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Sample records for heaving ship motion

  1. Software design and implementation of ship heave motion monitoring system based on MBD method

    Yu, Yan; Li, Yuhan; Zhang, Chunwei; Kang, Won-Hee; Ou, Jinping

    2015-03-01

    Marine transportation plays a significant role in the modern transport sector due to its advantage of low cost, large capacity. It is being attached enormous importance to all over the world. Nowadays the related areas of product development have become an existing hot spot. DSP signal processors feature micro volume, low cost, high precision, fast processing speed, which has been widely used in all kinds of monitoring systems. But traditional DSP code development process is time-consuming, inefficiency, costly and difficult. MathWorks company proposed Model-based Design (MBD) to overcome these defects. By calling the target board modules in simulink library to compile and generate the corresponding code for the target processor. And then automatically call DSP integrated development environment CCS for algorithm validation on the target processor. This paper uses the MDB to design the algorithm for the ship heave motion monitoring system. It proves the effectiveness of the MBD run successfully on the processor.

  2. Sloshing Simulation of Three Types Tank Ship on Pitching and Heaving Motion

    Edi Djatmiko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As an important part of a ship, tanker / cargo hold specifically designed to distribute the load to be maintained safely. In a related IMO classification of LNG carrier, there are a wide variety of types of LNG tanks on ships. Are generally divided into two types, namely tank (Independent Self Supporting Tank and (Non Self Supporting Tanks. The tank-type variation will affect the characteristics of fluid motion that is inside the tank. Need for simulation of sloshing and analysis of the structure of the tank due to the force created by the load when the heaving and pitching. Sloshing the effect of the free movement of the fluid in the tank with the striking motion wall tank walls that can damage the walls of the tank. Type 1 tank is a tank octagonal (octogonal for membrane-type LNG carrier with dimensions of length 38 m width 39.17 m 14.5 m high side of the tank. Type 2 tank is a tank-shaped capsule with the long dimension of 26.6 m and a diameter of 10.5 m. Type 3 tank is rectangular tank (rectanguler with dimensions of length of 49.68 m, width 46.92 and 32.23 m high. Simulations conducted using Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD using ANSYS FLUENT software. From the simulation results concluded that the tank 1 to form (octogonal have a total pressure of 3013.99 Pa on the front wall with a height of 13.65 m from the base of the tank

  3. Experimental Investigation of the Resistance Performance and Heave and Pitch Motions of Ice-Going Container Ship Under Pack Ice Conditions

    Guo, Chun-yu; Xie, Chang; Zhang, Jin-zhao; Wang, Shuai; Zhao, Da-gang

    2018-04-01

    In order to analyze the ice-going ship's performance under the pack ice conditions, synthetic ice was introduced into a towing tank. A barrier using floating cylinder in the towing tank was designed to carry out the resistance experiment. The test results indicated that the encountering frequency between the ship model and the pack ice shifts towards a high-velocity point as the concentration of the pack ice increases, and this encountering frequency creates an unstable region of the resistance, and the unstable region shifts to the higher speed with the increasing concentration. The results also showed that for the same speed points, the ratio of the pack ice resistance to the open water resistance increases with the increasing concentration, and for the same concentrations, this ratio decreases as the speed increases. Motion characteristics showed that the mean value of the heave motion increases as the speed increases, and the pitch motion tends to increase with the increasing speed. In addition, the total resistance of the fullscale was predicted.

  4. Modeling of Ship Roll Dynamics and Its Coupling with Heave and Pitch

    R. A. Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the dynamic behavior of ships navigating in severe environmental conditions it is imperative to develop their governing equations of motion taking into account the inherent nonlinearity of large-amplitude ship motion. The purpose of this paper is to present the coupled nonlinear equations of motion in heave, roll, and pitch based on physical grounds. The ingredients of the formulation are comprised of three main components. These are the inertia forces and moments, restoring forces and moments, and damping forces and moments with an emphasis to the roll damping moment. In the formulation of the restoring forces and moments, the influence of large-amplitude ship motions will be considered together with ocean wave loads. The special cases of coupled roll-pitch and purely roll equations of motion are obtained from the general formulation. The paper includes an assessment of roll stochastic stability and probabilistic approaches used to estimate the probability of capsizing and parameter identification.

  5. Effects of Different Heave Motion Components on Pilot Pitch Control Behavior

    Zaal, Petrus M. T.; Zavala, Melinda A.

    2016-01-01

    The study described in this paper had two objectives. The first objective was to investigate if a different weighting of heave motion components decomposed at the center of gravity, allowing for a higher fidelity of individual components, would result in pilot manual pitch control behavior and performance closer to that observed with full aircraft motion. The second objective was to investigate if decomposing the heave components at the aircraft's instantaneous center of rotation rather than at the center of gravity could result in additional improvements in heave motion fidelity. Twenty-one general aviation pilots performed a pitch attitude control task in an experiment conducted on the Vertical Motion Simulator at NASA Ames under different hexapod motion conditions. The large motion capability of the Vertical Motion Simulator also allowed for a full aircraft motion condition, which served as a baseline. The controlled dynamics were of a transport category aircraft trimmed close to the stall point. When the ratio of center of gravity pitch heave to center of gravity heave increased in the hexapod motion conditions, pilot manual control behavior and performance became increasingly more similar to what is observed with full aircraft motion. Pilot visual and motion gains significantly increased, while the visual lead time constant decreased. The pilot visual and motion time delays remained approximately constant and decreased, respectively. The neuromuscular damping and frequency both decreased, with their values more similar to what is observed with real aircraft motion when there was an equal weighting of the heave of the center of gravity and heave due to rotations about the center of gravity. In terms of open- loop performance, the disturbance and target crossover frequency increased and decreased, respectively, and their corresponding phase margins remained constant and increased, respectively. The decomposition point of the heave components only had limited

  6. Ship Roll Motion Control

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    . This tutorial paper presents an account of the development of various ship roll motion control systems and the challenges associated with their design. The paper discusses how to assess performance, the applicability of dierent models, and control methods that have been applied in the past....

  7. Effects of ship motions on laminar flow in tubes

    Yan, B.H., E-mail: yanbh1986@163.co [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Naval University of Engineering, 717 Jiefang Street, Wuhan 430033 (China); Yu, L. [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Naval University of Engineering, 717 Jiefang Street, Wuhan 430033 (China); Yang, Y.H. [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dong Chuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2010-01-15

    The thermal-hydraulics of barge-mounted floating nuclear desalination plants is the incentive for this study. Laminar flow in tubes in heaving motion is modeled. The friction factor and heat transfer coefficient are obtained. All the equations of laminar flow in steady state are applicable for heeling motion. The effect of ship motions on the laminar developing region is also analyzed. The ship motions can weaken the boundary layer in the laminar developing region and strengthen the laminar frictional resistance. The effect of ship motions on the instability of laminar flow is also investigated. The ship motions do not affect the instability point, but they can shorten the distance between the instability point and the transition point, and cause the transition from laminar flow to turbulent flow to occur earlier.

  8. A Fully Nonlinear, Dynamically Consistent Numerical Model for Solid-Body Ship Motion. I. Ship Motion with Fixed Heading

    Lin, Ray-Quing; Kuang, Weijia

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the details of our numerical model for simulating ship solidbody motion in a given environment. In this model, the fully nonlinear dynamical equations governing the time-varying solid-body ship motion under the forces arising from ship wave interactions are solved with given initial conditions. The net force and moment (torque) on the ship body are directly calculated via integration of the hydrodynamic pressure over the wetted surface and the buoyancy effect from the underwater volume of the actual ship hull with a hybrid finite-difference/finite-element method. Neither empirical nor free parametrization is introduced in this model, i.e. no a priori experimental data are needed for modelling. This model is benchmarked with many experiments of various ship hulls for heave, roll and pitch motion. In addition to the benchmark cases, numerical experiments are also carried out for strongly nonlinear ship motion with a fixed heading. These new cases demonstrate clearly the importance of nonlinearities in ship motion modelling.

  9. Heave motion prediction of a large barge in random seas by using artificial neural network

    Lee, Hsiu Eik; Liew, Mohd Shahir; Zawawi, Noor Amila Wan Abdullah; Toloue, Iraj

    2017-11-01

    This paper describes the development of a multi-layer feed forward artificial neural network (ANN) to predict rigid heave body motions of a large catenary moored barge subjected to multi-directional irregular waves. The barge is idealized as a rigid plate of finite draft with planar dimensions 160m (length) and 100m (width) which is held on station using a six point chain catenary mooring in 50m water depth. Hydroelastic effects are neglected from the physical model as the chief intent of this study is focused on large plate rigid body hydrodynamics modelling using ANN. Even with this assumption, the computational requirements for time domain coupled hydrodynamic simulations of a moored floating body is considerably costly, particularly if a large number of simulations are required such as in the case of response based design (RBD) methods. As an alternative to time consuming numerical hydrodynamics, a regression-type ANN model has been developed for efficient prediction of the barge's heave responses to random waves from various directions. It was determined that a network comprising of 3 input features, 2 hidden layers with 5 neurons each and 1 output was sufficient to produce acceptable predictions within 0.02 mean squared error. By benchmarking results from the ANN with those generated by a fully coupled dynamic model in OrcaFlex, it is demonstrated that the ANN is capable of predicting the barge's heave responses with acceptable accuracy.

  10. Reynolds number effect on airfoil wake structures under pitching and heaving motion

    Kim, Kyung Chun; Karbasian, Hamidreza; ExpTENsys Team

    2017-11-01

    Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements were performed to investigate the wake flow characteristics of an airfoil under pitching and heaving motion. A NACA0012 airfoil was selected for the numerical simulation and experiments were carried out in a wind tunnel and a water tunnel at Reynolds number of 15,000 and 90,000, respectively. The airfoil oscillated around an axis located 1/4 distance from the leading edge chord. Two different angles of attack, 20° and 30°, were selected with +/-10° maximum amplitude of oscillation. In order to extract the coherent flow structures from time-resolved PIV data, proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) analysis was performed on 1,000 instantaneous realisations for each condition using the method of snapshots. Vorticity contour and velocity profiles for both PIV and DES results are in good agreement for pitching and heaving motion. At high Reynolds number, 3D stream-wise vortices appeared after generating span-wise vortices. The higher maximum angle of attack allows the leading edge vortex to grow stronger and that the angle of attack appears to be more important in influencing the growth of the leading edge vortex structure than the reduced frequency. National Research Foundation of Korea (No. 2011-0030013).

  11. Nonlinear dynamic response of cable-suspended systems under swinging and heaving motion

    Cao, Guohua; Wang, Naige; Wang, Lei; Zhu, Zhencai

    2017-01-01

    In order to enhance the fidelity, convenient and flexibility of swinging motion, the structure of incompletely restrained cablesuspended system controlled by two drums was proposed, and the dynamic response of the system under swinging and heaving motion were investigated in this paper. The cables are spatially discretized using the assumed modes method and the system equations of motion are derived by Lagrange equations of the first kind. Based on geometric boundary conditions and linear complementary theory, the differential algebraic equations are transformed to a set of classical difference equations. Nonlinear dynamic behavior occurs under certain range of rotational velocity and frequency. The results show that asynchronous motion of suspension platform is easily caused imbalance for cable tension. Dynamic response of different swing frequencies were obtained via power frequency analysis, which could be used in the selection of the working frequency of the swing motion. The work will contribute to a better understanding of the swing frequency, cable tension and posture with dynamic characteristics of unilateral geometric and kinematic constraints in this system, and it is also useful to investigate the accuracy and reliability of instruments in future.

  12. Nonlinear dynamic response of cable-suspended systems under swinging and heaving motion

    Cao, Guohua; Wang, Naige; Wang, Lei; Zhu, Zhencai [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China)

    2017-07-15

    In order to enhance the fidelity, convenient and flexibility of swinging motion, the structure of incompletely restrained cablesuspended system controlled by two drums was proposed, and the dynamic response of the system under swinging and heaving motion were investigated in this paper. The cables are spatially discretized using the assumed modes method and the system equations of motion are derived by Lagrange equations of the first kind. Based on geometric boundary conditions and linear complementary theory, the differential algebraic equations are transformed to a set of classical difference equations. Nonlinear dynamic behavior occurs under certain range of rotational velocity and frequency. The results show that asynchronous motion of suspension platform is easily caused imbalance for cable tension. Dynamic response of different swing frequencies were obtained via power frequency analysis, which could be used in the selection of the working frequency of the swing motion. The work will contribute to a better understanding of the swing frequency, cable tension and posture with dynamic characteristics of unilateral geometric and kinematic constraints in this system, and it is also useful to investigate the accuracy and reliability of instruments in future.

  13. Investigation of heave response of the deepwater octagonal FDPSO using various heave plate configurations

    Yu, Chenfang; Hu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Shisheng

    2017-12-01

    Heave plates can be employed to control undesirable heave motion amplitudes of the deepwater octagonal Floating, Drilling, Production, Storage, and Offloading (FDPSO) platform. Numerical simulations and model tests were applied to analyze and investigate the hydrodynamic response and the feasibility of the heave plate configurations. The diameter and the depth below the free surface of a single-layer heave plate, as well as the spacing of two-layer heave plates, were considered as the primary variables when studying the effect of heave plates on FDPSO hydrodynamics. The analysis results indicate that the heave plate diameter significantly affects the heave hydrodynamics, and heave performance could be improved with an increased diameter. In addition, increasing the depth below the free surface of a single-layer heave plate does not effectively suppress the heave motion within the range of draft depths tested. The target FDPSO obtained better heave characteristics with increased spacing between the two-layer heave plates. Furthermore, the global performances of the octagonal FDPSO with these typical heave plate configurations were comparatively analyzed. The results indicate that from a hydrodynamic point of view, the single-layer heave plate configuration has an advantage over the two-layer heave plate configuration.

  14. Biomimetic propulsion under random heaving conditions, using active pitch control

    Politis, Gerasimos; Politis, Konstantinos

    2014-05-01

    Marine mammals travel long distances by utilizing and transforming wave energy to thrust through proper control of their caudal fin. On the other hand, manmade ships traveling in a wavy sea store large amounts of wave energy in the form of kinetic energy for heaving, pitching, rolling and other ship motions. A natural way to extract this energy and transform it to useful propulsive thrust is by using a biomimetic wing. The aim of this paper is to show how an actively pitched biomimetic wing could achieve this goal when it performs a random heaving motion. More specifically, we consider a biomimetic wing traveling with a given translational velocity in an infinitely extended fluid and performing a random heaving motion with a given energy spectrum which corresponds to a given sea state. A formula is invented by which the instantaneous pitch angle of the wing is determined using the heaving data of the current and past time steps. Simulations are then performed for a biomimetic wing at different heave energy spectra, using an indirect Source-Doublet 3-D-BEM, together with a time stepping algorithm capable to track the random motion of the wing. A nonlinear pressure type Kutta condition is applied at the trailing edge of the wing. With a mollifier-based filtering technique, the 3-D unsteady rollup pattern created by the random motion of the wing is calculated without any simplifying assumptions regarding its geometry. Calculated unsteady forces, moments and useful power, show that the proposed active pitch control always results in thrust producing motions, with significant propulsive power production and considerable beneficial stabilizing action to ship motions. Calculation of the power required to set the pitch angle prove it to be a very small percentage of the useful power and thus making the practical application of the device very tractable.

  15. Effect of ship motion on spinal loading during manual lifting

    Faber, G.S.; Kingma, I.; Delleman, N.; Dieën, J. van

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of ship motion on peak spinal loading during lifting. All measurements were done on a ship at sea. In 1-min trials, which were repeated over a wide range of sailing conditions, subjects lifted an 18 kg box five times. Ship motion, whole body kinematics, ground

  16. Frost heave in He

    Mizusaki, T.; Hiroi, M.

    1995-01-01

    Frost heave occurs in various phenomena in natural environment. It has been studied in helium on porous glasses under perfect ice-segregation condition. The maximum frost heave pressure was investigated for various conditions and was in good agreement with the thermodynamical prediction. The dynamical properties of frost heave are discussed and some of the preliminary results of the growth rate measurement are presented. (orig.)

  17. Effect of ship motions and flow stability in a small marine reactor driven by natural circulation

    Yoritsune, Tsutomu; Ishida, Toshihisa

    2001-12-01

    By using a small reactor as a power source for investigations and developments under sea, widely expanded activity is expectable. In this case, as for a nuclear reactor, small-size and lightweightness, and simplification of a system are needed with the safety. In JAERI, very small reactors for submersible research vessel (Deep-sea Reactor DRX and submersible Compact Reactor SCR) have been designed on the basis of needs investigation of sea research. Although the reactor is a PWR type, self-pressurization and natural circulation system are adopted in a primary system for small size and lightweightness. The fluid flow condition of the reactor core outlet is designed to be the two-phase with a low quality. Although the flow of a primary system is the two-phase flow with a low quality, the density wave oscillation may occur according to operating conditions. Moreover, since there are ship motions of heaving (the vertical direction acceleration) etc., when a submersible research vessel navigates on the sea surface, the circulation flow of the primary system is directly influenced by this external force. In order to maintain stable operations of the reactor, it is necessary to clarify effects of the flow stability characteristic of the primary coolant system and the external force. Until now, as for the flow stability of a nuclear reactor itself, many research reports have been published including the nuclear-coupled thermal oscillation of BWRs such as LaSalle-2, WNP-2 etc. As for the effect of external force, it is reported that the acceleration change based on a seismic wave affects the reactor core flow and the reactor power in a BWR. On the other hand, also in a PWR, since adoption of natural circulation cooling is considered for a generation 4 reactor, it is thought that the margin of the reactor core flow stability becomes an important parameter in the design. The reactor coolant flow mentioned in this report is the two-phase natural circulation flow coupled with

  18. Effects of ship's vibration and motion on plant parameters

    Kakuta, Tsunemi; Kitamura, Toshikatsu; Mizushima, Toshihiko; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Nakahara, Takeshi; Kamiya, Eisei; Kudou, Takahiro; Naitoh, Akira; Tominaga, Mineo.

    1992-03-01

    Present report was written about the study of the effects of ship's vibration and motion on reactor plant performances measured and analyzed to confirm the total balance for control systems of reactor to propulsion. On July 10, 1990, or on the first day of the first voyage for the power up test, the sea trials of MUTSU, nuclear ship made first in Japan, started from the anchoring test. The trial tests had finished through the third voyage between October 30 and November 9 to the fourth voyage between 7 and 14 of December. The trial tests had been conducted over ten items or so containing in-house tests of the measurements of ship's vibration and motion in order to research the effects on reactor performance. We here call the in-house tests the plant correlation tests. In regard to the correlation with ship's vibration, we confirmed that the inherent vibrations of hull and reactor containment arisen from ship structure had precisely been measured and that the plant correlations due to the hull and local vibrations arising from propeller revolutions are very small. Concerning the correlation with ship's motion, it was shown that her rolling motion strongly had affected on the propulsion system such as shaft power and shaft revolutions. About the correlation with reactor systems it was found that her pitching motion had given effect on the water level in pressurizer, primary coolant average temperature, ε-signal of the auto-control of reactor power and primary coolant pressure etc, particularly, most-strongly on the water level in pressurizer; her rolling and pitching motions had given effect on nuclear characteristics such as reactivity and startup rate; in addition the fluctuation of 0.06 Hz, we think the response inherent in (MUTSU) reactor systems, had been observed on her reactor parameters like reactivity and startup rate, and her propulsion systems like shaft horse power. (author)

  19. Estimation of Ship Motions Using Closed-Form Expressions

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Mansour, A.E.; Olsen, Anders Smærup

    2004-01-01

    A semi-analytical approach is used to derive frequency response functions for the wave-induced motions for monohull ships. The results are given as closed-form expressions and the required input information for the procedure is restricted to the main dimensions: Length, breadth, draught, block...

  20. Innovative technologies to accurately model waves and moored ship motions

    van der Molen, W

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Late in 2009 CSIR Built Environment in Stellenbosch was awarded a contract to carry out extensive physical and numerical modelling to study the wave conditions and associated moored ship motions, for the design of a new iron ore export jetty for BHP...

  1. Numerical simulation of ship motion in offshore and harbour areas

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Jensen, Bjarne; Mortensen, Simon Brandi

    2008-01-01

    A method for simulating the motions and mooring forces of a moored ship subject to wave forcing has been further developed and validated for both the open water case and inside harbour areas. The method was originally developed and reported in Bingham (2000). The simulation tool is named WAMSIM...

  2. Frost Heave in Colloidal Soils

    Peppin, Stephen; Majumdar, Apala; Style, Robert; Sander, Graham

    2011-01-01

    We develop a mathematical model of frost heave in colloidal soils. The theory accountsfor heave and consolidation while not requiring a frozen fringe assumption. Two solidificationregimes occur: a compaction regime in which the soil consolidates

  3. Advanced Demonstration of Motion Correction for Ship-to-Ship Passive Inspections

    Ziock, Klaus-Peter [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boehnen, Chris Bensing [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ernst, Joseph [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-09-30

    Passive radiation detection is a key tool for detecting illicit nuclear materials. In maritime applications it is most effective against small vessels where attenuation is of less concern. Passive imaging provides: discrimination between localized (threat) and distributed (non-threat) sources, removal of background fluctuations due to nearby shorelines and structures, source localization to an individual craft in crowded waters, and background subtracted spectra. Unfortunately, imaging methods cannot be easily applied in ship-to-ship inspections because relative motion of the vessels blurs the results over many pixels, significantly reducing sensitivity. This is particularly true for the smaller water craft where passive inspections are most valuable. In this project we performed tests and improved the performance of an instrument (developed earlier under, “Motion Correction for Ship-to-Ship Passive Inspections”) that uses automated tracking of a target vessel in visible-light images to generate a 3D radiation map of the target vessel from data obtained using a gamma-ray imager.

  4. Frost Heave in Colloidal Soils

    Peppin, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    We develop a mathematical model of frost heave in colloidal soils. The theory accountsfor heave and consolidation while not requiring a frozen fringe assumption. Two solidificationregimes occur: a compaction regime in which the soil consolidates to accommodate the ice lenses, and a heave regime during which liquid is sucked into the consolidated soil from an external reservoir, and the added volume causes the soil to heave. The ice fraction is found to vary inversely with thefreezing velocity V , while the rate of heave is independent of V , consistent with field and laboratoryobservations. © 2011 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  5. The instantaneous linear motion information measurement method based on inertial sensors for ships

    Yang, Xu; Huang, Jing; Gao, Chen; Quan, Wei; Li, Ming; Zhang, Yanshun

    2018-05-01

    Ship instantaneous line motion information is the important foundation for ship control, which needs to be measured accurately. For this purpose, an instantaneous line motion measurement method based on inertial sensors is put forward for ships. By introducing a half-fixed coordinate system to realize the separation between instantaneous line motion and ship master movement, the instantaneous line motion acceleration of ships can be obtained with higher accuracy. Then, the digital high-pass filter is applied to suppress the velocity error caused by the low frequency signal such as schuler period. Finally, the instantaneous linear motion displacement of ships can be measured accurately. Simulation experimental results show that the method is reliable and effective, and can realize the precise measurement of velocity and displacement of instantaneous line motion for ships.

  6. Thermo-hydraulic characteristics of ship propulsion reactor in the conditions of ship motions and safety assessment

    Kobayashi, Michiyuki; Murata, Hiroyuki; Sawada, Kenichi; Inasaka, Fujio; Aya, Izuo; Shiozaki, Koki

    1999-01-01

    By inputting the experimental data, information and others on thermo-hydraulic characteristics of integrated ship propulsion reactor accumulated hitherto by the Ship Research Institute and some recent cooperation results into the nuclear ship engineering simulation system, it was conducted not only to contribute an improvement study on next ship reactor by executing general analysis and evaluation on motion characteristics under ship body motion conditions, safety at accidents, and others of the integrated ship reactor but also to investigate and prepare some measures to apply fundamental experiment results based on obtained here information to safety countermeasure of the nuclear ships. In 1997 fiscal year, on safety of the integrated ship propulsion reactor loading nuclear ship, by adding experimental data on unstable flow analysis and information on all around of the analysis to general data base fundamental program, development to intellectual data base program was intended; on effect of pulsation flow on thermo-hydraulic characteristics of ship propulsion reactor; after pulsation flow visualization experiment, experimental equipment was reconstructed into heat transfer type to conduct numerical analysis of pulsation flow by confirming validity of numerical analysis code under comparison with the visualization experiment results; and on thermo-hydraulic behavior in storage container at accident of active safety type ship propulsion reactor; a flashing vibration test using new apparatus finished on its higher pressurization at last fiscal year to examine effects of each parameter such as radius and length of exhausting nozzle and pool water temperature. (G.K.)

  7. Numerical analysis of viscous effect on ship rolling motions based on CFD

    LUO Tian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available During the ship design procedure, the analysis of ship rolling motions is of great significance because the rolling motions have extraordinary effects on the sea-keeping, maneuverability and stability of a ship. It is difficult to simulate rolling motions due to the effect of viscosity, which causes many nonlinear components in computation. As such, the potential theory used for other ship motions cannot be used for rolling motions. This paper simulates the rolling motions of the DTMB 5512 ship model and the ship transverse section of the S60 ship model with a naoe-FOAM-SJTU solver using the Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes(RANSmethod based on the OpenFOAM. The results of rolling motions are compared with the experimental data, which confirms the reliability of the meshes and results. For the ship transverse section of the S60 ship model, the damping coefficient is divided into three parts with the Euler and RANS methods:friction, vorticity and wave parts. For the DTMB 5512 ship model, the damping coefficient is also respectively analyzed, including the friction, vorticity, wave and bilge keel parts. The results in this paper show that the vorticity part accounts for the greatest proportion, while the friction part accounts for the least, and the bilge keels reduces the damping moment to a certain extent which shows the effect of rolling parameters on rolling motions and moments.

  8. Prediction of Vertical-Plane Wave Loading and Ship Responses in High Seas

    Wang, Z.; Xia, J.; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2000-01-01

    The non-linearities in wave- and slamming-induced rigid-body motions and structural responses of ships such as heave, pitch and vertical bending moments are consistently investigated based on a rational time-domain strip method. A hydrodynamic model for predicting sectional green water force is a...

  9. Influence of Variable Acceleration on Parametric Roll Motion of a Container Ship

    Emre PEŞMAN

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ship operators increase or decrease thrust force of ships to avoid parametric roll motion. These operations cause varying acceleration values. In this study, influence of variable acceleration and deceleration of ships on roll motion is investigated in longitudinal waves. The method which is referred as simple model is utilized for analysis. Simple Model is one degree of freedom nonlinear parametric roll motion equation which contains changing velocity and restoring moment in waves with respect to time. Ship velocities in waves are predicted by XFlow software for various thrust forces. Results indicate that variable acceleration has significant effect on parametric roll phenomenon.

  10. Ship motion-based wave estimation using a spectral residual-calculation

    Nielsen, Ulrik D.; H. Brodtkorb, Astrid

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a study focused on a newly developed procedure for wave spectrum estimation using wave-induced motion recordings from a ship. The particular procedure stands out from other existing, similar ship motion-based pro-cedures by its computational efficiency and - at the same time- ...

  11. Motion correction for passive radiation imaging of small vessels in ship-to-ship inspections

    Ziock, K.P., E-mail: ziockk@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boehnen, C.B.; Ernst, J.M.; Fabris, L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hayward, J.P. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Karnowski, T.P.; Paquit, V.C.; Patlolla, D.R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Trombino, D.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Passive radiation detection remains one of the most acceptable means of ascertaining the presence of illicit nuclear materials. In maritime applications it is most effective against small to moderately sized vessels, where attenuation in the target vessel is of less concern. Unfortunately, imaging methods that can remove source confusion, localize a source, and avoid other systematic detection issues cannot be easily applied in ship-to-ship inspections because relative motion of the vessels blurs the results over many pixels, significantly reducing system sensitivity. This is particularly true for the smaller watercraft, where passive inspections are most valuable. We have developed a combined gamma-ray, stereo visible-light imaging system that addresses this problem. Data from the stereo imager are used to track the relative location and orientation of the target vessel in the field of view of a coded-aperture gamma-ray imager. Using this information, short-exposure gamma-ray images are projected onto the target vessel using simple tomographic back-projection techniques, revealing the location of any sources within the target. The complex autonomous tracking and image reconstruction system runs in real time on a 48-core workstation that deploys with the system.

  12. Trial Results of Ship Motions and Their Influence on Aircraft Operations for ISCS GUAM

    1975-12-01

    Washington, D.C. 20362 14, ;ZNITOAIv.O AGE[NCY NAME 6 X0AOORSS(RI iF1**1i; hedm cmtoUnd OilS caffe) iV Naval Ship Engineering Cmmand (Code 6136) Prince...component of the ship motions produced the difficulties. It was also regarded essencial to record the relative importance of ship motions as one of a

  13. Analysis of Ship Groundings on Soft Sea Beds

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1997-01-01

    it influences the ship heave and pitch motions as well as the friction between the ship and the soil.In this paper a rational calculation model is presented for the sea bed soil reaction forces on the ship bottom. The model is based on the assumption that the penetration of the ship bow generates a flow of pore......The consequences associated with ships running aground depend very much on the soil characteristics of the sea bed and the geometrical shape of the ship bow. The penetration into the sea bed depends on these factors and the penetration is an important factor for the ship motion because...... by the theory of frictional soils in rupture. Frictional stresses on the bow surface are assumed to be related to the normal pressure by a simple Coulumb relation. The total soil reaction as a function of velocity and penetration is found by integration of normal pressure and frictional stresses over...

  14. Nonlinear surge motions of a ship in bi-chromatic following waves

    Spyrou, Kostas J.; Themelis, Nikos; Kontolefas, Ioannis

    2018-03-01

    Unintended motions of a ship operating in steep and long following waves are investigated. A well-known such case is ;surf-riding; where a ship is carried forward by a single wave, an event invoking sometimes lateral instability and even capsize. The dynamics underlying this behavior has been clarified earlier for monochromatic waves. However, the unsteadiness of the phase space associated with ship behavior in a multichromatic sea, combined with the intrinsically strong system nonlinearity, pose new challenges. Here, current theory is extended to cover surging and surf-riding behavior in unidirectional bi-chromatic waves encountering a ship from the stern. Excitation is provided by two unidirectional harmonic wave components having their lengths comparable to the ship length and their frequencies in rational ratio. The techniques applied include (a) continuation analysis; (b) tracking of Lagrangian coherent structures in phase space, approximated through a finite-time Lyapunov exponents' calculation; and (c) large scale simulation. A profound feature of surf-riding in bi-chromatic waves is that it is turned oscillatory. Initially it appears as a frequency-locked motion, ruled by the harmonic wave component dominating the excitation. Transformations of oscillatory surf-riding are realized as the waves become steeper. In particular, heteroclinic tanglings are identified, governing abrupt transitions between qualitatively different motions. Chaotic transients, as well as long-term chaotic motions, exist near to these events. Some extraordinary patterns of ship motion are discovered. These include a counterintuitive low speed motion at very high wave excitation level; and a hybrid motion characterized by a wildly fluctuating velocity. Due to the quite generic nature of the core mathematical model of our investigation, the current results are believed to offer clues about the behavior of a class of nonlinear dynamical systems having in their modeling some analogy with

  15. A Dynamic Model for Roll Motion of Ships Due to Flooding

    Xia, Jinzhu; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1997-01-01

    A dynamic model is presented of the roll motion of damaged RoRo vessels which couples the internal cross-flooding flow and the air action in the equalizing compartment. The cross flooding flow and the air motion are modelled by a modified Bernoulli equation, where artificial damping is introduced...... to avoid modal instability based on the original Bernoulli equation. The fluid action of the flooded water on the ship is expressed by its influence on the moment of inertia of the ship and the heeling moment, which is a couple created by the gravitational force of the flooded water and the change...... of buoyancy of the ship.Two limiting flooding cases are examined in the present analysis: The sudden ingress of a certain amount of water to the damaged compartment with no further water exchange between the sea and the flooded compartment during the roll motion, and the continuous ingress of water through...

  16. Simulation-Based Analysis of Ship Motions in Short-Crested Irregular Seas

    Kıvanç Ali ANIL

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Demonstration of the seakeeping calculation results other than polar diagrams and Cartesian plots is important during the initial and detail design stages of naval platforms due to the necessity of numerical simulations (time series data for the design and validation of the systems on board. These time series simulations are called as “real time computer experiments”. Similar simulation algorithms for ship motions and wave elevation are also used by ship-handling simulators for realistic visualization. The goal of this paper is to create a basis for the simulation-based analysis of ship motions and wave elevation for future design and validation studies for both the naval platform itself and the systems on board. The focus of this paper is the clarification of the theoretical background of this process, i.e. all formulations required to create and validate a ship motion and wave surface simulation are given in detail. The results of this study may also be used in ship-handling simulators or helicopter landing on ship simulations.

  17. Ship Detection and Measurement of Ship Motion by Multi-Aperture Synthetic Aperture Radar

    2014-06-01

    otherwise they would break. Both transverse and torsional modes are present and are driven by the ship structure, the shape of the sea surface, bow slamming...used, the ship’s loading and the ship’s operation [11], [16]. Very large vessels are the most flexible . The schematic shown in Figure 4 [12] provides...different orientations and thin (with respect to a radar wavelength) rods and cables act as linear diffraction centers. The orientation of the

  18. Ice Segregation and Frost Heaving.

    1984-01-01

    to a buried chilled gas pipeline by continual frost ’. ’- heave during the service life or to a buried liquefied gas tank is a more _ recent concern...M). Lule en: Uiversity of Lulea. Pehner, E., 1982. Aspects of ice lens fornmation. P ing of the Third International Syvosium on Ground Freezi, Hanover...Soils. Lalea, Sweden: Uiversity ofLulea. . Berg, R. L., G. Guymon and J. Ingersoll, 1979. Conference on soil-water . problems in cold regions. Cold

  19. Plate motions, Gondwana dinosaurs, Noah's arks, beached Viking funeral ships, ghost ships, and landspans.

    Jacobs, Louis L; Strganac, Christopher; Scotese, Christopher

    2011-03-01

    Gondwana landmasses have served as large-scale biogeographic Noah's Arks and Beached Viking Funeral Ships, as defined by McKenna. The latitudinal trajectories of selected Gondwana dinosaur localities were traced through time in order to evaluate their movement through climate zones relative to those in which they originally formed. The dispersal of fauna during the breakup of Gondwana may have been facilitated by the presence of offshelf islands forming landspans (sensu Iturralde-Vinent and MacPhee) in the Equatorial Atlantic Gateway and elsewhere.

  20. Self-propelled heaving and pitching flexible fin in a quiescent flow

    Kim, Boyoung; Park, Sung Goon; Huang, Weixi; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A self-propelled flexible fin with heaving and pitching motions in a quiescent flow has been simulated by using the penalty immersed boundary method. • The cruising speed and the swimming efficiency of the self-propelled fin were determined as functions of the bending coefficient (γ), the heaving amplitude (A_h). • We optimized the cruising speed and the swimming efficiency with respect to γ, f, A_h, A_p, and Δϕ. - Abstract: A self-propelled flexible fin with heaving and pitching motions in a quiescent flow has been simulated by using the penalty immersed boundary method. The flexible fin can move freely in the horizontal direction and the body of the flexible fin moves passively along with the active head motion. The position of the head of the fin was described as a harmonic heaving oscillation in the vertical direction, while the inclination angle of the head was prescribed as a harmonic oscillation with a moving clamped condition for the heaving and pitching fin. The cruising speed and the swimming efficiency of the self-propelled fin were determined as functions of the bending stiffness (γ), the heaving amplitude (A_h), the pitching amplitude (A_p), the flapping frequency (f) and the phase difference (Δϕ) between A_h and A_p. We optimized the cruising speed and the swimming efficiency with respect to γ, f, A_h, A_p and Δϕ. For a certain range of A_p, the swimming efficiency of the heaving and pitching fin is larger than that of a heaving-only fin.

  1. Shipping

    Wijnolst, N.; Wergeland, T.

    1996-01-01

    Shipping is a multi-faceted industry which is rather complex to define from an academic point of view. This book attempts to grasp these complexities and provide the reader with an overview of the main topics and terminology in shipping. The book is based on material from our courses in shipping at

  2. Motion sickness symptoms in a ship motion simulator: effects of inside, outside, and no view

    Bos, J.E.; MacKinnon, S.N.; Patterson, A.

    2005-01-01

    Vehicle motion characteristics differ between air, road, and sea environments, both vestibularly and visually. Effects of vision on motion sickness have been studied before, though less systematically in a naval setting. It is hypothesized that appropriate visual information on self-motion is

  3. Plate motions, Gondwana Dinosaurs, Noah's Arks, Beached Viking Funeral Ships, Ghost Ships, and Landspans

    Louis L. Jacobs

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Gondwana landmasses have served as large-scale biogeographic Noah's Arks and Beached Viking Funeral Ships, as defined by McKenna. The latitudinal trajectories of selected Gondwana dinosaur localities were traced through time in order to evaluate their movement through climate zones relative to those in which they originally formed. The dispersal of fauna during the breakup of Gondwana may have been facilitated by the presence of offshelf islands forming landspans (sensu Iturralde-Vinent and MacPhee in the Equatorial Atlantic Gateway and elsewhere.As massas de terra do Gondwana serviram como Arcas de Noe biogeograficas de grande escala e Navios Funerarios Vikings encalhados, conforme definido por McKenna. As trajetorias latitudinais de areas selecionadas de dinossauros do Gondwana foram tracadas ao longo do tempo a fim de avaliar seu movimento atraves de zonas climaticas relativas aquelas nas quais elas foram originalmente formadas. A dispersao da fauna durante a quebra do Gondwana pode ter sido facilitada pela presenca de ilhas oceanicas formando extensoes de terra (sensu Iturralde-Vinent e MacPhee na entrada do Atlantico Equatorial e em outros lugares.

  4. SMP84: Improvements to Capability and Prediction Accuracy of the Standard Ship Motion Program SMP81

    1985-09-01

    active fin behaves in a manner similar to a rotating cylinder in a flow. The general form of the Magnus Lift term is FML z 2,(Vt/V)(2rs)(PV2 /2) (38...DEPARTMENT [AVIATION AND "SHIP PERFORMANCE SURFACE EFFECTS • ~ ~~~~DEPARTMENTSUFEEF T PT 1DEPARTMENT• 15 16 COMPUTATION.STRUCTURES MATHEMATICS...Force vector developed by active motion of tin F* Magnitude of force due to active motion of fin FML Magnus lift term FP Forward perpendicular Fv

  5. Shipping

    Wijnolst, N.; Wergeland, T.

    1996-01-01

    Shipping is a multi-faceted industry which is rather complex to define from an academic point of view. This book attempts to grasp these complexities and provide the reader with an overview of the main topics and terminology in shipping. The book is based on material from our courses in shipping at the universities in Delft and Bergen. As with our lectures, we draw upon quite a va ried material, from research studies at a high academic level to lower level student work and purely descriptive ...

  6. Vortex Dynamics of Asymmetric Heave Plates

    Rusch, Curtis; Maurer, Benjamin; Polagye, Brian

    2017-11-01

    Heave plates can be used to provide reaction forces for wave energy converters, which harness the power in ocean surface waves to produce electricity. Heave plate inertia includes both the static mass of the heave plate, as well as the ``added mass'' of surrounding water accelerated with the object. Heave plate geometries may be symmetric or asymmetric, with interest in asymmetric designs driven by the resulting hydrodynamic asymmetry. Limited flow visualization has been previously conducted on symmetric heave plates, but flow visualization of asymmetric designs is needed to understand the origin of observed hydrodynamic asymmetries and their dependence on the Keulegan-Carpenter number. For example, it is hypothesized that the time-varying added mass of asymmetric heave plates is caused by vortex shedding, which is related to oscillation amplitude. Here, using direct flow visualization, we explore the relationship between vortex dynamics and time-varying added mass and drag. These results suggest potential pathways for more advanced heave plate designs that can exploit vortex formation and shedding to achieve more favorable hydrodynamic properties for wave energy converters.

  7. Compensation of Wave-Induced Motion and Force Phenomena for Ship-Based High Performance Robotic and Human Amplifying Systems

    Love, LJL

    2003-09-24

    The decrease in manpower and increase in material handling needs on many Naval vessels provides the motivation to explore the modeling and control of Naval robotic and robotic assistive devices. This report addresses the design, modeling, control and analysis of position and force controlled robotic systems operating on the deck of a moving ship. First we provide background information that quantifies the motion of the ship, both in terms of frequency and amplitude. We then formulate the motion of the ship in terms of homogeneous transforms. This transformation provides a link between the motion of the ship and the base of a manipulator. We model the kinematics of a manipulator as a serial extension of the ship motion. We then show how to use these transforms to formulate the kinetic and potential energy of a general, multi-degree of freedom manipulator moving on a ship. As a demonstration, we consider two examples: a one degree-of-freedom system experiencing three sea states operating in a plane to verify the methodology and a 3 degree of freedom system experiencing all six degrees of ship motion to illustrate the ease of computation and complexity of the solution. The first series of simulations explore the impact wave motion has on tracking performance of a position controlled robot. We provide a preliminary comparison between conventional linear control and Repetitive Learning Control (RLC) and show how fixed time delay RLC breaks down due to the varying nature wave disturbance frequency. Next, we explore the impact wave motion disturbances have on Human Amplification Technology (HAT). We begin with a description of the traditional HAT control methodology. Simulations show that the motion of the base of the robot, due to ship motion, generates disturbances forces reflected to the operator that significantly degrade the positioning accuracy and resolution at higher sea states. As with position-controlled manipulators, augmenting the control with a Repetitive

  8. Thermo-hydraulic characteristics of ship propulsion reactor in the conditions of ship motions and safety assessment

    Kobayashi, Michiyuki; Aya, Izuo; Inasaka, Fujio; Murata, Hiroyuki; Odano, Naoteru; Shiozaki, Koki

    1998-01-01

    A research project from 1995-1999 had a plan to make experimental studies on (1) safety of nuclear ship loaded with an integral ship propulsion reactor (2) effects of pulsating flow on the thermo-hydraulic characteristics of ship propulsion reactor and (3) thermo-hydraulic behaviors of the reactor container at the time of accident in a passively safe ship propulsion reactor. Development of a data base for ship propulsion reactor was attempted using previous experimental data on the thermo-hydraulic characteristics of the reactor in the institute in addition to the present results aiming to make general analytical evaluation for the safety of the engineering-simulation system for nuclear ship. A general data base was obtained by integrating the data list and the analytical program for static characteristics. A test equipment which allows to visualize the pulsating flow was produced and visualization experiments have started. (M.N.)

  9. Fluid-mediated stability and speed-increase for heaving hydrofoils swimming side-by-side

    Newbolt, Joel; Zhang, Jun; Ristroph, Leif

    2017-11-01

    As an example of collective motion in active swimmers we study the fluid-mediated interaction between two heaving hydrofoils that swim with a fixed transverse separation (between the heaving mid-heights) but are free to independently choose their forward swimming speeds and positions. Experiments reveal that out-of-phase foils are attracted to a side-by-side configuration which also increases the swimming speed of the pair (up to 59% faster for our parameters), while in-phase foils are repelled from this configuration. Because this type of swimming is qualitatively similar to that of fish and birds this interaction could be important to schooling and flocking.

  10. Energy extraction from a semi-passive flapping-foil turbine with active heave and passive pitch

    Boudreau, Matthieu; Dumas, Guy; Gunther, Kevin; CFD Laboratory LMFN Team

    2017-11-01

    Due to the inherent complexity of the mechanisms needed to prescribe the heaving and the pitching motions of optimal flapping-foil turbines, several research groups are now investigating the potential of using unconstrained passive motions. The amplitude, the phase and the frequency of such free motions are thus the result of the interaction of the blade with the flow and its elastic supports, namely springs and dampers. In parallel with our current study on fully-passive flapping-foil turbines, we investigate in this work the possibility of using a semi-passive turbine. Unlike previous semi-passive turbines studied in the literature, we propose a turbine with a passive pitching motion and an active heaving motion constrained to be a sine wave with desired amplitude and frequency. As most of the energy extracted by flapping-foil turbines comes from the heaving motion, it is natural to connect an electric generator to this degree of freedom, thereby allowing one to constrain this motion. It is found that large-amplitude pitching motions leading to a considerable energy extraction can arise under different circumstances and mechanisms, either forced by the heaving motion or driven by an instability of the pitching motion itself. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC), the Tyler Lewis Clean Energy Research Foundation, Calcul Québec and Compute Canada.

