Jensen, Majken Karoline; Andersen, Anne T; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.
Studies have suggested that wine drinkers are at lower risk of death than beer or spirits drinkers. The aim of this study is to examine whether the risk of becoming a heavy or excessive drinker differs among individuals who prefer different types of alcoholic beverages.......Studies have suggested that wine drinkers are at lower risk of death than beer or spirits drinkers. The aim of this study is to examine whether the risk of becoming a heavy or excessive drinker differs among individuals who prefer different types of alcoholic beverages....
Gill, J.; Chick, J; Black, H.; Rees, C; O'May, F.; Rush, R; McPake, B.A.
Objectives: Potential strategies to address alcohol misuse remain contentious. We aim to characterise the drink purchases of one population group: heavy drinkers in contact with Scottish health services. We contrast our findings with national sales data and explore the impact of socio-economic status on purchasing behaviour. Study design: Cross-sectional study comparing alcohol purchasing and consumption by heavy drinkers in Edinburgh and Glasgow during 2012. Methods: 639 patients with seriou...
Weafer, Jessica; Fillmore, Mark T.
Heavy drinkers show an increased attentional bias to alcohol-related stimuli compared to moderate drinkers, and this bias is thought to promote motivation for alcohol consumption (Field & Cox, 2008). Studies have begun to examine acute alcohol effects on attentional bias, however little is known regarding how these effects might differ based on drinker type. Further, the degree to which attentional bias in response to alcohol is associated with excessive alcohol consumption remains unexplored...
To study total alcohol consumption and its correlates, with an emphasis on the direction of causality. The associations among total alcohol consumption, abstaining, alcohol dependence (AD) and heavy episodic drinking were compared in 29 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries in 2010. Either total alcohol consumption is determined by the number of abstainers and that of alcohol dependents, or the number of alcohol dependents is determined by total alcohol consumption. The number of non-dependent heavy episodic drinkers does not play a role. The number of alcohol dependents and abstainers seemingly determines total alcohol consumption and more efforts should be made to reduce AD. The associations between total alcohol consumption, abstaining, alcohol dependence and heavy episodic drinking were compared in 29 OECD countries in 2010. The number of non-dependent heavy episodic drinkers does not play a role. The number of alcohol dependents and abstainers seemingly determine total alcohol consumption. © The Author 2016. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
Weafer, Jessica; Fillmore, Mark T
Heavy drinkers show an increased attentional bias to alcohol-related stimuli compared to moderate drinkers, and this bias is thought to promote motivation for alcohol consumption (Field & Cox, 2008). Studies have begun to examine acute alcohol effects on attentional bias; however, little is known regarding how these effects might differ based on drinker type. Further, the degree to which attentional bias in response to alcohol is associated with excessive alcohol consumption remains unexplored. For the current study, 20 heavy drinkers and 20 moderate drinkers completed a visual probe task in response to placebo and two active doses of alcohol (0.45g/kg and 0.65g/kg). Participants' eye-movements were monitored and attentional bias was calculated as the difference in time spent focused on alcohol compared to neutral images. Participants' alcohol consumption was assessed by a timeline follow-back calendar and a laboratory ad lib consumption task. Results showed that heavy drinkers displayed significantly greater attentional bias than did moderate drinkers following placebo. However, heavy drinkers displayed a dose-dependent decrease in attentional bias following alcohol, whereas the drug had no effect in moderate drinkers. Individual differences in attentional bias under placebo were strongly associated with both self-reported and laboratory alcohol consumption, yet bias following alcohol administration did not predict either measure of consumption. These findings suggest that attentional bias is strongest before a drinking episode begins. As such, an attentional bias might be most influential in terms of initiation of alcohol consumption, and less of a factor in promoting continued consumption within the drinking episode. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
Gill, J; Chick, J; Black, H; Rees, C; O'May, F; Rush, R; McPake, B A
Potential strategies to address alcohol misuse remain contentious. We aim to characterise the drink purchases of one population group: heavy drinkers in contact with Scottish health services. We contrast our findings with national sales data and explore the impact of socio-economic status on purchasing behaviour. Cross-sectional study comparing alcohol purchasing and consumption by heavy drinkers in Edinburgh and Glasgow during 2012. 639 patients with serious health problems linked to alcohol (recruited within NHS hospital clinics (in- and out-patient settings) 345 in Glasgow, 294 in Edinburgh) responded to a questionnaire documenting demographic data and last week's or a 'typical' weekly consumption (type, brand, volume, price, place of purchase). Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation quintile was derived as proxy of sociodemographic status. Median consumption was 184.8 (IQR = 162.2) UK units/week paying a mean of 39.7 pence per alcohol unit (£0.397). Off-sales accounted for 95% of purchases with 85% of those purchase the majority of their drinks from off-sale settings seeking the cheapest drinks, often favouring local suppliers. While beer was popular, recent legislation impacting on the sale of multibuys may prevent the heaviest drinkers benefiting from the lower beer prices available in supermarkets. Non-etheless, drinkers were able to offset higher unit prices with cheaper drink types and maintain high levels of consumption. Whilst price is key, heavy drinkers are influenced by other factors and adapt their purchasing as necessary. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Vatsalya, Vatsalya; Gowin, Joshua L.; Schwandt, Melanie L.; Momenan, Reza; Coe, Marion A.; Cooke, Megan E.; Hommer, Daniel W.; Bartlett, Selena; Heilig, Markus; Ramchandani, Vijay A.
Background: Preclinical and emerging clinical evidence indicates that varenicline, a nicotinic partial agonist approved for smoking cessation, attenuates alcohol seeking and consumption. Reductions of alcohol craving have been observed under varenicline treatment and suggest effects of the medication on alcohol reward processing, but this hypothesis remains untested. Methods: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized experimental medicine study, 29 heavy drinkers underwent a functio...
Wiers, RW; van Woerden, N; Smulders, FTY; de Jong, Peter
Implicit and explicit alcohol-related cognitions were measured in 2 dimensions: positive-negative (valence) and arousal-sedation, with 2 versions of the Implicit Association Test (IAT; A. G. Greenwald, D. E. McGhee, & J. L. Schwartz) and related explicit measures. Heavy drinkers (h 24) strongly
Schoenmakers, Tim; Wiers, Reinout W; Field, Matt
Heavy alcohol drinking increases the incentive salience of alcohol-related cues. This leads to increased appetitive motivation to drink alcohol as measured by subjective craving and cognitive biases such as attentional bias and approach bias. Although these measures relate to the same construct, correlations between these variables are often very low. Alcohol consumption might not only increase different aspects of appetitive motivation, but also correlations between those aspects. To investigate the effect of a low alcohol dose on changes in various measures of appetitive motivation. Twenty-three heavy social drinkers were tested in 2 sessions, once after receiving an alcohol prime dose and once after receiving a placebo drink. After drink administration, attentional bias was measured with a visual-probe task using concurrent eye movement monitoring. Furthermore, we measured the approach bias with a stimulus response compatibility task and subjective craving with the Desires for Alcohol Questionnaire. After the alcohol prime dose, participants had higher levels of craving and more pronounced attentional bias (faster reaction times to probes that replaced alcohol rather than control pictures, increased maintenance of gaze on alcohol pictures, and a higher percentage of first eye movements directed toward alcohol pictures). Approach bias was not influenced by the alcohol prime dose. The correlation between attentional bias and approach bias was significantly higher after the alcohol than after the placebo drink. A low alcohol dose increased most measures of appetitive motivation for alcohol and increased the interrelation between cognitive measures of this construct.
Vatsalya, Vatsalya; Gowin, Joshua L; Schwandt, Melanie L; Momenan, Reza; Coe, Marion A; Cooke, Megan E; Hommer, Daniel W; Bartlett, Selena; Heilig, Markus; Ramchandani, Vijay A
Preclinical and emerging clinical evidence indicates that varenicline, a nicotinic partial agonist approved for smoking cessation, attenuates alcohol seeking and consumption. Reductions of alcohol craving have been observed under varenicline treatment and suggest effects of the medication on alcohol reward processing, but this hypothesis remains untested. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized experimental medicine study, 29 heavy drinkers underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan after 2 weeks of varenicline (2mg/d) or placebo administration. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, participants performed the Alcohol-Food Incentive Delay task, where they could earn points for snacks or alcohol. At baseline and after 3 weeks of medication, participants underwent intravenous alcohol self-administration sessions in the laboratory. During the functional magnetic resonance imaging scan, participants in the varenicline group (N=17) reported lower feelings of happiness and excitement on subjective mood scales when anticipating alcohol reward compared with the placebo group (N=12). Linear mixed effects analysis revealed that anticipation of alcohol reward was associated with significant blood oxygen level dependent activation of the ventral striatum, amygdala, and posterior insula in the placebo group; this activation was attenuated in the varenicline group. The varenicline group showed no difference in intravenous alcohol self-administration relative to the placebo group for either session. Participants with higher insula activation when anticipating alcohol reward showed higher alcohol self-administration behavior across groups. Our findings suggest that varenicline decreases blood oxygen level dependent activation in striato-cortico-limbic regions associated with motivation and incentive salience of alcohol in heavy drinkers. This mechanism may underlie the clinical effectiveness of varenicline in reducing alcohol intake and indicates its
Tibboel, Helen; De Houwer, Jan; Spruyt, Adriaan; Brevers, Damien; Roy, Emmanuel; Noël, Xavier
Automatic hedonic ("liking") and incentive ("wanting") processes are assumed to play an important role in addiction. Whereas some neurobiological theories suggest that these processes become dissociated when drug use develops into an addiction (i.e., "liking" becomes weaker, whereas "wanting" becomes exaggerated; e.g., Robinson & Berridge, 1993), other theories suggest that there is a linear relationship between these two processes (i.e., both "liking" and "wanting" increase equally; e.g., Koob & Le Moal, 1997). Our aim was to examine "wanting" and "liking" in three groups of participants: alcohol-dependent patients, heavy social drinkers, and light social drinkers. Participants performed two different single target implicit association tests (ST-IATs; e.g., Bluemke & Friese, 2007) and explicit ratings that were designed to measure "liking" and "wanting" for alcohol. Our results are in sharp contrast with the theories of both Robinson and Berridge and Koob and Le Moal: heavy drinkers had higher scores than light drinkers and alcohol-dependent patients on both the wanting ST-IAT and the liking ST-IAT. There were no differences between alcohol-dependent patients and light drinkers. Explicit ratings mirrored these results. These findings suggest that our ST-IATs are not valid measures of "wanting" and "liking". Instead, they might assess more complex knowledge regarding participants' experiences and goals. These findings suggest that the relationship between drug consumption and appetitive drug associations is not linear, highlighting the importance of testing both sub-clinical and clinical samples in future research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tartter, Molly A; Ray, Lara A
Recent work has examined the relationship between stress and relapse to alcohol use in clinical populations. Few prospective studies, however, have examined stress as a precipitant of alcohol problems. The present study is a longitudinal examination of the role of stress reactivity and alcohol craving in the etiology of alcohol problems in a sample of 41 (mean age=20.8), heavy-drinking, young adults. Participants completed a guided imagery exposure to stressful life events, followed by exposure to a neutral imagery control. Following the exposure, participants completed an alcohol cue exposure paradigm. Measures of negative mood (Profile of Mood States (POMS) depression/dejection scale), tension (POMS tension/anxiety scale) and alcohol craving (measured by the Alcohol Urge Questionnaire (AUQ)) were used as indicators of reactivity to stress and to alcohol cues. Polymorphisms of the corticotropin-releasing hormone binding protein (CRH-BP) gene and of the μ-opioid receptor (OPRM1) gene were examined as moderators of this relationship. Results revealed that stress-induced negative mood predicted negative consequences of drinking (scores on the Drinker's Inventory of Consequences (DrInC-2R)), whereas stress and cue-induced alcohol craving did not predict alcohol use or problems. Additionally, the CRH-BP genotype was found to moderate the relationship between stress-induced negative affect and the negative consequences of drinking. The current study supports and extends laboratory research describing phenotypes of stress-induced alcohol craving. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hansen, Anders B Gottlieb; Becker, Ulrik; Nielsen, Anette Søgaard
To test if a brief motivational intervention (BMI) in a non-treatment seeking population of heavy drinkers results in a reduced alcohol intake.......To test if a brief motivational intervention (BMI) in a non-treatment seeking population of heavy drinkers results in a reduced alcohol intake....
Full Text Available A Hogewoning,1,* AJAE Van de Loo,1,* M Mackus,1 SJ Raasveld,1 R De Zeeuw,1 ER Bosma,1 NH Bouwmeester,1 KA Brookhuis,2 J Garssen,1,3 JC Verster1,4 1Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, 2Faculty of Behavioral and Social Sciences, Groningen University, Groningen, 3Nutricia Research, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 4Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: A number of social drinkers claim that they do not experience next-day hangovers despite consuming large quantities of alcohol. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of drinkers who claim to be hangover immune and compare them with drinkers who do report having hangovers. Methods: A total of 36 social drinkers participated in a naturalistic study consisting of a hangover day (alcohol consumed and a control day (no alcohol consumed. Data were collected on alcohol consumption, demographics, sleep, next-day adverse effects, and mood. Data from drinkers with a hangover (N=18 were compared with data from drinkers who claim to be hangover immune (N=18. Results: Drinkers with a hangover reported drowsiness-related symptoms, symptoms related to reduced cognitive functioning, and classic hangover symptoms such as headache, nausea, dizziness, weakness, and stomach pain. Corresponding mood changes comprised increased feelings of depression, anger–hostility, fatigue, and reduced vigor–activity. In contrast, hangover-immune drinkers reported relatively few hangover symptoms, with only mild corresponding severity scores. The reported symptoms were limited to drowsiness-related symptoms such as sleepiness and being tired. The classic hangover symptoms were usually not reported by these drinkers. Conclusion: In contrast to drinkers with a hangover, for those who claim to be hangover immune, next-day adverse effects of alcohol consumption are limited to a mild increase in
Shokri-Kojori, E; Tomasi, D; Wiers, C E; Wang, G-J; Volkow, N D
Acute and chronic alcohol exposure significantly affect behavior but the underlying neurobiological mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we used functional connectivity density (FCD) mapping to study alcohol-related changes in resting brain activity and their association with behavior. Heavy drinkers (HD, N=16, 16 males) and normal controls (NM, N=24, 14 males) were tested after placebo and after acute alcohol administration. Group comparisons showed that NM had higher FCD in visual and prefrontal cortices, default mode network regions and thalamus, while HD had higher FCD in cerebellum. Acute alcohol significantly increased FCD within the thalamus, impaired cognitive and motor functions, and affected self-reports of mood/drug effects in both groups. Partial least squares regression showed that alcohol-induced changes in mood/drug effects were associated with changes in thalamic FCD in both groups. Disruptions in motor function were associated with increases in cerebellar FCD in NM and thalamus FCD in HD. Alcohol-induced declines in cognitive performance were associated with connectivity increases in visual cortex and thalamus in NM, but in HD, increases in precuneus FCD were associated with improved cognitive performance. Acute alcohol reduced 'neurocognitive coupling', the association between behavioral performance and FCD (indexing brain activity), an effect that was accentuated in HD compared with NM. Findings suggest that reduced cortical connectivity in HD contribute to decline in cognitive abilities associated with heavy alcohol consumption, whereas increased cerebellar connectivity in HD may have compensatory effects on behavioral performance. The results reveal how drinking history alters the association between brain FCD and individual differences in behavioral performance.
Radtke, Theda; Ostergaard, Mathias; Cooke, Richard; Scholz, Urte
Web-based alcohol interventions are a promising way to reduce alcohol consumption because of their anonymity and the possibility of reaching a high numbers of individuals including heavy drinkers. However, Web-based interventions are often characterized by high rates of attrition. To date, very few studies have investigated whether individuals with higher alcohol consumption show higher attrition rates in Web-based alcohol interventions as compared with individuals with lower alcohol consumption. The aim of this study was to examine the attrition rate and predictors of attrition in a Web-based intervention study on alcohol consumption. The analysis of the predictors of attrition rate was performed on data collected in a Web-based randomized control trial. Data collection took place at the University of Konstanz, Germany. A total of 898 people, which consisted of 46.8% males (420/898) and 53.2% females (478/898) with a mean age of 23.57 years (SD 5.19), initially volunteered to participate in a Web-based intervention study to reduce alcohol consumption. Out of the sample, 86.9% (781/898) were students. Participants were classified as non-completers (439/898, 48.9%) if they did not complete the Web-based intervention. Potential predictors of attrition were self-reported: alcohol consumption in the last seven days, per week, from Monday to Thursday, on weekends, excessive drinking behavior measured with the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), and drinking motives measured by the Drinking Motive Questionnaire (DMQ-R SF). Significant differences between completers and non-completers emerged regarding alcohol consumption in the last seven days (B=-.02, P=.05, 95% CI [0.97-1.00]), on weekends (B=-.05, P=.003, 95% CI [0.92-0.98]), the AUDIT (B=-.06, P=.007, 95% CI [0.90-0.98], and the status as a student (B=.72, P=.001, 95% CI [1.35-3.11]). Most importantly, non-completers had a significantly higher alcohol consumption compared with completers. Hazardous
McCaul, Mary E; Hutton, Heidi E; Stephens, Mary Ann C; Xu, Xiaoqiang; Wand, Gary S
Stress and anxiety are widely considered to be causally related to alcohol craving and consumption, as well as development and maintenance of alcohol use disorder (AUD). However, numerous preclinical and human studies examining effects of stress or anxiety on alcohol use and alcohol-related problems have been equivocal. This study examined relationships between scores on self-report anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and stress measures and frequency and intensity of recent drinking, alcohol craving during early withdrawal, as well as laboratory measures of alcohol craving and stress reactivity among heavy drinkers with AUD. Media-recruited, heavy drinkers with AUD (N = 87) were assessed for recent alcohol consumption. Anxiety and stress levels were characterized using paper-and-pencil measures, including the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 (ASI-3), and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Eligible subjects (N = 30) underwent alcohol abstinence on the Clinical Research Unit; twice daily measures of alcohol craving were collected. On day 4, subjects participated in the Trier Social Stress Test; measures of cortisol and alcohol craving were collected. In multivariate analyses, higher BAI scores were associated with lower drinking frequency and reduced drinks/drinking day; in contrast, higher ASI-3 scores were associated with higher drinking frequency. BAI anxiety symptom and ASI-3 scores also were positively related to Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test total scores and AUD symptom and problem subscale measures. Higher BAI and ASI-3 scores but not PSS scores were related to greater self-reported alcohol craving during early alcohol abstinence. Finally, BAI scores were positively related to laboratory stress-induced cortisol and alcohol craving. In contrast, the PSS showed no relationship with most measures of alcohol craving or stress reactivity. Overall, clinically oriented measures of anxiety compared with perceived stress were more
Fridberg, Daniel J; Cao, Dingcai; King, Andrea C
More effective approaches are needed to enhance drinking and other health behavior (e.g., smoking) outcomes of alcohol brief intervention (BI). Young adult heavy drinkers often engage in other health risk behaviors and show sensitivity to alcohol's stimulating and rewarding effects, which predicts future alcohol-related problems. However, standard alcohol BIs do not address these issues. The current pilot study tested the utility of including feedback on alcohol response phenotype to improve BI outcomes among young adult heavy drinkers who smoke (HDS). Thirty-three young adult (M±SD age=23.8±2.1 years) HDS (8.7±4.3 binge episodes/month; 23.6±6.3 smoking days/month) were randomly assigned to standard alcohol BI (BI-S; n=11), standard alcohol BI with personalized alcohol response feedback (BI-ARF; n=10), or a health behavior attention control BI (AC; n=11). Alcohol responses (stimulation, sedation, reward, and smoking urge) for the BI-ARF were recorded during a separate alcohol challenge session (.8g/kg). Outcomes were past-month drinking and smoking behavior assessed at 1- and 6-months post-intervention. At 6-month follow-up, the BI-ARF produced significant reductions in binge drinking, alcohol-smoking co-use, drinking quantity and frequency, and smoking frequency, but not maximum drinks per occasion, relative to baseline. Overall, the BI-ARF produced larger reductions in drinking/smoking behaviors at follow-up than did the BI-S or AC. Including personalized feedback on alcohol response phenotype may improve BI outcomes for young adult HDS. Additional research is warranted to enhance and refine this approach in a broader sample. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schoenmakers, T.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.; Field, M.
Rationale Heavy alcohol drinking increases the incentive salience of alcohol-related cues. This leads to increased appetitive motivation to drink alcohol as measured by subjective craving and cognitive biases such as attentional bias and approach bias. Although these measures relate to the same
Full Text Available Heavy alcohol use in young adults has been prospectively associated with a host of psychosocial and alcohol-related problems. Recent studies have supported the interaction between serotonin transporter polymorphism and adverse environmental factors, as a predictor of alcohol use and the development of alcohol dependence. The current study examined the role of depressive symptoms in combination with the serotonin transporter polymorphism as a predictor of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Results revealed a significant genotype by depressive symptom interaction, such that heavier alcohol use was associated with depressive symptoms in L allele homozygotes but not among S allele carriers. These results remained significant after controlling for ethnicity and gender effects. These findings extend the emerging literature supporting 5-HTTLPR genotype as a risk factor for alcohol-related problems in the context of co-occurring symptoms of depression.
Field, Matt; Caren, Rhiane; Fernie, Gordon; De Houwer, Jan
Several recent studies suggest that alcohol-related cues elicit automatic approach tendencies in heavy drinkers. A variety of tasks have been used to demonstrate these effects, including Relevant Stimulus-Response Compatibility (R-SRC) tasks and variants of Simon tasks. Previous work with normative stimuli suggests that the R-SRC task may be more sensitive than Simon tasks because the activation of approach tendencies may depend on encoding of the stimuli as alcohol-related, which occurs in the R-SRC task but not in Simon tasks. Our aim was to directly compare these tasks for the first time in the context of alcohol use. We administered alcohol versions of an R-SRC task and a Simon task to 62 social drinkers, who were designated as heavy or light drinkers based on a median split of their weekly alcohol consumption. Results indicated that, compared to light drinkers, heavy drinkers were faster to approach, rather than avoid, alcohol-related pictures in the R-SRC task but not in the Simon task. Theoretical implications and methodological issues are discussed.
Foster, Dawn W; Neighbors, Clayton; Krieger, Heather
This study assessed descriptive and injunctive norms, evaluations of alcohol consequences, and acceptability of drinking. Participants were 248 heavy-drinking undergraduates (81.05% female; Mage=23.45). Stronger perceptions of descriptive and injunctive norms for drinking and more positive evaluations of alcohol consequences were positively associated with drinking and the number of drinks considered acceptable. Descriptive and injunctive norms interacted, indicating that injunctive norms were linked with number of acceptable drinks among those with higher descriptive norms. Descriptive norms and evaluations of consequences interacted, indicating that descriptive norms were positively linked with number of acceptable drinks among those with negative evaluations of consequences; however, among those with positive evaluations of consequences, descriptive norms were negatively associated with number of acceptable drinks. Injunctive norms and evaluations of consequences interacted, indicating that injunctive norms were positively associated with number of acceptable drinks, particularly among those with positive evaluations of consequences. A three-way interaction emerged between injunctive and descriptive norms and evaluations of consequences, suggesting that injunctive norms and the number of acceptable drinks were positively associated more strongly among those with negative versus positive evaluations of consequences. Those with higher acceptable drinks also had positive evaluations of consequences and were high in injunctive norms. Findings supported hypotheses that norms and evaluations of alcohol consequences would interact with respect to drinking and acceptance of drinking. These examinations have practical utility and may inform development and implementation of interventions and programs targeting alcohol misuse among heavy drinking undergraduates. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Dager, Alecia D; Anderson, Beth M; Stevens, Michael C; Pulido, Carmen; Rosen, Rivkah; Jiantonio-Kelly, Rachel E; Sisante, Jason-Flor; Raskin, Sarah A; Tennen, Howard; Austad, Carol S; Wood, Rebecca M; Fallahi, Carolyn R; Pearlson, Godfrey D
Heavy drinkers show altered functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) response to alcohol cues. Little is known about alcohol cue reactivity among college age drinkers, who show the greatest rates of alcohol use disorders. Family history of alcoholism (family history positive [FHP]) is a risk factor for problematic drinking, but the impact on alcohol cue reactivity is unclear. We investigated the influence of heavy drinking and family history of alcoholism on alcohol cue-related fMRI response among college students. Participants were 19 family history negative (FHN) light drinkers, 11 FHP light drinkers, 25 FHN heavy drinkers, and 10 FHP heavy drinkers, aged 18 to 21. During fMRI scanning, participants viewed alcohol images, nonalcohol beverage images, and degraded control images, with each beverage image presented twice. We characterized blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) contrast for alcohol versus nonalcohol images and examined BOLD response to repeated alcohol images to understand exposure effects. Heavy drinkers exhibited greater BOLD response than light drinkers in posterior visual association regions, anterior cingulate, medial frontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, and dorsal striatum, and hyperactivation to repeated alcohol images in temporo-parietal, frontal, and insular regions (clusters > 8,127 μl, p alcohol images in temporo-parietal regions, fusiform, and hippocampus. There were no interactions between family history and drinking group. Our results parallel findings of hyperactivation to alcohol cues among heavy drinkers in regions subserving visual attention, memory, motivation, and habit. Heavy drinkers demonstrated heightened activation to repeated alcohol images, which could influence continued drinking. Family history of alcoholism was associated with greater response to repeated alcohol images in regions underlying visual attention, recognition, and encoding, which could suggest aspects of alcohol cue reactivity that are independent of
Volkow, Nora D; Wang, Gene-Jack; Shokri Kojori, Ehsan; Fowler, Joanna S; Benveniste, Helene; Tomasi, Dardo
During alcohol intoxication, the human brain increases metabolism of acetate and decreases metabolism of glucose as energy substrate. Here we hypothesized that chronic heavy drinking facilitates this energy substrate shift both for baseline and stimulation conditions. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effects of alcohol intoxication (0.75 g/kg alcohol vs placebo) on brain glucose metabolism during video stimulation (VS) versus when given with no stimulation (NS), in 25 heavy drinkers (HDs) and 23 healthy controls, each of whom underwent four PET-(18)FDG scans. We showed that resting whole-brain glucose metabolism (placebo-NS) was lower in HD than controls (13%, p = 0.04); that alcohol (compared with placebo) decreased metabolism more in HD (20 ± 13%) than controls (9 ± 11%, p = 0.005) and in proportion to daily alcohol consumption (r = 0.36, p = 0.01) but found that alcohol did not reduce the metabolic increases in visual cortex from VS in either group. Instead, VS reduced alcohol-induced decreases in whole-brain glucose metabolism (10 ± 12%) compared with NS in both groups (15 ± 13%, p = 0.04), consistent with stimulation-related glucose metabolism enhancement. These findings corroborate our hypothesis that heavy alcohol consumption facilitates use of alternative energy substrates (i.e., acetate) for resting activity during intoxication, which might persist through early sobriety, but indicate that glucose is still favored as energy substrate during brain stimulation. Our findings are consistent with reduced reliance on glucose as the main energy substrate for resting brain metabolism during intoxication (presumably shifting to acetate or other ketones) and a priming of this shift in HDs, which might make them vulnerable to energy deficits during withdrawal. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/353248-08$15.00/0.
Field, Matt; Hogarth, Lee; Bleasdale, Daniel; Wright, Phoebe; Fernie, Gordon; Christiansen, Paul
Theoretical models suggest that attentional bias for alcohol-related cues develops because cues signal the availability of alcohol, and the expectancy elicited by alcohol cues is responsible for the maintenance of attentional bias among regular drinkers. We investigated the moderating role of alcohol expectancy on attentional bias for alcohol-related cues. Within-subjects experimental design. Psychology laboratories. Adult social drinkers (n=58). On a trial-by-trial basis, participants were informed of the probability (100%, 50%, 0%) that they would receive beer at the end of the trial before their eye movements towards alcohol-related and control cues were measured. Heavy social drinkers showed an attentional bias for alcohol-related cues regardless of alcohol expectancy. However, in light social drinkers, attentional bias was only seen on 100% probability trials, i.e. when alcohol was expected imminently. Attentional bias for alcohol-related cues is sensitive to the current expectancy of receiving alcohol in light social drinkers, but it occurs independently of the current level of alcohol expectancy in heavy drinkers. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Wells, Samantha; Speechley, Mark; Koval, John J; Graham, Kathryn
To better understand alcohol-related aggression among late adolescent and young adult drinkers, the present research aimed to examine whether: 1) the relationship between heavy episodic drinking and alcohol-related aggression was different for males and females; and 2) social roles (marital and employment status, living arrangement, student status) influenced alcohol-related aggression. Secondary analyses of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth were conducted using a composite sample of drinkers aged 17 to 21 in 1994, 1996 and 1998 (n = 808). A stronger relationship was found between heavy episodic drinking and fights after drinking for females than for males. In terms of social roles, males who lived with their parents were more likely to fight after drinking than those living in their own dwelling, while females who dropped out of high school were significantly more likely to fight after drinking compared with college students. A gender focus is required in future research on alcohol-related aggression.
Malouff, John; And Others
Examined social effects of heavy drinking. In study 1, 44 participants disfavored heavy drinkers as dating and marriage prospects. In study 2, 29 persons who disfavored heavy drinkers gave reasons. In study 3, findings from 94 persons revealed that degree of endorsement of reasons from study 2 correlated with degree of preference for dating and…
Wiers, Reinout W; Beckers, Leen; Houben, Katrijn; Hofmann, Wilhelm
This study tested a hypothesis derived from recent dual-process models, which conceptualize behavior as the interplay of associative and Executive Control (EC) processes. This general logic was applied here to the phenomenon of aggressiveness after drinking alcohol. Specifically, we predicted that automatic associations between alcohol and power would predict aggressiveness after drinking in men with relatively weak EC. Participants were 57 heavy drinking male students, who completed two versions of the Implicit Association Test (IAT), one assessing alcohol-power associations (hypothesized critical associations) and one alcohol-arousal associations (control-test), a classical Stroop test (measure of EC) and a number of alcohol-related questionnaires, including four questions on aggressiveness after drinking (dependent variable). As predicted, automatic alcohol-power associations significantly predicted self-reported aggressiveness after drinking in low but not in high EC individuals. As expected, this interaction was specific for alcohol-power associations since it was not found with regard to alcohol-arousal associations. We argue that this finding, together with a recent related findings, indicates that specific instances of "impulsivity" can be conceptualized as the joint outcome of two processes: a general weak EC and an associative process that predicts the impulsive behavior under study when not inhibited by EC processes.
Alcohol consumption, drinking patterns, and ischemic heart disease: a narrative review of meta-analyses and a systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of heavy drinking occasions on risk for moderate drinkers.
Roerecke, Michael; Rehm, Jürgen
Alcohol consumption is a major global risk factor for mortality and morbidity. Much discussion has revolved around the diverse findings on the complex relationship between alcohol consumption and the leading cause of death and disability, ischemic heart disease (IHD). We conducted a systematic search of the literature up to August 2014 using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines to identify meta-analyses and observational studies examining the relationship between alcohol drinking, drinking patterns, and IHD risk, in comparison to lifetime abstainers. In a narrative review we have summarized the many meta-analyses published in the last 10 years, discussing the role of confounding and experimental evidence. We also conducted meta-analyses examining episodic heavy drinking among on average moderate drinkers. The narrative review showed that the use of current abstainers as the reference group leads to systematic bias. With regard to average alcohol consumption in relation to lifetime abstainers, the relationship is clearly J-shaped, supported by short-term experimental evidence and similar associations within strata of potential confounders, except among smokers. Women experience slightly stronger beneficial associations and also a quicker upturn to a detrimental effect at lower levels of average alcohol consumption compared to men. There was no evidence that chronic or episodic heavy drinking confers a beneficial effect on IHD risk. People with alcohol use disorder have an elevated risk of IHD (1.5- to 2-fold). Results from our quantitative meta-analysis showed that drinkers with average intake of drinking had the lowest IHD risk (relative risk = 0.64, 95% confidence interval 0.53 to 0.71). Drinkers with episodic heavy drinking occasions had a risk similar to lifetime abstainers (relative risk = 1.12, 95% confidence interval 0.91 to 1.37). Epidemiological evidence for a beneficial effect of low alcohol consumption without
Beceiro, Carmen; Campos, Joaquín; Valcarcel, Maria-Angeles
BACKGROUND: Baseline serum tryptase concentrations are commonly used in clinical practice as a marker of the body's mast cell burden. This study aimed to investigate serum tryptase concentrations in heavy drinkers. METHODS: Serum tryptase concentrations were determined in 126 heavy drinkers (75...... test positivity) was not associated with serum tryptase concentrations in heavy drinkers. CONCLUSIONS: Serum concentrations of mast cell tryptase are lower in heavy drinkers than in healthy controls.......% males, median age 47 years) who were admitted to the hospital because of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (n = 60), general symptoms with abnormalities on biochemical tests that indicated acute liver disease (n = 19), complications of advanced liver disease (n = 33), and miscellaneous reasons (n = 14...
Black, Heather; Michalova, Lucie; Gill, Jan; Rees, Cheryl; Chick, Jonathan; O'May, Fiona; Rush, Robert; McPake, Barbara
To compare characteristics of heavy drinkers who do, or do not, drink white cider during their typical drinking week and to contrast white cider drinkers' behaviour with a similar group recruited in comparable settings 4 years previously. To consider if excessive white cider consumption poses a specific health risk. Cross-sectional survey of alcohol purchasing and consumption by heavy drinkers consuming white cider in Edinburgh and Glasgow during 2012; comparison of purchasing patterns within Edinburgh in 2008-2009 and 2012. Participants were 639 patients (in- and out-patient settings) with serious health problems linked to alcohol, 345 in Glasgow, 294 in Edinburgh in 2012, and 377 in Edinburgh in 2008-2009. In 2012 white cider consumption was reported by 25% of participants (median consumption (all alcohol) was 249 UK units per week-1 UK unit being 8 g of ethanol). They were more likely to be male and younger. They drank more units of alcohol than non-white cider drinkers and reported more alcohol-related problems. The median price paid for white cider in 2012 was 17 ppu. The period 2008-2012 was associated with decreasing affordability of alcohol, but consumption levels amongst the heaviest drinkers were maintained, associated with an increased proportion of units purchased as white cider. White cider makes an important contribution to the weekly intake of heavy drinkers in Scotland, likely facilitated by low price per unit of alcohol. We suggest these characteristics permit this drink to act as a buffer, supporting the continuation of a heavy drinking pattern when affordability of alcohol falls. © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
Spijkerman, R.; Larsen, H.; Gibbons, F.X.; Engels, R.C.M.E.
Background: Perceptions about the type of people who drink, also referred to as drinker prototypes May strengthen Young people's motivation to engage in alcohol use. Previous research has shown that drinker prototypes are related to alcohol consumption in both adolescents and young adults. However.
Kroczek, Agnes M; Haeussinger, Florian B; Hudak, Justin; Vanes, Lucy D; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Ehlis, Ann-Christine
Cue reactivity is an automatic reaction to alcohol-related cues, contributing to the maintenance of drinking behavior and relapse in alcohol dependency. The identification of valid cue-reactivity features is a prerequisite for its clinical application. We were interested in the effects of visual features of alcohol cues (e.g., color) on cue reactivity. Assuming its development at a pre-pathological stage, we analyzed cue reactivity in heavy social drinkers, with light social drinkers as controls. We investigated whether cue reactivity was independent of visual features at an attentional (P100) and a motivational level (late positive potential, LPP). Event-related potentials (ERPs; P100, LPP) were analyzed during a visual beverage classification task in heavy social drinkers and light social drinkers (N = 34 university students). Photographs of beverages were classified as alcoholic or nonalcoholic. Two additional stimulus sets depicted unrecognizable scrambled visual information and recognizable black silhouettes of the original beverages. Analysis of contrast waves inferred content (unrecognized scrambled trials subtracted from original) and color information (recognized shape trials subtracted from original) during visual processing. Linear regression was used to predict Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores from ERPs. In heavy social drinkers, alcoholic-content LPP was increased and P100 latency was shorter compared with nonalcoholic cues. Linear regression for alcohol content condition in the overall sample revealed shorter P100 latency and increased LPP amplitude predicting AUDIT scores. None of those effects were significant in the visual-feature control condition. Alcohol cue reactivity in heavy social drinkers was related to faster early attentional processes and motivational salience. The effect occurred independently of visual features in the pictures.
Gonzalez-Quintela, Arturo; Gomez-Rial, Jose; Valcarcel, Catalina
and biological significance of IgE antibodies to N-glycans from wine glycoproteins in heavy drinkers. A structured questionnaire, skin prick tests, serum IgE levels, IgE-immunoblotting to wine extracts, and basophil activation tests were used to characterize 20 heavy drinkers and 10 control subjects. Eleven...... heavy drinkers (55%) showed IgE binding to proteins in wine extracts. The proteins were identified by mass spectrometry as grape-derived vacuolar invertase and thaumatin-like protein. Immunoblot reactivity was closely associated with the presence of IgE to CCDs and was inhibited by preincubation...... with a glycoconjugate containing bromelain-type N-glycans. The same conjugate, CCD-bearing allergens, and wine extracts activated basophils in patients with high-titer CCD-specific IgE but not in healthy controls. There was no relationship between immunoblot reactivity and consumption of any specific type of wine...
Claus, Eric D; Hendershot, Christian S
While alcohol intoxication is known to increase disinhibited behavior, the degree to which disinhibition occurs appears to depend on a number of factors including executive functioning ability. However, the neural mechanisms by which individual differences in executive functioning lead to variable degrees of disinhibition remain unclear. The aim of the current study was to examine the neural mechanisms by which individual differences in working memory (WM) capacity moderate alcohol-induced disinhibition. Seventeen heavy-drinking males participated in a within-subjects design in which two sessions were completed: an alcohol session (.82 g/kg) and a control session. Participants completed a go/no-go task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) after ingestion of the control or alcohol beverage. WM capacity was measured using an operation span task. Significant interactions of session and WM capacity emerged in contrasts examining successful response inhibition within superior temporal gyrus and unsuccessful inhibition in regions within the default mode network. In all cases, individuals with low WM capacity demonstrated a relative decrease in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response during the alcohol compared to control session, whereas the high-WM-capacity group demonstrated relative increases in BOLD response in the alcohol compared to control session. Low WM capacity appears to be associated with decreased neural response to signals indicating a need for behavioral control, an effect that may lead to increased difficulty with inhibiting responses and increased negative consequences from alcohol intoxication.
Wiers, R.W.; Beckers, L.; Houben, K.; Hofmann, W.
This study tested a hypothesis derived from recent dual-process models, which conceptualize behavior as the interplay of associative and Executive Control (EC) processes. This general logic was applied here to the phenomenon of aggressiveness after drinking alcohol. Specifically, we predicted that
Wesley, Michael J; Lile, Joshua A; Fillmore, Mark T; Porrino, Linda J
Determining the neurobehavioral profiles that differentiate heavy drinkers who are and are not alcohol dependent will inform treatment efforts. Working memory is linked to substance use disorders and can serve as a representation of the demand placed on the neurophysiology associated with cognitive control. Behavior and brain activity (via fMRI) were recorded during an N-Back working memory task in controls (CTRL), nondependent heavy drinkers (A-ND) and dependent heavy drinkers (A-D). Typical and novel step-wise analyses examined profiles of working memory load and increasing task demand, respectively. Performance was significantly decreased in A-D during high working memory load (2-Back), compared to CTRL and A-ND. Analysis of brain activity during high load (0-Back vs. 2- Back) showed greater responses in the dorsal lateral and medial prefrontal cortices of A-D than CTRL, suggesting increased but failed compensation. The step-wise analysis revealed that the transition to Low Demand (0-Back to 1-Back) was associated with robust increases and decreases in cognitive control and default-mode brain regions, respectively, in A-D and A-ND but not CTRL. The transition to High Demand (1-Back to 2-Back) resulted in additional engagement of these networks in A-ND and CTRL, but not A-D. Heavy drinkers engaged working memory neural networks at lower demand than controls. As demand increased, nondependent heavy drinkers maintained control performance but relied on additional neurophysiological resources, and dependent heavy drinkers did not display further resource engagement and had poorer performance. These results support targeting these brain areas for treatment interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kareken, David A; Bragulat, Veronique; Dzemidzic, Mario; Cox, Cari; Talavage, Thomas; Davidson, Dena; O'Connor, Sean J
Although a family history of alcoholism is the strongest risk factor for developing alcohol dependence, there are few studies of the association between familial alcoholism and the human brain's reward system activity. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to determine how family history affects the brain's response to subjects' preferred alcoholic drink odors (AO) as compared to appetitive control odors (ApCO). Fourteen non-dependent heavy drinkers (HD) who were family history positive (FHP) participated, as did 12 HD who were family history negative (FHN). Subjects were imaged under both alcohol intoxication and placebo, using intravenous infusion and pharmacokinetic modeling to target a blood alcohol level of 50 mg%. Under placebo, HD-FHP had a larger medial frontal [AO>ApCO] effect than did HD-FHN. Alcohol intoxication dampened this response in the HD-FHP but potentiated it in the HD-FHN. This suggests that a family history of alcoholism and brain exposure to alcohol interact in heavy drinkers to differentially affect how the brain responds to alcohol cues. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Beech, Robert D; Leffert, Janine J; Lin, Aiping; Hong, Kwangik A; Hansen, Julie; Umlauf, Sheila; Mane, Shrikant; Zhao, Hongyu; Sinha, Rajita
Alterations in stress-related gene expression may play a role in stress-related drinking and the risk of alcohol dependence. Microarrays were used to measure changes in gene expression in peripheral blood in nonsmoking, social drinking subjects exposed to 3 types of personalized imagery: neutral, stressful (but not alcohol related), and alcohol-related cues. Gene expression was measured at baseline, immediately after, and 1 hour after stimulus presentation. Subjects were allowed to drink up to 750 cc of beer in a "taste test" following stimulus presentation in each imagery condition, and the amount of beer consumed was recorded. Gene-expression levels were compared in 2 groups of nonsmoking subjects (n = 11/group): heavy drinkers (HD; defined as regular alcohol use over the past year of at least 8 standard drinks per week for women and at least 15 standard drinks per week for men), and moderate drinkers (MD; defined as up to 7 standard drinks per week for women and 14 standard drinks per week for men). Expression of microRNA-10a (miR-10a) and microRNA-21 (miR-21) was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. After correction for multiple testing (false discovery rate 1.3-fold in the HD group, but not the MD group, following exposure to stress. No changes were observed for any of these genes in either group following exposure to neutral or alcohol-related imagery. Pathway analysis suggested that many of these genes, form part of the transactivation responsive (TAR)-RNA-binding protein (TRBP)-associated complex and are positively regulated by miR-10a and miR-21. Expression of both miR-10a and miR-21 was up-regulated following psychological stress in HD, but not MD subjects; however, the differences between groups were not statistically significant. Expression levels of both microRNAs was correlated (miR-10a, R(2) = 0.59, miR-21 R(2) = 0.57) with amount drunk in HD, but not MD subjects. Expression of miR-10a, miR-21, and several of their
Falkner, Carolyn; Christie, Grant; Zhou, Lifeng; King, Julian
To investigate the current purchasing behaviours of a group of dependent drinkers and their potential response to future increases in the price of alcohol. 115 clients undergoing medical detoxification completed an anonymous survey about their daily alcohol consumption, its cost, their response to potential price increases and strategies previously used when unable to afford alcohol. Mean and median number of standard drinks consumed per day was 24, at a median cost of $25 NZD (95%CI $22, $30). Thirty-six per cent (95%CI 26%, 46%) of the group bought alcohol at $1 or less per standard drink, and the median number of drinks consumed per day (30) by this group was significantly higher (p=0.0028) than the rest of the sample (22.5). The most common strategy used if no money was available to purchase alcohol was to forgo essentials. If facing a potential price rise, 77% (95%CI 69%, 85%) would switch wholly or partially to a cheaper product and 13% (95%CI 8%, 21%) would cut down their drinking. Although the majority of our group would be financially impacted by an increase in the minimum price per standard drink, any potential impacts would be most significant in those buying the cheapest alcohol (who also drink the most), suggesting that minimum pricing may be an important harm minimisation strategy in this group. A minimum price per standard drink would limit the possibility of switching to an alternate cheaper product and likely result in an overall reduction in alcohol consumption in this group. Stealing alcohol, or the use of non-beverage alcohol, were seldom reported as previous strategies used in response to unaffordable alcohol and fears of such are not valid reasons for rejecting minimum pricing to reduce general population consumption.
Hallgren, Kevin A; McCrady, Barbara S
Heavy drinking among college students is associated with social, health, and legal problems. One factor that may contribute to heavy drinking is an attentional bias for alcohol-related cues, which can influence drinking automatically and without an individual's awareness. Using tests of alcohol-related attentional bias, such as the alcohol Stroop task, previous research has shown that alcohol dependent drinkers have greater attentional biases than non-dependent drinkers, but results for college student drinkers have been mixed. The present study examined alcohol Stroop task performance and its relationship to drinking levels and drinking-related problems among 84 college students during the 2009-2010 academic year with at least one binge drinking episode in the previous month. As hypothesized, results indicated that participants had greater attentional interference when alcohol words were presented compared to when neutral words were presented during the Stroop task, suggesting that the students in the sample displayed greater attentional biases for alcohol words compared to neutral words. Results showed that Stroop task responding did not vary by drinking frequency or drinking-related problems, but did vary by drinking intensity. Presentation of alcohol-related cues may cause heavier drinking college students to attend to these stimuli, which may increase the saliency of these cues and influence their likelihood of drinking. Implications for prevention and treatment efforts are discussed.
Østergaard, Jeanette; Skov, Peter Rohde
Introduction and Aims Young people drinking heavily before going out to bars and clubs is associated with alcohol-related harm and therefore of great public concern. This study examines whether pre-drinkers consume more alcohol than non-pre-drinkers on an event-specific night out in England...... demographics, socioeconomic status, frequency of intoxication and alcohol unit intake before and during the young people's night out. Results A mixed linear model performed on the panel mobile survey shows that pre-drinkers in England and Denmark consume 9.185 (P ..., respectively, more than the non-pre-drinkers. However, in both countries pre-drinkers consume 3.430 (P alcohol on-premises than the non-pre-drinkers. Discussion and Conclusion Pre-drinking is a widespread phenomenon in England and Denmark, with more than half of young...
LaBrie, Joseph W; Boyle, Sarah C; Napper, Lucy E
Parental communications about alcohol can have a significant impact on college students' alcohol use; however, it is unclear what types of communication may be most beneficial for reducing alcohol risk, particularly among students who have already initiated alcohol use. The present research examines differences in alcohol use and employment of drinking protective behavioral strategies between pre-college matriculation high school seniors receiving predominantly abstinence parent messaging and students primarily receiving harm-reduction parent messaging. Students who identified as light drinkers were recruited during their last month in high school and completed an online assessment of alcohol use and parent alcohol communication. Analyses revealed that, in comparison to light drinkers who primarily received harm-reduction messaging from parents, light drinkers who received more abstinence messaging reported less frequent alcohol use, lower peak alcohol consumption, and greater use of protective drinking strategies aimed at changing the way they drank and avoiding serious hazards associated with drinking. Findings from this study underscore the utility of messages related to abstinence even for parents who are aware that their children have had previous experiences with alcohol and highlight the need for longitudinal research assessing additional mechanisms associated with message efficacy among light, moderate and heavy drinking students transitioning to college. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ross, Craig S.; Ostroff, Josh; Naimi, Timothy S.; DeJong, William; Siegel, Michael B.; Jernigan, David H.
Purpose To identify reasons why youth choose to drink specific brands of alcohol and to determine if these reasons are associated with problem drinking patterns and outcomes. Methods We conducted an Internet survey of 1,031 youth ages 13 to 20 who reported drinking within the past 30 days. Of these, 541 youth who reported having a choice of multiple brands of alcohol the last time they drank stated (yes/no) whether each of 16 different reasons had influenced their choice of a specific brand. We reduced these 16 reasons to three principle components and used Latent Class Modeling to identify five groups of youth with similar reasons for selecting a brand, which we then profiled. Results We grouped respondents into the following brand selection groups: “Brand Ambassadors” who were distinguished from other clusters by selecting a brand because they identified with it (32.5% of respondents), “Tasters” who selected a brand because they expected it to taste good (27.2%), “Bargain Hunters” who selected a brand because it was inexpensive (18.5%), “Copycats” who selected a brand because they’d seen adults drinking it or seen it consumed in movies or other media (10.4%), and “Others” (11.5%). Brand Ambassadors and Copycats reported the largest amount of alcohol consumed and had the greatest prevalence of both heavy episodic drinking and negative alcohol-related health consequences. Conclusions Underage drinkers who cite marketing influences and adult or media modeling of brand choices as their reasons for selecting alcohol brands are likely to drink more and incur adverse consequences from drinking. PMID:25907655
Naimi, Timothy S; Brewer, Robert D; Miller, Jacqueline W; Okoro, Catherine; Mehrotra, Chetna
Although binge drinking (drinking five or more drinks on an occasion) is an important public health problem, little is known about which beverage types are consumed by binge drinkers. This knowledge could guide prevention efforts because beer, wine, and liquor are taxed, marketed, and distributed differently. Data from 14,150 adult binge drinkers who responded to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System binge-drinking module in 2003 and 2004 were analyzed. Information pertained to the amount of alcohol consumed during a binge drinker's most recent binge episode, including beverage-specific consumption. Overall, 74.4% of binge drinkers consumed beer exclusively or predominantly, and those who consumed at least some beer accounted for 80.5% of all binge alcohol consumption. By beverage type, beer accounted for 67.1%, liquor for 21.9%, and wine accounted for 10.9% of binge drinks consumed. Beer also accounted for most of the alcohol consumed by those at highest risk of causing or incurring alcohol-related harm, including people aged 18-20 years (67.0% of drinks were beer); those with three or more binge episodes per month (70.7%); those drinking eight or more drinks per binge episode (69.9%); those binging in public places (64.4%); and those who drove during or within 2 hours of binge drinking (67.1%). Beer accounted for two thirds of all alcohol consumed by binge drinkers and accounted for most alcohol consumed by those at greatest risk of causing or incurring alcohol-related harm. Lower excise taxes and relatively permissive sales and marketing practices for beer as compared with other beverage types may account for some of these findings. These findings suggest that equalizing alcohol control policies at more stringent levels would be an effective way to prevent excessive drinking.
Kranzler, Henry R.; Covault, Jonathan; Feinn, Richard; Armeli, Stephen; Tennen, Howard; Arias, Albert J.; Gelernter, Joel; Pond, Timothy; Oncken, Cheryl; Kampman, Kyle M.
Objective: Topiramate has been shown to reduce drinking and heavy drinking in alcohol-dependent individuals whose goal was to stop drinking. The present study evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of topiramate in heavy drinkers whose treatment goal was to reduce drinking to safe levels. Method: We randomly assigned 138 individuals (62.3% male) to receive 12 weeks of treatment with topiramate (N=67), at a maximal daily dosage of 200 mg, or matching placebo (N=71), both groups receiving brief counseling to reduce drinking and increase abstinent days. We hypothesized that topiramate-treated patients would be better able to achieve these goals and predicted that, based on prior research, the effects would be moderated by a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs2832407) in GRIK1, encoding the kainate GluK1 receptor subunit. Results: The rate of treatment completion was 84.9% and equal by treatment group. Topiramate treatment significantly reduced heavy drinking days (p<0.001) and increased abstinent days (p=0.032) relative to placebo. The topiramate group also had lower concentrations of the liver enzyme γ-glutamyltranspeptidase and lower scores on a measure of alcohol-related problems than the placebo group. In a European-American subsample (N=122), topiramate’s effect on heavy drinking days (p=0.004) was significantly greater than for placebo only in rs2832407 C-allele homozygotes. Conclusions: These findings support the use of topiramate 200 mg/day to reduce heavy drinking in problem drinkers. The moderator effect of rs2832407, if validated, would facilitate the identification of heavy drinkers who are likely to respond well to topiramate treatment and provide an important personalized treatment option. The pharmacogenetic findings also implicate the kainate receptor in the mechanism of topiramate’s effects on heavy drinking. www.clinicaltrials.gov registration: NCT00626925 PMID:24525690
Lac, Andrew; Donaldson, Candice D
Binge drinking is commonly defined in the literature as consuming at least 5 drinks for males and 4 drinks for females. These quantities correspond to approximately a blood alcohol concentration of 0.08%, the level of intoxication making it illegal to drive in the United States. The study scrutinized the longitudinal classification of three drinker types using male (n=155) and female (n=351) college students. Measures of personality (sensation seeking, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness), alcohol attitudes, alcohol motivations (social, coping, enhancement, and conformity), and alcohol social norms (typical students, friends, closest friends, and parents) were administered at Time 1. Drinker type (nondrinkers, moderate drinkers, or binge drinkers) was assessed one month later. Discriminant function analyses revealed that the set of measures statistically distinguished among the three drinker types. The first function was significant and yielded high loadings for attitudes, social motives, enhancement motives, coping motives, closest friend norms, and friend norms for both genders. Model classification accuracy was 73% for the male and 67% female samples. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) compared mean differences in a 2 (gender: males or females)×3 (drinker type: nondrinkers, moderate drinkers, or binge drinkers) design. Measures systematically differing across all pairwise comparisons of the three drinker types, starting from the strongest effect (eta-squared), were as follows: alcohol attitudes, social motives, enhancement motives, closest friend norms, friend norms, coping motives, sensation seeking, and extraversion. Attitude, motivation, and norm variables tended to be more important than personality in distinguishing drinker types. Considering the malleability of attitudes and belief motivations, the risk variables of alcohol attitudes, social motives, and enhancement motives identified in this research warrant
Lettow, B. van; Vries, H. de; Burdorf, A.; Norman, P.; Empelen, P. van
Objective: Previous research has focused mostly on abstainer and/or general drinker prototypes. The present studies examined an abstainer, moderate drinker and heavy drinker prototype in relation to drinking behaviour. Design: Two studies among young adults aged 18–25 (paper-and-pencil,
DiMatteo, Julie; Reed, Stephanie Collins; Evans, Suzette M.
Previous research suggests that women who report dietary restraint tend to consume alcohol in greater quantities, however most studies use retrospective data collection, which are often unreliable, and no studies have accounted for this relationship with respect to potential changes in alcohol consumption across the menstrual cycle. Therefore, the present study investigated the relationship between prospectively monitored drinking patterns and dietary restraint across the menstrual cycle amon...
DiMatteo, Julie; Reed, Stephanie Collins; Evans, Suzette M
Previous research suggests that women who report dietary restraint tend to consume alcohol in greater quantities, however most studies use retrospective data collection, which is often unreliable, and no studies have accounted for this relationship with respect to potential changes in alcohol consumption across the menstrual cycle. Therefore, the present study investigated the relationship between prospectively monitored drinking patterns and dietary restraint across the menstrual cycle among females from the general population whose drinking level (7-20 drinks/week) places them at-risk for developing alcohol use disorders. Restrained eaters (RES; N=51) and unrestrained eaters (UN-RES; N=55), per the cognitive restraint scale scores from the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, provided prospective ratings measuring mood, alcohol consumption, and consequences of alcohol use across one full menstrual cycle. Dysphoric mood increased during the late luteal and menstrual phases in both groups. Although overall the RES group did not drink more than the UN-RES group, the RES group drank less than the UN-RES group during the follicular phase, suggesting that among RES women alcohol consumption may be modulated by hormonal fluctuations across the menstrual cycle. The differences between the present findings and previous research may be due to the cohorts sampled; the majority of previous studies sampled college students, where binge drinking and dietary restraint are more common, whereas this study sampled the general population. Future research should replicate prior studies in a college-aged population using the current design of prospective data collection for greater accuracy of self-reported alcohol consumption. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Targeting young drinkers online: the effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention in reducing heavy drinking among college students: study protocol of a two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial
Voogt, C.V.; Poelen, E.A.P.; Kleinjan, M.; Lemmers, A.C.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.
Background: The prevalence of heavy drinking among college students and its associated health related consequences highlights an urgent need for alcohol prevention programs targeting 18 to 24 year olds. Nevertheless, current alcohol prevention programs in the Netherlands pay surprisingly little
Jackson, Anne; Stephens, David N; Duka, Theodora
The alcohol discriminative stimulus has been extensively studied in animals and demonstrated to be pharmacologically complex. In contrast, however, the alcohol stimulus has been less frequently studied in humans. The aim of the experiments reported here was to characterise pharmacologically an alcohol discriminative stimulus in social drinkers. Volunteers were first trained to discriminate a dose of 0.2 g/kg alcohol from placebo, using an established method. We then investigated the generalisation response and subjective effects following a range of doses of the gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA)(A) benzodiazepine-receptor agonist lorazepam (0, 0.5, 1 and 2 mg, PO). Low doses of lorazepam (0.5 and 1 mg) did not cross-generalise with the alcohol stimulus and produced only minimal subjective effects. However, a dose of 2 mg lorazepam substituted (60.8%) for the stimulus ( Palcohol discriminative stimulus.
Wood, Linda D; Sobell, Linda C; Sobell, Mark B; Dornheim, Liane; Agrawal, Sangeeta
To evaluate the relationship between drinking pattern and alcohol dependence severity, 209 individuals voluntarily seeking treatment for alcohol problems were administered the Alcohol Dependence Scale (ADS), the Short Alcohol Dependence Data (SADD) questionnaire, and a 12-month Timeline Follow-Back (TLFB) drinking assessment as part of their pretreatment assessment. Based on their TLFB data, participants were divided into two groups: daily (DD, n=84) and nondaily (NDD, n=125) drinkers. The two groups were compared on several demographic and drinking variables. It was hypothesized that DD would have higher scores on measures of alcohol dependence than NDD. However, the reverse pattern was found. The NDD had significantly higher ADS scores than the DD. An analysis of ADS subscale scores indicated that the primary difference between the two groups was in the domain of loss of behavior control. It is suggested that NDD may perceive intoxication as more impairing, perhaps because they have acquired less tolerance than DD. These results suggest that treatment focused on restoring a sense of behavior control would be beneficial for NDD.
Fairlie, Anne M; Maggs, Jennifer L; Lanza, Stephanie T
Types of college drinkers have been identified using traditional measures (e.g., 12-month drinking frequency). We used an alternative multidimensional approach based on daily reports of alcohol behaviors to identify college drinker statuses, each with a unique behavioral profile. The current study aimed to (a) identify drinker statuses at the week level across four semesters, (b) examine the predictive utility of drinker status by testing associations with senior-year hazardous drinking and dependence symptoms, and (c) identify concurrent predictors (gender, drinking motivations, hazardous drinking, any dependence symptoms) of senior-year drinker status. We also compared the week-level drinker statuses with drinker statuses identified using traditional measures. A multi-ethnic sample of U.S. college students completed 14-day bursts of daily web surveys across college (91%-96% completed ≥6 daily reports of the sampled week). Analyses focus on nine alcohol-related behaviors (including estimated blood alcohol concentration, pregaming, and drinking games) assessed daily in spring/sophomore year to fall/senior year and drinking motivations, hazardous drinking, and dependence symptoms assessed fall/senior year (n = 569; 56% women). Four week-level drinker statuses were replicated across semesters: Nondrinker, Light Weekend, Heavy Weekend, and Heavy Frequent. Across semesters, drinker status was associated with senior-year hazardous drinking and any dependence symptoms. Senior-year fun/social motivations were also associated with senior-year drinker status. Differences in behavioral profiles between week-level drinker statuses and those identified using traditional measures were found. Replicable week-level drinker statuses were identified, suggesting consistency in possible types of drinking weeks. Drinker statuses were predictive of senior-year hazardous drinking and dependence symptoms.
