis was illustrated with examples of fatigue life tests performed in the Machine Design Department of the University of Technology and Agriculture within the research grant no. 2221/B/T02/2010/39 financed by The Ministry of Science and Higher Education and National Science Centre.

  13. Vegetation structure and heavy metal uptake by plants in the mining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the plant species composition and the heavy metal uptake by plants in the mining-impacted and non mining-impacted areas of the southern Lake Victoria basin. The vegetation of the wetlands was stratified into riverine forest, riverine thickets, swampy grassland, open woodland and floodplain grassland ...

  14. Structural Anomaly Detection Using Fiber Optic Sensors and Inverse Finite Element Method (United States)

    Quach, Cuong C.; Vazquez, Sixto L.; Tessler, Alex; Moore, Jason P.; Cooper, Eric G.; Spangler, Jan. L.


    NASA Langley Research Center is investigating a variety of techniques for mitigating aircraft accidents due to structural component failure. One technique under consideration combines distributed fiber optic strain sensing with an inverse finite element method for detecting and characterizing structural anomalies anomalies that may provide early indication of airframe structure degradation. The technique identifies structural anomalies that result in observable changes in localized strain but do not impact the overall surface shape. Surface shape information is provided by an Inverse Finite Element Method that computes full-field displacements and internal loads using strain data from in-situ fiberoptic sensors. This paper describes a prototype of such a system and reports results from a series of laboratory tests conducted on a test coupon subjected to increasing levels of damage.

  15. Pounding Effects on the Earthquake Response of Adjacent Reinforced Concrete Structures Strengthened by Cable Elements (United States)

    Liolios, Angelos; Liolios, Asterios; Hatzigeorgiou, George; Radev, Stefan


    A numerical approach for estimating the effects of pounding (seismic interaction) on the response of adjacent Civil Engineering structures is presented. Emphasis is given to reinforced concrete (RC) frames of existing buildings which are seismically strengthened by cable-elements. A double discretization, in space by the Finite Element Method and in time by a direct incremental approach is used. The unilateral behaviours of both, the cable-elements and the interfaces contact-constraints, are taken strictly into account and result to inequality constitutive conditions. So, in each time-step, a non-convex linear complementarity problem is solved. It is found that pounding and cable strengthening have significant effects on the earthquake response and, hence, on the seismic upgrading of existing adjacent RC structures.

  16. High accuracy electromagnetic field solvers for cylindrical waveguides and axisymmetric structures using the finite element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Eric Michael [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)


    Some two-dimensional finite element electromagnetic field solvers are described and tested. For TE and TM modes in homogeneous cylindrical waveguides and monopole modes in homogeneous axisymmetric structures, the solvers find approximate solutions to a weak formulation of the wave equation. Second-order isoparametric lagrangian triangular elements represent the field. For multipole modes in axisymmetric structures, the solver finds approximate solutions to a weak form of the curl-curl formulation of Maxwell`s equations. Second-order triangular edge elements represent the radial (ρ) and axial (z) components of the field, while a second-order lagrangian basis represents the azimuthal (Φ) component of the field weighted by the radius ρ. A reduced set of basis functions is employed for elements touching the axis. With this basis the spurious modes of the curl-curl formulation have zero frequency, so spurious modes are easily distinguished from non-static physical modes. Tests on an annular ring, a pillbox and a sphere indicate the solutions converge rapidly as the mesh is refined. Computed eigenvalues with relative errors of less than a few parts per million are obtained. Boundary conditions for symmetric, periodic and symmetric-periodic structures are discussed and included in the field solver. Boundary conditions for structures with inversion symmetry are also discussed. Special corner elements are described and employed to improve the accuracy of cylindrical waveguide and monopole modes with singular fields at sharp corners. The field solver is applied to three problems: (1) cross-field amplifier slow-wave circuits, (2) a detuned disk-loaded waveguide linear accelerator structure and (3) a 90° overmoded waveguide bend. The detuned accelerator structure is a critical application of this high accuracy field solver. To maintain low long-range wakefields, tight design and manufacturing tolerances are required.

  17. Finite element analysis of a fluid-structure interaction in flexible pipe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The obtained mathematical system is constituted of four non-linear hyperbolic partial differential equations describing the wave propagation in both pipe wall and liquid flow. The fluid-structure interaction is found to be governed by Poisson's ratio. In this steady finite element method based on Galerkin formulation is applied.

  18. Functional analysis of the complex trans-activating response element RNA structure in simian immunodeficiency virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Centlivre, Mireille; Klaver, Bep; Berkhout, Ben; Das, Atze T.


    Transcription of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) is activated through binding of the viral Tat protein to the trans-activating response (TAR) element at the 5 ' end of the nascent transcript. Whereas HIV type 1 (HIV-1) TAR folds a simple hairpin structure,

  19. Topological Design for Acoustic-Structure Interaction Problems with a Mixed Finite Element Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoon, Gil Ho; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole


    to subdomain interfaces evolving during the optimization process. In this paper, we propose to use a mixed finite element formulation with displacements and pressure as primary variables (u/p formulation) which eliminates the need for explicit boundary representation. In order to describe the Helmholtz...... acoustic-structure interaction problems are optimized to show the validity of the proposed method....

  20. Structural analysis of the SNAP-8 developmental reactor fuel element cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalcher, A.W.


    Primary, secondary, and thermal stresses were calculated and evaluated for the SNAP-8 developmental reactor fuel element cladding. The effects of fabrication and assembly stresses, as well as test and operational stresses were included in the analysis. With the assumption that fuel-swelling-induced stresses are nil, the analytical results indicate that the cladding assembly is structurally adequate for the proposed operation.

  1. Asynchronous Communication: Investigating the Influences of Relational Elements and Background on the Framing Structure of Emails (United States)

    AlAfnan, Mohammad Awad


    This study explored the influences of relational elements and the background of communicators on the framing structure of email messages that were exchanged in an educational Institute in Malaysia. The investigation revealed that social distance played a more significant role than power relations as Malaysian respondents are, generally, more…

  2. DYCAST: A finite element program for the crash analysis of structures (United States)

    Pifko, A. B.; Winter, R.; Ogilvie, P.


    DYCAST is a nonlinear structural dynamic finite element computer code developed for crash simulation. The element library contains stringers, beams, membrane skin triangles, plate bending triangles and spring elements. Changing stiffnesses in the structure are accounted for by plasticity and very large deflections. Material nonlinearities are accommodated by one of three options: elastic-perfectly plastic, elastic-linear hardening plastic, or elastic-nonlinear hardening plastic of the Ramberg-Osgood type. Geometric nonlinearities are handled in an updated Lagrangian formulation by reforming the structure into its deformed shape after small time increments while accumulating deformations, strains, and forces. The nonlinearities due to combined loadings are maintained, and stiffness variation due to structural failures are computed. Numerical time integrators available are fixed-step central difference, modified Adams, Newmark-beta, and Wilson-theta. The last three have a variable time step capability, which is controlled internally by a solution convergence error measure. Other features include: multiple time-load history tables to subject the structure to time dependent loading; gravity loading; initial pitch, roll, yaw, and translation of the structural model with respect to the global system; a bandwidth optimizer as a pre-processor; and deformed plots and graphics as post-processors.

  3. Electronic Origin of the Orthorhombic Cmca Structure in Compressed Elements and Binary Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina F. Degtyareva


    Full Text Available Formation of the complex structure with 16 atoms in the orthorhombic cell, space group Cmca (Pearson symbol oC16, was experimentally found under high pressure in the alkali elements (K, Rb, Cs and polyvalent elements of groups IV (Si, Ge and V (Bi. Intermetallic phases with this structure form under pressure in binary Bi-based alloys (Bi-Sn, Bi-In, Bi-Pb. Stability of the Cmca-oC16 structure is analyzed within the nearly free-electron model in the frame of Fermi sphere-Brillouin zone interaction. A Brillouin-Jones zone formed by a group of strong diffraction reflections close to the Fermi sphere is the reason for the reduction of crystal energy and stabilization of the structure. This zone corresponds well to the four valence electrons in Si and Ge, and leads to assume an spd-hybridization for Bi. To explain the stabilization of this structure within the same model in alkali metals, that are monovalents at ambient conditions, a possibility of an overlap of the core, and valence band electrons at strong compression, is considered. The assumption of the increase in the number of valence electrons helps to understand sequences of complex structures in compressed alkali elements and unusual changes in their physical properties, such as electrical resistance and superconductivity.

  4. Alcohol culture, family structure and adolescent alcohol use: multilevel modeling of frequency of heavy drinking among 15-16 year old students in 11 European countries. (United States)

    Bjarnason, Thoroddur; Andersson, Barbro; Choquet, Marie; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Morgan, Mark; Rapinett, Gertrude


    Frequency of heavy alcohol use among adolescents is examined by family structure and propensity toward heavy alcohol use on the individual level, and by alcohol availability and drinking patterns among adolescents on the societal level. The analysis includes direct effects and moderating effects of societal-level indicators on individual-level associations between family structure and frequency of heavy alcohol use. The study drew upon self-reports from 34,001 students in Cyprus, France, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Lithuania, Malta, the Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Sweden and the United Kingdom participating in the 1999 European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs study. Distinctions were drawn between adolescents living with both parents, a single mother, a single father, a mother and stepfather, a father and stepmother, and neither biological parent. The multilevel analysis estimated the effects of societal-level factors on the intercepts and slopes of individual-level regression models. Adolescents living with both biological parents engaged less frequently in heavy alcohol use than those living in any other arrangements. Living with a single mother was associated with less heavy drinking than living with a single father or with neither biological parent. National beer sales figures and societal patterns of heavy adolescent alcohol use predicted more frequent heavy drinking and greater effects of living in nonintact families. Adolescent heavy drinking is more common in all types of nonintact families. The adverse effect of living in nonintact families is greater in societies where alcohol availability is greater and where adolescents drink more heavily.

  5. Study of the behaviour of some heavy elements in solvents containing hydrogen fluoride; Etude du comportement de quelques elements lourds dans des solvants a base d'acide fluorhydrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarnero, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    The anhydrous liquid mixtures: dinitrogen tetroxide-hydrogen fluoride and antimony pentafluoride-hydrogen fluoride were studied as solvents for heavy elements interesting nuclear energy: uranium, thorium, zirconium and for some of their compounds. For N{sub 2}O{sub 4}-HF mixtures, electric conductivity measurements and liquid phase infrared spectra were also obtained. Uranium and zirconium tetrafluoride are much more soluble in N{sub 2}O{sub 4}-HF mixtures than in pure hydrogen fluoride. Uranium dissolved in these mixtures is pentavalent. In SbF{sub 5}-HF mixtures, uranium dissolves with hydrogen evolution and becomes trivalent. The solid compound resulting from the dissolution is a fluoro-antimonate: U(SbF{sub 6}){sub 3}. (author) [French] On a etudie les melanges liquides anhydres: peroxyde d'azote-acide fluorhydrique et pentafluorure d'antimoine-acide fluorhydrique comme solvants d'elements lourds interessant l'energie nucleaire: uranium, thorium, zirconium et de quelques uns de leurs composes. Pour les melanges N{sub 2}O{sub 4}-HF on a egalement effectue des mesures de conductivite electrique, ainsi que des spectres d'absorption infrarouge en phase liquide. Le tetrafluorure d'uranium et le tetrafluorure de zirconium sont beaucoup plus solubles dans les melanges N{sub 2}O{sub 4}-HF que dans l'acide fluorhydrique. L'uranium dissous dans ces melanges est a l'etat pentavalent. Dans les melanges SbF{sub 5}-HF l'uranium se dissout avec degagement d'hydrogene et passe a l'etat trivalent. Le compose solide resultant de la dissolution est un fluoantimoniate: U(SbF{sub 6}){sub 3}. (auteur)

  6. Top Quark Produced Through the Electroweak Force: Discovery Using the Matrix Element Analysis and Search for Heavy Gauge Bosons Using Boosted Decision Trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pangilinan, Monica [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States)


    The top quark produced through the electroweak channel provides a direct measurement of the Vtb element in the CKM matrix which can be viewed as a transition rate of a top quark to a bottom quark. This production channel of top quark is also sensitive to different theories beyond the Standard Model such as heavy charged gauged bosons termed W'. This thesis measures the cross section of the electroweak produced top quark using a technique based on using the matrix elements of the processes under consideration. The technique is applied to 2.3 fb-1 of data from the D0 detector. From a comparison of the matrix element discriminants between data and the signal and background model using Bayesian statistics, we measure the cross section of the top quark produced through the electroweak mechanism σ(p$\\bar{p}$ → tb + X, tqb + X) = 4.30-1.20+0.98 pb. The measured result corresponds to a 4.9σ Gaussian-equivalent significance. By combining this analysis with other analyses based on the Bayesian Neural Network (BNN) and Boosted Decision Tree (BDT) method, the measured cross section is 3.94 ± 0.88 pb with a significance of 5.0σ, resulting in the discovery of electroweak produced top quarks. Using this measured cross section and constraining |Vtb| < 1, the 95% confidence level (C.L.) lower limit is |Vtb| > 0.78. Additionally, a search is made for the production of W' using the same samples from the electroweak produced top quark. An analysis based on the BDT method is used to separate the signal from expected backgrounds. No significant excess is found and 95% C.L. upper limits on the production cross section are set for W' with masses within 600-950 GeV. For four general models of W{prime} boson production using decay channel W' → t$\\bar{p}$, the lower mass limits are the following: M(W'L with SM couplings) > 840 GeV; M(W'R) > 880 GeV or 890 GeV if the

  7. Micro-distribution of heavy rare earth elements in Round Top Mountain rhyolite deposit (Hudspeth County, Texas, USA) by EPMA mapping (United States)

    Pingitore, N. E., Jr.; Piranian, M.; Amaya, M. A.; Negron, L. M.; Gorski, D.


    Round Top Mountain, west Texas, USA, is composed almost entirely of peraluminous rhyolite, with pervasive low-grade enrichment in yttrium and heavy rare earth elements (Y+HREEs). The exposed rhyolite laccolith also contains Li, Be, U, Th, Nb, Ta, Ga, Rb, Cs, Sn, and F. The valuable Y+HREEs are hosted in yttrofluorite, which is soluble in dilute sulfuric acid. Texas Rare Earth Resources, Inc. proposes to surface mine, crush, and heap leach the massive, 109ton deposit. The distribution of Y+HREEs, and that of other trace elements, is remarkably homogeneous at outcrop drill hole scale (Pingitore et al., FM14-V23D-4827: Uniform Distribution of Yttrium…). Here we document that Y+HREE mineralization appears pervasive through the rhyolite at a sub-millimeter scale. We examined 15 thin sections of rhyolite fragments randomly selected from a composite sample produced by mixing several hundred kg of aliquot material recovered from >100 reverse circulation drill holes scattered across much of the mountain. A total of 16 elements (Y, Dy, Yb, F, U, Th, Nb, Sn, Zr, Rb, Ca, Na, K, Fe, Al, Si) plus back scattered electron image were mapped in WDS mode by stage raster across a 2 x 2 mm field at 516 x 516 pixel resolution on a Cameca SX-100 class EPMA. Typical maps revealed 5-10 grains that contained Y + Dy + Yb; most also contained F and Ca, indicating yttrofluorite mineralogy. Most grains were under 10 μm in 2-D size. We view this 5-10 grain figure of merit as a minimum number of target grains since we employed a conservative approach to their identification. This finding suggests that a 1 mm cube of the rhyolite contains 250-500 target grains (assuming that the EPMA sampled to a depth of 5 μm and that sampled grains did not extend below that depth in size). Viewed from a mining processing standpoint, each particle for the anticipated heap leach, with a nominal crush size of ½ to 1 inch (13-26 mm), would contain on the order of 250,000 to 500,000 target microscopic mineral

  8. Predictions of adsorption behaviour of the heaviest elements in a comparative study from the electronic structure calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pershina, V. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)


    Thermodynamics of adsorption of gaseous species on the surface of a gas chromatography column is considered using the knowledge of the electronic structure of the adsorbate. Relevant equations based on a model of mobile adsorption are offered to predict the adsorption temperature, T{sub ads}, of a heavy-element (or its compound) with respect to T{sub ads} of its lighter homolog (or the same type of compound). A case of adsorption of OsO{sub 4} and HsO{sub 4} on an inert (quartz or silicon nitride) surface of a chromatography column is taken, as an example. The influence of various properties of the adsorbate, such as molecular weight and size, on T{sub ads} is analyzed to show that those factors should not be ignored in intentionally accurate predictions of T{sub ads}. A comparison of the desorption constants of OsO{sub 4} and HsO{sub 4} obtained with the use of the calculated spectroscopic properties shows that HsO{sub 4} should be significantly more volatile than OsO{sub 4}, mainly due to the entropy factor. (orig.)

  9. Algorithms and data structures for massively parallel generic adaptive finite element codes

    KAUST Repository

    Bangerth, Wolfgang


    Today\\'s largest supercomputers have 100,000s of processor cores and offer the potential to solve partial differential equations discretized by billions of unknowns. However, the complexity of scaling to such large machines and problem sizes has so far prevented the emergence of generic software libraries that support such computations, although these would lower the threshold of entry and enable many more applications to benefit from large-scale computing. We are concerned with providing this functionality for mesh-adaptive finite element computations. We assume the existence of an "oracle" that implements the generation and modification of an adaptive mesh distributed across many processors, and that responds to queries about its structure. Based on querying the oracle, we develop scalable algorithms and data structures for generic finite element methods. Specifically, we consider the parallel distribution of mesh data, global enumeration of degrees of freedom, constraints, and postprocessing. Our algorithms remove the bottlenecks that typically limit large-scale adaptive finite element analyses. We demonstrate scalability of complete finite element workflows on up to 16,384 processors. An implementation of the proposed algorithms, based on the open source software p4est as mesh oracle, is provided under an open source license through the widely used deal.II finite element software library. © 2011 ACM 0098-3500/2011/12-ART10 $10.00.

  10. Handbook of the band structure of elemental solids from Z = 1 to Z = 112

    CERN Document Server

    Papaconstantopoulos, Dimitris A


    This handbook presents electronic structure data and tabulations of Slater-Koster parameters for the whole periodic table. This second edition presents data sets for all elements up to Z = 112, Copernicium, whereas the first edition contained only 53 elements. In this new edition, results are given for the equation of state of the elements together with the parameters of a Birch fit, so that the reader can regenerate the results and derive additional information, such as Pressure-Volume relations and variation of Bulk Modulus with Pressure. For each element, in addition to the equation of state, the energy bands, densities of states, and a set of tight-binding parameters is provided. For a majority of elements, the tight-binding parameters are presented for both a two- and three-center approximation. For the hcp structure, new three-center tight-binding results are given. Other new material in this edition include: energy bands and densities of states of all rare-earth metals, a discussion of the McMillan-Gas...