  11. Ship

    Keuning, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    The invention concerns a ship designed for use at high speed and heavy seas having a single long and slender hull with a narrow beam and a more or less vertical bow, whereby the front half of the hull has more or less vertical sides, minimal flare in the bow sections and towards the bow an increase in draught at its center line combined with a more or less similar increase of freeboard and whereby the aft end of the hull has a flat or slightly V-shaped bottom with one or more propellers and/o...

  12. Numerical solution for heave of expansive soils

    Sadrnezhad, S. A.

    1999-01-01

    A numerical solution for heave prediction is developed within the context theories for both saturated and unsaturated soil behaviors. Basically, lowering the potential level of compressing on a saturated layer will cause heaving due to water absorption. This water absorption is in an opposite way, similar to water dissipation as what happens during unloading in consolidation process. However, in unsaturated layers any change of the stability of potential energy level will cause the tendency of change in particle interconnection forces. So, any change by either distressing or the variation of moisture ratio will lead to soil heave. In this paper a finite element solution is employed for predicting the heave in saturated soil similar to unloading in consolidation. Also, in the case of unsaturated soil, equivalent soil suction as negative pore water pressures in applied to soil elements as equivalent nodal forces. To show the potential of this method, test results were com pated with those obtained from computations. These comparisons show that the presented method is capable of predicting the heave phenomenon quite well

  13. SAVIT: a dymanic model to predict vibratory motion within a spent fuel shipping cask; rail car system

    Fields, S.R.

    1978-03-01

    A dynamic model of a spent fuel shipping cask-rail car system has been developed to provide estimates of the vibratory motion of LWR spent fuel assemblies during transport and to estimate the effects of this motion on the condition of the assemblies when they arrive at receiving and storage facilities. Results of preliminary test computations are presented to illustrate the capabilities of the model

  14. Enhancement of aerodynamic performance of a heaving airfoil using synthetic-jet based active flow control.

    Wang, Chenglei; Tang, Hui

    2018-05-25

    In this study, we explore the use of synthetic jet (SJ) in manipulating the vortices around a rigid heaving airfoil, so as to enhance its aerodynamic performance. The airfoil heaves at two fixed pitching angles, with the Strouhal number, reduced frequency and Reynolds number chosen as St  =  0.3, k  =  0.25 and Re  =  100, respectively, all falling in the ranges for natural flyers. As such, the vortex force plays a dominant role in determining the airfoil's aerodynamic performance. A pair of in-phase SJs is implemented on the airfoil's upper and lower surfaces, operating with the same strength but in opposite directions. Such a fluid-structure interaction problem is numerically solved using a lattice Boltzmann method based numerical framework. It is found that, as the airfoil heaves with zero pitching angle, its lift and drag can be improved concurrently when the SJ phase angle [Formula: see text] relative to the heave motion varies between [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. But this concurrent improvement does not occur as the airfoil heaves with [Formula: see text] pitching angle. Detailed inspection of the vortex evolution and fluid stress over the airfoil surface reveals that, if at good timing, the suction and blowing strokes of the SJ pair can effectively delay or promote the shedding of leading edge vortices, and mitigate or even eliminate the generation of trailing edge vortices, so as to enhance the airfoil's aerodynamic performance. Based on these understandings, an intermittent operation of the SJ pair is then proposed to realize concurrent lift and drag improvement for the heaving airfoil with [Formula: see text] pitching angle.

  15. Time-domain hybrid method for simulating large amplitude motions of ships advancing in waves

    Shukui Liu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Typical results obtained by a newly developed, nonlinear time domain hybrid method for simulating large amplitude motions of ships advancing with constant forward speed in waves are presented. The method is hybrid in the way of combining a time-domain transient Green function method and a Rankine source method. The present approach employs a simple double integration algorithm with respect to time to simulate the free-surface boundary condition. During the simulation, the diffraction and radiation forces are computed by pressure integration over the mean wetted surface, whereas the incident wave and hydrostatic restoring forces/moments are calculated on the instantaneously wetted surface of the hull. Typical numerical results of application of the method to the seakeeping performance of a standard containership, namely the ITTC S175, are herein presented. Comparisons have been made between the results from the present method, the frequency domain 3D panel method (NEWDRIFT of NTUA-SDL and available experimental data and good agreement has been observed for all studied cases between the results of the present method and comparable other data.

  16. Frost heave in helium and other substances

    Dash, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    A thermomolecular pressure associated with a thermal gradient produces the phenomenon known as 'frost heave' in moisture-containing frozen ground. Thermomolecular pressures can occur in any material. As described here it is known that frost heave or thermomolecular pressures can be exhibited by any material undergoing 'premelting,' where liquid exists at temperatures below the normal solid-liquid phase boundary. Yet, the recent work on 4 He [Hiroi, et a., Phys. Rev.B 40, 6581 (1989)] is the first published study of thermomolecular pressure in nonaqueous material. The striking prominence of the effect presents advantages of further applications of thermomolecular pressure for fundamental research. This paper describes the phenomenon, outlines the theory and discusses some possible static and dynamic studies of quantum liquids

  17. Robust moving ship detection using context-based motion analysis and occlusion handling

    Bao, X.; Zinger, S.; Wijnhoven, R.G.J.; With, de P.H.N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an original moving ship detection approach in video surveillance systems, especially con- centrating on occlusion problems among ships and vegetation using context information. Firstly, an over- segmentation is performed to divide and classify by SVM (Support Vector Machine)

  18. Rail-guided robotic end-effector position error due to rail compliance and ship motion

    Borgerink, Dian; Stegenga, J.; Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Woertche, H.J.; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    A rail-guided robotic system is currently being designed for the inspection of ballast water tanks in ships. This robotic system will manipulate sensors toward the interior walls of the tank. In this paper, the influence of rail compliance on the end-effector position error due to ship movement is

  19. Determination of global ice loads on the ship using the measured full-scale motion data

    Jae-Man Lee

    2016-07-01

    Full-scale data were acquired while the ARAON rammed old ice floes in the high Arctic. Estimated ice impact forces for two representative events showed 7–15 MN when ship operated in heavy ice conditions.

  20. On theory and simulation of heaving-buoy wave-energy converters with control

    Eidsmoen, H.

    1995-12-01

    Heaving-buoy wave-energy converters with control were studied. The buoy is small compared to the wavelength. The resonance bandwidth is then narrow and the energy conversion in irregular waves can be significantly increased if the oscillatory motion of the device can be actively controlled, and the power output from the converter will vary less with time than the wave power transport. A system of two concentric cylinders of the same radius, oscillating in heave only, is analysed in the frequency-domain. The mathematical model can be used to study a tight-moored buoy, as well as a buoy reacting against a submerged body. The knowledge of the frequency-domain hydrodynamic parameters is used to develop frequency-domain and time-domain mathematical models of heaving-buoy wave energy converters. The main emphasis is on using control to maximize the energy production and to protect the machinery of the wave-energy converter in very large waves. Three different methods are used to study control. (1) In the frequency-domain explicit analytical expressions for the optimum oscillation are found, assuming a continuous sinusoidal control force, and from these expressions the optimum time-domain oscillation can be determined. (2) The second method uses optimal control theory, using a control variable as the instrument for the optimisation. Unlike the first method, this method can include non-linearities. But this method gives numerical time series for the state variables and the control variable rather than analytical expressions for the optimum oscillation. (3) The third method is time-domain simulation. Non-linear forces are included, but the method only gives the response of the system to a given incident wave. How the different methods can be used to develop real-time control is discussed. Simulations are performed for a tight-moored heaving-buoy converter with a high-pressure hydraulic system for energy production and motion control. 147 refs., 38 figs., 22 tabs.

  1. Heave and Flow: Understanding the role of resonance and shape evolution for heaving flexible panels

    Hoover, Alexander; Cortez, Ricardo; Tytell, Eric; Fauci, Lisa

    2017-11-01

    Many animals that swim or fly use their body to accelerate the fluid around them, transferring momentum from their bodies to the surrounding fluid. The emergent kinematics from this transfer are a result of the coupling between the fluid and the material properties of the body. Here we present a computational study of a 3-dimensional flexible panel that is heaved at its leading edge in an incompressible, viscous fluid. These high-fidelity numerical simulations enable us to examine the role of resonance, fluid forces, and panel deformations have on swimming performance. Varying both the passive material properties and the heaving frequency of the panel, we find peaks in trailing edge amplitude and forward swimming speed are determined by a dimensionless quantity, the effective flexibility. Modal decompositions of panel deflections reveal that the strength of each mode is related to the effective flexibility and peaks in the swimming speed and trailing edge amplitude correspond to peaks in the contributions of different modes. Panels of different material properties but with similar effective flexibilities have modal contributions that evolve similarly over the phase of the heaving cycle and agreement in dominant vortex structures generated by the panel. NSF RTG 1043626.

  2. Report on the Second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) Roll, Pitch, and Heave (RPH) Stabilization Platform: Design and Evaluation

    Coulter, Richard L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Martin, Timothy J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-03-01

    One of the primary objectives of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s second Mobile Facility (AMF2) is to obtain reliable measurements of solar, surface, and atmospheric radiation, as well as cloud and atmospheric properties, from ocean-going vessels. To ensure that these climatic measurements are representative and accurate, many AMF2 instrument systems are designed to collect data in a zenith orientation. A pillar of the AMF2 strategy in this effort is the use of a stable platform. The purpose of the platform is to 1) mitigate vessel motion for instruments that require a truly vertical orientation and keep them pointed in the zenith direction, and 2) allow for accurate positioning for viewing or shading of the sensors from direct sunlight. Numerous ARM instruments fall into these categories, but perhaps the most important are the vertically pointing cloud radars, for which vertical motions are a critical parameter. During the design and construction phase of AMF2, an inexpensive stable platform was purchased to perform the stabilization tasks for some of these instruments. The first table compensated for roll, pitch, and yaw (RPY) and was reported upon in a previous technical report (Kafle and Coulter, 2012). Subsequently, a second table was purchased specifically for operation with the Marine W-band cloud radar (MWACR). Computer programs originally developed for RPY were modified to communicate with the new platform controller and with an inertial measurements platform that measures true ship motion components (roll, pitch, yaw, surge, sway, and heave). This platform could not be tested dynamically for RPY because of time constraints requiring its deployment aboard the container ship Horizon Spirit in September 2013. Hence the initial motion tests were conducted on the initial cruise. Subsequent cruises provided additional test results. The platform, as tested, meets all the design and

  3. A Study on Parametric Wave Estimation Based on Measured Ship Motions

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Iseki, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    The paper studies parametric wave estimation based on the ‘wave buoy analogy’, and data and results obtained from the training ship Shioji-maru are compared with estimates of the sea states obtained from other measurements and observations. Furthermore, the estimating characteristics of the param......The paper studies parametric wave estimation based on the ‘wave buoy analogy’, and data and results obtained from the training ship Shioji-maru are compared with estimates of the sea states obtained from other measurements and observations. Furthermore, the estimating characteristics...... of the parametric model are discussed by considering the results of a similar estimation concept based on Bayesian modelling. The purpose of the latter comparison is not to favour the one estimation approach to the other but rather to highlight some of the advantages and disadvantages of the two approaches....

  4. The Physics of Frost Heave and Ice-Lens Growth

    Peppin, Stephen S. L.; Style, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    -heave models fall into two main classes: capillary and frozen-fringe models. Which model is appropriate depends on whether there is a frozen fringe; these are difficult to observe but some experimental evidence does exist. Recent advances have revitalized

  5. Self-similarity in the equation of motion of a ship

    Gyeong Joong Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available If we want to analyze the motion of a body in fluid, we should use rigid-body dynamics and fluid dynamics together. Even if the rigid-body and fluid dynamics are each self-consistent, there arises the problem of self-similar structure in the equation of motion when the two dynamics are coupled with each other. When the added mass is greater than the mass of a body, the calculated motion is divergent because of its self-similar structure. This study showed that the above problem is an inherent problem. This problem of self-similar structure may arise in the equation of motion in which the fluid dynamic forces are treated as external forces on the right hand side of the equation. A reconfiguration technique for the equation of motion using pseudo-added-mass was proposed to resolve the self-similar structure problem; specifically for the case when the fluid force is expressed by integration of the fluid pressure.

  6. Artificial horizon effects on motion sickness and performance.

    Tal, Dror; Gonen, Adi; Wiener, Guy; Bar, Ronen; Gil, Amnon; Nachum, Zohar; Shupak, Avi

    2012-07-01

    To investigate whether the projection of Earth-referenced scenes during provocative motion can alleviate motion sickness severity and prevent motion sickness-induced degradation of performance. Exposure to unfamiliar motion patterns commonly results in motion sickness and decreased performance. Thirty subjects with moderate-to-severe motion sickness susceptibility were exposed to the recorded motion profile of a missile boat under moderate sea conditions in a 3-degrees-of-freedom ship motion simulator. During a 120-minute simulated voyage, the study participants were repeatedly put through a performance test battery and completed a motion sickness susceptibility questionnaire, while self-referenced and Earth-referenced visual scenes were projected inside the closed simulator cabin. A significant decrease was found in the maximal motion sickness severity score, from 9.83 ± 9.77 (mean ± standard deviation) to 7.23 ± 7.14 (p pitch, and heave movements of the simulator. Although there was a significant decrease in sickness severity, substantial symptoms still persisted. Decision making, vision, concentration, memory, simple reasoning, and psychomotor skills all deteriorated under the motion conditions. However, no significant differences between the projection conditions could be found in the scores of any of the performance tests. Visual information regarding the vessel's movement provided by an artificial horizon device might decrease motion sickness symptoms. However, although this device might be suitable for passive transportation, the continued deterioration in performance measures indicates that it provides no significant advantage for personnel engaged in the active operation of modern vessels.

  7. Finite element analysis of propellant of solid rocket motor during ship motion

    Kai Qu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to simulate the stress and strain of solid rocket motors (SRMs, a finite element analysis model was established. The stress spectra of the SRM elements with respect to time in the case that the vessel cruises under a certain shipping condition were obtained by simulation. According to the analysis of the simulation results, a critical zone was confirmed, and the Mises stress amplitudes of the different critical zones were acquired. The results show that the maximum stress and strain of SRM are less than the maximum tensile strength and elongation, respectively, of the propellant. The cumulative damage of the motor must also be evaluated by random fatigue loading.

  8. Heaving buoys, point absorbers and arrays.

    Falnes, Johannes; Hals, Jørgen

    2012-01-28

    Absorption of wave energy may be considered as a phenomenon of interference between incident and radiated waves generated by an oscillating object; a wave-energy converter (WEC) that displaces water. If a WEC is very small in comparison with one wavelength, it is classified as a point absorber (PA); otherwise, as a 'quasi-point absorber'. The latter may be a dipole-mode radiator, for instance an immersed body oscillating in the surge mode or pitch mode, while a PA is so small that it should preferably be a source-mode radiator, for instance a heaving semi-submerged buoy. The power take-off capacity, the WEC's maximum swept volume and preferably also its full physical volume should be reasonably matched to the wave climate. To discuss this matter, two different upper bounds for absorbed power are applied in a 'Budal diagram'. It appears that, for a single WEC unit, a power capacity of only about 0.3 MW matches well to a typical offshore wave climate, and the full physical volume has, unfortunately, to be significantly larger than the swept volume, unless phase control is used. An example of a phase-controlled PA is presented. For a sizeable wave-power plant, an array consisting of hundreds, or even thousands, of mass-produced WEC units is required.

  9. A Dynamic Model for Roll Motion of Ships due to Flooding

    Xia, Jinzhu; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1999-01-01

    Because of the large undivided deck spaces, RoRo vessels are often sensitive to rapid capsizing due to sudden ingress of water. Following a high-energy damage, a rapidly increasing heeling moment is induced by the ingress of water, which generates a roll motion of the damaged vessel. If, addition......Because of the large undivided deck spaces, RoRo vessels are often sensitive to rapid capsizing due to sudden ingress of water. Following a high-energy damage, a rapidly increasing heeling moment is induced by the ingress of water, which generates a roll motion of the damaged vessel. If......, additionally, the car deck is flooded and/or the cargo is shifted, the heeling moment may exceed the residual restoring moment, which results in capsizing....

  10. Surface Heave Behaviour of Coir Geotextile Reinforced Sand Beds

    Lal, Dharmesh; Sankar, N.; Chandrakaran, S.

    2017-06-01

    Soil reinforcement by natural fibers is one of the cheapest and attractive ground improvement techniques. Coir is the most abundant natural fiber available in India and due to its high lignin content; it has a larger life span than other natural fibers. It is widely used in India for erosion control purposes, but its use as a reinforcement material is rather limited. This study focuses on the use of coir geotextile as a reinforcement material to reduce surface heave phenomena occurring in shallow foundations. This paper presents the results of laboratory model tests carried out on square footings supported on coir geotextile reinforced sand beds. The influence of various parameters such as depth of reinforcement, length, and number of layers of reinforcement was studied. It was observed that surface heave is considerably reduced with the provision of geotextile. Heave reduction up to 98.7% can be obtained by the proposed method. Heave reduction is quantified by a non-dimensional parameter called heave reduction factor.

  11. Analysis of added resistance and seakeeping responses in head sea conditions for low-speed full ships using URANS approach

    Yoo-Chul Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The KVLCC2 and its modified hull form were investigated in regular head waves using Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier–Stokes (URANS methods. The modified KVLCC2 (named KWP-bow KVLCC2 is designed for reducing wave reflection from the bow. Firstly, the original KVLCC2 is studied for verification of the present code and methodology and the computed time history of total resistance and 2DOF motions (heave and pitch for the selected two wave length conditions are directly compared with the results obtained from KRISO towing tank experiment under the identical condition. The predicted added resistance, heave and pitch motion RAOs show relatively good agreement with the experimental results. Secondly, the comparison of performance in waves between KVLCC2 and KWP-bow KVLCC2 is carried out. We confirmed that newly designed hull form shows better performances in all the range of wave length conditions through both the computation and the experiment. The present URANS method can capture the difference of performance in waves of the two hull forms without any special treatment for short wave length conditions. It can be identified that KWP-bow KVLCC2 gives about 8% of energy saving in sea state 5 condition. Keywords: Added resistance in waves, Ship motion, URANS, KVLCC2

  12. Role of sulfates on highway heave in Lake County, Ohio.

    2014-01-01

    Samples from borings in areas of heave on Route 2, Lake County, OH were analyzed for the amount, mineral form, : and distribution of sulfates. In addition, samples of non-stabilized (NSS) and cement-stabilized (CSS) soils from : three stations along ...

  13. Frost heave susceptibility of saturated soil under constant rate of freezing

    Ryokai, K.; Iguro, M.; Yoneyama, K.

    Introduced are the results of experiments carried out to quantitatively obtain the frost heave pressure and displacement of soil subjected to artificial freezing or freezing around in-ground liquefied natural gas storage tanks. This experiment is conducted to evaluate the frost heave susceptibility of saturated soil under overconsolidation. In other words, this experiment was carried out to obtain the relation of the over-burden pressure and freezing rate to the frost heave ratio by observing the frost heave displacement and freezing time of specimens by freezing the specimens at a constant freezing rate under a constant overburden pressure, while letting water freely flow in and out of the system. Introduced are the procedures for frost heave test required to quantitatively obtain the frost heave displacement and pressure of soil. Furthermore, the relation between the frost heave susceptibility and physical properties of soil obtained by this test is reported.

  14. Vortex flow structures and interactions for the optimum thrust efficiency of a heaving airfoil at different mean angles of attack

    Martín-Alcántara, A.; Fernandez-Feria, R. [Universidad de Málaga, Andalucía Tech, E. T. S. Ingeniería Industrial, Dr Ortiz Ramos s/n, 29071 Málaga (Spain); Sanmiguel-Rojas, E. [Área de Mecánica de Fluidos, Universidad de Jaén, Campus de las Lagunillas, 23071 Jaén (Spain)

    2015-07-15

    The thrust efficiency of a two-dimensional heaving airfoil is studied computationally for a low Reynolds number using a vortex force decomposition. The auxiliary potentials that separate the total vortex force into lift and drag (or thrust) are obtained analytically by using an elliptic airfoil. With these auxiliary potentials, the added-mass components of the lift and drag (or thrust) coefficients are also obtained analytically for any heaving motion of the airfoil and for any value of the mean angle of attack α. The contributions of the leading- and trailing-edge vortices to the thrust during their down- and up-stroke evolutions are computed quantitatively with this formulation for different dimensionless frequencies and heave amplitudes (St{sub c} and St{sub a}) and for several values of α. Very different types of flows, periodic, quasi-periodic, and chaotic described as St{sub c}, St{sub a}, and α, are varied. The optimum values of these parameters for maximum thrust efficiency are obtained and explained in terms of the interactions between the vortices and the forces exerted by them on the airfoil. As in previous numerical and experimental studies on flapping flight at low Reynolds numbers, the optimum thrust efficiency is reached for intermediate frequencies (St{sub c} slightly smaller than one) and a heave amplitude corresponding to an advance ratio close to unity. The optimal mean angle of attack found is zero. The corresponding flow is periodic, but it becomes chaotic and with smaller average thrust efficiency as |α| becomes slightly different from zero.

  15. Detection of Parametric Roll Resonance on Ships from Indication of Nonlinear Energy Flow

    Galeazzi, Roberto; Blanke, Mogens; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2009-01-01

    The detection of the onset of parametric roll resonance on ships is of a central importance in order to activate specific control strategies able to counteract the large roll motion. One of the main priorities is to have detectors with a small detection time, such that warnings can be issued when...... the roll oscillations are about 5◦. This paper proposes two different detection approaches: the first one based on sinusoidal detection in white gaussian noise; the second one utilizes an energy flow indicator in order to catch the onset of parametric roll based upon the transfer of energy from heave...... and pitch to roll. Both detectors have been validated against experimental data of a scale model of a container vessel excited with both regular and irregular waves. The detector based on the energy flow indicator proved to be very robust to different scenarios (regular/irregular waves) since it does...

  16. ShipMo3D Version 3.0 User Manual for Computing Ship Motions in the Time and Frequency Domains

    2012-01-01

    permettent de modéliser un navire en manœuvre libre et en eau calme ou dans les vagues. SM3DBuildSeaway construit des modèles de voie maritime à trajet...manœuvrant libre - ment en eau calme ou dans une voie maritime modélisée. Plusieurs applications du logiciel ShipMo3D font des prévisions des mouvements de...files have been removed from this document; however, full sample output files are available for the software . DRDC Atlantic TM 2011-308 1 2 New Features

  17. The Physics of Frost Heave and Ice-Lens Growth

    Peppin, Stephen S. L.

    2013-01-01

    The principle cause of frost heave is the formation of segregated ice-ice lenses-in freezing soil columns. Despite much experimental and theoretical work, there remain many questions about the fundamental process by which this occurs. Frost-heave models fall into two main classes: capillary and frozen-fringe models. Which model is appropriate depends on whether there is a frozen fringe; these are difficult to observe but some experimental evidence does exist. Recent advances have revitalized the capillary model, such as the engulfment model and the concept of geometrical supercooling. Key experimental and theoretical challenges remain to be resolved. © Soil Science Society of America 5585 Guilford Rd., Madison, WI 53711 USA. All rights reserved.

  18. Nonlinear Container Ship Model for the Study of Parametric Roll Resonance

    Christian Holden

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Parametric roll is a critical phenomenon for ships, whose onset may cause roll oscillations up to +-40 degrees, leading to very dangerous situations and possibly capsizing. Container ships have been shown to be particularly prone to parametric roll resonance when they are sailing in moderate to heavy head seas. A Matlab/Simulink parametric roll benchmark model for a large container ship has been implemented and validated against a wide set of experimental data. The model is a part of a Matlab/Simulink Toolbox (MSS, 2007. The benchmark implements a 3rd-order nonlinear model where the dynamics of roll is strongly coupled with the heave and pitch dynamics. The implemented model has shown good accuracy in predicting the container ship motions, both in the vertical plane and in the transversal one. Parametric roll has been reproduced for all the data sets in which it happened, and the model provides realistic results which are in good agreement with the model tank experiments.

  19. Nuclear ships and their safety

    NONE

    1961-04-15

    Several aspects of nuclear ship propulsion, with special reference to nuclear safety, were discussed at an international symposium at Taormina, Italy, from 14-18 November 1960. Discussions on specific topics are conducted, grouped under the following headings: Economics and National Activities in Nuclear Ship Propulsion; International Problems and General Aspects of Safety for Nuclear Ships; Nuclear Ship Projects from the Angle of Safety; Ship Reactor Problems; Sea Motion and Hull Problems; Maintenance and Refuelling Problems; and Safety Aspects of Nuclear Ship Operation.

  20. Numerical Investigation of a Tuned Heave Plate Energy-Harvesting System of a Semi-Submersible Platform

    Kun Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel tuned heave plate energy-harvesting system (THPEH is presented for the motion suppressing and energy harvesting of a semi-submersible platform. This THPEH system is designed based on the principle of a tuned mass damper (TMD and is composed of spring supports, a power take-off system (PTO and four movable heave plates. The permanent magnet linear generators (PMLG are used as the PTO system in this design. A semi-submersible platform operating in the South China Sea is selected as the research subject for investigating the effects of the THPEH system on motion reduction and harvesting energy through numerical simulations. The numerical model of the platform and the THPEH system, which was established based on hydrodynamic analysis, is modified and validated by the results of the flume test of a 1:70 scale model. The effects of the parameters, including the size, the frequency ratio and the damping ratio of the THPEH system, are systematically investigated. The results show that this THPEH system, with proper parameters, could significantly reduce the motions of the semi-submersible platform and generate considerable power under different wave conditions.

  1. Simplified Methods Applied to Nonlinear Motion of Spar Platforms

    Haslum, Herbjoern Alf

    2000-07-01

    Simplified methods for prediction of motion response of spar platforms are presented. The methods are based on first and second order potential theory. Nonlinear drag loads and the effect of the pumping motion in a moon-pool are also considered. Large amplitude pitch motions coupled to extreme amplitude heave motions may arise when spar platforms are exposed to long period swell. The phenomenon is investigated theoretically and explained as a Mathieu instability. It is caused by nonlinear coupling effects between heave, surge, and pitch. It is shown that for a critical wave period, the envelope of the heave motion makes the pitch motion unstable. For the same wave period, a higher order pitch/heave coupling excites resonant heave response. This mutual interaction largely amplifies both the pitch and the heave response. As a result, the pitch/heave instability revealed in this work is more critical than the previously well known Mathieu's instability in pitch which occurs if the wave period (or the natural heave period) is half the natural pitch period. The Mathieu instability is demonstrated both by numerical simulations with a newly developed calculation tool and in model experiments. In order to learn more about the conditions for this instability to occur and also how it may be controlled, different damping configurations (heave damping disks and pitch/surge damping fins) are evaluated both in model experiments and by numerical simulations. With increased drag damping, larger wave amplitudes and more time are needed to trigger the instability. The pitch/heave instability is a low probability of occurrence phenomenon. Extreme wave periods are needed for the instability to be triggered, about 20 seconds for a typical 200m draft spar. However, it may be important to consider the phenomenon in design since the pitch/heave instability is very critical. It is also seen that when classical spar platforms (constant cylindrical cross section and about 200m draft

  2. Experimental and numerical study on frost heave of saturated rock under uniform freezing conditions

    Lv, Zhitao; Xia, Caichu; Li, Qiang

    2018-04-01

    A series of freezing experiments are conducted on saturated sandstone and mortar specimens to investigate the frost heave of saturated rock under uniform freezing conditions. The experimental results show that the frost heave of saturated rock is isotropic under uniform freezing conditions. During the freezing process, three stages are observed in the curves of variation of total frost heaving strain versus time: the thermal contraction stage, the frost heaving stage and the steady stage. Moreover, the amount of final stable frost heave first increases and then decreases with decrease in freezing temperature, and the maximum final stable frost heave occurs at different freezing temperature in saturated sandstone and mortar. Furthermore, a coupled thermal-mechanical (TM) model of frost heave of saturated rock is proposed in which a constraint coefficient \\zeta is used to consider the susceptibility of the internal rock grain structure to the expansion of pore ice. Then, numerical simulations are implemented with COMSOL to solve the governing equations of the TM model. Comparisons of the numerical results with the experimental results are performed to demonstrate the reliability of the model. The influences of elastic modulus and porosity on frost heave are also investigated, and the results show that the total frost heaving strain decreases non-linearly with increasing elastic modulus, and the decrease is significant when the elastic modulus is less than 3000 MPa, or approximately five times the elastic modulus of ice. In addition, the total frost heaving strain increases linearly with increasing porosity. Finally, an empirical equation between total frost heaving strain and freezing temperature is proposed and the equation well describes the variation of total frost heaving strain with freezing temperature.

  3. Outer Dynamics of Ship Collisions

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    The purpose is to present analysis procedures for the motion of ships during ship-ship collisions and for ship collisions with offshore structures. The aim is to estimate that part of the lost kinetic energy which will have to be absorbed by rupture and plastic damage of the colliding structures....

  4. Outer Dynamics of Ship Collisions

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of these notes is to present analysis procedures for the motion of ships during ship-ship collisions and for ship collisons with offshore structures. The aim is to estimate that part of the lost kinetic energy which will have to be absorbed by rupture and plastic damage of the colliding...

  5. Effects of Simulated Surface Effect Ship Motions on Crew Habitability. Phase II. Volume 5. Clinical Medical Effects on Volunteers

    1977-05-01

    the 2000 ton surface effect ship (2000T-SES). Nine- teen volunteer human research subjects, selected at different times from 600 naval enlisted...bite, the status of each individual tooth and its root structure. This is required in order to determine that there is an adequate dental, gingival

  6. A mechanism of thrust enhancement on a heaving plate due to flexibility at moderately low Reynolds numbers

    Lin, Yung-Sheng; Tzeng, Yau-Ting; Chang, Chien-Cheng; Chu, Chin-Chou

    2017-11-01

    A numerical study is conducted to investigate the force mechanisms for a 3D heaving flexible plate from the perspective of a diagnostic force element analysis (Chang 1992). The problem is relevant to a simplified flapping fish-tail with the front edge held fixed in space. The flow is assumed to be laminar with the Reynolds numbers fixed at Re =200 or 500, and the Strouhal number St ranging from 0.1 to 0.6, and the flexure amplitude of the plate a0 for 0.1 to 0.25 (dimensionless). It is shown that heaving, whilst increasing thrust generation, also reduces the frictional drag, yet the flexibility promotes thrust generation at the expense of accruing more frictional drag. In the literature, the thrust exerted on the tail-mimicking plate is largely credited to the vortices in the wake. However, this study performs a regional force analysis to show that the vorticity in the wake region supplies approximately 20-30% of the total thrust, especially in the cases of strong thrust generation. Comparable contributions come also from the regions direct above and below the heaving plate (mainly including the attached vortices) as well as from the two side regions (mainly including the tip vortices) next to the flapping plate. In addition, the potential motion associated with the unsteady flapping and the contribution from the surface vorticity are non-negligible constituent force components. MOST, TAIWAN under Contacts NO. 105-2221-E-002-097-MY3 and NO. 105-2221-E-002 -105 -MY3.

  7. Frost heaving of planted tree seedlings in the boreal forest of northern Sweden

    Goulet, France

    2000-01-01

    Frost heaving can be a leading cause of tree seedling mortality in many places in the boreal forest of Northern Sweden. The aim of this investigation was to improve our understanding of frost heaving of planted tree seedlings as related to snow cover, scarification, planting methods and soil types. The thesis is based on a review paper, three field experiments and one laboratory experiment. The experiments focus on different methods to control frost heaving of forest tree seedlings and on a number of factors affecting the extent of frost heaving. The review paper identifies the many aspects of frost heaving of forest tree seedlings and agricultural crops based on an intensive review of the research contributions made during the last century. Even if many investigations have been carried out with the aim to decrease the extent of frost heaving, very little quantitative results are available for tree seedlings. In a field experiment, the choice of planting positions was effective in decreasing frost heaving of planted seedlings following mounding or disc-trenching. Seedlings planted in the depressions were largely affected by frost heaving with a maximal vertical displacement of 5.4 cm while frost heaving did not occur on the top of the mound. On the other hand, the planting time and planting depth had no influence on the extent of frost heaving. In another field experiment the size of the scarified patches was strongly correlated to frost heaving which reached between 7.6 and 11.5 cm in 4 and 8-dm patches compared to between 4.4 and 5.3 in non-scarified soil and in a 1-dm patch. Ground vegetation probably decreases the diurnal temperature variation and the number of freezing-thawing cycles. The duration and magnitude of frost temperatures, the frost hour sum, increased with patch size. The difference between the 8-dm and 1-dm patch increased to 2064 hour-degrees at the end of the winter. In larger patches, the planting depth seemed to be effective in reducing the

  8. Frost heaving of planted tree seedlings in the boreal forest of northern Sweden

    Goulet, France

    2000-07-01

    Frost heaving can be a leading cause of tree seedling mortality in many places in the boreal forest of Northern Sweden. The aim of this investigation was to improve our understanding of frost heaving of planted tree seedlings as related to snow cover, scarification, planting methods and soil types. The thesis is based on a review paper, three field experiments and one laboratory experiment. The experiments focus on different methods to control frost heaving of forest tree seedlings and on a number of factors affecting the extent of frost heaving. The review paper identifies the many aspects of frost heaving of forest tree seedlings and agricultural crops based on an intensive review of the research contributions made during the last century. Even if many investigations have been carried out with the aim to decrease the extent of frost heaving, very little quantitative results are available for tree seedlings. In a field experiment, the choice of planting positions was effective in decreasing frost heaving of planted seedlings following mounding or disc-trenching. Seedlings planted in the depressions were largely affected by frost heaving with a maximal vertical displacement of 5.4 cm while frost heaving did not occur on the top of the mound. On the other hand, the planting time and planting depth had no influence on the extent of frost heaving. In another field experiment the size of the scarified patches was strongly correlated to frost heaving which reached between 7.6 and 11.5 cm in 4 and 8-dm patches compared to between 4.4 and 5.3 in non-scarified soil and in a 1-dm patch. Ground vegetation probably decreases the diurnal temperature variation and the number of freezing-thawing cycles. The duration and magnitude of frost temperatures, the frost hour sum, increased with patch size. The difference between the 8-dm and 1-dm patch increased to 2064 hour-degrees at the end of the winter. In larger patches, the planting depth seemed to be effective in reducing the

  9. Thrust generation by a heaving flexible foil: Resonance, nonlinearities, and optimality

    Paraz, Florine; Schouveiler, Lionel; Eloy, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Flexibility of marine animal fins has been thought to enhance swimming performance. However, despite numerous experimental and numerical studies on flapping flexible foils, there is still no clear understanding of the effect of flexibility and flapping amplitude on thrust generation and swimming efficiency. Here, to address this question, we combine experiments on a model system and a weakly nonlinear analysis. Experiments consist in immersing a flexible rectangular plate in a uniform flow and forcing this plate into a heaving motion at its leading edge. A complementary theoretical model is developed assuming a two-dimensional inviscid problem. In this model, nonlinear effects are taken into account by considering a transverse resistive drag. Under these hypotheses, a modal decomposition of the system motion allows us to predict the plate response amplitude and the generated thrust, as a function of the forcing amplitude and frequency. We show that this model can correctly predict the experimental data on plate kinematic response and thrust generation, as well as other data found in the literature. We also discuss the question of efficiency in the context of bio-inspired propulsion. Using the proposed model, we show that the optimal propeller for a given thrust and a given swimming speed is achieved when the actuating frequency is tuned to a resonance of the system, and when the optimal forcing amplitude scales as the square root of the required thrust.

  10. Full-scale chilled pipeline frost heave testing, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA

    Hazen, B. [Northern Engineering and Scientific, Anchorage, AK (United States); Isaacs, R.M. [RMI Associates, Camano Island, WA (United States); Myrick, J.E. [Myrick International, Tyler, TX (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This paper discussed a chilled pipeline frost-heave testing facility that was developed to simulate and record the rate of frost heave and frost-bulb growth for a buried, chilled pipeline in frost-susceptible soil and to determine the effectiveness of different mitigation techniques. The test facility, which was established near Fairbanks, Alaska, in 1979, has 10 test sections using 1.22-metre-diameter pipe. The testing involved un-insulated, insulated, and insulated with over-excavation and gravel berm configurations as well as the frost heave of the chilled pipeline. The test facility was described in detail. Frost heave and frost-bulb growth measurements from the first 10 months of testing were presented, as these are the first data to enter the public domain. The testing was undertaken to investigate the frost-heave relationships between sections, to better understand frost heave in permafrost, to explore possible mitigation options, and to advance the predicative capabilities of frost heave models. 12 refs., 1 tab., 17 figs.

  11. Frost heave modelling of buried pipelines using non-linear Fourier finite elements

    Wan, R. G.; You, R.

    1998-01-01

    Numerical analysis of the response of a three-dimensional soil-pipeline system in a freezing environment using non-linear Fourier finite elements was described as an illustration of the effectiveness of this technique in analyzing plasticity problems. Plastic deformations occur when buried pipeline is under the action of non-uniform frost heave. The three-dimensional frost heave which develops over time including elastoplastic deformations of the soil and pipe are computed. The soil heave profile obtained in the numerical analysis was consistent with experimental findings for similar configurations. 8 refs., 8 figs

  12. Effects of Simulated Surface Effect Ship Motions on Crew Habitability. Phase II. Volume 2. Facility, Test conditions, and Schedules

    1977-05-01

    CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE 18. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES (continued) motion on crew health and performance. Other organizacions preparing the companion...VOLUME B Blood Pressure Sphygmomanometer measurement of I, III HFR Measurement systolic pressure, sitting Cryptographic Manual decoding and encoding of I...Annual NASA-Univ. Conf. on Manual Control, NASA SP-215, 1970, pp. 391-428. 11. Buckner, Donald N., and C. H. Baker, A Description of the Office of Naval

  13. Ship Roll Damping Control

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    limitations and large variations of the spectral characteristics of wave-induced roll motion. This tutorial paper presents an account of the development of various ship roll motion control systems together with the challenges associated with their design. It discusses the assessment of performance...

  14. Heave induced reduction of friction capacity of pile embedded in clays

    Setyo Budi Gogot; Wibowo Tantri Gondo

    2017-01-01

    Installation of new piles may cause heave which influence friction capacity of existing piles. The heave can be observed from the difference in the elevation of existing pile heads recorded before and after the installation of new piles or through load-settlement diagram from Static Load Test data. This paper presents the study of bearing capacity of hollow cylindrical concrete piles with diameter of 800 mm from two projects. The piles at Project I and Project II were hydraulically jacked int...

  15. Comparison of heaving buoy and oscillating flap wave energy converters

    Abu Bakar, Mohd Aftar; Green, David A.; Metcalfe, Andrew V.; Najafian, G.

    2013-04-01

    Waves offer an attractive source of renewable energy, with relatively low environmental impact, for communities reasonably close to the sea. Two types of simple wave energy converters (WEC), the heaving buoy WEC and the oscillating flap WEC, are studied. Both WECs are considered as simple energy converters because they can be modelled, to a first approximation, as single degree of freedom linear dynamic systems. In this study, we estimate the response of both WECs to typical wave inputs; wave height for the buoy and corresponding wave surge for the flap, using spectral methods. A nonlinear model of the oscillating flap WEC that includes the drag force, modelled by the Morison equation is also considered. The response to a surge input is estimated by discrete time simulation (DTS), using central difference approximations to derivatives. This is compared with the response of the linear model obtained by DTS and also validated using the spectral method. Bendat's nonlinear system identification (BNLSI) technique was used to analyze the nonlinear dynamic system since the spectral analysis was only suitable for linear dynamic system. The effects of including the nonlinear term are quantified.

  16. Restoring sedges and mosses into frost heaving iron fens, San Juan Mountains, Colorado

    R.A. Chimner

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Rare iron fens in the San Juan Mountains of Colorado are frequently in poor condition due to mining, roads and ditches, which have left much of the fen completely bare of vegetation. Natural revegetation is slow to occur in the bare areas because of severe frost heave in the cold mountain climate. Therefore, experimental revegetation plots were conducted in a factorial design with mulching and no mulching, crossed with moss diaspores, sedge transplants, and moss and sedge combined. Mulching influenced surface soil temperatures by reducing the midday highs and increasing the night-time lows, which decreased the frequency and amount of frost heave. Peat moisture also modified frost heave, with the greatest frost heaving occurring near 75 % peat moisture content (water table 10–20 cm below the surface and the least when soils were either wetter or drier. Moss survival was dependent on mulch, with no moss surviving in plots without mulch. Mulching also increased sedge transplant survival. In summary, mulching significantly increased the success of vegetation restoration efforts for frost heave areas in mountain fens.

  17. Total Analysis System for Ship Structural Strength

    Takuya, Yoneya; Hiroyuki, Kobayashi; Abdul M., Rahim; Yoshimichi, Sasaki; Masaki, Irisawa; Technical Investigation and Information Department, Research Center; Technical Investigation and Information Department, Research Center; Singapore Office; Technical Investigation and Information Department, Research Center; Technical Investigation and Information Department, Research Center

    2001-01-01

    This paper outlines a total analysis system for ship hull structures, which integrates a wide variety of analysis functions to realise practical applications of rational methods for assessing ship structural strength. It is based on direct calculation of wave-induced loads as well as three-dimensional structural analysis of an entire-ship or hold structure. Three major analysis functions of the total system are ship motion and wave load analysis, ship structural analysis and statistical analy...

  18. Control strategies to optimise power output in heave buoy energy convertors

    Abu Zarim, M A U A; Sharip, R M

    2013-01-01

    Wave energy converter (WEC) designs are always discussed in order to obtain an optimum design to generate the power from the wave. Output power from wave energy converter can be improved by controlling the oscillation in order to acquire the interaction between the WEC and the incident wave.The purpose of this research is to study the heave buoys in the interest to generate an optimum power output by optimising the phase control and amplitude in order to maximise the active power. In line with the real aims of this study which investigate the theory and function and hence optimise the power generation of heave buoys as renewable energy sources, the condition that influence the heave buoy must be understand in which to propose the control strategies that can be use to control parameters to obtain optimum power output. However, this research is in an early stage, and further analysis and technical development is require

  19. Effect of long-term fluticasone treatment on immune function in horses with heaves.

    Dauvillier, J; Felippe, M J B; Lunn, D P; Lavoie-Lamoureux, A; Leclère, M; Beauchamp, G; Lavoie, J-P

    2011-01-01

    Corticosteroids currently are the most effective pharmacological treatment available to control heaves in horses. Systemically administered corticosteroids have been shown to alter immune response in horses, humans, and other species. Aerosolized administration theoretically minimizes systemic adverse effects, but the effect of inhaled corticosteroids on immune function has not been evaluated in horses. To evaluate the effects of prolonged administration of inhaled fluticasone on the immune system of heaves-affected horses. Heaves-affected horses were treated with inhaled fluticasone (n = 5) for 11 months or received environmental modifications only (n = 5). Prospective analysis. Clinical parameters and CBC, lymphocyte subpopulations and function, and circulating neutrophil gene expression were sequentially measured. Primary and anamnestic immune responses also were evaluated by measuring antigen-specific antibodies in response to vaccination with bovine viral antigen and tetanus toxoid, respectively. No clinical adverse effects were observed and no differences in immune function were detected between treated and untreated horses. The treatment of heaves-affected horses with inhaled fluticasone at therapeutic dosages for 11 months has no significant detectable effect on innate and adaptive (both humoral and cell-mediated) immune parameters studied. These results suggest that prolonged administration of fluticasone would not compromise the systemic immune response to pathogens nor vaccination in adult horses. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  20. Shipping Fairways

    Department of Homeland Security — Various shipping zones delineate activities and regulations for marine vessel traffic. Traffic lanes define specific traffic flow, while traffic separation zones...