Gonzalez, Vivian M; Collins, R Lorraine; Bradizza, Clara M
In college students, solitary heavy drinking (i.e., while alone) is associated with depression and with higher rates of drinking problems than heavy drinking in social contexts. This study explored the relationship among heavy episodic drinking context, suicidal ideation, and drinking motives among underage college drinkers (n=91) with a history of passive suicidal ideation. Participants completed measures of depression, suicidal ideation, alcohol consumption and problems, and drinking motives. Multiple regression analyses revealed that suicidal ideation, but not depression, was significantly related to solitary heavy drinking. Neither was related to social heavy drinking. Enhancement motives for drinking, but not other drinking motives (i.e., social, conformity, drinking to cope), were significantly associated with social heavy drinking. In contrast, only drinking to cope was associated with solitary heavy drinking. These findings suggest that greater suicidal ideation is associated with greater frequency of becoming intoxicated while alone, and that this drinking is motivated by attempts to cope. Solitary heavy drinking is a potentially dangerous coping strategy for an individual experiencing suicidal ideation.
Peeters, Margot; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.; Wiers, Reinout W.; Field, Matt
Aims: Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by increased risk-taking behavior, including the initiation of alcohol and other substance use. In this brief review paper we describe psychological and cognitive constructs that are associated with heavy drinking during adolescence. These
Peeters, M.; Vollebergh, W.A.; Wiers, R.W.; Field, M.
Aims: Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by increased risk-taking behavior, including the initiation of alcohol and other substance use. In this brief review paper we describe psychological and cognitive constructs that are associated with heavy drinking during adolescence. These
Hara, Toshiya; Muto, Takeo; Yoshimori, Chikako; Ishido, Koichi; Sunami, Takashi; Endo, Koichi; Yuzuriha, Takefumi
We examined the effectiveness of a drinking plan (goal setting), and a drinking diary (self monitoring), in the intervention program (HAPPY program), for heavy drinkers in the workplace. 115 people participated, and 80 people were evaluated three months later and 31 people were evaluated one year later. We classified the drinking plans in the limitation of the quantity, non-drinking days, and the device of low risk drinking model. 75 people made the drinking diary for 12 weeks after brief intervention and studied three months later and 31 people were analyzed one year later. We evaluated on heavy drinking days of 28 days, and non-drinking days of 28 days and standard drinks of 7 days. The limitation of the quantity model is effective for low risk drinking. The non-drinking day model is easily achieved, but not effective for low risk drinking. The device of low risk drinking model improved drinking habits for a long-term. The drinking diary for 12 weeks after intervention improved drinking habits for a long-term. The drinking plan (goal setting), and drinking diary (self monitoring), in intervention program for heavy drinkers were effective for prevention of lifestyle-related disease and alcoholism.
The ratio of triglycerides to HDL cholesterol (TG/HDL-C ratio) and lipid accumulation product (LAP: a continuous marker of lipid over-accumulation determined by waist circumference and triglycerides) have been proposed to be good predictors of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationships between heavy alcohol drinking and lipid-related indices including TG/HDL-C ratio, LAP, and ratio of LDL cholesterol to HDL cholesterol (LDL-C/HDL-C ratio). The subjects were middle-aged male nondrinkers and heavy drinkers (ethanol intake: ≥66 g per drinking day, which is 2-3 times or more than the generally recommended border level of daily alcohol consumption of 20-30 g). The levels of each lipid-related index after adjustment for age, smoking, and regular exercise were compared among nondrinkers, occasional heavy drinkers, and regular heavy drinkers. Log-transformed TG/HDL-C ratio was significantly higher in occasional heavy drinkers (mean ± standard error: 0.445 ± 0.014) than in nondrinkers (0.388 ± 0.004) and regular heavy drinkers (0.359 ± 0.013), and was not significantly different in nondrinkers and regular heavy drinkers. Log-transformed LAP was significantly higher in occasional heavy drinkers (1.51 ± 0.02) and regular heavy drinkers (1.44 ± 0.02) than in nondrinkers (1.34 ± 0.01), and was significantly higher in occasional heavy drinkers than in regular heavy drinkers. LDL-C/HDL-C ratio was significantly lower in occasional heavy drinkers (2.41 ± 0.04) and regular heavy drinkers (1.72 ± 0.04) than in nondrinkers (2.62 ± 0.01) and was significantly lower in regular heavy drinkers than in occasional heavy drinkers. Results of logistic regression analysis, using odds ratios for high lipid indices of occasional or regular heavy drinkers vs. nondrinkers, agreed with the above results of analysis of covariance. Occasional heavy drinkers showed more detrimental and less favorable levels of the lipid indices than did regular heavy
Weissenborn, Ruth; Duka, Theodora
Several studies suggest that cognitive deficits seen in late stages of alcoholism are related to executive function. However, little is known about the acute effects of alcohol on cognitive executive functions. The present investigation examined the acute effects of a moderate alcohol dose on tests of planning and spatial working memory as well as on tests of spatial and pattern recognition. The relationship between the acute alcohol effects on performance in these tasks and extreme drinking patterns were also studied. Alcohol (0.8 g/kg) or placebo was administered to 95 social drinkers. In the planning task, alcohol decreased the number of solutions with the minimum moves. Alcohol also decreased the thinking time before initiating a response, while it increased the subsequent thinking time in the same task. Under alcohol, participants recognised fewer items in the spatial recognition task; however no effect of alcohol was found in a spatial working memory task and in a pattern recognition task. Among the participants with moderate to heavy use of alcohol, those who were 'bingers' performed worse in the spatial working memory and in the pattern recognition task than 'non-bingers'; no interaction between treatment and drinking pattern was found. These data suggest that alcohol given acutely impairs executive-type cognitive functions and that binge drinking may be associated with impaired cognitive function in a working memory and a pattern recognition task.
Teeters, Jenni B; Pickover, Alison M; Dennhardt, Ashley A; Martens, Matthew P; Murphy, James G
Alcohol-impaired driving among college students represents a significant public health concern, yet little is known about specific theoretical and individual difference risk factors for driving after drinking among heavy drinking college students. This study evaluated the hypothesis that heavy drinkers with elevated alcohol demand would be more likely to report drinking and driving. Participants were 207 college students who reported at least 1 heavy drinking episode (4/5 or more drinks in 1 occasion for a woman/man) in the past month. Participants completed an alcohol purchase task that assessed hypothetical alcohol consumption across 17 drink prices and an item from the Young Adult Alcohol Consequences Questionnaire that assessed driving after drinking. In binary logistic regression models that controlled for drinking level, gender, ethnicity, age, and sensation seeking, participants who reported higher demand were more likely to report driving after drinking. These results provide support for behavioral economics models of substance abuse that view elevated/inelastic demand as a key etiological feature of substance misuse. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Noel, Jonathan K; Xuan, Ziming; Babor, Thomas F
Individuals who are particularly vulnerable to the influence of alcohol advertising, such as youth, need special protections, yet little research has been done to determine if other vulnerable groups exist. Secondary data analysis was conducted to determine if perceptions of alcohol advertising differ between groups based on their alcohol use and whether the definition of "vulnerable" should be expanded beyond demographic categories. Students (n = 326) from 2 U.S. colleges viewed 5 alcohol ads and rated them using a scale designed to detect violations of the alcohol industry's self-regulated marketing codes. Individuals with a history of excessive alcohol use, as measured by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), were considered potentially vulnerable to alcohol advertising and were compared against individuals without a history of excessive alcohol use. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to determine between-group differences in 4 dependent variables (ad appeal, perceived alcohol consumption, perceived excessive drinking, and perceived responsible drinking). All models were adjusted for age, race, ethnicity, sex, and parental alcohol use. AUDIT risk categories were positively associated with ad appeal (p definition for binge drinking, to be responsible. Stricter regulations may be needed to protect heavy alcohol users from the effects of alcohol advertising.
Targeting young drinkers online: the effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention in reducing heavy drinking among college students: study protocol of a two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial.
Voogt, Carmen V; Poelen, Evelien A P; Kleinjan, Marloes; Lemmers, Lex A C J; Engels, Rutger C M E
The prevalence of heavy drinking among college students and its associated health related consequences highlights an urgent need for alcohol prevention programs targeting 18 to 24 year olds. Nevertheless, current alcohol prevention programs in the Netherlands pay surprisingly little attention to the drinking patterns of this specific age group. The study described in this protocol will test the effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention that is aimed at reducing alcohol use among heavy drinking college students aged 18 to 24 years old. The effectiveness of the What Do You Drink web-based brief alcohol intervention will be tested among 908 heavy drinking college students in a two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial. Participants will be allocated at random to either the experimental (N=454: web-based brief alcohol intervention) or control condition (N=454: no intervention). The primary outcome measure will be the percentage of participants who drink within the normative limits of the Dutch National Health Council for low-risk drinking. These limits specify that, for heavy alcohol use, the mean consumption cannot exceed 14 or 21 glasses of standard alcohol units per week for females and males, respectively, while for binge drinking, the consumption cannot exceed five or more glasses of standard alcohol units on one drinking occasion at least once per week within one month and six months after the intervention. Reductions in mean weekly alcohol consumption and frequency of binge drinking are also primary outcome measures. Weekly Ecological Momentary Assessment will measure alcohol-related cognitions, that is, attitudes, self-efficacy, subjective norms and alcohol expectancies, which will be included as the secondary outcome measures. This study protocol describes the two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial developed to evaluate the effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention. We expect a reduction of mean weekly alcohol
Targeting young drinkers online: the effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention in reducing heavy drinking among college students: study protocol of a two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial
Lemmers Lex ACJ
Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of heavy drinking among college students and its associated health related consequences highlights an urgent need for alcohol prevention programs targeting 18 to 24 year olds. Nevertheless, current alcohol prevention programs in the Netherlands pay surprisingly little attention to the drinking patterns of this specific age group. The study described in this protocol will test the effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention that is aimed at reducing alcohol use among heavy drinking college students aged 18 to 24 years old. Methods/Design The effectiveness of the What Do You Drink web-based brief alcohol intervention will be tested among 908 heavy drinking college students in a two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial. Participants will be allocated at random to either the experimental (N = 454: web-based brief alcohol intervention or control condition (N = 454: no intervention. The primary outcome measure will be the percentage of participants who drink within the normative limits of the Dutch National Health Council for low-risk drinking. These limits specify that, for heavy alcohol use, the mean consumption cannot exceed 14 or 21 glasses of standard alcohol units per week for females and males, respectively, while for binge drinking, the consumption cannot exceed five or more glasses of standard alcohol units on one drinking occasion at least once per week within one month and six months after the intervention. Reductions in mean weekly alcohol consumption and frequency of binge drinking are also primary outcome measures. Weekly Ecological Momentary Assessment will measure alcohol-related cognitions, that is, attitudes, self-efficacy, subjective norms and alcohol expectancies, which will be included as the secondary outcome measures. Discussion This study protocol describes the two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial developed to evaluate the effectiveness of a web-based brief
Falkner, Carolyn; Christie, Grant; Zhou, Lifeng; King, Julian
.... 115 clients undergoing medical detoxification completed an anonymous survey about their daily alcohol consumption, its cost, their response to potential price increases and strategies previously used...
Hansen, Anders Blædel Gottlieb; Becker, Ulrik; Søgaard Nielsen, Anette
: To determine whether a brief motivational intervention resulted in lowering of self-reported alcohol use in a non-treatment seeking population of heavy drinkers. Method: Before participating in a Danish Health Examination Survey study all participants completed a mailed questionnaire. Systematic screening...... (approx. 10 minute) motivational intervention and two leaflets about alcohol. The control group received two leaflets about alcohol. Follow-up took place after 6/12 months on 670/612 persons. Outcome measure was self-reported reduction in alcohol consumption. Results : At 6 and 12 month follow......-up, the difference in weekly alcohol use between the two groups was non-significant (1.4/0.8 standard drink, P=0.17 / P=0.26). Discussion: We found no evidence indicating that a brief motivational intervention could lead to a reduction in self-reported alcohol consumption....
Walters, S T
The efficacy of brief motivational feedback to reduce drinking among college students has been reported by several researchers. As an extension of this theoretical and applied framework, the author tested the use of mailed feedback to influence the drinking behavior of students self-identified as moderate-to-heavy drinkers in two randomized trials. A 6-week follow-up of the efforts suggested the efficacy of the feedback intervention at reducing alcohol consumption. The feedback mechanism used in the studies is described in detail and possible reasons for its efficacy are explored. In light of the cost-effective nature of this intervention, it may warrant a place in larger campus prevention programs.
Gilman, Jodi M; Ramchandani, Vijay A.; Crouss, Tess; Hommer, Daniel W.
Heavy alcohol consumption during young adulthood is a risk factor for the development of serious alcohol use disorders. Research has shown that individual differences in subjective responses to alcohol may affect individuals' vulnerability to developing alcoholism. Studies comparing the subjective and objective response to alcohol between light and heavy drinkers (HDs), however, have yielded inconsistent results, and neural responses to alcohol in these groups have not been characterized. We ...
Wilson, Adam D; Bravo, Adrian J; Pearson, Matthew R; Witkiewitz, Katie
To estimate differences in post-treatment psychosocial functioning among treatment 'failures' (i.e. heavy drinkers, defined as 4+/5+ drinks for women/men) from two large multi-site clinical trials and to compare these levels of functioning to those of the purported treatment 'successes' (i.e. non-heavy drinkers). Separate latent profile analyses of data from two of the largest alcohol clinical trials conducted in the United States, COMBINE (Combined Pharmacotherapies and Behavioral Interventions) and Project MATCH (Matching Alcoholism Treatments to Client Heterogeneity), comparing psychosocial outcomes across derived classes of heterogeneous treatment responders. Eleven US academic sites in COMBINE, 27 US treatment sites local to nine research sites in Project MATCH. A total of 962 individuals in COMBINE (69% male, 77% white, mean age: 44 years) treated January 2001 to January 2004 and 1528 individuals in Project MATCH (75% male, 80% white, mean age: 40 years) treated April 1991 to September 1994. In COMBINE, we analyzed health, quality of life, mental health symptoms and alcohol consequences 12 months post-baseline. In Project MATCH, we examined social functioning, mental health symptoms and alcohol consequences 15 months post-baseline. Latent profile analysis of measures of functioning in both samples supported a three-profile solution for the group of treatment 'failures', characterized by high-, average- and low-functioning individuals. The high-functioning treatment 'failures' generally performed better across measures of psychosocial functioning at follow-up than participants designated treatment 'successes' by virtue of being abstainers or light drinkers. Current United States Food and Drug Administration guidance to use heavy drinking as indicative of treatment 'failure' fails to take into account substantial psychosocial improvements made by individuals who continue occasionally to drink heavily post-treatment. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Milivojevic, Verica; Ansell, Emily; Simpson, Christine; Siedlarz, Kristen M; Sinha, Rajita; Fox, Helen C
Increasing evidence suggests that levels of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines are dysfunctional in alcohol dependence. Moreover, some initial findings demonstrate that these adaptations in peripheral inflammation may contribute to motivation for alcohol and problem drinking via possible direct effects or the indirect effects of stress responsivity. Importantly, the role of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the progression from healthy to problem drinking is not well understood. The aim of this study was to assess whether alcohol-related peripheral immune system changes affect stress and alcohol cue-induced craving and anxiety and behavioral alcohol motivation and intake in the laboratory among problem drinkers compared with socially drinking controls. Twenty-six problem drinkers and 38 moderate, social drinkers participated in a laboratory challenge procedure during which they were exposed to 3 personalized 5-minute imagery conditions (stress [S], relaxing [R], and alcohol cue [C]), followed by the "alcohol taste test" (ATT) as a measure of implicit alcohol motivation and intake, presented across 3 consecutive days, 1 per day in a randomized and counterbalanced order. Measures of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), alcohol craving, and anxiety were assessed at baseline, immediately following imagery exposure and at discreet beer cue presentation in the ATT. Compared with moderate drinkers, problem drinkers demonstrated tonic attenuation of IL-6 and IL-1ra. In problem drinkers, these changes also accompanied elevated levels of stress- and cue-induced alcohol craving and anxiety and were predictive of provoked alcohol craving, behavioral alcohol motivation and intake, and severity of problem drinking. Current findings indicate that selective immunosuppression in problem drinkers may play a key role in motivation for alcohol intake. Copyright © 2017 by the Research
Gullo, Matthew J; Stieger, Adam A
Substance abusers are characterized by hypersensitivity to reward. This leads to maladaptive decisions generally, as well as those on laboratory-based decision-making tasks, such as the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). Negative affect has also been shown to disrupt the decision-making of healthy individuals, particularly decisions made under uncertainty. Neuropsychological theories of learning, including the Somatic Marker Hypothesis (SMH), argue this occurs by amplifying affective responses to punishment. In substance abusers, this might serve to rebalance their sensitivity to reward with punishment, and improve decision-making. Before completing the IGT, 45 heavy and 47 light drinkers were randomly assigned to a control condition, or led to believe they had to give a stressful public speech. IGT performance was analyzed with the Expectancy-Valence (EV) learning model. Working memory and IQ were also assessed. Heavy drinkers made more disadvantageous decisions than light drinkers, due to higher attention to gains (versus losses) on the IGT. Anticipatory stress increased participants' attention to losses, significantly improving heavy drinkers' decision-making. Anticipatory stress increased attention to losses, effectively restoring decision-making deficits in heavy drinkers by rebalancing their reward sensitivity with punishment sensitivity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Oberlin, Brandon G; Dzemidzic, Mario; Tran, Stella M; Soeurt, Christina M; O'Connor, Sean J; Yoder, Karmen K; Kareken, David A
Although striatal dopamine (DA) is important in alcohol abuse, the nature of DA release during actual alcohol drinking is unclear, since drinking includes self-administration of both conditioned flavor stimuli (CS) of the alcoholic beverage and subsequent intoxication, the unconditioned stimulus (US). Here, we used a novel self-administration analog to distinguish nucleus accumbens (NAcc) DA responses specific to the CS and US. Right-handed male heavy drinkers (n = 26) received three positron emission tomography (PET) scans with the D2/D3 radioligand [(11)C]raclopride (RAC) and performed a pseudo self-administration task that separately administered a flavor CS of either a habitually consumed beer or the appetitive control Gatorade®, concomitant with the US of ethanol intoxication (0.06 g/dL intravenous (IV) administration) or IV saline. Scan conditions were Gatorade flavor + saline (Gat&Sal), Gatorade flavor + ethanol (Gat&Eth), and beer flavor + ethanol (Beer&Eth). Ethanol (US) reduced RAC binding (inferring DA release) in the left (L) NAcc [Gat&Sal > Gat&Eth]. Beer flavor (CS) increased DA in the right (R) NAcc [Gat&Eth > Beer&Eth]. The combination of beer flavor and ethanol (CS + US), [Gat&Sal > Beer&Eth], induced DA release in bilateral NAcc. Self-reported intoxication during scanning correlated with L NAcc DA release. Relative to saline, infusion of ethanol increased alcoholic drink wanting. Our findings suggest lateralized DA function in the NAcc, with L NAcc DA release most reflecting intoxication, R NAcc DA release most reflecting the flavor CS, and the conjoint CS + US producing a bilateral NAcc response.
Hansen, Anders Blædel Gottlieb; Becker, Ulrik; Søgaard Nielsen, Anette
targeting heavy drinkers has not been tested. Objective: To examine whether a web-based personalized feedback intervention and web-based self-help material resulted in lowering of self-reported alcohol use in a non-treatment seeking population of heavy drinkers (defined as weekly alcohol consumption above...... randomized into a brief personalized feedback group (normative feedback) (n=476), a group receiving self-help material (information about health consequences of exceeding recommended drinking limits) (n=450), or a control group (no information) (n=455). Outcome measure was self-reported alcohol consumption......- and the personalized feedback group (2.6 standard drinks, P=0.01). In terms of feasibility, the success of the study was acceptable as 41% accepted participation and 70% were followed up. Discussion: We found no evidence that a brief personalized feedback intervention or self-help material could lead to a reduction...
Roberts, Sarah P.; Siegel, Michael B.; DeJong, William; Ross, Craig S.; Naimi, Timothy; Albers, Alison; Skeer, Margie; Rosenbloom, David L.; Jernigan, David H.
Background Alcohol research focused on underage drinkers has not comprehensively assessed the landscape of brand-level drinking behaviors among youth. This information is needed to profile youth alcohol use accurately, explore its antecedents, and develop appropriate interventions. Methods We collected national data on the alcohol brand-level consumption of underage drinkers in the United States and then examined the association between those preferences and several factors including youth exposure to brand-specific alcohol advertising, corporate sponsorships, popular music lyrics, and social networking sites, and alcohol pricing. This paper summarizes our findings, plus the results of other published studies on alcohol branding and youth drinking. Results Our findings revealed several interesting facts regarding youth drinking. For example, we found that: 1) youth are not drinking the cheapest alcohol brands; 2) youth brand preferences differ from those of adult drinkers; 3) underage drinkers are not opportunistic in their alcohol consumption, but instead consume a very specific set of brands; 4) the brands that youth are heavily exposed to in magazines and television advertising correspond to the brands they most often report consuming; and 5) youth consume more of the alcohol brands to whose advertising they are most heavily exposed. Conclusion The findings presented here suggests that brand-level alcohol research will provide important insight into youth drinking behaviors, the factors that contribute to youth alcohol consumption, and potential avenues for effective public health surveillance and programming. PMID:27034628
Roberts, Sarah P; Siegel, Michael B; DeJong, William; Ross, Craig S; Naimi, Timothy; Albers, Alison; Skeer, Margie; Rosenbloom, David L; Jernigan, David H
Alcohol research focused on underage drinkers has not comprehensively assessed the landscape of brand-level drinking behaviors among youth. This information is needed to profile youth alcohol use accurately, explore its antecedents, and develop appropriate interventions. We collected national data on the alcohol brand-level consumption of underage drinkers in the United States and then examined the association between those preferences and several factors including youth exposure to brand-specific alcohol advertising, corporate sponsorships, popular music lyrics, and social networking sites, and alcohol pricing. This paper summarizes our findings, plus the results of other published studies on alcohol branding and youth drinking. Our findings revealed several interesting facts regarding youth drinking. For example, we found that: 1) youth are not drinking the cheapest alcohol brands; 2) youth brand preferences differ from those of adult drinkers; 3) underage drinkers are not opportunistic in their alcohol consumption, but instead consume a very specific set of brands; 4) the brands that youth are heavily exposed to in magazines and television advertising correspond to the brands they most often report consuming; and 5) youth consume more of the alcohol brands to whose advertising they are most heavily exposed. The findings presented here suggests that brand-level alcohol research will provide important insight into youth drinking behaviors, the factors that contribute to youth alcohol consumption, and potential avenues for effective public health surveillance and programming.
Carlyle, Molly; Dumay, Nicolas; Roberts, Karen; McAndrew, Amy; Stevens, Tobias; Lawn, Will; Morgan, Celia J. A.
Alcohol is known to facilitate memory if given after learning information in the laboratory; we aimed to investigate whether this effect can be found when alcohol is consumed in a naturalistic setting. Eighty-eight social drinkers were randomly allocated to either an alcohol self-dosing or a sober condition. The study assessed both retrograde facilitation and alcohol induced memory impairment using two independent tasks. In the retrograde task, participants learnt information in their own hom...
Neff, James Alan; And Others
Drinking patterns and alcohol-related problems were studied in 164 Anglo and 149 Mexican-American male regular drinkers. A combination of acculturation and generational status measures indicated the heaviest drinking patterns and the highest prevalence of both alcohol-related problems and escape drinking motives among the least acculturated…
Albers, Alison Burke; Siegel, Michael; Ramirez, Rebecca L.; Ross, Craig; DeJong, William; Jernigan, David H.
Objectives. We examined associations between consumption of different types of flavored alcoholic beverages (FABs) and risky drinking and drinking-related harms among underage drinkers. Methods. For the Alcohol Brand Research among Underage Youth study, we applied multivariable logistic regression analyses to data from underage drinkers (n = 1031, aged 13–20 years), recruited from a national Internet panel in 2011 to 2012, to estimate associations between consumption of malt-based drinks; spirits-based, premixed- or ready-to-drink cocktails; and supersized alcopops, alone or in combination, and alcohol-related outcomes. Results. After adjustment for confounding variables, the exclusive consumption of alcopops was associated with episodic heavy drinking (odds ratio [OR] = 4.35; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.24, 15.31; P alcohol-related injuries (OR = 6.25; 95% CI = 1.34, 29.10; P alcohol-related injuries (OR = 2.83; 95% CI = 1.43, 5.58; P < .001). Conclusions. FABs present an emerging public health problem among youths. PMID:25713955
Capito, Eva Susanne; Lautenbacher, Stefan; Horn-Hofmann, Claudia
Background As known from everyday experience and experimental research, alcohol modulates emotions. Particularly regarding social interaction, the effects of alcohol on the facial expression of emotion might be of relevance. However, these effects have not been systematically studied. We performed a systematic review on acute alcohol effects on social drinkers’ facial expressions of induced positive and negative emotions. Materials and methods With a predefined algorithm, we searched three electronic databases (PubMed, PsycInfo, and Web of Science) for studies conducted on social drinkers that used acute alcohol administration, emotion induction, and standardized methods to record facial expressions. We excluded those studies that failed common quality standards, and finally selected 13 investigations for this review. Results Overall, alcohol exerted effects on facial expressions of emotions in social drinkers. These effects were not generally disinhibiting, but varied depending on the valence of emotion and on social interaction. Being consumed within social groups, alcohol mostly influenced facial expressions of emotions in a socially desirable way, thus underscoring the view of alcohol as social lubricant. However, methodical differences regarding alcohol administration between the studies complicated comparability. Conclusion Our review highlighted the relevance of emotional valence and social-context factors for acute alcohol effects on social drinkers’ facial expressions of emotions. Future research should investigate how these alcohol effects influence the development of problematic drinking behavior in social drinkers. PMID:29255375
Nguyen, Norma; Walters, Scott T; Wyatt, Todd M; DeJong, William
This study examined whether recent alcohol-related consequences affect intentions to use protective drinking strategies. Responses were collected from incoming college freshmen (N = 84,367) at 279 U.S. colleges and universities. Plans to limit future drinking were significantly lower among students who were male, younger, White, or were in or intending to join a fraternity or sorority. For heavy drinkers, having recently experienced a higher level of external harms predicted increased plans to limit drinking. For all drinkers, a lower level of recent impaired driving predicted increased plans to limit drinking. Limitations and implications are discussed.
Nguyen-Louie, Tam T; Buckman, Jennifer F; Ray, Suchismita; Bates, Marsha E
Alcohol cues can bias attention and elicit emotional reactions, especially in drinkers. Yet, little is known about how alcohol cues affect explicit and implicit memory processes, and how memory for alcohol cues is affected by acute alcohol intoxication. Young adult participants (N=161) were randomly assigned to alcohol, placebo, or control beverage conditions. Following beverage consumption, they were shown neutral, emotional and alcohol-related pictures cues. Participants then completed free recall and repetition priming tasks to test explicit and implicit memory, respectively, for picture cues. Average blood alcohol concentration for the alcohol group was 74±13mg/dl when memory testing began. Two mixed linear model analyses were conducted to examine the effects of beverage condition, picture cue type, and their interaction on explicit and implicit memory. Picture cue type and beverage condition each significantly affected explicit recall of picture cues, whereas only picture cue type significantly influenced repetition priming. Individuals in the alcohol condition recalled significantly fewer pictures than those in other conditions, regardless of cue type. Both free recall and repetition priming were greater for emotional and alcohol-related cues compared to neutral picture cues. No interaction effects were detected. Young adult drinkers showed enhanced explicit and implicit memory processing of alcohol cues compared to emotionally neutral cues. This enhanced processing for alcohol cues was on par with that seen for positive emotional cues. Acute alcohol intoxication did not alter this preferential memory processing for alcohol cues over neutral cues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Guillemont, Juliette; Cogordan, Chloé; Nalpas, Bertrand; Nguyen-Thanh, Vi?t; Richard, Jean-Baptiste; Arwidson, Pierre
This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a web-based intervention to reduce alcohol consumption among hazardous drinkers. A two-group parallel randomized controlled trial was conducted among adults identified as hazardous drinkers according to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. The intervention delivers personalized normative…
Kponee, Kalé Z; Siegel, Michael; Jernigan, David H
The mixing of alcoholic beverages with caffeine has been identified as a public health problem among college students; however, little is known about the consumption of such drinks among younger adolescents. We estimated the prevalence of caffeinated alcoholic beverage (CAB) use among a wide age range of underage drinkers, examined differences in traditional (i.e. self-mixed alcoholic beverages with soda, coffee and tea) and non-traditional CAB use (pre-mixed caffeinated alcoholic beverages or self-mixed alcoholic beverages with energy drinks or energy shots) among underage drinkers by age and other demographic characteristics, and examined differences in hazardous drinking behavior between CAB and non-CAB users. We used an existing Internet panel maintained by Knowledge Networks, Inc. to assess the use of pre-mixed and self-mixed CABs in the past 30 days among a national sample of 1031 youth drinkers age 13-20. We conducted logistic regression analyses to estimate the relationship between traditional and non-traditional CAB use and risky drinking behavior as well as adverse outcomes of drinking, while controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, income, and general risk-taking (seat belt use). The overall prevalence of CAB use in the sample of underage drinkers was 52.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 47.4%-57.4%). CAB prevalence was 48.4% among 13-15 year-old drinkers, 45.3% among 16-18 year-old drinkers, and 58.4% among 19-20 year-old drinkers. After controlling for other variables, we found a continuum of risk with non-traditional CAB use most significantly associated with binge drinking (odds ratio [OR]=6.3), fighting (OR=4.4), and alcohol-related injuries (OR=5.6). The problem of caffeinated alcoholic beverage use is not restricted to college-aged youth. The prevalence of CAB use among underage drinkers is higher than previously thought and begins in early adolescence. Adolescents who consume CABs, and particularly non-traditional CABs, are at increased risk
Lee, Chia-Kuei; Corte, Colleen; Stein, Karen F.
Background: Adolescent alcohol use continues to be a critical public health problem with both short- and long-term negative health consequences. Defining oneself in terms of alcohol, a drinking-related identity, has been shown to predict high levels of alcohol use. Because adolescence is the developmental period during which identity development…
Sommer, Christian; Seipt, Christian; Spreer, Maik; Blümke, Toni; Markovic, Alexandra; Jünger, Elisabeth; Plawecki, Martin H; Zimmermann, Ulrich S
While the utility of experimental free-access alcohol self-administration paradigms is well established, little data exist addressing the question of whether study participation influences subsequent natural alcohol consumption. We here present drinking reports of young adults before and after participation in intravenous alcohol self-administration studies. Timeline Follow-back drinking reports for the 6 weeks immediately preceding the first, and the 6 weeks after the last experimental alcohol challenge were examined from subjects completing 1 of 2 similar alcohol self-administration paradigms. In study 1, 18 social drinkers (9 females, mean age 24.1 years) participated in 3 alcohol self-infusion sessions up to a maximum blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 160 mg%. Study 2 involved 60 participants (30 females, mean age 18.3 years) of the Dresden Longitudinal Study on Alcohol Use in Young Adults (D-LAYA), who participated in 2 sessions of alcohol self-infusion up to a maximum BAC of 120 mg%, and a nonexposed age-matched control group of 42 (28 females, mean age 18.4 years) subjects. In study 1, participants reported (3.7%) fewer heavy drinking days as well as a decrease of 2.5 drinks per drinking day after study participation compared to prestudy levels (p alcohol-exposed participants reported 7.1% and non-alcohol-exposed controls 6.5% fewer drinking days at poststudy measurement (p alcohol self-administration experiments does not increase subsequent real-life drinking of young adults. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Problem drinking status, the availability of alternative substitutes to drinking and, drinking motives together determine alcohol risk perceptions and drinking behavior. Therefore, in order to fully understand drinking behavior, the influences of drinking motives, personal experiences, drinking status, availability of alcohol ...
Tanaka, Aoi; Cui, Renzhe; Kitamura, Akihiko; Liu, Keyang; Imano, Hironori; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Kiyama, Masahiko; Okada, Takeo; Iso, Hiroyasu
Previous studies have reported that moderate alcohol consumption is protective against cardiovascular disease, but heavy alcohol consumption increases its risk. Endothelial dysfunction is hypothesized to contribute to the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. However, few population-based studies have examined a potential effect of alcohol consumption on endothelial function. This study included 404 men aged 30-79 years who were recruited from residents in 2 communities under the Circulatory Risk in Communities Study in 2013 and 2014. We asked the individuals about the frequency and volume of alcohol beverages and converted the data into grams of ethanol per day. Endothelial function was assessed by brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) measurements during reactive hyperemia. We performed cross-sectional analysis of alcohol consumption and %FMD by logistic regression analysis, adjusting for age, baseline brachial artery diameter, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HbA1c, smoking, antihypertensive medication use, and community. Individuals who drank ≥ 46 g/day ethanol had a lower age-adjusted mean %FMD than non-drinkers (p＜0.01). Compared with non-drinkers, the age-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence interval) of low %FMD (＜5.3%) for former, light (＜23.0 g/day ethanol), moderate (23.0-45.9 g/day ethanol), and heavy (≥ 46.0 g/day ethanol) drinkers were 1.61 (0.67-3.89), 0.84 (0.43-1.66), 1.09 (0.52-2.25), and 2.99 (1.56-5.70), respectively. The corresponding multivariable-adjusted ORs were 1.76 (0.69-4.50), 0.86 (0.42-1.76), 0.98 (0.45-2.12), and 2.39 (1.15-4.95), respectively. Heavy alcohol consumption may be an independent risk factor of endothelial dysfunction in Japanese men.
Ramirez, Jason J; Monti, Peter M; Colwill, Ruth M
The effect of alcohol-cue exposure on eliciting craving has been well documented, and numerous theoretical models assert that craving is a clinically significant construct central to the motivation and maintenance of alcohol-seeking behavior. Furthermore, some theories propose a relationship between craving and attention, such that cue-induced increases in craving bias attention toward alcohol cues, which, in turn, perpetuates craving. This study examined the extent to which alcohol cues induce craving and bias attention toward alcohol cues among underage college-student drinkers. We designed within-subject cue-reactivity and visual-probe tasks to assess in vivo alcohol-cue exposure effects on craving and attentional bias on 39 undergraduate college drinkers (ages 18-20). Participants expressed greater subjective craving to drink alcohol following in vivo cue exposure to a commonly consumed beer compared with water exposure. Furthermore, following alcohol-cue exposure, participants exhibited greater attentional biases toward alcohol cues as measured by a visual-probe task. In addition to the cue-exposure effects on craving and attentional bias, within-subject differences in craving across sessions marginally predicted within-subject differences in attentional bias. Implications for both theory and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Sayette, Michael A
Understanding why people drink alcohol and in some cases develop drinking problems has long puzzled researchers, clinicians, and patients alike. In the mid-1940s and early 1950s, experimental research began to systematically investigate alcohol's hedonic properties. Presumably, alcohol consumption would prove reinforcing as a consequence of its capacity either to relieve stress or to brighten positive emotional experiences. This article reviews experimental research through the years examining the impact of alcohol on both the relief of negative affect and the enhancement of positive affect. It covers initial accounts that emphasized direct pharmacological effects of ethanol on the central nervous system. These early studies offered surprisingly tepid support for the premise that alcohol improved emotional states. Next, studies conducted in the 1970s are considered. Informed by social learning theory and employing advances derived from experimental psychology, this research sought to better understand the complex effects of alcohol on emotion. Coverage of this work is followed by discussion of current formulations, which integrate biological and behavioral approaches with the study of cognitive, affective, and social processes. These current perspectives provide insight into the particular conditions under which alcohol can boost emotional experiences. Finally, future research directions and clinical implications are considered. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Lindgren, K.P.; Wiers, R.W.; Teachman, B.A.; Gasser, M.L.; Westgate, E.C.; Cousijn, J.; Enkema, M.C.; Neighbors, C.
There is preliminary evidence that approach avoid training can shift implicit alcohol associations and improve treatment outcomes. We sought to replicate and extend those findings in US undergraduate social drinkers (Study 1) and at-risk drinkers (Study 2). Three adaptations of the approach avoid
Sayette, Michael A.
Understanding why people drink alcohol and in some cases develop drinking problems has long puzzled researchers, clinicians, and patients alike. In the mid-1940s and early 1950s, experimental research began to systematically investigate alcohol’s hedonic properties. Presumably, alcohol consumption would prove reinforcing as a consequence of its capacity either to relieve stress or to brighten positive emotional experiences. This article reviews experimental research through the years examining the impact of alcohol on both the relief of negative affect and the enhancement of positive affect. It covers initial accounts that emphasized direct pharmacological effects of ethanol on the central nervous system. These early studies offered surprisingly tepid support for the premise that alcohol improved emotional states. Next, studies conducted in the 1970s are considered. Informed by social learning theory and employing advances derived from experimental psychology, this research sought to better understand the complex effects of alcohol on emotion. Coverage of this work is followed by discussion of current formulations, which integrate biological and behavioral approaches with the study of cognitive, affective, and social processes. These current perspectives provide insight into the particular conditions under which alcohol can boost emotional experiences. Finally, future research directions and clinical implications are considered. PMID:28110679
Hallgren, Kevin A.; Greenfield, Brenna L.; Ladd, Benjamin O.
Background Behavioral economic theories of drinking posit that the reinforcing value of engaging in activities with versus without alcohol influences drinking behavior. Measures of the reinforcement value of drugs and alcohol have been used in previous research, but little work has examined the psychometric properties of these measures. Objectives The present study aims to evaluate the factor structure, test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity of an alcohol-only version of the Adolescent Reinforcement Survey Schedule (ARSS-AUV). Methods A sample of 157 college student drinkers completed the ARSS-AUV at two time points 2–3 days apart. Test-retest reliability, hierarchical factor analysis, and correlations with other drinking measures were examined. Results Single, unidimensional general factors accounted for a majority of the variance in alcohol and alcohol-free reinforcement items. Residual factors emerged that typically represented alcohol or alcohol-free reinforcement while doing activities with friends, romantic or sexual partners, and family members. Individual ARSS-AUV items had fair-to-good test-retest reliability, while general and residual factors had excellent test-retest reliability. General alcohol reinforcement and alcohol reinforcement from friends and romantic partners were positively correlated with past-year alcohol consumption, heaviest drinking episode, and alcohol-related negative consequences. Alcohol-free reinforcement indices were unrelated to alcohol use or consequences. Conclusions/Importance The ARSS-AUV appears to demonstrate good reliability and mixed concurrent validity among college student drinkers. The instrument may provide useful information about alcohol reinforcement from various activities and people and could provide clinically-relevant information for prevention and treatment programs. PMID:27096713
Hallgren, Kevin A; Greenfield, Brenna L; Ladd, Benjamin O
Behavioral economic theories of drinking posit that the reinforcing value of engaging in activities with versus without alcohol influences drinking behavior. Measures of the reinforcement value of drugs and alcohol have been used in previous research, but little work has examined the psychometric properties of these measures. The present study aims to evaluate the factor structure, test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity of an alcohol-only version of the Adolescent Reinforcement Survey Schedule (ARSS-AUV). A sample of 157 college student drinkers completed the ARSS-AUV at two time points 2-3 days apart. Test-retest reliability, hierarchical factor analysis, and correlations with other drinking measures were examined. Single, unidimensional general factors accounted for a majority of the variance in alcohol and alcohol-free reinforcement items. Residual factors emerged that typically represented alcohol or alcohol-free reinforcement while doing activities with friends, romantic or sexual partners, and family members. Individual ARSS-AUV items had fair-to-good test-retest reliability, while general and residual factors had excellent test-retest reliability. General alcohol reinforcement and alcohol reinforcement from friends and romantic partners were positively correlated with past-year alcohol consumption, heaviest drinking episode, and alcohol-related negative consequences. Alcohol-free reinforcement indices were unrelated to alcohol use or consequences. The ARSS-AUV appears to demonstrate good reliability and mixed concurrent validity among college student drinkers. The instrument may provide useful information about alcohol reinforcement from various activities and people and could provide clinically-relevant information for prevention and treatment programs.
Buckingham, Joseph; Moss, Abigail; Gyure, Krisztina; Ralph, Neil; Hindocha, Chandni; Lawn, Will; Curran, H Valerie; Freeman, Tom P
Anecdotal and correlational evidence suggests a relationship between social ostracism and alcohol dependence. Furthermore, a recent fMRI investigation found differences in the neural correlates associated with ostracism in people with alcohol dependence compared to healthy controls. We predicted that acutely administered alcohol would reduce the negative effects of social ostracism. Alcohol (0.4 g/kg) or matched placebo was administered to a sample of 32 hazardous drinkers over two sessions in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design. In each session, participants were exposed to an ostracism event via the computerized ball passing game, "Cyberball." In order to quantify the effects of ostracism, the fundamental needs questionnaire was completed twice on each testing session; immediately after (i) social inclusion and (ii) social exclusion. Ostracism caused robust changes to scores on the fundamental needs questionnaire, in line with previous literature. Alcohol administration did not influence the effects of simulated social ostracism, which was supported by a Bayesian analysis. Exploratory analyses revealed a negative relationship between age and ostracism induced fundamental needs threat across both sessions. In conclusion, a moderate dose of alcohol did not influence experience of simulated social ostracism in hazardous drinkers. Further research is needed to establish the effects of alcohol administration on social ostracism using different doses and populations of alcohol users.
Ramsey, Susan E.; Engler, Patricia A.; Magdalena Harrington; Smith, Robert J.; Fagan, Mark J; Stein, Michael D.; Peter Friedmann
Twenty-eight patients with diabetes who screened positive for at-risk drinking were assigned to brief alcohol intervention (BAI) (n = 14) or standard care (SC) (n = 14) treatment conditions. All participants completed a baseline interview and one-, three, and six-month follow-up interviews. Across the six-month follow-up period, there was a significantly greater reduction in quantity of alcohol consumed in the BAI group. At the six-month follow-up, the BAI group had a greater reduction in qua...
Frequency of alcohol drinking is known to influence cardiovascular risk. However, little is known regarding the relationship between frequency of drinking and metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study was to determine how frequency of heavy drinking modifies the prevalence of MetS. The subjects were middle-aged male nondrinkers and occasional or regular heavy drinkers (ethanol intake: ≥66 g per drinking day). Odds ratios (ORs) for MetS and each component comprising MetS were calculated with adjustment for age and histories of smoking and regular exercise. ORs versus nondrinkers for MetS defined by the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) or the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) were significantly higher than the reference level of 1.00 in occasional heavy drinkers (NCEP-ATP III, 1.94 [confidence interval (CI): 1.54 to 2.45]; IDF, 1.97 [CI: 1.56 to 2.49]) and regular heavy drinkers (NCEP-ATP III, 1.48 [CI: 1.19 to 1.84]; IDF, 1.50 [CI: 1.20 to 1.86]). When compared with the reference level, OR versus nondrinkers for large waist circumference was significantly higher in occasional heavy drinkers (1.96 [CI: 1.63 to 2.35]), but not in regular heavy drinkers (1.12 [CI: 0.96 to 1.32]), while OR versus nondrinkers for hyperglycemia was significantly lower in regular heavy drinkers (0.66 [CI: 0.46 to 0.95]), but not in occasional heavy drinkers (0.86 [CI: 0.60 to 1.24]). There is a positive association between heavy drinking and MetS, which is stronger in occasional drinkers than in regular drinkers. This difference may be explained by a positive association between occasional heavy drinking and central obesity and an inverse association between regular heavy drinking and hyperglycemia. The results suggest that heavy drinking, even if occasionally, is a cardiovascular risk factor. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Crane, Heidi M; Nance, Robin M; Merrill, Joseph O; Hutton, Heidi; Chander, Geetanjali; McCaul, Mary E; Mathews, W Chris; Fredericksen, Rob; Simoni, Jane M; Mayer, Kenneth; Mugavero, Michael J; Willig, James H; Burkholder, Greer; Drozd, Daniel R; Mimiaga, Matthew; Lau, Bryan; Kim, H Nina; Cropsey, Karen; Moore, Richard D; Christopoulos, Katerina; Geng, Elvin; Eron, Joseph J; Napravnik, Sonia; Kitahata, Mari M; Saag, Michael S; Delaney, Joseph Ac
Studies of persons living with HIV (PLWH) have compared current non-drinkers to at-risk drinkers without differentiating whether current non-drinkers had a prior alcohol use disorder (AUD). The purpose of this study was to compare current non-drinkers with and without a prior AUD on demographic and clinical characteristics to understand the impact of combining them. We included data from six sites across the US from 1/2013 to 3/2015. Patients completed tablet-based clinical assessments at routine clinic appointments using the most recent assessment. Current non-drinkers were identified by AUDIT-C scores of 0. We identified a prior probable AUD by a prior AUD diagnosis in the electronic medical record (EMR) or a report of attendance at alcohol treatment in the clinical assessment. We used multivariate logistic regression to examine factors associated with prior AUD. Among 2235 PLWH who were current non-drinkers, 36% had a prior AUD with more patients with an AUD identified by the clinical assessment than the EMR. Higher proportions with a prior AUD were male, depressed, and reported current drug use compared to non-drinkers without a prior AUD. Former cocaine/crack (70% vs. 25%), methamphetamine/crystal (49% vs. 16%), and opioid/heroin use (35% vs. 7%) were more commonly reported by those with a prior AUD. In adjusted analyses, male sex, past methamphetamine/crystal use, past marijuana use, past opioid/heroin use, past and current cocaine/crack use, and cigarette use were associated with a prior AUD. In conclusion, this study found that among non-drinking PLWH in routine clinical care, 36% had a prior AUD. We found key differences between those with and without prior AUD in demographic and clinical characteristics, including drug use and depression. These results suggest that non-drinkers are heterogeneous and need further differentiation in studies and that prior alcohol misuse (including alcohol treatment) should be included in behavioural health assessments as
Grant, Valerie V; Stewart, Sherry H
The effects of musically-induced positive and anxious mood on explicit alcohol-related cognitions (alcohol expectancy strength) in 47 undergraduate students who consume alcohol either to enhance positive mood states (for enhancement motives) or to cope with anxiety (for anxiety-related coping motives) were investigated. Pre- and post-mood induction, participants completed the emotional reward and emotional relief subscales of the Alcohol Craving Questionnaire - Now. The hypothesis that anxiety-related coping motivated drinkers in the anxious mood condition (but not those in the positive mood condition) would exhibit increases in strength of explicit emotional relief alcohol expectancies after the mood induction was supported. An additional, unanticipated finding was that enhancement-motivated drinkers in the anxious condition also showed significant increases in strength of explicit emotional relief (but not emotional reward) alcohol expectancies. The hypothesis that enhancement-motivated (but not anxiety-related coping motivated) participants would exhibit increases in explicit emotional reward expectancies following exposure to the positive mood induction procedure was not supported. Taken together with past research findings, the current results highlight the importance of distinguishing between subtypes of negative affect (i.e., anxious and depressed affect) in exploring the affective antecedents of explicit alcohol outcome expectancies.
Hansen, Anders Blædel Gottlieb; Becker, Ulrik; Nielsen, Anette Søgaard; Grønbæk, Morten; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Thygesen, Lau Caspar
Internet-based interventions for heavy drinkers show promising results, but existing research is characterized by few studies in nonstudent adult populations and few comparisons with appropriate control groups. To test whether a fully automated Internet-based brief personalized feedback intervention and a fully automated Internet-based personalized brief advice intervention in a non-treatment-seeking population of heavy drinkers would result in a reduced alcohol intake. We conducted a 3-arm parallel randomized controlled trial in a general population-based sample of heavy drinkers. The 54,157 participants (median age of 58 years) were screened for heavy drinking. Of the 3418 participants who had a weekly alcohol consumption above 14 drinks for women and 21 drinks for men, 1380 (619 women) consented to take part in the trial and were randomly assigned to an Internet-based brief personalized feedback intervention group (normative feedback, n = 476), an Internet-based personalized brief advice intervention group (n = 450), or a nonintervention control group (n = 454). Follow-up after 6 and 12 months included 871 and 1064 participants, respectively, of all groups combined. The outcome measure was self-reported weekly alcohol consumption. We analyzed the data according to the intention-to-treat principle. To examine changes over time and to account for the multiple time measurements, we used a multilevel linear mixed model. To take attrition into account, we used multiple imputation to address missing data. The intervention effect of the Internet-based brief personalized feedback intervention, determined as the mean additional difference in changes in alcohol consumption in the Internet-based brief personalized feedback intervention compared with the control group, was -1.8 drinks/week after 6 months and -1.4 drinks/week after 12 months; these effects were nonsignificant (95% confidence interval -4.0 to 0.3 at 6 months, -3.4 to 0.6 at 12 months). The intervention effect
Becker, Ulrik; Grønbaek, Morten; Johansen, Ditte
intake had a relative risk of 0.4 (95% confidence limits, 0.3-0.6) and those drinking 51% or more of wine had a relative risk of 0.3 (95% confidence limits, 0.2-0.5) for developing cirrhosis. In conclusion, the results suggest that a high intake of all 3 types of alcohol conveys an increased risk...
Bernstein, Michael H.; Colby, Suzanne M.
Background The primary goal of this study was to establish a paradigm for credibly administering placebo alcohol to underage drinkers. We also sought to create a new, valid procedure for establishing placebo alcohol believability. Method Participants were 138 American college students (66.7% female) predominantly (90.0%) under the legal drinking age. Groups of 2–3 participants and one same-sex confederate consumed mixed drinks, purportedly containing alcohol, ad-lib in a naturalistic bar-laboratory for 20 minutes. All beverages, however, were non-alcoholic but we used visual, olfactory, and taste cues to maximize placebo credibility. Also, the confederate made two scripted statements designed to increase the perception of drinking real alcohol. After the drinking portion, participants responded to survey items related to alcohol consumption and intoxication. Next, they were individually debriefed, with open-ended responses used to make a determination of whether the participant was deceived with respect to placebo alcohol. Results All participants estimated consuming some amount of alcohol. However, using a more conservative criteria for estimating alcohol believability based on the debrief, 89.1% of participants were classified as deceived. Deceived participants were much more likely to estimate having a positive Blood Alcohol Content, and to say their current level of intoxication was typical given the amount of alcohol consumed than non-deceived participants. Discussion Credibly administering placebo alcohol to underage drinkers is possible. This approach carries great potential for future laboratory work. In addition, the methodology used here to classify participants as deceived or not deceived appears valid based on self-reported BAC estimation and intoxication levels. PMID:26334562
Bernstein, Michael H; Wood, Mark D; Colby, Suzanne M
The primary goal of this study was to establish a paradigm for credibly administering placebo alcohol to underage drinkers. We also sought to create a new, valid procedure for establishing placebo alcohol believability. Participants were 138 American college students (66.7% female) predominantly (90.0%) under the legal drinking age. Groups of 2-3 participants and one same-sex confederate consumed mixed drinks, purportedly containing alcohol, ad-lib in a naturalistic bar-laboratory for 20 min. All beverages, however, were non-alcoholic but we used visual, olfactory, and taste cues to maximize placebo credibility. Also, the confederate made two scripted statements designed to increase the perception of drinking real alcohol. After the drinking portion, participants responded to survey items related to alcohol consumption and intoxication. Next, they were individually debriefed, with open-ended responses used to make a determination of whether the participant was deceived with respect to placebo alcohol. All participants estimated consuming some amount of alcohol. However, using a more conservative criteria for estimating alcohol believability based on the debrief, 89.1% of participants were classified as deceived. Deceived participants were much more likely to estimate having a positive blood alcohol content and to say that their current level of intoxication was typical given the amount of alcohol consumed than non-deceived participants. Credibly administering placebo alcohol to underage drinkers is possible. This approach carries great potential for future laboratory work. In addition, the methodology used here to classify participants as deceived or not deceived appears valid based on self-reported BAC estimation and intoxication levels. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Willner, P; Field, M; Pitts, K; Reeve, G
The effects of exposure to an alcohol-related cue (drinking low-alcohol beer) and a musical depression/elation mood induction procedure, on craving, motivation and liking for alcohol, were studied in male and female recreational drinkers. Alcohol craving was assessed using the multidimensional desires for alcohol questionnaire (DAQ), motivation for alcohol was assessed by performance on a progressive ratio (PR) task reinforced with small volumes (25 ml) of low-alcohol beer, and liking for the reinforcers earned in the PR task was assessed using a visual analogue scale. Consumption of a half-pint of low-alcohol beer increased alcohol craving in male subjects but had no effect or decreased craving in female subjects. Subsequent induction of a depressed mood increased craving scores, relative to elated or neutral mood groups, but these effects were confined to abstinent (non-cued) subjects, both male and female. Performance on the PR task correlated significantly with one of the four factors of the DAQ, negative reinforcement, and was increased by induction of a depressed mood in abstinent female and cued male subjects. Reinforcer liking was unchanged following mood induction in male subjects, but decreased in both groups of female subjects. To summarize, the cue of drinking low-alcohol beer increased alcohol craving in men but not in women, and induction of a depressed mood increased alcohol craving and motivation, but also decreased alcohol liking. These effects were present to different extents in different cue/gender subgroups, and were partially independent.
Rinker, Dipali Venkataraman; Young, Chelsie M; Krieger, Heather; Lembo, Jordanna; Neighbors, Clayton
A key assumption when assessing alcohol-related problems is that these problems are considered negative. A growing literature suggests that college drinkers do not perceive all measured consequences to be negative. Research has established the impact of others' beliefs on personal beliefs and behaviors. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of perceptions of others' evaluations (POE) of consequences on one's own evaluations and subsequent experiences of consequences. A sample of 885 heavy drinking college students participated in a longitudinal study. Participants reported the number of alcoholic drinks consumed per week, experiences of alcohol-related problems, evaluations of those consequences, and perceptions of how typical university students evaluate those consequences. A moderated mediation of POE on negative alcohol-related consequences via evaluations of consequences at differing levels of alcohol consumption was conducted, with gender, baseline consequences, and intervention effects being controlled for. Results indicated that POE had no direct effect on subsequent consequences. However, an indirect effect was found through evaluations of consequences, such that there was a positive association between both POE and evaluations of consequences, and evaluations of consequences and subsequent consequences. Average weekly drinking moderated the association between POE and evaluations of consequences, such that the association between POE and evaluations of consequences was stronger for those who drank more heavily. Results are consistent with social cognition processes, such as pluralistic ignorance, and suggest that POE and evaluations of consequences should be considered in the construction of interventions targeting heavy-drinking college students.
Nichols, J M; Martin, F
Two experiments investigated long-term verbal memory performance in groups of 20-year-old heavy (HSDs) and light social drinkers (LSDs), in the presence and absence of a pharmacological challenge (lorazepam 2 mg). In Experiment 1 (n = 13), a verbal learning task was presented visually and it was found that lorazepam significantly impaired delayed verbal recall performance in both groups. Experiment 2 (n = 14) assessed the effect of presenting the verbal learning task in the auditory compared to the visual modality. Both groups' performance on the delayed trials of the visually presented task was reduced in the lorazepam treatment. However, in the auditory presented task, lorazepam reduced 30-min delayed recall performance in the HSDs but not in the LSDs. The differential effect of lorazepam on HSDs compared to LSDs on delayed recall performance when material is presented in the auditory modality may suggest that frequent heavy social drinking results in changes in CNS functioning.
Kreusch, Fanny; Vilenne, Aurélie; Quertemont, Etienne
Previous results suggested that alcohol abusers and alcohol dependent patients show cognitive biases in the treatment of alcohol-related cues, especially approach and inhibition deficit biases. Response inhibition was often tested using the go/no-go task in which the participants had to respond as quickly as possible to a class of stimuli (go stimuli) while refraining from responding to another class of stimuli (no-go stimuli). Previous studies assessing specific response inhibition deficits in the process of alcohol-related cues obtained conflicting results. The aims of the present study were to clarify response inhibition for alcohol cues in problem and non-problem drinkers, male and female and to test the effect of alcohol brand logos. Thirty-six non-problem drinker and thirty-five problem drinker undergraduate students completed a modified alcohol go/no-go task using alcohol and neutral object pictures, with or without brand logos, as stimuli. An additional control experiment was carried out to check whether participants' awareness that the study tested their response to alcohol might have biased the results. All participants, whether problem or non-problem drinkers, showed significantly shorter mean reaction times when alcohol pictures are used as go stimuli and significantly higher percentages of commission errors (false alarms) when alcohol pictures are used as no-go stimuli. Identical effects were obtained in the control experiment when participants were unaware that the study focused on alcohol. Shorter reaction times to alcohol-related cues were observed in problem drinkers relative to non-problem drinkers but only in the experimental condition with no brand logos on alcohol pictures. The addition of alcohol brand logos further reduced reaction times in light drinkers, thereby masking group differences. There was a tendency for female problem drinkers to show higher rates of false alarms for alcohol no-go stimuli, although this effect was only very close
Full Text Available Objectives: Drug related mental imagery is proposed to play a central role in addictive behaviour. However, little is known about such cognition or how it is pharmacologically modulated. Here, we test theoretical predictions of the âelaborated intrusionâ theory by comparing neutral with alcohol related mental imagery, and examine the effects of low dose alcohol on phenomenological aspects of this imagery. Methods: Alcohol related and neutral imagery was assessed after at risk drinkers (n=40 consumed alcohol (0.3g/kg or placebo, in a crossover design. Sensory and visuospatial qualities of imagery, along with associated craving, positive affect and âmind wanderingâ were assessed. Results: Alcohol related mental imagery was rated as more vivid and sensorially rich, effects that were larger following the priming dose of alcohol. In addition, mind wandering was substantially lower during alcohol versus neutral imagery, especially after alcohol consumption. First person perspective was more prevalent for alcohol imagery after alcohol, although the DrinkÃImagery type interaction did not reach statistical significance. However, first person imagery was associated with higher levels of craving during alcohol related imagery. Conclusions: Alcohol related mental imagery differs phenomenologically from neutral imagery on a number of dimensions. Priming with alcohol may enable cognitive elaboration by biasing the output of controlled cognitive processing towards enhanced sensory elaboration and increased attention to alcohol related cognition. These feedforward effects may be involved in focusing cognitive and behavioural resources on alcohol acquisition/consumption through the elaboration and rehearsal of relevant goals and plans. Keywords: Mental imagery, Elaborated intrusion theory, Alcohol, Alcohol priming, Craving, Mind wandering
Hansen, Anders Blædel Gottlieb; Becker, Ulrik; Nielsen, Anette Søgaard
Internet-based interventions for heavy drinkers show promising results, but existing research is characterized by few studies in nonstudent adult populations and few comparisons with appropriate control groups.......Internet-based interventions for heavy drinkers show promising results, but existing research is characterized by few studies in nonstudent adult populations and few comparisons with appropriate control groups....