  11. Comparative structural morphometry and elemental composition of three marine sponges from western coast of India. (United States)

    Kumar, Maushmi S; Shah, Bhaumik


    Three marine sponges Halichondria glabrata, Cliono lobata, and Spirastrella pachyspira from the western coastal region of India were compared for their morphometry, biochemical, and elemental composition. One-way analysis of variance was applied for spicule morphometry results. Length, width, and length:width ratio were calculated independently. The ratio of length:width varied from 35 to 42 among the grown samples, which remained in the range of 10-22 in young sample at the beginning of studies. However, no significant change was observed in spicule width compared to length. Elemental compositions of marine sponges were determined by field emission gun-scanning electron microscope. Scanning electron microscopy data revealed that the spicules of all the three sponges were mostly composed of O (47-56%) and Si (30-40%), whereas Al (14.33%) was only detected in the spicules of C. lobata. Apart from these, K, Ni, Ca, Fe, Mg, Na, and S were additionally detected in all the three samples. Presence of heavy metals in the sponges was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. Results showed that iron was present in a large amount in samples, followed by zinc, lead, and copper. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Finite Elements Based on Strong and Weak Formulations for Structural Mechanics: Stability, Accuracy and Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Tornabene


    Full Text Available The authors are presenting a novel formulation based on the Differential Quadrature (DQ method which is used to approximate derivatives and integrals. The resulting scheme has been termed strong and weak form finite elements (SFEM or WFEM, according to the numerical scheme employed in the computation. Such numerical methods are applied to solve some structural problems related to the mechanical behavior of plates and shells, made of isotropic or composite materials. The main differences between these two approaches rely on the initial formulation – which is strong or weak (variational – and the implementation of the boundary conditions, that for the former include the continuity of stresses and displacements, whereas in the latter can consider the continuity of the displacements or both. The two methodologies consider also a mapping technique to transform an element of general shape described in Cartesian coordinates into the same element in the computational space. Such technique can be implemented by employing the classic Lagrangian-shaped elements with a fixed number of nodes along the element edges or blending functions which allow an “exact mapping” of the element. In particular, the authors are employing NURBS (Not-Uniform Rational B-Splines for such nonlinear mapping in order to use the “exact” shape of CAD designs.

  13. A Signal Based Triangular Structuring Element for Mathematical Morphological Analysis and Its Application in Rolling Element Bearing Fault Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaowen Chen


    Full Text Available Mathematical morphology (MM is an efficient nonlinear signal processing tool. It can be adopted to extract fault information from bearing signal according to a structuring element (SE. Since the bearing signal features differ for every unique cause of failure, the SEs should be well tailored to extract the fault feature from a particular signal. In the following, a signal based triangular SE according to the statistics of the magnitude of a vibration signal is proposed, together with associated methodology, which processes the bearing signal by MM analysis based on proposed SE to get the morphology spectrum of a signal. A correlation analysis on morphology spectrum is then employed to obtain the final classification of bearing faults. The classification performance of the proposed method is evaluated by a set of bearing vibration signals with inner race, ball, and outer race faults, respectively. Results show that all faults can be detected clearly and correctly. Compared with a commonly used flat SE, the correlation analysis on morphology spectrum with proposed SE gives better performance at fault diagnosis of bearing, especially the identification of the location of outer race fault and the level of fault severity.

  14. Industrial approach to static and dynamic finite element modeling of composite structures with embedded actuators (United States)

    Hauch, Randall M.


    A finite element modeling technique has been developed to accurately predict both the static and dynamic response of a structure containing embedded piezoelectric actuators. This process utilizes a commercially available and benchmarked finite element program and can be used with shell or solid elements in any static analysis, time-domain or frequency-domain dynamic analysis. It is possible to apply the piezoelectric loads while simultaneously applying other mechanical or thermal loads even though the induced strain of the piezoelectric actuators is modeled using thermal expansion. The technique uses superelements to apply the thermal loads at any frequency and magnitude and to incorporate a fine mesh near the actuator even if a course mesh is used over the remaining portions of the structure. The technique's generic and modular nature allows a complex actuator superelement to be used multiple times in multiple smart structure models. Experiments conducted on composite coupons with embedded actuators validate the current modeling technique and demonstrate the method's successful prediction of the dynamic response of the specimens. This process is one of several smart structure modeling techniques being developed under the Synthesis and Processing of Intelligent Cost Effective Structures program sponsored by the Advanced Research Projects Agency.

  15. Numerical investigation of soil and buried structures using finite element analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Shirzad Shahrivar


    Full Text Available Today the important of studying soil effect on behavior of soil  contacted structures such as foundations, piles,  retaining wall and other similar structures is so much that neglecting of soil-structure interaction effect can cause to untrue results. In this paper soil-structure interaction simulation was done by using Finite element method analysis with ABAQUS version 6.13-14.The results has been presented based on pile function in contact with soil, vertical stresses in soil and structures, pore pressure in drained and undrained condition and underground water level.Final conclusions revealed that pore pressure effect is not uniform on all parts of pile and amount of pore pressure increment in top elements is lower than down elements of  pile.Further it was proven that average amount of vertical stress on end of pile is    of this stress on top of the pile. thus it was concluded that 70% of pile bearing capacity is depend on friction of soil and pile contact surface.

  16. Text localization using standard deviation analysis of structure elements and support vector machines (United States)

    Zagoris, Konstantinos; Chatzichristofis, Savvas A.; Papamarkos, Nikos


    A text localization technique is required to successfully exploit document images such as technical articles and letters. The proposed method detects and extracts text areas from document images. Initially a connected components analysis technique detects blocks of foreground objects. Then, a descriptor that consists of a set of suitable document structure elements is extracted from the blocks. This is achieved by incorporating an algorithm called Standard Deviation Analysis of Structure Elements (SDASE) which maximizes the separability between the blocks. Another feature of the SDASE is that its length adapts according to the requirements of the application. Finally, the descriptor of each block is used as input to a trained support vector machines that classify the block as text or not. The proposed technique is also capable of adjusting to the text structure of the documents. Experimental results on benchmarking databases demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  17. Finite element modelling of crash response of composite aerospace sub-floor structures (United States)

    McCarthy, M. A.; Harte, C. G.; Wiggenraad, J. F. M.; Michielsen, A. L. P. J.; Kohlgrüber, D.; Kamoulakos, A.

    Composite energy-absorbing structures for use in aircraft are being studied within a European Commission research programme (CRASURV - Design for Crash Survivability). One of the aims of the project is to evaluate the current capabilities of crashworthiness simulation codes for composites modelling. This paper focuses on the computational analysis using explicit finite element analysis, of a number of quasi-static and dynamic tests carried out within the programme. It describes the design of the structures, the analysis techniques used, and the results of the analyses in comparison to the experimental test results. It has been found that current multi-ply shell models are capable of modelling the main energy-absorbing processes at work in such structures. However some deficiencies exist, particularly in modelling fabric composites. Developments within the finite element code are taking place as a result of this work which will enable better representation of composite fabrics.

  18. Studying the capture cross sections of structural elements by measuring neutron balance in multiplying media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golubev, V.N.; Dulin, V.A.; Kazanskij, Yu.A.


    To refine neutron capture cross sections for structural elements used in fast power reactors the neutron balance in multiplying media with neutron multiplication factor K/sub infinity/=1 has been studied at KBR and ERMINE critical assemblies. Reactivity of multiplying cells consisting of uranium and structural elements is measured as well as reactivity coefficients of individual structural materials. Corresponding calculations are performed using the versions of group constants applied in designing the fast reactors in the USSR and France. The CARNAVAL 4 constant version predicts well a fraction of neutron absorptions in steel and nickel for the spectra typical for a power reactor (ERMINE assembly). For softer spectra (KBR assembly) the agreement with experiment is better when the BNAB-78 constant version is used.

  19. Text localization using standard deviation analysis of structure elements and support vector machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zagoris Konstantinos


    Full Text Available Abstract A text localization technique is required to successfully exploit document images such as technical articles and letters. The proposed method detects and extracts text areas from document images. Initially a connected components analysis technique detects blocks of foreground objects. Then, a descriptor that consists of a set of suitable document structure elements is extracted from the blocks. This is achieved by incorporating an algorithm called Standard Deviation Analysis of Structure Elements (SDASE which maximizes the separability between the blocks. Another feature of the SDASE is that its length adapts according to the requirements of the application. Finally, the descriptor of each block is used as input to a trained support vector machines that classify the block as text or not. The proposed technique is also capable of adjusting to the text structure of the documents. Experimental results on benchmarking databases demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  20. Influence of Finite Element Size in Residual Strength Prediction of Composite Structures (United States)

    Satyanarayana, Arunkumar; Bogert, Philip B.; Karayev, Kazbek Z.; Nordman, Paul S.; Razi, Hamid


    The sensitivity of failure load to the element size used in a progressive failure analysis (PFA) of carbon composite center notched laminates is evaluated. The sensitivity study employs a PFA methodology previously developed by the authors consisting of Hashin-Rotem intra-laminar fiber and matrix failure criteria and a complete stress degradation scheme for damage simulation. The approach is implemented with a user defined subroutine in the ABAQUS/Explicit finite element package. The effect of element size near the notch tips on residual strength predictions was assessed for a brittle failure mode with a parametric study that included three laminates of varying material system, thickness and stacking sequence. The study resulted in the selection of an element size of 0.09 in. X 0.09 in., which was later used for predicting crack paths and failure loads in sandwich panels and monolithic laminated panels. Comparison of predicted crack paths and failure loads for these panels agreed well with experimental observations. Additionally, the element size vs. normalized failure load relationship, determined in the parametric study, was used to evaluate strength-scaling factors for three different element sizes. The failure loads predicted with all three element sizes provided converged failure loads with respect to that corresponding with the 0.09 in. X 0.09 in. element size. Though preliminary in nature, the strength-scaling concept has the potential to greatly reduce the computational time required for PFA and can enable the analysis of large scale structural components where failure is dominated by fiber failure in tension.

  1. Development of a microbeam PIXE system for additive light elements in structural materials (United States)

    Yamazaki, A.; Sasa, K.; Ishii, S.; Kurosawa, M.; Tomita, S.; Shiina, Y.; Shiki, S.; Fujii, G.; Ukibe, M.; Ohkubo, M.; Uedono, A.; Kita, E.


    A new submicron scanning nuclear microprobe beam line was constructed in early 2016 at the accelerator facility of the University of Tsukuba, Japan. A microbeam scanning endstage (OM-2000, Oxford Microbeams, Oxford, UK) was installed at the end of this system. The distance from the object slit to the target position is 8730 mm and the working distance is 180 mm. This ion microbeam system will be used mainly for X-ray imaging of two-dimensional distributions of light elements in structural materials using particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). A silicon drift detector (SDD) with a thin window of Si3N4 was installed to detect characteristic X-rays emitted from light elements such as B, C, and N, which are common additive elements in structural materials. In addition, a superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) array detector is going to be installed to perform PIXE measurements more efficiently. By combining a microbeam scanning technology with the X-ray detectors, we plan to obtain two-dimensional maps of additive light elements in structural materials. Experiments for obtaining proton microbeams are ongoing, and a 6 MeV proton beam with a diameter of between 12 and 20 μm has been obtained to date.

  2. A multi-mesh finite element method for phase-field based photonic band structure optimization (United States)

    Wu, Shengyang; Hu, Xianliang; Zhu, Shengfeng


    A novel finite element method with multiple meshes is proposed, which is applied to solve the phase-field models for photonic band structures optimization. In our approach, fine meshes are used for the phase field evolution, which allows fine resolution for shape representations. The coarse meshes are adopted for the finite element analysis of the state equation. Such a multi-mesh approach could save a considerable amount of computational costs. Numerical convergence is illustrated through comparisons between our computational results and benchmarks. The efficiency and robustness of the multi-mesh approach are also shown.

  3. Effect of alkaline elements on the reactivity, strength and structural properties of blast furnace cokes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bhattacharyya


    Full Text Available The present study concerns itself on the adverse effects of alkaline elements like sodium and potassium on blast furnace cokes. To achieve a deeper insight on the effects of alkaline elements on coke reactivity and strength, industrial coke samples impregnated with different alkaline species in various amounts have been tested under standard conditions to find out their Coke Reactivity Index (CRI and Coke Strength after Reaction (CSR values. Scanning electron microscopy, petrographic and Raman Spectrometric investigations demonstrate the change of structural properties. The mechanism of catalysis has been postulated.

  4. Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Electronic Structure of Heavy GroupIV-VI Diatomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, L.-S.; Niu, B.; Lee, Yuan T.; Shirley, D.A.; Balasubramanian, K.


    Vibrationally-resolved HeI (584{angstrom}) photoelectron spectra of the heavy group IV-VI diatomics SnSe, SnTe, PbSe, and PbTe were obtained with a new high temperature molecular beam source. Ionization potentials and spectroscopic constants are reported for all the ionic states observed. Relativistic complete active space MCSCF followed by multireference singles + doubles relativistic CI calculations which included up to 200,000 configurations were made on both the neutral diatomics and their positive ions. Ionization potentials and spectroscopic constants were calculated and were in good agreement with the experimentally-measured values. Relativistic CI potential energy curves were calculated for all the neutral ground states and the ionic states involved. Relativistic effects were shown to play an important role in these heavy diatomics. The {sup 2}{Sigma}{sub 1/2}{sup +} and {sup 2}{Pi}{sub 1/2} states for all four molecular ions showed avoided curve crossings, which resulted in pronounced shoulders in the {Omega} = 1/2 potential energy curves of PbTe{sup +}. Experimentally, autoionization transitions were also observed for the PbTe{sup +} spectrum. The importance of the relativistic effect and chemical bonding in the heavy diatomics are discussed.

  5. The structure function of semi-inclusive heavy flavour decays in field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Aglietti, U; Aglietti, Ugo; Ricciardi, Giulia


    We consider the decay of a heavy flavour into an inclusive hadronic state X of invariant mass m_X small with respect to its energy E_X, m_X u decays, or the photon spectrum in b -> s gamma decays, all require, close to their endpoints, a control over this region. This region is affected both by non-perturbative phenomena related to the Fermi motion of the heavy quark and by perturbative soft gluon radiation in the final state (Sudakov form factor). Fermi motion can be described by the shape function f (m_*), which represents the distribution of the effective mass m_* of the heavy quark at disintegration time. We perform a factorization with a simple technique in order to consistently separate perturbative from non-perturbative effects. We find that the shape function, contrary to naive expectations, is not a physical distribution, as it is affected by substantial regularization scheme effects, controlling even the leading, double-logarithmic term. It factorizes, however, the bulk of non-perturbative effects ...

  6. The structure function of semi-inclusive heavy flavour decays in field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Aglietti, U


    We consider the decay of a heavy flavour into an inclusive hadronic state X of invariant mass m/sub X/ small with respect to its energy E /sub X/, m/sub X/<heavy quark and by perturbative soft gluon radiation in the final state (Sudakov form factor). Fermi motion can be described by the shape function f(m*), which represents the distribution of the effective mass m* of the heavy quark at disintegration time. We perform a factorization with a simple technique in order to consistently separate perturbative from non-perturbative effects. We find that the shape function, contrary to naive expectations, is not a physical distribution, as it is affected by substantial regularization scheme effects, controlli...

  7. Structural, thermal and optical absorption features of heavy metal oxides doped tellurite rich glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawa M. Kaky

    Full Text Available In order to improve tellurite glass stability to be applicable for optical fiber amplifier applications, glasses with the composition of (70 − xTeO2. (10ZnO. (10WO3. (5Na2O. (5TiO2. (xBi2O3 (x = 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 mol% have been produced and characterized using the related methods. Structural properties were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD which confirms the non-crystalline structure and scanning electron microscopy (SEM micrographs also confirm the XRD results. The energy dispersive X-ray (EDX analysis profiles show that all the mentioned elements are present in the prepared glasses. Following the IR spectra, all the tellurium bonds such as stretching vibrations of TeO4 tbp and TeO3/TeO3+1 unit are revealed. Raman spectra confirm the presence of different functional groups, actually, it shows bands mainly in four spectral regions: R1 (65–150 cm−1, R2 (280–550 cm−1, R3 (880–950 cm−1 and R4 (916–926 cm−1 and the identified bands are assigned to respective molecular groups. The thermal study was carried out using Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC which indicates good thermal stability of the synthesized glasses with increasing Bi concentration. From the optical absorption spectra, we evaluated cut-off edge wavelengths and found increasing cutoff wavelength with an increase in Bi2O3 concentration. In the UV–Visible region, optical band gap energy and allowed transitions were investigated using three methods; direct, indirect, and absorption spectrum fitting (ASF, and band gaps from indirect and ASF were matched. Keywords: Tellurite glasses, XRD, FT-IR, Raman, TGA/DSC

  8. Development and application of super heavy gauge high-strength structural steel for high-rise buildings (United States)

    Gu, Linhao Gu; Lu, Shiping; Liu, Chunming; Liu, Jingang; Zhang, Suyuan; Chu, Rensheng; Ma, Changwen


    This paper presents development of 130mm S460G1-Z35 by using low carbon Nb-Ni-Mo-V-Ti micro-alloying design and two-stage rolling, quenching and tempering process. For the super heavy gauge high-strength structural steel, the yield strength is higher than 450MPa, the tensile strength is higher than 550MPa, the elongation is greater than 20%, the low temperature(-40) impact energy value is not less than 250J, the z-direction section shrinkage is more than 65%, and the welding performance is good. The plate are successfully applied to the engineering construction of the city of dreams in Macau.

  9. Energy Finite Element Analysis Developments for Vibration Analysis of Composite Aircraft Structures (United States)

    Vlahopoulos, Nickolas; Schiller, Noah H.


    The Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) has been utilized successfully for modeling complex structural-acoustic systems with isotropic structural material properties. In this paper, a formulation for modeling structures made out of composite materials is presented. An approach based on spectral finite element analysis is utilized first for developing the equivalent material properties for the composite material. These equivalent properties are employed in the EFEA governing differential equations for representing the composite materials and deriving the element level matrices. The power transmission characteristics at connections between members made out of non-isotropic composite material are considered for deriving suitable power transmission coefficients at junctions of interconnected members. These coefficients are utilized for computing the joint matrix that is needed to assemble the global system of EFEA equations. The global system of EFEA equations is solved numerically and the vibration levels within the entire system can be computed. The new EFEA formulation for modeling composite laminate structures is validated through comparison to test data collected from a representative composite aircraft fuselage that is made out of a composite outer shell and composite frames and stiffeners. NASA Langley constructed the composite cylinder and conducted the test measurements utilized in this work.

  10. Development of Finite Elements for Two-Dimensional Structural Analysis Using the Integrated Force Method (United States)

    Kaljevic, Igor; Patnaik, Surya N.; Hopkins, Dale A.