  1. Effects of ocean conditions upon the passive residual heat removal system (PRHRS) of ship reactor

    Su Guanghui; Zhang Jinling; Guo Yujun; Qiu Suizheng; Yu Zhenwan; Jia Dounan

    1996-01-01

    The authors investigate the influence of ocean conditions (heaving, listing, rolling) on the natural circulation flow and the ability of heat transfer of the ship reactor's PRHRS, and develops a mathematical model. A program, MISAP 02, is compiled with the structured FORTRAN 77 using the advanced Gear method. the program is used to calculate the above influence. The results show that the ocean conditions have some effects on the natural circulation flow and the ability of heat transfer

  2. Study on a Mechanical Semi-Active Heave Compensation System of Drill String for Use on Floating Drilling Platform

    Liu, Qingyou; Tang, Yang; Huang, Chongjun; Xie, Chong

    2015-01-01

    There are some disadvantages for existing heave compensation systems of drill string used for the Floating Drilling Platform (FDP), including high energy consumption, large and complex structure, and expensive manufacturing and maintenance costs. In view of the above, we present a streamlined mechanical semi-active heave compensation system (MSAHC) in this study. This system consists of active compensation part with the pinion and rack and passive compensation part. In order to evaluate system performance of the MSAHC, we establish its simulation model with AMEsim software. In the process of simulation, displacement of rotary hook and energy consumption is regarded as performance parameters of the system. And the change rule of two performance parameters are analyzed by changing these design parameters including gear radius of the pinion and rack, scale coefficient of PID, rotary hook load, heave height and heave period of the FDP, and accumulator volume. Then, based on the simulation results of the MSAHC system performance, we have selected out a best set of design parameters from them. Moreover, the feasibility of the design scheme of the MSAHC is effectively verified by comparison with the existing three heave compensation system. The result shows that the energy consumption of the MSAHC is lower than the active heave compensation system (AHC) and the semi-active heave compensation system (SAHC) when achieving a same compensation effect as well as the accumulator volume of MSAHC is half of the passive heave compensation system (PHC). Therefore, the new designed MSAHC not only ensure compensation effect but also lower energy consumption, and its structure is simplified by adopting the simple mechanical structure to decrease manufacturing cost, maintenance cost and floor space. PMID:26186620

  3. EVALUATION OF FROST HEAVE ON WASTE TRANSFER LINES WITH SHALLOW DEPTHS IN DST (DOUBLE SHELL TANK) FARMS

    HAQ MA

    2009-05-12

    The purpose of this document is to evaluate the effect of frost heave on waste transfer lines with shallow depths in DST farms. Because of the insulation, well compacted sandy material around waste transfer lines, the type of sandy and gravel soil, and relatively low precipitation at Hanford site, it is concluded that waste transfer lines with one foot of soil covers (sandy cushion material and insulation) are not expected to undergo frost heave damaging effects.

  4. Ship Vibrations

    Sørensen, Herman

    1997-01-01

    Methods for calculating natural frequencies for ship hulls and for plates and panels.Evaluation of the risk for inconvenient vibrations on board......Methods for calculating natural frequencies for ship hulls and for plates and panels.Evaluation of the risk for inconvenient vibrations on board...

  5. Two-dimensional model of coupled heat and moisture transport in frost-heaving soils

    Guymon, G.L.; Berg, R.L.; Hromadka, T.V.

    1984-01-01

    A two-dimensional model of coupled heat and moisture flow in frost-heaving soils is developed based upon well known equations of heat and moisture flow in soils. Numerical solution is by the nodal domain integration method which includes the integrated finite difference and the Galerkin finite element methods. Solution of the phase change process is approximated by an isothermal approach and phenomenological equations are assumed for processes occurring in freezing or thawing zones. The model has been verified against experimental one-dimensional freezing soil column data and experimental two-dimensional soil thawing tank data as well as two-dimensional soil seepage data. The model has been applied to several simple but useful field problems such as roadway embankment freezing and frost heaving

  6. Steeply dipping heaving bedrock, Colorado: Part 2 - Mineralogical and engineering properties

    Noe, D.C.; Higgins, J.D.; Olsen, H.W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the mineralogical and engineering properties of steeply dipping, differentially heaving bedrock, which has caused severe damage near the Denver area. Several field sites in heave-prone areas have been characterized using high sample densities, numerous testing methodologies, and thousands of sample tests. Hydrometer testing shows that the strata range from siltstone to claystone (33 to 66 percent clay) with occasional bentonite seams (53 to 98 percent clay mixed with calcite). From X-ray diffraction analyses, the claystone contains varying proportions of illite-smectite and discrete (pure) smectite, and the bentonite contains discrete smectite. Accessory minerals include pyrite, gypsum, calcite, and oxidized iron compounds. The dominant exchangeable cation is Ca2+, except where gypsum is prevalent, and Mg2+ and Na1+ are elevated. Scanning electron microscope analyses show that the clay fabric is deformed and porous and that pyrite is absent within the weathered zone. Unified Soil Classification for the claystone varies from CL to CH, and the bentonite is CH to MH. Average moisture content values are 17 percent for claystone and 32 percent for bentonite, and these are typically 0 to 5 percent lower than the plastic limit. Swell-consolidation and suction testing shows a full range of swelling potentials from low to very high. These findings confirm that type I (bed-parallel, symmetrical to asymmetrical) heave features are strongly associated with changes in bedrock composition and mineralogy. Composition changes are not necessarily a factor for type II (bed-parallel to bed-oblique, strongly asymmetrical) heave features, which are associated with movements along subsurface shear zones.

  7. Historical Perspectives in Frost Heave Research: The Early Works of S. Taber and G. Beskow

    1991-12-01

    beginning of freezing. In addition, if the quite efficiently plowed by motor power, the effect of different types of soils are separated by a sharp...frozen clay is not greater than unfro- efficient forthe coarse soils (sand) in adry condition can zen clay, but in coarser soils, the coefficient of con...will reduce the heaving and smooth and slopes slightly outwards with depth. Forex - eliminate the frost boils. Of course, the effect of deep ample

  8. Design of The Test Stand for Hydraulic Active Heave Compensation System

    Jakubowski Arkadiusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presented here described the design of a test stand for hydraulic active heave compensation system. The simulation of sea waves is realized by the use of hydraulic cylinder. A hydraulic motor is used for sea waves compensation. The hydraulic cylinder and the hydraulic motor are controlled by electrohydraulic servo valves. For the measurements Authors used displacement sensor and incremental encoder. Control algorithm is implemented on the PLC. The performed tests included hydraulic actuator and hydraulic motor step responses.

  9. RESEARCH ON REPAIR SUPPORT FOR FLOOR HEAVE IN SOFT ROCK ROADWAY

    黄庆享; 杨忠民

    1997-01-01

    The run-around of Xiagou subincline bottom is a soft rock roadway, its floor has heaved over 1 m. In this paper, by electronic microscope scanning and X-ray diffraction analysis, the components of the soft rock are determined and the breaking mechanism of roadway is analyzed as well. Through finite element calculation and simulation model test, the reasonable repair support method is put forward.

  10. Characterization and Scaling of Heave Plates for Ocean Wave Energy Converters

    Rosenberg, Brian; Mundon, Timothy

    2016-11-01

    Ocean waves present a tremendous, untapped source of renewable energy, capable of providing half of global electricity demand by 2040. Devices developed to extract this energy are known as wave energy converters (WECs) and encompass a wide range of designs. A somewhat common archetype is a two-body point-absorber, in which a surface float reacts against a submerged "heave" plate to extract energy. Newer WEC's are using increasingly complex geometries for the submerged plate and an emerging challenge in creating low-order models lies in accurately determining the hydrodynamic coefficients (added mass and drag) in the corresponding oscillatory flow regime. Here we present experiments in which a laboratory-scale heave plate is sinusoidally forced in translation (heave) and rotation (pitch) to characterize the hydrodynamic coefficients as functions of the two governing nondimensional parameters, Keulegan-Carpenter number (amplitude) and Reynolds number. Comparisons against CFD simulations are offered. As laboratory-scale physical model tests remain the standard for testing wave energy devices, effects and implications of scaling (with respect to a full-scale device) are also investigated.

  11. Balancing Power Absorption and Structural Loading for an Assymmetric Heave Wave-Energy Converter in Regular Waves: Preprint

    Tom, Nathan M.; Madhi, Farshad; Yeung, Ronald W.

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to maximize the power-to-load ratio of the Berkeley Wedge: a one-degree-of-freedom, asymmetrical, energy-capturing, floating breakwater of high performance that is relatively free of viscosity effects. Linear hydrodynamic theory was used to calculate bounds on the expected time-averaged power (TAP) and corresponding surge restraining force, pitch restraining torque, and power take-off (PTO) control force when assuming that the heave motion of the wave energy converter remains sinusoidal. This particular device was documented to be an almost-perfect absorber if one-degree-of-freedom motion is maintained. The success of such or similar future wave energy converter technologies would require the development of control strategies that can adapt device performance to maximize energy generation in operational conditions while mitigating hydrodynamic loads in extreme waves to reduce the structural mass and overall cost. This paper formulates the optimal control problem to incorporate metrics that provide a measure of the surge restraining force, pitch restraining torque, and PTO control force. The optimizer must now handle an objective function with competing terms in an attempt to maximize power capture while minimizing structural and actuator loads. A penalty weight is placed on the surge restraining force, pitch restraining torque, and PTO actuation force, thereby allowing the control focus to be placed either on power absorption or load mitigation. Thus, in achieving these goals, a per-unit gain in TAP would not lead to a greater per-unit demand in structural strength, hence yielding a favorable benefit-to-cost ratio. Demonstrative results in the form of TAP, reactive TAP, and the amplitudes of the surge restraining force, pitch restraining torque, and PTO control force are shown for the Berkeley Wedge example.

  12. Test Ship

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U. S. Navy dedicated the decommissioned Spruance Class destroyer ex-PAUL F. FOSTER (EDD 964), Test Ship, primarily for at sea demonstration of short range weapon...

  13. Fast ship

    Keuning, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    The invention concerns a ship whereby the hull and the mechanical propulsion device are designed such that the Froude number is larger than 0.5. In the aft ship the hull has a bottom with V-shaped bottom surfaces with a deadrise angle that is less than 40 degrees and the hull has substantially vertical sides. In the hull are a passenger compartment and a trim tank. The trim tank volume is such that the weight of a filled trim tank is more than 30 % of the weight of displacement of the hull wi...

  14. Modeling, simulation and design optimization of a hoisting rig active heave compensation system

    Gu, Peter; Walid, Ahmed Ahmed; Iskandarani, Yousef; Karimi, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    Published version of an article in the journal: International Journal of Machine Learning and Cybernetics. Also available from the publisher at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13042-012-0076-x The objective of this paper is to present an approach in developing a virtual active heave compensation system for a draw-works on a hoisting rig. A virtual system enables quicker overall product development time of a physical system as well as flexibility in optimizing the design parameters. Development...

  15. Ship dynamics for maritime ISAR imaging.

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2008-02-01

    Demand is increasing for imaging ships at sea. Conventional SAR fails because the ships are usually in motion, both with a forward velocity, and other linear and angular motions that accompany sea travel. Because the target itself is moving, this becomes an Inverse- SAR, or ISAR problem. Developing useful ISAR techniques and algorithms is considerably aided by first understanding the nature and characteristics of ship motion. Consequently, a brief study of some principles of naval architecture sheds useful light on this problem. We attempt to do so here. Ship motions are analyzed for their impact on range-Doppler imaging using Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR). A framework for analysis is developed, and limitations of simple ISAR systems are discussed.

  16. Mathematical Ship Modeling for Control Applications

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    In this report, we review the models for describing the motion of a ship in four degrees of freedom suitable for control applications. We present the hydrodynamic models of two ships: a container and a multi-role naval vessel. The models are based on experimental results in the four degrees...

  17. The effect of motion on presence during virtual sailing for advanced training

    Mulder, F.A.; Verlinden, J.C.; Dukalski, R.R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the amount of motion simulation required to influence presence and immersion on a dinghy sailing simulator. We specifically focused on the effects of roll, pitch and heave, when sailing an course with up-, side-and down-wind sections in a virtual environment. A real dingy was

  18. Online wave estimation using vessel motion measurements

    H. Brodtkorb, Astrid; Nielsen, Ulrik D.; J. Sørensen, Asgeir

    2018-01-01

    parameters and motion transfer functions are required as input. Apart from this the method is signal-based, with no assumptions on the wave spectrum shape, and as a result it is computationally efficient. The algorithm is implemented in a dynamic positioning (DP)control system, and tested through simulations......In this paper, a computationally efficient online sea state estimation algorithm isproposed for estimation of the on site sea state. The algorithm finds the wave spectrum estimate from motion measurements in heave, roll and pitch by iteratively solving a set of linear equations. The main vessel...

  19. Ship's barbers

    Unknown

    2003-01-01

    Showing two sailors having their hair cut (? one is possibly being shaved) on board ship. Three other sailors can be seen standing on the right-hand side of the photograph. The photograph is from an album inscribed 'H.M.S. Lancaster; Mediterranean Photographic Album: Diary of Events and Important Places Visited during the Commission 1910-1912' on the cover. This album was the property of Sydney Harold Liddle.

  20. The Potential and Beneficial Use of Weigh-In-Motion (WIM) Systems Integrated with Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Systems for Characterizing Disposal of Waste Debris to Optimize the Waste Shipping Process

    Abercrombie, Robert K.; Buckner, Dooley Jr.; Newton, David D.

    2010-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Weigh-In-Motion (WIM) system provides a portable and/or semi-portable means of accurately weighing vehicles and its cargo as each vehicle crosses the scales (while in motion), and determining (1) axle weights and (2) axle spacing for vehicles (for determination of Bridge Formula compliance), (3) total vehicle/cargo weight and (4) longitudinal center of gravity (for safety considerations). The WIM system can also weigh the above statically. Because of the automated nature of the WIM system, it eliminates the introduction of human errors caused by manual computations and data entry, adverse weather conditions, and stress. Individual vehicles can be weighed continuously at low speeds (approximately 3-10 mph) and at intervals of less than one minute. The ORNL WIM system operates and is integrated into the Bethel Jacobs Company Transportation Management and Information System (TMIS, a Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) enabled information system). The integrated process is as follows: Truck Identification Number and Tare Weight are programmed into a RFID Tag. Handheld RFID devices interact with the RFID Tag, and Electronic Shipping Document is written to the RFID Tag. The RFID tag read by an RFID tower identifies the vehicle and its associated cargo, the specific manifest of radioactive debris for the uniquely identified vehicle. The weight of the cargo (in this case waste debris) is calculated from total vehicle weight information supplied from WIM to TMIS and is further processed into the Information System and kept for historical and archival purposes. The assembled data is the further process in downstream information systems where waste coordination activities at the Y-12 Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) are written to RFID Tag. All cycle time information is monitored by Transportation Operations and Security personnel.

  1. Simple analytical relations for ship bow waves

    Noblesse, Francis; Delhommeau, G.?Rard; Guilbaud, Michel; Hendrix, Dane; Yang, Chi

    Simple analytical relations for the bow wave generated by a ship in steady motion are given. Specifically, simple expressions that define the height of a ship bow wave, the distance between the ship stem and the crest of the bow wave, the rise of water at the stem, and the bow wave profile, explicitly and without calculations, in terms of the ship speed, draught, and waterline entrance angle, are given. Another result is a simple criterion that predicts, also directly and without calculations, when a ship in steady motion cannot generate a steady bow wave. This unsteady-flow criterion predicts that a ship with a sufficiently fine waterline, specifically with waterline entrance angle 2, may generate a steady bow wave at any speed. However, a ship with a fuller waterline (25E) can only generate a steady bow wave if the ship speed is higher than a critical speed, defined in terms of αE by a simple relation. No alternative criterion for predicting when a ship in steady motion does not generate a steady bow wave appears to exist. A simple expression for the height of an unsteady ship bow wave is also given. In spite of their remarkable simplicity, the relations for ship bow waves obtained in the study (using only rudimentary physical and mathematical considerations) are consistent with experimental measurements for a number of hull forms having non-bulbous wedge-shaped bows with small flare angle, and with the authors' measurements and observations for a rectangular flat plate towed at a yaw angle.

  2. On Grounding of Fast Ships

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with analysis of grounding of high-speed crafts. It is the purpose to present a comprehensive mathematical model for calculation of the overall dynamic ship response during grounding. This procedure is applied to derive the motions, the time varying sectional forces and the local...... loads during grounding on plane, sloping, sandy bottoms for six different designs of fast monohull ships made from steel, aluminium or GRP sandwich materials. The results show that the effect of the hull flexibility is to reduce the overall dynamic sectional loads on the hull girder. The considered...... numerical examples also indicate that, even with impact speeds of 40 knots against a 1:10 sloping bottom, the global strength of the hull girder is not exceeded by the grounding induced loads.For the local deformation of high-speed ship hulls at the point of contact with the ground, the paper presents...

  3. An approach to high speed ship ride quality simulation

    Malone, W. L.; Vickery, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    The high speeds attained by certain advanced surface ships result in a spectrum of motion which is higher in frequency than that of conventional ships. This fact along with the inclusion of advanced ride control features in the design of these ships resulted in an increased awareness of the need for ride criteria. Such criteria can be developed using data from actual ship operations in varied sea states or from clinical laboratory experiments. A third approach is to simulate ship conditions using measured or calculated ship motion data. Recent simulations have used data derived from a math model of Surface Effect Ship (SES) motion. The model in turn is based on equations of motion which have been refined with data from scale models and SES of up to 101 600-kg (100-ton) displacement. Employment of broad band motion emphasizes the use of the simulators as a design tool to evaluate a given ship configuration in several operational situations and also serves to provide data as to the overall effect of a given motion on crew performance and physiological status.

  4. Ride control of surface effect ships using distributed control

    Asgeir J. Sørensen

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available A ride control system for active damping of heave and pitch accelerations of Surface Effect Ships (SES is presented. It is demonstrated that distributed effects that are due to a spatially varying pressure in the air cushion result in significant vertical vibrations in low and moderate sea states. In order to achieve a high quality human comfort and crew workability it is necessary to reduce these vibrations using a control system which accounts for distributed effects due to spatial pressure variations in the air cushion. A mathematical model of the process is presented, and collocated sensor and actuator pairs are used. The process stability is ensured using a controller with appropriate passivity properties. Sensor and actuator location is also discussed. The performance of the ride control system is shown by power spectra of the vertical accelerations obtained from full scale experiments with a 35 m SES.

  5. Green Shipping Practices of Shipping Firms

    Young-Tae Chang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study is to provide an empirical research using structural equation modeling to identify the factors that motivate shipping firms to adopt green shipping practices (GSP. Furthermore, it also examines if adopting GSP can enhance the shipping firms’ environmental and productivity performance. The findings show that shipping firms are motivated to adopt GSP mostly by industrial norms set by institutionalized associations. They are also motivated by customers’ demand for environmental friendliness and their own strategy to make good image. Unlike our expectation, government regulations and international environmental laws are not significant in influencing shipping firms to adopt GSP. Moreover, adoption of green shipping practices can improve the environmental and productivity performance of the shipping firms.

  6. INFLUENCE OF OPERABILITY CRITERIA LIMITING VALUES ON SHIP SPEED

    Jasna Prpić-Oršić

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available When the ship is caught in heavy seas, there are two manoeuvres that the shipmaster can undertake to avoid excessive ship motion and hull damage: changing course or voluntary speed reduction. This paper presents a study of the effect of the various voluntary speed reduction criteria to attainable speed of ship on seaway. The speed loss is calculated by taking into account wind and wave effect on ship speed, the engine and propeller performance in actual seas as well as the mass inertia of the ship. The attainable ship speed for ship in head, following and beam waves by accounting for voluntary speed reduction is estimated for various significant wave height. The criteria of slamming, deck wetness, propeller emergence, excessive accelerations and roll are taken into account. The impact of variations of the limiting values of certain criteria due to which the captain intentionally reduces the ship speed is analysed and discussed.

  7. Green shipping management

    Lun, Y H Venus; Wong, Christina W Y; Cheng, T C E

    2016-01-01

    This book presents theory-driven discussion on the link between implementing green shipping practices (GSP) and shipping firm performance. It examines the shipping industry’s challenge of supporting economic growth while enhancing environmental performance. Consisting of nine chapters, the book covers topics such as the conceptualization of green shipping practices (GSPs), measurement scales for evaluating GSP implementation, greening capability, greening and performance relativity (GPR), green management practice, green shipping network, greening capacity, and greening propensity. In view of the increasing quest for environment protection in the shipping sector, this book provides a good reference for firms to understand and evaluate their capability in carrying out green operations on their shipping activities.

  8. The shipping man adventures in ship finance

    McCleery, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    When restless New York City hedge fund manager Robert Fairchild watches the Baltic Dry Cargo Index plunge 97%, registering an all-time high and a 25-year low within the span of just six months, he decides to buy a ship. Immediately fantasizing about naming a vessel after his wife, carrying a string of worry beads and being able to introduce himself as a "shipowner" at his upcoming college reunion, Fairchild immediately embarks on an odyssey into the most exclusive, glamorous and high stakes business in the world. From pirates off the coast of Somalia and on Wall Street to Greek and Norwegian shipping magnates, the education of Robert Fairchild is an expensive one. In the end, he loses his hedge fund, but he gains a life - as a Shipping Man. Part fast paced financial thriller, part ship finance text book, The Shipping Man is 310 pages of required reading for anyone with an interest in capital formation for shipping.

  9. Nuclear ship engineering simulator

    Itoh, Yasuyoshi; Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi; Hashidate, Koji

    1991-01-01

    The nuclear ship engineering simulator, which analyzes overall system response of nuclear ship numerically, is now being developed by JAERI as an advanced design tool with the latest computer technology in software and hardware. The development of the nuclear ship engineering simulator aims at grasping characteristics of a reactor plant under the situation generated by the combination of ocean, a ship hull and a reactor. The data from various tests with the nuclear ship 'MUTSU' will be used for this simulator to modulate and verify its functions of reproducing realistic response of nuclear ship, and then the simulator will be utilized for the research and development of advanced marine reactors. (author)

  10. Dipteran insect flight dynamics. Part 1 Longitudinal motion about hover.

    Faruque, Imraan; Sean Humbert, J

    2010-05-21

    This paper presents a reduced-order model of longitudinal hovering flight dynamics for dipteran insects. The quasi-steady wing aerodynamics model is extended by including perturbation states from equilibrium and paired with rigid body equations of motion to create a nonlinear simulation of a Drosophila-like insect. Frequency-based system identification tools are used to identify the transfer functions from biologically inspired control inputs to rigid body states. Stability derivatives and a state space linear system describing the dynamics are also identified. The vehicle control requirements are quantified with respect to traditional human pilot handling qualities specification. The heave dynamics are found to be decoupled from the pitch/fore/aft dynamics. The haltere-on system revealed a stabilized system with a slow (heave) and fast subsidence mode, and a stable oscillatory mode. The haltere-off (bare airframe) system revealed a slow (heave) and fast subsidence mode and an unstable oscillatory mode, a modal structure in agreement with CFD studies. The analysis indicates that passive aerodynamic mechanisms contribute to stability, which may help explain how insects are able to achieve stable locomotion on a very small computational budget. Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Submarine Rescue. Mooring and Salvage Ships of the Soviet Navy,

    1983-07-13

    motion after they strike the surface of the water, because of which they are carried away from the ship and can no longer endanger the ship. Only four of...they have a characteristic icebreaker bow, while the others have a protruding bulb at the forefoot . Above the waterline - aside from the completely

  12. Wave energy extraction using decommisioned ships

    Mansour, A.E.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Paik, J.K.

    2013-01-01

    is to tune the ship to have rigid body resonance, or close to it, and resist that motion to absorb power. A hydraulic ramp connected to an accumulator feeding a hydraulic motor that generates power is one possibility. Several other energy extraction mechanisms such as turbines connected to oscillating water...

  13. Guide to ship sanitation

    2011-01-01

    "The third edition of the Guide to Ship Sanitation presents the public health significance of ships in terms of disease and highlights the importance of applying appropriate control measures"--Back cover...

  14. Prediction of Critical Heat Flux under Rolling Motion

    Hwang, Jinseok; Lee, Yeongun; Park, Gooncherl [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The aim to this paper may be summarized as follows: identify the flow regime compare with existing void-quality relationship and void fraction at OAF derived from the vapor superficial velocity obtained by the churn-to annular flow criterion, develop and evaluate the correlation for accurate prediction of CHF ratio under rolling motion. Experimentally measured CHF results from the previous study were not well-predicted by existing CHF correlations developed for wide range of pressure under rolling motion in vertical tube. Specifically, existing correlations do not account for the dynamic motion parameter, such as tangential and centrifugal force. This study reviewed some existing correlation and experimental studies related to reduction and enhancement of CHF and heat transfer and flow behavior under heaving and rolling motion, and developed a CHF ratio correlation for upward flow vertical tube under rolling motion. Based upon dimensionless groups, equations and interpolation factor, an empirical CHF correlation has been developed which is consistent with experimental data for uniformly heated tubes internally cooled by R-134 under rolling motion. Flow regime was determined through the prediction method for annular flow. Non-dimensional number and function were decided by CHF mechanism of each region. Interaction of LFD and DNB regions is taken into account by means of power interpolation which is reflected void fraction at OAF. The suggested correlation predicted the CHF Ratio with reasonable accuracy, showing an average error of -0.59 and 2.51% for RMS. Rolling motion can affect bubble motion and liquid film behavior complexly by combination of tangential and centrifugal forces and mass flow than heaving motion. Through a search of literature and a comparison of previous CHF ratio results, this work can contribute to the study of boiling heat transfer and CHF for the purpose of enhancement or reduction the CHF of dynamic motion system, such as marine reactor.

  15. Recycling of merchant ships

    Magdalena Klopott

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article briefly outlines the issues concerning ship recycling. It highlights ships' high value as sources of steel scrap and non-ferrous metals, without omitting the fact that they also contain a range of hazardous substances. Moreover, the article also focuses on basic ship demolition methods and their environmental impact, as well as emphasizes the importance of “design for ship recycling” philosophy.

  16. Dutch Ships and Sailors

    de Boer, Victor; Hoekstra, F.G.; Leinenga, Jurjen; van Rossum, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Dutch Ships and Sailors provides an infrastructure for maritime historical datasets, linking correlating data through semantic web technology. It brings together datasets related to recruitment and shipping in the East-India trade (mainly 18th century) and in the shipping of the northern provinces

  17. Reactors. Nuclear propulsion ships

    Fribourg, Ch.

    2001-01-01

    This article has for object the development of nuclear-powered ships and the conception of the nuclear-powered ship. The technology of the naval propulsion P.W.R. type reactor is described in the article B.N.3 141 'Nuclear Boilers ships'. (N.C.)

  18. Nuclear merchant ship propulsion

    Schroeder, E.; Jager, W.; Schafstall, H.G.

    1977-01-01

    The operation of about 300 nuclear naval vessels has proven the feasibility of nuclear ship propulsion. Until now six non military ships have been built or are under construction. In the Soviet Union two nuclear icebreakers are in operation, and a third one is under construction. In the western world three prototype merchant ships have been built. Of these ships only the NS OTTO HAHN is in operation and provides valuable experience for future large scale use of nuclear merchant ship propulsion. In many countries studies and plans are made for future nuclear merchant ships. Types of vessels investigated are large containerships, tankers and specialized ships like icebreakers or ice-breaking ships. The future of nuclear merchant ship propulsion depends on three interrelated items: (1) nuclear ship technology; (2) economy of nuclear ship propulsion; (3) legal questions. Nuclear merchant ship technology is based until now on standard ship technology and light water reactor technology. Except for special questions due to the non-stationary type of the plant entirely new problems do not arise. This has been proven by the recent conceptual licensing procedure for a large nuclear containership in Germany. The economics of nuclear propulsion will be under discussion until they are proven by the operation of privately owned lead ships. Unsolved legal questions e.g. in connection with port entry permissions are at present another problem for nuclear shipping. Efforts are made to solve these questions on an international basis. The future development of nuclear energy electricity production in large land based plants will stimulate the employment of smaller units. Any future development of long distance sea transport will have to take this opportunity of a reliable and economic energy supply into account

  19. Development of the Nuclear Ship Database. 1. Outline of the Nuclear Ship Experimental Database

    Kyouya, Masahiko; Ochiai, Masa-aki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Hashidate, Kouji

    1995-03-01

    We obtained the experimental data on the effects of the ship motions and the change in load and caused by the ship operations, the waves, the winds etc., to the nuclear power plant behavior, through the Power-up Tests and Experimental Voyages of the Nuclear Ship MUTSU. Moreover, we accumulated the techniques, the knowledge and others on the Nuclear Ship development at the each stage of the N.S. MUTSU Research and Development program, such as the design stage, the construction stage, the operation stage and others. These data, techniques, knowledge and others are the assembly of the experimental data and the experiences through the design, the construction and the operation of the first nuclear ship in JAPAN. It is important to keep and pigeonhole these products of the N.S. MUTSU program in order to utilize them effectively in the research and development of the advanced marine reactor, since there is no construction plan of the nuclear ship for the present in JAPAN. We have been carrying out the development of the Nuclear Ship Database System since 1991 for the purpose of effective utilization of the N.S. MUTSU products in the design study of the advanced marine reactors. The part of the Nuclear Ship Database System on the experimental data, called Nuclear Ship Experimental Database, was already accomplished and utilized since 1993. This report describes the outline and the use of the Nuclear Ship Experimental Database.The remaining part of the database system on the documentary data, called Nuclear Ship Documentary Database, are now under development. (author).

  20. Development of the Nuclear Ship Database. 1. Outline of the Nuclear Ship Experimental Database

    Kyouya, Masahiko; Ochiai, Masa-aki; Hashidate, Kouji.

    1995-03-01

    We obtained the experimental data on the effects of the ship motions and the change in load and caused by the ship operations, the waves, the winds etc., to the nuclear power plant behavior, through the Power-up Tests and Experimental Voyages of the Nuclear Ship MUTSU. Moreover, we accumulated the techniques, the knowledge and others on the Nuclear Ship development at the each stage of the N.S. MUTSU Research and Development program, such as the design stage, the construction stage, the operation stage and others. These data, techniques, knowledge and others are the assembly of the experimental data and the experiences through the design, the construction and the operation of the first nuclear ship in JAPAN. It is important to keep and pigeonhole these products of the N.S. MUTSU program in order to utilize them effectively in the research and development of the advanced marine reactor, since there is no construction plan of the nuclear ship for the present in JAPAN. We have been carrying out the development of the Nuclear Ship Database System since 1991 for the purpose of effective utilization of the N.S. MUTSU products in the design study of the advanced marine reactors. The part of the Nuclear Ship Database System on the experimental data, called Nuclear Ship Experimental Database, was already accomplished and utilized since 1993. This report describes the outline and the use of the Nuclear Ship Experimental Database.The remaining part of the database system on the documentary data, called Nuclear Ship Documentary Database, are now under development. (author)

  1. Safety of nuclear ships

    1978-01-01

    Interest in the utilization of nuclear steam supply systems for merchant ships and icebreakers has recently increased considerably due to the sharp rise in oil prices and the continuing trend towards larger and faster merchant ships. Canada, for example, is considering construction of an icebreaker in the near future. On the other hand, an accident which could result in serious damage to or the sinking of a nuclear ship is potentially far more dangerous to the general public than a similar accident with a conventional ship. Therefore, it was very important to evaluate in an international forum the safety of nuclear ships in the light of our contemporary safety philosophy, taking into account the results of cumulative operating experience with nuclear ships in operation. The philosophy and safety requirement for land-based nuclear installations were outlined because of many common features for both land-based nuclear installations and nuclear ships. Nevertheless, essential specific safety requirements for nuclear ships must always be considered, and the work on safety problems for nuclear ships sponsored by the NEA was regarded as an important step towards developing an international code of practice by IMCO on the safety of nuclear merchant ships. One session was devoted to the quantitative assessment of nuclear ship safety. The probability technique of an accident risk assessment for nuclear power plants is well known and widely used. Its modification, to make it applicable to nuclear propelled merchant ships, was discussed in some papers. Mathematical models for describing various postulated accidents with nuclear ships were developed and reported by several speakers. Several papers discussed a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) with nuclear steam supply systems of nuclear ships and engineering design features to prevent a radioactive effluence after LOCA. Other types of postulated accidents with reactors and systems in static and dynamic conditions were also

  2. Aerodynamics and Motion Performance of the H-Type Floating Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    Ying Guo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Aerodynamics and motion performance of the floating vertical wind turbine (VAWT were studied in this paper, where the wind turbine was H-type and the floating foundation was truss spar type. Based on the double-multiple-stream-tube theory, the formulae were deduced to calculate the aerodynamic loads acting on the wind turbine considering the motions of the floating foundation. The surge-heave-pitch nonlinear coupling equations of the H-type floating VAWT were established. Aerodynamics and motion performance of a 5 MW H-type floating VAWT was studied, and the effect of the floating foundation motions on the aerodynamic loads was analyzed. It is shown that the motions of the floating foundation on the aerodynamics cannot be ignored. The motion of the H-type floating VAWT was also compared with that of the Φ-type floating VAWT: they have the same floating foundation, rated output power, mooring system and total displacement. The results show that the H-type floating VAWT has better motion performance, and the mean values of surge, heave and pitch of the H-type floating VAWT are much smaller comparing with the Φ-type floating VAWT.

  3. Buckling of Ship Structures

    Shama, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Buckling of Ship Structures presents a comprehensive analysis of the buckling problem of ship structural members. A full analysis of the various types of loadings and stresses imposed on ship plating and primary and secondary structural members is given. The main causes and consequences of the buckling mode of failure of ship structure and the methods commonly used to control buckling failure are clarified. This book contains the main equations required to determine the critical buckling stresses for both ship plating and the primary and secondary stiffening structural members. The critical buckling stresses are given for ship plating subjected to the induced various types of loadings and having the most common boundary conditions encountered in ship structures.  The text bridges the gap existing in most books covering the subject of buckling of ship structures in the classical analytical format, by putting the emphasis on the practical methods required to ensure safety against buckling of ship structur...

  4. Crushing Strength of Ship Structures

    Cerup-Simonsen, Bo; Abramowicz, W.; Høstgaard-Brene, C.N.S.

    1999-01-01

    The crushing response of ship structures is of primary importance to the designers and practicing engineers concerned with accidental loading and accident reconstruction of marine vehicles. Ship to-ship collisions, ship-harbor infrastructure interaction or ship-offshore structure interaction are ...

  5. Shipping Information Pipeline

    Jensen, Thomas; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    and national borders within international shipping which is a rather complex domain. The intellectual objective is to generate and evaluate the efficacy and effectiveness of design principles for inter-organizational information infrastructures in the international shipping domain that can have positive...

  6. Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2011-01-01

    Liner shipping fleet repositioning consists of moving vessels between services in a liner ship- ping network in order to better orient the overall network to the world economy, and to ensure the proper maintenance of vessels. Thus, fleet repositioning involves sailing and loading activities subject...

  7. Handbook of nuclear ships

    1981-03-01

    First, the government organs and other organizations related to nuclear ships and their tasks are described. The fundamental plan for the development of nuclear ships had been determined in July, 1963, and was revised three times thereafter. However in December, 1980, new determination to carry out the research works also was made. The course of the construction of the nuclear ship ''Mutsu'' from 1955 to 1980, the main particulars of the nuclear ship ''Mutsu'' and the drawing of the general arrangement are shown. The designated port for berthing the Mutsu was completed in 1972 in Ominato, Aomori Prefecture, but after the happening of radiation leak during the trial operation of the Mutsu in 1974, it was agreed to remove the port. The main works to be carried out at the port and the port facilities are explained. The progress of the examination of safety of the Mutsu and the result, the test of raising the power output carried out in 1974, and the course of selecting the port for making the repair works of the Mutsu are described. The law concerning Japan Nuclear Ship Research and Development Agency had been instituted in 1963, and was revised four times thereafter. The change of the budget for the tests and researches related to nuclear ships in Japan is shown. The state of development of nuclear ships in foreign countries, the international organs related to atomic energy, shipping, shipbuilding and energy, and chronological table are introduced. (Kako, I.)

  8. Effective and Safe Ships

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Amdahl, Jørgen; Rutgersson, Olle

    1996-01-01

    A Joint Nordic Research project "Effecive and Safe Ships" is presented. The project is aiming to develop methods and tools for quantitative evaluation fo ship safety. This report is the report of the preliminary phase where the plan for the main project is developed. The objectives of the project...

  9. Shipping Information Pipeline

    Jensen, Thomas

    to creating a more efficient shipping industry, and a number of critical issues are identified. These include that shipments depend on shipping information, that shipments often are delayed due to issues with documentation, that EDI messages account for only a minor part of the needed information......This thesis applies theoretical perspectives from the Information Systems (IS) research field to propose how Information Technology (IT) can improve containerized shipping. This question is addressed by developing a set of design principles for an information infrastructure for sharing shipping...... information named the Shipping Information Pipeline (SIP). Review of the literature revealed that IS research prescribed a set of meta-design principles, including digitalization and digital collaboration by implementation of Inter-Organizational Systems based on Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) messages...

  10. Human sensitivity to vertical self-motion.

    Nesti, Alessandro; Barnett-Cowan, Michael; Macneilage, Paul R; Bülthoff, Heinrich H

    2014-01-01

    Perceiving vertical self-motion is crucial for maintaining balance as well as for controlling an aircraft. Whereas heave absolute thresholds have been exhaustively studied, little work has been done in investigating how vertical sensitivity depends on motion intensity (i.e., differential thresholds). Here we measure human sensitivity for 1-Hz sinusoidal accelerations for 10 participants in darkness. Absolute and differential thresholds are measured for upward and downward translations independently at 5 different peak amplitudes ranging from 0 to 2 m/s(2). Overall vertical differential thresholds are higher than horizontal differential thresholds found in the literature. Psychometric functions are fit in linear and logarithmic space, with goodness of fit being similar in both cases. Differential thresholds are higher for upward as compared to downward motion and increase with stimulus intensity following a trend best described by two power laws. The power laws' exponents of 0.60 and 0.42 for upward and downward motion, respectively, deviate from Weber's Law in that thresholds increase less than expected at high stimulus intensity. We speculate that increased sensitivity at high accelerations and greater sensitivity to downward than upward self-motion may reflect adaptations to avoid falling.

  11. Analysis of Real Ship Rolling Dynamics under Wave Excitement Force Composed of Sums of Cosine Functions

    Zhang, Y. S.; Cai, F.; Xu, W. M.

    2011-01-01

    The ship motion equation with a cosine wave excitement force describes the slip moments in regular waves. A new kind of wave excitement force model, with the form as sums of cosine functions was proposed to describe ship rolling in irregular waves. Ship rolling time series were obtained by solving the ship motion equation with the fourth-order-Runger-Kutta method. These rolling time series were synthetically analyzed with methods of phase-space track, power spectrum, primary component analysis, and the largest Lyapunove exponent. Simulation results show that ship rolling presents some chaotic characteristic when the wave excitement force was applied by sums of cosine functions. The result well explains the course of ship rolling's chaotic mechanism and is useful for ship hydrodynamic study.

  12. Using bathymetry and reflective seismic profiles to tests a suspected link between melt flux and cumulative fault heave at mid-ocean ridges

    Haughton, G.; Murton, B. J.; Le Bas, T.; Henstock, T.

    2017-12-01

    The interplay between magma supply and spreading rate is believed to play a major role in determining large scale seafloor morphology. Here we use bathymetry to test this relationship in areas with similar spreading rates and differing magma supplies. By using open source bathymetry data we have developed a repeatable, automated method for categorising seafloor cumulative fault heave and then attempt to identify the controlling variables. We measure the total apparent fault heave along axis and off-axis at 29°N and 60°N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge then compare this to proxies for deformation and magma supply. Two approaches are adopted for identifying faults: one using bathymetry and the other spreading-parallel seismic reflection data. The first re-examines the orthogonally spreading Broken Spur segment (26°N) spreading at 23 mm yr-1 (full rate). The other examines the Reykjanes Ridge (60°N) spreading obliquely at 21 mm yr-1 (full rate), which may be influenced by the Icelandic hotspot. Each have contrasting residual depth and structure, with the former being typical of slow spreading ridges, with marked axial valleys, whereas the latter is more typical of fast spreading ridge morphology, with smooth axial rise. We find that high total heave (indicating high tectonic spreading) on the Broken Spur segment does not correlate with high mantle Bouguer anomalies (indicating thin crust and low melt flux). From this we hypothesise that total heave on the large scale at the Broken Spur segment is not controlled by crustal thickness or melt supply. At the Raykjanes Ridge, V-shaped ridges have thicker crust (measured seismically) which converge south of Iceland. These are thought to reflect transient (every 4-6 Myrs) pulses of hot mantle radiating away from the Iceland plume. We find ridge-symmetrical variation in fault heave but with a lower frequency (6-8 Myrs) and longer wavelength (3-7 Myrs) than the V-shaped ridges. Our analysis shows that plume pulses do not

  13. Hydrodynamics of Ship Propellers

    Breslin, John P.; Andersen, Poul

    This book deals with flows over propellers operating behind ships, and the hydrodynamic forces and moments which the propeller generates on the shaft and on the ship hull.The first part of the text is devoted to fundamentals of the flow about hydrofoil sections (with and without cavitation...... of an intermittently cavitating propeller in a wake and the pressures and forces it exerts on the shaft and on the ship hull is examined. A final chapter discusses the optimization of efficiency of compound propulsors. The authors have taken care to clearly describe physical concepts and mathematical steps. Appendices...

  14. Nuclear powered ships. Findings from a feasibility study

    Namikawa, Shunichiro; Maerli, Morten Bremer; Hoffmann, Peter Nyegaard; Brodin, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear shipping is attractive for several reasons, one of which is its positive effect on emissions (CO 2 , NOx and SOx). The benefits, however, do not come without risks of possible harmful effects on humans and wildlife. Nuclear ships set themselves apart from conventional ships, as well as from on-shore nuclear power-plants, on several counts. 1) The reactor-unit are non-stationary, and the reactor is subject to the ship motions. 2) Ship reactors must be compact due to space constraints. 3) Special design considerations are required to ensure reactor safety and security, as well as to enable refuelling. 4) A naval nuclear fuel cycle infrastructure for fuel fabrication, handling, and disposal is needed. Technological feasibility of nuclear shipping is by itself inconclusive to a expansion into civilian applications and use. Civilian nuclear propulsion needs to be commercially viable and politically acceptable. Appropriate legislation must be in place, and nuclear shipping concepts with proven safety records and highest possible nuclear proliferation-resistance must be established. Possible 'showstoppers' to a viable nuclear civilian shipping industry are outlined in the paper in view of Political, Technical, Regulatory, Commercial, Safety and Security aspects. Further, different types of ships with different propulsion system are compared in lights of life cycle cost and air emission. (author)

  15. Designing Adaptable Ships: Modularity and Flexibility in Future Ship Designs

    2016-01-01

    with motors, belts, shafts , seals, valves, hose spindles , and switches. If ship installation is not installed, the system will be status quo. Ship...Impact: the current centrifugal purifiers (Alfa-Laval) have experienced frequent failures with motor, belts, shafts , seals, valves, hose spindles ... Designing Adaptable Ships Modularity and Flexibility in Future Ship Designs John F. Schank, Scott Savitz, Ken Munson, Brian Perkinson, James

  16. Optimization in liner shipping

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Karsten, Christian Vad; Pisinger, David

    2017-01-01

    Seaborne trade is the lynchpin in almost every international supply chain, and about 90% of non-bulk cargo worldwide is transported by container. In this survey we give an overview of data-driven optimization problems in liner shipping. Research in liner shipping is motivated by a need for handling...... still more complex decision problems, based on big data sets and going across several organizational entities. Moreover, liner shipping optimization problems are pushing the limits of optimization methods, creating a new breeding ground for advanced modelling and solution methods. Starting from liner...... shipping network design, we consider the problem of container routing and speed optimization. Next, we consider empty container repositioning and stowage planning as well as disruption management. In addition, the problem of bunker purchasing is considered in depth. In each section we give a clear problem...

  17. Civilian nuclear ships

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1993-03-01

    This report contains a review of the information available on nuclear powered ships, built for civilian purposes. In the introduction a short discussion is given of the reasons for the limited use of nuclear ships for these purposes. In the second section a brief review is presented of data for the three experimental/merchant ships build by the United States, Germany and Japan, i.e. NS Savannah, NS Otto Hahn and NS Mutsu. In the third section the Soviet/Russian icebreaker NS Lenin is considered. Its design, operational experience and the introduction of a new nuclear propulsion plant is reviewed. In the fourth section the newer Soviet/Russian icebreakers with nuclear propulsion are considered. Finally design of the Soviet/Russian icebreaker transport/container ship NS Sevmorput is reviewed in the fifth section. The future Russian plans for nuclear vessels for the arctic waters are briefly discussed. (au)

  18. Ship propulsion reactors technology

    Fribourg, Ch.