Weerts, Elise M; Wand, Gary S; Maher, Brion; Xu, Xiaoqiang; Stephens, Mary Ann; Yang, Xiaoju; McCaul, Mary E
The current study examined independent and interactive effects of polymorphisms of the mu opioid receptor gene (OPRM1, A118G) and variable number tandem repeats of the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1, SLC6A3) on alcohol consumption and subjective responses to alcohol in 127 young, healthy, social drinkers. Participants completed an in-person assessment, which included self-reported alcohol drinking patterns and blood sampling for DNA, and in a second visit, a cumulative alcohol dosing procedure with subjective ratings across multiple time points and breath alcohol contents (0.03 to 0.1%). DNA was analyzed for OPRM1 AA versus AG/GG (*G) genotypes, DAT1 10-repeat allele (A10) versus 9 or lesser alleles (A9), and ancestral informative markers. There were significant epistatic interactions between OPRM1 and DAT1 genotypes. Subjective High Assessment Scale scores after alcohol consumption were highest in *G and A9 carriers, and lowest in *G and A10 carriers. Negative subjective effects were also highest in *G and A9 carriers. Effects were similar in a sensitivity analysis limited to Caucasian subjects. There were independent and epistatic interactions on drinking. The OPRM1 *G allele was independently associated with fewer heavy drinking days. The A9 allele was associated with a greater number of drinking days, which was attenuated in carriers of the *G allele. These findings highlight the biological importance of interactions between these 2 genes and interactions between brain opioid and dopamine systems. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Teunissen, Hanneke A; Spijkerman, Renske; Larsen, Helle; Kremer, Kirsten A; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Gibbons, Frederick X; Scholte, Ron H J; Engels, Rutger C M E
Cross-sectional and longitudinal research has shown that favorable drinker prototypes (i.e., perceptions about the typical drinker) are related to higher levels of alcohol consumption in adolescents and college students. So far, few studies have experimentally tested the causality of this relationship and it is not clear what type of manipulation affects drinker prototypes and drinking levels. In an experimental 1-factor design with two levels, we tested the short-term effects of exposing students to either positive or negative stereotypic information about drinkers on their drinker prototypes and actual drinking behaviors. We exposed 192 male and female college students to positive drinker prototype information (drinkers in general were presented as being attractive, sociable and successful), or to negative information (unattractive, unsociable and unsuccessful). Subsequently, participants' levels of alcohol consumption were observed unobtrusively while they were interacting with peers in a naturalistic drinking context, namely a bar lab. Participants exposed to positive stereotypic information about drinkers reported more favorable drinker prototypes than participants exposed to negative stereotypic information. Multilevel analyses revealed that men's subsequent alcohol consumption in the bar lab was higher in the positive prototype condition than in the negative prototype condition. For women, no prototype effects on alcohol use were found. These findings underline that drinker prototypes affect actual alcohol use in men and suggest that changing perceptions of drinkers may be a useful tool in alcohol prevention programs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Roberts, Sarah P; Siegel, Michael B; DeJong, William; Jernigan, David H
Adolescent alcohol consumption remains common and is associated with many negative health outcomes. Unfortunately, common alcohol surveillance methods often underestimate consumption. Improved alcohol use measures are needed to characterize the landscape of youth drinking. We aimed to compare a standard quantity-frequency measure of youth alcohol consumption to a novel brand-specific measure. We recruited a sample of 1031 respondents across the United States to complete an online survey. Analyses included 833 male and female underage drinkers ages 13-20. Respondents reported on how many of the past 30 days they consumed alcohol, and the number of drinks consumed on an average drinking day. Using our brand-specific measure, respondents identified which brands they consumed, how many days they consumed each brand, and how many drinks per brand they usually had. Youth reported consuming significantly more alcohol (on average, 11 drinks more per month) when responding to the brand-specific versus the standard measure (p alcohol and adolescent research first by investigating a potentially more accurate alcohol surveillance method, and secondly by promoting the assessment of alcohol use among adolescents vulnerable to risky alcohol use. Finally, our survey addresses the potential impact of alcohol marketing on youth and their subsequent alcohol brand preferences and consumption.
Gonzalez, Vivian M; Reynolds, Brady; Skewes, Monica C
Depression is common among college students and higher levels of depression are associated with greater alcohol-related problems. However, depression is frequently not found to be directly associated with more alcohol use. This study examined whether various aspects of impulsivity (negative urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, sensation seeking, and delay discounting) and drinking to cope with negative affect help to account for the relationship between depression and alcohol problems among emerging adult college drinkers who reported at least a minimal level of depressive symptoms. In this cross-sectional study, 143 emerging adult (between 18 and 25 years old) female (69.9%, n = 100) and male (30.1%, n = 43) college drinkers with at least minimal depressive symptoms completed measures of depression, alcohol use and problems, drinking to cope, and impulsivity. A multiple mediation analysis revealed that only negative urgency and drinking to cope partially mediated the depression-alcohol problems relationship. Moderated mediation analyses revealed that impulsivity-related constructs did not significantly interact with drinking to cope to increase alcohol problems. It appears that alcohol use is particularly problematic for students with elevated depression, and this is partly attributable to depression's association with negative urgency, in addition to its association with drinking to cope. Our findings suggest that students who suffer from depression may engage in problematic drinking behavior in part because negative affect is detrimental to their short-term impulse control and decision making, independent of maladaptive attempts to regulate affect through drinking to cope. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.
Ostermann, Jan; Sloan, Frank A; Taylor, Donald H
Using the first five waves of the US Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative survey of middle-aged persons in the USA conducted between 1992 and 2000, we assessed the association between alcohol consumption and separation and divorce (combined as divorced in the analysis) for 4589 married couples during up to four repeated 2-yr follow-up periods. We found that drinking status was positively correlated between spouses. The correlations did not increase over the follow-up period. Discrepancies in alcohol consumption between spouses were more closely related to the probability of subsequent divorce than consumption levels per se. Couples with two abstainers and couples with two heavy drinkers had the lowest rates of divorce. Couples with one heavy drinker were most likely to divorce. Controlling for current consumption levels, a history of problem drinking by either spouse was not significantly associated with an increased probability of divorce. Our findings on alcohol use and marital dissolution were highly robust in alternative specifications.
McQueen, Jean M; Ballinger, Claire; Howe, Tracey E
Alcohol Brief Intervention (ABI) uses a motivational counselling approach to support individuals to reduce excessive alcohol consumption. There is growing evidence on ABI's use within various health care settings, although how they work and which components enhance success is largely unknown. This paper reports on the qualitative part of a mixed methods study. It explores enablers and barriers associated with alcohol reduction following an ABI. It focuses on alcohol's place within participants' lives and their personal perspectives on reducing consumption. There are a number of randomised controlled trials in this field though few ABI studies have addressed the experiences of hazardous/harmful drinkers. This study examines factors associated with alcohol reduction in harmful/hazardous drinkers following ABI. This qualitative study was underpinned by a realist evaluation approach and involved semi-structured interviews with ten harmful or hazardous alcohol drinkers. Participants (n = 10) were from the intervention arm of a randomised controlled trial (n = 124). All had received ABI, a 20 min motivational counselling interview, six months previously, and had reduced their alcohol consumption. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed. Participants described their views on alcohol, its' place in their lives, their personal perspectives on reducing their consumption and future aspirations. The findings provide an insight into participants' views on alcohol, ABI, and the barriers and enablers to change. Participants described a cost benefit analysis, with some conscious consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of reducing intake or abstaining from alcohol. Findings suggest that, whilst hospital admission can act as a catalyst, encouraging individuals to reflect on their alcohol consumption through ABI may consolidate this, turning this reflective moment into action. Sustainability may be enhanced by the presence of a
Lewis, Ben; Boissoneault, Jeff; Gilbertson, Rebecca; Prather, Robert; Nixon, Sara Jo
Nearly 40% of adults aged 65 and older in the United States consume alcohol. Research in older adults has largely examined potential health effects of a moderate drinking lifestyle. Examination of acute effects in this population is generally lacking. To investigate alcohol-induced alteration of electrophysiological correlates of attention in this population, we employed a covert attentional task. We hypothesized that moderate alcohol administration as well as older age would reduce P3 amplitude and increase latency. We anticipated an interaction such that, relative to their age-matched controls, older adults receiving alcohol would be more affected than their younger counterparts. Participants included healthy older (aged 50 to 67; n = 20; 9 men) and younger (aged 25 to 35; n = 12; 5 men) moderate drinkers. Participants received either a moderate dose of alcohol (breath alcohol concentration ~50 mg/dl) or a placebo beverage. Following absorption, the task was administered and neurophysiological measures were obtained. P3 amplitude and latency were separately subjected to ANOVA across cue conditions using age and dose as independent variables. As predicted, P3 amplitude in older adults was significantly lower than in younger adults across cue conditions. An age by alcohol interaction was detected, revealing that older adults receiving alcohol showed lower P3 amplitudes than any other group. An age effect for P3 latency was found, with older adults having longer latencies than their younger counterparts. A significant age by alcohol interaction for P3 latency was detected, revealing that older adults receiving alcohol displayed delayed P3 latencies relative to older adults receiving placebo. In contrast, younger adults receiving alcohol had reduced latency compared to those receiving placebo, although this effect did not reach significance. Results suggest that older adults demonstrated alcohol-related shifts in P3 characteristics during an intentional attention
Townshend, J M; Duka, T
Studies of alcohol use often depend on self-reported alcohol intake measured by quantity/frequency questionnaires. Previous research has shown that alcohol consumption may be underestimated by this type of retrospective questionnaire. The primary aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of an Alcohol Use Questionnaire (AUQ) with a 4-week diary account. A further aim was to explore patterns of drinking in young social drinkers, with particular attention to binge drinking, which has been suggested as a factor in increasing the risk of alcohol dependency. University students completed the AUQ in the laboratory. They were then asked to keep a record of their alcohol, nicotine and caffeine consumption over a 4-week period (diary). The questionnaire and the diaries were compared on factors of alcohol intake (units per week) and patterns of drinking behaviour (speed of drinking, number of times being drunk and percentage of times getting drunk when drinking). The two measures (AUQ and diary) were highly correlated on alcohol consumption and the other questions relating to drinking behaviour. However, differences were found between the two measures on alcohol intake, speed of drinking (drinks per hour) and number of times being drunk. Alcohol consumption was underestimated by approximately 12% on the questionnaire, and, when the accuracy of estimation of drinking habits was examined, it was found that high drinkers tended to underestimate their drinking behaviour, whereas lower drinkers tended to overestimate. The results suggest that the AUQ can be used with a reasonable degree of confidence, bearing in mind the tendency for high drinkers to underestimate consumption and drinking behaviour. Relationships between 'binge scores', beverage specificity and alcohol consumption support the idea that the criteria for binge drinkers should be based on patterns of drinking rather than alcohol consumption.
Gonzalez, Vivian M.; Bradizza, Clara M.; Collins, R. Lorraine
Etiological models of alcohol use that highlight the role of negative affect and depression have not been applied to research on the association of suicidality and alcohol use. We sought to rectify this oversight by examining whether a motivational model of alcohol use could be applied to understanding the relationship between suicidal ideation and alcohol outcomes in a sample of underage college drinkers who had a history of passive suicidal ideation (n = 91). In this cross-sectional study, ...
Mostafa, Hamza; Amin, Arwa M; Teh, Chin-Hoe; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran A/L; Arif, Nor Hayati; Ibrahim, Baharudin
Alcohol use disorders (AUD) is a phase of alcohol misuse in which the drinker consumes excessive amount of alcohol and have a continuous urge to consume alcohol which may lead to various health complications. The current methods of alcohol use disorders diagnosis such as questionnaires and some biomarkers lack specificity and sensitivity. Metabolomics is a novel scientific field which may provide a novel method for the diagnosis of AUD by using a sensitive and specific technique such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). A cross sectional study was conducted on three groups: individuals with alcohol use disorders (n=30), social drinkers (n=54) and alcohol-naive controls (n=60). (1)H NMR-based metabolomics was used to obtain the metabolic profiles of plasma samples. Data were processed by multivariate principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) followed by univariate and multivariate logistic regressions to produce the best fit-model for discrimination between groups. The OPLS-DA model was able to distinguish between the AUD group and the other groups with high sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 64.29%, 98.17% and 91.24% respectively. The logistic regression model identified two biomarkers in plasma (propionic acid and acetic acid) as being significantly associated with alcohol use disorders. The reproducibility of all biomarkers was excellent (0.81-1.0). The applied plasma metabolomics technique was able to differentiate the metabolites between AUD and the other groups. These metabolites are potential novel biomarkers for diagnosis of alcohol use disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McKinney, Christy M.; Chartier, Karen G.; Caetano, Raul; Harris, T. Robert
The authors examined the relationship of alcohol outlet density (AOD) and neighborhood poverty with binge drinking and alcohol-related problems among drinkers in married and cohabitating relationships and assessed whether these associations differed across sex. A U.S. national population couples survey was linked to U.S. Census data on AOD and…
Callinan, Sarah; Pennay, Amy; Livingston, Michael
There has been a recent decrease in population level alcohol consumption in Australia, particularly in young people. Whether this is due to increasing abstinence or a shift in the way people think about alcohol is not known. The aim of this study is to investigate trends in self-identification of drinker types in Australia from 2001 to 2013 in light of shifting patterns of alcohol consumption in Australia. Five waves of the National Drug Strategy Household Survey from 2001 to 2013 (N=118,416) were used to assess trends in self-identification as a drinker type (non-, ex-, occasional, light, social, heavy and binge drinker). Consumption patterns and demographics of the self-identified groups were also examined. The pattern of self-identification has mostly remained steady over time. The two exceptions to this are a decrease in identification as a social drinker (28% to 22%) and a corresponding increase in identification as a non-drinker (from 19% to 27%). There are few changes over time in the demographic make-up of, or consumption patterns in, the social drinker category with the exception of those over 50, who continue to identify as social drinkers at the same rate. The recent increase in abstinence in Australia seems to be matched by a corresponding decrease in self-identified social drinkers, particularly among those under 50. This indicates that the decrease in consumption is not occurring in those most likely to experience harms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Acute alcohol intake is known to enhance inhibition through facilitation of GABA(A receptors, which are present in 40% of the synapses all over the brain. Evidence suggests that enhanced GABAergic transmission leads to increased large-scale brain connectivity. Our hypothesis is that acute alcohol intake would increase the functional connectivity of the human brain resting-state network (RSN. To test our hypothesis, electroencephalographic (EEG measurements were recorded from healthy social drinkers at rest, during eyes-open and eyes-closed sessions, after administering to them an alcoholic beverage or placebo respectively. Salivary alcohol and cortisol served to measure the inebriation and stress levels. By calculating Magnitude Square Coherence (MSC on standardized Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (sLORETA solutions, we formed cortical networks over several frequency bands, which were then analyzed in the context of functional connectivity and graph theory. MSC was increased (p<0.05, corrected with False Discovery Rate, FDR corrected in alpha, beta (eyes-open and theta bands (eyes-closed following acute alcohol intake. Graph parameters were accordingly altered in these bands quantifying the effect of alcohol on the structure of brain networks; global efficiency and density were higher and path length was lower during alcohol (vs. placebo, p<0.05. Salivary alcohol concentration was positively correlated with the density of the network in beta band. The degree of specific nodes was elevated following alcohol (vs. placebo. Our findings support the hypothesis that short-term inebriation considerably increases large-scale connectivity in the RSN. The increased baseline functional connectivity can -at least partially- be attributed to the alcohol-induced disruption of the delicate balance between inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmission in favor of inhibitory influences. Thus, it is suggested that short-term inebriation is associated, as
Kim, Seong Gu; Kim, Jong Sung; Pack, Han Ju; Sung, Han Na
This research investigated the sensitivity and specificity of heavy and binge drinking for screening of alcohol use disorder. This retrospective study was conducted with 976 adults who visited the Sun Health Screening Center for health screenings in 2015. Daily drinking amount, drinking frequency per week, and weekly drinking amount were investigated. Using criteria from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, participants were classified as normal drinkers, heavy drinkers, or binge drinkers, and grouped by age and sex. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of heavy and binge drinking were compared for the diagnosis of alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) 4th edition-text revision and alcohol use disorder using the DSM 5th edition. The sensitivity of heavy and binge drinking for the diagnosis of alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence, and alcohol use disorder were 51.7%, 43.8%, and 35.3%, and 69.0%, 62.5%, and 48.2%, respectively. The specificity of these were 90.1%, 91.7%, and 95.5%, and 84.3%, 86.8%, and 91.2%, respectively. The PPV of these were 24.8%, 40.5%, and 72.7%, and 21.7%, 38.0%, and 65.2%, respectively. The NPV of these were 96.7%, 92.6%, and 81.2%, and 97.8%, 94.7%, and 83.7%, respectively. Heavy and binge drinking did not show enough diagnostic power to screen DSM alcohol use disorder although they did show high specificity and NPV.
Gill, Jan S; Rush, Robert; Black, Heather; O'May, Fiona P; Chick, Jonathan; Rees, Cheryl; McPake, Barbara
An appreciation of the drinking patterns of population subgroups may usefully inform tailored interventions. For this purpose, research has highlighted a need to better describe the drinking behaviour of UK women. This study aims to characterise the purchasing and consumption behaviour of female heavy, harmed, drinkers in contact with Scottish health services in two cities and to explore the factors that influence the link to harm. Mixed methods study involving cross-sectional survey questionnaires and one-to-one interviews (5). The questionnaires documented (1) demographic data (including derived deprivation score), last week's (or 'typical' weekly) consumption (type, brand, volume, price, place of purchase), self-reported illnesses, and (2) Alcohol-Related Problem Questionnaire score. A total of 181 patients with serious health problems linked to alcohol were recruited within National Health Service (NHS) hospital clinics (in- and outpatient settings), in two Scottish cities during 2012. Median consumption was 157.6 UK units for the recorded week, with almost exclusive purchase from 'off-sale' retail outlets. Preferred drinks were white cider, vodka and white wine. Increasing problems was positively associated with drinking more in the week, being younger and belonging to Glasgow. For Scottish women, the current definition of 'harmful' consumption likely captures a fourfold variation in alcohol intake, with gender differences less apparent. While current alcohol-related harm is positively associated with dose and being younger, there is clear evidence of an influence of the less tangible 'Glasgow effect'. Future harm concerns are warranted by data relating to pattern, alcohol dose and cigarette use. © Royal Society for Public Health 2015.
Amlung, Michael; MacKillop, James; Monti, Peter M; Miranda, Robert
Cigarette smokers are more likely to consume alcohol at higher levels and experience poorer response to treatment for alcohol problems than are nonsmokers. One previous study in university students suggests that a potential reason for the high overlap between alcohol and tobacco use is that concurrent smoking is associated with overvaluation of alcohol, as reflected in elevated behavioral economic demand. The present study sought to extend these initial findings in a community sample with heavier levels of alcohol and tobacco use. Participants were 111 non-treatment-seeking heavy drinkers(defined as 18+/14+ drinks per week for men/women) from a larger study on alcohol pharmacotherapy mechanisms. Forty-nine participants (44%) reported regular smoking (≥5 cigarettes/day). Participants completed a hypothetical alcohol purchase task assessing alcohol consumption at escalating levels of price. Covariates included demographics, drinking quantity, alcohol use disorder severity, depression, and delay discounting. In covariate-adjusted models, smokers reported significantly higher maximum alcohol expenditures (Omax) and breakpoint price (first price suppressing consumption to zero) compared with nonsmokers. Elevated alcohol demand correlated with drinking quantity and severity in the entire sample, but not with smoking frequency or nicotine dependence among smokers only. This study offers further evidence of increased reinforcing value of alcohol among smokers in a sample of heavy drinkers from the community. Clinical implications and potential mechanisms underlying this relationship are discussed.
Full Text Available Heavy drinking contributes to involuntary body movements such as akathisia. Quetiapine has been shown to alleviate symptoms of akathisia; however, its efficacy in the alcohol dependent population is not well established. Thus, we aimed to identify efficacy of Quetiapine in treating akathisia in very heavy drinking alcohol dependent patients. 108 male and female heavy alcohol consuming study participants received 13 weeks of Quetiapine XR. Drinking history (Timeline Followback, TLFB, depression (Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, MADRS, and movement (Barnes Akathisia Scale, BARS measures were collected at baseline (0 W, week 6 (6 W, and week 12 (12 W. The role of drinking, symptoms of depression, and efficacy of Quetiapine for treating akathisia were assessed. In patients with no symptoms of depression (low MADRS, Quetiapine treatment decreased symptoms of akathisia. Patients with clinically significant depression (high MADRS reported a significant increase in akathisia measures at 6 W which eventually decreased at 12 W to below baseline levels. The increase in akathisia at 6 W corresponded with a significant increase in the patients’ total drinks and heavy drinking pattern. Treatment with Quetiapine progressively lowered the occurrence of akathisia in alcohol dependent patients who do not show symptoms of depression. Quetiapine treatment lowered akathisia over time in heavy drinkers who had clinically significant symptoms of depression.
Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N; Vasilenko, Sara A; Lanza, Stephanie T; Maggs, Jennifer L
Heavy episodic drinking (HED) or consuming 4+/5+ drinks in 1 occasion for women/men is linked consistently with alcohol-related harms. Recent research suggests that many individuals drink at levels more than twice this cutoff (8+/10+ drinks), commonly referred to as "high-intensity drinking." Prevalence rates of high-intensity drinking and its dynamic association with alcohol use disorder (AUD) across all ages, however, remain unknown. The current study used data from a nationally representative sample to document age-varying prevalence rates of HED-only drinking and high-intensity drinking, prevalence rates of AUD for HED-only drinkers and high-intensity drinkers, and relative odds of experiencing an AUD for high-intensity drinkers as compared to HED-only drinkers. Data were from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III. The final analytic sample consisted of past-year drinkers aged 18 to 64 years (n = 22,776). Time-varying effect modeling revealed that high-intensity drinking and HED-only drinking were equally prevalent during young adulthood and prevalence rates of both types of drinking generally became less common with increasing age. At all ages, high-intensity drinkers were at 3 or more times greater odds of meeting criteria for an AUD than HED-only drinkers. The association between high-intensity relative to HED-only drinking was strongest earlier in adulthood with approximately 83% of 18-year-old high-intensity drinkers having AUD relative to 42% of HED-only drinkers. Future research aiming to identify drinkers most at risk of harms and in need of treatment may benefit from assessing the extent to which an individual exceeds the 8+/10+ threshold of drinking. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Manwell, Linda Baier; Czabala, Jan Czeslaw; Ignaczak, Marek; Mundt, Marlon P
Depression and co-morbid substance abuse disorders are a major public health problem. Information is limited for patients attending Polish primary care clinics. This article addresses 30-day and lifetime prevalence of major depression in a heavy drinking population from 12 Polish primary care clinics. 277 heavy drinkers were interviewed by a researcher in each clinic. Heavy drinking was defined as more than 20 drinks per week for males, or more than 13 drinks per week for females, or consumption of more than four drinks five or more times in the previous 30 days, or two or more positive replies to the CAGE questions. Criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual were used to assess lifetime and past 30-day depression. 35% of women and men met criteria for depression in the 30 days prior to the interview. Lifetime rates were 45% for women and 52% for men. Men and women with a CAGE score of 4 were at higher risk for both 30-day (67%, OR = 3.85 [1.47, 10.08]) and lifetime (78%, OR = 3.28 [1.12, 9.66]) depression. Recreational drug users and patients reporting symptoms of anti-social personality disorders were at increased risk for lifetime depression. Subjects reporting symptoms of a childhood conduct disorder were at higher risk for 30-day depression. Depression among patients with substance abuse problems is a common problem. The rates are higher than for other countries and highlight the need for Polish primary care clinicians to routinely screen for depression in patients with substance use disorders.
Vidal, C; Vizcaino, L; Díaz-Peromingo, J A
drinkers. METHODS: We determined IgE to peanuts and IgE to a CCD marker (MUXF(3), the N-glycan from bromelain) in 41 heavy drinkers admitted to the hospital and 54 healthy controls. None of the participants reported symptoms of peanut allergy. In cases with positive (>or=0.35 kU/l) IgE to peanuts, we...
Bruin, Eveline Astrid de
About 85% of the adult population in the Netherlands regularly drinks alcohol. Chronic excessive alcohol intake in alcohol-dependent individuals is known to have damaging effects on brain structure and function. Relatives of alcohol-dependent individuals display differences in brain function that are similar to those found in alcoholics, even if they have never been drinking alcohol. This suggests that brain damage in alcohol-dependent individuals is at least partly related to genetic factors...
Woods, Adam J; Porges, Eric C; Bryant, Vaughn E; Seider, Talia; Gongvatana, Assawin; Kahler, Christopher W; de la Monte, Suzanne; Monti, Peter M; Cohen, Ronald A
The acute consumption of excessive quantities of alcohol causes well-recognized neurophysiological and cognitive alterations. As people reach advanced age, they are more prone to cognitive decline. To date, the interaction of current heavy alcohol (ethanol [EtOH]) consumption and aging remains unclear. This study tested the hypothesis that negative consequences of current heavy alcohol consumption on neurocognitive function are worse with advanced age. Further, we evaluated the relations between lifetime history of alcohol dependence and neurocognitive function METHODS: Sixty-six participants underwent a comprehensive neurocognitive battery. Current heavy EtOH drinkers were classified using National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism criteria (EtOH heavy, n = 21) based on the Timeline follow-back and a structured clinical interview and compared to nondrinkers, and moderate drinkers (EtOH low, n = 45). Of the total population, 53.3% had a lifetime history of alcohol dependence. Neurocognitive data were grouped and analyzed relative to global and domain scores assessing: global cognitive function, attention/executive function, learning, memory, motor function, verbal function, and speed of processing. Heavy current EtOH consumption in older adults was associated with poorer global cognitive function, learning, memory, and motor function (ps alcohol dependence was associated with poorer function in the same neurocognitive domains, in addition to the attention/executive domain, irrespective of age (ps alcohol consumption is associated with significant impairment in a number of neurocognitive domains, history of alcohol dependence, even in the absence of heavy current alcohol use, is associated with lasting negative consequences for neurocognitive function. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Pilatti, Angelina; Cupani, Marcos; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos
... (sociability, risk/aggression and negative mood). Regular drinkers with heavy episodic drinking and moderate drinkers had, compared to abstainers, higher scores in extroversion and alcohol expectancies for social facilitation, and lower scores...
Bruin, Eveline Astrid de
About 85% of the adult population in the Netherlands regularly drinks alcohol. Chronic excessive alcohol intake in alcohol-dependent individuals is known to have damaging effects on brain structure and function. Relatives of alcohol-dependent individuals display differences in brain function that
Danielsson, Anna-Karin; Wennberg, Peter; Hibell, Björn; Romelsjö, Anders
According to the prevention paradox, a majority of alcohol-related problems in a population can be attributed to low to moderate drinkers simply because they are more numerous than heavy drinkers, who have a higher individual risk of adverse outcomes. We examined the prevention paradox in annual alcohol consumption, heavy episodic drinking (HED) and alcohol-related problems among adolescents in 23 European countries. Survey data from the 2007 European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Drugs (ESPAD) among 16-year-old students were analysed. A total of 38,370 alcohol-consuming adolescents (19,936 boys and 18,434 girls) from 23 European countries were included. The upper 10% and the bottom 90% of drinkers by annual alcohol intake, with or without HED, and frequency of HED, were compared for the distribution of 10 different alcohol-related problems. Although the mean levels of consumption and alcohol-related problems varied largely between genders and countries, in almost all countries the heavy episodic drinkers in the bottom 90% of consumers by volume accounted for most alcohol-related problems, irrespective of severity of problem. However, adolescents with three or more occasions of HED a month accounted for a majority of problems. The prevention paradox, based on measures of annual consumption and heavy episodic drinking, seems valid for adolescent European boys and girls. However, a minority with frequent heavy episodic drinking accounted for a large proportion of all problems, illustrating limitations of the concept. As heavy episodic drinking is common among adolescents, our results support general prevention initiatives combined with targeted interventions. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Full Text Available The binge drinking (BD pattern of alcohol consumption is prevalent during adolescence, a period characterized by critical changes to the structural and functional development of brain areas related with memory and cognition. There is considerable evidence of the cognitive dysfunctions caused by the neurotoxic effects of BD in the not-yet-adult brain. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different blood alcohol concentrations (BAC on memory during late adolescence (18–19 years old in males and females with a history of BD. The sample consisted of 154 adolescents (67 males and 87 females that were classified as refrainers if they had never previously drunk alcoholic drinks and as binge drinkers if they had drunk six or more standard drink units in a row for men or five or more for women at a minimum frequency of three occasions in a month, throughout the previous 12 months. After intake of a high acute dose of alcohol by binge drinkers or a control refreshment by refrainers and binge drinkers, subjects were distributed into four groups for each gender according to their BAC: BAC0-R (0 g/L, in refrainers, BAC0-BD (0 g/L, in binge drinkers, BAC1 (0.3 – 0.5 g/L, in binge drinkers or BAC2 (0.54 – 1.1 g/L, in binge drinkers. The subjects’ immediate visual memory and working memory were then measured according to the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-III. The BAC1 group showed lower scores of immediate visual memory but not of working memory, while lower performance in both memories were found in the BAC2 group. Therefore, the brain of binge drinkers with moderate BAC could be employing compensatory mechanisms from additional brain areas to perform a working memory task adequately, but these resources would be undermined when BAC is higher (>0.5 g/L. No gender differences were found in BAC-related lower performance in immediate visual memory and working memory. In conclusion, immediate visual memory is more sensitive than
Stautz, Kaidy; Frings, Daniel; Albery, Ian P; Moss, Antony C; Marteau, Theresa M
There is sparse evidence regarding the effect of alcohol-advertising exposure on alcohol consumption among heavy drinkers. This study aimed to assess the immediate effects of alcohol-promoting and alcohol-warning video advertising on objective alcohol consumption in heavy-drinking young adults, and to examine underlying processes. Between-participants randomized controlled trial with three conditions. Two hundred and four young adults (aged 18-25) who self-reported as heavy drinkers were randomized to view one of three sets of 10 video advertisements that included either (1) alcohol-promoting, (2) alcohol-warning, or (3) non-alcohol advertisements. The primary outcome was the proportion of alcoholic beverages consumed in a sham taste test. Affective responses to advertisements, implicit alcohol approach bias, and alcohol attentional bias were assessed as secondary outcomes and possible mediators. Typical alcohol consumption, Internet use, and television use were measured as covariates. There was no main effect of condition on alcohol consumption. Participants exposed to alcohol-promoting advertisements showed increased positive affect and an increased approach/reduced avoidance bias towards alcohol relative to those exposed to non-alcohol advertisements. There was an indirect effect of exposure to alcohol-warning advertisements on reduced alcohol consumption via negative affect experienced in response to these advertisements. Restricting alcohol-promoting advertising could remove a potential influence on positive alcohol-related emotions and cognitions among heavy-drinking young adults. Producing alcohol-warning advertising that generates negative emotion may be an effective strategy to reduce alcohol consumption. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Exposure to alcohol advertising has immediate and distal effects on alcohol consumption. There is some evidence that effects may be larger in heavy drinkers. Alcohol-warning advertising has
The proportion of alcohol consumption that is above government guidelines ('risky drinking') has been estimated in several countries, suggesting that reductions in risky drinking would lead to significant declines in total alcohol consumption. However, this has not previously been conducted transparently in the UK. Furthermore, existing studies have under-explored the importance of several methodological decisions, as well as not closely examining the meaning of these figures for debates on 'corporate social responsibility' (CSR). Secondary analysis of the amount of alcohol consumption above various government guidelines in four British datasets for 2000-2002: the National Diet and Nutrition Survey; the General Household Survey; Smoking, Drinking and Drug Use among Young People; and the March 2002 ONS Omnibus Survey. Risky drinking accounts for 55-82% of the total consumption by 18- to 64-year olds, depending on the definition of risky drinking used. If only alcohol above the government guidelines is counted, this falls to 22-47%. Consumption by underage drinkers accounts for 4.5% of the total consumption, while consumption by drink-drivers accounts for 0.5-8.0% depending on the assumptions made. Methodologically, the study shows that at least two decisions have considerable importance: the definition of risky drinking used and whether we count all drinking (as in most previous studies) or only drinking above guidelines. Substantively, these studies do not directly show that drink companies' profitability would be affected by declines in risky drinking. Nevertheless, they are valuable for present debate in themselves and form the basis of a more complex analysis of alcohol CSR.
Lown, E. Anne; Mertens, Ann C.; Korcha, Rachael A.; Leisenring, Wendy; Hudson, Melissa M.; Greenfield, Thomas K.; Robison, Leslie L.; Zeltzer, Lonnie K.
Objective To describe alcohol consumption patterns and risk factors for heavy alcohol use among siblings of childhood cancer survivors compared to survivors and national controls. Methods Secondary analysis of prospectively collected data from two national surveys was performed including a cohort of 3,034 adult siblings of childhood cancer survivors (age 18-56 years) and 10,398 adult childhood cancer survivors both from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, plus 5,712 adult participants from the population-based National Alcohol Survey. Cancer-related experiences, self-reported current health and mental health were examined in relation to alcohol consumption patterns including heavy and risky drinking. Results Adult siblings of childhood cancer survivors were more likely to be heavy drinkers (ORadj=1.3; 1.0-1.6) and risky drinkers (ORadj=1.3; 1.1-1.6) compared to controls from a national sample. Siblings were also more likely to drink at these two levels compared to survivors. Factors associated with heavy drinking among siblings include being 18-21 years old (ORadj=2.9; 2.0-4.4), male (ORadj=2.3; 1.7-3.0), having a high school education or less (ORadj=2.4; 1.7-3.5), and drinking initiation at a young age (ORadj=5.1; 2.5-10.3). Symptoms of depression, (ORadj=2.1; 1.3-3.2), anxiety (ORadj=1.9; 1.1-3.3) and global psychiatric distress (ORadj=2.5; 1.5-4.3) were significantly associated with heavy alcohol use. Conclusions Siblings of children with cancer are more likely to be heavy drinkers as adults compared to childhood cancer survivors or national controls. Early initiation of drinking and symptoms of psychological distress should be identified during early adolescence and effective sibling-specific interventions should be developed and made available for siblings of children with cancer. PMID:22736595
Oberlin, Brandon G; Dzemidzic, Mario; Tran, Stella M; Soeurt, Christina M; Albrecht, Daniel S; Yoder, Karmen K; Kareken, David A
Striatal dopamine (DA) is increased by virtually all drugs of abuse, including alcohol. However, drug-associated cues are also known to provoke striatal DA transmission- a phenomenon linked to the motivated behaviors associated with addiction. To our knowledge, no one has tested if alcohol's classically conditioned flavor cues, in the absence of a significant pharmacologic effect, are capable of eliciting striatal DA release in humans. Employing positron emission tomography (PET), we hypothesized that beer's flavor alone can reduce the binding potential (BP) of [(11)C]raclopride (RAC; a reflection of striatal DA release) in the ventral striatum, relative to an appetitive flavor control. Forty-nine men, ranging from social to heavy drinking, mean age 25, with a varied family history of alcoholism underwent two [(11)C]RAC PET scans: one while tasting beer, and one while tasting Gatorade. Relative to the control flavor of Gatorade, beer flavor significantly increased self-reported desire to drink, and reduced [(11)C]RAC BP, indicating that the alcohol-associated flavor cues induced DA release. BP reductions were strongest in subjects with first-degree alcoholic relatives. These results demonstrate that alcohol-conditioned flavor cues can provoke ventral striatal DA release, absent significant pharmacologic effects, and that the response is strongest in subjects with a greater genetic risk for alcoholism. Striatal DA responses to salient alcohol cues may thus be an inherited risk factor for alcoholism.
Full Text Available CONTEXT: The oropharynx microbiota plays an important role in the origin of infections, especially among alcoholics whose airway defenses are impaired. OBJECTIVE: To compare the normal oropharingeal flora in heavy alcohol drinker and non-alcoholics. PATIENTS: 117 persons, 58 heavy alcohol drinkers and 59 non-alcoholics. SETTING: Santa Casa de São Paulo Emergency Service. DESIGN: A blind prospective study. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: Prevalence of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, and fungi. RESULTS: The study of the oropharynx microbiota among heavy alcohol drinkers demonstrated the presence of anaerobic microorganisms in 84.5% of them, including: Bacteroides sp, Prevotella melaninogenica, Fusobacterium sp, Veilonella sp, Peptostreptococcus sp, Propionibacterium sp, Bifidobacterium sp and Clostridium sp, versus 30.5% (p<0.005 of non-alcoholics. Candida sp was present in 34.5% of heavy alcohol drinkers and 5.1% of non-alcoholics (p<0.005. Enterobacteria predominated among heavy alcohol drinkers (25% compared with non-alcoholics (5.5% only in the age group 14 to 34 years (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Based upon these results, it was possible to conclude that the knowledge of the oropharynx microbiota among heavy drinkers and non-alcoholics has an important predictive value concerning probable etiologic agents of lower airway infections. Infections caused by anaerobic microorganisms and fungi should be taken into consideration during the choice of empirical therapy for heavy alcohol drinkers.
... Home » Living with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Alcohol Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... heavy drinking, most heavy drinkers have developed cirrhosis. Hepatitis C and cirrhosis In general, someone with hepatitis ...
Dager, Alecia D.; Anderson, Beth M.; Rosen, Rivkah; Khadka, Sabin; Sawyer, Broderick; Jiantonio-Kelly, Rachel E.; Austad, Carol S.; Raskin, Sarah A.; Tennen, Howard; Wood, Rebecca M.; Fallahi, Carolyn R.; Pearlson, Godfrey D.
Background and Aims Young adults show the highest rates of escalating drinking, yet the neural risk mechanisms remain unclear. Heavy drinkers show variant functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response to alcohol cues, which may presage increasing drinking. In this longitudinal study, we ascertained whether BOLD response to alcohol pictures predicted subsequent heavy drinking among college students. Methods Participants were forty-three 18- to 21-year-olds in the United States who underwent BOLD scanning and completed monthly substance use surveys over the following year. Participants were categorized according to baseline and follow-up drinking into 13 continuously moderate drinkers, 16 continuously heavy drinkers, and 14 transitioners who drank moderately at baseline but heavily by follow-up. During fMRI scanning at baseline, participants viewed alcohol and matched non-alcohol beverage images. Results We observed group differences in alcohol cue-elicited BOLD response in bilateral caudate, orbitofrontal cortex, medial frontal cortex/anterior cingulate and left insula (clusters>2619ml, voxel-wise F(2,40)>3.23, palcoholism family history, impulsivity), BOLD response best predicted escalating drinking amount and alcohol-related problems. Conclusions Neural response to pictures of alcohol is substantially enhanced among United States college students who subsequently escalate drinking. Greater cue-reactivity is associated with larger increases in drinking and alcohol-related problems, regardless of other baseline factors. Thus, neural cue-reactivity could uniquely facilitate identifying individuals at greatest risk for future problematic drinking. PMID:24304235
Teunissen, H.A.; Spijkerman, R.; Larsen, H.; Kremer, K.A.; Kuntsche, E.N.; Gibbons, F.X.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.
Background: Cross-sectional and longitudinal research has shown that favorable drinker prototypes (i.e., perceptions about the typical drinker) are related to higher levels of alcohol consumption in adolescents and college students. So far, few studies have experimentally tested the causality of
Teunissen, H.A.; Spijkerman, R.; Larsen, H.; Kremer, K.A.; Kuntsche, E.; Gibbons, F.X.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.
Background: Cross-sectional and longitudinal research has shown that favorable drinker prototypes (i.e., perceptions about the typical drinker) are related to higher levels of alcohol consumption in adolescents and college students. So far, few studies have experimentally tested the causality of
Lindgren, Kristen P.; Wiers, Reinout W.; Teachman, Bethany A.; Gasser, Melissa L.; Westgate, Erin C.; Cousijn, Janna; Enkema, Matthew C.; Neighbors, Clayton
There is preliminary evidence that approach avoid training can shift implicit alcohol associations and improve treatment outcomes. We sought to replicate and extend those findings in US undergraduate social drinkers (Study 1) and at-risk drinkers (Study 2). Three adaptations of the approach avoid task (AAT) were tested. The first adaptation – the approach avoid training – was a replication and targeted implicit alcohol approach associations. The remaining two adaptations – the general identity and personalized identity trainings – targeted implicit drinking identity associations, which are robust predictors of hazardous drinking in US undergraduates. Study 1 included 300 undergraduate social drinkers. They were randomly assigned to real or sham training conditions for one of the three training adaptations, and completed two training sessions, spaced one week apart. Study 2 included 288 undergraduates at risk for alcohol use disorders. The same training procedures were used, but the two training sessions occurred within a single week. Results were not as expected. Across both studies, the approach avoid training yielded no evidence of training effects on implicit alcohol associations or alcohol outcomes. The general identity training also yielded no evidence of training effects on implicit alcohol associations or alcohol outcomes with one exception; individuals who completed real training demonstrated no changes in drinking refusal self-efficacy whereas individuals who completed sham training had reductions in self-efficacy. Finally, across both studies, the personalized identity training yielded no evidence of training effects on implicit alcohol associations or alcohol outcomes. Despite having relatively large samples and using a well-validated training task, study results indicated all three training adaptations were ineffective at this dose in US undergraduates. These findings are important because training studies are costly and labor-intensive. Future
Kristen P Lindgren
Full Text Available There is preliminary evidence that approach avoid training can shift implicit alcohol associations and improve treatment outcomes. We sought to replicate and extend those findings in US undergraduate social drinkers (Study 1 and at-risk drinkers (Study 2. Three adaptations of the approach avoid task (AAT were tested. The first adaptation - the approach avoid training - was a replication and targeted implicit alcohol approach associations. The remaining two adaptations - the general identity and personalized identity trainings - targeted implicit drinking identity associations, which are robust predictors of hazardous drinking in US undergraduates. Study 1 included 300 undergraduate social drinkers. They were randomly assigned to real or sham training conditions for one of the three training adaptations, and completed two training sessions, spaced one week apart. Study 2 included 288 undergraduates at risk for alcohol use disorders. The same training procedures were used, but the two training sessions occurred within a single week. Results were not as expected. Across both studies, the approach avoid training yielded no evidence of training effects on implicit alcohol associations or alcohol outcomes. The general identity training also yielded no evidence of training effects on implicit alcohol associations or alcohol outcomes with one exception; individuals who completed real training demonstrated no changes in drinking refusal self-efficacy whereas individuals who completed sham training had reductions in self-efficacy. Finally, across both studies, the personalized identity training yielded no evidence of training effects on implicit alcohol associations or alcohol outcomes. Despite having relatively large samples and using a well-validated training task, study results indicated all three training adaptations were ineffective at this dose in US undergraduates. These findings are important because training studies are costly and labor
Lindgren, Kristen P; Wiers, Reinout W; Teachman, Bethany A; Gasser, Melissa L; Westgate, Erin C; Cousijn, Janna; Enkema, Matthew C; Neighbors, Clayton
There is preliminary evidence that approach avoid training can shift implicit alcohol associations and improve treatment outcomes. We sought to replicate and extend those findings in US undergraduate social drinkers (Study 1) and at-risk drinkers (Study 2). Three adaptations of the approach avoid task (AAT) were tested. The first adaptation - the approach avoid training - was a replication and targeted implicit alcohol approach associations. The remaining two adaptations - the general identity and personalized identity trainings - targeted implicit drinking identity associations, which are robust predictors of hazardous drinking in US undergraduates. Study 1 included 300 undergraduate social drinkers. They were randomly assigned to real or sham training conditions for one of the three training adaptations, and completed two training sessions, spaced one week apart. Study 2 included 288 undergraduates at risk for alcohol use disorders. The same training procedures were used, but the two training sessions occurred within a single week. Results were not as expected. Across both studies, the approach avoid training yielded no evidence of training effects on implicit alcohol associations or alcohol outcomes. The general identity training also yielded no evidence of training effects on implicit alcohol associations or alcohol outcomes with one exception; individuals who completed real training demonstrated no changes in drinking refusal self-efficacy whereas individuals who completed sham training had reductions in self-efficacy. Finally, across both studies, the personalized identity training yielded no evidence of training effects on implicit alcohol associations or alcohol outcomes. Despite having relatively large samples and using a well-validated training task, study results indicated all three training adaptations were ineffective at this dose in US undergraduates. These findings are important because training studies are costly and labor-intensive. Future research
Black, Heather; Gill, Jan; Chick, Jonathan
Aim To compare alcohol purchasing and consumption by ill drinkers in Edinburgh with wider alcohol sales in Scotland.\\ud \\ud Design Cross-sectional.\\ud \\ud Setting Two hospitals in Edinburgh in 2008/09.\\ud \\ud Participants A total of 377 patients with serious alcohol problems; two-thirds were in-patients with medical, surgical or psychiatric problems due to alcohol; one-third were out-patients.\\ud \\ud Measurements Last week's or typical weekly consumption of alcohol: type, brand, units (1 UK u...
Hermos, J.; Winter, M.; Heeren, T.; Hingson, R.
The authors determined whether lifetime prescription drug misuse (PDM) associated with increased risks for alcohol-related problems among 18- to 34-year-old, NESARC respondents. Among 8222 "ever-drinkers," 15.4% reported ever "misusing sedatives, tranquilizers, painkillers or stimulants ... as prescriptions or from indirect sources." Outcomes were…
Vakili, Shervin; Sobell, Linda Carter; Sobell, Mark B; Simco, Edward R; Agrawal, Sangeeta
When assessing individuals with alcohol use disorders, measurement of drinking can be a resource intensive activity, particularly because many research studies report data for intervals ranging from 6 to 12 months prior to the interview. This study examined whether data from shorter assessment intervals is sufficiently representative of longer intervals to warrant the use of shorter intervals for clinical and research purposes. Participants were 825 problem drinkers (33.1% female) who were recruited through media advertisements to participate in a community-based mail intervention in Toronto, Canada. Participants' Timeline Followback (TLFB) reports of drinking were used to investigate the representativeness of different time windows for estimating annual drinking behavior. The findings suggest that for aggregated reports of drinking and with large sample (e.g., surveys), a 1-month window can be used to estimate annual consumption. For individual cases (e.g., clinical use) and smaller samples, a 3-month window is recommended. These results suggest that shorter time windows, which are more time and resource efficient, can be used with little to no loss in the accuracy of the data.
Teeters, Jenni B; Borsari, Brian; Martens, Matthew P; Murphy, James G
Alcohol-impaired (AI) driving among college students remains a significant public health concern and may be the single most risky drinking outcome among young adults. Brief motivational interventions (BMIs) have been shown to reduce alcohol use and problems, but their specific efficacy for decreasing AI driving among college students is unknown. The present study analyzed data from three randomized controlled trials of BMI (Murphy et al., 2010: n = 74; Borsari et al., 2012: n = 530; and Martens et al., 2013: n = 365) to evaluate whether BMIs are associated with reductions in AI driving among college student drinkers. Participants in all three studies were randomized to BMI or control conditions. Participants reported whether they had driven under the influence (yes/no) following the BMI over the follow-up period. Separate binary logistic regression analyses were conducted for each study. For Studies 1 and 2, these analyses revealed that a BMI was significantly associated with reductions in AI driving at the final (6-month and 9-month, respectively) follow-up compared with the control condition. For Study 3, analyses revealed that a single-component BMI focused on the correction of misperceptions of descriptive norms was significantly associated with reductions in AI driving compared with the control group at the final (6-month) followup, whereas a single-component BMI focused on the use of protective behavioral strategies was not. Change in drinking level did not mediate the relationship between the condition and the change in AI driving. Counselor-administered BMIs that include descriptive normative feedback are associated with significant reductions in AI driving compared with control.
Meyerhoff, Dieter J; Bode, Christiane; Nixon, Sara Jo; de Bruin, Eveline A; Bode, J Christian; Seitz, Helmut K
This article presents the proceedings of a symposium held at the meeting of the International Society for Biomedical Research on Alcoholism (ISBRA) in Mannheim, Germany, in October 2004. Most of what we know about the deleterious effects of alcohol in vivo has been gleaned from studies in sober alcoholics recruited from substance abuse treatment programs. Little is known about effects of chronic drinking in the moderate or heavy range encountered in a much larger fraction of modern society. Extrapolation of information on the adverse effects of chronic drinking on organ function from clinical samples to social drinkers in the general population has to be met with great skepticism, as it may lead to wrong conclusions about the chronic effects of alcohol in social drinkers. Several recent studies suggest that moderate alcohol consumption has certain beneficial health effects, whereas heavy social alcohol consumption has recently been associated with organ abnormalities and cognitive deficits. These social drinking effects have attracted great public interest; reports of benefits of moderate drinking have also inspired inappropriate publications by the media, including misleading advertisements by the alcohol producing and distributing industry. Although adverse effects of moderate to heavy drinking on heart, liver, and cancer development have attracted attention by clinicians and researchers for some time, its compromising effects on brain and cognition have only recently been studied. This symposium brought together researchers from different disciplines, who reviewed and presented new data on consequences of social drinking in the areas of clinical neuropsychology and behavior (Drs. Nixon and Meyerhoff), neurophysiology (Dr. Nixon, Ms. De Bruin), neuroimaging (Ms. de Bruin, Dr. Meyerhoff), hepatic disease (Dr. Bode), and cancer (Dr. Seitz). The symposium aimed to clarify both the potential health benefits of moderate alcohol consumption and risks of moderate and
Rosen, Linda J.; Lee, Catherine L.
Subjects selected on the basis of their drinking histories (alcoholics, heavy drinkers, and social drinkers, N=24) were tested on a series of tasks in order to assess organizational processes in memory. (Editor)
Ross C. Hollett
Full Text Available According to the ambivalence model of craving, alcohol craving involves the dynamic interplay of separate approach and avoidance inclinations. Cue-elicited increases in approach inclinations are posited to be more likely to result in alcohol consumption and risky drinking behaviors only if unimpeded by restraint inclinations. Current study aims were (1 to test if changes in the net balance between approach and avoidance inclinations following alcohol cue exposure differentiate between low and high risk drinkers, and (2 if this balance is associated with alcohol consumption on a subsequent taste test. In two experiments (N = 60; N = 79, low and high risk social drinkers were exposed to alcohol cues, and pre- and post- approach and avoidance inclinations measured. An ad libitum alcohol consumption paradigm and a non-alcohol exposure condition were also included in Study 2. Cue-elicited craving was characterized by a predominant approach inclination only in the high risk drinkers. Conversely, approach inclinations were adaptively balanced by equally strong avoidance inclinations when cue-elicited craving was induced in low risk drinkers. For these low risk drinkers with the balanced craving profile, neither approach or avoidance inclinations predicted subsequent alcohol consumption levels during the taste test. Conversely, for high risk drinkers, where the approach inclination predominated, each inclination synergistically predicted subsequent drinking levels during the taste test. In conclusion, results support the importance of assessing both approach and avoidance inclinations, and their relative balance following alcohol cue exposure. Specifically, this more comprehensive assessment reveals changes in craving profiles that are not apparent from examining changes in approach inclinations alone, and it is this shift in the net balance that distinguishes high from low risk drinkers.
Plunk, Andrew D; Syed-Mohammed, Husham; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia; Bierut, Laura J; Grucza, Richard A
High average daily consumption of alcohol has been associated with elevated mortality risk, but more moderate consumption, relative to abstinence, has been associated with reduced mortality risk. However, average daily consumption can be complicated to assess, limiting its usefulness in both research and clinical practice. There are also concerns that average consumption fails to capture the risk associated with certain drinking patterns, such as heavy episodic drinking. This study assessed mortality associated with drinking pattern, operationalized as the frequency of both heavy and nonheavy drinking occasions. Data from the 1997 to 2001 administrations of the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS; n = 111,511) were paired with the current release of the NHIS Linked Mortality Files, which provided mortality follow-up data through the end of 2006. We estimated the impact of drinking pattern on all-cause mortality, operationalized as the frequency of heavy (5+ drinks) and nonheavy (drinks) drinking occasions. Other covariates in the model included survey wave, sex, age, race/ethnicity, ratio of family income to poverty threshold, educational attainment, body mass index, and smoking status. Over a third of past-year drinkers reported heavy drinking. Mortality risk increased steadily as heavy drinking frequency increased; daily heavy drinkers exhibited an almost 2-fold risk of death compared with abstainers (p drinking was associated with decreased mortality, similar to the "J-shaped curve" highlighted in past research on alcohol mortality; this potential protective effect peaked around 2 nonheavy occasions per week. Any heavy drinking likely elevates mortality risk, and substantial health benefits could be realized by reducing heavy drinking occasions or limiting overall drinking. Heavy and nonheavy drinking frequencies are valid targets for clinical screening and could be helpful in assessing risk and promoting less harmful drinking behavior. Copyright © 2013
LaChance, Heather; Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W.; Bryan, Angela D.; Hutchison, Kent E.
Nationally, college drinkers exhibit the highest rates of alcohol consumption and represent the largest percentage of problem drinkers. Group motivational enhancement therapy (GMET) has been found to catalyze problem drinking reductions among college student samples. While research supporting the use of single-session GMET in college samples (general and mandated) is emergent, no studies have evaluated a comprehensive model of the potential active ingredients of this group intervention. College students (N = 206; 88% Caucasian; 63% male; M age = 18.6) mandated to a university alcohol diversion program were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: the standard-of-care two-session ‘Focus on Alcohol Concerns’ education group (FAC), a single group motivational enhancement therapy (GMET), or a single Alcohol Information-only control group (AI) to evaluate the role of five putative mediators: readiness to change, self-efficacy, perceived risk, norm estimates, and positive drinking expectancies. At three and six month follow-ups, GMET students demonstrated greater reductions in problem drinking outcomes (drinks per drinking day, hazardous drinking symptoms, and alcohol-related problems). Of the five mediators proposed, only self-efficacy emerged as a significant mediator. PMID:20025366
Siegel, Michael; DeJong, William; Cioffi, Daryl; Leon-Chi, Lucero; Naimi, Timothy S; Padon, Alisa A; Jernigan, David H; Xuan, Ziming
No previous study has determined whether there are differences in the youth appeal of alcohol advertisements for popular versus unpopular brands among underage drinkers. This paper provides a systematic investigation of the differential appeal of brand-level alcohol advertisements among underage youth and young adults in the United States. We examined 3 issues of 8 magazines popular among underage youth. From the advertised alcohol brands, we selected the ads for the top 10 and bottom 10 brands by prevalence of underage youth consumption, based on the results of a previous national survey. We assessed the ads' appeal using a sample of 211 students recruited from 1 graduate and 2 undergraduate courses at Boston University. Respondents rated the appeal of each advertisement on 4 dimensions: physical and social appeal, appeal to underage youth, perceived effectiveness, and liking. Using random-effects linear regression, we compared the appeal of advertisements for popular versus unpopular brands. On each dimension, the ads for popular youth alcohol brands were rated as significantly more appealing than the ads for unpopular brands. The magnitude of this difference was 0.26 standard deviation for the physical and social appeal score, 0.25 for the appeal to underage youth score, 0.21 for the perceived effectiveness score, and 0.16 for the liking score. Advertising for alcohol brands that are popular among youth contain elements that are more likely to appeal to underage youth and young adults than ads for brands that are relatively unpopular among young drinkers.
Miller, W R; Cervantes, E A
Gender differences were analyzed in a sample of 233 (83 women, 150 men) problem drinkers treated at the same clinic. Demographic and family history measures showed few gender differences. Men reported more alcohol consumption than did women, but patterns of drinking and intoxication levels were similar. Males reported drinking and intoxication at an earlier age, more beer and less wine drinking and more drinking away from home and driving after drinking. Women reported more negative emotional effects of drinking and more spouses with alcohol problems. Despite similar problem duration, men showed more lifetime alcohol problems but not dependence signs. Men were more likely to accept a disease concept of alcoholism. Rates of smoking, other drug use, and other life problems were similar.
Kranzler, Henry R.; Feinn, Richard; Gelernter, Joel; Pond, Timothy; Covault, Jonathan
Topiramate, which interacts with multiple neurotransmitter and enzyme systems, is approved by the Food and Drug Administration to treat seizure disorder, prevent migraine, and (in combination with phentermine) reduce weight. Topiramate has also been shown in multiple studies to reduce heavy drinking. We found that topiramate 200 mg/day significantly reduced heavy drinking in heavy drinkers with a treatment goal of reduced drinking (Kranzler et al. 2014). Further, in the European American (EA) subsample (n=122), a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs2832407) in GRIK1, which encodes the GluK1 subunit of the kainate receptor, moderated the effect on heavy drinking days. Here we examined the effects of topiramate on body-mass index (BMI) and the moderating effect of rs2832407 in the EA subsample from Kranzler et al. (2014). Across the 12 weeks of treatment, BMI was reduced by 1.2 kg/m2 (p<0.001) in the topiramate group, but was unchanged in the placebo group. There was no evidence of moderation by rs2832407 of topiramate’s effects on BMI. Controlling for changes in drinking and other potential confounders did not alter the findings. These results suggest that the effect of topiramate on drinking behavior, in which the GluK1-containing kainate receptor appears to play a key role, can be dissociated from its effect on weight, the specific mechanism of which remains to be determined. www.clinicaltrials.gov registration: NCT00626925 PMID:24978347
The DYD-RCT protocol: an on-line randomised controlled trial of an interactive computer-based intervention compared with a standard information website to reduce alcohol consumption among hazardous drinkers
Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive alcohol consumption is a significant public health problem throughout the world. Although there are a range of effective interventions to help heavy drinkers reduce their alcohol consumption, these have little proven population-level impact. Researchers internationally are looking at the potential of Internet interventions in this area. Methods/Design In a two-arm randomised controlled trial, an on-line psychologically enhanced interactive computer-based intervention is compared with a flat, text-based information web-site. Recruitment, consent, randomisation and data collection are all on-line. The primary outcome is total past-week alcohol consumption; secondary outcomes include hazardous or harmful drinking, dependence, harm caused by alcohol, and mental health. A health economic analysis is included. Discussion This trial will provide information on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an on-line intervention to help heavy drinkers drink less. Trial registration International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Register ISRCTN31070347
Full Text Available Aims: Recent studies with animal models showed that the stimulant and sedative effects of alcohol change during the adolescent period. In humans, the stimulant effects of ethanol are most often indirectly recorded through the measurement of explicit and implicit alcohol effect expectancies. However, it is unknown how such implicit and explicit expectancies evolve with age in humans during adolescence.Methods: Adolescent (13-16 year old, young adult (17-18 year old and adult (35-55 year old participants were recruited. On the basis of their score on the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT, they were classified as non-problem (AUDIT ≤ 7 or problem (AUDIT ≥ 11 drinkers. The participants completed the Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire (AEQ and performed two unipolar Implicit Association Test (IAT to assess implicit associations between alcohol and the concepts of stimulation and sedation.Results: Problem drinkers from the three age groups reported significantly higher positive alcohol expectancies than non-problem drinkers on all AEQ subscales. Positive alcohol explicit expectancies also gradually decreased with age, with adolescent problem drinkers reporting especially high positive expectancies. This effect was statistically significant for all positive expectancies, with the exception of relaxation expectancies that were only close to statistical significance. In contrast, stimulation and sedation alcohol implicit associations were not significantly different between problem and non-problem drinkers and did not change with age.Conclusions: These results indicate that explicit positive alcohol effect expectancies predict current alcohol consumption levels, especially in adolescents. Positive alcohol expectancies also gradually decrease with age in the three cross-sectional groups of adolescents, young adults and adults. This effect might be related to changes in the physiological response to alcohol.
Gilbert, Paul A; Marzell, Miesha
Drinkers who report some symptoms of alcohol-use disorder (AUD) but fail to meet full criteria are "diagnostic orphans." To improve risk-reduction efforts, we sought to develop better epidemiologic profiles of this underrecognized subgroup. This study estimated the population prevalence and described AUD symptoms of diagnostic orphans using the 2012-2013 National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions-III. Multivariate logistic regression was used to model odds of being a diagnostic orphan or meeting mild, moderate, and severe AUD criteria versus no AUD symptoms. Models were adjusted for the complex survey design using sampling weights and survey procedures (e.g., proc surveylogistic). Among drinkers, 14% of men and 11% of women were classified as diagnostic orphans. The most common symptoms were drinking more or for longer periods than intended, wanting or trying unsuccessfully to quit or cut back, and drinking in ways that increased risk of injury. We noted broad similarities between diagnostic orphans and mild/moderate AUD groups. There were no differences in odds of diagnostic orphans status by race/ethnicity; however, female gender was associated with lower odds of diagnostic orphan status and all levels of AUD. Individual history of AUD, family history of problem drinking, concurrent smoking, and concurrent marijuana use were associated with greater odds of problem drinking, with stronger associations as AUD severity increased. Diagnostic orphans remain a sizeable and overlooked population of problem drinkers. Clarifying the array of symptoms and cooccurring disorders can improve screening and facilitate alcohol risk-reduction intervention efforts.