    The Integrated Force Method has been developed in recent years for the analysis of structural mechanics problems. This method treats all independent internal forces as unknown variables that can be calculated by simultaneously imposing equations of equilibrium and compatibility conditions. In this paper a finite element library for analyzing two-dimensional problems by the Integrated Force Method is presented. Triangular- and quadrilateral-shaped elements capable of modeling arbitrary domain configurations are presented. The element equilibrium and flexibility matrices are derived by discretizing the expressions for potential and complementary energies, respectively. The displacement and stress fields within the finite elements are independently approximated. The displacement field is interpolated as it is in the standard displacement method, and the stress field is approximated by using complete polynomials of the correct order. A procedure that uses the definitions of stress components in terms of an Airy stress function is developed to derive the stress interpolation polynomials. Such derived stress fields identically satisfy the equations of equilibrium. Moreover, the resulting element matrices are insensitive to the orientation of local coordinate systems. A method is devised to calculate the number of rigid body modes, and the present elements are shown to be free of spurious zero-energy modes. A number of example problems are solved by using the present library, and the results are compared with corresponding analytical solutions and with results from the standard displacement finite element method. The Integrated Force Method not only gives results that agree well with analytical and displacement method results but also outperforms the displacement method in stress calculations.

  11. Spectral finite element method wave propagation, diagnostics and control in anisotropic and inhomogeneous structures

    CERN Document Server

    Gopalakrishnan, Srinivasan; Roy Mahapatra, Debiprosad


    The use of composites and Functionally Graded Materials (FGMs) in structural applications has increased. FGMs allow the user to design materials for a specified functionality and have many uses in structural engineering. However, the behaviour of these structures under high-impact loading is not well understood. This book is the first to apply the Spectral Finite Element Method (SFEM) to inhomogeneous and anisotropic structures in a unified and systematic manner. It focuses on some of the problems with this media which were previously thought unmanageable. Types of SFEM for regular and damaged 1-D and 2-D waveguides, solution techniques, methods of detecting the presence of damages and their locations, and methods for controlling the wave propagation responses are discussed. Tables, figures and graphs support the theory and case studies are included. This book is of value to senior undergraduates and postgraduates studying in this field, and researchers and practicing engineers in structural integrity.

  12. Elements for measuring the complexity of 3D structural models: Connectivity and geometry (United States)

    Pellerin, Jeanne; Caumon, Guillaume; Julio, Charline; Mejia-Herrera, Pablo; Botella, Arnaud


    The reliable modeling of three-dimensional complex geological structures can have a major impact on forecasting and managing natural resources and on predicting seismic and geomechanical hazards. However, the qualification of a model as structurally complex is often qualitative and subjective making the comparison of the capabilities and performances of various geomodeling methods or software difficult. In this paper, we consider the notion of structural complexity from a geometrical point of view and argue that it can be characterized using general metrics computed on three-dimensional sealed structural models. We propose global and local measures of the connectivity and of the geometry of the model components and show how they permit to classify nine 3D synthetic structural models. Depending on the complexity elements favored, the classification varies. The models we introduce could be used as benchmark models for geomodeling algorithms.

  13. Elements of solid state electronics based on soi-structures and si whiskers for cryogenic temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Druzhinin A. A.


    Full Text Available The paper presents the study results of electrical properties of polycrystalline silicon films in silicon-on-insulator structures and Si whiskers in the temperature range of 4,2—70 K obtained by impedance measurements in the frequency range from 10 Hz to 250 kHz and the possibility of their use in solid-state electronics, functioning at cryogenic temperatures. Characteristics of samples obtained with impedance measurements allow to predict certain specifications of reactive elements of solid state electronics based on polycrystalline and single crystalline silicon, operable at low temperatures. Using the established dependencies, separate elements in the form of solid-state electronics capacitive and inductive elements as well as a combined system in an oscillatory circuit, operable at cryogenic temperatures, have been suggested. The features of developed system depend on the structure of samples and their doping level, which allows to change the required parameters of the elements of solid state electronics in a wide range.

  14. Experimental verifications of a structural damage identification technique using reduced order finite-element model (United States)

    Li, Rui; Zhou, Li; Yang, Jann N.


    An objective of the structural health monitoring system is to identify the state of the structure and to detect the damage when it occurs. Analysis techniques for the damage identification of structures, based on vibration data measured from sensors, have received considerable attention. Recently, a new damage tracking technique, referred to as the adaptive quadratic sum-square error (AQSSE) technique, has been proposed, and simulation studies demonstrated that the AQSSE technique is quite effective in identifying structural damages. In this paper, the adaptive quadratic sumsquare error (AQSSE) along with the reduced-order finite-element method is proposed to identify the damages of complex structures. Experimental tests were conducted to verify the capability of the proposed damage detection approach. A series of experimental tests were performed using a scaled cantilever beam subject to the white noise and sinusoidal excitations. The capability of the proposed reduced-order finite-element based adaptive quadratic sum-square error (AQSSE) method in detecting the structural damage is demonstrated by the experimental results.

  15. Coupled Finite Volume and Finite Element Method Analysis of a Complex Large-Span Roof Structure (United States)

    Szafran, J.; Juszczyk, K.; Kamiński, M.


    The main goal of this paper is to present coupled Computational Fluid Dynamics and structural analysis for the precise determination of wind impact on internal forces and deformations of structural elements of a longspan roof structure. The Finite Volume Method (FVM) serves for a solution of the fluid flow problem to model the air flow around the structure, whose results are applied in turn as the boundary tractions in the Finite Element Method problem structural solution for the linear elastostatics with small deformations. The first part is carried out with the use of ANSYS 15.0 computer system, whereas the FEM system Robot supports stress analysis in particular roof members. A comparison of the wind pressure distribution throughout the roof surface shows some differences with respect to that available in the engineering designing codes like Eurocode, which deserves separate further numerical studies. Coupling of these two separate numerical techniques appears to be promising in view of future computational models of stochastic nature in large scale structural systems due to the stochastic perturbation method.

  16. Coupled Finite Volume and Finite Element Method Analysis of a Complex Large-Span Roof Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szafran J.


    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to present coupled Computational Fluid Dynamics and structural analysis for the precise determination of wind impact on internal forces and deformations of structural elements of a longspan roof structure. The Finite Volume Method (FVM serves for a solution of the fluid flow problem to model the air flow around the structure, whose results are applied in turn as the boundary tractions in the Finite Element Method problem structural solution for the linear elastostatics with small deformations. The first part is carried out with the use of ANSYS 15.0 computer system, whereas the FEM system Robot supports stress analysis in particular roof members. A comparison of the wind pressure distribution throughout the roof surface shows some differences with respect to that available in the engineering designing codes like Eurocode, which deserves separate further numerical studies. Coupling of these two separate numerical techniques appears to be promising in view of future computational models of stochastic nature in large scale structural systems due to the stochastic perturbation method.

  17. Structural and functional effects of heavy metals on the nervous system, including sense organs, of fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, E


    1. Today, fish in the environment are inevitably exposed to chemical pollution. Although most hazardous substances are present at concentrations far below the lethal level, they may still cause serious damage to the life processes of these animals. 2. Fish depend on an intact nervous system...... metals are well known pollutants in the aquatic environment. Their interaction with relevant chemical stimuli may interfere with the communication between fish and environment. 5. The affinity for a number of ligands and macromolecules makes heavy metals most potent neurotoxins. 6. The present Mini...

  18. Neuronal process structure and growth proteins are targets of heavy PTM regulation during brain development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Alistair V G; Schwämmle, Veit; Larsen, Martin Røssel


    to have wide-ranging and substantial effects on cellular function, both as part of signalling network modulation and more directly by modifying the function of key proteins. In this study, we show that PTM regulation is differentially targeted at different areas of the proteome, and that cytoskeletal...... proteins involved in neuronal process extension and maintenance are both more heavily modified and more frequently regulated at a PTM level. This suggests a clear role not only for PTMs in these processes, but possibly also for heavy protein modification in general. BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This study...

  19. Modified Immersed Finite Element Method For Fully-Coupled Fluid-Structure Interations (United States)

    Wang, Xingshi; Zhang, Lucy T.


    In this paper, we develop a “modified” immersed finite element method (mIFEM), a non-boundary-fitted numerical technique, to study fluid-structure interactions. Using this method, we can more precisely capture the solid dynamics by solving the solid governing equation instead of imposing it based on the fluid velocity field as in the original immersed finite element (IFEM). Using the IFEM may lead to severe solid mesh distortion because the solid deformation is been over-estimated, especially for high Reynolds number flows. In the mIFEM, the solid dynamics is solved using appropriate boundary conditions generated from the surrounding fluid, therefore produces more accurate and realistic coupled solutions. We show several 2-D and 3-D testing cases where the mIFEM has a noticeable advantage in handling complicated fluid-structure interactions when the solid behavior dominates the fluid flow. PMID:24223445

  20. Towards isotope shift and hyperfine structure measurements of the element nobelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhetri, Premaditya; Lautenschlaeger, Felix; Walther, Thomas [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, TU Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Laatiaoui, Mustapha [Helmholtz Institut Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Block, Michael; Hessberger, Fritz-Peter [Helmholtz Institut Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); GSI, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Lauth, Werner; Backe, Hartmut [Institut fuer Kernphysik, JGU Mainz, D-55122 Mainz (Germany); Kunz, Peter [TRIUMF, D-V6T2A3 Vancouver (Canada)


    Laser spectroscopy on the heaviest elements is of great interest as it allows the study of the evolution of relativistic effects on their atomic structure. In our experiment we exploit the Radiation Detected Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy technique and use excimer-laser pumped dye lasers to search for the first time the {sup 1}P{sub 1} level in {sup 254}No. Etalons will be used in the forthcoming experiments at GSI, Darmstadt, to narrow down the bandwidth of the dye lasers to 0.04 cm{sup -1}, for the determination of the isotope shift and hyperfine splitting of {sup 253,} {sup 255}No. In this talk results from preparatory hyperfine structure studies in nat. ytterbium and the perspectives for future experiments of the heaviest elements are discussed.

  1. Testing the Big Bang: Light elements, neutrinos, dark matter and large-scale structure (United States)

    Schramm, David N.


    Several experimental and observational tests of the standard cosmological model are examined. In particular, a detailed discussion is presented regarding: (1) nucleosynthesis, the light element abundances, and neutrino counting; (2) the dark matter problems; and (3) the formation of galaxies and large-scale structure. Comments are made on the possible implications of the recent solar neutrino experimental results for cosmology. An appendix briefly discusses the 17 keV thing and the cosmological and astrophysical constraints on it.

  2. Local deformation method for measuring element tension in space deployable structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belov Sergey


    Full Text Available The article describes the local deformation method to determine the tension of cord and thin membrane elements in space deployable structure as antenna reflector. Possible measuring instrument model, analytical and numerical solutions and experimental results are presented. The boundary effects on measurement results of metallic mesh reflector surface tension are estimated. The study case depicting non-uniform reflector surface tension is considered.

  3. Political “genotype” as a structural element of political culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Karpova


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the issue of genetic foundations of political culture in the context of the socio-political system changes. The author elaborates the concept of “political genotype” as a sustainable structural element of political culture that determines its content and the possibility of permissible variation. In this paper the main forms of existence of political genotype and its functions are also investigated; and “genetic” mechanism of political culture succession is explored.

  4. Structured Analysis: Review of ILS Element E13 Reliability, Availability and Maintainability (United States)



  5. Large finger joints of glulam load-bearing elements in timber structures


    Krištof, Igor


    In the graduation thesis are presented large finger joints. Large finger joints are glued timber joints, used for connecting wooden elements, usually glulam beams. Frequently this kind of joints connect corners of three – hinged frames, used for building prefabricated timber structures with spans up to 40 m. In comparison with mechanical joints, glued joints are cheaper and they have excellent load – carrying capacity, but poor ductility. I have installed large finger joints in the glulam fra...

  6. Multiscale Nonconforming Finite Element Computation to Small Periodic Composite Materials of Elastic Structures on Anisotropic Meshes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Hao


    Full Text Available The small periodic elastic structures of composite materials with the multiscale asymptotic expansion and homogenized method are discussed. A nonconforming Crouzeix-Raviart finite element is applied to calculate every term of the asymptotic expansion on anisotropic meshes. The approximation scheme to the higher derivatives of the homogenized solution is also derived. Finally, the optimal error estimate in ·h for displacement vector is obtained.

  7. Heavy Alcohol Consumption Effects on Blood Pressure and on Kidney Structure Persist After Long-Term Withdrawal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Leal


    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Heavy ethanol consumption is a risk factor for hypertension and prompts organ damage. There is no information regarding the impact of long-term heavy ethanol consumption on kidney structure and function linking to their hypertensive effects nor the repercussions after withdrawal. Methods: Rats were exposed to ethanol for 24 weeks and, afterwards, a group was assigned to withdrawal for 8 weeks. Blood pressure (BP was measured and serum biochemical parameters were quantified. Glomerular volume density, areal density of glomerular tuft and renal corpuscles were determined. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R protein expression was evaluated. Results: Twenty-four weeks of ethanol consumption causes atrophy of renal corpuscles and glomeruli and reduces the volume of glomeruli. Glomerular changes induced by ethanol consumption were still evident after withdrawal. Renal AT1R levels were increased in ethanol-treated rats and returned to control levels during withdrawal. Ethanol consumption also induced an increase in BP, uric acid and albumin levels. Upon withdrawal, systolic and mean arterial pressures decreased, but were still higher than in controls rats. Conclusion: Ethanol consumption induces changes in glomerular morphology associated with increased BP and AT1R expression. Long-term withdrawal was inefficient to restore the structural integrity of renal corpuscles and in lowering systolic pressure.

  8. Defect induced modification of structural, topographical and magnetic properties of zinc ferrite thin films by swift heavy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghavan, Lisha [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682022 (India); Inter University Accelerator Center, New Delhi 110067 (India); Joy, P.A. [National Chemical Laboratory, Pune (India); Vijaykumar, B. Varma; Ramanujan, R.V. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore); Anantharaman, M.R., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682022 (India)


    Highlights: • Zinc ferrite films exhibited room temperature ferrimagnetic property. • On ion irradiation amorphisation of films were observed. • The surface morphology undergoes changes with ion irradiation. • The saturation magnetisation decreases on ion irradiation. - Abstract: Swift heavy ion irradiation provides unique ways to modify physical and chemical properties of materials. In ferrites, the magnetic properties can change significantly as a result of swift heavy ion irradiation. Zinc ferrite is an antiferromagnet with a Neel temperature of 10 K and exhibits anomalous magnetic properties in the nano regime. Ion irradiation can cause amorphisation of zinc ferrite thin films; thus the role of crystallinity on magnetic properties can be examined. The influence of surface topography in these thin films can also be studied. Zinc ferrite thin films, of thickness 320 nm, prepared by RF sputtering were irradiated with 100 MeV Ag ions. Structural characterization showed amorphisation and subsequent reduction in particle size. The change in magnetic properties due to irradiation was correlated with structural and topographical effects of ion irradiation. A rough estimation of ion track radius is done from the magnetic studies.

  9. Cross-sectional mapping for refined beam elements with applications to shell-like structures (United States)

    Pagani, A.; de Miguel, A. G.; Carrera, E.


    This paper discusses the use of higher-order mapping functions for enhancing the physical representation of refined beam theories. Based on the Carrera unified formulation (CUF), advanced one-dimensional models are formulated by expressing the displacement field as a generic expansion of the generalized unknowns. According to CUF, a novel physically/geometrically consistent model is devised by employing Legendre-like polynomial sets to approximate the generalized unknowns at the cross-sectional level, whereas a local mapping technique based on the blending functions method is used to describe the exact physical boundaries of the cross-section domain. Classical and innovative finite element methods, including hierarchical p-elements and locking-free integration schemes, are utilized to solve the governing equations of the unified beam theory. Several numerical applications accounting for small displacements/rotations and strains are discussed, including beam structures with cross-sectional curved edges, cylindrical shells, and thin-walled aeronautical wing structures with reinforcements. The results from the proposed methodology are widely assessed by comparisons with solutions from the literature and commercial finite element software tools. The attention is focussed on the high computational efficiency and the marked capabilities of the present beam model, which can deal with a broad spectrum of structural problems with unveiled accuracy in terms of geometrical representation of the domain boundaries.

  10. Measurement of Join Patch Properties and Their Integration into Finite-Element Calculations of Assembled Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schmidt


    Full Text Available The vibration and damping characteristics of an assembled structure made of steel are investigated by an experimental modal analysis and compared with the results of a finite element modal analysis. A generic experiment is carried out to evaluate the stiffness and the damping properties of the structure's join patches. Using these results, an appropriate finite element model of the structure is developed where the join patches are represented by thin-layer elements containing material properties which are derived from the generic experiment's results. The joint's stiffness is modeled by orthotropic material behavior whereas the damping properties are represented by the model of constant hysteresis, leading to a complex-valued stiffness matrix. A comparison between the experimental and the numerical modal analysis shows good agreement. A more detailed damping model in conjunction with an optimization procedure for the joint's parameters results in an improved correlation between the experimental and the numerical modal quantities and reveals that the results of the generic experiment are sound.

  11. Structural Stability and Dynamics of FGM Plates Using an Improved 8-ANS Finite Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weon-Tae Park


    Full Text Available I investigate the vibration and buckling analysis of functionally graded material (FGM structures, using a modified 8-node shell element. The properties of FGM vary continuously through the thickness direction according to the volume fraction of constituents defined by sigmoid function. The modified 8-ANS shell element has been employed to study the effect of power law index on dynamic analysis of FGM plates with various boundary conditions and buckling analysis under combined loads, and interaction curves of FGM plates are carried out. To overcome shear and membrane locking problems, the assumed natural strain method is employed. In order to validate and compare the finite element numerical solutions, the reference results of plates based on Navier’s method, the series solutions of sigmoid FGM (S-FGM plates are compared. Results of the present study show good agreement with the reference results. The solutions of vibration and buckling analysis are numerically illustrated in a number of tables and figures to show the influence of power law index, side-to-thickness ratio, aspect ratio, types of loads, and boundary conditions in FGM structures. This work is relevant to the simulation of wing surfaces, aircrafts, and box structures under various boundary conditions and loadings.

  12. Comparative assessment of structural-mechanical properties of heavy oils of timano-pechorskaya province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. К. Кондрашева


    Full Text Available The physicochemical properties of heavy oils of Yaregskoe and Usinskoe deposits and the residues of atmospheric distillation of petroleum (fuel oil recovered from them are presented. The group composition of oil and the residues of its atmospheric distillation (fuel oil is determined. When using X-ray fluorescence energy dispersive spectrometer, the content of metals in the products is determined. A conclusion is drawn about the distribution of metals in the initial oil and fuel oil. On the basis of rheological characteristics, the type of liquids is determined in accordance with Newton's law, as well as the presence of an anomaly in the viscosity of the studied media at different temperatures. The energy values of the thixotropy of heavy oils of Usinskoe and Yaregskoe deposits, as well as the activation energy of the viscous flow of all media studied, are obtained. The phase transition of atmospheric residues at 60 °C is discovered. Dependences of the enthalpy and entropy of the viscous flow of the studied hydrocarbon media are obtained with an increase in temperature from 10 to 140 °C. The dependences of the oil molecules and atmospheric residues jumping frequency on viscosity are obtained for the first time.