    2002-01-01

    This paper takes the state of the art on ship propulsion reactors technology. The french research programs with the corresponding technological stakes, the reactors specifications and advantages are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  19. Ship construction and welding

    Mandal, Nisith R

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses various aspects of ship construction, from ship types and construction materials, to welding technologies and accuracy control. The contents of the book are logically organized and divided into twenty-one chapters. The book covers structural arrangement with longitudinal and transverse framing systems based on the service load, and explains basic structural elements like hatch side girders, hatch end beams, stringers, etc. along with structural subassemblies like floors, bulkheads, inner bottom, decks and shells. It presents in detail double bottom construction, wing tanks & duct keels, fore & aft end structures, etc., together with necessary illustrations. The midship sections of various ship types are introduced, together with structural continuity and alignment in ship structures. With regard to construction materials, the book discusses steel, aluminum alloys and fiber reinforced composites. Various methods of steel material preparation are discussed, and plate cutting and form...

  20. Nuclear ship accidents

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1993-05-01

    In this report available information on 28 nuclear ship accident and incidents is considered. Of these 5 deals with U.S. ships and 23 with USSR ships. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions and sea water leaks into the submarines are considered. Comments are made on each of the events, and at the end of the report an attempt is made to point out the weaknesses of the submarine designs which have resulted in the accidents. It is emphasized that much of the available information is of a rather dubious nature. consequently some of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  1. Performance Monitoring of Ships

    Hansen, Søren Vinther

    is used as input to the system and by comparing model and ship behaviour, an index describing the ship’s performance is generated. The work in this thesis is based on data logged through the automation system on board a PostPanmax container ship where data have been logged through a year. A routine...... in the models have been identified. The models used in this work are based on empirical relations or based on regression analyses of model tests and full-scale trials. In order to achieve valid results the conditions where performance is estimated have to be inside the boundaries of the model. Filters have been......The purpose of the research project is to establish a reliable index in the performance evaluation of ships. During operation the ship will experience added resistance due to fouling of hull and propeller. The added resistance will lead to increased fuel consumption and thus increased emissions...

  2. Distributed propulsion for ships

    Nylund, Vilde

    2017-01-01

    It is anticipated that using distributed electric propulsion (DEP) on conventional ships will increase the total propulsive efficiency. This is mainly due to two reasons; firstly, because the total propeller disk area can be increased. Secondly, because each propeller can be optimised for the local wake where it is operating. In this work, the benefits of using DEP has been investigated for a 14 000 TEU container ship. Based on a literary study of the present state of propeller modelling ...

  3. SHIPPING REQUESTS ON EDH

    Logistics Group

    2001-01-01

    Users are informed that as from 1 September 2001 all Shipping Requests must be made on EDH using the appropriate electronic form. The submission of user requests directly into EDH will help rationalise the activities of the Shipping Service (Import & Export), with requests being automatically forwarded to hierarchical supervisors thereby improving the processing speed and facilitating the follow-up. Thank you for your collaboration.

  4. Plastic Pollution from Ships

    Čulin, Jelena; Bielić, Toni

    2016-01-01

    The environmental impact of shipping on marine environment includes discharge of garbage. Plastic litter is of particular concern due to abundance, resistance to degradation and detrimental effect on marine biota. According to recently published studies, a further research is required to assess human health risk. Monitoring data indicate that despite banning plastic disposal at sea, shipping is still a source of plastic pollution. Some of the measures to combat the problem are discussed.

  5. On the Global Ship Hull Bending Energy in Ship Collisions

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Li, Y.

    2004-01-01

    During ship collisions part of the kinetic energy of the involved vessels prior to contact is absorbed as energy dissipated by crushing of the hull structures, by friction and by elastic energy. The purpose of this report is to present an estimate of the elastic energy that can be stored in elastic...... hull vibrations during a ship collision. When a ship side is strengthened in order to improve the crashworthiness it has been argued in the scientific literature that a non trivial part of the energy released for structural deformation during the collision can be absorbed as elastic energy in global...... ship hull vibrations, such that with strong ship sides less energy has to be spent in crushing of the striking ship bow and/or the struck ship side. In normal ship-ship collision analyses both the striking and struck ship are usually considered as rigid bodies where structural crushing is confined...

  6. The investigation of ship maneuvering with hydrodynamic effects between ships in curved narrow channel

    Chun-Ki Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrodynamic interaction between two large vessels can't be neglected when two large vessels are closed to each other in restricted waterways such as in a harbor or narrow channel. This paper is mainly concerned with the ship maneuvering motion based on the hydrodynamic interaction effects between two large vessels moving each other in curved narrow channel. In this research, the characteristic features of the hydrodynamic interaction forces between two large vessels are described and illustrated, and the effects of velocity ratio and the spacing between two vessels are summarized and discussed. Also, the Inchon outer harbor area through the PALMI island channel in Korea was selected, and the ship maneuvering simulation was carried out to propose an appropriate safe speed and distance between two ships, which is required to avoid sea accident in confined waters. From the inspection of this investigation, it indicates the following result. Under the condition of SP12≤0.5L, it may encounter a dangerous tendency of grounding or collision due to the combined effect of the interaction between ships and external forces. Also considering the interaction and wind effect as a parameter, an overtaken and overtaking vessel in narrow channel can navigate while keeping its own original course under the following conditions; the lateral separation between two ships is about kept at 0.6 times of ship length and 15 degrees of range in maximum rudder angle. On the other hand, two ships while overtaking in curved narrow channel such as Inchon outer harbor in Korea should be navigated under the following conditions; SP12 is about kept at 1.0 times of ship length and the wind velocity should not be stronger than 10 m/s.

  7. Recent situations around nuclear ships

    Mizuno, Hiroshi

    1978-01-01

    The philosophy when the safety standard for nuclear ships is drawn up and the international rules specifically for nuclear ships are summarized. As for the safety standard for nuclear ships, the safety requirements for ordinary ships, for the ships transporting nuclear reactors, for ordinary nuclear reactors, and for the reactors moving around the seas must be included. As for the international rules for nuclear ships, there are chapter 8 ''Nuclear ships'' in the International Convention on the Safety of Life at Sea, 1960 and 1974, and Safety Consideration in the Use of Ports and Approaches by Nuclear Merchant Ships. Also there are national rules and standards in Japan and foreign countries. One of the means to explore the practicality of nuclear ships is the investigation of the economy. At this time, the social merits and demerits of nuclear ships must be compared with conventional ships by taking total expenses into account without omission. When oil is depleted, the age of nuclear ships will not necessarily begin, and the will be still some competitors. The investigations concerning the economy of nuclear ships have been carried out in various countries. The present state of the development of nuclear ships in Japan and foreign countries is explained. Many conferences and symposia have been held concerning nuclear ships, and those held recently are enumerated. The realization of nuclear ship age cannot be anticipated from existing papers and shipbuilding projects. (Kako, I.)

  8. Contribution of SRF, Elk-1, and myocardin to airway smooth muscle remodeling in heaves, an asthma-like disease of horses.

    Chevigny, Mylène; Guérin-Montpetit, Karine; Vargas, Amandine; Lefebvre-Lavoie, Josiane; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre

    2015-07-01

    Myocyte hyperplasia and hypertrophy contribute to the increased mass of airway smooth muscle (ASM) in asthma. Serum-response factor (SRF) is a transcription factor that regulates myocyte differentiation in vitro in vascular and intestinal smooth muscles. When SRF is associated with phosphorylated (p)Elk-1, it promotes ASM proliferation while binding to myocardin (MYOCD) leading to the expression of contractile elements in these tissues. The objective of this study was therefore to characterize the expression of SRF, pElk-1, and MYOCD in ASM cells from central and peripheral airways in heaves, a spontaneously occurring asthma-like disease of horses, and in controls. Six horses with heaves and five aged-matched controls kept in the same environment were studied. Nuclear protein expression of SRF, pElk-1, and MYOCD was evaluated in peripheral airways and endobronchial biopsies obtained during disease remission and after 1 and 30 days of naturally occurring antigenic exposure using immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence techniques. Nuclear expression of SRF (P = 0.03, remission vs. 30 days) and MYOCD (P = 0.05, controls vs. heaves at 30 days) increased in the peripheral airways of horses with heaves during disease exacerbation, while MYOCD (P = 0.04, remission vs. 30 days) decreased in the central airways of control horses. No changes were observed in the expression of pElk-1 protein in either tissue. In conclusion, SRF and its cofactor MYOCD likely contribute to the hypertrophy of peripheral ASM observed in equine asthmatic airways, while the remodeling of the central airways is more static or involves different transcription factors. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Accidents in nuclear ships

    Oelgaard, P L [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10{sup -3} per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au).

  10. Accidents in nuclear ships

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1996-12-01

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10 -3 per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  11. On the global ship hull bending energy in ship collisions

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Li, Yujie

    2009-01-01

    During ship collisions part of the kinetic energy of the involved vessels immediately prior to contact is absorbed as energy dissipated by crushing of the hull structures, by friction and by elastic energy. The purpose of this report is to present an estimate of the elastic energy that can...... be stored in elastic hull vibrations during a ship collision. When a ship side is strengthened in order to improve the crashworthiness it has been argued in the scientific literature that a non-trivial part of the energy released for structural deformation during the collision can be absorbed as elastic...... energy in global ship hull vibrations, such that with strong ship sides less energy has to be spent in crushing of the striking ship bow and/or the struck ship side. In normal ship–ship collision analyses both the striking and struck ship are usually considered as rigid bodies where structural crushing...

  12. Design of an adaptive backstepping controller for auto-berthing a cruise ship under wind loads

    Park Jong-Yong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The auto-berthing of a ship requires excellent control for safe accomplishment. Crabbing, which is the pure sway motion of a ship without surge velocity, can be used for this purpose. Crabbing is induced by a peculiar operation procedure known as the push-pull mode. When a ship is in the push-pull mode, an interacting force is induced by complex turbulent flow around the ship generated by the propellers and side thrusters. In this paper, three degrees of freedom equations of the motions of crabbing are derived. The equations are used to apply the adaptive backstepping control method to the auto-berthing controller of a cruise ship. The controller is capable of handling the system nonlinearity and uncertainty of the berthing process. A control allocation algorithm for a ship equipped with two propellers and two side thrusters is also developed, the performance of which is validated by simulation of auto-berthing.

  13. Ship operations report, 1973

    1973-01-01

    The NOAA Fleet Operations Report 1973 was developed to provide a summary of project accomplishments during calendar year 1973. The report was prepared from season, cruise and special reports submitted by ships of the fleet. Centralized management of the NOAA Fleet was finalized by changing the operational control of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Ships DAVID STARR JORDAN (FRS 44), TOWNSEND CROMWELL (FRS 43) and MURRE II (FRV 63) from NMFS to the National Ocean Survey on July 1, 1973. Throughout the year, ships routinely collected and transmitted weather data. Similarly, as NOAA participants in the Integrated Global Ocean Station System (IGOSS) service program, XBT observations were taken and either radioed or submitted in log form via mail. In addition, particulate and radionuclide samples were taken in cooperation with the Atomic Energy Commission, sediment samples were obtained for the Smithsonian Institution and observations were made of marine mammals

  14. Ship operations report, 1975

    1976-01-01

    The NOAA Ship Operations Report 1975 was developed to provide a summary of projects undertaken during calendar year 1975. The report was prepared from season, cruise and special reports submitted by ships of the fleet. This report is promulgated for inhouse dissemination in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, for collaborating and interested agencies, and for use by members of the scientific community. Throughout the year, ships routinely collected and transmitted weather data. Similarly, as NOAA participants in the Integrated Global Ocean Station System (IGOSS) service program, XBT observations were taken and either radioed or submitted in log form via mail. In addition, particulate and radionuclide samples were taken in cooperation with the Atomic Energy Commission, sediment samples were obtained for the Smithsonian Institution and observations were made of marine mammals

  15. Internationalisation Within Liner Shipping

    Prockl, Günter; Kinra, Aseem; Kotzab, Herbert

    2018-01-01

    , the degree of internationalisation, measured on the basis of sea-oriented operations, differs from that measured according to land-oriented front-end marketing and sales activities. The purpose of this study is to further examine the internationalisation patterns of shipping lines. An examination...... of the front-end activities and the structures of leading container-shipping companies is conducted. The sales office networks of the sector’s 20 largest companies worldwide (by twenty-foot equivalent unit capacity) are analysed as key indicators. The numbers of sales offices are measured by analysing...... the websites of the sample (20 companies), as well as annual reports and other publicly available data sources. The findings show that not all shipping companies are international, by virtue of the industry. While it is difficult to observe differences in the overall patterns of the sales networks at a macro...

  16. Effects of Second-Order Sum- and Difference-Frequency Wave Forces on the Motion Response of a Tension-Leg Platform Considering the Set-down Motion

    Wang, Bin; Tang, Yougang; Li, Yan; Cai, Runbo

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a study on the motion response of a tension-leg platform (TLP) under first- and second-order wave forces, including the mean-drift force, difference and sum-frequency forces. The second-order wave force is calculated using the full-field quadratic transfer function (QTF). The coupled effect of the horizontal motions, such as surge, sway and yaw motions, and the set-down motion are taken into consideration by the nonlinear restoring matrix. The time-domain analysis with 50-yr random sea state is performed. A comparison of the results of different case studies is made to assess the influence of second-order wave force on the motions of the platform. The analysis shows that the second-order wave force has a major impact on motions of the TLP. The second-order difference-frequency wave force has an obvious influence on the low-frequency motions of surge and sway, and also will induce a large set-down motion which is an important part of heave motion. Besides, the second-order sum-frequency force will induce a set of high-frequency motions of roll and pitch. However, little influence of second-order wave force is found on the yaw motion.

  17. Shipping emissions in ports

    Merk, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    Shipping emissions in ports are substantial, accounting for 18 million tonnes of CO2 emissions, 0.4 million tonnes of NOx, 0.2 million of SOx and 0.03 million tonnes of PM10 in 2011. Around 85% of emissions come from containerships and tankers. Containerships have short port stays, but high emissions during these stays. Most of CO2 emissions in ports from shipping are in Asia and Europe (58%), but this share is low compared to their share of port calls (70%). European ports have much less emi...

  18. Optimal estimation of ship's attitudes for beampattern corrections in a coaxial circular array

    Chakraborty, B.; Dev, K.K.

    A study is conducted to estimate the accurate attitude of a ship's motion and the estimation is used to arrive at the corrections required for a farfield pattern of a coaxial circular array. The relevant analytical expression is developed...

  19. Are nuclear ships environmentally safer than conventionally powered ships

    Bone, C.A.; Molgaard, C.A.; Helmkamp, J.C.; Golbeck, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    An epidemiologic analysis was conducted to determine if risk of hospitalization varied by age, ship type, or occupation between nuclear and conventional powered ship crews in the U.S. Navy. Study cohorts consisted of all male enlisted personnel who served exclusively aboard conventional or nuclear powered aircraft carriers and cruisers during the years 1975-1979; cases were those men hospitalized during this period (N = 48,242). Conventional ship personnel showed significantly elevated rates of injury and disease when compared to nuclear ship personnel. The largest relative risks by age occurred for conventional ship crewmen less than 30 years old. Seaman, logistics (supply), and healthcare personnel serving aboard conventional ships comprised the occupational groups exhibiting the highest hospitalization rate differentials. The results strongly suggest that nuclear ships provide a healthier, safer working and living environment than conventional ships

  20. Mechanics of Ship Grounding

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    In these notes first a simplified mathematical model is presented for analysis of ship hull loading due to grounding on relatively hard and plane sand, clay or rock sea bottoms. In a second section a more rational calculation model is described for the sea bed soil reaction forces on the sea bott...

  1. SHIPPING OF RADIOACTIVE ITEMS

    TIS/RP Group

    2001-01-01

    The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

  2. Options of ship discharge

    NONE

    2010-05-15

    Environmental performance is a key design consideration for manufacturers of bulk handling machines, not least ship unloaders, with features being introduced to minimise dust and noise pollution. The article reports on developments in grab unloaders, slewing grabcranes and mobile grabcranes by manufacturers such as Konecrane, EMS-Tech, Liebherr-Werk Nenzing and Gottwald. 2 photos.

  3. Hydroelastic Vibrations of Ships

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Folsø, Rasmus

    2002-01-01

    A formula for the necessary hull girder bending stiffness required to avoid serious springing vibrations is derived. The expression takes into account the zero crossing period of the waves, the ship speed and main dimensions. For whipping vibrations the probability of exceedance for the combined...

  4. Classification of Ship Routing and Scheduling Problems in Liner Shipping

    Kjeldsen, Karina Hjortshøj

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a classification scheme for ship routing and scheduling problems in liner shipping in line with the current and future operational conditions of the liner shipping industry. Based on the classification, the literature is divided into groups whose main characteristics...

  5. Time-domain Hydroelasticity Theory of Ships Responding to Waves

    Xia, Jinzhu; Wang, Zhaohui

    1997-01-01

    free surface flow. The general interface boundary condition is used in the mathematical formulation of the fluid motion around the flexible structure. The general time-domain theory is simplified to a slender-body theory for the analysis of wave-induced global responses of monohull ships. The structure...... is represented by a non-uniform beam, while the generalized hydrodynamic coefficients can be obtained from two-dimensional potential flow theory. The linear slender body theory is generalized to treat the non-linear loading effects of rigid motion and structural response of ships travelling in rough seas....... The non-linear hydrostatic restoring force and hydrodynamic momentum action are considered. A numerical solution is presented for the slender body theory. Numerical examples are given for two ship cases with different geometry features, a warship hull and the S175 containership with two different bow...

  6. Wallops Ship Surveillance System

    Smith, Donna C.

    2011-01-01

    Approved as a Wallops control center backup system, the Wallops Ship Surveillance Software is a day-of-launch risk analysis tool for spaceport activities. The system calculates impact probabilities and displays ship locations relative to boundary lines. It enables rapid analysis of possible flight paths to preclude the need to cancel launches and allow execution of launches in a timely manner. Its design is based on low-cost, large-customer- base elements including personal computers, the Windows operating system, C/C++ object-oriented software, and network interfaces. In conformance with the NASA software safety standard, the system is designed to ensure that it does not falsely report a safe-for-launch condition. To improve the current ship surveillance method, the system is designed to prevent delay of launch under a safe-for-launch condition. A single workstation is designated the controller of the official ship information and the official risk analysis. Copies of this information are shared with other networked workstations. The program design is divided into five subsystems areas: 1. Communication Link -- threads that control the networking of workstations; 2. Contact List -- a thread that controls a list of protected item (ocean vessel) information; 3. Hazard List -- threads that control a list of hazardous item (debris) information and associated risk calculation information; 4. Display -- threads that control operator inputs and screen display outputs; and 5. Archive -- a thread that controls archive file read and write access. Currently, most of the hazard list thread and parts of other threads are being reused as part of a new ship surveillance system, under the SureTrak project.

  7. Added masses of ship structures

    Korotkin, Alexandr I

    2008-01-01

    This essentially self-contained reference book contains data on added masses of ships and various ship and marine engineering structures. Theoretical and experimental methods for determining added masses of these objects are described.

  8. Ship Observations - VOS and Navy

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Combination of Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS) and US Navy Ship weather observations. Obs generally taken 2-4 times daily at 00, 06, 12, and 18z.

  9. Adaptability of solar energy conversion systems on ships

    Visa, I.; Cotorcea, A.; Neagoe, M.; Moldovan, M.

    2016-08-01

    International trade of goods largely uses maritime/transoceanic ships driven by engines using fossil fuels. This two centuries tradition is technologically mature but significantly adds to the CO2 emissions; therefore, recent trends focus on on-board implementation of systems converting the solar energy into power (photovoltaic systems) or heat (solar-thermal systems). These systems are carbon-emissions free but are still under research and plenty of effort is devoted to fast reach maturity and feasibility. Unlike the systems implemented in a specific continental location, the design of solar energy conversion systems installed on shipboard has to face the problem generated by the system base motion along with the ship travelling on routes at different latitudes: the navigation direction and sense and roll-pitch combined motion with reduced amplitude, but with relatively high frequency. These raise highly interesting challenges in the design and development of mechanical systems that support the maximal output in terms of electricity or heat. The paper addresses the modelling of the relative position of a solar energy conversion surface installed on a ship according to the current position of the sun; the model is based on the navigation trajectory/route, ship motion generated by waves and the relative sun-earth motion. The model describes the incidence angle of the sunray on the conversion surface through five characteristic angles: three used to define the ship orientation and two for the solar angles; based on, their influence on the efficiency in solar energy collection is analyzed by numerical simulations and appropriate recommendations are formulated for increasing the solar energy conversion systems adaptability on ships.

  10. Trends of shipping markets development

    Tomasz Nowosielski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Shipping markets are dependent on international trade transactions that generate transport needs. These needs can dynamically change depending on global natural resources and commodity markets situation. The changes affecting shipping markets can also be caused by changes to the existing cargo flows and by establishing new ones in different geographies. It is anticipated that in the future shipping markets will change, visible by a decline in shipping in North America and Europe and an increase in Asia.

  11. Fast Evaluation of Ship Responses in Waves

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to provide a rational and efficient procedure able to predict the design wave-induced motions, accelerations and loads with sufficient engineering accuracy in the conceptual design phase and in risk assessment. The procedure relies only on the following main parame...... parameters of the ship: Length, breadth, draught, block coefficient and water plane area together with the operational profile. The formulas are semi-analytical and the calculations can be easily done using a standard spreadsheet program....

  12. Collision simulations of an exclusive ship of spent nuclear fuels

    Kitamura, Ou; Endo, Hisayoshi

    2000-01-01

    Exclusive ships for sea transport of irradiated nuclear fuels operating in Japanese territorial waters are required to be built with the special hull structure against collision. To comply with the official notice 'KAISA No. 520' issued by the Ministry of Transport, the side structure of any such exclusive ship must be designed to secure the specified energy absorption capability based on Minorsky's ship collision model. The Shipbuilding Research Association of Japan (JSRA) has studied the safety in sea transport of nuclear fuels intermittently for these several decades. Recently, the adoption of finite element method has made detailed collision analyses practicable. Since 1998, the regulation research panel No. 46 of JSRA has carried out a series of finite element collision simulations in order to estimate the realistic damage to a typical exclusive ship of spent nuclear fuels. The expected structural responses, global motions and energy absorption capabilities of both colliding and struck ships during collision were investigated. The results of the investigations have shown that the ship is very likely to withstand the collision even with one of the world's largest ship. This is due mainly to her hull structure specially strengthened beyond the crushing strength of the colliding bow structures. (author)

  13. High cost for drilling ships

    Hooghiemstra, J.

    2007-01-01

    Prices for the rent of a drilling ship are very high. Per day the rent is 1% of the price for building such a ship, and those prices have risen as well. Still, it is attractive for oil companies to rent a drilling ship [nl

  14. Towards Real Time Simulation of Ship-Ship Interaction

    Lindberg, Ole; Bingham, Harry B.; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter

    2012-01-01

    We present recent and preliminary work directed towards the development of a simplified, physics-based model for improved simulation of ship-ship interaction that can be used for both analysis and real-time computing (i.e. with real-time constraints due to visualization). The goal is to implement...... accurate (realistic) and much faster ship-wave and ship-ship simulations than are currently possible. The coupling of simulation with visualization should improve the visual experience such that it can be perceived as more realistic in training. Today the state-of-art in real-time ship-ship interaction...... is for efficiency reasons and time-constraints in visualization based on model experiments in towing tanks and precomputed force tables. We anticipate that the fast, and highly parallel, algorithm described by Engsig-Karup et al. [2011] for execution on affordable modern high-throughput Graphics Processing Units...

  15. EMP coupling to ships

    Deadrick, F.J.; Cabayan, H.S.; Kunz, K.F.; Bevensee, R.M.; Martin, L.C.; Egbert, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    Scale-model tests were conducted to establish the adequacy and limitations of model measurements as tools for predicting electromagnetic pulse (EMP) coupling voltages and currents to the critical antennas, cables, and metallic structures on ships. The scale-model predictions are compared with the results of the full-scale EMP simulation test of the Canadian ASW ship, HMCS Huron. (The EMP coupling predictions in this report were made without prior knowledge of the results of the data from the HMCS Huron tests.) This report establishes that the scale-model tests in conjunction with the data base from EMP coupling modules provides the necessary information for source model development and permits effective, low-cost study of particular system configurations. 184 figures, 9 tables

  16. SHIPPING OF RADIOACTIVE ITEMS

    TIS/RP Group

    2001-01-01

    The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate, preparation of the package and related paperwork). Large and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

  17. Ship and Shoot

    Woods, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Ron Woods shared incredibly valuable insights gained during his 28 years at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) packaging Flight Crew Equipment for shuttle and ISS missions. In particular, Woods shared anecdotes and photos from various processing events. The moral of these stories and the main focus of this discussion were the additional processing efforts and effects related to a "ship-and-shoot" philosophy toward flight hardware.

  18. Investigation of the effects of platform motion on the aerodynamics of a floating offshore wind turbine

    万德成

    2016-01-01

    Along with the flourishing of the wind energy industry, floating offshore wind turbines have aroused much interest among the academia as well as enterprises. In this paper, the effects of the supporting platform motion on the aerodynamics of a floating wind turbine are studied using the open source CFD framework OpenFOAM. The platform motion responses, including surge, heave and pitch, are superimposed onto the rotation of the wind turbine. Thrust and torque on the wind turbine are compared and analysed for the cases of different platform motion patterns together with the flow field. It is shown that the movement of the supporting platform can have large influences on a floating offshore wind turbine and thus needs to be considered carefully during the design process.

  19. Wind Tunnel Assessment of Ship Manoeuvrability using a PMM Technique

    Agdrup, Kristian; Jensen, Andreas G.; Aage, Christian

    1999-01-01

    Tests have been performed at the Danish Maritime Institute (DMI) to investigate the applicability of a new wind tunnel Planar Motion Mechanism (PMM) for the determination of hydrodynamic coefficients of ships. The method has been tested on a tanker with known towing tank data. The wind tunnel model...... data giving reasonable results. The dependency of amplitude and frequency is evaluated, and sources of inaccuracy are discussed. It is concluded that the wind tunnel method is a promising method to achieve a fast and cost-effective estimate of the hydrodynamic coefficients of a ship hull...

  20. Numerical prediction of green water loads on ships

    Nielsen, Kristian Bendix

    2003-01-01

    The main objective of the present study has been to investigate problems related to shipping green water on deck of a floating vessel by use of numerical methods. A Navier-Stokes solver with a free surface capturing scheme, similar to the VOF method (Hirt and Nichols, 1981) has been applied...... green water problem with relative ship motion included. Great effoort has been made to validate and verify the numerical method and all computations have been verified by use of several computational grids with increasing resolution and validated by comparison to experimental data. Results from the dam...

  1. Analysis of a ship-to-ship collision

    Porter, V.L.; Ammerman, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is involved in a safety assessment for the shipment of radioactive material by sea. One part of this study is investigation of the consequences of ship-to-ship collisions. This paper describes two sets of finite element analyses performed to assess the structural response of a small freighter and the loading imparted to radioactive material (RAM) packages during several postulated collision scenarios with another ship. The first series of analyses was performed to evaluate the amount of penetration of the freighter hull by a striking ship of various masses and initial velocities. Although these analyses included a representation of a single RAM package, the package was not impacted during the collision so forces on the package could not be computed. Therefore, a second series of analyses incorporating a representation of a row of seven packages was performed to ensure direct package impact by the striking ship. Average forces on a package were evaluated for several initial velocities and masses of the striking ship. In addition to. providing insight to ship and package response during a few postulated ship collisions scenarios, these analyses will be used to benchmark simpler ship collision models used in probabilistic risk assessment analyses

  2. Hospital Ship Replacement

    2011-08-01

    serious contender. Although it is a proven hull design for stability, integrating the ability to quickly transfer patients aboard is challenging . The...Waste management afloat is a constant challenge for the Navy. It is even more so when designing a hospital ship. In addition to the typical waste...0.97 Optbrs: Corrmon rail fuellrijacllon,crude oil. Rated power generating sets 61:ili:ln()q;to~ 50Htl760rpm &.gne type -1801.\\ Vlc )l ~W.’/cyl SI;O k

  3. Full Scale Measurements of the Hydro-Elastic Response of Large Container Ships for Decision Support

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent

    scale measurements from four container ships of 4,400 TEU, 8,600 TEU, 9,400 TEU and 14,000 TEU Primarily, strains measured near the deck amidships are used. Furthermore, measurements of motions and the encountered sea state are available for one of the ships. The smallest ship is in operation...... frequency with the waves. Together with the relatively high design speed and often pronounced bow flare this makes large container ship more sensitive to slamming and, consequently, the effects of wave-induced hull girder vibrations. From full scale strain measurements of individual, measured hull girder......The overall topic of this thesis is decision support for operation of ships and several aspects are covered herein. However, the main focus is on the wave-induced hydro-elastic response of large container ships and its implications on the structural response. The analyses are based mainly on full...

  4. Ship Creek bioassessment investigations

    Cushing, C.E.; Mueller, R.P.; Murphy, M.T.

    1995-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked by Elmendorf Air Force Base (EAFB) personnel to conduct a series of collections of macroinvertebrates and sediments from Ship Creek to (1) establish baseline data on these populations for reference in evaluating possible impacts from Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) activities at two operable units, (2) compare current population indices with those found by previous investigations in Ship Creek, and (3) determine baseline levels of concentrations of any contaminants in the sediments associated with the macroinvertebrates. A specific suite of indices established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was requested for the macroinvertebrate analyses; these follow the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol developed by Plafkin et al. (1989) and will be described. Sediment sample analyses included a Microtox bioassay and chemical analysis for contaminants of concern. These analyses included, volatile organic compounds, total gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons (EPA method 8015, CA modified), total organic carbon, and an inductive-coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) metals scan. Appendix A reports on the sediment analyses. The Work Plan is attached as Appendix B.

  5. Evaluation of the added mass for a spheroid-type unmanned underwater vehicle by vertical planar motion mechanism test

    Seong-Keon Lee

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows added mass and inertia can be acquired from the pure heaving motion and pure pitching motion respectively. A Vertical Planar Motion Mechanism (VPMM test for the spheroid-type Unmanned Underwater Vehicle (UUV was compared with a theoretical calculation and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD analysis in this paper. The VPMM test has been carried out at a towing tank with specially manufactured equipment. The linear equations of motion on the vertical plane were considered for theoretical calculation, and CFD results were obtained by commercial CFD package. The VPMM test results show good agreement with theoretical calculations and the CFD results, so that the applicability of the VPMM equipment for an underwater vehicle can be verified with a sufficient accuracy.

  6. ERDC Ship/Tow Simulator

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Performing Advanced Hydrodynamic ModelingEngineers and ship pilots can now overcome the challenges of evaluating navigation channel designs, modifications and safety...

  7. Multivariable Identification of Ship Steering and Roll Motions

    Tiano, A.; Blanke, M.

    1997-01-01

    the estimation of a large number of unknown parameters, is based on a suitable implementation of Simulated Annealing. Application of the algorithm to a set of simulated data has proved to be quite successful. The results show that the proposed identification method is a very efficient and easy-to-use tool...

  8. Grounding Bottom Damage and Ship Motion over a Rock

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Wierzbicki, Tomasz

    1996-01-01

    compatibility between all structural members. Friction is taken into account and it is shown how friction contributes to the horizontal resistance force and the vertical reaction force. The resistance of the structural members is expressed in closed forms thus requiring very small modeling time. The model...

  9. On Impact Mechanics in Ship Collisions

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present analytical, closed-form expressions for the energy released for crushing and the impact impulse during ship collisions. Ship-ship collisions, ship collisions with rigid walls and ship collisions with flexible offshore structures are considered. The derived ...

  10. Luggage and shipped goods

    Vogel, H.; Haller, D.

    2007-01-01

    Summary: Purpose: Control of luggage and shipped goods are frequently carried out. The possibilities of X-ray technology shall be demonstrated. Materials and methods: There are different imaging techniques. The main concepts are transmission imaging, backscatter imaging, computed tomography, and dual energy imaging and the combination of different methods The images come from manufacturers and personal collections. Results: The search concerns mainly, weapons, explosives, and drugs; furthermore animals, and stolen goods, Special problems offer the control of letters and the detection of Improvised Explosive Devices (IED). Conclusion: One has to expect that controls will increase and that imaging with X-rays will have their part. Pattern recognition software will be used for analysis enforced by economy and by demand for higher efficiency - man and computer will produce more security than man alone

  11. Global Shipping Game

    2011-01-28

    information please contact the Chairman, War Gaming Department, Naval War College, 686 Cushing Road, Newport, RI 02841 or via electronic mail at... Game ……………………………………………...9 c. Overarching Research Question……………………………………………..…10 d. Subsidiary Questions…………………………………………………………...10 e ...An e -SLOC is the “cyber network that supports the global maritime trade network.” Industry Global Shipping Game Report 27 experts felt that

  12. Single liner shipping service design

    Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Pisinger, David; Salazar-González, Juan-José

    2014-01-01

    The design of container shipping networks is an important logistics problem, involving assets and operational costs measured in billions of dollars. To guide the optimal deployment of the ships, a single vessel round trip is considered by minimizing operational costs and flowing the best paying...

  13. Towards a nuclear merchant ship

    Nicholson, R.L.R.; Llewelyn, G.I.W.; Farmer, A.A.

    1976-01-01

    The operation of nuclear merchant ships is likely to be attended by a number of constraints and requirements. Not all of these can be fully resolved until such ships come into use and the necessary experience and confidence have been acquired. But the timing of commercial introduction, if it comes about, will depend on the relative economics of nuclear versus fossil fuel propulsion, and the differences in turn depend in part on the operating costs particular to nuclear ships. A review of operation aspects is essential not only to commercial appraisal; each country whose trade may be carried in nuclear ships - whether it will build such ships or not - will have occasion to give some attention to the problems. It is an international problem and is, as noted later, being considered internationally. This paper; i) reviews some of the operational aspects as seen in the U.K.; ii) summarizes views received by the Nuclear Merchant Ship Unit (NMSU) from U.K. shipping, shipbuilding and nuclear industries on the prospects of a U.K. nuclear merchant ship. (author)

  14. Ship exhaust gas plume cooling

    Schleijpen, H.M.A.; Neele, P.P.

    2004-01-01

    The exhaust gas plume is an important and sometimes dominating contributor to the infrared signature of ships. Suppression of the infrared ship signatures has been studied by TNO for the Royal Netherlands Navy over considerable time. This study deals with the suppression effects, which can be

  15. Navy Hospital ships in history

    Sougat Ray

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hospital ships are operated by the Naval forces in or near war zones to provide medical assistance to the wounded personnel of all nationalities and not be used for any military purpose. Hospital ships possibly existed in ancient times and the Athenian Navy had a ship named Therapia. However, it was only during the 17th century that it became a common practice for the naval squadrons to be accompanied by large ships with the facilities of carrying the wounded after each engagement. In 1860, the steamships HMS Melbourne and HMS Mauritius were equipped with genuine medical facilities. They were manned by the Medical Staff Corps and provided services to the British expedition to China. During the World War I and World War II, passenger ships were converted for use as hospital ships and were started to be used on a massive scale. RMS Aquitania and HMHS Britannic were two famous examples of hospital ships used extensively. Modern US hospital ships USNS Mercy and USNS Comfort are operated by Military Sealift Command of the US Navy. Their primary mission is to provide emergency on-site care for US combatant forces deployed in war or other operations.

  16. Identification of Dynamically Positioned Ships

    Thor I. Fossen

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Todays model-based dynamic positioning (DP systems require that the ship and thruster dynamics are known with some accuracy in order to use linear quadratic optical control theory. However, it is difficult to identify the mathematical model of a dynamically posititmed (DP ship since the ship is not persistently excited under DP. In addition the ship parameter estimation problem is nonlinear and multivariable with only position and thruster state measurements available for parameter estimation. The process and measurement noise must also be modeled in order to avoid parameter drift due to environmental disturbances and sensor failure. This article discusses an off-line parallel extended Kalman filter (EKF algorithm utilizing two measurement series in parallel to estimate the parameters in the DP ship model. Full-scale experiments with a supply vessel are used to demonstrate the convergence and robustness of the proposed parameter estimator.

  17. Performance of Ships and Offshore Structures in Waves

    Shukui Liu

    2012-01-01

    for predicting large amplitude motions of ships and floating structures in response to incoming waves in the frame of potential theory. The developed alternative set of time domain methods simulate the hydrodynamic forces acting on ships advancing in waves with constant speed. For motions’ simulation, the diffraction forces and radiation forces are calculated up to the mean wetted surface, while the Froude-Krylov forces and hydrostatic restoring forces are calculated up to the undisturbed incident wave surface in case of large incident wave amplitude. This enables the study of the above waterline hull form effect. Characteristic case studies on simulating the hydrodynamic forces and motions of standard type of ships have been conducted for validation purpose. Good agreement with other numerical codes and experimental data has been observed. Furthermore, the added resistance of ships in waves can be calculated by the presented methods. This capability supports the increased demand of this type of tools for the proper selection of engine/propulsion systems accounting for ship’s performance in realistic sea conditions, or when optimizing ship’s sailing route for minimum fuel consumption and toxic gas emissions.

  18. Cybersecurity Framework for Ship Industrial Control System

    Maule, R. William; Hake, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Ship mechanical and electrical control systems, and the communications grid through which these devices operate, are a high priority concern for Navy leadership. Ship systems use microprocessor-based controls to interface with physical objects, and Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) to automate ship electromechanical processes. Ship operations are completely dependent on these devices. The commercial security products upon which ships depend do not work on ICS, leaving ships vulnerable. Th...

  19. Containment of spills from ships

    Engerer, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    Oil escaping from a ship is contained within a limited area surrounding the ship by means of a flexible ring structure. The ring structure is stored in a collapsed state in a compartment extending around the ship. In response to an oil spill, the ring structure is dropped from the compartment and immediately surrounds the ship. A circular inflatable flotation section of the ring structure is charged with gas under pressure. The gas is supplied from a bottle cascade aboard the ship, through lines preconnected to the flotation section and paid out from free-wheeling reels. The flotation section supports a thin circumferential wall of predetermined height that submerges and assumes a vertical cylinder-like shape surrounding the escaping oil. The oil floats within the confines of the ring structure, and the ring structure is progressively expanded to a predetermined size selected to accommodate the total volume of oil carried by the ship. When the ring structure achieves its expanded state, pressure in the flotation section is raised to render the structure relatively rigid and resistant to collapse in response to wave action. Oil can be removed from the interior of the ring structure by recovery ships using suction lines or other conventional recovery methods. 12 figs

  20. Development of NESSY (Nuclear ship Engineering Simulation SYstem) and its application to dynamic analysis

    Kusunoki, T.; Uematsu, H.; Kobayashi, H.

    1992-01-01

    A marine reactor plant sustains incessant load change and the effects of vibration and ship motions due to the maneuvering and dynamic conditions in the marine environment. The change of process variables of the reactor plant is made in accordance with the load change and other effects, and also results in the propeller revolution change and subsequently affects on ship motions. In order to grasp dynamic behavior of the reactor plant in normal operation, including port entry and departure, and also in abnormal conditions such as anticipated transient and accidents, the Nuclear ship Engineering Simulation SYstem (simply ENSSY, hereinafter) carriers out combined analysis in which the behaviors of the ship propulsion, the reactor plant and the secondary systems are simultaneously calculated in each time step. (author)

  1. Loads for use in the design of ships and offshore structures

    Hirdaris, S.E.; Bai, W.; Dessi, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    The evaluation of structural responses is key element in the design of ships and offshore structures. Fundamental to this is the determination of the design loads to support the Rule requirements and for application in direct calculations. To date, the current design philosophy for the prediction...... of motions and wave-induced loads has been driven by empirical or first-principles calculation procedures based on well-proven applications such as ship motion prediction programs. In recent years, the software, engineering and computer technology available to predict the design loads imposed on ships...... and offshore structures has improved dramatically. Notwithstanding, with the stepwise increase in the size and structural complexity of ships and floating offshore installations and the advances in the framework of Rules and Standards it has become necessary to utilise the latest technologies to assess...

  2. Ships and the Sailors Inside Them

    Sims, Philip

    2004-01-01

    .... Iron shipbuilding allowed safer and healthier ships but their internal compartmentation created communication problems which were gradually solved with mechanical systems Ships developed their own...

  3. Bio-indications of sunken ships and ship wrecks

    Parulekar, A

    An evaluation of bottom fauna of ship-wreck sites in estuarine and coastal waters of Goa, India, revealed an exceptionally high biotic enrichment. In terms of number of species, faunal dispersion, faunal diversity, biomass and productivity, in space...

  4. Crash testing of nuclear fuel shipping containers

    Jefferson, R.M.; Yoshimura, H.R.

    1977-08-01

    In an attempt to understand the dynamics of extra severe transportation accidents and to evaluate state-of-the-art computational techniques for predicting the dynamic response of shipping casks involved in vehicular system crashes, the Environmental Control Technology Division of ERDA undertook a program with Sandia to investigate these areas. The program encompasses the following distinct major efforts. The first of these utilizes computational methods for predicting the effects of the accident environment and, subsequently, to calculate the damage incurred by a container as the result of such an accident. The second phase involves the testing of 1 / 8 -scale models of transportation systems. Through the use of instrumentation and high-speed motion photography the accident environments and physical damage mechanisms are studied in detail. After correlating the results of these first two phases, a full scale event involving representative hardware is conducted. To date two of the three selected test scenarios have been completed. Results of the program to this point indicate that both computational techniques and scale modeling are viable engineering approaches to studying accident environments and physical damage to shipping casks

  5. Crash testing of nuclear fuel shipping containers

    Jefferson, R.M.; Yoshimura, H.R.

    1977-12-01

    In an attempt to understand the dynamics of extra severe transportation accidents and to evaluate state-of-the-art computational techniques for predicting the dynamic response of shipping casks involved in vehicular system crashes, the Environmental Control Technology Division of ERDA undertook a program with Sandia to investigate these areas. This program, which began in 1975, encompasses the following distinct major efforts. The first of these utilizes computational methods for predicting the effects of the accident environment and, subsequently, to calculate the damage incurred by a container as the result of such an accident. The second phase involves the testing of 1 / 8 -scale models of transportation systems. Through the use of instrumentation and high-speed motion photography, the accident environments and physical damage mechanisms are studied in detail. After correlating the results of these first two phases, a full scale event involving representative hardware is conducted. To date two of the three selected test scenarios have been completed. Results of the program to this point indicate that both computational techniques and scale modeling are viable engineering approaches to studying accident environments and physical damage to shipping casks

  6. Neutrino physics with SHIP

    van Herwijnen, Eric

    2016-01-01

    SHIP is a new general purpose fixed target facility, whose Technical Proposal has been recently reviewed by the CERN SPS Committee. It recommended that the experiment proceed further to a Comprehensive Design phase. In its initial phase, the 400 GeV proton beam extracted from the SPS will be dumped on a heavy target with the aim of integrating 2×1020 POT (Protons On Target) in 5 years. A dedicated detector, based on a long vacuum tank followed by a spectrometer and particle identification detectors, will allow probing a variety of models with light long-lived exotic particles and masses below O(10) GeV/c 2 . The main focus will be the physics of the so-called Hidden Portals. The sensitivity to Heavy Neutrinos will allow to probe for the first time the mass range between the kaon and the charm meson mass, and a range of couplings for which Baryogenesis and active neutrino masses could also be explained. Another dedicated detector will allow the study of neutrino cross-sections and angular distributions. ντ ...

  7. Production Balance of Ship Erection

    JIANG Ru-hong; TAN Jia-hua; LIU Cun-gen

    2008-01-01

    A network plan model of ship erection was established based on the network planning technologyand the work-package breakdown system. The load-oriented production control method was introduced to buildup a throughput diagram model thus it is possible to describe the ship erection process numerically. Based onthe digitaiized models some cases of production balance of ship erection were studied and three balance indexeswere put forward, they are the load balance rate, the input manpower balance rate and the maximum gantrycrane operating times. Such an analytic method based on the balance evaluation is the important foundationfor digitization and intelligentization of shipyard production management.