Østergaard, Jeanette; Skov, Peter R
Young people drinking heavily before going out to bars and clubs is associated with alcohol-related harm and therefore of great public concern. This study examines whether pre-drinkers consume more alcohol than non-pre-drinkers on an event-specific night out in England and Denmark--two European countries known for their excessive youth drinking. An event-specific survey of 1298 young people conducted in 50 bars, pubs and nightclubs in England and Denmark and follow-up interviews conducted via mobile surveys (n = 580). The questionnaire measured demographics, socioeconomic status, frequency of intoxication and alcohol unit intake before and during the young people's night out. A mixed linear model performed on the panel mobile survey shows that pre-drinkers in England and Denmark consume 9.185 (P Denmark, with more than half of young people pre-drinking on an event-specific night out. Pre-drinking contributes significantly to high-intensity drinking, as it does not preclude further drinking in bars, clubs and pubs. Thus, pre-drinking is a major target for public measures seeking to reduce young people's intoxication-related drinking and alcohol-related harm. © 2014 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
DiLeo, Alyssa; Wright, Kristina M.; Mangone, Elizabeth; McDannald, Michael A.
Adolescent heavy alcohol drinking increases the risk for alcohol use disorders in adulthood, yet mechanisms conferring increased risk are not well understood. We propose that adolescent alcohol drinking shapes alcohol’s aversive or appetitive properties in adulthood. Alcohol normally drives aversive learning and alcohol-predictive cues are avoided. We hypothesize that through adolescent heavy drinking alcohol gains access to appetitive learning. A primary consequence is that alcohol-predictiv...
Teunissen, Hanneke A; Spijkerman, Renske; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Prinstein, Mitchell J; Engels, Rutger C M E; Scholte, Ron H J
Adolescents form impressions about the type of peers who drink (i.e., drinker prototypes). The evaluation of, and perceived similarity to these prototypes are related to adolescents' drinking. Peer drinking norms play an important role in the formation of prototypes. We experimentally examined whether manipulation of peer norms changed the evaluation of and perceived similarity to drinker prototypes and whether these changes were moderated by peers' popularity. In a pre-test, we assessed heavy drinker, moderate drinker and abstainer prototypes, drinking behaviors and peer-perceived popularity among 599 adolescents. Additionally, 88 boys from this sample participated in a simulated chat room, in which they interacted with peers from school. These peers were in fact pre-programmed e-confederates, who were either popular or unpopular and who communicated either pro-alcohol or anti-alcohol norms. After the chat room interaction we assessed participants' drinker prototypes. Participants exposed to anti-alcohol norms were more negative about, and perceived themselves as less similar to heavy drinker prototypes, than participants exposed to pro-alcohol norms. We found no effects of peer norms on moderate drinker and abstainer prototypes. Effects were not moderated by peers' popularity. We did find a main effect of popularity on perceived similarity to all prototypes. This indicated that participants rated themselves as more similar to heavy and moderate drinker prototypes and less similar to abstainer prototypes when they interacted with unpopular peers than with popular peers. Exposure to anti-alcohol norms of peers leads adolescents to form more negative prototypes of the heavy drinker. This could be an important finding for prevention and intervention programs aimed to reduce alcohol consumption among adolescents. © 2013.
Hutton, Heidi; Lesko, Catherine R; Chander, Geetanjali; Lau, Bryan; Wand, Gary S; McCaul, Mary E
To examine the association between perceived stress and subsequent alcohol use in women living with HIV. Women (n=338) receiving HIV care between April 2006 and July 2010 who enrolled in either a brief intervention for hazardous drinking or a cohort of non-hazardous drinkers completed a 90-day drinking and drug use history, and completed stress, depression and anxiety measures at 0, 6, and 12 months. We examined the association between perceived stress at months 0 or 6 and measures of quantity and frequency of alcohol use in months 3-6 and 9-12, respectively. The association between perceived stress and subsequent alcohol use depended on whether women were heavy or moderate drinkers at index visit. Among women reporting ≥7 drinks/week at index visit, high levels of perceived stress were associated with subsequent increased alcohol intake. However, among women reporting >0 but perceived stress were associated with a subsequent reduction in drinking. Baseline drinking status moderates the relationship between perceived stress and subsequent alcohol use. Perceived stress is an important therapeutic target in women who are heavy drinkers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Dager, Alecia D; Anderson, Beth M; Rosen, Rivkah; Khadka, Sabin; Sawyer, Broderick; Jiantonio-Kelly, Rachel E; Austad, Carol S; Raskin, Sarah A; Tennen, Howard; Wood, Rebecca M; Fallahi, Carolyn R; Pearlson, Godfrey D
Young adults show the highest rates of escalating drinking, yet the neural risk mechanisms remain unclear. Heavy drinkers show variant functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response to alcohol cues, which may presage increasing drinking. In this longitudinal study, we ascertained whether BOLD response to alcohol pictures predicted subsequent heavy drinking among college students. Participants were 43 18-21-year-olds in the United States who underwent BOLD scanning and completed monthly substance use surveys over the following year. Participants were categorized according to baseline and follow-up drinking into 13 continuously moderate drinkers, 16 continuously heavy drinkers and 14 transitioners who drank moderately at baseline but heavily by follow-up. During fMRI scanning at baseline, participants viewed alcohol and matched non-alcohol beverage images. We observed group differences in alcohol cue-elicited BOLD response in bilateral caudate, orbitofrontal cortex, medial frontal cortex/anterior cingulate and left insula (clusters > 2619 ml, voxelwise F(2,40) > 3.23, P alcoholism family history, impulsivity), BOLD response best predicted escalating drinking amount and alcohol-related problems. Neural response to pictures of alcohol is substantially enhanced among United States college students who subsequently escalate drinking. Greater cue-reactivity is associated with larger increases in drinking and alcohol-related problems, regardless of other baseline factors. Thus, neural cue-reactivity could uniquely facilitate identifying individuals at greatest risk for future problematic drinking. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Siegel, Michael; DeJong, William; Cioffi, Daryl; Leon-Chi, Lucero; Naimi, Timothy S.; Padon, Alisa A.; Jernigan, David H.; Xuan, Ziming
Background No previous study has determined whether there are differences in the youth appeal of alcohol advertisements for popular versus unpopular brands among underage drinkers. This paper provides a systematic investigation of the differential appeal of brand-level alcohol advertisements among underage youth and young adults in the U.S. Methods We examined three issues of eight magazines popular among underage youth. From the advertised alcohol brands, we selected the ads for the top 10 and bottom 10 brands by prevalence of underage youth consumption, based on the results of a previous national survey. We assessed the ads’ appeal using a sample of 211 students recruited from one graduate and two undergraduate courses at Boston University. Respondents rated the appeal of each advertisement on four dimensions: physical and social appeal, appeal to underage youth, perceived effectiveness, and liking. Using random effects linear regression, we compared the appeal of advertisements for popular versus unpopular brands. Results On each dimension, the ads for popular youth alcohol brands were rated as significantly more appealing than the ads for unpopular brands. The magnitude of this difference was 0.26 standard deviations for the physical and social appeal score, 0.25 for the appeal to underage youth score, 0.21 for the perceived effectiveness score, and 0.16 for the liking score. Conclusions Advertising for alcohol brands that are popular among youth contain elements that are more likely to appeal to underage youth and young adults than ads for brands that are relatively unpopular among young drinkers. PMID:25961837
Hon, Tiffany; Das, Ravi K; Kamboj, Sunjeev K
Addiction is a disorder of motivational learning and memory. Maladaptive motivational memories linking drug-associated stimuli to drug seeking are formed over hundreds of reinforcement trials and accompanied by aberrant neuroadaptation in the mesocorticolimbic reward system. Such memories are resistant to extinction. However, the discovery of retrieval-dependent memory plasticity has opened up the possibility of permanent modification of established (long-term) memories during 'reconsolidation'. Here, we investigate whether reappraisal of maladaptive alcohol cognitions performed after procedures designed to destabilize alcohol memory networks affected subsequent alcohol memory, craving, drinking and attentional bias. Forty-seven at-risk drinkers attended two sessions. On the first lab session, participants underwent one of two prediction error-generating procedures in which outcome expectancies were violated while retrieving alcohol memories (omission and value prediction error groups). Participants in a control group retrieved non-alcohol memories. Participants then reappraised personally relevant maladaptive alcohol memories and completed measures of reappraisal recall, alcohol verbal fluency and craving. Seven days later, they repeated these measures along with attentional bias assessment. Omission prediction error (being unexpectedly prevented from drinking beer), but not a value prediction error (drinking unexpectedly bitter-tasting beer) or control procedure (drinking unexpectedly bitter orange juice), was associated with significant reductions in verbal fluency for positive alcohol-related words. No other statistically robust outcomes were detected. This study provides partial preliminary support for the idea that a common psychotherapeutic strategy used in the context of putative memory retrieval-destabilization can alter accessibility of alcohol semantic networks. Further research delineating the necessary and sufficient requirements for producing
Barry, Adam E; Whiteman, Shawn D; Cremeens-Matthews, Jennifer
Estimate the alcohol-attributed calories associated with respondents' (a) most recent binge drinking episode, and (b) binge drinking across a thirty-day period. Examined responses to a module of the 2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), completed by a 10-state sample in the United States (n = 7,375), in order to estimate the alcohol-attributed calories consumed among binge drinkers. Alcohol-attributed calories were estimated by multiplying number of drinks consumed for each category (beer, wine, liquor drinks, and pre-mixed flavored drinks) collected in the BRFSS by caloric averages based on two data sources. In the past 30 days, respondents averaged 4.13 (SD = 5.84) binge drinking episodes, and consumed an average of 4.15 (SD = 3.55) beers, .67 (SD = 1.56) glasses of wine, 1.49 (SD = 2.53) shots of liquor, and .15 (SD = .79) pre-mixed flavored beverages during their most recent binge drinking episode. The average amount of alcohol-attributed calories consumed during this binge drinking episode was 991.76 (SD = 578.71), with men consuming significantly more calories than females. Dietary guidelines suggest the calories associated with alcoholic beverages should be considered as part of one's limited allotment of calories associated with solid fats and sugars, yet our results highlight alcohol as a major contributor (approximately 1,000 calories) to the proposed daily caloric needs on binge drinking days.
Lu, Shijun; Du, Songming; Zhang, Qian; Hu, Xiaoqi; Chen, Siyu; Wang, Zhengyuan; Lu, Lixin; Ma, Guansheng
To examine the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and adolescent alcoholic beverage preferences and the associated drinking patterns in China. The study used cross-sectional data collected from 136 junior or senior high schools, using a self-administered questionnaire. A total number of 7,075 subjects of drinking students were selected from three metropolises (Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou) via a two-stage stratified sampling method. Among the adolescent drinkers, 87.8% (95% CI: 86.5-89.0) reported that they drunk alcohol during the past years preceding the study, while 42.4% (95% CI: 40.4-44.4) of the subjects stated that they had drunk alcohol during the past 30 days. There were gradual increases in the usual quantity (>1 Standard Drink, SD) of alcoholic beverages with increasing SES, with highest rates reported by the high-level SES. Beer and grape wine were the most widely consumed alcoholic beverage, regardless of SES. Our findings suggest that high-level SES students have an increasing prevalence of drinking behaviour. Their confirmation by future studies which extend the sampling regions is required to further the prevention of adolescent alcohol abuse in China.
van Kooten, Maria J.; Veldhuizen, Maria G.; de Araujo, Ivan E.; O'Malley, Stephanie S.; Small, Dana M.
Compromised dopamine signaling in the striatum has been associated with the expression of impulsive behaviors in addiction, obesity and alcoholism. In rodents, intragastric infusion of the fatty acid amide oleoylethanolamide increases striatal extracellular dopamine levels via vagal afferent
Lee, Matthew R; Chassin, Laurie; MacKinnon, David P
Research has shown a developmental process of "maturing out" of problem drinking beginning in young adulthood. Perhaps surprisingly, past studies suggest that young adult drinking reductions may be particularly pronounced among those exhibiting relatively severe forms of problem drinking earlier in emerging adulthood. This may occur because more severe problem drinkers experience stronger ameliorative effects of normative young adult role transitions like marriage. The hypothesis of stronger marriage effects among more severe problem drinkers was tested using 3 waves of data from a large ongoing study of familial alcohol disorder (N = 844; 51% children of alcoholics). Longitudinal growth models characterized (i) the curvilinear trajectory of drinking quantity from ages 17 to 40, (ii) effects of marriage on altering this age-related trajectory, and (iii) moderation of this effect by premarriage problem drinking levels (alcohol consequences and dependence symptoms). Results confirmed the hypothesis that protective marriage effects on drinking quantity trajectories would be stronger among more severe premarriage problem drinkers. Supplemental analyses showed that results were robust to alternative construct operationalizations and modeling approaches. Consistent with role incompatibility theory, findings support the view of role conflict as a key mechanism of role-driven behavior change, as greater problem drinking likely conflicts more with demands of roles like marriage. This is also consistent with the developmental psychopathology view of transitions and turning points. Role transitions among already low-severity drinkers may merely represent developmental continuity of a low-risk trajectory, whereas role transitions among higher-severity problem drinkers may represent developmentally discontinuous "turning points" that divert individuals from a higher- to a lower-risk trajectory. Practically, findings support the clinical relevance of role-related "maturing out
Logistic regression found that non-drinkers and heavy drinkers had a lower odds than moderate drinkers to have severe depression, after adjusting for ... The results suggest a reverse U-shaped association between recent alcohol use volume and frequency and depressive symptoms (unlike that previously identified), and a ...
Mayhugh, Rhiannon E; Moussa, Malaak N; Simpson, Sean L; Lyday, Robert G; Burdette, Jonathan H; Porrino, Linda J; Laurienti, Paul J
Older adults today consume more alcohol than previous generations, the majority being social drinkers. The effects of heavy alcohol use on brain functioning closely resemble age-related changes, but it is not known if moderate-heavy alcohol consumption intensifies brain aging. Whether a lifestyle of moderate-heavy alcohol use in older adults increased age-related brain changes was examined. Forty-one older adults (65-80 years) that consumed light (moderate-heavy (7-21 drinks/week, non-bingers, n = 21) amounts of alcohol were enrolled. Twenty-two young adults (24-35 years) were also enrolled (light, n = 11 and moderate-heavy, n = 11). Functional brain networks based on magnetic resonance imaging data were generated for resting state and during a working memory task. Whole-brain, Central Executive Network (CEN), and Default Mode Network (DMN) connectivity were assessed in light and moderate-heavy alcohol consuming older adults with comparisons to young adults. The older adults had significantly lower whole brain connectivity (global efficiency) and lower regional connectivity (community structure) in the CEN during task and in the DMN at rest. Moderate-heavy older drinkers did not exhibit whole brain connectivity differences compared to the low drinkers. However, decreased CEN connectivity was observed during the task. There were no differences in the DMN connectivity between drinking groups. Taken together, a lifestyle including moderate-heavy alcohol consumption may be associated with further decreases in brain network connectivity within task-related networks in older adults. Further research is required to determine if this decrease is compensatory or an early sign of decline.
Lee, Matthew R.; Chassin, Laurie; MacKinnon, David P.
Background Research has shown a developmental process of “maturing out” of problem drinking beginning in young adulthood. Perhaps surprisingly, past studies suggests that young adult drinking reductions may be particularly pronounced among those exhibiting relatively severe forms of problem drinking earlier in emerging adulthood. This may occur because more severe problem drinkers experience stronger ameliorative effects of normative young adult role transitions like marriage. Methods The hypothesis of stronger marriage effects among more severe problem drinkers was tested using three waves of data from a large ongoing study of familial alcohol disorder (Chassin et al., 1992; N=844; 51% children of alcoholics). Results Longitudinal growth models characterized (1) the curvilinear trajectory of drinking quantity from ages 17-40, (2) effects of marriage on altering this age-related trajectory, and moderation of this effect by pre-marriage problem drinking levels (alcohol consequences and dependence symptoms). Results confirmed the hypothesis that protective marriage effects on drinking quantity trajectories would be stronger among more severe pre-marriage problem drinkers. Supplemental analyses showed that results were robust to alternative construct operationalizations and modeling approaches. Conclusions Consistent with role incompatibility theory, findings support the view of role conflict as a key mechanism of role-driven behavior change, as greater problem drinking likely conflicts more with demands of roles like marriage. This is also consistent with the developmental psychopathology view of transitions and turning points. Role transitions among already low-severity drinkers may merely represent developmental continuity of a low-risk trajectory, whereas role transitions among higher-severity problem drinkers may represent developmentally discontinuous “turning points” that divert individuals from a higher- to a lower-risk trajectory. Practically
LaBRIE, JOSEPH W.; Boyle, Sarah C.; Napper, Lucy E.
Parental communications about alcohol can have a significant impact on college students’ alcohol use; however, it is unclear what types of communication may be most beneficial for reducing alcohol risk, particularly among students who have already initiated alcohol use. The present research examines differences in alcohol use and employment of drinking protective behavioral strategies between pre-college matriculation high school seniors receiving predominantly abstinence parent messaging and...
França, Lionel Riou; Dautzenberg, Bertrand; Reynaud, Michel
The effect of normative perceptions (social norms) on heavy episodic drinking (HED) behavior is well known in the U.S. college setting, but little work is available in other cultural contexts. The objective of this study is therefore to assess whether social norms of alcohol use are related to HED in France, taking account of other influential predictors. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 731 second-year university students in the Paris region to explore the role of 29 potential alcohol use risk factors. The probability of heavy episodic drinking and the frequency of HED among heavy episodic drinkers were modeled independently. Monthly alcohol consumption was also assessed. Of the students, 56% overestimate peer student prevalence of HED (37% for alcohol drinking prevalence). HED frequency rises with perceived peer student prevalence of HED. Other social norms associated with HED are perceived friends' approval of HED (increasing both HED probability and HED frequency) and perceived friend prevalence of alcohol drinking (increasing HED probability only). Cannabis and tobacco use, academic discipline, gender, and the number of friends are also identified as being associated with HED. Overestimation of peer student prevalence is not uncommon among French university students. Furthermore, perceived peer student prevalence of HED is linked to HED frequency, even after adjusting for other correlates. Interventions correcting misperceived prevalences of HED among peer students have therefore the potential to reduce the frequency of HED in this population.
Parrott, Dominic J; Giancola, Peter R
The primary goal of this study was to determine the moderating effect of a history of heavy episodic drinking on the alcohol-aggression relation in men and women. Participants were 310 (152 men and 158 women) healthy social drinkers between 21 and 35 years of age. Drinking history was operationalized as participants' average number of alcoholic drinks consumed per drinking occasion during the past year. Following the consumption of either an alcohol or a placebo beverage, participants were tested on a modified version of the Taylor Aggression Paradigm in which mild electric shocks were received from, and administered to, a fictitious opponent during a competitive task. Aggressive behavior was operationalized as the shock intensities administered to the fictitious opponent under conditions of low and high provocation. Alcohol increased aggression only among highly provoked men who reported a history of heavy episodic drinking. A history of high-frequency drinking did not moderate the alcohol-aggression relation. These findings highlight the importance of considering a history of heavy episodic drinking in the prediction of intoxicated aggression.
Full Text Available Pavlovian to Instrumental Transfer (PIT refers to the behavioral phenomenon of increased instrumental responding for a reinforcer when in the presence of Pavlovian conditioned stimuli that were separately paired with that reinforcer. PIT effects may play an important role in substance use disorders, but little is known about the brain mechanisms that underlie these effects in alcohol consumers. We report behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEG data from a group of social drinkers (n = 31 who performed a PIT task in which they chose between two instrumental responses in pursuit of beer and chocolate reinforcers while their EEG reactivity to beer, chocolate and neutral pictorial cues was recorded. We examined two markers of the motivational salience of the pictures: the P300 and slow wave event-related potentials (ERPs. Results demonstrated a behavioral PIT effect: responding for beer was increased when a beer picture was presented. Analyses of ERP amplitudes demonstrated significantly larger slow potentials evoked by beer cues at various electrode clusters. Contrary to hypotheses, there were no significant correlations between behavioral PIT effects, electrophysiological reactivity to the cues, and individual differences in drinking behaviour. Our findings are the first to demonstrate a PIT effect for beer, accompanied by increased slow potentials in response to beer cues, in social drinkers. The lack of relationship between behavioral and EEG measures, and between these measures and individual differences in drinking behaviour may be attributed to methodological features of the PIT task and to characteristics of our sample.
Black, Heather; Gill, Jan; Chick, Jonathan
To compare alcohol purchasing and consumption by ill drinkers in Edinburgh with wider alcohol sales in Scotland. Cross-sectional. Two hospitals in Edinburgh in 2008/09. A total of 377 patients with serious alcohol problems; two-thirds were in-patients with medical, surgical or psychiatric problems due to alcohol; one-third were out-patients. Last week's or typical weekly consumption of alcohol: type, brand, units (1 UK unit 8 g ethanol), purchase place and price. Patients consumed mean 197.7 UK units/week. The mean price paid per unit was £0.43 (lowest £0.09/unit) (£1 = 1.6 US$ or 1.2€), which is below the mean unit price, £0.71 paid in Scotland in 2008. Of units consumed, 70.3% were sold at or below £0.40/unit (mid-range of price models proposed for minimum pricing legislation by the Scottish Government), and 83% at or below £0.50/unit proposed by the Chief Medical Officer of England. The lower the price paid per unit, the more units a patient consumed. A continuous increase in unit price from lower to higher social status, ranked according to the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (based on postcode), was not seen; patients residing in postcodes in the mid-quintile paid the highest price per unit. Cheapness was quoted commonly as a reason for beverage choice; ciders, especially 'white' cider, and vodka were, at off-sales, cheapest per unit. Stealing alcohol or drinking alcohol substitutes was only very rarely reported. Because patients with serious alcohol problems tend to purchase very cheap alcohol, elimination of the cheapest sales by minimum price or other legislation might reduce their consumption. It is unknown whether proposed price legislation in Scotland will encourage patients with serious alcohol problems to start stealing alcohol or drinking substitutes or will reduce the recruitment of new drinkers with serious alcohol problems and produce predicted longer-term gains in health and social wellbeing. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010
Luquiens, A; Falissard, B; Aubin, H J
The aim of this study was to clarify the impact of binge drinking, its intensity and frequency, and drinker self-concept on health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) in students. This cross-sectional online survey included 16,930 students. We collected sociodemographics, environmental data, and drinking behaviors. We assessed HRQOL using the Alcohol Quality-of-Life scale, which explicitly explores the subjective negative impact on quality of life one attributes to his relationship with alcohol and the degree to which drinking is a part of an individual's self-concept. Data analyses were performed in 2015 and 2016. We described and compared binge drinkers and non-binge drinkers. Using a regression model we identified the independent factors associated with HRQOL. The impact on HRQOL attributed to alcohol was significantly greater among binge drinkers. Factors of impact on HRQOL subjectively attributed to alcohol by students were: AUDIT-C score, interaction between gender and AUDIT-C score, strong individual identity as a drinker, binge-drinking frequency, financial difficulties, being a foreigner, fewer years since diploma, chronic condition, recent use of cannabis, psychostimulant, poppers or gambling. Sleep quality, ability to work, expenditure on alcohol, shame, and health-related concerns were the most strongly impacted quality of life areas. Binge-drinking frequency should be considered as an important target in prevention programs. In addition, integrating findings on students' subjective perceptions of impairment of HRQOL by alcohol could enable the development of more acceptable and more relevant prevention messages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.
The present pilot study examined the effects of alcohol commercials shown in movie theaters on the alcohol consumption of young adults who see these commercials. A two (alcohol commercials vs. nonalcohol commercials) by two (high weekly alcohol consumption vs. low weekly alcohol consumption)
Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.
The present pilot study examined the effects of alcohol commercials shown in movie theaters on the alcohol consumption of young adults who see these commercials. A two (alcohol commercials vs. nonalcohol commercials) by two (high weekly alcohol consumption vs. low weekly alcohol consumption)
Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.
The present pilot study examined the effects of alcohol commercials shown in movie theaters on the alcohol consumption of young adults who see these commercials. A two (alcohol commercials vs. nonalcohol commercials) by two (high weekly alcohol consumption vs. low weekly alcohol consumption)
Clarke, Nickeisha; Kim, Su-Young; E. Ray, Anne; R. White, Helene; Jiao, Yang; Mun, Eun-Young
This study examined race and gender differences in use of specific types of protective behavioral strategies (PBS) and the moderating effects of race and gender on the relationship between PBS use and alcohol problems, controlling for alcohol use, among a large sample of Asian, Black, and White college drinkers. There were significant racial and gender differences in the types of PBS used. Moderation analyses indicated that PBS were more protective for women than men against experiencing alco...
Clarke, Nickeisha; Kim, Su-Young; Ray, Anne E; White, Helene R; Jiao, Yang; Mun, Eun-Young
This study examined race and gender differences in use of specific types of protective behavioral strategies (PBS) and the moderating effects of race and gender on the relationship between PBS use and alcohol problems, controlling for alcohol use, among a large sample of Asian, Black, and White college drinkers. There were significant racial and gender differences in the types of PBS used. Moderation analyses indicated that PBS were more protective for women than men against experiencing alcohol-related problems. There were no significant race effects or race-by-gender interaction effects on alcohol problems. Implementing PBS may be beneficial for all college students.
Clarke, Nickeisha; Kim, Su-Young; E. Ray, Anne; R. White, Helene; Jiao, Yang; Mun, Eun-Young
This study examined race and gender differences in use of specific types of protective behavioral strategies (PBS) and the moderating effects of race and gender on the relationship between PBS use and alcohol problems, controlling for alcohol use, among a large sample of Asian, Black, and White college drinkers. There were significant racial and gender differences in the types of PBS used. Moderation analyses indicated that PBS were more protective for women than men against experiencing alcohol-related problems. There were no significant race effects or race-by-gender interaction effects on alcohol problems. Implementing PBS may be beneficial for all college students. PMID:26114577
Scott-Sheldon, Lori A. J.; Carey, Michael P.; Carey, Kate B.
Multiple event-level methodology was used to examine the relation between risky sexual behavior and alcohol use among sexually active, heavy drinking college students (N = 221). Using a structured timeline followback interview, participants reported their sexual, alcohol, and drug use behaviors over a 3-month period. Over 2,700 vaginal or anal sexual events were reported from 177 participants. Overall, condom use was not associated with heavy or non-heavy alcohol consumption among those repor...
Underage drinking continues to be a major problem in America. Approximately 20% of all alcohol consumed in the United States is consumed by minors with 44% of 8th graders and 77% of 12th graders reporting that they have tried alcohol at least once. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration reported that, in 2003, as many as 3,657 drivers,…
Vuchinich, R E; Tucker, J A; Bordini, E; Sullwold, A F
Alcoholic individuals often are assumed to deny personal responsibility for their alcholism and to assign causation to external situational factors. To evaluate this assumption, 20 alchololics and 14 nonalcoholics made causal attributions for a recent personal drinking episode and for the drinking behavior of three target individuals (an abstinent alcoholic, a nonabstinent alcololic, and a nonalcoholic). Results showed that both alcoholic and non-alcoholic subjects tended to make external attributions for their own drinking behavior. Subjects' attributons for the target individuals depended on bot the targest' and subjects' drinking histories. The results are discussed in terms of their relevance to models of alcoholism and to actor-observer differences in casual attribution processes.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether diabetes affects relationships between alcohol intake and atherosclerotic risk factors. Age- and alcohol intake-matched groups of Japanese men with and without diabetes (each group: n = 1440) were prepared. Relationships of alcohol intake with atherosclerotic risk factors were compared among four subgroups divided by alcohol intake [non-, light (diabetic and non-diabetic groups, blood pressure was significantly higher in moderate and heavy drinkers than in non-drinkers, triglycerides were significantly higher in heavy drinkers than in non-drinkers, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol was significantly higher in all drinker groups than in non-drinkers. In the diabetic group, body mass index (BMI) was significantly lower (P diabetic group [23.33 ± 0.13 kg/m² (non-drinkers) vs. 23.30 ± 0.15 kg/m² (moderate drinkers) vs. 23.46 ± 0.18 kg/m² (heavy drinkers)]. Both in the diabetic and non-diabetic groups, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol was significantly lower in moderate and heavy drinkers than in non-drinkers. In the non-diabetic group, LDL cholesterol was also significantly lower in light drinkers than in non-drinkers [124.7 ± 1.3 mg/dl (non-drinkers) vs. 114.5 ± 2.4 mg/dl (light drinkers), P diabetic group [123.6 ± 1.4 mg/dl (non-drinkers) vs. 123.1 ± 2.6 mg/dl (light drinkers)]. The positive associations of alcohol intake with blood pressure, triglycerides and HDL cholesterol are similar in men with and without diabetes, while the negative associations of alcohol intake with BMI and LDL cholesterol are stronger and weaker, respectively, in men with diabetes than in men without diabetes.
Canham, Sarah L; Mauro, Pia M; Kaufmann, Christopher N; Sixsmith, Andrew
We examined the association between alcohol use, at-risk drinking, and binge drinking, and loneliness in a sample of middle-aged and older adults. We studied participants aged 50+ years from the 2008 wave of the Health and Retirement Study who reported alcohol use. We ran separate multinomial logistic regressions to assess the association of three alcohol use outcomes (i.e., weekly alcohol consumption, at-risk drinking, and binge drinking) and loneliness. After adjusting for covariates, being lonely was associated with reduced odds of weekly alcohol consumption 4 to 7 days per week, but not 1 to 3 days per week, compared with average alcohol consumption 0 days per week in the last 3 months. No association was found between at-risk drinking or binge drinking and loneliness. Results suggest that among a sample of community-based adults aged 50+, loneliness was associated with reduced alcohol use frequency, but not with at-risk or binge drinking. © The Author(s) 2015.
Canham, Sarah L.; Mauro, Pia M.; Kaufmann, Christopher N.; Sixsmith, Andrew
Objectives We examined the association between alcohol use, at-risk drinking, and binge drinking, and loneliness in a sample of middle-aged and older adults. Methods We studied participants aged 50+ years from the 2008 wave of the Health and Retirement Study who reported alcohol use. We ran separate multinomial logistic regressions to assess the association of three alcohol use outcomes (i.e., weekly alcohol consumption, at-risk drinking, and binge drinking) and loneliness. Results After adjusting for covariates, being lonely was associated with reduced odds of weekly alcohol consumption 4–7 days per week, but not 1–3 days per week, compared to average alcohol consumption 0 days per week in the last 3 months. No association was found between at-risk drinking or binge drinking and loneliness. Discussion Results suggest that among a sample of community-based adults aged 50+, loneliness was associated with reduced alcohol use frequency, but not with at-risk or binge drinking. PMID:26082130
Hustad, John T. P.; Pearson, Matthew R.; Neighbors, Clayton; Borsari, Brian
After high school, college students escalate their drinking at a faster rate than their noncollege-attending peers, and alcohol use in high school is one of the strongest predictors of alcohol use in college. Therefore, an improved understanding of the role of predictors of alcohol use during the critical developmental period when individuals transition to college has direct clinical implications to reduce alcohol-related harms. We used path analysis in the present study to examine the predic...
Joo, Eun Yeon
To investigate the associations between amount of habitual alcohol consumption (HAC) and prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), sleep, and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). We enrolled 683 untreated SDB male patients (age: 54.4 ± 7.80 y, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI): 29.0 ± 21.53/h). HAC was assessed as the average number of drinks consumed per week during the past 12 months. Anthropometric and biochemical markers were used to diagnose MetS. Clinical data and MetS components were compared according to the reported amounts of HAC (no drinking, light drinking prevalence of MetS was 36.9% (n = 252) and was most common in heavy drinkers (40.5%). Compared to non-drinkers and light drinkers, heavy drinkers had the greatest body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. Central obesity, hypertension, and hyperglycemia were most prevalent in heavy drinkers. Sleep quality and severity of SDB were the worst in heavy drinkers. After adjusting for age, AHI, and BMI, heavy drinkers had a 1.71 times greater risk of MetS when compared with non-drinkers, and light and heavy drinkers had a 2.06 and 2.11 times higher risk of severe SDB than non-drinkers. HAC may increase the prevalence of MetS and deteriorate sleep in relation to amount of alcohol intake. Even light drinkers had more than twice higher risk of severe SDB than non-drinkers. PMID:27536782
Mubayi, Anuj; Greenwood, Priscilla; Wang, Xiaohong; Castillo-Chávez, Carlos; Gorman, Dennis M; Gruenewald, Paul; Saltz, Robert F
US college drinking data and a simple population model of alcohol consumption are used to explore the impact of social and contextual parameters on the distribution of light, moderate and heavy drinkers. Light drinkers become moderate drinkers under social influence, moderate drinkers may change environments and become heavy drinkers. We estimate the drinking reproduction number, R(d) , the average number of individual transitions from light to moderate drinking that result from the introduction of a moderate drinker in a population of light drinkers. Ways of assessing and ranking progression of drinking risks and data-driven definitions of high- and low-risk drinking environments are introduced. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses, via a novel statistical approach, are conducted to assess R(d) variability and to analyze the role of context on drinking dynamics. Our estimates show R(d) well above the critical value of 1. R(d) estimates correlate positively with the proportion of time spent by moderate drinkers in high-risk drinking environments. R(d) is most sensitive to variations in local social mixing contact rates within low-risk environments. The parameterized model with college data suggests that high residence times of moderate drinkers in low-risk environments maintain heavy drinking. With regard to alcohol consumption in US college students, drinking places, the connectivity (traffic) between drinking venues and the strength of socialization in local environments are important determinants in transitions between light, moderate and heavy drinking as well as in long-term prediction of the drinking dynamics. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Hoffmann, John P; Bahr, Stephen J
The purpose of this research was to examine the associations of parenting style, religiosity, and peer alcohol use with alcohol use and heavy drinking. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate direct and indirect associations among 5,419 adolescents ages 12-14 years from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997. Adolescents whose parents were authoritative were less likely to drink heavily than adolescents who experienced neglectful or indulgent parenting styles. Religiosity was negatively associated with heavy drinking after other relevant variables were controlled for. Authoritative parenting appears to have both direct and indirect negative associations with the risk of heavy drinking among adolescents. Authoritative parenting, where monitoring and support are above average, and religiosity might help deter adolescents from heavy drinking, even when adolescents experience peer environments where alcohol use is common. Authoritarian parenting, although it was not associated with heavy drinking, was positively associated with alcohol use and peer alcohol use, thus placing adolescents at some risk.
McQueen, Jean M.; Ballinger, Claire; Howe, Tracey E.
Background: Alcohol Brief Intervention (ABI) uses a motivational counselling approach to support individuals to\\ud reduce excessive alcohol consumption. There is growing evidence on ABI’s use within various health care settings,\\ud although how they work and which components enhance success is largely unknown. This paper reports on the\\ud qualitative part of a mixed methods study. It explores enablers and barriers associated with alcohol reduction\\ud following an ABI. It focuses on alcohol’s ...
Hustad, John T. P.; Pearson, Matthew R.; Neighbors, Clayton; Borsari, Brian
After high school, college students escalate their drinking at a faster rate than their noncollege-attending peers, and alcohol use in high school is one of the strongest predictors of alcohol use in college. Therefore, an improved understanding of the role of predictors of alcohol use during the critical developmental period when individuals transition to college has direct clinical implications to reduce alcohol-related harms. We used path analysis in the present study to examine the predictive effects of personality (e.g., impulsivity, sensation seeking, hopelessness, and anxiety sensitivity) and three measures of alcohol perception: descriptive norms, injunctive norms, and perceptions regarding the perceived role of drinking in college on alcohol-related outcomes. Participants were 490 incoming freshmen college students. Results indicated that descriptive norms, injunctive norms, and the role of drinking largely mediated the effects of personality on alcohol outcomes. In contrast, both impulsivity and hopelessness exhibited direct effects on alcohol-related problems. The perceived role of drinking was a particularly robust predictor of outcomes and mediator of the effects of personality traits, including sensation seeking and impulsivity on alcohol outcomes. The intertwined relationships observed in this study between personality factors, descriptive norms, injunctive norms, and the role of drinking highlight the importance of investigating these predictors simultaneously. Findings support the implementation of interventions that target these specific perceptions about the role of drinking in college. PMID:24467197
Attwood, Angela S; Penton-Voak, Ian S; Goodwin, Christine; Munafò, Marcus R
Nicotine and alcohol are often consumed together. Previous research suggests that both can independently increase the perceived attractiveness of social stimuli, which may be a mechanism that drives continued use. This study examined whether there was an additive effect of nicotine and alcohol on perceived attractiveness of social and environmental stimuli. Male and female (n=96) social alcohol consumers and light cigarette smokers (no more than 14 cigarettes per week) were randomized to smoke either a nicotinized or denicotinized cigarette and drink either an alcoholic or non-alcoholic (placebo) beverage. The primary outcome was attractiveness ratings of facial and landscape stimuli. Secondary outcomes were self-report mood and craving. There was a main effect of drink (p=.031) and a trend toward a main effect of cigarette (p=.057) with higher ratings of attractiveness after alcohol compared to placebo and after a nicotinized cigarette compared to a denicotinized cigarette. Nicotine and alcohol appeared to work additively on ratings of attractiveness, with the highest ratings in the nicotine/alcohol group. There were no interactions between drink, cigarette and stimulus type. When co-administered, nicotine and alcohol consumption resulted in the highest perceptions of attractiveness across all stimulus types. This additive effect may be a mechanism by which administration of one drug reinforces use of the other, and which leads to an increased likelihood of habitual consumption and relapse. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
M.Y. Veenstra (Marja)
textabstractThe relationship between alcohol use and cardiovascular disease is repeatedly investigated in epidemiological studies, and mostly described as J-shaped or U-shaped with a higher risk for non-drinkers and heavy drinkers, and a lower risk for moderate drinkers (1). However, there is still
Wiers, R.W.; Houben, K.; Fadardi, J.S.; van Beek, P.; Rhemtulla, M.; Cox, W.M.
Following successful outcomes of cognitive bias modification (CBM) programs for alcoholism in clinical and community samples, the present study investigated whether different varieties of CBM (attention control training and approach-bias re-training) could be delivered successfully in a fully
Su Jung Choi
Full Text Available To investigate the associations between amount of habitual alcohol consumption (HAC and prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS, sleep, and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB. We enrolled 683 untreated SDB male patients (age: 54.4 ± 7.80 y, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI: 29.0 ± 21.53/h. HAC was assessed as the average number of drinks consumed per week during the past 12 months. Anthropometric and biochemical markers were used to diagnose MetS. Clinical data and MetS components were compared according to the reported amounts of HAC (no drinking, light drinking <13, heavy drinking ≥13 drinks/week. As reported, 78.9% of the participants (n = 539 were regular drinkers; 33.7% (n = 230 were habitually heavy drinkers (mean: 30.7 drinks/week, and 45.2% (n = 309 were light drinkers (5.1 drinks/week. The overall prevalence of MetS was 36.9% (n = 252 and was most common in heavy drinkers (40.5%. Compared to non-drinkers and light drinkers, heavy drinkers had the greatest body mass index (BMI and waist circumference. Central obesity, hypertension, and hyperglycemia were most prevalent in heavy drinkers. Sleep quality and severity of SDB were the worst in heavy drinkers. After adjusting for age, AHI, and BMI, heavy drinkers had a 1.71 times greater risk of MetS when compared with non-drinkers, and light and heavy drinkers had a 2.06 and 2.11 times higher risk of severe SDB than non-drinkers. HAC may increase the prevalence of MetS and deteriorate sleep in relation to amount of alcohol intake. Even light drinkers had more than twice higher risk of severe SDB than non-drinkers.
Barry, Adam E; Merianos, Ashley L
This study assessed whether college student (1) protective behavioral strategy (PBS) use differed between those who reached legal intoxication during their most recent drinking episode compared to those who did not reach the legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) threshold, and (2) frequency of PBS use could explain the variance associated with BAC during the most recent drinking episode, above and beyond one's sex, age, and involvement in the Greek system. Secondary data analysis of the American College of Health Association's National College Health Assessment. Forty-four distinct campuses were included. A total of 21479 college students were included. BAC and PBS were measured. The data were analyzed by conducting both independent samples t-tests and a multiple regression model. Effect sizes are reported. Participants who reached legal intoxication used PBS less frequently ( P develop strategies that encourage college student use of PBS prior to, and during, drinking episodes. More frequent use of PBS can reduce intoxication as well as occurrence of alcohol-associated consequences.
O'Grady, Kevin E; Arria, Amelia M; Fitzelle, Dawn M B; Wish, Eric D
Excessive alcohol consumption is a serious problem on college campuses but may not be adequately captured by traditional methods of defining binge drinking. This study examined a new approach to categorizing alcohol use and its relationship with illicit drug use. A survey was administered to 484 college students ages 18 to 25. Drinkers were divided into three groups based on the number of typical drinks consumed per day: "light"-1 to 4 (n=182); "moderate"-5 to 9 (n=173); and "heavy"-10+ (n=56). Heavy drinkers could be differentiated from moderate and light drinkers on age of onset of alcohol use, illicit drug use, and frequency of illicit drug use. A binary categorization of "binge" vs. "nonbinge" drinking may obscure important differences within binge drinkers. These findings have implications for prevention, as well as clinical risk assessment of college student drinkers for adverse consequences of concomitant alcohol and illicit drug consumption.
Witbrodt, Jane; Mulia, Nina; Zemore, Sarah E; Kerr, William C
While prior studies have reported racial/ethnic disparities in alcohol-related problems at a given level of heavy drinking (HD), particularly lower levels, it is unclear whether these occur in both genders and are an artifact of racial/ethnic differences in drink alcohol content. Such information is important to understanding disparities and developing specific, targeted interventions. This study addresses these questions and examines disparities in specific types of alcohol problems across racial-gender groups. Using 2005 and 2010 National Alcohol Survey data (N = 7,249 current drinkers), gender-stratified regression analyses were conducted to assess black-white and Hispanic-white disparities in alcohol dependence and negative drinking consequences at equivalent levels of HD. HD was measured using a gender-specific, composite drinking-patterns variable derived through factor analysis. Analyses were replicated using adjusted-alcohol consumption variables that account for group differences in drink alcohol content based on race/ethnicity, gender, age, and alcoholic beverage. Compared with white men, black and Hispanic men had higher rates of injuries/accidents/health and social consequences, and marginally greater work/legal consequences (p racial/ethnic disparities. Interventions focused on reducing HD might not address disparities in alcohol-related problems that exist at low levels of HD. Future research should consider the potential role of environmental and genetic factors in these disparities. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Ormond, Gillian; Murphy, Rosemary
This paper presents a study of the effect of alcohol consumption on individual health status and health care utilization in Ireland using the 2007 Slán National Health and Lifestyle Survey, while accounting for the endogenous relationship between alcohol and health. Drinkers are categorized as those who never drank, non-drinkers, moderate drinkers, or heavy drinkers, based on national recommended weekly drinking levels in Ireland. The drinking-status equation is estimated using an ordered probit model. Predicted values for the inverse mills ratio are generated, which are then included in the health and health-care utilization equations. Differences in health status for each category of drinker are examined, and the relationship between both alcohol consumption and health with a host of other personal and socio-economic variables is also identified. Given that the measure of health status available is self-assessed, the effect of alcohol consumption on health-care utilization is also analyzed as an alternative measure of health. Findings show that in Ireland, moderate drinkers enjoy the best health status. More moderate drinkers report having very good or excellent health compared with heavy drinkers, non-drinkers, or those who never drank. While heavy drinkers do not report having as good a health status as moderate drinkers, they are better off in terms of health when compared with non-drinkers and those who are lifetime abstainers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Frantz, S; Wollmer, P; Dencker, M; Engström, G; Nihlén, U
Studies on the influence of alcohol consumption on lung function have shown conflicting results. Self-reported alcohol consumption may be inaccurate. This study used both a validated alcohol questionnaire and a blood marker of heavy alcohol consumption, and examined potential associations with different lung physiological variables. The study population (450 subjects) answered an alcohol questionnaire (AUDIT-C) and performed spirometry, body plethysmography and a test for diffusing capacity for CO (DL,CO). Carbohydrate deficient transferrin (CDT), a clinically used blood marker for identifying heavy alcohol consumption, and C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of systemic inflammation were analysed. Using AUDIT-C, 407 subjects were alcohol drinkers and 29 non-drinkers. Of the alcohol drinkers, 224 subjects were "hazardous drinkers" and 183 "moderate drinkers". Thirty-four subjects had a CDT ≥2.0% (=heavy drinkers). There was no difference in lung function between hazardous and moderate drinkers. Heavy drinkers had lower DL,CO (74% vs 83% PN, p = 0.003), more symptoms of chronic bronchitis (p = 0.001) and higher AUDIT-C scores (p function variable. The results from this study suggest that alcohol and particularly heavy drinking has an independent additive negative effect on lung function in smokers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Antony C. Moss
Full Text Available Background: Responsible drinking messages (RDMs are a key component of many education-based interventions for reducing alcohol harms. The evidence base for the effectiveness of RDMs is extremely limited, with some recent research suggesting iatrogenic effects of such messages. Objective: To examine the effects of exposure to health messages on attitudes towards drinking and drunkenness, and intentions to drink and get drunk, amongst underage drinkers. Methods: Ninety-four underage drinkers were recruited from colleges in the UK. Participants were either actively or passively exposed to one of two health messages (RDM or general wellbeing. Measures of attitudes and intentions towards drinking and drunkenness were obtained one week before and immediately after participation in the study. A unit estimation task was also included. Results: Active exposure to RDMs led to more positive attitude towards drunkenness, while passive exposure led to more negative attitudes. Passive RDM exposure led to increased intentions to get drunk in future. Wellbeing posters produced the opposite effect in some but not all of these measures. Conclusions: Exposure to RDMs may have some beneficial effects in terms of creating more negative attitudes towards alcohol consumption, but we also identified potential iatrogenic effects regarding attitudes and intentions towards drunkenness amongst an underage sample of drinkers. Further research is required to better understand optimal ways of framing RDMs to produce positive changes in attitudes, intentions, and prospective drinking behaviour.
Rohsenow, D J; Smith, R E; Johnson, S
The effectiveness of cognitive-affective stress management training (SMT) as a drinking reduction program for heavy social drinking college students was investigated. The SMT package included muscle relaxation and meditation training, cognitive restructuring, and coping skill rehearsal during induced affect. Treated and control subjects rated the frequency and intensity of their anxiety, anger and depression and recorded their alcohol consumption on a daily basis over a 6-month period. SMT significantly reduced posttreatment daily anxiety ratings and was associated with changes in four of ten irrational beliefs and a shift toward more internal locus of control in treated subjects. Reduction in anxiety was no longer evident at the 2 1/2- and 5 1/2-month follow-ups. The men in the SMT group showed a significant decrease in daily drinking rates at posttreatment and at the 2 1/2-month follow-up, but drinking returned to baseline levels by 5 1/2 months for the group as a whole. However, significant improvement variance in daily moods and in drinking rates over all posttreatment periods was accounted for by individual difference variables in the trained subjects but not in the control group, suggesting that these cognitive, personality, and social support variables are associated with response to stress management training. Implications of these results for future prevention research are discussed.
Scott-Sheldon, Lori A J; Carey, Michael P; Carey, Kate B
Multiple event-level methodology was used to examine the relation between risky sexual behavior and alcohol use among sexually active, heavy drinking college students (N = 221). Using a structured timeline follow-back interview, participants reported their sexual, alcohol, and drug use behaviors over a 3-month period. Over 2,700 vaginal or anal sexual events were reported from 177 participants. Overall, condom use was not associated with heavy or non-heavy alcohol consumption among those reporting both sexual events concurrent with heavy drinking and when no alcohol was consumed. Results from multilevel regression analyses revealed a more complex pattern. Among women, but not men, less condom use was associated with steady versus casual sexual partners, but partner type interacted with alcohol consumption such that less condom use occurred when heavy drinking preceded sex with steady partners. At the event-level, alcohol consumption among heavy drinking college students leads to risky sexual behavior but the relation differs by gender and partner type.
Meyers, Jacquelyn L; Shmulewitz, Dvora; Wall, Melanie M; Keyes, Katherine M; Aharonovich, Efrat; Spivak, Baruch; Weizman, Abraham; Frisch, Amos; Edenberg, Howard J; Gelernter, Joel; Grant, Bridget F; Hasin, Deborah
Childhood adversity and genetic variant ADH1B-rs1229984 have each been shown to influence heavy alcohol consumption and disorders. However, little is known about how these factors jointly influence these outcomes. We assessed the main and additive interactive effects of childhood adversity (abuse, neglect and parental divorce) and the ADH1B-rs1229984 on the quantitative phenotypes 'maximum drinks in a day' (Maxdrinks) and DSM-Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) severity, adjusting for demographic variables, in an Israeli sample of adult household residents (n = 1143) evaluated between 2007 and 2009. Childhood adversity and absence of the protective ADH1B-rs1229984 A allele were associated with greater mean Maxdrinks (mean differences: 1.50; 1.13, respectively) and AUD severity (mean ratios: 0.71; 0.27, respectively). In addition, childhood adversity moderated the ADH1B-rs1229984 effect on Maxdrinks (P effect of ADH1B-rs1229984 genotype on Maxdrinks and AUD severity among those who had experienced childhood adversity compared with those who had not. ADH1B-rs1229984 impacts alcohol metabolism. Therefore, among those at risk for greater consumption, e.g. those who experienced childhood adversity, ADH1B-rs1229984 appears to have a stronger effect on alcohol consumption and consequently on risk for AUD symptom severity. Evidence for the interaction of genetic vulnerability and early life adversity on alcohol-related phenotypes provides further insight into the complex relationships between genetic and environmental risk factors. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.
King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.
Background: A sizeable percentage of Hispanic youth are affected by alcohol use. Research is needed to identify specific factors placing Hispanic youth at elevated risk. Purpose: This study examined whether recent alcohol use (past 30 days) and frequent episodic heavy drinking among 7th - 12th grade Hispanic students (N = 946) in Greater…
Conclusion: We can conclude that heavy drinking leads to an increase of alcohol-related injuries. This shows a new dimension on the consequences of this public concern already related with a variety of health and social problems. Furthermore, our results allow us to suggest that about half of alcohol-related injuries could be avoided by removing this consumption pattern.
Cervera-Juanes, Rita; Wilhelm, Larry J; Park, Byung; Grant, Kathleen A; Ferguson, Betsy
Alcohol-use disorders encompass a range of drinking levels and behaviors, including low, binge, and heavy drinking. In this regard, investigating the neural state of individuals who chronically self-administer lower doses of alcohol may provide insight into mechanisms that prevent the escalation of alcohol use. DNA methylation is one of the epigenetic mechanisms that stabilizes adaptations in gene expression and has been associated with alcohol use. Thus, we investigated DNA methylation, gene expression, and the predicted neural effects in the nucleus accumbens core (NAcc) of male rhesus macaques categorized as "low" or "binge" drinkers, compared to "alcohol-naïve" and "heavy" drinkers based on drinking patterns during a 12-month alcohol self-administration protocol. Using genome-wide CpG-rich region enrichment and bisulfite sequencing, the methylation levels of 2.6 million CpGs were compared between alcohol-naïve (AN), low/binge (L/BD), and heavy/very heavy (H/VHD) drinking subjects (n = 24). Through regional clustering analysis, we identified nine significant differential methylation regions (DMRs) that specifically distinguished ANs and L/BDs, and then compared those DMRs among H/VHDs. The DMRs mapped to genes encoding ion channels, receptors, cell adhesion molecules, and cAMP, NF-κβ and Wnt signaling pathway proteins. Two of the DMRs, linked to PDE10A and PKD2L2, were also differentially methylated in H/VHDs, suggesting an alcohol-dose independent effect. However, two other DMRs, linked to the CCBE1 and FZD5 genes, had L/BD methylation levels that significantly differed from both ANs and H/VHDs. The remaining five DMRs also differentiated L/BDs and ANs. However, H/VHDs methylation levels were not distinguishable from either of the two groups. Functional validation of two DMRs, linked to FZD5 and PDE10A, support their role in regulating gene expression and exon usage, respectively. In summary, the findings demonstrate that L/BD is associated with unique
Pilatti, Angelina; Cupani, Marcos; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos
To characterize patterns of alcohol use in a sample of Argentinean female college students according to personality traits and alcohol expectancies. Data from 298 female college students (M age = 18.27 years; SD = 1.37 years) from the city of Cordoba, Argentina were analysed using multinomial regression. Three drinking categories were identified, abstainers, moderate drinkers and regular drinkers with heavy episodic drinking, and these were differentiated by three personality traits [extraversion, disinhibition (DIS) and experience seeking (ES)] and three alcohol expectancies dimensions (sociability, risk/aggression and negative mood). Regular drinkers with heavy episodic drinking and moderate drinkers had, compared to abstainers, higher scores in extroversion and alcohol expectancies for social facilitation, and lower scores in alcohol expectancies for risk and aggression. Regular drinkers with heavy episodic drinking exhibited, compared to moderate drinkers, higher scores in ES, DIS, extroversion, alcohol expectancies for social facilitation and negative mood alcohol expectancies; as well as lower scores in risk and aggression alcohol expectancies. College women in Argentina with problematic alcohol drinking can be distinguished from those drinking moderately. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
Vatsalya, Vatsalya; Momenan, Reza; Hommer, Daniel W; Ramchandani, Vijay A
The aim of this study was to characterize cardiac reactivity measures, heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV), following acute intravenous (IV) alcohol administration and their association with subjective responses in social drinkers. Twenty-four subjects (11 females) received IV alcohol infusions to attain and clamp the breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) at 50 mg% or placebo in separate sessions. Serial 5-minute cardiac recordings at baseline and during the infusion were analyzed to obtain frequency and time domain cardiac measures. Self-reported subjective perceptions were also obtained at the same time points. HR showed significant decreases from baseline, while the HRV measure pNN50 showed steady increases during the ascending phase of alcohol infusion. HR was inversely correlated with pNN50 across time and treatment. There was a significant association of HR with subjective feelings of high, intoxication, feeling drug effects, and liking drug effects across time during the ascending phase. Acute IV alcohol resulted in decreases in HR and increases in HRV consistent with autonomic parasympathetic activation. The association of these changes with subjective responses suggests that cardiac reactivity may serve as a physiological marker of subjective alcohol effects. This study broadens the understanding of acute cardiovascular effects of alcohol and clinically significant cardiac conditions such as arrhythmia and cardiomyopathy associated with chronic alcohol drinking. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Moure-Rodríguez, Lucía; Caamaño-Isorna, Francisco; Doallo, Sonia; Juan-Salvadores, Pablo; Corral, Montserrat; Rodríguez-Holguín, Socorro; Cadaveira, Fernando
Objective: The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of heavy drinking on alcohol-related injuries. Material and methods: We carried out an open cohort study among university students in Spain (n = 1,382). Heavy drinking and alcohol-related injuries were measured by administrating AUDIT questionnaires to every participant at the ages of 18, 20, 22 and 24. For data analysis we used a Multilevel Logistic Regression for repeated measures adjusting for consumption of alcohol a...
van Deursen, Denise S; Salemink, Elske; Boendermaker, Wouter J; Pronk, Thomas; Hofmann, Wilhelm; Wiers, Reinout W
Dual process models posit that problem drinking is maintained by an imbalance between relatively strong automatic processes and weak controlled processes, a combination of executive functions and motivation. Few studies have examined how the interplay between automatic processes and executive functions is affected by motivation to change. This study examined this relationship in problem drinkers seeking online help to change their alcohol use. It was expected that executive functions (i.e., working memory, response inhibition) would moderate the relationship between automatic (valence and approach) associations and alcohol use and that this effect would be stronger in individuals with strong motivation to change. A sample of 302 problem drinkers (mean age: 51.7 years) participated in this study as part of the baseline assessment before an Internet intervention. Participants completed an online version of the brief Implicit Association Test (valence and approach associations), the self-ordered pointing task (working memory), the Stroop task (response inhibition), the Readiness to Change Questionnaire (motivation to change), and the Timeline Follow-Back Questionnaire (alcohol use). Hierarchical moderated regression analysis was used to test the 4 hypothesized 3-way interactions. As expected, the interaction between valence associations and working memory only predicted alcohol use among individuals with strong motivation. This pattern was neither found for response inhibition nor for approach associations. Results provide partial support for the moderating role of motivation in the interplay between automatic processes and executive functions. Future studies should investigate this relationship in participants with the full range of motivation and alcohol use. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Wilks, Chelsey; Yin, Qingqing; Ang, Sin Yee; Matsumiya, Brandon; Lungu, Anita; Linehan, Marsha
Background The need to develop effective and accessible interventions for suicidal individuals engaging in heavy episodic drinking (HED) cannot be understated. While the link between alcohol use and suicidality is a complex one that remains to be elucidated, emotion dysregulation may play a key role in alcohol-related suicide risk in these individuals. Objective In the current study, an 8-week Internet-delivered dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) skills training intervention was developed and...
Yousaf, Haroon; Rodeheffer, Richard J; Paterick, Timothy E; Ashary, Zain; Ahmad, Mirza Nubair; Ammar, Khawaja Afzal
Although moderate alcohol consumption is associated with decreased clinical heart failure, there are no population-based studies evaluating the relationship between alcohol consumption and left ventricular (LV) systolic function. We sought to evaluate the relationship between alcohol consumption and LV systolic function in the community. In a population-based random sample of 2,042 adults, age ≥45 years, we assessed alcohol consumption by a self-administered questionnaire. Responders were categorized by alcohol consumption level: abstainer, former drinker, light drinker (2 drinks a day). Systolic function was assessed by echocardiography. We identified 38 cases of systolic dysfunction in 182 abstainers, 309 former drinkers, 1,028 light drinkers, 251 moderate drinkers, and 146 heavy drinkers. A U-shaped relationship was observed between alcohol consumption and moderate systolic dysfunction (LV ejection fraction [LVEF] ≤40%), with the lowest prevalence in light drinkers (0.9%) compared to the highest prevalence in heavy drinkers (5.5%) (odds ratio 0.14, 95% CI 0.04-0.43). This association persisted across different strata of risk factors of systolic dysfunction as well as in multivariate analysis. No significant association between alcohol consumption and systolic function was seen in subjects with LVEF >50% or ≤50%. There is a U-shaped relationship between alcohol consumption volume and LVEF, with the lowest risk of moderate LV dysfunction (LVEF ≤40%) observed in light drinkers (consumption and cardiovascular disease prevalence. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Moure-Rodríguez, Lucía; Caamaño-Isorna, Francisco; Doallo, Sonia; Juan-Salvadores, Pablo; Corral, Montserrat; Rodríguez-Holguín, Socorro; Cadaveira, Fernando
The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of heavy drinking on alcohol-related injuries. We carried out an open cohort study among university students in Spain (n=1,382). Heavy drinking and alcohol-related injuries were measured by administrating AUDIT questionnaires to every participant at the ages of 18, 20, 22 and 24. For data analysis we used a Multilevel Logistic Regression for repeated measures adjusting for consumption of alcohol and cannabis. The response rate at the beginning of the study was 99.6% (1,369 students). The incidence rate of alcohol-related injuries was 3.2 per 100 students year. After adjusting for alcohol consumption and cannabis use, the multivariate model revealed that a high frequency of heavy drinking was a risk factor for alcohol-related injuries (Odds Ratio=3.89 [95%CI: 2.16 - 6.99]). The proportion of alcohol-related injuries in exposed subjects attributable to heavy drinking was 59.78% [95%CI: 32.75 - 75.94] while the population attributable fraction was 45.48% [95%CI: 24.91 - 57.77]. We can conclude that heavy drinking leads to an increase of alcohol-related injuries. This shows a new dimension on the consequences of this public concern already related with a variety of health and social problems. Furthermore, our results allow us to suggest that about half of alcohol-related injuries could be avoided by removing this consumption pattern. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Green, Alisa; Garrick, Therese; Sheedy, Donna; Blake, Helen; Shores, Edwin Arthur; Harper, Clive
Excessive alcohol use is associated with damage to the structure and function of the brain and impairment of cognition and behavior. Traditional test batteries used to assess cognitive performance in alcoholics are extensive and costly, limiting their use across various clinical and research settings. The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) is a relatively new instrument that attempts to overcome some of these limitations. As yet the individual effect of moderate to heavy alcohol consumption on RBANS performance has not been examined. The primary aim of this study was to explore and quantify differences in performance between controls and drinkers on the RBANS and to examine the influence of age, gender, and alcohol use patterns on test performance. Data from a subset of "Using Our Brains" (UoB) donors (n = 28) still actively drinking and meeting criteria for moderate to heavy alcohol use (30 to 80 g of ethanol per day) (Harper, 1988) and 28 matched controls (age, education, and premorbid Intelligence Quotient) were compared. Participants in the alcohol group performed below the healthy control group on the visuospatial and immediate memory index, and also on the RBANS total score p alcohol ingestion in the preceding 12 months and the language index p memory (p memory, and psychomotor speed between healthy controls and moderate to heavy active alcohol users. Executive functions, commonly affected by alcoholism and not included in the RBANS, require assessment with additional measures.
