WorldWideScience

Sample records for heavily polluted areas

  1. Heavy Metal Pollution in Settled Dust Associated with Different Urban Functional Areas in a Heavily Air-Polluted City in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Dejun; Han, Zhangxiong; Yang, Jinsong; Yang, Guanglin; Liu, Xingqi

    2016-01-01

    Understanding variations of heavy metals in atmospheric particles between different functional areas is significant for pollution control and urban planning in cities. To reveal pollution and spatial distribution of heavy metals in atmospheric particles from different urban functional areas in Shijiazhuang in North China, 43 settled dust samples were collected over the main urban area and heavy metal concentrations were determined in their pollution indexes (IPIs) of the ten heavy metals are 2.7–13.6 (5.7 ± 2.2), suggesting high or very high pollution levels of most dust. Relatively lower IPIs occur mainly in the administration-education area, the commercial area, and other unclassified sites; while peaks occur mainly in the North Railway Station, the northeastern industrial area, and some sites near heavily trafficked areas, implying the significant influence of intensive industrial (including coal combustion) and traffic activities on atmospheric heavy metal accumulation. These results suggest a clear need of mitigating atmospheric heavy metal pollution via controlling emissions of toxic metals (especially Cd and Pb) from industrial and traffic sources in the city. PMID:27834903

  2. Heavy Metal Pollution in Settled Dust Associated with Different Urban Functional Areas in a Heavily Air-Polluted City in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Dejun; Han, Zhangxiong; Yang, Jinsong; Yang, Guanglin; Liu, Xingqi

    2016-11-10

    Understanding variations of heavy metals in atmospheric particles between different functional areas is significant for pollution control and urban planning in cities. To reveal pollution and spatial distribution of heavy metals in atmospheric particles from different urban functional areas in Shijiazhuang in North China, 43 settled dust samples were collected over the main urban area and heavy metal concentrations were determined in their pollution indexes (IPIs) of the ten heavy metals are 2.7-13.6 (5.7 ± 2.2), suggesting high or very high pollution levels of most dust. Relatively lower IPIs occur mainly in the administration-education area, the commercial area, and other unclassified sites; while peaks occur mainly in the North Railway Station, the northeastern industrial area, and some sites near heavily trafficked areas, implying the significant influence of intensive industrial (including coal combustion) and traffic activities on atmospheric heavy metal accumulation. These results suggest a clear need of mitigating atmospheric heavy metal pollution via controlling emissions of toxic metals (especially Cd and Pb) from industrial and traffic sources in the city.

  3. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soils, sediments, and human hair in a plastic waste recycling area: a neglected heavily polluted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhenwu; Huang, Qifei; Cheng, Jiali; Yang, Yufei; Yang, Jun; Guo, Wei; Nie, Zhiqiang; Zeng, Ning; Jin, Lu

    2014-01-01

    The release of pollutants during the recycling of contaminated plastics is a problem which has drawn worldwide attention; however, little information on the transfer of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in these processes is available. We conducted a survey of PBDEs in soils, sediments, and human hair in a typical plastic waste recycling area in northern China. The total concentrations (ng/g) of 21 PBDEs were 1.25-5504 (average 600), 18.2-9889 (average 1619), and 1.50-861 (average 112) in soils, sediments, and hair, respectively. The PBDE concentrations were comparable to concentrations observed in e-waste recycling areas; however, the concentrations in soils and sediments were 1-3 orders of magnitude higher than in other areas, and the concentrations in hair were much higher than in other areas. This indicates that this area is highly polluted with PBDEs. BDE-209 was the dominant congener (representing 91.23%, 92.3%, and 91.5% of the total PBDEs observed in soils, sediments, and hair, respectively), indicating that the commercial deca-BDE product was dominant. The commercial penta- and octa-BDE products made small contributions to the total PBDE concentrations, unlike what has been found in some e-waste recycling areas. Our results show that crude plastic waste processing is a major contributor of PBDEs to the environment and humans, which should be of great concern.

  4. Preliminary fundamental aspects on the thyroid volume and function in the population of long term heavily polluted area in East Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer, P. [Institute of Experimental Endocrinology, SAS, Bratislava (Slovakia); Tajtakova, M. [Safarik Univ., Kosice (Slovakia). First Clinic of Internal Medicine; Kocan, A. [Slovak Health Univ. - IPCM, Bratislava (SK). Research Base] (and others)

    2004-09-15

    Our previous examinations of employees of chemical factory formerly producing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) repeatedly showed increased thyroid volume as measured by ultrasound as well as increased frequency of thyroperoxidase, thyroglobulin and thyrotropin (TSH) receptor autoantibodies. At the same time a considerable PCB pollution of soil, waters and food chain in large area surrounding that chemical factory was found. The aim of present preliminary evaluation of data obtained within the EC project PCBRISK was to search for further interrelations between long-term organochlorine pollution and fundamental markers of thyroid volume and function in large cohorts of population from three districts of East Slovakia.

  5. Estimating representative background PM2.5 concentration in heavily polluted areas using baseline separation technique and chemical mass balance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shuang; Yang, Wen; Zhang, Hui; Sun, Yanling; Mao, Jian; Ma, Zhenxing; Cong, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Xian; Tian, Shasha; Azzi, Merched; Chen, Li; Bai, Zhipeng

    2018-02-01

    The determination of background concentration of PM2.5 is important to understand the contribution of local emission sources to total PM2.5 concentration. The purpose of this study was to exam the performance of baseline separation techniques to estimate PM2.5 background concentration. Five separation methods, which included recursive digital filters (Lyne-Hollick, one-parameter algorithm, and Boughton two-parameter algorithm), sliding interval and smoothed minima, were applied to one-year PM2.5 time-series data in two heavily polluted cities, Tianjin and Jinan. To obtain the proper filter parameters and recession constants for the separation techniques, we conducted regression analysis at a background site during the emission reduction period enforced by the Government for the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) meeting in Beijing. Background concentrations in Tianjin and Jinan were then estimated by applying the determined filter parameters and recession constants. The chemical mass balance (CMB) model was also applied to ascertain the effectiveness of the new approach. Our results showed that the contribution of background PM concentration to ambient pollution was at a comparable level to the contribution obtained from the previous study. The best performance was achieved using the Boughton two-parameter algorithm. The background concentrations were estimated at (27 ± 2) μg/m3 for the whole year, (34 ± 4) μg/m3 for the heating period (winter), (21 ± 2) μg/m3 for the non-heating period (summer), and (25 ± 2) μg/m3 for the sandstorm period in Tianjin. The corresponding values in Jinan were (30 ± 3) μg/m3, (40 ± 4) μg/m3, (24 ± 5) μg/m3, and (26 ± 2) μg/m3, respectively. The study revealed that these baseline separation techniques are valid for estimating levels of PM2.5 air pollution, and that our proposed method has great potential for estimating the background level of other air pollutants.

  6. RAINWATER RETENTION ON THE HEAVILY INDUSTRIALIZED AREAS

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    Bartosz Kaźmierczak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the dimensioning of retention reservoirs indicator method regarding to the German DWA-A 117 guideline, recommended for small rainfall catchments (with an area of 200 ha. A comparative calculation of the retention reservoirs overflow useful volume were conducted for 4 variants of catchment development (degree sealing surface varied from 60% to 90%, under the assumed sewage outflow from the tank at the level of the urban basin natural runoff. At given conditions required unit volume of retention reservoirs, from 145.4 m3 to 206.7 m3 for each 1 ha of catchment area were determined. The obtained results confirmed the fact that useful volume of the tanks were decreased, when Blaszczyk’s pattern reliable rainwater streams were used for calculations. Because the DWA-A 117 guideline method should be applied to a small rainfall catchments, it is recommended to verify the hydraulic capacity of dimensioned channels and objects using hydrodynamic simulations at different load of rainfall catchment scenarios, variable in time and space.

  7. Alkylphenolic compounds and bisphenol A contamination within a heavily urbanized area: case study of Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cladière, Mathieu; Gasperi, Johnny; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Bonhomme, Céline; Rocher, Vincent; Tassin, Bruno

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluates the influence of a heavily urbanized area (Paris Metropolitan area), on receiving water contamination by both bisphenol A (BPA) and alkylphenol ethoxylate (APE) biodegradation product. The study began by investigating concentrations within urban sources. In addition to the more commonly studied wastewater treatment plant effluent, wet weather urban sources (including combined sewer overflows, urban runoff, and total atmospheric fallout) were considered. The initial results highlight a significant contamination of all urban sources (from a few nanograms per liter in atmospheric fallout to several micrograms per liter in the other sources) with clearly distinguishable distribution patterns. Secondly, concentration changes along the Seine River from upstream of the Paris Metropolitan area to downstream were investigated. While the concentrations of BPA and nonylphenoxy acetic acid (NP₁EC) increase substantially due to urban sources, the 4-nonylphenol concentrations remain homogeneous along the Seine. These results suggest a broad dissemination of 4-nonylphenol at the scale of the Seine River basin. Moreover, the relationship between pollutant concentrations and Seine River flow was assessed both upstream and downstream of the Paris conurbation. Consequently, a sharp decrease in dissolved NP1EC concentrations relative to Seine River flow underscores the influence of single-point urban pollution on Seine River contamination. Conversely, dissolved 4-nonylphenol concentrations serve to reinforce the hypothesis of its widespread presence at the Seine River basin scale.

  8. Quantifying the importance of diffuse minewater pollution in a historically heavily coal mined catchment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayes, W.M.; Gozzard, E.; Potter, H.A.B.; Jarvis, A.P.

    2008-01-01

    There has been considerable progress in developing treatment systems for point sources of minewater pollution in recent years; however, there remains a knowledge gap in the characterisation and remediation of diffuse minewater sources. Data are presented from the River Gaunless catchment, a historically heavily coal mined catchment in the northeast of England. Instream iron (Fe) loadings were monitored alongside loadings arising from point minewater discharges over a 12-month period to assess the dynamic importance of diffuse sources of minewater pollution. In low flow, diffuse sources account for around 50% of instream loading, a proportion which increases to 98% in high flow conditions. The low flow sources appear to be dominated by direct discharge of contaminated groundwater to surface waters in lower reaches of the catchment. In high flow, resuspended Fe-rich sediments, which are both naturally occurring and derived from historic mining, become the dominant diffuse source of Fe in the water column. - Diffuse sources of minewater pollution significantly contribute to instream contaminant loadings under varying flow conditions

  9. The '333' integrated strategy for effective pollution control and its application to the heavily polluted Jialu River in north China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Sun, Jie; Li, Aimin; Xie, Xianchuan

    2018-05-01

    In this study, an integrated approach named the '333' strategy was applied to pollution control in the Jialu River, in northern China, which is heavily burdened with anthropogenic pollution. Due to a deficiency of the natural ecological inflow, the Jialu River receives predominantly industrial and municipal effluent. The '333' strategy is composed of three steps of pollution control including industrial point-source pollution control, advanced treatment of municipal wastewater, and ecological restoration; three increased stringency emission standards; and three stages of reclamation. Phase 1 of the '333' strategy focuses on industrial point-source pollution control; phase 2 aims to harness municipal wastewater and minimize sewage effluents using novel techniques for advanced water purification; phase 3 of the '333' strategy focuses on the further purification of effluents flowing into Jialu River with the employment of an engineering-based ecological restoration project. The application of the '333' strategy resulted in the development of novel techniques for water purification including modified magnetic resins (NDMP resin), a two-stage internal circulation anaerobic reactor (IC reactor) and an ecological restoration system. The results indicate that water quality in the river was significantly improved, with increased concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO), as well as reduction of COD by 42.8% and NH 3 -N by 61.4%. In addition, it was observed that the total population of phytoplankton in treated river water notably increased from only one prior to restoration to 8 following restoration. This system also provides a tool for pollution control of other similar industrial and anthropogenic source polluted rivers.

  10. Do the VOCs that evaporate from a heavily polluted river threaten the health of riparian residents?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juang, Der-Fong; Lee, Chao-Hsien; Chen, Wei-Chin; Yuan, Chung-Shin

    2010-01-01

    To understand the potential threat of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the health of residents living close to a heavily polluted river, this study investigated the species and the concentration of VOCs evaporating from a river and surveyed the health condition of the nearby residents. Air samples were taken seasonally at the upstream, midstream, and downstream water surfaces of the river, and at different locations at certain distances from the river. These samples were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively through gas chromatography and electron capture detector (GC/ECD) for chlorinated organic compounds, and through gas chromatography and flame ionization detector (GC/FID) for ordinary hydrocarbons. The health data obtained from valid health questionnaires of 908 residents were analyzed through Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) software. Twenty-six species of VOCs were identified in the environment adjacent the river, many of which are carcinogenic or believed to be carcinogenic to humans. However, results of this study shows that the VOCs evaporating from the polluted river have not been definitively identified as a major factor of cancer in the residents. However, the risk of suffering from certain chronic diseases may increase in residents living less than 225 m away from the river due to the high levels of evaporated VOCs. Residents living less than 225 m away from the river and with nearby specific industries are 3.130 times more at risk of suffering from chronic diseases than those with no nearby specific industries.

  11. Risk ranking of environmental contaminants in Xiaoqing River, a heavily polluted river along urbanizing Bohai Rim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qifeng; Zhang, Yueqing; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Pei; Suriyanarayanan, Sarvajayakesavalu; Meng, Jing; Zhou, Yunqiao; Liang, Ruoyu; Khan, Kifayatullah

    2018-08-01

    Xiaoqing River, located in the Laizhou Bay of Bohai Sea, is heavily polluted by various pollutants including heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), bisphenol A (BPA) and pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs). The aim of this study is to identify the relative risks of such contaminants that currently affect the coastal ecosystem. The median and highest concentrations of PFAAs and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were 3.23 μg L -1 and 325.28 μg L -1 , and 0.173 μg L -1 and 276.24 μg L -1 , respectively, which were ranked higher when compared with global level concentrations. To assess the relative risk levels of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), PFOA, and other contaminants in the upstream and downstream of the Xiaoqing River and in its tributary, a risk ranking analysis was carried out. Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), and arsenic (As) showed the highest risk values in the Xiaoqing River, while the relative risks of PFOA and PFOS differed across the various segments. The risk ranking of PFOA was the second highest in the tributary and the fourth highest in the downstream portion of the river, whereas the PFOS was found to be the lowest in all the segments. Heavy metals and PFOA are the main chemicals that should be controlled in the Xiaoqing River. The results of the present study provide a better understanding of the potential ecological risks of the contaminants in Xiaoqing River. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Short-Term Effects of Gaseous Pollutants and Particulate Matter on Daily Hospital Admissions for Cardio-Cerebrovascular Disease in Lanzhou: Evidence from a Heavily Polluted City in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Panel studies show a consistent association between increase in the cardiovascular hospitalizations with air pollutants in economically developed regions, but little evidence in less developed inland areas. In this study, a time-series analysis was used to examine the specific effects of major air pollutants [particulate matter less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10, sulfur dioxide (SO2, and nitrogen dioxides (NO2] on daily hospital admissions for cardio-cerebrovascular diseases in Lanzhou, a heavily polluted city in China. We examined the effects of air pollutants for stratified groups by age and gender, and conducted the modifying effect of seasons on air pollutants to test the possible interaction. The significant associations were found between PM10, SO2 and NO2 and cardiac disease admissions, SO2 and NO2 were found to be associated with the cerebrovascular disease admissions. The elderly was associated more strongly with gaseous pollutants than younger. The modifying effect of seasons on air pollutants also existed. The significant effect of gaseous pollutants (SO2 and NO2 was found on daily hospital admissions even after adjustment for other pollutants except for SO2 on cardiac diseases. In a word, this study provides the evidence for the detrimental short-term health effects of urban gaseous pollutants on cardio-cerebrovascular diseases in Lanzhou.

  13. Ecophysiological characterization of early successional biological soil crusts in heavily human-impacted areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyja, Michelle; Büdel, Burkhard; Colesie, Claudia

    2018-04-01

    Ecophysiological characterizations of photoautotrophic communities are not only necessary to identify the response of carbon fixation related to different climatic factors, but also to evaluate risks connected to changing environments. In biological soil crusts (BSCs), the description of ecophysiological features is difficult, due to the high variability in taxonomic composition and variable methodologies applied. Especially for BSCs in early successional stages, the available datasets are rare or focused on individual constituents, although these crusts may represent the only photoautotrophic component in many heavily disturbed ruderal areas, such as parking lots or building areas with increasing surface area worldwide. We analyzed the response of photosynthesis and respiration to changing BSC water contents (WCs), temperature and light in two early successional BSCs. We investigated whether the response of these parameters was different between intact BSC and the isolated dominating components. BSCs dominated by the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune and dominated by the green alga Zygogonium ericetorum were examined. A major divergence between the two BSCs was their absolute carbon fixation rate on a chlorophyll basis, which was significantly higher for the cyanobacterial crust. Nevertheless, independent of species composition, both crust types and their isolated organisms had convergent features such as high light acclimatization and a minor and very late-occurring depression in carbon uptake at water suprasaturation. This particular setup of ecophysiological features may enable these communities to cope with a high variety of climatic stresses and may therefore be a reason for their success in heavily disturbed areas with ongoing human impact. However, the shape of the response was different for intact BSC compared to separated organisms, especially in absolute net photosynthesis (NP) rates. This emphasizes the importance of measuring intact BSCs under natural

  14. Annoyance due to noise and air pollution to the residents of heavily frequented streets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanner, H. U.; Wehrli, B.; Nemecek, J.; Turrian, V.

    1980-01-01

    The residents of different streets with varying traffic density and building density were questioned about annoyance due to traffic noise and air pollution. Results show that annoyance felt is dependent not only on the measured noise levels and/or air pollution concentrations, but that there do exist interactions between the residential quarters and annoyance. These interactions should be considered when fixing the limits and standards.

  15. Atmospheric depositions around a heavily industrialized area in a seasonally dry tropical environment of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Raj Kumar; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2005-01-01

    Clear and throughfall bulk depositions were collected in the downwind of a highly industrialized region in Sonbhadra district of India to estimate the influence of anthropogenic activities on chemical composition of depositions. Significant spatial and temporal variations in depositions of cations and anions were observed. Depositions were higher near the thermal power stations and coalmines as compared to distantly situated site. Seasonally summer samples showed maximum cation and anion depositions followed by winter and minimum in rainy season. The mean pH of the depositions indicates that rainfall in the area is alkaline. Among the anions, maximum deposition was recorded for SO 4 2- followed by NO 3 - and minimum for Cl - . Among the cations, Ca 2+ deposition was maximum followed by NH 4 + . Na + , K + and Mg 2+ deposition rates showed more or less similar values. The depositions of cations and anions as well as pH were higher in throughfall than clearfall samples. Results of the present study suggest that atmospheric depositions are strongly modified due to thermal power stations and coal mines in the area. - Atmospheric abundance of cations have neutralized the acidity of depositions around a heavily industrialized area in India

  16. Assessment of heavy metals in sediment in a heavily polluted urban river in the Chaohu Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Shiguang; Xue, Lianqing; Liu, Cheng; Shang, Jingge; Wang, Zhaode; He, Xiang; Fan, Chengxin

    2016-05-01

    The Nanfei River (Anhui Province, China) is a severely polluted urban river that flows into Chaohu Lake. In the present study, sediments were collected from the river and analyzed for their heavy metal contents. Multivariate statistics and the fuzzy comprehensive assessment method were used to determine the sources of pollution, the current pollution status, and spatial and temporal variations in heavy metal pollution in sediments. The concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in sediments ranged from 5.67-113, 0.08-40.2, 41.6-524, 15.5-460, 0.03-4.84, 13.5-180, 18.8-250, and 47.9-1 996 mg/kg, and the average concentrations of each metal were 1.7, 38.7, 1.8, 5.5, 18.8, 1.3, 2.5, and 11.1 times greater than the background values, respectively. Multivariate statistical analysis demonstrated that Hg, Cu, Cr, Cd, and Ni may have originated from industrial activities, whereas As and Pb came from agricultural activities. The fuzzy comprehensive assessment method, based on the fuzzy mathematics theory, was used to obtain a detailed assessment of the sediment quality in the Nanfei River watershed. The results indicated that the pollution was moderate in the downstream tributaries of the Nianbu and Dianbu Rivers, but was severe in the main channel of the Nanfei River and in the upstream tributaries of the Sili and Banqiao Rivers. Therefore, sediments in the Nanfei River watershed are heavily polluted and urgent measures should be taken to remedy the status.

  17. Pollutant loads and water quality in streams of heavily populated and industrialised towns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntengwe, F. W.

    The availability of portable water is often taken for granted and water allowed to get polluted. Industries, settlements, farms, markets, leaking sewer lines, poor hygiene practices are all potential sources of pollution. Each pollutant has its own effect on water and the environment. A study was conducted in Kitwe Stream in order to establish whether engineering and other human activities affect water quality. Samples were collected at ten points, the first point being at the source while the tenth point was at the confluence with the Kafue River. The samples were analysed for physical, chemical and biological parameters. The results revealed high levels of concentration and loads of total suspended solids (TSS). The points with high TSS values were P4 (118 mg/l) and P6 (140 mg/l) representing daily loads of 7.74 and 8.71 tonnes, respectively. The highest values of coliform were found at points P9 (2099), P10 (2558) followed by P4 (1149), P5 (1256) and P6 (1370). High values of nitrites were found at points P4 (34 mg/l), P5 (32 mg/l), P6 (21 mg/l) and P10 (12.4 mg/l). Chlorides were also found to be high at points P4, P5 and P6 with values of 70 mg/l, 80 mg/l and 87 mg/l, respectively. These parameters exceeded the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 100 mg/l for TSS, 1 mg/l for nitrites, 500/100 ml for coliform in Zambia. The conductivity and coliform were also found to be high (>500 μS/cm, >500). The benthic study revealed a normal diversity of invertebrates but chironomidae was found to be on average 60% of total species counted. The fish activity was high upstream and low downstream at the mouth of the stream where it joins the Kafue River. There was no fish activity at the middle points. The planktons (phytoplankton and zooplankton) count revealed a high count (15-30 per ml) in places where there was high fish activity and a low count (1-5 per ml) where there was no activity. The stream water quality was therefore affected by the human activities.

  18. Flotation as a remediation technique for heavily polluted dredged material. 1. A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauwenberg, P; Verdonckt, F; Maes, A

    1998-01-19

    The flotation behaviour of highly polluted dredged material was investigated at different pH values by mechanical agitated (Denver) flotation. Up to 80% of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc could be concentrated in the froth layer which represented only 30% of the total mass. The maximum specificity for heavy metals, defined as the concentrating factor, was obtained at pH 8-9. The maximum recovery of heavy metals on the other hand was found to be reached at elevated pH values (pH 12). In addition the specificity of the flotation process for the transition metals could be assigned to their presence as metal sulphides in the dredged material. However, the interaction with organic matter is an important factor in determining their flotability. The carbonate fraction was irrelevant for the flotation behaviour of heavy metals.

  19. Age standardized cancer mortality ratios in areas heavily exposed to methyl mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Tsuda, Toshihide; Kawakami, Norito

    2007-08-01

    Methyl-mercury (MeHg) was discharged from a chemical factory in Minamata, and consequently spread throughout the Shiranui Sea in Kumamoto, Japan. Although many studies have focused on MeHg-induced neurological disorders, the association between MeHg and malignant neoplasms has not been adequately investigated. Therefore, we explored this association using the age standardized mortality ratio (ASMR) in an ecologic study over a wide area allowing for a long empirical induction period. The subjects were residents in areas around the Shiranui Sea. We divided these areas into exposure groups 1 (Minamata and Ashikita regions) and 2 (Amakusa region). Exposure group 1 was contaminated from the late 1930s, and exposure group 2 was contaminated from the late 1950s. In addition, exposure group 1 was contaminated more heavily than exposure group 2. There were 92,525 and 152,541 residents in each group in 1960, respectively. We analyzed the cancer ASMR in both exposure groups using data from two reference populations (Japan and Kumamoto prefecture) from 1961 to 1997. There were 94,301,494 and 1,856,192 people in each reference group in 1960, respectively. We abstracted population and mortality data from the censuses and the vital statistics of the prefecture and Japan. An increased leukemia ASMR and a decreased gastric cancer ASMR were observed in both exposure groups, while other ASMRs were around unity and less precise. Furthermore, the leukemia ASMRs were elevated differently between the two exposure groups: the leukemia ASMR was already elevated early in the study period in exposure group 1 and increased gradually in exposure group 2. While the negative association between MeHg and gastric cancer might be explained by salt intake, the positive association between MeHg and leukemia could not be explained by potential confounders. Despite some limitations mainly due to its ecologic design, this study indicates the necessity of an individual-level study evaluating the

  20. Microbial Diversity of a Heavily Polluted Microbial Mat and Its Community Changes following Degradation of Petroleum Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abed, Raeid M. M.; Safi, Nimer M. D.; Köster, Jürgen; de Beer, Dirk; El-Nahhal, Yasser; Rullkötter, Jürgen; Garcia-Pichel, Ferran

    2002-01-01

    We studied the microbial diversity of benthic cyanobacterial mats inhabiting a heavily polluted site in a coastal stream (Wadi Gaza) and monitored the microbial community response induced by exposure to and degradation of four model petroleum compounds in the laboratory. Phormidium- and Oscillatoria-like cyanobacterial morphotypes were dominant in the field. Bacteria belonging to different groups, mainly the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteriodes group, the γ and β subclasses of the class Proteobacteria, and the green nonsulfur bacteria, were also detected. In slurry experiments, these communities efficiently degraded phenanthrene and dibenzothiophene completely in 7 days both in the light and in the dark. n-Octadecane and pristane were degraded to 25 and 34% of their original levels, respectively, within 7 days, but there was no further degradation until 40 days. Both cyanobacterial and bacterial communities exhibited noticeable changes concomitant with degradation of the compounds. The populations enriched by exposure to petroleum compounds included a cyanobacterium affiliated phylogenetically with Halomicronema. Bacteria enriched both in the light and in the dark, but not bacteria enriched in any of the controls, belonged to the newly described Holophaga-Geothrix-Acidobacterium phylum. In addition, another bacterial population, found to be a member of green nonsulfur bacteria, was detected only in the bacteria treated in the light. All or some of the populations may play a significant role in metabolizing the petroleum compounds. We concluded that the microbial mats from Wadi Gaza are rich in microorganisms with high biodegradative potential. PMID:11916684

  1. AIR POLLUTION OF URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAKAROVA V. N.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. Any manufacturing processes related to the generation of waste. Year after year, a growing mass of waste is one of the main factors reducing the quality of the environment and destruction of natural landscapes. Industrial development inevitably enhances human impacts on the environment and disrupts the ecological balance [3]. Atmospher air is a vital element of the environment. The development of industry, the growth of cities, increasing the number of transport, active exploration of near-Earth space lead to a change in the gas composition of the atmosphere and disruption of its natural balance. Air quality affects the health of the population [5]. Without water or food a person can do for a while, but without air he can not live a few minutes, therefore saving air breathable is an urgent problem. Purpose. The results of geological studies clearly indicate that the contamination of the surface layer of the atmosphere is the most powerful permanent factor of influence on the human food chain and the environment. This problem was reflected in the scientific literature [2; 3; 6], and the second significant indicator of ecological well-being of the region is the number of generation and accumulation of waste. According to this indicator, Dnipropetrovsk region is in the lead, as relates to the industrialized regions. The idea of the article is to consider the air pollution of the urban environment in terms of the accumulation of waste in the territory of enterprises, in particular slag dumps metallurgical production. Conclusion. Slag dumps located on the premises are a significant source of air pollution urbanized areas due to the permanent nature of the spread of contamination. Slag dump of PAT "Nikopol Ferroalloy Plant" is a source of manganese, zinc, nickel emissions. As a conclusion about the magnitude of pollution of the atmospheric boundary layer can say the following: on the border of the sanitary protection zone (SPZ, in

  2. Soil concentrations and source apportionment of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and trace elements around a heavily industrialized area in Kocaeli, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Banu

    2014-01-01

    Air pollutants are transported by dry deposition, wet deposition, and gas exchange accumulated in soil. Therefore, soil is an important environmental medium reflecting the level and the spatial distribution of air pollutants such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and heavy metals. Soil concentrations of seven PBDE congeners and 21 trace elements were determined in a heavily industrialized region (Dilovasi) in Kocaeli, Turkey. At all sites, Σ7PBDE concentrations ranged from 0.70 to 203 with a mean value of 26.3 μg kg(-1) (dry weight). The congener profiles and mass inventories of PBDEs and their interactions with soil organic matter (SOM) were also investigated. BDE-209 was the dominant congener at all sites, followed by BDE-99 and/or -47. The estimated inventory of PBDEs for the Dilovasi district was 310 kg. However, there are several additional industrial regions in Kocaeli city. Considering the total land area, the potential inventory would be much larger for this city. The relationship between the PBDE concentrations in soil and SOM content indicated that factors other than soil properties have a greater influence on soil concentrations. Crustal enrichment factors (EFs) were determined; correlation analysis and factor analysis (FA) were also applied to generated data set to identify and apportion the sources polluting the soil. Sn, Mn, Ca, As, Zn, Pb, and Cd had significantly high average EF values, indicating that their soil concentrations were mainly influenced by anthropogenic activities. In FA, six factors were extracted with a cumulative variance of 84.4 % and industrial activities and traffic were found to be the main factors affecting the soil profile.

  3. Distributions, sources and pollution status of 17 trace metal/metalloids in the street dust of a heavily industrialized city of central China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhonggen; Feng, Xinbin; Li, Guanghui; Bi, Xiangyang; Zhu, Jianming; Qin, Haibo; Dai, Zhihui; Liu, Jinling; Li, Qiuhua; Sun, Guangyi

    2013-01-01

    A series of representative street dust samples were collected from a heavily industrialized city, Zhuzhou, in central China, with the aim to investigate the spatial distribution and pollution status of 17 trace metal/metalloid elements. Concentrations of twelve elements (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Hg, As, Sb, In, Bi, Tl, Ag and Ga) were distinctly amplified by atmospheric deposition resulting from a large scale Pb/Zn smelter located in the northwest fringe of the city, and followed a declining trend towards the city center. Three metals (W, Mo and Co) were enriched in samples very close to a hard alloy manufacturing plant, while Ni and Cr appeared to derive predominantly from natural sources. Other industries and traffic had neglectable effects on the accumulation of observed elements. Cd, In, Zn, Ag and Pb were the five metal/metalloids with highest pollution levels and the northwestern part of city is especially affected by heavy metal pollution. -- Highlights: •Large-scale Pb/Zn smelters contributed to elevated trace elements in the street dust. •The hard alloy processing caused the enrichment of a few elements. •Cd, In, Zn, Ag and Pb were the most polluted elements. •Northwestern Zhuzhou suffered severe contamination for a range of trace elements. -- Pb/Zn smelting and hard alloy processing operations have caused seriously contamination of trace metal/metalloids in the street dust

  4. Distributions, sources and pollution status of 17 trace metal/metalloids in the street dust of a heavily industrialized city of central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhonggen; Feng, Xinbin; Li, Guanghui; Bi, Xiangyang; Zhu, Jianming; Qin, Haibo; Dai, Zhihui; Liu, Jinling; Li, Qiuhua; Sun, Guangyi

    2013-11-01

    A series of representative street dust samples were collected from a heavily industrialized city, Zhuzhou, in central China, with the aim to investigate the spatial distribution and pollution status of 17 trace metal/metalloid elements. Concentrations of twelve elements (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Hg, As, Sb, In, Bi, Tl, Ag and Ga) were distinctly amplified by atmospheric deposition resulting from a large scale Pb/Zn smelter located in the northwest fringe of the city, and followed a declining trend towards the city center. Three metals (W, Mo and Co) were enriched in samples very close to a hard alloy manufacturing plant, while Ni and Cr appeared to derive predominantly from natural sources. Other industries and traffic had neglectable effects on the accumulation of observed elements. Cd, In, Zn, Ag and Pb were the five metal/metalloids with highest pollution levels and the northwestern part of city is especially affected by heavy metal pollution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Air Pollution In The Mountain - Urban Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakovljevic, I.; Pehnec, G.; Vadjic, V.; Marovic, G.; Suric Mihic, M.; Sencar, J.; Godec, R.; Davila, S.

    2015-01-01

    Pollution of the environment is characterized, among others, by ionizing radiation burden and air pollution. Ambient dose equivalent, H*(10), is operational quantity for area monitoring due to ionizing radiation exposure. One of air pollution sources is benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) as the most commonly measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and is used as an indicator of carcinogenic hazard in polluted environments. PAHs are widely distributed in the atmosphere and were among the first pollutants identified as potential carcinogens. PAHs are products of the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and other organic materials. More than 500 PAHs have so far been identified in the air. Sampling of airborne particles PM10 was carried out in a mountain area in Gorski Kotar, Croatia during 60 days in the winter and 60 days in the summer period of the year. During the sampling of airborne particles, the ambient dose equivalent rate was also measured using an electronic dosemeter ALARA device. High performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector was used for BaP analysis. BaP concentrations showed strong seasonal variations. During winter, the average BaP concentrations were significantly higher (5.46 ng/m3) than in the summer (0.06 ng/m3). Ambient dose equivalent rate in winter period was a little higher than in summer. Ambient dose equivalent was calculated on a yearly base. Yearly ambient dose equivalent was 860 micro Sv which is slightly lower than the average value for Croatia (890 micro Sv). (author).

  6. Persistent organic pollutants in the Muda area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuriati Zakaria; Md Pauzi Abdullah; Laily Din

    2002-01-01

    A screening for the presence of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP) in Malaysia was undertaken by the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia as part of the Department of Environment's assessment process to study the extent of bioaccumulation or the transboundary effect of POPs in the country. Water, sediment and fish samples were tested for the presence of nine compounds which were aldrin, dieldrin, chlordane, DDT, hexachlordane, hexachlorobenzene, mirex, toxaphene and heptachlor. The Muda area was one of the areas investigated where samplings were conducted at Sungai Tajar, Sungai Tala and Sungai Fadang. Analyses of the samples showed that residues of DDT, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin and BHC were present in the sediment.The water samples also showed the presence of aldrin and dieldrin. (Author)

  7. The WIRED Survey. I. A Bright IR Excess Due to Dust Around the Heavily Polluted White Dwarf Galex J193156.8+011745

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debes, John H.; Hoard, D. W.; Kilic, Mukremin; Wachter, Stefanie; Leisawitz, David T.; Cohen, Martin; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Griffith, Roger L.

    2011-01-01

    With the launch of the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), a new era of detecting planetary debris around white dwarfs (WDs) has begun with the WISE InfraRed Excesses around Degenerates (WIRED) Survey. The WIRED survey will be sensitive to substellar objects and dusty debris around WDs out to distances exceeding 100 pc, well beyond the completeness level of local WDs and covering a large fraction of known WDs detected with the SDSS DR4 WD catalog. In this paper, we report an initial result of the WIRED survey, the detection of the heavily polluted hydrogen WD (spectral type DAZ) GALEX Jl93156.S-KlI1745 at 3.35 and 4.6/Lm. We find that the excess is consistent with either a narrow dusty ring with an inner radius of 29 RWD. outer radius of 40 RWD, and a face-on inclination, or a disk with an inclination of 70 , an inner radius of 23 RWD. and an outer radius of 80 RWD. We also report initial optical spectroscopic monitoring of several metal lines present in the photosphere and find no variability in the line strengths or radial velocities of the lines. We rule out all but planetary mass companions to GALEXl931 out to 0.5 AU.

  8. Willow wood production on radionuclide polluted areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodkin Oleg I.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: One of the key environmental problems in Belarus is effective use of agricultural lands contaminated by radionuclide due to the Chernobyl disaster. The alternative method to traditional agricultural crops is fast growing willow cultivation. It is possible to use biomass of willow as renewable energy source. The goal of our investigation was the estimation of environmental aspects of willow wood production on polluted areas. The field study experiments (2007-2010 were conducted at Krichev district of Mogilev region in eastern Belarus. This region characterized by high level of Cs-137 contamination as well as high level of heavy metals pollution. In the first stage of experiments, the concentration of cesium-137 in different parts of willow biomass had been measured and transfer factor calculated. The measuring had been done for leaves, roots, and wood. To control cesium-137 accumulation in willow biomass we apply different types (nitrogen N, phosphorus P and potassium K and dose of fertilizer. The experiments show that potassium mineral fertilizer is the key factor for radionuclide accumulation control. The optimal dose of potassium is 90 kg per hectare. On the base of experimental results the model of cesium-137 accumulation in the wood for a 21 year has been developed. In accordance with calculation to the end of willow cultivation (21 year concentration of cesium-137 in wood will not be higher than permitted even with the level of cesium-137 contamination in the soil 1480 kBq/m2 (maximum 140 kqB/m2 with permitted level for firewood is 740 Bq/kg.. The concentration of cesium-137 in the roots increases gradually and get maximum in 21 year (3000 kqB/m2. Our results confirm that in the sum about 0.8 million hectares of radionuclide polluted arable lands partly excluded from agricultural practice in Belarus could be used for willow biomass production.

  9. [Characteristics of chemical pollution of snow cover in Aktobe areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskakov, A Zh

    2010-01-01

    The paper gives data on the nature of snow cover pollution in the urbanized areas in relation to the remoteness from the basic sources of ambient air pollution. The total snow content of carcinogens has been estimated.

  10. Budburst phenology of white birch in industrially polluted areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, Mikhail V.; Eraenen, Janne K.; Zverev, Vitali E.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of environmental contamination on plant seasonal development have only rarely been properly documented. Monitoring of leaf growth in mountain birch, Betula pubescens subsp. czerepanovii, around a nickel-copper smelter at Monchegorsk hinted advanced budburst phenology in most polluted sites. However, under laboratory conditions budburst of birch twigs cut in late winter from trees naturally growing around three point polluters (nickel-copper smelter at Monchegorsk, aluminium factory at Kandalaksha, and iron pellet plant at Kostomuksha) showed no relationship with distance from the emission source. In a greenhouse experiment, budburst phenology of mountain birch seedlings grown in unpolluted soil did not depend on seedling origin (from heavily polluted vs. clean sites), whereas seedlings in metal-contaminated soil demonstrated delayed budburst. These results allow to attribute advanced budburst phenology of white birch in severely polluted sites to modified microclimate, rather than to pollution impact on plant physiology or genetics. - Advanced budburst phenology in white birch in severely polluted sites is explained by modified microclimate, not by pollution impact on plant physiology

  11. Polluted land areas purified by composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leinonen, A.L.; Nikula, A.

    1996-11-01

    Restoration of polluted land and development of purification methods are among the most topical environment protection issues, IVO, too, has participated in research on microbiological purification methods. The biodegrability of creosote, and agent used for impregnation of wooden power line poles, was tested in the laboratory in 1993-94. The tests revealed that soil polluted by creosote can be cleansed efficiently. In Petaejaevesi, central Finland, the results are being applied in the composting of land masses polluted by creosote. The composting, which began in summer 1995, has succeeded in line with expectations: The content of deleterious compounds fell by half after only a couple of months of composting. (orig.)

  12. Acute pollution of recipients in urban areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauch, W.; Harremoës, P.

    1997-01-01

    Oxygen and ammonia concentration are key parameters of acute water pollution in urban rivers. These two abiotic parameters are statistically assessed for a historical rain series by means of a simplified deterministic model of the integrated drainage system. Continuous simulation of the system...... performance indicates that acute water pollution is caused by intermittent discharges from both sewer system and wastewater treatment plant. Neglecting one of them in the evaluation of the environmental impact gives a wrong impression of total system behavior. Detention basins and alternative operational...... modes in the treatment plant under wet weather loading have a limited positive effect for minimizing acute water pollution. (C) 1997 IAWQ. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd....

  13. Microbial reduction of ferric iron oxyhydroxides as a way for remediation of grey forest soils heavily polluted with toxic metals by infiltration of acid mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Plamen; Groudev, Stoyan; Spasova, Irena; Nicolova, Marina

    2015-04-01

    The abandoned uranium mine Curilo is a permanent source of acid mine drainage (AMD) which steadily contaminated grey forest soils in the area. As a result, the soil pH was highly acidic and the concentration of copper, lead, arsenic, and uranium in the topsoil was higher than the relevant Maximum Admissible Concentration (MAC) for soils. The leaching test revealed that approximately half of each pollutant was presented as a reducible fraction as well as the ferric iron in horizon A was presented mainly as minerals with amorphous structure. So, the approach for remediation of the AMD-affected soils was based on the process of redoxolysis carried out by iron-reducing bacteria. Ferric iron hydroxides reduction and the heavy metals released into soil solutions was studied in the dependence on the source of organic (fresh or silage hay) which was used for growth and activity of soil microflora, initial soil pH (3.65; 4.2; and 5.1), and the ion content of irrigation solutions. The combination of limestone (2.0 g/ kg soil), silage addition (at rate of 45 g dry weight/ kg soil) in the beginning and reiterated at 6 month since the start of soil remediation, and periodical soil irrigation with slightly acidic solutions containing CaCl2 was sufficient the content of lead and arsenic in horizon A to be decreased to concentrations similar to the relevant MAC. The reducible, exchangeable, and carbonate mobile fractions were phases from which the pollutants was leached during the applied soil remediation. It determined the higher reduction of the pollutants bioavailability also as well as the process of ferric iron reduction was combined with neutralization of the soil acidity to pH (H2O) 6.2.

  14. Ecological assessment of oil-gas producing area in Kazakhstan zone of Caspian sea and using the bioremediation technology for cleaning of high level oil polluted sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigaliev, A.A.; Ishanova, N.E.; Bijazheva, S.M.; Novikova, A.; Bigaliev, A.B.

    2008-01-01

    A significant part of mineral raw material resources of Kazakhstan placed in the depth of the Caspian region, where more than 90% extracting of oil and natural gas, 100% balance store rare ground, 3.2% uranium, ore 0.3%, 90.5% sawn store concentrated. Last years, it takes intensive works by extraction of carbon raw materials in Kazakhstan sector of the Caspian sea. It brought to exceeding of coastal pollution at the North and middle the Caspian coastal pollution with oil products in average till 0.282 mg/l. Maximum meaning oil product pollution reaches 0.56 mg/l (which means exceeding of limited concentration on 11 times). How much money need to cover cost of remediation in real sites? Develop of assessment and monitoring procedures based on fate mechanisms for most of representative hydrocarbons in polluted soils. Step 1 - Collection of heavily polluted portions of soils, separation of hydrocarbons by cost efficient mechanical procedures and send HC rich material (HC>95%) to prepare of alternative fuel. Return of low HC content sand to project area (HC<5.0%). Step 2 - Development of low cost bioremediation procedures in areas transformed to moderately polluted site (HC<5% after removing of heavily polluted portions) with uniform HC content. We are needed to develop of coast efficiency approach for cleaning of high level oily polluted sites around urban areas in Kazakhstan new methodology to estimate polluted area and recover of pollution history, low cost bioremediation

  15. Characteristics, distribution and sources of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in coastal sediments from the heavily industrialized area of Asalouyeh, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfaeinia, Hossein; Asadgol, Zahra; Ahmadi, Ehsan; Seifi, Morteza; Moradi, Masoud; Dobaradaran, Sina

    2017-12-01

    In this research, the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated in the marine sediments of Asaluyeh harbor, in the Persian Gulf. The samples were taken from industrial, semi-industrial and urban regions. The mean concentration levels of total (Σ) 18 detected PCBs were 514.32, 144.67 and 31.6 pg/g dw for the industrial, semi-industrial and urban sampling stations, respectively. Based on a multivariate statistical analysis, it was found that high contamination levels of PCBs in sediments collected along the Persian Gulf were associated with releases from local industries. Total organic carbon (TOC) content was significantly and positively correlated with the concentrations of PCB congeners. World Health Organization toxic equivalents (TEQs) for PCBs ranged from 0.04 to 2.66 pg TEQ/g dry weight (dw) in the coastal sediments. The TEQ values in this study were higher than many reported worldwide in the literature for sediments. This suggests that there are high levels of contamination in the area due to industrial and other human activities.

  16. Correlations between Socioeconomic Drivers and Indicators of Urban Expansion: Evidence from the Heavily Urbanised Shanghai Metropolitan Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinghui Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urban expansion resulting in increased impervious surfaces causes a series of urban environmental problems, e.g., the urban heat island and urban forest fragmentation. Urban expansion is a serious threat to human quality of life and living environments. It has been studied from a variety of aspects, but its driving factors and time series expansion characteristics (i.e., expansion intensity, pattern and direction need to be better explained in order to devise more effective management strategies. This study examined how social and economic factors are linked in driving urban expansion. Based on multi-temporal aerial images, a rapid urban expansion period, 2000–2010, in Shanghai was analysed. The urban area expanded from 1770.36 to 2855.44 km2 in the period, with a mean annual expansion rate of 108.51 km2. Urban expansion in 2000–2005 (40.42% was much faster than in 2005–2010 (14.86%, and its direction was southeast, southwest and south. The main pattern was edge expansion in both sub-periods. Social factors, especially population density, significantly affected urban expansion. These findings can help understand the urban expansion process and its driving factors, which has important implications for urban planning and management in Shanghai and similar cities.

  17. SEROPREVALENCE OF AVIAN INFLUENZA IN LAYERS OF HEAVILY POPULATED AREAS IN TOBA TEK SINGH AND ADJOINING LOCALITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Numan and M. Siddique

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A survey based on collection of serum samples for the determination of prevalence of avian influenza (AI in non-vaccinated layer flocks was carried out in an area of Punjab having complaints similar to those represented by AI. Paired serum sampling was done from 14 non-vaccinated flocks against any subtype of AI virus (AIV. A total of 204 serum samples were collected (148 soon after exhibiting signs and symptoms and 56 after three weeks interval from positive farms for AIV antibodies from 14 commercial layer farms. Haemagglutination Inhibition (HI test was performed for the determination of serum antibodies against AIV. The results showed that out of 14 sampled farms, three farms had antibodies against only H7 subtype, two farms had antibodies against H9 and two farms showed antibodies against both subtypes, H7 and H9, while remaining 7 farms were negative for antibodies to AI. Furthermore, out of these positive farms only one farm was found seroconverted for H7 subtype.

  18. Filtering fens: mechanisms explaining phosphorus-limited hotspots of biodiversity in wetlands adjacent to heavily fertilized areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusell, Casper; Kooijman, Annemieke; Fernandez, Filippo; van Wirdum, Geert; Geurts, Jeroen J M; van Loon, E Emiel; Kalbitz, Karsten; Lamers, Leon P M

    2014-05-15

    vegetation requires larger areas, as long as eutrophication has not been seriously tackled. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Approach to valuing visual pollution from Western Electricity Production. [For Western Systems Coordinating Council area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, L.E.

    1977-02-01

    This paper outlines an approach to valuing visual pollution from electric power plants. The differences between public-good pollution externalities, such as these aesthetic damages, and other market failures are discussed. Approaches generally used to value externalities are briefly described. The approach used relies heavily on an earlier application of bidding games to estimate people's willingness to pay for abatement of emissions from the Four Corners fossil-fuel power plant in northwestern New Mexico. The results of these surveys were used here to estimate the value of visual pollution from electric power plants for residents of and visitors to the Four Corners Air Quality Control Region, as a function of power plant emissions in that region. The approach presented here for the Four Corners region is structured so that replication for other air quality control regions is relatively easy. Preliminary results of this procedure for all of the air quality control regions in the Western Systems Coordinating Council area are presented. Visual pollution damages from electric power plants to residents of and recreational visitors to these western regions are estimated to total more than $100 million annually by 1985. These damages are expected to occur unless additional pollution controls are implemented, even if these subject populations do not increase.

  20. Assessment of Light Pollution Impact on Protected Areas in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, W.; He, G.; Ni, Y.

    2017-09-01

    The Protected Areas (PAs) with natural, ecological and cultural value play important role in biological processes, biodiversity and ecosystem service. During the past years of rapid urban expansion in China, the spatial range and intensity of light pollution unprecedented increase. Historically, optical remote sensing and field survey data had been used to reveal that human activities impacted on PAs for individual areas and few papers documented the issue of light pollution impact on PAs at national scale. Here, time series night-time light satellite images of Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS) were selected to assess the light pollution impacted on PAs in China. The method we proposed can be effectively applied to assess the impact of light pollution on PAs and the percent of dark PAs decreased by 35.38 % from 1992 to 2012 at nationwide. The trend of light pollution of most PAs in stable, however, light pollution of the local area is increase significantly, especially in northern Xinjiang, Gansu, Xizang, Yunnan, Jiangsu and Shandong. Considering the current status of light pollution encroach into PAs, two strategies of appropriate buffer zone and wide measured for light pollution are also recommend.

  1. Latin American protected areas: Protected from chemical pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Jorquera, Ignacio A; Siroski, Pablo; Espejo, Winfred; Nimptsch, Jorge; Choueri, Paloma Gusso; Choueri, Rodrigo Brasil; Moraga, Claudio A; Mora, Miguel; Toor, Gurpal S

    2017-03-01

    Protected areas (PAs) are critically important means to preserve species and maintain natural ecosystems. However, the potential impacts of chemical pollution on PAs are seldom mentioned in the scientific literature. Research on the extent of the occurrence of chemical pollution inside PAs and in-depth assessments of how chemical contaminants may adversely affect the maintenance of species abundance, species survival, and ecosystem functions are scarce to nonexistent. We investigated 1) the occurrence of chemical contaminants inside 119 PAs in Latin America from publically available databases, and 2) reviewed case studies of chemical contaminants and pollution in 4 Latin American PAs. Cases of chemical pollution and contamination inside Latin American PAs mostly originated from sources such as mining, oil, and gas extraction. To date, the focus of the research on chemical pollution research inside Latin American PAs has been primarily on the detection of contamination, typically limited to trace metals. Where management actions have occurred, they have been reactive rather than proactive. Protected areas established in wetlands are the most affected by chemical pollution. Based on the information from the pollution and/or contamination occurrence and the case studies analyzed, Latin American PAs are not well safeguarded from chemical pollution, resulting in both challenges and opportunities to conserve biodiversity and ecosystems. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:360-370. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  2. Atmospheric concentrations, distributions and air-soil exchange tendencies of PAHs and PCBs in a heavily industrialized area in Kocaeli, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Banu; Yurdakul, Sema; Keles, Melek; Celik, Isil; Ozturk, Fatma; Dogan, Cevdet

    2017-09-01

    Dilovasi is one of the heavily industrialized areas in Turkey with serious environmental problems. In this study, the atmospheric concentration of PAHs and PCBs were measured for a whole year at 23 sites. The average ambient air Σ 15 PAH and Σ 41 PCB concentrations were found as 285 ± 431 ng m -3 and 4152 ± 6072 pg m -3 , respectively. PAH concentrations increased with decreasing temperature especially in urban areas, indicating the impact of residential heating. However, PCB concentrations mostly increased with temperature probably due to enhanced volatilization from their sources. The gradient obtained for PCBs, rural air were higher in industrial-urban areas than rural sites, showing that soil was a secondary source for PAHs. Fugacity ratios of PCBs were mostly <1.0 for the whole sampling period. Although the source/sink tendency of soil for some PCBs depends on their volatility, considering the whole data, PCBs were generally deposited to soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An association between air pollution and daily outpatient visits for respiratory disease in a heavy industry area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kuo-Ying; Chau, Tang-Tat

    2013-01-01

    In this work we used daily outpatient data from the Landseed Hospital in a heavily industrial area in northern Taiwan to study the associations between daily outpatient visits and air pollution in the context of a heavily polluted atmospheric environment in Chung-Li area during the period 2007-2011. We test the normality of each data set, control for the confounding factors, and calculate correlation coefficient between the outpatient visits and air pollution and meteorology, and use multiple linear regression analysis to seek significance of these associations. Our results show that temperature and relative humidity tend to be negatively associated with respiratory diseases. NO and [Formula: see text] are two main air pollutants that are positively associated with respiratory diseases, followed by [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], CO, and [Formula: see text]. Young outpatients (age 0-15 years) are most sensitive to changing air pollution and meteorology factors, followed by the eldest (age [Formula: see text]66 years) and age 16-65 years of outpatients. Outpatients for COPD diseases are most sensitive to air pollution and meteorology factors, followed by allergic rhinitis, asthma, and pneumonia diseases. In the context of sex difference to air pollution and meteorological factors, male outpatients are more sensitive than female outpatients in the 16-65 age groups, while female outpatients are more sensitive than male outpatients in the young 0-15 age groups and in the eldest age groups. In total, female outpatients are more sensitive to air pollution and meteorological factors than male outpatients.

  4. An association between air pollution and daily outpatient visits for respiratory disease in a heavy industry area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Ying Wang

    Full Text Available In this work we used daily outpatient data from the Landseed Hospital in a heavily industrial area in northern Taiwan to study the associations between daily outpatient visits and air pollution in the context of a heavily polluted atmospheric environment in Chung-Li area during the period 2007-2011. We test the normality of each data set, control for the confounding factors, and calculate correlation coefficient between the outpatient visits and air pollution and meteorology, and use multiple linear regression analysis to seek significance of these associations. Our results show that temperature and relative humidity tend to be negatively associated with respiratory diseases. NO and [Formula: see text] are two main air pollutants that are positively associated with respiratory diseases, followed by [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], CO, and [Formula: see text]. Young outpatients (age 0-15 years are most sensitive to changing air pollution and meteorology factors, followed by the eldest (age [Formula: see text]66 years and age 16-65 years of outpatients. Outpatients for COPD diseases are most sensitive to air pollution and meteorology factors, followed by allergic rhinitis, asthma, and pneumonia diseases. In the context of sex difference to air pollution and meteorological factors, male outpatients are more sensitive than female outpatients in the 16-65 age groups, while female outpatients are more sensitive than male outpatients in the young 0-15 age groups and in the eldest age groups. In total, female outpatients are more sensitive to air pollution and meteorological factors than male outpatients.

  5. Industrial pollutions is an environmental issue of Karachi urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokhio, M.H.; Abro, M.I.; Essani, A.

    2005-01-01

    The Industrial pollution is one of the serious Environmental issues of the Karachi urban area, categorized as air pollution and water pollution. The localization more the 6000 industries in Karachi urban area at four different sites of Sindh industrial trading estate, Landhi industrial trading estate, Korangi industrial area west Warf industrials, Port Qasim industrial. Area and Hub industrial are near Karachi city. The major iron and steel industries includes Pakistan steel mills and its allied industries at Bin Qasim more than 100 re-rolling industries are located at site area. Karachi ship yard engineering works, Peoples steel Mill, automobile industries and various manufacturing industries which requires metal and its alloy in manufacturing of product mostly located at Bin Qasim, Korangi, and Shershah site areas. None of the industrial sector contain the waster treatment or recycling plant. The ill planted growth of Karachi and its industries caused the environmental degradation of the city and its coastal areas complete with massive mangrove destruction, air water, fishing, and agriculture possessing a potential threat to the lives of more than 10 million citizens. The environmental issues of the metal related industries include the scrap, waste and pollution. Scrapes am waste of the metal industries can be reused in other manufacturing of engineering materials or recycled to produce the new material. However the pollution is the one of the major environmental issue related with the metal industries which need the considerable research and development work in order to over come the serve environmental issues of the urban areas. This article reviews and identifies the level of industrial pollution emphasized on metal related industries of the Karachi urban areas. (author)

  6. Nuclear methods used to compare air pollution in a city and a pollution-free area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shani, G.; Haccoun, A.

    1976-01-01

    A comparison study was made between city pollution and open-area pollution in order to be able to distinguish between air pollution whose source is urban activity (i.e. industry, transportation, etc.) and that in an area free of man's activities. The comparison was made between Beersheba, a city in the south of Isreal, and a spot in the desert, 40 km south of the city. The meteorological conditions at the two places are the same, and it is reasonable to assume that the background pollution (the dust that covers the area), is the same in both places. Neutron activation analysis was used for pollution detection; it is clear that certain elements cannot be detected by this means, though they may be known to exist in the air; hence, certain trace elements of the dust could be detected, but not, for example, the major components such as Ca and Si. The results are classified as typical urban pollutants and non-urban pollutants. Weather condition dependence was also investigated. The major source of urban pollution in Beersheba is bromine, which exists in the air in large quantities. The other urban pollutants are Zn, Cr, and Sb; these elements are found mainly in the city, in smaller quantities than bromine. The concentration of these elements is greatly reduced at night due to cessation of work in industry and reduced vehicular movement. The effect of weather and a seasonal dependence are clearly indicated (e.g. when the wind velocity increases and its direction is from the east, pollution in Beersheba rises). At the end of the winter the air is clearer than at the end of the summer. (author)

  7. [Effects of heavy metals pollution on soil microbial communities metabolism and soil enzyme activities in coal mining area of Tongchuan, Shaanxi Province of Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xing-Liang; Gu, Jie; Chen, Zhi-Xue; Gao, Hua; Qin, Qing-Jun; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Wei-Juan

    2012-03-01

    This paper studied the metabolism of soil microbes, functions of soil microbial communities, and activities of soil enzymes in a coal mining area of Tongchuan. In the coal mining area, the concentrations of soil Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb were significantly higher than those in the non-mining area, of which, Cd contributed most to the heavy metals pollution. By adopting Biolog method combining with principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis, it was found that the metabolic characteristics of different soil microbial communities varied significantly with increasing soil heavy metals pollution, and the variation was mainly manifested in the metabolic patterns of carbon sources such as saccharides and amino acids. In slightly and moderately polluted soils, the utilization of carbon sources by soil microbial communities was activated; while in heavily polluted soils, the carbon sources utilization was inhibited. The activities of soil urease, protease, alkaline phosphatase, and catalase all tended to decline with intensifying soil heavy metals pollution. The soil urease, protease, alkaline phosphatase, and catalase activities in the coal mining area were 50.5%-65.1%, 19.1%-57.1%, 87.2%-97.5%, and 77.3%-86.0% higher than those in the non-mining area, respectively. The activities of soil sucrase and cellulase were activated in slightly and moderately polluted soils, but inhibited in heavily polluted soils.

  8. Modelling of particulate matter pollution (PM10) over the Etang de Berre area Determination of areas of homogeneous pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocheton, F.; Poulet, D.; Mesbah, B.; Hourdin, G.

    2010-01-01

    AIRFOBEP is the association in charge of the air quality monitoring in the Etang de Berre area. AIRFOBEP is managing a network of ten sensors to monitor the PMI (particulate matter index) particulate pollution. This network is updated once a year according to the Air Quality Monitoring Plan (PSQA). Optimizing this network needs to know how the particulate pollution is distributed in the area. In other words, to determine the limits of homogeneous zones of PM 10 pollution. The aim of the project presented in this article is to produce a map of homogeneous zones of PM 10 pollution in the Etang de Berre area. The project was carried out in two steps: - PM 10 atmospheric dispersion modeling, using a ADMS-URBAN software, - Statistic classification, based on the well known Hierarchical Ascending Classification (HAC) technique. Results of the atmospheric dispersion modeling was namely adjusted using an original technique for the 'background PM 10 pollution' computation. Good performances have been obtained when comparing modeling and measurements data. Finally, a set of five homogeneous zones was found to well describe the PM 10 pollution level distribution in the Etang de Berre area. (author)

  9. The response of macroinvertebrate community taxa and functional groups to pollution along a heavily impacted river in Central Europe (Bilina River, Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Orendt, C.; Wolfram, G.; Adámek, Zdeněk; Jurajda, Pavel; Schmitt-Jansen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 1 (2012), s. 180-199 ISSN 0006-3088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : community analysis * functional community * taxonomic community * multiple pollution * multi-stress * macroinvertebrates * Central Europe * lower mountain river * EU-WFD Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.506, year: 2012

  10. Isotopic Recorders of Pollution in Heterogeneous Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataki, D. E.; Cobley, L.; Smith, R. M.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Chritz, K.

    2017-12-01

    A significant difficulty in quantifying urban pollution lies in the extreme spatial and temporal heterogeneity of cities. Dense sources of both point and non-point source pollution as well as the dynamic role of human activities, which vary over very short time scales and small spatial scales, complicate efforts to establish long-term urban monitoring networks that are relevant at neighborhood, municipal, and regional scales. Fortunately, the natural abundance of isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, and other elements provides a wealth of information about the sources and fate of urban atmospheric pollution. In particular, soils and plant material integrate pollution sources and cycling over space and time, and have the potential to provide long-term records of pollution dynamics that extend back before atmospheric monitoring data are available. Similarly, sampling organic material at high spatial resolution can provide "isoscapes" that shed light on the spatial heterogeneity of pollutants in different urban parcels and neighborhoods, along roads of varying traffic density, and across neighborhoods of varying affluence and sociodemographic composition. We have compiled numerous datasets of the isotopic composition of urban organic matter that illustrate the potential for isotopic monitoring of urban areas as a means of understanding hot spots and hot moments in urban atmospheric biogeochemistry. Findings to date already reveal the critical role of affluence, economic activity, demographic change, and land management practices in influencing urban pollution sources and sinks, and suggest an important role of stable isotope and radioisotope measurements in urban atmospheric and biogeochemical monitoring.

  11. Pollution exposure on marine protected areas: A global assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partelow, Stefan; von Wehrden, Henrik; Horn, Olga

    2015-11-15

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) face many challenges in their aim to effectively conserve marine ecosystems. In this study we analyze the extent of pollution exposure on the global fleet of MPAs. This includes indicators for current and future pollution and the implications for regionally clustered groups of MPAs with similar biophysical characteristics. To cluster MPAs into characteristic signature groups, their bathymetry, baseline biodiversity, distance from shore, mean sea surface temperature and mean sea surface salinity were used. We assess the extent at which each signature group is facing exposure from multiple pollution types. MPA groups experience similar pollution exposure on a regional level. We highlight how the challenges that MPAs face can be addressed through governance at the appropriate scale and design considerations for integrated terrestrial and marine management approaches within regional level networks. Furthermore, we present diagnostic social-ecological indicators for addressing the challenges facing unsuccessful MPAs with practical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Distribution and pollution assessment of heavy metals in soil of relocation areas from the Danjiangkou Reservoir].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Qin, Yan-Wen; Zheng, Bing-Hui; Shi, Yao; Han, Chao-Nan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explore the pollution level and potential ecological risk of heavy metals in soil of the relocation areas from the Danjiangkou Reservoir. The contents and spatial distribution of Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr and As in soil of the relocation areas from the Danjiangkou Reservoir were analyzed. The integrated pollution index and potential ecological risk index were used to evaluate the contamination degree and potential ecological risk of these elements. The results indicated that the average contents of Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr and As in the samples were 0.61, 23.11, 58.25, 22.65, 58.99 and 16.95 mg x kg(-1), respectively. Compared with the background value of soils from Henan province, all these 6 elements except Zn were enriched to some extent, especially Cd. Similar patterns were observed for the spatial distribution of Cu, Zn, and Pb. Compared with the contents of heavy metals in surface sediments of the typical domestic reservoirs, Cd and As in soil of the relocation areas from the Danjiangkou Reservoir were heavily accumulated. The correlation analysis showed that there were significant positive correlations among Pb, Cu, and Zn. And there was also significant positive correlation between Cr and Pb. In contrast, negative correlation was found between Cr and As. To sum up, the comprehensive assessment results showed that Cd was the primary element with high ecological risk.

  13. Chemical composition and source apportionment of PM2.5 during Chinese Spring Festival at Xinxiang, a heavily polluted city in North China: Fireworks and health risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jinglan; Yu, Hao; Su, Xianfa; Liu, Shuhui; Li, Yi; Pan, Yuepeng; Sun, Jian-Hui

    2016-12-01

    Twenty-four PM2.5 samples were collected at a suburban site of Xinxiang during Chinese Spring Festival (SF) in 2015. 10 water-soluble ions, 19 trace elements and 8 fractions of carbonaceous species in PM2.5 were analyzed. Potential sources of PM2.5 were quantitatively apportioned using principal component analysis (PCA)-multivariate linear regressions (MLR). The threat of heavy metals in PM2.5 was assessed using incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR). During the whole period, serious regional haze pollution persisted, the average concentration of PM2.5 was 111 ± 54 μg m- 3, with 95.8% and 79.2% of the daily samples exhibiting higher PM2.5 concentrations than the national air quality standard I and II. Chemical species declined due to holiday effect with the exception of K, Fe, Mg, Al and K+, Cl-, which increased on Chinese New Year (CNY)'s Eve and Lantern Festival in 2015, indicating the injection of firework burning particles in certain short period. PM2.5 mass closure showed that secondary inorganic species were the dominant fractions of PM2.5 over the entire sampling (37.3%). 72-hour backward trajectory clusters indicated that most serious air pollution occurred when air masses transported from the Inner Mongolia, Shanxi and Zhengzhou. Health risk assessment revealed that noncancerous effects of heavy metals in PM2.5 of Xinxiang were unlikely happened, while lifetime cancer risks of heavy metals obviously exceeded the threshold, which might have a cancer risk for residents in Xinxiang. This study provided detailed composition data and first comprehensive analysis of PM2.5 during the Spring Festival period in Xinxiang.

  14. Lidar system for air-pollution monitoring over urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalenko, Irina V.; Shcheglov, Djolinard A.; Molodtsov, Nikolai A.

    1997-05-01

    The atmospheric environmental situation over the urban area of a large city is determined by a complex combination of anthropogenic pollution and meteorological factors. The efficient way to provide three-dimensional mapping of gaseous pollutants over wide areas is utilization of lidar systems employing tunable narrowband transmitters. The paper presented describes activity of RRC 'Kurchatov Institute' in the field of lidar atmospheric monitoring. The project 'mobile remote sensing system based on tunable laser transmitter for environmental monitoring' is developed under financial support of International Scientific and Technology Center (Moscow). The objective of the project is design, construction and field testing of a DIAL-technique system. The lidar transmitter consists of an excimer laser pumping dye laser, BBO crystal frequency doubler, and scanning flat mirror. Sulfur dioxide and atomic mercury have been selected as pollutants for field tests of the lidar system under development. A recent large increase in Moscow traffic stimulated taking into consideration also the remote sensing of lower troposphere ozone because of the photochemical smog problem. The status of the project is briefly discussed. The current activity includes also collecting of environmental data relevant to lidar remote sensing. Main attention is paid to pollutant concentration levels over Moscow city and Moscow district areas.