  8. Dynamic motion modes of high temperature superconducting maglev on a 45-m long ring test line

    Lei, W. Y.; Qian, N.; Zheng, J.; Jin, L. W.; Zhang, Y.; Deng, Z. G.

    2017-10-01

    With the development of high temperature superconducting (HTS) maglev, studies on the running stability have become more and more significant to ensure the operation safety. An experimental HTS maglev vehicle was tested on a 45-m long ring test line under the speed from 4 km/h to 20 km/h. The lateral and vertical acceleration signals of each cryostat were collected by tri-axis accelerometers in real time. By analyzing the phase relationship of acceleration signals on the four cryostats, several typical motion modes of the HTS maglev vehicle, including lateral, yaw, pitch and heave motions were observed. This experimental finding is important for the next improvement of the HTS maglev system.

  9. Slamming Simulations in a Conditional Wave

    Seng, Sopheak; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2012-01-01

    A study of slamming events in conditional waves is presented in this paper. The ship is sailing in head sea and the motion is solved for under the assumption of rigid body motion constrained to two degree-of-freedom i.e. heave and pitch. Based on a time domain non-linear strip theory most probable...

  10. Potential risks of nuclear ships

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1994-07-01

    This report represents an attempt to evaluate the potential risks of nuclear ships. Firstly reasons are given why nuclear ship accidents will not lead to accidents of the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. This is due to much lower content of radioactive material and to different reactor designs. Next a review is given of the types of accidents which have actually occurred. Of these the reactor accidents which may lead to serious consequences for the crew and the environment are considered further. These are reactivity accidents and loss of coolant accidents. In addition the long term risks of sunken nuclear ships and sea disposed reactor compartments etc. are also discussed. Based on available accident data an attempt is made to estimate the probability of serious nuclear ship accidents. (au)

  11. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    Hansen, H.L.; Nielsen, D.; Frydenberg, Morten

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may...... be initiated. Methods: The study is a historical follow up on occupational accidents among crew aboard Danish merchant ships in the period 1993–7. Data were extracted from the Danish Maritime Authority and insurance data. Exact data on time at risk were available. Results: A total of 1993 accidents were...... aboard. Relative risks for notified accidents and accidents causing permanent disability of 5% or more were calculated in a multivariate analysis including ship type, occupation, age, time on board, change of ship since last employment period, and nationality. Foreigners had a considerably lower recorded...

  12. Travelers' Health: Cruise Ship Travel

    ... and territories). Zika virus was first reported in Brazil in 2015 and subsequently spread across the Caribbean ... 11. Mouchtouri VA, Rudge JW. Legionnaires’ disease in hotels and passenger ships: a systematic review of evidence, ...

  13. Ship Repair Workflow Cost Model

    McDevitt, Mike

    2003-01-01

    The effects of intermittent work patterns and funding on the costs of ship repair and maintenance were modeled for the San Diego region in 2002 for Supervisor of Shipbuilding and Repair (SUPSHIP) San Diego...

  14. TMI-2 spent fuel shipping

    Quinn, G.J.; Burton, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    TMI-2 failed fuel will be shipped to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for use in the DOE Core Examination Program. The fuel debris will be loaded into three types of canisters during defueling and dry loaded into a spent fuel shipping cask. The cask design accommodates seven canisters per cask and has two separate containment vessels with ''leaktight'' seals. Shipments are expectd to begin in early 1986

  15. Influence of Surge Motion on the Probability of Parametric Roll in a Stationary Sea State

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Vidic-Perunovic, Jelena; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2007-01-01

    A typical parametric roll scenario for a ship in head waves implies that the roll motion is coupled with vertical motion of the vessel. The added resistance of the ship is increased when the bow pitches down in a wave crest. As a consequence, the ship speed is slowed down and, hence, the roll...... resonance condition might be changed. In an attempt to study the influence of this speed variation in waves on parametric roll, the procedure for estimation of probability of parametric roll by Jensen and Pedersen (2006) has been extended to account for the surge motion of the vessel....

  16. On impact mechanics in ship collisions

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present analytical, closed-form expressions for the energy released for crushing and the impact impulse during ship collisions. Ship–ship collisions, ship collisions with rigid walls and ship collisions with flexible offshore structures are considered. The derived ...

  17. Vestibular stimulation on a motion-simulator impacts on mood states

    Lotta eWinter

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We are familiar with both pleasant and unpleasant psychotropic effects of movements associated with vestibular stimulation. However, there has been no attempt to scientifically explore the impact of different kinds of vestibular stimulation on mood states and biomarkers.A sample of 23 healthy volunteers were subjected to a random sequence of three different passive rotational (yaw, pitch, roll and translational (heave, sway, surge vestibular stimulation paradigms using a motion-simulator (hexapod. Mood states were measured by means of questionnaires and visual analogue scales. In addition, saliva cortisol and α-amylase samples were taken.Compared to a subliminal control paradigm all rotational and two translational stimulations produced significant changes in mood states: Yaw rotation was associated with feeling more comfortable, pitch rotation with feeling more alert and energetic, and roll rotation with feeling less comfortable. Heave translation was associated with feeling more alert, less relaxed, and less comfortable and surge translation with feeling more alert. Biomarkers were not affected.In conclusion, we provide first experimental evidence that passive rotational and translational movements may influence mood states on a short term basis and that the quality of these psychotropic effects may depend on the plane and axis of the respective movements.

  18. Development of the nuclear ship MUTSU spent fuel shipping cask

    Ishizuka, M.; Umeda, M.; Nawata, Y.; Sato, H.; Honami, M.; Nomura, T.; Ohashi, M.; Higashino, A.

    1989-01-01

    After the planned trial voyage (4700 MWD/MTU) of the nuclear ship MUTSU in 1990, her spent fuel assemblies, initially made of two types of enriched UO 2 (3.2wt% and 4.4wt%), will be transferred to the reprocessing plant soon after cooling down in the ship reactor for more than one year. For transportation, the MUTSU spent fuel shipping casks will be used. Prior to transportation to the reprocessing plant, the cooled spent fuel assemblies will be removed from the reactor to the shipping casks and housed at the spent fuel storage facility on site. In designing the MUTSU spent fuel shipping cask, considerations were given to make the leak-tightness and integrity of the cask confirmable during storage. The development of the cask and the storage function demonstration test were performed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI). One prototype cask for the storage demonstration test and licensed thirty-five casks were manufactured between 1987 and 1988

  19. Parameter Identification of Ship Maneuvering Models Using Recursive Least Square Method Based on Support Vector Machines

    Man Zhu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of ship maneuvering models is a tough task of ship maneuverability prediction. Among several prime approaches of estimating ship maneuvering models, system identification combined with the full-scale or free- running model test is preferred. In this contribution, real-time system identification programs using recursive identification method, such as the recursive least square method (RLS, are exerted for on-line identification of ship maneuvering models. However, this method seriously depends on the objects of study and initial values of identified parameters. To overcome this, an intelligent technology, i.e., support vector machines (SVM, is firstly used to estimate initial values of the identified parameters with finite samples. As real measured motion data of the Mariner class ship always involve noise from sensors and external disturbances, the zigzag simulation test data include a substantial quantity of Gaussian white noise. Wavelet method and empirical mode decomposition (EMD are used to filter the data corrupted by noise, respectively. The choice of the sample number for SVM to decide initial values of identified parameters is extensively discussed and analyzed. With de-noised motion data as input-output training samples, parameters of ship maneuvering models are estimated using RLS and SVM-RLS, respectively. The comparison between identification results and true values of parameters demonstrates that both the identified ship maneuvering models from RLS and SVM-RLS have reasonable agreements with simulated motions of the ship, and the increment of the sample for SVM positively affects the identification results. Furthermore, SVM-RLS using data de-noised by EMD shows the highest accuracy and best convergence.

  20. Transnucleaire's experience in ship adaptation

    Brachet, Y.; Vallette-Fontaine, M.

    2000-01-01

    Due to the application of the new IMDG regulations for the transport of radioactive material by sea, the conditions of transport of MTR spent fuel have drastically changed five years ago. In this paper, TRANSNUCLEAIRE analyses the necessary modifications to apply to existing ships in order to comply with the IMDG/INF regulations as well as with the Japanese KAISA 520 regulation. In the MTR spent fuel transport market characterized by a competitive approach, TRANSNUCLEAIRE has carried out many transports by sea in full compliance with the regulations at a price which is as close as possible to that of other industrial goods and without the need to fully dedicate the BOUGUENAIS ship to nuclear transports. Innovative ship design solutions have been implemented and accepted by different Authorities uncluding the Advisory Committee of the Japanese MOT. Due to efficient finite element calculations, benchmarked by laboratory large scale tests, high performances crushing materials have been developed in order to absorb the energy of collision between ships. These developments have led ta propose an efficient ship design complying with all the existing worldwide nuclear regulations. (author)

  1. Effect of Buffer Bow Structure in Ship-Ship Collision

    Yamada, Yasuhira; Endo, Hisayoshi; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2008-01-01

    tankers, the introduction of buffer bulbous bows has been proposed. Relatively soft buffer bows absorb part of the kinetic energy of the striking ship before penetrating the inner hull of the struck vessel. The purpose of the present paper is to verify the effectiveness of a prototype buffer bulbous bow......) and the forward velocity of the struck ship on the collapse mode of the bow of the striking vessel are investigated. Collapse modes, contact forces and energy absorption capabilities of the buffer bows are compared with those of conventional bows....

  2. Development of Nuclear ship Engineering Simulation SYstem (NESSY)

    Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi; Kyouya, Masahiko; Takahashi, Teruo; Kobayashi, Hideo; Ochiai, Masa-aki; Hashidate, Kouji.

    1993-11-01

    NESSY has been developed for design studies of advanced marine reactors as a part of nuclear ship research and development since 1987. Engineering simulation model of the Mutsu, which is the first nuclear ship in Japan, was completed in March of 1993. In this report we concentration on detail description of softwares for Mutsu modeling. The aims of development of NESSY are as follows; (1) Assessment and confirmation on plant performance of an advanced marine reactor in each step of nuclear ship design (2) Development of abnormality diagnosis system and operator support system as a part of enhanced automization study, and study of human interface with hardware The characteristics of NESSY are the followings. (1) Total engineering simulation system simulate simultaneously ship motions, propulsion system behavior, and nuclear plant behavior under given weather and sea conditions. (2) Models based on physical theory as far as possible. (3) The simulator has high extensibility and flexibility. It is able to apply to other reactors, as the simulation model consists of the part of basic model and the part of plant data which are easy to change. After completion of Mutsu modeling, we are planning to utilize this system as one of design tools for an advanced marine reactor. (author)

  3. EX1001 Ship Shakedown (EX1001, EM302) on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer in Hawaiian Islands

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The ship has been alongside for repairs and leave since November, 2009. The ship shakedown cruise is scheduled to provide an opportunity for the ship to get underway...

  4. Reliability Based Ship Structural Design

    Dogliani, M.; Østergaard, C.; Parmentier, G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with the development of different methods that allow the reliability-based design of ship structures to be transferred from the area of research to the systematic application in current design. It summarises the achievements of a three-year collaborative research project dealing...... with developments of models of load effects and of structural collapse adopted in reliability formulations which aim at calibrating partial safety factors for ship structural design. New probabilistic models of still-water load effects are developed both for tankers and for containerships. New results are presented...... structure of several tankers and containerships. The results of the reliability analysis were the basis for the definition of a target safety level which was used to asses the partial safety factors suitable for in a new design rules format to be adopted in modern ship structural design. Finally...

  5. Design of Crashworthy Ship Strucures

    Toernqvist, Rikard

    2003-01-01

    The main purpose of the project has been to develop a rational procedure for designing new crashworthy side structures for those ship types where it could be expected that a substantial improvement of the crashworthiness and the related safety could be achieved by careful consideration of the str......The main purpose of the project has been to develop a rational procedure for designing new crashworthy side structures for those ship types where it could be expected that a substantial improvement of the crashworthiness and the related safety could be achieved by careful consideration...... in collision and grounding analysis is the prediction of the onset of fracture and crack propagation in the shell plating. In simulations of accidental loading on ships it is crucial that fracture is determined correctly, as it will influence the global deformation mode and the amount of damage to the hull...

  6. Fuel exchanger for nuclear ships

    Suda, Koji; Kanbara, Takahisa; Watanabe, Masaharu.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent enviromental contamination landing radioactive materials from the inside of a ship. Constitution: A provisional cabin having a shape covering a reactor hatch and a hatch cover is disposed on the upper deck of a ship body. A ceiling shutter is disposed to the cabin. A protection cylinder having a shutter and a filter fan is attached on the cabin. Materials to be discharged out of the ship are transported to a fuel exchange tower on land by using a crane while being contained in the protection cylinder with the shutter being closed. The protection cylinder is connected by means of a wire rope to a loop-wheel machine which disposed on the trolly of a crane. While the bellows through which the suspending wire for the discharged products passes is perforated, since the inside of the cylinder is depressurized by a filter fan, there is no air leakage through the perforation to the outside. (Ikeda, J.)

  7. Fuel exchanger for nuclear ships

    Suda, Koji; Kanbara, Takahisa; Watanabe, Masaharu

    1984-11-29

    To prevent enviromental contamination by radioactive materials from the inside of a ship a provisional cabin having a shape covering a reactor hatch and a hatch cover is disposed on the upper deck of a ship body. A ceiling shutter is disposed to the cabin. A protection cylinder having a shutter and a filter fan is attached on the cabin. Materials to be discharged out of the ship are transported to a fuel exchange tower on land by using a crane while being contained in the protection cylinder with the shutter being closed. The protection cylinder is connected by means of a wire rope to a loop-wheel machine which is disposed on the trolly of a crane. While the bellows through which the suspending wire for the discharged products passes is perforated, since the inside of the cylinder is depressurized by a filter fan, there is no air leakage through the perforation to the outside.

  8. Ships - inspiring objects in architecture

    Marczak, Elzbieta

    2017-10-01

    Sea-going vessels have for centuries fascinated people, not only those who happen to work at sea, but first and foremost, those who have never set foot aboard a ship. The environment in which ships operate is reminiscent of freedom and countless adventures, but also of hard and interesting maritime working life. The famous words of Pompey: “Navigare necesseest, vivere non estnecesse” (sailing is necessary, living - is not necessary), which he pronounced on a stormy sea voyage, arouse curiosity and excitement, inviting one to test the truth of this saying personally. It is often the case, however, that sea-faring remains within the realm of dreams, while the fascination with ships demonstrates itself through a transposition of naval features onto land constructions. In such cases, ship-inspired motifs bring alive dreams and yearnings as well as reflect tastes. Tourism is one of the indicators of people’s standard of living and a measure of a society’s civilisation. Maritime tourism has been developing rapidly in recent decades. A sea cruise offers an insight into life at sea. Still, most people derive their knowledge of passenger vessels and their furnishings from the mass media. Passenger vessels, also known as “floating cities,” are described as majestic and grand, while their on-board facilities as luxurious, comfortable, exclusive and inaccessible to common people on land. Freight vessels, on the other hand, are described as enormous objects which dwarf the human being into insignificance. This article presents the results of research intended to answer the following questions: what makes ships a source of inspiration for land architecture? To what extent and by what means do architects draw on ships in their design work? In what places can we find structures inspired by ships? What ships inspire architects? This article presents examples of buildings, whose design was inspired by the architecture and structural details of sea vessels. An analysis of

  9. Wind Forces on Container Ships

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of the wind forces acting on a 9,000+ TEU container ship has been carried out through a series of wind tunnel tests. It was investigated how the wind forces depend on the container configuration on the deck using a 1:450 scale model and a series of appropriate container...... are presented as nondimensional coefficients. It is concluded, that the measured forces and moment depend on the container configuration on deck, and the results may provide a general idea of how the magnitude of the wind forces is affected by a given container stacking configuration on a similar container ship....

  10. Quality management in shipping companies

    Đergović Dragana M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As international business becomes more competitive, companies are finding that they need to work more effectively to stay in business. Quality assurance has become very important to the majority of production and service companies with international activity. Shipping companies were also required to implement a quality management system. The huge importance of safety in maritime transport operations resulted in the International Safety Management Code (ISM Code by the International Maritime Organization. The general management system principles embodied by the maritime ISM Code and generics ISO standards, have enabled their complementary application in establishing a quality management system in shipping companies, within a safety management system as its subset.

  11. Measurement of vertical motions of bulk carriers navigating in port entrance channels

    Moes, J

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available measurements of ship motions with simultaneous recording of tide, wave and ship conditions. The measured wave parameters include the wave height, period and direction. Based on these relationships, the maximum safe draught for Richards Bay can be determined...

  12. The development of natural circulation operation support program for ship nuclear power machinery

    Hao, Jianli; Chen, Wenzhen; Chen, Zhiyun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The natural circulation under various ocean and ship motion conditions is studied. ► A natural circulation operation support computer program (NCOSP) is developed with Simulink. ► The NCOSP program has the merit of easy input preparation, fast and accurate simulation. ► The NCOSP is suitable for the fast parameter simulation of ship nuclear power machinery. -- Abstract: The existing simulation program of ship nuclear power machinery (SNPM) cannot adequately deal with the natural circulation (NC) operation and the effects of various ocean conditions and ship motion. Aiming at the problem, the natural circulation operation support computer program for SNPM is developed, in which the momentum conservation equation of the primary loop, some heat transfer and flow resistance models and equations are modified for the various ocean conditions and ship motion. The additional pressure loss model and effective height model for the control volume in the gyration movement, simple harmonic rolling and pitching movements are also discussed in the paper. Furthermore, the transient response to load change under NC conditions is analyzed by the developed program. The results are compared with those predicted by the modified RELAP5/mod3.2 code. It is shown that the natural circulation operation support program (NCOSP) is simple in the input preparation, runs fast and has a satisfactory precision, and is therefore very suitable for the operating field support of SNPM under the conditions of NC.

  13. Development of the hull inspection robot (RTV-SHIP); Sentai kensayo suichu robot (RTV-SHIP) no kaihatsu (atarashii sentai kensaho no ichiteian)

    Nakata, Y.; Otsuka, M.; Ozawa, H.; Konosu, M. [Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    A compact and lightweight underwater RTV robot (RTV-SHIP) that enables the remote sensing in the double-shell structure of a tanker and the six-freedom motion control was developed based on the technology of the conventional portable underwater robot. The motion performance test in a water tank showed that the RTV-SHIP can freely access the manhole in the double-shell structure of a tanker and completely satisfies the thrust and swing force required for movement and measurement in a tank. The in-tank function confirmation test also shows that the main measurement items such as positioning in the tank, large deflection of panels, and plate thickness have a satisfactory measurement accuracy and that the RTV-SHIP has the same tone discrimination function as for a visual check. The method of inputting the tank shape during measurement and miniaturizing the recording unit should be improved until the RTV-SHIP is put to practical use. This system can be widely used by improving the above points according to the result of a future measurement test for the actual ships. 1 ref., 9 figs.

  14. Helicopter-Ship Qualification Testing

    Hoencamp, A.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this research project is to develop a novel test methodology which can be used for optimizing cost and time efficiency of helicopter-ship qualification testing without reducing safety. For this purpose, the so-called “SHOL-X” test methodology has been established, which includes the

  15. Container for shipping dangerous material

    Blum, P.T.

    1987-01-01

    This container for shipping dangerous material is made by a cylindrical casing of austenitic stainless steel with rounded ends and walls of uniform thickness with welded joins, a tubular metal shock absorber fixed over each end of the casing, removable lugs fixed to the casing, optionally retainers for the material within the casing [fr

  16. Modeling of Ship Propulsion Performance

    Pedersen, Benjamin Pjedsted; Larsen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Full scale measurements of the propulsion power, ship speed, wind speed and direction, sea and air temperature, from four different loading conditions has been used to train a neural network for prediction of propulsion power. The network was able to predict the propulsion power with accuracy...

  17. Lifecycle Readiness and Ship Deployment

    2013-06-01

    incidence of vomiting reported on military transport ships traveling across the Atlantic to vary from 8.5% to 22.1% on three crossings. Bruner (1955...Butterworth (pp. 455-471). Bruner , J. M. (1955). Seasickness in a destroyer escort squadron. United States Armed Forces Medical Journal, 6(4), 469-490

  18. Rudder roll stabilization for ships

    van Amerongen, J.; van der Klugt, P.G.M.; van Nauta lemke, H.R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the design of an autopilot for rudder roll stabilization for ships. This autopilot uses the rudder not only for course keeping but also for reduction of the roll. The system has a series of properties which make the controller design far from straightforward: the process has

  19. Designing Indonesian Liner Shipping Network

    Armand Omar Moeis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As the largest archipelago nation in the world, Indonesia’s logistics system has not shown excellence according to the parameters of logistics performance index and based on logistics costs percentages from overall GDP. This is due to the imbalances of trading on the western and eastern regions in Indonesia, which impacts the transportation systems costs to and from the eastern regions. Therefore, it is imperative to improve the competitiveness of Indonesian maritime logistics through maritime logistics network design. This research will focus on three levels of decision making in logistics network design, which include type of ships in the strategic level, shipping routes in the tactical level, and container allocation in the operational level with implementing butterfly routes in Indonesia’s logistics networking problems. Furthermore, this research will analyze the impact of Pendulum Nusantara and Sea Toll routes against the company profits and percentages of containers shipped. This research will also foresee how demand uncertainties and multi-period planning should affect decision making in designing the Indonesian Liner Shipping Network.

  20. Legal risk management in shipping

    Siig, Kristina

    The book discusses the most typical legal challenges met in the chartering, broker, agent or port management part of the shipping industry. It discusses these issues in both English and Scandinavian law and gives indications on how to best ensure your legal risk management in these parts...

  1. Estimation of PV output power in moving and rocking hybrid energy marine ships

    Liu, Hongda; Zhang, Qing; Qi, Xiaoxia; Han, Yang; Lu, Fang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A mathematical model for characterizing the ship PV output power is developed. •The impacts of the sea condition and ship type on the PV output power are analyzed. •The hybrid energy storage system is used to stabilize the PV fluctuation powers. •A SC configuration method based on maximum half period is applied. -- Abstract: In recent years, the application of solar energy and energy storage to ship power systems has shown promise as a method for both reducing annual carbon and nitrogen oxide emissions and improving ship energy efficiency in the maritime shipping industry. When a ship navigates at sea, it encounters a constant rocking motion that is affected by both the surrounding sea conditions and the ship’s navigation parameters. This motion increases the uncertainty involved in using solar energy and accelerates the aging of the ship’s energy storage battery to some extent. In this study, a universal mathematical model is established for the power generation by photovoltaic (PV) modules in which both the sea conditions and the ship’s integrated motion, including its basic movement along with the motion caused by rocking, are taken into account. Based on this model, the fluctuation characteristics of a ship’s PV output power are studied and determined using three different simulation scenarios. A binary energy storage scheme based on a decoupled PV output power is proposed in order to both stabilize the small-period PV power fluctuations and slow the aging of the actual battery caused by rocking. In addition, a super-capacitor (SC) configuration is constructed based on a maximum half cycle. Finally, the optimal energy storage capacities for this green ship are compared under both rocking and moving motion. In the case of rocking motion, the SCs are able to achieve an approximately 24.8–35.0% reduction in battery replacement. A shipping route between Shanghai, China and Sydney, Australia is considered to validate the practicality

  2. Noise source analysis of nuclear ship Mutsu plant using multivariate autoregressive model

    Hayashi, K.; Shimazaki, J.; Shinohara, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The present study is concerned with the noise sources in N.S. Mutsu reactor plant. The noise experiments on the Mutsu plant were performed in order to investigate the plant dynamics and the effect of sea condition and and ship motion on the plant. The reactor noise signals as well as the ship motion signals were analyzed by a multivariable autoregressive (MAR) modeling method to clarify the noise sources in the reactor plant. It was confirmed from the analysis results that most of the plant variables were affected mainly by a horizontal component of the ship motion, that is the sway, through vibrations of the plant structures. Furthermore, the effect of ship motion on the reactor power was evaluated through the analysis of wave components extracted by a geometrical transform method. It was concluded that the amplitude of the reactor power oscillation was about 0.15% in normal sea condition, which was small enough for safe operation of the reactor plant. (authors)

  3. Investigation of 3-D RCS Image formation of ships using ISAR

    Lord, RT

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) utilises the rotational motion of a target such as a ship or an aircraft to obtain a 2-D image of the target’s radar cross section (RCS) profile from a coherent radar system. This concept can...

  4. Non-linear wave loads and ship responses by a time-domain strip theory

    Xia, Jinzhu; Wang, Zhaohui; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    1998-01-01

    . Based on this time-domain strip theory, an efficient non-linear hydroelastic method of wave- and slamming-induced vertical motions and structural responses of ships is developed, where the structure is represented as a Timoshenko beam. Numerical calculations are presented for the S175 Containership...

  5. Non-Linear Wave Loads and Ship responses by a time-domain Strip Theory

    Xia, Jinzhu; Wang, Zhaohui; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    1998-01-01

    . Based on this time-domain strip theory, an efficient non-linear hyroelastic method of wave- and slamming-induced vertical motions and structural responses of ships is developed, where the structure is represented by the Timoshenko beam theory. Numerical calculations are presented for the S175...

  6. Logistical Analysis of the Littoral Combat Ship

    Rudko, David

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) is to provide the Navy with an affordable, small, multi-mission ship capable of independent, interdependent, and integrated operations inside the littorals...

  7. Facts about Noroviruses on Cruise Ships

    ... Cruise Tips for Healthy Cruising Related Resources Cruise Ship Inspection Scores & Information Inspection Scores Cruise Line Directory Green ... 800-CDC-INFO ( 1-800-232-4636 ). Cruise Ship Inspection Scores & Information Inspection Scores Cruise Line Directory Green ...

  8. New Zealand code for nuclear powered shipping

    1976-06-01

    This report recommends guidelines for the safety precautions and procedures to be implemented when New Zealand ports and approaches are used by nuclear powered merchant ships and nuclear powered naval ships

  9. Investigation on coupling error characteristics in angular rate matching based ship deformation measurement approach

    Yang, Shuai; Wu, Wei; Wang, Xingshu; Xu, Zhiguang

    2018-01-01

    The coupling error in the measurement of ship hull deformation can significantly influence the attitude accuracy of the shipborne weapons and equipments. It is therefore important to study the characteristics of the coupling error. In this paper, an comprehensive investigation on the coupling error is reported, which has a potential of deducting the coupling error in the future. Firstly, the causes and characteristics of the coupling error are analyzed theoretically based on the basic theory of measuring ship deformation. Then, simulations are conducted for verifying the correctness of the theoretical analysis. Simulation results show that the cross-correlation between dynamic flexure and ship angular motion leads to the coupling error in measuring ship deformation, and coupling error increases with the correlation value between them. All the simulation results coincide with the theoretical analysis.

  10. Google Earth Visualizations of the Marine Automatic Identification System (AIS): Monitoring Ship Traffic in National Marine Sanctuaries

    Schwehr, K.; Hatch, L.; Thompson, M.; Wiley, D.

    2007-12-01

    The Automatic Identification System (AIS) is a new technology that provides ship position reports with location, time, and identity information without human intervention from ships carrying the transponders to any receiver listening to the broadcasts. In collaboration with the USCG's Research and Development Center, NOAA's Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary (SBNMS) has installed 3 AIS receivers around Massachusetts Bay to monitor ship traffic transiting the sanctuary and surrounding waters. The SBNMS and the USCG also worked together propose the shifting the shipping lanes (termed the traffic separation scheme; TSS) that transit the sanctuary slightly to the north to reduce the probability of ship strikes of whales that frequent the sanctuary. Following approval by the United Nation's International Maritime Organization, AIS provided a means for NOAA to assess changes in the distribution of shipping traffic caused by formal change in the TSS effective July 1, 2007. However, there was no easy way to visualize this type of time series data. We have created a software package called noaadata-py to process the AIS ship reports and produce KML files for viewing in Google Earth. Ship tracks can be shown changing over time to allow the viewer to feel the motion of traffic through the sanctuary. The ship tracks can also be gridded to create ship traffic density reports for specified periods of time. The density is displayed as map draped on the sea surface or as vertical histogram columns. Additional visualizations such as bathymetry images, S57 nautical charts, and USCG Marine Information for Safety and Law Enforcement (MISLE) can be combined with the ship traffic visualizations to give a more complete picture of the maritime environment. AIS traffic analyses have the potential to give managers throughout NOAA's National Marine Sanctuaries an improved ability to assess the impacts of ship traffic on the marine resources they seek to protect. Viewing ship traffic

  11. International climate policy : consequences for shipping

    Mæstad, Ottar; Evensen, Annika Jaersen; Mathiesen, Lars; Olsen, Kristian

    2000-01-01

    This report summarises the main results from the project Norwegian and international climate policy consequences for shipping. The aim of the project has been to shed light on how climate policies might affect shipping, both from the cost side and from the demand side. The project has been divided into three sub-projects, investigating the consequences of climate policies for 1. Optimal shipping operations and management 2. The competitiveness of shipping relative to land transport 3. The tra...

  12. Note from the radioprotection group's shipping service

    2006-01-01

    The service for the import/export of radioactive materials reminds you that shipping requests for potentially radioactive materials must be made via the EDH request form by ticking the box 'radioactive material'. All the necessary information is given on the web site: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Requests not complying with the above procedure will not be taken into account. Radioactive Shipping Service http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Tel. 73171 Fax: 69200

  13. Real-Time Simulation of Ship-Structure and Ship-Ship Interaction

    Lindberg, Ole; Glimberg, Stefan Lemvig; Bingham, Harry B.

    2013-01-01

    , because it is simple, easy to implement and computationally efficient. Multiple many-core graphical processing units (GPUs) are used for parallel execution and the model is implemented using a combination of C/C++, CUDA and MPI. Two ship hydrodynamic cases are presented: Kriso Container Carrier at steady...

  14. Ship-to-Ship Radiocommunication Trial by Using Wireless LAN

    Yasuyuki Niwa

    2015-12-01

    In a former field radiocommunication trial, omni-directional antennas were used and a few hundred kbps throughput between two ships was measured, which was not enough for our research target (over 1Mbps. In order to get faster throughput, a field radiocommunication trial was carried out again with a few types of directional antennas and RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indication and the throughput between two ships was measured simultaneously. As a result, multi-path (2-path model affected by the reflection of the sea surface was confirmed and also the characteristics of the directional antennas such as half-power angle were confirmed, but the measured throughput was fast enough to meet our expectation.

  15. Accidents on ships in the Danish International Ship register

    Ádám, Balázs; Rasmussen, Hanna Barbara

    to report accidents causing at least one day off work beyond the day of accident but the first source contains several accidents not fulfilling this criterion, too. Radio Medical is an independent service where all Danish ships may seek medical advice. The data sets were merged by identification number...... of our study is to describe trend of accidents and their contributing factors, with special focus on nationality, occurring in ships under Danish flag in the period 2010-2012. The study used two independent data sources, the Danish Maritime Authority and the Danish Radio Medical. It is mandatory...... to create a single database that has been studied by descriptive statistics and regression analysis. Findings show a stabilised number of accidents in the analysed period. The occurrence of accidents is influenced by nationality. There is a higher frequency of reported injuries found among Danish and other...

  16. Blind estimation of a ship's relative wave heading

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Iseki, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes a method to estimate a ship’s relative heading against the waves. The procedure relies purely on ship- board measurements of global responses such as motion components, accelerations and the bending moment amidships. There is no particular (mathematical) model connected to t...... to the estimate, and therefore it is called a ’blind estimate’. The approach is in this introductory study tested by analysing simulated data. The analysis reveals that it is possible to estimate a ship’s relative heading on the basis of shipboard measurements only....

  17. 19 CFR 4.69 - Shipping articles.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping articles. 4.69 Section 4.69 Customs... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.69 Shipping articles. No vessel of the U.S... officer, of the shipping articles agreements, including any seaman's allotment agreement, required by 46 U...

  18. 15 CFR 750.11 - Shipping tolerances.

    2010-01-01

    ... in the ECCN applicable to your item reads “ $ value” or “in $ value”, there is no shipping tolerance... is no shipping tolerance with respect to the number of units. However, the value of all of your... shipping tolerance on this license because the items are controlled by an ECCN where “$ value” is the...

  19. 29 CFR 1915.162 - Ship's boilers.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship's boilers. 1915.162 Section 1915.162 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Ship's Machinery and Piping Systems § 1915.162 Ship's boilers. (a) Before...

  20. 27 CFR 44.187 - Shipping containers.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping containers. 44... Shipping containers. Each shipping case, crate, or other container in which tobacco products, or cigarette... same containers in which they were received from the factory. (72 Stat. 1418, as amended; 26 U.S.C...

  1. 27 CFR 44.254 - Shipping containers.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping containers. 44.254 Section 44.254 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Requirements § 44.254 Shipping containers. Each shipping case, crate, or other container, in which cigars are...

  2. 49 CFR 176.24 - Shipping papers.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 176.24 Section 176.24... Requirements § 176.24 Shipping papers. (a) A person may not accept a hazardous material for transportation or transport a hazardous material by vessel unless that person has received a shipping paper prepared in...

  3. 49 CFR 177.817 - Shipping papers.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 177.817 Section 177.817... Information and Regulations § 177.817 Shipping papers. (a) General requirements. A person may not accept a... received a shipping paper prepared in accordance with part 172 of this subchapter or the material is...

  4. 49 CFR 174.24 - Shipping papers.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 174.24 Section 174.24... Requirements § 174.24 Shipping papers. (a) A person may not accept a hazardous material for transportation or transport a hazardous material by rail unless that person receives a shipping paper prepared in accordance...

  5. Improving the competitiveness of green ship recycling

    Jain, K.P.

    2017-01-01

    The end of life of a ship is determined by its owner on the basis of various commercial and technical factors. Once decided to scrap a ship, almost all end-of-life (EOL) ships are sold to recycling yards for dismantling; except for a few which are converted into museums, hotels, storage, and

  6. Intelligent Prediction of Ship Maneuvering

    Miroslaw Lacki

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author presents an idea of the intelligent ship maneuvering prediction system with the usage of neuroevolution. This may be also be seen as the ship handling system that simulates a learning process of an autonomous control unit, created with artificial neural network. The control unit observes input signals and calculates the values of required parameters of the vessel maneuvering in confined waters. In neuroevolution such units are treated as individuals in population of artificial neural networks, which through environmental sensing and evolutionary algorithms learn to perform given task efficiently. The main task of the system is to learn continuously and predict the values of a navigational parameters of the vessel after certain amount of time, regarding an influence of its environment. The result of a prediction may occur as a warning to navigator to aware him about incoming threat.

  7. Competitive Liner Shipping Network Design

    Karsten, Christian Vad

    .The contributions of this thesis cover modeling, methodology, and applications.The developed methods address operational (cargo routing), tactical (speed optimization and service selection), and strategic (network design) planning problems faced by liner shipping companies. Ultimately, the proposed methods help...... take the container transportation times that can be realized in the network nor the number of transshipments into consideration. This is mainly because the optimization problem is based on other transportation networks where these constraints are not decisive to the quality of the network. Furthermore......, the problem in itself is challenging to optimize due to its size and complexity. However, the field has seen crucial progress and is mature to include handling of competitiveness in the actual design of the network.As a liner shipping network is an organic entity, which is constantly changed to reflect...

  8. Approximate Method of Calculating Forces on Rudder During Ship Sailing on a Shipping Route

    K. Zelazny

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Service speed of a ship in real weather conditions is a basic design parameter. Forecasting of this speed at preliminary design stage is made difficult by the lack of simple but at the same accurate models of forces acting upon a ship sailing on a preset shipping route. The article presents a model for calculating forces and moment on plane rudder, useful for forecasting of ship service speed at preliminary stages of ship design.

  9. Evaluation of the Service Performance of Ships

    Andersen, Poul; Borrod, Anne-Sophie; Blanchot, Hervé

    2005-01-01

    A simple method has been established for the evaluation of the service performance of ships. Input data are easily collected daily on board and transformed to a well-defined condition that makes possible the comparison between ships, for instance, sister ships, and between different time periods...... of voyages for the same ship. The procedure has been applied to two ships that are identical, with the exception that one has a conventional propeller, whereas the other one is fitted with a high-efficiency propeller of the KAPPEL type. The results are obtained from a period of 2 years steaming for both...

  10. Naval Ship Database: Database Design, Implementation, and Schema

    2013-09-01

    ClassId Class identifier Name Ship name Pendant Ship pendant CommissionDate Ship commission date DecommissionDate Ship decommission date; NULL if still...active FlagshipId Ship Id of the ship Figure 3: Ship table definition Table 3: Ship table example rows Id Prefix ClassId Name Pendant ...computation if required. A bridged connection will allow computation analysis to be done in Matlab and allow the processed data to be imported back

  11. The Human Element and Autonomous Ships

    Sauli Ahvenjärvi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The autonomous ship technology has become a “hot” topic in the discussion about more efficient, environmentally friendly and safer sea transportation solutions. The time is becoming mature for the introduction of commercially sensible solutions for unmanned and fully autonomous cargo and passenger ships. Safety will be the most interesting and important aspect in this development. The utilization of the autonomous ship technology will have many effects on the safety, both positive and negative. It has been announced that the goal is to make the safety of an unmanned ship better that the safety of a manned ship. However, it must be understood that the human element will still be present when fully unmanned ships are being used. The shore-based control of a ship contains new safety aspects and an interesting question will be the interaction of manned and unmanned ships in the same traffic area. The autonomous ship technology should therefore be taken into account on the training of seafarers. Also it should not be forgotten that every single control algorithm and rule of the internal decision making logic of the autonomously navigating ship has been designed and coded by a human software engineer. Thus the human element is present also in this point of the lifetime navigation system of the autonomous ship.

  12. Auditory Motion Elicits a Visual Motion Aftereffect

    Christopher C. Berger

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The visual motion aftereffect is a visual illusion in which exposure to continuous motion in one direction leads to a subsequent illusion of visual motion in the opposite direction. Previous findings have been mixed with regard to whether this visual illusion can be induced cross-modally by auditory stimuli. Based on research on multisensory perception demonstrating the profound influence auditory perception can have on the interpretation and perceived motion of visual stimuli, we hypothesized that exposure to auditory stimuli with strong directional motion cues should induce a visual motion aftereffect. Here, we demonstrate that horizontally moving auditory stimuli induced a significant visual motion aftereffect—an effect that was driven primarily by a change in visual motion perception following exposure to leftward moving auditory stimuli. This finding is consistent with the notion that visual and auditory motion perception rely on at least partially overlapping neural substrates.

  13. Auditory Motion Elicits a Visual Motion Aftereffect.

    Berger, Christopher C; Ehrsson, H Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The visual motion aftereffect is a visual illusion in which exposure to continuous motion in one direction leads to a subsequent illusion of visual motion in the opposite direction. Previous findings have been mixed with regard to whether this visual illusion can be induced cross-modally by auditory stimuli. Based on research on multisensory perception demonstrating the profound influence auditory perception can have on the interpretation and perceived motion of visual stimuli, we hypothesized that exposure to auditory stimuli with strong directional motion cues should induce a visual motion aftereffect. Here, we demonstrate that horizontally moving auditory stimuli induced a significant visual motion aftereffect-an effect that was driven primarily by a change in visual motion perception following exposure to leftward moving auditory stimuli. This finding is consistent with the notion that visual and auditory motion perception rely on at least partially overlapping neural substrates.

  14. Auditory motion capturing ambiguous visual motion

    Arjen eAlink

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is demonstrated that moving sounds have an effect on the direction in which one sees visual stimuli move. During the main experiment sounds were presented consecutively at four speaker locations inducing left- or rightwards auditory apparent motion. On the path of auditory apparent motion, visual apparent motion stimuli were presented with a high degree of directional ambiguity. The main outcome of this experiment is that our participants perceived visual apparent motion stimuli that were ambiguous (equally likely to be perceived as moving left- or rightwards more often as moving in the same direction than in the opposite direction of auditory apparent motion. During the control experiment we replicated this finding and found no effect of sound motion direction on eye movements. This indicates that auditory motion can capture our visual motion percept when visual motion direction is insufficiently determinate without affecting eye movements.

  15. 46 CFR 167.05-25 - Nautical school ship.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nautical school ship. 167.05-25 Section 167.05-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Definitions § 167.05-25 Nautical school ship. The term nautical school ship means a vessel operated by or in connection with a nautical school...

  16. Ship maneuvering digital simulator; Simulador digital de manobras de navios

    Souza Junior, Jesse Rebello; Tannuri, Eduardo Aoun; Oshiro, Anderson Takehiro [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Naval e Oceanica

    2008-07-01

    This paper reports on two case studies making use of a digital simulator to investigate the maneuvering motions of ships in canals with shallow and restricted waters. The first case study corresponds to a maneuvering analysis conducted for the Port of Rio Grande (RS - Brazil), whose aim was to assess the potential impact upon maneuvers of the presence of a large offshore platform (the PETROBRAS P-53) which is to remain docked for several months at the Port to complete its construction. The second study made use of the simulator to evaluate the maneuvering conditions along the approach route and maneuvering basin of the Port of Ponta do Felix (PR - Brazil). The simulator includes a complete mathematical model of the ship dynamics in the horizontal plane when subjected to wind and current forces. It also comprises detailed models for the action of thrusters and propellers, both fixed and azimuth, employed to control maneuvers and dynamically position ships, as well as rudders and tugboats. He models used by the simulator allow for the effects of shallow and restricted waters, including the increase in resistance and lateral forces, increase in additional mass and the appearance of lateral and vertical suction (squatting). The simulator is implemented via an interactive interface through which the user is able to apply control actions (rudder angle, main engine, thrusters and tugboats) in real time during maneuvers, thereby reproducing to some extent the action of a pilot. (author)

  17. Motion control report

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a short discount publication. In today's manufacturing environment, Motion Control plays a major role in virtually every project.The Motion Control Report provides a comprehensive overview of the technology of Motion Control:* Design Considerations* Technologies* Methods to Control Motion* Examples of Motion Control in Systems* A Detailed Vendors List

  18. A comparison of methods for evaluating structure during ship collisions

    Ammerman, D.J.; Daidola, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    A comparison is provided of the results of various methods for evaluating structure during a ship-to-ship collision. The baseline vessel utilized in the analyses is a 67.4 meter in length displacement hull struck by an identical vessel traveling at speeds ranging from 10 to 30 knots. The structural response of the struck vessel and motion of both the struck and striking vessels are assessed by finite element analysis. These same results are then compared to predictions utilizing the open-quotes Tanker Structural Analysis for Minor Collisionsclose quotes (TSAMC) Method, the Minorsky Method, the Haywood Collision Process, and comparison to full-scale tests. Consideration is given to the nature of structural deformation, absorbed energy, penetration, rigid body motion, and virtual mass affecting the hydrodynamic response. Insights are provided with regard to the calibration of the finite element model which was achievable through utilizing the more empirical analyses and the extent to which the finite element analysis is able to simulate the entire collision event. 7 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs

  19. The effectiveness of moving masses in reducing the roll motion of floating vessels

    Montazeri, N.; Mousavizadegan, S.H.; Bakhtiarinejad, F.

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic motions of Ships in severe conditions of sea maybe undesired and should be controlled by some devices. The rollmotion is much more significant than the other oscillations which can affect comfort, safety and efficiency of navigation at sea. This motion is controlled by some common stabili...

  20. Development of nuclear powered ship in Japan

    Sato, Hiroshi

    1976-01-01

    The development of nuclear merchant ship in Japan was started in 1955 by the establishment of Nuclear Ship Study Group, and since then, the investigation, test and research on nuclear ships have been continued. As a result, a nuclear ocean observation and supply ship was designed for trial. Researches were carried out also in JAERI and Institute for Technical Research of Ships. Meanwhile, the nuclear icebreaker Lenin was completed in Soviet Union in 1959, the nuclear ship Savannah set out for maiden voyage in U.S. in 1962, and the construction of the nuclear ore carrier Otto Hahn was prepared in FRG. Japan Nuclear Ship Development Corp. was established in 1963, and started the design and construction of the first nuclear ship in Japan, Mutsu. The basic policy in the construction is the improvement of nuclear ship technology, the securing of safety, and the use of domestic technologies as far as possible. The progress of the design, construction and test of the Mutsu is described. Owing to the problem of radiation leak, the development of nuclear ships stagnated for a while, but the nuclear plant of the Mutsu demonstrated the expected performance in the functional test, land criticality test and zero output test, and it is expected that the bud of the independent development brought up so far can bear valuable fruit. The independent development of marine nuclear reactors should be continued by selecting the way most suitable to Japan. (Kako, I.)