Purvis, Danielle M; Gallagher, Kathryn E; Parrott, Dominic J
Alcohol Myopia Theory (AMT; Steele & Josephs, 1990) purports that alcohol facilitates aggression by narrowing attentional focus onto salient and instigatory cues common to conflict situations. However, few tests of its counterintuitive prediction - that alcohol may decrease aggression when inhibitory cues are most salient - have been conducted. The present study examined whether an AMT-inspired self-awareness intervention manipulation would reduce heavy drinking men's intoxicated aggression toward women and also examined whether a relevant individual variable, locus of control, would moderate this effect. Participants were 102 intoxicated male heavy drinkers who completed a self-report measure of locus of control and completed the Taylor Aggression Paradigm (Taylor, 1967). In this task, participants administered electric shocks to, and received electric shocks from, a fictitious female opponent while exposed to an environment saturated with or devoid of self-awareness cues. Results indicated that the self-awareness manipulation was associated with less alcohol-related aggression toward the female confederate for men who reported an internal, but not an external, locus of control. Findings support AMT as a theoretical framework to inform preventative interventions for alcohol-related aggression and highlight the importance of individual differences in receptivity to such interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Among a variety of relevant factors of osteoporosis, the association between alcohol intake and postmenopausal women's bone mineral density (BMD by using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was evaluated in this study.Among a total of 31,596 subjects, males, premenopausal women, participants without BMD data were excluded. Finally, a total number of subjects in the study was 3,312. The frequency and amount of alcohol intake were determined by self-reported questionnaires, and BMD was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry.Mean femoral BMD for light drinkers was statistically significantly greater than that for heavy drinkers and non-drinkers. We observed the characteristic trends for BMD by drinking frequency; the mean BMD gradually increased from non-drinkers to the participants who drank 2-3 times per week; these participants exhibited the highest BMD. Participants who drank alcohol greater than 4 times per week showed a lower BMD. In the risk factor analysis, the adjusted odds ratio for osteoporosis (at femoral neck was 1.68 in non-drinkers and 1.70 in heavy drinkers compared with light drinkers.Light alcohol intake (2-3 times per week and 1-2 or 5-6 glasses per occasion in South Korean postmenopausal women was related to high femoral BMD. Non-drinkers and heavy drinkers had approximately a 1.7-times greater risk for osteoporosis than light drinkers.
Li, Zhao; Guo, Xiaofan; Liu, Yamin; Chang, Ye; Sun, Yingxian; Zhu, Guangshuo; Abraham, Maria Roselle
although alcohol abuse is known to increase serum uric acid, the relation between moderate drinking and uric acid have remained poorly understood. We performed this study to evaluate whether different alcohol consumption level has different effects on the risk of hyperuricemia based on a rural general population. multi-stage cluster sampling method was used to select a representative sample of individuals aged 35 years or older. Participants were asked to provide information about their alcohol consumption. Data regarding the demographic and lifestyle characteristics and the blood biochemical indexes of these participants were collected by well-trained personnel. in total, 11,039 participants aged 35 years or older were included (4997 men and 6042 women). The prevalence of hyperuricemia in the different male alcohol consumption groups was 11.9% in non-drinkers, 12.6% in moderate drinkers, and 16.3% in heavy drinkers (p moderate drinkers, and 6.6% for heavy drinkers (p = 0.818). In males, multivariate logistic regression analyses shows heavy drinkers had an approximately 1.7-fold higher risk of hyperuricemia (OR: 1.657, 95% CI: 1.368 to 2.007, p moderate drinkers did not experience a significant increase in risk (OR: 1.232, 95% CI: 0.951 to 1.596, p = 0.114)). Multivariate logistic regression analyses of females showed that, compared with non-drinkers, neither moderate nor heavy drinkers had a significantly increased risk of hyperuricemia (OR: 1.565, 95% CI: 0.521 to 4.695, p = 0.425 for heavy drinkers; OR: 0.897, 95% CI: 0.117 to 6.855, p = 0.916 for moderate drinkers). heavy alcohol consumption increased the risk of hyperuricemia for males but not for females. Among both males and females, moderate alcohol consumption did not increase the risk of hyperuricemia.
MacKillop, James; Amlung, Michael T; Acker, John; Gray, Joshua C; Brown, Courtney L; Murphy, James G; Ray, Lara A; Sweet, Lawrence H
Neuroeconomics integrates concepts and methods from psychology, economics, and cognitive neuroscience to understand how the brain makes decisions. In economics, demand refers to the relationship between a commodity's consumption and its cost, and, in behavioral studies, high alcohol demand has been consistently associated with greater alcohol misuse. Relatively little is known about how the brain processes demand decision making, and the current study is an initial investigation of the neural correlates of alcohol demand among heavy drinkers. Using an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm, participants (N=24) selected how much they would drink under varying levels of price. These choices determined access to alcohol during a subsequent bar laboratory self-administration period. During decisions to drink in general, greater activity was present in multiple distinct subunits of the prefrontal and parietal cortices. In contrast, during decisions to drink that were demonstrably affected by the cost of alcohol, significantly greater activation was evident in frontostriatal regions, suggesting an active interplay between cognitive deliberation and subjective reward value. These choices were also characterized by significant deactivation in default mode network regions, suggesting suppression resulting from greater cognitive load. Across choice types, the anterior insula was notably recruited in diverse roles, further implicating the importance of interoceptive processing in decision-making behavior. These findings reveal the neural signatures subserving alcohol cost-benefit decision making, providing a foundation for future clinical applications of this paradigm and extending this approach to understanding the neural correlates of demand for other addictive commodities.
Lipid accumulation product (LAP), defined as a product of waist circumference and triglycerides, has recently been proposed as a predictor of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to determine whether and how LAP is associated with alcohol drinking. Subjects were 21,378 men aged 35-60 years and they were divided by alcohol intake into non-, light (levels in light drinkers and very heavy drinkers were significantly (P level in non-drinkers, and the levels were comparable in non- and heavy drinkers (non-drinkers, 1.335 ± 0.005; light drinkers, 1.290 ± 0.009; heavy drinkers, 1.348 ± 0.005 and very heavy drinkers, 1.414 ± 0.006). The inverse association of alcohol intake with LAP was more prominent in smokers and subjects without regular exercise than in non-smokers and subjects with regular exercise, respectively, while the positive association of alcohol with LAP was more prominent in non-smokers than in smokers. Odds ratio for hyperglycemia of subjects with vs. subjects without high LAP was significantly higher than a reference level of 1.00, and this association was not different among the four alcohol groups. There is a J-shaped relationship between alcohol intake and LAP, which is confounded by smoking and habitual exercise.
Asbridge, Mark; Cartwright, Jenny; Wilson, Kevin; Langille, Donald
This article examines early age at first drink (AFD) (14 years and younger) and alcohol-related problems, with a focus on experiences of drunkenness. It challenges the assumption that all early AFD is harmful by investigating whether early drinkers who typically consume alcohol in moderation experience minimal problems or harms. Participants were drawn from the 2012 Student Drug Use Survey in Canada's Atlantic Provinces of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland and Labrador, an anonymous cross-sectional survey of high school students (ages 15-19 years). Negative binomial regression techniques were used to assess alcohol problems and harms (12-item scale) in association with early-onset drinking. Among ever-drinking high school students (n = 4,752), 65% had their first drink before age 15, 73% reported having ever been drunk, and 55% indicated at least one alcohol-related problem in the past 12 months, with a mean of 1.39 problems. Analyses revealed that experiencing an alcohol-related problem was more strongly associated with ever being drunk than with early AFD. Modeled together, individuals who reported early AFD and who had never been drunk reported significantly fewer problems relative to individuals who reported early AFD and late AFD but had been drunk. Early AFD is commonly linked to alcohol-related problems in youth and is predictive of future alcohol-related harms in adulthood. However, considerable heterogeneity in the likelihood of suffering alcohol-related problems exists, contextualized by individual drinking patterns. Given the high prevalence of early AFD, harm minimization efforts could achieve greater success by directing youth to consume alcohol in moderation, rather than focusing solely on abstinence.
Wahlstrom, Laura C; McChargue, Dennis E; Mackillop, James
Binge drinking remains prevalent on college campuses (particularly among males), and a behavioral economic conceptualization of alcohol use provides novel insight into this problem. Further understanding also comes from identifying personality and genetic vulnerabilities associated with problem drinking among male college students. The present study hypothesized that DRD2/ANKK1 TaqI A (rs1800497) genotype would moderate the relationship between alexithymia and an alcohol purchase task (APT) among male college binge drinkers. Specifically, among individuals with at least 1 A1 allele (A1+), greater alexithymia would be related to higher breakpoint (the point at which consumption is 0), O(max) (maximum expenditure on consumption), P(max) (price at which maximum expenditure occurs), intensity (consumption at the lowest price), and lesser elasticity (sensitivity to increasing price). Secondary analyses aimed to replicate APT associations with problematic drinking (AUDIT) and alcohol-related problems (RAPI). Participants were 120 male European-American college student binge drinkers ( M=10.33, SD=4.41). Five Bonferroni-corrected moderation models were tested using APT indices as the criteria, alexithymia as the predictor, and DRD2/ANKK1 TaqI A1 allele presence as the moderator. Results indicated that, in A1+ individuals, greater alexithymia predicted lesser elasticity. Findings were not significant in A1- individuals. APT intensity was positively correlated with AUDIT total; however, no other significant relationships were found. This suggests that possession of the A1 allele interacts with hypoemotionality to predict a novel index of problem drinking. Results support the notion that college campuses would benefit from behavioral economic approaches to reduce binge drinking. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Callinan, Sarah; Room, Robin; Livingston, Michael; Jiang, Heng
Debates surrounding potential price-based polices aimed at reducing alcohol-related harms tend to focus on the debate concerning who would be most affected-harmful or low-income drinkers. This study will investigate the characteristics of people who purchase low-cost alcohol using data from the Australian arm of the International Alcohol Control study. 1681 Australians aged 16 and over who had consumed alcohol and purchased it in off-licence premises were asked detailed questions about both practices. Low-cost alcohol was defined using cut-points of 80¢, $1.00 or $1.25 per Australian standard drink. With a $1.00 cut-off low income (OR = 2.1) and heavy drinkers (OR = 1.7) were more likely to purchase any low-cost alcohol. Harmful drinkers purchased more, and low-income drinkers less, alcohol priced at less than $1.00 per drink than high income and moderate drinkers respectively. The relationship between the proportion of units purchased at low cost and both drinker category and income is less clear, with hazardous, but not harmful, drinkers purchasing a lower proportion of units at low cost than moderate drinkers. The impact of minimum pricing on low income and harmful drinkers will depend on whether the proportion or total quantity of all alcohol purchased at low cost is considered. Based on absolute units of alcohol, minimum unit pricing could be differentially effective for heavier drinkers compared to other drinkers, particularly for young males. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
Herreros-Villanueva, Marta; Hijona, Elizabeth; Bañales, Jesus Maria; Cosme, Angel; Bujanda, Luis
Although the association between alcohol and pancreatic diseases has been recognized for a long time, the impact of alcohol consumption on pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer (PC) remains poorly defined. Nowadays there is not consensus about the epidemiology and the beverage type, dose and duration of alcohol consumption causing these diseases. The objective of this study was to review the epidemiology described in the literature for pancreatic diseases as a consequence of alcoholic behavior trying to understand the association between dose, type and frequency of alcohol consumption and risk of pancreatitis and PC. The majority of the studies conclude that high alcohol intake was associated with a higher risk of pancreatitis (around 2.5%-3% between heavy drinkers and 1.3% between non drinkers). About 70% of pancreatitis are due to chronic heavy alcohol consumption. Although this incidence rate differs between countries, it is clear that the risk of developing pancreatitis increases with increasing doses of alcohol and the average of alcohol consumption vary since 80 to 150 g/d for 10-15 years. With regard to PC, the role of alcohol consumption remains less clear, and low to moderate alcohol consumption do not appear to be associated with PC risk, and only chronic heavy drinking increase the risk compared with lightly drinkers. In a population of 10%-15% of heavy drinkers, 2%-5% of all PC cases could be attributed to alcohol consumption. However, as only a minority (less than 10% for pancreatitis and 5% for PC) of heavily drinkers develops these pancreatic diseases, there are other predisposing factors besides alcohol involved. Genetic variability and environmental exposures such as smoking and diet modify the risk and should be considered for further investigations.
Kuipers, Mirte A. G.; Jongeneel-Grimen, Birthe; Droomers, Mariël; Wingen, Marleen; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E.
Earlier research has shown that residents of Dutch deprived neighbourhoods drink less alcohol than people in other areas. We aimed to assess the role of individual and neighbourhood characteristics in a cross-sectional, nationwide, multilevel study. Individual data of 30,117 Dutch adults, living in
Hansen, Anders B.G.; Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur; Grønbæk, Morten
Aims: A) To qualify the existing estimates of the prevalence of heavy drinking, harmful alcohol use and alcohol dependency by applying adjustment for non-participation. B) To describe socio-demographic correlates of heavy drinkers. Methods: Data came from the Danish Health Interview Survey 2005......, which included a personal interview of 14,566 individuals (response rate 66.7 %), and of 5,552 individuals who completed a self-administered questionnaire containing the Alcohol Use Disorder Test (AUDIT) (response rate 50.9%). Heavy drinkers were defined as consuming >14/21 drinks/week (women....../men). Identification of harmful alcohol users and dependent drinkers was based on the score of specific AUDIT questions (harmful alcohol use a score of =4 in questions 7—10, dependent drinkers =4 in questions 4—6). Adjustment for non-participation was performed using data from the Danish National Patient Registry...
Oda, Nozomu; Kajikawa, Masato; Maruhashi, Tatsuya; Iwamoto, Yumiko; Kishimoto, Shinji; Matsui, Shogo; Hidaka, Takayuki; Kihara, Yasuki; Chayama, Kazuaki; Goto, Chikara; Aibara, Yoshiki; Nakashima, Ayumu; Noma, Kensuke; Tomiyama, Hirofumi; Takase, Bonpei; Yamashina, Akira; Higashi, Yukihito
Heavy drinking should be a predictor of endothelial dysfunction. However, there is little information on the effects of light to moderate alcohol consumption on endothelial function. The purpose of this study was to estimate the effects of dose-dependent alcohol consumption on endothelial function. We measured flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) in 2734 men aged 21-81years who provided information on alcohol intake at 3 general hospitals. The subjects were divided into 5 groups; non-drinkers (0g/week), light drinkers (>0 to 140g/week), moderate drinkers (>140 to 280g/week), heavy drinkers (>280 to 420g/week), and excessive heavy drinkers (>420g/week). FMD showed a gradual decrease in accordance with alcohol consumption in the entire study population (non-drinkers, 6.6±3.4%; light drinkers, 6.2±3.0%; moderate drinkers, 6.0±3.0%; heavy drinkers, 5.5±2.9%; excessive heavy drinkers, 5.3±3.0%; P<0.001). There was a significant difference in FMD between the light alcohol drinker group and the non-drinker group (P=0.015). After adjustment for other risk factors, the odds of having FMD in the lowest quartile was found to be significantly increased in the 4 drinker groups than in the non-drinker group: light (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.75), moderate (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.82), heavy (OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.46 to 2.87), excessive (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.43 to 2.89). These findings suggest that FMD is impaired in relation to alcohol consumption and that FMD is significantly smaller even in light alcohol drinkers than in non-drinkers. Alcohol intake per se may be harmful for vascular function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Halonen, Jaana I; Kivimäki, Mika; Virtanen, Marianna; Pentti, Jaana; Subramanian, S V; Kawachi, Ichiro; Vahtera, Jussi
Availability of alcohol has been associated with alcohol consumption in cross-sectional studies. We examined longitudinally whether change in proximity to off-premise (i.e., no consumption on the premises) beer and liquor outlets is associated with heavy alcohol consumption. Distances from 54,778 Finnish Public Sector study participants' homes to the nearest off-premise beer and liquor outlets were calculated using Global Positioning System-coordinates. Between-individual analyses were used to study the effects of distance to the nearest outlet on heavy alcohol use, and within-individual analyses to study the effects of a change in distance on change in heavy use. Mean follow-up time in 2000-2009 was 6.8 (standard deviation 2.0) years. In a between-individual analysis, decrease from ≥500 m to alcohol use in women (odds ratio 1.23, 95% CI 1.05-1.44), but not in men. In a within-individual analysis decrease from 500 m to 0m in log-transformed continuous distance to the nearest beer outlet increased the odds of heavy alcohol consumption in women by 13% (odds ratio 1.13, 95% CI 1.01-1.27). For the corresponding change in distance to liquor outlet the increase was 3% (odds ratio 1.03, 95% CI 0.97-1.09). Change in distance from home to the nearest off-premise alcohol outlet affects the risk of heavy alcohol consumption in women. This evidence supports policies that restrict physical availability of alcohol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Landry, Alicia S.; Moorer, Kayla D.; Madson, Michael B.; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil
The current study examined the degree to which associations that protective behavioral strategy use had with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences were moderated by disordered eating and race. Participants were 382 female undergraduates (ages 18-25) who had consumed alcohol at least once within the previous month.…
Raasveld, S.J.; Hogewoning, A.; Van De Loo, A.J.A.E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/369403649; De Zeeuw, R.; Bosma, Else R.; Bouwmeester, N.H.; Lukkes, M.; Brookhuis, K.A.; Knipping, K.; Garssen, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/086369962; Verster, J.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/241442702
Purpose: After an evening of heavy alcohol consumption, next day alcohol hangovers are commonly experienced. However, about 20 to 25% of the people claim not to have a hangover, despite heavy alcohol consumption . It has been suggested that not experiencing alcohol hangovers may increase the risk
Rinker, Dipali Venkataraman; Neighbors, Clayton
The DSM-5 has created significant changes in the definition of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Limited work has considered the impact of these changes in specific populations, such as heavy-drinking college students. Latent class analysis (LCA) is a person-centered approach that divides a population into mutually exclusive and exhaustive latent classes, based on observable indicator variables. The present research was designed to examine whether there were distinct classes of heavy-drinking college students who met DSM-5 criteria for an AUD and whether gender, perceived social norms, use of protective behavioral strategies (PBS), drinking refusal self-efficacy (DRSE), self-perceptions of drinking identity, psychological distress, and membership in a fraternity/sorority would be associated with class membership. Three-hundred and ninety-four college students who met DSM-5 criteria for an AUD were recruited from three different universities. Two distinct classes emerged: Less Severe (86%), the majority of whom endorsed both drinking more than intended and tolerance, as well as met criteria for a mild AUD; and More Severe (14%), the majority of whom endorsed at least half of the DSM-5 AUD criteria and met criteria for a severe AUD. Relative to the Less Severe class, membership in the More Severe class was negatively associated with DRSE and positively associated with self-identification as a drinker. There is a distinct class of heavy-drinking college students with a more severe AUD and for whom intervention content needs to be more focused and tailored. Clinical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ceperich, Sherry Dyche
Many college women are at risk for pregnancy, and binge drinking college women are often at risk for alcohol-exposed pregnancy. Brief interventions with sustainable outcomes are needed, particularly for college women who are binge drinking, at risk for pregnancy, and at increased risk of alcohol-exposed pregnancy. Two-hundred-twenty-eight women at a Mid-Atlantic urban university at risk for alcohol-exposed pregnancy enrolled in the randomized clinical trial, and 207 completed the 4 month follow-up. The BALANCE intervention used Motivational Interviewing plus feedback to target drinking and contraception behaviors. Main outcome measures included (1) the rate of risk for alcohol-exposed pregnancy, (2) the rate of risk drinking, and (3) the rate of pregnancy risk. At 4-month follow-up, the rate of alcohol-exposed pregnancy risk was significantly lower in the intervention (20.2%) than the control condition (34.9%), (P risk for alcohol-exposed pregnancy, while not receiving the intervention doubled the odds of continued alcohol-exposed pregnancy risk (OR = 2.18; 95% CI = 1.16–4.09). A baseline history of blackouts, continued high blood alcohol drinking days at 1 month, and continued risk for pregnancy at 1 month independently contributed to a multivariate model of continued alcohol-exposed pregnancy risk at 4 month follow-up. BALANCE reduced alcohol-exposed pregnancy risk, with similar outcomes to longer interventions. Because early response predicted sustained alcohol-exposed pregnancy risk reduction, those who fail to achieve initial change could be identified for further intervention. The BALANCE intervention could be adopted into existing student health or university alcohol programs. The risks of unintended pregnancy and alcohol-exposed pregnancy among binge drinking women in college merit greater prevention efforts. PMID:21318412
Ceperich, Sherry Dyche; Ingersoll, Karen S.
Many college women are at risk for pregnancy, and binge drinking college women are often at risk for alcohol-exposed pregnancy. Brief interventions with sustainable outcomes are needed, particularly for college women who are binge drinking, at risk for pregnancy, and at increased risk of alcohol-exposed pregnancy. Two-hundred-twenty-eight women at a Mid-Atlantic urban university at risk for alcohol-exposed pregnancy enrolled in the randomized clinical trial, and 207 completed the 4 month foll...
Kaplan, Lauren M; Nayak, Madhabika B; Greenfield, Thomas K; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J
To examine the prevalence and severity of alcohol's harm to children in the US and the relationship of the harmer to the child, and to examine caregivers' sociodemographic characteristics, alcohol use, and exposure to harm due to a drinking spouse/partner or other family member as risk factors for alcohol's harm to children. We report data on 764 caregivers (defined as persons with parental responsibility for at least 1 child aged ≤17 years) from the 2015 National Alcohol's Harm to Others Survey, a dual-frame national sample of US adults. Overall 7.4% of caregivers reported alcohol's harm to children in the past year. Risk factors for alcohol's harm to children included the caregiver's own experience of alcohol's harm from a spouse/partner or other family member. Caregivers with a heavy drinker in the household were significantly more likely to report harm to children. A caregiver's own heavy drinking was not a significant risk factor for children in his or her care. Alcohol places a substantial burden on children in the US. Although a caregiver's own drinking can harm children, other drinkers also increase the risk of alcohol's harm to children. Screening caregivers to determine whether there is a heavy drinker in the household may help reduce alcohol's harm in the family without stigmatizing caregivers, who themselves may not be heavy drinkers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Villarosa, Margo C; Moorer, Kayla D; Madson, Michael B; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Noble, Jeremy J
The link between social anxiety and alcohol-related negative consequences among college students has been well documented. Protective behavioral strategies are cognitive-behavioral strategies that college students use in an effort to reduce harm while they are drinking. In the current study we examined the mediating role of the 2 categories of protective behavioral strategies (i.e., controlled consumption and serious harm reduction) in the relationship that social anxiety symptoms have with alcohol-related negative consequences. Participants were 572 undergraduates who completed measures of social anxiety, alcohol use, negative consequences of alcohol use, and protective behavioral strategy use. Only serious harm reduction strategies emerged as a mediator of the association that social anxiety symptoms had with alcohol-related negative consequences. Clinical and research implications are discussed.
Caudwell, Kim M; Mullan, Barbara A; Hagger, Martin S
Pre-drinking refers to the consumption of alcohol at home or a private residence prior to attending a subsequent social event. We present the study protocol of an online theory-based intervention to reduce pre-drinking and related harm in pre-drinking undergraduates, using behavior change techniques targeting the motivational and volitional phases of behaviour. A fully randomized 2 (autonomy support: present vs. absent) x 2 (implementation intention: present vs. absent) between-participants design will be used to ascertain the effectiveness of the intervention in reducing pre-drinking alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm. Participants will complete a range of theory-based measures prior to being allocated to one of the four experimental conditions. Four weeks later, participants will complete a follow-up questionnaire comprised of theoretical and behavioral measures. The main and interactive effects of the intervention components in reducing our primary dependent variables, namely, pre-drinking alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm at four-week follow-up will be tested. Baseline alcohol consumption and demographic information will be included in the analysis as covariates. This online intervention is the first to be developed to reduce pre-drinking alcohol consumption, a behaviour linked to increased risk of alcohol-related harm. The intervention targets motivational and volitional components of the behaviour change process and is therefore likely to lead to greater reductions in pre-drinking alcohol consumption and experience of alcohol-related harm compared to either approach in isolation. If successful, the intervention can be implemented across various contexts and in populations where pre-drinking is prevalent. ACTRN12614001102662 . Registered 16 October 2014.
Mallard, Simonette R; Connor, Jennie L; Houghton, Lisa A
Alcohol consumption during pregnancy places the foetus at risk of Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. Little is known about the current prevalence and patterns of alcohol consumption before and following pregnancy recognition in New Zealand. A retrospective survey of 723 post-partum women resident in maternity wards located across New Zealand was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire. Maternal sociodemographic and obstetric characteristics and alcohol intake before and after pregnancy recognition were assessed. Of the 968 women invited to participate, 78% agreed. Eighty-two percent of women reported consuming alcohol prior to pregnancy and 20% reported typically consuming >4 New Zealand standard drinks per occasion. Overall, 34% of women reported drinking at some time during pregnancy. Twelve percent of pregnancies were at high risk of heavy alcohol exposure in early gestation. In fully adjusted analysis, pregnancies most at risk were those of indigenous Māori women, Pacific women, smokers and drug users. Almost one-quarter (24%) of drinkers continued to drink following pregnancy recognition, and in fully adjusted analysis, continuing to drink was positively associated with frequency of alcohol consumption before pregnancy (P drinking' culture and the frequent consumption of lower levels of alcohol. © 2013 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Bendtsen, Preben; Bendtsen, Marcus; Karlsson, Nadine; White, Ian R; McCambridge, Jim
Previous research on the effectiveness of online alcohol interventions for college students has shown mixed results. Small benefits have been found in some studies and because online interventions are inexpensive and possible to implement on a large scale, there is a need for further study. This study evaluated the effectiveness of national provision of a brief online alcohol intervention for students in Sweden. Risky drinkers at 9 colleges and universities in Sweden were invited by mail and identified using a single screening question. These students (N=1605) gave consent and were randomized into a 2-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial consisting of immediate or delayed access to a fully automated online assessment and intervention with personalized feedback. After 2 months, there was no strong evidence of effectiveness with no statistically significant differences in the planned analyses, although there were some indication of possible benefit in sensitivity analyses suggesting an intervention effect of a 10% reduction (95% CI -30% to 10%) in total weekly alcohol consumption. Also, differences in effect sizes between universities were seen with participants from a major university (n=365) reducing their weekly alcohol consumption by 14% (95% CI -23% to -4%). However, lower recruitment than planned and differential attrition in the intervention and control group (49% vs 68%) complicated interpretation of the outcome data. Any effects of current national provision are likely to be small and further research and development work is needed to enhance effectiveness. International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 02335307; http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN02335307 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6ZdPUh0R4).
Rossiter, Sarah; Thompson, Julian; Hester, Robert
Cognitive control dysfunction has been identified in dependent alcohol users and implicated in the transition from abuse to dependence, although evidence of dyscontrol in chronic but non-dependent 'harmful' alcohol abusers is mixed. The current study examined harmful alcohol users response inhibition over rewarding stimuli in the presence of monetary reward and punishment, to determine whether changes in sensitivity to these factors, noted in imaging studies of dependent users, influences impulse control. Harmful (n=30) and non-hazardous (n=55) alcohol users were administered a Monetary Incentive Go/No-go task that required participants to inhibit a prepotent motor response associated with reward. Harmful alcohol users showed a significantly poorer ability to withhold their impulse for a rewarding stimulus in the presence of immediate monetary punishment for failure, while retaining equivalent response inhibition performance under neutral conditions (associated with neither monetary loss or gain), and significantly better performance under delayed reward conditions. The results of the present study suggest that non-dependent alcohol abusers have altered sensitivity to reward and punishment that influences their impulse control for reward, in the absence of gross dyscontrol that is consistent with past findings in which such performance contingencies were not used. The ability of delayed monetary reward, but not punishment, to increase sustained impulse control in this sample has implications for the mechanism that might underlie the transition from alcohol abuse to dependence, as well as intervention strategies aimed at preventing this transition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Le Strat, Yann; Ramoz, Nicolas; Gorwood, Philip
To examine the pattern of psychiatric comorbidity associated with nicotine dependence among alcohol-dependent respondents in the general population. Drawn from a US national survey of 43,000 adults The (National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions) who took part in a face-to-face interview, data were examined on the 4782 subjects with lifetime alcohol dependence, and comparisons were made between those with and those without nicotine dependence. Nicotine dependence was reported by 48% of the alcohol-dependent respondents. They reported higher lifetime rates of panic disorder, specific and social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, major depressive episode, manic disorder, suicide attempt, antisocial personality disorder and all addictive disorders than those without nicotine dependence. After controlling for the effects of any psychiatric and addictive disorder, alcohol-dependent subjects with nicotine dependence were more than twice as likely as non-nicotine-dependent, alcohol-dependent subjects to have at least one other lifetime addiction diagnosis (adjusted odds ratio 2.36; 95% confidence interval 2.07-2.68). Nicotine dependence represents a general marker of psychiatric comorbidity, particularly of addictive comorbidity. It may be used as a screening measure for psychiatric diagnoses in clinical practice as well as in future trials.
MacKillop, James; Amlung, Michael T; Acker, John; Gray, Joshua C; Brown, Courtney L; Murphy, James G; Ray, Lara A; Sweet, Lawrence H
Neuroeconomics integrates concepts and methods from psychology, economics, and cognitive neuroscience to understand how the brain makes decisions. In economics, demand refers to the relationship between a commodity's consumption and its cost, and, in behavioral studies, high alcohol demand has been consistently associated with greater alcohol misuse. Relatively little is known about how the brain processes demand decision making, and the current study is an initial investigation of the neural correlates of alcohol demand among heavy drinkers. Using an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm, participants (N=24) selected how much they would drink under varying levels of price. These choices determined access to alcohol during a subsequent bar laboratory self-administration period. During decisions to drink in general, greater activity was present in multiple distinct subunits of the prefrontal and parietal cortices. In contrast, during decisions to drink that were demonstrably affected by the cost of alcohol, significantly greater activation was evident in frontostriatal regions, suggesting an active interplay between cognitive deliberation and subjective reward value. These choices were also characterized by significant deactivation in default mode network regions, suggesting suppression resulting from greater cognitive load. Across choice types, the anterior insula was notably recruited in diverse roles, further implicating the importance of interoceptive processing in decision-making behavior. These findings reveal the neural signatures subserving alcohol cost–benefit decision making, providing a foundation for future clinical applications of this paradigm and extending this approach to understanding the neural correlates of demand for other addictive commodities. PMID:24584331
Porter, Stephen R.; Pryor, John
Alcohol use literature has linked heavy episodic alcohol use and academic consequences, but has not examined the influence of such use on student engagement. This study uses survey data from over 40,000 students at 28 selective private colleges and universities to examine the connection between heavy episodic alcohol use and engagement. The…
Stanger, Sarah; Abaied, Jamie; Wagner, Caitlin
Early age at onset of alcohol use is a risk factor for later heavy alcohol use, but some individuals are buffered from this risk. To better understand this process, this study investigated the interactive contributions of parental coping suggestions, skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR), and age at onset of alcohol use on heavy alcohol use in college students. College students (N = 146, 77% female) reported their age at onset of alcohol use, frequency of recent heavy alcohol use, and their parents' coping suggestions; SCLR was monitored as participants completed a laboratory challenge task. In addition, students' parents (N = 73, 77% mothers) reported on their coping suggestions. Results indicated that in the presence of physiological risk only (blunted SCLR, late age at onset of alcohol use), higher frequencies of engagement and disengagement parental coping suggestions were protective against heavy alcohol use in college students. However, if both risk factors were present (blunted SCLR, early age at onset of alcohol use), more engagement suggestions predicted more heavy alcohol use among college students. These findings extend previous findings on the impact of parenting on heavy alcohol use among college students and provide novel evidence for the moderating role of sympathetic stress reactivity.
Cameron, D; Spence, M
As the first phase of a project designed to institute controlled drinking as a therapeutic goal for alcoholics, it was decied to recruit volunteers who were dissatisfied with their present mode of drinking but who had not previously sought help. This was done by requesting them to phone a private number. When these volunteers had been recruited it was proposed to modify their drinking habits to their own requirements, using non-averse training, drinking practice and ongoing group psychotherapy. This project however has not been implemented because of paucity of volunteers. The methods of recruitement are listed and those drinkers who volunteered are described. The reasons for the low rate of response are discussed.
Tomaka, Joe; Morales-Monks, Stormy; Shamaley, Angelee Gigi
This study examined the hypotheses that contingent self-esteem would be positively associated with alcohol-related problems and that global self-esteem would be negatively associated with such problems. It also examined the hypothesis that high stress and maladaptive coping would mediate these relationships. A sample of college students (n = 399) who were predominantly Hispanic (89%) completed measures of global and contingent self-esteem; stress and coping; and alcohol-related problems. Correlational and latent variable analyses indicated that contingent self-esteem positively related to alcohol-related problems, with maladaptive coping mediating this relationship. In contrast, global self-esteem negatively related to such problems, a relationship that was also mediated by maladaptive coping and stress. Overall, the results highlight the potentially harmful consequences of contingent self-worth and the adaptive nature of non-contingent self-esteem. They also demonstrate the important role that coping plays in mediating self-esteem's associations with alcohol-related problems. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Reczek, Corinne; Pudrovska, Tetyana; Carr, Deborah; Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Umberson, Debra
We develop a gendered marital biography approach-which emphasizes the accumulating gendered experiences of singlehood, marriage, marital dissolution, and remarriage-to examine the relationship between marital statuses and transitions and heavy alcohol use. We test this approach using individual-level (n = 10,457) and couple-level (n = 2,170) longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study, and individual-level (n = 46) and couple-level (n = 42) in-depth interview data. Quantitative results show that marriage, including remarriage, reduces men's but increases women's drinking relative to being never married and previously married, whereas divorce increases men's but decrease women's drinking, with some variation by age. Our qualitative findings reveal that social control and convergence processes underlie quantitative results. We call attention to how men's and women's heavy drinking trajectories stop, start, and change direction as individuals move through their distinctive marital biography. © American Sociological Association 2016.
Namkee G. Choi, PhD
Full Text Available Introduction: Late middle-aged and older adults’ share of emergency department (ED visits is increasing more than other age groups. ED visits by individuals with substance-related problems are also increasing. This paper was intended to identify subgroups of individuals aged 50+ by their risk for ED visits by examining their health/mental health status and alcohol use patterns. Methods: Data came from the 2013 National Health Interview Survey’s Sample Adult file (n=15,713. Following descriptive analysis of sample characteristics by alcohol use patterns, latent class analysis (LCA modeling was fit using alcohol use pattern (lifetime abstainers, ex-drinkers, current infrequent/light/ moderate drinkers, and current heavy drinkers, chronic health and mental health status, and past-year ED visits as indicators. Results: LCA identified a four-class model. All members of Class 1 (35% of the sample; lowest-risk group were infrequent/light/moderate drinkers and exhibited the lowest probabilities of chronic health/ mental health problems; Class 2 (21%; low-risk group consisted entirely of lifetime abstainers and, despite being the oldest group, exhibited low probabilities of health/mental health problems; Class 3 (37%; moderate-risk group was evenly divided between ex-drinkers and heavy drinkers; and Class 4 (7%; high-risk group included all four groups of drinkers but more ex-drinkers. In addition, Class 4 had the highest probabilities of chronic health/mental problems, unhealthy behaviors, and repeat ED visits, with the highest proportion of Blacks and the lowest proportions of college graduates and employed persons, indicating significant roles of these risk factors. Conclusion: Alcohol nonuse/use (and quantity of use and chronic health conditions are significant contributors to varying levels of ED visit risk. Clinicians need to help heavy-drinking older adults reduce unhealthy alcohol consumption and help both heavy drinkers and ex-drinkers
Wilks, Chelsey; Yin, Qingqing; Ang, Sin Yee; Matsumiya, Brandon; Lungu, Anita; Linehan, Marsha
The need to develop effective and accessible interventions for suicidal individuals engaging in heavy episodic drinking (HED) cannot be understated. While the link between alcohol use and suicidality is a complex one that remains to be elucidated, emotion dysregulation may play a key role in alcohol-related suicide risk in these individuals. In the current study, an 8-week Internet-delivered dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) skills training intervention was developed and preliminarily evaluated for suicidal individuals who engage in HED to regulate emotions. The aim of the study is to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of the therapist-assisted and Internet-delivered intervention, and to inform the design of a subsequent full-scale study. The study was a pilot randomized controlled trial comparing participants receiving immediate-treatment (n=30) to waitlist controls (n=29) over a period of 16 weeks. Intervention effects will be assessed longitudinally using hierarchical linear modeling and generalized estimating equations, along with analyses of effect sizes and clinically significant change. The primary outcomes are suicidal ideation, alcohol problems, and emotion dysregulation. Secondary outcomes include alcohol-related consequences, reasons for living, skills use, and depression. The trial is ongoing. A total of 60 individuals returned their informed consent and were randomized, of whom 59 individuals were intended to treat. A total of 50 participants in the study were retained through the 16-week enrollment. There is a dearth of evidence-based treatment for individuals presenting with high risk and complex behaviors. Furthermore, computerized interventions may provide a beneficial alternative to traditional therapies. The particular clinical features and treatment needs of suicidal individuals who also engage in HED constitute key domains for further investigation that are needed to consolidate the design of appropriate interventions for this high
Full Text Available Objective. To estimate if there is a non-linear association between varying levels of alcohol use and poor mental health (depressive and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms in university students from low-, middle- and high-income countries. Methods. Using anonymous questionnaires, data were collected from 19 238 undergraduate university students (mean age 20.8; standard deviation (SD 2.8 from 27 universities in 26 countries across Asia, Africa and the Americas. Alcohol use was assessed in terms of number of drinks in the past 2 weeks and number of drinks per episode, and measures of depression and PTSD symptoms were administered. Results. The proportion of students with elevated depression scores was 12.3%, 16.9%, and 11.5% for non-drinkers, moderate drinkers, and heavy drinkers, respectively, while the proportion of students with high PTSD symptoms was 20.6%, 20.4% and 23.1% for non-drinkers, moderate drinkers, and heavy drinkers, respectively. Logistic regression found that non-drinkers and heavy drinkers had a lower odds than moderate drinkers to have severe depression, after adjusting for sociodemographic variables, social support and subjective health status. Further, heavy, more frequent drinkers and more frequent binge drinkers had a higher odds to have elevated PTSD symptoms than moderate and non-drinkers, after adjusting for sociodemographic variables, social support and subjective health status. Conclusion. The results suggest a reverse U-shaped association between recent alcohol use volume and frequency and depressive symptoms (unlike that previously identified, and a J-shaped association between binge drinking frequency and depressive symptoms and alcohol use and PTSD symptoms.
McCambridge, Jim; Bendtsen, Marcus; Karlsson, Nadine; White, Ian R; Bendtsen, Preben
Alcohol is responsible for a large and growing proportion of the global burden of disease, as well as being the cause of social problems. Brief interventions are one component of comprehensive policy measures necessary to reduce these harms. Brief interventions increasingly take advantage of the Internet to reach large numbers of high risk groups such as students. The research literature on the efficacy and effectiveness of online interventions is developing rapidly. Although many studies show benefits in the form of reduced consumption, other intervention studies show no effects, for reasons that are unclear. Sweden became the first country in the world to implement a national system in which all university students are offered a brief online intervention via an e-mail. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) aims to evaluate the effectiveness of this national system comprising a brief online intervention among university students who are hazardous and harmful drinkers. This study employs a conventional RCT design in which screening to determine eligibility precedes random allocation to immediate or delayed access to online intervention. The online intervention evaluated comprises three main components; assessment, normative feedback and advice on reducing drinking. Screening is confined to a single question in order to minimise assessment reactivity and to prevent contamination. Outcomes will be evaluated after 2 months, with total weekly alcohol consumption being the primary outcome measure. Invitations to participate are provided by e-mail to approximately 55,000 students in 9 Swedish universities. This RCT evaluates routine service provision in Swedish universities via a delay in offer of intervention to the control group. It evaluates effects in the key population for whom this intervention has been designed. Study findings will inform the further development of the national service provision. ISRCTN02335307.
Sarai R Boelema
Full Text Available Excessive alcohol use is assumed to affect maturation of cognitive functioning in adolescence. However, most existing studies that have tested this hypothesis are seriously flawed due to the use of selective groups and/or cross-sectional designs, which limits the ability to draw firm conclusions. This longitudinal study investigated whether patterns of alcohol use predicted differences in maturation of executive functioning in adolescence. Additionally, gender was tested as a possible moderator.We used data from the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS, which comprises a cohort of 2,230 Dutch adolescents. Maturation of executive functioning was measured by assessing the standardized improvement on each of four basic executive functions (i.e., inhibition, working memory, and shift- and sustained attention between ages 11 and 19. Participants were assigned to one of six (heavy drinking groups (i.e., non-drinkers, light drinkers, infrequent heavy drinkers, increased heavy drinkers, decreased heavy drinkers, and chronic heavy drinkers. We conducted linear regression analyses, and adjusted for relevant confounders.The six drinking groups did not reveal significant differences in maturation between drinking groups. E.g., maturation executive functioning of chronic heavy drinkers in comparison to non-drinkers; inhibition: B = -0.14, 95% CI [-0.41 to 0.14], working memory: B = -0.03, 95% CI [-0.26 to 0.21], shift attention: B = 0.13, 95% CI [-0.17 to 0.41], sustained attention: B = 0.12, 95% CI [-0.60 to 0.36]. Furthermore, gender was not found to be a significant moderator.Four years of weekly heavy drinking (i.e., chronic heavy drinkers did not result in measurable impairments in four basic executive functions. Thus, regular heavy drinking in adolescence does not seem to affect these basic behavioural measures of executive functioning.
Terlecki, Meredith A; Buckner, Julia D; Larimer, Mary E; Copeland, Amy L
This is the first randomized trial testing whether heavy-drinking undergraduates mandated to the Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS) program following a campus alcohol violation would benefit as much as heavy-drinking volunteers up to 1 year postintervention using control groups with high-risk drinkers to model disciplinary-related and naturalistic changes in drinking. Participants (61% male; 51% mandated; 84% Caucasian; M age = 20.14 years) were screened for heavy drinking and randomized to BASICS (n = 115) or assessment-only control (n = 110). Outcome measures (drinking, alcohol problems) were collected at baseline, 4 weeks, 3, 6, and 12 months postintervention. At 4 weeks postintervention, intent-to-treat multilevel longitudinal models showed that regardless of referral group (mandated or volunteer), BASICS significantly decreased weekly drinking, typical drinks, and peak drinks relative to controls (ds = .41-.92). BASICS had a large effect on decreases in alcohol problems (d = .87). At 12 months postintervention, BASICS participants (regardless of referral group) reported significantly fewer alcohol problems (d = .56) compared with controls. Significant long-term intervention gains for peak and typical drinks were sustained in both referral groups relative to controls (ds = .42; .11). Referral group had no significant main effect and did not interact with intervention condition to predict outcomes. Given that BASICS was associated with less drinking and fewer alcohol problems (even among heavier drinking mandated students up to 1 year postintervention), provision of BASICS-style programs within disciplinary settings may help reduce heavy and problematic drinking among at-risk students. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Rohsenow, Damaris J.
Administered a questionnaire on expected effects of alcohol to 150 college students. Results showed that subjects expected alcohol to affect other people more than themselves for both positive and negative effects. Moderate and heavy drinkers expected as much pleasure from alcohol as they expected others to receive. (Author/LLL)
King, Andrea C; de Wit, Harriet; McNamara, Patrick J; Cao, Dingcai
Excessive consumption of alcohol is a major problem in the United States and abroad. Despite many years of study, it is unclear why some individuals drink alcohol excessively while others do not. It has been postulated that either lower or greater acute responses to alcohol, or both, depending on the limb of the breath alcohol concentration curve, contribute to propensity for alcohol misuse. To prospectively assess the relationship of acute alcohol responses to future binge drinking. Within-subject, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multidose laboratory alcohol challenge study with intensive follow-up. Each participant completed 3 randomized sessions examining responses to a high (0.8 g/kg) and low (0.4 g/kg) alcohol dose and placebo, followed by quarterly assessments for 2 years examining drinking behaviors and alcohol diagnoses. Participants recruited from the community. High-risk heavy social drinkers aged 21 to 35 years who habitually engage in weekly binge drinking (n = 104) and light drinker controls (n = 86). We conducted 570 laboratory sessions with a subsequent 99.1% follow-up (1506 of 1520). Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale, Drug Effects Questionnaire, cortisol response, Timeline Follow-Back, Drinker Inventory of Consequences-Recent, and DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence. Alcohol produced greater stimulant and rewarding (liking and wanting) responses and lower sedative and cortisol responses in heavy vs light drinkers. Among the heavy drinkers, greater positive effects and lower sedative effects after alcohol consumption predicted increased binge drinking frequency during follow-up. In turn, greater frequency of binge drinking during follow-up was associated with greater likelihood of meeting diagnostic criteria for alcohol abuse and dependence. The widely held low level response theory and differentiator model should be revised: in high-risk drinkers, stimulant and rewarding alcohol responses even at peak breath alcohol concentrations are important
If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background One in five Australians consume alcohol at risky or harmful levels. Most (85% attend a general practitioner at least once a year, giving opportunity for detecting and providing brief interventions for reducing alcohol-related harm. Historically, detection rates of problem drinking have been low in general practice, producing lower prevalence estimates of heavy drinking than expected from population surveys. Method The BEACH program collects data from 100 consecutive patient consultations with 1000 GPs annually. For 40 consecutive encounters, GPs ask adult patients three questions on alcohol consumption (AUDIT-C. This paper reports the problems managed and treatments provided at encounters with heavy and non-heavy drinkers, grouped by their response to the 3rd question, and compares the two groups before and after standardisation for age and sex. Heavy drinking was defined as having 6 or more standard drinks at least once a week or more often. Results Heavy drinking was reported by 7.3% patients overall; more prevalent among men (13.8% than women (3.9%; and among Indigenous patients (18.5%. Prevalence was highest in young adults (18–24 years(12.7% and decreased with age. Patients from a non-English speaking background were less likely to be heavy drinkers. Heavy drinkers had more problems managed at encounters, more chronic problems, physical injuries and psychological problems (particularly depression managed than non-heavy drinkers. They were less likely to have respiratory complaints, ischaemic heart disease or diabetes managed. Conclusion Heavy drinkers are more likely than non- or light drinkers to see their GP for management of chronic problems, psychological problems and physical injuries. However, the wide range of morbidity managed in heavy drinkers means that relying on clinical impression alone to detect this group will not suffice and should be augmented with routine screening. Given the pressures of general
Yokoyama, Akira; Mizukami, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Tetsuji
Genetic polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogenase-1B (ADH1B) and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) modulate exposure levels to ethanol/acetaldehyde. Endoscopic screening of 6,014 Japanese alcoholics yielded high detection rates of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC; 4.1%) and head and neck SCC (1.0%). The risks of upper aerodigestive tract SCC/dysplasia, especially of multiple SCC/dysplasia, were increased in a multiplicative fashion by the presence of a combination of slow-metabolizing ADH1B*1/*1 and inactive heterozygous ALDH2*1/*2 because of prolonged exposure to higher concentrations of ethanol/acetaldehyde. A questionnaire asking about current and past facial flushing after drinking a glass (≈180 mL) of beer is a reliable tool for detecting the presence of inactive ALDH2. We invented a health-risk appraisal (HRA) model including the flushing questionnaire and drinking, smoking, and dietary habits. Esophageal SCC was detected at a high rate by endoscopic mass-screening in high HRA score persons. A total of 5.0% of 4,879 alcoholics had a history of (4.0%) or newly diagnosed (1.0%) gastric cancer. Their high frequency of a history of gastric cancer is partly explained by gastrectomy being a risk factor for alcoholism because of altered ethanol metabolism, e.g., by blood ethanol level overshooting. The combination of H. pylori-associated atrophic gastritis and ALDH2*1/*2 showed the greatest risk of gastric cancer in alcoholics. High detection rates of advanced colorectal adenoma/carcinoma were found in alcoholics, 15.7% of 744 immunochemical fecal occult blood test (IFOBT)-negative alcoholics and 31.5% of the 393 IFOBT-positive alcoholics. Macrocytosis with an MCV≥106 fl increased the risk of neoplasia in the entire aerodigestive tract of alcoholics, suggesting that poor nutrition as well as ethanol/acetaldehyde exposure plays an important role in neoplasia.
Results of previous studies on the relationship between habitual alcohol drinking and metabolic syndrome in a general population are not consistent, and this relationship in patients with diabetes is unknown. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship of alcohol consumption with metabolic syndrome in patients with diabetes. Japanese male workers with diabetes (n = 1960) were divided into non-, light (alcohol consumption with visceral obesity evaluated by waist circumference, high blood pressure, dyslipidemia (high triglycerides and/or low HDL cholesterol), hyperglycemia, and metabolic syndrome (3 or more of these risk factors by the NCEP-ATP III criteria) were investigated. Odds ratio vs. nondrinkers for high blood pressure was significantly high in all drinker groups, while odds ratio vs. nondrinkers for low HDL cholesterol was significantly low in all drinker groups. Odds ratio vs. nondrinkers for high triglycerides was significantly low in light drinkers and was significantly high in very heavy drinkers. Odds ratio vs. the nondrinker group for large waist circumference was not significant in any drinker groups. Odds ratio vs. nondrinkers for metabolic syndrome was significantly high in very heavy drinkers but was not significant in light and heavy drinkers. Excessive alcohol intake is associated with a higher risk for metabolic syndrome through elevations of blood pressure and triglycerides in Japanese male patients with diabetes.
Zhang, Shuisheng; Wang, Chengfeng; Huang, Huang; Jiang, Qinglong; Zhao, Dongbing; Tian, Yantao; Ma, Jie; Yuan, Wei; Sun, Yuemin; Che, Xu; Zhang, Jianwei; Chen, Haibo; Zhao, Yajie; Chu, Yunmian; Zhang, Yawei; Chen, Yingtai
The effects of alcohol drinking and smoking on pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) mortality are contradictory. Individuals who were diagnosed as PDAC and hospitalized at the China National Cancer Center between January 1999 and January 2016 were identified and included in the study. Ultimately, 1783 consecutive patients were included in the study. Patients were categorized as never, ex-drinkers/smokers or current drinkers/smokers. Hazard ratios (HRs) of all-cause mortality and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Compared with never drinkers, the HRs were 1.25 for ever drinkers, 1.24 for current drinkers, and 1.33 for ex-drinkers (trend P = 0.031). Heavy drinking and smoking period of 30 or more years were positive prognostic factors for PDAC. For different smoking and alcohol drinking status, only subjects who are both current smokers and current drinkers (HR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.03-2.05) were associated with reduced survival after PDAC compared to those who were never smokers and never drinkers. Patients who are alcohol drinkers and long-term smokers before diagnosis have a significantly higher risk of PDAC mortality. Compared to those who neither smoker nor drink, only patients who both smokers and drinkers were associated with reduced survival from PDAC.
Cicognani, Elvira; Zani, Bruna
This study investigated the role of sensation seeking, peer group drinking and self-efficacy in refusing to drink alcohol in influencing alcohol consumption of a sample of 588 Italian university students. Results confirmed that heavy drinkers are typically males living in university residences. Alcohol use is more frequent among students with…
Andrews-Chavez, Johanna Y; Lee, Christina S; Houser, Robert F; Falcon, Luis M; Tucker, Katherine L
There is little research on factors associated with alcohol consumption among Puerto Ricans living in the USA; thus the aim of the present study was to examine alcohol intake patterns, and factors associated with drinking categories, in a cohort of Puerto Rican adults in Massachusetts. Cross-sectional study. Descriptive and polytomous logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with drinking patterns, stratified by gender. Greater Boston area, MA, USA. Puerto Rican adults (n 1292), aged 45-75 years. Eight per cent of men and 39% of women were lifetime abstainers; 40% of men and 25% of women were former drinkers; 31 % of men and 27% of women were moderate drinkers; and 21% of men and 8% of women were heavy drinkers. Thirty-five per cent of participants reported drinking alcohol while taking medications with alcohol contraindications. After multivariable adjustment, young men were less likely than older men to be moderate drinkers. Among women, higher BMI, age, lower income and lower psychological acculturation were associated with abstention; age and lower perceived emotional support were associated with increased likelihood of former drinking; and women without v. with diabetes were more likely to be heavy drinkers. High prevalence of chronic disease, heavy drinking and alcohol use while taking medications with alcohol contraindications suggest an urgent need for better screening and interventions tailored to this rapidly growing Hispanic national subgroup. As heavy drinking appears to increase with acculturation for women, public health initiatives are needed to support appropriate alcohol use.
Dussaillant, Francisca; Fernandez, Miguel
To assess the degree to which relationships with heavy drinkers affect health and well-being of the Chilean population, and how this compares with previously published analyses of an Australian sample in order to establish intercultural differences in the effects of others' heavy drinking. Data are from a face-to-face survey of 1500 Chileans. Respondents were asked to identify people in their lives who were heavy drinkers. Information on respondents' well-being and health was collected using the Personal Well-Being Index and the EuroQol Group 5-Dimension Self-Report Questionnaire score (EQ-5D) index. Sociodemographic information was also gathered. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine whether heavy drinkers in the respondents' lives (both living in or out of their household) were related to health and well-being. Results were contrasted with those for Australia reported by Livingston et al. [in (2010) Impact of heavy drinkers on others' health and well-being. J Stud Alcohol Drugs 71: , 778-785]. Heavy drinkers inside the household negatively affect the health and well-being of Chileans. Heavy drinkers outside the household have a negative but smaller effect on their health and well-being. This contrasts with Australia where most of the harm seems to arise from heavy drinkers identified outside the household. In both countries, health and well-being are affected by others' heavy drinking. The particular structure of harm may vary across cultures: in Chile, heavy drinkers identified inside the household are the most harmful, whereas in Australia those identified outside the household are the most harmful. This should have an impact on the policy design. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
Townshend, Julia M; Kambouropoulos, Nicolas; Griffin, Alison; Hunt, Frances J; Milani, Raffaella M
The repeated pattern of heavy intoxication followed by withdrawal from alcohol (i.e., "binge drinking") has been found to have substantial adverse effects on prefrontal neural systems associated with decision-making and impulse control. Repeated binge drinking has been linked to risky and unplanned sexual behavior; however few studies have examined the role of impulsivity and related cognitive processes in understanding this association. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between binge drinking, "reflection impulsivity" (deficits in gathering and evaluating information during decision-making), alcohol-related expectancies, and unplanned sexual behavior in a sample of young social drinkers. Ninety-two university students completed the alcohol use questionnaire (AUQ) to measure alcohol intake and binge drinking. Two groups (low-binge and high-binge) were generated from the AUQ data. The Information Sampling Task (IST) was used to measure reflection impulsivity; the Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire (AEQ) for alcohol outcome expectancies; and an unplanned sexual behavior questionnaire, which asked about the number of unplanned sexual events. When compared to the low-binge drinking group, the high-binge drinkers had significantly more unplanned sexual encounters and were impaired on the IST, reflection-impulsivity task. They scored higher on the alcohol expectancy factors of sociability, risk and aggression, negative self-perception, and in particular liquid courage. In a regression analysis, number of unplanned sexual encounters, binge drinking score, and liquid courage were all significantly related. These results support the role of binge drinking in reduced impulse control and decision-making deficits. The findings indicate that high-binge drinkers demonstrate impairments on an impulse control task similar to that observed in dependent samples and this may be a factor in understanding the negative behavioral consequences associated with excessive
Woud, M.L.; Fitzgerald, D.A.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.; Rinck, M.; Becker, E.S.
Alcohol misuse is characterized by patterns of selective information processing. The present study investigated whether heavy- compared with light-drinking students, show evidence of an alcohol-related interpretation bias to ambiguous, alcohol-related cues. Toward this aim, participants were asked
Woud, M.L.; Fitzgerald, D.A.; Wiers, R.W.; Rinck, M.; Becker, E.S.
Alcohol misuse is characterized by patterns of selective information processing. The present study investigated whether heavy- compared with light-drinking students, show evidence of an alcohol-related interpretation bias to ambiguous, alcohol-related cues. Toward this aim, participants were asked
Tønnesen, H; Kaiser, A H; Nielsen, B B
Alcohol abusers have suppressed cellular immune function. The aim of the study was to investigate the time of sobriety required to normalize immune function. Delayed hypersensitivity was investigated during disulfiram controlled abstinence in ten heavy alcoholics and in seven moderate drinkers...... months of abstinence. The results suggest that while 2 weeks of abstinence from alcohol will improve the depressed cellular immunity, 2 months of sobriety is necessary to normalize it....