  15. [Assessment of Soil Fluorine Pollution in Jinhua Fluorite Ore Areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qun-feng; Zhou, Xiao-ling

    2015-07-01

    The contents of. soil total fluorine (TF) and water-soluble fluorine (WF) were measured in fluorite ore areas located in Jinhua City. The single factor index, geoaccumulation index and health risk assessment were used to evaluate fluorine pollution in soil in four fluorite ore areas and one non-ore area, respectively. The results showed that the TF contents in soils were 28. 36-56 052. 39 mg.kg-1 with an arithmetic mean value of 8 325.90 mg.kg-1, a geometric mean of 1 555. 94 mg.kg-1, and a median of 812. 98 mg.kg-1. The variation coefficient of TF was 172. 07% . The soil WF contents ranged from 0. 83 to 74. 63 mg.kg-1 with an arithmetic mean value of 16. 94 mg.kg-1, a geometric mean of 10. 59 mg.kg-1, and a median of 10. 17 mg.kg-1. The variation coefficient of WF was 100. 10%. The soil TF and WF contents were far higher than the national average level of the local fluorine epidemic occurrence area. The fluoride pollution in soil was significantly affected by human factors. Soil fluorine pollution in Yangjia, Lengshuikeng and Huajie fluorite ore areas was the most serious, followed by Daren fluorite ore area, and in non-ore area there was almost no fluorine pollution. Oral ingestion of soils was the main exposure route. Sensitivity analysis of model parameters showed that children's weight exerted the largest influence over hazard quotient. Furthermore, a significant positive correlation was found among the three kinds of evaluation methods.

  16. Particulate matter pollution over a Mediterranean urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pateraki, St; Assimakopoulos, V D; Maggos, Th; Fameli, K M; Kotroni, V; Vasilakos, Ch

    2013-10-01

    The main purpose of this study is to investigate the aerosols' (PM10, PM2.5, and PM1) spatial and temporal distribution in different types of environment in a Mediterranean urban region, the Greater Athens Area based on data from a sampling campaign that took place during the cold and warm period of 2008. The influence of the atmospheric circulation patterns, the possible local transport mechanisms, as well as the differentiation of the PM behaviour from that of the inorganic pollutants (NOx, O3), are analysed and discussed. Furthermore, the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (CAMx) was applied for selected sampling dates and its results were evaluated against measurements in order to interpret qualitatively the configured picture of the air pollution above the GAA. Analysis of the measurement data show that local sources such as traffic and industry dominate over the prevailing PM loads, especially at the 'hot spot' areas. Moreover, the synoptic circulation patterns associated with calm conditions and southerly flows lead to high particulate pollution levels that also affect the urban background stations. Saharan dust outbreaks appeared to increase the particles' diameter as well as the number of E.U. limit value exceedances within the stations of our network. Without any dependence on the characteristics of the investigated atmosphere, PM1 always constituted the greatest part of the PM2.5 mass while PM10, especially during the Saharan dust episodes, was mainly constituted by the coarse fraction. The numerical modelling approach of the geographical distribution of PM10, PM2.5, NOx and O3 justified the design of the sampling campaign, indicating the need for the systematic and parallel monitoring and modelling of the pollutants' dispersion in order to understand the particulate pollution problem in the GAA and to aid to the formulation of pollution control strategies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Study of the fumigation effect on pollutants over Inshas area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, F.S.; Ramadan, Abou Bakr. A.; Abdel El-Aal, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    This work aims to investigate the effect of morning fumigation event on the ground level pollutants concentration at inshas area. Monitoring stations for mesuring the hourly continues concetration of some pollutants such sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and ozone were placed near the hot lab in nuclear research center for one complete year, At the same time the hourly averages meteorological parameters were measured continuously at different levels. A fortran computer program was developed to determine the relative relative concentration Assuming accident case in two cases, nonfumigation and morning fumigation. The processing and interpretation of the meteorological data and pollutants concentration revealed that these high pollution events occur almost on daily bassis, usually several hours between sunrise and before afternoon. The maximum fumigation peaks occur earlier in the summer than other seasons owing to theearlier sunrise in addition, ozone concentrations appear to reach their maximum a few hours after intense fumigation events. Maximum hourly concentrations of sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide and ozone don't exceed threshold values that are considered to be phytotoxic. As sunset pollutant concentration is decrease due to lofting condition

  18. Air pollution in urban area of Foligno (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peirone, E.; Gubbini, P.; Peppoloni, A.; Pompei, M.; Segoni, M.

    1998-01-01

    This work shows the air pollution levels, based on air's quality laws, detected around the urban area of the city of Foligno (Perugia-Italy)). The preliminary study done, has shown a general result of a good quality of the air, even if there were some excesses of the Attention Levels, during situations not alarming, as these situations occurred in particular conditions, characterized by intense traffic and unfavorable meteorological conditions [it

  19. Atmospheric dispersion of pollutants in an industrial area of Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz Monte de Oca, Feliberto de la; Furet Bridon, Norma Raisa; Turtos Carbonell, Leonor; Lorente Vera, Mercedes

    2011-01-01

    Air pollution by different chemicals; take a great connotation in the world, given the adverse effects on ecosystems and particularly human health. The urban development, the modification of the land surface and the climate change, phenomena derived from a world population explosion, are altering the composition of the air. The atmosphere deposits pollutants in the water courses and in land, which harms not only the persons, but also to the animals and the plants of the ecosystem. To know as these pollutants are dispersed in the atmosphere it is very important in the establishment of better urban, regional and world predictions of the air quality. The present study aims to assess the local spread of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter from an industrial zone. The study was done using the pollutant Gaussian Dispersion Models AERMOD. For the evaluation of contaminants were considered two modeling scenarios: urban and rural. The SO 2 concentrations (μg/m 3 ) were obtained for 1 h, 24 h and all period (1 year), exceeding the permissible limits (500, 50 y 20 μg/m 3 ). It was also recorded for each period the number of times SO 2 concentrations exceeded the reference values in each of the scenarios discussed (urban: 39, 61 y 39; rural: 99, 75 y 25). At the end of modeling in the urban setting, 39 recipients exceeded the reference value, occupying an area of 9.75 km 2 and 25 receivers in the case of the rural setting, for an area of 6.25 km 2 . For NOx and particulate matter concentrations estimated values were always below the reference values. The obtained results in this case show the potentiality of AERMOD system for the evaluation of atmospheric dispersion of pollutants

  20. Remediation of grey forest soils heavily polluted with heavy metals by means of their leaching at acidic pH followed by the soil reclamation by means of neutralization and bacterial manure addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Plamen; Groudev, Stoyan; Spasova, Irena; Nicolova, Marina

    2014-05-01

    Some grey forest soils in Western Bulgaria are heavily polluted with heavy metals (copper, lead, and zinc), arsenic, and uranium due to the infiltration of acid mine drainage generated at the abandoned uranium mine Curilo. This paper presents some results from a study about soil remediation based on the contaminants leaching from the topsoil by means of irrigation with solutions containing sulphuric acid or its in situ generation by means of sulphur-oxidizing chemolithotrophic bacteria in or without the presence of finely cut straw. These methods were tested in large scale zero suction lysimeters. The approaches based on S° and finely cut straw addition was the most efficient amongst the tested methods and for seven months of soil remediation the concentration of all soil contaminants were decreased below the relevant Maximum Admissible Concentration (MAC). Neutralization of the soil acidity was applied as a next stage of soil reclamation by adding CaCO3 and cow manure. As a result, soil pH increased from strongly acidic (2.36) to slightly acidic (6.15) which allowed subsequent addition of humic acids and bacterial manure to the topsoil. The soil habitat changed in this way facilitated the growth of microorganisms which restored the biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen and carbon to the levels typical for non-polluted grey forest soil.

  1. Groundwater pollution by nitrates in irrigated areas with drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandio, B.M.; Azam, M.; Abdullah, M.

    2001-01-01

    Field studies were conducted at three selected sites in irrigated areas of Pakistan to assess magnitude and severity of groundwater pollution by nitrates. The results of these studies indicate that concentration of nitrates in most of the samples collected from irrigated areas having drainage facility is much lower than threshold limit. The nitrate-nitrogen level within drainage projects ranges from 0.01-9.00 mg/l and in the area without drainage system ranges from 10.1-12.5 mg/l. The mineral fertilizers though are making contribution of NO3-N to the groundwater sources but that is much lower than threshold limits. The presence of septic tanks or farmyard manure dumps is also significant contributors of NO3-N to the groundwater. Thus drinking water sources near these polluting points are probable danger to human health. It is, therefore, concluded that still there is a lot of potential for fertilizer use in the agriculture but proper drainage facilities should be provided to minimize the potential threat of NO/sub 3/ pollution. (author)

  2. Seasonal Variations in Health Hazards from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Bound to Submicrometer Particles at Three Characteristic Sites in the Heavily Polluted Polish Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Kozielska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Suspended particles with aerodynamic diameters not greater than 1 μm (PM1 were sampled at the urban background; regional background; and urban traffic points in southern Poland. In total, 120 samples were collected between 2 August 2009 and 27 December 2010. Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were determined in each sample. The samples were collected with a high volume sampler (Digitel. Afterwards, they were chemically analyzed with a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector (Perkin Elmer Clarus 500. The mean concentration values of the PAH sum (ΣPAH and particular PAHs; the percentages of carcinogenic PAHs in total PAHs (ΣPAHcarc/ΣPAH; carcinogenic equivalent (CEQ; mutagenic equivalent (MEQ; and TCDD-toxic equivalent (TEQ were much higher in the winter (heating season than in the summer (non-heating one. For both periods, the resulting average values obtained were significantly higher (a few; and sometimes a several dozen times higher in the researched Polish region than the values observed in other areas of the world. Such results indicate the importance of health hazards resulting from PM1 and PM1-bound PAHs in this Polish area.

  3. Concentration Levels, Pollution Characteristics and Potential Ecological Risk of Dust Heavy Metals in the Metropolitan Area of Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qiulin; Zhao, Wenji; Zhao, Jiayin; Zhao, Wenhui; Jiang, Lei

    2017-09-30

    This study aims to investigate the concentration levels, pollution characteristics and the associated potential ecological risks of the heavy metals found in dust in the metropolitan area of Beijing, China during the winter. Dust samples were collected at 49 different spatial locations of Beijing's metropolitan area from November 2013 to January 2014, in which the concentration levels of Cd, Cr, Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, V, Bi and Mo were measured by Elan DRC II type inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Test results showed that the concentrations of dust heavy metals Pb, Cr, Cu and Zn in the urban areas (147.1 mg·kg -1 , 195.9 mg·kg -1 , 239.2 mg·kg -1 and 713.2 mg·kg -1 ) were significantly higher than those in the suburbs (91.6 mg·kg -1 , 125.1 mg·kg -1 , 131.9 mg·kg -1 and 514.5 mg·kg -1 ). Enrichment factors and the geo-accumulation index were used to describe the pollution characteristics of dust heavy metals in urban and suburban areas. Results indicated that Zn and Cu were moderately polluting in both urban and suburban areas, Cd was severely polluting in urban areas and heavily polluting in the suburbs. Furthermore, potential ecological risk assessment revealed that the degrees of ecological harm of dust heavy metals were very strong in both urban and suburban areas, but especially in urban areas. The potential ecological risk of heavy metal Cd, whose single factor of ecological damage was extremely strong, accounted for about 90% of the total ecological risk.

  4. Identifying environmentally sensitive areas under the Oil Pollution Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lively-Diebold, B.; Pease, A.L.; Watson, S.N.; Wasel, P.A.

    1993-01-01

    Section 4202(a)(6) of the Oil Pollution Act (OPA) requires the President to issue regulations that require owners or operators of tank vessels, offshore facilities, and certain onshore facilities that could impact environmentally sensitive areas, drinking water intakes, and other economically sensitive areas to prepare and submit plans for responding to a worst case discharge of oil and to a substantial threat of such a discharge. The authority to implement the response plan regulations has been delegated to various agencies, including the US Environmental Protection Agency and the US Department of Transportation. In addition, Area Committees designated under the OPA are responsible for assuring preplanning of response efforts, including procedures for protecting environmentally sensitive areas, and protection, rescue and rehabilitation of fisheries and wildlife. Area Contingency Plans for each of the designated areas will describe the areas of special economic and environmental importance that might be damaged by discharges. This paper will discuss and compare the identification of environmentally sensitive areas and vulnerability analyses required as elements of response plans for agencies implementing regulations under the OPA authority. This paper will also describe the progress of the Area Committees with respect to contingency planning development for protection of environmentally sensitive areas

  5. Noise pollution is pervasive in U.S. protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Rachel T; McKenna, Megan F; Mennitt, Daniel; Fristrup, Kurt; Crooks, Kevin; Angeloni, Lisa; Wittemyer, George

    2017-05-05

    Anthropogenic noise threatens ecological systems, including the cultural and biodiversity resources in protected areas. Using continental-scale sound models, we found that anthropogenic noise doubled background sound levels in 63% of U.S. protected area units and caused a 10-fold or greater increase in 21%, surpassing levels known to interfere with human visitor experience and disrupt wildlife behavior, fitness, and community composition. Elevated noise was also found in critical habitats of endangered species, with 14% experiencing a 10-fold increase in sound levels. However, protected areas with more stringent regulations had less anthropogenic noise. Our analysis indicates that noise pollution in protected areas is closely linked with transportation, development, and extractive land use, providing insight into where mitigation efforts can be most effective. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  6. MODELING OF OIL POLLUTION OF ARTIC SEA COASTAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the elastic filtration oil drive of oil in a layer based on the estimation of risks of environmental oil pollution because of accidental releases. The model of oil spillage and resorption by the precoat is based on continuity equation and Darcy rule as well as on equations of state taking into account fluid compressibility due to pressure. Filtering area is a line between the precoat and air. Oil filtering area is limited by soil surface below and by free surface above, its equation is known beforehand and is to be defined. The case of soil pollution from the point source, which is the point of fracture of pipeline or borehole, is considered. Upper and approximate estimates of the oil pollution radius due to different types of underlying terrains and to oil characteristics as well as to environmental conditions. The dynamics of oil free sur- face depending on spillage radii is calculated and presented. The estimates of temporary duration of oil filtering by the pre- coat in terms of light ends and soil type are made. The thickness of the oil film and the square of the spill upon condition of constant speed of oil spillage, horizontal position of underlying terrain and the proximity of pressure to normal are deter- mined. For the numerical implementation of the model different cases of oil spillage were considered. Under given values of air temperature, soil porosity and filtration speed the pollution radii according to light end, the time from the moment of accident till the leakage suppression and the speed of oil spillage was calculated.

  7. Intrinsic bioremediation potential of a chronically polluted marine coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, Valentina; Santisi, Santina; Signa, Geraldina; Vizzini, Salvatrice; Mazzola, Antonio; Cappello, Simone; Yakimov, Michail M; Quatrini, Paola

    2015-10-15

    A microbiological survey of the Priolo Bay (eastern coast of Sicily, Ionian Sea), a chronically polluted marine coastal area, was carried out in order to discern its intrinsic bioremediation potential. Microbiological analysis, 16S rDNA-based DGGE fingerprinting and PLFAs analysis were performed on seawater and sediment samples from six stations on two transects. Higher diversity and variability among stations was detected by DGGE in sediment than in water samples although seawater revealed higher diversity of culturable hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria. The most polluted sediment hosted higher total bacterial diversity and higher abundance and diversity of culturable HC degraders. Alkane- and PAH-degrading bacteria were isolated from all stations and assigned to Alcanivorax, Marinobacter, Thalassospira, Alteromonas and Oleibacter (first isolation from the Mediterranean area). High total microbial diversity associated to a large selection of HC degraders is believed to contribute to natural attenuation of the area, provided that new contaminant contributions are avoided. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pollution Of Insecticide Residues In PPTN Pasar Jumat Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syahrir, Ulfa T.; Chairul, Sofnie M.

    2000-01-01

    Measurement of insecticide residue pollution from some organochlorin and organo-phosphat in soil and water samples were carried out 1999-2000 periode. The aim of the measurement was to get information about impact of laboratorium activity on insecticide contents in PPTN PASAR JUMAT. Gas chromatograph with electron capture and flame ionization detector were used to measure the pesticide content. Result of the measurement in PPTN area showed that organo-chlorin were alpha BHC, endosulfan band DDT and organo-phosphat were klorphyriphos and malation and were lower than tolerance level

  9. Endogenous enforcement and effectiveness of China's pollution levy system

    OpenAIRE

    Hua Wang; Wheeler, David

    2000-01-01

    The authors investigate two aspects of China's pollution levy system, which was first implemented about 20 years ago. First, they analyze what determines differences in enforcement of the pollution levy in various urban areas. They find that collection of the otherwise uniform pollution levy is sensitive to differences in economic development and environmental quality. Air and water pollution levies are higher in areas that are heavily polluted. Second, they analyze the impact of pollution ch...

  10. Benthic foraminifera (Protista) as indicators of metal pollution in areas of historic mining: examples from southwest England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Malcolm; Smart, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    Southwest England has been, from Roman times, an important mining area supplying a range of important metals, including copper, tin, tungsten, arsenic, zinc, silver, etc. This mining activity virtually disappeared in the twentieth century, although one tungsten mine near Plymouth has recently re-opened. Large areas of Cornwall and West Devon are now inscribed as the 'Cornish Mining World Heritage Site' on the cultural list of UNESCO. Many of the old mines with their spoil heaps and tailings dams are now protected and, together with the mineral-rich local geology, provide many catchments with on-going metal pollution. In January 1992, after a period of prolonged, heavy rainfall Wheal Jane mine flooded and discharged heavily polluted, acidic, water into Restonguet Creek and the Fal Estuary. This event provided the setting for a detailed investigation of the immediate impact of the pollution and the resulting environmental improvements caused by engineering interventions and natural re-adjustment. Benthic foraminifera disappeared from Restronguet Creek for a number of years and while there is now an abundant, though low diversity, estuarine assemblage of foraminifera living in the creek there are still high levels (pollution can be used to compare with the test deformity data. In other estuarine systems in southwest England, such as the River Fowey and the River Tamar, levels of deformity are less, though still significant for areas no longer being actively mined. This demonstrates that polluted sediments in all these estuaries, which can be disturbed during floods or times of stormy weather, and the background levels of metal elements in the catchments that supply these estuaries, are sufficient to maintain these levels of deformity in the long term. OLUGBODE, O.I., HART, M.B. & STUBBLES, S.J. 2005. Foraminifera from Restronguet Creek: monitoring recovery from the Wheal Jane pollution incident. Geoscience in south-west England, 11, 82-92.

  11. An advanced open path atmospheric pollution monitor for large areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, L.; Suhre, D.; Mani, S. [and others

    1996-12-31

    Over 100 million gallons of radioactive and toxic waste materials generated in weapon materials production are stored in 322 tanks buried within large areas at DOE sites. Toxic vapors occur in the tank headspace due to the solvents used and chemical reactions within the tanks. To prevent flammable or explosive concentration of volatile vapors, the headspace are vented, either manually or automatically, to the atmosphere when the headspace pressure exceeds preset values. Furthermore, 67 of the 177 tanks at the DOE Hanford Site are suspected or are known to be leaking into the ground. These underground storage tanks are grouped into tank farms which contain closely spaced tanks in areas as large as 1 km{sup 2}. The objective of this program is to protect DOE personnel and the public by monitoring the air above these tank farms for toxic air pollutants without the monitor entering the tanks farms, which can be radioactive. A secondary objective is to protect personnel by monitoring the air above buried 50 gallon drums containing moderately low radioactive materials but which could also emit toxic air pollutants.

  12. Urban Air Pollution Climates Throughout the World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Ole; Goodsite, Michael Evan

    2009-01-01

    The extent of the urban area, the local emission density, and the temporal pattern in the releases govern the local contribution to air pollution levels in urban environments. However, meteorological conditions also heavily affect the actual pollution levels as they govern the dispersion conditio...... population and provide the right basis for future urban air pollution management....

  13. [Physical process based risk assessment of groundwater pollution in the mining area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fa-Sheng; Cheng, Pin; Zhang, Bo

    2014-04-01

    Case studies of groundwater pollution risk assessment at home and abroad generally start from groundwater vulnerability, without considering the influence of characteristic pollutants on the consequences of pollution too much. Vulnerability is the natural sensitivity of the environment to pollutants. Risk assessment of groundwater pollution should reflect the movement and distribution of pollutants in groundwater. In order to improve the risk assessment theory and method of groundwater pollution, a physical process based risk assessment methodology for groundwater pollution was proposed in a mining area. According to the sensitivity of the economic and social conditions and the possible distribution of pollutants in the future, the spatial distribution of risk levels in aquifer was ranged before hand, and the pollutant source intensity corresponding to each risk level was deduced accordingly. By taking it as the criterion for the classification of groundwater pollution risk assessment, the groundwater pollution risk in the mining area was evaluated by simulating the migration of pollutants in the vadose zone and aquifer. The result show that the risk assessment method of groundwater pollution based on physical process can give the concentration distribution of pollutants and the risk level in the spatial and temporal. For single punctuate polluted area, it gives detailed risk characterization, which is better than the risk assessment method that based on aquifer intrinsic vulnerability index, and it is applicable to the risk assessment of existing polluted sites, optimizing the future sites and providing design parameters for the site construction.

  14. Ecotoxicological evaluation of areas polluted by mining activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Lorenzo, M. L.; Martínez-Sánchez, M. J.; Pérez-Sirvent, C.; Molina, J.

    2009-04-01

    Determination of the contaminant content is not enough to evaluate the toxic effects or to characterise contaminated sites, because such a measure does not reflect the ecotoxicological danger in the environment and does not provide information on the effects of the chemical compounds. To estimate the risk of contaminants, chemical methods need to be complemented with biological methods. Therefore, ecotoxicological testing may be a useful approach for assessing the toxicity as a complement to chemical analysis. The aim of this study was to develop a battery of bioassays for the ecotoxicological screening of areas polluted by mining activities. Particularly, the toxicity of water samples, sediments and their pore-water extracts was evaluated by using three assays: bacteria, plants and ostracods. Moreover, the possible relationship between observed toxicity and results of chemical analysis was studied. The studied area, Sierra Minera, is close to the mining region of La Uni

  15. ASSESSMENT OF GROUND WATER POLLUTION IN PARKING AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Piekutin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Creation of rain sewer is connected with dehydration of roads and coexisting objects. The paper presents a discussion upon the issue of groundwater contamination by petroleum compounds and other pollutants from transport based on studies of groundwater within the parking lots. The study included 9 parking areas, including 7 in Bialystok, 1 in a residential area outside of Bialystok in Ignatki, and one in Kleosin. The tested waters were subject to determination of COD, total suspension, and petroleum substances expressed as a mineral oil index. The studies have shown that the concentrations of determined parameters were in most cases proportional to the larger runoffs and concentration of petroleum compounds increased with the increase of suspension. It has been shown that from part of the parking lots, the meteoric water was discharged directly into watercourses and exceeds the permissible limits regulated by the Decree.

  16. Investigation of the Nitrogen Dioxide Pollution in Urban Areas using a New Portable ICAD Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horbanski, Martin; Pöhler, Denis; Adler, Tim; Lampel, Johannes; Kanatschnig, Florian; Oesterle, Tobias; Reh, Miriam; Platt, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    . Also several stationary measurements were performed at selected sites. We found that high NO2 concentrations exceeded pollution limits across extensive areas of the cities. Contrary to expectations we found high NO2 concentrations also away from heavily traveled roads e.g. in residential areas and close to kindergardens and schools and even indoors. Thus, the exposure of the populations to NO2 is much higher than expected, which results in higher health risks, particularly for children and elderly people who are risk groups.

  17. Pollution of soils in urban areas in Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujic, Gordana; Crnkovic, Dragan; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    Soil pollution is a world-wide problems that affect rural and urban areas of all the continents (Hu et al., 2015; Mao et al., 2016; Trujillo-González et al., 2016; Elkhatib et al., 2016; Roy and McDonad, 2015; Mahmoud and Abd El-Kader, 2015; Adamcová et al., 2016). There is a need to develop a program to achieve the sustainability of the soil system as the soils offers goods, services and resources to the humankind (Keesstra et al., 2012; Brevik et al., 2015; Keesstra et al., 2016). The program of systematic monitoring of soil pollution in Belgrade is aimed at testing the concentration of hazardous and harmful substances in soil at urban areas, interpretation of the results in accordance with current legislation, soil characteristics and geology and terrain, proposal of preventive and remedial measures in the wider territory of Belgrade. The paper gives an overview of the results of systematic monitoring of soil pollution in Belgrade in the period from 2009 to 2013. In accordance with the objectives of the investigation during the period from 2009-2013, while having in mind the purpose and manner of land use, the program of monitoring of soil pollution in the territory of Belgrade is oriented to the following areas: 1 - Land in the zone of the sanitary protection of the Belgrade water supply system, 2- Land in zone nearby the main roads, 3 - Land within the communal areas (public areas and agricultural land in the wider vicinity of Belgrade). On the basis of the conducted soil monitoring in the wider area of Belgrade, a large number of sites is contaminated with higher concentrations of hazardous and harmful substances that are exceeding the maximum allowed prescribed legal norms. The causes of soil contamination are both, anthropogenic and natural. Taking into account the all results, the most common deviation is referred to the increased nickel content in soil. A number of soil samples showed increase in concentrations of pollutants including Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, As

  18. Thermal equilibrium concentration of intrinsic point defects in heavily doped silicon crystals - Theoretical study of formation energy and formation entropy in area of influence of dopant atoms-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, K.; Yamaoka, S.; Sueoka, K.; Vanhellemont, J.

    2017-09-01

    It is well known that p-type, neutral and n-type dopants affect the intrinsic point defect (vacancy V and self-interstitial I) behavior in single crystal Si. By the interaction with V and/or I, (1) growing Si crystals become more V- or I-rich, (2) oxygen precipitation is enhanced or retarded, and (3) dopant diffusion is enhanced or retarded, depending on the type and concentration of dopant atoms. Since these interactions affect a wide range of Si properties ranging from as-grown crystal quality to LSI performance, numerical simulations are used to predict and to control the behavior of both dopant atoms and intrinsic point defects. In most cases, the thermal equilibrium concentrations of dopant-point defect pairs are evaluated using the mass action law by taking only the binding energy of closest pair to each other into account. The impacts of dopant atoms on the formation of V and I more distant than 1st neighbor and on the change of formation entropy are usually neglected. In this study, we have evaluated the thermal equilibrium concentrations of intrinsic point defects in heavily doped Si crystals. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to obtain the formation energy (Ef) of the uncharged V and I at all sites in a 64-atom supercell around a substitutional p-type (B, Ga, In, and Tl), neutral (C, Ge, and Sn) and n-type (P, As, and Sb) dopant atom. The formation (vibration) entropies (Sf) of free I, V and I, V at 1st neighboring site from B, C, Sn, P and As atoms were also calculated with the linear response method. The dependences of the thermal equilibrium concentrations of trapped and total intrinsic point defects (sum of free I or V and I or V trapped with dopant atoms) on the concentrations of B, C, Sn, P and As in Si were obtained. Furthermore, the present evaluations well explain the experimental results of the so-called ;Voronkov criterion; in B and C doped Si, and also the observed dopant dependent void sizes in P and As doped Si

  19. Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of heavy metals in street dusts from different functional areas in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xin; Gao, Bo; Wang, Peng; Zhou, Huaidong; Lu, Jin

    2015-02-01

    Street dusts from Heavy Density Traffic Area, Residential Area, Educational Area and Tourism Area in Beijing, China, were collected to study the distribution, accumulation and health risk assessment of heavy metals. Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb concentrations were in higher concentrations in these four locations than in the local soil background. In comparison with the concentrations of selected metals in other cities, the concentrations of heavy metals in Beijing were generally at moderate or low levels. Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb concentrations in the Tourism Area were the highest among four different areas in Beijing. A pollution assessment by Geoaccumulation Index showed that the pollution level for the heavy metals is in the following order: Cd>Pb>Zn>Cu>Cr>Ni. The Cd levels can be considered "heavily contaminated" status. The health risk assessment model that was employed to calculate human exposure indicated that both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks of selected metals in street dusts were generally in the low range, except for the carcinogenic risk from Cr for children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Pollution effects monitoring with foraminifera as indices in the Thana creek, Bombay area

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.

    In the study area, the pollution effect on the foraminiferids is intense, hence highly reliable and measurable. The relative sensitivity of tolerance of the biota is sharply variable and dependent upon the nature of the pollutants discharged...

  1. Effects of air pollution on bryophytes in the area of Hunedoara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peicea, I M

    1973-01-01

    The effects of atmospheric pollution with SO/sub 2/, on bryophyte populations, in the area of the Industrial Complex Hunedoara were investigated. By the comparative analyses of some bryo-ecological indicators for the vegetation of polluted and unpolluted areas, evidence is presented of the increasing effects of a polluted environment in the vicinity of the pollution source. A classification is included of the territory in five areas, according to the degree of pollution. A classification of bryophytes is presented according to the degree of their sensitivity: very resistant, toxitolerant, moderately sensitive, and sensitive species.

  2. Health Impacts of Air Pollution around Major Industrial Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed a literature review to investigate how epidemiological studies have been used to assess the health consequences of living in the vicinity of industries. 77 papers on the chronic effects of air pollution around major industrial areas were reviewed. Major health themes were cancers (27 studies, morbidity (25 studies, mortality (7 studies, and birth outcome (7 studies. Only 3 studies investigated mental health. While studies were available from many different countries, a majority of papers came from the United Kingdom, Italy, and Spain. Several studies were motivated by concerns from the population or by previous observations of an overincidence of cases. Geographical ecological designs were largely used for studying cancer and mortality, including statistical designs to quantify a relationship between health indicators and exposure. Morbidity was frequently investigated through cross-sectional surveys on the respiratory health of children. Few multicenter studies were performed. In a majority of papers, exposed areas were defined based on the distance to the industry and were located from 20 km from the plants. Improving the exposure assessment would be an asset to future studies. Criteria to include industries in multicenter studies should be defined.

  3. Damage of crops by environmental air pollution in Yokkaichi area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniyama, T; Sawanaka, K

    1972-01-01

    Crop damage from sulfur dioxide was evaluated in the Yokkaichi area in 1971 by measuring dry matter and seed production. The average concentration of SO/sub 2/ per hour was 0.034 ppM from April to November 1971. There were, however, some cases of monthly hourly averages greater than 0.4 ppM. In these situations damages to major crops was largely due to sulfurous and sulfuric acid mists. The damages to major crops included brown and red spots, apical and peripheral chlorosis, yellowing of leaves, belt-like yellowing of sheath, white or black discoloration of rice plants, nonfertilization of rice plants, apical blight and chlorosis of Welsh onion, partial yellowing and general withering of pine trees in summer (and some death), watering and chlorosis of leaves of brassica species, and yellowing and spot formation on Japanese radishes. Also noted was a decrease in tiller number of rice plants (17.4 in polluted vs. 19.4 in unpolluted areas). Some cases were found in which the sulfur content of SO/sub 2/-damaged crops was higher than that of undamaged crops.

  4. Treatment of heavily contaminated storm water from an industrial site area by filtration through an adsorbent barrier with pine bark (Pinus Silvestris), polonite and active carbon in a comparison study

    OpenAIRE

    Nehrenheim, Emma; Ribé, Veronica; Carlsson, Peter; Eneroth, Peder; Odlare, Monica

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate a simple and robust filtration method for separation of of heavy metals from storm water. The storm water, collected at a metals manufacturing site, is heavily contaminated with heavy metals, A first analysis of a water sample collected from the site in mid Sweden showed exceptionally high concentrations of especially Zn, which was present in concentrations exceeding 200 mgL-1. The basic idea is to filter the water as it flows out of the industry area through a pas...

  5. RESEARCH AREA -- ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE CONTROL (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division in Research Triangle Park, NC, has conducted several research projects for evaluating the use of artificial intelligence (AI) to improve the control of pollution control systems an...

  6. Environmental pollution in mines and its adjoining area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguly, S.; Mozumdar, T.K.; Mahajan, V.

    1998-01-01

    Atmospheric pollution depends on the type of fuel burnt, the type of industry in the locality, the weather condition and other factors. In coal fields, the chief sources of pollutants are coal and gasoline. There has been no systematic and regular survey to find out the extent of atmospheric pollution in the country. However, some works have been done by different organisations on the basis of spot detection and short-term surveys

  7. 3D electric resistivity tomography (ERT) methodologies applied on selected heavily urbanized areas of the basin of Mexico to detect buried fractures and subsidence problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez Segura, R. E.; Cifuentes-Nava, G.; Tejero, A.; Hernandez, E.

    2012-12-01

    Urban development in modern cities require of a more integral knowledge of the subsurface, mainly on those areas, where human concentrations increase. Mexico City is one of such an example, where it constitutes one of the largest concentrations of human activities in the world. Most of the urban area is underlain by lacustrine sediments of the former lakes, and confined by important volcanic ranges. Such sediments offer poor foundation conditions for constructive purposes. Therefore, high risk areas have to be identified to prevent accidents and disastrous events. Geophysical techniques can be employed to understand the physical characteristics of the subsurface. Two examples are presented in this investigation. A residential complex named La Concordia is located towards the central portion of the basin that consists of six four storey buildings in an area of 33x80 m2. Finally, a block of small houses (50x50 m2) is found to the southern limit of the basin; close to the Chichinautzin range within the town of Tecomitl. Both zones suffer of strong damage in their structures due to fractures and subsidence within the subsoil. Therefore, Electric Resistivity Tomography (ERT) was carried out to characterize the subsoil beneath these urban complexes. A special array ('horse-shoe' geometry) 'L' employing Wenner-Schlumberger techniques, in addition to equatorial-dipole and minimum-coupling arrays were carried out to fully 'illuminate' beneath the constructions. Computed resistivity models for both examples depicted the buried fracture pattern affecting the urban complexes. Such patterns seem to extend beyond the limits of the surveyed areas, and are probably part of a more complex fracture system. It is very likely that fractures have been produced due to the poorly consolidated clays that cover most of the central part of the Valley of Mexico; the intense water extraction, that form 'voids' in the subsoil causing subsidence effects and finally the existence of regional

  8. Congestion, air pollution, and road safety in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shefer, Daniel [Department of Urban and Regional Economics and Transport, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel)

    1993-06-01

    The continuous rapid growth in Vehicle Miles Travelled (VMT), coupled with the rapid increase in traffic congestion on highways of virtually every large urban area, explain a major portion of the observed deterioration of urban air quality. To halt this deterioration process and to secure safe and healthy environments and improve the quality of life in our cities, it is paramount to initiate and implement programs which jointly treat traffic congestion, air quality, and road safety. A host of market-based strategies, driven by price mechanisms, have been proposed as the best and most efficient way to decrease traffic congestion and to reduce vehicle emission. Congestion pricing, emission fees, reducing emissions of high polluting vehicles, and introducing more efficient vehicle and/or fuel technologies are not mutually exclusive strategies and therefore they can, and perhaps should, be employed jointly within an overall strategy. In view of the conflicting objectives which may exist between improving urban air quality and reducing road fatalities and traffic congestion, it is of great importance to thoroughly investigate these functional relationships. The results of such studies will help decision makers identify the `socially optimal level of congestion` which will yield the highest net social benefit. 2 figs., 43 refs.

  9. Traffic-related particulate air pollution exposure in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, C.; Tchepel, O.; Costa, A. M.; Martins, H.; Ferreira, J.; Miranda, A. I.

    In the last years, there has been an increase of scientific studies confirming that long- and short-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) pollution leads to adverse health effects. The development of a methodology for the determination of accumulated human exposure in urban areas is the main objective of the current work, combining information on concentrations at different microenvironments and population time-activity pattern data. A link between a mesoscale meteorological and dispersion model and a local scale air quality model was developed to define the boundary conditions for the local scale application. The time-activity pattern of the population was derived from statistical information for different sub-population groups and linked to digital city maps. Finally, the hourly PM 10 concentrations for indoor and outdoor microenvironments were estimated for the Lisbon city centre, which was chosen as the case-study, based on the local scale air quality model application for a selected period. This methodology is a first approach to estimate population exposure, calculated as the total daily values above the thresholds recommended for long- and short-term health effects. Obtained results reveal that in Lisbon city centre a large number of persons are exposed to PM levels exceeding the legislated limit value.

  10. Evaluation of hazardous metal pollution in irrigation and drinking water systems in the vicinity of a coal mine area of northwestern Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, Mohammad A H; Islam, M A; Dampare, Samuel B; Parvez, Lutfar; Suzuki, Shigeyuki

    2010-07-15

    An integrated approach of pollution evaluation indices, principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) was employed to evaluate the intensity and sources of pollution in irrigation and drinking water systems of northwestern Bangladesh. Temperature, BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD), Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Pb levels in most of the water samples exceed the Bangladesh and international standards. The heavy metal pollution index (HPI) and degree of contamination (C(d)) yield different results despite significant correlations between them. The heavy metal evaluation index (HEI) shows strong correlations with HPI and C(d), and gives a better assessment of pollution levels. Modifications to the existing HPI and C(d) schemes show comparable results with HEI, and indicate that about 55% of the mine drainage/irrigation waters and 50% of the groundwaters are moderately to highly contaminated. The CA, PCA and pollution indices suggest that the mine drainage water (DW) is contaminated by anthropogenic (mining operation and agrogenic) sources, and the proximal parts are more contaminated than the distal part. The groundwater system in the vicinity of the coal mine site is also heavily polluted by anthropogenic sources. The pollution status of irrigation and drinking water systems in the study area are of great environmental and health concerns. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluating the suitability of different environmental samples for tracing atmospheric pollution in industrial areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francová, Anna; Chrastný, Vladislav; Šillerová, Hana; Vítková, Martina; Kocourková, Jana; Komárek, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Samples of lichens, snow and particulate matter (PM 10 , 24 h) are used for the source identification of air pollution in the heavily industrialized region of Ostrava, Upper Silesia, Czech Republic. An integrated approach that uses different environmental samples for metal concentration and Pb isotope analyses was applied. The broad range of isotope ratios in the samples indicates a combination of different pollution sources, the strongest among them being the metallurgical industry, bituminous coal combustion and traffic. Snow samples are proven as the most relevant indicator for tracing metal(loid)s and recent local contamination in the atmosphere. Lichens can be successfully used as tracers of the long-term activity of local and remote sources of contamination. The combination of PM 10 with snow can provide very useful information for evaluation of current pollution sources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effectiveness of a large-scale health and nutritional education program on anemia in children younger than 5 years in Shifang, a heavily damaged area of Wenchuan earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Wang, Chuan; Yang, Hui; Yang, Huiming; Yang, Sufei; Yu, Tao; Tang, Zhanghui; Ji, Qiaoyun; Li, Fengyi; Shi, Hua; Mao, Meng

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to explore an ideal way to prevent anemia among children younger than 5 years after disasters especially when health care facilities are not enough. A preliminary survey was carried out involving 13 065 children younger than 5 years. Pretested questionnaires were used for data collection and hemoglobin levels were measured. After 12-month intervention, the impact survey involving 2769 children was conducted. Results showed that there were some improvements both in feeding knowledge and practice related to anemia. The total prevalence of anemia decreased from 14.3% to 7.8% (P education could be an ideal way to combat anemia after disasters especially in less developed areas with multiparty cooperation. The methods and experiences of this study may be well worth learning and implementing. © 2013 APJPH.

  13. Does consideration of larger study areas yield more accurate estimates of air pollution health effects?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Siroux, Valérie; Pin, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spatially-resolved air pollution models can be developed in large areas. The resulting increased exposure contrasts and population size offer opportunities to better characterize the effect of atmospheric pollutants on respiratory health. However the heterogeneity of these areas may......: Simulations indicated that adjustment for area limited the bias due to unmeasured confounders varying with area at the costs of a slight decrease in statistical power. In our cohort, rural and urban areas differed for air pollution levels and for many factors associated with respiratory health and exposure....... Area tended to modify effect measures of air pollution on respiratory health. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing the size of the study area also increases the potential for residual confounding. Our simulations suggest that adjusting for type of area is a good option to limit residual confounding due to area...

  14. A comparative study of noise pollution levels in some selected areas in Ilorin Metropolis, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyedepo, Olayinka S; Saadu, Abdullahi A

    2009-11-01

    The noise pollution is a major problem for the quality of life in urban areas. This study was conducted to compare the noise pollution levels at busy roads/road junctions, passengers loading parks, commercial, industrial and residential areas in Ilorin metropolis. A total number of 47-locations were selected within the metropolis. Statistical analysis shows significant difference (P noise pollution levels between industrial areas and low density residential areas, industrial areas and high density areas, industrial areas and passengers loading parks, industrial areas and commercial areas, busy roads/road junctions and low density areas, passengers loading parks and commercial areas and commercial areas and low density areas. There is no significant difference (P > 0.05) in noise pollution levels between industrial areas and busy roads/road junctions, busy roads/road junctions and high density areas, busy roads/road junctions and passengers loading parks, busy roads/road junctions and commercial areas, passengers loading parks and high density areas, passengers loading parks and commercial areas and commercial areas and high density areas. The results show that Industrial areas have the highest noise pollution levels (110.2 dB(A)) followed by busy roads/Road junctions (91.5 dB(A)), Passengers loading parks (87.8 dB(A)) and Commercial areas (84.4 dB(A)). The noise pollution levels in Ilorin metropolis exceeded the recommended level by WHO at 34 of 47 measuring points. It can be concluded that the city is environmentally noise polluted and road traffic and industrial machineries are the major sources of it. Noting the noise emission standards, technical control measures, planning and promoting the citizens awareness about the high noise risk may help to relieve the noise problem in the metropolis.

  15. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan TA-60 Roads and Grounds Facility and Associated Sigma Mesa Staging Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, Leonard Frank [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) is applicable to operations at the Technical Area -60 (TA-60) Roads and Grounds Facility and Associated Sigma Mesa Staging Area off Eniwetok Drive, in Los Alamos County, New Mexico.

  16. Objectives for remediation of areas polluted by radioactive substances in France - 59300

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazala, Charlotte; Gay, Didier; Chabanis, Olivier; Guillevic, Jerome; Palut Laurent, Odile; Dandrieux, Geraldine; Thomassin, Alain; Chapalain, Estelle; Roy, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: In the 90's, the French administration has developed several tools in order to inventory potentially polluted sites and to identify those requiring an immediate action. Concerns and needs have gradually moved on and a methodology for the management of selected areas was established. A general framework was then published by the Ministry of Ecology in 2007. The Ministry of Ecology jointly with the Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) asked the Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) to establish guidelines for the management of radioactive polluted areas. Requirements were: i) to fit with the published general framework while highlighting specificities of radioactive pollutants management; ii) to take benefit of radioactive polluted areas remediation; iii) to precise remediation objectives and iv) to develop stakeholders involvement issues. Within this general framework, two situations were identified: i) the polluted area is already used for domestic, public or industrial purposes; ii) the polluted area is an industrial site under dismantling or a polluted wasteland where a redevelopment project is under consideration. Management of a polluted site with ongoing use is based on the pollution level determination

  17. Technical Notes: Glare pollution in Urban areas | Gelan | Zede Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glare pollution is an unnatural element in the global environment that has emerged as a result of human beings inefficient and destructive use of technology and resources. It refers to the tangible and the intangible interaction of natural light reflecting off synthetic materials, for example sunlight on rooftops, walls, windows, ...

  18. Antimony content of macrofungi from clean and polluted areas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Borovička, J.; Řanda, Zdeněk; Jelínek, E.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 11 (2006), s. 1837-1844 ISSN 0045-6535 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : mushrooms * antimony pollution * bioaccumulation Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.442, year: 2006

  19. Method for Assessing the Integrated Risk of Soil Pollution in Industrial and Mining Gathering Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yang; Shao, Chaofeng; Gu, Qingbao; Ju, Meiting; Zhang, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Industrial and mining activities are recognized as major sources of soil pollution. This study proposes an index system for evaluating the inherent risk level of polluting factories and introduces an integrated risk assessment method based on human health risk. As a case study, the health risk, polluting factories and integrated risks were analyzed in a typical industrial and mining gathering area in China, namely, Binhai New Area. The spatial distribution of the risk level was determined using a Geographic Information System. The results confirmed the following: (1) Human health risk in the study area is moderate to extreme, with heavy metals posing the greatest threat; (2) Polluting factories pose a moderate to extreme inherent risk in the study area. Such factories are concentrated in industrial and urban areas, but are irregularly distributed and also occupy agricultural land, showing a lack of proper planning and management; (3) The integrated risks of soil are moderate to high in the study area. PMID:26580644

  20. Method for Assessing the Integrated Risk of Soil Pollution in Industrial and Mining Gathering Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yang; Shao, Chaofeng; Gu, Qingbao; Ju, Meiting; Zhang, Qian

    2015-11-13

    Industrial and mining activities are recognized as major sources of soil pollution. This study proposes an index system for evaluating the inherent risk level of polluting factories and introduces an integrated risk assessment method based on human health risk. As a case study, the health risk, polluting factories and integrated risks were analyzed in a typical industrial and mining gathering area in China, namely, Binhai New Area. The spatial distribution of the risk level was determined using a Geographic Information System. The results confirmed the following: (1) Human health risk in the study area is moderate to extreme, with heavy metals posing the greatest threat; (2) Polluting factories pose a moderate to extreme inherent risk in the study area. Such factories are concentrated in industrial and urban areas, but are irregularly distributed and also occupy agricultural land, showing a lack of proper planning and management; (3) The integrated risks of soil are moderate to high in the study area.

  1. Correlations between the air pollution and the rainfall composition in Jiului Valley area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traistă Eugen

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall composition is conditional on the air quality. If the air is polluted, the rainfall will be also polluted. In fact, rainfall contains the same compounds like the air as nitrites, nitrates, sulphites, sulphates, ammonia etc. Some cations like calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium are present in rainfall because of dust. This paper presents the air qualities and the soil composition influenced by the rainfall in one of the most polluted mining areas from our country, Jiului Valley.

  2. Investigation and Control Mode of Domestic Pollution in Rural Areas of Guangxi Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Chunyi; Chen, Hong

    2018-01-01

    Due to the unbalanced economic development and scattered residence in rural areas, it was difficult to adopt a centralized approach in rural environmental governance. Based on the survey results of the present situation of rural environment in Guangxi and the analysis of the pollution characteristics in rural areas, the control mode of domestic pollution suitable for rural areas was obtained. Based on this research, a demonstration project of Guangxi’s administrative village was selected.

  3. The grey areas in soil pollution risk mapping : The distinction between cases of soil pollution and increased background levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaast, N. van der; Leenaers, H.; Zegwaard, J.

    1998-01-01

    The progress of soil clean up in the Netherlands is severely hindered by the lack of common agreement on how to describe the grey areas of increased background levels of pollutants. In this study practical methods are proposed in which background levels are described as distribution functions within

  4. Seasonal variation of physicochemical factor and fecal pollution in the Hansan-Geojeman area, Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Young Cheol Park; Poong Ho Kim; Yeoun Joong Jung; Ka Jeong Lee; Min Seon Kim; Kyeong Ri Go; Sang Gi Park; Soon Jae Kwon; Ji Hye Yang; Jong Soo Mok

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The seasonal variation of fecal coliforms (FCs) and physicochemical factors was determined in seawaters of the Hansan-Geojeman area, including a designated area for oyster, and in inland pollution sources of its drainage basin. The mean daily loads of FCs in inland pollution sources ranged from 1.2 × 109 to 3.1 × 1011 most probable number (MPN)/day; however, the pollutants could not be reached at the designated area. FC concentrations of seawaters were closely related to season, rain...

  5. 75 FR 31317 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Area Source Standards for Paints and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... & Coating Manufacturing.. 325510 Area source facilities engaged in mixing pigments, solvents, and binders... repellant coatings for concrete and masonry. Adhesive Manufacturing......... 325520 Area source facilities... various areas of air pollution control. IV. Why are we amending the rule? Our intention in this area...

  6. Cd pollution and ecological risk assessment for mining activity zone in Karst Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, B.; He, J. L.; Wen, X. M.; Tan, H.

    2017-08-01

    The monitored soil samples were collected from farmland in the area with mining activity in Karst area in Liupanshui. In this article, moss bag technology and TSP were used simultaneously for Cd transportation and deposition in the study area. Geostatistics and GIS were then used for the spatial distribution of Cd in the soil. Afterwards, Cd pollution to the soil environment and human health was studied by using the geo-accumulation index and potential ecological risk index methods. The results indicated that atmospheric deposition is the major route of Cd pollution. A moderate to strong pollution of Cd in the area and the degree of potential ecological risk was in a high level in the study area. Furthermore, Cd pollution in Liupanshui may originate from mining activity and atmospheric deposition.

  7. Perception of Air Pollution in the Jinchuan Mining Area, China : A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Zhengtao; Folmer, Henk; Xue, Jianhong

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the perception of air pollution in China are very limited. The aim of this paper is to help to fill this gap by analyzing a cross-sectional dataset of 759 residents of the Jinchuan mining area, Gansu Province, China. The estimations suggest that perception of air pollution is

  8. On the calculation of atmospheric thermal pollution resulted from a flat area source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkauskas, D.Ch.; Senuta, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    A spatial distribution of thermal atmospheric pollution from a flat area source - a great city or a lake-cooler of NPP was investigated. The numerical solution obtained lets to evaluate the horizontal and vertical spreading of the thermal atmospheric pollution by the different wind velocities in dependence of the inhomogeneities in humidity of the earth's surface

  9. Perception of Air Pollution in the Jinchuan Mining Area, China: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengtao; Folmer, Henk; Xue, Jianhong

    2016-07-21

    Studies on the perception of air pollution in China are very limited. The aim of this paper is to help to fill this gap by analyzing a cross-sectional dataset of 759 residents of the Jinchuan mining area, Gansu Province, China. The estimations suggest that perception of air pollution is two-dimensional. The first dimension is the perceived intensity of air pollution and the second is the perceived hazardousness of the pollutants. Both dimensions are influenced by environmental knowledge. Perceived intensity is furthermore influenced by socio-economic status and proximity to the pollution source; perceived hazardousness is influenced by socio-economic status, family health experience, family size and proximity to the pollution source. There are no reverse effects from perception on environmental knowledge. The main conclusion is that virtually all Jinchuan residents perceive high intensity and hazardousness of air pollution despite the fact that public information on air pollution and its health impacts is classified to a great extent. It is suggested that, to assist the residents to take appropriate preventive action, the local government should develop counseling and educational campaigns and institutionalize disclosure of air quality conditions. These programs should pay special attention to young residents who have limited knowledge of air pollution in the Jinchuan mining area.

  10. Modelling of light pollution in suburban areas using remotely sensed imagery and GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalkias, C; Petrakis, M; Psiloglou, B; Lianou, M

    2006-04-01

    This paper describes a methodology for modelling light pollution using geographical information systems (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) technology. The proposed approach attempts to address the issue of environmental assessment in sensitive suburban areas. The modern way of life in developing countries is conductive to environmental degradation in urban and suburban areas. One specific parameter for this degradation is light pollution due to intense artificial night lighting. This paper aims to assess this parameter for the Athens metropolitan area, using modern analytical and data capturing technologies. For this purpose, night-time satellite images and analogue maps have been used in order to create the spatial database of the GIS for the study area. Using GIS advanced analytical functionality, visibility analysis was implemented. The outputs for this analysis are a series of maps reflecting direct and indirect light pollution around the city of Athens. Direct light pollution corresponds to optical contact with artificial night light sources, while indirect light pollution corresponds to optical contact with the sky glow above the city. Additionally, the assessment of light pollution in different periods allows for dynamic evaluation of the phenomenon. The case study demonstrates high levels of light pollution in Athens suburban areas and its increase over the last decade.

  11. [Pollution-ecological problems of old industrial and mining areas and future research prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qixing

    2005-06-01

    Environmental pollution and its solicitation in ecological problems of old industrial and mining areas have become a worldwide technological puzzle restricting sustainable economic and social development. But, the definition and category of old industrial and mining areas is still disputed as an important concept. In this paper, the concept of old industrial and mining area was discussed in theory, and, proceeded with analyzing the complexity of current situation and environmental pollution problems of old industrial and mining areas in China, more keystone attention was paid to the secondary pollution problems from old industrial and mining areas as an important frontier of science. On the basis of expounding the complexity and characters of environmental pollution in old industrial and mining areas, it was suggested that as two key scientific problems in environmental sciences and ecology, the formation mechanisms and control technology of secondary pollution in old industrial and mining areas and the responses of new-type diseases to environmental pollution based on molecular ecotoxicology should be systematically studied on the national scale, and be an important component of environmental protection strategy in China in the future.

  12. Assessment of light extinction at a European polluted urban area during wintertime: Impact of PM1 composition and sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchi, R; Bernardoni, V; Valentini, S; Piazzalunga, A; Fermo, P; Valli, G

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, results from receptor modelling performed on a well-characterised PM 1 dataset were combined to chemical light extinction data (b ext ) with the aim of assessing the impact of different PM 1 components and sources on light extinction and visibility at a European polluted urban area. It is noteworthy that, at the state of the art, there are still very few papers estimating the impact of different emission sources on light extinction as we present here, although being among the major environmental challenges at many polluted areas. Following the concept of the well-known IMPROVE algorithm, here a tailored site-specific approach (recently developed by our group) was applied to assess chemical light extinction due to PM 1 components and major sources. PM 1 samples collected separately during daytime and nighttime at the urban area of Milan (Italy) were chemically characterised for elements, major ions, elemental and organic carbon, and levoglucosan. Chemical light extinction was estimated and results showed that at the investigated urban site it is heavily impacted by ammonium nitrate and organic matter. Receptor modelling (i.e. Positive Matrix Factorization, EPA-PMF 5.0) was effective to obtain source apportionment; the most reliable solution was found with 7 factors which were tentatively assigned to nitrates, sulphates, wood burning, traffic, industry, fine dust, and a Pb-rich source. The apportionment of aerosol light extinction (b ext,aer ) according to resolved sources showed that considering all samples together nitrate contributed at most (on average 41.6%), followed by sulphate, traffic, and wood burning accounting for 18.3%, 17.8% and 12.4%, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Phytoremediative urban design: Transforming a derelict and polluted harbour area into a green and productive neighbourhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilschut, M.; Theuws, P.; Duchhart, I.

    2013-01-01

    Many urban areas are polluted by industrial activities and waste disposal in landfills. Since conventional soil remediation techniques are costly and unsustainable, phytoremediation might offer an alternative. In this article, we explore how phytoremediation can be integrated into the transformation

  14. The protection of urban areas from surface wastewater pollutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vialkova Elena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it considered the problem of collection, treatment and discharge into waters of rain and melted wastewater. To reduce the load on the combined sewer system, there are engineering solutions collect rain and melt water for use in the irrigation of lawns and green spaces. Research carried out at the department “Water supply and sanitation”, (Russia, confirm the high pollution concentrations of meltwater and rainfall in urban arias. Series of measurements of heavy metal in rainwater runoff carried out in Hungary demonstrates clearly the differences in concentrations in the function of distance from the edge of the road. Also differences are introduced between pollution concentrations in runoff water from within and outside urban traffic roads. The quality of snow cover, forming meltwater is observed to be changing in dependence on roadway location. Quality characteristics of surface runoff and its sediments can be effectively improved with super-high frequency radiation (SHF treatment which is presented in this paper.

  15. [Soil organic pollution characteristics and microbial properties in coal mining areas of Mentougou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jian-Li; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Chen; Li, Dong; Liu, Bo-Wen; Liu, Ying; Zhao, Le; Yang, Si-Qi

    2011-03-01

    Soil micro-ecosystem including organic pollution characteristics, basic physicochemical parameters, and microbial properties was analyzed which contaminated with organic pollutants in coal mining area. Results showed that the organic pollution level in coal mining area soils distributed from 0.4 to 1.5 mg/g dry soil, which was 1. 5-6 times as much as the background sample. Furthermore, the column chromatography and GC-MS analysis revealed that content of lightly components including saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons exceeded 40%, specifically was alkenes (> C15), hydrocarbon derivatives, and a small amount aromatic hydrocarbons. Totally, the components of organic pollutants extracted in soils were similar to which in coal gangue samples, illustrating the source of soil pollution to a certain extent in coal mining areas. The physicochemical factors such as nutrient level and moisture contents were not conducive to the growth and reproduction of microbe except pH level, which might show inhibition to microbial activities. Microbial density of pollutant soils in coal mining areas was totally low, with specific amount 10(4)-10(5) cell/g dry soil and FDA activity 2.0-2.9 mg/(g x min). Generally, the microbial density and activity were decreased as the enhancing pollution level. However, in-depth analysis was needed urgently because of the complex impact of environmental conditions like pH, moisture, and nutrition.

  16. Environmental pollution in Mayo area and its impact on people health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omer, N. H.

    2003-04-01

    The study undertook the pollution problem in Mayo area, south of the Green Belt. This is considered to have come about as a result of legal and illegal planning and the re-planning of the squatter settlements, plus the area that lies in the vicinity of the sanitary drainage pool. The study identified the factors and causes of the pollutants.The study also studied the effects of these pollutants on health. The objectives of the study were to identify the factors of environmental pollution in the area, the role of the people in the environmental pollution, the negative consequences of this pollution on people in the area, the attempts of the local authorities in fighting the area's pollution and improving the habitat. The study depended on some scientific approaches such as the historic method and the descriptive statistics method. Information was collected from primary and secondary sources. The researcher depended on field work such as direct observation, personal interviews and filling questionnaire which were prepared for data allocation. The study concluded that the environmental pollution is an out come of many factors that inter link with each other. One of the most important factors is the low economic level of the people, and its effects on the poor and deteriorating living environment and the planning of the area placing it near the sources of environmental pollution at the green belt. In addition to the negative role played by the areas inhabitants in relation to getting rid of environmental pollutants of the area, which has in turn led to the outbreak of environmental diseases that reside in the area, specially malaria and diarrhea. The researcher views that one of the most important recommendations that this study has come out of with is the general planning that takes into consideration the health, economic natural and environmental aspects. These are necessities that will participate in the decline and end of the spreading of these pollutants and what

  17. Simulating urban-scale air pollutants and their predicting capabilities over the Seoul metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Il-Soo; Lee, Suk-Jo; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Yoo, Chul; Lee, Yong-Hee

    2004-06-01

    Urban-scale air pollutants for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter > or = 10 microm, and ozone (O3) were simulated over the Seoul metropolitan area, Korea, during the period of July 2-11, 2002, and their predicting capabilities were discussed. The Air Pollution Model (TAPM) and the highly disaggregated anthropogenic and the biogenic gridded emissions (1 km x 1 km) recently prepared by the Korean Ministry of Environment were applied. Wind fields with observational nudging in the prognostic meteorological model TAPM are optionally adopted to comparatively examine the meteorological impact on the prediction capabilities of urban-scale air pollutants. The result shows that the simulated concentrations of secondary air pollutant largely agree with observed levels with an index of agreement (IOA) of >0.6, whereas IOAs of approximately 0.4 are found for most primary pollutants in the major cities, reflecting the quality of emission data in the urban area. The observationally nudged wind fields with higher IOAs have little effect on the prediction for both primary and secondary air pollutants, implying that the detailed wind field does not consistently improve the urban air pollution model performance if emissions are not well specified. However, the robust highest concentrations are better described toward observations by imposing observational nudging, suggesting the importance of wind fields for the predictions of extreme concentrations such as robust highest concentrations, maximum levels, and >90th percentiles of concentrations for both primary and secondary urban-scale air pollutants.

  18. Phytoremediative urban design: transforming a derelict and polluted harbour area into a green and productive neighbourhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilschut, M; Theuws, P A W; Duchhart, I

    2013-12-01

    Many urban areas are polluted by industrial activities and waste disposal in landfills. Since conventional soil remediation techniques are costly and unsustainable, phytoremediation might offer an alternative. In this article, we explore how phytoremediation can be integrated into the transformation of urban post-industrial areas, while improving public space. Buiksloterham, a polluted and deprived industrial area in Amsterdam, serves as case study. Buiksloterham is polluted with heavy metals, with Zinc (Zn) concentrations being the highest. A regression-model for Alpine Pennycress (Thlaspi caerulescens) is used to estimate the time needed to remediate the site. This reveals a conflict in time between remediation and urban development. A research by design experiment shows how to overcome this conflict by dealing with polluted soil innovatively while emphasizing spatial and aesthetic qualities of the phytoremediation plant species. The resulting landscape framework integrates phytoremediation with biomass production and gives new ecological, economic and social value to Buiksloterham. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Distribution and origin sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution in sediment of Sarawak coastal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Shuhaimi Elias; Abdul Khalik Wood; Zaleha Hashim; Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah; Shamsiah Abdul Rahman; Nazaratul Ashifa Abdullah Salim

    2010-01-01

    Alkyl and parent Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) compounds in marine sediment sample collected from ten locations along Sarawak coastal areas were extracted and analyzed by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The source identification of PAH pollution in marine sediment of Sarawak coastal areas were identify by ratios technique of An/ An+phen, Fl/ Fl +Py, B[a]A/ (B[a]A+Chry) and total Methyl Phen/ Phen. The total alkyl and parent PAHs concentration varies from 36.5 - 277.4 ng/ g dry weight (d.w.) with a mean concentration of 138.2 ng/ g d.w. The ratio values of PAHs pollution in marine sediment of Sarawak coastal areas are clearly indicating the PAHs pollutions are originated from petroleum (petrogenic) and petroleum combustion (pyrolytic). However, the origin sources of PAHs pollution in a few stations were uncertain due to mixing sources of PAHs. (author)

  20. Estimating Air Pollution Removal Through an Analysis of Vegetation Communities in Government Canyon State Natural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, Nicolas W.

    Ambient air pollution is a major issue in urban environments, causing negative health impacts and increasing costs for metropolitan economies. Vegetation has been shown to remove these pollutants at a substantial rate. This study utilizes the i-Tree Eco (UFORE) and i-Tree Canopy models to estimate air pollution removal services provided by trees in Government Canyon State Natural Area (GCSNA), an approximately 4,700 hectare area in San Antonio, Texas. For i-Tree Eco, a stratified project of the five prominent vegetation types was completed. A comparison of removal services provided by vegetation communities indicated there was no significant difference in removal rates. Total pollution removal of GCSNA was estimated to be 239.52 metric tons/year at a rate of 64.42 kg/ha of tree cover/year. By applying this value to the area within Bexar County, Texas belonging to the Balcones Canyonlands ecoregion, it was determined that for 2013 an estimated 2,598.45 metric tons/year of air pollution was removed at a health value to society of 19.4 million. This is a reduction in pollution removal services since 2003, in which 3,050.35 metric tons/year were removed at a health value of 22.8 million. These results suggest urban sprawl taking place in San Antonio is reducing air pollution removal services provided by trees.

  1. [APPROACHES TO URBAN AREA RANKING ACCORDINGLY TO THE LEVEL OF HEAVY METAL POLLUTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, N V; Valeeva, E R; Fomina, S F

    2015-01-01

    Urban area ranking was performed according to the level of the heavy metal pollution based on the data of the snow and soil chemical characteristics. With reference to cumulative rates of the snow cover and soil pollution by heavy metals in the territory of the city of Kazan there were selected four areas: I--Derbyshki; II--Teplocontrol; III--Gorki; IV--Kirovsky district. The pollution level of snow cover in the territory of the city was determined by pollution level indices calculated with the application of Maximum Permissible Concentration (MPC) of chemical substances in ambient waters for household and recreational and service facilities use. The assessment of the pollution level in soils in the city showed the total territory of Kazan to be mildly polluted by manganese, concerning other heavy metals the categories of the soil pollution vary on areas. Results of hair biological monitoring in children are an informative auxiliary tool for the evaluation of the present ecological situation concerning heavy metals in certain territories of the city.

  2. Air pollution and decreased semen quality: A comparative study of Chongqing urban and rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Niya; Cui, Zhihong; Yang, Sanming; Han, Xue; Chen, Gangcai; Zhou, Ziyuan; Zhai, Chongzhi; Ma, Mingfu; Li, Lianbing; Cai, Min; Li, Yafei; Ao, Lin; Shu, Weiqun; Liu, Jinyi; Cao, Jia

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the association and effects of air pollution level on male semen quality in urban and rural areas, this study examines the outdoor concentrations of particulate matter (PM 10 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrous dioxide (NO 2 ) and semen quality outcomes for 1346 volunteers in both urban and rural areas in Chongqing, China. We found the urban area has a higher pollution level than the rural area, contrasted with better semen quality in the rural residents, especially for sperm morphology and computer assistant semen analysis (CASA) motility parameters. A multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrates that concentrations of PM 10 , SO 2 , and NO 2 significantly and negatively are associated with normal sperm morphology percentage (P  10 , SO 2 , and NO 2 in urban ambient air may account for worse semen quality in urban males. - Highlights: • We investigate the distributions of PM 10 , SO 2 and NO 2 in urban and rural areas in Chongqing, China. • We explore the associations of air pollution and male semen quality. • The concentrations of PM 10 , SO 2 , and NO 2 are significantly higher in urban areas. • Median values of some semen quality parameters in rural male were higher than urban male. • PM 10 , SO 2 , and NO 2 were negatively associated with semen quality parameters. - Air pollution is higher in the urban area while there is better semen quality in rural males. Polluted air may thus account for worse semen quality in urban males

  3. A study of polluted eco-system around industrial areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husaini, S.N.; Khan, E.U.; Qureshi, I.E.; Malik, F.; Zaidi, J.H.; Arif, M.; Fatima, I.; Arif, M.