  13. High-energy heavy-ion-induced single event transients in epitaxial structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dussault, H. (Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics Rome Lab., Griffiss AFB, NY (United States)); Howard, J.W. Jr.; Block, R.C. (Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics); Pinto, M.R. (AT and T Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ (United States)); Stapor, W.J. (Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)); Knudson, A.R. (Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States) Sachs/Freeman Associates, Landover, MD (United States))


    This paper describes numerical and experimental heavy-ion charge collection studies using P[sup +]N junctions on epitaxial layers. The numerical simulations provide insights into the basic mechanisms contributing to transient currents and charge collection in devices on epitaxial layers. This paper also presents charge collection data from [approximately]2 GeV [sup 127]I ions incident upon P[sup +]N junctions on both bulk silicon and epitaxial layers and compares the experimental data with the simulation results. The experimental data show that charge deposited below the epitaxial layer can be collected. This work is unique and important because this GeV-energy-range [sup 127]I ion more nearly represents a cosmic ray compared to lower energy, heavy-ions in the hundreds of MeV energy range. This paper also discusses the simulation results with respect to the experimental data and charge collection models for epitaxial transistors. Additionally, a shunting model is proposed to model the early transient current responses.

  14. Modelling of interaction between a snow mantle and a flexible structure using a discrete element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nicot


    Full Text Available The search of improvement of protective techniques against natural phenomena such as snow avalanches continues to use classic methods for calculating flexible structures. This paper deals with a new method to design avalanche protection nets. This method is based on a coupled analysis of both net structure and snow mantle by using a Discrete Element Method. This has led to the development of computational software so that avalanche nets can be easily designed. This tool gives the evolution of the forces acting in several parts of the work as a function of the snow situation.

  15. A Finite Element Procedure for Calculating Fluid-Structure Interaction Using MSC/NASTRAN (United States)

    Chargin, Mladen; Gartmeier, Otto


    This report is intended to serve two purposes. The first is to present a survey of the theoretical background of the dynamic interaction between a non-viscid, compressible fluid and an elastic structure is presented. Section one presents a short survey of the application of the finite element method (FEM) to the area of fluid-structure-interaction (FSI). Section two describes the mathematical foundation of the structure and fluid with special emphasis on the fluid. The main steps in establishing the finite element (FE) equations for the fluid structure coupling are discussed in section three. The second purpose is to demonstrate the application of MSC/NASTRAN to the solution of FSI problems. Some specific topics, such as fluid structure analogy, acoustic absorption, and acoustic contribution analysis are described in section four. Section five deals with the organization of the acoustic procedure flowchart. Section six includes the most important information that a user needs for applying the acoustic procedure to practical FSI problems. Beginning with some rules concerning the FE modeling of the coupled system, the NASTRAN USER DECKs for the different steps are described. The goal of section seven is to demonstrate the use of the acoustic procedure with some examples. This demonstration includes an analytic verification of selected FE results. The analytical description considers only some aspects of FSI and is not intended to be mathematically complete. Finally, section 8 presents an application of the acoustic procedure to vehicle interior acoustic analysis with selected results.

  16. Designing synthetic RNAs to determine the relevance of structural motifs in picornavirus IRES elements (United States)

    Fernandez-Chamorro, Javier; Lozano, Gloria; Garcia-Martin, Juan Antonio; Ramajo, Jorge; Dotu, Ivan; Clote, Peter; Martinez-Salas, Encarnacion


    The function of Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES) elements is intimately linked to their RNA structure. Viral IRES elements are organized in modular domains consisting of one or more stem-loops that harbor conserved RNA motifs critical for internal initiation of translation. A conserved motif is the pyrimidine-tract located upstream of the functional initiation codon in type I and II picornavirus IRES. By computationally designing synthetic RNAs to fold into a structure that sequesters the polypyrimidine tract in a hairpin, we establish a correlation between predicted inaccessibility of the pyrimidine tract and IRES activity, as determined in both in vitro and in vivo systems. Our data supports the hypothesis that structural sequestration of the pyrimidine-tract within a stable hairpin inactivates IRES activity, since the stronger the stability of the hairpin the higher the inhibition of protein synthesis. Destabilization of the stem-loop immediately upstream of the pyrimidine-tract also decreases IRES activity. Our work introduces a hybrid computational/experimental method to determine the importance of structural motifs for biological function. Specifically, we show the feasibility of using the software RNAiFold to design synthetic RNAs with particular sequence and structural motifs that permit subsequent experimental determination of the importance of such motifs for biological function.

  17. Crystal structure of Escherichia coli CusC, the outer membrane component of a heavy metal efflux pump. (United States)

    Kulathila, Rithika; Kulathila, Ragini; Indic, Mridhu; van den Berg, Bert


    While copper has essential functions as an enzymatic co-factor, excess copper ions are toxic for cells, necessitating mechanisms for regulating its levels. The cusCBFA operon of E. coli encodes a four-component efflux pump dedicated to the extrusion of Cu(I) and Ag(I) ions. We have solved the X-ray crystal structure of CusC, the outer membrane component of the Cus heavy metal efflux pump, to 2.3 Å resolution. The structure has the largest extracellular opening of any outer membrane factor (OMF) protein and suggests, for the first time, the presence of a tri-acylated N-terminal lipid anchor. The CusC protein does not have any obvious features that would make it specific for metal ions, suggesting that the narrow substrate specificity of the pump is provided by other components of the pump, most likely by the inner membrane component CusA.

  18. Modeling of a pulsed fluid column and coupled piping with structural finite elements (United States)

    Saxon, J. B.; Jones, J. U.; Anderson, F. E.


    Structural finite elements have been used to model the coupled fluidic-structural response of a liquid oxygen (LOX) feedline at a rocket engine test facility. The model simulates the effects of Pogo pulsing, a test procedure which uses a piston in a side branch to impart an oscillatory pressure pulse to the LOX column as it feeds the engine. In addition to the feedline's structural characteristics, the model accounts for the mass and axial stiffness of the fluid column, the oscillatory pulse of the piston, and the hydraulic impedance of the rocket engine. The model was used to determine the relations between piston stroke, pressure oscillation at the engine inlet, and structural excitation of the feedline. This paper develops the concepts employed by the model.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrova Irina Yur’evna


    Full Text Available Subject: automation of calculation of dynamic characteristics of the device being designed in the system of conceptual design of sensor equipment, structurally-parametric models of dynamic processes and algorithms for the automated calculation of the qualitative characteristics of elements of the information-measuring and control systems (IMCS. The stage of conceptual design most fully determines the operational characteristics of technical systems. However, none of the information support systems of this stage provides an opportunity to evaluate the performance characteristics of the element being designed taking into account its dynamic characteristics. Research objectives: increasing the effectiveness of the evaluation of dynamic characteristics of sensitive elements of the information-measuring and control systems of a smart house. Materials and methods: when solving the problems posed, the mathematical apparatus of system modeling was used (in particular, the energy-information method of modeling processes of various physical nature that occur in the sensor equipment; the main provisions of the theory of automatic control, the theory of constructing computer-aided design systems, the theory of operational calculus; basics of conceptual design of elements of the information-measuring and control systems. Results: we compared the known automated systems for conceptual design of sensors, highlighted their advantages and disadvantages and we showed that none of these systems allows us to investigate dynamic characteristics of the element being designed in a simple and understandable for engineer form. The authors proposed using energy-information method of modeling for the synthesis of operation principles of sensors and analysis of their dynamic characteristics. We considered elementary dynamic chains and issues of synthesis of parametrical structural schemes that reflect the dynamics of the process with the use of mathematical apparatus of

  20. The Common Data Elements for Cancer Research: Remarks on Functions and Structure (United States)

    Nadkarni, Prakash M.; Brandt, Cynthia A.


    Objectives The National Cancer Institute (NCI) has developed the Common Data Elements (CDE) to serve as a controlled vocabulary of data descriptors for cancer research, to facilitate data interchange and inter-operability between cancer research centers. We evaluated CDE’s structure to see whether it could represent the elements necessary to support its intended purpose, and whether it could prevent errors and inconsistencies from being accidentally introduced. We also performed automated checks for certain types of content errors that provided a rough measure of curation quality. Methods Evaluation was performed on CDE content downloaded via the NCI’s CDE Browser, and transformed into relational database form. Evaluation was performed under three categories: 1) compatibility with the ISO/IEC 11179 metadata model, on which CDE structure is based, 2) features necessary for controlled vocabulary support, and 3) support for a stated NCI goal, set up of data collection forms for cancer research. Results Various limitations were identified both with respect to content (inconsistency, insufficient definition of elements, redundancy) as well as structure – particularly the need for term and relationship support, as well as the need for metadata supporting the explicit representation of electronic forms that utilize sets of common data elements. Conclusions While there are numerous positive aspects to the CDE effort, there is considerable opportunity for improvement. Our recommendations include review of existing content by diverse experts in the cancer community; integration with the NCI thesaurus to take advantage of the latter’s links to nationally used controlled vocabularies, and various schema enhancements required for electronic form support. PMID:17149500

  1. Finite element prediction of seismic response modification of monumental structures utilizing base isolation (United States)

    Spanos, Konstantinos; Anifantis, Nikolaos; Kakavas, Panayiotis


    The analysis of the mechanical behavior of ancient structures is an essential engineering task concerning the preservation of architectural heritage. As many monuments of classical antiquity are located in regions of earthquake activity, the safety assessment of these structures, as well as the selection of possible restoration interventions, requires numerical models capable of correctly representing their seismic response. The work presented herein was part of a research project in which a better understanding of the dynamics of classical column-architrave structures was sought by means of numerical techniques. In this paper, the seismic behavior of ancient monumental structures with multi-drum classical columns is investigated. In particular, the column-architrave classical structure under strong ground excitations was represented by a finite element method. This approach simulates the individual rock blocks as distinct rigid blocks interconnected with slidelines and incorporates seismic isolation dampers under the basement of the structure. Sliding and rocking motions of individual stone blocks and drums are modeled utilizing non-linear frictional contact conditions. The seismic isolation is modeled through the application of pad bearings under the basement of the structure. These pads are interpreted by appropriate rubber and steel layers. Time domain analyses were performed, considering the geometric and material non-linear behavior at the joints and the characteristics of pad bearings. The deformation and failure modes of drum columns subject to seismic excitations of various types and intensities were analyzed. The adverse influence of drum imperfections on structural safety was also examined.

  2. Metastability of heavy lanthanides in the ZnO wurtzite structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otal, Eugenio Hernan, E-mail: [EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Solid State Chemistry and Catalysis, Ueberlandstr. 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); CINSO, Centro de Investigaciones en Solidos, CONICET, CITEFA, San Juan Bautista de La Salle 4397, (B1603ALO) Villa Martelli, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Yoon, Songhak; Aguirre, Myriam; Weidenkaff, Anke [EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Solid State Chemistry and Catalysis, Ueberlandstr. 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)


    Highlights: > Introduction of Er in ZnO host lattice by sol-gel method. > The cell parameters obtained by Rietveld refinement confirm the introduction of the lanthahide in the cell. > The lanthanide are stable up to 800 deg. C in the samples with Er < 2% and up to 700 deg. C in the samples with Er > 2%. - Abstract: The introduction and stability of the heavy lanthanide Er, into ZnO was studied by HRTEM, XRD and thermal treatments. The applied synthesis route allows introducing the Er atoms in the lattice in a metastable state. The stability depends on the Er concentration. ZnO with Er concentrations of less than 2% are stable up to 800 deg. C, while higher concentrations result in a phase segregation at T > 700 deg. C. Unit cell parameters obtained from the Rietveld refinement of XRD patterns provide a conclusive evidence of the incorporation of the Er ions in the host ZnO matrix.

  3. Multiplet effects in the electronic structure of heavy rare-earth metals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebegue, S.; Svane, A.; Katsnelson, M.I.; Lichtenstein, A.I.; Eriksson, O.


    The spectroscopic properties of elemental terbium, dysprosium, holmium, and erbium are investigated using first-principles calculations taking into account intra-atomic correlation effects. In order to describe the strongly localized f electrons together with the conduction bands, we have used the

  4. Structure of haptoglobin heavy chain and other serine protease homologs by comparative model building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grer, J.


    Proteins often occur in families whose structure is closely similar, even though the proteins may come from widely different sources and have quite distinct functions. It would be useful to be able to construct the three-dimensional structure of these proteins from the known structure of one or more of them without having to solve the structure of each protein ab initio. We have been using comparative model building to derive the structure of an unusual protein of the trypsin-like serine protease family. We have recently extended this comparison to include other serine protease homologs for which a primary structure is available. To generate structures for the different members of the serine protease family, it is necessary to extract the common structural features of the molecule. Fortunately, three independently determined protein structures are available: schymotrypsin, trypsin, and elastase. These three structures were compared in detail and the structurally conserved regions in all three, mainly the BETA-sheet and the ..cap alpha..-helix, were identified. The variable portions occur in the loops on the surface of the molecule. By using these structures, the primary sequences of these three proteins were aligned. From this alignment, it is clear that sequence homology between the proteins occurs mainly in the structurally conserved regions of the molecule, while the variable portions show very little sequence homology.

  5. Structural relationships between highly conserved elements and genes in vertebrate genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Sun

    Full Text Available Large numbers of sequence elements have been identified to be highly conserved among vertebrate genomes. These highly conserved elements (HCEs are often located in or around genes that are involved in transcription regulation and early development. They have been shown to be involved in cis-regulatory activities through both in vivo and additional computational studies. We have investigated the structural relationships between such elements and genes in six vertebrate genomes human, mouse, rat, chicken, zebrafish and tetraodon and detected several thousand cases of conserved HCE-gene associations, and also cases of HCEs with no common target genes. A few examples underscore the potential significance of our findings about several individual genes. We found that the conserved association between HCE/HCEs and gene/genes are not restricted to elements by their absolute distance on the genome. Notably, long-range associations were identified and the molecular functions of the associated genes do not show any particular overrepresentation of the functional categories previously reported. HCEs in close proximity are found to be linked with different set of gene/genes. The results reflect the highly complex correlation between HCEs and their putative target genes.

  6. Validating finite element models of composite aerospace structures for damage detection applications (United States)

    Oliver, J. A.; Kosmatka, J. B.; Hemez, François M.; Farrar, Charles R.


    Carbon-fiber-reinforced-polymer (CFRP) composites represent the future for advanced lightweight aerospace structures. However, reliable and cost-effective techniques for structural health monitoring (SHM) are needed. Modal and vibration-based analysis, when combined with validated finite element (FE) models, can provide a key tool for SHM. Finite element models, however, can easily give spurious and misleading results if not finely tuned and validated. These problems are amplified in complex structures with numerous joints and interfaces. A small series of all-composite test pieces emulating wings from a lightweight all-composite Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) have been developed to support damage detection and SHM research. Each wing comprises two CFRP prepreg and Nomex honeycomb co-cured skins and two CFRP prepreg spars bonded together in a secondary process using a structural adhesive to form the complete wings. The first of the set is fully healthy while the rest have damage in the form of disbonds built into the main spar-skin bondline. Detailed FE models were created of the four structural components and the assembled structure. Each wing component piece was subjected to modal characterization via vibration testing using a shaker and scanning laser Doppler vibrometer before assembly. These results were then used to correlate the FE model on a component-basis, through fitting and optimization of polynomial meta-models. Assembling and testing the full wing provided subsequent data that was used to validate the numerical model of the entire structure, assembled from the correlated component models. The correlation process led to the following average percent improvement between experimental and FE frequencies of the first 20 modes for each piece: top skin 10.98%, bottom skin 45.62%, main spar 25.56%, aft spar 10.79%. The assembled wing model with no further correlation showed an improvement of 32.60%.

  7. The structure of a rigorously conserved RNA element within the SARS virus genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Robertson


    Full Text Available We have solved the three-dimensional crystal structure of the stem-loop II motif (s2m RNA element of the SARS virus genome to 2.7-A resolution. SARS and related coronaviruses and astroviruses all possess a motif at the 3' end of their RNA genomes, called the s2m, whose pathogenic importance is inferred from its rigorous sequence conservation in an otherwise rapidly mutable RNA genome. We find that this extreme conservation is clearly explained by the requirement to form a highly structured RNA whose unique tertiary structure includes a sharp 90 degrees kink of the helix axis and several novel longer-range tertiary interactions. The tertiary base interactions create a tunnel that runs perpendicular to the main helical axis whose interior is negatively charged and binds two magnesium ions. These unusual features likely form interaction surfaces with conserved host cell components or other reactive sites required for virus function. Based on its conservation in viral pathogen genomes and its absence in the human genome, we suggest that these unusual structural features in the s2m RNA element are attractive targets for the design of anti-viral therapeutic agents. Structural genomics has sought to deduce protein function based on three-dimensional homology. Here we have extended this approach to RNA by proposing potential functions for a rigorously conserved set of RNA tertiary structural interactions that occur within the SARS RNA genome itself. Based on tertiary structural comparisons, we propose the s2m RNA binds one or more proteins possessing an oligomer-binding-like fold, and we suggest a possible mechanism for SARS viral RNA hijacking of host protein synthesis, both based upon observed s2m RNA macromolecular mimicry of a relevant ribosomal RNA fold.

  8. Effect of Superficial Atmospheric Corrosion Upon the Internal Stresses in Structural Steel Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monel Leiba


    Full Text Available A research program is presented showing the stress status determined by the corrosion phenomenon inside a specimen of a structural steel element. Several stains are studied their diameters ranging from 1~mm to 6~mm and thickness of the corroded layer under 0.5~mm. The physical modeling is the result of testing in laboratory the phenomenon of superficial atmospheric corrosion and the numerical modeling was developed under a FEM program, ALGOR. A number of 3,200 finite elements of BRICK type were created and the evolution of normal and tangential stresses was scrutinized under the process of loosing elementary material transformed into scrap. Stresses in the damaged sphere were graphically put into evidence and determined with accuracy due to the performances of the program, showing the local perturbations and the pattern of stress concentrators. The studies showed the importance of reproducing with both physical and mathematical methods the intricate mechanism and sometimes unpredictable effects of corrosion phenomenon upon the structural steel elements.

  9. Response of Basic Structural Elements and B-52 Structural Components to Simulated Nuclear Overpressure. Volume I-Program Description and Results (Basic Structural Elements) (United States)


    determining the response of high-frequency structural components, such as aircraft skin panels, stringers, frames and radomes. As a result of the moratorium ...5) 00 C\\1 co a u- Cj 0 V) w CD -) (D - ~LLJO( 4-3 COD ) Ci Il 02 0 S-i 61 LL. 41) 05C LLI- <w C3 Co 0C 0l I-0 M- u cX< I- Z CD - Li -::I C.D 0 X: LLI

  10. Structural damage detection using higher-order finite elements and a scanning laser vibrometer (United States)

    Jin, Si

    In contrast to conventional non-destructive evaluation methods, dynamics-based damage detection methods are capable of rapid integrity evaluation of large structures and have received considerable attention from aerospace, mechanical, and civil engineering communities in recent years. However, the identifiable damage size using dynamics-based methods is determined by the number of sensors used, level of measurement noise, accuracy of structural models, and signal processing techniques. In this thesis we study dynamics of structures with damage and then derive and experimentally verify new model-independent structural damage detection methods that can locate small damage to structures. To find sensitive damage detection parameters we develop a higher-order beam element that enforces the continuity of displacements, slopes, bending moments, and shear forces at all nodes, and a higher-order rectangular plate element that enforces the continuity of displacements, slopes, and bending and twisting moments at all nodes. These two elements are used to study the dynamics of beams and plates. Results show that high-order spatial derivatives of high-frequency modes are important sensitive parameters that can locate small structural damage. Unfortunately the most powerful and popular structural modeling technique, the finite element method, is not accurate in predicting high-frequency responses. Hence, a model-independent method using dynamic responses obtained from high density measurements is concluded to be the best approach. To increase measurement density and reduce noise a Polytec PI PSV-200 scanning laser vibrometer is used to provide non-contact, dense, and accurate measurements of structural vibration velocities. To avoid the use of structural models and to extract sensitive detection parameters from experimental data, a brand-new structural damage detection method named BED (Boundary-Effect Detection) is developed for pinpointing damage locations using Operational

  11. Improving the accuracy of the structure prediction of the third hypervariable loop of the heavy chains of antibodies.