Powers, Gregory; Berger, Lisa; Fuhrmann, Daniel; Fendrich, Michael
A family history of alcoholism has been found associated with problematic alcohol use among college students, but less research has examined the effects of family history density of substance use problems in this population. This study examined the prevalence of family history density of substance use problems and its associations with heavy alcohol use, negative alcohol consequences, and alcohol use disorder in a college sample. Based on a secondary analysis of a probability sample, data were analyzed from 606 undergraduate students. Family history density of substance use problems included both first and second degree biological relatives. Heavy alcohol use was the total number of days in which participants drank five/four or more drinks for men/women, negative alcohol consequences were derived from items commonly asked in college student surveys, and an alcohol use disorder was defined as meeting diagnostic criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence. Point prevalence estimated rates of family history density of substance use problems, and negative binomial, ANCOVA, and logistic regression models examined associations between family history density and the alcohol variables while adjusting for sociodemographic variables. Family history density of substance use problems was not significantly associated with total days of heavy alcohol use. Having a second degree, a first degree, or both a first and second degree relative(s) with a substance use problem, however, was significantly associated with experiencing negative alcohol consequences. In addition, having both a first and second degree relative(s) with a substance use problem significantly increased the odds of having an alcohol use disorder. Family history density of substance use problems may play a role in experiencing negative alcohol consequences and in having an alcohol use disorder among undergraduate college students and may be an important risk factor to assess by college health professionals. Copyright
Kerr, William C; Greenfield, Thomas K; Ye, Yu; Bond, Jason; Rehm, Jürgen
To estimate age-period-cohort models predicting alcohol volume, heavy drinking and beverage-specific alcohol volume in order to evaluate whether the 1976-1985 birth cohorts drink relatively heavily. Data from seven cross-sectional surveys of the USA conducted between 1979 and 2010 were utilized in negative binomial generalized linear models of age, period and cohort effects predicting alcohol measures. General population surveys of the USA. Thirty-six thousand four hundred and thirty-two US adults (aged 18 years or older). Monthly number of alcohol drinks, beer, wine and spirits drinks, and days drinking five or more drinks in the past year derived from beverage-specific graduated frequency questions. Relative to the reference 1956-60 birth cohort, men in the 1976-1980 cohort for were found to consume more alcohol [incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.222: confidence interval (CI) 1.07-1.39) and to have more 5+ days (the number of days having five or more drinks) (IRR = 1.365: CI 1.09-1.71) as were men in the 1980-85 cohort for volume (IRR = 1.284: CI 1.10-1.50) and 5+ days (IRR = 1.437: CI 1.09-1.89). For women, those in the 1980-85 cohort were found to have higher alcohol volume (IRR = 1.299: CI 1.07-1.58) and more 5+ days (IRR = 1.547: CI 1.01-2.36). Beverage-specific models found different age patterns of volume by beverage with a flat age pattern for both genders' spirits and women's wine, an increasing age pattern for men's wine and a declining age pattern from those in their early 20s for beer. In the USA, men born between 1976 and 1985, and women born between 1981 and 1985 have higher alcohol consumption than in earlier or later years. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Eric R Pedersen
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe the feasibility of using Facebook as a platform to recruit and retain young adult veteran drinkers into an online-alcohol use intervention study. Facebook's wide accessibility and popularity among the age group that comprises the majority of veterans from the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan make it a compelling resource through which research can extend its reach to this otherwise hard-to-reach group. We developed a series of Facebook advertisement campaigns to reach veteran drinkers not specifically searching for alcohol treatment. In doing so, we recruited 793 valid veteran participants in approximately two weeks for an advertising cost of $4.53 per obtained participant. The study sample consisted primarily of male veterans, between 19 and 34 years of age, who were drinking at moderate to heavy levels. Although about half of the sample reported mental health comorbidity, few had received any mental health or substance use treatment in the past year. Facebook appears to be a valuable mechanism through which to recruit young veterans with unmet behavioral health needs, although more specific efforts may be needed to engage certain types of veterans after initial study enrollment.
Pedersen, Eric R; Naranjo, Diana; Marshall, Grant N
The objective of this study was to describe the feasibility of using Facebook as a platform to recruit and retain young adult veteran drinkers into an online-alcohol use intervention study. Facebook's wide accessibility and popularity among the age group that comprises the majority of veterans from the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan make it a compelling resource through which research can extend its reach to this otherwise hard-to-reach group. We developed a series of Facebook advertisement campaigns to reach veteran drinkers not specifically searching for alcohol treatment. In doing so, we recruited 793 valid veteran participants in approximately two weeks for an advertising cost of $4.53 per obtained participant. The study sample consisted primarily of male veterans, between 19 and 34 years of age, who were drinking at moderate to heavy levels. Although about half of the sample reported mental health comorbidity, few had received any mental health or substance use treatment in the past year. Facebook appears to be a valuable mechanism through which to recruit young veterans with unmet behavioral health needs, although more specific efforts may be needed to engage certain types of veterans after initial study enrollment.
Pedersen, Eric R.; Naranjo, Diana; Marshall, Grant N.
The objective of this study was to describe the feasibility of using Facebook as a platform to recruit and retain young adult veteran drinkers into an online-alcohol use intervention study. Facebook’s wide accessibility and popularity among the age group that comprises the majority of veterans from the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan make it a compelling resource through which research can extend its reach to this otherwise hard-to-reach group. We developed a series of Facebook advertisement campaigns to reach veteran drinkers not specifically searching for alcohol treatment. In doing so, we recruited 793 valid veteran participants in approximately two weeks for an advertising cost of $4.53 per obtained participant. The study sample consisted primarily of male veterans, between 19 and 34 years of age, who were drinking at moderate to heavy levels. Although about half of the sample reported mental health comorbidity, few had received any mental health or substance use treatment in the past year. Facebook appears to be a valuable mechanism through which to recruit young veterans with unmet behavioral health needs, although more specific efforts may be needed to engage certain types of veterans after initial study enrollment. PMID:28249027
Kim, Ha-Na; Song, Sang-Wook
We conducted this cross-sectional study to examine the relationships between problematic alcohol drinking, unhealthy habits and socio-demographic factors based on the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV). We analyzed a total of 13,488 participants based on the data collected from the KNHANES IV performed between 2007 and 2009. The frequency of binge and heavy drinking was significantly higher in men and the married participants with intermediate income. The frequency of binge drinking was higher in younger adults and individuals with at least high school graduates. After the adjustment of socio-demographic factors, the odds of current smoking (adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR] 4.11, 95% CI 3.35-5.03), abdominal obesity (aOR 1.26, 95% CI 1.08-1.48), stress (aOR 1.45, 95% CI 1.261.68), and depressed mood (aOR 1.31, 95% CI 1.08-1.58) were greater in heavy drinkers than in nondrinkers. The odds of current smoking (aOR 1.73, 95% CI 1.42-2.09 for infrequent binge drinking and aOR 4.95, 95% CI 4.25-5.77 for frequent binge drinking), obesity (aOR 1.22, 95% CI 1.06-1.41 for infrequent binge drinking and aOR 1.64, 95% CI 1.46-1.85 for frequent binge drinking), and abdominal obesity (aOR 1.22, 95% CI 1.04-1.43 for infrequent binge drinking and aOR 1.55, 95% CI 1.36-1.77 for frequent binge drinking) were increased with the increased frequency of the binge drinking. Our results would be of help for screening a specific subgroup of individuals who are vulnerable to alcohol drinking by establishing effective population-based strategies to reduce the problematic drinking.
Light-to-moderate alcohol drinking has been shown to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes, for which obesity is a primary risk factor. The aim of this study was to determine whether drinking alcohol influences the relationship between obesity and hyperglycemia. The relationships of adiposity indices with hyperglycemia were compared among middle-aged Japanese men (N = 12,627) who were non-, light-to-moderate (alcohol drinking and high adiposity index were significantly lower than the reference level in the light-to-moderate and heavy drinkers (OR with 95% confidence interval: high BMI, 0.61 [0.41, 0.91] in light-to-moderate drinkers and 0.64 [0.48, 0.85] in heavy drinkers; high WHtR, 0.57 [0.38, 0.85] in light-to-moderate drinkers and 0.66 [0.50, 0.88] in heavy drinkers) but were not significantly different from the reference level in very heavy drinkers (high BMI, 0.90 [0.65, 1.25]; high WHtR, 1.04 [0.74, 1.46]). The associations between obesity and hyperglycemia were weaker in light-to-moderate drinkers than in nondrinkers. Thus, light-to-moderate drinking may reduce the impact of obesity on the risk for diabetes.
Mohapatra, Satya; Patra, Jayadeep; Popova, Svetlana; Duhig, Amy; Rehm, Jürgen
A comprehensive review of cost drivers associated with alcohol abuse, heavy drinking, and alcohol dependence for high-income countries was conducted. The data from 14 identified cost studies were tabulated according to the potential direct and indirect cost drivers. The costs associated with alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence, and heavy drinking were calculated. The weighted average of the total societal cost due to alcohol abuse as percent gross domestic product (GDP)--purchasing power parity (PPP)--was 1.58%. The cost due to heavy drinking and/or alcohol dependence as percent GDP (PPP) was estimated to be 0.96%. On average, the alcohol-attributable indirect cost due to loss of productivity is more than the alcohol-attributable direct cost. Most of the countries seem to incur 1% or more of their GDP (PPP) as alcohol-attributable costs, which is a high toll for a single factor and an enormous burden on public health. The majority of alcohol-attributable costs incurred as a consequence of heavy drinking and/or alcohol dependence. Effective prevention and treatment measures should be implemented to reduce these costs.
Valencia-Martín, José Lorenzo; Galán, Iñaki; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando
To examine the association between alcohol drinking patterns and health-related quality of life (HRQL). Population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008-2010 among 12,715 adult individuals in Spain. HRQL was assessed with the SF-12 questionnaire and alcohol intake with a diet history. The threshold between average moderate drinking and average heavy drinking was ≥ 40 g/day of alcohol in men and ≥ 24 g/day in women. Binge drinking was defined as the intake of ≥ 80 g in men and ≥ 60 g in women at any drinking session during the preceding 30 days. Analyses were performed with linear regression and adjusted for the main confounders. Compared to non-drinkers, all types of average drinkers reported better scores on the SF-12 physical component: β=1.42 (95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.81) in moderate drinkers and β=1.86 (1.07 to 2.64) in heavy drinkers. In contrast, average alcohol consumption was not associated with the mental component of the SF-12. The number of binge drinking episodes and most types of beverage preference showed no association with physical or mental HRQL. Alcohol drinkers, including those with heavy drinking, reported better physical HRQL than non-drinkers. © 2013.
Albers, Alison Burke; DeJong, William; Naimi, Tim; Siegel, Michael; Jernigan, David H.
We examined the influence of price on alcohol brand choice among underage youth. Using a national sample of 1,032 youth ages 13–20, recruited from a national internet panel in 2011–2012, we compared differences in mean prices between popular and unpopular brands; examined the association of price and brand popularity using logistic regression; and rank ordered the average price of top brands. Lower brand-specific prices were significantly associated with higher levels of past 30-day consumption prevalence. However, youth did not preferentially consume the cheapest brands. These findings indicate that youth have preferences for certain brands, even if those brands cost more than competing brands. Our study highlights the need for research on the impact of brand-specific alcohol marketing on underage drinking. PMID:25183436
Andrews, Judy A.; Hampson, Sarah; Peterson, Missy
The present study predicts heavy alcohol use across the high school years (age 14 through 18) from cognitions regarding the use of alcohol assessed in middle school. Using Latent Growth Modeling, we examined a structural model using data from 1011 participants in the Oregon Youth Substance Use Project. In this model, social images and descriptive norms regarding alcohol use in grade 7 were related to willingness and intention to drink alcohol in grade 8 and these variables were subsequently r...
Carlson, Emily; Holtyn, August F; Fingerhood, Michael; Friedman-Wheeler, Dara; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie S; Silverman, Kenneth
A clinical trial demonstrated that a therapeutic workplace could promote alcohol abstinence in homeless, alcohol-dependent adults. This secondary-data analysis examined rates of homelessness and their relation to the therapeutic workplace intervention and alcohol use during the trial. In the trial, homeless, alcohol-dependent adults could work in a therapeutic workplace for 6 months and were randomly assigned to Unpaid Training, Paid Training, or Contingent Paid Training groups. Unpaid Training participants were not paid for working. Paid Training participants were paid for working. Contingent Paid Training participants were paid for working if they provided alcohol-negative breath samples. Rates of homelessness during the study were calculated for each participant and the three groups were compared. Mixed-effects regression models were conducted to examine the relation between alcohol use (i.e., heavy drinking, drinks per drinking day, and days of alcohol abstinence) and homelessness. Unpaid Training, Paid Training, and Contingent Paid Training participants did not differ in the percentage of study days spent homeless (31%, 28%, 17%; respectively; F(2,94)=1.732, p=0.183). However, participants with more heavy drinking days (b=0.350, phomeless. Reducing heavy drinking and alcohol use may help homeless, alcohol-dependent adults transition out of homelessness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Eric R Pedersen; Diana Naranjo; Grant N Marshall
... through which research can extend its reach to this otherwise hard-to-reach group. We developed a series of Facebook advertisement campaigns to reach veteran drinkers not specifically searching for alcohol treatment...
Is Prepartying a Cause of Heavy Drinking and Consequences Rather Than Just a Correlate? A Longitudinal Look at the Relationship Between Prepartying, Alcohol Approval, and Subsequent Drinking and Consequences.
LaBrie, Joseph W; Earle, Andrew M; Hummer, Justin F; Boyle, Sarah C
Prepartying, or drinking before an event where more alcohol may or may not be consumed, has been positioned in the literature as a behavior engaged in by heavy drinkers. However, recent findings suggest that prepartying may confer distinct risks, potentially causing students to become heavier drinkers over time. The goals of this study were to disentangle the longitudinal relationships between prepartying, general and episodic alcohol consumption, and alcohol-related consequences by investigating (1) whether prepartying is associated with future consequences above and beyond current alcohol consumption habits and (2) whether augmentations in approval for alcohol and related increases in drinking mediate this relationship. One-hundred and ninety-five undergraduates completed online questionnaires at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months later. Prepartying frequency was more strongly related to alcohol-related consequences one year later than was overall or episodic drinking. In addition, a path mediation model confirmed our hypothesis that this relationship is due to gradual increases in drinking which occur as a result of more approving attitudes toward alcohol brought on by exposure to prepartying. Conclusion/Importance: Findings suggest a new model for conceptualizing the relationship between prepartying, drinking, and consequences whereby students who get involved in prepartying may witness slow increases in their approval for alcohol use and, as a result, consumption. Importantly, results suggest that the increases in drinking displayed by prepartiers over the course of a year may account for the strong relationship between prepartying and later consequences. Prevention and intervention initiatives may benefit from directly targeting prepartying as a means of tempering risky alcohol use trajectories during one's college tenure.
Brannon, Laura A; Pilling, Valerie K
Public Service Announcements tailored to specific college drinking rituals (Treise, Wolburg and Otnes 1999) were tested on 133 underage undergraduate drinkers. More significant reductions in drinking intentions were found when using appeals focusing on drinking rituals pertaining to Maturity/Order (older students drink moderately: "Don't drink like a freshman.") than to Transformation (desired personality and mood changes), Community (social bonding and camaraderie), or a no-message Control. Gender did not moderate this effect. Underage drinkers may drink, in part, to feel more "grown up." Emphasizing that more senior students actually drink responsibly may diminish this belief and result in reduced alcohol consumption among underage students.
Molteno, Christopher D.; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Carter, R. Colin; Jacobson, Joseph L.
Infant symbolic play was examined in relation to prenatal alcohol exposure and socioenvironmental background and to predict which infants met criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) at 5 years. A total of 107 Cape-Colored, South African infants born to heavy drinking mothers and abstainers/light drinkers were recruited prenatally. Complexity of…
McNaughton Reyes, Heathe Luz; Foshee, Vangie A.; Bauer, Daniel J.; Ennett, Susan T.
We examined the hypothesis that family, peer and neighborhood violence would moderate relations between heavy alcohol use and adolescent dating violence perpetration such that relations would be stronger for teens in violent contexts. Random coefficients growth models were used to examine the main and interaction effects of heavy alcohol use and four measures of violence (family violence, friend dating violence, friend peer violence and neighborhood violence) on levels of physical dating viol...
Murphy, James G; Benson, Trisha A; Vuchinich, Rudy E; Deskins, Mary M; Eakin, David; Flood, Amanda M; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E; Torrealday, Ohiana
This study evaluated the relative efficacy of personalized drinking feedback (PDF) delivered with and without a motivational interview (MI) for college student drinkers. Heavy-drinking college students (N = 54; 691% female) were identified from a large screening sample and randomly assigned either to receive PDF during a single MI session or to receive PDF without an MI. Of these participants, 51 (94%) completed a 6-month follow-up assessment that included measures of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. At 6-months postintervention, participants in both groups showed significant, small to moderate reductions in alcohol consumption, but the groups did not differ. Women showed larger reductions than men. Rates of alcohol-related problems remained relatively unchanged. The hypothesis that an MI would enhance the efficacy of PDF was not supported.
Mwiru, Ramadhani Stephano; Nagu, Tumaini Joseph; Kaduri, Pamela; Fawzi, Wafaie; Mugusi, Ferdinand
There is scarcity of information on the burden of alcohol use among people living with HIV in Tanzania despite the high burden of HIV. We examined the prevalence and factors associated with alcohol use among HIV and tuberculosis (TB) co-infected patients in fourteen clinics with highest notification of TB in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, between October 2010 and December 2011. Proportions were used to describe the prevalence and pattern of alcohol use. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of various participant characteristics with alcohol use. Out of the 515 participants, 38 (7.4%) were current alcohol drinkers, 183 (35.5%) were ex-drinkers and the rest, 294 (57.1%) denied ever drinking alcohol. Approximately, 15% of past and current drinkers were classified as heavy drinkers. Patients with normal BMI, cigarette smokers, and those with higher income were more likely to be drinkers. Similarly, compared to civil servants, those in petty trade and other occupations were more likely to be drinkers. We concluded that, the level of current alcohol use among HIV positive people receiving pulmonary TB treatment in this population was low. Nevertheless, alcohol use screening and assessment should be added as an integral part of service provision in HIV clinics given the effect of alcohol on health outcomes among HIV positive patients.
To determine whether body weight influences the associations of habitual alcohol drinking with blood pressure and serum lipids in women. The subjects were 16,805 healthy women at ages of 35-54 years, and data were collected at work places of the subjects in Yamagata Prefecture in Japan from April 1999 to March 2000. The subjects were divided into three tertile groups of body weight and were further divided into three subgroups by average ethanol intake [non-, light ( or =15 g per day) drinkers]. In the first and second tertile groups of body weight, mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure and prevalence of high systolic or diastolic blood pressure were significantly higher in heavy drinkers than in non-drinkers, while these differences were not observed in the third tertile group of body weight. On the other hand, in all tertile groups of body weight, mean serum HDL and LDL cholesterol levels were higher and lower, respectively, in light and heavy drinkers than in non-drinkers, and prevalence of low HDL cholesterol or high LDL cholesterol was significantly lower in heavy drinkers than in non-drinkers. The results suggest that body weight influences the association of alcohol drinking with blood pressure but not the associations of alcohol drinking with serum HDL and LDL cholesterol.
McGee, Christie L.; Bjorkquist, Olivia A.; Price, Joseph M.; Mattson, Sarah N.; Riley, Edward P.
Based on caregiver report, children with prenatal alcohol exposure have difficulty with social functioning, but little is known about their social cognition. The current study assessed the social information processing patterns of school-age children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure using a paradigm based on Crick and Dodge's reformulated…
This paper uses the widespread variation across states in the timing of adoption of tougher drunk driving laws that set very low legal blood alcohol limits for drivers under age 21--"zero tolerance" (ZT) laws--to provide new evidence on the causal effect of alcohol use on youth suicide. ZT laws reduced heavy episodic drinking by underage men, with…
Heffernan, Tom; Moss, Mark; Ling, Jonathan
Chronic alcohol abuse has a detrimental effect on retrospective memory. Less is known about its putative effects on everyday memory. This study looked at self-ratings of prospective memory (PM) (memory for future events). After controlling for other drug and strategy use, chronic heavy alcohol users showed global impairments in PM, when compared to matched controls. The underlying mechanisms are discussed.
Qiao, Yu; Shi, Rui; Hou, Bingbo; Wu, Lingmin; Zheng, Lihui; Ding, Ligang; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Shu; Yao, Yan
The effect of alcohol consumption on substrate remodeling and ablation outcome of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) remains unknown. We performed circumferential pulmonary vein isolation (CPVI) and voltage mapping of left atrium (LA) during sinus rhythm in 122 consecutive patients with symptomatic PAF (age, 55.4±9.4 years; 73.8% men). Low-voltage zones (LVZs) were semiquantitatively estimated and presented as low-voltage index (LVI). Each patient's daily alcohol consumption history was recorded at baseline and classified into alcohol abstainers, moderate drinkers, and heavy drinkers based on the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism definition. Follow-up was ≥12 months for AF recurrence. Alcohol abstainers and moderate and heavy drinkers were 70 (57.4%), 13 (10.6%), and 39 (32.0%), respectively. In total, LVZs were observed in 44 patients (36.1%). Daily alcohol consumption independently predicted presence of LVZs (odds ratio [OR], 1.097; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.001-1.203; P=0.047). During mean follow-up of 20.9±5.9 months, 40 patients (35.1%) experienced AF recurrence. Success rate was 81.3%, 69.2%, and 35.1% in alcohol abstainers, moderate drinkers, and heavy drinkers, respectively (overall log rank, Palcohol consumption and LVI were independent predictors of AF recurrence (hazard ratio [HR], 1.579; 95% CI, 1.085-2.298; P=0.017; HR, 2.188; 95% CI, 1.582-3.026; Palcohol consumption on AF ablation outcomes. Daily alcohol consumption was associated with atrial remodelling, and heavy drinkers have substantial risk for AF recurrence after CPVI. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.
Pál, László; Árnyas, Ervin M; Bujdosó, Orsolya; Baranyi, Gergő; Rácz, Gábor; Ádány, Róza; McKee, Martin; Szűcs, Sándor
A large volume of alcoholic beverages containing aliphatic alcohols is consumed worldwide. Previous studies have confirmed the presence of ethanol-induced immunosuppression in heavy drinkers, thereby increasing susceptibility to infectious diseases. However, the aliphatic alcohols contained in alcoholic beverages might also impair immune cell function, thereby contributing to a further decrease in microbicidal activity. Previous research has shown that aliphatic alcohols inhibit phagocytosis by granulocytes but their effect on human monocytes has not been studied. This is important as they play a crucial role in engulfment and killing of pathogenic microorganisms and a decrease in their phagocytic activity could lead to impaired antimicrobial defence in heavy drinkers. The aim of this study was to measure monocyte phagocytosis following their treatment with those aliphatic alcohols detected in alcoholic beverages. Monocytes were separated from human peripheral blood and phagocytosis of opsonized zymosan particles by monocytes treated with ethanol and aliphatic alcohols individually and in combination was determined. It was shown that these alcohols could suppress the phagocytic activity of monocytes in a concentration-dependent manner and when combined with ethanol, they caused a further decrease in phagocytosis. Due to their additive effects, it is possible that they may inhibit phagocytosis in a clinically meaningful way in alcoholics and episodic heavy drinkers thereby contribute to their increased susceptibility to infectious diseases. However, further research is needed to address this question.
Fryer, Susanna L; Mattson, Sarah N; Jernigan, Terry L; Archibald, Sarah L; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Riley, Edward P
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders result from heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and are characterized, in some cases, by central nervous system anomalies and cognitive impairment. Regional patterns of neuroanatomical abnormalities suggest that alcohol exerts selective damage on the developing fetal brain. This study assessed brain-behavior relationships in a sample of youth with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure. The aim was to characterize how structural brain alterations observed in our previous studies relate to cognitive deficits commonly reported in individuals with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure. Twenty-one youth (mean age 13 years) with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and 7 nonexposed healthy comparison subjects underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging and neurobehavioral testing. Regional brain volumes within the alcohol-exposed group were correlated with neuropsychological measures of cognitive control and verbal learning/recall, as these aspects of cognition have previously been shown to be vulnerable to alcohol teratogenesis. Between-group effect sizes revealed moderate to large cognitive performance and brain volume decrements in alcohol-exposed subjects, compared with typically developing peers. Within the alcohol-exposed group, volume of the caudate nuclei was the most consistent predictor of neuropsychological performance, after controlling for potentially confounding variables including total brain volume, IQ, and age. These data are consistent with previous research associating gestational alcohol exposure with structural and functional changes of the caudate nucleus. Our findings extend this previous work by demonstrating that volume reductions of the caudate have behavioral relevance for this population, in relation to cognitive control and verbal learning and recall abilities. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Hill, Mallory K.
A total of 366 American Indian students in grades 7 through 12 completed the PRIDE questionnaire. Recent alcohol use was reported by 31.9% of students, whereas 26.7% reported frequent episodic heavy drinking. One in three students felt it was harmful/very harmful to use alcohol and less than half felt alcohol was easy/very easy to obtain. A series…
Malaak Nasser Moussa
Full Text Available Recent census data has found that roughly 40% of adults 65 years and older not only consume alcohol but also drink more of it than previous generations. Older drinkers are more vulnerable than younger counterparts to the psychoactive effects of alcohol due to natural biological changes that occur with aging. This study was specifically designed to measure the effect of long-term moderate alcohol consumption on cognitive health in older adult drinkers. An extensive battery of validated tests commonly used in aging and substance use literature was used to measure performance in specific cognitive domains, including working memory and attention. An age (young, old * alcohol consumption (light, moderate factorial study design was used to evaluate the main effects of age and alcohol consumption on cognitive performance. The focus of the study was then limited to light and moderate older drinkers, and whether or not long–term moderate alcohol consumption exacerbated age-related cognitive decline. No evidence was found to support the idea that long-term moderate alcohol consumption in older adults exacerbates age-related cognitive decline. Findings were specific to healthy community dwelling social drinkers in older age and they should not be generalized to individuals with other consumption patterns, like heavy drinkers, binge drinkers or ex-drinkers.
Moussa, Malaak N; Simpson, Sean L; Mayhugh, Rhiannon E; Grata, Michelle E; Burdette, Jonathan H; Porrino, Linda J; Laurienti, Paul J
Recent census data has found that roughly 40% of adults 65 years and older not only consume alcohol but also drink more of it than previous generations. Older drinkers are more vulnerable than younger counterparts to the psychoactive effects of alcohol due to natural biological changes that occur with aging. This study was specifically designed to measure the effect of long-term moderate alcohol consumption on cognitive health in older adult drinkers. An extensive battery of validated tests commonly used in aging and substance use literature was used to measure performance in specific cognitive domains, including working memory and attention. An age (young, old) (*) alcohol consumption (light, moderate) factorial study design was used to evaluate the main effects of age and alcohol consumption on cognitive performance. The focus of the study was then limited to light and moderate older drinkers, and whether or not long-term moderate alcohol consumption exacerbated age-related cognitive decline. No evidence was found to support the idea that long-term moderate alcohol consumption in older adults exacerbates age-related cognitive decline. Findings were specific to healthy community dwelling social drinkers in older age and they should not be generalized to individuals with other consumption patterns, like heavy drinkers, binge drinkers or ex-drinkers.
DeMartini, Kelly S; Fucito, Lisa M
Sleep disturbance and heavy drinking increase risk of negative consequences in college students. Limited research exists on how they act synergistically, and the overall nature of sleep and sleep-related impairment in college student drinkers is poorly understood. A latent profile analysis was conducted on the sleep characteristics and daytime sleep-related consequences of college student drinkers who were at-risk based on Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption scores. Participants (N = 312, mean age = 18.90 (0.97) years) consumed a mean (SD) of 20.93 (13.04) drinks per week. Scores on the 10 items of the Sleep/Wake Behavior Problems Scale (SWPS) were the class indicators. Four classes best described the sleep and sleep-related consequences of at-risk college drinkers. Classes represented different gradients and types of sleep patterns and sleep-related impairment; nearly half the sample reported late bedtimes and daytime consequences of insufficient sleep. Subsequent validation analyses indicated that these classes were directly correspondent with severity of alcohol consumption, alcohol-related consequences illicit substance use, and perceived health. These findings indicate the presence of significant heterogeneity in college drinkers' sleep patterns and experiences of sleep-related impairment. Class differences significantly impact the level of alcohol and drug use and the consequences members experience. Greater alcohol use and sleep/wake problems are associated with increased risk for negative consequences for certain classes. These results suggest that college drinking interventions could benefit from the incorporation of sleep-related content and the value in adding brief alcohol assessments and interventions to other college health treatments.
Holahan, Charles J; Schutte, Kathleen K; Brennan, Penny L; Holahan, Carole K; Moos, Rudolf H
Research on moderate drinking has focused on the average level of drinking. Recently, however, investigators have begun to consider the role of the pattern of drinking, particularly heavy episodic drinking, in mortality. The present study examined the combined roles of average drinking level (moderate vs. high) and drinking pattern (regular vs. heavy episodic) in 20-year total mortality among late-life drinkers. The sample comprised 1,121 adults ages 55-65 years. Alcohol consumption was assessed at baseline, and total mortality was indexed across 20 years. We used multiple logistic regression analyses controlling for a broad set of sociodemographic, behavioral, and health status covariates. Among individuals whose high level of drinking placed them at risk, a heavy episodic drinking pattern did not increase mortality odds compared with a regular drinking pattern. Conversely, among individuals who engage in a moderate level of drinking, prior findings showed that a heavy episodic drinking pattern did increase mortality risk compared with a regular drinking pattern. Correspondingly, a high compared with a moderate drinking level increased mortality risk among individuals maintaining a regular drinking pattern, but not among individuals engaging in a heavy episodic drinking pattern, whose pattern of consumption had already placed them at risk. Findings highlight that low-risk drinking requires that older adults drink low to moderate average levels of alcohol and avoid heavy episodic drinking. Heavy episodic drinking is frequent among late-middle-aged and older adults and needs to be addressed along with average consumption in understanding the health risks of late-life drinkers.
Pérez-Diaz, Claudine; Huré, Marie-Sylvie
In 1992, France passed a specific penal law on intimate partner violence. The present study explores the functioning of this new law by examining the characteristics of perpetrators in cases that were tried rather than dismissed. Additionally, the characteristics of heavy drinkers were compared with those of non-heavy drinkers. We analysed all cases of intimate partner violence processed in the years 1999-2000 by a major court of the Paris metropolitan area. Data were collected on 223 perpetrators (all 166 tried perpetrators and 10% of the 570 perpetrators whose case was dismissed) and how cases were handled institutionally. Logistic regression was used to identify perpetrator characteristics significantly associated with being tried (vs. dismissed) and being a heavy drinker. Being tried was significantly more likely if the perpetrator had inflicted an injury, engaged in prior aggression and was a heavy drinker. Heavy drinking perpetrators were significantly more likely than non-heavy drinkers to have been drinking before the act. They were less likely to be under 40, more likely to be French, part of a stable couple and to have engaged in various types of prior aggression. In 2000, heavy drinking was associated with increased risk of being tried and with drinking before the act. Heavy drinkers are more likely to have committed all forms of aggression, but only verbal aggression is significant. In 2000, judges gave heavy drinkers harsher sentences and a 2007 law sanctioned them even more severely. Our results suggest that treatment focused on problem drinking could be a helpful response-perhaps more so than harsher sentences-to intimate partner violence. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Andrews, Judy A; Hampson, Sarah; Peterson, Missy
The present study predicts heavy alcohol use across the high school years (aged 14 through 18) from cognitions regarding the use of alcohol assessed in middle school. Using Latent Growth Modeling, we examined a structural model using data from 1011 participants in the Oregon Youth Substance Use Project. In this model, social images and descriptive norms regarding alcohol use in grade 7 were related to willingness and intention to drink alcohol in grade 8 and these variables were subsequently related to the intercept and slope of extent of heavy drinking across the high school years (grades 9 through 12). Across the sample, both descriptive norms and social images influenced the intercept of heavy drinking (in the 9th grade) through willingness to drink alcohol. Multiple sample analyses showed that social images also were directly related to the intercept of heavy drinking, for girls only. Results suggest that cognitions regarding alcohol use in middle school predict subsequent heavy drinking in high school. These findings emphasize the need for prevention programs targeting changing students' social images and encouraging a more accurate perception of peers' use when students are in middle school. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sean M. Molnar
Full Text Available Heavy episodic drinking is prevalent among young adults and is a public issue of increasing importance. Its initiation and maintenance are associated with deficits in the capacity to inhibit automatic processing in favor of non-habitual responses. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to examine behavioral and brain activity indices of cognitive control during the Stroop task as a function of binge drinking. Heavy episodic drinkers (HED reported consuming 5+/6+ drinks in two hours at least five times in the past six months and were compared to light drinkers (LED who reported two or fewer binge episodes but were matched on demographics, intelligence and family history of alcoholism. Greater conflict-induced activity in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC and thalamus was observed in HED participants and it was positively correlated with alcohol intake and alcohol-related harmful consequences. HEDs maintained intact accuracy but at a cost of prolonged reaction times to high-conflict trials and increased ratings of task difficulty. Greater activation of the areas implicated in cognitive control is consistent with compensatory network expansion to meet higher cognitive demands. These results provide further insight into degradation of cognitive control in HEDs which may benefit development of detection and prevention strategies.
Miller, Peter M; Ravenel, Michele C; Mauldin, Mary P; Sulkowski, Stanley; Lowndes, Arden; Thomas, Suzanne E
Regular heavy alcohol use can cause or worsen several oral health disorders and is associated with complications during and after dental procedures. Dental student education should provide detailed knowledge of these issues together with skills needed to detect and counsel patients with unhealthy drinking patterns. This project was designed to develop and evaluate a five-module, online program to teach dental students about alcohol and oral health, systemic and oral biological effects of heavy drinking, required changes to treatment protocols for heavy drinkers, reliable methods of alcohol screening, and ways to provide heavy drinkers with brief interventions. Results indicated that the online program resulted in significant changes in knowledge, attitudes, and behavior. This online format could easily be incorporated into an already crowded dental school curriculum, with students learning the material at their own pace and in their own available time.
Askgaard, Gro; Tolstrup, Janne S.; Gerds, Thomas A.
OBJECTIVE: Heavy drinking following liver transplantation decreases survival. Little is known of predictors of heavy drinking, which should guide clinicians identifying patients at high risk of return to heavy drinking after transplantation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We calculated the cumulative...... incidence of heavy drinking among patients transplanted for alcoholic liver disease in Denmark 1990-2013. We then analyzed pre-transplant demographic and psychiatric characteristics as predictors of post-transplant heavy drinking. Information was obtained from medical records, from nationwide registries...... and by interview. RESULTS: Among 156 liver-transplanted patients, the cumulative incidence of heavy drinking was 18%, 24% and 27% after 5, 10 and 15 years post-transplant. In univariate analyses of pre-transplant predictors of heavy drinking after transplantation, younger age (p
Tanskanen, A; Tuomilehto, J; Viinamäki, H; Vartiainen, E; Lehtonen, J; Puska, P
To estimate the relationship between joint heavy use of alcohol, cigarettes and coffee, and the risk of suicide in a general population with high rate of suicide. Prospective cohort analyses. Finland. Data from 36,689 adult (age range 25-64 years) men and women who participated in the population surveys between 1972 and 1992. The mortality of the cohort was monitored for a mean of 14.4 years, which yielded 169 suicides. Criteria for heavy use of each psychoactive substance were defined as follows: alcohol (> 120 g/week), cigarettes (> or = 21/day) and coffee (> or = seven cups/day). About half the men and 80% of the women did not use any of the psychoactive substances heavily. Every third man and every fifth woman used one substance heavily, and the prevalence for those who exceeded criteria for joint heavy use of two substances was 9% for men and 1% for women. Joint heavy use of all three substances was rare. The adjusted relative risk of suicide increased linearly with increasing level of joint heavy use of alcohol, cigarettes and coffee. Among subjects with heavy use of one substance the risk was 1.55 (95% CI = 1.10, 2.18), with joint heavy use of two substances 2.22 (95% CI = 1.37, 3.61), and with joint heavy use of all three substances 3.99 (95% CI = 1.80, 8.84) compared with no heavy use. Clustering of the heavy use of alcohol, cigarettes and coffee could serve as a new marker for increased risk of suicide.
McNaughton Reyes, Heathe Luz; Vangie A Foshee; Bauer, Daniel J.; Ennett, Susan T.
The current study examined the role of heavy alcohol use in the developmental process of desistance in physical dating aggression during adolescence. Using longitudinal data spanning grades 8 through 12 we tested the hypotheses that (a) higher levels of early heavy alcohol use would be associated with decreased deceleration from dating aggression during late adolescence and (b) higher levels of heavy alcohol use during time-points in late adolescence would be contemporaneously associated with...
The heart and vascular system are susceptible to the harmful effects of alcohol. Alcohol is an active toxin that undergoes widespread diffusion throughout the body, causing multiple synchronous and synergistic effects. Alcohol consumption decreases myocardial contractility and induces arrhythmias and dilated cardiomyopathy, resulting in progressive cardiovascular dysfunction and structural damage. Alcohol, whether at binge doses or a high cumulative lifetime consumption-both of which should be discouraged-is clearly deleterious for the cardiovascular system, increasing the incidence of total and cardiovascular mortality, coronary and peripheral artery disease, heart failure, stroke, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, and diabetes mellitus. However, epidemiological, case-control studies and meta-analyses have shown a U-type bimodal relationship so that low-to-moderate alcohol consumption (particularly of wine or beer) is associated with a decrease in cardiovascular events and mortality, compared with abstention. Potential confounding influences-alcohol-dose quantification, tobacco use, diet, exercise, lifestyle, cancer risk, accidents, and dependence-can affect the results of studies of both low-dose and high-dose alcohol consumption. Mendelian methodological approaches have led to doubts regarding the beneficial cardiovascular effects of alcohol, and the overall balance of beneficial and detrimental effects should be considered when making individual and population-wide recommendations, as reductions in alcohol consumption should provide overall health benefits.
Wei, Jill; Barnett, Nancy P; Clark, Melissa
To examine attendance at alcohol-service and alcohol-free parties among college students, and to compare alcohol consumption on nights of these parties. A random sample of 556 students (38.6% male) completed a web survey that measured past-semester alcohol use, alcohol-service party attendance, alcohol-free party attendance, and alcohol consumed on the nights of recent parties. Participants were twice as likely to attend alcohol-service parties as they were to attend alcohol-free parties (90% vs. 44%). First-year students and Black students were more likely than other students to attend alcohol-free parties. Alcohol use was higher in students who attended alcohol-service parties but there were no differences in levels of alcohol use between students who attended alcohol-free parties and those who did not. Pre-gaming was more prevalent, but the number of drinks and intoxication were lower on nights of alcohol-free parties than on nights of alcohol-service parties. The lack of association between attendance at alcohol-free parties and alcohol use indicates both heavy and light drinkers attend these parties. The lower drinking and intoxication on alcohol-free party nights suggests alcohol-free programming should be investigated to determine if it may reduce alcohol use on college campuses. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Ystrom, Eivind; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Torgersen, Leila
Using data from the longitudinal Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, the aims of the current study were to examine associations between postnatal maternal heavy alcohol use and toddler behavior problems, taking both observed and unobserved confounding factors into account by employing fixed effects regression models. Postnatal maternal heavy alcohol use (defined as drinking alcohol 4 or more times a week, or drinking 7 units or more per alcohol use episode) and toddler internalizing and externalizing behavior problems were assessed when the toddlers were aged 18 and 36 months. Maternal psychopathology, civil status and negative life events last year were included as time-variant covariates. Maternal heavy alcohol use was associated with toddler internalizing and externalizing behavior problems (p < 0.001) in the population when examined with generalized estimating equation models. The associations disappeared when observed and unobserved sources of confounding were taken into account in the fixed effects models [(p = 0.909 for externalizing behaviors (b = 0.002, SE = 0.021), p = 0.928 for internalizing behaviors (b = 0.002, SE = 0.023)], with an even further reduction of the estimates with the inclusion of time-variant confounders. No causal effect was found between postnatal maternal heavy alcohol use and toddler behavior problems. Increased levels of behavior problems among toddlers of heavy drinking mothers should therefore be attributed to other adverse characteristics associated with these mothers, toddlers and families. This should be taken into account when interventions aimed at at-risk families identified by maternal heavy alcohol use are planned and conducted.
Casswell, Sally; Huckle, Taisia; Wall, Martin; Yeh, Li Chia
This study reports findings from the International Alcohol Control (IAC) study that assesses the impact of alcohol control policy on consumption and policy-related behaviors. Modeled on the International Tobacco Control study that uses longitudinal surveys with comparison between countries, the baseline survey was carried out in New Zealand. This study reports analysis of the purchasing behavior respondents report separately for on- and off-premise outlets, providing validation data for both alcohol consumption and reported prices. New Zealand is a high-income country with an adult per capita alcohol consumption (as of 2011) of 9.5 l. The survey was carried out among a nationally representative sample of drinkers. Interview data on place and time of purchase, amounts purchased, price paid, and consumption (beverage and location specific) was collected. Relationships between policy relevant variables and consumption were modeled taking into account demographic variables. Validation was provided by government data on alcohol available for consumption, aggregate expenditure and prices from the Consumer Price Index. Drinkers paying low prices at on- or off-licensed premises had higher odds of consuming 6+ drinks on a typical occasion, as did drinkers purchasing alcohol at later times. Regarding frequency, drinkers purchasing at later times were more likely to be daily drinkers. Lower price in off licenses but not on licenses predicted daily drinking. The data collected accounted for approximately 96% of alcohol available for consumption and the prices accounted for 98% of aggregate expenditure. Valid survey data were collected to give an accurate picture of alcohol consumption and prices paid by drinkers. Heavy drinkers were more likely to buy cheaper alcohol and purchase at later times; 2 policy issues under discussion in many settings. This analysis suggests the IAC study that has the potential to provide data to contribute to the debate on appropriate policy
Reas, E T; Laughlin, G A; Kritz-Silverstein, D; Barrett-Connor, E; McEvoy, L K
Evidence suggests that moderate alcohol consumption may protect against cognitive decline and dementia. However, uncertainty remains over the patterns of drinking that are most beneficial. To examine associations between amount and frequency of alcohol consumption with multiple domains of cognitive function in a well-characterized cohort of older community-dwelling adults in southern California. Observational, cross-sectional cohort study. A research visit between 1988-1992 in Rancho Bernardo, California. 1624 participants of the Rancho Bernardo Study (mean age ± SD = 73.2 ± 9.3 years). Measurements: Participants completed a neuropsychological test battery, self-administered questionnaires on alcohol consumption and lifestyle, and a clinical health evaluation. We classified participants according to average amount of alcohol intake into never, former, moderate, heavy and excessive drinkers, and according to frequency of alcohol intake, into non-drinkers, rare, infrequent, frequent and daily drinkers. We examined the association between alcohol intake and cognitive function, controlling for age, sex, education, exercise, smoking, waist-hip ratio, hypertension and self-assessed health. Amount and frequency of alcohol intake were significantly associated with cognitive function, even after controlling for potentially related health and lifestyle variables. Global and executive function showed positive linear associations with amount and frequency of alcohol intake, whereas visual memory showed an inverted U-shaped association with alcohol intake, with better performance for moderate and infrequent drinkers than for non-drinkers, excessive drinkers or daily drinkers. In several cognitive domains, moderate, regular alcohol intake was associated with better cognitive function relative to not drinking or drinking less frequently. This suggests that beneficial cognitive effects of alcohol intake may be achieved with low levels of drinking that are unlikely to be
Adesso, Vincent J.; Freitag, Wendy J.
This research attempted to develop a profile of women's moods across the menstrual cycle and to determine alcohol's effects upon those moods. The Profile of Mood States was used to measure mood in 96 female college students who were heavy drinkers. Subjects were randomly assigned to the cells of the balanced placebo design with equal numbers in…
Two experiments were performed to determine the effects of alcohol and marihuana on visual scanning patterns in a simulated driving situation. In the first experiment 27 male heavy drinkers were divided into 3 groups of 9, defined by three blood alco...
Foshee, Vangie A.; Bauer, Daniel J.; Ennett, Susan T.
We examined the hypothesis that family, peer and neighborhood violence would moderate relations between heavy alcohol use and adolescent dating violence perpetration such that relations would be stronger for teens in violent contexts. Random coefficients growth models were used to examine the main and interaction effects of heavy alcohol use and four measures of violence (family violence, friend dating violence, friend peer violence and neighborhood violence) on levels of physical dating violence perpetration across grades 8 through 12. The effects of heavy alcohol use on dating violence tended to diminish over time and were stronger in the spring than in the fall semesters. Consistent with hypotheses, across all grades, relations between heavy alcohol use and dating violence were stronger for teens exposed to higher levels of family violence and friend dating violence. However, neither friend peer violence nor neighborhood violence moderated relations between alcohol use and dating violence. Taken together, findings suggest that as adolescents grow older, individual and contextual moderators may play an increasingly important role in explaining individual differences in relations between alcohol use and dating violence. Implications for the design and evaluation of dating abuse prevention programs are discussed. PMID:21494801
McNaughton Reyes, Heathe Luz; Foshee, Vangie A; Bauer, Daniel J; Ennett, Susan T
We examined the hypothesis that family, peer and neighborhood violence would moderate relations between heavy alcohol use and adolescent dating violence perpetration such that relations would be stronger for teens in violent contexts. Random coefficients growth models were used to examine the main and interaction effects of heavy alcohol use and four measures of violence (family violence, friend dating violence, friend peer violence and neighborhood violence) on levels of physical dating violence perpetration across grades 8 through 12. The effects of heavy alcohol use on dating violence tended to diminish over time and were stronger in the spring than in the fall semesters. Consistent with hypotheses, across all grades, relations between heavy alcohol use and dating violence were stronger for teens exposed to higher levels of family violence and friend dating violence. However, neither friend peer violence nor neighborhood violence moderated relations between alcohol use and dating violence. Taken together, findings suggest that as adolescents grow older, individual and contextual moderators may play an increasingly important role in explaining individual differences in relations between alcohol use and dating violence. Implications for the design and evaluation of dating abuse prevention programs are discussed.
Chinyadza, E; Moyo, I M; Katsumbe, T M; Chisvo, D; Mahari, M; Cock, D E; Mbengeranwa, O L
Modified versions of the CAGE and WHO AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test) questionnaires were used to investigate drinking habits of patients attending primary care clinics in Harare in 1989. The questionnaires were administered to 483 consecutive patients of whom 63 pc were male and 37 pc female. The results showed that 41 pc of the patients were current drinkers, and over 60 pc of them were drinking to and beyond "safe limits". Thirty nine pc of the current drinkers drank at least three or more times per week. On an average drinking day 66 pc of the male drinkers consume 10 or more units of alcohol per day. On heavy drinking days 38.5 pc of the drinkers or 16 pc of the total sample consume more than 21 units per day. These sessions occurred around paydays. Thirteen (13.2 pc) of those who consume more than 10 units per heavy drinking session exceeded the recommended frequency levels i.e. not more than three times per week. Seventy five pc of drinkers stated that they drink to socialize or for recreational purposes. About 60 pc of the current drinkers had tried unsuccessfully to cut down or stop drinking. The main reason for such an attempt reported by 92 pc of them was health problems. More current drinkers presented with STD and work-related injuries compared to non-drinkers. None of the current drinkers were asked about their drinking habits by the health workers who attended to them at the clinic. No diagnosis of alcohol dependence or an alcohol problem was made by the Primary Health Care worker at the clinic.
The Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare has focused on enhancing knowldge about the association between alcohol consumption and health, such as early detection of alcohol abuse, the appropriate actions to be taken after detection, and prevention of teenage drinking. They believe that it is necessary to develop and improve the methods for early detection of alcohol-related problems in an easy and effective way. Given this context, we hypothsized that simultaneous determination of osteocalcin (OC) and undercarboxylated osteocalcin ucOC), bone metabolic markers, would facilitate research on the effects of alcohol drinking. We divided volunteers into a group of long-term drinkers (heavy drinking for 20 years or more) and a group of social drinkers (moderate and controlled drinkers), and determined blood DC, ucOC, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b (TRACP-5b) levels, as bone metabolic markers, and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), mitochondrial GOT (m-GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GTP) levels, as biochemical markers. In addition, we determined the levels of free and bound ethanol and methanol in urine as markers of alcohol abuse and dependence. The group of long-term drinkers showed significantly higher levels of OC and ucOC than the group of social drinkers (p alcohol dependence.
Doran, Neal; Myers, Mark G; Luczak, Susan E; Carr, Lucinda G; Wall, Tamara L
A previous cross-sectional study showed that, among individuals of Chinese and Korean descent, possession of ALDH2*2 alleles was associated with protection against alcohol dependence, whereas conduct disorder was associated with increased vulnerability to dependence. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to examine the roles of ALDH2 and behavioral undercontrol (a temperamental trait that is associated with conduct disorder) in stability of heavy episodic drinking. Chinese- and Korean-American college students (N = 336; 51% female), who had initiated alcohol use before study enrollment, provided information on drinking habits during their freshman and sophomore years. Participants were classified as (1) stable nonheavy drinkers, (2) regressors, (3) progressors, or (4) stable heavy drinkers. Participants with ALDH2*2 alleles were more likely to be classified as stable nonheavy drinkers than as progressors (z = -2.49, p = .013). Higher levels of behavioral undercontrol were associated with a greater probability of being classified as a stable heavy drinker relative to a stable nonheavy drinker (z = 2.26, p = .024). Stable heavy drinkers reported the most alcohol-related problems, whereas progressors reported more problems than either regressors or stable nonheavy drinkers, particularly at Year 2. Elevated behavioral undercontrol appears to predispose Asian-American college students to increased frequency of heavy drinking, whereas ALDH2*2 may act as a protective factor. The degree of alcohol consumption observed among participants with ALDH2*2 alleles is consistent with previous findings showing that, although their presence may be protective, it does not preclude heavy drinking episodes.
Iwasaki, Wataru; Nogami, Hirofumi; Ito, Hiroki; Gotanda, Takeshi; Peng, Yao; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Furue, Masutaka; Higurashi, Eiji; Sawada, Renshi
Alcohol has a variety of effects on the human body, affecting both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. We examined the peripheral blood flow of alcohol drinkers using a micro-integrated laser Doppler blood flow meter (micro-electromechanical system blood flow sensor). An increased heart rate and blood flow was recorded at the earlobe after alcohol ingestion, and we observed strong correlation between blood flow, heart rate, and breath alcohol content in light drinkers; but not heavy drinkers. We also found that the amplitude of pulse waves measured at the fingertip during an arm-raising test significantly decreased on alcohol consumption, regardless of the individual's alcohol tolerance. Our micro-electromechanical system blood flow sensor successfully detected various physiological changes in peripheral blood circulation induced by alcohol consumption.
Bjarnason, Thoroddur; Andersson, Barbro; Choquet, Marie; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Morgan, Mark; Rapinett, Gertrude
Frequency of heavy alcohol use among adolescents is examined by family structure and propensity toward heavy alcohol use on the individual level, and by alcohol availability and drinking patterns among adolescents on the societal level. The analysis includes direct effects and moderating effects of societal-level indicators on individual-level associations between family structure and frequency of heavy alcohol use. The study drew upon self-reports from 34,001 students in Cyprus, France, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Lithuania, Malta, the Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Sweden and the United Kingdom participating in the 1999 European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs study. Distinctions were drawn between adolescents living with both parents, a single mother, a single father, a mother and stepfather, a father and stepmother, and neither biological parent. The multilevel analysis estimated the effects of societal-level factors on the intercepts and slopes of individual-level regression models. Adolescents living with both biological parents engaged less frequently in heavy alcohol use than those living in any other arrangements. Living with a single mother was associated with less heavy drinking than living with a single father or with neither biological parent. National beer sales figures and societal patterns of heavy adolescent alcohol use predicted more frequent heavy drinking and greater effects of living in nonintact families. Adolescent heavy drinking is more common in all types of nonintact families. The adverse effect of living in nonintact families is greater in societies where alcohol availability is greater and where adolescents drink more heavily.
Strunin, Lee; Díaz-Martínez, Alejandro; Díaz-Martínez, L Rosa; Kuranz, Seth; Hernández-Ávila, Carlos; Fernández-Varela, Héctor
Alcohol use and misuse is widespread among university students in many countries. Specific cultural factors may impact alcohol use after entering university. This paper considers changes in alcohol use among first year university students in Mexico. A qualitative study using ethnographic interviews with 57 female and 60 male student drinkers in Mexico City from March to June 2011. Each interview was evaluated by a set of thematic codes developed inductively from the interviews. Findings from excessive, heavy, regular, occasional drinkers, abstainers, and non-drinkers were analyzed to explore whether or not linkages existed between and/or among particular themes. Students reported factors associated with changes in role and status, friendships, and increased autonomy as reasons for increasing or decreasing their alcohol use after entering university. CONCLUSIONS/IMPORTANCE: Understanding the influence of Mexican cultural norms on alcohol use among Mexican and Mexican Americans can be helpful in informing studies and preventive efforts among both Mexican and Mexican American young people.
Regan, Daniel; Morrison, Todd G
The Regan Attitudes towards Non-Drinkers Scale was developed to address the concept that consumption of alcohol may serve as a means of avoiding social costs associated with being a non-drinker. This study sought to examine the Regan Attitudes towards Non-Drinkers Scale within a sample of Irish school-age adolescents. Results indicated that the Regan Attitudes towards Non-Drinkers Scale was a statistically significant predictor of self-reported problematic drinking. The findings of this study underscore the importance of this newly identified construct and highlight the necessity of further empirical tests of the Regan Attitudes towards Non-Drinkers Scale.
Wakabayashi, Ichiro; Araki, Yoshihiko
Alcohol drinking affects atherosclerotic progression mainly through blood pressure and lipid metabolism. The purpose of the present study was to clarify whether effects of alcohol drinking on atherosclerotic risk factors differ by gender and age. The database of periodic health check-ups for local district workers was used. The subjects were divided into 3 groups according to mean ethanol consumption per day (nondrinkers; light drinkers, less than 30 g per day; moderate-to-heavy drinkers, 30 g or more per day). The mean levels of each atherosclerosis-related variable in the 3 groups were compared. The mean level of body mass index (BMI) was slightly but significantly lower in drinkers than in nondrinkers in the thirties, forties, and fifties age groups in men and in the twenties, thirties, forties, and fifties age groups in women, while this tendency was not found in the sixties age groups of men and women. In men, mean blood pressure was higher in moderate-to-heavy drinkers than in nondrinkers in all age groups and was higher in light drinkers than in nondrinkers only in the age groups after 40 years. Mean blood pressure of women was higher in the moderate-to-heavy drinker group than in the nondrinker group and this difference became higher with advance of age. In women, mean blood pressure was not affected by light drinking in any of the age groups except for the fifties age group. In men, serum total cholesterol was higher in drinkers than in nondrinkers in the twenties age group but was lower in drinkers than in nondrinkers at thirties or older. Serum total cholesterol in women was lower in drinkers than in nondrinkers in the age groups from twenties to forties but tended to be higher in drinkers than in nondrinkers in the sixties age group. Serum HDL cholesterol increased with advance of age from thirties to sixties in men, while it decreased with advance of age from twenties to sixties in women. Serum HDL cholesterol was higher in drinkers than in nondrinkers
Wade, Jeannette; Peralta, Robert L
Previous research has demonstrated that White college students are more likely to drink alcohol at a greater frequency and quantity compared to their African American counterparts. Examining race-related factors that structure alcohol use among college students remains an important area of research. In this study, we specifically examine perceived discrimination and its association with both heavy episodic drinking (HED) and alcohol abstinence among college students. Items that measured perceived racial discrimination in alcohol use contexts and demographic characteristics were used as independent and control variables. African American students were more likely to abstain from alcohol and less likely to engage in HED compared to their White counterparts. Results also suggest that students who believe their drinking will solicit race-based police bias have lower odds of engaging in HED and greater odds of alcohol abstention. We conclude that unsolicited policing, experienced by African Americans generally, and White Americans on campuses, explains effect sizes.
Russell, Cristel Antonia; Russell, Dale Wesley; Grube, Joel W; McQuarrie, Edward
This experimental study assessed whether alcohol television storylines impact youth drinking attitudes and intentions and whether corrective epilogues can potentially moderate this impact. Television episodes were professionally produced to depict heavy drinking leading to either positive or negative consequences. The pro- and anti-alcohol episodes were shown alone or with an epilogue where a main character discussed the deleterious effects of excessive drinking. Attitudes toward drinkers and drinking intentions were measured subsequently, along with reactions to the episode and demographic data, among participants aged 14-17 using an online study. Exposure to the pro-alcohol episode was related to more positive attitudes toward drinkers. Including an epilogue after a pro-alcohol episode was related to more negative viewers' attitudes toward drinkers and lower drinking intentions compared to a pro-alcohol episode with no epilogue. By contrast, including an epilogue after an anti-alcohol episode was unrelated to attitudes toward drinkers or drinking intentions. Viewing a single television episode with a pro-alcohol message may lead to more positive attitudes toward drinkers. The finding that a brief epilogue may reduce the impact of the pro-alcohol storyline suggests easily implemented preventive strategies to counter the adverse impact of substance use portrayals in entertainment programming.
Goudriaan, Anna E; Grekin, Emily R; Sher, Kenneth J
Very few studies have investigated the "real world" prospective, predictive value of behavioral instruments used in laboratory studies to test decision-making abilities or impulse control. The current study examines the degree to which 2 commonly used decision-making/impulse control measures prospectively predict (heavy) alcohol use in a sample of college students. Two hundred healthy young adults (50% women) performed the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and a StopSignal inhibition task in the second college year. At testing and at the end of the fourth college year, heavy alcohol use was assessed. Disadvantageous performance on the IGT was associated with higher scores on a heavy drinking measure and higher quantity/frequency of alcohol use 2 years past neurocognitive testing in male students even after controlling for prior drinking. These results were corrected for heavy drinking and alcohol use in the period before neurocognitive testing. Interactions with gender indicated that this general pattern held for male but not for female students. Level of response inhibition was not associated with either of the alcohol use measures prospectively. These findings indicate that a neurocognitive decision-making task is predictive of maladaptive alcohol use. Advantageous decision makers appear to show adaptive real-life decision making, changing their drinking habits to the changing challenges of early adulthood (e.g., finishing college), whereas disadvantageous decision makers do not, and continue to drink heavily. These findings extend earlier findings of neurocognitive predictors of relapse in clinical substance-dependent groups, to subclinical alcohol use and abuse. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A.; Bauer, Daniel J.; Ennett, Susan T.