    2005-01-01

    Industrial pollution is one of the most serious problems in Pakistan. The uncontrolled release of untreated industrial effluents to large water bodies has deleterious effects on water quality, aquatic life and human health. The concentration of heavy metals in eco-system is reaching at alarming levels and is increasing yearly. In reality, the industries are not equipped with proper effluent treatment plants. The environmental protection law is not strictly implemented to limit the release and/or proper disposal of industrial effluents. Therefore, volume of specified industrial discharge is growing at an exponential rate without any specific safeguards. Effective measures, which can eliminate or considerably reduce hazardous factors from the human environment to minimize the associated health risks, must be identified and eradicated. In order to achieve these objectives, the study has been done to reach a balanced assessment of the risks and benefits involved. For this purpose two industrial cities of Pakistan namely, Gujranwala and Faisalabad have been selected. Four major industries existing in these cities, namely Yam, textile, paper and board and ceramics, have been studied. The specimens of the irrigated soil exposed to the industrial effluent, crops and vegetables grown on that soil have been analyzed study the hazardous effects on human health. (author)

  4. Insect pests on firs in air pollution areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeffer, A

    1962-01-01

    Fir trees growing in areas contaminated by fluorine exhalations show clearly signs of a chronic injury leading finally to the death of the trees. In such contaminated areas individual trees show different degrees of susceptibility and resistance. In contaminated fir stands the disappearance of primary, monophagous bark beetles of the genus Pityokteines Fuchs was noted; while Pissodes piceae Ill. and the twig inhabiting bark beetles Cryphalus piceae Rtzb. C. abietis Rtzb. and Pityophthorus pityographus Rtzb. remained in small numbers. A population increase, however, occurred in Dreyfusia piceae Rtzb., D. nuesslini C.B. and in the wood-wasp Panrurus juvencus L.

  5. Modelling the bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDF of sea areas polluted by oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Otremba

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the possibilities of modelling the bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF in sea areas polluted by oil. Three sea basin models are considered: a coastal one free of oil, one polluted by an oil film and one polluted by an oil emulsion. The following concentrations of oil were compared: for the film, 1 cm3 of oil per 1 m2 water surface, for the emulsion 1 cm3 of oil in 1 m3 of water. The optical properties of Romashkino crude oil were taken into consideration, as were various angles of incident solar light. The conversion of BRDFs into a directional distribution of the optical contrast of polluted areas is demonstrated.

  6. Soil aquifer treatment to remove priority organic pollutants in the Llobregat river area

    OpenAIRE

    Huerta, Maria; Solé, Josep; Aceves, Mercè; Valhondo González, Cristina; Hernández, Marta; Gullón Santos, Martín

    2013-01-01

    The Llobregat River is the main source of water supply in this area. This river together with its aquifer has suffered from several damages which had contributed to endanger a suitable ecological and hydrological status; among them, pollution is a serious problem to deal with. In the last decades, the presence of organic pollutants in this river has been demonstrated [1,2]. Some of them are persistent to biological degradation and have shown to survive wastewater treatments almost unaltered a...

  7. Pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dürr, E.; Jaffe, R.; Nonini, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    This essay points to the role of pollution in understanding the social construction of hierarchies and urban space. Conceptualizations of pollution and approaches to waste management always reflect the Zeitgeist and tend to be politically charged. We argue that an ethnographic approach to pollution

  8. 78 FR 7487 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... small coal-fired units (i.e., with a design heat input capacity of less than 10 MMBtu/hr) are subject to... existing area source coal-fired boilers with heat input capacity of 10 MMBtu/hr or greater may need to... most emissions from area source boilers, two pollutants emitted by coal-fired boilers, POM as 7-PAH and...

  9. Control of Pollutants in the Trans-Boundary Area of Taihu Basin, Yangtze Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on pollution control in the trans-boundary area of Taihu Basin. Considering the unique characteristics of the river network in the study area, a new methodology of pollution control is proposed aiming at improving the water quality in the trans-boundary area and reducing conflicts between up and downstream regions. Based on monitoring data and statistical analysis, important trans-boundary cross sections identified by the regional government were selected as important areas for consideration in developing management objectives; using a 1-D mathematicmodel and an effective weight evaluation model, the trans-boundary effective control scope (TECS of the study area was identified as the scope for pollutant control; the acceptable pollution load was then estimated using an established model targeting bi-directional flow. The results suggest that the water environmental capacity for chemical oxygen demand (COD, in order to guarantee reaching the target water quality standard in the TECS, is 160,806 t/year, and amounts to 16,098 t/year, 3493 t/year, and 39,768 t/year for ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus, respectively. Our study method and results have been incorporated into the local government management project, and have been proven to be useful in designing a pollution control strategy and management policy.

  10. Air pollution in moderately polluted urban areas: How does the definition of "neighborhood" impact exposure assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenailleau, Quentin M; Mauny, Frédéric; Joly, Daniel; François, Stéphane; Bernard, Nadine

    2015-11-01

    Environmental health studies commonly quantify subjects' pollution exposure in their neighborhood. How this neighborhood is defined can vary, however, leading to different approaches to quantification whose impacts on exposure levels remain unclear. We explore the relationship between neighborhood definition and exposure assessment. NO2, benzene, PM10 and PM2.5 exposure estimates were computed in the vicinity of 10,825 buildings using twelve exposure assessment techniques reflecting different definitions of "neighborhood". At the city scale, its definition does not significantly influence exposure estimates. It does impact levels at the building scale, however: at least a quarter of the buildings' exposure estimates for a 400 m buffer differ from the estimated 50 m buffer value (±1.0 μg/m(3) for NO2, PM10 and PM2.5; and ±0.05 μg/m(3) for benzene). This variation is significantly related to the definition of neighborhood. It is vitally important for investigators to understand the impact of chosen assessment techniques on exposure estimates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Rediscovery of an old article reporting that the area around the epicenter in Hiroshima was heavily contaminated with residual radiation, indicating that exposure doses of A-bomb survivors were largely underestimated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutou, Shizuyo

    2017-09-01

    The A-bomb blast released a huge amount of energy: thermal radiation (35%), blast energy (50%), and nuclear radiation (15%). Of the 15%, 5% was initial radiation released within 30 s and 10% was residual radiation, the majority of which was fallout. Exposure doses of hibakusha (A-bomb survivors) were estimated solely on the basis of the initial radiation. The effects of the residual radiation on hibakusha have been considered controversial; some groups assert that the residual radiation was negligible, but others refute that assertion. I recently discovered a six-decade-old article written in Japanese by a medical doctor, Gensaku Obo, from Hiroshima City. This article clearly indicates that the area around the epicenter in Hiroshima was heavily contaminated with residual radiation. It reports that non-hibakusha who entered Hiroshima soon after the blast suffered from severe acute radiation sickness, including burns, external injuries, fever, diarrhea, skin bleeding, sore throat and loss of hair-as if they were real hibakusha. This means that (i) some of those who entered Hiroshima in the early days after the blast could be regarded as indirect hibakusha; (ii) 'in-the-city-control' people in the Life Span Study (LSS) must have been irradiated more or less from residual radiation and could not function properly as the negative control; (iii) exposure doses of hibakusha were largely underestimated; and (iv) cancer risk in the LSS was largely overestimated. Obo's article is very important to understand the health effects of A-bombs so that the essence of it is translated from Japanese to English with the permission of the publisher. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  12. Rediscovery of an old article reporting that the area around the epicenter in Hiroshima was heavily contaminated with residual radiation, indicating that exposure doses of A-bomb survivors were largely underestimated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutou, Shizuyo

    2017-01-01

    The A-bomb blast released a huge amount of energy: thermal radiation (35%), blast energy (50%), and nuclear radiation (15%). Of the 15%, 5% was initial radiation released within 30 s and 10% was residual radiation, the majority of which was fallout. Exposure doses of hibakusha (A-bomb survivors) were estimated solely on the basis of the initial radiation. The effects of the residual radiation on hibakusha have been considered controversial; some groups assert that the residual radiation was negligible, but others refute that assertion. I recently discovered a six-decade-old article written in Japanese by a medical doctor, Gensaku Obo, from Hiroshima City. This article clearly indicates that the area around the epicenter in Hiroshima was heavily contaminated with residual radiation. It reports that non-hibakusha who entered Hiroshima soon after the blast suffered from severe acute radiation sickness, including burns, external injuries, fever, diarrhea, skin bleeding, sore throat and loss of hair—as if they were real hibakusha. This means that (i) some of those who entered Hiroshima in the early days after the blast could be regarded as indirect hibakusha; (ii) ‘in-the-city-control’ people in the Life Span Study (LSS) must have been irradiated more or less from residual radiation and could not function properly as the negative control; (iii) exposure doses of hibakusha were largely underestimated; and (iv) cancer risk in the LSS was largely overestimated. Obo's article is very important to understand the health effects of A-bombs so that the essence of it is translated from Japanese to English with the permission of the publisher.

  13. Dynamics of the health status of children in an area with atmospheric pollution, as compared with a control group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antal, A.; Coasan, A.; Vicas, T.; Balasoiu, I.; Horvath, V.; Sabau, S.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of air pollution on children was studied in two areas of Romania. Development, psychometric aspects, and morphological aspects were studied. Vital capacity, maximum expiratory volume, and muscular strength were examined. Adaptability and learning performance were studied in children from 7 to 14 years old. In polluted areas containing high concentrations of nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, lead, and carbon black, the health of the children was impaired. Respiratory diseases were frequent, and pleurobronchopulmonary diseases, anemia, and rachitis also occurred. Scholarly performance was poorer in polluted areas than in control areas. Children in polluted areas were also shorted than in control areas.

  14. Comparison between atmospheric pollutants from urban and rural areas employing the transplanted Usnea amblyoclada lichen species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, Fabiana S.; Saiki, Mitiko; Genezini, Frederico A.; Alves, Edson R.; Santos, Jose O.; Martins, Marco A.G.; Saldiva, Paulo H.N.

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decades, lichens have been used as biomonitors in studies related to atmospheric pollution of several elements. The capability of absorbing and accumulating aerial pollutants, their longevity and resistance to environmental stresses have made lichens suitable for studies on air quality evaluation. In this study, a preliminary investigation employing Usnea amblyoclata lichen species and instrumental neutron activation analysis was performed to compare the levels of elements in the air of an urban and rural area. Samples of Usnea amblyoclada (Mull. Arg) collected in a clean area were exposed in a polluted area by vehicular emissions in Sao Paulo city and in a rural area of Caucaia do Alto Municipality, Cotia, SP. After 6 months of exposure the lichens were collected, cleaned, freeze-dried and ground for analyses. Samples and elemental standards were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor and their induced activities were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer. Results indicated that lichens exposed in the polluted urban area presented higher levels of Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, La, Sb, Sc, Se, Th, V and Zn than those from the rural area. Besides that ,concentrations of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, La, Mg, Th, Sc and V in lichens exposed in the rural and polluted urban area were higher than those that were not exposed. Quality control of analytical results was achieved by the analyses of certified reference material. Lichen species used in this study proved to be very useful for active monitoring of a polluted urban environment. (author)

  15. Comparison between atmospheric pollutants from urban and rural areas employing the transplanted Usnea amblyoclada lichen species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Fabiana S.; Saiki, Mitiko; Genezini, Frederico A.; Alves, Edson R.; Santos, Jose O., E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br, E-mail: fredzini@ipen.br, E-mail: eralves@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Martins, Marco A.G.; Saldiva, Paulo H.N., E-mail: marcogarciam@usp.br, E-mail: pepino@usp.br [Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMUSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Over the last decades, lichens have been used as biomonitors in studies related to atmospheric pollution of several elements. The capability of absorbing and accumulating aerial pollutants, their longevity and resistance to environmental stresses have made lichens suitable for studies on air quality evaluation. In this study, a preliminary investigation employing Usnea amblyoclata lichen species and instrumental neutron activation analysis was performed to compare the levels of elements in the air of an urban and rural area. Samples of Usnea amblyoclada (Mull. Arg) collected in a clean area were exposed in a polluted area by vehicular emissions in Sao Paulo city and in a rural area of Caucaia do Alto Municipality, Cotia, SP. After 6 months of exposure the lichens were collected, cleaned, freeze-dried and ground for analyses. Samples and elemental standards were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor and their induced activities were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer. Results indicated that lichens exposed in the polluted urban area presented higher levels of Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, La, Sb, Sc, Se, Th, V and Zn than those from the rural area. Besides that ,concentrations of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, La, Mg, Th, Sc and V in lichens exposed in the rural and polluted urban area were higher than those that were not exposed. Quality control of analytical results was achieved by the analyses of certified reference material. Lichen species used in this study proved to be very useful for active monitoring of a polluted urban environment. (author)

  16. Biological response of lichens and bryophytes to environmental pollution in the Murdochville copper mine area, Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeBlanc, F.; Robitaille, G.; Rao, D.N.

    1974-07-01

    The index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP) is a mathematical formula to correlate the lichen and bryophyte vegetation of an area with the quality of its ambient air. This IAP method has been used in the present study to determine the pollution pattern in the Murdochville Gaspe Copper Mine area, Quebec, where the environment is contaminated with emissions from a copper smelter. Sulfur dioxide, fluoride, lead, cadmium, arsenic, zinc, and copper were the contaminants found in the area. On the basis of this study, the authors concluded that the IAP method can be used for mapping heavy metal pollution more or less in the same manner and with the same degree of efficiency as it has been used for mapping SO/sub 2/ or fluoride pollution.

  17. Arsenic pollution in the Yellowknife area from gold smelter activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, T.C.; Aufreiter, S.; Hancock, R.G.V.

    1982-01-01

    Gold mined at Yelloknife in the North West Territories of Canada is associated with arsenopyrite ores which necessitates the oxidation of the arsenic and sulphur by roasting at two Yellowknife smelters. As 2 O 3 and SO 2 are emitted into the atmosphere, and despite improvements in emission control, significant emissions still occur. In order to asses the arsenic contamination in the local environment and the potential exposures to man, soil samples and samples of the native vegetation were collected in and around Yellowknife and the two smelters. Arsenic and antimony analyses were done by instrumental neutron activation analysis using the SLOWPOKE facility at University of Toronto. Zinc, copper, lead and cadmium analyses were done by atomic adsorption spectrophotometry. Arsenic was found to be accumulated in the soils in the vicinity of the two smelters to levels of several thousand ppm. Antimony levels were about 10% of arsenic and were highly correlated with arsenic. Zinc occured to 500 ppm around the smelters. Soil arsenic levels are sufficiently high to inhibit root growth in soils over a very extensive area. (author)

  18. Flared gases and other pollutants associated with air quality in industrial areas of Nigeria: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuji, Leo C; Avwiri, Greg O

    2005-10-01

    Nigeria, like any other developing nation, is faced with the twin problem of development without destruction. Industrialization, though an important component of development, has had a large share in the despoilation of air quality in the country by the release of high amounts of pollutants into the atmosphere. Petroleum hydrocarbons from refineries, flared gases, dusts, and fumes of metal-smelting and cement works, odorous gases of chemical and allied industries, carbon monoxide and oxides of sulfur and nitrogen of internal combustion engines, the charred particulates and sulfur dioxide emissions of the steel industries etc., all constitute pollutants or co-pollutants of the Nigerian atmosphere. This review article gives an insight into the phenomenal concentrations of some of these pollutants in the Nigerian atmosphere, which point to their unsafe levels and concomitant health risks. It is against this background that there should be continuous but sound monitoring exercise of the Nigerian environment, devoid of the peculiar mix of politics and science, in order to properly audit the quality of air, especially in areas of heavy industrial pollution. Such checks and balances would provide empirical data to assess the various trade-offs of atmospheric pollution in industrial areas of the country such as the Niger Delta region where oil and gas are produced. There should also be enforcement, thereof, of all existing and/or revised standards or regulations such as the compliance limits of the Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR) or the erstwhile Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA).

  19. Anew applied approach for dynamic air quality simulation in industrial and nuclear polluted areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Aal, M.M.; Tawfik, F.S.; Ramadan, A.

    2002-01-01

    Air pollution transport and diffusion and diffusion models are the only tools for inferring a quantitative deterministic relation between pollutant emissions and ambient air quality. This study deals with the simulation of pollutants transport and diffusion at shobra El-Khemia, where this site is considered the most public and polluted area in greater cairo city. The results of such a model matches to a great extent with the measured ones because it takes into consideration dry and wet deposition and first-order reaction chemistry. Specified time period was chosen to simulate the pollutant of sulphur dioxide over the studied area. The meteorological parameters were measured to calculate the hourly stability classes and height of mixing layer. Also, the concentration of sulphur dioxide was continuously measured at the faculty of agriculture to compare between its values and the estimated results. Yen's factory was taken to be the source of pollutant, thus, the emission rate and concentration of sulphur dioxide were measured at the top of their stacks. The analysis of estimated results provided that, at neutral condition, there was only one maximum concentration while at unstable conditions, there were more than one maximum concentration. The maximum estimated average hourly concentration and the average daily measuring concentration at shoubra Elkheima were within the air quality limit of egyptian law no. 4 (1994). The measured values are greater than the estimated ones by 15 to 30 % . This could be attributed to the effect of transportation, which was neglected during the application of model

  20. Air pollution in the Benelux/Rhine-Ruhr area: Numerical simulations with a multi-scale regional chemistry-transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memmesheimer, M.; Jakobs, H. J.; Wurzler, S.; Friese, E.; Piekorz, G.; Ebel, A.

    2009-04-01

    The Rhine-Ruhr area is a strongly industrialized region with about 10 Million inhabitants. It is one of the regions in Europe, which has the characteristics of a megacity with respect to population density, traffic, industry and environmental issues. The main centre of European steel production and the biggest inland port of the world is located in Duisburg, one of the major cities in the Rhine-Ruhr area. Together with the nearby urban agglomerations in the Benelux area including Brussels, Amsterdam and in particular Rotterdam as one of the most important sea-harbours of the world together with Singapore and Shanghai, it forms one of the regions in Europe heavily loaded with air pollutants as ozone, NO2 and particulate matter. Ammonia emissions outside the urban agglomerations but within the domain are also on a quite high level due to intense agricultural usage in Benelux, North-Rhine-Westphalia and lower Saxony. Therefore this area acts also as an important source region for gaseous precursors contributing to the formation of secondary particles in the atmosphere. The Benelux/Rhine-Ruhr area therefore has been selected within the framework of the recently established FP7 research project CityZen as one hot spot for detailed investigations of the past and current status of air pollution and its future development on different spatial and temporal scales. Some examples from numerical simulations with the regional multi-scale chemistry transport model EURAD for Central Europe and the Rhine-Ruhr area will be presented. The model calculates the transport, chemical transformations and deposition of trace constituents in the troposphere from the surface up to about 16 km using MM5 as meteorological driver, the RACM-MIM gas-phase chemistry and MADE-SORGAM for the treatment of particulate matter. Horizontal grid sizes are in the range of 100 km down to 1 km for heavily polluted urbanized areas within Benelux/Rhine-Ruhr. The planetary boundary layer is resolved by 15

  1. Biomonitoring the effects of air pollution on forest ecosystems in an urban area, Helsinki, Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekinen, A.; Pihlstroem, M. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Systematics

    1995-12-31

    Single bioindicators have been used for a long time in air pollution monitoring in the Helsinki area (e.g. lichen studies since 1933). In the mid-eighties local authorities became aware of the need for regular integrated monitoring. Important objectives were: (a) to collect timeseries for the evaluation of natural variation e.g. weather in different parameters (b) to detect small, gradual, changes resulting from pollution control measures. The intensive monitoring of coniferous forests in the metropolitan area of Helsinki started in 1988. (author)

  2. Fluorine content of plants in air-polluted and fume-free areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daessler, H G

    1969-01-01

    Comparative analysis of plants (including orchard and forest trees) on different soil types in a polluted area, with a known quantitative emission of waste gases from a particular factory, and from a fume-free area, showed the quantitative chemical analysis of plant parts to be a satisfactory method of assessing amounts of F in the atmosphere, and its spatial distribution. The degree of injury, as shown by leaf discoloration and necrosis, was not always directly related to the degree of air pollution, since injury varied with soil type and the nutrient status of the plant. 11 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  3. Environmental pollution study around a large industrial area near Cairo, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Halim, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis is one of the most extensively used methods for environmental studies due to its high sensitivity, precision, versatility and multielemental character. Cement factories at Helwan, south of Cairo, contribute substantially to environmental pollution. Determination of minor and trace-elements in dust particulates from the cement industrial areas has been performed to assess the air quality from an environmental and human health point of view. Soil-7 standard reference material from IAEA and SRM-1571 from NBS were used for quality assurance testing. The data obtained indicate there is an indication that the pollution could be hazardous to people living in and around the area surveyed. (author)

  4. Biomonitoring the effects of air pollution on forest ecosystems in an urban area, Helsinki, Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekinen, A; Pihlstroem, M [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Systematics

    1996-12-31

    Single bioindicators have been used for a long time in air pollution monitoring in the Helsinki area (e.g. lichen studies since 1933). In the mid-eighties local authorities became aware of the need for regular integrated monitoring. Important objectives were: (a) to collect timeseries for the evaluation of natural variation e.g. weather in different parameters (b) to detect small, gradual, changes resulting from pollution control measures. The intensive monitoring of coniferous forests in the metropolitan area of Helsinki started in 1988. (author)

  5. Observational analyses of dramatic developments of a severe air pollution event in the Beijing area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ju; Sun, Jielun; Zhou, Mingyu; Cheng, Zhigang; Li, Qingchun; Cao, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Jingjiang

    2018-03-01

    A rapid development of a severe air pollution event in Beijing, China, at the end of November 2015 was investigated with unprecedented observations collected during the field campaign of the Study of Urban Rainfall and Fog/Haze (SURF-15). Different from previous statistical analyses of air pollution events and their correlations with meteorological environmental conditions in the area, the role of turbulent mixing in the pollutant transfer was investigated in detail. The analyses indicate that the major pollution source associated with high particulate matter of diameter 2.5 µm (PM2.5) was from south of Beijing. Before the day of the dramatic PM2.5 increase, the nighttime downslope flow from the mountains to the west and north of Beijing reduced the surface PM2.5 concentration northwest of Beijing. The nighttime surface stable boundary layer (SBL) not only kept the relatively less-polluted air near the surface, it also shielded the rough surface from the pollutant transfer by southwesterly winds above the SBL, leading to the fast transport of pollutants over the Beijing area at night. As the daytime convective turbulent mixing developed in the morning, turbulent mixing transported the elevated polluted air downward even though the weak surface wind was from northeast, leading to the dramatic increase of the surface PM2.5 concentration in the urban area. As a result of both turbulent mixing and advection processes with possible aerosol growth from secondary aerosol formation under the low-wind and high-humidity conditions, the PM2.5 concentration reached over 700 µg m-3 in the Beijing area by the end of the day. Contributions of the two transporting processes to the PM2.5 oscillations prior to this dramatic event were also analyzed. The study demonstrates the important role of large-eddy convective turbulent mixing in vertical transfer of pollutants and the role of the SBL in not only decoupling vertical transport of trace gases and aerosols but also in

  6. Effects of canyon geometry on the distribution of traffic-related air pollution in a large urban area: Implications of a multi-canyon air pollution dispersion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiangwen; Liu, Junfeng; Ban-Weiss, George A.; Zhang, Jiachen; Huang, Xin; Ouyang, Bin; Popoola, Olalekan; Tao, Shu

    2017-09-01

    Street canyons are ubiquitous in urban areas. Traffic-related air pollutants in street canyons can adversely affect human health. In this study, an urban-scale traffic pollution dispersion model is developed considering street distribution, canyon geometry, background meteorology, traffic assignment, traffic emissions and air pollutant dispersion. In the model, vehicle exhausts generated from traffic flows first disperse inside street canyons along the micro-scale wind field generated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Then, pollutants leave the street canyon and further disperse over the urban area. On the basis of this model, the effects of canyon geometry on the distribution of NOx and CO from traffic emissions were studied over the center of Beijing. We found that an increase in building height leads to heavier pollution inside canyons and lower pollution outside canyons at pedestrian level, resulting in higher domain-averaged concentrations over the area. In addition, canyons with highly even or highly uneven building heights on each side of the street tend to lower the urban-scale air pollution concentrations at pedestrian level. Further, increasing street widths tends to lead to lower pollutant concentrations by reducing emissions and enhancing ventilation simultaneously. Our results indicate that canyon geometry strongly influences human exposure to traffic pollutants in the populated urban area. Carefully planning street layout and canyon geometry while considering traffic demand as well as local weather patterns may significantly reduce inhalation of unhealthy air by urban residents.

  7. [Effect of air pollution on respiratory health in school-aged children in the main urban area of Chongqing, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ming-Yue; Tang, Xu; Huang, Wei; Dai, Hua; Liu, Xing-Can; Xia, Yin-Yin; Meng, Pan; Zhang, Rui-Yuan; Guo, Yu-Ming; Cheng, Shu-Qun

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the effect of air pollution on respiratory health in school-aged children in the main urban area of Chongqing, China. The main urban area of Chongqing was divided into polluted area and clean area according to the air pollution data shown on the Environmental Protection Agency Website of Chongqing between 2010 and 2015. A cluster sampling method was used to select 695 third- or fourth-grade children from 2 primary schools in the clean or polluted area as study subjects, with 313 children from the clean area and 382 children from the polluted area. Pulmonary function was examined for all children and a standard American epidemiological questionnaire (ATS-DLD-78-C) was used to investigate the prevalence of respiratory diseases and symptoms. Compared with the clean area, the polluted area had significantly higher concentrations of inhalable particles (PM 10 ), fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ), and nitric oxide (NO X ) (Ppolluted area had significantly higher risks of cough (OR=1.644), cough during cold (OR=1.596), expectoration during cold (OR=2.196), persistent expectoration (OR=1.802), and wheezing (OR=2.415). The boys and girls in the clean area had significantly higher forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in one second than those in the polluted area (PAir pollution in the main urban area of Chongqing is associated with the increased prevalence of respiratory symptoms in school-aged children and has certain effect on children's pulmonary function.

  8. Identification of most tolerant lichen species to vehicular traffic's pollutants at Batu Pahat area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairuddin, Nur Ain; Muhammad, Norhayati; Hashim, Nor Haslina; Yusof, Hasliza; Jusoh, Samsiah; Abas, Azlan; Talip, Balkis A.; Abdullah, Norazlin; Din, Laily B.

    2017-10-01

    Bio-indicators are organisms that can be used for the identification and qualitative determination of human generated environmental factors. The decreasing population of sensitive lichens in specific regions around the world due to low air quality level has make lichens as a bio-indicator for air pollution. Lichen is a result of symbiotic association of fungus and alga and well known for having wide variety of sensitivity towards environmental stressors such as air quality and climate change. The aim of this study is to identify the most tolerant lichen species to vehicular traffic's pollutant at Batu Pahat urban and suburban areas. This study was conducted by using Index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP) method and followed by morphological and chemicals testing for species identification. Dirinaria picta has been identified as the most tolerant lichen species against pollutants from vehicle traffic. The results also indicated that the air quality of Batu Pahat town/urban area could be considered as moderately clean.

  9. Mosses as indicators of the air pollution by radionuclides in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorovic, D.; Popovic, D.; Ajtic, J.; Todorovic, D.)

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents preliminary results on the contents of radionuclides in mosses exposed to air pollution in central urban area (a Belgrade city park). Activity of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides ( 40 K, 210 Pb, 137 Cs, 7 Be) was determined on two HPGe detectors (Canberra, relative efficiency 20% and 23%) by standard gamma spectrometry. (author) [sr

  10. High Incidence of Breast Cancer in Light-Polluted Areas with Spatial Effects in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun Jeong; Park, Man Sik; Lee, Eunil; Choi, Jae Wook

    2016-01-01

    We have reported a high prevalence of breast cancer in light-polluted areas in Korea. However, it is necessary to analyze the spatial effects of light polluted areas on breast cancer because light pollution levels are correlated with region proximity to central urbanized areas in studied cities. In this study, we applied a spatial regression method (an intrinsic conditional autoregressive [iCAR] model) to analyze the relationship between the incidence of breast cancer and artificial light at night (ALAN) levels in 25 regions including central city, urbanized, and rural areas. By Poisson regression analysis, there was a significant correlation between ALAN, alcohol consumption rates, and the incidence of breast cancer. We also found significant spatial effects between ALAN and the incidence of breast cancer, with an increase in the deviance information criterion (DIC) from 374.3 to 348.6 and an increase in R2 from 0.574 to 0.667. Therefore, spatial analysis (an iCAR model) is more appropriate for assessing ALAN effects on breast cancer. To our knowledge, this study is the first to show spatial effects of light pollution on breast cancer, despite the limitations of an ecological study. We suggest that a decrease in ALAN could reduce breast cancer more than expected because of spatial effects.

  11. Relationship between atmospheric pollution in the residential area and concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkrabova, Jana; Stupak, Michal; Svarcova, Andrea; Rossner, Pavel; Rossnerova, Andrea; Ambroz, Antonin; Sram, Radim; Hajslova, Jana

    2016-08-15

    Human milk is an important source of beneficial nutrients and antibodies for newborns and infants and, under certain circumstances, its analysis may provide information on mothers' and infants' exposure to various contaminants. In the presented study, we have introduced the new analytical approach for analysis of 24 highly occurring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in this indicator matrix. The sample preparation procedure is based on an ethyl acetate extraction of milk; the transfer of analytes into an organic layer is enhanced by addition of inorganic salts, i.e. sodium chloride and magnesium sulphate. Following the clean-up of a crude extract on silica SPE columns, gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry is used for PAH identification and quantitation. The average recoveries of targeted PAHs from spiked samples were in the range of 68-110% with repeatabilities below 30% and method quantitation limits ranging from 0.03 to 0.3ng/g lipid weight. This newly validated method was successfully applied for analyses of 324 human milk samples collected from nonsmoking women during two sampling periods (summer and winter) in two residential areas in the Czech Republic differing in atmospheric pollution by PAHs. From 24 targeted analytes 17 were detected at least in one sample. Phenantherene, fluoranthrene, pyrene and fluorene were the most abundant compounds found at average concentration of 13.81, 1.80, 0.86, and 2.01ng/g lipid weight respectively. Comparing the data from two sampling periods, in both areas higher concentrations were measured in samples collected during winter. Also in the highly industrialized locality with heavily contaminated air PAH amounts in milk were higher than in the control locality. These first data on PAH concentrations in human milk collected in the Czech Republic are comparable with measurements for nonsmoking women reported earlier in the United States but significantly lower than results from China, Turkey

  12. Soil TPH Concentration Estimation Using Vegetation Indices in an Oil Polluted Area of Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linhai; Zhao, Xuechun; Lai, Liming; Wang, Jianjian; Jiang, Lianhe; Ding, Jinzhi; Liu, Nanxi; Yu, Yunjiang; Li, Junsheng; Xiao, Nengwen; Zheng, Yuanrun; Rimmington, Glyn M.

    2013-01-01

    Assessing oil pollution using traditional field-based methods over large areas is difficult and expensive. Remote sensing technologies with good spatial and temporal coverage might provide an alternative for monitoring oil pollution by recording the spectral signals of plants growing in polluted soils. Total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations of soils and the hyperspectral canopy reflectance were measured in wetlands dominated by reeds (Phragmites australis) around oil wells that have been producing oil for approximately 10 years in the Yellow River Delta, eastern China to evaluate the potential of vegetation indices and red edge parameters to estimate soil oil pollution. The detrimental effect of oil pollution on reed communities was confirmed by the evidence that the aboveground biomass decreased from 1076.5 g m−2 to 5.3 g m−2 with increasing total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations ranging from 9.45 mg kg−1 to 652 mg kg−1. The modified chlorophyll absorption ratio index (MCARI) best estimated soil TPH concentration among 20 vegetation indices. The linear model involving MCARI had the highest coefficient of determination (R 2 = 0.73) and accuracy of prediction (RMSE = 104.2 mg kg−1). For other vegetation indices and red edge parameters, the R2 and RMSE values ranged from 0.64 to 0.71 and from 120.2 mg kg−1 to 106.8 mg kg−1 respectively. The traditional broadband normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), one of the broadband multispectral vegetation indices (BMVIs), produced a prediction (R 2 = 0.70 and RMSE = 110.1 mg kg−1) similar to that of MCARI. These results corroborated the potential of remote sensing for assessing soil oil pollution in large areas. Traditional BMVIs are still of great value in monitoring soil oil pollution when hyperspectral data are unavailable. PMID:23342066

  13. Addressing equity in interventions to reduce air pollution in urban areas: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmarhnia, Tarik; Rey, Lynda; Cartier, Yuri; Clary, Christelle M; Deguen, Séverine; Brousselle, Astrid

    2014-12-01

    We did a systematic review to assess quantitative studies investigating the association between interventions aiming to reduce air pollution, health benefits and equity effects. Three databases were searched for studies investigating the association between evaluated interventions aiming to reduce air pollution and heath-related benefits. We designed a two-stage selection process to judge how equity was assessed and we systematically determined if there was a heterogeneous effect of the intervention between subgroups or subareas. Of 145 identified articles, 54 were reviewed in-depth with eight satisfying the inclusion criteria. This systematic review showed that interventions aiming to reduce air pollution in urban areas have a positive impact on air quality and on mortality rates, but the documented effect on equity is less straightforward. Integration of equity in evidence-based public health is a great challenge nowadays. In this review we draw attention to the importance of considering equity in air pollution interventions. We also propose further methodological and theoretical challenges when assessing equity in interventions to reduce air pollution and we present opportunities to develop this research area.

  14. Dynamic of pollutants concentration in forest stands from Copsa Mica industrial area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Ianculescu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the dynamics of pollutants concentrations from nonferrous metallurgical plant in Copsa Mica, considered, between the years 1985 - 1989, as the most polluted area, even in the world, and detected as a large black spot on Landsat satellite imagery. Returning to investigations in this area, after 20-25 years, the pollution activity was changed after 1990, as a consequence of the reduction of industrial capacity, including the black smoke plant decommissioning, and the chimney built for exhaust pollutants over 350 m feet high, resulted some conclusions, necessary for decisions that have to be taken by environmental, forestry, health and agriculture authorities.The litter, soil and vegetation samples were colected from the same permanent sample plots between the years 2006-2009, as between the years 1985-1989, using the same methods, in order to be compared and analyzed. Therefore, returning to investigations in these permanent sample plots, were found the following conclusions: i between the period 1985 - 1989, in all examined cases were revealed high pollutants concentrations, even exceeding the maximum allowable limit (MAL consisting of suphur compounds in synergistic action with heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, Mn, etc., in vegetation and litter, which was directly correlated with noxious concentrations in the air, and concentrations below MAL in soil samples; ii contrary, regarding the new pollution activity, it has been revealed low noxious concentration, in vegetation, litter and soil samples collected during the period between the years 2006-2008, which are directly related to their low concentration level in the air. Due to pollutants accumulation phenomenon over the years, high pollutants concentrations, ten times higher than MAL, were found in the superior soil layer. In such circumstances the best solution to protect the environment, population and livestock of the damaged area, for tens of thousands of hectares, is the

  15. The environmental pollution perception of residents in coal mining areas: a case study in the Hancheng mine area, Shaanxi Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xingmin; He, Fei

    2012-10-01

    The environmental behavior of the residents depends on their perception of environmental pollution. Hence, it is important for scientific and policy experts to research on the impact of the environmental pollution perception of local residents. Owing to the richness of natural resources, Hancheng coal mine areas are abound in heavy industries, and environmental pollution is serious and typical in this area, thus, the residents are anxious about their health. Using questionnaires, this paper surveys the perception of residents living in the coal mine area. The influential factors of environmental perception were analyzed by the Rank Sum Test. The results were: (1) the majority of the residents in the coal mine area are not satisfied with their living environment. The perception order of pollution severity is: air pollution > noise pollution > sanitation > water pollution. The residents think that pollution is mainly caused by coal processing. Hence, coal mining is not the main reason of the pollution in the coal mine area. (2) Age and length of residence have significant positive effects on perceptions of air, water, and noise pollutions; whereas education has a significant negative effect on perceptions of water and noise pollutions, as well as sanitation. This phenomenon can be explained by the various cultural groups having varied perceptions on the environmental pollution. In addition, proximity to mine has significant negative effect on perceptions of water and noise pollution. In conclusion, the paper discusses the effects of demographical and social factors on the perception of environmental pollution and gives suggestions on the planning and management of the environment.

  16. Relationships between soil heavy metal pollution and enzyme activities in mining areas of northern Hunan province, Central South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xue-Feng; Jiang, Ying; Shu, Ying

    2014-05-01

    Hunan province, Central South China, is a well-known nonferrous metal base in China. Mine exploiting and processing there, however, often lead to heavy metal pollution of farmland. To study the effects of mining activities on the soil environmental quality, four representative paddy fields, the HSG, SNJ, NT and THJ, in Y county, northern Hunan province, were investigated. It was found that the streams running through the HSG, SNJ and NT are severely contaminated due to the long-term discharge of untreated mineral wastewater from local indigenous mining factories. The stream at the HSG, for example, is brownish red in color, with high concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Fe and Mn. The concentrations of Cu, Zn and Cd in all the stream water of the HSG, SNJ and NT exceed the maximum allowable levels of the Agricultural Irrigation Water Criteria of China. Correspondingly, the HSG, SNJ and NT are heavily polluted by Cu, Zn and Cd due to the long-term irrigation with the contaminated stream water. In comparison, both stream water and paddy fields of the THJ, far away from mining areas, are not contaminated by any heavy metals and hence regarded as a control in this study. The rice grain produced at the HSG, SNJ and NT has a high risk of Cd contamination. The rate of rice grain produced in the four paddy fields in Y county with Cd exceeding the safe level (Cd, 0.2 μg g-1) specified by the National Standards for Rice Quality and Safety of China reaches 90%. Cd content in the rice grain is positively significantly correlated with that in the paddy fields, especially with the content of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) - extracted Cd, suggesting that the heavy metal pollution of paddy fields has already posed a high risk to rice safety and human health. Soil enzyme activities and microbial biomass are significantly inhibited by the heavy metal pollution of the paddy fields. Microbial biomass C and N (MBC and MBN) at a severely contaminated site of the HSG are only 31

  17. Genotoxicity detected in wild mice living in a highly polluted wetland area in south western Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateos, Santiago; Daza, Paula; Dominguez, Inmaculada; Cardenas, Jose Antonio [University of Seville, Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Biology, Avenida de la Reina Mercedes no 6, E-41012 Seville (Spain); Cortes, Felipe [University of Seville, Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Biology, Avenida de la Reina Mercedes no 6, E-41012 Seville (Spain)], E-mail: cortes@us.es

    2008-06-15

    A field study was carried out in the south of the Iberian Peninsula in an industrial area in the neighbourhood of Huelva city, SW Spain, and in a natural area (Donana National Park) for comparison, to estimate the genetic risk induced by environmental pollution in wild mice. Genotoxic effects in a sentinel organism, the Algerian mice (Mus spretus) free living in the industrial area were compared with animals of the same species living in the natural protected area. The single cell gel electrophoresis, or Comet assay, was performed as a genotoxicity test in peripheral blood of mice. Our results clearly show that mice free living in the contaminated area bear a high burden of genetic damage as compared with control individuals. The results suggest that the assessing of genotoxicity levels by the Comet assay in wild mice can be used as a valuable test in pollution monitoring and environmental conservation. - We have found an increased genotoxic damage in wild mice in a highly polluted area from industry, mining and agriculture in SW Spain, as assessed by the Comet assay.

  18. Parking strategy in the pollution control program of an urban area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gygax, H. [Office de la protection de l`environment, Fribourg (Switzerland)

    1995-12-31

    Swiss legislation requires, in case of excessive air pollutant levels, the regions (cantons) to adopt a plan for the implementation of national air quality standards. Within the field of transport, if low emission technologies on motor vehicles are insufficient, measures to control and restrict motor vehicle traffic must be considered. Regarding parking measures, the Swiss Federal Court has accepted management and reduction of parking facilities as legally inforceable emission limitation for air pollutant abatement. The purpose of this article is to present the implementation of a parking policy in a city within a small urban area. (author)

  19. Characterization of pollutants cycles evolution in a coastal mediterranean area under summer conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plaza, J.; Artinano, B.

    1994-01-01

    This work performs a jointly interpretation of meteorological and pollutant concentration measurements during three experimental campaigns in the coastal and inland zones of Castellon, in summer time and prevailing local conditions. Thermal origin circulations, sea and land breezes, slope and valley winds, and local topography, give rise to daily cycle recirculation of pollutants, both at surface and higher levels. Related to the associated ozone levels, the observed natural background varies from 40-50 ppb, whom can be added 20-50 ppb as contribution by photochemical generation. This has been observed to be transported up to 100 Km inland and re-circulated again through the coastal Area. (Author) 7 refs

  20. Sampling and preparation of air pollutants at the Coal Paiton Power Plant area Probolinggo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iswantoro; Sutanto, W.W

    2013-01-01

    Sampling has been conducted on April 8 th to 18 th, 2012 at the plant area of Paiton Coal Power Plant using e-sampler for particulated matter PM-2,5 and PM-10, high volume air sampler for total suspended particulate (TSP) at the three sampling locations as the representative pollution. Filter before and after sampling was weighed and extremely guarded contamination. Air filters stored in desiccator filter for 24 hours. Determination of concentration of ambient air pollutants conducted by gravimetric method derived from a reduction in weight the samples on the filter PM-2,5; PM-10 and TSP to the weight of the empty filter. (author)

  1. Parking strategy in the pollution control program of an urban area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gygax, H [Office de la protection de l` environment, Fribourg (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    Swiss legislation requires, in case of excessive air pollutant levels, the regions (cantons) to adopt a plan for the implementation of national air quality standards. Within the field of transport, if low emission technologies on motor vehicles are insufficient, measures to control and restrict motor vehicle traffic must be considered. Regarding parking measures, the Swiss Federal Court has accepted management and reduction of parking facilities as legally inforceable emission limitation for air pollutant abatement. The purpose of this article is to present the implementation of a parking policy in a city within a small urban area. (author)

  2. Natural Radionuclides and Heavy Metals Pollution in Seawater at Kuala Langat Coastal Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabarina Md Yunus; Zaini Hamzah; Ab Khalik Hj Wood; Ahmad Saat

    2015-01-01

    Rapid industrial developments along the Langat river basin play an important role in contributing to the increases of pollution loading at Kuala Langat coastal area. The major pollutant sources in this area may be originating from human activities such as industrial discharge, domestic sewage, construction, agriculture and pig farming near the tributaries that affects the water quality. In addition, Langat and Semenyih rivers flow through the mining and ex-mining area, which is related to the source of natural radionuclides contamination. Heavy metals in the aquatic environment and more likely to enter the food chain. This study is focusing to the levels of radionuclides and heavy metals in seawater. The samples were collected using appropriate water sampler, which is then acidified until pH 2 and filtered using cellulose acetate 0.45 μm. The concentration of these radionuclides and heavy metals were determined using Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS) after dilution. In general, the radionuclides and heavy metals concentrations are lower than Malaysia Marine Water Quality Standard (MMWQS) except for few locations where the concentration levels above the standards. The higher concentration of pollutant in the seawater may have a toxic effect on sensitive plants and living organisms. The results of pollution levels of these radionuclides and heavy metals were also compared with other studies. (author)

  3. Phytoremediative urban design: Transforming a derelict and polluted harbour area into a green and productive neighbourhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilschut, M.; Theuws, P.A.W.; Duchhart, I.

    2013-01-01

    Many urban areas are polluted by industrial activities and waste disposal in landfills. Since conventional soil remediation techniques are costly and unsustainable, phytoremediation might offer an alternative. In this article, we explore how phytoremediation can be integrated into the transformation of urban post-industrial areas, while improving public space. Buiksloterham, a polluted and deprived industrial area in Amsterdam, serves as case study. Buiksloterham is polluted with heavy metals, with Zinc (Zn) concentrations being the highest. A regression-model for Alpine Pennycress (Thlaspi caerulescens) is used to estimate the time needed to remediate the site. This reveals a conflict in time between remediation and urban development. A research by design experiment shows how to overcome this conflict by dealing with polluted soil innovatively while emphasizing spatial and aesthetic qualities of the phytoremediation plant species. The resulting landscape framework integrates phytoremediation with biomass production and gives new ecological, economic and social value to Buiksloterham. -- Highlights: ► Design can provide a link between the field of science and the field of practice. ► Design translates scientific knowledge into a specific aesthetic spatial composition. ► A landscape framework makes phytoremediation feasible in an urban context. ► Estimated time for phytoremediation conflicts with urban developments. ► Phytoremediation combined with biomass production is a feasible temporal land-use. -- A research by design method can translate scientific knowledge on phytoremediation into an aesthetic spatial composition for a specific site, thereby linking science and practice

  4. [Environment spatial distribution of mercury pollution in Songhua River upstream gold mining areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ting-Ting; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Gang; Zhao, Dan-Dan

    2010-09-01

    Using Zeeman mercury spectrometer RA915+ monitoring the total gaseous mercury concentration were collected from gold mining area in Huadian, in the upper reaches of the Songhua River, during summer and autumn of 2008, where we simultaneously collected samples of air, water, sediment and soil. The research is focused on analyzing of the spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of atmospheric mercury pollution and the correlation with other environmental factors. The results show that: the concentration of atmospheric mercury in summer is higher than that in autumn and in the evening is higher than at noon, and it present a gradual decay with the distance to the gold mining area as the center point increasing. The distribution rule of mercury pollution of environmental factors in the gold mining area is: in sediment > in soil > in plant > in water, the characteristics of mercury pollution distribution in plant is: root > stem and leaf, and the content of mercury in plant in autumn is commonly higher than that in summer. This is thought due to the accumulation of pollutant element from soil during the growth of plant. The atmospheric mercury has a significant correlation with the root of plant, respectively 0.83 in summer and 0.97 in autumn.

  5. Investigations for heavy metals pollution in the Nile water in Khartoum area using XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salih, Saadia Elsir

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform measurements for heavy metals pollution in the Nile water in Khartoum area. Ten locations were selected for the study on the white Nile, the Blue Nile and the Nile. Standard methods were used for samples collection and preparation for the measurements using XRF. Nine elements were observed and their concentrations determined in the various locations. These Ti, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Pb, Zr, and Se. From the performed measurements for heavy metals pollution in the Nile water in Khartoum area using the XRF method the following conclusions can be made: There is no heavy metal pollution in the Nile water in Khartoum area resulting from industrial activities. However, there are indications for possible Pb pollution resulting from automobile emission. - The concentrations for the observed heavy metals, except Fe, were much below the maximum permissible international levels provided by the USA, EEC and WHO. - The origin for the observed concentrations of heavy metals, except for Pb, was considered to be soil and silt carried by river in it's journey from the Ethiopian Highlands and lake Victoria. (Author)

  6. Environmental impact assessment of air pollution in different areas of Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashmi, D.R.; Qaim-Khani, M.I.

    2003-01-01

    Measurements of major ambient air pollution components such as O/sub 3/, SO/sub 2/, CO, NO, and NOx were carried out to obtain baseline data for some selected areas in Karachi. These areas have been categorized on the basis of traffic congestion. Total average concentration of O/sub 3/ in zone - A was 20.80 ppb. In one - B 20.36 ppb and in Zone -C 19.10 ppb. Concentration of SO/sub 2/ in zone -A was determined to be 7.30 ppb, in zone -B 11.60 ppb and in zone-C 44.30 ppb. Similarly concentration of CO zone-A was 0.96 ppm, in zone-B 2.50 ppm and in zone -C 3.49 ppm. Whereas, average concentration of NO and NOx was 13.00 ppb and 23.50 ppb in Zone -A, 2.73 ppb and 5.70 ppb in zone -B, 69.90 ppb and 83.50 ppb in zone C. The main contributors of pollutants in these areas are vehicular traffic and industries. A survey of local hospitals was also conducted to correlate the prevailing diseases with air pollution levels. The survey showed that 70% of the patients were suffering from air pollution related diseases, like chronic bronchitis, pulmonary edema and pulmonary emphysema. The data further reveals that the ratio of male to female patients is 2:1.(author)

  7. Influence of air pollution on crop plants in some industrial areas in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spierings, F

    1960-01-01

    Experimental investigations were conducted to determine the effect of air pollution on agricultural and horticultural crops in the Netherlands. The pollutants of major concern were hydrogen fluoride and sulfur dioxide. Control plants were used for the identification of these pollutants. From the damage caused to the controls, it was then often possible to decide which type of gas had been responsible for the damage. The distribution of the intensity of damage over the various experimental plots also indicated the direction of the injurious gases, how they had spread over the area, and the extent of the damage. The observations, which supplied information on the nature and intensity of the damage, were then checked by chemical analysis of the damaged leaf. By means of fumigation in chambers, a knowledge was gained of the sensitivity of various crops to HF and SO/sub 2/ and the symptoms of damage caused by these gases.

  8. Participatory measurements of individual exposure to air pollution in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madelin, Malika; Duché, Sarah; Dupuis, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution is a major environmental issue in urban areas. Chronic and high concentration exposure presents a health risk with cardiovascular and respiratory problems and longer term nervous, carcinogenic and endocrine problems. In addition to the estimations based on simulations of both background and regional pollution and of the pollution induced by the traffic, knowing exposure of each individual is a key issue. This exposure reflects the high variability of pollution at fine spatial and time scales, according to the proximity of emission sources and the urban morphology outside. The emergence of citizen science and the progress of miniaturized electronics, low-cost and accessible to (almost) everyone, offers new opportunities for the monitoring of air pollution, but also for the citizens' awareness of their individual exposure to air pollution. In this communication, we propose to present a participatory research project 'What is your air?' (project funded by the Île-de-France region), which aims at raising awareness on the theme of air quality, its monitoring with sensors assembled in a FabLab workshop and an online participatory mapping. Beyond the discussion on technical choices, the stages of manufacture or the sensor calibration procedures, we discuss the measurements made, in this case the fine particle concentration measurements, which are dated and georeferenced (communication via a mobile phone). They show high variability between the measurements (in part linked to the substrates, land use, traffic) and low daily contrasts. In addition to the analysis of the measurements and their comparison with the official data, we also discuss the choice of representation of information, including mapping, and therefore the message about pollution to communicate.

  9. Acute symptoms related to air pollution in urban areas: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forouzanfar Mohammad

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The harmful effects of urban air pollution on general population in terms of annoying symptoms are not adequately evaluated. This is in contrast to the hospital admissions and short term mortality. The present study protocol is designed to assess the association between the level of exposure to certain ambient air pollutants and a wide range of relevant symptoms. Awareness of the impact of pollution on the population at large will make our estimates of the pertinent covert burden imposed on the society more accurate. Methods/design A cross sectional study with spatial analysis for the addresses of the participants was conducted. Data were collected via telephone interviews administered to a representative sample of civilians over age four in the city. Households were selected using random digit dialling procedures and randomization within each household was also performed to select the person to be interviewed. Levels of exposure are quantified by extrapolating the addresses of the study population over the air pollution matrix of the city at the time of the interview and also for different lag times. This information system uses the data from multiple air pollution monitoring stations in conjunction with meteorological data. General linear models are applied for statistical analysis. Discussion The important limitations of cross-sectional studies on acute effects of air pollution are personal confounders and measurement error for exposure. A wide range of confounders in this study are controlled for in the statistical analysis. Exposure error may be minimised by employing a validated geographical information system that provides accurate estimates and getting detailed information on locations of individual participants during the day. The widespread operation of open air conditioning systems in the target urban area which brings about excellent mixing of the outdoor and indoor air increases the validity of outdoor pollutants

  10. Micro-meteorological modelling in urban areas: pollutant dispersion and radiative effects modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milliez, Maya

    2006-01-01

    Atmospheric pollution and urban climate studies require to take into account the complex processes due to heterogeneity of urban areas and the interaction with the buildings. In order to estimate the impact of buildings on flow and pollutant dispersion, detailed numerical simulations were performed over an idealized urban area, with the three-dimensional model Mercure-Saturne, modelling both concentration means and their fluctuations. To take into account atmospheric radiation in built up areas and the thermal effects of the buildings, we implemented a three-dimensional radiative model adapted to complex geometry. This model, adapted from a scheme used for thermal radiation, solves the radiative transfer equation in a semi-transparent media, using the discrete ordinate method. The new scheme was validated with idealized cases and compared to a complete case. (author) [fr

  11. Environmental protection and management: A water pollution case study within the Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, I.A.; Wright, S.; Graham, K.; Burgin, S. [University of Western Sydney, Penrith, NSW (Australia)

    2011-01-15

    The Grose River is contained almost entirely within a World Heritage Area. While sewage pollution in the area has been addressed, pollution at damaging levels continues from a disused coal mine, closed in 1997. Despite some surface rehabilitation, no action has occurred to remediate zinc polluted waters emanating from the mine. We examine the historical regulation and management of the Australian Commonwealth and New South Wales governments and highlight gaps in both regulatory systems. We conclude that there is an urgent need to improve regulation of water pollution, mining and management of the environment in highly valued world heritage areas.

  12. Dynamic of pollutants concentration in forest stands from Copsa Mica industrial area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Ianculescu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the dynamics of pollutants concentrations from nonferrous metallurgical plant in Copºa Mica, considered, between the years 1985 -1989, as the most polluted area, even in the world, and detected as a large black spot on Landsat satellite imagery.Returning to investigations in this area, after 20-25 years, the pollution activity was changed after 1990, as a consequence of the reductionof industrial capacity, including the black smoke plant decommissioning, and the chimney built for exhaust pollutants over 350 m feet high, resulted some conclusions, necessary for decisions that have to be taken by environmental, forestry, health andagriculture authorities.The litter, soil and vegetation samples were colected from the same permanent sample plots between the years 2006-2009, as between the years 1985-1989, using the same methods, in order to be compared and analyzed. Therefore, returning to investigations in these permanent sample plots, were found the following conclusions: i between the period 1985 - 1989, in all examined cases were revealed high pollutants concentrations, even exceeding the maximum allowable limit (MAL consisting of suphur compounds in synergistic action with heavy metals(Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, Mn, etc., in vegetation and litter, which was directly correlatedwith noxious concentrations in the air, and concentrations below MAL in soil samples; ii contrary, regarding the new pollution activity, it has been revealed low noxious concentration, in vegetation, litter and soil samples collected during the period between the years 2006-2008, which are directly related to their low concentrationlevel in the air. Due to pollutants accumulation phenomenon over the years, high pollutants concentrations, ten times higher than MAL, were found in the superior soil layer. In such circumstances the best solution to protect the environment, population and livestock of the damaged area, for tens of thousands of hectares, is the closure

  13. Accumulation of specific pollutants in various media in the area affected by a petrochemical center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oprea, C.D.; Mihul, Al.

    2003-01-01

    The Southern part of Romania is a highly industrialized region, including oil refining, ferrous and non-ferrous, chemical and power point source categories. The results from monitoring oil pollution around the town Ploiesti (South Romania), known for its petrochemical and chemical industrial compounds and crude oil activity, are reported. The distribution of heavy metals, rare earth and other microelements along the wind rose profile (at 20 Km distance from the oil complex ) was examined through the analysis of soil samples. Mosses were chosen as biomonitors of local atmospheric pollution with heavy metals and other toxic elements. The trace elements content of vegetation growing near the plant's area was compared with that of the background one. The contamination of the river flowing in the vicinity of the plant was examined. Comparison of the spatial trends of different pollutants shows the influence of the some atmospheric transport phases on the uptake of trace elements by vegetation. A comparative evaluation of the results was carried out to indicate at which extend the amount of pollutant in the atmosphere or the amount deposited in the soil or transported by sediment contributes to pollution of the local ecosystem in the vicinity of a petrochemical compound. (authors)

  14. Measurements of radiological background and some chemical pollutants in two areas of greater cairo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, F.S.; Ramadan, A.; Abdel Aziz, M.A.; Aly, A.I.M.

    2002-01-01

    The present work aims to the evaluation of radiological background levels and chemical pollutants in greater cairo as the most dense populated city in Egypt. The meteorological data of a complete one year of Cairo city have been collected, investigated and processed to determined the behavior of the pollutants in the atmosphere and the sector that is strongly affected by the pollutants. Portable detector for measuring the radiological background was deployed in Nasr City, where two nuclear centers belonging to Atomic Energy Authority are located, to measure the radioactivity levels in the atmosphere and compare them with the international standard limits. Other detectors were deployed in Shobra El- Khema area to study two significant phenomena, the first is the formation of ozone through the photo-chemical oxidation, its level and its behavior in the atmosphere, taking into consideration the international standard limits. The second phenomenon is the impact of the black plume on the capital Cairo started on October (1999) and its association of pollutant levels increment, defining the nature and the site location of the pollutant source. The carbon monoxide concentrations (as an example), before and during the black plume, were calculated using Gaussian equation then compared with the measured data in Shobra El- Khema region. The other available instruments were used to measure nitrogen oxides, ozone and carbon monoxide

  15. Health impact of urban air pollution: the case of the metropolitan Paris area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myrto, V.; Menut, L.; Chatignoux, E.

    2011-01-01

    Urban meteorology and atmospheric composition has become an issue of great public concern. Mega-cities are areas of great population density and also of high rates of gaseous and particulate matter emission. The health of the residents of such large agglomerations will potentially be influenced by the local air-pollution, its formation and dispersion. Efforts are made to link air-pollution and health. Several questions are open: what is the relative contribution of the ambient air-pollution compared to all other exposure factors? What is the 'real' level of exposure reaching the individuals of a population? Can we distinguish the health effects of multiple- pollutants? To answer to these questions we have developed a modeling framework that maps the exposure of the Parisian population to ozone, nitrogen dioxide and fine particles at hourly resolution. This integrated model incorporates a meteorological model, a three-dimensional Eulerian air-quality model and a human exposure module. The first results of this modeling effort suggest new epidemiological evidence of the relationship between ambient air pollution levels and mortality over the city of Paris. (authors)

  16. Screening procedure to evaluate effects of air pollution on Eastern Region wildernesses cited as Class I air quality areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Beth Adams; Dale S. Nichols; Anthony C. Federer; Keith F. Jensen; Harry Parrott

    1991-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service's Eastern Region manages eight wilderness areas that have been designated as Class I air quality areas by the Federal Clean Air Act. As part of this legislation, Federal land managers are required to consult with air pollution regulators on the potential impacts of proposed air pollution emissions--including phytotoxic gases and acidic...

  17. Heavy metal accumulation in Littoraria scabra along polluted and pristine mangrove areas of Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, H. de [Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)], E-mail: hans.dewolf@ua.ac.be; Rashid, R. [Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2008-04-15

    The periwinkle Littoraria scabra was collected at polluted and pristine mangrove sites along the Tanzanian coastline, including Msimbazi, Mbweni (i.e. Dar es Salaam) and Kisakasaka, Nyamanzi and Maruhubi (i.e. Zanzibar). Periwinkles were morphologically characterized, sexed and their heavy metal content was determined using ICP-MS. Analysis revealed that L. scabra from polluted areas contained higher soft tissue heavy metal levels, were significantly smaller and weighed less compared to their conspecifics from the unpolluted mangroves. The current morphological observations may be explained in terms of growth and/or mortality rate differences between the polluted and non-polluted sites. Although a variety of stressors may account for these adverse morphological patterns, our data suggest a close relationship with the soft tissue heavy metal content. Compared to soft tissue heavy metal levels that were measured in L. scabra along the same area in 1998, most metals, except for arsenic, chromium and iron have decreased dramatically. - Anthropogenic activities result in heavy metal accumulation and adverse morphological effects in the mangrove gastropod Littoraria scabra.

  18. Particulate Matter Air Pollution in an Urban Area : a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Holnicki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many European agglomerations suffer from high concentrations of particulate matter (PM, which is now one of the most detrimental pollutants characterizing the urban atmospheric environment. This paper addresses the problem of PM10 pollution in the Warsaw metropolitan area, including very harmful fine fractions (PM2.5, and also some heavy metals. The analysis of air quality in the Warsaw agglomeration discussed in this study is based on results from computer modeling presented elsewhere, and refers to emission and meteorological data for the year 2012. The range of emissions considered in this analysis includes the main sectors of municipal activity: energy generation, industry, urban transport, residential sector. The trans-boundary inflow of the main pollutants coming from distant sources is also taken into account. The regional scale computer model CALPUFF was used to assess the annual mean concentrations of major pollutants in the urban area. The results show the regions where the air quality limits are exceeded and indicate the dominant sources of emission which are responsible for these violations (source apportionment. These are the key data required to implement efficient regulatory actions. (original abstract

  19. Environmental lead pollution and elevated blood lead levels among children in a rural area of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sihao; Wang, Xiaorong; Yu, Ignatius Tak Sun; Tang, Wenjuan; Miao, Jianying; Li, Jin; Wu, Siying; Lin, Xing

    2011-05-01

    We investigated environmental lead pollution and its impact on children's blood lead levels (BLLs) in a rural area of China. In 2007, we studied 379 children younger than 15 years living in 7 villages near lead mines and processing plants, along with a control group of 61 children from another village. We determined their BLLs and collected environmental samples, personal data, and information on other potential exposures. We followed approximately 86% of the children who had high BLLs (> 15 μg/dL) for 1 year. We determined factors influencing BLLs by multivariate linear regression. Lead concentrations in soil and household dust were much higher in polluted villages than in the control village, and more children in the polluted area than in the control village had elevated BLLs (87%, 16.4 μg/dL vs 20%, 7.1 μg/dL). Increased BLL was independently associated with environmental lead levels. We found a significant reduction of 5 micrograms per deciliter when we retested children after 1 year. Our data show that the lead industry caused serious environmental pollution that led to high BLLs in children living nearby.

  20. Heavy metal accumulation in Littoraria scabra along polluted and pristine mangrove areas of Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, H. de; Rashid, R.

    2008-01-01

    The periwinkle Littoraria scabra was collected at polluted and pristine mangrove sites along the Tanzanian coastline, including Msimbazi, Mbweni (i.e. Dar es Salaam) and Kisakasaka, Nyamanzi and Maruhubi (i.e. Zanzibar). Periwinkles were morphologically characterized, sexed and their heavy metal content was determined using ICP-MS. Analysis revealed that L. scabra from polluted areas contained higher soft tissue heavy metal levels, were significantly smaller and weighed less compared to their conspecifics from the unpolluted mangroves. The current morphological observations may be explained in terms of growth and/or mortality rate differences between the polluted and non-polluted sites. Although a variety of stressors may account for these adverse morphological patterns, our data suggest a close relationship with the soft tissue heavy metal content. Compared to soft tissue heavy metal levels that were measured in L. scabra along the same area in 1998, most metals, except for arsenic, chromium and iron have decreased dramatically. - Anthropogenic activities result in heavy metal accumulation and adverse morphological effects in the mangrove gastropod Littoraria scabra

  1. Mercury pollution control in industrial area in Rosignano Marittimo (Italy) during last twenty years (1971-1991)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertani, R.

    1995-01-01

    Author takes into account some papers dealing with mercury environmental pollution, appeared in different scientific journals over the last twenty years, in the aim of defining a homogeneous frame for the comprehension of the environmental situation development. Data relating to air, marine water, sediments, animal and vegetal organisms, show a consistent decreasing of mercury emissions with the passing of time. Nevertheless, author fearfully points out the environmental fate of the mercury which has been heavily released from the plant in the past years and to whom he wishes to turn attention for the assessment of an adequate control procedure

  2. Succession in rocky intertidal benthic communities in areas with different pollution levels at Guanabara Bay (RJ-Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Breves-Ramos, André; Lavrado, Helena Passeri; Junqueira, Andrea de Oliveira Ribeiro; Silva, Sérgio Henrique Gonçalves da

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and compare the succession of intertidal benthic communities in two areas at Guanabara Bay, RJ, Brazil: Urca, an area submitted to moderated organic pollution and Catalão, an extremely polluted area. Three transects in each area were scraped one month before the beginning of this study in order to evaluate the recruitment (recruitment-treatments). Three other transects were monitored without manipulation (monitoring treatments). Species composition and re...

  3. Splitting and non splitting are pollution models photochemical reactions in the urban areas of greater Tehran area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidarinasab, A.; Dabir, B.; Sahimi, M.; Badii, Kh.

    2003-01-01

    During the past years, one of the most important problems has been air pollution in urban areas. In this regards, ozone, as one of the major products of photochemical reactions, has great importance. The term 'photochemical' is applied to a number of secondary pollutants that appear as a result of sun-related reactions, ozone being the most important one. So far various models have been suggested to predict these pollutants. In this paper, we developed the model that has been introduced by Dabir, et al. [4]. In this model more than 48 chemical species and 114 chemical reactions are involved. The result of this development, showed good to excellent agreement across the region for compounds such as O 3 , NO, NO 2 , CO, and SO 2 with regard to VOC and NMHC. The results of the simulation were compared with previous work [4] and the effects of increasing the number of components and reactions were evaluated. The results of the operator splitting method were compared with non splitting solving method. The result showed that splitting method with one-tenth time step collapsed with non splitting method (Crank-Nicolson, under-relaxation iteration method without splitting of the equation terms). Then we developed one dimensional model to 3-D and were compared with experimental data

  4. The assessment of pollution in the area of Turnu Magurele affected by fertilizer plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oprea, C.D.; Pincovschi, E.

    2002-01-01

    The fertilizer industry related to the whole chain of production, storage, transport and use causes a potential pollution of air, water, soil and vegetation. A local sampling monitoring network was developed around Turnu Magurele fertilizer plant in Romania. Samples of mosses, soil, tree leaves and crops were analyzed by neutron activation analysis for more than 35 chemical components. This paper reports the distribution of 39 trace elements in the moss-bio monitor Hypnum cuppresiforme used to study atmospheric deposition in the examined area. The results obtained evidence for a local pollution of the area exposed to the emissions of the phosphate fertilizer local industry, following a gradient along the Danube River wind rose profile. The vegetation input of trace elements from soil is compared with inputs from atmospheric deposition, and these inputs were evaluated in relation to the vegetation content. The study established that cadmium, strontium and rare earths are the major elements as regards fertilizer input. (authors)

  5. The assessment of pollution in the area of Turnu Magurele affected by the fertilizer plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oprea, C.D.; Pincovschi, E.

    2003-01-01

    The fertilizer industry related to the whole chain of production, storage, transport and use causes a potential pollution of air, water, soil and vegetation. A local sampling monitoring network was developed around Turnu Magurele fertilizer plant in Romania. Samples of mosses, soil, tree leaves and crops were analyzed by neutron activation analysis for more than 35 chemical components. This paper reports the distribution of 39 trace elements in the moss-biomonitor Hypnum cupresiforme used to study atmospheric deposition in the examined area. The results obtained evidence a local pollution of the area exposed to the emissions of the phosphate fertilizer local industry, following a gradient along the Danube River wind rose profile. The vegetation input of trace elements from soil is compared with inputs from atmospheric deposition, and these inputs were evaluated in relation to the vegetation content. The study established that cadmium, strontium and rare earth are the major elements as the fertilizer plant input is regarded. (authors)

  6. Biomonitoring of the atmospheric pollution using lichens in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo city, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, M.; Fuga, A.; Alves, E.R.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Marcelli, M.P.