    KAUST Repository

    Messih, Mario Abdel


    MOTIVATION: Antibodies are able to recognize a wide range of antigens through their complementary determining regions formed by six hypervariable loops. Predicting the 3D structure of these loops is essential for the analysis and reengineering of novel antibodies with enhanced affinity and specificity. The canonical structure model allows high accuracy prediction for five of the loops. The third loop of the heavy chain, H3, is the hardest to predict because of its diversity in structure, length and sequence composition. RESULTS: We describe a method, based on the Random Forest automatic learning technique, to select structural templates for H3 loops among a dataset of candidates. These can be used to predict the structure of the loop with a higher accuracy than that achieved by any of the presently available methods. The method also has the advantage of being extremely fast and returning a reliable estimate of the model quality. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: The source code is freely available at .

  12. Techniques for modeling muscle-induced forces in finite element models of skeletal structures. (United States)

    Grosse, Ian R; Dumont, Elizabeth R; Coletta, Chris; Tolleson, Alex


    This work introduces two mechanics-based approaches to modeling muscle forces exerted on curvilinear bone structures and compares the results with two traditional ad hoc methods of muscle loading. These new models use a combination of tensile, tangential, and normal traction loads to account for muscle fibers wrapped around curved bone surfaces. A computer program was written to interface with a commercial finite element analysis tool to automatically apply traction loads to surface faces of elements in muscle attachment regions according to the various muscle modeling methods. We modeled a highly complex skeletal structure, the skull of a Jamaican fruit bat (Artibeus jamaicensis), to compare the four muscle-loading methods. While reasonable qualitative agreement was found in the states of stress of the skull between the four muscle load modeling methods, there were substantial quantitative differences predicted in the stress states in some high stressed regions of the skull. Furthermore, our mechanics-based models required significantly less total applied muscle force to generate a bite-point reaction force identical to those produced by the ad hoc muscle loading models. Although the methods are not validated by in vivo data, we submit that muscle-load modeling methods that account for the underlying physics of muscle wrapping on curved bone surfaces are likely to provide more realistic results than ad hoc approaches that do not. We also note that, due to the geometric complexity of many bone structures--such as the skull analyzed here--load transmission paths are difficult to conceptualize a priori. Consequently, it is difficult to predict spatially where the results of finite element analyses are likely to be compromised by using ad hoc muscle modeling methods. For these reasons, it is recommended that a mechanics-based method be adopted for determination of the proper traction loads to be applied to skeletal structures due to muscular activity. Copyright 2007

  13. The new confocal heavy ion microprobe beamline at ANSTO: The first microprobe resolution tests and applications for elemental imaging and analysis (United States)

    Pastuovic, Z.; Siegele, R.; Cohen, D. D.; Mann, M.; Ionescu, M.; Button, D.; Long, S.


    The Centre for Accelerator Science facility at ANSTO has been expanded with the new NEC 6 MV ;SIRIUS; accelerator system in 2015. In this paper we present a detailed description of the new nuclear microprobe-Confocal Heavy Ion Micro-Probe (CHIMP) together with results of the microprobe resolution testing and the elemental analysis performed on typical samples of mineral ore deposits and hyper-accumulating plants regularly measured at ANSTO. The CHIMP focusing and scanning systems are based on the OM-150 Oxford quadrupole triplet and the OM-26 separated scan-coil doublet configurations. A maximum ion rigidity of 38.9 amu-MeV was determined for the following nuclear microprobe configuration: the distance from object aperture to collimating slits of 5890 mm, the working distance of 165 mm and the lens bore diameter of 11 mm. The overall distance from the object to the image plane is 7138 mm. The CHIMP beamline has been tested with the 3 MeV H+ and 6 MeV He2+ ion beams. The settings of the object and collimating apertures have been optimized using the WinTRAX simulation code for calculation of the optimum acceptance settings in order to obtain the highest possible ion current for beam spot sizes of 1 μm and 5 μm. For optimized aperture settings of the CHIMP the beam brightness was measured to be ∼0.9 pA μm-2 mrad-2 for 3 MeV H+ ions, while the brightness of ∼0.4 pA μm-2 mrad-2 was measured for 6 MeV He2+ ions. The smallest beam sizes were achieved using a microbeam with reduced particle rate of 1000 Hz passing through the object slit apertures several micrometers wide. Under these conditions a spatial resolution of ∼0.6 μm × 1.5 μm for 3 MeV H+ and ∼1.8 μm × 1.8 μm for 6 MeV He2+ microbeams in horizontal (and vertical) dimension has been achieved. The beam sizes were verified using STIM imaging on 2000 and 1000 mesh Cu electron microscope grids.

  14. Role of CrRLK1L Cell Wall Sensors HERCULES1 and 2, THESEUS1, and FERONIA in Growth Adaptation Triggered by Heavy Metals and Trace Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Richter


    Full Text Available Cell walls are not only a protective barrier surrounding protoplasts but serve as signaling platform between the extracellular environment and the intracellular physiology. Ions of heavy metals and trace elements, summarized to metal ions, bind to cell wall components, trigger their modification and provoke growth responses. To examine if metal ions trigger cell wall sensing receptor like kinases (RLKs of the Catharanthus roseus RLK1-like (CrRLK1L family we employed a molecular genetic approach. Quantitative transcription analyses show that HERCULES1 (HERK1, THESEUS1 (THE1, and FERONIA (FER were differently regulated by cadmium (Cd, nickel (Ni, and lead (Pb. Growth responses were quantified for roots and etiolated hypocotyls of related mutants and overexpressors on Cd, copper (Cu, Ni, Pb, and zinc (Zn and revealed a complex pattern of gene specific, overlapping and antagonistic responses. Root growth was often inversely affected to hypocotyl elongation. For example, both HERK genes seem to negatively regulate hypocotyl elongation upon Cd, Ni, Zn, and Pb while they support root growth on Cd, Cu, and Ni. The different THE1 alleles exhibited a similar effect between roots and hypocotyls on Ni, where the loss-of-function mutant was more tolerant while the gain of function mutants were hypersensitive indicating that THE1 is mediating Ni specific inhibition of hypocotyl elongation in the dark. In contrast hypocotyl elongation of the knock-out mutant, fer-4, was hypersensitive to Ni but exhibited a higher tolerance to Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. These data indicate an antagonistic action between THE1 and FER in relation to hypocotyl elongation upon excess of Ni. FERs function as receptor for rapid alkalinization factors (RALFs was tested with the indicator bromocresol purple. While fer-4 roots strongly acidified control and metal ion containing media, the etiolated hypocotyls alkalized the media which is consistent with the already shorter hypocotyl of fer-4

  15. Online in situ x-ray diffraction setup for structural modification studies during swift heavy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grygiel, C.; Lebius, H.; Bouffard, S.; Quentin, A.; Ramillon, J. M.; Madi, T.; Guillous, S.; Been, T.; Guinement, P.; Lelievre, D.; Monnet, I. [CIMAP, CEA-CNRS-ENSICAEN-UCBN, BP 5133, 14070 Caen Cedex 5 (France)


    The high energy density of electronic excitations due to the impact of swift heavy ions can induce structural modifications in materials. We present an x-ray diffractometer called ALIX (''Analyse en Ligne sur IRRSUD par diffraction de rayons X''), which has been set up at the low-energy beamline (IRRadiation SUD - IRRSUD) of the Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds facility, to allow the study of structural modification kinetics as a function of the ion fluence. The x-ray setup has been modified and optimized to enable irradiation by swift heavy ions simultaneously to x-ray pattern recording. We present the capability of ALIX to perform simultaneous irradiation-diffraction by using energy discrimination between x-rays from diffraction and from ion-target interaction. To illustrate its potential, results of sequential or simultaneous irradiation-diffraction are presented in this article to show radiation effects on the structural properties of ceramics. Phase transition kinetics have been studied during xenon ion irradiation of polycrystalline MgO and SrTiO{sub 3}. We have observed that MgO oxide is radiation-resistant to high electronic excitations, contrary to the high sensitivity of SrTiO{sub 3}, which exhibits transition from the crystalline to the amorphous state during irradiation. By interpreting the amorphization kinetics of SrTiO{sub 3}, defect overlapping models are discussed as well as latent track characteristics. Together with a transmission electron microscopy study, we conclude that a single impact model describes the phase transition mechanism.

  16. Element Decoupling of 7T Dipole Body Arrays by EBG Metasurface Structures: Experimental Verification

    CERN Document Server

    Hurshkainen, Anna A; Glybovski, Stanislav B; Voogt, Ingmar J; Melchakova, Irina V; Berg, Cornelis A T van den; Raaijmakers, Alexander J E


    Metasurfaces are artificial electromagnetic boundaries or interfaces usually implemented as two-dimensional periodic structures with subwavelength periodicity and engineered properties of constituent unit cells. The electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) effect in metasurfaces prevents all surface modes from propagating in a certain frequency band. While metasurfaces provide a number of important applications in microwave antennas and antenna arrays, their features are also highly suitable for MRI applications. In this work we manufacture and experimentally study finite samples based on mushroom-type EBG metasurfaces and employ them for suppression of inter-element coupling in dipole transmit coil arrays for body imaging at 7T. We show experimentally that employment of the samples EBG leads to reduction of coupling between adjacent closely-spaced dipole antenna elements of a 7T transmit/receive body array, which reduces scattering losses in neighboring channels and thereby improves the B1+ efficiency. The setup consis...

  17. Comb structure analysis of the capacitive sensitive element in MEMS-accelerometer (United States)

    Shalimov, Andrew; Timoshenkov, Sergey; Korobova, Natalia; Golovinskiy, Maxim; Timoshenkov, Alexey; Zuev, Egor; Berezueva, Svetlana; Kosolapov, Andrey


    In this paper analysis of comb design for the sensing element MEMS accelerometer with longitudinal displacement of the inertial mass under the influence of acceleration to obtain the necessary parameters for the further construction of an electronic circuit for removal and signal processing has been done. Fixed on the stator the inertia mass has the ability to move under the influence of acceleration along the longitudinal structure. As a result the distance between the fixed and movable combs, and hence the capacitance in the capacitors have been changed. Measuring the difference of these capacitances you can estimate the value of the applied acceleration. Furthermore, managing combs that should apply an electrostatic force for artificial deviation of the inertial mass may be used for the initial sensitive elements culling. Also in this case there is a change of capacitances, which can be measured by the comb and make a decision about the spoilage presence or absence.

  18. Finite-element-model updating using computational intelligence techniques applications to structural dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Marwala, Tshilidzi


    Finite element models (FEMs) are widely used to understand the dynamic behaviour of various systems. FEM updating allows FEMs to be tuned better to reflect measured data and may be conducted using two different statistical frameworks: the maximum likelihood approach and Bayesian approaches. Finite Element Model Updating Using Computational Intelligence Techniques applies both strategies to the field of structural mechanics, an area vital for aerospace, civil and mechanical engineering. Vibration data is used for the updating process. Following an introduction a number of computational intelligence techniques to facilitate the updating process are proposed; they include: • multi-layer perceptron neural networks for real-time FEM updating; • particle swarm and genetic-algorithm-based optimization methods to accommodate the demands of global versus local optimization models; • simulated annealing to put the methodologies into a sound statistical basis; and • response surface methods and expectation m...

  19. Finite Element Reliability Analysis of Chloride Ingress into Reinforced Concrete Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frier, Christian; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard


    For many reinforced concrete structures corrosion of the reinforcement is an important problem since it can result in maintenance and repair actions. Further, a reduction of the load-bearing capacity can occur. In the present paper the Finite Element Reliability Method (FERM) is employed...... for obtaining the probability of exceeding a critical chloride concentration level at the reinforcement bars, both using Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) and the First Order Reliability Method (FORM). The chloride ingress is modelled by the Finite Element Method (FEM) and the diffusion coefficient, surface chloride...... concentration and reinforcement cover depth are modelled by stochastic fields, which are discretized using the Expansion Optimum Linear Estimation (EOLE) approach. The response gradients needed for FORM analysis are derived analytically using the Direct Differentiation Method (DDM). As an example, a bridge pier...

  20. Investigation of the two-element airfoil with flap structure for the vertical axis wind turbine (United States)

    Wei, Y.; Li, C.


    The aerodynamic performance of Vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) is not as simple as its structure because of the large changing range of angle of attack. We have designed a new kind of two-element airfoil for VAWT on the basis of NACA0012. CFD calculation has been confirmed to have high accuracy by comparison with the experiment data and Xfoil result. The aerodynamic parameter of two-element airfoil has been acquired by CFD calculation in using the Spalart-Allmaras (S-A) turbulence model and the Simple scheme. The relationship between changings of angle of attack and flap's tilt angle has been found and quantified. The analysis will lay the foundation for further research on the control method for VAWT.

  1. Structural evolution of Ni-20Cr alloy during ball milling of elemental powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez B, I.; Trapaga M, L. G. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Unidad Queretaro, Libramiento Norponiente No. 2000, Juriquilla, 76230 Queretaro (Mexico); Martinez F, E. [Centro de Investigacion e Innovacion Tecnologica, Cerrada de Cecati s/n, Col. Santa Catarina Azcapotzalco, 02250 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Zoz, H., E-mail: [Zoz GmbH, D-57482, Wenden (Germany)


    The ball milling (B M) of blended Ni and Cr elemental powders was carried out in a Simoloyer performing on high-energy scale mode at maximum production to obtain a nano structured Ni-20Cr alloy. The phase transformations and structural changes occurring during mechanical alloying were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical microscopy (Om). A gradual solid solubility of Cr and the subsequent formation of crystalline metastable solid solutions described in terms of the Avrami-Ero fe ev kinetics model were calculated. The XRD analysis of the structure indicates that cumulative lattice strain contributes to the driving force for solid solution between Ni and Cr during B M. Microstructure evolution has shown, additionally to the lamellar length refinement commonly observed, the folding of lamellae in the final processing stage. Om observations revealed that the lamellar spacing of Ni rich zones reaches a steady value near 500 nm and almost disappears after 30 h of milling. (Author)

  2. A finite element-analytical method for modeling a structure in an infinite fluid (United States)

    Zarda, P. R.


    A method is described from which the interaction of an elastic structure with an infinite acoustic fluid is determined. The displacements of the structure and the pressure field of the immediate surrounding fluid are modeled by finite elements, and the remaining pressure field of the infinite fluid region is given by an analytical expression. This method yields a frequency dependent boundary condition for the outer fluid boundary when applied to the frequency response of an elastic beam in contact with an acoustic fluid. The frequency response of the beam is determined using NASTRAN, and compares favorably to the exact solution which is also presented. The effect of the fluid on the response of the structure at low and high frequencies is due to added mass and damping characteristics, respectively.

  3. Technical note on using CNTs as reinforcements in reinforced concrete structural elements (United States)

    Babu, C. Ramesh


    The disasters whether man made or natural dominates all types of structures and has ever been attention to researchers, academicians and scientists. Concrete had been reinforced with steel, macro fibers and microfibers which bridges the cracks. The advantages of microfibers are to delay the development of cracks. Numerous researches focused on arresting the initiation of micro cracks and delay in the macro cracks. However the initiation of the cracks could not be avoided. It is quite fruitful and needy for the present scenario in a country like India to carry out research by reinforcing concrete with fibers/nanomaterials at nano scale which would provide crack free materials and structures. This technical note explores the possibilities of impregnating concrete with CNTs (Carbon Nano Tubes) and also as reinforcement bars at macro level in reinforced concrete structural elements.

  4. Polymorphism in elemental silicon: Probabilistic interpretation of the realizability of metastable structures (United States)

    Jones, Eric B.; Stevanović, Vladan


    With few systems of technological interest having been studied as extensively as elemental silicon, there currently exists a wide disparity between the number of predicted low-energy silicon polymorphs and those that have been experimentally realized as metastable at ambient conditions. We put forward an explanation for this disparity wherein the likelihood of formation of a given polymorph under near-equilibrium conditions can be estimated on the basis of mean-field isothermal-isobaric (N ,p ,T ) ensemble statistics. The probability that a polymorph will be experimentally realized is shown to depend upon both the hypervolume of that structure's potential energy basin of attraction and a Boltzmann factor weight containing the polymorph's potential enthalpy per particle. Both attributes are calculated using density functional theory relaxations of randomly generated initial structures. We find that the metastable polymorphism displayed by silicon can be accounted for using this framework to the exclusion of a very large number of other low-energy structures.

  5. Structure and Expression Analyses of SVA Elements in Relation to Functional Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Jeong Kwon


    Full Text Available SINE-VNTR-Alu (SVA elements are present in hominoid primates and are divided into 6 subfamilies (SVA-A to SVA-F and active in the human population. Using a bioinformatic tool, 22 SVA element-associated genes are identified in the human genome. In an analysis of genomic structure, SVA elements are detected in the 5' untranslated region (UTR of HGSNAT (SVA-B, MRGPRX3 (SVA-D, HYAL1 (SVA-F, TCHH (SVA-F, and ATXN2L (SVA-F genes, while some elements are observed in the 3'UTR of SPICE1 (SVA-B, TDRKH (SVA-C, GOSR1 (SVA-D, BBS5 (SVA-D, NEK5 (SVA-D, ABHD2 (SVA-F, C1QTNF7 (SVA-F, ORC6L (SVA-F, TMEM69 (SVA-F, and CCDC137 (SVA-F genes. They could contribute to exon extension or supplying poly A signals. LEPR (SVA-C, ALOX5 (SVA-D, PDS5B (SVA-D, and ABCA10 (SVA-F genes also showed alternative transcripts by SVA exonization events. Dominant expression of HYAL1_SVA appeared in lung tissues, while HYAL1_noSVA showed ubiquitous expression in various human tissues. Expression of both transcripts (TDRKH_SVA and TDRKH_noSVA of the TDRKH gene appeared to be ubiquitous. Taken together, these data suggest that SVA elements cause transcript isoforms that contribute to modulation of gene regulation in various human tissues.