The current study examined the role of heavy alcohol use in the developmental process of desistance in physical dating aggression during adolescence. Using longitudinal data spanning grades 8 through 12 we tested the hypotheses that (a) higher levels of early heavy alcohol use would be associated with decreased deceleration from dating aggression…
Zur, Richard M; Zaric, Gregory S
Screening and brief intervention (SBI) is a public health intervention that has been shown to be effective in reducing heavy alcohol consumption. The aim of this study is to estimate the cost-effectiveness of implementing universal alcohol SBI in primary care in Canada. We developed a microsimulation model of alcohol consumption and its effects on 18 alcohol-related causes of death. The model simulates a Canadian population. The model simulates individuals and their alcohol consumption on a continuous scale starting from age 17 years to death. The reference case assumes no SBI in Canada. The base case assumes screening was conducted using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) at a threshold score of 8. Additional analyses included evaluating SBI using the AUDIT at threshold scores between 4 and 8 or the Derived Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C) at threshold scores between 3 and 7. The model estimates the direct health-care costs, life years gained and quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gained, which are then used to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of SBI versus no SBI. SBI with AUDIT (at a threshold score of 8) had an ICER of $8729/QALY. Our results suggest that using AUDIT thresholds between 8 and 4, inclusive, would be cost-effective for the whole population, as well as for men and women individually. Our results suggest that the AUDIT-C would be cost-effective at thresholds of 7 to 3, inclusive, for men, women and the whole population. In Canada, screening and brief intervention via Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and Derived Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C) to reduce heavy alcohol consumption appears to be cost-effective for men and women at Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) thresholds of 8 and lower and at Derived Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C) thresholds of 7 and lower. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Faouzi, Mohamed; Sanchez, Nathalie; Rahhali, Nora; Bineau, Sébastien; Bertholet, Nicolas
In patients with alcohol dependence, health-related quality of life (QOL) is reduced compared with that of a normal healthy population. The objective of the current analysis was to describe the evolution of health-related QOL in adults with alcohol dependence during a 24-month period after initial assessment for alcohol-related treatment in a routine practice setting, and its relation to drinking pattern which was evaluated across clusters based on the predominant pattern of alcohol use, set against the influence of baseline variables The Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Survey (MOS-SF-36) was used to measure QOL at baseline and quarterly for 2 years among participants in CONTROL, a prospective observational study of patients initiating treatment for alcohol dependence. The sample consisted of 160 adults with alcohol dependence (65.6% males) with a mean (SD) age of 45.6 (12.0) years. Alcohol use data were collected using TimeLine Follow-Back. Based on the participant's reported alcohol use, three clusters were identified: 52 (32.5%) mostly abstainers, 64 (40.0%) mostly moderate drinkers and 44 (27.5%) mostly heavy drinkers. Mixed-effect linear regression analysis was used to identify factors that were potentially associated with the mental and physical summary MOS-SF-36 scores at each time point. The mean (SD) MOS-SF-36 mental component summary score (range 0-100, norm 50) was 35.7 (13.6) at baseline [mostly abstainers: 40.4 (14.6); mostly moderate drinkers 35.6 (12.4); mostly heavy drinkers 30.1 (12.1)]. The score improved to 43.1 (13.4) at 3 months [mostly abstainers: 47.4 (12.3); mostly moderate drinkers 44.2 (12.7); mostly heavy drinkers 35.1 (12.9)], to 47.3 (11.4) at 12 months [mostly abstainers: 51.7 (9.7); mostly moderate drinkers 44.8 (11.9); mostly heavy drinkers 44.1 (11.3)], and to 46.6 (11.1) at 24 months [mostly abstainers: 49.2 (11.6); mostly moderate drinkers 45.7 (11.9); mostly heavy drinkers 43.7 (8.8)]. Mixed-effect linear regression
Agahi, Neda; Kelfve, Susanne; Lennartsson, Carin; Kåreholt, Ingemar
Alcohol consumption in very old age is increasing; yet, little is known about the personal and health-related characteristics associated with different levels of alcohol consumption and the association between alcohol consumption and survival among the oldest old. Nationally representative data from the Swedish Panel Study of Living Conditions of the Oldest Old (SWEOLD, ages 76-101; n=863) collected in 2010/2011 were used. Mortality was analyzed until 2014. Alcohol consumption was measured with questions about frequency and amount. Drinks per month were calculated and categorized as abstainer, light-to-moderate drinker (0.5-30 drinks/month) and heavy drinker (>30 drinks/month). Multinomial logistic regressions and Laplace regressions were performed. Compared to light-to-moderate drinkers, abstainers had lower levels of education and more functional health problems, while heavy drinkers were more often men, had higher levels of education, and no serious health or functional problems. In models adjusted only for age and sex, abstainers died earlier than drinkers. Among light-to-moderate drinkers, each additional drink/month was associated with longer survival, while among heavy drinkers, each additional drink/month was associated with shorter survival. However, after adjusting for personal and health-related factors, estimates were lower and no longer statistically significant. The association between alcohol consumption and survival in very old age seems to have an inverse J-shape; abstention and heavy use is associated with shorter survival compared to light-to-moderate drinking. To a large extent, differences in survival are due to differences in baseline health and physical function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mattson, Sarah N; Roebuck, Tresa M
Memory deficits are reported commonly in children with fetal alcohol syndrome. However, little is known about nonverbal memory performance in this population. The current study examined learning and memory abilities in alcohol-exposed children and nonexposed controls. Multiple verbal and nonverbal measures were used that incorporated repeated learning trials and delayed recall trials. The alcohol-exposed group included children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure with and without fetal alcohol syndrome. Children ranged in age from 8 to 16 years, and groups were matched on age, sex, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure displayed deficits in learning and recall of verbal and nonverbal information across all measures. On learning trials, they recalled fewer words and displayed a lower rate of acquisition. However, when we analyzed delayed verbal recall data after controlling for initial verbal learning, group differences were not apparent. The same pattern did not occur for nonverbal information; children with prenatal alcohol exposure recalled less on delayed recall even when we accounted for initial learning. These data are consistent with previous studies that indicate immediate memory deficits but suggest that, at least for verbal information, delayed recall deficits in this population are better accounted for by deficits in initial learning. Importantly, a different pattern of results was demonstrated for verbal versus nonverbal information, which suggests the need for additional research in this area.
Objective: To establish the extent to which students typically overestimate normative drinking and to determine whether these estimates are uniquely implicated in alcohol consumption over and above the role of the various demographic and family variables. Method: An online survey was used to obtain a sample of 2 177 ...
Scribner, Richard; Ackleh, Azmy S.; Fitzpatrick, Ben G.; Jacquez, Geoffrey; Thibodeaux, Jeremy J.; Rommel, Robert; Simonsen, Neal
Objective: The misuse and abuse of alcohol among college students remain persistent problems. Using a systems approach to understand the dynamics of student drinking behavior and thus forecasting the impact of campus policy to address the problem represents a novel approach. Toward this end, the successful development of a predictive mathematical model of college drinking would represent a significant advance for prevention efforts. Method: A deterministic, compartmental model of college drinking was developed, incorporating three processes: (1) individual factors, (2) social interactions, and (3) social norms. The model quantifies these processes in terms of the movement of students between drinking compartments characterized by five styles of college drinking: abstainers, light drinkers, moderate drinkers, problem drinkers, and heavy episodic drinkers. Predictions from the model were first compared with actual campus-level data and then used to predict the effects of several simulated interventions to address heavy episodic drinking. Results: First, the model provides a reasonable fit of actual drinking styles of students attending Social Norms Marketing Research Project campuses varying by “wetness” and by drinking styles of matriculating students. Second, the model predicts that a combination of simulated interventions targeting heavy episodic drinkers at a moderately “dry” campus would extinguish heavy episodic drinkers, replacing them with light and moderate drinkers. Instituting the same combination of simulated interventions at a moderately “wet” campus would result in only a moderate reduction in heavy episodic drinkers (i.e., 50% to 35%). Conclusions: A simple, five-state compartmental model adequately predicted the actual drinking patterns of students from a variety of campuses surveyed in the Social Norms Marketing Research Project study. The model predicted the impact on drinking patterns of several simulated interventions to address heavy
Scribner, Richard; Ackleh, Azmy S; Fitzpatrick, Ben G; Jacquez, Geoffrey; Thibodeaux, Jeremy J; Rommel, Robert; Simonsen, Neal
The misuse and abuse of alcohol among college students remain persistent problems. Using a systems approach to understand the dynamics of student drinking behavior and thus forecasting the impact of campus policy to address the problem represents a novel approach. Toward this end, the successful development of a predictive mathematical model of college drinking would represent a significant advance for prevention efforts. A deterministic, compartmental model of college drinking was developed, incorporating three processes: (1) individual factors, (2) social interactions, and (3) social norms. The model quantifies these processes in terms of the movement of students between drinking compartments characterized by five styles of college drinking: abstainers, light drinkers, moderate drinkers, problem drinkers, and heavy episodic drinkers. Predictions from the model were first compared with actual campus-level data and then used to predict the effects of several simulated interventions to address heavy episodic drinking. First, the model provides a reasonable fit of actual drinking styles of students attending Social Norms Marketing Research Project campuses varying by "wetness" and by drinking styles of matriculating students. Second, the model predicts that a combination of simulated interventions targeting heavy episodic drinkers at a moderately "dry" campus would extinguish heavy episodic drinkers, replacing them with light and moderate drinkers. Instituting the same combination of simulated interventions at a moderately "wet" campus would result in only a moderate reduction in heavy episodic drinkers (i.e., 50% to 35%). A simple, five-state compartmental model adequately predicted the actual drinking patterns of students from a variety of campuses surveyed in the Social Norms Marketing Research Project study. The model predicted the impact on drinking patterns of several simulated interventions to address heavy episodic drinking on various types of campuses.
Lundin, Andreas; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Halldin, Jan; Theobald, Holger
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of alcoholism, alcohol consumption amount, and alcohol consumption pattern on mortality in a general population sample. This study used a 1970 prospective population sample (double-phase random sample) of 2,300 individuals ages 18-65 years in Stockholm County, which was also linked to mortality registers. A total of 1,895 individuals participated in a semi-structured, baseline psychiatric interview with a psychiatrist and social worker. Alcoholism and other mental disorders were recorded according to the eighth revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-8). Information on the usual amount and frequency of alcohol consumption was collected at the psychiatric interview. Mortality up to year 2011 was assessed with Cox proportional hazard regression models. At baseline, there were 65 men and 21 women diagnosed with alcoholism. During followup, there were 873 deaths in the study population of 1,895. Alcoholism was associated with increased mortality rate. Former drinkers, but not never-drinkers, also had increased risk for mortality compared with moderate drinkers. We found no associations between heavy consumption and mortality. Frequent heavy episodic drinking was uncommon but related to mortality before, but not after, adjusting for an alcoholism diagnosis. Our results demonstrated that alcoholism—but not a reported high consumption of alcohol or frequent heavy episodic drinking—predicted a long-term risk of death.
Winward, JL; Hanson, KL; Tapert, SF; Brown, SA
Copyright © 2014 The International Neuropsychological Society. To assess recovery of cognitive effects, we investigated neuropsychological performance after 1 month of monitored abstinence in teens with histories of heavy episodic drinking, protracted marijuana use, or concomitant use of alcohol and marijuana. Adolescents (ages 16-18 years) with histories of heavy episodic drinking (HED; n=24), marijuana use (MJ; n=20), both heavy alcohol and marijuana use (HED+MJ; n=29), and socio-demographi...
Gryczynski, Jan; Ward, Brian W.
Previous research has found that religiosity may protect against risky alcohol and drug use behaviors among adolescents, but the social mechanics underpinning the relationship are not well understood. This study examined the relationship between religiosity, heavy drinking, and social norms among U.S. adolescents aged 12 to 17 years, using the…
Gordon, Judith S.; Andrews, Judy A.; Hampson, Sarah H.; Gunn, Barbara; Christiansen, Steven M.; Jacobs, Thomas
Introduction: Alcohol consumption, including heavy drinking, is the fourth leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Youth who engage in heavy drinking are likely to experience a number of problems associated with their use. In 2015, U.S. prevalence of heavy drinking was 17% among 12th graders. These data suggest a clear need for…
Kristjánsson, Álfgeir Logi
Background Cigarette smoking and alcohol use influence morbidity and premature death all over the world. Studies have shown that most life-time smokers and adult heavy drinkers began their use during their adolescent years and between 80-90% of them before the age of 18. Thus, early onset of smoking and alcohol use increases the risk of later dependence. Alcohol use and cigarette smoking among adolescents are also strongly correlated behaviors. Adolescents who initiate sm...
Park, Sung Keun; Moon, Kanghee; Ryoo, Jae-Hong; Oh, Chang-Mo; Choi, Joong-Myung; Kang, Jeong Gyu; Chung, Ju Youn; Young Jung, Ju
The adverse effect of heavy alcohol intake on cardiovascular disease is well established. However, there is only limited information about the risk of subclinical left ventricular (LV) abnormality according to alcohol consumption. Thus, this study was to investigate the association between alcohol consumption and LV functional and structural abnormality. Study participants were 49 714 Korean adults received echocardiogram as an item of health check-up program. They were stratified into 6 groups according to alcohol consumption; non (life time never drinker), occasional (60 g/day) drinker. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to assess the odd ratios (ORs) for LV hypertrophy (LVH), increased relative wall thickness (RWT) and impaired LV diastolic (LVD) function with a reference of non-drinker. Additionally, the adjusted mean values of echocardiographic parameters were evaluated to assess LV diastolic function and structure. In logistic regression analysis, very heavy alcohol drinker had the highest adjusted ORs for LVH, increased RWT and impaired LVD function in all participants and male subgroup (P consumption and impaired LVD function in all participants and gender subgroups. There was no specific pattern of relationship to suggest the favourable effect of light alcohol drinking on heart. Increased alcohol intake had the adverse effect on LV function and structure. However, potential favourable effect of light alcohol intake was not observed. Prospective studies are required to investigate long-term effect of alcohol consumption on subclinical LV change.
Gilles, Donna M; Turk, Cynthia L; Fresco, David M
Burke and Stephens (1999) [Burke, R.S., Stephens, R.S. Social anxiety and drinking in college students: A social cognitive theory analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 19, (1999) 513-530.] proposed a social cognitive theory of heavy drinking in college students. According to this theory, alcohol expectancies for social facilitation and self-efficacy for refusing heavy drinking in anxiety-producing social situations moderate the relationship between social anxiety and drinking. In the current study, a significant three-way interaction was observed among social anxiety, expectancies, and self-efficacy when amount and frequency of drinking was the dependent variable. As predicted by the model, socially anxious college students with low self-efficacy for avoiding heavy drinking in social situations and high positive expectancies for social facilitation reported more alcohol consumption than other socially anxious individuals.
Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Faouzi, Mohamed; Sanglier, Thibault; Sanchez, Nathalie; Coste, Florence; Bertholet, Nicolas
To describe the drinking patterns and their baseline predictive factors during a 12-month period after an initial evaluation for alcohol treatment. CONTROL is a single-center, prospective, observational study evaluating consecutive alcohol-dependent patients. Using a curve clustering methodology based on a polynomial regression mixture model, we identified three clusters of patients with dominant alcohol use patterns described as mostly abstainers, mostly moderate drinkers and mostly heavy drinkers. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to identify baseline factors (socio-demographic, alcohol dependence consequences and related factors) predictive of belonging to each drinking cluster. The sample included 143 alcohol-dependent adults (63.6% males), mean age 44.6 ± 11.8 years. The clustering method identified 47 (32.9%) mostly abstainers, 56 (39.2%) mostly moderate drinkers and 40 (28.0%) mostly heavy drinkers. Multivariate analyses indicated that mild or severe depression at baseline predicted belonging to the mostly moderate drinkers cluster during follow-up (relative risk ratio (RRR) 2.42, CI [1.02-5.73, P = 0.045] P = 0.045), while living alone (RRR 2.78, CI [1.03-7.50], P = 0.044) and reporting more alcohol-related consequences (RRR 1.03, CI [1.01-1.05], P = 0.004) predicted belonging to the mostly heavy drinkers cluster during follow-up. In this sample, the drinking patterns of alcohol-dependent patients were predicted by baseline factors, i.e. depression, living alone or alcohol-related consequences and findings that may inform clinicians about the likely drinking patterns of their alcohol-dependent patient over the year following the initial evaluation for alcohol treatment.
Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T.; Fransson, Eleonor I.; Alfredsson, Lars; De Bacquer, Dirk; Bjorner, Jakob B.; Bonenfant, Sébastien; Borritz, Marianne; Burr, Hermann; Clays, Els; Casini, Annalisa; Dragano, Nico; Erbel, Raimund; Geuskens, Goedele A.; Goldberg, Marcel; Hooftman, Wendela E.; Houtman, Irene L.; Joensuu, Matti; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kittel, France; Knutsson, Anders; Koskenvuo, Markku; Koskinen, Aki; Kouvonen, Anne; Leineweber, Constanze; Lunau, Thorsten; Madsen, Ida E. H.; Hanson, Linda L. Magnusson; Marmot, Michael G.; Nielsen, Martin L.; Nordin, Maria; Pentti, Jaana; Salo, Paula; Rugulies, Reiner; Steptoe, Andrew; Siegrist, Johannes; Suominen, Sakari; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna; Väänänen, Ari; Westerholm, Peter; Westerlund, Hugo; Zins, Marie; Theorell, Töres; Hamer, Mark; Ferrie, Jane E.; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Batty, G. David; Kivimäki, Mika
Background The relationship between work-related stress and alcohol intake is uncertain. In order to add to the thus far inconsistent evidence from relatively small studies, we conducted individual-participant meta-analyses of the association between work-related stress (operationalised as self-reported job strain) and alcohol intake. Methodology and Principal Findings We analysed cross-sectional data from 12 European studies (n = 142 140) and longitudinal data from four studies (n = 48 646). Job strain and alcohol intake were self-reported. Job strain was analysed as a binary variable (strain vs. no strain). Alcohol intake was harmonised into the following categories: none, moderate (women: 1–14, men: 1–21 drinks/week), intermediate (women: 15–20, men: 22–27 drinks/week) and heavy (women: >20, men: >27 drinks/week). Cross-sectional associations were modelled using logistic regression and the results pooled in random effects meta-analyses. Longitudinal associations were examined using mixed effects logistic and modified Poisson regression. Compared to moderate drinkers, non-drinkers and (random effects odds ratio (OR): 1.10, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.14) and heavy drinkers (OR: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.26) had higher odds of job strain. Intermediate drinkers, on the other hand, had lower odds of job strain (OR: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.86, 0.99). We found no clear evidence for longitudinal associations between job strain and alcohol intake. Conclusions Our findings suggest that compared to moderate drinkers, non-drinkers and heavy drinkers are more likely and intermediate drinkers less likely to report work-related stress. PMID:22792218
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The relationship between work-related stress and alcohol intake is uncertain. In order to add to the thus far inconsistent evidence from relatively small studies, we conducted individual-participant meta-analyses of the association between work-related stress (operationalised as self-reported job strain and alcohol intake. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analysed cross-sectional data from 12 European studies (n = 142 140 and longitudinal data from four studies (n = 48 646. Job strain and alcohol intake were self-reported. Job strain was analysed as a binary variable (strain vs. no strain. Alcohol intake was harmonised into the following categories: none, moderate (women: 1-14, men: 1-21 drinks/week, intermediate (women: 15-20, men: 22-27 drinks/week and heavy (women: >20, men: >27 drinks/week. Cross-sectional associations were modelled using logistic regression and the results pooled in random effects meta-analyses. Longitudinal associations were examined using mixed effects logistic and modified Poisson regression. Compared to moderate drinkers, non-drinkers and (random effects odds ratio (OR: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.14 and heavy drinkers (OR: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.26 had higher odds of job strain. Intermediate drinkers, on the other hand, had lower odds of job strain (OR: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.86, 0.99. We found no clear evidence for longitudinal associations between job strain and alcohol intake. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that compared to moderate drinkers, non-drinkers and heavy drinkers are more likely and intermediate drinkers less likely to report work-related stress.
Kim, Deok-Yong; Lee, Jang-Han
The aim of the present study was to develop a new approach-avoidance task in a virtual environment that could be used to assess the response to virtual alcohol-related situations by heavy social drinkers (HSDs) and light social drinkers (LSDs). Thirty-six male undergraduates (18 HSDs, 18 LSDs) responded to signals when they pulled or pushed a joystick after watching scenes of alcohol- or nonalcohol-related situations in a virtual environment. The HSD group spent more time on moving away from alcohol-related situations than nonalcohol-related situations. We found that the HSD group had difficulty in avoiding alcohol-related situations in the virtual environment. The Virtual Approach-Avoidance Task might more accurately measure the levels of social drinkers' craving to drink as it provides realistic situations and allows individuals to be immersed in virtual environments.
Ray, Anne E; Stapleton, Jerod L; Turrisi, Rob; Mun, Eun-Young
College students who play drinking games (DGs) more frequently report higher levels of alcohol use and experience more alcohol-related harm. However, the extent to which they are at risk for increased consumption and harm as a result of DG play on a given event after accounting for their typical DG participation, and typical and event drinking, is unclear. We examined whether first-year students consumed more alcohol and were more likely to experience consequences on drinking occasions when they played DGs. Participants (n = 336) completed up to six web-based surveys following weekend drinking events in their first semester. Alcohol use, DG play, and consequences were reported for the Friday and Saturday prior to each survey. Typical DG tendencies were controlled in all models. Typical and event alcohol use were controlled in models predicting risk for consequences. Participants consumed more alcohol on DG versus non-DG events. All students were more likely to experience blackout drinking consequences when they played DGs. Women were more likely to experience social-interpersonal consequences when they played DGs. DG play is an event-specific risk factor for increased alcohol use among first-year students, regardless of individual DG play tendencies. Further, event DG play signals increased risk for blackout drinking consequences for all students, and social-interpersonal consequences for women, aside from the amount of alcohol consumed on those occasions as well as typical drinking behaviors. Prevention efforts to reduce high-risk drinking may be strengthened by highlighting both event- and person-specific risks of DG play.
Daurat, Agnès; Sagaspe, Patricia; Moták, Ladislav; Taillard, Jacques; Bayssac, Laetitia; Huet, Nathalie; Authié, Colas; Mestre, Daniel; Philip, Pierre
While research indicates that benzodiazepine (BZD)-like drugs impair driving performance, it remains unclear (i) how far BZDs affect lane-keeping performance, compared with alcohol and (ii) to what extent this impact can realistically be measured in a simulated environment. To clarify these issues, 16 healthy male drivers who had never previously taken BZDs underwent a randomized, crossover, double-blind, placebo-controlled driving paradigm (with the BZD lorazepam) in both real-world and simulated settings. Two lane-keeping variables, namely inappropriate line crossings (ILCs) and standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP), were recorded during the driving sessions. Analyses revealed that (i) a single lorazepam dose (2 mg given by mouth) caused higher SDLP increases than a blood alcohol concentration of above 0.05%, and that (ii) this BZD effect was amplified in the simulated driving setting, mainly for ILCs. As a consequence, we recommend that physicians be made more aware of BZD-related risks and that researchers make a clear distinction between the effects of BZD intake per se and the impact of simulated driving settings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Duell, Eric J
Tobacco smoking represents an important known cause of ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Recent data from pooled analyses in consortia involving multiple case-control and cohort studies suggest that heavy (but not moderate or light) alcohol consumption also may increase pancreatic cancer risk. Animal and human evidence indicate that tobacco carcinogens and metabolites may act in concert and have both genetic and epigenetic effects at early and later stages in pancreatic tumorigenesis. One of the more important tobacco-related carcinogens, NNK, probably acts via multiple pathways. Heavy alcohol consumption may increase pancreatic cancer risk by potentiating the effects of other risk factors such as tobacco smoking, poor nutrition, and inflammatory pathways related to chronic pancreatitis, but also may have independent genetic and epigenetic effects. Animal and human studies of tobacco- and alcohol-related pancreatic carcinogenesis suggest multi-modal, overlapping mechanistic pathways. Tobacco smoking and heavy alcohol consumption are preventable exposures, and their avoidance would substantially decrease the burden of pancreatic cancer worldwide. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Monroe, Anne K; Lau, Bryan; Mugavero, Michael J; Mathews, William C; Mayer, Kenneth H; Napravnik, Sonia; Hutton, Heidi E; Kim, Hongseok S; Jabour, Sarah; Moore, Richard D; McCaul, Mary E; Christopoulos, Katerina A; Crane, Heidi C; Chander, Geetanjali
Poor retention in HIV care is associated with worse clinical outcomes and increased HIV transmission. We examined the relationship between self-reported alcohol use, a potentially modifiable behavior, and retention. A total of 9694 people living with HIV from 7 participating US HIV clinical sites (the Centers for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems) contributed 23,225 observations from January 2011 to June 2014. The retention outcomes were (1) Institute of Medicine (IOM) retention: 2 visits within 1 year at least 90 days apart and (2) visit adherence [proportion of kept visits/(scheduled + kept visits)]. Alcohol use was measured with Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-C, generating drinking (never, moderate, and heavy) and binge frequency (never, monthly/less than monthly, weekly/daily) categories. Adjusted multivariable logistic models, accounting for repeat measures, were generated. Of our sample, 82% was men, 46% white, 35% black, and 14% Hispanic. At first assessment, 37% of participants reported never drinking, 38% moderate, and 25% heavy, and 89% of the patients were retained (IOM retention measure). Participants' mean (SD) visit adherence was 84% (25%). Heavy alcohol use was associated with inferior IOM-defined retention (adjusted odds ratio 0.78, 95% confidence interval: 0.69 to 0.88), and daily/weekly binge drinking was associated with lower visit adherence (adjusted odds ratio = 0.90, 95% confidence interval: 0.82 to 0.98). Both heavy drinking and frequent binge drinking were associated with worse retention in HIV care. Increased identification and treatment of heavy and binge drinking in HIV clinical care settings may improve retention in HIV care, with downstream effects of improved clinical outcomes and decreased HIV transmission.
Torvik, Fartein A; Røysamb, Espen; Gustavson, Kristin; Idstad, Mariann; Tambs, Kristian
Previous studies have demonstrated that high alcohol consumption is a predictor of divorce. However, there is a lack of studies with prospective data from both spouses. The effects of drinking among husbands versus wives and of concordant versus discordant drinking in couples are therefore unknown. Concordant drinking may lead to increased divorce rates because the malignant effects of heavy drinking are experienced in double doses; alternatively it may lead to marital stability due to partner compatibility. All inhabitants in a Norwegian county were invited to participate in a health study. We identified 19,977 married couples where both spouses participated. Respondents provided information on alcohol use and mental distress. Survival analysis was applied to study the risk of divorce over the next 15 years. Demographics and mental distress were used as covariates. Heavy drinking among men (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.39) and women (HR = 1.41) increased the risk of future marital dissolution, even after adjusting for demography (reference group "light drinkers"). The HR for divorce was 1.51 when only the husband was a heavy drinker, while it was 3.07 when only the wife was a heavy drinker. Moreover, there were strong interaction effects: concordant abstainers (HR = 0.40) and concordant heavy drinkers (HR = 0.35) had lower risks of divorce compared to the risk expected from combining the main effects. Nevertheless, couples with 2 heavy drinkers (HR = 1.63) had higher risk of divorce than couples with 2 light drinkers. This study demonstrated that both the level of alcohol use and compatibility in alcohol use are important predictors of marital dissolution. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Aline Silva de Aguiar Nemer
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alcoholic beverages are widely available in the university environment, particularly at the parties. There are few studies addressing the relationship between alcohol consumption and academic performance among college students. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the behavior of college students regarding the profile of alcohol consumption and its academic consequences. METHODS: The volunteers (343 students answered a questionnaire about their pattern of alcohol consumption and possible related behaviors, especially academic performance. Participants were classified as "non-drinkers" (ND, "non-binge drinkers" (nBD, "binge drinkers" (BD and "heavy drinkers" (HD. RESULTS: 88.1% of the students reported ingesting alcoholic beverages, 44% as BD. Most of the drinker students (75.5% - nBD, BD or HD stated getting intoxicated at least once a month. Binge drinking was the predominant pattern (66.2% of those who drank. HD students presented a risk 9.2 times higher of not being in the ideal period of the course. DISCUSSION: The college students evaluated presented high rates of alcohol abuse. Binge drinking might have interfered in their academic performance. Organic, social and behavioral consequences were also reported.
Lin, M; Su, Q; Huang, H; Zheng, Y; Wen, J; Yao, J; Liang, J; Li, L; Lin, W; Lin, L; Lu, J; Bi, Y; Wang, W; Ning, G; Chen, G
Glomerular hyperfiltration has been considered an early marker of kidney injury in prediabetes and prehypertension. Heavy alcohol consumption remains highly prevalent and is considered a major public health problem worldwide. The degree of glomerular hyperfiltration associated with alcohol consumption remains unclear. This study was conducted in three communities in China. A total of 15 390 participants (5396 males and 9994 females) aged 40-65 years were included in the study. Glomerular hyperfiltration was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate >97.5th percentile value of the total population. Current drinkers had a 1.51 times higher risk for developing renal hyperfiltration (RHF) as compared with never drinkers, adjusted for age, body mass index, smoking status, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, physical activity and the levels of fasting glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein. Furthermore, heavy alcohol consumption of >210 g per week was associated with an elevated risk for RHF in a dose-dependent manner among male current drinkers. In middle-aged Chinese men, heavy alcohol intake was associated with an elevated risk for RHF. On the other hand, former drinkers or light-moderate alcohol intake did not show any increased risks for these conditions.
Galán, I; Valencia-Martín, J L; Guallar-Castillón, P; Rodríguez-Artalejo, F
To estimate the association between patterns of alcohol consumption and biomarkers of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Cross-sectional study among 10,793 individuals representative of the Spanish population aged ≥ 18 years. The threshold between moderate and heavy drinking was 40 g of alcohol/day in men and 24 g/day in women. Binge drinking was defined as intake of ≥ 80 g of alcohol in men and ≥ 60 g in women at any drinking occasion in the preceding 30 days. Analyses were performed with generalized linear models with adjustment for the main confounders, and results were expressed as the percentage change in the geometric mean (PCGM). Compared to non-drinkers, moderate and heavy drinkers had progressively higher serum HDL-cholesterol, with a PCGM ranging from 4.8% (95% CI: 3.7-6.0%) in moderate drinkers without binge drinking (MNB) to 9.6% (5.1-14.2%) in heavy drinkers with binge drinking (HB). Fibrinogen decreased progressively with alcohol intake, from -2.2% (-3.1 to -1.3%) in MNB to -5.8% (-9.4 to -2.0%) in HB. Leptin, glycated hemoglobin and the HOMA-index also decreased with increasing alcohol intake, and particularly with binge drinking. Moderate alcohol intake is associated with improved HDL-cholesterol, fibrinogen and markers of glucose metabolism, which is consistent with the reduced CHD risk of moderate drinkers in many studies. Heavy and binge drinking were also associated with favorable levels of CHD biomarkers; since these drinking patterns produce substantial health harms, our results should not be used to promote alcohol consumption. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rosta, Judith; Aasland, Olaf G.
Aims: To describe and discuss the alcohol drinking patterns of the younger generation of hospital doctors in Norway and Germany – respectively the abstainers, frequent drinkers, episodic heavy drinkers and hazardous drinkers. Methods: Data were collected in nationwide postal surveys among doctors in Norway (2000) and Germany (2006). A representative sample of 1898 German and 602 Norwegian hospital doctors aged 27–65 years were included in the analyses (N=2500). Alcohol drinking patterns were measured using the first three items of AUDIT in Norway and the AUDIT-C in Germany, scores of ≥5 (ranking from 0 to 12) indicating hazardous drinking. Episodic heavy drinking was defined by the intake of ≥60g of ethanol, on one occasion, at least once a week. Frequent drinkers were who drank alcoholic beverages at least twice a week. Abstainers were persons who drank no alcohol. The analyses were performed separately for age groups (27–44 years versus 45–65 years) and genders. Results: Compared to the age groups 45 to 65 years in the Norwegian and German samples, the younger age groups (27–44 years) tend to have higher rates of abstainers, higher rates of infrequent drinking of moderate amount of alcoholic drinks, lower rates of episodic heavy drinking and lower rates of hazardous drinking. Conclusion: The younger generation of hospital doctors in Norway and Germany showed tendencies to healthier drinking habits. Changes in professional life, and in the attitude towards alcohol consumption, may go some way towards explaining these findings. PMID:20200658
Rosta, Judith; Aasland, Olaf G
To describe and discuss the alcohol drinking patterns of the younger generation of hospital doctors in Norway and Germany - respectively the abstainers, frequent drinkers, episodic heavy drinkers and hazardous drinkers. Data were collected in nationwide postal surveys among doctors in Norway (2000) and Germany (2006). A representative sample of 1898 German and 602 Norwegian hospital doctors aged 27-65 years were included in the analyses (N=2500). Alcohol drinking patterns were measured using the first three items of AUDIT in Norway and the AUDIT-C in Germany, scores of >or=5 (ranking from 0 to 12) indicating hazardous drinking. Episodic heavy drinking was defined by the intake of >or=60 g of ethanol, on one occasion, at least once a week. Frequent drinkers were who drank alcoholic beverages at least twice a week. Abstainers were persons who drank no alcohol. The analyses were performed separately for age groups (27-44 years versus 45-65 years) and genders. Compared to the age groups 45 to 65 years in the Norwegian and German samples, the younger age groups (27-44 years) tend to have higher rates of abstainers, higher rates of infrequent drinking of moderate amount of alcoholic drinks, lower rates of episodic heavy drinking and lower rates of hazardous drinking. The younger generation of hospital doctors in Norway and Germany showed tendencies to healthier drinking habits. Changes in professional life, and in the attitude towards alcohol consumption, may go some way towards explaining these findings.
Hach, M; Holm-Pedersen, P; Adegboye, A R A
OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of alcohol consumption measured at different points in time and periodontitis at 20 years follow-up and to investigate whether long-term alcohol consumption is related to periodontitis in old age. DESIGN: Participants aged 65 years or older in 2003, from...... the longitudinal study Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS), were invited to participate in the Copenhagen Oral Health Senior Study. METHODS: Clinical periodontal attachment loss was calculated to determine the progress of periodontitis. Alcohol consumption was measured at CCHS follow-ups in 1981-1983, 1991...... alcohol consumption measured at different points in time and periodontitis and to assess the effect of long-term alcohol consumption on periodontitis. RESULTS: The results show that heavy drinkers in 1981-1983 had a higher odds ratio for having periodontitis compared to light drinkers (OR = 4.64 95% CI...
Bogg, Tim; Lasecki, Leanne; Vo, Phuong T.
Objective: Research has shown trait self-control, neuroticism, and coping and enhancement drinking motives to be predictors of alcohol consumption among college students. Recent research also provides evidence for the effects of role investment and role-based alcohol consumption–decision making (i.e., partying decisions). The goal of the present study was to clarify the organization and contributions of these multifarious influences on college student drinking. Method: College students (N = 355; 51.8% female) with a heterogeneous prevalence of alcohol dependence completed measures of trait self-control; neuroticism; coping and enhancement drinking motives; subjective college student role investment, satisfaction, and stress; role-based partying scenarios; and a typical weekly alcohol consumption interview. Internal and comparative fit indices for alternative path models were evaluated and bootstrapping procedures were used to examine indirect effects. Results: Modeling results favored a more stratified organization, where (a) the association between trait self-control and consumption was mediated by drinking motives and partying decisions, (b) the association between neuroticism and consumption was mediated by coping motives, and (c) the association between role investment and consumption was mediated by partying decisions. The associations between motives and consumption were not mediated by partying decisions. Conclusions: The results provide support for disinhibitory and distress pathways to college student drinking, where impulsive and anxious students are more likely to drink excessively because of more frequent mood-affecting drinking goals, less academic involvement, and/or more frequent decisions to attend parties where negative academic consequences are likely but where perceived rewarding alcohol-related and social features are present. PMID:26751363
Bogg, Tim; Lasecki, Leanne; Vo, Phuong T
Research has shown trait self-control, neuroticism, and coping and enhancement drinking motives to be predictors of alcohol consumption among college students. Recent research also provides evidence for the effects of role investment and role-based alcohol consumption-decision making (i.e., partying decisions). The goal of the present study was to clarify the organization and contributions of these multifarious influences on college student drinking. College students (N = 355; 51.8% female) with a heterogeneous prevalence of alcohol dependence completed measures of trait self-control; neuroticism; coping and enhancement drinking motives; subjective college student role investment, satisfaction, and stress; role-based partying scenarios; and a typical weekly alcohol consumption interview. Internal and comparative fit indices for alternative path models were evaluated and bootstrapping procedures were used to examine indirect effects. Modeling results favored a more stratified organization, where (a) the association between trait self-control and consumption was mediated by drinking motives and partying decisions, (b) the association between neuroticism and consumption was mediated by coping motives, and (c) the association between role investment and consumption was mediated by partying decisions. The associations between motives and consumption were not mediated by partying decisions. The results provide support for disinhibitory and distress pathways to college student drinking, where impulsive and anxious students are more likely to drink excessively because of more frequent mood-affecting drinking goals, less academic involvement, and/or more frequent decisions to attend parties where negative academic consequences are likely but where perceived rewarding alcohol-related and social features are present.
Wells, Samantha; Flynn, Andrea; Tremblay, Paul F; Dumas, Tara; Miller, Peter; Graham, Kathryn
This study extends previous research on masculinity and negative drinking consequences among young men by considering mediating effects of heavy episodic drinking (HED) and alcohol expectancies. We hypothesized that masculinity would have a direct relationship with negative consequences from drinking as well as indirect relationships mediated by HED and alcohol expectancies of courage, risk, and aggression. A random sample of 1,436 college and university men ages 19-25 years completed an online survey, including conformity to masculine norms, alcohol-related expectancies, HED, and negative drinking consequences. Regression analyses and structural equation modeling were used. Six of seven dimensions of masculinity and the alcohol expectancy scales were significantly associated with both HED and negative consequences. In multivariate regression models predicting HED and negative consequences, the playboy and violence dimensions of masculinity and the risk/aggression alcohol expectancy remained significant. HED and the risk-taking dimension of masculinity were also significant in the model predicting negative consequences. The structural equation model indicated that masculinity was directly associated with HED and negative consequences but also influenced negative consequences indirectly through HED and alcohol expectancies. The findings suggest that, among young adult male college and university students, masculinity is an important factor related to both HED and drinking consequences, with the latter effect partly mediated by HED and alcohol expectancies. Addressing male norms about masculinity may help to reduce HED and negative consequences from drinking.
Romelsjö, Anders; Danielsson, Anna-Karin
The prevention paradox states that a majority of alcohol-related problems in a population come from moderate drinkers because they are more numerous than heavy drinkers, although the latter have a higher individual risk of adverse outcomes. We examined the extent to which the prevention paradox applies to the relationship between alcohol consumption, heavy episodic drinking (HED) and alcohol-related problems in adolescents; an area in which studies are lacking. A total of 7288 alcohol-consuming adolescents aged 13-17 years were examined. The proportions (%) of problems related to drinking measures [the upper 10% and bottom 90% of drinkers by annual alcohol intake, and those with frequent (monthly), less frequent, and no heavy drinking episodes] were calculated. The bottom 90% of consumers by annual intake accounted for a large majority of the alcohol-related problems among boys and girls at all ages. The share of problems accounted for by monthly HEDs increased with age, from ∼10% among those aged 13 years to >50% among those aged 17 years. Attributable proportions for the top 10% alcohol consumers ranged between 22% and 37%. Our analyses suggest that the prevention paradox is valid for adolescent boys and girls aged ≥15 years and applies to a large range of alcohol-related problems of varying severity. Our results imply that not only that prevention directed at all adolescents is essential, but also that HED should be particularly noticed.
Dearing, Ronda L; Twaragowski, Cheryl L; Smith, Philip H; Homish, Gregory G; Connors, Gerard J; Walitzer, Kimberly S
Major sporting events and other festive occasions are typically associated with alcohol consumption; however, little is known about risky drinking during events such as the "Super Bowl." We sought to determine whether drinking on Super Bowl Sunday differed from Saturdays (the heaviest drinking day of the week) surrounding the date of the Super Bowl among at-risk drinkers. Heavy drinking participants (N = 208) were recruited via advertisements for a 2-year prospective study of drinking behaviors. From this larger sample, 196 were selected for whom the date of the Super Bowl was included in their daily alcohol consumption reports (including reports of abstinence on those days) for 2006, 2007, and/or 2008. Participants' average age was 36.4 (SD = 12.9); 49.5% were women. Participants at the point of recruitment were not seeking treatment and had not been in alcohol treatment in the past year. Analyses using multilevel modeling comparing Super Bowl Sunday to Saturdays indicated that men drank more alcohol on Super Bowl Sunday across all 3 years, whereas women's drinking was higher in only one of the 3 years. CONCLUSIONS/IMPORTANCE: These findings suggest that heavy drinking during the Super Bowl (and in association with other sporting events), particularly among men, warrants additional attention due to the potential for deleterious public health consequences.
Mani Prasad Gautam
Conclusions:Our study showed a strongly positive relationship on the coexistence of chronic liver disease and cardiomyopathy among the non-moderate drinkers. Non-moderate drinkers with chronic liver disease have a high likelihood of having a concurrent clinical or sub-clinical heart muscle disease and vice versa. Keywords: alcohol; chronic liver disease; heart muscle disease; non-moderate drinking.
Liang, Wenbin; Chikritzhs, Tanya
Two ecological cross-sectional studies which relied on national survey data (U.S. and Australia) have shown that starting drinking at a younger age increases the frequency of heavy drinking in the general population, including those with good mental and physical health status. This study further investigates the hypothesis that age at first use of alcohol increases the risk of heavy alcohol use by applying data from a longitudinal study. This study used public-use data collected from Wave I, Wave III and Wave IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health in the United States. The association between age at first use of alcohol and heavy alcohol use (5+ drinks per occasion) was examined with two different multivariate analysis approaches with data from 2316 participants: ordered logistic regression models and Poisson regression models with longitudinal data settings. In addition, the newly developed proxy outcome approach was further used to estimate and adjust for unmeasured/unobserved confounding factors. Age at first use of alcohol before 18 years was associated significantly higher risk of heavy alcohol use at follow-up. After adjusting for known and residual confounders, younger age at first use of alcohol was associated with significantly higher risk of heavy alcohol use, moreover, we posit that the association observed from this longitudinal study is probably causal. Abstinence from alcohol until the age of 18 years will likely reduce individual risk of alcohol-related problems in adulthood. In the longer term, delayed onset of exposure with widespread abstinence among this age group is also likely to reduce the overall prevalence of alcohol-related problems in the general population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Li, Zhao; Bai, Yinglong; Guo, Xiaofan; Zheng, Liqiang; Sun, Yingxian; Roselle, Abraham Marria
This study aimed to update the current information on alcohol consumption and evaluate the associations between drinking status and cardiovascular diseases in a general population from rural China. The study examined a total of 11,269 adults using a multi-stage cluster sampling method to select a representative sample of individuals 35years or older. Related medical histories were obtained using a standard questionnaire, and blood biochemical indexes were collected by well-trained personnel. Participants were asked for information about whether they regularly consumed alcohol, their average alcohol consumption per day, and the number of days per month that they consumed alcohol. This population consisted of 75.8% non-drinkers, 7.5% moderate drinkers, and 16.7% heavy drinkers. And the mean alcohol consumption per day for the total population was 15.29±0.35g/d (women: 1.0±0.11g/d and men 32.5±0.69g/d, pconsumption and CHD, HT or ischemic stroke. Alcohol consumption in rural populations is high, particularly in men. Heavy drinking is a risk factor for coronary heart disease and hypertension, but not for ischemic stroke. There was no significant association between moderate alcohol consumption and CHD, HT or ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Helping the large number of problem drinkers who will never seek treatment is a challenging issue. Public health initiatives employing educational materials or mass media campaigns have met with mixed success. However, clinical research has developed effective brief interventions to help problem drinkers. This project will employ an intervention that has been validated in clinical settings and then modified into an ultra-brief format suitable for use as a public health intervention. The major objective of this study is to conduct a randomized controlled trial to establish the effectiveness of an ultra-brief, personalized feedback intervention for problem drinkers. Methods/design Problem drinkers recruited on a baseline population telephone survey conducted in a major metropolitan city in Canada will be randomized to one of three conditions – a personalized feedback pamphlet condition, a control pamphlet condition, or a no intervention control condition. In the week after the baseline survey, households in the two pamphlet conditions will be sent their respective pamphlets. Changes in drinking will be assessed post intervention at three-month and six-month follow-ups. Drinking outcomes will be compared between experimental conditions using Structural Equation Modeling. The primary hypothesis is that problem drinkers from households who receive the personalized feedback pamphlet intervention will display significantly improved drinking outcomes at three and six-month follow-ups as compared to problem drinkers from households in the no intervention control condition. Secondary hypotheses will test the impact of the intervention on help seeking, and explore the mediating or moderating role of perceived drinking norms, perceived alcohol risks and the problem drinker's social reasons for drinking. Discussion This trial will provide information on the effectiveness of a pamphlet-based personalized feedback intervention for problem
Shimomura, Tomoko; Wakabayashi, Ichiro
Dyslipidemia is a common complication in patients with diabetes and is involved in being prone to cardiovascular disease. The risk of coronary artery disease is known to be lower in light-to-moderate drinkers than in abstainers. The aim of this study was to clarify whether and how alcohol drinking influences the lipid-related indices, good predictors for cardiovascular disease, such as the ratio of LDL cholesterol to HDL cholesterol (LDL-C/HDL-C ratio), the ratio of triglycerides to HDL cholesterol (TG/HDL-C ratio), and the lipid accumulation product (LAP), in patients with diabetes. The subjects were men with diabetes (n = 1477; mean age, 54.0 years) and they were divided into non-, light (relationships between alcohol intake and the lipid-related indices were investigated by the multivariate analyses with adjustment for age, smoking, regular exercise and drug therapy for diabetes. The odds ratio (OR) vs. nondrinkers for high LDL-C/HDL-C ratio tended to be lower with an increase in alcohol intake (OR with 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.80 [0.50-1.29] in light drinkers; 0.24 [0.15-0.38] in moderate drinkers and 0.10 [0.05-0.19] in heavy drinkers). Alcohol intake showed an inverse association with a high TG/HDL-C ratio (OR with 95% CI vs. nondrinkers for high TG/HDL-C ratio: 0.54 [0.36-0.80] in light drinkers; 0.73 [0.56-0.97] in moderate drinkers and 0.72 [0.53-0.98] in heavy drinkers) and a J-shaped relationship with a high LAP (OR with 95% CI vs. nondrinkers for high LAP: 0.66 [0.43-1.02] in light drinkers; 0.82 [0.61-1.10] in moderate drinkers, and 1.29 [0.95-1.77] in heavy drinkers). Similar associations between alcohol intake and the lipid indices were obtained in a covariance analysis. In patients with diabetes, light-to-moderate alcohol consumption is inversely associated with lipid-related indices, and this correlates with previous findings of cardiovascular risk reduction by modest drinking in patients with diabetes.
McQueen, Jean; Howe, Tracey E; Allan, Linda; Mains, Diane; Hardy, Victoria
Brief interventions involve a time-limited intervention focusing on changing behaviour. They are often motivational in nature using counselling skills to encourage a reduction in alcohol consumption. To determine whether brief interventions reduce alcohol consumption and improve outcomes for heavy alcohol users admitted to general hospital inpatient units. We searched the Cochrane Drug and Alcohol Group Register of Trials (March 2011) the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library March 2011), MEDLINE January 1966-March 2011, CINAHL 1982-March 2011, EMBASE 1980-March 2011 and www.clinicaltrials.gov to April 2011 and performed some relevant handsearching. All prospective randomised controlled trials and controlled clinical trials were eligible for inclusion. Participants were adults and adolescents (16 years or older) admitted to general inpatient hospital care for any reason other than specifically for alcohol treatment and received brief interventions (of up to 3 sessions) compared to no or usual care. Three reviewers independently selected the studies and extracted data. Where appropriate random effects meta-analysis and sensitivity analysis were performed. Forteen studies involving 4041 mainly male participants were included. Our results demonstrate that patients receiving brief interventions have a greater reduction in alcohol consumption compared to those in control groups at six month, MD -69.43 (95% CI -128.14 to -10.72) and nine months follow up, MD -182.88 (95% CI -360.00 to -5.76) but this is not maintained at one year. Self reports of reduction of alcohol consumption at 1 year were found in favour of brief interventions, SMD -0.26 (95% CI -0.50 to -0.03). In addition there were significantly fewer deaths in the groups receiving brief interventions than in control groups at 6 months, RR 0.42 (95% CI 0.19 to 0.94) and one year follow up, RR 0.60 (95% CI 0.40 to 0.91). Furthermore screening, asking participants about their drinking
van Lettow, Britt; de Vries, Hein; Burdorf, Alex; Boon, Brigitte; van Empelen, Pepijn
Excessive alcohol use is a prevalent and worldwide problem. Excessive drinking causes a significant burden of disease and is associated with both morbidity and excess mortality. Prototype alteration and provision of a cue reminder could be useful strategies to enhance the effectiveness of online tailored interventions for excessive drinking. Through a Web-based randomized controlled trial, 2 strategies (ie, prototype alteration and cue reminders) within an existing online personalized feedback intervention (Drinktest) aimed to reduce adults' excessive drinking. It was expected that both strategies would add to Drinktest and would result in reductions in alcohol consumption by intrinsic motivation and the seizure of opportunities to act. Participants were recruited online and through printed materials. Excessive drinking adults (N=2634) were randomly assigned to 4 conditions: original Drinktest, Drinktest plus prototype alteration, Drinktest plus cue reminder, and Drinktest plus prototype alteration and cue reminder. Evaluation took place at 1-month posttest and 6-month follow-up. Differences in drinking behavior, intentions, and behavioral willingness (ie, primary outcomes) were assessed by means of longitudinal multilevel analyses using a last observation carried forward method. Measures were based on self-reports. All conditions showed reductions in drinking behavior and willingness to drink, and increased intentions to reduce drinking. Prototype alteration (B=-0.15, Pprototypes. Thus, prototype alteration and cue reminder usage may be feasible and simple intervention strategies to promote reductions in alcohol consumption among adults, with an effect up to 6 months. Nederlands Trial Register (NTR): 4169; http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=4169 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6VD2jnxmB).
Background Excessive alcohol use is a prevalent and worldwide problem. Excessive drinking causes a significant burden of disease and is associated with both morbidity and excess mortality. Prototype alteration and provision of a cue reminder could be useful strategies to enhance the effectiveness of online tailored interventions for excessive drinking. Objective Through a Web-based randomized controlled trial, 2 strategies (ie, prototype alteration and cue reminders) within an existing online personalized feedback intervention (Drinktest) aimed to reduce adults’ excessive drinking. It was expected that both strategies would add to Drinktest and would result in reductions in alcohol consumption by intrinsic motivation and the seizure of opportunities to act. Methods Participants were recruited online and through printed materials. Excessive drinking adults (N=2634) were randomly assigned to 4 conditions: original Drinktest, Drinktest plus prototype alteration, Drinktest plus cue reminder, and Drinktest plus prototype alteration and cue reminder. Evaluation took place at 1-month posttest and 6-month follow-up. Differences in drinking behavior, intentions, and behavioral willingness (ie, primary outcomes) were assessed by means of longitudinal multilevel analyses using a last observation carried forward method. Measures were based on self-reports. Results All conditions showed reductions in drinking behavior and willingness to drink, and increased intentions to reduce drinking. Prototype alteration (B=–0.15, Pprototypes. Thus, prototype alteration and cue reminder usage may be feasible and simple intervention strategies to promote reductions in alcohol consumption among adults, with an effect up to 6 months. Trial Registration Nederlands Trial Register (NTR): 4169; http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=4169 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6VD2jnxmB). PMID:25653199
Page, Randy M; Ihasz, Ferenc; Hantiu, Iacob; Simonek, Jaromir; Klarova, Renata
This study examined alcohol use and related social normative perceptions among a sample of 1,886 Central-Eastern European high school students. The youth represented in the study averaged 16.5 years of age and were from several localities in the countries of Hungary, Slovakia, Czech Republic, and Romania. Data for the study were collected through a school-based alcohol use survey that was completed in June 2005. Our results support the hypothesis that drinking was related to perception of the prevalence of alcohol use by schoolmates and by the number of friends who drink and/or engage in episodic heavy drinking. Specific implications of findings in terms of substance use prevention are discussed. In addition, the need for future research and the limitations of the current research are discussed. This study was largely financially supported through an international grant from the College of Health and Human Performance, Brigham Young University.
Fucito, Lisa M; DeMartini, Kelly S; Hanrahan, Tess H; Whittemore, Robin; Yaggi, H Klar; Redeker, Nancy S
The purpose of this mixed methods study was to describe the sleep and psychological characteristics of heavy-drinking college students, their perceptions of sleep and sleep/alcohol interactions, and their reactions to a proposed integrated sleep and alcohol Web-based intervention. Students (N = 24) completed standardized surveys and participated in semistructured focus group interviews. Participants reported a high degree of sleep disturbance, sleep obstacles, and sleep-related consequences, which were validated by both quantitative and qualitative investigations. Sleep disturbance and sleep-related impairment were associated with more frequent drinking and greater risks from drinking. Participants perceived that alcohol has positive and negative effects on sleep latency, continuity, and quality. They expressed overall enthusiasm for the intervention but had specific content and format preferences.
DeMartini, Kelly S.; Hanrahan, Tess; Whittemore, Robin; Yaggi, Henry Klar; Redeker, Nancy S.
The purpose of this mixed methods study was to describe the sleep and psychological characteristics of heavy drinking college students, their perceptions of sleep and sleep/alcohol interactions, and their reactions to a proposed integrated sleep and alcohol internet-based intervention. Students (N = 24) completed standardized surveys and participated in semi-structured focus group interviews. Participants reported a high degree of sleep disturbance, sleep obstacles, and sleep-related consequences, which were validated by both quantitative and qualitative investigations. Sleep disturbance and sleep-related impairment were associated with more frequent drinking and greater risks from drinking. Participants perceived that alcohol has positive and negative effects on sleep latency, continuity, and quality. They expressed overall enthusiasm for the intervention but had specific content and format preferences. PMID:24924956
Pedersen, Willy; Bakken, Anders; von Soest, Tilmann
Little is known about the relative influences of neighborhood and school on the alcohol socialization process. Survey data from the Young in Oslo Study (N = 10,038, mean age 17.1 years, 52% girls) were used to investigate the details of such influences, using cross-classified multilevel models. School and neighborhood contexts were equally important for ordinary alcohol use; however, neighborhood influences were mainly explained by individual and family factors, whereas peer-based sociocultural processes played a key role in explaining school effects. Neither context had much impact on heavy episodic drinking. The study suggests that "privileged" youth may be at risk of high alcohol consumption. Parental influences and peer-based sociocultural aspects of the school milieu should be considered in prevention efforts.
Daley, James I; Stahre, Mandy A; Chaloupka, Frank J; Naimi, Timothy S
Excessive alcohol consumption causes 79,000 deaths annually in the U.S., shortening the lives of those who die from it by approximately 30 years. Although alcohol taxation is an effective measure to reduce excessive consumption and related harm, some argue that increasing alcohol taxes places an unfair economic burden on "responsible" drinkers and socially disadvantaged people. To examine the impact of a hypothetic tax increase based on alcohol consumption and sociodemographic characteristics of current drinkers, individually and in aggregate. Data from the 2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey were analyzed from 2010 to 2011 to determine the net financial impact of a hypothetic 25-cent-per-drink tax increase on current drinkers in the U.S. Higher-risk drinkers were defined as those whose past-30-day consumption included binge drinking, heavy drinking, drinking in excess of the U.S. Dietary Guidelines, and alcohol-impaired driving. Of U.S. adults who consumed alcohol in the past 30 days, 50.4% (or approximately 25% of the total U.S. population) were classified as higher-risk drinkers. The tax increase would result in a 9.2% reduction in alcohol consumption, including an 11.4% reduction in heavy drinking. Compared with lower-risk drinkers, higher-risk drinkers would pay 4.7 times more in net increased annual per capita taxes, and 82.7% of the net increased annual aggregate taxes. Lower-risk drinkers would pay less than $30 in net increased taxes annually. In aggregate, groups who paid the most in net tax increases included those who were white, male, aged 21-50 years, earning ≥$50,000 per year, employed, and had a college degree. A 25-cent-per-drink alcohol tax increase would reduce excessive drinking, and higher-risk drinkers would pay the substantial majority of the net tax increase. Copyright Â© 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Glass, Leila; Ware, Ashley L; Crocker, Nicole; Deweese, Benjamin N; Coles, Claire D; Kable, Julie A; May, Philip A; Kalberg, Wendy O; Sowell, Elizabeth R; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Riley, Edward P; Mattson, Sarah N
Neuropsychological functioning of individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or heavy prenatal alcohol exposure has been well documented independently. This study examined the interaction between both factors on cognitive performance in children. As part of a multisite study, 344 children (8-16 y, M = 12.28, SD = 2.52) completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Four subject groups were tested: children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (AE) and ADHD (AE+, n = 90), alcohol-exposed without ADHD, (AE-, n = 38), nonexposed with ADHD (ADHD, n = 80), and nonexposed without ADHD (CON, n = 136). Separate 2(AE) × 2(ADHD) MANCOVAs revealed significant main and interactive effects of ADHD and AE on overall WISC-IV, D-KEFS, and CANTAB performance. Individual ANOVAs revealed significant interactions on 2 WISC-IV indices [Verbal Comprehension (VCI), Perceptual Reasoning (PRI)], and four D-KEFS and CANTAB subtests [Design Fluency, Verbal Fluency, Trail Making, Spatial Working Memory]. Follow-up analyses demonstrated no difference between AE+ and AE- groups on these measures. The combined AE+/- group demonstrated more severe impairment than the ADHD group on VCI and PRI, but there were no other differences between clinical groups. These results support a combined AE+/- group for neuropsychological research and indicate that, in some cases, the neuropsychological effects seen in ADHD are altered by prenatal alcohol exposure. The effects of alcohol exposure on verbal comprehension and perceptual reasoning were greater than those related to having ADHD without alcohol exposure, although both conditions independently resulted in cognitive impairment compared to controls. Clinically, these findings demonstrate task-dependent patterns of impairment across clinical disorders. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Pedrelli, Paola; Borsari, Brian; Lipson, Sarah Ketchen; Heinze, Justin E; Eisenberg, Daniel
Although major depressive disorder (MDD) and heavy episodic drinking (HED, 4+/5+ drinks in a single sitting for women/men) are common among young adults in college, the relationship between the two remains unclear. This study examined the association between MDD and HED in this population, the effect of gender on this association, and whether comorbid MDD and heavy alcohol use are associated with higher rates of mental health treatment engagement. The study comprised 61,561 (65.3% female) undergraduate students who answered an online survey on depression, alcohol use, and treatment engagement in the past year. Hierarchical linear regressions examined the association between MDD and alcohol use (HED and peak blood alcohol concentration [pBAC]) and whether gender moderated these associations. Logistic regressions were then conducted to examine the influence of MDD, heavy alcohol use, and gender on treatment engagement. Students with MDD reported more frequent HED and higher pBAC than did students without MDD; this was especially true for female students. Rates of treatment engagement were higher among women than men, among students with MDD than students without MDD, and among female students with HED than women without HED. The presence of an association between MDD and heavy alcohol use suggests the need for systematic screenings of both conditions. Low rates of treatment engagement in college students with MDD and heavy alcohol use calls for the development of strategies to engage this high-risk group in treatment.
Full Text Available Background. Experimental studies suggest that alcohol can lead to aggression in laboratory settings; however, it is impossible to test the causal relationship between alcohol use and real-life violence among humans in randomized clinical trials. Objectives. (i To examine the relationship between heavy alcohol use and assaults in a population based study; (ii to demonstrate the proxy outcome method, as a means of controlling the effects of unknown/unmeasured confounders in observational studies. Methods. This study used data collected from three waves of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH. The effects of heavy alcohol use on assault were measured using multivariable logistic regressions in conjunction with the proxy outcome method. Results. Application of the proxy outcome method indicated that effect sizes of heavy alcohol use on the risk of assault were overestimated in the standard models. After adjusting for the effects of unknown/unmeasured confounders, the risk of assault remained 43% and 63% higher P<0.05 among participants who consumed 5+ drinks/day for 5–8 days/month and 9–30 days/month, respectively. Conclusions. Even after adjustment for unknown/unmeasured confounders the association between heavy alcohol use and risk of violence remained significant. These findings support the hypothesis that heavy alcohol use can cause violence.
Caamaño-Isorna, Francisco; Moure-Rodríguez, Lucía; Doallo, Sonia; Corral, Montserrat; Rodriguez Holguín, Socorro; Cadaveira, Fernando
The objective of this study is to assess the effects of Heavy Episodic Drinking (HED) on the incidence of alcohol-related injuries among university students in Spain, taking sex into consideration. We carried out an open cohort study among college students in Spain (992 women and 371 men). HED and alcohol-related injuries were measured by question 3rd and 9th of Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test to every participant at the ages of 18, 20, 22, 24 and 27. For data analysis we used a Multilevel Logistic Regression for repeated measures adjusting for alcohol and cannabis use. The incidence rate of alcohol-related injuries was 0.028year-1 for females and 0.036year-1 for males. The multivariate analysis showed that among females a high frequency of HED and use of cannabis are risk factors for alcohol-related injuries (Odds Ratio [OR]=2.64 and OR=3.68), while being more than 23 is a protective factor (OR=0.34). For males, bivariate analysis also showed HED like risk factor (OR=4.69 and OR=2.51). Finally, the population attributable fraction for HED among females was 37.12%. HED leads to an increase of alcohol-related injuries in both sexes and being over 23 years old acts as a protective factor among women. Our results suggest that about one third of alcohol-related injuries among women could be avoided by removing HED. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tingey, Lauren; Cwik, Mary F; Rosenstock, Summer; Goklish, Novalene; Larzelere-Hinton, Francene; Lee, Angelita; Suttle, Rosemarie; Alchesay, Melanie; Massey, Kirk; Barlow, Allison
American Indian (AI) adolescents are disproportionately burdened by alcohol abuse and heavy binge use, often leading to problematic drinking in adulthood. However, many AI communities also have large proportions of adults who abstain from alcohol. To understand these concurrent and divergent patterns, we explored the relationship between risk and protective factors for heavy binge alcohol use among a reservation-based sample of AI adolescents. Factors at individual, peer, family, and cultural/community levels were examined using a cross-sectional case-control study design. Cases were adolescents with recent heavy binge alcohol use that resulted in necessary medical care. Controls had no lifetime history of heavy binge alcohol use. 68 cases and 55 controls were recruited from emergency health services visits. Participants were 50% male; average age 15.4 years old, range 10 to 19. Independent variables were explored using logistic regression; those statistically significant were combined into a larger multivariate model. Exploratory analyses showed adolescents who were aggressive, impulsive, had deviant peers, poor family functioning or more people living at home were at greater risk for heavy binge alcohol use. Protective factors included attending school, family closeness, residential stability, social problem-solving skills, having traditional AI values and practices, and strong ethnic identity. Confirmatory analysis concluded that school attendance and residential stability reduce the probability of heavy binge alcohol use, even among those already at low risk. Findings deepen the understanding of AI adolescent heavy binge alcohol use and inform adolescent intervention development fostering trajectories to low-risk drinking and abstinence.