    2007-01-01

    The atmospheric pollution of Sao Paulo city is a serious problem due to the expansion of industrial area, increasing number of vehicles and population density. This work presents results obtained in the analysis of lichens collected in different sites of Sao Paulo city and in non-polluted areas of Atlantic Forest. Concentrations of twenty elements were determined in Canoparmelia texanaspecies and comparisons were made between the results obtained in lichens from different sites. High concentrations of the elements As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, La, Mn, Sb and Zn were found for samples collected in sites located near industries and petrochemical plant. Br and Sb concentrations were also high in lichens from sites affected by vehicular emissions. (author)

  7. Community air pollution and mortality: Analysis of 1980 data from US metropolitan areas. 1: Particulate air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1992-11-01

    1980 data from up to 149 metropolitan areas were used to define cross-sectional associations between community air pollution and excess human mortality. The regression model proposed by Oezkaynak and Thurston, which accounted for age, race, education, poverty, and population density, was evaluated and several new models were developed. The new models also accounted for population change, drinking water hardness, and smoking, and included a more detailed description of race. Cause-of-death categories analyzed include all causes, all non-external causes, major cardiovascular diseases, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Both annual mortality rates and their logarithms were analyzed. The data on particulates were averaged across all monitoring stations available for each SMSA and the TSP data were restricted to the year 1980. The associations between mortality and air pollution were found to be dependent on the socioeconomic factors included in the models, the specific locations included din the data set, and the type of statistical model used. Statistically significant associations were found between TSP and mortality due to non-external causes with log-linear models, but not with a linear model, and between TS and COPD mortality for both linear and log-linear models. When the sulfate contribution to TSP was subtracted, the relationship with COPD mortality was strengthened. Scatter plots and quintile analyses suggested a TSP threshold for COPD mortality at around 65 ug/m{sup 3} (annual average). SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}2}, Mn, PM{sup 15}, and PM{sub 2.5} were not significantly associated with mortality using the new models.

  8. Pollutant Plume Dispersion over Hypothetical Urban Areas based on Wind Tunnel Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Ziwei; Liu, Chun-Ho

    2017-04-01

    Gaussian plume model is commonly adopted for pollutant concentration prediction in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). However, it has a number of limitations being applied to pollutant dispersion over complex land-surface morphology. In this study, the friction factor (f), as a measure of aerodynamic resistance induced by rough surfaces in the engineering community, was proposed to parameterize the vertical dispersion coefficient (σz) in the Gaussian model. A series of wind tunnel experiments were carried out to verify the mathematical hypothesis and to characterize plume dispersion as a function of surface roughness as well. Hypothetical urban areas, which were assembled in the form of idealized street canyons of different aspect (building-height-to-street-width) ratios (AR = 1/2, 1/4, 1/8 and 1/12), were fabricated by aligning identical square aluminum bars at different separation apart in cross flows. Pollutant emitted from a ground-level line source into the turbulent boundary layer (TBL) was simulated using water vapour generated by ultrasonic atomizer. The humidity and the velocity (mean and fluctuating components) were measured, respectively, by humidity sensors and hot-wire anemometry (HWA) with X-wire probes in streamwise and vertical directions. Wind tunnel results showed that the pollutant concentration exhibits the conventional Gaussian distribution, suggesting the feasibility of using water vapour as a passive scalar in wind tunnel experiments. The friction factor increased with decreasing aspect ratios (widening the building separation). It was peaked at AR = 1/8 and decreased thereafter. Besides, a positive correlation between σz/xn (x is the distance from the pollutant source) and f1/4 (correlation coefficient r2 = 0.61) was observed, formulating the basic parameterization of plume dispersion over urban areas.

  9. Characterizing spatial variability of air pollution from vehicle traffic around the Houston Ship Channel area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueying; Craft, Elena; Zhang, Kai

    2017-07-01

    Mobile emissions are a major source of urban air pollution and have been associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes. The Houston Ship Channel area is the home of a large number of diesel-powered vehicles emitting fine particulate matter (PM2.5; ≤2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). However, the spatial variability of traffic-related air pollutants in the Houston Ship Channel area has rarely been investigated. The objective of this study is to characterize spatial variability of PM2.5 and NOx concentrations attributable to on-road traffic in the Houston Ship Channel area in the year of 2011. We extracted the road network from the Texas Department of Transportation Road Inventory, and calculated emission rates using the Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator version 2014a (MOVES2014a). These parameters and preprocessed meteorological parameters were entered into a Research LINE-source Dispersion Model (RLINE) to conduct a simulation. Receptors were placed at 50 m resolution within 300 m to major roads and at 150 m resolution in the rest of the area. Our findings include that traffic-related PM2.5 were mainly emitted from trucks, while traffic-related NOx were emitted from both trucks and cars. The traffic contributed 0.90 μg/m3 PM2.5 and 29.23 μg/m3 NOx to the annual average mass concentrations of on-road air pollution, and the concentrations of the two pollutants decreased by nearly 40% within 500 m distance to major roads. The pollution level of traffic-related PM2.5 and NOx was higher in winter than those in the other three seasons. The Houston Ship Channel has earlier morning peak hours and relative late afternoon hours, which indicates the influence of goods movement from port activity. The varied near-road gradients illustrate that proximities to major roads are not an accurate surrogate of traffic-related air pollution.

  10. Seasonal variation of physicochemical factor and fecal pollution in the Hansan-Geojeman area, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Cheol Park

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The seasonal variation of fecal coliforms (FCs and physicochemical factors was determined in seawaters of the Hansan-Geojeman area, including a designated area for oyster, and in inland pollution sources of its drainage basin. The mean daily loads of FCs in inland pollution sources ranged from 1.2 × 109 to 3.1 × 1011 most probable number (MPN/day; however, the pollutants could not be reached at the designated area. FC concentrations of seawaters were closely related to season, rainfall, and inland contaminants, however, within the regulation limit of various countries for shellfish. The highest concentrations for chemical oxygen demand (COD and chlorophyll-a in seawaters were shown in the surface layer during August with high rainfall, whereas the lowest for dissolved oxygen (DO in the bottom layer of the same month. Therefore, it indicates that the concentrations of FC, COD, DO, and chlorophyll-a of seawaters were closely related to season and rainfall.

  11. Contribution of smoking and air pollution exposure in urban areas to social differences in respiratory health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranft Ulrich

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socio-economic status, smoking, and exposure to increased levels of environmental air pollution are associated with adverse effects on respiratory health. We assessed the contribution of occupational exposures, smoking and outdoor air pollution as competing factors for the association between socio-economic status and respiratory health indicators in a cohort of women from the Ruhr area aged 55 at the time of investigation between 1985 and 1990. Methods Data of 1251 women with spirometry and complete questionnaire information about respiratory diseases, smoking and potential confounders were used in the analyses. Exposure to large-scale air pollution was assessed with data from monitoring stations. Exposure to small-scale air pollution was assessed as traffic-related exposure by distance to the nearest major road. Socio-economic status was defined by educational level. Multiple regression models were used to estimate the contribution of occupational exposures, smoking and outdoor air pollution to social differences in respiratory health. Results Women with less than 10 years of school education in comparison to more than 10 years of school education were more often occupationally exposed (16.4% vs. 10.1%, smoked more often (20.3% vs. 13.9%, and lived more often close to major roads (26.0% vs. 22.9%. Long-term exposure to increased levels of PM10 was significantly associated with lower school education. Women with low school education were more likely to suffer from respiratory symptoms and had reduced lung function. In the multivariate analysis the associations between education and respiratory health attenuated after adjusting for occupational exposure, smoking and outdoor air pollution. The crude odds ratio for the association between the lung function indicator FEV1 less than 80% of predicted value and educational level (10 years of school education was 1.83 (95% CI: 1.22–2.74. This changed to 1.56 (95% CI: 1.03–2

  12. Analysis of tree bark samples for air pollution biomonitoring of an urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Ana Paula G.; Negri, Elnara M.; Saldiva, Paulo H.N.

    2009-01-01

    Air pollution is receiving much attention as a public health problem around the world due to its adverse health effects from exposures by urban populations. Within this context, the use of vegetal biomonitoring to evaluate air quality has been investigated throughout the world. Air pollutant levels are high in the city of Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil and being the vehicle emissions its main source. The aim of this study was to evaluate concentrations of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, S, Sb and Zn in tree bark samples used as biomonitor of urban air pollution. Concentrations of these elements were determined in barks collected in trees of the Ibirapuera Park, one of the biggest and most visited parks of the city of Sao Paulo city. Samples of tree barks were also collected in a site outside the city of Sao Paulo, in a rural area of Embu-Guacu, considered as a control site. The element concentrations were determined by the methods of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and of Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (EDXRF). The findings of this study showed that tree bark samples may be used as biomonitors of urban air pollution in a micro scale, and both techniques, INAA and EDXRF, can be used to evaluate element concentrations in tree bark samples. (author)

  13. Vegetation pattern and soil characteristics of the polluted industrial area of Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, M.; Iqbal, M.Z.; Farooqi, M.Z.; Shafiq, M.

    2010-01-01

    A quantitative phyto sociological survey was conducted around the industrial areas of Sindh Industrial Trading Estate (S.I.T.E.) of Karachi. The herbaceous, shrubs vegetation was predominantly disturbed in nature. Fifteen plant communities based on Importance Value Index (IVI) of species were recognized. Eighty plant species were recorded in industrial areas. Abutilon fruticosum L., attained the highest importance value index (823.25) followed by Prosopis juliflora DC. (662.62), Corchorus trilocularis L. (467.20), Aerva javanica Burm.f. (419.97), Amaranthus viridis L. (397.65) and Senna holosericea L. (387.22), respectively. P. juliflora and A. fruticosum showed leading first dominant in five and four stands, respectively. Whereas, A. javanica, A. viridis, S. holosericea, Launaea nudicaulis L., Crochorus depressus L. and Salvadora L., attained the presence class III. Zygophyllum simplex L., Suaeda fruticosa L., Convolvulus glomeratus Choisky, Cressa cretica L., Cleome viscosa L., Calotropis procera Willd, Blepharis sindica T. Anderson, Rhynchosia pulverulenta L., Abutilon pakistanicum Jafri and Ali, Chenopodium album L., Capparis decidua Forssk and Digera muricata L. Mart showed the presence of class II. Whereas, rest of 58 species showed presence of class I. The soil characteristics of the polluted industrial area were also analyzed and related with the vegetation of the polluted areas. The Industrial area soil was coarse in texture and ranged from sandy clay loam to sandy loam. The soil was acidic to alkaline in nature. Maximum water holding capacity, bulk density, porosity, CaCO/sub 3/, pH, organic matter, total organic carbon, chloride, electrical conductivity, total dissolved salt, available sulphur contents, exchangeable sodium and potassium were recorded in wide range. It was concluded that certain edaphic factors due to industrial activities and induction of pollutants were responsible for variation in vegetation composition of the study area. (author)

  14. DETERMINATION OF DIVERSE ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION LEVEL FROM SELECTED AREAS OF RAWALPINDI, PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pervez

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic contaminants arising from both stationary (power plants, industries and residential heating and mobile sources (road traffic can harm ambient air quality in urban areas. Depending upon their physical state, these pollutants are classified as liquid and vapor phases and are subsequently transported to the Earth’s surface through dry and wet deposition. After the deposition of these pollutants onto the surface of earth various health effects caused by these pollutants occurred like cardiovascular diseases and hypertension. In this study four different locations/sites were selected from the Rawalpindi city depending upon the population, traffic rush and industries to examine the noise level, concentration of carbon dioxide and heavy metals. Air sampler was used for the collection of air sample to analyze the heavy metal concentration, Quest electronic sound meter for measuring sound level and SIBATA for CO2 measurement. The study findings revealed that noise level was higher at all selected locations as described by WHO limit (70 dB being highest at Industrial area due to heavy machinery and lowest at green area. Concentration of all four heavy metals were high as compared with the prescribed limits. CO2 level reaches up to 300 ppm because of coal consumption during the winter season. The threshold values of all these selected parameters well above the prescribed limits defined by the authorities so to combat with this situation we should move towards more energy efficient fuels, proper maintenance of vehicles and machineries, traffic management and installation of noise barriers in industries as well as installation of catalytic convertors in vehicles to stop further air pollution.

  15. Characterization of some metal pollutants in the topsoil of Shukari irrigation farm area, Jere, Borno State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukar, P.H.; Egwuonwu, G.N.

    2011-01-01

    A study of the abundance, distribution and accumulation of some metal pollutants in irrigation farm area of Shukari, Jere Local Government area of Borno State was carried out. XRF instrument was used to determine the presence and concentration of the metals in the top soil samples (0-25 cm) to ascertain their level of toxicity and distribution in the area. Results show that Ni(0.93 -8.07 ppm), Zn(0.06 -8.57 ppm), Mn(0.05-0.21 ppm), Fe(0.0652-0.2866 ppm), Ba(0.0157-0.0411 ppm), Ce(0.0059-0.0118 ppm) Rb(0.0070-0.0165 ppm), V(0.0031-0.0142 ppm) Ti(0.0153-0.0256 ppm), P(0.0064-0.0077 ppm), La(0.0006-0.0007 ppm), Sr(0.0226-0.0230 ppm), Y(0.0033-0.0046 ppm), Mo(0.0002-0.00024 ppm) and Ta(0.000093-0.00014 ppm) concentrations in the soil. Detailed discrepancy analysis of the results with reference to WHO and FEPA standard for soil pollution shows that the accumulation and distribution of the toxic metals in the area were predominantly below soil maximum permissible limits for agricultural activities. Hence, the implications of the results to the environment, irrigation farming activities and public health in the area were highlighted.

  16. Studies concerning the decontamination of hydrocarbons- polluted soil areas using bioremediation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deac, C.; Barbulescu, A.; Gligor, A.; Bibu, M.; Petrescu, V.

    2016-11-01

    The accidental or historic contamination of soils with hydrocarbons, in areas crossed by oil pipelines or where oil- or gas-extraction installations are located, is a major concern and has significant financial and ecological consequences, both for the owners of those areas and for the oil transportation or exploitation companies. Therefore it is very important to find the optimal method for removing the pollution. The current paper presents measures, mainly involving bioremediation, recommended and applied for the depollution of a contaminated area in Romania. While the topic of dealing with polluted soils is well-established in the Romanian speciality literature, bioremediation is a relatively novel approach and this paper presents important considerations in this regard. Contaminated soil samples were taken from 10 different locations within the targeted area and subjected to a thorough physical and chemical analysis, which led to determining a specific scoring table for assessing the bioremediation potential of the various samples. This has allowed the authors to establish for each of the sampled areas the best mix of factors such as nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium), gypsum, microelements etc., that would lead to obtaining the best results in terms of the contaminants' biodegradation.

  17. Changes in Light Pollution and the Causing Factors in China’s Protected Areas, 1992–2012

    OpenAIRE

    Wenli Xiang; Minghong Tan

    2017-01-01

    The natural nighttime light environment of the earth has been significantly transformed by human activities. Such “light pollution” has a profound influence on ecosystems. Protected areas (PAs) play key ecological functions and are only effective at low light pollution levels or without any light pollution. In China, with rapid population growth and high urbanization rates, light pollution in PAs continues to aggravate and threaten a number of ecosystems. We used calibrated nighttime light im...

  18. Long term effect of metal pollution in the catchment area of Tisza River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Győri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In January and March 2000 two tailings dam failures occurred in the upper Tisza catchment area near Baia Mare and Baia Borsa (Romania. These accidents focused attention on the metal pollution of the Tisza catchment area, and the short term effects of them were studied by many researchers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long term effects of these pollutions by determining the Lakanen-Erviö extractable easily available metal contents of samples collected in 2011 from floodplains and pastures along the Tisza (Tivadar, Vásárosnamény, Rakamaz, Tiszacsege, and comparing them to our earlier results. Cu and Zn contents were measured by Optima 3300 DV ICP-OES (Perkin-Elmer. The measurement of Pb and Cd was conducted by QZ 939 GF-AAS (Unicam in 2000 and by an X7 ICP-MS (Thermo Fisher in 2011. We found that the Cd, Zn and Pb contents of the pasture near Vásárosnamény exceed limit values and natural background values. In addition, during a 11 year period the easily available Cd, Zn and Pb contents increased significantly, suggesting that the hazard of this pollution should not be neglected.

  19. Spatial And Temporal Trends Of Organic Pollutants In Vegetation From Remote And Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartrons, Mireia; Catalan, Jordi; Penuelas, Josep

    2016-05-05

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) used in agricultural, industrial, and domestic applications are widely distributed and bioaccumulate in food webs, causing adverse effects to the biosphere. A review of published data for 1977-2015 for a wide range of vegetation around the globe indicates an extensive load of pollutants in vegetation. On a global perspective, the accumulation of POPs and PAHs in vegetation depends on the industrialization history across continents and distance to emission sources, beyond organism type and climatic variables. International regulations initially reduced the concentrations of POPs in vegetation in rural areas, but concentrations of HCB, HCHs, and DDTs at remote sites did not decrease or even increased over time, pointing to a remobilization of POPs from source areas to remote sites. The concentrations of compounds currently in use, PBDEs and PAHs, are still increasing in vegetation. Differential congener specific accumulation is mostly determined by continent-in accordance to the different regulations of HCHs, PCBs and PBDEs in different countries-and by plant type (PAHs). These results support a concerning general accumulation of toxic pollutants in most ecosystems of the globe that for some compounds is still far from being mitigated in the near future.

  20. Respiratory diseases and allergies in two polluted areas in East Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrich, J.; Hoelscher, B.; Wjst, M.; Ritz, B.; Cyrys, J.; Wichmann, H.E. [GSF Forschungszentrum Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Epidemiologie

    1999-01-01

    This cross-sectional epidemiological study collected health data for 2,470 school children between 5 and 14 years of age who had lived most of their lives in either one of two areas strongly impacted by industrial pollution (Bitterfeld and Hettstedt) or in a neighbouring areas without any sources of industrial pollution (Zerbst). The objective was to examine whether regional differences - with respect to the occurrence of childhood respiratory diseases and symptoms or allergies - exist and, if such differences are found, whether they persist when they are adjusted for the effects of known risk factors such as medical and sociodemographic factors or factors related to the indoor environment. It is concluded that industrial pollution related to mining and smelting operations in the county of Hettstedt were associated with a higher lifetime prevalence of respiratory disorders and an increased rate of allergic sensitization in children between the ages of 5 and 14 years. Further studies are needed to determine what role the high dust content of heavy metals plays in Hettstedt.

  1. Aerosol pollution in urban and industrialized area under marine influence: physical-chemistry of particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimetz, J.

    2007-12-01

    Harbors for trade are known as highly urbanized and industrialized areas with important maritime, railway and road traffic. Industries are mainly represented by steel, cement works, and oil refineries. The maritime sector is becoming an even larger source of air pollution. Atmospheric NO x , SO 2 , O 3 levels and chemical analysis of airborne particulate matter were monitored in Dunkerque conurbation in 2005 and 2006. This study was included in the IRENI program. In low-pressure conditions, local pollutants are spread out far away the agglomeration, whereas, in high-pressure regimes, the atmospheric stability and sea-breezes allow an accumulation of pollutants over the urban zone. Size-resolved chemical analyses of particulate matter collected as function of the aerodynamic diameter (D a ) were performed. Ions (Na + , NH 4 + , Cl - , NO 3 - , SO 4 2- ), metals (Fe, Zn, Pb, Cd,...) and organic fraction (EC, OC) are associated with sub- or/and super-micron particles. The size, morphology and chemical species of individual particles collected selectively in the 12O 3 , Fe 3 O 4 , PbO,... containing particles emitted in the Dunkerque harbour area and aged sea-salt aerosol particles (NaCl, NaNO 3 ,...) from long range transport of air masses. Thin organic coatings from natural and anthropogenic origin are observed on the particles by ToF-SIMS imaging. (author)

  2. Does environmental policy affect scaling laws between population and pollution? Evidence from American metropolitan areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Nicholas Z; Jha, Akshaya

    2017-01-01

    Modern cities are engines of production, innovation, and growth. However, urbanization also increases both local and global pollution from household consumption and firms' production. Do emissions change proportionately to city size or does pollution tend to outpace or lag urbanization? Do emissions scale differently with population versus economic growth or are emissions, population, and economic growth inextricably linked? How are the scaling relationships between emissions, population, and economic growth affected by environmental regulation? This paper examines the link between urbanization, economic growth and pollution using data from Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in the United States between 1999 and 2011. We find that the emissions of local air pollution in these MSAs scale according to a ¾ power law with both population size and gross domestic product (GDP). However, the monetary damages from these local emissions scale linearly with both population and GDP. Counties that have previously been out of attainment with the local air quality standards set by the Clean Air Act show an entirely different relationship: local emissions scale according to the square root of population, while the monetary damages from local air pollution follow a 2/3rds power law with population. Counties out of attainment are subject to more stringent emission controls; we argue based on this that enforcement of the Clean Air Act induces sublinear scaling between emissions, damages, and city size. In contrast, we find that metropolitan GDP scales super-linearly with population in all MSAs regardless of attainment status. Summarizing, our findings suggest that environmental policy limits the adverse effects of urbanization without interfering with the productivity benefits that manifest in cities.

  3. Assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution in soil of suburban areas in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jungang; Shi, Rongguang; Cai, Yanming; Liu, Yong

    2010-07-01

    Soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is an increasing problem and has aroused more and more concern in many countries, including China. In this study, representative soil samples (n = 87) of suburban areas in Tianjin (Xiqing, Dongli, Jinnan, Beichen) were evaluated for 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Surface soil samples were air-dried and sieved. Microwave assisted extraction was used for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons preparation prior to analysis with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The total concentrations of tested polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Xiqing, Dongli, Jinnan, Beichen ranged in 58.5-2,748.3, 36.1-6,734.7, 58.5-4,502.5, 29.7-852.5 ng/g and the averages of total concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were 600.5, 933.6, 640.8, 257.3 ng/g, respectively. Spatial variation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil was illustrated; Pollution status and comparison to other cities were also investigated. Serious polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons soil pollution was found in Dongli district, on the contrary, Bap in most sites in Beichen did not exceed relative standards and most sites in Beichen should be classified as non-contaminated soil. Principal component analysis was used to identify the possible sources of different districts. It turned out that coal combustion still was the most important sources in three districts except Beichen. Coking, traffic, cooking, biomass combustion also accounted for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pollution to certain extent in different districts. These data can be further used to assess the health risk associated with soils polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and help local government find proper way to reduce polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pollution in soils.

  4. Neutron activation analysis of neonate and maternal hair sampled in areas with different levels of pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrusnik, I.; Skrivanek, O.; Umlaufova, M.; Hovorka, V.

    1985-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was performed on human head hair of newborns and mothers sampled in two areas with different levels of environmental exposure. The group of neonates from the exposed area (polluted by thermal power plants burning brown coal and by chemical industry) exhibited higher levels of several trace elements in hair, e.g. Se, Zn, Hg and Sb in comparison with the control group. Moreover, the mean concentrations of Se, Hg, Zn and Br in neonate hair were found to be higher than in mothers' hair. Although the study revealed statistically significant differences in the composition of neonate hair samples in areas with different levels of environmental exposure, the differences are relatively small. Only a thorough long-term study both with environmental and medical observations can prove a direct connection of the elevated levels of some trace elements in neonate hair with the higher incidence of mental diseaes of children living in the exposed area. (author)

  5. Modelling air pollution transfers in the Fos-Sur-Mer area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dibi, Niagne Martin

    1985-01-01

    A 'puff' gaussian model with determined standard deviations based on transfer times of two classes of vertical stability of the atmosphere was developed in order to evaluate the atmospheric dispersion of industrial discharges in the Fos-sur-Mer area. This research was carried out within the framework of a large study for the processing of the data obtained during the measurement campaign organized by the European Communities. The model in its analytic form allows consideration of the main phenomena which modify the puff content during the transfer: reflectance, wet and dry deposition, physical-chemical transformation of the pollutant SO 2 . The model includes the site meteorological parameters measured in three dimensions (wind speed and direction at ground level and in altitude) and the characteristics of the different stacks. It can also calculate pollutions resulting from a short emission or from continuous emissions. Examples are presented. (author) [fr

  6. Characterization of photochemical pollution at different elevations in mountainous areas in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To advance our understanding on the factors that affect photochemical pollution at different elevations in mountainous areas, concurrent systematic field measurements (September to November 2010 were conducted at a mountain site and at an urban site at the foot of the mountain in Hong Kong. The mixing ratios of air pollutants were greater at the foot of the mountain (i.e., Tsuen Wan urban site, TW than near the summit (i.e., Tai Mao Shan mountain site, TMS, expect for ozone. In total, only one O3 episode day was observed at TW, whereas twenty-one (21 O3 episode days were observed at TMS. The discrepancy of O3 at the two sites was attributed to the mixed effects of NO titration, vertical meteorological conditions, regional transport and mesoscale circulations. The lower NO levels at TMS and the smaller differences of "oxidant" Ox (O3 + NO2 between the two sites suggested that variations of O3 at the two sites were partly attributed to different degree of NO titration. In addition, analysis of vertical structure of meteorological variables revealed that the inversion layer at the range of altitudes of 500–1000 m might be another factor that caused the high O3 levels at TMS. Furthermore, analyses of the wind fields, the levels of air pollutants in different air flows, ratios of different trace gases and the correlation between variability and the lifetime of VOCs (volatile organic compounds indicated that high O3 concentrations at TMS were somewhat influenced by regional air masses from the highly polluted Pearl River delta (PRD region. In particular, the diurnal profiles and correlations of gaseous pollutants suggested influence of mesoscale circulations, which is confirmed using the Master Chemical Mechanism moving box model (Mbox and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model. By investigating the correlations of observed O3 and NOx* and the relationships of O3 and its precursors by an observation-based model (OBM, as well as the ratios

  7. [Retrieval of Copper Pollution Information from Hyperspectral Satellite Data in a Vegetation Cover Mining Area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yong-hua; Jiao, Si-hong; Liu, Su-hong; Zhu, Ye-qing

    2015-11-01

    level, using stepwise multiple linear regression and cross validation on the dataset which is consisting of 44 groups of copper ion content information in the polluted vegetation leaves from Dexing Copper Mine in Jiangxi Province to build up a statistical model by also incorporating the HJ-1 satellite images. This model was then used to estimate the copper content distribution over the whole research area at Dexing Copper Mine. The result has shown that there is strong statistical significance of the model which revealed the most sensitive waveband to copper ion is located at 516 nm. The distribution map illustrated that the copper ion content is generally in the range of 0-130 mg · kg⁻¹ in the vegetation covering area at Dexing Copper Mine and the most seriously polluted area is located at the South-east corner of Dexing City as well as the mining spots with a higher value between 80 and 100 mg · kg⁻¹. This result is consistent with the ground observation experiment data. The distribution map can certainly provide some important basic data on the copper pollution monitoring and treatment.

  8. Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescent Analysis of Soil in the Vicinity of Industrial Areas and Heavy Metal Pollution Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, V.; Joshi, G. C.; Bisht, D.

    2017-05-01

    The soil of two agricultural sites near an industrial area was investigated for heavy metal pollution using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). The concentration values for 17 elements were determined in the soil samples including eight heavy metal elements, i.e., Fe, Ni, As, Pb, Mn, Cr, Cu, and Zn. The soil near a pulp and paper mill was found to be highly polluted by the heavy metals. The concentration data obtained by EDXRF were further examined by calculating the pollution index and Nemerow integrated pollution index.

  9. Correlation between air pollution and weather data in urban areas: Assessment of the city of Rome (Italy) as spatially and temporally independent regarding pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battista, Gabriele; de Lieto Vollaro, Roberto

    2017-09-01

    Air pollution represents the biggest environmental risk for health. It is so widespread and it represents one of the main problems of the worldwide, especially because it is emitted by so many different types of sources. The pollutants can originate directly by exhausted or they can be formed because of the reaction with the atmosphere. The first one includes particulate matter and gaseous pollutants such as sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and carbon oxides. The second one includes the ozone formed from nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons, and particulate sulfate and nitrate aerosols created in the atmosphere from sulfur and nitrogen oxide gases. During the entire life course, people are exposed to the pollutants and suffer from different consequences depending on the age. The first nine month of life are generally recognized as more critical than latter time periods. The mortality associated to air pollutant exposure is main related to the concentrations of NOx , ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxides and particular matter. More than 92% of the world's population lives in places where air quality levels exceed the standards. In 2012, one out of every nine deaths was the result of air pollution-related conditions. In 2016 about 3 million deaths a year were linked to exposure to outdoor air pollution. In the last few years many epidemiological studies have shown associations between air pollutant concentrations and human health. Apart from people, even monuments and artworks can be damaged by pollution, especially in city centres. Furthermore, urbanization modified microclimate conditions of the cities, and, together with traffic and domestic heating, led to a discomfort of living conditions. For these reasons, there is the necessity to improve the research on the impact of pollutant and microclimate conditions inside urban areas. In this work different kinds of pollutants in Rome from 2006 to 2015 were analysed, and different techniques of post elaboration were used

  10. Measurements and modelling of atmospheric pollution over the Paris area: an overview of the ESQUIF Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Menut

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available The "Étude et Simulation de la QUalité de l'air en Ile de France" (ESQUIF project is the first integrated project dedicated to the study of the processes leading to air pollution events over the Paris area. The project was carried out over two years (summer 1998 to winter 2000 to document all types of meteorological conditions favourable to air quality degradation, and in particular to photo oxydant formation. The goals of ESQUIF are (1 to improve our understanding of the relevant chemical and dynamical processes and, in turn, improve their parametrizations in numerical models, and (2 to improve and validate existing models dedicated to pollution analysis, scenarios and/or forecasting, by establishing a comprehensive and thorough database. We present the rationale of the ESQUIF project and we describe the experimental set-up. We also report on the first experiments which took place during the summer of 1998 involving surface networks, and remote sensing instruments as well as several aircraft. Focusing on three days of August 1998, the relative contributions of long-range transported and locally-produced ozone to the elevated ozone concentrations observed during this period are discussed and chemistry-transport model preliminary results on this period are compared to measurements.Key words: Atmospheric composition and structure (pollution – urban and regional; troposphere – composition and chemistry – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (mesoscale meteorology

  11. [Research of the Stormwater Runoff and Pollution Characteristics in Rural Area of Yuhang District, Hangzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Sheng-hui; Zhao, Yu; Shan, Bao-qing; Tang, Wen-zhong; Zhang, Wen-qiang; Zhang, Shu-zhen; Lang, Chao

    2015-10-01

    In order to investigate the pollution characteristics of stormwater runoff in the southern developed rural region, the runoff samples were collected from four different underlying surfaces during three storm events in Caoqiao and Pujia Tou, which are two typical villages and are located in Yuhang District of Hangzhou. The content of nutrition (nitrogen and phosphorus) and heavy metals (Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Cd, As, Pb) in the simples were analyzed, and the difference of EMC ( event mean concentration) and pollution load of the contaminants in the runoff on different underlying surfaces were compared. The results showed that the EMC of TSS, COD, NH4(+)-N, TP and TN were 16.19, 21.01, 0.74, 1.39 and 2.39 mg x L(-1) in the Caoqiao, respectively; as to Pujia Tou, they were 3.10, 15.69, 0.90, 0.78 and 3.58 mg x L(-1), respectively. The content of heavy metals was all lower than the national surface water quality of two type water in the runoff. Compared with the quality standards for surface water, the EMC of TP was 9 times and 3. 5 times higher and TN was 1. 8 times and 1. 2 times higher in two areas. Besides, the pollution loads of TSS and COD were the highest in farmland.

  12. Air Pollutants, Climate, and the Prevalence of Pediatric Asthma in Urban Areas of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanjuan Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prevalence of childhood asthma varies significantly among regions, while its reasons are not clear yet with only a few studies reporting relevant causes for this variation. Objective. To investigate the potential role of city-average levels of air pollutants and climatic factors in order to distinguish differences in asthma prevalence in China and explain their reasons. Methods. Data pertaining to 10,777 asthmatic patients were obtained from the third nationwide survey of childhood asthma in China’s urban areas. Annual mean concentrations of air pollutants and other climatic factors were obtained for the same period from several government departments. Data analysis was implemented with descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient, and multiple regression analysis. Results. Pearson correlation analysis showed that the situation of childhood asthma was strongly linked with SO2, relative humidity, and hours of sunshine (p<0.05. Multiple regression analysis indicated that, among the predictor variables in the final step, SO2 was found to be the most powerful predictor variable amongst all (β=-19.572, p < 0.05. Furthermore, results had shown that hours of sunshine (β = -0.014, p < 0.05 was a significant component summary predictor variable. Conclusion. The findings of this study do not suggest that air pollutants or climate, at least in terms of children, plays a major role in explaining regional differences in asthma prevalence in China.

  13. Measurements and modelling of atmospheric pollution over the Paris area: an overview of the ESQUIF Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Menut

    Full Text Available The "Étude et Simulation de la QUalité de l'air en Ile de France" (ESQUIF project is the first integrated project dedicated to the study of the processes leading to air pollution events over the Paris area. The project was carried out over two years (summer 1998 to winter 2000 to document all types of meteorological conditions favourable to air quality degradation, and in particular to photo oxydant formation. The goals of ESQUIF are (1 to improve our understanding of the relevant chemical and dynamical processes and, in turn, improve their parametrizations in numerical models, and (2 to improve and validate existing models dedicated to pollution analysis, scenarios and/or forecasting, by establishing a comprehensive and thorough database. We present the rationale of the ESQUIF project and we describe the experimental set-up. We also report on the first experiments which took place during the summer of 1998 involving surface networks, and remote sensing instruments as well as several aircraft. Focusing on three days of August 1998, the relative contributions of long-range transported and locally-produced ozone to the elevated ozone concentrations observed during this period are discussed and chemistry-transport model preliminary results on this period are compared to measurements.

    Key words: Atmospheric composition and structure (pollution – urban and regional; troposphere – composition and chemistry – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (mesoscale meteorology

  14. Environmental pollution due to gas flaring at Oyigbo area of Rivers State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avwiri, G. O.; Ebeniro, J. O.

    1996-01-01

    Environmental degradation due to oil activities in the oil rich Niger Delta of Nigeria is daily approaching a non-tolerance level. Pollutants come from various aspects of operation ranging from seismic operations through drilling to the refinery stage. Gas flared daily by Oil Companies constitute a major health hazard in this country. Environmental pollution due to gas flaring at Oyigbo area of Rivers State is hereby reported. Surface temperature-distance variations were investigated for both dry (March) and rainy (June) seasons. Physical and chemical properties of the rainwater from the areas were also measured and analysed. The results show a surface temperature elevation of about 4.1 Celsius above the mean normal diurnal temperature within a 3.00 km. radius. An average pH 4.25 was recorded thus showing the acidic nature of the environmental rainwater from the area. All other measured parameters showed serious deviations from standards. This temperature elevation and increased acidity of the rainwater have enormous influence on socio-economic lives and the activities of the populace especially on their source of income which is mainly small scale farming. It is therefore necessary that Government agencies empowered to monitor environment especially FEPA should implement all the existing legislation on gas flaring and be more involved in the design and location of gas flaring stacks. These stacks should be located at least 2 km. from towns and villages

  15. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan - TA-60 Roads and Grounds Facility and Associated Sigma Mesa Staging Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, Leonard Frank [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-31

    This Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) was developed in accordance with the provisions of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. §§1251 et seq., as amended), and the Multi-Sector General Permit for Storm Water Discharges Associated with Industrial Activity (U.S. EPA, June 2015) issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and using the industry specific permit requirements for Sector P-Land Transportation and Warehousing as a guide. This SWPPP applies to discharges of stormwater from the operational areas of the TA-60 Roads and Grounds and Associated Sigma Mesa Staging Area at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Los Alamos National Laboratory (also referred to as LANL or the “Laboratory”) is owned by the Department of Energy (DOE), and is operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS). Throughout this document, the term “facility” refers to the TA-60 Roads and Grounds and Associated Sigma Mesa Staging Area. The current permit expires at midnight on June 4, 2020.

  16. COPPER ACCUMULATION IN SOILS AND VEGETATION OF POLLUTED AREA COPŞA MICĂ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Vrînceanu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study carried out in order to estimate the distribution and accumulation of copper in soils and vegetation fromCopşa Mică area used a radial network centered in the source of pollution – S.C. SOMETRA S.A. Copşa Mică. Soil andplant samples taken from the radial nodes of the network were analyzed to determine the content of copper. Values ofcopper content in plant ranged between 4.2 mg/kg and 97 mg/kg. Based on these results has been obtained a regressionequation that estimates the copper content in plants as function of the total copper content in soil. The spontaneousvegetation developed in the investigated area includes plants belonging to the following species: Amaranthusretroflexus, Artemisia vulgaris, Asclepias syriaca, Calamagrostis epigeios, Calamagrostis pseudophragmites, Cynodondactylon, Daucus carota, Equisetum arvense, Phragmites australis, Picris hieracioides, Setaria glauca, Sinapisarvensis, Verbascum phlomoides and Xanthium strumarium. The copper pollution doesn’t represent a major problem inCopşa Mică area.

  17. Modelling the photochemical pollution over the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, C.; Monteiro, A.; Ferreira, J.; Moraes, M. R.; Carvalho, A.; Ribeiro, I.; Miranda, A. I.; Moreira, D. M.

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the photochemical pollution over the Metropolitan Area of Porto Alegre (MAPA), Brazil, where high concentrations of ozone have been registered during the past years. Due to the restricted spatial coverage of the monitoring air quality network, a numerical modelling technique was selected and applied to this assessment exercise. Two different chemistry-transport models - CAMx and CALGRID - were applied for a summer period, driven by the MM5 meteorological model. The meteorological model performance was evaluated comparing its results to available monitoring data measured at the Porto Alegre airport. Validation results point out a good model performance. It was not possible to evaluate the chemistry models performance due to the lack of adequate monitoring data. Nevertheless, the model intercomparison between CAMx and CALGRID shows a similar behaviour in what concerns the simulation of nitrogen dioxide, but some discrepancies concerning ozone. Regarding the fulfilment of the Brazilian air quality targets, the simulated ozone concentrations surpass the legislated value in specific periods, mainly outside the urban area of Porto Alegre. The ozone formation is influenced by the emission of pollutants that act as precursors (like the nitrogen oxides emitted at Porto Alegre urban area and coming from a large refinery complex) and by the meteorological conditions.

  18. Air pollution and urban climate in the Rhine--Westphalian industrial area and their influence on lichen growth on trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domroes, M

    1966-01-01

    Lichens on tree boles were examined on 25,114 trees along streets and areas in the central part of the Ruhr District and related to air pollution concentrations. The lichens were studied with regard to physiognomy, density, and exposition, and in relation to bark characteristics of tree species. Lichens were classified into the following areas: Lichen desert, transitional zone, or area of normal distribution. The lichens were sensitive to air pollution, especially sulfur dioxide emissions. The damaging influence of the town climate, especially aridity, was taken into consideration. Lichens were missing in all areas with a high degree of air pollution. These were areas of high density housing and of lower humidity than open country. Areas which had lower housing density and lower humidity also had increased lichen damage. Lichens were missing in the immediate neighborhood of factories or industrial areas outside towns. Lichen growth was reduced along busy roads.

  19. Dust pollution of snow cover in the industrial areas of Tomsk city (Western Siberia, Russia)

    OpenAIRE

    Talovskaya, Anna Valerievna; Filimonenko, Ekaterina Anatolievna; Osipova, Nina Aleksandrovna; Yazikov, Yegor (Egor) Grigoryevich; Nadeina, Louise Vasilievna

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the results of long-term monitoring (2007-2014) of snow cover pollution in the territory of Tomsk city. Snow samples were collected in the territory of Tomsk. Determination of dust load level was carried out by comparing with the background and reference values. It has been determined that the north-east and central parts of Tomsk are the most contaminated areas, where brickworks, coal and gas-fired thermal power plant are located. The analysis of long-term dynamics sho...

  20. Health Impacts and Economic Costs of Air Pollution in the Metropolitan Area of Skopje.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Gerardo Sanchez; Spadaro, Joseph V; Chapizanis, Dimitris; Kendrovski, Vladimir; Kochubovski, Mihail; Mudu, Pierpaolo

    2018-03-29

    Urban outdoor air pollution, especially particulate matter, remains a major environmental health problem in Skopje, the capital of the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Despite the documented high levels of pollution in the city, the published evidence on its health impacts is as yet scarce. we obtained, cleaned, and validated Particulate Matter (PM) concentration data from five air quality monitoring stations in the Skopje metropolitan area, applied relevant concentration-response functions, and evaluated health impacts against two theoretical policy scenarios. We then calculated the burden of disease attributable to PM and calculated the societal cost due to attributable mortality. In 2012, long-term exposure to PM 2.5 (49.2 μg/m³) caused an estimated 1199 premature deaths (CI95% 821-1519). The social cost of the predicted premature mortality in 2012 due to air pollution was estimated at between 570 and 1470 million euros. Moreover, PM 2.5 was also estimated to be responsible for 547 hospital admissions (CI95% 104-977) from cardiovascular diseases, and 937 admissions (CI95% 937-1869) for respiratory disease that year. Reducing PM 2.5 levels to the EU limit (25 μg/m³) could have averted an estimated 45% of PM-attributable mortality, while achieving the WHO Air Quality Guidelines (10 μg/m³) could have averted an estimated 77% of PM-attributable mortality. Both scenarios would also attain significant reductions in attributable respiratory and cardiovascular hospital admissions. Besides its health impacts in terms of increased premature mortality and hospitalizations, air pollution entails significant economic costs to the population of Skopje. Reductions in PM 2.5 concentrations could provide substantial health and economic gains to the city.

  1. Health Impacts and Economic Costs of Air Pollution in the Metropolitan Area of Skopje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Sanchez Martinez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urban outdoor air pollution, especially particulate matter, remains a major environmental health problem in Skopje, the capital of the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Despite the documented high levels of pollution in the city, the published evidence on its health impacts is as yet scarce. Methods: we obtained, cleaned, and validated Particulate Matter (PM concentration data from five air quality monitoring stations in the Skopje metropolitan area, applied relevant concentration-response functions, and evaluated health impacts against two theoretical policy scenarios. We then calculated the burden of disease attributable to PM and calculated the societal cost due to attributable mortality. Results: In 2012, long-term exposure to PM2.5 (49.2 μg/m3 caused an estimated 1199 premature deaths (CI95% 821–1519. The social cost of the predicted premature mortality in 2012 due to air pollution was estimated at between 570 and 1470 million euros. Moreover, PM2.5 was also estimated to be responsible for 547 hospital admissions (CI95% 104–977 from cardiovascular diseases, and 937 admissions (CI95% 937–1869 for respiratory disease that year. Reducing PM2.5 levels to the EU limit (25 μg/m3 could have averted an estimated 45% of PM-attributable mortality, while achieving the WHO Air Quality Guidelines (10 μg/m3 could have averted an estimated 77% of PM-attributable mortality. Both scenarios would also attain significant reductions in attributable respiratory and cardiovascular hospital admissions. Conclusions: Besides its health impacts in terms of increased premature mortality and hospitalizations, air pollution entails significant economic costs to the population of Skopje. Reductions in PM2.5 concentrations could provide substantial health and economic gains to the city.

  2. Pollution influence in the variability of the lichen Lecanora varia (Ehrh) ach in the area of Bratislava

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisut, I; Jelinkova, E

    1973-01-01

    The lichen Lecanora varia was transplanted from nonpolluted areas to polluted areas in Bratislava. The morphology of the organisms changed; soredia and apothecia with a soredious margin were formed. New young ascocarp with a paler colored discus and a margin were common. The transformation is conditioned by the degree of air pollution exposure. The rate is variable, and depends considerably on macroclimatic circumstances (mainly on the quantity of precipitation in winter). 10 references, 3 figures, 5 tables.

  3. Hydrological and pollution processes in mining area of Fenhe River Basin in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yonggang; Meng, Zhilong; Jiao, Wentao

    2018-03-01

    The hydrological and pollution processes are an important science problem for aquatic ecosystem. In this study, the samples of river water, reservoir water, shallow groundwater, deep groundwater, and precipitation in mining area are collected and analyzed. δD and δ 18 O are used to identify hydrological process. δ 15 N-NO 3 - and δ 18 O-NO 3 - are used to identify the sources and pollution process of NO 3 - . The results show that the various water bodies in Fenhe River Basin are slightly alkaline water. The ions in the water mainly come from rock weathering. The concentration of SO 4 2- is high due to the impact of coal mining activity. Deep groundwater is significantly less affected by evaporation and human activity, which is recharged by archaic groundwater. There are recharge and discharge between reservoir water, river water, soil water, and shallow groundwater. NO 3 - is the main N species in the study area, and forty-six percent of NO 3 - -N concentrations exceed the drinking water standard of China (NO 3 - -N ≤ 10 mg/L content). Nitrification is the main forming process of NO 3 - . Denitrification is also found in river water of some river branches. The sources of NO 3 - are mainly controlled by land use type along the riverbank. NO 3 - of river water in the upper reaches are come from nitrogen in precipitation and soil organic N. River water in the lower reaches is polluted by a mixture of soil organic N and fertilizers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A GIS-based atmospheric dispersion model for pollutants emitted by complex source areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teggi, Sergio; Costanzini, Sofia; Ghermandi, Grazia; Malagoli, Carlotta; Vinceti, Marco

    2018-01-01

    Gaussian dispersion models are widely used to simulate the concentrations and deposition fluxes of pollutants emitted by source areas. Very often, the calculation time limits the number of sources and receptors and the geometry of the sources must be simple and without holes. This paper presents CAREA, a new GIS-based Gaussian model for complex source areas. CAREA was coded in the Python language, and is largely based on a simplified formulation of the very popular and recognized AERMOD model. The model allows users to define in a GIS environment thousands of gridded or scattered receptors and thousands of complex sources with hundreds of vertices and holes. CAREA computes ground level, or near ground level, concentrations and dry deposition fluxes of pollutants. The input/output and the runs of the model can be completely managed in GIS environment (e.g. inside a GIS project). The paper presents the CAREA formulation and its applications to very complex test cases. The tests shows that the processing time are satisfactory and that the definition of sources and receptors and the output retrieval are quite easy in a GIS environment. CAREA and AERMOD are compared using simple and reproducible test cases. The comparison shows that CAREA satisfactorily reproduces AERMOD simulations and is considerably faster than AERMOD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Premature aging in bone of fish from a highly polluted marine area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scopelliti, Giovanna; Di Leonardo, Rossella; Tramati, Cecilia D.; Mazzola, Antonio; Vizzini, Salvatrice

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Crystalline structure of fishbone mineral was defined by XRD and FT-IR analyses. • Expected positive relationship between fish age and bone maturity was not found. • Mineralisation degree was positively related to high concentration of Hg and Cr. • S. porcus and D. annularis showed the highest bone maturity and Hg content. - Abstract: Fish species have attracted considerable interest in studies assessing biological responses to environmental contaminants. In this study, the attention has been focussed on fishbone of selected fish species from a highly polluted marine area, Augusta Bay (Italy, Central Mediterranean) to evaluate if toxicant elements had an effect on the mineralogical structure of bones, although macroscopic deformations were not evident. In particular, an attempt was made to evaluate if bone mineral features, such as crystallinity, mineral maturity and carbonate/phosphate mineral content, determined by XR-Diffraction and FT-IR Spectroscopy, suffered negative effects due to trace element levels in fishbone, detected by ICP-OES. Results confirmed the reliability of the use of diffractometric and spectroscopic techniques to assess the degree of crystallinity and the mineral maturity in fishbone. In addition, in highly polluted areas, Hg and Cr contamination induced a process of premature aging of fishbone, altering its biochemical and mineral contents

  6. Spatial associations between social groups and ozone air pollution exposure in the Beijing urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinyi; Cheng, Hongguang; He, Siyuan; Cui, Xiangfen; Pu, Xiao; Lu, Lu

    2018-07-01

    Few studies have linked social factors to air pollution exposure in China. Unlike the race or minority concepts in western countries, the Hukou system (residential registration system) is a fundamental reason for the existence of social deprivation in China. To assess the differences in ozone (O 3 ) exposure among social groups, especially groups divided by Hukou status, we assigned estimates of O 3 exposure to the latest census data of the Beijing urban area using a kriging interpolation model. We developed simultaneous autoregressive (SAR) models that account for spatial autocorrelation to identify the associations between O 3 exposure and social factors. Principal component regression was used to control the multicollinearity bias as well as explore the spatial structure of the social data. The census tracts (CTs) with higher proportions of persons living alone and migrants with non-local Hukou were characterized by greater exposure to ambient O 3 . The areas with greater proportions of seniors had lower O 3 exposure. The spatial distribution patterns were similar among variables including migrants, agricultural population and household separation (population status with separation between Hukou and actual residences), which fit the demographic characteristics of the majority of migrants. Migrants bore a double burden of social deprivation and O 3 pollution exposure due to city development planning and the Hukou system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Monitoring persistent organic pollutants in an industrial area of Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadal, M.; Schuhmacher, M.; Domingo, J.L. [Rovira i Virgili University, Reus (Spain)

    2004-09-15

    It is well known that combustion of different materials is one of the most important sources of environmental contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Therefore, environments affected by this kind of processes should be strictly controlled. In relation to it, the 2001 Stockholm Convention for the regulation of POPs was undertaken in order to establish agreements and mechanisms to erase the release of 12 POPs on a global scale. While polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were included in this list, other pollutants such as polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be added in a near future. Since more than 30 years ago, one of the largest chemical and petrochemical industrial complexes in Southern Europe is located in Tarragona County (Catalonia, Spain). Several chemical industries (such as a PVC production facility and a chlor-alkali plant) and a big oil refinery are located in this residential area (up to 300,000 inhabitants), together with a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) and a hazardous waste incinerator (HWI). Moreover, the presence of a highway and several roads with an important traffic density influences also the environment of the zone. The current study is a preliminary investigation to assess the levels of several POPs (PCDD/Fs, PCBs, PCNs and PAHs) in soil and vegetation samples collected in Tarragona's industrial and residential areas and to compare them with data obtained in unpolluted sites as well as in other industrial and residential zones.

  8. [Heavy Metals Pollution in Topsoil from Dagang Industry Area and Its Ecological Risk Assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Chen, Zong-juan; Peng, Chang-sheng; Li, Fa-sheng; Gu, Qing-bao

    2015-11-01

    Based on previous studies and field investigation of Dagang industry area in Tianjin, a total of 128 topsoil samples were collected, and contents of 10 heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, Ni, V, Zn and Hg) were determined. The geoaccumulation index and geostatistics were applied to examine the degree of contamination and spatial distribution of heavy metals in topsoil. The assessment on ecological risk of heavy metals was carried out using Hakanson's method, and the main resources of the heavy metals were analyzed as well. It was found that As, Cd and Co had the highest proportions exceeding Tianjin background value, which were 100%, 97.66% and 96.88%, respectively; the heavy-metal content increased to some extent comparing with that in 2004, and the pollutions of As and Cd were the worst, and other metals were at moderate pollution level or below. The ecological risks of heavy metals were different in topsoil with different land use types, the farmland soil in the southwest as well as soils adjacent to the industrial land were at relatively high potential ecological risk level, and the integrated ecological risk index reached up to 1 437.37. Analysis of correlation and principal component showed that traffic and transportation as well as agricultural activities might be the main resources of heavy metals in the area, besides, the industrial activities in the region might also affect the accumulation of heavy metals.

  9. Heavy metal pollution in coastal areas of South China: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai-Long; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Sun, Yu-Xin; Liu, Jin-Ling; Li, Hua-Bin

    2013-11-15

    Coastal areas of South China face great challenges due to heavy metal contamination caused by rapid urbanization and industrialization. In this paper, more than 90 articles on levels, distributions, and sources of heavy metals in sediments and organisms were collected to review the status of heavy metal pollution along coastal regions of South China. The results show that heavy metal levels were closely associated with local economic development. Hong Kong and the Pearl River Estuary were severely contaminated by heavy metals. However, concentrations of heavy metals in sediments from Hong Kong have continually decreased since the early 1990 s. High levels of heavy metals were found in biota from Lingdingyang in Guangdong province. Mollusks had higher concentrations of heavy metals than other species. Human health risk assessments suggested that levels of heavy metals in some seafood from coastal areas of South China exceeded the safety limit. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sources of heavy metal pollution in agricultural soils of a rapidly industrializing area in the Yangtze Delta of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianghua; Zhao, Yongcun; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yudong; Deng, Wenjing

    2014-10-01

    The rapid industrialization and urbanization in developing countries have increased pollution by heavy metals, which is a concern for human health and the environment. In this study, 230 surface soil samples (0-20cm) were collected from agricultural areas of Jiaxing, a rapidly industrializing area in the Yangtze Delta of China. Sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS) and multivariate factorial kriging analysis (FKA) were used to identify and explore the sources of heavy metal pollution for eight metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cd, Hg and As). Localized hot-spots of pollution were identified for Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd with area percentages of 0.48 percent, 0.58 percent, 2.84 percent, 2.41 percent, 0.74 percent, and 0.68 percent, respectively. The areas with Hg pollution covered approximately 38 percent whereas no potential pollution risk was found for As. The soil parent material and point sources of pollution had significant influences on Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd levels, except for the influence of agricultural management practices also accounted for micro-scale variations (nugget effect) for Cu and Zn pollution. Short-range (4km) diffusion processes had a significant influence on Cu levels, although they did not appear to be the dominant sources of Zn and Cd variation. The short-range diffusion pollution arising from current and historic industrial emissions and urbanization, and long-range (33km) variations in soil parent materials and/or diffusion jointly determined the current concentrations of soil Pb. The sources of Hg pollution risk may be attributed to the atmosphere deposition of industrial emission and historical use of Hg-containing pesticides. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Measurement of ethylene emission from Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) under field conditions in NOx-polluted areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, A.; Nakatani, N.; Tsuboi, N.; Nakane, K.; Sakurai, N.; Nakagawa, N.; Sakugawa, H.

    2001-01-01

    Emission of ethylene from the needles of Japanese red pine, Pinus densiflora, was measured in air-polluted areas in Hiroshima, Japan. We applied a suitable protocol to determine the rate of ethylene emission from the excised needles. The influence of excision of needles on ethylene emission was not detected during the first 4 h of incubation at 20degC. Ethylene emissions were low in the unpolluted (Clean) areas regardless of the altitude or season. The emission of stress ethylene increased with the atmospheric NO 2 concentration, suggesting that atmospheric NO x or related substances induced the higher ethylene emission in the polluted areas (near urban and industrial areas). In all cases, 1-year-old needles emitted significantly larger amounts of ethylene than the current needles. Ethylene emission did not increase evenly in the polluted areas, but the frequency of trees emitting high ethylene increased. Therefore, threshold rates for the baseline ethylene emission were proposed. (Author)

  12. Total mercury, methylmercury and selenium in mercury polluted areas in the province Guizhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvat, Milena; Nolde, Natasa; Fajon, Vesna; Jereb, Vesna; Logar, Martina; Lojen, Sonja; Jacimovic, Radojko; Falnoga, Ingrid; Liya, Qu; Faganeli, Jadran; Drobne, Damjana

    2003-03-20

    The province of Guizhou in Southwestern China is currently one of the world's most important mercury production areas. Emissions of mercury from the province to the global atmosphere have been estimated to be approximately 12% of the world total anthropogenic emissions. The main objective of this study was to assess the level of contamination with Hg in two geographical areas of Guizhou province. Mercury pollution in the areas concerned originates from mercury mining and ore processing in the area of Wanshan, while in the area of Quingzhen mercury pollution originates from the chemical industry discharging Hg through wastewaters and emissions to the atmosphere due to coal burning for electricity production. The results of this study confirmed high contamination with Hg in soil, sediments and rice in the Hg mining area in Wanshan. High levels of Hg in soil and rice were also found in the vicinity of the chemical plant in Quingzhen. The concentrations of Hg decreased with distance from the main sources of pollution considerably. The general conclusion is that Hg contamination in Wanshan is geographically more widespread, due to deposition and scavenging of Hg from contaminated air and deposition on land. In Quingzhen Hg contamination of soil is very high close to the chemical plant but the levels reach background concentrations at a distance of several km. Even though the major source of Hg in both areas is inorganic Hg, it was observed that active transformation of inorganic Hg to organic Hg species (MeHg) takes place in water, sediments and soils. The concentration of Hg in rice grains can reach up to 569 microg/kg of total Hg of which 145 microg/kg was in MeHg form. The percentage of Hg as MeHg varied from 5 to 83%. The concentrations of selenium can reach up to 16 mg/kg in soil and up to 1 mg/g in rice. A correlation exists between the concentration of Se in soil and rice, indicating that a portion of Se is bioavailable to plants. No correlation between Hg and Se

  13. Association of lead concentration in colostrum, maternal and cord blood with newborn weight in polluted vs. non-polluted areas of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golmohammadi T.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lead poisoning has proven to be one of the most important environmental health problems among developing countries with both direct and indirect effects on human life. Lead is known to cross the blood-brain barrier and placenta, and accumulates in soft and hard tissues. Lead can be excreted in urine, stool, milk, sweat, nails and saliva. During pregnancy and lactation, lead is released from bones into the blood along with Ca2+. The toxic effects of lead on various human tissues have been studied extensively, but few studies have addressed its impact on fetal development during pregnancy. Blood levels of lead are higher in people living in lead-polluted regions. It has been reported that Tehran (central and southern parts is the most problematic city in terms of lead poisoning.Methods: From 86 sets of mothers and newborns in a non-polluted area of rural Rasht, Iran, we examined specimens of maternal blood, cord blood and colostrum (86×3=258 and specimens from 85 sets of mothers and newborns in a polluted area of Tehran, Iran (85×3=255 for lead levels using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS and analyzed the results by t-test, SPSS, and linear regression.Results: The mean blood lead concentrations of mothers, cord blood of newborns and colostrum were 7.6±4.1, 5.9±3 and 4.2±2.5 μg/dl, respectively, in the non-polluted area and 9.1±8.4, 6.5±5.2 and 5.8±5.5 μg/dl, respectively, in the polluted area. The mean weights of the newborns in non-polluted and polluted areas were 3.2±0.5 kg and 3.2±4.5 kg, respectively.Conclusions: Our data revealed an association between mean concentrations in blood lead of mothers and newborns and between mean concentrations of colostrum lead and newborn blood lead in both areas (p=0.01. There was no association between mean blood lead concentration of mothers with the weight of their newborns (p=0.89.

  14. Risk assessment of heavy metal pollution for detritivores in floodplain soils in the Biesbosch, the Netherlands, taking bioavailability into account.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hobbelen, P.H.F.; Koolhaas, J.E.; van Gestel, C.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Floodplains of the European rivers Rhine and Meuse are heavily polluted. We investigated the risk of heavy metal pollution (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn) for detritivores living in a floodplain area, the Biesbosch, the Netherlands, affected by these rivers. Total soil, pore water and 0.01 M CaCl

  15. Health effects of environmental pollution in population living near industrial complex areas in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Sang-Yong; Choi, Jonghyuk; Bae, Sanghyuk; Lim, Ji-Ae; Kim, Guen-Bae; Yu, Seung-Do; Kim, Yangho; Lim, Hyun-Sul; Son, Bu-Soon; Paek, Domyung; Kim, Yong-Dae; Kim, Heon; Ha, Mina; Kwon, Ho-Jang

    2018-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies have reported an association between environmental pollution and various health conditions in individuals residing in industrial complexes. To evaluate the effects of pollution from industrial complex on human health, we performed a pooled analysis of environmental epidemiologic monitoring data for residents living near national industrial complexes in Korea. The respiratory and allergic symptoms and the prevalence of acute and chronic diseases, including cancer, were used as the outcome variables for health effects. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between exposure to pollution from industrial complexes and health conditions. After adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, occupational exposure, level of education, and body mass index, the residents near the industrial complexes were found to have more respiratory symptoms, such as cough (odds ratio [OR], 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06 to 1.31) and sputum production (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.24), and symptoms of atopic dermatitis (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.20). Among residents of the industrial complexes, the prevalence of acute eye disorders was approximately 40% higher (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.84) and the prevalence of lung and uterine cancer was 3.45 times and 1.88 times higher, respectively, than those among residents of the control area. This study showed that residents living in the vicinity of industrial complexes have a high risk of acute and chronic diseases including respiratory and allergic conditions. These results can be used as basic objective data for developing health management measures for individuals residing near industrial complexes.

  16. Health effects of environmental pollution in population living near industrial complex areas in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Yong Eom

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Several epidemiological studies have reported an association between environmental pollution and various health conditions in individuals residing in industrial complexes. To evaluate the effects of pollution from industrial complex on human health, we performed a pooled analysis of environmental epidemiologic monitoring data for residents living near national industrial complexes in Korea. The respiratory and allergic symptoms and the prevalence of acute and chronic diseases, including cancer, were used as the outcome variables for health effects. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between exposure to pollution from industrial complexes and health conditions. After adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, occupational exposure, level of education, and body mass index, the residents near the industrial complexes were found to have more respiratory symptoms, such as cough (odds ratio [OR], 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06 to 1.31 and sputum production (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.24, and symptoms of atopic dermatitis (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.20. Among residents of the industrial complexes, the prevalence of acute eye disorders was approximately 40% higher (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.84 and the prevalence of lung and uterine cancer was 3.45 times and 1.88 times higher, respectively, than those among residents of the control area. This study showed that residents living in the vicinity of industrial complexes have a high risk of acute and chronic diseases including respiratory and allergic conditions. These results can be used as basic objective data for developing health management measures for individuals residing near industrial complexes.

  17. Microbial pollution indicators and culturable heterotrophic bacteria in a Mediterranean area (Southern Adriatic Sea Italian coasts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabili, L.; Cavallo, R. A.

    2011-05-01

    In the present study we evaluated the degree of microbial water pollution along the coast line between Brindisi and Santa Maria di Leuca (Southern Adriatic Sea) as well as the culturable heterotrophic bacteria abundances and biodiversity in relation to the microbiological quality of the water. A total of 3773 colonies were isolated, subcultured and identified by several morphological, cultural and biochemical methods including the standardized API 20 E and API 20 NE tests. Along the examined coastal tract the microbial pollution indicators were always below the tolerance limits for bathing waters defined by the CEE directive, suggesting a good sanitary quality. Concerning culturable heterotrophic bacteria, different temporal density trends were observed in the four sites in relation to their geographical position. A positive relationship between the bacterial abundances and the temperature was observed in S. Cataldo and Otranto. The culturable bacterial community was mainly composed of the genera Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Photobacterium and Flavobacterium. The Enterobacteriaceae family represented a conspicuous component of the bacterial community too. Bacilli were predominant among the Gram-positive bacteria. Of interest is the isolation of yeasts (2% at the surface and 1% at the bottom) taking into account their capability of biodegradation of various materials. Because of the low level of microbial pollution recorded, our results are indicative of the natural variation and diversity of the culturable bacterial community in such an oligotrophic ecosystem and could represent a good point of comparison with other ecosystems as well as a baseline for long term studies aimed to evaluate the effects of environmental fluctuations and human impacts on this aspect of biodiversity in coastal areas.

  18. War waste and pollution of karstic area of Bosnia and Herzegovina with PCBs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picer, N.; Hodak-Kobasic, V.; Kovac, T.; Calic, V. [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Miosic, N.; Hrvatovic, H. [Geological Survey, Sarajevo (Yugoslavia)

    2004-09-15

    During the recent war, the karst area of Bosnia and Herzegovina has been jeopardized by hazardous waste and deserves particular attention because of its exceptional ecological sensitivity and unfortunately unscrupulous destruction of natural resources, infrastructure, homes and enterprises. This was the reason for creation and planning of a joint three year Project - APOPSBAL, within which scientists from the jeopardized countries (Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Serbia and Montenegro) with the help of scientists from other friendly countries (Czech Republic, Austria, Slovenia and Greece) would identify the real problems concerning the PCB and other POP's contamination of the environment. Objectives of this Project in Bosnia and Herzegovina are: To collect data about damaged facilities with oil with PCBs and also other even more dangerous POPs in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Much better determining the hydrogeological fate of PCBs and other POPs compounds in the most threatened areas of Bosnia and Herzegovina polluted with the POPs. Special emphasis will be paid for the sensitive karstic media of these areas. To recognize in the field directly the technical state of electrotransformers and capacitors with pyralene with special attention to spilling of this oil into the environment. To sample soil and sediments from the sites thought polluted with PCBs and to analyse themselves on its content. To choose several sites for atmospheric monitoring samples with POPs, which are in surroundings to the ground argumentative contaminated with POPs in Bosnia and Herzegovina to establish real data about level of contamination of this very important part of human ecosphere. In this paper it will be reported the results of investigation from the first to the fourth objectives.