  6. Structure and Expression Analyses of SVA Elements in Relation to Functional Genes. (United States)

    Kwon, Yun-Jeong; Choi, Yuri; Eo, Jungwoo; Noh, Yu-Na; Gim, Jeong-An; Jung, Yi-Deun; Lee, Ja-Rang; Kim, Heui-Soo


    SINE-VNTR-Alu (SVA) elements are present in hominoid primates and are divided into 6 subfamilies (SVA-A to SVA-F) and active in the human population. Using a bioinformatic tool, 22 SVA element-associated genes are identified in the human genome. In an analysis of genomic structure, SVA elements are detected in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of HGSNAT (SVA-B), MRGPRX3 (SVA-D), HYAL1 (SVA-F), TCHH (SVA-F), and ATXN2L (SVA-F) genes, while some elements are observed in the 3'UTR of SPICE1 (SVA-B), TDRKH (SVA-C), GOSR1 (SVA-D), BBS5 (SVA-D), NEK5 (SVA-D), ABHD2 (SVA-F), C1QTNF7 (SVA-F), ORC6L (SVA-F), TMEM69 (SVA-F), and CCDC137 (SVA-F) genes. They could contribute to exon extension or supplying poly A signals. LEPR (SVA-C), ALOX5 (SVA-D), PDS5B (SVA-D), and ABCA10 (SVA-F) genes also showed alternative transcripts by SVA exonization events. Dominant expression of HYAL1_SVA appeared in lung tissues, while HYAL1_noSVA showed ubiquitous expression in various human tissues. Expression of both transcripts (TDRKH_SVA and TDRKH_noSVA) of the TDRKH gene appeared to be ubiquitous. Taken together, these data suggest that SVA elements cause transcript isoforms that contribute to modulation of gene regulation in various human tissues.

  7. Use of complementary cation and anion heavy-atom salt derivatives to solve the structure of cytochrome P450 46A1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Mark Andrew, E-mail: [Sealy Center for Structural and Molecular Biophysics, UTMB Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, UTMB Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Mast, Natalia [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, UTMB Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Bjorkhem, Ingemar [Department of Clinical Chemistry, Karolinska Institute, S-141 88 Huddinge (Sweden); Johnson, Eric F. [Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Stout, C. David [Department of Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Pikuleva, Irina A. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, UTMB Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Sealy Center for Structural and Molecular Biophysics, UTMB Galveston, TX 77555 (United States)


    Crystallization and analysis of the MIRAS heavy-atom structure solution of human cytochrome P450 46A1 using NaI and CsCl quick soaks. Human cytochrome P450 46A1 (CYP46A1) is one of the key enzymes in cholesterol homeostasis in the brain. The crystallization and heavy-atom structure solution of an active truncated CYP46A1 in complex with the high-affinity substrate analogue cholesterol-3-sulfate (CH-3S) is reported. The 2.6 Å structure of CYP46A1–CH-3S was solved using both anion and cation heavy-atom salts. In addition to the native anomalous signal from the haem iron, an NaI anion halide salt derivative and a complementary CsCl alkali-metal cation salt derivative were used. The general implications of the use of halide and alkali-metal quick soaks are discussed. The importance of using isoionic strength buffers, the titration of heavy-atom salts into different ionic species and the role of concentration are considered. It was observed that cation/anion-binding sites will occasionally overlap, which could negatively impact upon mixed RbBr soaks used for multiple anomalous scatterer MAD (MMAD). The use of complementary cation and anion heavy-atom salt derivatives is a convenient and powerful tool for MIR(AS) structure solution.

  8. Impact of the Mathematical Model Description on the Assessment of the Reliability of Structural Elements (United States)

    Dudzik, Agnieszka


    The study presents a probabilistic approach to the problems of static analysis of structural elements. A steel and reinforced concrete elements were analysed. Structural design parameters were defined as deterministic values and random variables. The latter were not correlated. The criterion of structural failure is expressed by limit functions related to the ultimate limit state. In the performed analyses explicit form of the random variables function were used. The Hasofer-Lind index was used as a reliability measure. In the description of random variables were used the different types of probability distribution appropriate to the nature of the variable. Sensitivity of reliability index to the random variables was defined. If the reliability index sensitivity due to the random variable Xi is low when compared with other variables, it can be stated that the impact of this variable on failure probability is small. Therefore, in successive computations it can be treated as a deterministic parameter. Sensitivity analysis leads to simplify the description of the mathematical model, determine the new limit functions and values of the Hasofer-Lind reliability index. Besides the effect of the assumed level of the variation coefficient of selected random variables on value of the reliability index was determined. The primary research method is the FORM method. In order to verify the correctness of the calculation SORM, Monte Carlo and Importance Sampling methods were used. In the examples of reliability analysis the NUMPRESS program was used. In the considered issues the time was not taken into account explicitly.

  9. Application of the Recursive Finite Element Approach on 2D Periodic Structures under Harmonic Vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem Yassine


    Full Text Available The frequency response function is a quantitative measure used in structural analysis and engineering design; hence, it is targeted for accuracy. For a large structure, a high number of substructures, also called cells, must be considered, which will lead to a high amount of computational time. In this paper, the recursive method, a finite element method, is used for computing the frequency response function, independent of the number of cells with much lesser time costs. The fundamental principle is eliminating the internal degrees of freedom that are at the interface between a cell and its succeeding one. The method is applied solely for free (no load nodes. Based on the boundary and interior degrees of freedom, the global dynamic stiffness matrix is computed by means of products and inverses resulting with a dimension the same as that for one cell. The recursive method is demonstrated on periodic structures (cranes and buildings under harmonic vibrations. The method yielded a satisfying time decrease with a maximum time ratio of 1 18 and a percentage difference of 19%, in comparison with the conventional finite element method. Close values were attained at low and very high frequencies; the analysis is supported for two types of materials (steel and plastic. The method maintained its efficiency with a high number of forces, excluding the case when all of the nodes are under loads.

  10. Analysis of secondary structural elements in human microRNA hairpin precursors. (United States)

    Liu, Biao; Childs-Disney, Jessica L; Znosko, Brent M; Wang, Dan; Fallahi, Mohammad; Gallo, Steven M; Disney, Matthew D


    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression by targeting complementary mRNAs for destruction or translational repression. Aberrant expression of miRNAs has been associated with various diseases including cancer, thus making them interesting therapeutic targets. The composite of secondary structural elements that comprise miRNAs could aid the design of small molecules that modulate their function. We analyzed the secondary structural elements, or motifs, present in all human miRNA hairpin precursors and compared them to highly expressed human RNAs with known structures and other RNAs from various organisms. Amongst human miRNAs, there are 3808 are unique motifs, many residing in processing sites. Further, we identified motifs in miRNAs that are not present in other highly expressed human RNAs, desirable targets for small molecules. MiRNA motifs were incorporated into a searchable database that is freely available. We also analyzed the most frequently occurring bulges and internal loops for each RNA class and found that the smallest loops possible prevail. However, the distribution of loops and the preferred closing base pairs were unique to each class. Collectively, we have completed a broad survey of motifs found in human miRNA precursors, highly expressed human RNAs, and RNAs from other organisms. Interestingly, unique motifs were identified in human miRNA processing sites, binding to which could inhibit miRNA maturation and hence function.

  11. Fatigue assessment for selected connections of structural steel bridge components using the finite elements method (United States)

    Śledziewski, Krzysztof


    Material fatigue it is one of the most frequent causes of steel bridge failures, particularly the bridges already existing. Thus, the procedure of fatigue life assessment is one of the most relevant procedures in a comprehensive assessment of load-carrying capacity and service life of the structure. A reliable assessment of the fatigue life is predominantly decisive for estimation of the remaining service life. Hitherto, calculation methods of welded joints took into account only stresses occurring in cross sections of whole elements and did not take into account stress concentration occurring in the vicinity of the weld, caused by geometrical aspects of the detail. At present, use of the Finite Element Analysis, makes possible looking for more accurate approach to the fatigue design of steel structures. The method of geometrical stresses is just such approach which is based on definition of stresses which take into account geometry of the detail. The study presents fatigue assessment of a representative type of welded joint in welded bridge structures. The testing covered longitudinal attachments. The main analyses were carried out on the basis of FEM and the method of local stresses, so-called "hot-spot" stresses. The obtained values of stresses were compared with the values obtained in accordance with the method of nominal stress.

  12. Structural-acoustic finite element analysis of the automobile passenger compartment: A review of current practice (United States)

    Nefske, D. J.; Wolf, J. A.; Howell, L. J.


    This paper contains a brief review of the formulation of the finite element method for structural-acoustic analysis of an enclosed cavity, and illustrations are given of the application of this analytical method at General Motors Corporation to investigate the acoustics of the automobile passenger compartment. Low frequency noise in the passenger compartment (in approximately the 20-200 Hz frequency range) is of primary interest, and particularly that noise which is generated by the structural vibration of the wall panels of the compartment. The topics which are covered in the paper include the computation of acoustic modes and resonant frequencies of the passenger compartment, the effect of flexible wall panels on the cavity acoustics, the methods of direct and modal coupling of the structural and acoustic vehicle systems, and forced vibration analysis illustrating the techniques for computing panel-excited noise and for identifying critical panels around the passenger compartment. The capabilities of the finite element method are illustrated by applications to the production automobile, and experimental verifications of the various techniques are presented to illustrate the accuracy of the method.

  13. Forewing structure of the solitary bee Osmia bicornis developing on heavy metal pollution gradient. (United States)

    Szentgyörgyi, Hajnalka; Moroń, Dawid; Nawrocka, Anna; Tofilski, Adam; Woyciechowski, Michał


    Wild bees in natural conditions can develop under various environmental stressors. Heavy metal pollution of the environment is one of the most widely studied stressors in insects, yet its effect is poorly described in bees. We have measured how pollution of the environment along a zinc, cadmium and lead contamination gradient in Poland affects bee development, using red mason bees (Osmia bicornis) as a model and their forewing asymmetry measures to assess possible developmental instabilities. We have also described wing asymmetry measures in the red mason bee-an important managed pollinator species-for the first time. The development of bee larvae in a contaminated environment did not affect forewing asymmetry measures, but it did lead to a negative correlation of wing size with contamination in females. Bees also showed a clear change in their asymmetry measures between various seasons, suggesting other, unknown environmental factors affecting wing asymmetry more than pollution. Sexes were found to have different forewing shape and size, larger females having larger forewings than the smaller males. The direction of size asymmetry was in favour of the left side in both sexes and also shape differences between the left and right wings showed similar tendencies in males and females. The levels of forewing shape and size asymmetry were smaller in females, making them the more symmetrical sex.

  14. Finite Element Analysis and Lightweight Optimization Design on Main Frame Structure of Large Electrostatic Precipitator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuewen Wang


    Full Text Available The geometric modeling and finite element modeling of the whole structure of an electrostatic precipitator and its main components consisting of top beam, column, bottom beam, and bracket were finished. The strength calculation was completed. As a result, the design of the whole structure of the electrostatic precipitator and the main components were reasonable, the structure was in a balance state, its working condition was safe and reliable, its stress variation was even, and the stress distribution was regular. The maximum von Mises stress of the whole structure is 20.14 MPa. The safety factor was large, resulting in a waste of material. An optimization mathematical model is established. Using the ANSYS first-order method, the dimension parameters of the main frame structure of the electrostatic precipitator were optimized. After optimization, more reasonable structural design parameters were obtained. The model weight is 72,344.11 kg, the optimal weight is 49,239.35 kg, and the revised weight is 53,645.68 kg. Compared with the model weight, the optimal weight decreased by 23,104.76 kg and the objective function decreased by 31.94%, while the revised weight decreased by 18,698.43 kg and the objective function decreased by 25.84%.

  15. Structural behavior of SC panel subjected to impact loading using finite element analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyuk-Kee; Kim, Seung-Eock, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Structural behavior of SC panel subjected to impact loading is evaluated using numerical analysis. • Sensitivity studies according to fracture energy and erosion value are performed. • Analysis results are compared with impact test for SC panel. - Abstract: After the terrorist attack on the World Trade Center using aircraft in New York City in 2001, safety assessments of nuclear power plant (NPP) structures subjected to impact loading have been actively performed. Since impact tests are possible for small-scale structures but not for full-scale structures, finite element (FE) analysis is necessary for a safety assessment of NPP structure. Analysis factors such as the material model of concrete and steel, strain rate effect, concrete fracture energy, and erosion value influence the analysis results. In this paper, the effect of the concrete fracture energy and the erosion in the material model of a steel-plate concrete (SC) panel subjected to the impact loading is evaluated using the commercial software LS-DYNA. The analysis results are compared with the impact test for an SC panel conducted in other research. A quarter model of an SC panel is adopted for impact analysis. The impact force–time history is applied on the SC panel. Sensitivity studies according to the fracture energy and the erosion value are performed in order to evaluate the structural behavior of SC panels.

  16. Modeling Concrete Material Structure: A Two-Phase Meso Finite Element Model (United States)

    Bonifaz, E. A.; Baus, Juan; Lantsoght, Eva O. L.

    Concrete is a compound material where aggregates are randomly placed within the cement paste. To describe the behavior of concrete structures at the ultimate, it is necessary to use nonlinear finite element models, which for shear and torsion problems do not always give satisfactory results. The current study aims at improving the modeling of concrete at the meso-level, which eventually can result in an improved assessment of existing structures. Concrete as a heterogeneous material is modeled consisting of hydrated cement paste and aggregates. The stress-strain curves of the hydrated cement paste and aggregates are described with results from the literature. A three-dimensional (3D) finite element model was developed to determine the influence of individual phases on the inelastic stress-strain distribution of concrete structures. A random distribution and morphology of the cement and aggregate fractions are achieved by using DREAM.3D. Two affordable computational dual-phase representative volume elements (RVEs) are imported to ABAQUS to be studied in compression and tension. The virtual specimens (concrete mesh) subjected to continuous monotonic strain loading conditions were constrained with 3D boundary conditions. Results demonstrate differences in stress-strain mechanical behavior in both compression and tension test simulations. A strong dependency of flow stress and plastic strain on phase type, aggregate (andesite) size, shape and distribution upon the composite local response are clearly observed. It is noted that the resistance to flow is higher in concrete meshes composed of finer and homogeneous aggregate particles because the Misses stresses and effective plastic strains are better distributed. This study shows that at the meso-level, concrete can be modeled consisting of aggregates and hydrated cement paste.

  17. Preparation of glasses and glass ceramics of heavy metal oxides containing silver: optical, structural and electrochemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna A. Bregadiolli


    Full Text Available Silver containing heavy metal oxide glasses and glass ceramics of the system WO3-SbPO4-PbO-AgCl with different AgCl contents have been prepared and their thermal, structural and optical properties characterized. Glass ceramics containing metallic silver nanoparticles have been prepared by annealing glass samples at temperatures above the glass transition and analyzed by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. The presence of the metallic clusters has been also confirmed by the observation of a surface plasmon resonance band in the visible range. Cyclic voltammetric measurements indicated the presence of metallic silver into the glasses, even before to perform the thermal treatment.

  18. Structure and chromosome assignment of the murine p36 (calpactin I heavy chain) gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amiquel, P; Kristensen, Torsten; D'Eustachio, P


    , the complete intron/exon structure of the p36 gene was determined and the 5' and 3' noncoding regions of the gene were analyzed. The coding and 3' untranslated region of the p36 gene contains 12 exons which range in size from 48 to 322 base pairs (bp) with an average size of 107 bp. The repeat structures found...

  19. Development of an Image Fringe Zero Selection System for Structuring Elements with Stereo Vision Disparity Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grindley, Josef E; Jiang Lin; Tickle, Andrew J, E-mail:, E-mail: [School of Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Computer Science, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GJ (United Kingdom)


    When performing image operations involving Structuring Element (SE) and many transforms it is required that the outside of the image be padded with zeros or ones depending on the operation. This paper details how this can be achieved with simulated hardware using DSP Builder in Matlab with the intention of migrating the design to HDL (Hardware Description Language) and implemented on an FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array). The design takes few resources and does not require extra memory to account for the change in size of the output image.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In modern conditions of social development, changes in land eco-system of economic relations in Ukraine, the problem of providing conditions for the creation of sustainable land use and creation of protected areas get the status of special urgency. Ideology establishment of ecological networks became logical continuation of environmental thought in general. Considering the methodological approach to the establishment of ecological networks we can constitute, that it is an environmental frame of spatial infrastructure, land conservation and environmental areas, major part of land is the basis of the structural elements of ecological network. Designing an ecological network is made through developing regional schemes of Econet formation, regional and local schemes for establishing an ecological network areas, settlements and other areas. Land Management uses design of structural elements of the ecological network in the village council, as a rule, begins with ecological and landscape mikrozonationof the village council, held during the preparatory work for the land drafting and finishing the formation of environmentally homogeneous regions, which represents the tied system components of ecological network, environmental measures in the form of local environmental restrictions (encumbrances to use land and other natural resources. Additionally, there are some project organization and territorial measures that increase the sustainability area, such as: key, binders, buffer areas and renewable ecological network. Land management projects on the formation of structural elements of ecological network as territorial restrictions (encumbrances in land are used within the territories Councils determined the location and size of land: - Protection zones around especially valuable natural objects of cultural heritage, meteorological stations, etc. in order to protect them from adverse human impacts; - Protection zones along telecommunication lines, power

  1. Testing the big bang: Light elements, neutrinos, dark matter and large-scale structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, D.N. (Chicago Univ., IL (United States) Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States))


    In this series of lectures, several experimental and observational tests of the standard cosmological model are examined. In particular, detailed discussion is presented regarding nucleosynthesis, the light element abundances and neutrino counting; the dark matter problems; and the formation of galaxies and large-scale structure. Comments will also be made on the possible implications of the recent solar neutrino experimental results for cosmology. An appendix briefly discusses the 17 keV thing'' and the cosmological and astrophysical constraints on it. 126 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Simple model of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, collapse, and structural elements (United States)

    Goncharov, V. P.; Pavlov, V. I.


    The mechanisms and structural elements of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability whose evolution results in the occurrence of the collapse have been studied in the scope of the rotating shallow water model with horizontal density gradient. Analysis of the instability mechanism shows that two collapse scenarios are possible. One scenario implies anisotropic collapse during which the contact area of a collapsing fragment with the bottom contracts into a spinning segment. The other implies isotropic contracting of the area into a point. The rigorous integral criteria and power laws of collapses are found.

  3. Structural elements of collapses in shallow water flows with horizontally nonuniform density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncharov, V. P., E-mail: [Russian Academy of Sciences, Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics (Russian Federation); Pavlov, V. I., E-mail: [Universite de Lille 1, UFR de Mathematiques Pures et Appliquees-LML UMR 8107 (France)


    The mechanisms and structural elements of instability whose evolution results in the occurrence of the collapse are studied in the scope of the rotating shallow water model with a horizontally nonuniform density. The diagram stability based on the integral collapse criterion is suggested to explain system behavior in the space of constants of motion. Analysis of the instability shows that two collapse scenarios are possible. One scenario implies anisotropic collapse during which the contact area of a collapsing drop-like fragment with the bottom contracts into a rotating segment. The other implies isotropic contraction of the area into a point.