  1. Enhancing human performance in ship operations by modifying global design factors at the design stage

    Montewka, Jakub; Goerlandt, Floris; Innes-Jones, Gemma; Owen, Douglas; Hifi, Yasmine; Puisa, Romanas

    2017-01-01

    Usually the improvements of human performance in the course of ship design process is carried out by modifying local ergonomics, like electronic visualisation and information display systems on the bridge or in the engine control room, stair or hatch covers design. However, the effect of global design factors (GDFs), such as ship motion, whole body vibration and noise, on human performance has not been given attention before. Such knowledge would allow the improvements of human performance by effective design modification on very early stage of ship design process. Therefore, in this paper we introduce probabilistic models linking the effect of GDFs with the human performance suitable for ship design process. As a theoretical basis for modelling human performance the concept of Attention Management is utilized, which combines the theories described by Dynamic Adaptability Model, Cognitive Control Model and Malleable Attentional Resources Theory. Since the analysed field is characterised by a high degree of uncertainty, we adopt a specific modelling technique along with a validation framework that allows uncertainty treatment and helps the potential end-users to gain confidence in the models and the results that they yield. The proposed models are developed with the use Bayesian Belief Networks, which allows systematic translation of the available background knowledge into a coherent network and the uncertainty assessment and treatment. The obtained results are promising as the models are responsive to changes in the GDF nodes as expected. The models may be used as intended by naval architects and vessel designers, to facilitate risk-based ship design. - Highlights: • Models linking the effect of GDFs with the human performance are established. • Three global design factors (GDFs) are considered: ship motion, body vibration, noise. • Attention Management concept as theoretical base is modelled with Bayesian Networks. • Two models are developed that can be

  2. Analytical support management shipping company

    S.V. Tarasenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article to determine areas of improvement of the economic analysis of the shipping companies tested, allowing to identify the problems of organization and methods, which are as follows: lack of regulation of economic analysis, unregulated and methods of economic analysis, using methods such as coefficient method, absolute differences method relative differences groupings balance method, while as factor analysis and correlation are ignored. Proved that today the priority targets of management that should be subject to economic analysis are: analysis of the efficiency of the fleet; analysis of the efficiency of transport services; analysis of the cost of transport services and costs; analysis of the efficiency of resource use.

  3. Japan nuclear ship sea trial

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Toshikatus; Mizushima, Toshihiko

    1992-01-01

    The sea trial of the first Japan nuclear Ship 'MUTSU' was conducted from the end of October to December in 1990. The purpose of the sea trial was to verify the nuclear propulsive performances and maneuverabilities. The present report describes the results of the sea trial. These results are classified into four items: 1. Speed test and engineering performance tests 2. Maneuvering performance tests 3. Vibration tests 4. Other tests. Acceptable performances were demonstrated, as expected in the original design. The experience of the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS), which were newly adopted for the sea trial, is also reported. (author)

  4. Competitive Liner Shipping Network Design

    Karsten, Christian Vad; Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Pisinger, David

    2017-01-01

    We present a solution method for the liner shipping network design problem which is a core strategic planning problem faced by container carriers. We propose the first practical algorithm which explicitly handles transshipment time limits for all demands. Individual sailing speeds at each service...... leg are used to balance sailing speed against operational costs, hence ensuring that the found network is competitive on both transit time and cost. We present a matheuristic for the problem where a MIP is used to select which ports should be inserted or removed on a route. Computational results...

  5. Competitive Liner Shipping Network Design

    Karsten, Christian Vad; Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Pisinger, David

    We present a solution method for the liner shipping network design problem which is a core strategic planning problem faced by container carriers. We propose the first practical algorithm which explicitly handles transshipment time limits for all demands. Individual sailing speeds at each service...... leg are used to balance sailings speed against operational costs, hence ensuring that the found network is competitive on both transit time and cost. We present a matheuristic for the problem where a MIP is used to select which ports should be inserted or removed on a route. Computational results...

  6. Decommission of nuclear ship 'MUTSU'

    Tateyama, Takeshi

    1996-01-01

    The nuclear-powered ship 'MUTSU' was decommissioned by removing the reactor room in June 1995, which was hoisted and transported by a floating crane to a shore storage room at Sekinehama, Aomori Prefecture. This work was carried out in three stages: extraction of the spent fuel assemblies and neutron sources, dismantling of the machinery in the reactor auxiliary room, and separation and transportation of the reactor together with the secondary shielding structure and surrounding hull. IHI mainly conducted the third stage work. The separation work of the reactor room structure using a semisubmersible barge is outlined. Stress analysis and design of the reactor room for lifting work is also described. (author)

  7. TMI-2 Core Shipping Preparations

    Ball, L.J.; Barkanic, R.J.; Conaway, W.T. II; Schmoker, D. S.; Post, Roy G.

    1988-01-01

    Shipping the damaged core from the Unit 2 reactor of Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station near Harrisburg, PA, to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory near Idaho Falls, ID, required development and implementation of a completely new spent fuel transportation system. This paper describes of the equipment developed, the planning and activities used to implement the hard-ware-systems into the facilities, and the planning involved in making the rail shipments. It also includes a summary of recommendations resulting from this experience. (author)

  8. A Semi-Analytical Method for the PDFs of A Ship Rolling in Random Oblique Waves

    Liu, Li-qin; Liu, Ya-liu; Xu, Wan-hai; Li, Yan; Tang, You-gang

    2018-03-01

    The PDFs (probability density functions) and probability of a ship rolling under the random parametric and forced excitations were studied by a semi-analytical method. The rolling motion equation of the ship in random oblique waves was established. The righting arm obtained by the numerical simulation was approximately fitted by an analytical function. The irregular waves were decomposed into two Gauss stationary random processes, and the CARMA (2, 1) model was used to fit the spectral density function of parametric and forced excitations. The stochastic energy envelope averaging method was used to solve the PDFs and the probability. The validity of the semi-analytical method was verified by the Monte Carlo method. The C11 ship was taken as an example, and the influences of the system parameters on the PDFs and probability were analyzed. The results show that the probability of ship rolling is affected by the characteristic wave height, wave length, and the heading angle. In order to provide proper advice for the ship's manoeuvring, the parametric excitations should be considered appropriately when the ship navigates in the oblique seas.

  9. A Parasitic Array Receiver for ISAR Imaging of Ship Targets Using a Coastal Radar

    Fabrizio Santi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection and identification of ship targets navigating in coastal areas are essential in order to prevent maritime accidents and to take countermeasures against illegal activities. Usually, coastal radar systems are employed for the detection of vessels, whereas noncooperative ship targets as well as ships not equipped with AIS transponders can be identified by means of dedicated active radar imaging system by means of ISAR processing. In this work, we define a parasitic array receiver for ISAR imaging purposes based on the signal transmitted by an opportunistic coastal radar over its successive scans. In order to obtain the proper cross-range resolution, the physical aperture provided by the array is combined with the synthetic aperture provided by the target motion. By properly designing the array of passive devices, the system is able to correctly observe the signal reflected from the ships over successive scans of the coastal radar. Specifically, the upper bounded interelement spacing provides a correct angular sampling accordingly to the Nyquist theorem and the lower bounded number of elements of the array ensures the continuity of the observation during multiple scans. An ad hoc focusing technique has been then proposed to provide the ISAR images of the ships. Simulated analysis proved the effectiveness of the proposed system to provide top-view images of ship targets suitable for ATR procedures.

  10. Development of a nuclear ship safety philosophy

    Thompson, T.E.

    1978-01-01

    A unique safety philosophy must be recognized and accepted as an integral part of the design and operation of a nuclear ship. For the nuclear powered ship, the ultimate safety of the reactor and therefore the crew and the environment lies with the safety of the ship itself. The basis for ship safety is its ability to navigate and survive the conditions or the environment in which it may find itself. The subject of traditional ship safety is examined along with its implication for reactor protection and safety. Concepts of reactor safety are also examined. These two philosophies are combined in a manner so as to provide a sound philosophy for the safety of nuclear ships, their crews, and the environment

  11. Ship emissions and air pollution in Denmark

    Olesen, Helge Rørdam; Winther, Morten; Ellermann, Thomas

    A project has been carried out to map the contribution from ship traffic to air pollution in Denmark. A main element in the project is the establishment of a new, improved inventory of ship emissions for the waters around Denmark. The inventory makes use of the so-called AIS system, which...... continuously keeps track of ship positions. The inventory provides basis for model calculations of air quality in Denmark for the years 2007, 2011 and 2020. The study has focus on identifying the contribution from ships, and on assessing the effect of international regulations of ship pollution. A minor...... component of the study concerns the contribution to local air pollution from ships at port....

  12. Hydroelastic response of 19,000 TEU class ultra large container ship with novel mobile deckhouse for maximizing cargo capacity

    Hong-Il Im

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is related to structural design evaluation of 19,000 TEU ultra large container ship, dealing with hydroelastic response, i.e. springing and whipping. It illustrates application of direct calculation tools and methodologies to both fatigue and ultimate strength assessment, simultaneously taking into account ship motions and her elastic deformations. Methodology for springing and whipping assessment within so called WhiSp notation is elaborated in details, and in order to evaluate innovative container ship design with increased loading capacity, a series of independent hydroelastic computations for container ship with mobile deckhouse and conventional one are performed with the same calculation setup. Fully coupled 3D FEM – 3D BEM model is applied, while the ultimate bending capacity of hull girder is determined by means of MARS software. Beside comparative analysis of representative quantities for considered ships, relative influence of hydroelasticity on ship response is addressed.

  13. On the collision protection of ships

    Jones, N.

    1976-01-01

    A brief survey of the literature extant on the collision protection of ships is presented herein. An examination of the characteristics of different energy-absorbing methods suggests that honeycomb structures provide an alternative to deck structures which are currently used to achieve the collision protection of ships. Various features of honeycomb panels are explored and a particular structural arrangement which utilizes both sides of a hull and incorporates honeycomb panels is proposed for the collision protection of a ship. (Auth.)

  14. Auxiliary facilities on nuclear ship 'MUTSU'

    Tsujimura, Shotaro; Takigami, Yoshio.

    1989-01-01

    The nuclear ship 'MUTSU' has been moored at SEKINEHAMA, MUTU City in AOMORI Prefecture and several tests and works are being carried out on the ship. The construction of the auxiliary facilities for these works on the ship was completed in safety in August 1988. After that the facilities have fulfilled their function. The outlines of design, fabrication and construction of the facilities are described in this paper. (author)

  15. MASTER OF THE SHIP, MANAGER AND INSTRUCTOR

    Florin IORDANOAIA

    2010-01-01

    The master of the ship is the person on the board who has the qualification and the necessary certificate of competency for running a maritime transport ship. He is the one who takes the ship into administration from the ship-owner, he is the only leader, the legal and direct chief of the entire crew, being invested with authority upon all the members of the crew. The master fulfils the attributes and displays his activity according to the legal laws of his flag, of the marine regulations and...

  16. Nuclear powered freight ships - safe and reliable

    Schafstall, H.C.

    1978-12-01

    The five nuclear-powered ships built in the world so far have entered over 100 ports in 14 countries about 1000 times in 15 years, during which there were no accidents endangering the safety of a ship. However, for the expansion of freight shipping with nuclear power, comprehensive international regulations for safety requirements, responsibility etc., are necessary. Although the NEA/IAEO symposium excluded economic questions on the safety of nuclear powered ships, the trends regarding further development in individual countries became clear

  17. Shipping/Receiving and Quality Control

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Shipping receiving, quality control, large and precise inspection and CMM machines. Coordinate Measuring Machines, including "scanning" probes, optical comparators,...

  18. Potential of biofuels for shipping. Final Report

    Florentinus, A.; Hamelinck, C.; Van den Bos, A.; Winkel, R.; Cuijpers, M. [Ecofys Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-01-15

    Biofuels could be one of the options to realize a lower carbon intensity in the propulsion of ships and also possibly reduce the effect of ship emissions on local air quality. Therefore, EMSA, the European Maritime Safety Agency, is evaluating if and how biofuels could be used in the shipping sector as an alternative fuel. To determine the potential of biofuels for ships, a clearer picture is needed on technical and organizational limitations of biofuels in ships, both on board of the ship as in the fuel supply chain to the ship. Economic and sustainability analysis of biofuels should be included in this picture, as well as an overview on current and potential policy measures to stimulate the use of biofuels in shipping. Ecofys has determined the potential of biofuels, based on analysis of collected data through literature review, own expertise and experiences, direct communication with EMSA, research publications, market developments based on press and other media, and consultations with relevant stakeholders in the shipping market.

  19. Ship emissions and their externalities for Greece

    Tzannatos, Ernestos

    2010-06-01

    The existing and emerging international and European policy framework for the reduction of ship exhaust emissions dictates the need to produce reliable national, regional and global inventories in order to monitor emission trends and consequently provide the necessary support for future policy making. Furthermore, the inventories of ship exhaust emissions constitute the basis upon which their external costs are estimated in an attempt to highlight the economic burden they impose upon the society and facilitate the cost-benefit analysis of the proposed emission abatement technologies, operational measures and market-based instruments prior to their implementation. The case of Greece is of particular interest mainly because the dense ship traffic within the Greek seas directly imposes the impact of its exhaust emission pollutants (NO x, SO 2 and PM) upon the highly populated, physically sensitive and culturally precious Greek coastline, as well as upon the land and seas of Greece in general, whereas the contribution of Greece in the global CO 2 inventory at a time of climatic change awareness cannot be ignored. In this context, this paper presents the contribution of Greece in ship exhaust emissions of CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM from domestic and international shipping over the last 25 years (1984-2008), utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) emission methodology. Furthermore, the ship exhaust emissions generated within the Greek seas and their externalities are estimated for the year 2008, through utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) approach for domestic shipping and the activity-based (ship traffic) approach for international shipping. On this basis, it was found that during the 1984 to 2008 period the fuel-based (fuel sales) ship emission inventory for Greece increased at an average annual rate of 2.85%. In 2008, the CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM emissions reached 12.9 million tons (of which 12.4 million tons of CO 2) and their externalities were found to be around 3

  20. Note from the radioprotection group's shipping service

    2006-01-01

    Le service SHIPPING du groupe de radioprotection souhaite vous rappeler qu'avant toute expédition de matériel susceptible d'être radioactif, une demande de transport doit être établie par EDH en cochant la case appropriée (danger radioactif). Merci de bien vouloir prendre note des informations figurant dans le site Web: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Toute demande non conforme ne sera pas prise en compte. Radioactive Shipping Service http://cern.ch/service-rp-shippingTél: 73171Fax: 69200

  1. International Standardization in the Design of "Shore to Ship" - Power Supply Systems of Ships in Port

    Tarnapowicz, Dariusz; German-Galkin, Sergiej

    2018-03-01

    The decisive source of air pollution emissions in ports is the berthed ships. This is primarily caused by the work of ship's autonomous generator sets. One way of reducing the air pollution emissions in ports is the supply of ships from electricity inland system. The main problem connected with the power connection of ships to the inland network is caused by different values of levels and frequencies of voltages in these networks (in various countries) in relation to different values of levels and frequencies of voltages present in the ship's network. It is also important that the source power can range from a few hundred kW up to several MW. In order to realize a universal „Shore to Ship" system that allows the connection of ships to the electricity inland network, the international standardization is necessary. This article presents the current recommendations, standards and regulations for the design of „Shore to Ship" systems.

  2. Navy Ships: Turning Over Auxiliary Ship Operations to the Military Sealift Command Could Save Millions

    1997-01-01

    .... One additional multiproduct ship of a new class is currently under construction. The Navy has delegated operational control of 27 of these ships to MSC, the military's single manager for sealift, to better...

  3. Ship Technology Workshop Materials from Collaboration with Mexico to Reduce Emissions from Ships

    On September 26, 2012, a ship technology seminar was held to provide Mexican stakeholders with information about some of the ship technologies needed to meet the requirements of MARPOL Annex VI and an ECA.

  4. Advanced ship systems condition monitoring for enhanced inspection, maintenance and decision making in ship operations

    Lazakis, Iraklis; Dikis, Konstantinos; Michala, Anna Lito; Theotokatos, Gerasimos

    2016-01-01

    Structural and machinery failures in the day-to-day ship operations may lead to major accidents, endangering crew and\\ud passengers onboard, posing a threat to the environment, damaging the ship itself and having a great impact in terms of business\\ud losses. In this respect, this paper presents the INCASS (Inspection Capabilities for Enhanced Ship Safety) project which aims\\ud bringing an innovative solution to the ship inspection regime through the introduction of enhanced inspection of shi...

  5. Viking FellowSHIP: Norwegian hydrogen ship on the right course

    Larssen-Aas, Kari

    2006-01-01

    In the future fuel cells will change the world of shipping's economical conditions, and environmental effects from this industry. A new model of a hydrogen fuelled ship was presented at the ONS exhibition in Stavanger 2006. The technology may revolutionize the shipping industry. A brief description of the project is presented (ml)

  6. LCA-ship. Design tool for energy efficient ships. A Life Cycle Analysis Program for Ships. Final report

    Jiven, Karl; Sjoebris, Anders [MariTerm AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Nilsson, Maria [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Stiftelsen TEM; Ellis, Joanne; Traegaardh, Peter; Nordstroem, Malin [SSPA Sweden AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    In order to make it easier to include aspects during ship design that will improve environmental performance, general methods for life cycle calculations and a prototype tool for LCA calculations of ships and marine transportation have been developed. The base of the life cycle analyses is a comprehensive set of life cycle data that was collected for the materials and consumables used in ship construction and vessel operations. The computer tool developed makes it possible to quickly and simply specify (and calculate) the use of consumables over the vessel's life time cycle. Special effort has been made to allow the tool to be used for different types of vessels and sea transport. The main result from the project is the computer tool LCA ship, which incorporates collected and developed life cycle data for some of the most important materials and consumables used in ships and their operation. The computer application also contains a module for propulsion power calculations and a module for defining and optimising the energy system onboard the vessel. The tool itself is described in more detail in the Computer application manual. The input to the application should, as much as possible, be the kind of information that is normally found in a shipping company concerning vessel data and vessel movements. It all starts with defining the ship to be analysed and continues with defining how the ship is used over the lifetime. The tool contains compiled and processed background information about specific materials and processes (LCA data) connected to shipping operations. The LCA data is included in the tool in a processed form. LCA data for steel will for example include the environmental load from the steel production, the process to build the steel structure of the ship, the scrapping and the recycling phase. To be able to calculate the environmental load from the use of steel the total amount of steel used over the life cycle of the ship is also needed. The

  7. Experimental and numerical study on coupled motion responses of a floating crane vessel and a lifted subsea manifold in deep water

    B.W. Nam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The floating crane vessel in waves gives rise to the motion of the lifted object which is connected to the hoisting wire. The dynamic tension induced by the lifted object also affects the motion responses of the floating crane vessel in return. In this study, coupled motion responses of a floating crane vessel and a lifted subsea manifold during deep-water installation operations were investigated by both experiments and numerical calculations. A series of model tests for the deep-water lifting operation were performed at Ocean Engineering Basin of KRISO. For the model test, the vessel with a crane control system and a typical subsea manifold were examined. To validate the experimental results, a frequency-domain motion analysis method is applied. The coupled motion equations of the crane vessel and the lifted object are solved in the frequency domain with an additional linear stiffness matrix due to the hoisting wire. The hydrodynamic coefficients of the lifted object, which is a significant factor to affect the coupled dynamics, are estimated based on the perforation value of the structure and the CFD results. The discussions were made on three main points. First, the motion characteristics of the lifted object as well as the crane vessel were studied by comparing the calculation results. Second, the dynamic tension of the hoisting wire were evaluated under the various wave conditions. Final discussion was made on the effect of passive heave compensator on the motion and tension responses.

  8. Motion in radiotherapy

    Korreman, Stine Sofia

    2012-01-01

    This review considers the management of motion in photon radiation therapy. An overview is given of magnitudes and variability of motion of various structures and organs, and how the motion affects images by producing artifacts and blurring. Imaging of motion is described, including 4DCT and 4DPE...

  9. 46 CFR 148.02-1 - Shipping papers.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 148.02-1 Section 148.02-1 Shipping... MATERIALS IN BULK Vessel Requirements § 148.02-1 Shipping papers. (a) Carriers may not accept for..., unless the hazardous materials offered for such shipment is accompanied by a shipping paper on which the...

  10. 46 CFR 151.45-7 - Shipping papers.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 151.45-7 Section 151.45-7 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Operations § 151.45-7 Shipping papers. Each barge carrying... towing vessel shall either have a copy of the shipping papers for each barge in his tow or he shall make...

  11. 46 CFR 173.051 - Public nautical school ships.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public nautical school ships. 173.051 Section 173.051 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.051 Public nautical school ships. Each public nautical school...

  12. SNF shipping cask shielding analysis

    Johnson, J.O.; Pace, J.V. III.

    1996-01-01

    The Waste Management and Remedial Action Division has planned a modification sequence for storage facility 7827 in the Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA). The modification cycle is: (1) modify an empty caisson, (2) transfer the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of an occupied caisson to a hot cell in building 3525 for inspection and possible repackaging, and (3) return the package to the modified caisson in the SWSA. Although the SNF to be moved is in the solid form, it has different levels of activity. Thus, the following 5 shipping casks will be available for the task: the Loop Transport Carrier, the In- Pile Loop LITR HB-2 Carrier, the 6.5-inch HRLEL Carrier, the HFIR Hot Scrap Carrier, and the 10-inch ORR Experiment Removal Shield Cask. This report describes the shielding tasks for the 5 casks: determination of shielding characteristics, any streaming avenues, estimation of thermal limits, and shielding calculational uncertainty for use in the transportation plan

  13. Impact analysis of shipping casks

    Pfeiffer, P.A.; Kennedy, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Shipping casks are being used in the United States Department of Energy to transport irradiated experiments, reactor fuel, radioactive waste, etc. One of the critical requirements in shipping cask analysis is the necessity to withstand severe impact environments. It is still conventional to develop the design and to verify the design requirements by hand calculations. Full three dimensional computations of impact scenarios have been performed but they are too expensive and time consuming for design purposes. Typically, on the order of more than an hour of CRAY time is required for a detailed, three dimensional analysis. The paper describes how simpler two- and three-dimensional models can be used to provide an intermediate level of detail between full three dimensional finite element calculations and hand calculations. The regulation that is examined here is: 10 CFR-71.73 hypothetical accident conditions, free drop. Free drop for an accident condition of a Class I package (approximate weight of 22,000 lb) is defined as a 30 foot drop onto a flat, essentially unyielding, horizontal surface, striking the surface in a position for which maximum damage is expected. Three free drop scenarios are analyzed to assess the integrity of the cask when subjected to large bending and axial stresses. These three drop scenarios are: (1) a thirty foot axial drop on either end, (2) a thirty foot oblique angle drop with the cask having several different orientations from the vertical with impact on the top end cask corner, and (3) a thirty foot side drop with simultaneous impact on the strength of the various components that comprise the cask. The predicted levels of deformation and stresses in the cask will be used to assess the potential damage level. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  14. The mechanics of ship impacts against bridges

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    a glancing blow between the ship and the bridge structure. This model is based on rigid body mechanics and well suited for inclusion in a probabilistic analysis procedure. Finally, some empirical expressions are presented which relate the energy absorbed by crushing of ship structures to the maximum impact...

  15. Some concepts of future nuclear ship

    Fujino, Masataka

    2000-01-01

    Characteristic features of nuclear power generation are as follows: (1) Thermal energy can be continuously extracted for a long time without fuel feed, (2) Nuclear energy is suitable for generating huge power, (3) Oxygen is unnecessary for combustion of fuel, and (4) Unlike fossil fuel, nuclear power generation does not exhaust NOx, SOx, and CO 2 : it can be considered environmentally friendly. In view of these features, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute commissioned the Shipbuilding Research Association of Japan (JSRA) to survey what kinds of nuclear ship would be put to practical use in the near future. For this purpose, a research committee was organized in 1992 by the JSRA, and concluded its investigation in 1996. The main aim of this research was to clarify the requirements of ship performance as nuclear ships, and then to extract the technical issues of the marine reactor installed in nuclear ships to be solved. As a result of the survey, it was suggested that displacement-type large high-speed container ship would be one of the promising future nuclear merchant ships, and 6500 m deep-sea and 600 m undersea scientific research submersibles would be other promising nuclear special purpose ships. At the same time, various requirements of marine reactors, which are expected to be installed in these ships, were clarified mainly from the technical viewpoints. (author)

  16. Detecting potential ship objects from satellite pictures

    Luo, B.; Yang, C.C.; Chang, S.K.; Yang, M.C.K.

    1984-01-01

    Heuristic techniques are presented to detect potential ship objects from satellite pictures. These techniques utilize some noise structures of the pixel gray levels, and certain inherent features of a ship in a satellite picture. The scheme has been implemented and successfully tested on SEASAT satellite pictures. A general approach for database-oriented object detection is also suggested

  17. Infrared ship signature analysis and optimisation

    Neele, F.P.

    2005-01-01

    The last decade has seen an increase in the awareness of the infrared signature of naval ships. New ship designs show that infrared signature reduction measures are being incorporated, such as exhaust gas cooling systems, relocation of the exhausts and surface cooling systems. Hull and

  18. India's ship recycling trade-off

    Worrell, E.; Athanasopoulou, V.

    2014-01-01

    The special nature of India's steel industry lends particular importance to ship recycling as a source of scrap. Ship recycling in upgraded 'green' facilities can substitute other 'dirty' ironmaking processes, resulting in energy savings and air pollutant emission reductions for the Indian steel

  19. Automatic temperature control method of shipping can

    Nishikawa, Kaoru.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of rapidly and accurately controlling the temperature of a shipping can, which is used upon shipping inspection for a nuclear fuel assembly. That is, a measured temperature value of the shipping can is converted to a gas pressure setting value in a jacket of the shipping can by conducting a predetermined logic calculation by using a fuzzy logic. A gas pressure control section compares the pressure setting value of a fuzzy estimation section and the measured value of the gas pressure in the jacket of the shipping can, and conducts air supply or exhaustion of the jacket gas so as to adjust the measured value with the setting value. These fuzzy estimation section and gas pressure control section control the gas pressure in the jacket of the shipping can to control the water level in the jacket. As a result, the temperature of the shipping can is controlled. With such procedures, since the water level in the jacket can be controlled directly and finely, temperature of the shipping can is automatically controlled rapidly and accurately compared with a conventional case. (I.S.)

  20. Underactuated ship tracking control : theory and experiments

    Pettersen, K.Y.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2001-01-01

    We consider complete state tracking feedback control of a ship having two controls, namely surge force and yaw moment. The ship model has similarities with chained form systems but cannot directly be transformed in chained form. In particular, the model has a drift vector field as opposed to the

  1. Strength of Ship Plates under Combined Loading

    Cui, W.; Wang, Y.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2002-01-01

    Strength of ship plates plays a significant role in the ultimate strength analysis of ship structures. In recent years several authors have proposed simplified analytical methods to calculate the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates. The majority of these investigations deal with plates subjec...

  2. Strength of ship plates under combined loading

    Cui, Weiching; Wang, Yongjun; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2000-01-01

    Strength of ship plates plays a significant role for the ultimate strength analysis of ship structures. In recent years several authors have proposed simplified methods to calculate the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates. The majority of these investigations deal with plates subjected to lon...

  3. Control mechanisms for Nordic ship emissions

    Martinsen, K. [DNV, Oslo (Norway); Torvanger, A. [Cicero, Oslo (Norway)

    2013-04-15

    Shipping today operates under a complex set of international and domestic regulations. However, the environmental regulations have lagged behind those of other industries. This situation is now changing quite dramatically. The increased focus on environmental issues, combined with the growing realisation of the actual pollution burden imposed by shipping, has led to an upsurge in both international and national regulations. Some are ready and will enter into force in the near future, while others are still being developed. On behalf of the Nordic Council of Ministers DNV has carried out a study on possible control mechanisms for Nordic ship emission. The aim is to assess the baseline shipping emissions and reduction potential and the possible controlling mechanisms (both incentives and regulations) available for reducing the emissions to air from shipping within the Nordic region. (Author)

  4. Spent fuel shipping cask sealing concepts

    Sonnier, C.S.

    1989-05-01

    In late 1985, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) requested the US Program for Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS) to provide a study which examined sealing concepts for application to spent fuel shipping casks. This request was approved, and assigned to Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia). In the course of this study, discussions were held with personnel in the International Safeguards Community who were familiar with the shipping casks used in their States. A number of shipping casks were examined, and discussions were held with two shipping cask manufacturers in the US. As a result of these efforts, it was concluded that the shipping casks provided an extremely good containment, and that many of the existing casks can be effectively sealed by applying the seal to the cask closure bolts/nuts

  5. Motion Transplantation Techniques: A Survey

    van Basten, Ben; Egges, Arjan

    2012-01-01

    During the past decade, researchers have developed several techniques for transplanting motions. These techniques transplant a partial auxiliary motion, possibly defined for a small set of degrees of freedom, on a base motion. Motion transplantation improves motion databases' expressiveness and

  6. Moving characteristics of single file passengers considering the effect of ship trim and heeling

    Sun, Jinlu; Lu, Shouxiang; Lo, Siuming; Ma, Jian; Xie, Qimiao

    2018-01-01

    Ship listing and motion affects the movement pattern of passengers on board, thus pedestrian traffic and evacuation dynamics would be significantly different from those on level ground. To quantify the influence of ship listing and motion on passenger evacuation, we designed a ship corridor simulator, with which we performed single-file pedestrian movement experiments considering the effect of trim and heeling. Results indicated that density is not the only factor that affects pedestrian speed under ship trim or heeling conditions, for that both individual walking speed and group walking speed would be greatly attenuated due to the influence of the trim angles. However, heeling angles show less impact on speed when compared with trim angles. In addition, the speed correlation coefficient between the adjacent experimental subjects would be higher with larger angles and lower speed. Moreover, both female and male experimental subjects need similar distance headway for walking in different trim or heeling conditions. Furthermore, experimental subjects with lower individual walking speed need longer time headway to keep enough distance headway. This work will provide fundamental guidance to the development of evacuation models and the design of evacuation facilities on board.

  7. Regional Sediment Management Studies of Matagorda Ship Channel and Matagorda Bay System, Texas

    2013-08-01

    undisturbed free water surface.” The USACE presently has no standardized method to measure the fluid mud to determine nautical depth. The Engineer Manual...structural member in the bottom of the hull and channel bottom) is used to account for parameters such as ship motion from waves, squat , safety...distance between the nautical bottom and undisturbed free water surface. To complete the definition of nautical bottom, the physical characteristic(s) on

  8. Arctic shipping emissions inventories and future scenarios

    J. J. Corbett

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents 5 km×5 km Arctic emissions inventories of important greenhouse gases, black carbon and other pollutants under existing and future (2050 scenarios that account for growth of shipping in the region, potential diversion traffic through emerging routes, and possible emissions control measures. These high-resolution, geospatial emissions inventories for shipping can be used to evaluate Arctic climate sensitivity to black carbon (a short-lived climate forcing pollutant especially effective in accelerating the melting of ice and snow, aerosols, and gaseous emissions including carbon dioxide. We quantify ship emissions scenarios which are expected to increase as declining sea ice coverage due to climate change allows for increased shipping activity in the Arctic. A first-order calculation of global warming potential due to 2030 emissions in the high-growth scenario suggests that short-lived forcing of ~4.5 gigagrams of black carbon from Arctic shipping may increase global warming potential due to Arctic ships' CO2 emissions (~42 000 gigagrams by some 17% to 78%. The paper also presents maximum feasible reduction scenarios for black carbon in particular. These emissions reduction scenarios will enable scientists and policymakers to evaluate the efficacy and benefits of technological controls for black carbon, and other pollutants from ships.

  9. MASTER OF THE SHIP, MANAGER AND INSTRUCTOR

    Florin IORDANOAIA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The master of the ship is the person on the board who has the qualification and the necessary certificate of competency for running a maritime transport ship. He is the one who takes the ship into administration from the ship-owner, he is the only leader, the legal and direct chief of the entire crew, being invested with authority upon all the members of the crew. The master fulfils the attributes and displays his activity according to the legal laws of his flag, of the marine regulations and of the international conventions. In all the relationships which he establishes with physical or juridical people, the master represents the ship-owner, in a double condition, as an officer and as a commercial manager. In this paper, it is analysed the situation of the ship masters, the relationships which these masters have with the crew and the problems which appear during their voyage. At the end of the paper there are proposed measures to increase the quality of the training of the ship masters, to solve the situations connected with the members of the crew.

  10. Report of Nuclear Powered Ship Meeting

    1984-01-01

    The development of nuclear-powered ships in Japan broke down due to the radiation leak on the nuclear ship ''Mutsu'' in 1974, and the objective has not yet been attained. The Japan Nuclear Ship Research and Development Agency was reorganized to advance the development of nuclear-powered ships and to develop marine nuclear reactors. Recently, various opinions have been expressed regarding the development of nuclear-powered ships and Mutsu, accordingly, it is necessary to clarify the way it should be. The Atomic Energy Commission organized this meeting to discuss the problem. The practical use of nuclear-powered ships is expected at the beginning of the 21st century, but it is only the guess. But it is important to accumulate the technology, knowledge and experience to prepare for the use of nuclear-powered ships. The continuation of the development of Mutsu is important for the future, and the construction of the new home port is unavoidable. The aim of the research and development, and the concrete way of advancing the research and development of Mutsu are discussed. It is scheduled that the Agency is integrated with other atomic energy organizations by March, 1985. The consideration to be given for implementing the integration is described. (Kako, I.)

  11. Design and Simulation of Automatic Ballast System on Catamaran Ship Based on Programmable Logic Control

    Indra Ranu Kusuma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of catamaran ship which has deficiency to ship stability during maneuvering. to that end, this paper concerns about ballast system design in support of the safety and comfort of passengers on the catamaran boat. the discussion is done by creating a mathematical model of each component in the block diagram of the ballast system. then determine the pid value of the system and add the compensator for the system to run stable. further analyzed with the help of matlab software to get transient system response. with the automation system on the ballast system, it is expected that the motion of the ship can work automatically and provide a better response in the stability of the catamaran type ship. the ballast system begins to work against the tilt of the ship at 6.7 seconds at a certain angle, and will continue to work during the vessel maneuvering. judging from the 6.7 second system response time, the convenience of the passengers is not disturbed (the system response is not too fast. one way to reduce the rolling that occurs on the ship is to optimize the performance of the ballast system. performance optimization is done by using programmable logic controller (plc. plc used is omron cpm1a-30cdr-a-v1. the process is done by making the installation plant model of the ballast system as a control medium. followed by creating a control circuit consisting of wiring i / o, limit switch circuits, power supplies and programming languages associated with plcs. the result of the control is expected to regulate fluid flow in the ballast system automatically resulting in a rapid response to the stability of the ship.

  12. Vertical-axis turbine/propeller for ship propulsion

    Barkla, H.M.

    1984-01-01

    There are so many variables in the design and operating conditions of a vertical-axis turbine/propeller for the propulsion of a ship by wind that a preliminary study is offered, based on two simplified models. Study of a linear motion of blades in air and water shows optimum conditions for blade-speed and blade-incidence. Analysis of the second, cyclical model is simplified by the assumption of constant angles of incidence. While the logical superiority of the vertical-axis system, with its low transmission loss, may not alone give it the advantage over all other systems in upwind and downwind sailing, there are indications that in the beam wind it is in a class of its own; the Voith-Schneider-Type propeller then produces a thrust with a major component to windward, so that the combined unit leaves little or no athwartships force.

  13. Design study of ship based nuclear power reactor

    Su'ud, Zaki; Fitriyani, Dian

    2002-01-01

    Preliminary design study of ship based nuclear power reactors has been performed. In this study the results of thermohydraulics analysis is presented especially related to behaviour of ship motion in the sea. The reactors are basically lead-bismuth cooled fast power reactors using nitride fuels to enhance neutronics and safety performance. Some design modification are performed for feasibility of operation under sea wave movement. The system use loop type with relatively large coolant pipe above reactor core. The reactors does not use IHX, so that the heat from primary coolant system directly transferred to water-steam loop through steam generator. The reactors are capable to be operated in difference power level during night and noon. The reactors however can also be used totally or partially to produce clean water through desalination of sea water. Due to the influence of sea wave movement the analysis have to be performed in three dimensional analysis. The computation time for this analysis is speeded up using Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) Based multi processor system

  14. Nuclear fuel shipping inspection device

    Takahashi, Toshio; Hada, Koji.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To provide an nuclear fuel shipping inspection device having a high detection sensitivity and capable of obtaining highly reliable inspection results. Constitution: The present invention concerns a device for distinguishing a fuel assembly having failed fuel rods in LMFBR type reactors. Coolants in a fuel assembly to be inspected are collected by a sampling pipeway and transferred to a filter device. In the filter device, granular radioactive corrosion products (CP) in the coolants are captured, to reduce the background. The coolants, after being passed through the filter device, are transferred to an FP catching device and gamma-rays of iodine and cesium nuclides are measured in FP radiation measuring device. Subsequently, the coolants transferred to a degasing device to separate rare gas FP in the coolants from the liquid phase. In a case if rare gas fission products are detected by the radiation detector, it means that there is a failed fuel rod in the fuel assembly to be inspected. Since the CP and the soluble FP are separated and extracted for the radioactivity measurement, the reliability can be improved. (Kamimura, M.)

  15. Merchant shipping (Safety Convention) Act 1977

    1977-01-01

    When this Act comes into force, it will enable the United Kingdom to ratify and to give effect to the 1974 International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (the SOLAS Convention) which replaces the SOLAS Convention of 1960. Under the Act, the Secretary of State may make such rules as he considers appropriate regarding ships provided with nuclear power plants in accordance with Chapter VIII of the Annex to the 1974 Convention and to Recommendations attached to it, dealing with nuclear ships, and insofar as those provisions have not been implemented by the Merchant Shipping Acts 1894 to 1974. (NEA) [fr

  16. Improving the competitiveness of green ship recycling

    Jain, K.P.

    2017-01-01

    The end of life of a ship is determined by its owner on the basis of various commercial and technical factors. Once decided to scrap a ship, almost all end-of-life (EOL) ships are sold to recycling yards for dismantling; except for a few which are converted into museums, hotels, storage, and artificial reefs. As the decision is a commercial one, the selection of a yard is predominantly based on the offer price, which depends on the location of the yard and the recycling process employed.Among...

  17. Attention and apparent motion.

    Horowitz, T; Treisman, A

    1994-01-01

    Two dissociations between short- and long-range motion in visual search are reported. Previous research has shown parallel processing for short-range motion and apparently serial processing for long-range motion. This finding has been replicated and it has also been found that search for short-range targets can be impaired both by using bicontrast stimuli, and by prior adaptation to the target direction of motion. Neither factor impaired search in long-range motion displays. Adaptation actually facilitated search with long-range displays, which is attributed to response-level effects. A feature-integration account of apparent motion is proposed. In this theory, short-range motion depends on specialized motion feature detectors operating in parallel across the display, but subject to selective adaptation, whereas attention is needed to link successive elements when they appear at greater separations, or across opposite contrasts.

  18. Objects in Motion

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    One thing scientists study is how objects move. A famous scientist named Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) spent a lot of time observing objects in motion and came up with three laws that describe how things move. This explanation only deals with the first of his three laws of motion. Newton's First Law of Motion says that moving objects will continue…

  19. Motion compensated digital tomosynthesis

    van der Reijden, Anneke; van Herk, Marcel; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) is a limited angle image reconstruction method for cone beam projections that offers patient surveillance capabilities during VMAT based SBRT delivery. Motion compensation (MC) has the potential to mitigate motion artifacts caused by respiratory motion, such as blur. The

  20. Analysis for the amplitude oscillatory movements of the ship in response to the incidence wave

    Chiţu, M. G.; Zăgan, R.; Manea, E.

    2015-11-01

    Event of major accident navigation near offshore drilling rigs remains unacceptably high, known as the complications arising from the problematic of the general motions of the ship sailing under real sea. Dynamic positioning system is an effective instrument used on board of the ships operating in the extraction of oil and gas in the continental shelf of the seas and oceans, being essential that the personnel on board of the vessel can maintain position and operating point or imposed on a route with high precision. By the adoption of a strict safety in terms of handling and positioning of the vessel in the vicinity of the drilling platform, the risk of accidents can be reduced to a minimum. Possibilities in anticipation amplitudes of the oscillatory movements of the ships navigating in real sea, is a challenge for naval architects and OCTOPUS software is a tool used increasingly more in this respect, complementing navigational facilities offered by dynamic positioning systems. This paper presents a study on the amplitudes of the oscillations categories of supply vessels in severe hydro meteorological conditions of navigation. The study provides information on the RAO (Response Amplitude Operator) response operator of the ship, for the amplitude of the roll movements, in some incident wave systems, interpreted using the energy spectrum Jonswap and whose characteristics are known (significant height of the wave, wave period, pulsation of the wave). Ship responses are analyzed according to different positioning of the ship in relation to the wave front (incident angle ranging from 10 to 10 degree from 0 to 180), highlighting the value of the ship roll motion amplitude. For the study, was used, as a tool for modeling and simulation, the features offered by OCTOPUS software that allows the study of the computerized behavior of the ship on the waves, in the real conditions of navigation. Program library was used for both the vessel itself and navigation modeling

  1. How propeller suction is the dominant factor for ship accidents at shallow water conditions

    Acar, Dursun; Alpar, Bedri; Ozeren, Sinan

    2017-04-01

    The laminar flow comes to the fore with the disappearance of the several other directions in the internal displacements in the water current. Due to the dominant speed direction during the straightforward motion of the ship, the underwater hull is associated with the continuous flow of laminar currents. The open marine environment acts as a compressible liquid medium because of the presence of many variables about water volume overflow boundaries where the ship is associated. Layers of water rising over the sea surface due to ship's body and the propeller's water push provides loss of liquid lifting force for the ship. These situations change the well-known sea-floor morphology and reliable depth limits, and lead to probable accidents. If the ship block coefficient for the front side is 0.7 or higher, the "squat" will be more on the bow, because the associated factor "displacement volume" causes to the low-pressure environment due to large and rapid turbulence. Thus, the bow sinks further, which faced with liquid's weaker lift force. The vessels Gerardus Mercator, Queen Elizabeth and Costa Concordia had accidents because of unified reasons of squat, fast water mass displacement by hull push and propeller suction interaction. In the case of water mass displacement from the bow side away, that accident occurred in 2005 by the vessel Gerardus Mercator with excessive longitudinal trim angularity in the shallow water. The vessel Costa Concordia (2012), voluminous water displaced from the rear left side was an important factor because of the sharp manoeuvre of that the captain made before the accident. Observations before the accident indicate that full-speed sharp turn provided listed position for the ship from left (port side) in the direction of travel before colliding and then strike a rock on the sloping side of the seabed. The reason why the ship drifted to the left depends mainly the water discharge occurred at the left side of the hull during left-hand rudder

  2. AIS Ship Traffic: Hawaii: 2011-2012

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ship position data from a satellite-based Automatic Identification System (AIS) were obtained jointly by PacIOOS (J. Potemra), SOEST/ORE of the University of Hawaii...

  3. Fuel exchanging machine for a nuclear ship

    Hayashi, Tetsuji.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent atmospheric contaminations upon fuel exchange thereby keep the environmental circumstance clean in the periphery of the nuclear ship. Constitution: A nuclear reactor container is disposed to the inside of a containing vessel in the ship body and a shutter is mounted to the upper opening of the ship body. Further, a landing container having a bottom opening equipped with shutter for alingning the upper opening equipped with shuuter of the ship is elevatably suspended to the trolley of a crane by way of a wire rope and a winch, and a fuel exchange cask is elevatably disposed to the inside of the landing container. Further, airs in the inside of the container is adapted to be discharged externally through a filter by means of a blower and the inside is kept at a negative pressure. Thus, since the containing vessel is covered with the landing container upon fuel exchanging operation, atmospheric contamination can be prevented sufficiently. (Sekiya, K.)