  19. Water Pollution Prediction in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area and Countermeasures for Sustainable Development of the Water Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinghui; Huang, Shuaijin; Qu, Xuexin

    2017-10-27

    The Three Gorges Project was implemented in 1994 to promote sustainable water resource use and development of the water environment in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (hereafter "Reservoir Area"). However, massive discharge of wastewater along the river threatens these goals; therefore, this study employs a grey prediction model (GM) to predict the annual emissions of primary pollution sources, including industrial wastewater, domestic wastewater, and oily and domestic wastewater from ships, that influence the Three Gorges Reservoir Area water environment. First, we optimize the initial values of a traditional GM (1,1) model, and build a new GM (1,1) model that minimizes the sum of squares of the relative simulation errors. Second, we use the new GM (1,1) model to simulate historical annual emissions data for the four pollution sources and thereby test the effectiveness of the model. Third, we predict the annual emissions of the four pollution sources in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area for a future period. The prediction results reveal the annual emission trends for the major wastewater types, and indicate the primary sources of water pollution in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. Based on our predictions, we suggest several countermeasures against water pollution and towards the sustainable development of the water environment in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

  20. Investigation of indoor chemical pollutants and perceived odor in an area with complaints of unpleasant odors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Chiung-Yu.; Wu, Tzong-Jer [Graduate Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100, Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 807 (China); Lan, Cheng-Hang [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Chung-Hwa University of Medical Technology, Tai-Nan County 717 (China)

    2009-10-15

    An uncomfortable smell was reported by employees of an IT office (information technological office) in a medical center. This problem started two years ago when the office was refurbished. The objectives of this study are to characterize the indoor air quality of this complaint area in terms of chemical pollutants and odor characteristics, and identify possible sources of this foul smell. Carbonyl chemicals and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were investigated in this study, since these two groups are associated with odors and health effects. Additionally, the odor was evaluated by odor assessors (non-smokers) who recorded odor characters that appeared in offices. By comparing chemical measurements between complaint and non-complaint areas, calculating odor indices, and correlating odor and chemical measurements, we got results showing that a higher correlation coefficient is found between odor presence frequencies and VOC concentrations. Further investigating found nonanal and decanal are possible chemicals for malodors. The concentration levels of these two chemicals in the complaint area are higher than those in the non-complaint areas and exceeding odor thresholds. Possible sources of these long-chain aldehydes are formed during the oxidation degradations of fatty acids like linoleic acid, linolenic acid and oleic acid which are ingredients for many building products like linoleum and surface coating. In order to mitigate this malodor problem, extra and effective ventilation flow rate should be provided to reduce the concentrations of odorous chemicals and the precursors for these odorous chemicals. (author)

  1. Measurements and modelling of atmospheric pollution over the Paris area: an overview of the ESQUIF project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menut, L; Vautard, R; Flamant, P H [Centre National de Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 75 - Paris (France). Lab. de Meteorologie Dynamique; Flamant, C; Beekmann, M; Megie, G; Sicard, M [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 91 - Verrieres-le-Buisson (France). Service d' Aeronomie; Abonnel, C; Lefebvre, M P; Lossec, B [Meteo-France, 75 - Paris (France); Chazette, P; Martin, D [CNRS (France). Lab. des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement; Gombert, D [AIRPARIF, Paris (France); Guedalia, D [CNRS-Universite Paul Sabatier (France). Lab. d' Aerologie; Kley, D [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Perros, P; Toupance, G [CNRS (France). Lab. Interuniversitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques

    2000-11-01

    The ''etude et simulation de la qualite de l'air en ile de France'' (ESQUIF) project is the first integrated project dedicated to the study of the processes leading to air pollution events over the Paris area. The project was carried out over two years (summer 1998 to winter 2000) to document all types of meteorological conditions favourable to air quality degradation, and in particular to photo oxydant formation. The goals of ESQUIF are (1) to improve our understanding of the relevant chemical and dynamical processes and, in turn, improve their parametrizations in numerical models, and (2) to improve and validate existing models dedicated to pollution analysis, scenarios and/or forecasting, by establishing a comprehensive and thorough database. We present the rationale of the ESQUIF project and we describe the experimental set-up. We also report on the first experiments which took place during the summer of 1998 involving surface networks, and remote sensing instruments as well as several aircraft. Focusing on three days of August 1998, the relative contributions of long-range transported and locally-produced ozone to the elevated ozone concentrations observed during this period are discussed and chemistry-transport model preliminary results on this period are compared to measurements. (orig.)

  2. Proposed tethered unmanned aerial system for the detection of pollution entering the Chesapeake Bay area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, J.; McKay, J.; Evans, W.; Gadsden, S. Andrew

    2016-05-01

    This paper is based on a proposed unmanned aerial system platform that is to be outfitted with high-resolution sensors. The proposed system is to be tethered to a moveable ground station, which may be a research vessel or some form of ground vehicle (e.g., car, truck, or rover). The sensors include, at a minimum: camera, infrared sensor, thermal, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) camera, global positioning system (GPS), and a light-based radar (LIDAR). The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of existing methods for pollution detection of failing septic systems, and to introduce the proposed system. Future work will look at the high-resolution data from the sensors and integrating the data through a process called information fusion. Typically, this process is done using the popular and well-published Kalman filter (or its nonlinear formulations, such as the extended Kalman filter). However, future work will look at using a new type of strategy based on variable structure estimation for the information fusion portion of the data processing. It is hypothesized that fusing data from the thermal and NDVI sensors will be more accurate and reliable for a multitude of applications, including the detection of pollution entering the Chesapeake Bay area.

  3. Atoyac River Pollution in the Metropolitan Area of Puebla, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Pérez Castresana

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Atoyac River crosses the metropolitan area of Puebla-Tlaxcala in Mexico and presents a state of pollution that has been scarcely studied. In 2016, the water quality of the river was evaluated based on physicochemical and bacteriological parameters, under the guidelines established for the Maximum Permissible Limit (MPL for Aquatic Life Protection (ALP and Agricultural Irrigation (AI. The sampling sites were the Covadonga Dam, the Echeverría Dam, and an irrigation canal. Water from wells and a spring in the Emilio Portes Gil (EPG population that uses Atoyac water for agricultural irrigation was also analyzed. The data obtained from the river were compared with the 2011 data published in the declaration of classification of Atoyac and Xochiac or Hueyapan and its tributaries. There was a notable increase in hemical oxygen demand (COD (49% and in heavy metals with varying percentages. The anoxic condition of the river (mean 1.47 mg of O2/L with large populations of coliform bacteria was demonstrated, 11 pathogenic members of the Enterobacteriaceae were found, and high organic pollution concentrations were shown, particularly during droughts. Irrigation and well water was contaminated with fecal bacteria (104–549 NMP/100 mL, which included pathogens.

  4. [Off-line control of runoff pollution by filtering ditch-pond system in urban tourist areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing-Feng; Shan, Bao-Qing; Yin, Cheng-Qing; Hu, Cheng-Xiao

    2007-10-01

    An off-line filtering ditch-pond system for controlling storm runoff pollution in urban tourist areas was developed, which could retain the first flush effectively, resulting in the decrease of pollutant concentration and suspended solid average grain size, and the improvement of pollutant retention in runoff. This system could be an effective treatment system for storm runoff pollution, particularly for the scarcity of available land use in urban areas. In 2005, the yearly retention rates of TSS, COD, TN and TP were 86.4%, 85.5%, 83.9% and 82.9%, and during a storm event on June 26, the retention rates of runoff volume, TSS, COD, TN and TP were 67.9%, 97.0%, 89.2%, 94.9% and 96.2%, respectively. This system could also retain most of the suspended solids in runoff.

  5. Factor Analysis on the Factors that Influencing Rural Environmental Pollution in the Hilly Area of Sichuan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By using factor analysis method and establishing analysis indicator system from four aspects including crop production,poultry farming,rural life and township enterprises,the difference,features,and types of factors influencing the rural environmental pollution in the hilly area in Sichuan Province,China.Results prove that the major factor influencing rural environmental pollution in the study area is livestock and poultry breeding,flowed by crop planting,rural life,and township enterprises.Hence future pollution prevention and control should set about from livestock and poultry breeding.Meanwhile,attention should be paid to the prevention and control of rural environmental pollution caused by rural life and township enterprise production.

  6. Tracking sensitive source areas of different weather pollution types using GRAPES-CUACE adjoint model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; An, Xingqin; Zhai, Shixian; Hou, Qing; Sun, Zhaobin

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the sustained pollution processes were selected during which daily PM2.5 concentration exceeded 75 μg/m3 for three days continuously based on the hourly data of Beijing observation sites from July 2012 to December 2015. Using the China Meteorological Administration (CMA) MICAPS meteorological processing system, synoptic situation during PM2.5 pollution processes was classified into five weather types: low pressure and weak high pressure alternating control, weak high pressure, low pressure control, high rear, and uniform pressure field. Then, we chose the representative pollution cases corresponding to each type, adopted the GRAPES-CUACE adjoint model tracking the sensitive source areas of the five types, and analyzed the critical discharge periods of Beijing and neighboring provinces as well as their contribution to the PM2.5 peak concentration in Beijing. The results showed that the local source plays the main theme in the 30 h before the objective time, and prior to 72 h before the objective time contribution of local sources for the five pollution types are 37.5%, 25.0%, 39.4%, 31.2%, and 42.4%, respectively; the Hebei source contributes constantly in the 57 h ahead of the objective time with the contribution proportion ranging from 37% to 64%; the contribution period and rate of Tianjin and Shanxi sources are shorter and smaller. Based on the adjoint sensitivity analysis, we further discussed the effect of emission reduction control measures in different types, finding that the effect of local source reduction in the first 20 h of the objective time is better, and if the local source is reduced 50% within 72 h before the objective time, the decline rates of PM2.5 in the five types are 11.6%, 9.4%, 13.8%, 9.9% and 15.2% respectively. And the reduction effect of the neighboring sources is better within the 3-57 h before the objective time.

  7. Health impact of urban air pollution: the case of the metropolitan Paris area; Impact de la pollution urbaine sur la sante: le cas de la region parisienne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myrto, V.; Menut, L. [Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Lab. de Meteorologie Dynamique, CNRS UMR 8539, Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Chatignoux, E. [Observatoire Regional de la Sante d' Ile de France, 75 - Paris (France)

    2011-05-15

    Urban meteorology and atmospheric composition has become an issue of great public concern. Mega-cities are areas of great population density and also of high rates of gaseous and particulate matter emission. The health of the residents of such large agglomerations will potentially be influenced by the local air-pollution, its formation and dispersion. Efforts are made to link air-pollution and health. Several questions are open: what is the relative contribution of the ambient air-pollution compared to all other exposure factors? What is the 'real' level of exposure reaching the individuals of a population? Can we distinguish the health effects of multiple- pollutants? To answer to these questions we have developed a modeling framework that maps the exposure of the Parisian population to ozone, nitrogen dioxide and fine particles at hourly resolution. This integrated model incorporates a meteorological model, a three-dimensional Eulerian air-quality model and a human exposure module. The first results of this modeling effort suggest new epidemiological evidence of the relationship between ambient air pollution levels and mortality over the city of Paris. (authors)

  8. An advanced open-path atmospheric pollution monitor for large areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, L.

    1995-01-01

    Large amounts of toxic waste materials, generated in manufacturing fuel for nuclear reactors, are stored in tanks buried over large areas at DOE sites. Flammable and hazardous gases are continually generated by chemical reactions in the waste materials. To prevent explosive concentrations of these gases, the gases are automatically vented to the atmosphere when the pressure exceeds a preset value. Real-time monitoring of the atmosphere above the tanks with automatic alarming is needed to prevent exposing workers to unsafe conditions when venting occurs. This project is to design, develop, and test an atmospheric pollution monitor which can measure concentrations of DOE-specified and EPA-specified hazardous gases over ranges as long as 4km. A CO 2 laser to measure absorption spectra and to determine the distance over which the measurements are made, is combined with an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) to measure thermal emission spectra

  9. [Evaluation of pollution of an urban area by level of heavy metals in snow cover].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, N V; Khamitova, R Ia; Petrova, R S

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this study was to systematize various methodological approaches to evaluating the contamination of the snow cover with heavy metals (HM) by using Kazan, an industrial city with diversified industry, as an example. The findings suggest that it is necessary to characterize the contamination of the snow cover by the actual entrance of an element per area unit of the snow cover for a definite period of time rather than by the concentration of TM in the volume unit of snow water (mg/l), which minimizes the uncertainties with spatial and temporary snow cover variations. The index of the maximum allowable entrance, which is of practical value, may be used to objectively calibrate the pollution of the snow cover, by estimating the amount of a coming element and its toxicity.

  10. Identification of critical areas by air pollution in the metropolitan area del Valle de Aburra, to support decision making in environmental management and territorial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rave, Claudia C; Builes, Luis A; Ossa, Julian

    2008-01-01

    A diagnosis of the air resources for the Aburra Valley Metropolitan Area (AMVA) is presented. This evaluation was made by the Energy Environment Economy Modeling and Analysis Research Group in the framework of the POMCA project. A management and territorial ordering plan for the Medellin river basin. For the development of this diagnosis it was necessary to carry out an integrated analysis of some air pollution measurements, results from emissions and in missions models and to take into account different time scales and objectives from several previous studies. One of the main results obtained from the integrated analysis was the characterization of seven areas with specific air pollution problems considering one or various pollutants such as: ozone (O 3 ), Carbon dioxide (CO), Total particles (TSP) and particulate matter 10 (MP10). The results were supported in a geographical information system allowing the development of a system of indicators for the management of these areas.

  11. Hazardous metal pollution in a protected coastal area from Northern Patagonia (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, C H; Giarratano, E; Esteves, J L; Narvarte, M A; Gil, M N

    2017-03-01

    The San Antonio Bay is a protected natural coastal area of Argentina that has been exposed to mining wastes over the last three decades. Iron and trace metals of potential concern to biota and human health (Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn) were investigated in the sediments from the bay and in the soils of the Pile (mining wastes). Concentrations of Cd (45 mg kg -1 ), Pb (42,853 mg kg -1 ), Cu (24,505 mg kg -1 ), and Zn (28,686 mg kg -1 ) in the soils Pile exceeded guidelines for agricultural, residential, and industrial land uses. Risk assessment due to exposure to contaminated soils (Pile) was performed. Hazard quotients were superior to non-risk (HQ >1) for all trace metals, while accumulative hazard quotient index indicated a high risk for children (HI = 93) and moderate for adults (HI = 9). In the bay, sediments closest to the Pile (mudflat and salt marsh) exceeded sediment quality guidelines for protection of biota. Results of different acid extraction methods suggest that most of the pseudototal content was potentially mobile. Principal component analysis indicated that the sites near the Pile (Encerrado channel) were more polluted than the distal ones. Tissues of Spartina spp. located within Encerrado channel showed the highest metal levels among all studied sites. These results show that the problem still persists and the mining wastes are the sources of the pollution. Furthermore, the Encerrado channel is a highly impacted area, as it is shown by their metal enriched sediments.

  12. Some of physiological and biochemical responses of Prunus amygdalus to air pollution of the Shazand industrial area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Askari Mehrabadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In today's world where human life is dependent on the industry, the problems impose in the human life along with theachievement of growing in the field of industrial works. One of the challenging problems is entry of pollutants into air that has the destructive effects on human life and environment especially plants. Plants show different responses against the air pollutants. Plant responses can be vary due to climate, geography and plant species. In this study, the effects of air pollutants in the Shazand industrial area (refinery, petrochemical and thermal power stationin Markazi province has been checked on almond. For this purpose, the leaves of almond in Haftadgholle (control area, Shazand (closest city to industrial zone and Kazaz (adjacent industrial zone were collected. Also, soil samples were collected from three areas to determine lead and zinc amounts in soil. Results showed that proline, sulfur, heavy metals (lead and zinc and lipid peroxidation enhanced significantly in Kazaz and Shazand in compared with Haftadgholle, while antioxidant activity of catalase, superoxide dismutase and guaicol peroxidase didn’t significant changes in three areas. The increase of sulfur amount in leaves, lead and zinc in soil of the Kazaz and Shazand regions could be one of the reasons to prove the presence of pollutants in these areas. The increase of lipid peroxidation indicative plant damage against the air pollution. The plant defense mechanism against of stress is the increase of non-enzymatic antioxidant proline. No change in chlorophylls and protein contents reflects increased resistance to the stress.

  13. Water Pollution Prediction in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area and Countermeasures for Sustainable Development of the Water Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghui Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Three Gorges Project was implemented in 1994 to promote sustainable water resource use and development of the water environment in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (hereafter “Reservoir Area”. However, massive discharge of wastewater along the river threatens these goals; therefore, this study employs a grey prediction model (GM to predict the annual emissions of primary pollution sources, including industrial wastewater, domestic wastewater, and oily and domestic wastewater from ships, that influence the Three Gorges Reservoir Area water environment. First, we optimize the initial values of a traditional GM (1,1 model, and build a new GM (1,1 model that minimizes the sum of squares of the relative simulation errors. Second, we use the new GM (1,1 model to simulate historical annual emissions data for the four pollution sources and thereby test the effectiveness of the model. Third, we predict the annual emissions of the four pollution sources in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area for a future period. The prediction results reveal the annual emission trends for the major wastewater types, and indicate the primary sources of water pollution in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. Based on our predictions, we suggest several countermeasures against water pollution and towards the sustainable development of the water environment in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

  14. Water Pollution Prediction in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area and Countermeasures for Sustainable Development of the Water Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shuaijin; Qu, Xuexin

    2017-01-01

    The Three Gorges Project was implemented in 1994 to promote sustainable water resource use and development of the water environment in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (hereafter “Reservoir Area”). However, massive discharge of wastewater along the river threatens these goals; therefore, this study employs a grey prediction model (GM) to predict the annual emissions of primary pollution sources, including industrial wastewater, domestic wastewater, and oily and domestic wastewater from ships, that influence the Three Gorges Reservoir Area water environment. First, we optimize the initial values of a traditional GM (1,1) model, and build a new GM (1,1) model that minimizes the sum of squares of the relative simulation errors. Second, we use the new GM (1,1) model to simulate historical annual emissions data for the four pollution sources and thereby test the effectiveness of the model. Third, we predict the annual emissions of the four pollution sources in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area for a future period. The prediction results reveal the annual emission trends for the major wastewater types, and indicate the primary sources of water pollution in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. Based on our predictions, we suggest several countermeasures against water pollution and towards the sustainable development of the water environment in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. PMID:29077006

  15. Detection and treatment of hyperthyroidism in sea coastal areas and chemically polluted areas in Gujarat, (western part) India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Om Prakash; Mayank, M.; Rachh, S.; Patel, N.; Patel, K.M.; Soni, M.K.; Bhatt, V.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Thyrotoxicosis results from a high level of thyroid hormone in blood. 131 I therapy for this is very safe treatment. Surgery is not acceptable in youngsters because of cosmetic point of view. Objective: In India most of thyrotoxicosis occurs in sea coastal region and hypothyroidism in Himalayan region. The main objective of this study to evaluate, the effect of geographical distribution and chemical pollution on thyroid. To calculate exact dose based on gland size. Materials and Methods: 160 patients of primary hyperthyroidism were selected. Age group range between 15-65 yrs. All patients from Gujarat (India) it is located in western part of India. It's sea coast is approx. 1600 km long. Here Asia's largest chemical zone is situated. Method: 5ml of blood collected from each patient. T3,T4 and TSH test done by RIA and IRMA techniques. After that 99m TcO 4 - Scintigraphy done by gamma camera (GE infinia) 15 days before administration of 131 I all iodine containing food and drugs had been stopped, even iodized salts also. 20 patients got fixed dose of 131 I 10 mci per patient. 140 patients got 120 micro curie per gram of thyroid tissues weight. Follow up study done after 6 months of 131 I administration. Thyroid function test and scintigraphy done to evaluate pre and post therapy changes. Result: 60% of treated patients from sea coastal area, 25% from chemical and 15% from planes. The patients who got fixed dose 10 mci 131 I, of them 35% became hypothyroid and 3% got 2nd dose (13-15 mci) other group who got 120 micro curie 131 I per gram of thyroid tissue of them only 10% became hypothyroid but 5.4% had been treated with 20% more 131 I than primary dose. In the age group of 50-65 yrs on ECG cardiac arrhythmia detected. Conclusion: In treatment of thyrotoxic patients 120 micro curie/gram group shows better result than fixed dose 10 mCi. 60% of treated patients were from sea coastal range, but 25% patients were from chemically polluted zone is guiding us to

  16. Air pollution of railways in urban areas. [Denmark]; Luftforurening fra togdrift i byomraeder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roerdam Olesen, H.; Ellermann, T.; Winther, M.; Schmidt Plejdrup, M.; Brandt, J. [Aarhus Univ.. Institut for Miljoevidenskab, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2013-05-01

    The present report describes the results of a project on the air pollution impact of railways in the towns of Copenhagen and Aarhus. The project has comprised three activities. 1) Emission inventory. Detailed information about the activity of diesel fuelled trains in Copenhagen and Aarhus has been acquired. Based on this information emissions of NO{sub X} and PM{sub 2.5} (particles with a diameter of less than 2.5 micron) have been computed for railways and stations. 2) Computations of concentrations. The above mentioned emission data have provided a base for computation of concentrations of air pollutants close to railways and at further distances from them. 3) Indicative measurements. A number of indicative measurements of NO{sub 2} (nitrogen dioxide) have been carried out at a few selected locations - some with an assumed large exposure to road traffic and trains, and others with assumed exposure from trains only. These indicative measurements have been limited in various respects. The focus of the entire work was to obtain an overall assessment, where results are expressed in terms of annual mean values. Features at a scale of less than 100 meters have not been described in the emission inventories, neither in the majority of the dispersion model calculations. Assessments for particle pollution involve only direct emissions of particles as PM{sub 2.5}, whereas resuspension of dust and wear from brakes and rails has been disregarded. Neither has the number of ultrafine particles been considered. The environmental significance of railway service in the two towns can be summarized as: 1) On a national level trains account for 2 % of NO{sub X} emission and 0.3 % of PM{sub 2.5} emission. 2) In the Copenhagen area (defined as a circle with radius 5 km and centre at Copenhagen Central Station) trains account for 3 % on NO{sub X} emission and 0.6 % of PM{sub 2.5} emission. 3) In the Aarhus area (a similar circle around Aarhus Central Station) trains account for 2 % on

  17. Modeling of photochemical air pollution in the Barcelona area with highly disaggregated anthropogenic and biogenic emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toll, I.; Baldasano, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The city of Barcelona and its surrounding area, located in the western Mediterranean basin, can reach high levels of O 3 in spring and summertime. To study the origin of this photochemical pollution, a numerical modeling approach was adopted and the episode that took place between 3 and 5 August 1990 was chosen. The main meteorological mesoscale flows were reproduced with the meteorological non-hydrostatic mesoscale model MEMO for 5 August 1990, when weak pressure synoptic conditions took place. The emissions inventory was calculated with the EIM-LEM model, giving highly disaggregated anthropogenic and biogenic emissions in the zone studied, an 80 x 80 km 2 area around the city of Barcelona. Major sources of VOC were road traffic (51%) and vegetation (34%), while NO x were mostly emitted by road traffic (88%). However, emissions from some industrial stacks can be locally important and higher than those from road traffic. Photochemical simulation with the MARS model revealed that the combination of mesoscale wind flows and the above-mentioned local emissions is crucial in the production and transport of O 3 in the area. On the other hand, the geostrophic wind also played an important role in advecting the air masses away from the places O 3 had been generated. The model simulations were also evaluated by comparing meteorological measurements from nine surface stations and concentration measurements from five surface stations, and the results proved to be fairly satisfactory. (author)

  18. Heavy metal pollution in coastal areas of South China: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shuai-Long; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Sun, Yu-Xin; Liu, Jin-Ling; Li, Hua-Bin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Heavy metal contamination in coastal areas of South China has been reviewed. • Heavy metal levels were closely related to economic development in past decades. • Heavy metal levels from Hong Kong continually decreased from the early 1990s. • Higher concentrations of heavy metals were found in mollusk. • Levels of heavy metals in part of seafood exceeded the safety limit. -- Abstract: Coastal areas of South China face great challenges due to heavy metal contamination caused by rapid urbanization and industrialization. In this paper, more than 90 articles on levels, distributions, and sources of heavy metals in sediments and organisms were collected to review the status of heavy metal pollution along coastal regions of South China. The results show that heavy metal levels were closely associated with local economic development. Hong Kong and the Pearl River Estuary were severely contaminated by heavy metals. However, concentrations of heavy metals in sediments from Hong Kong have continually decreased since the early 1990s. High levels of heavy metals were found in biota from Lingdingyang in Guangdong province. Mollusks had higher concentrations of heavy metals than other species. Human health risk assessments suggested that levels of heavy metals in some seafood from coastal areas of South China exceeded the safety limit

  19. Impact of energy consumption on urban warming and air pollution in Tokyo metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, T.S.; Hoshi, H.

    1995-01-01

    The rapid progress of industrialization and urbanization due to economic growth and concentration of social function in the urban areas in Japan have had an adverse effect on the urban environment. In most cities, it has become evident that the increase in energy consumption is causing environmental problems, including a temperature rise in the urban atmosphere (urban heat island) and air pollution. This paper reports the results of field observations and three dimensional simulations of the urban heat island using a three-dimensional modelling vorticity-velocity vector potential formation, in the Tokyo metropolitan area. According to the simulation for urban warming in the study area for the year 2031, the maximum temperature of a summer evening (18:00) would exceed 43 degrees celsius, indicating that Tokyo would no longer be comfortable for its inhabitants. It is concluded that in the near future, the problem of the urban heat island will become a more important issue than that of global warming because the rate of urban warming is greater. For this reason, the urban heat island could be fatal to humans unless resolved in the near future. (author). 1 tab., 11 figs., 18 refs

  20. [Pollution Assessment and Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Heavy Metals in Soils of Coal Mining Area in Longkou City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuo; Wu, Quan-yuan; Cao, Xue-jiang; Wang, Ji-ning; Zhang, Long-long; Cai, Dong-quan; Zhou, Li-yuan; Liu, Na

    2016-01-15

    The present paper takes the coal mining area of Longkou City as the research area. Thirty-six topsoil (0-20 cm) samples were collected and the contents of 5 kinds of heavy metals were determined, including Cd, As, Ni, Ph, Cr. Geo-statistics analysis was used to analyze the spatial distribution of heavy metals. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to explore the pollution sources of heavy metals and the degree of heavy metals pollution was evaluated by weighted average comprehensive pollution evaluation method. The results showed that enrichment phenomenon was significant for the 5 kinds of heavy metals. Taking secondary standard of National Environment Quality Standard for Soil as the background value, their exceed standard rates were 72.22%, 100%, 100%, 91.67%, 100%, respectively. Average contents of heavy metals in the soil samples were all over the national standard level two and were 1.53, 11.86, 2.40, 1.31, 4.09 times of the background value. In addition, the average contents were much higher than the background value of the topsoil in the eastern part of Shandong Province and were 9.85, 39.98, 8.85, 4.29, 12.71 times of the background value. According to the semivariogram model, we obtained the nugget-effects of 5 kinds of heavy metals and their values were in the order of As (0.644) > Cd (0.627) > Cr (0.538) > Ni (0.411) > Pb (0.294), all belonging to moderate spatial correlation. On the whole, the central part of the Sangyuan Coal Mine and its surrounding areas were the most seriously polluted, while the pollution of heavy metals in the east and west of the study area was relatively light. Principal component analysis suggested that the enrichment of Cd, As, Ni, Cr was due to irrigation of wastewater, the discharge of industry and enterprise, and the industrial activity. Automobile exhaust and coal combustion were the main pollution sources of Pb. The single-factor assessment of heavy metals pollution showed that the degree of different heavy metals

  1. Assessment of sediment quality based on acid-volatile sulfide and simultaneously extracted metals in heavily industrialized area of Asaluyeh, Persian Gulf: concentrations, spatial distributions, and sediment bioavailability/toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfaeinia, Hossein; Nabipour, Iraj; Ostovar, Afshin; Asadgol, Zahra; Abuee, Ehsan; Keshtkar, Mozhgan; Dobaradaran, Sina

    2016-05-01

    Sediment samples from the coastal area of Asaluyeh harbor were collected during autumn and spring 2015. The acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metals (SEMs) were measured to assess the sediment quality and potential ecological risks. The average concentrations (and relative standard deviation (RSD)) of AVS in the industrial sediments were 12.32 μmol/g (36.91) and 6.34 μmol/g (80.05) in autumn and spring, respectively, while in the urban area, these values were 0.44 μmol/g (123.50) and 0.31 μmol/g (160.0) in autumn and spring, respectively. The average concentrations of SEM (and RSD) in the industrial sediments were 15.02 μmol/g (14.38) and 12.34 μmol/g (20.65) in autumn and spring, respectively, while in the urban area, these values were 1.10 μmol/g (43.03) and 1.06 μmol/g (55.59) in autumn and spring, respectively. Zn was the predominant component (34.25-86.24 %) of SEM, while the corresponding value for Cd, much more toxic ingredient, was less than 1 %. Some of the coastal sediments in the harbor of Asaluyeh (20 and 47 % in autumn and spring, respectively) had expected adverse biological effects based on the suggested criterion by United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), while most stations (80 and 53 % in autumn and spring, respectively) had uncertain adverse effects.

  2. Chemical pollution assessment and prioritisation model for the Upper and Middle Vaal water management areas of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzwairo, B; Otieno, F A O

    2014-12-01

    A chemical pollution assessment and prioritisation model was developed for the Upper and Middle Vaal water management areas of South Africa in order to provide a simple and practical Pollution Index to assist with mitigation and rehabilitation activities. Historical data for 2003 to 2008 from 21 river sites were cubic-interpolated to daily values. Nine parameters were considered for this purpose, that is, ammonium, chloride, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, pH, fluoride, nitrate, phosphate and sulphate. Parameter selection was based on sub-catchment pollution characteristics and availability of a consistent data range, against a harmonised guideline which provided five classes. Classes 1, 2, 3 and 4 used ideal catchment background values for Vaal Dam, Vaal Barrage, Blesbokspruit/Suikerbosrant and Klip Rivers, respectively. Class 5 represented values which fell above those for Klip River. The Pollution Index, as provided by the model, identified pollution prioritisation monitoring points on Rietspruit-W:K2, Natalspruit:K12, Blesbokspruit:B1, Rietspruit-L:R1/R2, Taaibosspruit:T1 and Leeuspruit:L1. Pre-classification indicated that pollution sources were domestic, industrial and mine effluent. It was concluded that rehabilitation and mitigation measures should prioritise points with high classes. Ability of the model to perform simple scenario building and analysis was considered to be an effective tool for acid mine drainage pollution assessment.

  3. Temperature-related mortality estimates after accounting for the cumulative effects of air pollution in an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanišić Stojić, Svetlana; Stanišić, Nemanja; Stojić, Andreja

    2016-07-11

    To propose a new method for including the cumulative mid-term effects of air pollution in the traditional Poisson regression model and compare the temperature-related mortality risk estimates, before and after including air pollution data. The analysis comprised a total of 56,920 residents aged 65 years or older who died from circulatory and respiratory diseases in Belgrade, Serbia, and daily mean PM10, NO2, SO2 and soot concentrations obtained for the period 2009-2014. After accounting for the cumulative effects of air pollutants, the risk associated with cold temperatures was significantly lower and the overall temperature-attributable risk decreased from 8.80 to 3.00 %. Furthermore, the optimum range of temperature, within which no excess temperature-related mortality is expected to occur, was very broad, between -5 and 21 °C, which differs from the previous findings that most of the attributable deaths were associated with mild temperatures. These results suggest that, in polluted areas of developing countries, most of the mortality risk, previously attributed to cold temperatures, can be explained by the mid-term effects of air pollution. The results also showed that the estimated relative importance of PM10 was the smallest of four examined pollutant species, and thus, including PM10 data only is clearly not the most effective way to control for the effects of air pollution.

  4. Spatial and Temporal Variations of EC and OC Aerosol Combustion Sources in a Polluted Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouteva, G.; Randerson, J. T.; Fahrni, S.; Santos, G.; Bush, S. E.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Czimczik, C. I.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of carbonaceous aerosols are a major component of fine air particulate matter (PM2.5) in polluted metropolitan areas and in the global atmosphere. Elemental (EC) and organic carbon (OC) aerosols influence Earth's energy balance by means of direct and indirect pathways and EC has been suggested as a better indicator of public health impacts from combustion-related sources than PM mass. Quantifying the contribution of fossil fuel and biomass combustion to the EC and OC emissions and their temporal and spatial variations is critical for developing efficient legislative air pollution control measures and successful climate mitigation strategies. In this study, we used radiocarbon (14C) to separate and quantify fossil and biomass contributions to a time series of EC and OC collected at 3 locations in Salt Lake City (SLC). Aerosol samples were collected on quartz fiber filters and a modified OC/EC analyzer was used with the Swiss_4S protocol to isolate and trap the EC fraction. Together with the total carbon (TC) content of the samples, the EC was analyzed for its 14C content with accelerator mass spectrometry. The 14C of OC was derived as a mass balance difference between TC and EC. EC had an annual average fraction modern of 0.13±0.06 and did not vary significantly across seasons. OC had an annual average FM of 0.49±0.13, with the winter mean (0.43±0.11) lower than the summer mean (0.64±0.13) at the 5% significance level. While the 3 stations were chosen to represent a variety of environmental conditions within SLC, no major differences in this source partitioning were observed between stations. During winter, the major sources of air pollutants in SLC are motor vehicles and wood stove combustion and determining their relative contributions has been the subject of debate. Our results indicated that fossil fuels were the dominant source of carbonaceous aerosols during winter, contributing 87% or more of the total EC mass and 40-75% of the OC

  5. [Transport and sources of runoff pollution from urban area with combined sewer system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Qing; Yin, Cheng-Qing

    2009-02-15

    Sampling and monitoring of runoff and sewage water in Wuhan urban area with combined sewer system were carried out during the period from 2003 to 2006, to study the transport and sources of runoff pollution at the catchment scale coupled with environmental geochemistry method. The results showed a change in quality between the runoff entering the sewer network and the combined storm water flow at the sewer's outlet. A significant increase was observed in the concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS), volatile suspended solids (VSS), COD, TN, and TP, and in the proportion of COD linked to particles. During the runoff production and transport, the concentrations of TSS and COD increased from 18.7 mg/L and 37.0 mg/L in roof runoff, to 225.3 mg/L and 176.5 mg/L in street runoff, and to 449.7 mg/L and 359.9 mg/L in combined storm water flow, respectively. The proportion of COD linked to particles was increased by 18%. In addition, the total phosphorus (P) and iron (Fe) contents in urban ground dust, storm drain sediment, sewage sewer sediment and combined sewer sediment were measured to identify the potential sources of suspended solids in the combined flow. The urban ground dust andstorm drain sediment wererich in Fe, whereas the sewage sewer sediment was rich in P. The P/Fe ratios in these groups were significantly distinct and able to differentiate them. A calculation of the two storm events based on the P/Fe rations showed that 56% +/- 26% of suspended solids in combined flow came from urban ground and storm drain. The rest wer e originated from the sewage sewer sediments which deposited in combined sewer on the dry weather days and were eroded on the wet weather days. The combined sewer network not only acts as a transport system, but also constitutes a physicochemical reactor that degrades the quality of urban water. Reducing the in-sewer pollution stocks would effectively control urban runoff pollution.

  6. Radioactivity, radiological risk and metal pollution assessment in marine sediments from Calabrian selected areas, southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caridi, F.; Messina, M.; Faggio, G.; Santangelo, S.; Messina, G.; Belmusto, G.

    2018-02-01

    The two most significant categories of physical and chemical pollutants in sediments (radionuclides and metals) were investigated in this article, in order to evaluate pollution levels in marine sediments from eight different selected sites of the Calabria region, south of Italy. In particular samples were analyzed to determine natural and anthropic radioactivity and metal concentrations, in order to assess any possible radiological hazard, the level of contamination and the possible anthropogenic impact in the investigated area. Activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs were measured by High Purity Germanium (HPGe) gamma spectrometry. The obtained results show that, for radium (in secular equilibrium with uranium), the specific activity ranges from ( 14 ± 1) Bq/kg dry weight (d.w.) to ( 54 ± 9) Bq/kg d.w.; for thorium, from ( 12 ± 1) Bq/kg d.w. to ( 83 ± 8) Bq/kg d.w.; for potassium, from ( 470 ± 20) Bq/kg d.w. to ( 1000 ± 70) Bq/kg d.w. and for cesium it is lower than the minimum detectable activity value. The absorbed gamma dose rate in air (D), the annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE) outdoor and the external hazard index ( H_ex) were calculated to evaluate any possible radiological risk, mainly due to the use of marine sediments for the beach nourishment. The results show low levels of radioactivity, thus discarding any significant radiological risk. Some metals (As, Cd, Cr tot, Hg, Ni, Pb, Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe), that could be released into the environment by both natural and anthropogenic sources, were investigated through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurements and compared with the limits set by the Italian Legislation, to assess any possible contamination. Experimental results show that they are much lower than the contamination threshold value, thus excluding their presence as pollutants. The degree of sediment contaminations were quantified using enrichment factor ( EF) and geoaccumulation index ( I geo) for

  7. Critical review of heavy metal pollution of traffic area runoff: Occurrence, influencing factors, and partitioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, Maximilian; Welker, Antje; Helmreich, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    A dataset of 294 monitored sites from six continents (Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, North and South America) was compiled and evaluated to characterize the occurrence and fate of heavy metals in eight traffic area categories (parking lots, bridges, and three types each of both roads and highways). In addition, site-specific (fixed and climatic) and method-specific (related to sample collection, preparation, and analysis) factors that influence the results of the studies are summarized. These factors should be considered in site descriptions, conducting monitoring programs, and implementing a database for further research. Historical trends for Pb show a sharp decrease during recent decades, and the median total Pb concentrations of the 21st century for North America and Europe are approximately 15 μg/L. No historical trend is detected for Zn. Zn concentrations are very variable in traffic area runoff compared with other heavy metals because of its presence in galvanized structures and crumbs of car tire rubber. Heavy metal runoff concentrations of parking lots differ widely according to their use (e.g., employee, supermarket, rest areas for trucks). Bridge deck runoff can contain high Zn concentrations from safety fences and galvanizing elements. Roads with more than 5000 vehicles per day are often more polluted than highways because of other site-specific factors such as traffic signals. Four relevant heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cd) can occur in the dissolved phase. Knowledge of metal partitioning is important to optimize stormwater treatment strategies and prevent toxic effects to organisms in receiving waters. - Highlights: • Heavy metal runoff concentrations in parking lots, bridges, and roads • Large dataset of dissolved and total metal concentrations in traffic area runoff • Description of site-specific and monitoring method-specific factors • Summary of traffic-related and anthropogenic heavy metals in road runoff • Reduction in Pb

  8. Critical review of heavy metal pollution of traffic area runoff: Occurrence, influencing factors, and partitioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Maximilian [Chair of Urban Water Systems Engineering, Technical University of Munich, Am Coulombwall 8, 85748 Garching (Germany); Welker, Antje [Fachgebiet Siedlungswasserwirtschaft und Hydromechanik, Frankfurt University of Applied Sciences, Nibelungenplatz 1, 60318 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Helmreich, Brigitte, E-mail: b.helmreich@tum.de [Chair of Urban Water Systems Engineering, Technical University of Munich, Am Coulombwall 8, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    A dataset of 294 monitored sites from six continents (Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, North and South America) was compiled and evaluated to characterize the occurrence and fate of heavy metals in eight traffic area categories (parking lots, bridges, and three types each of both roads and highways). In addition, site-specific (fixed and climatic) and method-specific (related to sample collection, preparation, and analysis) factors that influence the results of the studies are summarized. These factors should be considered in site descriptions, conducting monitoring programs, and implementing a database for further research. Historical trends for Pb show a sharp decrease during recent decades, and the median total Pb concentrations of the 21st century for North America and Europe are approximately 15 μg/L. No historical trend is detected for Zn. Zn concentrations are very variable in traffic area runoff compared with other heavy metals because of its presence in galvanized structures and crumbs of car tire rubber. Heavy metal runoff concentrations of parking lots differ widely according to their use (e.g., employee, supermarket, rest areas for trucks). Bridge deck runoff can contain high Zn concentrations from safety fences and galvanizing elements. Roads with more than 5000 vehicles per day are often more polluted than highways because of other site-specific factors such as traffic signals. Four relevant heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cd) can occur in the dissolved phase. Knowledge of metal partitioning is important to optimize stormwater treatment strategies and prevent toxic effects to organisms in receiving waters. - Highlights: • Heavy metal runoff concentrations in parking lots, bridges, and roads • Large dataset of dissolved and total metal concentrations in traffic area runoff • Description of site-specific and monitoring method-specific factors • Summary of traffic-related and anthropogenic heavy metals in road runoff • Reduction in Pb

  9. Heavy metal accumulation, heat shock protein expression and cytogenetic changes in Tetrix tenuicornis (L.) (Tetrigidae, Orthoptera) from polluted areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warchalowska-Sliwa, E.; Niklinska, M.; Goerlich, A.; Michailova, P.; Pyza, E.

    2005-01-01

    The orthopteran insect Tetrix tenuicornis, collected from polluted and unpolluted areas, was used to study heavy metal accumulation and its impact on stress protein levels and on changes in the number and morphology of chromosomes in mitotic and meiotic cells. During two consecutive years, insects were collected from polluted areas of zinc-lead mine spoils near Boleslaw (Poland) and from unpolluted areas near Busko and Staszow (Poland). T. tenuicornis from the polluted area showed 1.5, 4.03, 4.32 and 41.73 times higher concentrations of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd), respectively, than insects of the same species collected from unpolluted areas. Insects exposed to heavy metals showed only small changes, and rather a decrease in the concentration of constitutive and inducible heat shock proteins Hsp70, the level of which increases under stress conditions. A cytogenetic study of T. tenuicornis revealed intra-population anomalies in chromosome number and morphology in mitotic and meiotic cells and the presence of an additional B chromosome in germinal cells. In 50% of females collected from polluted areas, mosaic oogonial mitotic chromosome sets and diploid, hypo- or hypertetraploid, tetraploid, and octoploid chromosome numbers were detected. In turn, 14.6% of males showed a heterozygous deficiency of chromatin in L 2 and M 3 bivalents in addition to the presence of B chromosomes. - Metals accumulation caused genotoxicity in insects

  10. Evaluation of leafy vegetables as bioindicators of gaseous mercury pollution in sewage-irrigated areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shun-An; Wu, Zeying; Chen, Chun; Liang, Junfeng; Huang, Hongkun; Zheng, Xiangqun

    2018-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) can evaporate and enter the plants through the stomata of plant leaves, which will cause a serious threat to local food safety and human health. For the risk assessment, this study aimed to investigate the concentration and accumulation of total gaseous mercury (TGM) in five typical leafy vegetables (Chinese chives (Allium tuberosum Rottler), amaranth (Amaranthus mangostanus L.), rape (Brassica campestris L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), and spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)) grown on sewage-irrigated areas in Tianjin, China. The following three sites were chosen to biomonitor Hg pollution: a paddy field receiving sewage irrigation (industrial and urban sewage effluents) for the last 30 years, a vegetable field receiving sewage irrigation for 15 years, and a grass field which did not receive sewage irrigation in history. Results showed that the total Hg levels in the paddy (0.65 mg kg -1 ) and vegetation fields (0.42 mg kg -1 ) were significantly higher than the local background level (0.073 mg kg -1 ) and the China national soil environment quality standard for Hg in grade I (0.30 mg kg -1 ). The TGM levels in ambient air were significantly higher in the paddy (71.3 ng m -3 ) and vegetable fields (39.2 ng m -3 ) relative to the control (9.4 ng m -3 ) and previously reported levels (1.45 ng m -3 ), indicating severe Hg pollution in the atmospheric environment of the sewage-irrigated areas. Furthermore, gaseous mercury was the dominant form of Hg uptake in the leaves or irreversibly bound to leaves. The comparison of Hg uptake levels among the five vegetables showed that the gradient of Hg accumulation followed the order spinach > red amaranth > Chinese chives > rape > lettuce. These results suggest that gaseous Hg exposure in the sewage-irrigated areas is a dominant Hg uptake route in leafy vegetables and may pose a potential threat to agricultural food safety and human health.

  11. (Draft) Community air pollution and mortality: Analysis of 1980 data from US metropolitan areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1992-11-01

    1980 data from up to 149 metropolitan areas were used to define cross-sectional associations between community air pollution and excess'' human mortality. The regression model proposed by Ozkaynak and Thurston (1987), which accounted for age, race, education, poverty, and population density, was evaluated and several new models were developed. The new models also accounted for migration, drinking water hardness, and smoking, and included a more detailed description of race. Cause-of-death categories analyzed include all causes, all non-external'' causes, major cardiovascular diseases, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Both annual mortality rates and their logarithms were analyzed. Air quality data were obtained from the EPA AIRS database (TSP, SO[sub 4][sup =], Mn, and ozone) and from the inhalable particulate network (PM[sub 15], PM[sub 2.5] and SO[sub 4][sup =], for 63[sup 4] locations). The data on particulates were averaged across all monitoring stations available for each SMSA and the TSP data were restricted to the year 1980. The associations between mortality and air pollution were found to be dependent on the socioeconomic factors included in the models, the specific locations included in the data set, and the type of statistical model used. Statistically significant associations were found as follows: between TSP and mortality due to non-external causes with log-linear models, but not with a linear model betweenestimated 10-year average (1980--90) ozone levels and 1980 non-external and cardiovascular deaths; and between TSP and COPD mortality for both linear and log-linear models. When the sulfate contribution to TSP was subtracted, the relationship with COPD mortality was strengthened.

  12. (Draft) Community air pollution and mortality: Analysis of 1980 data from US metropolitan areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1992-11-01

    1980 data from up to 149 metropolitan areas were used to define cross-sectional associations between community air pollution and ``excess`` human mortality. The regression model proposed by Ozkaynak and Thurston (1987), which accounted for age, race, education, poverty, and population density, was evaluated and several new models were developed. The new models also accounted for migration, drinking water hardness, and smoking, and included a more detailed description of race. Cause-of-death categories analyzed include all causes, all ``non-external`` causes, major cardiovascular diseases, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Both annual mortality rates and their logarithms were analyzed. Air quality data were obtained from the EPA AIRS database (TSP, SO{sub 4}{sup =}, Mn, and ozone) and from the inhalable particulate network (PM{sub 15}, PM{sub 2.5} and SO{sub 4}{sup =}, for 63{sup 4} locations). The data on particulates were averaged across all monitoring stations available for each SMSA and the TSP data were restricted to the year 1980. The associations between mortality and air pollution were found to be dependent on the socioeconomic factors included in the models, the specific locations included in the data set, and the type of statistical model used. Statistically significant associations were found as follows: between TSP and mortality due to non-external causes with log-linear models, but not with a linear model betweenestimated 10-year average (1980--90) ozone levels and 1980 non-external and cardiovascular deaths; and between TSP and COPD mortality for both linear and log-linear models. When the sulfate contribution to TSP was subtracted, the relationship with COPD mortality was strengthened.

  13. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals, metalloids, and chlorine in ectomycorrhizae from smelter-polluted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejpková, Jaroslava; Gryndler, Milan; Hršelová, Hana; Kotrba, Pavel; Řanda, Zdeněk; Synková, Iva; Borovička, Jan

    2016-11-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi contribute to the survival of host trees on metal-rich soils by reducing the transfer of toxic metals into roots. However, little is known about the ability of ECM fungi to accumulate elements in ectomycorrhizae (ECMs). Here we report Ag, As, Cd, Cl, Cu, Sb, V, and Zn contents in wild-grown Norway spruce ECMs collected in a smelter-polluted area at Lhota near Příbram, Czech Republic. The ECMs data were compared with the element concentrations determined in the corresponding non-mycorrhizal fine roots, soils, and soil extracts. Bioaccumulation factors were calculated to differentiate the element accumulation ability of ECMs inhabited by different mycobionts, which were identified by ITS rDNA sequencing. Among the target elements, the highest contents were observed for Ag, Cl, Cd, and Zn; Imleria badia ECMs showed the highest capability to accumulate these elements. ECMs of Amanita muscaria, but not of other species, accumulated V. The analysis of the proportions of I. badia and A. muscaria mycelia in ECMs by using species-specific quantitative real-time PCR revealed variable extent of the colonization of roots, with median values close to 5% (w/w). Calculated Ag, Cd, Zn and Cl concentrations in the mycelium of I. badia ECMs were 1 680, 1 510, 2 670, and 37,100 mg kg -1 dry weight, respectively, indicating substantial element accumulation capacity of hyphae of this species in ECMs. Our data strengthen the idea of an active role of ECM fungi in soil-fungal-plant interactions in polluted environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Chemical-physical and ecological characterisation in the environmental project of a polluted coastal area: the Bagnoli case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. BERGAMIN

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bagnoli Bay (southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Naples, Italy has been impacted for about one century by heavy anthropogenic pollution due to an important steel plant. A multidisciplinary environmental research, aimed at the reclamation of the marine contaminated area, was planned in order to evaluate, through quantitative data, the chemical-physical and ecological characteristics of marine sediments; the latter ones are strictly related to the composition and structure of benthic foraminiferal assemblages. A comprehensive statistical approach, considering all data, was attempted in order to single out the influence of pollutants on the single species distribution. The results show strong heavy metal pollution (Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn in the vicinity of the industrial plant. Many foraminiferal species (Haynesina germanica, Miliolinella subrotunda,Quinqueloculina parvula, have a good tolerance to some trace metals while, Bulimina sublimbata, Elphidiummacellum and Miliolinella dilatata show a good tolerance to PAHs pollution.

  15. Growth of lichens and air pollution in the area of Saarbruecken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, W

    1972-01-01

    Beside 20 saxicolous and earthy lichens 30 species of lichens growing on tree bark were identified in the town of Saarbruecken. The corticolous lichens Pertusaria coccodes, P. henrici, Rhinodina pyrina and Lepraria candelaris as well as the sulfurous lichen Lechidea lucida were found in the Saarland for the first time. In the explored area there is a desert of lichens (zone V) which is 18 km long and about 4 km wide. Next comes an inner fighting zone where the crustose species Lecanora conizaeoides and Lepraria aeruginosa are dominating. An almost undisturbed epiphytic growth of lichens (zone III to I) is restricted only to a few small refuges mostly of the tops of the surrounding hills. The foliose lichens Parmelia saxatilis and P. subrudecta which were growing well developed in some places of the urban area turned out to be remarkably resistent against SO/sub 2/. The otherwise frequent Hypogymnia physodes could be found only in poor initial stages. The frontier of the desert of lichens is correlating with a middle SO/sub 2/ air pollution of 0.06 to 0.09 mg SO/sub 2//m/sup 3/. After having examined the epiphytic vegetation these physically measured values, however, compared with those of other cities are supposed to be quite higher.

  16. Methodology for the ecotoxicological evaluation of areas polluted by phosphogypsum wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sanchez, M. J.; Garcia-Lorenzo, M. L.; Perez-Sirvent, C.; Martinez-Lopez, S.; Hernandez-Cordoba, M.; Bech, J.

    2012-04-01

    In Spain, the production of phosphoric acid, and hence of phosphogypsum, is restricted to a fertilizer industrial site. The residues contain some radionuclides of the U-series and other contaminants. In order to estimate the risk posed by these materials, chemical methods need to be complemented with biological methods. Then, the aim of this study was to develop a battery of bioassays for the ecotoxicological screening of areas polluted by phosphogypsum wastes. Particularly, the toxicity of water samples, sediments and their pore-water extracts was evaluated by using three assays: bacteria, plants and ostracods. The applied bioassays were: the bioluminescence inhibition of Vibrio fischeri in superficial water samples using Microtox® bioassay; the root and shoot elongation inhibition and the mortality of Lepidium sativum, Sorghum saccharatum and Sinapis alba using Phytotoxkit® bioassay; and inhibition of Heterocypris incongruens by way of Ostracodtoxkit®. Proposed methodology allows the identification of contamination sources and non contaminated areas, corresponding to decreasing toxicity values.

  17. Effect of seawater samples from a pollution impacted area in southeastern Brazil to Mysidopsis juniae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badaro-Pedroso, C.; Nipper, N.G.

    1993-01-01

    The Sao Sebastiao Channel, located at the coast of the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, holds the largest oil terminal in the country, besides a small harbor and an extensive touristic activity. Since 1969, when the oil terminal was installed, the area has been submitted to chronic oil pollution due to the terminal's activities and to a number of spills of different magnitudes, caused by accidents with oil tankers. Sewage disposal is another cause of impact in the area. In a research conducted in CETESB's laboratory at the marine Biology Center from University of Sao Paulo, the occurrence of lethal and sublethal effects of seawater samples from that region, on the mysid shrimp Mysidopsis juniae, was analyzed in short-term chronic toxicity tests. The water samples were collected seasonally, for 18 months, at ten stations of the channel. The test endpoints were survival, growth and fecundity. The occurrence of abnormalities was also registered. Survival and length were not significantly affected, and fecundity. The occurrence of abnormalities was also registered. Survival and length were not significantly affected, and fecundity did not reach the minimum acceptable value for controls, of 50%. Dry weight data indicated a detrimental effect of some samples. This could be caused by a lowered lipid content. Abnormalities in the uropod and telson development were observed for some treatments

  18. Inorganic nitrogenous air pollutants, atmospheric nitrogen deposition and their potential ecological impacts in remote areas of western North America (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bytnerowicz, A.; Fenn, M. E.; Fraczek, W.; Johnson, R.; Allen, E. B.

    2013-12-01

    Dry deposition of gaseous inorganic nitrogenous (N) air pollutants plays an important role in total atmospheric N deposition and its ecological effects in the arid and semi-arid ecosystems. Passive samplers and denuder/ filter pack systems have been used for determining ambient concentrations of ammonia (NH3), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and nitric acid vapor (HNO3) in the topographically complex remote areas of the western United States and Canada. Concentrations of the measured pollutants varied significantly between the monitoring areas. Highest NH3, NO2 and HNO3 levels occurred in southern California areas downwind of the Los Angeles Basin and in the western Sierra Nevada impacted by emissions from the California Central Valley and the San Francisco Bay area. Strong spatial gradients of N pollutants were also present in southeastern Alaska due to cruise ship emissions and in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region in Canada affected by oil exploitation. Distribution of these pollutants has been depicted by maps generated by several geostatistical methodologies within the ArcGIS Geostatistical Analyst (ESRI, USA). Such maps help to understand spatial and temporal changes of air pollutants caused by various anthropogenic activities and locally-generated vs. long range-transported air pollutants. Pollution distribution maps for individual N species and gaseous inorganic reactive nitrogen (Nr) have been developed for the southern portion of the Sierra Nevada, Lake Tahoe Basin, San Bernardino Mountains, Joshua Tree National Park and the Athabasca Oil Sands Region. The N air pollution data have been utilized for estimates of dry and total N deposition by a GIS-based inferential method specifically developed for understanding potential ecological impacts in arid and semi-arid areas. The method is based on spatial and temporal distribution of concentrations of major drivers of N dry deposition, their surface deposition velocities and stomatal conductance values

  19. Observational analyses of dramatic developments of a severe air pollution event in the Beijing area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A rapid development of a severe air pollution event in Beijing, China, at the end of November 2015 was investigated with unprecedented observations collected during the field campaign of the Study of Urban Rainfall and Fog/Haze (SURF-15. Different from previous statistical analyses of air pollution events and their correlations with meteorological environmental conditions in the area, the role of turbulent mixing in the pollutant transfer was investigated in detail. The analyses indicate that the major pollution source associated with high particulate matter of diameter 2.5 µm (PM2.5 was from south of Beijing. Before the day of the dramatic PM2.5 increase, the nighttime downslope flow from the mountains to the west and north of Beijing reduced the surface PM2.5 concentration northwest of Beijing. The nighttime surface stable boundary layer (SBL not only kept the relatively less-polluted air near the surface, it also shielded the rough surface from the pollutant transfer by southwesterly winds above the SBL, leading to the fast transport of pollutants over the Beijing area at night. As the daytime convective turbulent mixing developed in the morning, turbulent mixing transported the elevated polluted air downward even though the weak surface wind was from northeast, leading to the dramatic increase of the surface PM2.5 concentration in the urban area. As a result of both turbulent mixing and advection processes with possible aerosol growth from secondary aerosol formation under the low-wind and high-humidity conditions, the PM2.5 concentration reached over 700 µg m−3 in the Beijing area by the end of the day. Contributions of the two transporting processes to the PM2.5 oscillations prior to this dramatic event were also analyzed. The study demonstrates the important role of large-eddy convective turbulent mixing in vertical transfer of pollutants and the role of the SBL in not only decoupling vertical transport of trace gases and

  20. A Questionnaire Case Study to Investigate Public Awareness of Smog Pollution in China’s Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jiang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Smog pollution is one of China’s most pressing public health issues today and has therefore received significant attention worldwide. Not only cities but also villages in China are suffering from smog pollution, especially since 2013. However, there is limited information available about public awareness on smog pollution in China, especially for where it concerns the residents living in villages. Based on a questionnaire survey, this study aims to help fill this gap. The results of the study show that the income of the majority of respondents comes from working in the city, accounting for 31.6% of the total income. The percentages for respondents related to access to smog information from various channels are as follows: TV (28.5%, radio (24.2%, neighbors (13.5%, Internet (9.8%, newspapers (8.3% and others (7.8%. As for attitudes regarding the severity degree and main cause of smog pollution, most respondents (33.7% thought smog pollution in villages was somewhat severe, while 26.3% agreed that the main contributor to smog pollution was industrial emissions, followed by coal burning at power plants (20.9% and vehicle emissions (17.7%. The results also indicate that most of the respondents were satisfied with the government’s performance in terms of smog control. However, 67.9% of respondents indicated they would remain silent and not intervene when confronted by an activity that causes smog pollution. This study can help to improve an understanding of public awareness regarding smog pollution in China’s rural areas and thereby activate positive public participation in smog pollution prevention and management in the search for sustainable development.

  1. Rapid sewage pollution assessment by means of the coverage of epilithic taxa in a coastal area in the SW Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becherucci, M E; Jaubet, M L; Saracho Bottero, M A; Llanos, E N; Elías, R; Garaffo, G V

    2018-07-01

    The sewage pollution impact over coastal environment represents one of the main reasons explaining the deterioration of marine coastal ecosystems around the globe. This paper aims to detect promptly a putative sewage pollution impact in a Southwestern Atlantic coastal area of Argentina as well as to identify a straightforward way for monitoring, based on the relative abundance coverage of the intertidal epilithic taxa. Four sampling sites were distributed at increased distances from the sewage outfall where the cover of individual epilithic species was visually estimated. The surrounded outfall area (i.e. outfall site) resulted polluted with high percentages of organic matter in sediment and Enterococcus concentration in seawater. The structure of the community showed a remarkable difference between the polluted site (outfall site) and the unpolluted sites. The polychaete Boccardia proboscidea dominated the outfall site with variable abundances of the green algae Ulva sp. during the period of study, decreasing the diversity of the community, while the mussel Brachidontes rodriguezii and variable abundances of several algae species dominated the unpolluted sites. The monitoring of the benthic community represents an effective, non-destructive, relative inexpensive and rapid method to assess the health of the coastal environment in the study area. The large abundance of B. proboscidea along with the absence of B. rodriguezii individuals at coastal ecosystem with certain gradient of pollution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. POLLUTION OF SHOKARSKI STORMWATER CANAL AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE QUALITY OF THE VARNA BLACK SEA COASTAL AREA, BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Simeonova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollution of Shokarski stormwater canal and its influence on the quality of the Varna Black Sea coastal area, Bulgaria. In the present study was investigated the pollution of Shokаrski stormwater canal, discharging its water into the Varna Black Sea coastal area. Monitoring was carried out during 2011 year at 5 sites along the canal water flow. The pollution was determined by organoleptic and physico- chemical characteristics, nutrients concentrations and the organic load. Critical levels of dissolved oxygen were measured at some of the monitoring sites ranging from 0,65 to 2,79 mg/dm3. Ammonium and nitrite concentrations were above the threshold limits at all sites. The phosphates’ concentrations varied very dynamically ranging from 0,18 to 11,8 mg/dm3 and in most of the cases exceeded the threshold limit. Very high levels of biochemically degradable organic pollutants were determined with biochemical oxygen demand values reaching- 68,96 mg/dm3. The Shokarski canal pollution could be considered as a tremendous thread for the quality of the Varna Black Sea coastal area, Bulgaria.

  3. Air pollution in moderately polluted urban areas: How does the definition of “neighborhood” impact exposure assessment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenailleau, Quentin M.; Mauny, Frédéric; Joly, Daniel; François, Stéphane; Bernard, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    Environmental health studies commonly quantify subjects' pollution exposure in their neighborhood. How this neighborhood is defined can vary, however, leading to different approaches to quantification whose impacts on exposure levels remain unclear. We explore the relationship between neighborhood definition and exposure assessment. NO 2 , benzene, PM 10 and PM 2.5 exposure estimates were computed in the vicinity of 10,825 buildings using twelve exposure assessment techniques reflecting different definitions of “neighborhood”. At the city scale, its definition does not significantly influence exposure estimates. It does impact levels at the building scale, however: at least a quarter of the buildings' exposure estimates for a 400 m buffer differ from the estimated 50 m buffer value (±1.0 μg/m 3 for NO 2 , PM 10 and PM 2.5 ; and ±0.05 μg/m 3 for benzene). This variation is significantly related to the definition of neighborhood. It is vitally important for investigators to understand the impact of chosen assessment techniques on exposure estimates. - Highlights: • Residential building air pollution was calculated using 12 assessment techniques. • These techniques refer to common epidemiological definitions of neighborhood. • At the city scale, neighborhood definition does not impact exposure estimates. • At the building scale, neighborhood definition does impact exposure estimates. • The impact of neighborhood definition varies with physical/deprivation variables. - Ignoring the impact of the neighborhood's definition on exposure estimates could lead to exposure quantification errors that impact resulting health studies, health risk evaluation, and consequently all the decision-making process.

  4. Critical review of heavy metal pollution of traffic area runoff: Occurrence, influencing factors, and partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Maximilian; Welker, Antje; Helmreich, Brigitte

    2016-01-15

    A dataset of 294 monitored sites from six continents (Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, North and South America) was compiled and evaluated to characterize the occurrence and fate of heavy metals in eight traffic area categories (parking lots, bridges, and three types each of both roads and highways). In addition, site-specific (fixed and climatic) and method-specific (related to sample collection, preparation, and analysis) factors that influence the results of the studies are summarized. These factors should be considered in site descriptions, conducting monitoring programs, and implementing a database for further research. Historical trends for Pb show a sharp decrease during recent decades, and the median total Pb concentrations of the 21st century for North America and Europe are approximately 15 μg/L. No historical trend is detected for Zn. Zn concentrations are very variable in traffic area runoff compared with other heavy metals because of its presence in galvanized structures and crumbs of car tire rubber. Heavy metal runoff concentrations of parking lots differ widely according to their use (e.g., employee, supermarket, rest areas for trucks). Bridge deck runoff can contain high Zn concentrations from safety fences and galvanizing elements. Roads with more than 5000 vehicles per day are often more polluted than highways because of other site-specific factors such as traffic signals. Four relevant heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cd) can occur in the dissolved phase. Knowledge of metal partitioning is important to optimize stormwater treatment strategies and prevent toxic effects to organisms in receiving waters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Risk assessment of metals and PAHs for receptor organisms in differently polluted areas in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Sayegh Petkovšek, Samar; Kopušar, Nataša; Tome, Davorin; Kryštufek, Boris

    2015-11-01

    Samples from receptor organisms (small mammals, passerine birds) and their food sources (herbaceous plants, leaves and fruits of wood plants, earthworms) were collected during 2011-2014 from the vicinity of a former lead smelter, from the vicinity of the largest Slovenian thermal power plant, from along a state road and also from a reference area. The samples were then analysed to determine the degree of contamination with the metals (Pb, Cd, Zn, Hg, Cu, Mo) and with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This study provides the first data on metal and PAH exposure to small mammals and passerine birds in southeast Europe, focussing on the transfer of metals and PAHs through the food chain and on risk assessment for differently polluted areas in Slovenia. The results indicate that: (i) earthworms and herbaceous plants (especially roots) can be a source of metal exposure for organisms higher in the food chain; (ii) a risk from Pb and Cd (HQ > 1) in the vicinity of the former lead smelter exists for Myodes glareolus feeding in part on roots and for Apodemus flavicollis and Parus major feeding in part on earthworms; and (iii) mean Pb and Cd concentrations in the liver of small mammal species inhabiting the vicinity of the lead smelter reach effect concentrations in a significant proportion of the specimens (Pb: 40%, Cd: 67%); (iv) the results for P. major confirm that the study area is exposed to Pb, Cd, Hg; (v) metals contribute the major part of the total risk for receptor organisms from vicinity of lead smelter. On the contrary, the risk of PAHs for small mammals trapped close to the state road is insignificant. We can summarize, that the hazards experienced by the local ecosystem due to metal exposure may persist for decades in the vicinity of large emission sources (especially smelters). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pollution effect on soil biological activity in the anthropogenic contaminated area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batukaev, Abdulmalik; Sushkova, Svetlana; Minkina, Tatiana; Antonenko, Elena; Salamova, Anzhelika; Gimp, Alina; Deryabkina, Irina

    2017-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are one of the most significant environmental contaminants with mutagenic and carcinogenic properties to all living organisms. The changes in microbial community structure in technogenic polluted soil may be used as tools for predicting and monitoring natural degradation and for search the most effective and appropriate pathways of bioremediation. The present study is aimed to research the biological activity of the soil in the emission zone of Novocherkassk Power station (NPs) (Russia) polluted by PAHs in 2015. The NPs is one of the largest thermal power stations in the south of Russia burning low-quality coal appurtenant the enterprises of I hazardous class. Monitoring plots were located on virgin or no-till fallow areas and not subject to the sanitary-protection zone of the NPs. Soil samples were taken from a depth of 0- to 20-cm, because the major part of PAHs are accumulated in the surface soil layer. The soils of the plots mainly include Chernozems Calcic (plots 1, 4, 5, 7, 9 and 10), Phaeozems Haplic (plots 3, 6, 8 and 11) Fluvisols Umbric (plots 2 and 12). In the soil of 12 monitoring plots located around NPs there were determined the main enzymes, abundance of soil bacteria and 17 priority PAHs. PAHs extraction from soil was performed by new developed ecologically clean method of subcritical water extraction without organic solvents (Sushkova et al., 2015). The level of PAHs around NPs is high at the nearest to factory monitoring plots situated at distance 1,0-1,2 km and reaches from 1600,1±14,7 up to 373,6±7,1 mkg/kg in the 20-cm soil layer. Gradually decrease of PAHs contamination is observed while increasing the distance from the NPs. The level of highmolecular PAHs (4-6 aromatic rings) exceeds the level of lowmolecular (2-3 aromatic rings) PAHs in all monitoring plots situated though the prevailing wind direction from NPs. The close correlations were found between PAHs content and biological activity parameters

  7. Trace metal pollution assessment in the surface sediments of nearshore area, off Calicut, southwest coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Reji; Shynu, R; Sreeraj, M K; Ramachandran, K K

    2017-07-15

    Metal concentrations (Al, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb), grain size, and total organic carbon content in 29 surface sediment samples from the nearshore area off Calicut were analyzed to determine their distribution and pollution status. Surface sediments were dominantly silts with low percentage of clay and sand at nearshore and offshore areas. The mean metal concentrations were in the following order: Cr>Ni>Zn>Pb>Cu. The enrichment factor and geo-accumulation index of metals suggest that the surface sediments were not polluted by Zn and moderately polluted by Cu and Ni. By contrast, Cr and Pb showed significant enrichment levels. Results from a multivariate statistical analysis suggested that the spatial enrichment of these heavy metals was related to sediment type. Thus, the sediment distribution and their metal enrichment were mainly controlled by local hydrodynamic conditions that caused the winnowing of fine-grained sediments. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Severe situation of rural nonpoint source pollution and efficient utilization of agricultural wastes in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

    2015-11-01

    Rural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution caused by agricultural wastes has become increasingly serious in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA), significantly affecting the reservoir water quality. The grim situation of rural NPS pollution in the TGRA indicated that agrochemicals (chemical fertilizer and pesticide) were currently the highest contributor of rural NPS pollution (50.38%). The harmless disposal rates of livestock excrement, crop straws, rural domestic refuse, and sewage also cause severe water pollution. More importantly, the backward agricultural economy and the poor environmental awareness of farmers in the hinterland of the TGRA contribute to high levels of rural NPS pollution. Over the past decade, researchers and the local people have carried out various successful studies and practices to realize the effective control of rural NPS pollution by efficiently utilizing agricultural wastes in the TGRA, including agricultural waste biogas-oriented utilization, crop straw gasification, decentralized land treatment of livestock excrement technology, and crop straw modification. These technologies have greatly increased the renewable resource utilization of agricultural wastes and improved water quality and ecological environment in the TGRA.