  4. Program design by a multidisciplinary team. [for structural finite element analysis on STAR-100 computer (United States)

    Voigt, S.


    The use of software engineering aids in the design of a structural finite-element analysis computer program for the STAR-100 computer is described. Nested functional diagrams to aid in communication among design team members were used, and a standardized specification format to describe modules designed by various members was adopted. This is a report of current work in which use of the functional diagrams provided continuity and helped resolve some of the problems arising in this long-running part-time project.

  5. Random lock-in intervals for tubular structural elements subject to simulated natural wind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus F.; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager


    The paper reports on wind tunnel experiments with an elastically suspended circular cylinder vibrating under the excitation of natural wind of high turbulence degree. The natural wind turbulence was simulated bysuperposing the low frequency part of the natural wind turbulence on the background high...... structural elements subject to thenatural wind. The engineering relevance of the investigation is supported by comparing with the unrealistic highlyconservative rules of wind induced fatique commonly given in codes of practice. The stochastic lock-in model aswell as the related fatigue calculation procedure...

  6. Numerical study of viscoelastic polymer flow in simplified pore structures using stabilised finite element model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, M.; Wegner, J.; Ganzer, L. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). ITE


    Polymer flooding, as an EOR method, has become one of the most important driving forces after water flooding. The conventional believe is that polymer flooding can only improve sweep efficiency, but it has no contribution to residual oil saturation reduction. However, experimental studies indicated that polymer solution can also improve displacement efficiency and decrease residual oil saturation. To get a better understanding of the mechanism to increase the microscopic sweep efficiency and the displacement efficiency, theoretical studies are required. In this paper, we studied the viscoelasticity effect of polymer by using a numerical simulator, which is based on Finite Element Analysis. Since it is showed experimentally that the first normal stress difference of viscoelastic polymer solution is higher than the second stress difference, the Oldroyd-B model was selected as the constitutive equation in the simulation. Numerical modelling of Oldroyd-B viscoelastic fluids is notoriously difficult. Standard Galerkin finite element methods are prone to numerical oscillations, and there is no convergence as the elasticity of fluid increases. Therefore, we use a stabilised finite element model. In order to verify our model, we first built up a model with the same geometry and fluid properties as presented in literature and compared the results. Then, with the tested model we simulated the effect of viscoelastic polymer fluid on dead pores in three simplified pore structures, which are contraction structure, expansion structure and expansion-contraction structure. Correspondingly, the streamlines and velocity contours of polymer solution, with different Reynolds numbers (Re) and Weissenberg numbers (We), flowing in these three structures are showed. The simulation results indicate that the viscoelasticity of polymer solution is the main contribution to increase the micro-scale sweep efficiency. With higher elasticity, the velocity of polymer solution is getting bigger at


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The invention relates to a light-weight load-bearing structure, reinforced by core elements (2) of a strong material constituting one or more compression or tension zones in the structure to be cast, which core (2) is surrounded by or adjacent to a material of less strength compared to the core (2......), where the core (2) is constructed from segments (1) of core elements (2) assembled by means of one or more prestressing elements (4). The invention further relates to a method of casting of light-weight load-bearing structures, reinforced by core elements (2) of a strong material constituting one...... or more compression or tension zones in the structure to be cast, which core (2) is surrounded by or adjacent to a material of less strength compared to the core (2), where the core (2) is constructed from segments (1) of core elements (2) assembled and hold together by means of one or more prestressing...

  8. High-resolution structural and elemental analyses of calcium storage structures synthesized by the noble crayfish Astacus astacus. (United States)

    Luquet, Gilles; Salomé, Murielle; Ziegler, Andreas; Paris, Céline; Percot, Aline; Dauphin, Yannicke


    During premolt, crayfish develop deposits of calcium ions, called gastroliths, in their stomach wall. The stored calcium is used for the calcification of parts of the skeleton regularly renewed for allowing growth. Structural and molecular analyses of gastroliths have been primarily performed on three crayfish species, Orconectes virilis, Procambarus clarkii, and more recently, Cherax quadricarinatus. We have performed high-resolution analyses of gastroliths from the native noble crayfish, Astacus astacus, focusing on the microstructure, the mineralogical and elemental composition and distribution in a comparative perspective. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) observations showed a classical layered microstructure composed of 200-nm diameter granules aligned along fibers. These granules are themselves composed of agglomerated nanogranules of 50nm-mean diameters. Denser regions of bigger fused granules are also present. Micro-Raman spectroscopy show that if A. astacus gastroliths, similarly to the other analyzed gastroliths, are mainly composed of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC), they are also rich in amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP). The presence of a carotenoid pigment is also observed in A. astacus gastrolith contrary to C. quadricarinatus. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analyses demonstrate the presence of minor elements such as Mg, Sr, Si and P. The distribution of this last element is particularly heterogeneous. X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy (XANES) reveals an alternation of layers more or less rich in phosphorus evidenced in the mineral phase as well as in the organic matrix in different molecular forms. Putative functions of the different P-comprising molecules are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Multilevel micro-structuring of glassy carbon for precision glass molding of diffractive optical elements (United States)

    Prater, Karin; Dukwen, Julia; Scharf, Toralf; Herzig, Hans Peter; Plöger, Sven; Hermerschmidt, Andreas


    A consumer market for diffractive optical elements in glass can only be created if high efficient elements are available at affordable prices. In diffractive optics the efficiency and optical properties increases with the number of levels used, but in the same way the costs are multiplied by the number if fabrication steps. Replication of multilevel diffractive optical elements in glass would allow cost efficient fabrication but a suitable mold material is needed. Glassy carbon shows a high mechanical strength, thermal stability and non-sticking adhesion properties, which makes it an excellent candidate as mold material for precision compression molding of low and high glass-transition temperature materials. We introduce an 8 level micro structuring process for glassy carbon molds with standard photolithography and a Ti layer as hard mask for reactive ion etching. The molds were applied to thermal imprinting onto low and high transition temperature glass. Optical performance was tested for the molded samples with different designs for laser beamsplitters. The results show a good agreement to the design specification. Our result allow us to show limitations of our fabrication technique and we discussed the suitability of precision glass molding for cost efficient mass production with a high quality.

  10. Trace element structure of the most widespread plants of genus PulmonariaFNx01

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Kruglov


    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this work was a comparative research of trace element structure of various organs of three Pulmonaria species. Materials and Methods: The aerial parts of the most widespread plants of genus Pulmonaria such as Pulmonaria officinalis L., Pulmonaria obscura Dumort. and Pulmonaria mollis Wulf. ex Hornem., which were collected in ending of flowering and were used as the research objects. The amount of trace elements (B, K, P, V, Ca, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Si, Zn, Ag, Al, Ba, Br, Cr, I, Ni, Se, Sr, and Ti was determined by means of mass spectroscopy with inductively coupled plasma. Results: The data clustering has shown that floral shoots and rosellate leaves possess essentially various trace element status. At the same time, the trace elements′ status of organs of researched plants poorly depends on a taxonomic position of the plant. Thereupon, it is obvious that pharmacological activity is defined by organs of plants from which medicines were made, but not by a species of the used plant. Conclusions: The significant distinction in pharmacological activity of preparations depends on the trace elements′ status of used medicinal vegetative raw materials.

  11. X(3872 in Heavy Quark Limit of QCD: Its Partners and Isospin Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozpineci A.


    Full Text Available Although it has been more than ten years since the discovery of the X(3872 meson, its properties still contain puzzles. In this work, the results obtained using a correlation function approach on the degenerate partners of the X(3872 will be presented. The isospin structure is also discussed in the same framework. Finally, the X(3872 → D0 D̄0 π decay is proposed to study the isospin structure of the X(3872 meson.

  12. Influence of electronic energy deposition on the structural modification of swift heavy-ion-irradiated amorphous germanium layers (United States)

    Steinbach, T.; Schnohr, C. S.; Kluth, P.; Giulian, R.; Araujo, L. L.; Sprouster, D. J.; Ridgway, M. C.; Wesch, W.


    Swift heavy-ion (SHI) irradiation of amorphous germanium (a-Ge) layers leads to a strong volume expansion accompanied by a nonsaturating irreversible plastic deformation (ion hammering), which are consequences of the high local electronic energy deposition within the region of the a-Ge layer. We present a detailed study of the influence of SHI irradiation parameters on the effect of plastic deformation and structural modification. Specially prepared a-Ge layers were irradiated using two SHI energies and different angles of incidence, thus resulting in a variation of the electronic energy deposition per depth ɛe between 14.0 and 38.6 keV nm-1. For all irradiation parameters used a strong swelling of the irradiated material was observed, which is caused by the formation and growth of randomly distributed voids, leading to a gradual transformation of the amorphous layer into a sponge-like porous structure as established by cross-section scanning electron microscopy investigations. The swelling depends linearly on the ion fluence and on the value of ɛe, thus clearly demonstrating that the structural changes are determined solely by the electronic energy deposited within the amorphous layer. Plastic deformation shows a superlinear dependence on the ion fluence due to the simultaneous volume expansion. This influence of structural modification on plastic deformation is described by a simple approach, thus allowing estimation of the deformation yield. With these results the threshold values of the electronic energy deposition for the onset of both structural modification and plastic deformation due to SHI irradiation are determined. Furthermore, based on these results, the longstanding question concerning the reason for the structural modification observed in SHI-irradiated crystalline Ge is answered.

  13. Predicting protein folding pathways at the mesoscopic level based on native interactions between secondary structure elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sze Sing-Hoi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since experimental determination of protein folding pathways remains difficult, computational techniques are often used to simulate protein folding. Most current techniques to predict protein folding pathways are computationally intensive and are suitable only for small proteins. Results By assuming that the native structure of a protein is known and representing each intermediate conformation as a collection of fully folded structures in which each of them contains a set of interacting secondary structure elements, we show that it is possible to significantly reduce the conformation space while still being able to predict the most energetically favorable folding pathway of large proteins with hundreds of residues at the mesoscopic level, including the pig muscle phosphoglycerate kinase with 416 residues. The model is detailed enough to distinguish between different folding pathways of structurally very similar proteins, including the streptococcal protein G and the peptostreptococcal protein L. The model is also able to recognize the differences between the folding pathways of protein G and its two structurally similar variants NuG1 and NuG2, which are even harder to distinguish. We show that this strategy can produce accurate predictions on many other proteins with experimentally determined intermediate folding states. Conclusion Our technique is efficient enough to predict folding pathways for both large and small proteins at the mesoscopic level. Such a strategy is often the only feasible choice for large proteins. A software program implementing this strategy (SSFold is available at

  14. Elements of the Chicxulub Impact Structure as Revealed in SRTM and Surface GPS Topographic Data (United States)

    Kinsland, Gary L.; Sanchez, Gary; Kobrick, Michael; Cardador, Manuel Hurtado


    Pope et al. [1] utilized the elevations from the Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) gravity data files to show that the main component of the surface expression of the Chicxulub Impact Structure is a roughly semi-circular, lowrelief depression about 90 km in diameter. They also identified other topographic features and the elements of the buried impact, which possibly led to the development of these features. These are summarized in Table 1. Kinsland et al. [2] presented a connection between these topographic anomalies, small gravity anomalies and buried structure of the impact. Very recently we have acquired digital topography data from NASA s Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Our subset covers 6 square degrees from 20deg N 91degW to 22deg N 88degW (corner to corner) with a pixel size of about 90m. This area includes all of the identified portion of the crater on land.

  15. Crystal Structure of NFAT Bound to the HIV-1 LTR Tandem κB Enhancer Element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, Darren L.; Barthel, Kristen K.B.; Wu, Yongqing; Kalhor, Reza; Stroud, James C.; Giffin, Michael J.; Chen, Lin (UCLA); (Colorado)


    Here, we have determined the crystal structure of the DNA binding domain of NFAT bound to the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) tandem {kappa}B enhancer element of 3.05 {angstrom} resolution. NFAT binds as a dimer to the upstream {kappa}B site (Core II), but as a monomer to the 3' end of the downstream {kappa}B site (Core I). The DNA shows a significant bend near the 5' end of Core I, where a lysine residue from NFAT bound to the 3' end of Core II inserts into the minor groove and seems to cause DNA bases to flip out. Consistent with this structural feature, the 5' end of Core I become hypersensitive to dimethylsulfate in the in vivo footprinting upon transcriptional activation of the HIV-1 LTR. Our studies provide a basis for futher investigating the functional mechanism of NFAT in HIV-1 transcription and replication.

  16. Coupled mixed-field laminate theory and finite element for smart piezoelectric composite shell structures (United States)

    Saravanos, Dimitris A.


    Mechanics for the analysis of laminated composite shells with piezoelectric actuators and sensors are presented. A new mixed-field laminate theory for piezoelectric shells is formulated in curvilinear coordinates which combines single-layer assumptions for the displacements and a layerwise representation for the electric potential. The resultant coupled governing equations for curvilinear piezoelectric laminates are described. Structural mechanics are subsequently developed and an 8-node finite-element is formulated for the static and dynamic analysis of adaptive composite structures of general laminations containing piezoelectric layers. Evaluations of the method and comparisons with reported results are presented for laminated piezoelectric-composite plates, a closed cylindrical shell with a continuous piezoceramic layer and a laminated composite semi-circular cantilever shell with discrete cylindrical piezoelectric actuators and/or sensors.

  17. Structural Robust Optimal Design based on Orthogonal Experimental and Parametric Finite Element Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Xindang


    Full Text Available In this paper, based on orthogonal experiment, piccolo tube dynamic optimization was performed to achieve the purposes of reducing the time of sample, identifying the key parameters and optimizing design. Firstly, parameterized finite element model of the piccolo tube was built. After that, the orthogonal experiment under four design variables covering three levels was performed. After 10 times dynamics simulation analysis (9 times simulation for orthogonal experiment and 1 time simulation for optimal design verification experiment, the optimal design of the piccolo tube was quickly determined. The first order natural frequency of the piccolo tube was improved to 1771HZ from initial design 1496.3HZ. The trend and sensitivity between the design variables and structural performance were obtained. The analyze process shows that the proposed method is simple and efficient. It can provide technical reference for piccolo tube optimization design and other complex structures.

  18. Nanohairs and nanotubes: Efficient structural elements for gecko-inspired artificial dry adhesives

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, Hoon Eui


    An overview of the recent progress in the development of gecko-inspired synthetic dry adhesives is presented, with particular emphasis on two major structural elements of nanohairs and nanotubes. With the advance of nanofabrication techniques, recently developed dry adhesives made of nanohairs and nanotubes show excellent adhesion strength, smart directional adhesion as well as rough surface adaptability by better mimicking gecko foot hairs. After a brief description of the requirements for high-performance artificial dry adhesives, a variety of synthetic adhesives are described based on materials and structural features of the gecko-inspired nanostructures. In addition, current challenges and future directions towards an optimized synthetic dry adhesive are presented. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of heavy metals and soil physicochemical properties on wetland soil microbial biomass and bacterial community structure. (United States)

    Zhang, Chang; Nie, Shuang; Liang, Jie; Zeng, Guangming; Wu, Haipeng; Hua, Shanshan; Liu, Jiayu; Yuan, Yujie; Xiao, Haibing; Deng, Linjing; Xiang, Hongyu


    Heavy metals (HMs) contamination is a serious environmental issue in wetland soil. Understanding the micro ecological characteristic of HMs polluted wetland soil has become a public concern. The goal of this study was to identify the effects of HMs and soil physicochemical properties on soil microorganisms and prioritize some parameters that contributed significantly to soil microbial biomass (SMB) and bacterial community structure. Bacterial community structure was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Relationships between soil environment and microorganisms were analyzed by correlation analysis and redundancy analysis (RDA). The result indicated relationship between SMB and HMs was weaker than SMB and physicochemical properties. The RDA showed all eight parameters explained 74.9% of the variation in the bacterial DGGE profiles. 43.4% (contain the variation shared by Cr, Cd, Pb and Cu) of the variation for bacteria was explained by the four kinds of HMs, demonstrating HMs contamination had a significant influence on the changes of bacterial community structure. Cr solely explained 19.4% (pstructure, and Cd explained 17.5% (pstructure changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Control of triplet state generation in heavy atom-free BODIPY-anthracene dyads by media polarity and structural factors

    KAUST Repository

    Filatov, Mikhail A.


    A family of heavy atom-free BODIPY-anthracene dyads (BADs) exhibiting triplet excited state formation from charge-transfer states is reported. Four types of BODIPY scaffolds, different in the alkyl substitution pattern, and four anthracene derivatives have been used to access BADs. The fluorescence and intersystem crossing (ISC) in these dyads depend on donor-acceptor couplings and can be accurately controlled by the substitution or media polarity. Under conditions that do not allow charge transfer (CT), the dyads exhibit fluorescence with high quantum yields. Formation of charge-transfer states triggers ISC and the formation of long-lived triplet excited states in the dyads. The excited state properties were studied by steady-state techniques and ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy to determine the parameters of the observed processes. Structural information for various BADs was derived from single crystal X-ray structure determinations alongside DFT molecular geometry optimization, revealing the effects of mutual orientation of subunits on the photophysical properties. The calculations showed that alkyl substituents on the BODIPY destabilize CT states in the dyads, thus controlling the charge transfer between the subunits. The effect of the dyad structure on the ISC efficiency was considered at M06-2X level of theory and a correlation between mutual orientation of the subunits and the energy gap between singlet and triplet CT states was studied using multireference CASSCF method.

  1. Claisen rearrangement of allyl phenyl ether: heavy-atom kinetic isotope effects and bond orders in the transition structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupczyk-Subotkowska, L.; Saunders, W.H. Jr.; Shine, H.J.


    Kinetic isotope effects (KIE) were measured for the rearrangement at 220/degree/C of allyl ether (1) which was labeled successively at its oxygen atom ((/sup 18/O)-1), /alpha/-carbon atom ((/alpha/-/sup 14/C)-1), /gamma/-carbon atom ((/gamma/-/sup 14/C)-1), and ortho-carbon atom ((2-/sup 14/C)-1). The KIE were 1.0297 (/sup 18/O), 1.0306 (/alpha/-/sup 14/C), 1.0362 (/gamma/-/sup 14/C), and 1.0375 (2-/sup 14/C). KIE were determined from isotopic abundances in the product, o-allylphenol (2), which were measured by multiscan mass spectrometry (/sup 18/O) and scintillation counting (/sup 14/C). A model of the transition structure was then developed, whose bond orders gave calculated KIE in reasonably good agreement not only with the experimentally determined heavy-atom KIE but also with the deuterium KIE reported earlier by McMichael and Korver. A loose transition structure was thus found for the rearrangement of 1 into 2. In this transition structure the C/sub /alpha//-O bond is 50-60% broken while the C/sub /gamma//-C/sub ortho/ bond is only 10-20% complete. The results thus define this concerted, nonsynchronous rearrangement more explicitly than hitherto possible. 40 references, 8 tables.

  2. Characterization of Aircraft Structural Damage Using Guided Wave Based Finite Element Analysis for In-Flight Structural Health Management (United States)

    Seshadri, Banavara R.; Krishnamurthy, Thiagarajan; Ross, Richard W.