  4. Solvency and Liquidity in Shipping Companies

    Heejung Yeo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines factors affecting the solvency of shipping firms. The paper uses a panel dataset and employs the GLM and FGLS regression analyses. This study explores the financial structure of top 130 shipping firms provided by the Factiva database during the period between 2009 and 2013. The paper finds that liquidity is closely related to the leverage of shipping companies. The negative association between the asset liquidity and the leverage level implies that there exist conflicts of interest between managers and investors. Shipping firms have a comfortable high liquidity position, but they have a high degree of leverage. They need to take steps to reduce debts. There is evidence of heterogeneity in the determinants of leverage level. The paper also finds that the variables such as profitability, FSIZE, FAGE influence differently the leverage level whether the debt is short-term or long-term.

  5. Review of ship slamming loads and responses

    Wang, Shan; Guedes Soares, C.

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents an overview of studies of slamming on ship structures. This work focuses on the hull slamming, which is one of the most important types of slamming problems to be considered in the ship design process and the assessment of the ship safety. There are three main research aspects related to the hull slamming phenomenon, a) where and how often a slamming event occurs, b) slamming load prediction and c) structural response due to slamming loads. The approaches used in each aspect are reviewed and commented, together with the presentation of some typical results. The methodology, which combines the seakeeping analysis and slamming load prediction, is discussed for the global analysis of the hull slamming of a ship in waves. Some physical phenomena during the slamming event are discussed also. Recommendations for the future research and developments are made.

  6. Dynamic Escape Routes for Naval Ships

    Villalonga, Francisco J

    2005-01-01

    This thesis addresses the problem of optimal evacuation of a naval ship. We propose the use of a dynamic escape-route system which employs a signaling system to adapt the emergency egress process to the instigating contingency...

  7. Nuclear ship accidents, description and analysis

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1993-03-01

    In this report available information on 44 reported nuclear ship events is considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships and 38 with USSR ships. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/ explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. Comments are made on each of the events, and at the end of the report an attempt is made to point out the weaknesses of the submarine designs which have resulted in the accidents. It is emphasized that some of the information of which this report is based, may be of dubious nature. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  8. Communication from the Radioactive Shipping Service

    DDGS Unit

    2011-01-01

    The radioactive materials Import/Export service reminds you that all movements of potentially radioactive material must be declared in advance. For exports, shipping requests must be made via the EDH request form, ticking the box “radioactive material”. For imports, an electronic form must be completed before the arrival of the material. Requests which do not comply with the above procedure and any unauthorized imports of radioactive material will be refused.The same applies to imports/exports of radioactive sources. All necessary information is given in the web site: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Yann Donjoux / Radioactive Shipping Service Phone: +41 22 767.31.71 Fax: +41 22 766.92.00 Email: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch

  9. Ships as future floating farm systems?

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2018-04-03

    Environmental and agriculture challenges such as severe drought, desertification, sprawling cities and shrinking arable lands in large regions in the world compel us to think about alternative and sustainable farming systems. Ongoing projects to build floating cities in the sea suggest that building specific ships for farming purposes (as farming ships or farming boats) would also be attainable to introduce new farming surfaces and boost food production worldwide to cope with food insecurity issues.

  10. A Nonlinear Ship Manoeuvering Model: Identification and adaptive control with experiments for a model ship

    Roger Skjetne

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Complete nonlinear dynamic manoeuvering models of ships, with numerical values, are hard to find in the literature. This paper presents a modeling, identification, and control design where the objective is to manoeuver a ship along desired paths at different velocities. Material from a variety of references have been used to describe the ship model, its difficulties, limitations, and possible simplifications for the purpose of automatic control design. The numerical values of the parameters in the model is identified in towing tests and adaptive manoeuvering experiments for a small ship in a marine control laboratory.

  11. Evaluation Method of Collision Risk by Using True Motion

    Hayama Imazu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary to develop a useful application to use big data like as AIS for safety and efficiency of ship operation. AIS is very useful system to collect targets information, but this information is not effective use yet. The evaluation method of collision risk is one of the cause disturb. Usually the collision risk of ship is evaluated by the value of the Closest Point of Approach (CPA which is related to a relative motion. So, it becomes difficult to find out a safety pass in a congested water. Here, Line of Predicted Collision (LOPC and Obstacle Zone by Target (OZT for evaluation of collision risk are introduced, these values are related to a true motion and it became visible of dangerous place, so it will make easy to find out a safety pass in a congested water.

  12. Ultimate Strength of Ship Hulls under Torsion

    Paik, Jeom Kee; Thayamballi, Anil K.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2001-01-01

    For a ship hull with large deck openings such as container vessels and some large bulk carriers, the analysis of warping stresses and hatch opening deformations is an essential part of ship structural analyses. It is thus of importance to better understand the ultimate torsional strength characte......For a ship hull with large deck openings such as container vessels and some large bulk carriers, the analysis of warping stresses and hatch opening deformations is an essential part of ship structural analyses. It is thus of importance to better understand the ultimate torsional strength...... characteristics of ships with large hatch openings. The primary aim of the present study is to investigate the ultimate strength characteristics of ship hulls with large hatch openings under torsion. Axial (warping) as well as shear stresses are normally developed for thin-walled beams with open cross sections...... subjected to torsion. A procedure for calculating these stresses is briefly described. As an illustrative example, the distribution and magnitude of warping and shear stresses for a typical container vessel hull cross section under unit torsion is calculated by the procedure. By theoretical and numerical...

  13. Ship design methodologies of preliminary design

    Papanikolaou, Apostolos

    2014-01-01

    This book deals with ship design and in particular with methodologies of the preliminary design of ships. The book is complemented by a basic bibliography and five appendices with useful updated charts for the selection of the main dimensions and other basic characteristics of different types of ships (Appendix A), the determination of hull form  from the data of systematic hull form series (Appendix B), the detailed description of the relational method for the preliminary estimation of ship weights (Appendix C), a brief review of the historical evolution of shipbuilding science and technology from the prehistoric era to date (Appendix D) and finally a historical review of regulatory developments of ship's damage stability to date (Appendix E).  The book can be used as textbook for ship design courses or as additional reading for university or college students of naval architecture courses and related disciplines; it may also serve as a reference book for naval architects, practicing engineers of rel...

  14. Report of Nuclear Powered Ship Council

    1982-01-01

    From the forecast of energy balance in the world to 21st century, the diversification of energy supply and the technical development enabling it are necessary in Japan. The stable supply of marine fuel is important to maintain and develop the national life. At present, as the marine fuel substituting for petroleum, atomic energy is at the position nearest to practical use. In advanced countries, the basic technology required for the practical use of nuclear-powered merchant ships seems to have been established, but Japan is about 10 years behind them due to the delay of the Mutsu project. In order to maintain and improve the technical level of shipbuilders, the independent technology related to nuclear-powered ships must be established in Japan. In the economical examination of nuclear-powered ships, ice breakers and ice breaking tankers are advantageous, but in other types of ships, a number of conditions must be satisfied to be economical. The Mutsu must be operated to collect the data and experience, and the project of an improved marine prototype reactor must be decided. Also a demonstration ship must be built. The standards for the design, construction and operation of nuclear-powered ships and the public acceptance are necessary. (Kako, I.)

  15. Structural health monitoring for ship structures

    Farrar, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Gyuhae [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Angel, Marian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bement, Matthew [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Salvino, Liming [NSWC, CADEROCK

    2009-01-01

    Currently the Office of Naval Research is supporting the development of structural health monitoring (SHM) technology for U.S. Navy ship structures. This application is particularly challenging because of the physical size of these structures, the widely varying and often extreme operational and environmental conditions associated with these ships missions, lack of data from known damage conditions, limited sensing that was not designed specifically for SHM, and the management of the vast amounts of data that can be collected during a mission. This paper will first define a statistical pattern recognition paradigm for SHM by describing the four steps of (1) Operational Evaluation, (2) Data Acquisition, (3) Feature Extraction, and (4) Statistical Classification of Features as they apply to ship structures. Note that inherent in the last three steps of this process are additional tasks of data cleansing, compression, normalization and fusion. The presentation will discuss ship structure SHM challenges in the context of applying various SHM approaches to sea trials data measured on an aluminum multi-hull high-speed ship, the HSV-2 Swift. To conclude, the paper will discuss several outstanding issues that need to be addressed before SHM can make the transition from a research topic to actual field applications on ship structures and suggest approaches for addressing these issues.

  16. Rolling Shutter Motion Deblurring

    Su, Shuochen

    2015-06-07

    Although motion blur and rolling shutter deformations are closely coupled artifacts in images taken with CMOS image sensors, the two phenomena have so far mostly been treated separately, with deblurring algorithms being unable to handle rolling shutter wobble, and rolling shutter algorithms being incapable of dealing with motion blur. We propose an approach that delivers sharp and undis torted output given a single rolling shutter motion blurred image. The key to achieving this is a global modeling of the camera motion trajectory, which enables each scanline of the image to be deblurred with the corresponding motion segment. We show the results of the proposed framework through experiments on synthetic and real data.

  17. Pitch Motion Stabilization by Propeller Speed Control Using Statistical Controller Design

    Nakatani, Toshihiko; Blanke, Mogens; Galeazzi, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes dynamics analysis of a small training boat and a possibility of ship pitch stabilization by control of propeller speed. After upgrading the navigational system of an actual small training boat, in order to identify the model of the ship, the real data collected by sea trials...... were used for statistical analysis and system identification. This analysis shows that the pitching motion is indeed influenced by engine speed and it is suggested that there exists a possibility of reducing the pitching motion by properly controlling the engine throttle. Based on this observation...

  18. Smoothing Motion Estimates for Radar Motion Compensation.

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Simple motion models for complex motion environments are often not adequate for keeping radar data coherent. Eve n perfect motion samples appli ed to imperfect models may lead to interim calculations e xhibiting errors that lead to degraded processing results. Herein we discuss a specific i ssue involving calculating motion for groups of pulses, with measurements only available at pulse-group boundaries. - 4 - Acknowledgements This report was funded by General A tomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. (GA-ASI) Mission Systems under Cooperative Re search and Development Agre ement (CRADA) SC08/01749 between Sandia National Laboratories and GA-ASI. General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. (GA-ASI), an affilia te of privately-held General Atomics, is a leading manufacturer of Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) systems, radars, and electro-optic and rel ated mission systems, includin g the Predator(r)/Gray Eagle(r)-series and Lynx(r) Multi-mode Radar.

  19. Curves from Motion, Motion from Curves

    2000-01-01

    De linearum curvarum cum lineis rectis comparatione dissertatio geometrica - an appendix to a treatise by de Lalouv~re (this was the only publication... correct solution to the problem of motion in the gravity of a permeable rotating Earth, considered by Torricelli (see §3). If the Earth is a homogeneous...in 1686, which contains the correct solution as part of a remarkably comprehensive theory of orbital motions under centripetal forces. It is a

  20. Investigation and Development of Control Laws for the NASA Langley Research Center Cockpit Motion Facility

    Coon, Craig R.; Cardullo, Frank M.; Zaychik, Kirill B.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to develop highly advanced simulators is a critical need that has the ability to significantly impact the aerospace industry. The aerospace industry is advancing at an ever increasing pace and flight simulators must match this development with ever increasing urgency. In order to address both current problems and potential advancements with flight simulator techniques, several aspects of current control law technology of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center's Cockpit Motion Facility (CMF) motion base simulator were examined. Preliminary investigation of linear models based upon hardware data were examined to ensure that the most accurate models are used. This research identified both system improvements in the bandwidth and more reliable linear models. Advancements in the compensator design were developed and verified through multiple techniques. The position error rate feedback, the acceleration feedback and the force feedback were all analyzed in the heave direction using the nonlinear model of the hardware. Improvements were made using the position error rate feedback technique. The acceleration feedback compensator also provided noteworthy improvement, while attempts at implementing a force feedback compensator proved unsuccessful.

  1. Structural motion engineering

    Connor, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    This innovative volume provides a systematic treatment of the basic concepts and computational procedures for structural motion design and engineering for civil installations. The authors illustrate the application of motion control to a wide spectrum of buildings through many examples. Topics covered include optimal stiffness distributions for building-type structures, the role of damping in controlling motion, tuned mass dampers, base isolation systems, linear control, and nonlinear control. The book's primary objective is the satisfaction of motion-related design requirements, such as restrictions on displacement and acceleration. The book is ideal for practicing engineers and graduate students. This book also: ·         Broadens practitioners' understanding of structural motion control, the enabling technology for motion-based design ·         Provides readers the tools to satisfy requirements of modern, ultra-high strength materials that lack corresponding stiffness, where the motion re...

  2. Automatic production planning for the construction of complex ships

    Rose, C.D.

    2017-01-01

    European shipyards specialize in building complex ship types including offshore vessels, yachts, dredgers, and cruise ships. One key difference between these ships and the simple cargo ships typically built in the Far East is the amount and variety of mission-related equipment required to operate

  3. Solving the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows

    Tierney, Kevin; Askelsdottir, Björg; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2015-01-01

    We solve a central problem in the liner shipping industry called the liner shipping fleet repositioning problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between routes in a liner shipping network. Liner carriers wish...

  4. Computational methods for more fuel-efficient ship

    Koren, B.

    2008-01-01

    The flow of water around a ship powered by a combustion engine is a key factor in the ship's fuel consumption. The simulation of flow patterns around ship hulls is therefore an important aspect of ship design. While lengthy computations are required for such simulations, research by Jeroen Wackers

  5. 48 CFR 1371.118 - Changes-ship repair.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Changes-ship repair. 1371.118 Section 1371.118 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTAL REGULATIONS ACQUISITIONS INVOLVING SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND SHIP REPAIR Provisions and Clauses 1371.118 Changes—ship repair. Insert clause...

  6. 46 CFR 169.817 - Master to instruct ship's company.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Master to instruct ship's company. 169.817 Section 169.817 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Operations § 169.817 Master to instruct ship's company. The master shall conduct drills and give instructions as necessary to insure that al...

  7. 46 CFR 71.75-5 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 71.75-5 Section 71.75-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS INSPECTION AND... Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) All vessels on an international voyage are required to have a...

  8. Modelling ship operational reliability over a mission under regular inspections

    Christer, A.H.; Lee, S.K.

    1997-01-01

    A ship is required to operate for a fixed mission period. Should a critical item of equipment fail at sea, the ship is subject to a costly event with potentially high risk to ship and crew. Given warning of a pending defect, the ship can try to return to port under its own power and thus attempt to

  9. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Measures to protect ship's payrolls.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Measures to protect ship's payrolls. Sec. 5 Section 5... SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 5 Measures to protect ship's payrolls. (a) General Agents are not required to consider the amount of the payroll delivered to the Master at the conclusion of a voyage in determining the...

  10. 32 CFR 700.872 - Ships and craft in drydock.

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ships and craft in drydock. 700.872 Section 700... Special Circumstances/ships in Naval Stations and Shipyards § 700.872 Ships and craft in drydock. (a) The... ship or craft, not in commission, is in a naval drydock, the provisions of this article shall apply...

  11. A building cost estimation method for inland ships

    Hekkenberg, R.G.

    2014-01-01

    There is very little publicly available data about the building cost of inland ships, especially for ships that have dimensions that differ significantly from those of common ships. Also, no methods to determine the building cost of inland ships are described in literature. In this paper, a method

  12. The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2012-01-01

    We solve an important problem for the liner shipping industry called the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. Shippers wish...

  13. Design and construction of a planar motion mechanism

    Tanasovici, Gilberto [Protemaq Engenharia e Projetos, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil); Fucatu, Carlos H. [Technomar Engenharia Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Tannuri, Eduardo A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Mecatronica; Umeda, Carlos H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the design and construction of a PMM (Planar Motion Mechanism) towed by the IPT-SP main carriage. The IPT towing tank no. 2 is 220 m length and 6.6 m wide. The PMM provides a forced sway and/or yaw oscillation on a ship or other marine structure scaled model.. The maximum sway amplitude (transversal motion) is {+-}1 m, and the maximum sway velocity is 1.0 m/s, with a maximum carrying load of 1000 N. The maximum yaw velocity (rotation motion) is 36 deg/s. High-precision components were used in the construction, and the final estimated accuracy in the sway axis is 0.02 mm and approximately 0.1 deg for yaw motions. Finite Element Analysis and Structural Optimization techniques were used during the design stage. The PMM structure total mass is less than 1 ton, lighter than similar mechanisms in other institutions. A Man-Machine Interface was developed, and the operator is able to define the period and amplitude of sway and yaw motions, as well as the fade-in and fade-out time. An integral 3-component force load cell is installed in the end of the support axis, which measures the hydrodynamic loads on the captive model at low speed tests. This novel laboratorial facility allows the IPT to execute new kinds of experimental procedures, related to evaluation of hydrodynamic loads acting on ship hulls and offshore structures. (author)

  14. Heeling Moment Acting on a River Cruiser in Manoeuvring Motion

    Tabaczek Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available By using fully theoretical method the heeling moment due to centrifugal forces has been determined for a small river cruiser in turning manoeuvre. The authors applied CFD software for determination of hull hydrodynamic forces, and open water characteristics of ducted propeller for estimation of thrust of rudder-propellers. Numerical integration of equations of 3DOF motion was used for prediction of ship trajectory and time histories of velocities, forces and heeling moment.

  15. Assessment of motion effects on the FPSO (Floating, Production, Storage and Offloading) vessel Terra Nova

    Cheung, B.; Hofer, K. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Toronto, ON (Canada); Brooks, C.J. [Survival Systems Group Ltd., Dartmouth, NS (Canada)

    2002-10-01

    A study was conducted to define the incidence and severity of seasickness, motion-induced fatigue and task performance problems encountered on the Floating, Production, Storage, Offshore (FPSO) vessel which Petro-Canada operates in the Grands Banks of Newfoundland at the Terra Nova Field. The FPSO vessel is tethered to the oil well head by flexible couplings and is subjected to severe wave motion at sea. Crew members living and working aboard the FPSO vessel are exposed to more severe weather motion compared to those on fixed installation platforms, particularly during the winter months. The study involved a questionnaire to determine if seasickness is a problem and whether specific ship motions affect sleep, mental and physical performance on the vessel. Ship motion data was obtained through sensors mounted on the bow of the vessel. Respondents revealed that the incidence and severity of motion sickness and sleep disturbance ranged from slight to moderate. The correlation between sleep disturbance and ship motion was high. Problems in task performance ranged from loss of concentration, decision making and memory disorders and task completion problems. The number of safety, health and performance issues increased with bad weather conditions. One of the objectives of this study is to develop recommendations to provide operations guidance to improve comfort and performance on FPSO vessels. 13 tabs., 7 figs.

  16. Development of software for handling ship's pharmacy.

    Nittari, Giulio; Peretti, Alessandro; Sibilio, Fabio; Ioannidis, Nicholas; Amenta, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Ships are required to carry a given amount of medicinal products and medications depending on the flag and the type of vessel. These medicines are stored in the so called ship's "medicine chest" or more properly - a ship pharmacy. Owing to the progress of medical sciences and to the increase in the mean age of seafarers employed on board ships, the number of pharmaceutical products and medical devices required by regulations to be carried on board ships is increasing. This may make handling of the ship's medicine chest a problem primarily on large ships sailing on intercontinental routes due to the difficulty in identifying the correspondence between medicines obtained abroad with those available at the national market. To minimise these problems a tool named Pharmacy Ship (acronym: PARSI) has been developed. The application PARSI is based on a database containing the information about medicines and medical devices required by different countries regulations. In the first application the system was standardised to comply with the Italian regulations issued on the 1st October, 2015 which entered into force on the 18 January 2016. Thanks to PARSI it was possible to standardize the inventory procedures, facilitate the work of maritime health authorities and make it easier for the crew, not professional in the field, to handle the 'medicine chest' correctly by automating the procedures for medicines management. As far as we know there are no other similar tools available at the moment. The application of the software, as well as the automation of different activities, currently carried out manually, will help manage (qualitatively and quantitatively) the ship's pharmacy. The system developed in this study has proved to be an effective tool which serves to guarantee the compliance of the ship pharmacy with regulations of the flag state in terms of medicinal products and medications. Sharing the system with the Telemedical Maritime Assistance Service may result in

  17. A Ship Cargo Hold Inspection Approach Using Laser Vision Systems

    SHEN Yang; ZHAO Ning; LIU Haiwei; MI Chao

    2013-01-01

    Our paper represents a vision system based on the laser measurement system (LMS) for bulk ship inspection. The LMS scanner with 2-axis servo system is installed on the ship loader to build the shape of the ship. Then, a group of real-time image processing algorithms are implemented to compute the shape of the cargo hold, the inclination angle of the ship and the relative position between the ship loader and the cargo hold. Based on those computed inspection data of the ship, the ship loader c...

  18. Feasibility Study on Nuclear Propulsion Ship according to Economic Evaluation

    Gil, Youngmi; Yoo, Seongjin; Oh, June; Byun, Yoonchul; Woo, Ilguk [Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering Co., Ltd, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jiho; Choi, Suhn [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The use of nuclear ships has been extending to the icebreaker, the deep-water exploration ship, and the floating nuclear power plant. Prior to developing the new ship, the relevant regulations need to be considered. In this study, we reviewed the nuclear ship-related regulations. In addition, economic value is one of the most important factors which should be considered in the pre-design phase. To evaluate the economics of the nuclear ship, we calculated Capital Expenditure (abbreviated as CAPEX) and Operation Expenditure (abbreviated as OPEX) for various types of ships. We reviewed the nuclear ship-related regulations and evaluated the economics of the nuclear ship compared to the diesel ship. The calculation result shows that economic feasibility of the nuclear ship depends on the oil price as well as the cost of the nuclear reactor.

  19. Analysis of ship maneuvering data from simulators

    Frette, V.; Kleppe, G.; Christensen, K.

    2011-03-01

    We analyze complex manuevering histories of ships obtained from training sessions on bridge simulators. Advanced ships are used in fields like offshore oil exploration: dive support vessels, supply vessels, anchor handling vessels, tugs, cable layers, and multi-purpose vessels. Due to high demands from the operations carried out, these ships need to have very high maneuverability. This is achieved through a propulsion system with several thrusters, water jets, and rudders in addition to standard propellers. For some operations, like subsea maintenance, it is crucial that the ship accurately keeps a fixed position. Therefore, bridge systems usually incorporate equipment for Dynamic Positioning (DP). DP is a method to keep ships and semi submersible rigs in a fixed position using the propulsion systems instead of anchors. It may also be used for sailing a vessel from one position to another along a predefined route. Like an autopilot on an airplane, DP may operate without human involvement. The method relies on accurate determination of position from external reference systems like GPS, as well as a continuously adjusted mathematical model of the ship and external forces from wind, waves and currents. In a specific simulator exercise for offshore crews, a ship is to be taken up to an installation consisting of three nearby oil platforms connected by bridges (Frigg field, North Sea), where a subsea inspection is to be carried out. Due to the many degrees of freedom during maneuvering, including partly or full use of DP, the chosen routes vary significantly. In this poster we report preliminary results on representations of the complex maneuvering histories; representations that allow comparison between crew groups, and, possibly, sorting of the different strategic choices behind.

  20. The Transformation of Swedish Shipping, 1970-2010

    Sjögren, Hans; Taro Lennerfors, Thomas; Taudal Poulsen, Rene

    2012-01-01

    Since the early 1970s, as shipping has undergone a period of structural change, Swedish shipping has rapidly declined from a position of global importance. The Swedish-controlled fleet has dwindled, and the structure of the industry itself has changed. This article explores the influence of shipping markets, shipping regulations, company strategies, maritime know-how, and financial resources on the development of Swedish shipping from 1970 to 2010. A comparison is made between, on the one han...

  1. Analysis of ship life cycles: the impact of economic cycles and ship inspection

    Bijwaard, G.E.; Knapp, S.

    2009-01-01

    Due to the shipping industry's international legal framework, there are loopholes in the system, which can increase the risk of incidents with high economic costs due to the substandard operation of vessels. This article uses duration analysis and through the creation of ship life cycles provides

  2. Ship Acquisition of Shipping Companies by Sale & Purchase Activities for Sustainable Growth: Exploratory Fuzzy-AHP Application

    Keun-Sik Park

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Strengthening sale and purchase (S&P capacity has become a fundamental requirement for sustainable growth and corporate competitiveness in the modern shipping market. However, there is a lack of research related to S&P and its priority when shipping companies attempt to implement ship acquisition through S&P activities. To fill this gap, this paper conducts an empirical analysis to analyze priority factors during the acquisition of second-hand ships from the perspective of shipping companies. Business criteria are considered to be the most important factors in the analysis of the priority of ship acquisition and investment in shipping companies. To the best of our knowledge, this research is the first exploration covering Korean shipping companies’ ship acquisition through S&P activities. This study is expected to contribute to the better understanding of the role of S&P in ensuring the sustainability of shipping companies and to provide stakeholders with valuable insights.

  3. Risk Analysis on Ship Wreck and Container Cargo to Ship Navigation

    Muhammad Badrus Zaman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wreck of a ship is an incident that must be avoided. Ship accidents are generally caused by a several cases, such as human error, natural disaster, technical errors, missed communication, poor condition of the ship, and many more. Ship wreckage have huge impact for ship navigation, environment, economics, and others. Those impact have many disadvantages for the shipowners, and also for environment. For examples the fuel spills that pollute the environment, make disturbance to sailing ship because the track for those navigation is blocked by the ship wreck and their cargo especially on shallow location (<50 m. These research will discuss the effect the container when it is floats on the sea and its interference other ships. The main objective of this study is to present a risk assessment on the environmental impact of the wreck and container cargo. Wrecks on the seabed is likely to pose a risk to passing ships. container and its contents as well as the possibility of refloat, and also their environmental risks emanating from the wreck and container cargo, such as fuels, lubricants, and chemical cargo. Variations scenario is a collision between ships that pass by floating containers. The frequency of refloating container, and the consequences of the passing ship depends on several factors, which will be the subject of research. However, because of the frequency of refloating containers is unlikely, then the risk is low and does not pose a danger to navigation. These risk assessment using risk matrix 5x5 which is the combined value of the frequency and consequences of the incident. The results of this study indicate the level of risk, whether the risk is accepted, not accepted or received by considering the costs and benefits (ALARP. To consequence, there are two parameters which energy is absorbed and the penetration occurs. The absorbed energy is divided into two, namely the energy absorbed by ship and the energy absorbed by containers. In this

  4. An assessment of simplified methods to determine damage from ship-to-ship collisions

    Parks, M.B.; Ammerman, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is studying the safety of shipping, radioactive materials (RAM) by sea, the SeaRAM project (McConnell, et al. 1995), which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The project is concerned with the potential effects of ship collisions and fires on onboard RAM packages. Existing methodologies are being assessed to determine their adequacy to predict the effect of ship collisions and fires on RAM packages and to estimate whether or not a given accident might lead to a release of radioactivity. The eventual goal is to develop a set of validated methods, which have been checked by comparison with test data and/or detailed finite element analyses, for predicting the consequences of ship collisions and fires. These methods could then be used to provide input for overall risk assessments of RAM sea transport. The emphasis of this paper is on methods for predicting- effects of ship collisions

  5. Vertical Axis Rotational Motion Cues in Hovering Flight Simulation

    Schroeder, Jeffrey A.; Johnson, Walter W.; Showman, Robert D. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    A previous study that examined how yaw motion affected a pilot's ability to perform realistic hovering flight tasks indicated that any amount of pure yaw motion had little-to-no effect on pilot performance or opinion. In that experiment, pilots were located at the vehicle's center of rotation; thus lateral or longitudinal accelerations were absent. The purpose of the new study described here was to investigate further these unanticipated results for additional flight tasks, but with the introduction of linear accelerations associated with yaw rotations when the pilot is not at the center of rotation. The question of whether a yaw motion degree-of-freedom is necessary or not is important to government regulators who specify what simulator motions are necessary according to prescribed levels of simulator sophistication. Currently, specifies two levels of motion sophistication for flight simulators: full 6-degree-of-freedom and 3-degree-of-freedom. For the less sophisticated simulator, the assumed three degrees of freedom are pitch, roll, and heave. If other degrees of freedom are selected, which are different f rom these three, they must be qualified on a case-by-case basis. Picking the assumed three axes is reasonable and based upon experience, but little empirical data are available to support the selection of critical axes. Thus, the research described here is aimed at answering this question. The yaw and lateral degrees of freedom were selected to be examined first, and maneuvers were defined to uncouple these motions from changes in the gravity vector with respect to the pilot. This approach simplifies the problem to be examined. For this experiment, the NASA Ames Vertical Motion Simulator was used in a comprehensive investigation. The math model was an AH-64 Apache in hover, which was identified from flight test data and had previously been validated by several AH-64 pilots. The pilot's head was located 4.5 ft in front of the vehicle center of gravity, which is

  6. Radiative Forcing Over Ocean by Ship Wakes

    Gatebe, Charles K.; Wilcox, E.; Poudyal, R.; Wang, J.

    2011-01-01

    Changes in surface albedo represent one of the main forcing agents that can counteract, to some extent, the positive forcing from increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. Here, we report on enhanced ocean reflectance from ship wakes over the Pacific Ocean near the California coast, where we determined, based on airborne radiation measurements that ship wakes can increase reflected sunlight by more than 100%. We assessed the importance of this increase to climate forcing, where we estimated the global radiative forcing of ship wakes to be -0.00014 plus or minus 53% Watts per square meter assuming a global distribution of 32331 ships of size of greater than or equal to 100000 gross tonnage. The forcing is smaller than the forcing of aircraft contrails (-0.007 to +0.02 Watts per square meter), but considering that the global shipping fleet has rapidly grown in the last five decades and this trend is likely to continue because of the need of more inter-continental transportation as a result of economic globalization, we argue that the radiative forcing of wakes is expected to be increasingly important especially in harbors and coastal regions.

  7. Quantitative analysis method for ship construction quality

    FU Senzong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The excellent performance of a ship is assured by the accurate evaluation of its construction quality. For a long time, research into the construction quality of ships has mainly focused on qualitative analysis due to a shortage of process data, which results from limited samples, varied process types and non-standardized processes. Aiming at predicting and controlling the influence of the construction process on the construction quality of ships, this article proposes a reliability quantitative analysis flow path for the ship construction process and fuzzy calculation method. Based on the process-quality factor model proposed by the Function-Oriented Quality Control (FOQC method, we combine fuzzy mathematics with the expert grading method to deduce formulations calculating the fuzzy process reliability of the ordinal connection model, series connection model and mixed connection model. The quantitative analysis method is applied in analyzing the process reliability of a ship's shaft gear box installation, which proves the applicability and effectiveness of the method. The analysis results can be a useful reference for setting key quality inspection points and optimizing key processes.

  8. Orchestrating Transnational Environmental Governance in Maritime Shipping

    Lister, Jane; Taudal Poulsen, René; Ponte, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Maritime shipping is the transmission belt of the global economy. It is also a major contributor to global environmental change through its under-regulated air, water and land impacts. It is puzzling that shipping is a lagging sector as it has a well-established global regulatory body—the Interna......Maritime shipping is the transmission belt of the global economy. It is also a major contributor to global environmental change through its under-regulated air, water and land impacts. It is puzzling that shipping is a lagging sector as it has a well-established global regulatory body......—the International Maritime Organization. Drawing on original empirical evidence and archival data, we introduce a four-factor framework to investigate two main questions: why is shipping lagging in its environmental governance; and what is the potential for the International Maritime Organization to orchestrate......, and growing regulatory fragmentation and uncertainty. The paper concludes with pragmatic recommendations for the International Maritime Organization to acknowledge the regulatory difficulties and seize the opportunity to orchestrate environmental progress....

  9. Report of nuclear powered ship meeting

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The research and development of nuclear powered ships in Japan have been advanced centering around the Japan Nuclear Ship Development Agency established in 1963. It is regretful that the development of ''Mutsu'' is largely behind the schedule due to the radiation leak in 1974, and the expected objective has not yet been attained even today. The government decided to advance the research on the improvement of marine nuclear reactors in 1980, and this new research function was given to the Agency by changing its organization. However, recently various arguments have arisen concerning the way of the research and development of nuclear ships in Japan centering around ''Mutsu'', such as the necessity of developing nuclear ships, the enormous expenditure for the development, the aging of ''Mutsu'' more than 10 years after the construction, the introduction of nuclear ship technology from foreign countries and so on. By the end of fiscal 1984, the Agency is expected to merge with other organization related to atomic energy, therefore, it is necessary to decide the way of research and development. This meeting organized by the Atomic Energy Commission makes this report to show the way of thinking about the above arguments. (Kako, I.)

  10. Capital structure in the global shipping industry

    Paun Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current economic crisis emerged from a particular financial crisis that started in the United States and being rapidly propagated all over the world. It did not affect a limited region or a limited economic sector. This crisis induced significant changes in all management areas, including financial management. This study is focused on financing strategies adopted by shipping companies during the crisis, analyzing relevant factors for a specific issue - the capital structure. The research methodology proposed for this analysis on relevant factors that could explain the capital structure of shipping is OLS regression applied on selected variables derived from the financial statements of the major shipping companies. The dependent variables reflecting capital structure are book value to total liabilities ratio and book value to total debt ratio. The explanatory variables are derived from the theory of capital structure. This study empirically illustrates the relevance of the capital structure theory for the studied economic sector and is a useful tool for the shipping companies, providing relevant information about the optimal capital structure adopted by shipping companies and about factors that influence this decision during a crisis period.

  11. A new arrangement with nonlinear sidewalls for tanker ship storage panels

    Ketabdari, M. J.; Saghi, H.

    2013-03-01

    Sloshing phenomenon in a moving container is a complicated free surface flow problem. It has a wide range of engineering applications, especially in tanker ships and Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) carriers. When the tank in these vehicles is partially filled, it is essential to be able to evaluate the fluid dynamic loads on tank perimeter. Different geometric shapes such as rectangular, cylindrical, elliptical, spherical and circular conical have been suggested for ship storage tanks by previous researchers. In this paper a numerical model is developed based on incompressible and inviscid fluid motion for the liquid sloshing phenomenon. The coupled BEM-FEM is used to solve the governing equations and nonlinear free surface boundary conditions. The results are validated for rectangular container using data obtained for a horizontal periodic sway motion. Using the results of this model a new arrangement of trapezoidal shapes with quadratic sidewalls is suggested for tanker ship storage panels. The suggested geometric shape not only has a maximum surrounded tank volume to the constant available volume, but also reduces the sloshing effects more efficiently than the existing geometric shapes.

  12. Motion and relativity

    Infeld, Leopold

    1960-01-01

    Motion and Relativity focuses on the methodologies, solutions, and approaches involved in the study of motion and relativity, including the general relativity theory, gravitation, and approximation.The publication first offers information on notation and gravitational interaction and the general theory of motion. Discussions focus on the notation of the general relativity theory, field values on the world-lines, general statement of the physical problem, Newton's theory of gravitation, and forms for the equation of motion of the second kind. The text then takes a look at the approximation meth

  13. Brain Image Motion Correction

    Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Benjaminsen, Claus; Larsen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    The application of motion tracking is wide, including: industrial production lines, motion interaction in gaming, computer-aided surgery and motion correction in medical brain imaging. Several devices for motion tracking exist using a variety of different methodologies. In order to use such devices...... offset and tracking noise in medical brain imaging. The data are generated from a phantom mounted on a rotary stage and have been collected using a Siemens High Resolution Research Tomograph for positron emission tomography. During acquisition the phantom was tracked with our latest tracking prototype...

  14. Ship information system: overview and research trends

    Sheng Liu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ship Information Systems (SISs have been one of the main research focuses in ship design and become a multidisciplinary area. With these growing research trends, it is important to consolidate the latest knowledge and information to keep up with the research needs. In this paper, the SIS and its different forms are introduced and discussed. The beginning of this paper discusses the history and evolution of SIS. The next part of this paper focuses on different fields and research areas such as networking technology, information fusion, information decision, message display, ship control in real-time SISs. A Semi-Physical Simulation Platform (SPSIM designed for SIS research and its running effect through a new Fuzzy-PID fusion algorithm are introduced in this paper then. A brief literature survey and possible future direction concerning each topic is included.

  15. Standardized analyses of nuclear shipping containers

    Parks, C.V.; Hermann, O.W.; Petrie, L.M.; Hoffman, T.J.; Tang, J.S.; Landers, N.F.; Turner, W.D.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes improved capabilities for analyses of nuclear fuel shipping containers within SCALE -- a modular code system for Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation. Criticality analysis improvements include the new KENO V, a code which contains an enhanced geometry package and a new control module which uses KENO V and allows a criticality search on optimum pitch (maximum k-effective) to be performed. The SAS2 sequence is a new shielding analysis module which couples fuel burnup, source term generation, and radial cask shielding. The SAS5 shielding sequence allows a multidimensional Monte Carlo analysis of a shipping cask with code generated biasing of the particle histories. The thermal analysis sequence (HTAS1) provides an easy-to-use tool for evaluating a shipping cask response to the accident capability of the SCALE system to provide the cask designer or evaluator with a computational system that provides the automated procedures and easy-to-understand input that leads to standarization

  16. The Two Regimes of Postwar Shipping

    Iversen, Martin Jes; Tenold, Stig

    2014-01-01

    the bargaining that accompanied the shift from the national regime to the competitive regime. Specifically, we show that the new regime primarily accommodated the interests of private actors such as shipping companies, rather than the interests of the authorities and the trade unions.......The aim of this article is to illustrate the most important changes in the regulatory framework of the shipping sector from the 1960s to 2010, and to analyse the basis for, and effects of, these changes. In order to explain how the transformation has occurred, we use two traditional maritime...... nations—Denmark and Norway—as case studies. First, we introduce the two regimes of Danish and Norwegian shipping: ‘the national regime’ from the early 1960s to the mid-1970s; and ‘the competitive regime’, which was fully established by the middle of the 1990s and still persists. Then, we briefly sketch...

  17. BALTIC CONTAINER SHIPPING MARKET GOES GLOBAL

    Ernest Czermański

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at summarizing the last period of the Baltic container shipping mar-ket’s development, especially after 2000. The author, taking especially into account changes that have occurred in 2010, ultimately demonstrate that through the analyzed changes, this market has become a global one - thus being shaped by global determinants influencing its further development. Author selected and analyzed some chosen, most important factors influencing future market development. Secondly, some chances and threats resulting from the described changes were presented, either for the entire market as a base for international trade of Baltic Sea Region countries, and for its actors, mainly shipping owners and operators acting as a supply side of the Baltic container market. Finally, author has tried to verify and questioned the doubts and strong concerns about the future of the Baltic container shipping, especially about the feeder services, as because there are real indications and arguments against these concern.

  18. Malaria infections in crews of Japanese ships.

    Shoda, M; Shimizu, K; Nagano, M; Ishii, M

    2001-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria is the most dangerous infection for seafarers in West Africa. In December 1998, five cases of this infection occurred among Japanese seafarers in West Africa, two of them died, one on board ship, and another died five days after the admission to the hospital in Reunion island, East Africa. Six other cases of falciparum malaria infection occurred among Japanese seafarers on another ship in December 1999. Three infected persons were admitted to hospitals in Abidjan (Ivory Coast) and Point Noire (Congo). In Japan, over 100 cases of imported malaria were recorded each year during the period from 1990 to 1997, and about 40% of these cases were falciparum infections. It is not known how many of them occurred among seafarers. We estimate that at least 5% of all malaria cases in Japan are seafarers. Measures to protect crews of ships against malaria are discussed.

  19. Applicabilities of ship emission reduction methods

    Guleryuz, Adem [ARGEMAN Research Group, Marine Division (Turkey)], email: ademg@argeman.org; Kilic, Alper [Istanbul Technical University, Maritime Faculty, Marine Engineering Department (Turkey)], email: enviromarineacademic@yahoo.com

    2011-07-01

    Ships, with their high consumption of fossil fuels to power their engines, are significant air polluters. Emission reduction methods therefore need to be implemented and the aim of this paper is to assess the advantages and disadvantages of each emissions reduction method. Benefits of the different methods are compared, with their disadvantages and requirements, to determine the applicability of such solutions. The methods studied herein are direct water injection, humid air motor, sea water scrubbing, diesel particulate filter, selected catalytic reduction, design of engine components, exhaust gas recirculation and engine replacement. Results of the study showed that the usefulness of each emissions reduction method depends on the particular case and that an evaluation should be carried out for each ship. This study pointed out that methods to reduce ship emissions are available but that their applicability depends on each case.

  20. Global Loads on FRP Ship Hulls

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1997-01-01

    Fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) composites used for high-speed vessels have lower modulus of elasticity than the conventionally used steels.Therefore, for large fast ships the lowest natural frequencies of the global hull modes can be relatively low compared to the frequency of waveencounter....... As part of the NoKoS project it was decided to investigate the effect of hull flexibility on the wave-induced as well as accidental structural loads on high-speed ships.Especially it was decided to determine whether there is an upper size of FRP and aluminium mono-hulls caused by continuous wave action...

  1. Network Design Models for Container Shipping

    Reinhardt, Line Blander; Kallehauge, Brian; Nielsen, Anders Nørrelund

    This paper presents a study of the network design problem in container shipping. The paper combines the network design and fleet assignment problem into a mixed integer linear programming model minimizing the overall cost. The major contributions of this paper is that the time of a vessel route...... is included in the calculation of the capacity and that a inhomogeneous fleet is modeled. The model also includes the cost of transshipment which is one of the major cost for the shipping companies. The concept of pseudo simple routes is introduced to expand the set of feasible routes. The linearization...

  2. Code of safety for nuclear merchant ships

    1982-01-01

    The Code is in chapters, entitled: general (including general safety principles and principles of risk acceptance); design criteria and conditions; ship design, construction and equipment; nuclear steam supply system; machinery and electrical installations; radiation safety (including radiological protection design; protection of persons; dosimetry; radioactive waste management); operation (including emergency operation procedures); surveys. Appendices cover: sinking velocity calculations; seaway loads depending on service periods; safety assessment; limiting dose-equivalent rates for different areas and spaces; quality assurance programme; application of single failure criterion. Initial application of the Code is restricted to conventional types of ships propelled by nuclear propulsion plants with pressurized light water type reactors. (U.K.)

  3. Absorbed Energy in Ship Collisions and Grounding

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    is that the absorbed energy does not depend on the arrangement of the structure, the material properties, and the damage mode.The purpose of the present paper is to establish a new simple relation between the absorbed energy and the destroyed material volume, which can be used as a design tool for analysis of ship...... collisions and grounding. The developed expressions reflect the structural arrangement, the material properties and different damage patterns.The present method is validated against a large number of existing experimental results and detailed numerical simulation results. Applications to full-sale ship...

  4. Transport impacts on atmosphere and climate: Shipping

    Eyring, Veronika; Isaksen, Ivar S. A.; Berntsen, Terje; Collins, William J.; Corbett, James J.; Endresen, Oyvind; Grainger, Roy G.; Moldanova, Jana; Schlager, Hans; Stevenson, David S.