  9. Assessment of the relationship between rural non-point source pollution and economic development in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the relationship between rural non-point source (NPS) pollution and economic development in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) by using the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis for the first time. Five types of pollution indicators, namely, fertilizer input density (FD), pesticide input density (PD), agricultural film input density (AD), grain residues impact (GI), and livestock manure impact (MI), were selected as rural NPS pollutant variables. Rural net income per capita was used as the indicator of economic development. Pollution load was generated by agricultural inputs (consumption of fertilizer, pesticide, and agricultural film) and economic growth with invert U-shaped features. The predicted turning points for FD, PD, and AD were at rural net income per capita levels of 6167.64, 6205.02, and 4955.29 CNY, respectively, which were all surpassed. However, the features between agricultural waste outputs (grain residues and livestock manure) and economic growth were inconsistent with the EKC hypothesis, which reflected the current trends of agricultural economic structure in the TGRA. Given that several other factors aside from economic development level could influence the pollutant generation in rural NPS, a further examination with long-run data support should be performed to understand the relationship between rural NPS pollution and income level.

  10. Air pollution monitoring in urban areas due to heavy transportation and industries: a case of rawalpindi and islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.; Malik, A.H.

    2013-01-01

    The present study deals with the air pollution caused by Industry and transportation in urban areas of Pakistan. Rawalpindi and Islamabad, the twin cities of Pakistan were considered for this purpose. The concentrations of major air pollutants were taken from different location according their standard time period using Air Quality Monitoring Station. Five major air pollutants were considered i.e., NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/, CO, O/sub 3/ and PM/sub 2.5/. The average mean values for all pollutants were taken on monthly and four monthly bases. The concentrations of NO2 and PM2.5 were exceeding the permissible limits as define by Environmental Protection Agency of Pakistan. Other pollutants concentrations were within the standard limits. Geographic Information System was used as a tool for the representation and analysis of Environmental Impacts of air pollution. Passquill and Smith dispersion model was used to calculate the buffer zones. Some mitigation measures were also recommended to assess the environmental and health Impacts because of PM/sub 2.5/ and NO/sub 2/. (author)

  11. Hg contents in soils and olive-tree (Olea Europea, L.) leaves from an area affected by elemental mercury pollution (Jódar, SE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Berdonces, Miguel Angel; María Esbrí, José; Amorós, José Angel; Lorenzo, Saturnino; Fernández-Calderón, Sergio; Higueras, Pablo; Perez-de-los-Reyes, Caridad

    2014-05-01

    Data from soil and olive tree leaves around a decommissioned chlor-alkali plant are presented in this communication. The factory was active in the period 1977-1991, producing during these years a heavily pollution of Guadalquivir River and hydrargyrism in more than local 45 workers. It is located at 7 km South of Jódar, a locality with some 12,120 inhabitants. Mercury usage was general in this type of plants, but at present it is being replaced by other types of technologies, due to the risks of mercury usage in personal and environment. A soil geochemistry survey was carried out in the area, along with the analysis of olive-tree leaves (in the plots with this culture) from the same area. 73 soil samples were taken at two different depths (0-15 cm and 15-30 cm), together with 41 olive tree samples. Mercury content of geologic and biologic samples was determined by means of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with Zeeman Effect, using a Lumex RA-915+ device with the RP-91C pyrolysis attachment. Air surveys were carried our using a RA-915M Lumex portable analytical device. Soil mercury contents were higher in topsoil than in the deeper soil samples, indicating that incorporation of mercury was due to dry and wet deposition of mercury vapors emitted from the plant. Average content in topsoil is 564.5 ng g-1. Hg contents in olive-tree leaves were in the range 46 - 453 ng g-1, with an average of 160.6 ng g-1. This level is slightly lower than tolerable level for agronomic crops established by Kabata-Pendias (2001) in 200 ng g-1. We have also compared soil and leaf contents for each sampling site, finding a positive and significant correlation (R=0.49), indicating that Hg contents in the leaves are linked to Hg contents in the soils. BAC (Bioaccumulation Absorption Coefficient, calculated as ratio between soil and leaf concentration) is 0.28 (consistent with world references, BAC = 0.7), considered "medium" in comparison with other mineral elements. Main conclusions of this

  12. Lead and Zinc pollution of soils in the Kabwe lead-zinc mining area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musonda, B.M.; Tembo, F

    2004-01-01

    Lead and Zinc pollution of soils related to mining activities in Kabwe district is one of the major environmental problems in Zambia today. In this study, we investigated the distribution of lead and zinc in topsoil and subsoil. Samples were collected from topsoil(0-20cm) and subsoil(20-50cm)at predetermined sites using a 5km x 5km regional grid and a 500m x 500m local grid. After preparation 260 local and 200 regional samples were analysed for heavy metals by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The background levels of cold HNO3 extractable lead and zinc are 50mg/kg and 70mg/kg respectively. The degree of Pb and Zn contamination of the soils varies with proximity of the soils to Kabwe mining centre. The content of Pb and Zn in topsoil that is very close to the mine is up to 1.6% and 3.9% respectively while soils that are very far from the mine generally contain less than 10mg/kg Pb and 20mg/kg Zn. The heavy metal contamination patterns in soils adjacent to the mine have been formed by wind dispersion of particulate matter and dry deposition. The risk of exposure of humans to lead and zinc is very high in areas that are adjacent to the mining centre. (author)

  13. Hydrocarbon pollution in the sediment from the Jarzouna-Bizerte coastal area of Tunisia (Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrafi-Nouira, I; Khedir-Ghenim, Z; Zrafi, F; Bahri, R; Cheraeif, I; Rouabhia, M; Saidane-Mosbahi, D

    2008-06-01

    This study investigated the presence and origin of hydrocarbon pollution in industrial waste water sediments found near the Jarzouna (Bizerte, Tunisia) oil refinery. Analyses of surface sediments (layer 1) and deep sediments (layer 2) showed that Total Hydrocarbon (TH) concentrations ranged from 602 +/- 7.638 microg/g in layer-1 to 1270 +/- 2.176 microg/g in layer-2. The results suggest that the deeper the sediment, the higher the level of total hydrocarbon found. The sedimentary Non Aromatic Hydrocarbon (NAH) and Aromatic Hydrocarbon (AH) concentrations ranged from 66.22 +/- 1.516 to 211.82 +/- 10.670 microg/g for NAH, and from 13.84 +/- 0.180 to 115.60 +/- 2.479 microg/g for AH. The high variability of these concentrations was associated with the location of the sediment collection sites. Aliphatic biomarker analysis revealed petroleum contamination close to the refinery rejection site, and biogenic sources further away. Petroleum contamination may be associated with increased industrial activity in the area of Jarzouna-Bizerte in the Mediterranean Sea.

  14. Dust pollution of snow cover in the industrial areas of Tomsk city (Western Siberia, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talovskaya, A. V.; Filimonenko, E. A.; Osipova, N. A.; Yazikov, E. G.; Nadeina, L. V.

    2016-03-01

    This article describes the results of long-term monitoring (2007-2014) of snow cover pollution in the territory of Tomsk city. Snow samples were collected in the territory of Tomsk. Determination of dust load level was carried out by comparing with the background and reference values. It has been determined that the north-east and central parts of Tomsk are the most contaminated areas, where brickworks, coal and gas-fired thermal power plant are located. The analysis of long-term dynamics showed a dust load decrease in the vicinity of coal and gas-fired thermal power plant due to upgrading of the existing dust collecting systems. During the monitoring period the high dust load in the vicinity of brickworks did not change. The lowest value of the dust load on snow cover was detected in the vicinity of the petrochemical plant and concrete product plants. The near and far zones of dust load on snow cover were determined with the reference to the location of the studied plants.

  15. Measurement of radioactive aerosols as an original indicator of atmospheric pollution in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Petit, G.; Millies-Lacroix, J. C.

    1998-01-01

    The Service Radioanalyses, Chimie et Environnment (Departement Analyses Surveillance de l'Environnement) of the French Atomic Energy Commission, located in suburban Paris, has for many years been conducting atmospheric radioactivity measurements. Since 1994, the laboratory has been using high volume air samplers equipped with filters for the weekly collection of atmospheric aerosols at a mean rate of about 600 m 3 .h -1 . The polypropylene filters, with a collection efficiency in excess of 93%, are compacted after sampling. The atmospheric radioactivity is measured by HP Ge gamma spectrometry after decay of short-lived natural relationship products. A study conducted in 1996 shows good correlation between the evolution with time of some of the indicators routinely used by AIRPARIF, the organization in charge of monitoring the air quality in the Ile-de-France region, to measure atmospheric pollution in the Paris area (SO 2 , NO) and that related to radioactivity of terrestrial ( 210 Pb, 40 K) and anthropogenic ( 137 Cs) origin, as well as the amount of aerosols collected. Further, the distribution in time of the atmospheric radioactivity of cosmogenic origin ( 7 Be) shows a yearly evolution somewhat similar to that observed with ozone

  16. Measurement of radioactive aerosols as an original indicator of atmospheric pollution in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Petit, G.; Millies-Lacroix, J.-C.; Simon, F.

    1998-01-01

    The Service Radioanalyses, Chimie et Environnement (Departement Analyses Surveillance de l'Environnement) of the French Atomic Energy Commission, located in suburban Paris, has for many years been conducting atmospheric radioactivity measurements. Since 1994, the laboratory has been using high volume air samplers equipped with filters for the weekly collection of atmospheric aerosols at a mean rate of about 600 m 3 .h -1 . The polypropylene filters, with a collection efficiency in excess of 93%, are compacted after sampling. The atmospheric radioactivity is measured by HP Ge gamma spectrometry after decay of short-lived natural relationship products. A study conducted in 1996 shows good correlation between the evolution with time of some of the indicators routinely used by AIRPARIF, the organization in charge of monitoring of the air quality in the Ile-de-France region, to measure atmospheric pollution in the Paris area (SO 2 , NO) and that related to radioactivity of terrestrial ( 210 Pb, 40 K) and anthropogenic ( 137 Cs) origin, as well as the amount of aerosols collected. Further, the distribution in time of the atmospheric radioactivity of cosmogenic origin ( 7 Be) shows a yearly evolution somewhat similar to that observed with ozone. (author). 16 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab

  17. Informal and Formal Environmental Education Infusion: Actions of Malaysian Teachers and Parents among Students in a Polluted Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustam, Baniah; Daniel, Esther Sarojini

    2016-01-01

    The study explored Environmental Education infusion among students by teachers and parents in two schools located in a highly polluted area. Qualitative data was collected through observations, interviews and an open-ended questionnaire. Participants of the observations and interviews were 6 Secondary 4 students, 6 teachers and 6 parents.…

  18. Steady-state solution of the semi-empirical diffusion equation for area sources. [air pollution studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedeff, S. A.; Hameed, S.

    1975-01-01

    The problem investigated can be solved exactly in a simple manner if the equations are written in terms of a similarity variable. The exact solution is used to explore two questions of interest in the modelling of urban air pollution, taking into account the distribution of surface concentration downwind of an area source and the distribution of concentration with height.

  19. Air Quality and Air Pollution Management in Urban Areas in Less Developed Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, P. V.

    2007-01-01

    The working group will address the complexity of air pollution management in the growing urban sphere in the less developed countries, and will discus and evaluate how Danish and Scandinavian research institutions, universities and private companies can initiate a more progressive role...... in development aid and capacity development in relation to air pollution. For further information on the actions objective, activities and dissemination plan...

  20. 2D FTIR correlation spectroscopy and EPR analysis of Urtica dioica leaves from areas of different environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskal, Paulina; Wesełucha-Birczyńska, Aleksandra; Łabanowska, Maria; Kurdziel, Magdalena; Filek, Maria

    2018-01-15

    Leaves of Urtica dioica collected from two areas of different environmental pollution were analysed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Analysis of FTIR spectra allows to describe main component of plant like proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. Although the FTIR spectra of plants from these two geographical locations of different environmental pollution appear to be relatively similar, 2D correlation shows completely different patterns. Synchronous and asynchronous correlation maps showed sequences of changes occurring during development of plant, manly in Amide I and Amide II, lignin, lipids and cellulose. In addition, 2D analysis revealed another sequence of changes as the function of plant growth depending on the degree of the environmental pollution. Two various kinds of paramagnetic species, transition metal ions (Mn(II), Fe(III)) and stable organic radicals (chlorophyll, semiquinone, tyrosyl and carbon centered) were found in leaves of nettle collected at different stages of development and growing in clean and polluted environment. In plants growing in polluted area the injuries of protein molecules bonding metal ions and the disturbances of photosynthesis and redox equilibrium in cells, as well as instability of polysaccharide structure of cell walls were observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. 2D FTIR correlation spectroscopy and EPR analysis of Urtica dioica leaves from areas of different environmental pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskal, Paulina; Wesełucha-Birczyńska, Aleksandra; Łabanowska, Maria; Kurdziel, Magdalena; Filek, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Leaves of Urtica dioica collected from two areas of different environmental pollution were analysed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Analysis of FTIR spectra allows to describe main component of plant like proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. Although the FTIR spectra of plants from these two geographical locations of different environmental pollution appear to be relatively similar, 2D correlation shows completely different patterns. Synchronous and asynchronous correlation maps showed sequences of changes occurring during development of plant, manly in Amide I and Amide II, lignin, lipids and cellulose. In addition, 2D analysis revealed another sequence of changes as the function of plant growth depending on the degree of the environmental pollution. Two various kinds of paramagnetic species, transition metal ions (Mn(II), Fe(III)) and stable organic radicals (chlorophyll, semiquinone, tyrosyl and carbon centered) were found in leaves of nettle collected at different stages of development and growing in clean and polluted environment. In plants growing in polluted area the injuries of protein molecules bonding metal ions and the disturbances of photosynthesis and redox equilibrium in cells, as well as instability of polysaccharide structure of cell walls were observed.

  2. Environmental risk of oil spills in Northern Areas[Pollution abatement in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoell, Espen

    2006-07-01

    The presentation discusses consequences and risks for the environment of oil spills and other pollution factors in the northern areas particularly in the north of Norway and the Barents Sea. Various environmental risk analysis are also discussed. The main conclusions are: Environmental risk for Obelix: The environmental risk is very low. The environmental risk for Obelix is less than 21% of Hydro's acceptance criteria for minor damage. The environmental risk is acceptable. DNV: The contingency planned for Obelix (barrier 1 and 2) will reduce the environmental risk further by approx. 60%, date: 2006-01-13. Question: Hydro Oil and Energy. Does the oil industry reach other conclusions than the national research institutes does for the Management Plan of the Barents Sea. The underlying studies (of the management plan) mainly consider the consequences of worst case events. Full rate (3000 m3/d), long duration (60 days). Blowout occurring at the worst time and place. They assume that consequences experienced by shipwreck accidents in the coastal zone are relevant also for offshore discharges. They do not consider: The probability for the worst case blowout to occur. The probability for the worst case consequences to be realized. The probability for less serious impact. The probable impact distribution. Overall conclusion: Environmental Risk of oil and gas activities in Lofoten and the Barents Sea Based on: 1) 40 years of experience in the Norwegian sector. 2) World leading risk reduction technology. 3) Systematic and thorough methods for analysis of environmental risk. 4) Several environmental risk analyses for Barents Sea and Lofoten drilling operations, indicating acceptable risk levels. 5) Recent ERA for Goliath drilling indicating similar low risk levels. 6) Well functioning contingency systems. We conclude that the environmental risk of oil and gas activities in the northern areas is low and acceptable to the Norwegian society. The environmental risk due to oil

  3. Risk perception of aquatic pollution originated from chemical industry clusters in the coastal area of Jiangsu province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; Liu, Bo; You, Zhen; Zhao, Li

    2018-02-01

    According to "the Layout Scheme of the Chemical Industry in Jiangsu Province From 2016 to 2030" and "the Development Planning in the Coastal Area of Jiangsu Province, China," several chemical industry clusters will be located in the coastal area of Jiangsu province, China, and the risk of surface water pollution will be inevitably higher in the densely populated region. To get to know the risk acceptance level of the residents near the clusters, public perception was analyzed from the five risk factors: the basic knowledge about the pollution, the negative effects on aquatic environment imposed by the clusters, the positive effects brought by the clusters, the trust of controlling aquatic pollution, and the acceptance of the clusters. Twenty-four statements were screened out to describe the five factors, and about 600 residents were covered in three typical clusters surveyed. On the whole, the youth showed a higher interest on the survey, and middle-aged people were likely to be more concerned about aquatic pollution incident. There was no significant difference on risk perception of the three clusters. The respondents investigated had good knowledge background on aquatic pollution and the residents identified with the benefits brought by the clusters. They were weak in risk awareness of pollution originated from the chemical enterprises' groups. Although the respondents regarded that chemical industry clusters did not expose all points of pollutants' generation to the public, they inclined to trust the administration agencies on controlling the pollution and welcome the construction of chemical clusters in their dwelling cities. Besides, risk perception showed obvious spatial distribution. The closer were the samples' sites to the clusters and the rivers receiving pollutants, the higher were the residents' perceived risk, benefit, and trust. However, there was no identical spatial difference on risk acceptance, which might be comprehensively influenced by various

  4. Pollutant flows from a phosphogypsum disposal area to an estuarine environment: An insight from geochemical signatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez-López, Rafael, E-mail: rafael.perez@dgeo.uhu.es [Department of Geology, University of Huelva, Campus ‘El Carmen’, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Macías, Francisco; Cánovas, Carlos Ruiz [Department of Geology, University of Huelva, Campus ‘El Carmen’, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Sarmiento, Aguasanta Miguel [Department of Geodynamics and Palaeontology, University of Huelva, Campus ‘El Carmen’, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Pérez-Moreno, Silvia María [Department of Applied Physics, University of Huelva, Campus ‘El Carmen’, 21071 Huelva (Spain)

    2016-05-15

    Phosphogypsum wastes from phosphate fertilizer industries are stockpiled in stacks with high contamination potential. An assessment of the environmental impact, including the use of geochemical tracers such as rare earth elements (REE) and Cl/Br ratios, was carried out in the phosphogypsum stack located at the Estuary of Huelva (SW Spain). Inside the pile, highly polluted acid pore-waters flows up to the edge of the stack, emerging as small fluvial courses, known as edge outflows, which discharge directly into the estuary. The disposal area is divided into four zones; two unrestored zones with surface ponds of industrial process water and two a priori already-restored zones. However, an extensive sampling of edge outflows conducted in the perimeter of the four zones demonstrates the high potential of contamination of the whole stack, including those zones that were supposedly restored. These solutions are characterized by a pH of 1.9 and concentrations of 6100 mg/L for P, 1970 mg/L for S, 600 mg/L for F, 200 mg/L for NH{sub 4}{sup +}, 100 mg/L for Fe, 10–30 mg/L for Zn, As and U, and 1–10 mg/L for Cr, Cu and Cd. Preliminary restoration actions and those planned for the future prioritize removal of ponded process water and cover of the phosphogypsum with artificial topsoil. These actions presuppose that the ponded process water percolates through the porous medium towards the edge up to reach the estuary. However, geochemical tracers rule out this connection and point to an estuarine origin for these leachates, suggesting a possible tidal-induced leaching of the waste pile in depth. These findings would explain the ineffectiveness of preliminary restoration measures and should be considered for the development of new action plans. - Highlights: • Acidity and contaminants from phosphogypsum leaching are released to an estuary. • Already-restored zones act as a pollution source just as unrestored zones. • Cl/Br ratios and REE patterns were suitable to assess

  5. Wetland areas: Natural water treatment systems. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search. [Dual use wildlife refuges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the dual use of wetland areas as both water treatment systems and wildlife refuges. The ability of salt marshes, tidal flats, marshlands, and bogs to absorb and filter natural and synthetic wastes is examined. Topics include the effects of individual pollutants; environmental factors; species diversity; the cleansing ability of wetland areas; and the handling of sewage, industrial and municipal wastes, agricultural runoff, accidental spills, and flooding. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Springtime major pollution events by aerosol over Paris Area: From a case study to a multiannual analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazette, Patrick; Royer, Philippe

    2017-08-01

    A study of the intense spring pollution events occurring between 2007 and 2016 on the Paris Area is presented using ground-based and spaceborne measurements. Emphasis is placed on 2011 where data included ground-based lidar measurements. This last period corresponds with the highest regional pollution levels of the past decade. The information threshold (daily average of (mass concentration of particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm) PM10 > 50 μg m-3) was exceeded 16 times, while the alert threshold (daily average of PM10 > 80 μg m-3) was exceeded twice. The information (alert) threshold exists to protect the most fragile people (the entire population). Ground-based and spaceborne measurements demonstrate the benefit of their synergy as each is representative of specific space and time scales. The operational products of the spaceborne instruments Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer are used. For 2011, CALIOP vertical profiles are inversed to assess the backscatter to extinction ratio, which is then successfully compared with similar results derived from the CALIOP operational products, a ground-based lidar and Sun photometers. The aerosols are identified to be polluted continental and polluted dust aerosols following the criteria used for the inversion of the CALIOP profiles. Aerosol typing is consistent between the ground-based and spaceborne lidars, demonstrating the importance of CALIOP for other years where the ground-based lidar was not in operation. The main pollution sources responsible for the spring aerosol pollution, occurring during anticyclonic meteorological conditions, are identified as coming from Western Europe: Benelux, Rhine-Ruhr area, and the Lorraine area.

  7. Acromegaly Is More Severe in Patients With AHR or AIP Gene Variants Living in Highly Polluted Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannavo, S; Ragonese, M; Puglisi, S; Romeo, P D; Torre, M L; Alibrandi, A; Scaroni, C; Occhi, G; Ceccato, F; Regazzo, D; De Menis, E; Sartorato, P; Arnaldi, G; Trementino, L; Trimarchi, F; Ferrau, F

    2016-04-01

    An increased prevalence of acromegaly was found some years ago in a highly polluted area in North-Eastern Sicily, where high concentration of nonmethane hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, and cadmium was found. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) pathway has a key role in detoxification of these compounds and in tumorigenesis. We correlated the occurrence of AHR and/or AHR-interacting protein (AIP) gene variants with acromegaly severity according to pollution exposition. This was an observational, perspective study conducted over 7 years in four Italian referral centers for pituitary diseases in which 210 patients with acromegaly were enrolled between 2008 and 2015. Genetic screening of patients for AHR and AIP variants. Clinical, biochemical, and radiological data of patients with and without AIP and/or AHR gene variants, living in polluted (high-risk for health, [HR]) or nonpolluted (NP) areas of five Italian regions were evaluated and compared. Among the 23 patients from HR areas, nine showed AHR or AIP variants. Mean IGF-I levels and pituitary tumor diameter were significantly higher in these nine patients (HR/VAR+) than in the other 14 (HR/VAR−) and in the 187 from NP areas (44 NP/VAR+). Somatostatin analogs significantly decreased mean GH and IGF-I levels in patients from NP areas and in HR/VAR− (GH P acromegaly, increased pituitary tumor size, and somatostatin analog resistance in patients living in HR areas.

  8. Air pollution in the area of operating siderite plant in Nižná Slaná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gešperová Dana

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The dust deposition analyses the imission load in the area of Siderite Plant Nižná Slaná has been carried out for tens of years. In the present time the observation of freshly fallen snow quality has begun to be realized with the aim to determine the collected pollutants in the snow. The pollutants have the municipal as well as the industrial origin. The range of plant emission by the chemical data processing and by their comparision with the dust deposition was investigated. Finally, the imission action of the plant on its wider surroundings was found out by this way.

  9. The Impact of Green Space Changes on Air Pollution and Microclimates: A Case Study of the Taipei Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Lan Liu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve a sustainable urban environment, the increase of green space areas is commonly used as a planning tool and adaptation strategy to combat environmental impacts resulting from global climate change and urbanization. Therefore, it is important to understand the change of green space areas and the derived impacts from the change. This research firstly applied space analysis and landscape ecology metrics to analyze the structure change of the pattern of green space area within the Taipei Metropolitan Area. Then, partial least squares were used to identify the consequences on microclimate and air pollution pattern caused by the changing pattern of green space areas within the districts of the Taipei Metropolitan Area. According to the analytical results, the green space area within Taipei Metropolitan Areas has decreased 1.19% from 1995 to 2007, but 93.19% of the green space areas have been kept for their original purposes. Next, from the landscape ecology metrics analysis, in suburban areas the linkages, pattern parameters, and space aggregation are all improving, and the fragmentation measure is also decreasing, but shape is becoming more complex. However, due to intensive land development in the city core, the pattern has becomes severely fragmented and decentralized causing the measures of the linkages and pattern parameters to decrease. The results from structural equation modeling indicate that the changing pattern of green space areas has great influences on air pollution and microclimate patterns. For instance, less air pollution, smaller rainfall patterns and cooler temperatures are associated with improvement in space aggregation, increasing the larger sized green space patch.

  10. PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB bioaccumulation by Manila clam from polluted areas of Venice lagoon (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sfriso, Adriano; Facca, Chiara; Raccanelli, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    POP bioaccumulation pathways in the clam Tapes philippinarum were examined for two years from juveniles to adult size. Two polluted sites, one with sandy sediment, the other muddy were compared with a reference site characterized by low contamination levels. Juvenile clams coming from a hatchery were reared both on the sediment and in nets suspended at 30 cm from the bottom. POP changes in clam tissue were related to the concentrations recorded in sediments and in the particulate matter during the entire fattening period. Results provided interesting data on the relationships between environmental contamination and bioaccumulation. Contrary to studies on the decontamination times of the clams collected in polluted areas, this work investigates the preferential clam bioaccumulation pathways during growth under different environmental conditions. In general POP bioaccumulation resulted to be correlated to concentrations in SPM rather than in sediments and was higher in S-clams rather than in B-clams. -- Highlights: • PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCB accumulation in clam tissues during growth. • Muddy and sandy polluted areas. • How sediment and suspended matter contamination affect clam toxicity. • Clam toxicity and law limits. -- Clam bioaccumulation pathways in polluted areas

  11. [Methodical approaches to evaluation of air pollution by emissions of motor vehicles in population areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyapkalo, A A; Dement'ev, A A; Tsurgan, A M

    2014-01-01

    There are results of comparative analysis of air pollution by emissions of motor vehicles in the residential districts of Ryazan via different methodical approaches. Emissions were calculated regarding analysis of the traffic intensity on the elements of the city traffic network. Relative emissions, equivalent relative emissions and relative coefficient of emission hazard were calculated for each district. Rating of the comparing districts was done according to the pollution level using the above-mentioned indices. Gorodskaya Roscha was detected as the most polluted district. The most informative approach was comparison of the residential districts according to the equivalent relative emissions and relative coefficient of emission hazard.

  12. Applying of Electrical Imaging Survey (EIS) to Evaluate Leachate Pollution in Underground Area of Informal Landfill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Song; Wang, Di; Mou, Zishen

    2014-01-01

    An informal landfill is an open dump that pollutes the underground environment because it lacks an impervious liner. The leakage of such a landfill is unidirectional and thus difficult to directly test. This study uses electrical imaging survey to evaluate the pollution of the underground...... environment of an informal landfill for municipal solid waste in Beijing. We hypothesize that every location has a specific resistivity resulting from the leachate. We use the membership function of fuzzy mathematics to quantitatively represent the pollution of the underground environment in the sanitary...... landfill. The results are consistent with borehole data....

  13. A review of soil heavy metal pollution from mines in China: pollution and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiyuan; Ma, Zongwei; van der Kuijp, Tsering Jan; Yuan, Zengwei; Huang, Lei

    2014-01-15

    Heavy metal pollution has pervaded many parts of the world, especially developing countries such as China. This review summarizes available data in the literature (2005-2012) on heavy metal polluted soils originating from mining areas in China. Based on these obtained data, this paper then evaluates the soil pollution levels of these collected mines and quantifies the risks these pollutants pose to human health. To assess these potential threat levels, the geoaccumulation index was applied, along with the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) recommended method for health risk assessment. The results demonstrate not only the severity of heavy metal pollution from the examined mines, but also the high carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks that soil heavy metal pollution poses to the public, especially to children and those living in the vicinity of heavily polluted mining areas. In order to provide key management targets for relevant government agencies, based on the results of the pollution and health risk assessments, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Hg, As, and Ni are selected as the priority control heavy metals; tungsten, manganese, lead-zinc, and antimony mines are selected as the priority control mine categories; and southern provinces and Liaoning province are selected as the priority control provinces. This review, therefore, provides a comprehensive assessment of soil heavy metal pollution derived from mines in China, while identifying policy recommendations for pollution mitigation and environmental management of these mines. © 2013.

  14. Pollution and health risk assessment of industrial and residential area based on metal and metalloids contents in soil and sediment samples from and around the petrochemical industry, Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relic, Dubravka; Sakan, Sanja; Andjelkovic, Ivan; Djordjevic, Dragana

    2017-04-01

    Within this study the investigation of pollution state of metal and metalloids contamination in soils and sediments samples of the petrochemical and nearby residential area is present. The pseudo-total concentrations of Ba, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, Zn, As, Hg, and Se were monitored with ICP/OES. The pollution indices applied in this work, such as the enrichment factor, the pollution load index, the total enrichment factor, and the ecological risk index showed that some of the soil and sediment samples were highly polluted by Hg, Ba, Pb, Cd, Cr Cu and Zn. The highest pollution indices were calculated for Hg in samples from the petrochemical area: chloralkali plant, electrolysis factory, mercury disposal area, and in samples from the waste channel. The pollution indices of the samples from the residential area indicated that this area is not polluted by investigated elements. Besides the pollution indices, the metal and metalloids concentrations were used in the equations for calculating the health risk criteria. We calculate no carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks for the composite worker and residential people by usage adequate equations. In analyzed samples, the no carcinogenic risks were lower than 1. The highest values of carcinogenic risk were obtained in sediment samples from the waste channel within the petrochemical industry and the metal that mostly contributes to the highest carcinogenic risk is Cr. Correlation analysis of pollution indices and carcinogenic risks calculated from the residential area samples showed good correlations while this is not the case for an industrial area.

  15. The interdecadal worsening of weather conditions affecting aerosol pollution in the Beijing area in relation to climate warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoye; Zhong, Junting; Wang, Jizhi; Wang, Yaqiang; Liu, Yanju

    2018-04-01

    The weather conditions affecting aerosol pollution in Beijing and its vicinity (BIV) in wintertime have worsened in recent years, particularly after 2010. The relation between interdecadal changes in weather conditions and climate warming is uncertain. Here, we analyze long-term variations of an integrated pollution-linked meteorological index (which is approximately and linearly related to aerosol pollution), the extent of changes in vertical temperature differences in the boundary layer (BL) in BIV, and northerly surface winds from Lake Baikal during wintertime to evaluate the potential contribution of climate warming to changes in meteorological conditions directly related to aerosol pollution in this area; this is accomplished using NCEP reanalysis data, surface observations, and long-term vertical balloon sounding observations since 1960. The weather conditions affecting BIV aerosol pollution are found to have worsened since the 1960s as a whole. This worsening is more significant after 2010, with PM2.5 reaching unprecedented high levels in many cities in China, particularly in BIV. The decadal worsening of meteorological conditions in BIV can partly be attributed to climate warming, which is defined by more warming in the higher layers of the boundary layer (BL) than the lower layers. This worsening can also be influenced by the accumulation of aerosol pollution, to a certain extent (particularly after 2010), because the increase in aerosol pollution from the ground leads to surface cooling by aerosol-radiation interactions, which facilitates temperature inversions, increases moisture accumulations, and results in the extra deterioration of meteorological conditions. If analyzed as a linear trend, weather conditions have worsened by ˜ 4 % each year from 2010 to 2017. Given such a deterioration rate, the worsening of weather conditions may lead to a corresponding amplitude increase in PM2.5 in BIV during wintertime in the next 5 years (i.e., 2018 to 2022

  16. [Distribution of heavy metals in waters and pollution assessment in thallium contaminated area of Yunfu, Guangdong].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-ping; Qi, Jian-ying; Wang, Chun-lin; Chen, Yong-heng

    2011-05-01

    Distribution of Thallium(T1), Cadmium( Cd), Chromium (Cr), Lead (Pb), Nickel (Ni), Arsenic (As), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn) in water and sediments of Yunfu pyrite mine area was studied. The environmental risk assessment was conducted systematically using Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs) and Hakanson potential ecological risk index. The results indicated that concentration range of Tl in stream water was 0.19-65.25 microg/L, which is higher than the environmental quality standards for surface water. Concentration ranges of Tl, Zn, As, Cd, Pb in sediments were 5.89-63.0 mg/kg, 1215-5754 mg/kg, 208.4-1327 mg/kg, 4.20-17.5 mg/kg, 282-13,770 mg/kg. According to Sediments Quality Guidelines, sediments was moderately to severe level of pollution since concentrations of Tl, Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni, As, Cu, Zn were much higher than LEL (lowest effect level) values, and the concentrations of Pb, As, Zn were higher than SEL (severe effect level) values, the others were partly higher than SEL values, which may result in severe negative biota effects in the watersheds. Compared to soil background values of Guangdong province, the metals in stream sediment showed strong to severe strong ecological risk, and the ecological risk of heavy metals in the descending order of Tl, Cd, As, Pb, Cr, Ni, Zn and Cu. Besides, the sediments were severe contained by toxic element thallium and cadmium. Besides, the mainly ecological risk of heavy metal is thallium. More emphasis should be placed on thallium and cadmium control and disposal in

  17. Site survey for large wind turbines in the Rijnmond area. Plaatsingsmogelijkheden grote windturbines in het Rijnmondgebied

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkesteyn, L A; Van der Ham, P

    1985-01-01

    This paper reveals only preliminary results of a study on site selection for large wind turbines in a heavily industrialized and urbanized area of The Netherlands: the Rijnmond area. Factors like average wind speed, coupling to electric power grid, acquisition of land, noise pollution, safety aspects, avoiding harm to birds, and fitting in the existent physical structure of the area are evaluated.

  18. Promoted relationship of cardiovascular morbidity with air pollutants in a typical Chinese urban area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Tong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A large number of studies about effects of air pollutants on cardiovascular mortality have been conducted; however, those investigating association between air pollutants and cardiovascular morbidity are limited, especially in developing countries. METHODS: A time-series analysis on the short-term association between outdoor air pollutants including particulate matter (PM with diameters of 10 µm or less (PM10, sulfur dioxide (SO2 and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and cardiovascular morbidity was conducted in Tianjin, China based on 4 years of daily data (2008-2011. The morbidity data were stratified by sex and age. The effects of air pollutants during the warm season and the cool season were also analyzed separately. RESULTS: Each increase in PM10, SO2, and NO2 by increments of 10 µg/m3 in a 2-day average concentration was associated with increases in the cardiovascular morbidity of 0.19% with 95 percent confidence interval (95% CI of 0.08-0.31, 0.43% with 95% CI of 0.03-0.84, and 0.52% with 95% CI of -0.09-1.13, respectively. The effects of air pollutants were more evident in the cool season than those in the warm season, females and the elderly were more vulnerable to outdoor air pollution. CONCLUSIONS: All estimated coefficients of PM10, SO2 and NO2 are positive but only the effect of SO2 implied statistical significance at the 5% level. Moreover, season, sex and age might modify health effects of outdoor air pollutants. This work may bring inspirations for formulating local air pollutant standards and social policy regarding cardiovascular health of residents.

  19. Effects of metal pollution on earthworm communities in a contaminated floodplain area: Linking biomarker, community and functional responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van; Koolhaas, Josee E.; Hamers, Timo; Hoppe, Maarten van; Roovert, Martijn van; Korsman, Cora; Reinecke, Sophie A.

    2009-01-01

    Effects on earthworms in the contaminated floodplain area the Biesbosch, the Netherlands, were determined at different levels of organization using a combination of field and laboratory tests. The species Lumbricus rubellus, collected from different polluted sites in the Biesbosch, showed reduced values for the biomarker neutral red retention time (NRRT), mainly explained by high metal concentrations in the soil and the resulting high internal copper concentrations in the earthworms. Organic pollutant levels in earthworms were low and did not explain reduced NRRTs. Earthworm abundance and biomass were not correlated with pollutant levels in the soil. Litterbag decomposition and bait-lamina feeding activity, measures of the functional role of earthworms, were not affected by metal pollution and did not show any correlation with metal concentrations in soil or earthworms nor with NRRT. Effects at the biochemical level therefore did not result in a reduced functioning of earthworm communities. - Metal pollution in floodplain soils does affect earthworm biomarker response but not their activity in decomposition processes

  20. Effects of metal pollution on earthworm communities in a contaminated floodplain area: Linking biomarker, community and functional responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van [Institute of Ecological Science, VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: kees.van.gestel@falw.vu.nl; Koolhaas, Josee E. [Institute of Ecological Science, VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hamers, Timo [Institute of Environmental Studies, VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hoppe, Maarten van; Roovert, Martijn van; Korsman, Cora [Institute of Ecological Science, VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Reinecke, Sophie A. [Department of Botany and Zoology, University of Stellenbosch, Private bag X1, Matieland 7602 (South Africa)

    2009-03-15

    Effects on earthworms in the contaminated floodplain area the Biesbosch, the Netherlands, were determined at different levels of organization using a combination of field and laboratory tests. The species Lumbricus rubellus, collected from different polluted sites in the Biesbosch, showed reduced values for the biomarker neutral red retention time (NRRT), mainly explained by high metal concentrations in the soil and the resulting high internal copper concentrations in the earthworms. Organic pollutant levels in earthworms were low and did not explain reduced NRRTs. Earthworm abundance and biomass were not correlated with pollutant levels in the soil. Litterbag decomposition and bait-lamina feeding activity, measures of the functional role of earthworms, were not affected by metal pollution and did not show any correlation with metal concentrations in soil or earthworms nor with NRRT. Effects at the biochemical level therefore did not result in a reduced functioning of earthworm communities. - Metal pollution in floodplain soils does affect earthworm biomarker response but not their activity in decomposition processes.

  1. Development and investigation of a pollution control pit for treatment of stormwater from metal roofs and traffic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierkes, C; Göbel, P; Lohmann, M; Coldewey, W G

    2006-01-01

    Source control by on-site retention and infiltration of stormwater is a sustainable and proven alternative to classical drainage methods. Unfortunately, sedimentary particles and pollutants from drained surfaces cause clogging and endanger soil and groundwater during long-term operation of infiltration devices. German water authorities recommend the use of infiltration devices, such as swales or swale-trench-systems. Direct infiltration by underground facilities, such as pipes, trenches or sinks, without pretreatment of runoff is generally not permitted. Problems occur with runoff from metal roofs, traffic areas and industrial sites. However, due to site limitations, underground systems are often the only feasible option. To overcome this situation, a pollution control pit was developed with a hydrodynamic separator and a multistage filter made of coated porous concrete. The system treats runoff at source and protects soil, groundwater and receiving waterways. Typically, more than 90% of the pollutants such as sedimentary particles, hydrocarbons and heavy metals can be removed. Filters have been developed to treat even higher polluted stormwater loads from metal roofs and industrial sites. The treatment process is based on sedimentation, filtration, adsorption and chemical precipitation. Sediments are trapped in a special chamber within the pit and can be removed easily. Other pollutants are captured in the concrete filter upstream of the sediment separator chamber. Filters can be easily replaced.

  2. Blood Pb and δ-ALAD inhibition in cattle and sheep from a Pb-polluted mining area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez-Estival, Jaime; Barasona, José A.; Mateo, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    The effects of Pb pollution on cattle and sheep raised in an ancient mining area were studied through the use of blood Pb (PbB) levels and δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) activity. Lead levels in livestock blood from the mining area (n = 110) were significantly elevated when compared to the controls (n = 79). In 91.4% of cattle (n = 58) and 13.5% of sheep (n = 52) sampled in the mining area, PbB levels corresponded to subclinical exposure (6–35 μg/dl). Two young cattle ( 35 μg/dl). Elevated PbB was also accompanied by δ-ALAD activity inhibition in blood, which confirms that measurable effects of Pb poisoning were taking place. Observed PbB levels suggest that a potential risk to human consumers of beef from the Pb polluted areas may also exist, as has been shown previously for game meat from the same mining area. - Highlights: ► We studied effects of Pb pollution on livestock raised in an old mining area. ► Livestock from the mining area had higher blood Pb levels than the controls. ► Pb levels were higher in cattle than in sheep. ► Pb exposure inhibited δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, especially in cattle. ► Lead uptake in livestock reared in this area poses a risk to human consumers. - Lead from an ancient mining area still affects livestock health and compromises the safety of derived food products.

  3. Mapping Pollution Plumes in Areas Impacted by Hurricane Katrina With Imaging Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swayze, G. A.; Furlong, E. T.; Livo, K. E.

    2007-12-01

    New Orleans endured flooding on a massive scale subsequent to Hurricane Katrina in August of 2005. Contaminant plumes were noticeable in satellite images of the city in the days following flooding. Many of these plumes were caused by oil, gasoline, and diesel that leaked from inundated vehicles, gas stations, and refineries. News reports also suggested that the flood waters were contaminated with sewage from breached pipes. Effluent plumes such as these pose a potential health hazard to humans and wildlife in the aftermath of hurricanes and potentially from other catastrophic events (e.g., earthquakes, shipping accidents, chemical spills, and terrorist attacks). While the extent of effluent plumes can be gauged with synthetic aperture radar and broad- band visible-infrared images (Rykhus, 2005) (e.g., Radarsat and Landsat ETM+) the composition of the plumes could not be determined. These instruments lack the spectral resolution necessary to do chemical identification. Imaging spectroscopy may help solve this problem. Over 60 flight lines of NASA Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data were collected over New Orleans, the Mississippi Delta, and the Gulf Coast from one to two weeks after Katrina while the contaminated water was being pumped out of flooded areas. These data provide a unique opportunity to test if imaging spectrometer data can be used to identify the chemistry of these flood-related plumes. Many chemicals have unique spectral signatures in the ultraviolet to near-infrared range (0.2 - 2.5 microns) that can be used as fingerprints for their identification. We are particularly interested in detecting thin films of oil, gasoline, diesel, and raw sewage suspended on or in water. If these materials can be successfully differentiated in the lab then we will use spectral-shape matching algorithms to look for their spectral signatures in the AVIRIS data collected over New Orleans and other areas impacted by Katrina. If imaging spectroscopy

  4. Positron trapping in heavily irradiated semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, P.; Pautrat, J.L.; Corbel, C.; Hautojarvi, P.

    1985-01-01

    Vacancy processes are studied in several heavily irradiated semiconductors. Specimens are ZnTe, CdTe, CdTe (In), InP, InP (Cr), InP (Zn) and Ge. Irradiations are made at 20 K using a 3 MeV Van de Graaff electron accelerator. Doses are 4 x 10 18 e - /cm 2 . Lifetime measurements are made at 77 K at each step of an isochronal annealing (30 min 20 K). In each specimen, the results show a significant increase of the lifetime (+ 30 at + 50 ps) which anneals out in different steps restoring the initial lifetime. The steps are sharp (ΔT/T=0.3) with the exception of InP, InP(Cr), InP(Zn), (ΔT/T=0.9). Tentative interpretations are given

  5. Conductivity and superconductivity in heavily vacant diamond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S A Jafari

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available   Motivated by the idea of impurity band superconductivity in heavily Boron doped diamond, we investigate the doping of various elements into diamond to address the question, which impurity band can offer a better DOS at the Fermi level. Surprisingly, we find that the vacancy does the best job in producing the largest DOS at the Fermi surface. To investigate the effect of disorder in Anderson localization of the resulting impurity band, we use a simple tight-binding model. Our preliminary study based on the kernel polynomial method shows that the impurity band is already localized at the concentration of 10-3. Around the vacancy concentration of 0.006 the whole spectrum of diamond becomes localized and quantum percolation takes place. Therefore to achieve conducting bands at concentrations on the scale of 5-10 percent, one needs to introduce correlations such as hopping among the vacancies .

  6. Trace/heavy metal pollution monitoring in estuary and coastal area of Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh and implicated impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibria, Golam; Hossain, Md Maruf; Mallick, Debbrota; Lau, T C; Wu, Rudolf

    2016-04-15

    Using artificial mussels (AMs), this study reports and compares time-integrated level of eleven trace metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, U, Zn) in Karnafuli River estuary and coastal area of the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh. Through this study, "hot spots" of metal pollution were identified. The results may demonstrate that the Karnafuli Estuary, and adjacent coastal area of Chittagong, Bangladesh are highly polluted by high risk metals (cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, nickel, lead, uranium). Agricultural, domestic and industrial wastes directly discharged into the waterways have been identified as the main causes of metal pollution in Chittagong, Bangladesh. The high level of metal pollution identified may impact on local water quality, and seafood catch, livelihoods of people and public health resulting from seafood consumption. There is a need for regular monitoring to ascertain that local water quality with respect to metal levels are within acceptable levels to safeguards both environmental health and public health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Breeding performance of blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) and great tits (Parus major) in a heavy metal polluted area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eeva, T., E-mail: tapio.eeva@utu.f [Section of Ecology, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku (Finland); Ahola, M.; Lehikoinen, E. [Section of Ecology, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku (Finland)

    2009-11-15

    We compared heavy metal levels, calcium levels, breeding parameters and condition of nestling and adult Cyanistes caeruleus and Parus major along a heavy metal pollution gradient. Both species started laying earlier and showed inferior nestling growth and smaller fledging probability in the polluted areas, which are phenologically advanced in spring due to sparse forests. The major inter-specific difference in the responses was that the clutch size and hatching success were decreased in the polluted area in P. major, but not in C. caeruleus. Heavy metal profiles in nestling feces were relatively similar in the two species, though Ni and Pb levels were higher in C. caeruleus than in P. major. However, the latter species showed markedly higher fecal calcium concentrations. Lower calcium levels and higher levels of some heavy metals in C. caeruleus suggest that in Ca-deficient environments this species might be more susceptible to negative pollution effects than P. major. - Breeding performance in two Parid species near a Cu smelter.

  8. Breeding performance of blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) and great tits (Parus major) in a heavy metal polluted area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eeva, T.; Ahola, M.; Lehikoinen, E.

    2009-01-01

    We compared heavy metal levels, calcium levels, breeding parameters and condition of nestling and adult Cyanistes caeruleus and Parus major along a heavy metal pollution gradient. Both species started laying earlier and showed inferior nestling growth and smaller fledging probability in the polluted areas, which are phenologically advanced in spring due to sparse forests. The major inter-specific difference in the responses was that the clutch size and hatching success were decreased in the polluted area in P. major, but not in C. caeruleus. Heavy metal profiles in nestling feces were relatively similar in the two species, though Ni and Pb levels were higher in C. caeruleus than in P. major. However, the latter species showed markedly higher fecal calcium concentrations. Lower calcium levels and higher levels of some heavy metals in C. caeruleus suggest that in Ca-deficient environments this species might be more susceptible to negative pollution effects than P. major. - Breeding performance in two Parid species near a Cu smelter.

  9. Electrochemical Decontamination of Painted and Heavily Corroded Metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marczak, S.; Anderson, J.; Dziewinski, J.

    1998-01-01

    The radioactive metal wastes that are generated from nuclear fuel plants and radiochemical laboratories are mainly contaminated by the surface deposition of radioactive isotopes. There are presently several techniques used in removing surface contamination involving physical and chemical processes. However, there has been very little research done in the area of soiled, heavily oxidized, and painted metals. Researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory have been developing electrochemical procedures for the decontamination of bare and painted metal objects. These methods have been found to be effective on highly corroded as well as relatively new metals. This study has been successful in decontaminating projectiles and shrapnel excavated during environmental restoration projects after 40+ years of exposure to the elements. Heavily corroded augers used in sampling activities throughout the area were also successfully decontaminated. This process has demonstrated its effectiveness and offers several advantages over the present metal decontamination practices of media blasting and chemical solvents. These advantages include the addition of no toxic or hazardous chemicals, low operating temperature and pressure, and easily scaleable equipment. It is in their future plans to use this process in the decontamination of gloveboxes destined for disposal as TRU waste

  10. Footprints of Urban Micro-Pollution in Protected Areas: Investigating the Longitudinal Distribution of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Wildlife Preserves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio A Rodriguez-Jorquera

    Full Text Available Current approaches to protect biodiversity by establishing protected areas usually gloss over water pollution as a threat. Our objective was to determine the longitudinal and seasonal distribution of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs in water column and sediments from a wastewater dominated stream that enters preservation areas. Water samples were collected along the longitudinal section (six sites, 1000 m away from each other of the stream during the dry and wet seasons. Sediments were collected from three sites along the stream from three depths. Water and sediments were analyzed for PFAAs using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Eleven PFAAs with 5 to 14 carbon atoms were detected in the water column at all sampling points, with a minor reduction at the last point suggesting a dilution effect. The most detected PFAAs was PFOS, followed by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA. Seasonal differences in PFAAs concentrations suggested contribution of stormwater runoff during the wet season. All analyzed PFAAs in sediments were under the limit of quantification, likely due to the high proportion of sand and low organic matter. However, high concentrations of PFAAs were detected in the water column inside the protected areas, which includes PFOS in concentrations considered not safe for avian wildlife. Water samples appear to be more relevant than sediments to determine PFAAs micro-pollution in water bodies with sandy sediments. Inclusion of a management plans on micro-pollution research, monitoring, and mitigation is recommended for protected areas.

  11. Assessing pollution in marine protected areas: the role of a multi-biomarker and multi-organ approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusso-Choueri, Paloma Kachel; Choueri, Rodrigo Brasil; de Araújo, Giuliana Seraphim; Cruz, Ana Carolina Feitosa; Stremel, Tatiana; Campos, Sandro; Abessa, Denis Moledo de Sousa; Ribeiro, Ciro Alberto Oliveira

    2015-11-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are vulnerable to many pressures, including pollution. However, environmental quality monitoring in these areas traditionally relies on only water chemistry and microbiological parameters. The goal of the current study was to investigate the role of a set of biomarkers in different target organs (liver, kidney, and gills) of fish in order to assess the environmental quality of an MPA (MTs, GPx, GST, GSH, DNA damage, LPO, AChE, and condition index). Chemical analyses were also performed on liver and muscle tissues to evaluate metal body burdens, and PAHs were identified in bile. A demersal fish (Cathorops spixii) that is widely consumed by the local population was used as bioindicator species, and the results were integrated using multivariate analysis. The use of the biomarker approach allowed for the identification of both seasonal and spatial variations in pollution sources around the Environmental Protected Area of Cananéia-Iguape-Peruíbe (APA-CIP). Higher metal body burdens associated with biological responses were found in the sites under the influence of urban areas during the dry season, and they were found in the sites under the influence of the Ribeira de Iguape River (RIR) during the rainy season. The liver was found to be more responsive in terms of its antioxidant responses, whereas gills were found to be more responsive to biomarkers of effect. These results show that this set of biomarker analyses in different organs of fish is a useful tool for assessing chemical pollution in an MPA.

  12. Environmental exposure to cadmium and renal function of elderly women living in cadmium-polluted areas of West-Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewers, U.; Brockhaus, A.; Dolgner, R.; Freier, I.; Jermann, E.; Hahn, R.; Schlipkoeter, H.W.; Bernard, A.

    1985-12-01

    An epidemiological study was carried out to assess whether or not environmental pollution by cadmium as found in cadmium-polluted areas of the Federal Republic auf Germany is associated with an increased prevalence of biological signs of kidney dysfunction in population groups non-occupationally exposed to heavy metals. The study was run in two industrial areas known to be highly polluted by cadmium and other toxic heavy metals, viz. Stolberg and Duisburg. Duesseldorf was selected as a reference area. As a study population we selected 65- and 66-year-old women who had spent the major part of their lives in one of these areas. The average levels of cadmium in blood and urine showed significant differences in exposure to cadmium in the order Stolberg > Duisburg > Duesseldorf. Serum creatinine levels were, on average, significantly higher in the Stolberg group than in the Duisburg and Duesseldorf groups. With respect to other biological findings (total proteinuria, tubular proteinuria, albuminuria, aminoaciduria, phosphaturia, serum complement) no significant differences between the study populations were noted. It cannot be excluded, however, that in the Stolberg group there is a synergism of ageing and cadmium with respect to the age related decline of the glomerular filtration rate.

  13. Quantifying the contribution of individual vehicles to NO2 pollution in an urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöhler, Denis; Kanatschnig, Florian; Horbanski, Martin; Friedrich, Axel; Lampel, Johannes; Platt, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    Nitrogen Dioxide (NOx) emissions by road vehicles are the mayor contributor for poor air quality in urban areas. High NOx concentrations, and especially NO2, are typically the most problematic pollutant in mega and other cities. However emissions vary significantly depending on the type of vehicle and its engine, the age and condition of the vehicle, driving properties and many more. Even if data of the manufacturer exists how much NOx different vehicle types emit, reliable data under real driving conditions are rare and often missing. Especially data showing the degree to which different cars contribute to observed NOx levels are missing. Significant reduction of NOx concentrations can be achieved by identifying the strong emitting vehicles and excluding / replacing these. As this is only a small amount of vehicles (typically less than 10% of the vehicles make 90% of the emissions), such a small investment can significantly improve air quality. In order to perform measurements of NOx we applied a high speed NO2 CE-DOAS (Cavity-Enhanced DOAS) instrument in a car which was modified for this application. It measured directly the NO2 concentration behind followed vehicles while driving, with a time resolution of 2 s and an accuracy of ~1ppb. Even if such observations depend on many parameters like mixing-in of ambient air, distance, solar radiation, ozone concentration, background concentration etc., it delivers valuable data under real driving conditions. The instrument was applied in the city of Mainz, Germany to investigate within 7 days (March / April 2014) the NOx emission of 728 vehicles and to quantify the main emitters. Therefore the measured NO2 concentration in comparison to the background concentrations was quantified. Observed vehicles were separated in 4 categories: cars, busses, trucks, and motorcycles. We observed NO2 levels from a few ppb (within the background variation) up to 7000ppb NO2 above the background level. Strong variations within the same

  14. Spatial distribution of pollutants in the area of the former CHP plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichowicz, Robert

    2018-01-01

    The quality of atmospheric air and level of its pollution are now one of the most important issues connected with life on Earth. The frequent nuisance and exceedance of pollution standards often described in the media are generated by both low emission sources and mobile sources. Also local organized energy emission sources such as local boiler houses or CHP plants have impact on air pollution. At the same time it is important to remember that the role of local power stations in shaping air pollution immission fields depends on the height of emitters and functioning of waste gas treatment installations. Analysis of air pollution distribution was carried out in 2 series/dates, i.e. 2 and 10 weeks after closure of the CHP plant. In the analysis as a reference point the largest intersection of streets located in the immediate vicinity of the plant was selected, from which virtual circles were drawn every 50 meters, where 31 measuring points were located. As a result, the impact of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and ammonia levels could be observed and analyzed, depending on the distance from the street intersection.

  15. Accumulation of specific pollutants in various media in the area affected by a petrochemical center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oprea, C.D.; Mihul, Al.

    2002-01-01

    The results on monitoring of oil pollution around the town of Ploiesti (South Romania), known for its petrochemical and chemical industry complexes and crude oil activity, are reported. The distribution of heavy metals, rare earth and other microelements along the wind rose profile (the oil complex ∼ 20 km distance) was examined through the analysis of soil samples. Mosses were chosen as biomonitors of local atmospheric pollution with heavy metals and other toxic elements. The trace element content of vegetation growing near the territory of the plant was compared with that of the background one. The contamination of the river flowing in the vicinity of the plant was examined. Comparison of the spatial trends of different pollutants shows the influence of the same atmospheric transport phases on the uptake of trace elements by vegetation. A comparative evaluation of the results was carried out to find to what extent the amount of pollutants in the atmosphere or the amount deposited in the soil or transported by sediments contributes to pollution of the local ecosystem in the vicinity of a petrochemical center. (authors)

  16. Regression trees modeling and forecasting of PM10 air pollution in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoimenova, M.; Voynikova, D.; Ivanov, A.; Gocheva-Ilieva, S.; Iliev, I.

    2017-10-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM10) air pollution is a serious problem affecting the health of the population in many Bulgarian cities. As an example, the object of this study is the pollution with PM10 of the town of Pleven, Northern Bulgaria. The measured concentrations of this air pollutant for this city consistently exceeded the permissible limits set by European and national legislation. Based on data for the last 6 years (2011-2016), the analysis shows that this applies both to the daily limit of 50 micrograms per cubic meter and the allowable number of daily concentration exceedances to 35 per year. Also, the average annual concentration of PM10 exceeded the prescribed norm of no more than 40 micrograms per cubic meter. The aim of this work is to build high performance mathematical models for effective prediction and forecasting the level of PM10 pollution. The study was conducted with the powerful flexible data mining technique Classification and Regression Trees (CART). The values of PM10 were fitted with respect to meteorological data such as maximum and minimum air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction and others, as well as with time and autoregressive variables. As a result the obtained CART models demonstrate high predictive ability and fit the actual data with up to 80%. The best models were applied for forecasting the level pollution for 3 to 7 days ahead. An interpretation of the modeling results is presented.

  17. Light pollution is greatest within migration passage areas for nocturnally-migrating birds around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Cruz, Sergio A; Smolinsky, Jaclyn A; Buler, Jeffrey J

    2018-02-19

    Excessive or misdirected artificial light at night (ALAN) produces light pollution that influences several aspects of the biology and ecology of birds, including disruption of circadian rhythms and disorientation during flight. Many migrating birds traverse large expanses of land twice every year at night when ALAN illuminates the sky. Considering the extensive and increasing encroachment of light pollution around the world, we evaluated the association of the annual mean ALAN intensity over land within the geographic ranges of 298 nocturnally migrating bird species with five factors: phase of annual cycle, mean distance between breeding and non-breeding ranges, range size, global hemisphere of range, and IUCN category of conservation concern. Light pollution within geographic ranges was relatively greater during the migration season, for shorter-distance migrants, for species with smaller ranges, and for species in the western hemisphere. Our results suggest that migratory birds may be subject to the effects of light pollution particularly during migration, the most critical stage in their annual cycle. We hope these results will spur further research on how light pollution affects not only migrating birds, but also other highly mobile animals throughout their annual cycle.

  18. Risk perception and access to environmental information in four areas in Italy affected by natural or anthropogenic pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coi, A; Minichilli, F; Bustaffa, E; Carone, S; Santoro, M; Bianchi, F; Cori, L

    2016-10-01

    A human biomonitoring (HBM) survey in four areas affected by natural or anthropogenic arsenic pollution was conducted in Italy within the framework of the SEpiAs project. A questionnaire, including the exploration of risk perception (RP) regarding environmental hazards and access to and trust in information, was administered to 282 subjects stratified by area, gender and age. The survey was designed to investigate how populations living in polluted areas could adopt prevention-oriented habits, fostered by the awareness of existing risks and, in addition, how increased knowledge of RP and information flows could support researchers in identifying recommendations, and presenting and disseminating HBM results. This study characterizes the four areas in terms of RP and access to and trust in environmental information, and provides insights into the influence of RP and environmental information on food consumption. For the data analysis, a combined random forest (RF) and logistic regression approach was carried out. RF was applied to the variables derived from the questionnaire in order to identify the most important in terms of the aims defined. Associations were then tested using Fisher's exact test and assessed with logistic regression in order to adjust for confounders. Results showed that the perception of and personal exposure to atmospheric and water pollution, hazardous industries and waste, hazardous material transportation and waste was higher in geographical areas characterized by anthropogenic pollution. Citizens living in industrial areas appeared to be aware of environmental risks and had more confidence in environmental non-governmental organizations (NGOs) than in public authorities. In addition, they reported an insufficient circulation of information. Concerning the influence of RP and environmental information on food consumption, a high perception of personal exposure to atmospheric pollution and hazardous industries was associated with a lower

  19. Acute effects of urban and industrial pollution in a government-designated "Environmental risk area": the case of Brindisi, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianicolo, Emilio Antonio Luca; Bruni, Antonella; Mangia, Cristina; Cervino, Marco; Vigotti, Maria Angela

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to air pollutants has been associated with increased hospital admissions (HAs) for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. This work describes a short-term epidemiological study in Brindisi, a highly industrialized town in Southern Italy. The effects of daily exposure to PM10 and NO2 on daily HAs for cardiac, respiratory, and cerebrovascular diseases were investigated by means of a case-crossover design in the period 2001-2007. Results showed positive associations between PM10 and HAs for cardiac and respiratory diseases and between NO2 and HAs for all the categories of diseases considered, particularly among females. Although not statistically significant, increased risk was observed for wind blowing from the port and the industrial area. Findings confirm the health risks associated with ambient air pollution exposure, even though NO2 and PM10 concentrations were below the legal limits. This may be due to the complex scenario of emissions in the area, which should be better investigated.

  20. Development of large scale industrial complex and its pollution. Case study of Kashima area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagai, S

    1975-01-01

    The development of Kashima industrial complex which embraces three townships started in 1960 to promote both agricultural and industrial developments using the most advanced techniques available for environmental pollution control. The chronological development progress is described with reference to the capital investment, gross product, employment and labor supply, population, status of the use of agricultural land, annual revenue and expenditure of three townships, and township tax. The environmental pollution control policies and measures taken since 1964 are reviewed. The emphasis was placed on preliminary investigations by various means and emission standards were applied. However, many incidences of pollution damage occurred due to operational errors and accidental causes. The emission quantity of sulfur dioxide is to be reduced from 8212 N cu m/h in 1973 to 4625 N cu m/h in 1976.

  1. Large-Eddy Simulation of Chemically Reactive Pollutant Transport from a Point Source in Urban Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Tangzheng; Liu, Chun-Ho

    2013-04-01

    Most air pollutants are chemically reactive so using inert scalar as the tracer in pollutant dispersion modelling would often overlook their impact on urban inhabitants. In this study, large-eddy simulation (LES) is used to examine the plume dispersion of chemically reactive pollutants in a hypothetical atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) in neutral stratification. The irreversible chemistry mechanism of ozone (O3) titration is integrated into the LES model. Nitric oxide (NO) is emitted from an elevated point source in a rectangular spatial domain doped with O3. The LES results are compared well with the wind tunnel results available in literature. Afterwards, the LES model is applied to idealized two-dimensional (2D) street canyons of unity aspect ratio to study the behaviours of chemically reactive plume over idealized urban roughness. The relation among various time scales of reaction/turbulence and dimensionless number are analysed.