    The development of multidisciplinary Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) tools will enable accurate detection, diagnosis and prognosis of damage under normal and adverse conditions during flight. The adverse conditions include loss of control caused by environmental factors, actuator and sensor faults or failures, and structural damage conditions. A major concern is the growth of undetected damage/cracks due to fatigue and low velocity foreign object impact that can reach a critical size during flight, resulting in loss of control of the aircraft. To avoid unstable catastrophic propagation of damage during a flight, load levels must be maintained that are below the load-carrying capacity for damaged aircraft structures. Hence, a capability is needed for accurate real-time predictions of safe load carrying capacity for aircraft structures with complex damage configurations. In the present work, a procedure is developed that uses guided wave responses to interrogate damage. As the guided wave interacts with damage, the signal attenuates in some directions and reflects in others. This results in a difference in signal magnitude as well as phase shifts between signal responses for damaged and undamaged structures. Accurate estimation of damage size and location is made by evaluating the cumulative signal responses at various pre-selected sensor locations using a genetic algorithm (GA) based optimization procedure. The damage size and location is obtained by minimizing the difference between the reference responses and the responses obtained by wave propagation finite element analysis of different representative cracks, geometries and sizes.

  3. Moderate-Heavy Alcohol Consumption Lifestyle in Older Adults Is Associated with Altered Central Executive Network Community Structure during Cognitive Task. (United States)

    Mayhugh, Rhiannon E; Moussa, Malaak N; Simpson, Sean L; Lyday, Robert G; Burdette, Jonathan H; Porrino, Linda J; Laurienti, Paul J


    Older adults today consume more alcohol than previous generations, the majority being social drinkers. The effects of heavy alcohol use on brain functioning closely resemble age-related changes, but it is not known if moderate-heavy alcohol consumption intensifies brain aging. Whether a lifestyle of moderate-heavy alcohol use in older adults increased age-related brain changes was examined. Forty-one older adults (65-80 years) that consumed light (moderate-heavy (7-21 drinks/week, non-bingers, n = 21) amounts of alcohol were enrolled. Twenty-two young adults (24-35 years) were also enrolled (light, n = 11 and moderate-heavy, n = 11). Functional brain networks based on magnetic resonance imaging data were generated for resting state and during a working memory task. Whole-brain, Central Executive Network (CEN), and Default Mode Network (DMN) connectivity were assessed in light and moderate-heavy alcohol consuming older adults with comparisons to young adults. The older adults had significantly lower whole brain connectivity (global efficiency) and lower regional connectivity (community structure) in the CEN during task and in the DMN at rest. Moderate-heavy older drinkers did not exhibit whole brain connectivity differences compared to the low drinkers. However, decreased CEN connectivity was observed during the task. There were no differences in the DMN connectivity between drinking groups. Taken together, a lifestyle including moderate-heavy alcohol consumption may be associated with further decreases in brain network connectivity within task-related networks in older adults. Further research is required to determine if this decrease is compensatory or an early sign of decline.

  4. Two-Element PIFA Array Structure for Polarization Diversity in UMTS Mobile Phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hamouz


    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrate the possibility to strongly modify the radiated fields of a UMTS handset by using a phased two-element PIFA array. The structure is composed of a 100x40 mm2 metallic ground plane acting as the Printed Circuit Board (PCB of the mobile phone. Two UMTS PIFAs are located at the top edge of this PCB. They are fed by a double Quasi-Lumped Coupler able to provide a 360 phase difference between its two outputs. By properly choosing the DC bias of the double QuasiLumped Coupler, we can set a specific phase difference between the two PIFAs. In this way the two-element array is able to radiate different electromagnetic fields. Simulated and measured radiation patterns in the two main planes of the chassis are presented for different phase differences. It is especially revealed that the novel twoantenna structure is able to radiate vertically-polarized electric fields in the azimuthal plane of the phone and horizontally-polarized electric fields in the same plane when changing the phase shift between the antennas from 0 to 180. Potential applications are polarization-diversity techniques and Specific Absorption Rate reduction for handsets.

  5. A Highly Flexible, Automated System Providing Reliable Sample Preparation in Element- and Structure-Specific Measurements. (United States)

    Vorberg, Ellen; Fleischer, Heidi; Junginger, Steffen; Liu, Hui; Stoll, Norbert; Thurow, Kerstin


    Life science areas require specific sample pretreatment to increase the concentration of the analytes and/or to convert the analytes into an appropriate form for the detection and separation systems. Various workstations are commercially available, allowing for automated biological sample pretreatment. Nevertheless, due to the required temperature, pressure, and volume conditions in typical element and structure-specific measurements, automated platforms are not suitable for analytical processes. Thus, the purpose of the presented investigation was the design, realization, and evaluation of an automated system ensuring high-precision sample preparation for a variety of analytical measurements. The developed system has to enable system adaption and high performance flexibility. Furthermore, the system has to be capable of dealing with the wide range of required vessels simultaneously, allowing for less cost and time-consuming process steps. However, the system's functionality has been confirmed in various validation sequences. Using element-specific measurements, the automated system was up to 25% more precise compared to the manual procedure and as precise as the manual procedure using structure-specific measurements. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  6. Blood lead: Its effect on trace element levels and iron structure in hemoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, C. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Li, Y. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)], E-mail:; Li, Y.L. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zou, Y. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhang, G.L. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Normura, M. [Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, KEK, Oho, Tsukuba 305 (Japan); Zhu, G.Y. [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)


    Lead is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant that induce a broad range of physiological and biochemical dysfunctions. The purpose of this study was to investigate its effects on trace elements and the iron structure in hemoglobin. Blood samples were collected from rats that had been exposed to lead. The concentration of trace elements in whole blood and blood plasma was determined by ICP-MS and the results indicate that lead exists mainly in the red blood cells and only about 1-3% in the blood plasma. Following lead exposure, the concentrations of zinc and iron in blood decrease, as does the hemoglobin level. This indicates that the heme biosynthetic pathway is inhibited by lead toxicity and that lead poisoning-associated anemia occurs. The selenium concentration also decreases after lead exposure, which may lead to an increased rate of free radical production. The effect of lead in the blood on iron structure in hemoglobin was determined by EXAFS. After lead exposure, the Fe-O bond length increases by about 0.07 A and the Fe-Np bond length slightly increases, but the Fe-N{sub {epsilon}} bond length remains unchanged. This indicates that the blood content of Hb increases, but that the content of HbO{sub 2} decreases.

  7. HIV Rev Assembly on the Rev Response Element (RRE: A Structural Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason W. Rausch


    Full Text Available HIV-1 Rev is an ~13 kD accessory protein expressed during the early stage of virus replication. After translation, Rev enters the nucleus and binds the Rev response element (RRE, a ~350 nucleotide, highly structured element embedded in the env gene in unspliced and singly spliced viral RNA transcripts. Rev-RNA assemblies subsequently recruit Crm1 and other cellular proteins to form larger complexes that are exported from the nucleus. Once in the cytoplasm, the complexes dissociate and unspliced and singly-spliced viral RNAs are packaged into nascent virions or translated into viral structural proteins and enzymes, respectively. Rev binding to the RRE is a complex process, as multiple copies of the protein assemble on the RNA in a coordinated fashion via a series of Rev-Rev and Rev-RNA interactions. Our understanding of the nature of these interactions has been greatly advanced by recent studies using X-ray crystallography, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and single particle electron microscopy as well as biochemical and genetic methodologies. These advances are discussed in detail in this review, along with perspectives on development of antiviral therapies targeting the HIV-1 RRE.

  8. Finite Element Analysis of Soft-lined Mandibular Complete Denture and its Supporting Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayoun Sadr


    Full Text Available Background and aims. There are many edentulous people with severely resorbed residual ridges and non-resilient lining mucosa that are unable to tolerate occlusal forces during functional and parafunctional movements. Lining the tissue surface of dentures with a flexible material can theoretically distribute and absorb forces with cushioning effect. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a soft liner on stress levels in mandibular complete denture and its supporting structures by finite element analysis. Materials and methods. A simplified 3-dimensional finite element model of relatively resorbed mandible, mucosa, denture and a soft liner was prepared. Then the model, with and without soft liner, underwent normal vertical and lateral occlusal forces. The stresses were analyzed using the ANSYS 12 software. Results. Using the soft liner increased stress levels up to 18.5% and 30% in the cortical bone and mucosa, respectively, after vertical load was applied in the incisor region. Application of bilateral vertical load on the molar area increased stress in cortical bone u to 44% and in the mucosa up to 29%. Unilateral loading in the canine area increased stress level in the mucosa up to 63.5%. The highest stress was seen at denture base followed by the cortical bone. Conclusion. Use of soft liners increased stress in denture supporting structures. Higher level of stress concentration was observed primarily in the denture base followed by the cortical bone.

  9. Blood lead: Its effect on trace element levels and iron structure in hemoglobin (United States)

    Jin, C.; Li, Y.; Li, Y. L.; Zou, Y.; Zhang, G. L.; Normura, M.; Zhu, G. Y.


    Lead is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant that induce a broad range of physiological and biochemical dysfunctions. The purpose of this study was to investigate its effects on trace elements and the iron structure in hemoglobin. Blood samples were collected from rats that had been exposed to lead. The concentration of trace elements in whole blood and blood plasma was determined by ICP-MS and the results indicate that lead exists mainly in the red blood cells and only about 1-3% in the blood plasma. Following lead exposure, the concentrations of zinc and iron in blood decrease, as does the hemoglobin level. This indicates that the heme biosynthetic pathway is inhibited by lead toxicity and that lead poisoning-associated anemia occurs. The selenium concentration also decreases after lead exposure, which may lead to an increased rate of free radical production. The effect of lead in the blood on iron structure in hemoglobin was determined by EXAFS. After lead exposure, the Fe-O bond length increases by about 0.07 Å and the Fe-Np bond length slightly increases, but the Fe-N ɛ bond length remains unchanged. This indicates that the blood content of Hb increases, but that the content of HbO 2 decreases.

  10. Track structure model of microscopic energy deposition by protons and heavy ions in segments of neuronal cell dendrites represented by cylinders or spheres (United States)

    Alp, Murat; Cucinotta, Francis A.


    Changes to cognition, including memory, following radiation exposure are a concern for cosmic ray exposures to astronauts and in Hadron therapy with proton and heavy ion beams. The purpose of the present work is to develop computational methods to evaluate microscopic energy deposition (ED) in volumes representative of neuron cell structures, including segments of dendrites and spines, using a stochastic track structure model. A challenge for biophysical models of neuronal damage is the large sizes (> 100 μm) and variability in volumes of possible dendritic segments and pre-synaptic elements (spines and filopodia). We consider cylindrical and spherical microscopic volumes of varying geometric parameters and aspect ratios from 0.5 to 5 irradiated by protons, and 3He and 12C particles at energies corresponding to a distance of 1 cm to the Bragg peak, which represent particles of interest in Hadron therapy as well as space radiation exposure. We investigate the optimal axis length of dendritic segments to evaluate microscopic ED and hit probabilities along the dendritic branches at a given macroscopic dose. Because of large computation times to analyze ED in volumes of varying sizes, we developed an analytical method to find the mean primary dose in spheres that can guide numerical methods to find the primary dose distribution for cylinders. Considering cylindrical segments of varying aspect ratio at constant volume, we assess the chord length distribution, mean number of hits and ED profiles by primary particles and secondary electrons (δ-rays). For biophysical modeling applications, segments on dendritic branches are proposed to have equal diameters and axes lengths along the varying diameter of a dendritic branch.

  11. Analysis on the geometrical shape of T-honeycomb structure by finite element method (FEM) (United States)

    Zain, Fitri; Rosli, Muhamad Farizuan; Effendi, M. S. M.; Abdullah, Mohamad Hariri


    Geometric in design is much related with our life. Each of the geometrical structure interacts with each other. The overall shape of an object contains other shape inside, and there shapes create a relationship between each other in space. Besides that, how geometry relates to the function of the object have to be considerate. In this project, the main purpose was to design the geometrical shape of modular furniture with the shrinking of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) jointing system that has good strength when applied load on it. But, the goal of this paper is focusing on the analysis of Static Cases by FEM of the hexagonal structure to obtain the strength when load apply on it. The review from the existing product has many information and very helpful to finish this paper. This project focuses on hexagonal shape that distributed to become a shelf inspired by honeycomb structure. It is very natural look and simple in shape and its modular structure more easily to separate and combine. The method discusses on chapter methodology are the method used to analysis the strength when the load applied to the structure. The software used to analysis the structure is Finite Element Method from CATIA V5R21 software. Bending test is done on the jointing part between the edges of the hexagonal shape by using Universal Tensile Machine (UTM). The data obtained have been calculate by bending test formulae and sketch the graph between flexural strains versus flexural stress. The material selection of the furniture is focused on wood. There are three different types of wood such as balsa, pine and oak, while the properties of jointing also be mentioned in this thesis. Hence, the design structural for honeycomb shape already have in the market but this design has main objective which has a good strength that can withstand maximum load and offers more potentials in the form of furniture.

  12. Toxicity of heavy metals to bromeliads and orchids in greenhouse cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irmer, U.; Poppendiek, H.H.; Zechmeister, A.; Lorch, D.W.


    Symptoms of heavy metal toxicity were observed in greenhouse cultures of bromeliads and orchids. Samples of water, plants and substrate were analysed. The concentrations of zinc, cadmium, and lead were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. In all plants high concentration of zinc, cadmium, and lead were observed. The source of these heavy metals was found in the zinc-coated structural elements of the greenhouse from which acid rains extracted the heavy metals. The rainwater collected was used for watering the cultures and caused the symptoms of toxicity. Differences in the accumulation of heavy metals by the species examined are discussed.

  13. Electronic Structure and Heavy Fermion Behavior in LiV_2O_4


    Singh, D. J.; Blaha, P; Schwarz, K; Mazin, I. I.


    First principles density functional calculations of the electronic and magnetic properties of spinel-structure LiV$_{2}$O$_{4}$ have been performed using the full potential linearized augmented planewave method. The calculations show that the electronic structure near the Fermi energy consists of a manifold of 12 bands derived from V $t_{2g}$ states, weakly hybridized with O p states. While the total width of this active manifold is approximately 2 eV, it may be roughly decomposed into two gr...

  14. Wakefield Simulation of CLIC PETS Structure Using Parallel 3D Finite Element Time-Domain Solver T3P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candel, A.; Kabel, A.; Lee, L.; Li, Z.; Ng, C.; Schussman, G.; Ko, K.; /SLAC; Syratchev, I.; /CERN


    In recent years, SLAC's Advanced Computations Department (ACD) has developed the parallel 3D Finite Element electromagnetic time-domain code T3P. Higher-order Finite Element methods on conformal unstructured meshes and massively parallel processing allow unprecedented simulation accuracy for wakefield computations and simulations of transient effects in realistic accelerator structures. Applications include simulation of wakefield damping in the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) power extraction and transfer structure (PETS).

  15. Genes and quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling trace element concentrations in perennial grasses grown on phytotoxic soil contaminated with heavy metals (United States)

    Perennial grasses cover diverse soils throughout the world, including sites contaminated with heavy metals, producing forages that must be safe for livestock and wildlife. Chromosome regions known as quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling forage mineral concentrations were mapped in a populatio...

  16. Continuous/discontinuous finite element modelling of Kirchhoff plate structures in R^3 using tangential differential calculus (United States)

    Hansbo, Peter; Larson, Mats G.


    We employ surface differential calculus to derive models for Kirchhoff plates including in-plane membrane deformations. We also extend our formulation to structures of plates. For solving the resulting set of partial differential equations, we employ a finite element method based on elements that are continuous for the displacements and discontinuous for the rotations, using C^0-elements for the discretisation of the plate as well as for the membrane deformations. Key to the formulation of the method is a convenient definition of jumps and averages of forms that are d-linear in terms of the element edge normals.

  17. Structural and quantitative aspects of radical formation after heavy ion bombardment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dusemund, B.; Hoffmann, A.K.; Weiland, B.; Huettermann, J. [Klinikum Homburg (Germany). Fachrichtung Biophysik


    In this report the authors present a summary of their recent attempts aiming at clarifying some basic structural and quantitative aspects of free radical formation in DNA constituents and in DNA as well as of product analysis from nucleotide model compounds. (orig./MG)

  18. Structural changes of DNA in heavy ion-induced mutants on Arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tano, S.; Shikazono, N.; Tanaka, A.; Yokota, Y.; Watanabe, H. [Japan Atomic Research Research Inst., Watanuki, Takasaki (Japan). Advanced Science Research Center


    In order to investigate the frequency of structural changes induced by high LET radiation in plants, a comparison was made between DNA fragments amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from C ion- and electron-induced Arabidopsis mutants at GL and TT loci. (orig./MG)

  19. Stiffness degradation-based damage model for RC members and structures using fiber-beam elements (United States)

    Guo, Zongming; Zhang, Yaoting; Lu, Jiezhi; Fan, Jian


    To meet the demand for an accurate and highly efficient damage model with a distinct physical meaning for performance-based earthquake engineering applications, a stiffness degradation-based damage model for reinforced concrete (RC) members and structures was developed using fiber beam-column elements. In this model, damage indices for concrete and steel fibers were defined by the degradation of the initial reloading modulus and the low-cycle fatigue law. Then, section, member, story and structure damage was evaluated by the degradation of the sectional bending stiffness, rod-end bending stiffness, story lateral stiffness and structure lateral stiffness, respectively. The damage model was realized in Matlab by reading in the outputs of OpenSees. The application of the damage model to RC columns and a RC frame indicates that the damage model is capable of accurately predicting the magnitude, position, and evolutionary process of damage, and estimating story damage more precisely than inter-story drift. Additionally, the damage model establishes a close connection between damage indices at various levels without introducing weighting coefficients or force-displacement relationships. The development of the model has perfected the damage assessment function of OpenSees, laying a solid foundation for damage estimation at various levels of a large-scale structure subjected to seismic loading.

  20. Approach to Operational Experimental Estimation of Static Stresses of Elements of Mechanical Structures (United States)

    Sedov, A. V.; Kalinchuk, V. V.; Bocharova, O. V.


    The evaluation of static stresses and strength of units and components is a crucial task for increasing reliability in the operation of vehicles and equipment, to prevent emergencies, especially in structures made of metal and composite materials. At the stage of creation and commissioning of structures to control the quality of manufacturing of individual elements and components, diagnostic control methods are widely used. They are acoustic, ultrasonic, X-ray, radiation methods and others. The using of these methods to control the residual life and the degree of static stresses of units and parts during operation is fraught with great difficulties both in methodology and in instrumentation. In this paper, the authors propose an effective approach of operative control of the degree of static stresses of units and parts of mechanical structures which are in working condition, based on recording the changing in the surface wave properties of a system consisting of a sensor and a controlled environment (unit, part). The proposed approach of low-frequency diagnostics of static stresses presupposes a new adaptive-spectral analysis of a surface wave created by external action (impact). It is possible to estimate implicit stresses of structures in the experiment due to this approach.