Full Text Available To estimate the prevalence and risk factors for abnormal liver enzymes in a large age- and gender stratified population-based sample of apparently healthy individuals with or without alcohol consumption and other health-related risk factors (adiposity, physical inactivity, smoking.Data on alcohol use, smoking, diet and physical activity were recorded using structured questionnaires from 13,976 subjects (6513 men, 7463 women, aged 25-74 years in the national FINRISK studies. Alcohol data was used to categorize the participants into abstainers, light drinkers, moderate drinkers and heavy drinkers. Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT and alanine aminotransferase (ALT activities were measured using standard kinetic methods.Male light drinkers, moderate drinkers and heavy drinkers showed significantly higher relative risks of abnormal GGT than abstainers: 1.37 (95% confidence interval 1.11 to 1.71, p < 0.01, 2.72 (2.08 to 3.56, p < 0.0005, and 6.10 (4.55 to 7.17, p < 0.0005, respectively. Corresponding values for women were 1.22 (0.99 to 1.51, p = 0.065, 1.90 (1.44 to 2.51, p < 0.0005, and 5.91 (3.80 to 9.17, p < 0.0005. Estimated threshold doses for a significant GGT elevation was 14 standard weekly alcohol doses for men and 7 for women. Excess body weight and age over 40 years modulated the thresholds towards smaller quantities of alcohol. The risk of abnormal GGT was also significantly influenced by physical inactivity and smoking. The relative risks of abnormal ALT activities were increased in male heavy drinkers, especially in those presenting with adiposity and sedentary lifestyle.Alcohol use markedly increases the risk for abnormal liver enzyme activities in those presenting with age over 40 years, obesity, smoking or sedentary lifestyle. The data should be considered in public health recommendations and in the definitions of safe limits of alcohol use.
Children and adolescents are particularly vulnerable to the harmful effects of alcohol, with heavy drinking risking impaired brain development and future alcohol dependence. Advertisements increase expectancies about alcohol, leading to a greater likelihood of drinking. A systematic review of 13 longitudinal studies of over 38,000 young people found convincing evidence of an impact of media exposure and alcohol advertising on subsequent alcohol use, including initiation of drinking and heavier drinking among existing drinkers. All European countries, with the exception of the UK, have a ban on one or more types of advertising. Since self-regulation is reported as failing to prevent marketing which has an impact on younger people, and since advertising commonly crosses country borders, there is an argument to approximate advertising rules across Europe banning alcohol advertising targeted at young people, a highly cost-effective measure to reduce harmful alcohol use, and one supported by European citizens and case law.
Hester, Reid K.; Delaney, Harold D.; Campbell, William
Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a web-based protocol, Moderate Drinking (MD) (www.moderatedrinking.com) combined with use of the online resources of Moderation Management (MM) (www.moderation.org) as opposed to the use of the online resources of MM alone. Method We randomly assigned 80 problem drinkers to either the experimental or control group with follow-ups at 3, 6, and 12 months. Results Seventy-five participants (94%) had outcome data at one or more follow-up points and 59 (73%) were assessed at all three follow-ups. Comparing baseline measures to the average outcomes at follow-ups indicated a significant overall reduction in both groups in alcohol-related problems and consumption variables. Compared to the control group, the experimental group had better outcomes on percent days abstinent (PDA). There was an interaction between intensity of drinking at baseline and treatment in determining outcomes assessing drinking. Less heavy drinkers in the experimental group had better outcomes on log Mean BAC per drinking day compared to the control group. Heavier drinkers did not differentially benefit from the MD program on this measure. Mixed model analyses in general corroborated these outcomes. Conclusion The outcome data provide partial evidence for the effectiveness of the MD web application combined with MM, compared to the effectiveness of the resources available online at MM by themselves. PMID:21319896
Dickerman, Barbra A; Markt, Sarah Coseo; Koskenvuo, Markku; Pukkala, Eero; Mucci, Lorelei A; Kaprio, Jaakko
Alcohol intake may be associated with cancer risk, but epidemiologic evidence for prostate cancer is inconsistent. We aimed to prospectively investigate the association between midlife alcohol intake and drinking patterns with future prostate cancer risk and mortality in a population-based cohort of Finnish twins. Data were drawn from the Older Finnish Twin Cohort and included 11,372 twins followed from 1981 to 2012. Alcohol consumption was assessed by questionnaires administered at two time points over follow-up. Over the study period, 601 incident cases of prostate cancer and 110 deaths from prostate cancer occurred. Cox regression was used to evaluate associations between weekly alcohol intake and binge drinking patterns with prostate cancer risk and prostate cancer-specific mortality. Within-pair co-twin analyses were performed to control for potential confounding by shared genetic and early environmental factors. Compared to light drinkers (≤3 drinks/week; non-abstainers), heavy drinkers (>14 drinks/week) were at a 1.46-fold higher risk (HR 1.46; 95 % CI 1.12, 1.91) of prostate cancer, adjusting for important confounders. Among current drinkers, binge drinkers were at a significantly increased risk of prostate cancer (HR 1.28; 95 % CI 1.06, 1.55) compared to non-binge drinkers. Abstainers were at a 1.90-fold higher risk (HR 1.90; 95 % CI 1.04, 3.47) of prostate cancer-specific mortality compared to light drinkers, but no other significant associations for mortality were found. Co-twin analyses suggested that alcohol consumption may be associated with prostate cancer risk independent of early environmental and genetic factors. Heavy regular alcohol consumption and binge drinking patterns may be associated with increased prostate cancer risk, while abstinence may be associated with increased risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality compared to light alcohol consumption.
Full Text Available Introduction: Mounting evidence from both animal and human studies suggests that females are more vulnerable to drug and alcohol abuse than males. Some of this increased risk may be related to behavioral traits, such as impulsivity. Here we examined sex differences in two forms of behavioral impulsivity (inhibitory control and impulsive choice in young men and women, in relation to their level of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems (at-risk or non-risk. Methods: Participants performed a go/no-go task to assess inhibitory control and a measure of delay discounting to assess impulsive choice. Results: On the measure of inhibitory control, at-risk women committed significantly more inhibitory errors than at-risk men, indicating poorer behavioral control among the women. By contrast, no sex differences were observed between at-risk men and women in delay discounting, or between the male and female non-risk drinkers on any measure. Conclusion: Heavy drinking women displayed poorer inhibitory control than heavy drinking men. It remains to be determined whether the sex differences in inhibitory control are the result of drinking, or whether they pre-dated the problematic drinking in these individuals.
Ji, Cheng-Ye; Hu, Pei-Jin; Song, Yi
To understand alcohol-related risk behaviours among Chinese college students. As part of the first China National Youth Risk Behaviour Survey, undertaken in 2009, 52,150 students at 119 colleges were randomly sampled. Information was obtained from self-administered questionnaires. Prevalences were: lifetime drinkers 80.8%, current drinkers 49.3% (drank alcohol in past 30 days) and binge drinkers 23.5% ('binge drinkers' reporting at least five alcoholic drinks on a single occasion at least six times during the past 30 days). Multinomial logistic analysis revealed the contribution of sociodemographic factors to three high-risk drinking behaviours: odds ratio (95% confidence interval) = 3.64 (2.69-4.60) with frequent drinking; 3.27 (1.82-4.72) with binge drinking; and 5.48 (3.20-7.77) with heavy binge drinking. These three rates were greater among males than females, in the Western more than the Eastern region, among students living off-campus and among those whose mothers had higher education. Heavy drinking was linked to lower academic self-rating. There is a trend towards risky drinking among Chinese college students. Measures such as a minimum drinking age, advertisement restrictions, taxation, drunk-driving penalties and campaigns to heighten public awareness of alcohol-related health risks should be instituted in order to improve the situation on college campuses where alcohol abuse is particularly prevalent.
Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Kaya, Aylin; Grivel, Margaux; Clinton, Lauren
, traditional norms that may directly pertain to hyperfemininzed Asian-American women, including modesty and sexual fidelity, may protect against heavy episodic drinking (Young et al. 2005). Conversely, the risk for heavy episodic drinking may be enhanced in men who strive to demonstrate traditional notions of masculinity through risk-taking and endorsement of playboy norms (Iwamoto et al. 2010). Although this review has illustrated the contemporary state of research on alcohol use among Asian Americans, it also highlights the significant limitations in this literature. Many of the studies reviewed here have used cross-sectional data, which do not allow researchers to infer causality between the various sociocultural factors and problematic alcohol use. One way of addressing this gap in the existing literature may be to implement longitudinal designs to further understand how the temporal relationship between sociocultural factors, including acculturation and gender norms, may impact alcohol use and alcohol-related problem trajectories. There also is a pressing need to develop greater understanding of within-group differences among U.S.-born and foreign-born Asian Americans as well as among as specific ethnic groups. To date, epidemiological research has largely neglected to examine these significant discrepancies. Given the growing prevalence of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among Asian-American women (Grant et al. 2004; Iwamoto et al. 2010), studies also should focus on this group and explore how the intersection of gender and culture may influence alcohol use. Finally, the majority of research on this population has been conducted in college samples; therefore, it is important to also examine community samples, including U.S.-born young adults who are not attending college and older adult Asian-American populations.
Helakorpi, Satu; Mäkelä, Pia; Uutela, Antti
To examine trends in adult alcohol consumption by age, gender and education from 1982 to 2008 and evaluate the effects that a significant reduction in alcohol prices in 2004 had on alcohol consumption in different population subgroups. The study population comprised respondents aged 25-64 (n = 79,100) replying to nationally representative annual postal surveys from 1982 to 2008 (average response rate 72%). The main measurements were the prevalence of respondents who had drunk at least eight (men) or five (women) drinks in the previous week ('moderate to heavy drinkers') and prevalence of those who weekly (men) or monthly (women) drank six or more drinks on a single occasion ('heavy episodic drinkers') (one 'drink' containing 11-13 g ethanol). Logistic models were used to test differences across population subgroups in the changes in drinking. Following the reduction of alcohol prices in 2004, drinking increased among men and women aged 45-64. Among men, both moderate to heavy drinking and heavy episodic drinking increased in the lowest educational group. Among women, moderate to heavy drinking increased mostly in the lowest and intermediate educational groups, while the highest increases for heavy episodic drinking were in the intermediate and highest female educational groups. Alcohol consumption increased especially among those aged 45-64 and among lower educated people following the reduction in alcohol prices in 2004 in Finland.
Gross, Lauren A; Moore, Eileen M; Wozniak, Jeffrey R; Coles, Claire D; Kable, Julie A; Sowell, Elizabeth R; Jones, Kenneth L; Riley, Edward P; Mattson, Sarah N
Prenatal alcohol exposure can impact both brain development and neurobehavioral function, including verbal learning and recall, although the relation between verbal recall and brain structure in this population has not been examined fully. We aimed to determine the structural neural correlates of verbal learning and recall in youth with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure using a region of interest (ROI) approach. As part of an ongoing multisite project, subjects (age 10-16 years) with prenatal alcohol exposure (AE, n = 81) and controls (CON, n = 81) were tested using the CVLT-C and measures of cortical volume, surface area, and thickness as well as hippocampal volume were derived from MRI. Group differences in brain and memory indices were tested with ANOVA. Multiple regression analyses tested whether brain ROIs significantly predicted memory performance. The AE group had lower scores than the CON group on all CVLT-C variables (ps ≤ .001) and volume and surface area (ps < .025), although results varied by ROI. No group differences in cortical thickness were found. The relations between cortical structure and memory performance differed between group among some ROIs, particularly those in the frontal cortex, generally with smaller surface area and/or thinner cortex predicting better performance in CON but worse performance in AE. Cortical surface area appears to be the most sensitive index to the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure, while cortical thickness appears to be the least sensitive. These findings also indicate that the neural correlates of verbal memory are altered in youth with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure compared to controls.
Byrnes, Joshua; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Petrie, Dennis; Doran, Christopher M
To determine if taxation policies that increase the price of alcohol differentially reduce alcohol consumption for heavy drinkers in Australia. A two-part demand model for alcohol consumption is used to determine the price elasticity of alcohol. Quantile regression is used to determine the price elasticity estimates for various levels of consumption. The study uses Australian data collected by the National Drug Strategy Household Survey for the years 2001, 2004 and 2007. Measures of individual annual alcohol consumption were derived from three waves of the National Drug Strategy Household Survey; alcohol prices were taken from market research reports. For the overall population of drinkers, a 1% increase in the price of alcohol was associated with a 0.96% (95% CI -0.35%, -1.57%) reduction in alcohol consumption. For those in the highest 10% of drinkers by average amount consumed, a 1% increase in the price of alcohol was associated with a 1.26% (95% CI 0.82%, 1.70%) reduction in consumption. Within Australia, policies that increase the price of alcohol are about equally effective in relative terms for reducing alcohol consumption both for the general population and among those who drink heavily.
Setiawan, Veronica Wendy; Monroe, Kristine; Lugea, Aurelia; Yadav, Dhiraj; Pandol, Stephen
Findings from epidemiologic studies and research with experimental animal models provide insights into alcohol-related disease pathogeneses. Epidemiologic data indicate that heavy drinking and smoking are associated with high rates of pancreatic disease. Less clear is the association between lower levels of drinking and pancreatitis. Intriguingly, a very low percentage of drinkers develop clinical pancreatitis. Experimental models demonstrate that alcohol administration alone does not initiat...
Kraus Ludwig; Tryggvesson Kalle; Pabst Alexander; Room Robin
INTRODUCTION -The analyses (1) assessed the association between social status variables and aggression when controlling for volume of alcohol consumption and episodic heavy drinking (EHD), (2) tested whether social status moderates the association between volume or EHD and verbal as well as physical aggression, and (3) investigated whether EHD moderates the effect of volume on aggression. METHODS - Swedish Alcohol Monitoring Survey (2003 to 2011); N=104,316 current drinkers; response rate: 51...
Baker, Erich J; Walter, Nicole A R; Salo, Alex; Rivas Perea, Pablo; Moore, Sharon; Gonzales, Steven; Grant, Kathleen A
The Monkey Alcohol Tissue Research Resource (MATRR) is a repository and analytics platform for detailed data derived from well-documented nonhuman primate (NHP) alcohol self-administration studies. This macaque model has demonstrated categorical drinking norms reflective of human drinking populations, resulting in consumption pattern classifications of very heavy drinking (VHD), heavy drinking (HD), binge drinking (BD), and low drinking (LD) individuals. Here, we expand on previous findings that suggest ethanol drinking patterns during initial drinking to intoxication can reliably predict future drinking category assignment. The classification strategy uses a machine-learning approach to examine an extensive set of daily drinking attributes during 90 sessions of induction across 7 cohorts of 5 to 8 monkeys for a total of 50 animals. A Random Forest classifier is employed to accurately predict categorical drinking after 12 months of self-administration. Predictive outcome accuracy is approximately 78% when classes are aggregated into 2 groups, "LD and BD" and "HD and VHD." A subsequent 2-step classification model distinguishes individual LD and BD categories with 90% accuracy and between HD and VHD categories with 95% accuracy. Average 4-category classification accuracy is 74%, and provides putative distinguishing behavioral characteristics between groupings. We demonstrate that data derived from the induction phase of this ethanol self-administration protocol have significant predictive power for future ethanol consumption patterns. Importantly, numerous predictive factors are longitudinal, measuring the change of drinking patterns through 3 stages of induction. Factors during induction that predict future heavy drinkers include being younger at the time of first intoxication and developing a shorter latency to first ethanol drink. Overall, this analysis identifies predictive characteristics in future very heavy drinkers that optimize intoxication, such as having
Iwamoto, Derek K; Grivel, Margaux M; Cheng, Alice W; Zamboanga, Byron L
Heavy episodic drinking (HED) and alcohol-related problems appears to be a growing problem among young adult Asian Americans. One promising factor that helps explain within-group differences among Asian American includes nativity. Nativity refers to whether an individual was born in (i.e., second generation or higher) or outside (i.e., first generation) of the United States. Despite this theoretically promising variable, there has been a paucity of literature examining comparing drinking patterns between first and second generation Asians Americans and White college men. The current study examined the relationship between HED and alcohol-related problems among first- and second-generation Asian American, and White college male students. Interaction between race and the variables in HED and alcohol-related problems models were also investigated. A total of 630 men were recruited of which 489 were Asian American men (407 second generation and 82 first generation) and 148 White students attending a public university in southern California (USA) were recruited. Results revealed no differences in HED rates between second-generation Asian American and White male college students; however, White students reported higher rates of HED compared to first-generation Asian Americans. No differences in alcohol-related problems were found between all three groups. There were no significant interactions between racial groups, drinking to cope, Greek/fraternity status, and descriptive norms on the alcohol outcomes. Conclusion/importance: Second-generation Asian American young adult men reported similar HED and rates of alcohol-related problems as White men. The present findings suggest that alcohol-related problems among Asian American men are a larger public health concern than previously believed.
Lee, Seung-Yup; Choo, Hyekyung; Lee, Hae Kook
The inclusion of Gaming Disorder (GD) criteria in the 11th Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) beta draft was recently criticized, and an argument was made for its removal to "avoid a waste of public resources." However, these misleading statements are believed to be based on under estimation of this ever-growing problem. Such claims may endanger public health and the psychosocial well-being of affected individuals. Thus, the seriousness of the problem was briefly emphasized in our response paper. We provided an overview of how debates of this kind were developed in our region. In addition, we addressed the arguments made on research and children's rights. The accusation that GD exerts negative impacts on children's freedom and stigmatizes healthy gamers may arise from a false belief that this new digital media is benign or not addictive. Such statements could be true in some, but not all, cases. Unwillingness to recognize the addictive potential of gaming, as well as insistence on treating GD simply as an individual problem, are reminiscent of the era in which alcoholism was viewed as a personality problem. These dangerous views place affected individuals at greater health risk and further stigmatize them. Formalization of the disorder is also expected to help in standardization of research and treatment in the field. The inclusion of GD in the upcoming ICD-11 is a responsible step in the right direction.
Liang, Wenbin; Chikritzhs, Tanya
Experimental studies suggest that alcohol can lead to aggression in laboratory settings; however, it is impossible to test the causal relationship between alcohol use and real-life violence among humans in randomized clinical trials. Objectives. (i) To examine the relationship between heavy alcohol use and assaults in a population based study; (ii) to demonstrate the proxy outcome method, as a means of controlling the effects of unknown/unmeasured confounders in observational studies. This study used data collected from three waves of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). The effects of heavy alcohol use on assault were measured using multivariable logistic regressions in conjunction with the proxy outcome method. Application of the proxy outcome method indicated that effect sizes of heavy alcohol use on the risk of assault were overestimated in the standard models. After adjusting for the effects of unknown/unmeasured confounders, the risk of assault remained 43% and 63% higher (P alcohol use and risk of violence remained significant. These findings support the hypothesis that heavy alcohol use can cause violence.
Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Bové, Kira Bang; Larsen, Katrine Strandberg
AIM: To address the association between smoking habits and the risk of later heavy drinking among young women. METHODS: Repeated assessments of alcohol and smoking habits were obtained in 1991-93 and 1999-2000 in a Danish representative cohort in Copenhagen. A total of 6369 non- to moderate...... is an important predictor of later heavy drinking among young women and that this relatively elevated risk is most pronounced among women with an early sexual debut.......-drinking Danish women, aged 20-29 years at baseline, attended a follow-up examination and were included in the study. The risk of becoming a heavy drinker (more than 14 drinks per week) 8 years after enrolment was analyzed by means of logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 177 women became heavy drinkers during...
Frenzel, H; Roth, H; Schwartzkopff, B
Because of the high frequency of cardiovascular diseases and a steadily increasing consumption of alcohol the potentially causal relationship between alcohol and cardiovascular diseases gains great interest for public health policy. Alcohol and its metabolites induce a toxic damage of myocardial metabolism with an injury of electromechanic coupling. As a consequence of acute alcoholic intake cardiac arrhythmias and a reduced contractility of the myocardium are found not only for chronic alcoholics but also in healthy non-drinkers. Chronic abuse of alcoholic beverages for many years can be the cause of alcoholic cardiomyopathy in a small percentage of patients, who have a bad prognosis. Atria and ventricles are dilated, light and electron microscopic changes of the myocardium are unspecific. The pathogenesis of alcoholic cardiomyopathy is unknown, modulations of cardiomyocytic membranes are discussed in the course of a toxic damage. In the genesis of atherosclerosis alcohol can approach from different sites: Changings on thrombocytes and an increase of HDL-cholesterin can be protective, however an increase in blood pressure support the process of atherosclerosis. In numerous investigations a smaller degree of atherosclerosis was found for little or moderate alcohol intake, while in chronic heavy abuse of alcohol a higher extent of atherosclerosis was observed. As the amount of alcohol, assumed to be protective against the development of atherosclerosis, is consumed already by the majority of the population, there is no reason to propagate a regulate consume of moderate amount of alcoholic beverages.
van Lettow, B; Vries, H. de; Burdorf, A; Conner, M.; Van Empelen, P.
Objectives: Prototypes (i.e., social images) predict health-related behaviours and intentions within the context of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). This study tested the moderating role of temporal stability of drinker prototype perceptions on prototype–intentions and prototype–behaviour relationships, within an augmented TPB. The study examined abstainer, moderate drinker, heavy drinker, tipsy, and drunk prototypes. Design and Methods: An online prospective study with 1-month follow-u...
Tomcikova, Zuzana; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A
This study aimed at comparing adolescent abstainers, consumers and excessive drinkers in terms of family characteristics (structure of family, socioeconomic factors), perceived social support, personality characteristics (extraversion, self-esteem, aggression) and well-being. Cross-sectional data were obtained from 3694 elementary school students in the 8th and 9th grades from several cities in Slovakia (mean age 14.5, 49.0% men; response rate 93%). Respondents completed questions on the use of alcohol and on family structure (parental divorce), the socioeconomic position of the family (parents' education and family affluence), perceived social support, extraversion, self-esteem, aggression and psychological well-being. They were split into three groups based on the pattern of alcohol use--abstainers, consumers and excessive drinkers (i.e. being drunk at least once during the past 4 weeks). The results showed significant differences between abstainers, consumers and excessive drinkers in almost every characteristic explored. A risky pattern of alcohol consumption occurs more frequently among adolescents who have divorced parents, higher socioeconomic position, higher scores for perceived social support from friends, extraversion, negative self-esteem and aggression, and lower scores for social support from family and for well-being. A risky pattern of alcohol consumption is more likely among relatively easily identifiable groups of adolescents from high socioeconomic position and divorced families. Their personalities and social networks have characteristics that could be accommodated in preventive interventions as well. © 2010 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Kahan, Meldon; Wilson, Lynn; Liu, Eleanor; Borsoi, Diane; Brewster, Joan M; Sobell, Linda C; Sobell, Mark B
Fifty-six second-year family medicine residents completed a survey on their knowledge and beliefs about problem drinkers. Most residents felt responsible for screening and counseling, were confident in their clinical skills in these areas, and scored well on related knowledge questions. However, only 18% felt that problem drinkers would often respond to brief counseling sessions with physicians while 36% felt that moderate drinking was a reasonable goal for patients with severe alcohol dependence. Residents were then visited by unannounced simulated patients (SPs) presenting with alcohol-induced hypertension or insomnia. Residents detected the SP in 45 out of 104 visits. In the 59 undetected SP visits, residents asked about alcohol consumption in 47 visits (80%), discussed the relationship between alcohol use and the presenting complaint in 37 visits (63%), and recommended a specific weekly consumption in 35 visits (59%). Only 31% offered reduced drinking strategies, and most did not ask about features of alcohol dependence. These results suggest that residents have the fundamental clinical skills required to manage the problem drinker who gives a clear history and is receptive to advice. Educational efforts with residents should focus on the importance of systematic screening, taking an alcohol history under more challenging conditions, identifying the subtler presentations of alcohol problems, counselling the less receptive patient at an earlier stage of change, distinguishing the problem drinker from the alcohol-dependent patient, and offering specific behavioral strategies for the problem drinker.
Van Reen, Eliza; Roane, Brandy M; Barker, David H; McGeary, John E; Borsari, Brian; Carskadon, Mary A
To examine whether differences exist in self-reported sleep patterns and self-reported alcohol use for first-semester college students who do or do not report drinking during the last 6 months (mo) of high school. Participants were 878 first-year college students. Students completed a survey in late May/early June about alcohol use and consequences, during the last 6 mo of high school; they later completed a daily record of sleep behavior and alcohol use across the first 9 weeks of the first semester of college. High school drinking status (past 6 mo) was classified as positive (HS-6 mo+) or negative (HS-6mo-) based on any indication of drinking on the May/June survey. Collegiate drinking was determined from first-semester daily diary alcohol reports as non-drinkers (0 reported drinks), drinkers (one or fewer heavy episodic drinking episodes (HED)), and drinkers reporting more than one HED episode. Sleep patterns were compared for non-drinkers, drinkers, and HED with no high school drinking history (HS-6mo-/HED). In addition, a separate analysis compared sleep patterns for college HED with (HS-6mo+/HED) and without (HS-6mo-/HED) high school self-reported alcohol use. Increased alcohol consumption in the first semester of college was associated with later bedtimes and rise times. We found no association of high school alcohol use and sleep in those with collegiate HED. Later sleep timing in those with greater alcohol use, supports a connection between sleep patterns and alcohol use. Such an early appearance of this connection may herald the development of alcohol use disorder in some individuals. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.
Infante, M Alejandra; Moore, Eileen M; Bischoff-Grethe, Amanda; Tapert, Susan F; Mattson, Sarah N; Riley, Edward P
Individuals prenatally exposed to alcohol often have impaired spatial working memory (SWM). This study examines functional connections of frontal and parietal regions that support SWM in children with and without prenatal alcohol exposure. Children ages 10 to 16 with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (AE group; n = 18) and controls (CON group; n = 19) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing a SWM task. Whole brain task-related functional connectivity of bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and posterior parietal cortex (PPC) seed regions were estimated for each participant using a psychophysiological interaction approach. Children in the AE group were less accurate than children in the CON group when performing the SWM task (p = 0.008). Positive coupling between bilateral DLPFC seeds and regions within the fronto-parietal network was observed in the CON group, whereas the AE group showed negative connectivity. In contrast to the CON group, the AE group showed positive connectivity between PPC seeds and frontal lobe regions. Across seeds, decreased negative coupling with regions outside the fronto-parietal network (e.g., left middle occipital gyrus) were observed in the AE group relative to the CON group. Functional data clusters were considered significant at p alcohol exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kuvaas, Nicholas J; Dvorak, Robert D; Pearson, Matthew R; Lamis, Dorian A; Sargent, Emily M
Although alcohol use can be problematic, research suggests considerable heterogeneity in problems across various drinking classes; particularly among the heaviest drinking groups. Differences in self-regulation may differentiate drinking classes. The current study evaluated differences in emotional and behavioral self-regulation across four empirically derived drinking classes. Participants (n=1895 college students) completed online measures of demographics, alcohol involvement, and self-regulation. Using latent class analysis (LCA), four drinking classes were empirically derived. Moderate drinkers were the largest class (38.1%) followed by light drinkers (37.4%), heavy drinkers (17.8%), and problem drinkers (6.8%). Each class was predicted by self-regulation indicators in the LCA. With the exception of urgency, behavioral self-regulation distinguished primarily between light drinkers and the other three classes. Emotional self-regulation and urgency were not associated with use, but did distinguish among the most problematic class. Specifically, emotional instability and urgency were higher in the problem use class than all other classes. Overall, the findings suggest important differences in behavioral and emotional self-regulation across drinking classes that differentially contribute to use and consequences. Further, the results highlight the importance of examining homogenous subpopulations of drinkers that may differ on indices other than consumption. © 2013.
Gordon, Judith S; Andrews, Judy A; Hampson, Sarah H; Gunn, Barbara; Christiansen, Steven M; Jacobs, Thomas
Alcohol consumption, including heavy drinking, is the fourth leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Youth who engage in heavy drinking are likely to experience a number of problems associated with their use. In 2015, U.S. prevalence of heavy drinking was 17% among 12th graders. These data suggest a clear need for conducting alcohol prevention activities among youth. We designed the Click City ® : Alcohol program for 7th graders, with a booster in 8th grade. We conducted an efficacy trial in 25 schools in three counties in Oregon. Schools were randomized to either the Click City: Alcohol ( n = 12) or Usual Curriculum condition ( n = 13). We present the results of a short-term evaluation, assessing change in outcomes from baseline to 1 week following the intervention among students in Click City: Alcohol schools versus those in Usual Curriculum schools. Students who used the Click City: Alcohol program significantly decreased their intentions to drink heavily in the future, as compared with students in the Usual Curriculum control condition, although the effect size was small. Changes in the targeted mechanisms were in the expected direction and were significant for all but one mechanism, with moderate effect sizes. Our short-term findings provide preliminary support for the efficacy of the Click City: Alcohol program to change adolescents' intentions to engage in heavy drinking. If the results are maintained over time, the program has the potential to prevent the onset of heavy drinking among teens and reduce the negative consequences associated with heavy drinking, including neurological and other health consequences.
Baška, T; Kľučková, B; Komáreková, I; Straka, Ľ
The article analyses death cases with detected blood alcohol level ≥2 g/kg. Their contribution to general mortality is calculated. Death cases from 2005 to 2012 with detected blood alcohol concentration ≥2 g/kg (975 cases) were selected from autopsy records at the Department of Forensic Medicine and Medical Expertises of the Jessenius Faculty of Medicine in Martin. The selected cases were analysed by age and causes of death (pathological, fatal alcohol intoxication, other external causes). Their contribution to general mortality was calculated using official demographic data. Deaths associated with heavy alcohol use comprised 2.2 % of general mortality in males and 0.3 % in females and showed declining trend. The proportion was highest in males aged up to 39 years (10.3 %). External causes dominated among death cases associated with heavy alcohol use (90.8 % in males, 83.7 % in females). Deaths associated with heavy alcohol use significantly contribute to general mortality, particularly in younger males. In spite of the trend indicating slight improvement of the situation, this specific part of alcohol-related problems still constitutes a significant public health issue.
Ulaş, Halis; Binbay, Tolga; Kırlı, Umut; Elbi, Hayriye; Alptekin, Köksal
There is no report on various patterns of alcohol drinking and related impairment, help-seeking in Turkey. We investigated the 12-month prevalence and correlates of drinking patterns and alcohol use disorders in the general population of Izmir-Turkey, with further analyses on role impairment and help-seeking. A multi-stage clustered area probability sample of adult household residents in the Izmir Metropolitan Area was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1 (n = 4011). Estimation focused on prevalence and correlates of 12-month drinking pattern and DSM-IV alcohol use disorders. The 12-month drinking pattern included groups of non-regular users, regular non-heavy drinkers, regular heavy drinkers, and alcohol abuse disorder and alcohol dependence. All respondents were questioned about receiving 12-month treatment for any psychological complaints, the route of help-seeking, and were assessed with Short Form-36 for functional impairments. Multinomial logistic regression was used for underlying associations between the covariates and the drinking patterns. The rate of lifetime alcohol abstinence was 52.3% while the prevalence of past-year users was 14.8%. The 12-month prevalence estimates of regular heavy drinkers, and alcohol abuse disorder and dependence were 2.5%, 3.2 and 1.6%, respectively. Any of the drinking patterns and alcohol use disorders was associated with male gender, and higher levels of education, monthly income and socioeconomic status. Alcohol dependence was associated with mental health impairment but not with physical impairment. The 12-month rates of help-seeking in alcohol abuse and dependence were 11.6 and 16.5%. Although alcohol use disorders are lower than estimates of Western countries, alcohol use constitute a major reason of disability with prominent treatment gap.
Yeung, Wesley; Leong, Wei-Yee; Khoun, Kimsong; Ong, Warren; Sambi, Sundesh; Lim, Su-Min; Bieber, Bill; Wilder-Smith, Annelies
Alcohol misuse is increasing in Southeast Asia. We investigated the extent of and risk factors for alcohol use disorder (AUD) and heavy episodic drinking (HED) in a rural community in Cambodia. We also attempted to explore the communities' perception of alcohol misuse and elicited potential community-based strategies to address the alcohol problem. A mixed-methods study design was used, combining a cross-sectional questionnaire survey with qualitative interviews (focus group discussions and key informant interviews). AUD and HED were measured using the AUDs Identification Test Alcohol Consumption questionnaire. The prevalence of AUD and HED was high: 25% and 31%, respectively. Male sex, younger age, and increasing income were significant risk factors. The communities were well aware of the harmful effects of alcohol, expressed the importance of implementing community-based measures, and proposed various community-led solutions. Evidence-based strategies that are culturally appropriate, accepted, and driven by communities are urgently needed. © 2015 APJPH.
Ilomäki, Jenni; Gnjidic, Danijela; Hilmer, Sarah N; Le Couteur, David G; Naganathan, Vasi; Cumming, Robert G; Waite, Louise M; Seibel, Markus J; Blyth, Fiona M; Handelsman, David J; Bell, J Simon
To explore the association between psychotropic drug use and alcohol drinking in community-dwelling older Australian men. We conducted a cross-sectional population-based study using baseline data collected between 2005 and 2007 from 1705 participants in the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project (CHAMP) conducted in Sydney, Australia. All participants were men aged ≥70 years. The prevalence of antidepressant and sedative or anxiolytic drug use was ascertained at clinical examinations and alcohol drinking was self-reported. Logistic regression models were used to compute the unadjusted and adjusted prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between sedative or anxiolytic use and antidepressant use with drinking patterns. In the study sample, 8.0% used an antidepressant, 5.7% used a sedative or anxiolytic, 33.7% were daily drinkers, 13.9% were binge drinkers, 19.2% were heavy drinkers and 11.0% were problem drinkers. Overall, 27.1% of antidepressant users were daily drinkers and 42.7% of sedative or anxiolytic users were daily drinkers. Sedative or anxiolytic use was associated with daily drinking (prevalence ratio = 1.42; 95% confidence intervals 1.09-1.76) but not with other drinking patterns. The associations between antidepressant use and alcohol drinking were not statistically significant. Potential psychotropic drug-alcohol interactions were common in older Australian men. Users of sedative or anxiolytic drugs were more likely to engage in daily drinking compared with non-users of sedative or anxiolytic drugs. Clinicians should monitor patients prescribed sedative or anxiolytic drugs for possible adverse events arising from concomitant use with alcohol. © 2012 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Background Several studies have shown a protective association of moderate alcohol intake with mortality. However, it remains unclear whether this relationship could be due to misclassification confounding. As psychosocial stressors are among those factors that have not been sufficiently controlled for, we assessed whether they may confound the relationship between alcohol consumption and all-cause mortality. Methods Three cross-sectional MONICA surveys (conducted 1984–1995) including 11,282 subjects aged 25–74 years were followed up within the framework of KORA (Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg), a population-based cohort, until 2002. The prevalences of diseases as well as of lifestyle, clinical and psychosocial variables were compared in different alcohol consumption categories. To assess all-cause mortality risks, hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated by Cox proportional hazards models which included lifestyle, clinical and psychosocial variables. Results Diseases were more prevalent among non-drinkers than among drinkers: Moreover, non-drinkers showed a higher percentage of an unfavourable lifestyle and were more affected with psychosocial stressors at baseline. Multivariable-adjusted HRs for moderate alcohol consumption versus no consumption were 0.74 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.58-0.94) in men and 0.87 (95% CI: 0.66-1.16) in women. In men, moderate drinkers had a significantly lower all-cause mortality risk than non-drinkers or heavy drinkers (p = 0.002) even after multivariable adjustment. In women, moderate alcohol consumption was not associated with lowered risk of death from all causes. Conclusions The present study confirmed the impact of sick quitters on mortality risk, but failed to show that the association between alcohol consumption and mortality is confounded by psychosocial stressors. PMID:24708657
What Role Do Changes in the Demographic Composition Play in the Declining Trends in Alcohol Consumption and the Increase of Non-drinkers Among Swedish Youth? A Time-series Analysis of Trends in Non-drinking and Region of Origin 1971-2012.
Svensson, Johan; Andersson, Dan-Erik
Non-drinkers among youth in Sweden have increased markedly during the last 15 years. The aim of this study is to investigate the temporal association between region of origin among Swedish youth and rates of non-drinking. Data on non-drinkers were obtained from The Swedish Council on Information and Other drugs (CAN) yearly school surveys among Swedish ninth-grade students over the period 1971-2013. Annual data of region of origin for 1968-2012 has been compiled from Statistics Sweden (SCB) and consists of all 15-year-olds in Sweden and their region of birth; Sweden, The Nordic Countries, Europe, The Middle East and the rest of the world. Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) modelling was applied in order to estimate these associations. Descriptive results revealed a change in the demography of Swedish 15- to 16-year-olds. In the early 1990s 1% of Swedish 15- to 16-year-olds were born in a Middle East country, this proportion increased to 6% in 2012. Furthermore, those born in the rest of the world (non-European or non-Nordic countries) increased from 1% to almost 4%. Similarly, the trend of non-drinkers increased from about 20% to more than 40% among Swedish 15- to 16-year-olds during the same period. However, a more thorough analysis using ARIMA modelling revealed no significant association between rates of region of origin and non-drinking. The marked increase in non-drinkers during the last 15 years is not associated to changes in the demographic composition, in terms of region of origin, among Swedish youth. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press.
Choi, Namkee G; Dinitto, Diana M
The purpose of this study was to examine gender similarity/difference in the association between depressive symptoms (11-item Center for Epidemiologic Scale for Depression (CES-D) scores), on the one hand, and frequency and amount of alcohol use, on the other, among older adults. Data came from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), Wave 1, which included a nationally representative probability sample (n = 2924) of community-dwelling individuals aged 57-85. Heavy/binge drinking was defined as the consumption of 4+ drinks for men and 3+ drinks for women per drinking day. The relationship between CES-D scores and the frequency and amount of alcohol consumption was tested using gender-separate, 2-step ordinary least squares (OLS) regression analyses. A significant proportion of both men (67.7%) and women (52.2%) had consumed alcohol in the preceding 3 months, and 12.3% of male and 8.4% of female drinkers were heavy/binge drinkers. Substantial differences between male and female heavy drinkers were found in sociodemographics, health status, and social support and social engagement. Regression results show that both frequency of drinking and heavy/binge drinking, as opposed to abstinence, were significantly positively associated with men's CES-D scores, but not with women's. Heavy/binge-drinking older men may use alcohol to cope with depressive mood, and heavy drinking might also contribute to their social isolation and depressive symptoms. Depression screening and treatment for older men should be accompanied by alcohol screening and treatment and vice versa. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Hansen, Anders Blædel Gottlieb; Becker, Ulrik; Nielsen, Anette Søgaard
-to-treat principle. We used the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity 3.0 code (MITI) as a quality control of the interventions delivered. Results: The intervention effect of the BMI was −1.0 drinks/week, but the effect was not significant. The MITI analysis showed that the quality of the BMI delivered...
Full Text Available Binge drinking or heavy episodic drinking is a high prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption among young people in several countries. Despite increasing evidence that binge drinking is associated with impairments in executive aspects of working memory (i.e. self-ordered working memory, processes known to depend on the mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann areas 46 and 9, less is known about the impact of binge drinking on prefrontal gray matter integrity. Here, we investigated the effects of binge drinking on gray matter volume of mid- dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in youths. We used voxel-based morphometry on the structural magnetic resonance images of subjects reporting a persistent (at least three years binge drinking pattern of alcohol use (n = 11; age 22.43 ± 1.03 and control subjects (n = 21; age 22.18 ± 1.08 to measure differences in gray matter volume between both groups. In a region of interest analysis of the mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, after co-varying for age and gender, we observed significantly larger gray matter volume in the left mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann areas 46 and 9 in binge drinkers in comparison with control subjects. Furthermore, there was a significant positive correlation between left mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex volume and Self-Ordered Pointing Test (SOPT total errors score in binge drinkers. The left mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex volume also correlated with the quantity and speed of alcohol intake. These findings indicate that a repeated exposure to alcohol -that does not meet criteria for alcohol dependence- throughout post-adolescent years and young adulthood is linked with structural anomalies in mid-dorsolateral prefrontal regions critically involved in executive aspects of working memory.
George, William H.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Masters, N. Tatiana; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J.; Heiman, Julia R.; Norris, Jeanette; Gilmore, Amanda K.; Nguyen, Hong V.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.; Otto, Jacqueline M.; Andrasik, Michele P.
This study used an experimental paradigm to investigate the roles of sexual victimization history and alcohol intoxication in young women’s sexual-emotional responding and sexual risk taking. A nonclinical community sample of 436 young women, with both an instance of heavy episodic drinking and some HIV/STI risk exposure in the past year, completed childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adolescent/adult sexual assault (ASA) measures. A majority of them reported CSA and/or ASA, including rape and attempted rape. After random assignment to a high alcohol dose (.10%) or control condition, participants read and projected themselves into an eroticized scenario of a sexual encounter involving a new partner. As the story protagonist, each participant rated her positive mood and her sexual arousal, sensation, and desire, and then indicated her likelihood of engaging in unprotected sex. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that ASA and alcohol were directly associated with heightened risk taking, and alcohol’s effects were partially mediated by positive mood and sexual desire. ASA was associated with attenuated sexual-emotional responding and resulted in diminished risk taking via this suppression. These are the first findings indicating that, compared to non-victimized counterparts, sexually victimized women respond differently in alcohol-involved sexual encounters in terms of sexual-emotional responding and risk-taking intentions. Implications include assessing victimization history and drinking among women seeking treatment for either concern, particularly women at risk for HIV, and alerting them to ways their histories and behavior may combine to exacerbate their sexual risks. PMID:23857517
García-Moreno, Luis Miguel; Expósito, Javier; Sanhueza, Claudia; Angulo, Ma Teresa
High alcohol consumption by young people at weekends is a public health problem of considerable social and family importance. Chronic alcohol intake causes structural changes in the central nervous system, though the effects are not uniform throughout the brain. The prefrontal cortex (PC) has been reported to be one of the regions most sensitive to prolonged alcohol ingestion. The effects of chronic ethanol exposure have been extensively studied. Our aim is to identify the neuropsychological deficits in PC function induced by intermittent heavy alcohol drinking in young adults. Neuropsychological assessment was carried out on participants to examine their performance in PC-dependent tasks. 62 subjects (mean age 18.82+/-1.099) were assigned to one of three categories: 1) Those reporting heavy binge drinking of alcohol at weekends (ALE); 2) Those reporting moderate binge drinking of alcohol at weekends (ALM); and 3) Those reporting no alcohol intake (CTR). The findings indicate that intermittent alcohol binge drinking, either heavy or moderate, in young people results in poorer performance in neuropsychological tasks such as Digits, Corsi or Stroop, which depend on correct PC functioning. Our results support the claim that the binge pattern of exposure to ethanol leads to neurocognitive and neurobehavioural impairment equivalent, in many respects, to that found in chronic drinkers. Moreover, intermittent heavy alcohol drinking in adolescence and early adulthood increases the risks of lifetime alcohol dependence and other psychopathologies.
Daugherty, Ray; Van Tubergen, Norm
Low response (LR) to alcohol is a risk factor that strongly predicts later problems. This study compares subjective measures of high tolerance (HT) to measures of LR, using the Self-Rating of Effects of Alcohol (SRE) form. First-year heavy drinking students (N = 250) at an all-male college completed a survey during a mandatory class that included the SRE, past month peak consumption, 2-week heavy episodic use, family history, self-reported high tolerance, and whether it takes more alcohol to become impaired compared to others. The SRE identified LR for 96.7% of those reporting HT and 100% of those reporting both HT and that it takes comparatively more alcohol to become impaired. The measure of HT correlated more with heavy drinking than did that of LR (peak of 14.5 drinks and 4.3 occasions of heavy episodic drinking vs. 12.6 and 3.7) whereas those identified as not LR drank less than those who reported no HT (peak of 6.1 drinks and 1.3 occasions of heavy episodic drinking vs. 9.6 and 2.4). Those reporting uncertainty about HT averaged peaks of 10 drinks and 3.13 occasions of heavy episodic drinking; 73.6% scored LR on the SRE. These data suggest that, at least in a heavy drinking group, the SRE may be most effective as a selected follow-up to an initial two-question screening. Self-reporting a high tolerance provides as much information as the 12-question SRE and is associated with heavier use. The SRE may provide corrective feedback to those who report uncertainty about HT or who give conflicting responses to the two screening questions.
Bagnardi, V; Rota, M; Botteri, E; Tramacere, I; Islami, F; Fedirko, V; Scotti, L; Jenab, M; Turati, F; Pasquali, E; Pelucchi, C; Galeone, C; Bellocco, R; Negri, E; Corrao, G; Boffetta, P; La Vecchia, C
Alcohol is a risk factor for cancer of the oral cavity, pharynx, oesophagus, colorectum, liver, larynx and female breast, whereas its impact on other cancers remains controversial. We investigated the effect of alcohol on 23 cancer types through a meta-analytic approach. We used dose-response meta-regression models and investigated potential sources of heterogeneity. A total of 572 studies, including 486 538 cancer cases, were identified. Relative risks (RRs) for heavy drinkers compared with nondrinkers and occasional drinkers were 5.13 for oral and pharyngeal cancer, 4.95 for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, 1.44 for colorectal, 2.65 for laryngeal and 1.61 for breast cancer; for those neoplasms there was a clear dose-risk relationship. Heavy drinkers also had a significantly higher risk of cancer of the stomach (RR 1.21), liver (2.07), gallbladder (2.64), pancreas (1.19) and lung (1.15). There was indication of a positive association between alcohol consumption and risk of melanoma and prostate cancer. Alcohol consumption and risk of Hodgkin's and Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas were inversely associated. Alcohol increases risk of cancer of oral cavity and pharynx, oesophagus, colorectum, liver, larynx and female breast. There is accumulating evidence that alcohol drinking is associated with some other cancers such as pancreas and prostate cancer and melanoma.
Heavy alcohol consumption among marginalised African refugee young people in Melbourne, Australia: motivations for drinking, experiences of alcohol-related problems and strategies for managing drinking.
Horyniak, Danielle; Higgs, Peter; Cogger, Shelley; Dietze, Paul; Bofu, Tapuwa
Little is known about substance use among resettled refugee populations. This study aimed to describe motivations for drinking, experiences of alcohol-related problems and strategies for managing drinking among marginalised African refugee young people in Melbourne, Australia. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 16 self-identified African refugees recruited from street-based settings in 2012-2013. Interview transcripts were analysed inductively to identify key themes. Participants gathered in public spaces to consume alcohol on a daily or near-daily basis. Three key motivations for heavy alcohol consumption were identified: drinking to cope with trauma, drinking to cope with boredom and frustration and drinking as a social experience. Participants reported experiencing a range of health and social consequences of their alcohol consumption, including breakdown of family relationships, homelessness, interpersonal violence, contact with the justice system and poor health. Strategies for managing drinking included attending counselling or residential detoxification programmes, self-imposed physical isolation and intentionally committing crime in order to be incarcerated. These findings highlight the urgent need for targeted harm reduction education for African young people who consume alcohol. Given the importance of social relationships within this community, use of peer-based strategies are likely to be particularly effective. Development and implementation of programmes that address the underlying health and psychosocial causes and consequences of heavy alcohol use are also needed.
Samson, Jennifer E; Tanner-Smith, Emily E
The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis summarizing the effectiveness of brief, single-session interventions to reduce alcohol use among heavy drinking college students. A comprehensive literature search identified 73 studies comparing the effects of single-session brief alcohol intervention with treatment-as-usual or no-treatment control conditions on alcohol use among heavy drinking college students. Random-effects meta-analyses with robust variance estimates were used to synthesize 662 effect sizes, estimating the average overall effect of the interventions and the variability in effects across a range of moderators. An overall mean effect size of ḡ = 0.18, 95% CI [0.12, 0.24] indicated that, on average, single-session brief alcohol interventions significantly reduced alcohol use among heavy drinking college students relative to comparison conditions. There was minimal variability in effects associated with study method and quality, general study characteristics, participant demographics, or outcome measure type. However, studies using motivational enhancement therapy/motivational interviewing (MET/MI) modalities reported larger effects than those using psychoeducational therapy (PET) interventions. Further investigation revealed that studies using MET/ MI and feedback-only interventions, but not those using cognitive-behavioral therapy or PET modalities, reported average effect sizes that differed significantly from zero. There was also evidence that long-term effects were weaker than short-term effects. Single-session brief alcohol interventions show modest effects for reducing alcohol consumption among heavy drinking college students and may be particularly effective when they incorporate MET/MI principles. More research is needed to directly compare intervention modalities, to develop more potent interventions, and to explore the persistence of long-term effects.
Lieberman, Daniel Z; Cioletti, Anne; Massey, Suena H; Collantes, Rochelle S; Moore, Brad B
Alcohol misuse is common among primary care patients, yet many do not receive treatment because doctors believe problem drinkers are "in denial," or are unwilling to change their drinking habits. The real problem, however, may be that patients are being offered treatment modalities that do not meet their needs. This study was designed to measure the acceptability of various treatment options among drinkers who were currently not receiving treatment. Patients in a primary care clinic were given a self-report questionnaire that included: (1) the Alcohol Use Disorders Questionnaire, (2) a measure of readiness to change drinking behavior, and (3) a list of treatment modalities to be rated based on level of interest. Within a random sample of 402 patients, 40.2% reported high risk drinking and 16.3% reported problem drinking. Among the latter group, 89.3% were either considering change, or had begun to take steps to make changes in their drinking behaviors. When asked about treatment preferences, the modalities most frequently recommended by physicians-group therapy and Alcoholics Anonymous-were among the least acceptable. The most popular options were getting help from a primary care doctor and taking a medication that would make it easier to avoid drinking without making them sick if they drank. The belief that problem drinkers are unwilling to change was not supported by this study. Treatment for problem drinking should involve a collaborative evaluation of options with an emphasis on patient preference and treatment within the primary care setting.
Seo, Seonwha; Chun, Sungsoo; Newell, Maxine; Yun, Mieun
To examine Korean public opinions toward alcohol control measures on availability, advertisement, drink-driving and pricing policy, and how the views on alcohol control policy vary by demographics, drinking patterns and attitude to drinking environments. The study used national-based, cross-sectional data collected in 2012 as part of the International Alcohol Control study. 2510 people (M: 1163, F: 1261) aged 15-65 and living in geographically diverse regions of Korea completed the questionnaire asking the support of 12 alcohol control measures. Generally, targeted measures (purchase age of 20 and drink-driving) were more popular than universal (availability, advertisement and price) among Koreans. Gender, age, marital status, drinking patterns and attitude to drinking environments related to alcohol use of young and heavy drinkers were strong predictors of the opinions on most of the alcohol control measures. It was daily/weekly drinkers who opposed most restrictions on alcohol availability and price and the support from individuals who are more aware of problems with drinking in public place was outstanding in every control measure. These findings should be taken into account by Korean policy-makers as they formulate an alcohol policy for the country. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hallgren, Mats; Leifman, Håkan; Andréasson, Sven
This paper describes changes in alcohol consumption among Swedish youth over the past decade with the aim of exploring the polarization hypothesis, which asserts that while a majority of young drinkers have reduced their alcohol consumption, a subgroup have increased their drinking substantially, resulting in greater harm. We analysed repeated cross-sectional self-report data from 45,841 15-16-year olds and 40,889 18-19-year-old high-school students living in the Stockholm municipality between 2000 and 2010. The questionnaire assessed alcohol and drug use, and risk factors for alcohol misuse. Changes over time at different levels of consumption are presented by age and gender. We find evidence of a polarization effect in youth drinking, with consumption reducing significantly over the past 10 years among all young people, except the heaviest drinkers, where consumption and binge drinking tended to increase. The dispersion in per capita consumption also increased over time, indicating more heavy drinkers. The total number of risk factors for alcohol misuse decreased among most survey participants from 2000 to 2010, but with variability between years. Polarized drinking habits are a likely explanation for the recent divergence between per capita alcohol consumption, which has decreased, and alcohol-related hospitalizations, which have increased sharply among Swedish youth in recent years. We suggest that ongoing social changes could be affecting young people in the form of greater disparities, which are associated with a higher incidence of social problems generally, including heavy drinking.
Schuckit, Marc A; Smith, Tom L; Trim, Ryan; Kreikebaum, Sara; Hinga, Briana; Allen, Rhonda
The low level of response (LR) to alcohol, an endophenotype related to heavy drinking and alcohol problems, influences the risk for alcoholism in the context of additional life domains. This article evaluates an LR-based model of drinking patterns in 113 drinking offspring, ages 12 to 24 years, from the San Diego Prospective Study. Correlations and structural equation models (SEMs) were evaluated using LR as measured from the Self-Report of the Effects of Alcohol questionnaire in the offspring. The expectations of the effects of alcohol (EXPECT), the perception of drinking in peers (PEER), the use of alcohol to cope with stress (COPE), and the drinking quantities and alcohol-related problems (ALCOUT) were evaluated in the SEM. The LR-based model worked well, with good fit characteristics and 78% of the variance of outcome explained. LR related directly to ALCOUT, with additional mediation of that relationship through EXPECT and COPE. The LR-based model performed well in adolescents from the San Diego Prospective Study. Knowledge of which domains mediate how LR impacts alcohol-related outcomes may be useful in developing more focused and potentially more effective prevention approaches.
Lee, Dong Jin; Lee, Hyung Min; Kim, Jin Hwan; Park, Ii Seok; Rho, Young Soo
This study aims to determine the relationship between expression levels of ALDH2 and SOD2 genes and clinical parameters such as alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking, primary site of HNSCC, and human papilloma virus (HPV) state. Gene expression data were obtained from gene expression omnibus (GEO accession number: GSE65858). Clinical data (N = 270) including survival result, gender, age, TNM stage, primary site of HNSCC, HPV status, alcohol drinking, and tobacco smoking habit were analyzed according to gene expression pattern. ALDH2 gene was expressed in low levels in patients with heavy alcohol consumption. It was expressed in high (p = 0.01) levels in patients with no or light alcohol consumption. ALDH2 gene was also expressed in low levels in patients with oral cavity cancers or hypopharynx cancers. However, ALDH2 gene was expressed in high (p = 0.03) levels in patients with oropharyngeal cancers or laryngeal cancers. HPV-positive patients were found to have high (p = 0.02) expression levels of ALDH2. SOD2 gene was expressed in high (p = 0.005) levels in patients who had greater mean pack-year of tobacco smoking. Based on log rank test, the group of patients with high expression of ALDH2 showed better (p = 0.002) clinical results than those with low expression of ALDH2. Difference of survival results between ALDH2 high-expressed group and ALDH2 low-expressed group was validated in another cohort (GSE39368, N = 138). Heavy alcohol drinking downregulates ALDH2 gene expression level. Heavy smoking up-regulates SOD2 gene expression level in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The group of patients with low expression levels of ALDH2 showed significantly poorer survival results compared to those with high expression levels of ALDH2.
Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N; Braitman, Abby L; Stamates, Amy L
Emerging adults have the highest prevalence of heavy drinking as compared to all other age groups. Given the negative consequences associated with such drinking, additional research efforts focused on at-risk consumption are warranted. The current study sought to identify patterns of situational antecedents to drinking and to examine their associations with drinking motivations, alcohol involvement, and mental health functioning in a sample of heavy drinking college students. Participants were 549 (65.8% women) college student drinkers. Latent profile analysis identified three classes based on likelihood of heavy drinking across eight situational precipitants. The "High Situational Endorsement" group reported the greatest likelihood of heavy drinking in most situations assessed. This class experienced the greatest level of alcohol-related harms as compared to the "Low Situational Endorsement" and "Moderate Situational Endorsement" groups. The Low Situational Endorsement class was characterized by the lowest likelihood of heavy drinking across all situational antecedents and they experienced the fewest alcohol-related harms, relative to the other classes. Class membership was related to drinking motivations with the "High Situational Endorsement" class endorsing the highest coping- and conformity-motivated drinking. The "High Situational Endorsement" class also reported experiencing more mental health symptoms than other groups. The current study contributed to the larger drinking literature by identifying profiles that may signify a particularly risky drinking style. Findings may help guide intervention work with college heavy drinkers.
Shillington, Audrey M.; Clapp, John D.
This study examines the risk for alcohol and other drug (AOD) problems resulting from alcohol plus marijuana use compared to alcohol-only use. Data are from telephone interviews with 1113 randomly selected college students attending two large urban universities in the southwestern United States. Alcohol and marijuana users (dual users) were more…
Full Text Available According to the WHO report, alcohol is the third most significant health risk factor for the global population. There are contrary reports about heavy metals concentrations in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to investigate serum concentrations of selected heavy metals in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis living in the eastern part of Poland according to cirrhosis stage. The participants came from various hospitals of the Lublin region were enrolled. The study group included 46 male and 16 female patients. The control group consisted of 18 healthy individuals without liver disease. High Performance Ion Chromatography was used to determine the concentrations of metal ions (Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Mn, and Pb in serum samples. The concentrations of copper, zinc, nickel, and cobalt were found to be significantly lower in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis compared to the control group. The serum concentration of cadmium was significantly higher in patients with advanced alcoholic liver cirrhosis compared to the control group. We hypothesize that disorders of metabolism of heavy metals seem to be the outcome of impaired digestion and absorption, which are common in cirrhosis, improper diet, environmental and occupational exposure.
Dvorak, Robert D.; Kuvaas, Nicholas J.; Kilwein, Tess M.; Wray, Tyler B.; Stevenson, Brittany L.; Sargent, Emily M.
Objective: This study examined associations between drinking motivation, alcohol use, and sexual hookups among college students. Participants: Participants (n = 755 Midwest college student drinkers; 61% female) ranged in age from 18 to 24. Methods: Participants completed online measures of alcohol involvement (use and motives) and sexual activity.…
Duijvenbode, N. van; Didden, H.C.M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.
Background: Problematic drinkers favour the processing of alcohol-related stimuli at the cost of other stimuli and also find it difficult to disengage their attention from these stimuli. This is indicative of an attentional bias towards alcohol. The goal of this study was to examine this bias in
Crocker, N.; Riley, E.P.; Mattson, S.N.
Objective The current study examined the relationship between mathematics and attention, working memory, and visual memory in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and controls. Method Fifty-six children (29 AE, 27 CON) were administered measures of global mathematics achievement (WRAT-3 Arithmetic & WISC-III Written Arithmetic), attention, (WISC-III Digit Span forward and Spatial Span forward), working memory (WISC-III Digit Span backward and Spatial Span backward), and visual memory (CANTAB Spatial Recognition Memory and Pattern Recognition Memory). The contribution of cognitive domains to mathematics achievement was analyzed using linear regression techniques. Attention, working memory and visual memory data were entered together on step 1 followed by group on step 2, and the interaction terms on step 3. Results Model 1 accounted for a significant amount of variance in both mathematics achievement measures, however, model fit improved with the addition of group on step 2. Significant predictors of mathematics achievement were Spatial Span forward and backward and Spatial Recognition Memory. Conclusions These findings suggest that deficits in spatial processing may be related to math impairments seen in FASD. In addition, prenatal alcohol ex