  2. Pollution and health risk in urban areas of La Sabana River, Acapulco, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Herrera, America; Olivier Salome, Branly; Lopez Velasco, Rocio; Barragan Mendoza, Maria del Carmen; Canedo Villareal, Roberto; Valera Perez, Miguel Angel

    2013-01-01

    We often find cities whose development is associated with the occupation of a river basin on with no public actions and policies to stop processes of environmental and social degradation caused by land use change. The case studies are two communities on the periphery of the city of Acapulco, influenced by insufficient infrastructure and lack of health and environment of the river La Sabana, which develop their lives in a degraded and polluted environment. The data provided confirm that respiratory and digestive tract diseases, recognized by WHO-as pollution-related diseases, are the most recurrent. However pollution also accelerates deterioration and environmental degradation, because it touches directly on the eutrophication of the lagoonal ecosystems of Tres Palos and Negra de Puerto Marques, generating biodiversity loss and effects on the quality of life of the population. The health risk mitigation, attention should focus on the situation of vulnerability in a holistic perspective

  3. Transport of pollutants and sediment in the area of the Wave Hub (Celtic Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Georgy; Huntley, David

    2010-05-01

    consequences. This paper presents some preliminary modelling results of a baseline study focussed on hind-cast and now-cast simulation of the 3D structure of temperature, salinity and current velocity in the area immediately adjacent to the location of the Wave Hub. Of the range of available 3D numerical models for shelf sea hydrodynamics, we have selected the Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory Coastal Modelling System (POLCOMS). The POLCOMS has successfully been used in a number of coastal/shelf sea regions to simulate circulation of coastal waters. Modelling is carried out in the region of approximately 200x 200 km with the variable vertical resolution typically less than 2 m. Such parameters allow resololution of the formation of coastal density fronts both within and outside the wave shadow zone, expected to be of the order of tens of kilometres. The meteorological parameters are obtained from the publicly available NCEP re-analyses data base. These parameters include components of the wind velocity and the surface heat fluxes, air pressure at sea level; temperature and humidity in the low troposphere; precipitation and cloudiness. In this study, the transport of pollution is simulated by a number of passive drifters located at a certain depth at a number of locations including the central point of the Wave Hub. Sediment transport is modelled using the Engelund-Hansen algorithm taking the current velocities produced by the POLCOMS as an input parameter. The Celtic sea is a tidally dominated region, and the modelling is run both in full-forcing and in tide-only modes in order to assess effects of density fronts on the residual (tidally averaged) circulation pattern. The results show that the pollution pathways are very sensitive to the formation of temperature fronts. In some cases the passive traces move in nearly opposite directions when the effect of temperature fronts is disregarded. Sediment transport is highly non-uniform spatially with some four areas along the

  4. [Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of atmospheric VOCs in the downtown area of Guangzhou, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Li, Hong; Wang, Xue-Zhong; Zhang, Xin-Min; Wen, Chong

    2013-12-01

    The measurements of 31 kinds of VOCs in the ambient air of a site were carried out in the downtown of Guangzhou by online method from November 5, 2009 to November 9, 2009. The ambient level and composition characteristics, temporal variation characteristics, sources identification, and chemical reactivity of VOCs were studied, and the health risk of VOCs in the ambient air in the study area was assessed by using the international recognized health risk assessment method. Results showed that the mean and the range of the mass concentrations of 31 VOCs were 114.51 microg x m(-3) and 29.42-546.06 microg x m(-3), respectively. The mass concentrations of 31 VOCs, and those of alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics all showed a changing trend of higher in the morning and in the evening, and lower at noontime. Vehicular exhaust, gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas evaporates were the main sources of VOCs with the volatilization of paints and solvents being important emission sources. Toluene, trans-2-butene, m/p-xylene, i-butane, and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene were the key reactive species among the 31 VOCs. Vehicular exhaust and gasoline evaporation were the main sources of VOCs leading to the formation of ozone. Health risk assessment showed that n-hexane, 1,3-butadiene, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m/p-xylene and o-xylene had no appreciable risk of adverse non-cancer health effect on the exposed population, but 1, 3-butadiene and benzene had potential cancer risk. By comparing the corresponding data about health risk assessment of benzene compounds in some cities in China, it is concluded that benzene can impose relatively high cancer risk to the exposed populations in the ambient air of some cities in China. Therefore, strict countermeasures should be taken to further control the pollution of benzene in the ambient air of cities, and it is imperative to start the related studies and develop the atmospheric environmental health criteria and national ambient air quality

  5. Mortality for chronic-degenerative diseases in Tuscany: Ecological study comparing neighboring areas with substantial differences in environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marabotti, Claudio; Piaggi, Paolo; Scarsi, Paolo; Venturini, Elio; Cecchi, Romina; Pingitore, Alessandro

    2017-06-19

    Environmental pollution is associated with morbidity and mortality for chronic-degenerative diseases. Recent data points out a relationship between proximity to industrial plants and mortality due to neoplasms. The aim of this study has been to compare mortality due to chronic-degenerative diseases in the area of Tuscany (Bassa Val di Cecina), Italy, characterized by the presence of 2 neighboring municipalities similar in terms of size but with substantial differences in industrial activities: Rosignano (the site of chemical, energy production and waste processing industries) and Cecina (with no polluting activity). Standardized mortality rates for the 2001-2010 decade were calculated; the data of the whole Tuscany was assumed as reference. Environmental levels of pollutants were obtained by databases of the Environmental Protection Agency of Tuscany Region (Agenzia Regionale per la Protezione Ambientale della Toscana - ARPAT). Maximum tolerated pollutant levels set by national laws were assumed as reference. In the whole Bassa Val di Cecina, significantly elevated standardized mortality rates due to mesothelioma, ischemic heart diseases, cerebrovascular diseases and Alzheimer and other degenerative diseases of nervous system were observed. In the municipality of Rosignano, a significant excess of mortality for all these groups of diseases was confirmed. On the contrary, the municipality of Cecina showed only significantly higher mortality rates for ischemic heart diseases. Elevated levels of heavy metals in sea water and of particulate matter which contains particles of diameter ≤ 10 mm (PM10) and ozone in air were detected in Rosignano. This study shows an excess of mortality for chronic-degenerative diseases in the area with elevated concentration of polluting factories. Proximity to industrial plants seems to represent a risk factor for those diseases. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(4):641-653. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed

  6. Mortality for chronic-degenerative diseases in Tuscany: Ecological study comparing neighboring areas with substantial differences in environmental pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Marabotti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Environmental pollution is associated with morbidity and mortality for chronic-degenerative diseases. Recent data points out a relationship between proximity to industrial plants and mortality due to neoplasms. The aim of this study has been to compare mortality due to chronic-degenerative diseases in the area of Tuscany (Bassa Val di Cecina, Italy, characterized by the presence of 2 neighboring municipalities similar in terms of size but with substantial differences in industrial activities: Rosignano (the site of chemical, energy production and waste processing industries and Cecina (with no polluting activity. Material and Methods: Standardized mortality rates for the 2001–2010 decade were calculated; the data of the whole Tuscany was assumed as reference. Environmental levels of pollutants were obtained by databases of the Environmental Protection Agency of Tuscany Region (Agenzia Regionale per la Protezione Ambientale della Toscana – ARPAT. Maximum tolerated pollutant levels set by national laws were assumed as reference. Results: In the whole Bassa Val di Cecina, significantly elevated standardized mortality rates due to mesothelioma, ischemic heart diseases, cerebrovascular diseases and Alzheimer and other degenerative diseases of nervous system were observed. In the municipality of Rosignano, a significant excess of mortality for all these groups of diseases was confirmed. On the contrary, the municipality of Cecina showed only significantly higher mortality rates for ischemic heart diseases. Elevated levels of heavy metals in sea water and of particulate matter which contains particles of diameter ≤ 10 mm (PM10 and ozone in air were detected in Rosignano. Conclusions: This study shows an excess of mortality for chronic-degenerative diseases in the area with elevated concentration of polluting factories. Proximity to industrial plants seems to represent a risk factor for those diseases. Int J Occup Med Environ Health

  7. Is long-term exposure to traffic pollution associated with mortality? A small-area study in London

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halonen, Jaana I.; Blangiardo, Marta; Toledano, Mireille B.; Fecht, Daniela; Gulliver, John; Ghosh, Rebecca; Anderson, H. Ross; Beevers, Sean D.; Dajnak, David; Kelly, Frank J.; Wilkinson, Paul; Tonne, Cathryn

    2016-01-01

    Long-term exposure to primary traffic pollutants may be harmful for health but few studies have investigated effects on mortality. We examined associations for six primary traffic pollutants with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in 2003–2010 at small-area level using linear and piecewise linear Poisson regression models. In linear models most pollutants showed negative or null association with all-cause, cardiovascular or respiratory mortality. In the piecewise models we observed positive associations in the lowest exposure range (e.g. relative risk (RR) for all-cause mortality 1.07 (95% credible interval (CI) = 1.00–1.15) per 0.15 μg/m"3 increase in exhaust related primary particulate matter ≤2.5 μm (PM_2_._5)) whereas associations in the highest exposure range were negative (corresponding RR 0.93, 95% CI: 0.91–0.96). Overall, there was only weak evidence of positive associations with mortality. That we found the strongest positive associations in the lowest exposure group may reflect residual confounding by unmeasured confounders that varies by exposure group. - Highlights: • Evidence of association between primary traffic pollutants and mortality is scarce. • We examined this in a large city using most recent small-area statistical methods. • Overall, there was only weak evidence of positive associations with mortality. - Overall, there was only weak evidence of positive associations between long-term exposure to primary traffic pollutants and mortality for all, cardiovascular or respiratory causes.

  8. Effect of mercury and arsenic from industrial effluents on the drinking water and comparison of the water quality of polluted and non-polluted areas: a case study of Peshawar and Lower Dir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, M; Jan, F Akbar; Khan, Murad Ali; Ihsanullah, I; Ahmad, I; Shakirullah, M; Roohullah

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to find out the sources of mercury and arsenic pollution of water in the industrial area of Peshawar, the capital of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Samples of effluents, mud, and water were collected from the target area (industrial area of Peshawar), the area of water supply source, and from the less polluted area, the Lower Dir district, as the control. Hg was determined by the cold vapor generation technique, while arsenic was determined using the electrothermal atomic absorption technique. Data of the water from the industrial area were compared with that of the source area, control area, as well as with the WHO and some international drinking water quality standards. The results show that some parameters, i.e., TDS, DO, pH, and hardness, were more than the permissible limits. Textile and glass industries were found to be the major sources of Hg and As pollution. Downstream dilution of these contaminants was also observed.

  9. Bioindication of heavy metal pollution in the area of Southeastern Serbia by using epiphytic lichen Flavoparmelia caperata (L. Hale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović, T.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The content and distribution of 21 metals in the central and peripheral parts of the foliose epiphytic lichen Flavoparmelia caperata (L. Hale, collected in the area of Southeastern Serbia, were analysed in terms of biological monitoring. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry revealed higher concentrations of As, B, Ba, Cd, Ga, Pb, Se, Cr, Cu, Fe, In, Li and/or Ni in peripheral, younger, parts and Ba, K, Tl, Mg, Na and/or Zn in central, older parts of lichens. Principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis were used to identify the relationship among metals in samples and their possible sources. Significant correlations were found among Ni-Cr, Cd-Ga-In-As-Se, Zn-Ba, Cu-Pb-B, suggesting a common source of pollution. Given the location of sampling, these findings probably reflect airborne metal pollution in relation to the main wind directions and vicinity of the roads and industrial complexes. The importance of this study is the evidence that the Special Nature Reserve Jelašnička Gorge is influenced by pollution sources in the area. Flavoparmelia caperata could be effective as an early indicator of environmental changes of the studied area.

  10. Influences of meteorological conditions on interannual variations of particulate matter pollution during winter in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jianjun; Gong, Sunling; Liu, Hongli; An, Xingqin; Yu, Ye; Zhao, Suping; Wu, Lin; Song, Congbo; Zhou, Chunhong; Wang, Jie; Yin, Chengmei; Yu, Lijuan

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the interannual variations of particulate matter (PM) pollution in winter, this paper examines the pollution characteristics of PM with aerodynamic diameters of less than 2.5 and 10 μm (i.e., PM2.5 and PM10), and their relationship to meteorological conditions over the Beijing municipality, Tianjin municipality, and Hebei Province—an area called Jing-Jin-Ji (JJJ, hereinafter)—in December 2013-16. The meteorological conditions during this period are also analyzed. The regional average concentrations of PM2.5 (PM10) over the JJJ area during this period were 148.6 (236.4), 100.1 (166.4), 140.5 (204.5), and 141.7 (203.1) μg m-3, respectively. The high occurrence frequencies of cold air outbreaks, a strong Siberian high, high wind speeds and boundary layer height, and low temperature and relative humidity, were direct meteorological causes of the low PM concentration in December 2014. A combined analysis of PM pollution and meteorological conditions implied that control measures have resulted in an effective improvement in air quality. Using the same emissions inventory in December 2013-16, a modeling analysis showed emissions of PM2.5 to decrease by 12.7%, 8.6%, and 8.3% in December 2014, 2015, and 2016, respectively, each compared with the previous year, over the JJJ area.

  11. Pollution Sources and Mortality Rates across Rural-Urban Areas in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendryx, Michael; Fedorko, Evan; Halverson, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct an assessment of rural environmental pollution sources and associated population mortality rates. Methods: The design is a secondary analysis of county-level data from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Department of Agriculture, National Land Cover Dataset, Energy Information Administration, Centers for Disease Control…

  12. A screening procedure to evaluate air pollution effects on Class I wilderness areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas G. Fox; Ann M. Bartuska; James G. Byrne; Ellis Cowling; Richard Fisher; Gene E. Likens; Steven E. Lindberg; Rick A. Linthurst; Jay Messer; Dale S. Nichols

    1989-01-01

    This screening procedure is intended to help wilderness managers conduct "adverse impact determinations" as part of Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) applications for sources that emit air pollutants that might impact Class I wildernesses. The process provides an initial estimate of susceptibility to critical loadings for sulfur, nitrogen, and...

  13. Method for the prioritization of areas experiencing microbial pollution of surface water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Venter, SN

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased threat of faecal pollution in recent years and the high priority of protecting human health by the government led to the initiation of a national microbial monitoring programme for surface water in South Africa. According to the design...

  14. DNA damage and micronuclei in parthenogenetic and bisexual Darevskia rock lizards from the areas with different levels of soil pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonyan, Anna; Hovhannisyan, Galina; Sargsyan, Anzhela; Arakelyan, Marine; Minasyan, Seyran; Aroutiounian, Rouben

    2018-06-15

    Natural species are widely used as indicator organisms to estimate of the impact of environmental pollution. Here we present the results of first study of a reliability of parthenogenetic Darevskia аrmeniaca and bisexual Darevskia raddei rock lizards as sentinels for monitoring of environmental genotoxicity. The comet assay and micronucleus test were applied to the lizards sampled in six areas in Armenia and Artsakh with different levels of soil contamination. The results obtained showed a clear relationship between the pollution level of lizards' habitats and the frequency of DNA damage in the comet assay. Low baseline frequency of micronuclei in D. аrmeniaca and D. raddei, however, makes this parameter ineffective for environmental genotoxicity evaluation. The parthenogenetic lizards D. аrmeniaca showed higher sensitivity toward genotoxic pollutions compared with bisexual D. raddei living in the same environment. The correlations between soil content of heavy metals Cr, Cu, Zn, Mo, Pb and DNA damage in D. аrmeniaca and between Cu, As, Mo, Pb and DNA damage in D. raddei were revealed. Overall, the lizards D. raddei and D. аrmeniaca appeared to be sensitive species in detecting soil pollution in natural environment. The application of the comet assay in Darevskia lizard species can be considered as a more appropriate method than a micronucleus test. The use of parthenogenetic lizards D. аrmeniaca as bioindicator will permit to assess the environmental genotoxicity independent of the genetic polymorphism of bisexual species. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Characterization of water pollution in drainage networks using continuous monitoring data in the Citadel area of Hue City, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Y; Teraguchi, T; Lieu, P K; Furumai, H

    2014-01-01

    In the Citadel area of Hue City, drainage systems that include canals and ponds are considerable sources of fecal contaminants to inundated water during the rainy season because canals and ponds receive untreated wastewater. It is important to investigate the characteristics of hydraulics and water pollution in canals and ponds. At the canals and ponds, water sampling was conducted during dry and wet weather periods in order to evaluate fecal contamination and to investigate changes in water pollution caused by runoff inflow. Inundated water was also collected from streets during heavy rainfall. At the canals and ponds, concentrations of Escherichia coli and total coliform exceeded the Vietnamese regulation values for surface water in 23 and 24 out of 27 samples (85 and 89%), respectively. The water samples were categorized based on the characteristics of water pollution using cluster analysis. In the rainy season, continuous monitoring was conducted at the canals and ponds using water depth and electrical conductivity (EC) sensors to investigate the dynamic relationship between water level and water pollution. It is suggested that in the canals, high EC meant water stagnation and low EC signified river water inflow. Therefore, EC might be a good indicator of water flow change in canals.

  16. Biomarker analyses in caged and wild fish suggest exposure to pollutants in an urban area with a landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Niklas; Larsson, Åke

    2011-06-01

    An unexpectedly high frequency of skeletal deformations in brown trout has previously been observed in the brook Vallkärrabäcken in southern Sweden. Environmental pollutants from storm water and leachate from an old landfill have been suggested as responsible for the observed deformations. Biomarkers in farmed rainbow trout, placed in tanks with water supplied from the brook, were used to investigate if exposure to pollutants may induce toxic responses in fish. Furthermore, biomarkers were also measured in wild brown trout that were caught in the brook. The most important finding was that the hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was five to seven times higher for rainbow trout and brown trout in exposed areas compared to reference sites (Ppollution in parts of Vallkärrabäcken. It is therefore possible that the previously observed high frequency of skeletal damage have been caused by pollutants. The methodology with farmed rainbow trout in flow through tanks worked well and provided more information about the occurrence of pollutants in Vallkärrabäcken than the data from brown trout. The main reasons for this were that the size and the feeding status of the fish could be controlled. This allowed a total of 21 biomarkers to be analyzed in farmed rainbow trout compared to only five in wild brown trout. Furthermore, the use of farmed fish eliminates the risk of migration, which may otherwise bias the data when wild fish are used. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Indoor air pollution from solid biomass fuels combustion in rural agricultural area of Tibet, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X; Yu, Q; Gu, Q; Chen, Y; Ding, K; Zhu, J; Chen, L

    2009-06-01

    In this study, we are trying to investigate the indoor air pollution and to estimate the residents' pollution exposure reduction of energy altering in rural Tibet. Daily PM(2.5) monitoring was conducted in indoor microenvironments like kitchen, living-room, bedroom, and yard in rural Tibet from December 2006 to March 2007. For kitchen air pollution, impact of two fuel types, methane and solid biomass fuels (SBFs), were compared. Questionnaire survey on the domestic energy pattern and residents' daily activity pattern was performed in Zha-nang County. Daily average PM(2.5) concentrations in kitchen, living-room, bedroom, and yard were 134.91 microg/m(3) (mean, n = 45, 95%CI 84.02, 185.80), 103.61 microg/m(3) (mean, n = 21, 95%CI 85.77, 121.45), 76.13 microg/m(3) (mean, n = 18, 95%CI 57.22, 95.04), and 78.33 microg/m(3) (mean, n = 34, 95%CI 60.00, 96.65) respectively. Using SBFs in kitchen resulted in higher indoor pollution than using methane. PM(2.5) concentrations in kitchen with dung cake, fuel wood and methane use were 117.41 microg/m(3) (mean, n = 18, 95%CI 71.03, 163.79), 271.11 microg/m(3) (mean, n = 12, 95%CI 104.74, 437.48), and 46.96 microg/m(3) (mean, n = 15, 95%CI 28.10, 65.82) respectively. Family income has significant influence on cooking energy choice, while the lack of commercial energy supply affects the energy choice for heating more. The effects of two countermeasures to improve indoor air quality were estimated in this research. One is to replace SBFs by clean energy like methane, the other is to separate the cooking place from other rooms and by applying these countermeasures, residents' exposure to particulate matters would reduce by 25-50% (methane) or 20-30% (separation) compared to the present situation. Indoor air pollution caused by solid biomass fuels is one of the most important burdens of disease in the developing countries, which attracts the attention of environment and public health researchers, as well as policy makers. This paper

  18. The estimation of areas of ground that may be contaminated after an accidental release of pollutant to the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, J.O.

    1979-01-01

    A method is developed for calculating the area of ground contaminated above a prescribed level after an accidental release of radioactivity or any other pollutant to the atmosphere. Numerical calculations are made for a wide range of releases, atmospheric conditions and rates of wet and dry deposition. It is shown that high atmospheric stability and rain both tend to maximize the area of significant contamination for most of the plausible range of releases. However, for very large hypothetical releases, dry conditions with an unstable atmosphere spread significant contamination furthest afield. (author)

  19. Protected areas in the Atlantic facing the hazards of micro-plastic pollution: first diagnosis of three islands in the Canary Current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baztan, Juan; Carrasco, Ana; Chouinard, Omer; Cleaud, Muriel; Gabaldon, Jesús E; Huck, Thierry; Jaffrès, Lionel; Jorgensen, Bethany; Miguelez, Aquilino; Paillard, Christine; Vanderlinden, Jean-Paul

    2014-03-15

    Coastal zones and the biosphere as a whole show signs of cumulative degradation due to the use and disposal of plastics. To better understand the manifestation of plastic pollution in the Atlantic Ocean, we partnered with local communities to determine the concentrations of micro-plastics in 125 beaches on three islands in the Canary Current: Lanzarote, La Graciosa, and Fuerteventura. We found that, in spite of being located in highly-protected natural areas, all beaches in our study area are exceedingly vulnerable to micro-plastic pollution, with pollution levels reaching concentrations greater than 100 g of plastic in 1l of sediment. This paper contributes to ongoing efforts to develop solutions to plastic pollution by addressing the questions: (i) Where does this pollution come from?; (ii) How much plastic pollution is in the world's oceans and coastal zones?; (iii) What are the consequences for the biosphere?; and (iv) What are possible solutions? Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Air pollution, land price development and assessment of immission control needs in urban development plans. The impact of immission pollution by sulphur dioxide and dust precipitation on property prices in residential areas of Dortmund and Duisburg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Chenjai.

    1993-01-01

    Air pollution, land price development and assessment of immission control needs in urban development plans. The impact of immission pollution by sulphur dioxide and dust precipitation on property prices in residential areas of Dortmund and Duisburg. The focus of this thesis is on studying the links between property prices and air pollution. The ground rent theory which goes back to the 16th century provides the theoretical basis for this work. RICARDO put forward the theory, that air may, under certain circumstances, - as for instance different local air pollution levels or sensitivity of locals to air quality -, which did not apply 200 years ago actually produce rent. These circumstances do indeed apply widely today - different air pollution levels in urban areas are just a case in point. Various empiricial studies in the U.S. proved that air pollution with different substances does actually influence the value of property. The ground rent influenced by air pollution is called ''air rent''. This study contains empirical studies on the influence of air pollution by sulphur dioxide SO 2 and dust precipitation on general property prices in residential areas of Dortmund between 1979 and 1989 and Duisburg between 1981 and 1989. (orig./UA) [de

  1. The abundance of health-associated bacteria is altered in PAH polluted soils-Implications for health in urban areas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirudra Parajuli

    Full Text Available Long-term exposure to polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs has been connected to chronic human health disorders. It is also well-known that i PAH contamination alters soil bacterial communities, ii human microbiome is associated with environmental microbiome, and iii alteration in the abundance of members in several bacterial phyla is associated with adverse or beneficial human health effects. We hypothesized that soil pollution by PAHs altered soil bacterial communities that had known associations with human health. The rationale behind our study was to increase understanding and potentially facilitate reconsidering factors that lead to health disorders in areas characterized by PAH contamination. Large containers filled with either spruce forest soil, pine forest soil, peat, or glacial sand were left to incubate or contaminated with creosote. Biological degradation of PAHs was monitored using GC-MS, and the bacterial community composition was analyzed using 454 pyrosequencing. Proteobacteria had higher and Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes had lower relative abundance in creosote contaminated soils than in non-contaminated soils. Earlier studies have demonstrated that an increase in the abundance of Proteobacteria and decreased abundance of the phyla Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes are particularly associated with adverse health outcomes and immunological disorders. Therefore, we propose that pollution-induced shifts in natural soil bacterial community, like in PAH-polluted areas, can contribute to the prevalence of chronic diseases. We encourage studies that simultaneously address the classic "adverse toxin effect" paradigm and our novel "altered environmental microbiome" hypothesis.

  2. Health Impacts and Economic Costs of Air Pollution in the Metropolitan Area of Skopje

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez Martinez, Gerardo; Spadaro, Joseph V.; Chapizanis, Dimitris

    2018-01-01

    the burden of disease attributable to PM and calculated the societal cost due to attributable mortality. In 2012, long-term exposure to PM2.5 (49.2 μg/m³) caused an estimated 1199 premature deaths (CI95% 821-1519). The social cost of the predicted premature mortality in 2012 due to air pollution...... was estimated at between 570 and 1470 million euros. Moreover, PM2.5 was also estimated to be responsible for 547 hospital admissions (CI95% 104-977) from cardiovascular diseases, and 937 admissions (CI95% 937-1869) for respiratory disease that year. Reducing PM2.5 levels to the EU limit (25 μg/m³) could have....... Besides its health impacts in terms of increased premature mortality and hospitalizations, air pollution entails significant economic costs to the population of Skopje. Reductions in PM2.5 concentrations could provide substantial health and economic gains to the city....

  3. Diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in grassland spontaneously developed on area polluted by a fertilizer plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renker, C.; Blanke, V.; Buscot, F.

    2005-01-01

    Mycorrhizal colonization and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) were analyzed in a calcareous grassland with residual phosphate contamination 10 years after the closure of a pollutant fertilizer plant in Thuringia (Germany). AMF were detected in 21 of 22 plant species analyzed. Mean mycorrhization levels reached up to 74.5% root length colonized. AMF diversity was analyzed based on 104 sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the ribosomal DNA. Phylogenetic analyses revealed a total of 6 species all belonging to the genus Glomus. There was no overlap between species detected as active mycorrhizas on roots (2 taxa) or as spores (4 taxa). Compared to the regional context, the diversity of AMF at our field site was reduced, which may reflect a residual disturbance effect. However, none of the detected species was exclusive to the polluted site as they are commonly found in the region. - Almost all plant species were mycorrhizal

  4. Monitoring of priority pollutants in dynamic stormwater discharges from urban areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Heidi

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) from 2000 has put focus on the chemical status of surface waters by the specified Environmental Quality Standard (EQSs) and the requirements for monitoring of surface water quality throughout Europe. When considering the water quality of urban stormwater...... runoff it is evident that surface waters receiving large amount of urban stormwater runoff will be at risk of failing to meet the EQSs. Therefore stormwater treatment is crucial. However, as stormwater quality varies orders of magnitude between sites, stormwater monitoring is important in order to design...... discharges. Sorption of pollutants to particulate matter and dissolved organic carbon is important for both the toxicity of the pollutants and for removal in stormwater treatment systems. Furthermore sorption is important for sampling using the most common types of passive samplers, which are based on uptake...

  5. Availability of Selected (Pollutant Elements and their Influence on Soil Composition in Urban Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Zeiner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Interest in growing fruits and vegetables in private gardens is rising due to nowadays ecological awareness. Avoiding artificial fertilizers and plant protection products does not guarantee the absence of toxic substances, especially heavy metals in the soil and thus in the fruits harvested. Due to either geological bedrock weathering or environmental pollution, garden soils may be rich in certain potentially toxic elements. In the present study ten garden soils from central Croatia have been analysed by the BCR method for the contents and bioavailability of aluminium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, nickel and zinc. The total amounts of the elements are in the concentration range as reported for agricultural soils in different geographical regions. Only two soils of the capital Zagreb have higher concentrations of pollutant metals, such as chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, manganese and zinc. Regarding nutrients, all soils have met the needs of common garden plants.

  6. Concentrations and (delta)13C values of atmospheric CO2 from oceanic atmosphere through time: polluted and non-polluted areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longinelli, Antonio; Selmo, Enrico; Lenaz, Renzo; Ori, Carlo

    2005-01-01

    CO 2 is one of the primary agents of global climate changes. The increase of atmospheric CO 2 concentration is essentially related to human-induced emissions and, particularly, to the burning of fossil fuel whose (delta) 13 C values are quite negative. Consequently, an increase of the CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere should be paralleled by a decrease of its (delta) 13 C. Continuous and/or spot measurements of CO 2 concentrations were repeatedly carried out during the last decade and in the same period of the year along hemispheric courses from Italy to Antarctica on a vessel of the Italian National Research Program in Antarctica. During these expeditions, discrete air samples were also collected in 4-l Pyrex flasks in order to carry out precise carbon isotope analyses on atmospheric CO 2 from different areas, including theoretically 'clean' open ocean areas, with the main purpose of comparing these open ocean results with the results obtained by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/World Meteorological Organization (NOAA/WMO) at land-based stations. According to the data obtained for these two variables, a relatively large atmospheric pollution is apparent in the Mediterranean area where the CO 2 concentration has reached the value of 384 ppmv while quite negative (delta) 13 C values have been measured only occasionally. In this area, southerly winds probably help to reduce the effect of atmospheric pollution even though, despite a large variability of CO 2 concentrations, these values are consistently higher than those measured in open ocean areas by a few ppmv to about 10 ppmv. A marked, though non-continuous, pollution is apparent in the area of the Bab-el-Mandeb strait where (delta) 13 C values considerably more negative than in the Central and Southern Red Sea were measured. The concentration of atmospheric CO 2 over the Central Indian Ocean increased from about 361 ppmv at the end of 1996 to about 373 ppmv at the end of 2003 (mean growth

  7. Relationship between meteorological phenomena and air pollution in an urbanized and industrialized coastal area in northern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gengembre, Cyril; Zhang, Shouwen; Dieudonné, Elsa; Sokolov, Anton; Augustin, Patrick; Riffault, Véronique; Dusanter, Sébastien; Fourmentin, Marc; Delbarre, Hervé

    2016-04-01

    Impacts of global climate evolution are quite uncertain at regional and local scales, especially on air pollution. Air quality is associated with local atmospheric dynamics at a time scale shorter than a few weeks, while the climate change time scale is on the order of fifty years. To infer consequences of climate evolution on air pollution, it is necessary to fill the gap between these different scales. Another challenge is to understand the effect of global warming on the frequency of meteorological phenomena that influence air pollution. In this work, we classified meteorological events related to air pollution during a one-year long field campaign in Dunkirk (northern France). Owing to its coastal location under urban and industrial exposures, the Dunkirk agglomeration is an interesting area for studying gaseous and aerosols pollutants and their relationship with weather events such as sea breezes, fogs, storms and fronts. The air quality in the northern region of France is also greatly influenced by highly populated and industrialized cities along the coast of the North Sea, and by London and Paris agglomerations. During a field campaign, we used simultaneously a three-dimensional sonic anemometer and a weather station network, along with a scanning Doppler Lidar system to analyse the vertical structure of the atmosphere. An Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor enabled investigating the PM1 behaviour during the studied events. Air contaminants such as NOx (NO and NO2) were also measured by the regional pollution monitoring network ATMO Nord Pas-de-Calais. The events were identified by finding specific criteria from meteorological and turbulent parameters. Over a hundred cases of sea breezes, fog periods, stormy days and atmospheric front passages were investigated. Variations of turbulent parameters (vertical sensible heat flux and momentum flux) give estimations on the transport and the dispersal of pollutants. As the fluxes are weak during fogs, an increase

  8. A study on a relationship between prevalence of respiratory disease and air pollution in two areas

    OpenAIRE

    五島,正規

    2000-01-01

    There have been many studies on the relationship between prevalence and incidence of respiratory disease and air pollution. This study was conducted by organized efforts of a regional medical association. Every member of the association reported the numbers of patients with respiratory diseases such as asthmatic bronchitis, chronic bronchitis, and bronchial asthma, and the total number of patients who consulted him/her. The former report was conducted in K city, and this study was of the Y ar...

  9. PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB bioaccumulation by Manila clam from polluted areas of Venice lagoon (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfriso, Adriano; Facca, Chiara; Raccanelli, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    POP bioaccumulation pathways in the clam Tapes philippinarum were examined for two years from juveniles to adult size. Two polluted sites, one with sandy sediment, the other muddy were compared with a reference site characterized by low contamination levels. Juvenile clams coming from a hatchery were reared both on the sediment and in nets suspended at 30 cm from the bottom. POP changes in clam tissue were related to the concentrations recorded in sediments and in the particulate matter during the entire fattening period. Results provided interesting data on the relationships between environmental contamination and bioaccumulation. Contrary to studies on the decontamination times of the clams collected in polluted areas, this work investigates the preferential clam bioaccumulation pathways during growth under different environmental conditions. In general POP bioaccumulation resulted to be correlated to concentrations in SPM rather than in sediments and was higher in S-clams rather than in B-clams. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Industrial Development and Challenges of Water Pollution in Coastal Areas: The Case of Surat, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Neeru

    2018-03-01

    Industrialisation plays an important role in the economic development of a country, however, pollution is the inevitable price paid for this development. Surat, a major industrial hub in western India, is located on the bank of the river Tapi and extends up to the Arabian Sea. The city is characterised by the presence of a number of creeks (known as ‘khadis’ in local language). This paper focusses on the industrial development in Surat and the challenges faced by the city due to water pollution. A constant deterioration in the quality of surface water resources has been observed due to discharge of treated or partially treated effluents from the industries. The problem of water pollution becomes critical due to increase in frequency of flooding, risks faced by the city due to climate change and the ineffective environmental governance. The paper provides insights into the challenges faced by the city and the learnings can lead to adoption of policy initiatives and other measures which can effectively address these challenges.

  11. Characterization of the air pollution in the urban area of Madrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climent-Font, A.; Swietlicki, E.; Revuelta, A.

    1994-01-01

    An attempt is made to characterize for the first time the urban pollution of Madrid using the combination of conventional gas measurements and an ion beam analytical technique (PIXE) for aerosol monitoring. Different sets of samples were collected selecting different seasons of the year; winter and summer 1992, and also different sampling times; 3 h and 24 h. A group of 18 elements in the mass range from Si to Pb could be analyzed. Concentration of gases in the air was recorded for the following: CO, NO x , NO 2 , SO 2 and C x H y . Four sources contributing to the air pollution were obtained by means of absolute principal component analysis where automotive transport emerges as the dominating one. The combination of aerosol (PIXE) and gas data as input to a receptor model proved to be fruitful for the understanding of the underlying chemical and physical processes governing the observed pollution levels. This is a preliminary study whose results will supply the trends and strategies for a more thorough characterization. (orig.)

  12. Assessment of Metal Pollution in Soils from urban area: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfonso Garcia, S.; Gelen, A.; Diaz Rizo, O.; D'Alessandro, K.; Saborit Sanchez, I.

    2015-01-01

    Concentration of heavy metals (Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb) were determined by X-ray fluorescence in the top-soils (0-10 cm) from backyard of housing near to factory. In this housing lives a person that suffers of health problems which can be related with intoxication by heavy metals. The mean Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb contents in the topsoil samples (4.3 ± 2.6; 32.2 ± 5.2; 86.3 ± 50; 451 ± 102; 162 ± 60 mg/kg -1 , respectively) were compared with mean concentrations for other cities around the world. The comparison with Dutch soil quality guidelines showed a median pollution with Co, Zn and Pb; however, other index: Integrated pollution index, Enrichment index and Enrichment factor showed soils are severely enriched with Pb and two stations are highly polluted and the enrichment index values shows that metal concentrations on the studied locations are above the permissible levels for urban agriculture. It is corroborated that the intoxication for heavy metals is one of the possible causes of the illness. It is recommended to make a deeper study of the soils around the factory. (Author)

  13. Evolution of industrial wastewater pollution in the Barcelona Metropolitan Area; Evolucion de la contaminacion industrial en las aguas residuales del area metropolitana de Barcelona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantecon Pascual, R.

    2005-07-01

    The Environmental Agency of the Barcelona Metropolitan Area has full powers regarding sewerage. Industrial wastewater emptied into the public sewer system has been monitored and analysed since 1988. the data showing the evolution of the pollution in industrial wastewater are presented, broken down by activities and parameters. These data are based on the analysis of 14,528 samples taken during 19,555 inspections of 5,655 factories. It was found that there has been a gradual improvement in the quality of the effluents. Failure to meet the requirements concerning one or more of the physico-chemical parameters fell from 71% to 39% of the samples analysed. (Author)

  14. The association of air pollution and greenness with mortality and life expectancy in Spain: A small-area study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Keijzer, Carmen; Agis, David; Ambrós, Albert; Arévalo, Gustavo; Baldasano, Jose M; Bande, Stefano; Barrera-Gómez, Jose; Benach, Joan; Cirach, Marta; Dadvand, Payam; Ghigo, Stefania; Martinez-Solanas, Èrica; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Cadum, Ennio; Basagaña, Xavier

    2017-02-01

    Air pollution exposure has been associated with an increase in mortality rates, but few studies have focused on life expectancy, and most studies had restricted spatial coverage. A limited body of evidence is also suggestive for a beneficial association between residential exposure to greenness and mortality, but the evidence for such an association with life expectancy is still very scarce. To investigate the association of exposure to air pollution and greenness with mortality and life expectancy in Spain. Mortality data from 2148 small areas (average population of 20,750 inhabitants, and median population of 7672 inhabitants) covering Spain for years 2009-2013 were obtained. Average annual levels of PM 10 , PM 2.5 , NO 2 and O 3 were derived from an air quality forecasting system at 4×4km resolution. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was used to assess greenness in each small area. Air pollution and greenness were linked to standardized mortality rates (SMRs) using Poisson regression and to life expectancy using linear regression. The models were adjusted for socioeconomic status and lung cancer mortality rates (as a proxy for smoking), and accounted for spatial autocorrelation. The increase of 5μg/m 3 in PM 10 , NO 2 and O 3 or of 2μg/m 3 in PM 2.5 concentration resulted in a loss of life in years of 0.90 (95% credibility interval CI: 0.83, 0.98), 0.13 (95% CI: 0.09, 0.17), 0.20years (95% CI: 0.16, 0.24) and 0.64 (0.59, 0.70), respectively. Similar associations were found in the SMR analysis, with stronger associations for PM 2.5 and PM 10 , which were associated with an increased mortality risk of 3.7% (95% CI: 3.5%, 4.0%) and 5.7% (95% CI: 5.4%, 6.1%). For greenness, a protective effect on mortality and longer life expectancy was only found in areas with lower socioeconomic status. Air pollution concentrations were associated to important reductions in life expectancy. The reduction of air pollution should be a priority for public health

  15. Evaluation of genotoxic damage in wild rodents from a polluted area in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ieradi, L. A.; Zima, Jan; Allegra, F.; Kotlánová, E.; Campanella, L.; Grossi, R.; Cristaldi, M.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 1 (2003), s. 57-66 ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/97/0850; GA MŠk VS97102 Grant - others:Italian National Research Council(IT) 96.00084.CT04-CNR Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : rodents * environmental pollution * heavy metals Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.494, year: 2003 http://www.ivb.cz/folia/52/1/57-66.pdf

  16. An environmental index of noise and light pollution at EU by spatial correlation of quiet and unlit areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votsi, Nefta-Eleftheria P; Kallimanis, Athanasios S; Pantis, Ioannis D

    2017-02-01

    Quietness exists in places without human induced noise sources and could offer multiple benefits to citizens. Unlit areas are sites free of human intense interference at night time. The aim of this research is to develop an integrated environmental index of noise and light pollution. In order to achieve this goal the spatial pattern of quietness and darkness of Europe was identified, as well as their overlap. The environmental index revealed that the spatial patterns of Quiet and Unlit Areas differ to a great extent highlighting the importance of preserving quietness as well as darkness in EU. The spatial overlap of these two environmental characteristics covers 32.06% of EU surface area, which could be considered a feasible threshold for protection. This diurnal and nocturnal metric of environmental quality accompanied with all direct and indirect benefits to human well-being could indicate a target for environmental protection in the EU policy and practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Environmental risk of oil production in sensitive areas[Pollution abatement in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahle, Salve; Larsen, Lars-Henrik

    2006-07-01

    The presentation discusses sensitive areas in the Arctic regions with focus on the north of Norway and the Barents Sea. Various ecosystem problems related to oil and gas production are pointed out. Characteristics of particularly sensitive areas are mentioned and some examples of vulnerable areas are discussed (tk)

  18. Is long-term exposure to traffic pollution associated with mortality? A small-area study in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halonen, Jaana I; Blangiardo, Marta; Toledano, Mireille B; Fecht, Daniela; Gulliver, John; Ghosh, Rebecca; Anderson, H Ross; Beevers, Sean D; Dajnak, David; Kelly, Frank J; Wilkinson, Paul; Tonne, Cathryn

    2016-01-01

    Long-term exposure to primary traffic pollutants may be harmful for health but few studies have investigated effects on mortality. We examined associations for six primary traffic pollutants with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in 2003-2010 at small-area level using linear and piecewise linear Poisson regression models. In linear models most pollutants showed negative or null association with all-cause, cardiovascular or respiratory mortality. In the piecewise models we observed positive associations in the lowest exposure range (e.g. relative risk (RR) for all-cause mortality 1.07 (95% credible interval (CI) = 1.00-1.15) per 0.15 μg/m(3) increase in exhaust related primary particulate matter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5)) whereas associations in the highest exposure range were negative (corresponding RR 0.93, 95% CI: 0.91-0.96). Overall, there was only weak evidence of positive associations with mortality. That we found the strongest positive associations in the lowest exposure group may reflect residual confounding by unmeasured confounders that varies by exposure group. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Hydrological modeling of a watershed affected by acid mine drainage (Odiel River, SW Spain). Assessment of the pollutant contributing areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, L.; Olías, M.; Cánovas, C. R.; Sarmiento, A. M.; Nieto, J. M.

    2016-09-01

    The Odiel watershed drains materials belonging to the Iberian Pyrite Belt, where significant massive sulfide deposits have been mined historically. As a result, a huge amount of sulfide-rich wastes are deposited in the watershed, which suffer from oxidation, releasing acidic lixiviates with high sulfate and metal concentrations. In order to reliably estimate the metal loadings along the watershed a complete series of discharge and hydrochemical data are essential. A hydrological model was performed with SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) to solve the scarcity of gauge stations along the watershed. The model was calibrated and validated from daily discharge data (from 1980 to 2010) at the outlet of the watershed, river inputs into an existent reservoir, and a flow gauge station close to the northern area of the watershed. Discharge data obtained from the hydrological model, together with analytical data, allowed the estimation of the dissolved pollutant load delivered annually by the Odiel River (e.g. 9140 t of Al, 2760 t of Zn). The pollutant load is influenced strongly by the rainfall regime, and can even double during extremely rainy years. Around 50% of total pollution comes from the Riotinto Mining District, so the treatment of Riotinto lixiviates reaching the Odiel watershed would reduce the AMD (Acid Mine Drainages) in a remarkable way, improving the water quality downstream, especially in the reservoir of Alcolea, currently under construction. The information obtained in this study will allow the optimization of remediation efforts in the watershed, in order to improve its water quality.

  20. Porphyrin pattern and methemoglobin levels in Columba livia applied to assess toxicological risk by air pollution in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicolo, Matteo; Tringali, Maria; Orsi, Federica; Santagostino, Angela

    2009-11-01

    The study has explored two conservative biomarkers, porphyrin pattern in guano and methemoglobin levels in blood of Columba livia, in order to assay their potential use for monitoring toxic effects induced by exposure to urban air pollution. Fieldwork was conducted between October 2003 and June 2005 in the city of Milan, Italy, by sampling the pigeons in different areas almost twice a week. Six air contaminants, CO, PM10, NO(2), O(3), SO(2), and C(6)H(6), plus polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fine particles, temperature, and UV index, were considered. Protoporphyrins from pigeon excreta sampled outdoors were always higher than in indoor animals, particularly in winter. A positive correlation (p urban air showed significant differences from season to season but only in summer and autumn did the outdoor pigeons show higher values than indoor animals. In summer, a regression model with a positive correlation between O(3) and benzene was determined (p urban air pollution as well as for detecting complex interactions between contaminants in the urban air pollutant mixture was discussed.

  1. Efficient retrieval of vegetation leaf area index and canopy clumping factor from satellite data to support pollutant deposition assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolov, Ned; Zeller, Karl

    2006-01-01

    Canopy leaf area index (LAI) is an important structural parameter of the vegetation controlling pollutant uptake by terrestrial ecosystems. This paper presents a computationally efficient algorithm for retrieval of vegetation LAI and canopy clumping factor from satellite data using observed Simple Ratios (SR) of near-infrared to red reflectance. The method employs numerical inversion of a physics-based analytical canopy radiative transfer model that simulates the bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). The algorithm is independent of ecosystem type. The method is applied to 1-km resolution AVHRR satellite images to retrieve a geo-referenced data set of monthly LAI values for the conterminous USA. Satellite-based LAI estimates are compared against independent ground LAI measurements over a range of ecosystem types. Verification results suggest that the new algorithm represents a viable approach to LAI retrieval at continental scale, and can facilitate spatially explicit studies of regional pollutant deposition and trace gas exchange. - The paper presents a physics-based algorithm for retrieval of vegetation LAI and canopy-clumping factor from satellite data to assist research of pollutant deposition and trace-gas exchange. The method is employed to derive a monthly LAI dataset for the conterminous USA and verified at a continental scale

  2. Efficient retrieval of vegetation leaf area index and canopy clumping factor from satellite data to support pollutant deposition assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolov, Ned [Natural Resource Research Center, 2150 Centre Avenue, Building A, Room 368, Fort Collins, CO 80526 (United States)]. E-mail: nnikolov@fs.fed.us; Zeller, Karl [USDA FS Rocky Mountain Research Station, 240 W. Prospect Road, Fort Collins, CO 80526 (United States)]. E-mail: kzeller@fs.fed.us

    2006-06-15

    Canopy leaf area index (LAI) is an important structural parameter of the vegetation controlling pollutant uptake by terrestrial ecosystems. This paper presents a computationally efficient algorithm for retrieval of vegetation LAI and canopy clumping factor from satellite data using observed Simple Ratios (SR) of near-infrared to red reflectance. The method employs numerical inversion of a physics-based analytical canopy radiative transfer model that simulates the bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). The algorithm is independent of ecosystem type. The method is applied to 1-km resolution AVHRR satellite images to retrieve a geo-referenced data set of monthly LAI values for the conterminous USA. Satellite-based LAI estimates are compared against independent ground LAI measurements over a range of ecosystem types. Verification results suggest that the new algorithm represents a viable approach to LAI retrieval at continental scale, and can facilitate spatially explicit studies of regional pollutant deposition and trace gas exchange. - The paper presents a physics-based algorithm for retrieval of vegetation LAI and canopy-clumping factor from satellite data to assist research of pollutant deposition and trace-gas exchange. The method is employed to derive a monthly LAI dataset for the conterminous USA and verified at a continental scale.

  3. Influence of air pollution on the epiphytic lichen vegetation and bark properties of deciduous trees in the Copenhagen area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsen, I; Soechting, U

    1973-01-01

    The epiphytic lichen vegetation of trees in the Copenhagen area was mapped, and the pH, total sulfur content and buffer capacity of its substratum were measured. The SO/sub 2/ air pollution during two consecutive winters was mapped. The SO/sub 2/ isopleths coincide well with the inner distribution limits of the lichens, indicating specific critical SO/sub 2/ levels for the different species. The critical level for Buellia punctata (Hoffm.) Massal. was 90-110 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ for Xanthoria parientina (L.) Th. Fr. 80-90 ..mu..g m/sup -3/, for Lecanora subfusca coll. 70-80 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ and for Physcia pulverulenta (Schreb.) Hampe 40 ..mu..g m/sup -3/. These species were considered useful as indicators for biological evaluation of SO/sub 2/ pollution in the investigation area. The bark properties changed as follows on approaching the city center: the average pH decreased from 5.0 to 3.0 whilst the average sulfur content in percent dry weight increased from 0.25% to 0.45%. The buffer capacity of bark was higher both in the city center and the rural districts than in the intervening area at the periphery of the city. 26 references, 15 figures, 2 tables.

  4. Blood Lead Levels and Risk Factors among Preschool Children in a Lead Polluted Area in Taizhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyan Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the blood lead levels and identify related risk factors among preschool children in a lead polluted area (Taizhou, China and provide theoretical support for prevention of lead pollution. Methods. A stratified-clustered-random sampling method was used to determine the survey sample. Blood lead levels were determined by the tungsten atomizer absorption spectrophotometer. Results. A total of 2,018 subjects (average age of 59 months; 1,087 boys and 931 girls were included. The arithmetic mean, geometric mean, and median blood lead levels of the preschool children were 56.4 μg/L, 48.9 μg/L, and 46 μg/L. A total of 8.8% children had blood lead levels >100 μg/L and 43.9% had blood lead levels >50 μg/L. Mother’s education level, father’s occupation, decorative tableware, exposure to makeup, and the residential floor were all risk factors for elevated blood lead levels (odds ratios of 1.42, 1.21, 1.11, 1.19, and 1.27, resp., while hand washing before eating food was a protective factor (odds ratio of 0.88. Conclusions. The blood lead levels of preschool children in Taizhou were higher than in other areas in China and in developed countries. Therefore, policies ensuring lead-based industries are not placed in close proximity to residential areas are required.

  5. Air pollution impacts of speed limitation measures in large cities: The need for improving traffic data in a metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldasano, José M.; Gonçalves, María; Soret, Albert; Jiménez-Guerrero, Pedro

    2010-08-01

    Assessing the effects of air quality management strategies in urban areas is a major concern worldwide because of the large impacts on health caused by the exposure to air pollution. In this sense, this work analyses the changes in urban air quality due to the introduction of a maximum speed limit to 80 km h -1 on motorways in a large city by using a novel methodology combining traffic assimilation data and modelling systems implemented in a supercomputing facility. Albeit the methodology has been non-specifically developed and can be extrapolated to any large city or megacity, the case study of Barcelona is presented here. Hourly simulations take into account the entire year 2008 (when the 80 km h -1 limit has been introduced) vs. the traffic conditions for the year 2007. The data has been assimilated in an emission model, which considers hourly variable speeds and hourly traffic intensity in the affected area, taken from long-term measurement campaigns for the aforementioned years; it also permits to take into account the traffic congestion effect. Overall, the emissions are reduced up to 4%; however the local effects of this reduction achieve an important impact for the adjacent area to the roadways, reaching 11%. In this sense, the speed limitation effects assessed represent enhancements in air quality levels (5-7%) of primary pollutants over the area, directly improving the welfare of 1.35 million inhabitants (over 41% of the population of the Metropolitan Area) and affecting 3.29 million dwellers who are potentially benefited from this strategy for air quality management (reducing 0.6% the mortality rates in the area).

  6. [Individual exposure to air pollution in urban areas: the example of Marseille].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Frédérique; Viala, Alain

    2007-01-01

    We examined the exposure of an urban population to the following air pollutants, in the home and outdoors: nitrogen dioxide, benzene and its derivative BTXE, carbon monoxide, ozone, aldehydes and particulate matter (PM)2,5. Measurements were made continuously during 48-hour periods in summer and in winter, in non-smoking volunteers, using passive and active samplers and appropriate analytical methods. NO2 concentrations were relatively low (lower in summer than in winter). Individual overall exposure correlated strongly with levels in the home. Benzene levels were high both outdoors and in the home, and were higher in winter than in summer; 47% of the volunteers were exposed to mean values up to 5 microg x m(-3) (annual mean value outdoors). Benzene derivative levels were also higher in winter than in summer. Personal exposure to CO was low and related to determinants such as trafic and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Mean concentrations of O3 were low in winter and higher in summer, owing to higher outdoor photochemical pollution. The most abundant aldehydes were formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein ; personal exposure was low. Overall personal exposure to formaldehyde correlated with concentrations in the home. PM2,5 reached high levels in the home in winter and outdoors in summer.

  7. Soil microbial activity, mycelial lengths and physiological groups of bacteria in a heavy metal polluted area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordgren, A; Kauri, T; Baeaeth, E; Soederstroem, B

    1986-01-01

    The biological effects of heavy metal contamination of coniferous forest soils were studied in the A/sub 01//A/sub 02/ layer around a primary smelter in Northern Sweden. Soil concentrations of 17 elements were determined. Smelter-emitted heavy metals were 5 to 75 times higher in the plot closest to the smelter compared with background levels. Despite emission of sulfur no decrease in pH was found. Bacteria producing acid from maltose, cellobiose, arabinose or xylose and bacteria hydrolyzing starch, pectin, xyland or cellulose decreased 8- to 11-fold due to the soil contamination. Chitin hydrolyzers were 5 times less abundant at the most polluted site compared with background levels. Soil respiration rate and urease activity decreased by about a factor of 4, but phosphatase activity and mycelial lengths were unaffected by the soil contamination. Soil bacteria showed a sigmoidal response to the log of metal concentration in the soil and were affected at a lower pollution level than the other biological variables in the study. A multivariate analysis (partial least squares) showed that soil metal contamination and soil pH were the two environmental factors influencing the soil microorganisms.

  8. Diffuse pollution by persistent organic pollutants as measured in plastic pellets sampled from various beaches in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karapanagioti, H K; Endo, S; Ogata, Y; Takada, H

    2011-02-01

    Plastic pellets found stranded on beaches are hydrophobic organic materials and thus, they are a favourable medium for persistent organic pollutants to absorb to. In the present study, plastic pellets are used to determine the diffuse pollution of selected Greek beaches. Samples of pellets were taken from these beaches and were analyzed for PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, and PAHs. The observed differences among pellets from various sampling sites are related to the pollution occurring at each site. Plastic pellets collected in Saronikos Gulf beaches demonstrate much higher pollutant loading than the ones collected in a remote island or close to an agricultural area. Based on data collected in this study and the International Pellet Watch program, pollution in Saronikos Gulf, Greece, is comparable to other heavily industrialized places of the world. The present study demonstrates the potential of pellet watch to be utilized as a detailed-scale monitoring tool within a single country. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nitrous acid formation in a snow-free wintertime polluted rural area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Catalina; Spolaor, Max; Fedele Colosimo, Santo; Pikelnaya, Olga; Cheung, Ross; Williams, Eric; Gilman, Jessica B.; Lerner, Brian M.; Zamora, Robert J.; Warneke, Carsten; Roberts, James M.; Ahmadov, Ravan; de Gouw, Joost; Bates, Timothy; Quinn, Patricia K.; Stutz, Jochen

    2018-02-01

    Nitrous acid (HONO) photolysis is an important source of hydroxyl radicals (OH) in the lower atmosphere, in particular in winter when other OH sources are less efficient. The nighttime formation of HONO and its photolysis in the early morning have long been recognized as an important contributor to the OH budget in polluted environments. Over the past few decades it has become clear that the formation of HONO during the day is an even larger contributor to the OH budget and additionally provides a pathway to recycle NOx. Despite the recognition of this unidentified HONO daytime source, the precise chemical mechanism remains elusive. A number of mechanisms have been proposed, including gas-phase, aerosol, and ground surface processes, to explain the elevated levels of daytime HONO. To identify the likely HONO formation mechanisms in a wintertime polluted rural environment we present LP-DOAS observations of HONO, NO2, and O3 on three absorption paths that cover altitude intervals from 2 to 31, 45, and 68 m above ground level (a.g.l.) during the UBWOS 2012 experiment in the Uintah Basin, Utah, USA. Daytime HONO mixing ratios in the 2-31 m height interval were, on average, 78 ppt, which is lower than HONO levels measured in most polluted urban environments with similar NO2 mixing ratios of 1-2 ppb. HONO surface fluxes at 19 m a.g.l., calculated using the HONO gradients from the LP-DOAS and measured eddy diffusivity coefficient, show clear upward fluxes. The hourly average vertical HONO flux during sunny days followed solar irradiance, with a maximum of (4.9 ± 0.2) × 1010 molec. cm-2 s-1 at noontime. A photostationary state analysis of the HONO budget shows that the surface flux closes the HONO budget, accounting for 63 ± 32 % of the unidentified HONO daytime source throughout the day and 90 ± 30 % near noontime. This is also supported by 1-D chemistry and transport model calculations that include the measured surface flux, thus clearly identifying chemistry at the

  10. THE IMPACT OF SHRINKING HANFORD BOUNDARIES ON PERMITS FOR TOXIC AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM THE HANFORD 200 WEST AREA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JOHNSON, R.E.

    2005-01-01

    This presentation (CE-580. Graduate Seminar) presents a brief description of an approach to use a simpler dispersion modeling method (SCREEN3) in conjunction with joint frequency tables for Hanford wind conditions to evaluate the impacts of shrinking the Hanford boundaries on the current permits for facilities in the 200 West Area. To fulfill requirements for the graduate student project (CE-702. Master's Special Problems), this evaluation will be completed and published over the next two years. Air toxic emissions play an important role in environmental quality and require a state approved permit. One example relates to containers or waste that are designated as Transuranic Waste (TRU), which are required to have venting devices due to hydrogen generation. The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) determined that the filters used did not meet the definition of a ''pressure relief device'' and that a permit application would have to be submitted by the Central Waste Complex (CWC) for criteria pollutant and toxic air pollutant (TAP) emissions in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-400 and 173-460. The permit application submitted in 2000 to Ecology used Industrial Source Code III (ISCIII) dispersion modeling to demonstrate that it was not possible for CWC to release a sufficient quantity of fugitive Toxic Air Pollutant emissions that could exceed the Acceptable Source Impact Levels (ASILs) at the Hanford Site Boundary. The modeled emission rates were based on the diurnal breathing in and out through the vented drums (approximately 20% of the drums), using published vapor pressure, molecular weight, and specific gravity data for all 600+ compounds, with a conservative estimate of one exchange volume per day (208 liters per drum). Two permit applications were submitted also to Ecology for the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility and the T Plant Complex. Both permit applications were based on the Central Waste Complex approach, and

  11. Theoretical and experimental approach to determine pollutant levels in an urban area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solisio, C.; Cecco, I. de; Ferraiolo, G. [Genoa Univ. (Italy). Inst. of Chemical Engineering Science and Technology; Ruaro, R.

    1995-12-31

    Simulative techniques, carried out by means of scale physical models, prove to be particularly useful because they allow to optimize those prevention and protection measures aimed at the undesired effect reduction. Among the various scale models, the wind tunnel is one of the most common physical models used to simulate real environmental conditions, reproduced in suitable reduced scale by dimensional analysis. Physical modeling, mainly wind tunnel, is typically employed to study plants in complex terrain or to determine how building turbulence can affect dispersion from staks. Moreover, simulative techniques set-up is not simple and it needs particular careful regarding to define its capable to simulate real environmental conditions. The present article deals with the scale simulative technique through wind tunnel, applied to the study about dispersion atmospheric phenomenon. Set-up procedures are discussed, then preliminary results about pollutant dispersion in a street of Genoa (Italy) characterized by great traffic vehicular traffic are showed too. (author)

  12. Environmental Pollution and Related Hazards at Agbara Industrial Area, Ogun State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Z O, Ojekunle; O O E, Jinadu; T A, Afolabi; A M, Taiwo

    2018-04-24

    This study aimed at assessing the environmental pollution and related hazards of industries at Agbara, Ogun State, Nigeria. A total of five sampling points were identified and selected at random. Environmental samples were collected on a weekly basis for duration of 10 weeks. Air pollutants measured were CO 2 , CO, NO, NO x , VOCs, H 2 S, SO 2 , NH 3 , PM 2.5 andPM 10 using standard procedure. Dust and plant samples were also collected and analyzed for heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Cd, Cu and Zn) using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Data was evaluated for descriptive and inferential statistics using SPSS for Windows version 22.0. Air pollution data were also subjected to SPE-risk model. The results of highest measured air parameters were: CO (5.50 ± 2.32 ppm), CO 2 (3.00 ± 2.05%), NO x (0.90 ± 0.32 ppm), NO (0.60 ± 0.52 ppm), PM 10 (0.40 ± 0.52 mg/m 3 ) and PM 2.5 (0.20 ± 0.42 mg/m 3 ). The results of heavy metal concentrations in dust samples were: 57.40 ± 13.28 mg/kg for Cu, 45.36 ± 12.37 mg/kg for Cr, 22.80 ± 17.36 mg/kg for Zn, 13.76 ± 3.08 mg/kg for Pb and 0.32 ± 0.36 mg/kg for Cd. Metal concentrations in plants were: Cu (70.07 ± 16.24 mg/kg), Zn (67.69 ± 14.50 mg/kg), Cr (22.46 ± 9.35 mg/kg), Pb (13.76 ± 3.08 mg/kg) and Cd (2.25 ± 3.04 mg/kg). This study revealed the concentrations of CO 2 , NO x and NO higher than the World Health Organization (WHO) permissible standards while Pb, Cu, Cr, Cd and Zn values in dust samples were also found above the National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency (NESREA) and the WHO standards. Results of SPE-RISK model indicated that CO 2 , CO, Pb, Cu and Zn posed the greatest health risks, while the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indentified pollutant sources from industrial and vehicle exhaust.

  13. Pollution of the environment by tannery and textile waste waters in the areas of Antananarivo, Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasoazanany, E.O.; Raoelina Andriambololona; Andrianarivo, R.R.; Randriamanivo, L.V.; Raboanary, R.

    2007-01-01

    Waste water pollution is a major problem throughout the world. It has affected the health and the environment in Antananarivo (capital of Madagascar). Undesirable and toxic heavy metals contained in waste water samples are measured by the technique of total reflection X-ray fluorescence. Chromium is a toxic metal for the environment associated to the tannery. Its concentration (2712.1 μg.L -1 ) is superior to the national norm (2000 μg.L -1 ). Regarding textile factories, the highest value of the conductivity (4670 μS.cm -1 ) is 23 times the national norm (200 μS.cm -1 ). The concentration of lead (251.0 μg.L -1 ) is higher than the national norm (200 μg.L -1 ) and the Belgium norm (100 μg.L -1 ). The present study illustrates the importance of the treatment of waste water of the factories before pouring them in the environment.

  14. Theoretical and experimental approach to determine pollutant levels in an urban area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solisio, C; Cecco, I de; Ferraiolo, G [Genoa Univ. (Italy). Inst. of Chemical Engineering Science and Technology; Ruaro, R

    1996-12-31

    Simulative techniques, carried out by means of scale physical models, prove to be particularly useful because they allow to optimize those prevention and protection measures aimed at the undesired effect reduction. Among the various scale models, the wind tunnel is one of the most common physical models used to simulate real environmental conditions, reproduced in suitable reduced scale by dimensional analysis. Physical modeling, mainly wind tunnel, is typically employed to study plants in complex terrain or to determine how building turbulence can affect dispersion from staks. Moreover, simulative techniques set-up is not simple and it needs particular careful regarding to define its capable to simulate real environmental conditions. The present article deals with the scale simulative technique through wind tunnel, applied to the study about dispersion atmospheric phenomenon. Set-up procedures are discussed, then preliminary results about pollutant dispersion in a street of Genoa (Italy) characterized by great traffic vehicular traffic are showed too. (author)

  15. [Output characteristics of rainfall runoff phosphorus pollution from a typical small watershed in Yimeng mountainous area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xing-xiu; Li, Zhen-wei; Liu, Qian-jin; Jing, Guang-hua

    2012-08-01

    Relationships between phosphorus pollutant concentrations and precipitation-runoff were analyzed by monitoring pollutant losses at outlets of the Menglianggu watershed in 2010. A typical small watershed was selected to examine the runoff and quality parameters such as total phosphorus (TP), particle phosphorus (PP), dissolve phosphorus (DP) and dissolve inorganic phosphorus (DIP) in rainfall-runoff of 10 rainfall events. Precipitation was above 2 mm for all the 10 rainfall events. The results showed that the peak of phosphorus concentrations occurred before the peak of water flows, whereas change processes of the phosphorus fluxes were consistent with that of the water flows and the phosphorus flux also have a strong linear relationship with the water flows. The minimums of the phosphorus concentrations in every 10 natural rainfall events have small differences with each other, but the maximum and EMCs of the phosphorus concentrations have significant differences with each rainfall event. This was mainly influenced by the precipitation, maximum rainfall intensity and mean rainfall intensity (EMCs) and was less influenced by rainfall duration. DP and TP were mainly composed of DIP and PP, respectively. There were no significant correlations between DIP/DP dynamic changes and rainfall characteristics, whereas significant correlations between PP/TP dynamic changes and maximum rainfall intensity were detected. The production of DIP, DP, AND TP were mainly influenced by the direct runoff (DR) and base flow (BF). The EMCs of DIP, DP, TP and the variations of DIP/DP were all found to have significant polynomial relationships with DR/TR., but the dynamic changes of PP/ TP and the EMCS of PP were less influenced by the DR/TR.

  16. Airborne pollutant concentrations and health risks in selected Apulia region (IT) areas: preliminary results from the Jonico-Salentino project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccolieri, Riccardo; Genga, Alessandra; De Donno, Antonella; Siciliano, Tiziana; Siciliano, Maria; Serio, Francesca; Grassi, Tiziana; Rispoli, Gennaro; Cavaiola, Mattia; Lionello, Piero

    2017-04-01

    The Jonico-Salentino project (PJS) is a multidisciplinary study funded by Apulia Region (Det. N. 188_RU - 10/11/2015) aiming to assess health risk of people living in the cities of Lecce, Brindisi and Taranto. Citizens are exposed to emissions from industrial sources, biomass burning, vehicular, naval and air traffic, as well as from natural radioactive sources (radon). In this context, this work presents some preliminary results obtained by the Unit of University of Salento (Lecce) during an experimental campaign carried out in the study areas. The campaign is devoted to (i) sample particulate matter (PM), (ii) measure micro-meteorological variables and (iii) evaluate exposure levels of residents to main pollutants. Specifically, PM is sampled using a low volume sampler, while meteorological variables (wind speed components and direction temperature, relative humidity, precipitation and global solar radiation) are measured by advanced instrumentation such as ultrasonic anemometers which allows for the estimation of turbulence fluxes. The early effects of exposure to air pollutants is evaluated by the frequency of micronucleus (a biomarker of DNA damage) in exfoliated buccal cells collected using a soft-bristled toothbrush from oral mucosa of primary school children enrolled in the study. PM concentration data collected during the campaign are characterised from a chemical and morphological point of view; the analysis of different groups of particles allows identifying different natural and anthropogenic emission sources. This is done in conjunction to the investigation of the influence of local meteorology to elucidate the contribution of specific types of sources on final concentration levels. Finally, all data are used to assess the health risk of people living in the study areas as consequence of exposure to airborne pollutants.

  17. Assessing the hydrogeochemical processes affecting groundwater pollution in arid areas using an integration of geochemical equilibrium and multivariate statistical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Alfy, Mohamed; Lashin, Aref; Abdalla, Fathy; Al-Bassam, Abdulaziz

    2017-01-01

    Rapid economic expansion poses serious problems for groundwater resources in arid areas, which typically have high rates of groundwater depletion. In this study, integration of hydrochemical investigations involving chemical and statistical analyses are conducted to assess the factors controlling hydrochemistry and potential pollution in an arid region. Fifty-four groundwater samples were collected from the Dhurma aquifer in Saudi Arabia, and twenty-one physicochemical variables were examined for each sample. Spatial patterns of salinity and nitrate were mapped using fitted variograms. The nitrate spatial distribution shows that nitrate pollution is a persistent problem affecting a wide area of the aquifer. The hydrochemical investigations and cluster analysis reveal four significant clusters of groundwater zones. Five main factors were extracted, which explain >77% of the total data variance. These factors indicated that the chemical characteristics of the groundwater were influenced by rock–water interactions and anthropogenic factors. The identified clusters and factors were validated with hydrochemical investigations. The geogenic factors include the dissolution of various minerals (calcite, aragonite, gypsum, anhydrite, halite and fluorite) and ion exchange processes. The anthropogenic factors include the impact of irrigation return flows and the application of potassium, nitrate, and phosphate fertilizers. Over time, these anthropogenic factors will most likely contribute to further declines in groundwater quality. - Highlights: • Hydrochemical investigations were carried out in Dhurma aquifer in Saudi Arabia. • The factors controlling potential groundwater pollution in an arid region were studied. • Chemical and statistical analyses are integrated to assess these factors. • Five main factors were extracted, which explain >77% of the total data variance. • The chemical characteristics of the groundwater were influenced by rock–water interactions

  18. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in surface soils and plant material in the post-industrial city of Katowice, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steindor, Karolina A; Franiel, Izabella J; Bierza, Wojciech M; Pawlak, Beata; Palowski, Bernard F

    2016-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to assess the level of environment pollution by biological monitoring. The leaves and bark of popular ornamental trees Acer pseudoplatanus L. and Acer platanoides L. and soil from the sampling sites were used to perform heavy metals pollution monitoring in urban areas with different pollution sources, as well to investigate the suitability of the leaves and bark as bioindicators of Pb, Zn, Cd and Cu pollution. Plant samples were collected at nine locations classified into three pollution groups based on metal content in the soils. The chosen pollution indices were used to assess the level of contamination according to background values. Soils in the Katowice area are found to be relatively heavily contaminated with Pb, Zn and Cd. Both of the maple tree species did not statistically differ in terms of the investigated elements' concentration in leaves or bark. Only bark samples reflected the pollution level, showing differences between the sampling points, and therefore are recommended for biomonitoring purposes.