    2010-12-01

    Emissions of exhaust gases and particles from oceangoing ships are a significant and growing contributor to the total emissions from the transportation sector. We present an assessment of the contribution of gaseous and particulate emissions from oceangoing shipping to anthropogenic emissions and air quality. We also assess the degradation in human health and climate change created by these emissions. Regulating ship emissions requires comprehensive knowledge of current fuel consumption and emissions, understanding of their impact on atmospheric composition and climate, and projections of potential future evolutions and mitigation options. Nearly 70% of ship emissions occur within 400 km of coastlines, causing air quality problems through the formation of ground-level ozone, sulphur emissions and particulate matter in coastal areas and harbours with heavy traffic. Furthermore, ozone and aerosol precursor emissions as well as their derivative species from ships may be transported in the atmosphere over several hundreds of kilometres, and thus contribute to air quality problems further inland, even though they are emitted at sea. In addition, ship emissions impact climate. Recent studies indicate that the cooling due to altered clouds far outweighs the warming effects from greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO 2) or ozone from shipping, overall causing a negative present-day radiative forcing (RF). Current efforts to reduce sulphur and other pollutants from shipping may modify this. However, given the short residence time of sulphate compared to CO 2, the climate response from sulphate is of the order decades while that of CO 2 is centuries. The climatic trade-off between positive and negative radiative forcing is still a topic of scientific research, but from what is currently known, a simple cancellation of global mean forcing components is potentially inappropriate and a more comprehensive assessment metric is required. The CO 2 equivalent emissions using

  5. Superconducting DC homopolar motors for ship propulsion

    Heiberger, M.; Reed, M.R.; Creedon, W.P.; O' Hea, B.J. [General Atomic (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Superconducting DC homopolar motors have undergone recent advances in technology, warranting serious consideration of their use for ship propulsion. Homopolar motor propulsion is now practical because of two key technology developments: cryogen-free superconducting refrigeration and high performance motor fiber brushes. These compact motors are ideal for podded applications, where reduced drag and fuel consumption are predicted. In addition, the simple DC motor controller is more efficient and reliable compared with AC motor controllers. Military ships also benefit from increased stealth implicit in homopolar DC excitation, which also allows the option for direct hull or pod mounting. (authors)

  6. Probabilistic Damage Stability Calculations for Ships

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    1996-01-01

    The aim of these notes is to provide background material for the present probabilistic damage stability rules fro dry cargo ships.The formulas for the damage statistics are derived and shortcomings as well as possible improvements are discussed. The advantage of the definiton of fictitious...... compartments in the formulation of a computer-based general procedure for probabilistic damaged stability assessment is shown. Some comments are given on the current state of knowledge on the ship survivability in damaged conditions. Finally, problems regarding proper account of water ingress through openings...

  7. Load and Global Response of Ships

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    The present monograph covers wave load and global structural response for ships. It is primary written as a textbook for students with an introductionary background in naval architecture and a basic knowledge of statistics and strength of materials. The subjects are treated in details starting from...... first principles. The aim has been to derive and present the necessary theoretical framework for predicting the extreme loads and the corresponding hull girder stresses the ship may be subjected to during its operational lifetime.Although some account is given to reliabiity analysis, the present...

  8. Nuclear shipping and waste disposal cost estimates

    Hudson, C.R. II.

    1977-11-01

    Cost estimates for the shipping of spent fuel from the reactor, shipping of waste from the reprocessing plant, and disposal of reprocessing plant wastes have been made for five reactor types. The reactors considered are the light-water reactor (LWR), the mixed-oxide-fueled light-water reactor (MOX), the Canadian deuterium-uranium reactor (CANDU), the fast breeder reactor (FBR), and the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). In addition to the cost estimates, this report provides details on the bases and assumptions used to develop the cost estimates

  9. Time constrained liner shipping network design

    Karsten, Christian Vad; Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Desaulniers, Guy

    2017-01-01

    We present a mathematical model and a solution method for the liner shipping network design problem. The model takes into account coordination between vessels and transit time restrictions on the cargo flow. The solution method is an improvement heuristic, where an integer program is solved...... iteratively to perform moves in a large neighborhood search. Our improvement heuristic is applicable as a real-time decision support tool for a liner shipping company. It can be used to find improvements to the network when evaluating changes in operating conditions or testing different scenarios...

  10. Development of RETRAN-03/MOV code for thermal-hydraulic analysis of nuclear reactor under moving conditions

    Kim, Hak Jae; Park, Goon Cherl

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear ship reactors have several; features different from land-based PWR's. Especially, effects of ship motions on reactor thermal-hydraulics and good load following capability for abrupt load changes are essential characteristics of nuclear ship reactors. This study modified the RETRAN-03 to analyze the thermal-hydraulic transients under three-dimensional ship motions, named RETRAN-03/MOV in order to apply to future marine reactors. First Japanese nuclear ship MUTSU reactor have been analyzed under various ship motions to verify this code. Calculations have been performed under rolling,heaving and stationary inclination conditions during normal operation. Also, the natural circulation has been analyzed, which can provide the decay heat removed to ensure the passive safety of marine reactors. As results, typical thermal-hydraulic characteristics of marine reactors such as flow rate oscillations and S/G water level oscillations have been successfully simulated at various conditions. 7 refs., 11 figs. (author)

  11. A numerical study on ship-ship interaction in shallow and restricted waterway

    Sungwook Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a numerical prediction method on the hydrodynamic interaction force and moment between two ships in shallow and restricted waterway is presented. Especially, the present study proposes a methodology to overcome the limitation of the two dimensional perturbation method which is related to the moored-passing ship interaction. The validation study was performed and compared with the experiment, firstly. Afterward, in order to propose a methodology in terms with the moored-passing ship interaction, further studies were performed for the moored-passing ship case with a Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS calculation which is using OpenFOAM with Arbitrary Coupled Mesh Interface (ACMI technique and compared with the experiment result. Finally, the present study proposes a guide to apply the two dimensional perturbation method to the moored-passing ship interaction. In addition, it presents a possibility that the RANS calculation with ACMI can applied to the ship-ship interaction without using a overset moving grid technique.

  12. Achieving Energy Efficient Ship Operations Under Third Party Management

    Taudal Poulsen, René; Sornn-Friese, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Profitable energy saving measures are often not fully implemented in shipping, causing energy efficiency gaps. The paper identifies energy efficiency gaps in ship operations, and explores their causes. Lack of information on energy efficiency, lack of energy training at sea and onshore and lack...... of time to produce and provide reliable energy efficiency information cause energy efficiency gaps. The paper brings together the energy efficiency and ship management literatures, demonstrating how ship management models influence energy efficiency in ship operations. Achieving energy efficiency in ship...

  13. Prototypic fabrication of TRIGA irradiated fuel shipping casks

    Kim, B.K.; Lee, Y.W.; Whang, C.K.; Lee, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    This is the safety analysis report on the prototypic fabrication of ''TRIGA Irradiated Fuel Shipping Cask'' conducted by KAERI in 1980. The results of the evaluation show that the shipping cask is in compliance with the applicable regulation for the normal conditions of transport as well as hypothetical accident conditions. The prototypic fabrication of the shipping cask (type B) was carried out for the first time in Korea after getting technical experience from fabrication of the ''TRIGA Spent Fuel Shipping Cask'' and ''the KO-RI Unit 1 surveillance capsule shipping cask'' in 1979. This report contains structural evaluation, thermal evaluation, shielding, criticality, quality assurance, and handling procedures of the shipping cask

  14. Challenges to Ship Hydrodynamics in the XXI Century

    Lech Kobylinski

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of twenty-first century is characterized with important changes in world shipping and exploitation of ocean resources. Three important trends are clearly visible: environment protection, safety and economy. They materialize in important changes in the structure of world fleet where some existing ship types are going to disappear and new ship types emerge. Increasing the size of some ship types is another visible tendency. Stress on environment protection has serious impact on the hydrodynamic characteristics of ships whether with regard to safety zero accident rate is the goal. Important challenges to ship hydrodynamics caused by those tendencies are discussed in the paper.

  15. Projectile Motion Hoop Challenge

    Jordan, Connor; Dunn, Amy; Armstrong, Zachary; Adams, Wendy K.

    2018-01-01

    Projectile motion is a common phenomenon that is used in introductory physics courses to help students understand motion in two dimensions. Authors have shared a range of ideas for teaching this concept and the associated kinematics in "The Physics Teacher" ("TPT"); however, the "Hoop Challenge" is a new setup not…

  16. Temporal logic motion planning

    Seotsanyana, M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a critical review on temporal logic motion planning is presented. The review paper aims to address the following problems: (a) In a realistic situation, the motion planning problem is carried out in real-time, in a dynamic, uncertain...

  17. Aristotle, Motion, and Rhetoric.

    Sutton, Jane

    Aristotle rejects a world vision of changing reality as neither useful nor beneficial to human life, and instead he reaffirms both change and eternal reality, fuses motion and rest, and ends up with "well-behaved" changes. This concept of motion is foundational to his world view, and from it emerges his theory of knowledge, philosophy of…

  18. First experiment on liquid hydrogen transportation by ship inside Osaka bay

    Maekawa, K.; Takeda, M.; Hamaura, T.; Suzuki, K.; Miyake, Y.; Matsuno, Y.; Fujikawa, S.; Kumakura, H.

    2017-12-01

    A project to import a large amount of liquid hydrogen (LH2) from Australia by a cargo carrier, which is equipped with two 1250 m3 tanks, is underway in Japan. It is important to understand sloshing and boil-off characteristics inside the LH2 tank during marine transportation. However, the LH2 sloshing and boil-off characteristics on the sea have not yet been clarified. First experiment on the LH2 transportation of 20 liter with magnesium diboride (MgB2) level sensors by the training ship “Fukae-maru”, which has 50 m long and 449 ton gross weight, was carried out successfully inside Osaka bay on February 2, 2017. In the experiment, synchronous measurements of liquid level, temperature, pressure, ship motions, and accelerations as well as the rapid depressurization test were done. The increase rate of the temperature and the pressure inside the LH2 tank were discussed under the rolling and the pitching conditions.

  19. ISAR Imaging of Ship Targets Based on an Integrated Cubic Phase Bilinear Autocorrelation Function

    Jibin Zheng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available For inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR imaging of a ship target moving with ocean waves, the image constructed with the standard range-Doppler (RD technique is blurred and the range-instantaneous-Doppler (RID technique has to be used to improve the image quality. In this paper, azimuth echoes in a range cell of the ship target are modeled as noisy multicomponent cubic phase signals (CPSs after the motion compensation and a RID ISAR imaging algorithm is proposed based on the integrated cubic phase bilinear autocorrelation function (ICPBAF. The ICPBAF is bilinear and based on the two-dimensionally coherent energy accumulation. Compared to five other estimation algorithms, the ICPBAF can acquire higher cross term suppression and anti-noise performance with a reasonable computational cost. Through simulations and analyses with the synthetic model and real radar data, we verify the effectiveness of the ICPBAF and corresponding RID ISAR imaging algorithm.

  20. Reactor dynamics experiment of nuclear ship Mutsu using pseudo random signal (II). The second experiment

    Hayashi, Koji; Shimazaki, Junya; Nabeshima, Kunihiko; Ochiai, Masaaki; Shinohara, Yoshikuni; Inoue, Kimihiko.

    1995-01-01

    In order to investigate dynamics of the reactor plant of the nuclear ship Mutsu, the second reactor noise experiment using pseudo random binary sequences (PRBS) was performed on August 30, 1991 in the third experimental navigation. The experiments using both reactivity and load disturbances were performed at 50% of reactor power and under a quiet sea condition. Each PRBS was applied by manual operation of the control rod or the main steam valve. Various signals of the plant responses and of the acceleration of ship motion were measured. Furthermore, natural reactor noise signals were measured after each PRBS experiment in order to evaluate the effects of the PRBS disturbances. This paper summarizes the planning of the experiment, the instruction for the experiment and logs, the data recording conditions, recorded signal wave forms and the results of power spectral analysis. (author)

  1. Reactor dynamics experiment of nuclear ship Mutsu using pseudo random signal (III). The third experiment

    Hayashi, Koji; Shimazaki, Junya; Nabeshima, Kunihiko; Ochiai, Masaaki; Shinohara, Yoshikuni; Inoue, Kimihiko.

    1995-03-01

    In order to investigate dynamics of the reactor plant of the nuclear ship Mutsu, the third reactor noise experiment using pseudo random binary sequences (PRBS) was performed on September 16, 1991 in the third experimental navigation. The experiments using both reactivity and load disturbances were performed at 70% of reactor power and under a normal sea condition. Each PRBS was applied by manual operation of the control rod or the main steam valve. Various signals of the plant responses and of the acceleration of ship motion were measured. Furthermore, natural reactor noise signals were measured after each PRBS experiment in order to evaluate the effects of the PRBS disturbances. This paper summarizes the planning of the experiment, the instruction for the experiment and logs, the data recording conditions, recorded signal wave forms and the results of power spectral analysis. (author)

  2. Stochastic ground motion simulation

    Rezaeian, Sanaz; Xiaodan, Sun; Beer, Michael; Kougioumtzoglou, Ioannis A.; Patelli, Edoardo; Siu-Kui Au, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Strong earthquake ground motion records are fundamental in engineering applications. Ground motion time series are used in response-history dynamic analysis of structural or geotechnical systems. In such analysis, the validity of predicted responses depends on the validity of the input excitations. Ground motion records are also used to develop ground motion prediction equations(GMPEs) for intensity measures such as spectral accelerations that are used in response-spectrum dynamic analysis. Despite the thousands of available strong ground motion records, there remains a shortage of records for large-magnitude earthquakes at short distances or in specific regions, as well as records that sample specific combinations of source, path, and site characteristics.

  3. Carrier portfolio management for shipping seasonal products

    Lu, T.; Fransoo, J.C.; Lee, C.-Y.

    2017-01-01

    Many seasonal products are transported via ocean carriers from origin to destination markets. The shipments arriving earlier in the market may sell at higher prices, but faster shipping services can be costly. In this paper, we study a newsvendor-type shipper who transports and sells seasonal

  4. Exergy Analysis of Complex Ship Energy Systems

    Pierre Marty

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With multiple primary and secondary energy converters (diesel engines, steam turbines, waste heat recovery (WHR and oil-fired boilers, etc. and extensive energy networks (steam, cooling water, exhaust gases, etc., ships may be considered as complex energy systems. Understanding and optimizing such systems requires advanced holistic energy modeling. This modeling can be done in two ways: The simpler approach focuses on energy flows, and has already been tested, approved and presented; a new, more complicated approach, focusing on energy quality, i.e., exergy, is presented in this paper. Exergy analysis has rarely been applied to ships, and, as a general rule, the shipping industry is not familiar with this tool. This paper tries to fill this gap. We start by giving a short reminder of what exergy is and describe the principles of exergy modeling to explain what kind of results should be expected from such an analysis. We then apply these principles to the analysis of a large two-stroke diesel engine with its cooling and exhaust systems. Simulation results are then presented along with the exergy analysis. Finally, we propose solutions for energy and exergy saving which could be applied to marine engines and ships in general.

  5. Statistical modelling for ship propulsion efficiency

    Petersen, Jóan Petur; Jacobsen, Daniel J.; Winther, Ole

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a state-of-the-art systems approach to statistical modelling of fuel efficiency in ship propulsion, and also a novel and publicly available data set of high quality sensory data. Two statistical model approaches are investigated and compared: artificial neural networks...

  6. Flooding and sinking of nuclear merchant ships

    Lettnin, H.K.J.; Wehowsky, P.

    1978-01-01

    In contrast to land-based power plants for ship reactors the marine environment brings up the peril of sinking. But this peril is low for nuclear ships with its high safety standard. An evaluation of casualties from 1964 - 1974 for ships>8000 GRT allows to estimate a very low sink probability for nuclear ships in the range of 10 -7 to 10 -8 p.a. In spite of this low probability a sinking cannot be excluded absolutely. Therefore passive means must be provided for sinking in deep waters: to maintain the integrity of at least one enclosure as activity barrier; to supply seawater into the safety containment for decay heat removal. For sinking in shallow waters and flooding at least one of the redundant decay heat removal systems including power supply stays operable. A mathematical tool is available for the design of flood openings of sufficient cross sections to flood the containment and to reach a pressure balance in case of postulated sinking in deep waters of any depth

  7. Reconfigurable Control of a Ship Propulsion Plant

    Blanke, M.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    1998-01-01

    -tolerant control is a fairly new area. Thise paper presents a ship propulsion system as a benchmark that should be useful as a platform for the development of new ideas and a comparison of methods. The benchmark has two main elements. One is the development of efficient FDI algorithms, and the other...

  8. Trace of the nuclear powered ship 'Mutsu'

    1992-01-01

    The development of the nuclear powered ship 'Mutsu' required the long period of about 30 years from 1963 to 1992. When this period is looked back, it is roughly divided into the period from the initial planning to the construction, the period of the power increase test and the occurrence of radiation leak, the period of the repair of shielding and the general safety checkup as the countermeasures, the period of the checkup and maintenance based on the new research plan, the period of the power increase test and the sea trial, and the period of the experimental voyage after the completion. The course of the development of the nuclear powered ship 'Mutsu' is shown. The design of Mutsu, the incidental land facilities for Mutsu, the power increase test and the experimental voyage of Mutsu, the law system for nuclear powered ships, the research and development of an improved marine nuclear reactor and the development of nuclear powered ships in the world are reported. Nuclear powered warships are operated in USA, USSR, UK, France and China. (K.I.)

  9. Speed Optimization in Liner Shipping Network Design

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Karsten, Christian Vad; Pisinger, David

    In the Liner Shipping Network Design Problem (LSNDP) services sail at a given speed throughout a round trip. In reality most services operate with a speed differentiated head- and back-haul, or even individual speeds on every sailing between two ports. The speed of a service is decisive...

  10. NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer Video Collection

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During each NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer field season, full-resolution video in a ProRes 422 format at a bitrate of 145 Mbps is produced during each deployment of the...

  11. Microbiologically influenced corrosion in ship ballast tanks

    Heyer, A.

    2013-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is known to be a dangerous process in ship tanks due to its rapid and yet unpredictable occurrence, leading to extremely fast local corrosion, possibly jeopardizing the structural integrity, in a relatively short time. This project focuses on a

  12. Detection of Parametric Roll on Ships

    Galeazzi, Roberto; Blanke, Mogens; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2012-01-01

    phenomenon could make the navigator change ship’s speed and heading, and these remedial actions could make the vessel escape the bifurcation. This chapter proposes non-parametric methods to detect the onset of parametric roll resonance. Theoretical conditions for parametric resonance are re...... on experimental data from towing tank tests and data from a container ship passing an Atlantic storm....

  13. Key Design Properties for Shipping Information Pipeline

    Jensen, Thomas; Tan, Yao-Hua

    2015-01-01

    on paper, e-mail, phone and text message, and far too costly. This paper explores the design properties for a shared information infrastructure to exchange information between all parties in the supply chain, commercial parties as well as authorities, which is called a Shipping Information Pipeline...

  14. Near Real Time Ship Detection Experiments

    Brusch, S.; Lehner, S.; Schwarz, E.; Fritz, T.

    2010-04-01

    A new Near Real Time (NRT) ship detection processor SAINT (SAR AIS Integrated Toolbox) was developed in the framework of the ESA project MARISS. Data are received at DLRs ground segment DLR-BN (Neustrelitz, Germany). Results of the ship detection are available on ftp server within 30 min after the acquisition started. The detectability of ships on Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) ERS-2, ENVISAT ASAR and TerraSAR-X (TS-X) images is validated by coastal (live) AIS and space AIS. The monitoring areas chosen for surveillance are the North-, Baltic Sea, and Cape Town. The detectability in respect to environmental parameters like wind field, sea state, currents and changing coastlines due to tidal effects is investigated. In the South Atlantic a tracking experiment of the German research vessel Polarstern has been performed. Issues of piracy in particular in respect to ships hijacked at the Somali coast are discussed. Some examples using high resolution images from TerraSAR-X are given.

  15. PARTICIPATION BASED MODEL OF SHIP CREW MANAGEMENT

    Toni Bielić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 This paper analyse the participation - based model on board the ship as possibly optimal leadership model existing in the shipping industry with accent on decision - making process. In the paper authors have tried to define master’s behaviour model and management style identifying drawbacks and disadvantages of vertical, pyramidal organization with master on the top. Paper describes efficiency of decision making within team organization and optimization of a ship’s organisation by introducing teamwork on board the ship. Three examples of the ship’s accidents are studied and evaluated through “Leader - participation” model. The model of participation based management as a model of the teamwork has been applied in studying the cause - and - effect of accidents with the critical review of the communication and managing the human resources on a ship. The results have showed that the cause of all three accidents is the autocratic behaviour of the leaders and lack of communication within teams. Normal 0 21 false false false HR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  16. IS INLAND SHIPPING NEEDED IN POLAND?

    Ryszard Rolbiecki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In Poland, inland shipping plays only a mariginal role in transport needs fulfillment. Inland shipping has a share of mere 0,3% in goods transport modal split. The reason for this is poor and variable technical parameters of inland waterways together with adverse legal regulations. Different situation takes place in Western European countries, in which the development of this mode of transport is viewed as a way of road transport develop-ment restraint. In Poland, the need to move some of the volume from road transport to in-land shipping is specifically observed within marine ports surroundings. Because of their complex nature, the investments in inland shipping infrastructure would also be helpful in solving the current problems of water management. Inland waterways in Poland guaran-tee neither an adequate level of flood protection, nor the water needs fulfillment of do-mestic economy. When it comes to water reserves, Poland is one of the most deficient countries in Europe. Thus there is a need to invest in inland waterways in Poland.

  17. Automated intelligent video surveillance system for ships

    Wei, Hai; Nguyen, Hieu; Ramu, Prakash; Raju, Chaitanya; Liu, Xiaoqing; Yadegar, Jacob

    2009-05-01

    To protect naval and commercial ships from attack by terrorists and pirates, it is important to have automatic surveillance systems able to detect, identify, track and alert the crew on small watercrafts that might pursue malicious intentions, while ruling out non-threat entities. Radar systems have limitations on the minimum detectable range and lack high-level classification power. In this paper, we present an innovative Automated Intelligent Video Surveillance System for Ships (AIVS3) as a vision-based solution for ship security. Capitalizing on advanced computer vision algorithms and practical machine learning methodologies, the developed AIVS3 is not only capable of efficiently and robustly detecting, classifying, and tracking various maritime targets, but also able to fuse heterogeneous target information to interpret scene activities, associate targets with levels of threat, and issue the corresponding alerts/recommendations to the man-in- the-loop (MITL). AIVS3 has been tested in various maritime scenarios and shown accurate and effective threat detection performance. By reducing the reliance on human eyes to monitor cluttered scenes, AIVS3 will save the manpower while increasing the accuracy in detection and identification of asymmetric attacks for ship protection.

  18. Towards seasonal Arctic shipping route predictions

    Haines, K.; Melia, N.; Hawkins, E.; Day, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    In our previous work [1] we showed how trans-Arctic shipping routes would become more available through the 21st century as sea ice declines, using CMIP5 models with means and stds calibrated to PIOMAS sea ice observations. Sea ice will continue to close shipping routes to open water vessels through the winter months for the foreseeable future so the availability of open sea routes will vary greatly from year to year. Here [2] we look at whether the trans-Arctic shipping season period can be predicted in seasonal forecasts, again using several climate models, and testing both perfect and imperfect knowledge of the initial sea ice conditions. We find skilful predictions of the upcoming summer shipping season can be made from as early as January, although typically forecasts may show lower skill before a May `predictability barrier'. Focussing on the northern sea route (NSR) off Siberia, the date of opening of this sea route is twice as variable as the closing date, and this carries through to reduced predictability at the start of the season. Under climate change the later freeze-up date accounts for 60% of the lengthening season, Fig1 We find that predictive skill is state dependent with predictions for high or low ice years exhibiting greater skill than for average ice years. Forecasting the exact timing of route open periods is harder (more weather dependent) under average ice conditions while in high and low ice years the season is more controlled by the initial ice conditions from spring onwards. This could be very useful information for companies planning vessel routing for the coming season. We tested this dependence on the initial ice conditions by changing the initial ice state towards climatologically average conditions and show directly that early summer sea-ice thickness information is crucial to obtain skilful forecasts of the coming shipping season. Mechanisms for this are discussed. This strongly suggests that good sea ice thickness observations

  19. EX1101: Ship Shakedown and Patch Tests on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer (EM302)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project will involve the shakedown of all Okeanos Explorer ship capabilities and a patch test of the Kongsberg EM302 multibeam system. Operations for this...

  20. A quantitative assessment of Arctic shipping in 2010–2014

    Eguí luz, Victor M.; Ferná ndez-Gracia, Juan; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2016-01-01

    considerable uncertainty because Arctic shipping was previously considered too sparse to allow for adequate validation. Here, we provide quantitative evidence that the extent of Arctic shipping in the period 2011–2014 is already significant

  1. Virtual Ship Architecture Description Document Issue 1.00

    Best, John

    2000-01-01

    The Virtual Ship concept calls for simulation models of systems to be brought together to create a virtual representation of a warship, in a process analogous to the construction of a physical ship...

  2. Ship Track for Lost City 2005 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ship track of the NOAA ship Ronald H. Brown during the "Lost City 2005" expedition sponsored by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Office of...

  3. Protection of Shipping: A Forgotten Mission with Many New Challenges

    Grubb, Michael C

    2006-01-01

    ..." mission status, often leading to devastating losses of shipping when war came. Today, the protection of shipping mission still finds itself behind more high-profile missions such as strike warfare and ballistic missile defense...

  4. A numerical study of the second-order wave excitation of ship springing by a higher-order boundary element method

    Shao Yan-Lin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some of the efforts by the authors towards numerical prediction of springing of ships. A time-domain Higher Order Boundary Element Method (HOBEM based on cubic shape function is first presented to solve a complete second-order problem in terms of wave steepness and ship motions in a consistent manner. In order to avoid high order derivatives on the body surfaces, e.g. mj-terms, a new formulation of the Boundary Value Problem in a body-fixed coordinate system has been proposed instead of traditional formulation in inertial coordinate system. The local steady flow effects on the unsteady waves are taken into account. Double-body flow is used as the basis flow which is an appropriate approximation for ships with moderate forward speed. This numerical model was used to estimate the complete second order wave excitation of springing of a displacement ship at constant forward speeds.

  5. DETERMINATION OF RELEVANT FEATURES OF A SCALE MODEL FOR A 55 000 DWT BULK CARRIER NECESSARY TO STUDY THE SHIP MANEUVERABILITY

    ALECU TOMA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study method of a ship behavior based on practical tests on scale models is widely used both leading scientists and engineers, architects and researchers in the naval field. In this paper we propose to determine the parameters of a ship handling characteristics relevant to study the 55,000 dwt bulk carrier using a scale model. Scientific background for practical experimentation of this techniques necessary to built a scale model ship consists in applying the principles of similarity or "similitude". The scale model achieved by applying the laws of similarity must allow, through approximations available in certain circumstances, finding relevant parameters needed to simplify and solve the Navier-Stokes equations. These parameters are necessary for modeling the interaction between hull of the real ship and the fluid motion.

  6. Hydrodynamics of a robotic fish tail: effects of the caudal peduncle, fin ray motions and the flow speed.

    Ren, Ziyu; Yang, Xingbang; Wang, Tianmiao; Wen, Li

    2016-02-08

    Recent advances in understanding fish locomotion with robotic devices have included the use of biomimetic flapping based and fin undulatory locomotion based robots, treating two locomotions separately from each other. However, in most fish species, patterns of active movements of fins occur in concert with the body undulatory deformation during swimming. In this paper, we describe a biomimetic robotic caudal fin programmed with individually actuated fin rays to mimic the fin motion of the Bluegill Sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) and coupled with heave and pitch oscillatory motions adding to the robot to mimic the peduncle motion which is derived from the undulatory fish body. Multiple-axis force and digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) experiments from both the vertical and horizontal planes behind the robotic model were conducted under different motion programs and flow speeds. We found that both mean thrust and lift could be altered by changing the phase difference (φ) from 0° to 360° between the robotic caudal peduncle and the fin ray motion (spanning from 3 mN to 124 mN). Notably, DPIV results demonstrated that the caudal fin generated multiple wake flow patterns in both the vertical and horizontal planes by varying φ. Vortex jet angle and thrust impulse also varied significantly both in these two planes. In addition, the vortex shedding position along the spanwise tail direction could be shifted around the mid-sagittal position between the upper and lower lobes by changing the phase difference. We hypothesize that the fish caudal fin may serve as a flexible vectoring propeller during swimming and may be critical for the high maneuverability of fish.

  7. Optimal ship forms for minimum total resistance in shallow water

    Zhao, Lian-en

    1984-01-01

    Optimal ship forms for minimum total resistance in shallow water Optimal ship forms for minimum total resistance in shallow water: An attempt is made to obtain shallow-water optimal ship forms for total resistance by means of "tent" function representation under the constraints that the main dimensions of the ship and the water-line area were kept constant. The objective function in the quadratic programming is the sum of wave-making resistance calculated by Sretenski's formula and viscou...

  8. Unstable roll motions by parametric resonance in following seas. Keisu reiki shindo ni motozuku oinamichu fuantei yokoyure

    Ishiguro, T.; Ito, A.; Mizoguchi, S. (Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-05-01

    The unstable rolling region and angle in the regular waves were studied by both tank test modeling a large container ship and theoretical calculation based on Mathieu{prime}s equation. Further research was made on the influence of metacentric height (GM) under the calm sea condition, ship speed and bilge keel dimension on the unstable rolling region. To avoid the unstable roll motion in the waves caused by the parametric resonance, the fluctuation in GM is designed to be diminished on the waves by U-shaping the hull fore and aft like a fat large ship hull, or the fluctuation in dynamic stability is done to be diminished by increasing the GM on the calm sea. However, the ship with a U-shaped hull fore and aft is large in rolling angle due to the smallness in righting arm at the large heeling angle. Generally regardless of oceanic condition and ship speed, it is impossible to establish the GM absolutely without the primary and secondary synchronizing points. To avoid the unstable roll motion with a low ship speed, it is desirable to do it by the ship speed to be as high as possible. 11 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  9. SHOCK-JR: a computer program to analyze impact response of shipping container

    Ikushima, Takeshi; Nakazato, Chikara; Shimoda, Osamu; Uchino, Mamoru.

    1983-02-01

    The report is provided for using a computer program, SHOCK-JR, which is used to analyze the impact response of shipping containers. Descriptions are the mathematical model, method of analysis, structures of the program and the input and output variables. The program solves the equations of motion for a one-dimensional, lumped mass and nonlinear spring model. The solution procedure uses Runge-Kutta-Gill and Newmark-β methods. SHOCK-JR is a revised version of SHOCK, which was developed by ORNL. In SHOCK-JR, SI dimension is used and graphical output is available. (author)

  10. 47 CFR 80.277 - Ship Security Alert System (SSAS).

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship Security Alert System (SSAS). 80.277... Security Alert System (SSAS). (a) Vessels equipped with a Ship Security Alert System pursuant to the Safety..., “RTCM Standard 11020.0—Ship Security Alert Systems (SSAS) using the Cospas-Sarsat System,” Version 1.0...

  11. Routing and scheduling and fleet management for liner shipping

    Kjeldsen, Karina Hjortshøj

    2009-01-01

    The problem of routing, scheduling and fleet management in global liner shipping is presented. The developed model incorporates the ships' speed as a decision variable. Furthermore, the model must be able to handle problems of the size and complexity experienced by the global liner shipping...

  12. Concept Design and Risk Assessment of Nuclear Propulsion Ship

    Gil, Youngmi; Yoo, Seongjin; Kim, Yeontae; Oh, June; Byun, Yoonchul; Woo, Ilguk; Kim, Jiho; Choi, Suhn

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear propulsion ships (hereinafter referred to as 'nuclear ships') have been considered as an eco-friendly ship. There have historically been warship and submarine with the source of nuclear power. The use of nuclear ships has been recently extending to the icebreaker, the deep-water exploration ship, and the floating nuclear power plant. Prior to developing the new ship, we evaluated the economics of various types of ships and concluded that the container ship could be appropriate for the nuclear propulsion. In order to verify its safety, we performed the ship calculation based on the optimal arrangement of the nuclear reactor. Finally, we verified its safety by the HAZID. In the former research, we confirmed the applicability of the nuclear propulsion system for the large container ship. In this study, we verified the safety of the nuclear ships according to the HAZID analysis. We expect that this research will lead to safe design of the nuclear ships

  13. Concept Design and Risk Assessment of Nuclear Propulsion Ship

    Gil, Youngmi; Yoo, Seongjin; Kim, Yeontae; Oh, June; Byun, Yoonchul; Woo, Ilguk [Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering Co. Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jiho; Choi, Suhn [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The nuclear propulsion ships (hereinafter referred to as 'nuclear ships') have been considered as an eco-friendly ship. There have historically been warship and submarine with the source of nuclear power. The use of nuclear ships has been recently extending to the icebreaker, the deep-water exploration ship, and the floating nuclear power plant. Prior to developing the new ship, we evaluated the economics of various types of ships and concluded that the container ship could be appropriate for the nuclear propulsion. In order to verify its safety, we performed the ship calculation based on the optimal arrangement of the nuclear reactor. Finally, we verified its safety by the HAZID. In the former research, we confirmed the applicability of the nuclear propulsion system for the large container ship. In this study, we verified the safety of the nuclear ships according to the HAZID analysis. We expect that this research will lead to safe design of the nuclear ships.

  14. 29 CFR 1915.164 - Ship's propulsion machinery.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship's propulsion machinery. 1915.164 Section 1915.164 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Ship's Machinery and Piping Systems § 1915.164 Ship's...

  15. Econometric analysis of ship life cycles - are safety inspections effective?

    G.E. Bijwaard (Govert); S. Knapp (Sabine)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractDue to the shipping industry’s international legal framework and the existence of loopholes in the system, an estimated 5-10 percent of substandard ships exist which are more likely to have incidents with high economic cost. This article uses ship life cycles to provide insight into

  16. 47 CFR 80.59 - Compulsory ship inspections.

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compulsory ship inspections. 80.59 Section 80... STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 80.59 Compulsory ship inspections. (a) Inspection of ships subject to the Communications Act or the Safety Convention. (1) The FCC will not normally...

  17. 46 CFR 176.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 176.910 Section 176... 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974, as Amended (SOLAS) § 176.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel, which carries more than...

  18. 46 CFR 115.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    2010-10-01

    ...) The route specified on the Certificate of Inspection and the SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 115.910 Section 115... MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS INSPECTION AND...

  19. A Mathematical Model for Analysis on Ships Collision Avoidance ...

    This study develops a mathematical model for analysis on collision avoidance of ships. The obtained model provides information on the quantitative effect of the ship's engine's response and the applied reversing force on separation distance and stopping abilities of the ships. Appropriate evasive maneuvers require the ...

  20. 47 CFR 80.1099 - Ship sources of energy.

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship sources of energy. 80.1099 Section 80.1099... Stations § 80.1099 Ship sources of energy. (a) There must be available at all times, while the ship is at... batteries used as part of a reserve source of energy for the radio installations. (b) A reserve source of...

  1. 48 CFR 47.305-16 - Shipping characteristics.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping characteristics... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.305-16 Shipping characteristics... shipments of agreed size. (b) Guaranteed shipping characteristics. (1) The contracting officer shall insert...

  2. Ships going slow in reducing their NOx emissions

    Boersma, K.F.; Vinken, G.C.M.; Tournadre, J.

    2015-01-01

    Weaddress the lack of temporal information on ship emissions, and report on rapid short-term variations of satellite-derived shipNOx emissions between 2005 and 2012 over European seas. Our inversion is based onOMI observed troposphericNO2 columns and GEOS-Chem simulations. Average European shipNOx

  3. Toying with Motion.

    Galus, Pamela J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a variety of activities that support the development of an understanding of Newton's laws of motion. Activities use toy cars, mobile roads, and a seat-of-nails. Includes a scoring rubric. (DDR)

  4. Projectile Motion Hoop Challenge

    Jordan, Connor; Dunn, Amy; Armstrong, Zachary; Adams, Wendy K.

    2018-04-01

    Projectile motion is a common phenomenon that is used in introductory physics courses to help students understand motion in two dimensions. Authors have shared a range of ideas for teaching this concept and the associated kinematics in The Physics Teacher; however, the "Hoop Challenge" is a new setup not before described in TPT. In this article an experiment is illustrated to explore projectile motion in a fun and challenging manner that has been used with both high school and university students. With a few simple materials, students have a vested interest in being able to calculate the height of the projectile at a given distance from its launch site. They also have an exciting visual demonstration of projectile motion when the lab is over.

  5. Travelers' Health: Motion Sickness

    ... sickness, especially when pregnant, menstruating, or on hormones. Race/ethnicity—Asians may be more susceptible to motion ... it, sitting in the front seat of a car or bus, sitting over the wing of an ...

  6. Dizziness and Motion Sickness

    ... that extends into the inner ear can completely destroy both the hearing and equilibrium function of that ... motion sickness: •Do not read while traveling •Avoid sitting in the rear seat •Do not sit in ...

  7. Motion Sickness: First Aid

    ... com. Accessed July 29, 2017. Priesol AJ. Motion sickness. https://www.uptodate.com/content/search. Accessed July 29, 2017. Brunette GW, et al. CDC Health Information for International Travel 2018. New York, N. ...

  8. Unsteady 2D potential-flow forces and a thin variable geometry airfoil undergoing arbitrary motion

    Gaunaa, M.

    2006-07-15

    In this report analytical expressions for the unsteady 2D force distribution on a variable geometry airfoil undergoing arbitrary motion are derived under the assumption of incompressible, irrotational, inviscid flow. The airfoil is represented by its camberline as in classic thin-airfoil theory, and the deflection of the airfoil is given by superposition of chordwise deflection mode shapes. It is shown from the expressions for the forces, that the influence from the shed vorticity in the wake is described by the same time-lag for all chordwise positions on the airfoil. This time-lag term can be approximated using an indicial function approach, making the practical calculation of the aerodynamic response numerically very efficient by use of Duhamel superposition. Furthermore, the indicial function expressions for the time-lag terms are formulated in their equivalent state-space form, allowing for use of the present theory in problems employing the eigenvalue approach, such as stability analysis. The analytical expressions for the forces simplify to all previously known steady and unsteady thin-airfoil solutions. Apart from the obvious applications within active load control/reduction, the current theory can be used for various applications which up to now have been possible only using much more computational costly methods. The propulsive performance of a soft heaving propulsor, and the influence of airfoil camberline elasticity on the flutter limit are two computational examples given in the report that highlight this feature. (au)

  9. Visual Motion Perception

    1991-08-15

    displace- ment limit for motion in random dots," Vision Res., 24, 293-300. Pantie , A. & K. Turano (1986) "Direct comparisons of apparent motions...Hicks & AJ, Pantie (1978) "Apparent movement of successively generated subjec. uve figures," Perception, 7, 371-383. Ramachandran. V.S. & S.M. Anstis...thanks think deaf girl until world uncle flag home talk finish short thee our screwdiver sonry flower wrCstlir~g plan week wait accident guilty tree

  10. Coupled transverse motion

    Teng, L.C.

    1989-01-01

    The magnetic field in an accelerator or a storage ring is usually so designed that the horizontal (x) and the vertical (y) motions of an ion are uncoupled. However, because of imperfections in construction and alignment, some small coupling is unavoidable. In this lecture, we discuss in a general way what is known about the behaviors of coupled motions in two degrees-of-freedom. 11 refs., 6 figs

  11. Ship-Track Models Based on Poisson-Distributed Port-Departure Times

    Heitmeyer, Richard

    2006-01-01

    ... of those ships, and their nominal speeds. The probability law assumes that the ship departure times are Poisson-distributed with a time-varying departure rate and that the ship speeds and ship routes are statistically independent...

  12. Adaptive identification of vessel's added moments of inertia with program motion

    Alyshev, A. S.; Melnikov, V. G.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a new experimental method for determining the moments of inertia of the ship model. The paper gives a brief review of existing methods, a description of the proposed method and experimental stand, test procedures and calculation formulas and experimental results. The proposed method is based on the energy approach with special program motions. The ship model is fixed in a special rack consisting of a torsion element and a set of additional servo drives with flywheels (reactive wheels), which correct the motion. The servo drives with an adaptive controller provide the symmetry of the motion, which is necessary for the proposed identification procedure. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is confirmed by experimental results.

  13. Technique for ship/wake detection

    Roskovensky, John K [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-05-01

    An automated ship detection technique includes accessing data associated with an image of a portion of Earth. The data includes reflectance values. A first portion of pixels within the image are masked with a cloud and land mask based on spectral flatness of the reflectance values associated with the pixels. A given pixel selected from the first portion of pixels is unmasked when a threshold number of localized pixels surrounding the given pixel are not masked by the cloud and land mask. A spatial variability image is generated based on spatial derivatives of the reflectance values of the pixels which remain unmasked by the cloud and land mask. The spatial variability image is thresholded to identify one or more regions within the image as possible ship detection regions.

  14. Indirect Encoding in Neuroevolutionary Ship Handling

    Miroslaw Lacki

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author compares the efficiency of two encoding schemes for artificial intelligence methods used in the neuroevolutionary ship maneuvering system. This may be also be seen as the ship handling system that simulates a learning process of a group of artificial helmsmen - autonomous control units, created with an artificial neural network. The helmsman observes input signals derived form an enfironment and calculates the values of required parameters of the vessel maneuvering in confined waters. In neuroevolution such units are treated as individuals in population of artificial neural networks, which through environmental sensing and evolutionary algorithms learn to perform given task efficiently. The main task of this project is to evolve a population of helmsmen with indirect encoding and compare results of simulation with direct encoding method.

  15. Application of fuel cells in surface ships

    Bourne, C.; Nietsch, T.; Griffiths, D.; Morley, J.

    2001-07-01

    This report presents the findings of a DTI supported project entitled: ''Applications of fuel cells in surface ships''. It gives a brief market analysis describing the general requirements of different vessel types and an overview of the different heat engine technologies currently used for propulsion and power generation in ships. The appendices contain a more detailed description of the different vessel types, their general requirements and a description of current prime mover technologies used. This analysis is followed by a summary of the major fuel cell development programmes and activities ongoing in different countries that have a direct or potential relevance to a marine application of the technology. (author)

  16. Major impact in shipping and port sectors

    Cottrill, K.

    1985-08-01

    The impact of information technology (IT) on operations efficiency in the transport field is comparable to the revolution brought on by the use of containers. The author examines the influence of IT on British shipping in terms of documentation, cargo tracking, and trend analysis on the operational side and communications links on the structural side. Shipboard computers were slow to penetrate the traditional bastion of the ship's bridge, but the effects of automation are already evident in the size of crews and their work roles. Britain is a world leader in specialized networks in the ports sector. A European-based initiative for a European ports database is in the development stage. It is essential for the IT networks to be compatible both nationally and internationally for the technology to be worthwhile.

  17. Multipole superconducting electric motors for ship propulsion

    Thullen, P.; Keim, T.A.; Minervini, J.V.

    1975-01-01

    While a great deal of attention has been paid to two-pole superconducting synchronous machines, very little analysis of low speed, multipole superconducting synchronous machines has been done. Such machines may prove desirable as drive motors in ship drive systems. Results are presented of an analysis which assumes a motor of sufficient size that the airgap may be considered to be flat. A power output expression is given which shows the effects of machine geometry and superconductor characteristics on machine size. Based on this expression, a 40,000 hp 120 rpm motor is sized, and the resulting machine is compared with a conventional ship drive motor. The comparison illustrates possible size reductions through the application of superconductivity

  18. The Ship Movement Trajectory Prediction Algorithm Using Navigational Data Fusion.

    Borkowski, Piotr

    2017-06-20

    It is essential for the marine navigator conducting maneuvers of his ship at sea to know future positions of himself and target ships in a specific time span to effectively solve collision situations. This article presents an algorithm of ship movement trajectory prediction, which, through data fusion, takes into account measurements of the ship's current position from a number of doubled autonomous devices. This increases the reliability and accuracy of prediction. The algorithm has been implemented in NAVDEC, a navigation decision support system and practically used on board ships.

  19. Leadership Profiling of Ocean Going Ship Masters1

    Ioannis Theotokas

    2014-12-01

    This paper focuses on the ocean going ship Masters and aims at identifying their leadership profiles and understanding their attitudes and reactions in given circumstances. It analyses and discusses the results of a field study of ship officers of different nationalities employed as Masters on board ships of a leading international maritime group. Results of the research reveal that the characteristics and the competencies of ship Masters as identified using the specially developed questionnaire, are compatible with those proposed by situational leadership theories. Ship Masters seem to give priority to the people on board and their needs and try to be supportive in their decisions.

  20. Observations and computations of narrow Kelvin ship wakes

    Francis Noblesse; Chenliang Zhang; Jiayi He; Yi Zhu; Chenjun Yang; Wei Li

    2016-01-01

    Computations of far-field ship waves, based on linear potential flow theory and the Hogner approximation, are reported for monohull ships and catamarans. Specifically, far-field ship waves are computed for six monohull ships at four Froude numbers F≡V/gL=0.58, 0.68, 0.86, 1.58 and for six catamarans with nondimensional hull spacing s≡S/L=0.25 at two Froude numbers Fs≡V/gS=1 and 2.5. Here, g is the gravitational acceleration, V and L denote the ship speed and length, and S is the separation di...