  19. Assessing the hydrogeochemical processes affecting groundwater pollution in arid areas using an integration of geochemical equilibrium and multivariate statistical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Alfy, Mohamed; Lashin, Aref; Abdalla, Fathy; Al-Bassam, Abdulaziz

    2017-10-01

    Rapid economic expansion poses serious problems for groundwater resources in arid areas, which typically have high rates of groundwater depletion. In this study, integration of hydrochemical investigations involving chemical and statistical analyses are conducted to assess the factors controlling hydrochemistry and potential pollution in an arid region. Fifty-four groundwater samples were collected from the Dhurma aquifer in Saudi Arabia, and twenty-one physicochemical variables were examined for each sample. Spatial patterns of salinity and nitrate were mapped using fitted variograms. The nitrate spatial distribution shows that nitrate pollution is a persistent problem affecting a wide area of the aquifer. The hydrochemical investigations and cluster analysis reveal four significant clusters of groundwater zones. Five main factors were extracted, which explain >77% of the total data variance. These factors indicated that the chemical characteristics of the groundwater were influenced by rock-water interactions and anthropogenic factors. The identified clusters and factors were validated with hydrochemical investigations. The geogenic factors include the dissolution of various minerals (calcite, aragonite, gypsum, anhydrite, halite and fluorite) and ion exchange processes. The anthropogenic factors include the impact of irrigation return flows and the application of potassium, nitrate, and phosphate fertilizers. Over time, these anthropogenic factors will most likely contribute to further declines in groundwater quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Perspectives of 2D and 3D mapping of atmospheric pollutants over urban areas by means of airborne DOAS spectrometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ravegnani

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available tants, offering numerous advantages over conventional networks of in situ analysers. We propose some innovative solutions in the field of DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy remote systems, utilizing diffuse solar light as the radiation source. We examine the numerous potentialities of minor gas slant column calculations, applying the «off-axis» methodology for collecting the diffuse solar radiation. One of these particular approaches, using measurements along horizontal paths, has already been tested with the spectrometer installed on board the Geophysica aircraft during stratospheric flights up to altitudes of 20 km. The theoretical basis of these new measurement techniques using DOAS remote sensing systems are delineated to assess whether low altitude flights can provide 2D and 3D pollution tomography over metropolitan areas. The 2D or 3D trace gas total column mapping could be used to investigate: i transport and dispersion phenomena of air pollution, ii photochemical process rates, iii gas plume tomography, iv minor gas vertical profiles into the Planetary Boundary Layer and v minor gas flux divergence over a large area.

  1. Numerical Simulation for a Three-Dimensional Air Pollution Measurement Model in a Heavy Traffic Area under the Bangkok Sky Train Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kewalee Suebyat

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollutant levels in Bangkok are generally high in street tunnels. They are particularly elevated in almost closed street tunnels such as an area under the Bangkok sky train platform with high traffic volume where dispersion is limited. There are no air quality measurement stations in the vicinity, while the human population is high. In this research, the numerical simulation is used to measure the air pollutant levels. The three-dimensional air pollution measurement model in a heavy traffic area under the Bangkok sky train platform is proposed. The finite difference techniques are employed to approximate the modelled solutions. The vehicle air pollutant emission due to the high traffic volume is mathematically assumed by the pollutant sources term. The simulation is also considered in averaged and moving pollutant sources due to manner vehicle emission. The proposed approximated air pollutant concentration indicators can be replaced by user required gaseous pollutants indices such as NOx, SO2, CO, and PM2.5.

  2. Norway spruce needles as bioindicator of air pollution in the area of influence of the Sostanj Thermal Power Plant, Slovenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Sayegh Petkovsek, Samar [ERICo Velenje, Ecological Research and Industrial Cooperation Institute, Koroska 58, 3320 Velenje (Slovenia)], E-mail: samar.petkovsek@erico.si; Batic, Franc [Agronomy Department, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Ribaric Lasnik, Cvetka [Institute of Environment and Spatial Planning, Ipavceva 18, 3000 Celje (Slovenia)

    2008-01-15

    This paper reports the results of total sulphur content, photosynthetic pigments, ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and {alpha}-tocopherol (vitamin E) analysed in current-year needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in the area influenced by sulphur emissions from the Sostanj Thermal Power Plant (STPP), Slovenia, in the period 1991-2004. Ten differently polluted sampling sites in the emission area of STPP were selected. After desulphurization of emission gases from STPP total sulphur content in needles decreased and vitality parameters of needles increased. Moreover, a strong correlation between the average annual emissions of SO{sub 2} from STPP and average annual sulphur content (increase) or average annual chlorophyll content (decrease) in current-year needles was found. The results showed that spruce needles may be an useful bioindicator for detecting changes in the emission rates of SO{sub 2}. - Total sulphur content in needles is a well proved indicator of sulphur burden in the environment.

  3. Norway spruce needles as bioindicator of air pollution in the area of influence of the Sostanj Thermal Power Plant, Slovenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samar Al Sayegh Petkovsek; Franc Batic; Cvetka Ribaric Lasnik [ERICo Velenje, Velenje (Slovenia). Ecological Research and Industrial Cooperation Institute

    2008-01-15

    This paper reports the results of total sulphur content, photosynthetic pigments, ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and {alpha}-tocopherol (vitamin E) analysed in current-year needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in the area influenced by sulphur emissions from the Sostanj Thermal Power Plant (STPP), Slovenia, in the period 1991-2004. Ten differently polluted sampling sites in the emission area of STPP were selected. After desulphurization of emission gases from STPP total sulphur content in needles decreased and vitality parameters of needles increased. Moreover, a strong correlation between the average annual emissions of SO{sub 2} from STPP and average annual sulphur content (increase) or average annual chlorophyll content (decrease) in current-year needles was found. The results showed that spruce needles may be an useful bioindicator for detecting changes in the emission rates of SO{sub 2}.

  4. Interdisciplinary study for the evaluation of biochemical alterations on mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to a tributyltin-polluted area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magi, Emanuele [University of Genoa, Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, Genoa (Italy); Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, Genoa (Italy); Liscio, Camilla; Pistarino, Erika; Santamaria, Barbara; Di Carro, Marina; Tiso, Micaela; Cosulich, M.E. [University of Genoa, Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, Genoa (Italy); Scaloni, Andrea; Renzone, Giovanni [National Research Council, Proteomic and Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, ISPAAM, Naples (Italy)

    2008-05-15

    An interdisciplinary approach was employed to monitor the concentration and the effects of butyltin compounds in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis). Tissues from animals exposed to a marine area (Vado Ligure harbour) with a high concentration of tributyltin (TBT) were analysed and compared with control samples. TBT concentrations were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the protein pattern in gill tissues was studied by proteomic analysis. Several proteomic signatures associated with contaminant exposure were observed; spots that were significantly increased in all contaminated samples were identified by mass spectrometry as fragments of {beta}-tubulin. The degradation of {beta}-tubulin was then confirmed by western blot analysis with specific anti-{beta}-tubulin antibody. The effects observed on mussel gills after exposure in the TBT-polluted area are discussed. (orig.)

  5. [Cytokine dysregulation in children with chronic catarrhal gingivitis living in polluted areas with fluoride and iodine deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezvushko, E V; Malko, N V

    The aim of the research was to study the state of oral liquid immunity in children with chronic catarrhal gingivitis living in unfavorable environmental conditions. The study included 190 children with chronic catarrhal gingivitis (CCG): 110 children aged 7, 12 and 15 years and residing in ecologically unfavorable areas of Lviv region and 80 children living in 'conditionally clean' region which constituted comparison group. Children with CCG from polluted areas had increased content of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reduction of anti-inflammatory cytokines compared to controls. The level of pro-inflammatory cytokines was age-depended in both groups but in children from ecologically unfavorable region this tendency was more pronounced. Thus, changes of indicators of interleukin spectrum in children with CCG depend not only on age and degree of severity of periodontium pathology but also on ecological living conditions.

  6. Oil pollution in the Red Sea - Environmental monitoring of an oilfield in a Coral area, Gulf of Suez

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dicks, B

    1984-01-01

    The Red Sea is rapidly developing as one of the world's largest offshore oil production areas. It also comprises a wide range of tropical marine habitats, many of which are internationally recognised for their conservation, scientific, economic or recreational value. Past oil production, refining and transport have resulted in chronic pollution of some areas, and environmental programmes to protect new areas of development from pollution damage are assuming increasing importance. At the initiative of an Egyptian oil company operating in the Gulf of Suez, an environmental protection and management scheme has been prepared for a new offshore oilfield and marine terminal at Ras Budran. This paper describes the form of the scheme and the results of its component environmental surveys. The development area comprises rich and diverse marine communities of fringing coral reefs, nearshore lagoons, seagrass beds, sandy beaches and fine sediments offshore. A baseline survey was designed following detailed discussion of the scope of the development with the company and a preliminary site visit, and the fieldwork was completed in October 1980. On the basis of the findings of the survey, a series of recommendations was made to the company, aimed at reducing environmental impacts during construction and operation to a minimum and acceptable level. These were subsequently implemented and the results of a post-construction survey in February 1983 are reported which show that environmental damage to the nearshore habitats during the construction phase had been relatively small and localised. Recently, the biological information obtained from the two surveys has also been incorporated into oil spill contingency plans.

  7. Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Hospital Emergency Room Visits for Respiratory Disease in Urban Areas in Beijing, China, in 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Xu

    Full Text Available Heavy fine particulate matter (PM2.5 air pollution occurs frequently in China. However, epidemiological research on the association between short-term exposure to PM2.5 pollution and respiratory disease morbidity is still limited. This study aimed to explore the association between PM2.5 pollution and hospital emergency room visits (ERV for total and cause-specific respiratory diseases in urban areas in Beijing.Daily counts of respiratory ERV from Jan 1 to Dec 31, 2013, were obtained from ten general hospitals located in urban areas in Beijing. Concurrently, data on PM2.5 were collected from the Beijing Environmental Protection Bureau, including 17 ambient air quality monitoring stations. A generalized-additive model was used to explore the respiratory effects of PM2.5, after controlling for confounding variables. Subgroup analyses were also conducted by age and gender.A total of 92,464 respiratory emergency visits were recorded during the study period. The mean daily PM2.5 concentration was 102.1±73.6 μg/m3. Every 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 concentration at lag0 was associated with an increase in ERV, as follows: 0.23% for total respiratory disease (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.11%-0.34%, 0.19% for upper respiratory tract infection (URTI (95%CI: 0.04%-0.35%, 0.34% for lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI (95%CI: 0.14%-0.53% and 1.46% for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD (95%CI: 0.13%-2.79%. The strongest association was identified between AECOPD and PM2.5 concentration at lag0-3 (3.15%, 95%CI: 1.39%-4.91%. The estimated effects were robust after adjusting for SO2, O3, CO and NO2. Females and people 60 years of age and older demonstrated a higher risk of respiratory disease after PM2.5 exposure.PM2.5 was significantly associated with respiratory ERV, particularly for URTI, LRTI and AECOPD in Beijing. The susceptibility to PM2.5 pollution varied by gender and age.

  8. Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Hospital Emergency Room Visits for Respiratory Disease in Urban Areas in Beijing, China, in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qin; Li, Xia; Wang, Shuo; Wang, Chao; Huang, Fangfang; Gao, Qi; Wu, Lijuan; Tao, Lixin; Guo, Jin; Wang, Wei; Guo, Xiuhua

    2016-01-01

    Heavy fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution occurs frequently in China. However, epidemiological research on the association between short-term exposure to PM2.5 pollution and respiratory disease morbidity is still limited. This study aimed to explore the association between PM2.5 pollution and hospital emergency room visits (ERV) for total and cause-specific respiratory diseases in urban areas in Beijing. Daily counts of respiratory ERV from Jan 1 to Dec 31, 2013, were obtained from ten general hospitals located in urban areas in Beijing. Concurrently, data on PM2.5 were collected from the Beijing Environmental Protection Bureau, including 17 ambient air quality monitoring stations. A generalized-additive model was used to explore the respiratory effects of PM2.5, after controlling for confounding variables. Subgroup analyses were also conducted by age and gender. A total of 92,464 respiratory emergency visits were recorded during the study period. The mean daily PM2.5 concentration was 102.1±73.6 μg/m3. Every 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 concentration at lag0 was associated with an increase in ERV, as follows: 0.23% for total respiratory disease (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.11%-0.34%), 0.19% for upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) (95%CI: 0.04%-0.35%), 0.34% for lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) (95%CI: 0.14%-0.53%) and 1.46% for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) (95%CI: 0.13%-2.79%). The strongest association was identified between AECOPD and PM2.5 concentration at lag0-3 (3.15%, 95%CI: 1.39%-4.91%). The estimated effects were robust after adjusting for SO2, O3, CO and NO2. Females and people 60 years of age and older demonstrated a higher risk of respiratory disease after PM2.5 exposure. PM2.5 was significantly associated with respiratory ERV, particularly for URTI, LRTI and AECOPD in Beijing. The susceptibility to PM2.5 pollution varied by gender and age.

  9. Assessment of lead pollution in topsoils of a southern Italy area: Analysis of urban and peri-urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guagliardi, Ilaria; Cicchella, Domenico; De Rosa, Rosanna; Buttafuoco, Gabriele

    2015-07-01

    Exposure to lead (Pb) may affect adversely human health. Mapping soil Pb contents is essential to obtain a quantitative estimate of potential risk of Pb contamination. The main aim of this paper was to determine the soil Pb concentrations in the urban and peri-urban area of Cosenza-Rende to map their spatial distribution and assess the probability that soil Pb concentration exceeds a critical threshold that might cause concern for human health. Samples were collected at 149 locations from residual and non-residual topsoil in gardens, parks, flower-beds, and agricultural fields. Fine earth fraction of soil samples was analyzed by X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry. Stochastic images generated by the sequential Gaussian simulation were jointly combined to calculate the probability of exceeding the critical threshold that could be used to delineate the potentially risky areas. Results showed areas in which Pb concentration values were higher to the Italian regulatory values. These polluted areas were quite large and likely, they could create a significant health risk for human beings and vegetation in the near future. The results demonstrated that the proposed approach can be used to study soil contamination to produce geochemical maps, and identify hot-spot areas for soil Pb concentration. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Contribution of Man – Made Activities to the Pollution of the Tigris within Mosul Area/IRAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Al-Rawi

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overall view of major sources that may lead to the pollution of the Tigris within Mosul city. A stretch exceeding 20kms in length is selected that represents the ‘‘sick’’ path of the river. Many sites along the studied stretch are likely to affect the river quality in some way or another. Samples from 40 sources sites are taken for quality analyses These sources – as huge as 400000 m3 a day – are characterized as (medium – strong in composition. Such wastewaters with the pollutants they carry alter the river water quality rendering it unsuitable for beneficial uses. Such alterations – do leave –many negative consequences concerning human beings and aquatic life. It is found that domestic discharges are among the most important sources of pollution. Sanitary wastes are often discharged – untreated -into the Tigris. Other illegal practices such as in- house slaughtering add to the pollution as well. Industrial, tourist and institutional wastes put an additional burden on pollution of the river water quality. These wastes contain lead, chrome, and other heavy metals that may pose health risks. Wastewater treatment plants that exist in some sectors do not perform as they are expected. They need proper evaluation and rehabilitation. Eutrophication - a characteristic problem in lakes - finds an access to occur into the Tigris. This problem results from intensive use of detergents rich in nutrients (P&N compounds. In general, pollutants of different sources heavily affect the river water. Recovery and self purification of the river is estimated to occur at 40 km far from reference point. The paper concludes with the necessity of construction of a central treatment plant(s or tackling the pollutants at their origin. The paper also stresses on importance of environmental education and awareness in order to

  11. Google-Earth Based Visualizations for Environmental Flows and Pollutant Dispersion in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daoming Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we address the development and application of an efficient tool for conversion of results obtained by an integrated computational fluid dynamics (CFD and computational reaction dynamics (CRD approach and their visualization in the Google Earth. We focus on results typical for environmental fluid mechanics studies at a city scale that include characteristic wind flow patterns and dispersion of reactive scalars. This is achieved by developing a code based on the Java language, which converts the typical four-dimensional structure (spatial and temporal dependency of data results in the Keyhole Markup Language (KML format. The visualization techniques most often used are revisited and implemented into the conversion tool. The potential of the tool is demonstrated in a case study of smog formation due to an intense traffic emission in Rotterdam (The Netherlands. It is shown that the Google Earth can provide a computationally efficient and user-friendly means of data representation. This feature can be very useful for visualization of pollution at street levels, which is of great importance for the city residents. Various meteorological and traffic emissions can be easily visualized and analyzed, providing a powerful, user-friendly tool for traffic regulations and urban climate adaptations.

  12. Does consideration of larger study areas yield more accurate estimates of air pollution health effects? An illustration of the bias-variance trade-off in air pollution epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Marie; Siroux, Valérie; Pin, Isabelle; Charles, Marie Aline; Forhan, Anne; Hulin, Agnés; Galineau, Julien; Lepeule, Johanna; Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Sunyer, Jordi; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Slama, Rémy

    2013-10-01

    Spatially-resolved air pollution models can be developed in large areas. The resulting increased exposure contrasts and population size offer opportunities to better characterize the effect of atmospheric pollutants on respiratory health. However the heterogeneity of these areas may also enhance the potential for confounding. We aimed to discuss some analytical approaches to handle this trade-off. We modeled NO2 and PM10 concentrations at the home addresses of 1082 pregnant mothers from EDEN cohort living in and around urban areas, using ADMS dispersion model. Simulations were performed to identify the best strategy to limit confounding by unmeasured factors varying with area type. We examined the relation between modeled concentrations and respiratory health in infants using regression models with and without adjustment or interaction terms with area type. Simulations indicated that adjustment for area limited the bias due to unmeasured confounders varying with area at the costs of a slight decrease in statistical power. In our cohort, rural and urban areas differed for air pollution levels and for many factors associated with respiratory health and exposure. Area tended to modify effect measures of air pollution on respiratory health. Increasing the size of the study area also increases the potential for residual confounding. Our simulations suggest that adjusting for type of area is a good option to limit residual confounding due to area-associated factors without restricting the area size. Other statistical approaches developed in the field of spatial epidemiology are an alternative to control for poorly-measured spatially-varying confounders. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Investigating the Marine Protected Areas most at risk of current-driven pollution in the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea, using a Lagrangian transport model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpeche-Ellmann, Nicole C; Soomere, Tarmo

    2013-02-15

    The possibility of current-driven propagation of contaminants released along a major fairway polluting the Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea, is examined using a 3D circulation model, a Lagrangian transport model and statistics. Not surprisingly, the number of hits to the MPA decreases almost linearly with its distance from the fairway. In addition, the potential pollution released during a ship accident with the pollutants carried by currents may affect MPAs at very large distances. Typically, a fairway section approximately 125 km long (covering about 1/3 of the approximate 400-km-long gulf) may serve as a source of pollution for each MPA. The largest MPA (in the Eastern Gulf of Finland) may receive pollution from an approximately 210-km-long section (covering about 1/2 of the entire length of the gulf). This information may be useful in assisting maritime management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Numerical study of the effects of Planetary Boundary Layer structure on the pollutant dispersion within built-up areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yucong; Liu, Shuhua; Zheng, Yijia; Wang, Shu; Liu, Zhenxin; Zhang, Bihui

    2015-06-01

    The effects of different Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) structures on pollutant dispersion processes within two idealized street canyon configurations and a realistic urban area were numerically examined by a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model. The boundary conditions of different PBL structures/conditions were provided by simulations of the Weather Researching and Forecasting model. The simulated results of the idealized 2D and 3D street canyon experiments showed that the increment of PBL instability favored the downward transport of momentum from the upper flow above the roof to the pedestrian level within the street canyon. As a result, the flow and turbulent fields within the street canyon under the more unstable PBL condition are stronger. Therefore, more pollutants within the street canyon would be removed by the stronger advection and turbulent diffusion processes under the unstable PBL condition. On the contrary, more pollutants would be concentrated in the street canyon under the stable PBL condition. In addition, the simulations of the realistic building cluster experiments showed that the density of buildings was a crucial factor determining the dynamic effects of the PBL structure on the flow patterns. The momentum field within a denser building configuration was mostly transported from the upper flow, and was more sensitive to the PBL structures than that of the sparser building configuration. Finally, it was recommended to use the Mellor-Yamada-Nakanishi-Niino (MYNN) PBL scheme, which can explicitly output the needed turbulent variables, to provide the boundary conditions to the CFD simulation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Carboxyhemoglobin levels of selected population segments in variously structured and polluted areas of North Rhine-Westphalia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roscovanu, A.; Kraemer, U.B.; Baginski, B.; Dolgner, R.

    1985-03-01

    Measurements of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb)-content from about 13,000 inhabitants of various sites in western North Rhine-Westphalia are presented. Analyses were part of surveys on the effects of air pollution conducted between 1975 and 1980 in five designated, polluted areas. Determinations were executed in the Medical Institute for Environmental Hygiene, Duesseldorf, on behalf of the Ministry of Labor, Health and Social Administration. Analysis of blood samples for CO-content was performed by gas chromatography. Carboxyhemoglobin levels were calculated by reference to the individual hemoglobin levels. These surveys have been conducted during several years and included different seasons. Before 1977, fifty years old men were investigated. Until 1978, sixty years old men were studied. In 1979 and 1980, sixty years old women and ten years old children were additionally incorporated into the survey. Statistical analysis of data included variables which influence personal CO-burden such as smoking, and in the case of non-smokers indoor air exposure through passive smoking, use of gas facilities and heating in the flat, as well as occupational exposure. Besides, the influence of age, sex and location was considered. The average COHb-level of the populations under study was expressed as the median of the distribution. The distribution-free Mann-Whitney U-test served for assessment of differences between groups. As a further parameter, the percentage of the measurements greater than 2,5% COHb was chosen, because it was thought to be more relevant to risk populations, i.e. people suffering from Angina pectoris. As expected, tobacco smoking exerted the greatest influence on COHb-level. In non-smokers a trend, indicating a relationship between indoor air pollution and COHb-content could be observed.

  16. Organotin pollution from pleasure craft at Paraty, a tourist area of Southeastern Brazil: amelioration or interference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila de Leon Lousada Borges

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Some organotin compounds, such as TBT, are endocrine disruptors and harm marine ecosystems. Even after the global ban on organotins, increasing imposex levels have been detected in Stramonita haemastoma analyzed in 2004 and 2011 in some locations at Paraty, a tourist area in southeastern Brazil. The results of this study indicate that particulate and dissolved organic carbon and xenoestrogens might be interfering in this syndrome's development, leading to underestimation of imposex evaluation. Chemical analysis of three mangrove swamp sediments in the area showed the presence of TBT (16.0 - 205.7 ng Sn g-1, DBT (10.1 - 16.4 ng Sn g-1 and MBT (10.1 - 10.2 ng Sn g-1 even at the reference sites. The concentrations of butyltins and the increased incidence of imposexat some stations indicate recent inputs of TBT in the study area due to its illegal use on small vessels.

  17. Heavy metal pollution and ecological risk assessment of the paddy soils near a zinc-lead mining area in Hunan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Sijin; Wang, Yeyao; Teng, Yanguo; Yu, Xuan

    2015-10-01

    Soil pollution by Cd, Hg, As, Pb, Cr, Cu, and Zn was characterized in the area of the mining and smelting of metal ores at Guiyang, northeast of Hunan Province. A total of 150 topsoil (0-20 cm) samples were collected in May 2012 with a nominal density of one sample per 4 km(2). High concentrations of heavy metals especially, Cd, Zn, and Pb were found in many of the samples taken from surrounding paddy soil, indicating a certain extent of spreading of heavy metal pollution. Sequential extraction technique and risk assessment code (RAC) were used to study the mobility of chemical forms of heavy metals in the soils and their ecological risk. The results reveal that Cd represents a high ecological risk due to its highest percentage of the exchangeable and carbonate fractions. The metals of Zn and Cu pose a medium risk, and the rest of the metals represent a low environmental risk. The range of the potential ecological risk of soil calculated by risk index (RI) was 123.5~2791.2 and revealed a considerable-high ecological risk in study area especially in the neighboring and surrounding the mining activities area. Additionally, cluster analyses suggested that metals such as Pb, As, Hg, Zn, and Cd could be from the same sources probably related to the acidic drainage and wind transport of dust. Cluster analysis also clearly distinguishes the samples with similar characteristics according to their spatial distribution. The results could be used during the ecological risk screening stage, in conjunction with total concentrations and metal fractionation values to better estimate ecological risk.

  18. Assessment of Rock Magnetic Parameters for Fly Ash Pollution Screening in Topsoil of the Deccan Trap Basalt Area, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaha, U.; Basavaiah, N.; Das, P. K.; Deenadayalan, K.

    2012-04-01

    Rock magnetic parameters of highly magnetic topsoil of the Deccan Trap basalt area are evaluated for their suitability for efficient environmental magnetic pollution screening. Parameters, such as magnetic susceptibility (χ), frequency dependence of magnetic susceptibility (κ fd%), anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM), saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM), soft isothermal remanent magnetization (Soft IRM), as well as thermo-magnetic analysis (κ-T) are compared and assessed for best depiction of topsoil contamination due to ash deposition around the Nashik thermal power station (NTPS). Fifty-five topsoil samples, collected along north-south and west-east stretching transects of 24 km length, are the basis for evaluation of the specific ash distribution pattern around the plant and its adjacent ash pond. Similar decline of the magnetic signals with increasing distance from the point source is observed in the concentration dependent magnetic parameters and can be modeled. The magnetic grain size parameters instead reveal increasing trends with increasing distance. Verwey-transition and Hopkinson peak obtained from κ-T analyses demonstrate to be important parameters to prove fly ash accumulation in soils of basaltic origin. The importance of magnetic parameters for indirect tracing of pollutants, such as heavy metals, is shown by Pb, Zn and Cu data, revealing similar distribution pattern as obtained from the concentration dependent magnetic parameters. Confirmation of the presence of a very high amount of ash particles in the vicinity of the NTPS and a low number of particles in more distant areas is provided by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on quantitatively extracted magnetic particles at 5.5 km and 11.9 km distance in eastern direction. The investigation demonstrates that the majority of the rock magnetic parameters has the potential to be successfully applied in environmental magnetic studies in areas with high magnetic background

  19. Contribution to the study of pollution of soil and water in Oued El Maleh area (Mohammedia, Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    El hajjaji, Souad; Dahchour, Abdelmalek; Belhsaien, Kamal; Zouahri, Abdelmjid; Moussadek, Rachid; Douaik, Ahmed

    2016-04-01

    In Morocco, diffuse ground and surface water pollution in irrigated areas has caused an increase in the risk of water and soil quality deterioration. This has generated a health and environmental risks. The present study was carried out in the Oued El Maleh region located 65 Km to the south of Rabat on the Moroccan Atlantic coast. It covers a surface area of 310 km2 where agriculture constitutes the main activity of the population. This region is considered as a very important agricultural area, known nationally for its high potential for market gardening. This intensification has been accompanied by an excessive use of agrochemical inputs and poor control of irrigation and drainage. Consequently, salinization phenomena and deterioration of soil structure as well as water are about to create an alarming situation. In order to assess the state of pollution of waters and soil in the region, our study focuses on the determination of physicochemical parameters for the quality of water and soil. The obtained results from sampled wells and surface water show relatively higher values of nitrate and conductivity exceeding Moroccan national standards and revealing net degradation of water quality; therefore the water can be considered not suitable for human consumption and can induce a degradation of soil. The results of the studied soil show that the pH of these soils is weakly to moderately basic; they are usually non-saline with organic matter content moderately filled. Moreover, very high concentrations of nutrients (potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen) were recorded, highlighting poor management fertilizing vegetable crops in the region of Oued El Maleh.

  20. Mosses Are Better than Leaves of Vascular Plants in Monitoring Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution in Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanbin; Fan, Miao; Hu, Ronggui; Zhao, Jinsong; Wu, Yupeng

    2018-05-29

    Mosses and leaves of vascular plants have been used as bioindicators of environmental contamination by heavy metals originating from various sources. This study aims to compare the metal accumulation capabilities of mosses and vascular species in urban areas and quantify the suitability of different taxa for monitoring airborne heavy metals. One pleurocarpous feather moss species, Haplocladium angustifolium , and two evergreen tree species, Cinnamomum bodinieri Osmanthus fragrans , and substrate soil were sampled in the urban area of different land use types in Wuhan City in China. The concentrations of Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, V, Pb, and Zn in these samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The differences of heavy metals concentration in the three species showed that the moss species was considerably more capable of accumulating heavy metals than tree leaves (3 times to 51 times). The accumulated concentration of heavy metals in the moss species depended on the metal species and land use type. The enrichment factors of metals for plants and the correlations of metals in plants with corresponding metals in soil reflected that the accumulated metals in plants stemmed mostly from atmospheric deposition, rather than the substrate soil. Anthropogenic factors, such as traffic emissions from automobile transportation and manufacturing industries, were primarily responsible for the variations in metal pollutants in the atmosphere and subsequently influenced the metal accumulation in the mosses. This study elucidated that the moss species H. angustifolium is relatively more suitable than tree leaves of C. bodinieri and O. fragrans in monitoring heavy metal pollution in urban areas, and currently Wuhan is at a lower contamination level of atmospheric heavy metals than some other cities in China.

  1. Estimating the health and economic benefits associated with reducing air pollution in the Barcelona metropolitan area (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Laura; Sunyer, Jordi; Künzli, Nino

    2009-01-01

    To estimate the health and economic benefits that would result from two scenarios of improved air quality in 57 municipalities of the metropolitan area of Barcelona. We used attributable fractions and life tables to quantify the benefits for selected health outcomes, based on published concentration-response functions and economic unit values. The mean weighted concentration of PM(10) for the study population was estimated through concentration surface maps developed by the local government. The annual mean health benefits of reducing the mean PM(10) exposure estimated for the population in the study area (50microg/m(3)) to the annual mean value recommended by the World Health Organization (20microg/m(3)) were estimated to be 3,500 fewer deaths (representing an average increase in life expectancy of 14 months), 1,800 fewer hospitalizations for cardio-respiratory diseases, 5,100 fewer cases of chronic bronchitis among adults, 31,100 fewer cases of acute bronchitis among children, and 54,000 fewer asthma attacks among children and adults. The mean total monetary benefits were estimated to be 6,400 million euros per year. Reducing PM(10) to comply with the current European Union regulatory annual mean level (40microg/m(3)) would yield approximately one third of these benefits. This study shows that reducing air pollution in the metropolitan area of Barcelona would result in substantial health and economic benefits. The benefits are probably underestimated due to the assumptions made in this study. Assessment of the health impact of local air pollution is a useful tool in public health.

  2. Infant mortality in the Federal Republic of Germany in the years after Chernobyl. Study into the influence of the Chernobyl reactor accident in April 1986 on infant mortality in lightly and heavily contaminated areas of the Federal Republic of Germany. Saeuglingssterblichkeit nach Tschernobyl in der BRD. Untersuchung der Auswirkungen des Reaktorunfalls von Tschernobyl im April 1986 auf die Saeuglingssterblichkeit in schwach- und hochbelasteten Gebieten der Bundesrepublik Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, W; Scholz, H; Hacker, C; Beushausen, S; Heydenreich, B; Platiel, G

    1991-04-01

    Study into the influence of the Chernobyl reactor accident in April 1986 on infant mortility in lightly and heavily contaminated areas of the Federal Republic of Germany. In connection with this scientific study, official quarterly reports on population developments released by the Wiesbaden-based Federal Office of Statistics were subjected to a time-dependent analysis. On the basis of generally applicable stastical laws infant mortality curves plotted after 1958 were examined for changes after Chernobyl. In view of regional differences in the effects from radioactive precipitations due to the Chernobyl ractor accident, the examinations were performed in subgroups that were largely derived from the results of a study covering all of the Federal territory. The analysis revealed the following links: The curve of the infant mortality rates for the first 7 days after delivery (7-day mortalities) pointed to a linear-exponential relationship between the point of time investigated and number of infants dying. In heavily contaminated areas the 7-day mortality rates determined after 1986 show statistically significant deviations from developments as expected from normal rates. (orig./MG).

  3. Mixing layer height measurements determines influence of meteorology on air pollutant concentrations in urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Klaus; Blumenstock, Thomas; Bonn, Boris; Gerwig, Holger; Hase, Frank; Münkel, Christoph; Nothard, Rainer; von Schneidemesser, Erika

    2015-10-01

    Mixing layer height (MLH) is a key parameter to determine the influence of meteorological parameters upon air pollutants such as trace gas species and particulate concentrations near the surface. Meteorology, and MLH as a key parameter, affect the budget of emission source strengths, deposition, and accumulation. However, greater possibilities for the application of MLH data have been identified in recent years. Here, the results of measurements in Berlin in 2014 are shown and discussed. The concentrations of NO, NO2, O3, CO, PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and about 70 volatile organic compounds (anthropogenic and biogenic of origin) as well as particle size distributions and contributions of SOA and soot species to PM were measured at the urban background station of the Berlin air quality network (BLUME) in Nansenstr./Framstr., Berlin-Neukölln. A Vaisala ceilometer CL51, which is a commercial mini-lidar system, was applied at that site to detect the layers of the lower atmosphere in real time. Special software for these ceilometers with MATLAB provided routine retrievals of MLH from vertical profiles of laser backscatter data. Five portable Bruker EM27/SUN FTIR spectrometers were set up around Berlin to detect column averaged abundances of CO2 and CH4 by solar absorption spectrometry. Correlation analyses were used to show the coupling of temporal variations of trace gas compounds and PM with MLH. Significant influences of MLH upon NO, NO2, PM10, PM2.5, PM1 and toluene (marker for traffic emissions) concentrations as well as particle number concentrations in the size modes 70 - 100 nm, 100 - 200 nm and 200 - 500 nm on the basis of averaged diurnal courses were found. Further, MLH was taken as important auxiliary information about the development of the boundary layer during each day of observations, which was required for the proper estimation of CO2 and CH4 source strengths from Berlin on the basis of atmospheric column density measurements.

  4. Potential Applications of Some Indigenous Bacteria Isolated from Polluted Areas in the Treatment of Brewery Effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oljira, Temesgen; Muleta, Diriba; Jida, Mulissa

    2018-01-01

    Biological wastewater treatment is economically feasible and ecofriendly. This study was aimed at isolating bacteria from brewery wastes and evaluating their bioremediation potential as individual isolate and/or their consortium in reducing the pollutants of brewery effluents. A total of 40 bacterial isolates were recovered and of these the three best isolates were selected. The selected bacteria were identified to genus level by using morphological and biochemical characteristics. Accordingly, the isolates were identified as Aeromonas sp., Pseudomonas sp., and Bacillus sp. After 12 days of incubation, the removal efficiency of these three isolates and their combinations for biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand varied from 73.55% to 94.85% and 76.78% to 93.25%, respectively. Total nitrogen and phosphorus removal was within the range of 54.43% to 77.21% and 41.80% to 78.18%, respectively. Total suspended solid, total solid, and total dissolved solids removal ranged from 66.74% to 90.3%, 54.69% to 88.5%, and 53.02% to 88.2%, respectively. The pH and electrical conductivity values ranged from 6.81 to 8.65 and 3.31 mS/cm to 3.67 mS/cm, respectively. The treated effluent increased Beta vulgaris seeds germination from 80% to 100%, with mean germination time of 3.1 to 5.2 days and seedlings length of 2.3 cm to 6.3 cm. Therefore, the development of this finding into a large scale offers an attractive technology for brewery waste treatment.

  5. Air pollution around the Keihin heavy chemical industrial zone, and living environment and health injury in the inhabitants therein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, I

    1975-08-01

    A survey of air pollution levels and the health of high school pupils and their parents was conducted in a heavily industrialized area of Kawasaki, Japan. The concentration of sulfur oxides in 1974 was about half of that in 1970 (0.029 ppM). The concentration of nitrogen oxides ranged from 0.030 to 0.040 ppM. There was a correlation between the concentrations of oxides of sulfur nitrogen. According to questionnaires, about 32 percent of the inhabitants showed concern about air pollution and photochemical smog. About 22 percent of the inhabitants complained of symptoms such as cold, rhinitis, and pharyngitis; and there was a correlation between total subjective symptoms and concentration of sulfur oxides. Near roadsides the concentration of nitrogen oxides was very high. Green plants are gradually disappearing from the heavily polluted area. Further industrialization in this area appears to be very dangerous for man and other living things.

  6. Air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    MacKenbach, JP; Henschel, S; Goodman, P; McKee, M

    2013-01-01

    The human costs of air pollution are considerable in Jordan. According to a report published in 2000 by the World Bank under the Mediterranean Environmental Technical Assistance Program (METAP), approximately 600 people die prematurely each year in Jordan because of urban pollution. 50-90% of air pollution in Jordanian towns is caused by road traffic. Readings taken in 2007 by Jordanian researchers showed that levels of black carbon particles in the air were higher in urban areas (caused by v...

  7. Oil pollution in the Riverine Areas - a case study of Akwa-Ibom State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of the oil production activities in the riverine area of Akwa-lbom State was carried out by the . In this regard, visits to different oil locations were made to obtain information on the consequences of oil production activities. Through these visits, the ecological situation of the environment was assessed, useful information ...

  8. 75 FR 522 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Area Source Standards for Prepared...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... associated with these analyses did not influence the basic decision to regulate this source category or the... that decision was not supported with a rational explanation. Response: As the commenter recognizes, in... and manganese). We reviewed the listing decision for this area source category and did not identify...

  9. Mercury pollution in Wuchuan mercury mining area, Guizhou, Southwestern China: the impacts from large scale and artisanal mercury mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Feng, Xinbin; Qiu, Guangle; Shang, Lihai; Wang, Shaofeng

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the environmental impacts from large scale mercury mining (LSMM) and artisanal mercury mining (AMM), total mercury (THg) and methyl mercury (MeHg) were determined in mine waste, ambient air, stream water and soil samples collected from Wuchuan mercury (Hg) mining area, Guizhou, Southwestern China. Mine wastes from both LSMM and AMM contained high THg concentrations, which are important Hg contamination sources to the local environment. Total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations in the ambient air near AMM furnaces were highly elevated, which indicated that AMM retorting is a major source of Hg emission. THg concentrations in the stream water varied from 43 to 2100 ng/L, where the elevated values were mainly found in the vicinity of AMM and mine waste heaps of LSMM. Surface soils were seriously contaminated with Hg, and land using types and organic matter played an important role in accumulation and transportation of Hg in soil. The results indicated heavy Hg contaminations in the study area, which were resulted from both LSMM and AMM. The areas impacted by LSMM were concentrated in the historical mining and smelting facilities, while Hg pollution resulted from AMM can be distributed anywhere in the Hg mining area. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Spatial Distribution and Pollution Characteristics of Heavy Metals in Soil of Mentougou Mining Area of Beijing City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XING Yu-xin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The pollution characteristics and spatial distribution of soil heavy metals around mine-concentrated area in Mentougou were comprehensive studied using ArcGIS carried by inverse distance weighted interpolation mathematical model and SPSS multivariate statistical analysis. The ecological risk assessment was carried out by the potential ecological risk index. The results showed that the spatial distribution of soil heavy metal concentrations increased gradually from the west to the east of study area. Harmful degrees of heavy metals decreased in the order of Hg > Cd > Pb > Cr > Zn > Cu > Ni > As. Combination of coal mining and human activity caused the strongest risk, while the risks caused by heavy metals from sandstone minerals was relatively weak. The potential ecological risk indexes(RI of eight heavy metals were between 67.81 and 668.53. The order of the potential ecological risk was Hg > Cd > As > Pb > Ni > Cu > Cr > Zn. In summary, the heavy metals in soil of the study area were harmful. Because the study area is located in the ecological conservation district of Beijing, the ecological harm should not be overlooked, and needs to be evaluated and repaired.

  11. Evaluation of sanitary impact of the urban air pollution. Avignon area impact at short and long term; Evaluation de l'impact sanitaire de la pollution atmospherique urbaine. Zone d'Avignon impact a court et long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    deaths on a year, whereas a 25% decrease of the year average should allow to avoid 25 ones. According to the uncertainties and limits of the used methodology, the results must be interpreted as order of magnitude of the impact of air pollution on population health in the studied area. This study shows that even if the risks relative to air pollution are low, the proportion of exposed persons leads to a non negligible impact on mortality. It shows that sanitary effects appear at levels under that these ones actually measured and then the most efficient measures would be these ones that would associate a reduction of emissions at the source with an important reduction of the pollution peaks number. (N.C.)

  12. System approach for evaluation of air pollution toxic compounds in the 30-km area of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevtsova, O.V.; Zhigunova, L.N.; Makovskaya, N.A.; Pavlovich, E.L.

    2012-01-01

    The article shows the importance of a systematic approach to address environmental problems that arise during the construction of nuclear power plants, and identified the need to consider the transformation and biotransformation of primary pollutants and monitoring secondary pollutants. The basic pathways of pollutants in the air a 30-km zone of nuclear power plants established. The content of primary and secondary air pollutants identified. The evaluation of general toxic risk from primary pollutant and the calculation of the carcinogenic risk of secondary pollutants entering the body by inhalation are carried out. (authors)

  13. Assessment of future climate change impacts on nonpoint source pollution in snowmelt period for a cold area using SWAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Bian, Jianmin; Zhao, Yongsheng; Tang, Jie; Jia, Zhuo

    2018-02-05

    The source area of Liao River is a typical cold region in northeastern China, which experiences serious problems with agricultural nonpoint source pollution (NPS), it is important to understand future climate change impacts on NPS in the watershed. This issue has been investigated by coupling semi distributed hydrological model (SWAT), statistical downscaling model (SDSM) and global circulation model (GCMs). The results show that annual average temperature would rise by 2.1 °C (1.3 °C) in the 2080 s under scenario RCP8.5 (RCP4.5), and annual precipitation would increase by 67 mm (33 mm). The change in winter temperature and precipitation is most significant with an increase by 0.23 °C/10a (0.17 °C/10a) and 1.94 mm/10a (2.78 mm/10a). The future streamflow, TN and TP loads would decrease by 19.05% (10.59%), 12.27% (8.81%) and 10.63% (6.11%), respectively. Monthly average streamflow, TN and TP loads would decrease from March to November, and increase from December to February. This is because the increased precipitation and temperature in winter, which made the spring snowpack melting earlier. These study indicate the trends of nonpoint source pollution during the snowmelt period under climate change conditions, accordingly adaptation measures will be necessary.

  14. Can SA afford to continue polluting its water resources? – With special reference to water pollution in two important catchment areas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, S

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The reuse potential of industrial, agricultural and domestic return flows in any region is directly dependent on the quality of treatment processes and the intended reuse applications. Although the direct recycling of polluted water for potable use...

  15. Physical parameters of groundwater as indicators of pollution in industrial areas of Taxila, Wah and Hasanabdal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.S.; Zaheer-ud-Dln-Qureshi

    2004-01-01

    The Wah area historically famous for having sweet aquifer system is greatly effected due to environmental activities, such as industrialization and poor sewage system in the recent past. Thirty water samples have been collected from dug wells penetrating to shallow two layers in a multi layered aquifer system. The shallow aquifer is located at a depth of 45-85 feet and composed of very fine grained sand to silt in two layers separated by silty clay. To assess the contamination problems, physical parameters of groundwater such as temperature, color, turbidity, odour and taste have been estimated fifty percent of the dug wells have been found as contaminated and not fit for human consumption according 10 WHO standards. High values of electrical conductance determined in fifty percent of wells show trends of chemical contamination and their probable sources near by these wells against the general recharge pattern prevailing in the area can be located. (author)

  16. Tracing lead pollution sources in abandoned mine areas using stable Pb isotope ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Eun-Jin; Lee, Jung-A; Park, Jae-Seon; Lee, Khanghyun; Lee, Won-Seok; Han, Jin-Seok; Choi, Jong-Woo

    2014-02-01

    This study focused on Pb isotope ratios of sediments in areas around an abandoned mine to determine if the ratios can be used as a source tracer. For pretreatment, sediment samples were dissolved with mixed acids, and a multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS, Nu plasma II) was used to investigate the Pb isotopic composition of the samples. The measured isotope ratios were then corrected for instrumental mass fractionation by measuring the (203)Tl/(205)Tl ratio. Repeated measurements with the NIST SRM 981 reference material showed that the precision of all ratios was below 104 ppm (±2σ) for 50 ng/g. The isotope ratios ((207)Pb/(206)Pb) found were 0.85073 ± 0.0004~0.85373 ± 0.0003 for the main stream, while they were 0.83736 ± 0.0010 for the tributary and 0.84393 ± 0.0002 for the confluence. A binary mixing equation for isotope ratios showed that the contributions of mine lead to neighboring areas were up to 60%. Therefore, Pb isotope ratios can be a good source tracer for areas around abandoned mines.

  17. Water pollution in relation to mineral exploration: a case study from Alayi-Ovim area of southeastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibe, Kalu K; Akaolisa, Casmir C Zanders

    2012-05-01

    Water samples from rivers, streams, springs, and shallow wells in Alayi-Ovim area of southeast Nigeria have been analyzed for Pb, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mg, PO(4), NO(3), CO(3), SO(4), Cl, and pH. The analyses were carried out using atomic absorption spectrometer and Hach Direct Reading Equipment. Results of the analyses from the area conform to the WHO (1995) standards for drinking water. However, the results show relative enrichment of Ca, pH, Mg, CO(3), and Cl. Low values were obtained for Fe, SO(4), and NO(3). While the Cl and Pb enrichment in the area north of Alayi-Ovim axis is attributed to proximity to the lead-zinc and chloride-rich formations of the Turonian Eze-Aku and the Albian Asu River; the Ca, Mg, SO(4), and CO(3) enrichment in Southern part of Alayi-Ovim is due to the limestone-bearing Late Maastrichtian Nsukka Formation. Furthermore, the very low values of less than 5 ppm for these characters in water in the central region correlate well with the relatively clean Maastrichtian quartz arenite Ajali Sandstone Formation. The Pb-Zn and Cl incursions into the water system from the Older Albian Asu River/Turonian Eze-Aku Formations in the northern part of Alayi-Ovim area and the leaching of Mg, and Ca into the water system in the Maastrichtian limestone area in the south thus constitute geochemical indices for chemical pollution and mineral exploration for brine and dolomitic limestone in the area.

  18. Soil and water acidification of forest soils in the low-polluted area of Schoenbuch forest reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flegr, M.; Monn, L.

    1990-01-01

    At a comparatively low atmospheric pollution load of two wood-covered catchment areas the coniferous forest stand is characterized by increased material depositons and large element concentrations in the main root space. This leads to accumulation of acidifying agents and heavy metals in the seepage water. The heavy metals which pass into the recipients with the displaced soil solution determine most of the dispersion of dissolved heavy metals in the plateau landscape. On the other hand, the fraction of heavy metals bound to airborne particulates predominates in the valley landscape because of the stronger relief and the resulting sediment transport. In the shallow groundwaters, the sulfates and nitrate concentrations are much higher than in the deeper ground waters. (orig.) [de

  19. Ostracoda and foraminifera as short-term tracers of environmental changes in very polluted areas: the Odiel Estuary (SW Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, F.; Gonzalez-Regalado, M.L.; Borrego, J.; Abad, M.; Pendon, J.G.

    2004-01-01

    The analysis of 17 cores collected in the Odiel Estuary (SW Spain) permits delimiting the recent evolution of this zone during the past decades and the influence of natural and anthropogenic factors on the distribution of Ostracoda and Foraminifera. In the upper estuary, the coincidence of acid waters, prolonged subaerial exposure, and coarse sediments may explain the absence or the disappearance of these microorganisms during the industrial period (1966-1985) in the major part of this area. In the lower estuary, sedimentary evolution and industrial wastes are the main factors influencing both the distribution and trends of the populations of these two groups. Finally, the main changes observed in the marine estuary are due to the sedimentary effects of the construction of two banks and the dredging of the main estuarine channel. - In a polluted estuary, the meiofaunal assemblages experience different changes even in adjacent sedimentary environments, closely related to anthropogenic and natural causes

  20. Morphological study of liver of mice-like rodents from the areas of Altai region exposed to radiation pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lushnikova, E.L.; Molodykh, O.P.; Nepomnyashikh, L.M.

    1997-01-01

    Morphofunctional liver state of two mice-like rodents species caught at the three areas of Altai region exposed to radiation during nuclear tests at Semipalatinsk site was studied. It was shown that the stereotype morphofunctional changes in the liver of both rodent species were developed under chronical influence of low doses of radiation and chemical contamination. These changes are manifested as dystrophic disorders of hepatocytes and hemodynamic disturbances accompanied by a decrease of volume ratio of sinusoidal capillaries to hepatocytes and stroma to parenchyma. Hyperglicogenosis, redistribution of the main cytoplasmic organelles, and considerably reduction of the volume densities of mitochondria, smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum are the leading ultrastructural changes. Moreover, character and manifestation of the changes are determined by ecological belonging and correlated with intensity of anthropogenic pollution. The role of these changes in development of long term pathology are discussed

  1. Response of epiphytic lichen communities to decreasing ammonia air concentrations in a moderately polluted area of The Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparrius, Laurens B.

    2007-01-01

    Decreasing local ammonia air concentrations in a moderately polluted area in The Netherlands were accompanied by a rapid increase in nitrogen-sensitive species (acidophytes) and a decline of nitrogen-tolerant macrolichens (nitrophytes). This paper presents data on the relationship between nitrophyte abundance and species abundance for three ecological groups of epiphytic lichens: nitrophytes (positively correlated with ammonia), acidophytes (negatively correlated) and neutrophytes (which have an optimum at medium concentrations) and suggests ammonia dependent optimum curves for these groups. In this study neutrophytes were found to die-off massively at sites with a decrease of the ammonia air concentration over the period 1996-2003. - Lichens can be used to detect both increasing and decreasing ammonia air concentrations

  2. CT analysis of 40 patients with chronic type of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia from an air-polluted area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katagiri, Shiro; Ohshima, Kazunori; Fukushima, Kazuo; Kawabata, Yoshinori.

    1995-01-01

    We analyzed CT scans of 40 patients with chronic type of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) who had admitted to our hospital in Kawasaki. All patients were diagnosed because of the presence of honeycombing. The characteristic findings were centrilobular emphysema and bulla. In addition to such common features of IIP multiple centrilobular nodular shadows were seen in about 60% of the patients. Considering that all patients had lived for more than 30 years in Kawasaki when air-pollution had been badly high in this area and that the majority of the patients (36 of 50) had been smokers we suspected that multiple nodules on CT might be due to long-term exposure to particular dusts including asbestos and that centrilobular emphysema might be due to smoking. (author)

  3. Fighting corrosion in air pollution control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rittenhouse, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that materials is the name of the game for corrosion prevention in air pollution control equipment. Whether the system is already in place, a retrofit, are specified for a new power pant, preventing corrosion is critical, because such deterioration easily undermines reliability. Hence, materials can heavily influence power plant compliance to the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments. Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, perhaps the most vulnerable area to corrosion, are expected to be the method of choice for sulfur removal in many power plants in the near term. Components of these systems have various degrees of susceptibility to corrosion and related problems

  4. Regional risk assessment approaches to land planning for industrial polluted areas in China: the Hulunbeier region case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daiqing; Zhang, Chen; Pizzol, Lisa; Critto, Andrea; Zhang, Haibo; Lv, Shihai; Marcomini, Antonio

    2014-04-01

    The rapid industrial development and urbanization processes that occurred in China over the past 30years has increased dramatically the consumption of natural resources and raw materials, thus exacerbating the human pressure on environmental ecosystems. In result, large scale environmental pollution of soil, natural waters and urban air were recorded. The development of effective industrial planning to support regional sustainable economy development has become an issue of serious concern for local authorities which need to select safe sites for new industrial settlements (i.e. industrial plants) according to assessment approaches considering cumulative impacts, synergistic pollution effects and risks of accidental releases. In order to support decision makers in the development of efficient and effective regional land-use plans encompassing the identification of suitable areas for new industrial settlements and areas in need of intervention measures, this study provides a spatial regional risk assessment methodology which integrates relative risk assessment (RRA) and socio-economic assessment (SEA) and makes use of spatial analysis (GIS) methodologies and multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) techniques. The proposed methodology was applied to the Chinese region of Hulunbeier which is located in eastern Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, adjacent to the Republic of Mongolia. The application results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed methodology in the identification of the most hazardous and risky industrial settlements, the most vulnerable regional receptors and the regional districts which resulted to be the most relevant for intervention measures since they are characterized by high regional risk and excellent socio-economic development conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of some pollutant levels in environmental samples collected from the area of the new campus of Taif University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharshar, Taher; Hassan, H Ebrahim; Arida, Hassan A; Aydarous, Abdulkadir; Bazaid, Salih A; Ahmed, Mamdouh A

    2013-01-01

    The levels of radioactivity and heavy metals in soil, plant and groundwater samples collected from the area of the new campus of Taif University, Saudi Arabia, and its neighbouring areas have been determined. High-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy was used for radioactivity measurements, and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy was used to determine the concentration of heavy metals. The means of (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (40)K concentrations in water samples collected from four wells were found to be 0.13 ± 0.03, 0.05 ± 0.03 and 1.3 ± 0.5 Bq l(-1), respectively. The means of (238)U, (226)Ra, (228)Ra ((232)Th for soil samples) and (40)K concentrations in wild plant and soil samples were found to be 3.7 ± 4.1, 8.8 ± 11.6, 3.8 ± 2.9 and 1025 ± 685, and 8.6 ± 3.4, 12.8 ± 3.4, 16.6 ± 7.1 and 618 ± 82 Bq kg(-1) dry weight (DW), respectively. The (137)Cs of artificial origin was also detected in soil samples with a mean concentration of 3.8 ± 2.2 Bq kg(-1) DW. Evaluating the results, it can be concluded that the concentrations of (238)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in soil samples fall within the world average. Furthermore, 19 trace and major elements in groundwater samples and 22 elements in soil and plant samples were determined. The sampling locations of soil can be classified into three groups (relatively high, medium and low polluted) according to their calculated metal pollution index using the contents of trace and major elements. A cluster analysis of the contents of radioactivity and trace element contents in soil samples shows the presence of two main distinct clusters of sampling locations.

  6. Risk Assessment and Prediction of Heavy Metal Pollution in Groundwater and River Sediment: A Case Study of a Typical Agricultural Irrigation Area in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The areas with typical municipal sewage discharge river and irrigation water function were selected as study sites in northeast China. The samples from groundwater and river sediment in this area were collected for the concentrations and forms of heavy metals (Cr(VI, Cd, As, and Pb analysis. The risk assessment of heavy metal pollution was conducted based on single-factor pollution index (I and Nemerow pollution index (NI. The results showed that only one groundwater sampling site reached a polluted level of heavy metals. There was a high potential ecological risk of Cd on the N21-2 sampling site in river sediment. The morphological analysis results of heavy metals in sediment showed that the release of heavy metals can be inferred as one of the main pollution sources of groundwater. In addition, the changes in the concentration and migration scope of As were predicted by using the Groundwater Modeling System (GMS. The predicted results showed that As will migrate downstream in the next decade, and the changing trend of As polluted areas was changed with As content districts because of some pump wells downstream to form groundwater depression cone, which made the solute transfer upstream.

  7. Risk Assessment and Prediction of Heavy Metal Pollution in Groundwater and River Sediment: A Case Study of a Typical Agricultural Irrigation Area in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shuang; Geng, Hui; Zhang, Fengjun; Liu, Zhaoying; Wang, Tianye; Song, Boyu

    2015-01-01

    The areas with typical municipal sewage discharge river and irrigation water function were selected as study sites in northeast China. The samples from groundwater and river sediment in this area were collected for the concentrations and forms of heavy metals (Cr(VI), Cd, As, and Pb) analysis. The risk assessment of heavy metal pollution was conducted based on single-factor pollution index (I) and Nemerow pollution index (NI). The results showed that only one groundwater sampling site reached a polluted level of heavy metals. There was a high potential ecological risk of Cd on the N21-2 sampling site in river sediment. The morphological analysis results of heavy metals in sediment showed that the release of heavy metals can be inferred as one of the main pollution sources of groundwater. In addition, the changes in the concentration and migration scope of As were predicted by using the Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). The predicted results showed that As will migrate downstream in the next decade, and the changing trend of As polluted areas was changed with As content districts because of some pump wells downstream to form groundwater depression cone, which made the solute transfer upstream. PMID:26366176

  8. The effect of air pollution and other environmental stressors on leaf fluctuating asymmetry and specific leaf area of Salix alba L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuytack, Tatiana, E-mail: tatiana.wuytack@ua.ac.be [Department of Bioscience Engineering, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Wuyts, Karen, E-mail: karen.wuyts@ugent.be [Department of Bioscience Engineering, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Laboratory of Forestry, Department of Forest and Water Management, Ghent University, Geraardsbergsesteenweg 267, B-9090 Gontrode (Melle) (Belgium); Van Dongen, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.vandongen@ua.ac.be [Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Baeten, Lander, E-mail: lander.baeten@ugent.be [Laboratory of Forestry, Department of Forest and Water Management, Ghent University, Geraardsbergsesteenweg 267, B-9090 Gontrode (Melle) (Belgium); Kardel, Fatemeh, E-mail: fatemeh.kardel@ua.ac.be [Department of Bioscience Engineering, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Verheyen, Kris, E-mail: kris.verheyen@ugent.be [Laboratory of Forestry, Department of Forest and Water Management, Ghent University, Geraardsbergsesteenweg 267, B-9090 Gontrode, Melle (Belgium); Samson, Roeland, E-mail: roeland.samson@ua.ac.be [Department of Bioscience Engineering, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2011-10-15

    We aimed at evaluating the effect of low-level air pollution on leaf area fluctuating asymmetry (FAA) and specific leaf area (SLA) of Salix alba L., taking into account other environmental factors. Cuttings were grown in standardized conditions in the near vicinity of air quality measuring stations in Belgium. Variability of SLA and FAA between measuring stations explained 83% and 7.26%, respectively, of the total variability. FAA was not influenced by air pollution or environmental factors such as shading, herbivory, air temperature and humidity. SLA was increased by an increase in shadow, while NO{sub x} and O{sub 3} concentrations had only a marginal influence. The influence of SO{sub 2} concentration was negligible. Although our data analysis suggests a relationship between SLA and NO{sub x}/O{sub 3} concentration, the absence of a straightforward relationship between FAA and SLA and air pollution still questions the usefulness of these bio-indicators for monitoring air pollution. - Highlights: > Leaf characteristics of white willow as possible bio-indicators for air quality. > Fluctuating asymmetry is not a good bio-indicator for monitoring the air quality. > Shadow increases specific leaf area. > NO{sub x} and O{sub 3} change specific leaf area of white willow. - Specific leaf area of S. alba increased with increasing shade and, in less extent, with increasing NO{sub x} and decreasing O{sub 3} concentration, while leaf asymmetry did not respond to air pollution

  9. The effect of air pollution and other environmental stressors on leaf fluctuating asymmetry and specific leaf area of Salix alba L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuytack, Tatiana; Wuyts, Karen; Van Dongen, Stefan; Baeten, Lander; Kardel, Fatemeh; Verheyen, Kris; Samson, Roeland

    2011-01-01

    We aimed at evaluating the effect of low-level air pollution on leaf area fluctuating asymmetry (FAA) and specific leaf area (SLA) of Salix alba L., taking into account other environmental factors. Cuttings were grown in standardized conditions in the near vicinity of air quality measuring stations in Belgium. Variability of SLA and FAA between measuring stations explained 83% and 7.26%, respectively, of the total variability. FAA was not influenced by air pollution or environmental factors such as shading, herbivory, air temperature and humidity. SLA was increased by an increase in shadow, while NO x and O 3 concentrations had only a marginal influence. The influence of SO 2 concentration was negligible. Although our data analysis suggests a relationship between SLA and NO x /O 3 concentration, the absence of a straightforward relationship between FAA and SLA and air pollution still questions the usefulness of these bio-indicators for monitoring air pollution. - Highlights: → Leaf characteristics of white willow as possible bio-indicators for air quality. → Fluctuating asymmetry is not a good bio-indicator for monitoring the air quality. → Shadow increases specific leaf area. → NO x and O 3 change specific leaf area of white willow. - Specific leaf area of S. alba increased with increasing shade and, in less extent, with increasing NO x and decreasing O 3 concentration, while leaf asymmetry did not respond to air pollution

  10. Estimated atmospheric emissions from biodiesel and characterization of pollutants in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre-RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elba C. Teixeira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to estimate emissions of some pollutants (CO, NOX, HC, SOX, and PM in diesel fleet due to the addition of biodiesel in different blends, as well as to assess atmospheric pollutant concentrations in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre (MAPA. The methodology was based on inventories from mobile sources based on US EPA's technical report. Regarding air quality the following parameters were determined: PM10, PM2.5, CO, NOX, O3, SO2, HC and PAHs. The results showed a decrease for emissions PM, CO, and HC, and a slight increase for NOX. The characterization of atmospheric pollutants in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre showed that they are influenced by mobile sources, particularly diesel vehicles. The diagnosis of ratios analysis that was applied to facilitate the identification of sources of PAHs, indicated an influence of diesel oil.O objetivo do presente estudo foi estimar as emissões de alguns poluentes (CO, NOX, HC, SOX e MP na frota diesel devido à adição de biodiesel em diferentes misturas, bem como avaliar as concentrações de poluentes atmosféricos na região metropolitana de Porto Alegre (MAPA. A metodologia foi fundamentada em inventários de fontes móveis baseados em relatórios técnicos da US EPA. Em relação à qualidade do ar foram determinado os seguintes parâmetros: PM10, MP2,5, CO, NOX, O3, SO2, HC e HPAs. Os resultados mostraram uma diminuição das emissões de PM, CO e HC e um ligeiro aumento de NOX. A caracterização dos poluentes atmosféricos na região metropolitana de Porto Alegre mostrou que eles são influenciados por fontes móveis, principalmente, por veículos a diesel. A análise de diagnóstico das razões, que foi aplicada para facilitar a identificação das fontes de HPAs, indicou influência de óleo diesel.

  11. Determination of heavy metals concentration in raw sheep milk from mercury polluted area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Stanovič

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on determining the content of monitored contaminants (Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn in 53 samples of raw sheep milk collected in 2013 and 2014 on the sites Poráč and Matejovce nad Hornádom (middle Spiš. The area is characterized by historical mining and metalworking activity (mining and processing of polymetallic ores rich in Hg, Cd and Pb. Currently, the area is one of the most mercury contaminated areas in Central Europe. All statistical analyses were carried out using the statistical software Statistica 10.0 (Statsoft, USA. Descriptive data analysis included minimum value, maximum value, arithmetic mean and standard deviation. The results of the studied contaminant content show that the limit value for cadmium (10 μg.kg-1 was exceeded in 25 samples. In the case of lead, the limit value of 20 μg.kg-1 was exceeded in 16 cases. The limit value for copper (0.4 mg.kg-1 was exceeded in one case. The limit value for zinc is not defined by a legislative standard. The risk level of the studied contaminants in the samples of raw sheep milk decreases as follows: Cd > Pb > Hg > Cu > Zn. It can be concluded that frequent and long-term consumption of the raw sheep milk originating from the studied sites poses a health risk. The content of the contaminants in the milk and their eventual transition into dairy products should be monitored over a longer term in more detail. Normal 0 21 false false false CS JA X-NONE

  12. Impaired microbial activity caused by metal pollution: A field study in a deactivated uranium mining area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Sara Cristina; Pereira, Ruth; Marques, Sérgio Miguel; Castro, Bruno Branco; Gonçalves, Fernando

    2011-12-01

    European frameworks for the ecological risk assessment (ERA) of contaminated sites integrate information from three lines of evidence: chemical, ecotoxicological, and ecological. Regarding the last one, field observations at the contaminated sites are compared to reference site(s) and the differences recorded are analysed at the light of a cause-effect relationship, taking into account the site-specific contamination. Thus, included in the tier 2 of a site-specific risk assessment that is being carried out in an deactivated uranium mining area, a battery of soil enzyme activities (dehydrogenases, urease, arysulphatase, cellulase, acid phosphate) and potential nitrification were assessed in seven sampling sites (A-D-E-F-G-H-I) at different distances from the mine pit. These parameters have been considered good indicators of impacts on soil microbial communities and, subsequently, on soil functions. Soil enzyme activities were impaired in the most contaminated site (A, near the mine pit), for which a higher degree of risk was determined in the tier 1 of ERA. Three other sites within the mining area (F, G, and D) were discriminated on the basis of their low microbial activity, using uni- and multivariate approaches, and validating what had been previously found with chemical and ecotoxicological lines of evidence. We observed considerable among-site heterogeneity in terms of soil physical and chemical properties, combined with seasonal differences in enzyme activities. Still, the correlation between microbial parameters and soil general physical and chemical parameters was weak. In opposition, significant and negative correlations were found between soil enzyme activities and several metallic elements (Al, Be, Cu, U). These findings suggest a clear correlation between compromised soil function (nutrient recycling) and metal contamination. Such information reinforces the evidence of risks for some sites within the mining area and is an important contribution for the

  13. Bees as Bioindicators of Environmental Pollution with Metals in an Urban Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Skorbiłowicz

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The commonness of metal contamination, even at considerable distances from industrial centers and intensively used economic areas, has become the interest of many researchers. The issue of evaluating the state of the environment with the help of living organisms has become a very important part in the control of the natural environment. Honey bee (Apis mellifera L is a good bioindicator as it is inextricably linked to the natural environment in which it lives. The aim of the research, and at the same time the main assumption of the study, was to evaluate the effectiveness of honeybees (Apis mellifera L as bioindicators for the presence of Cu, Cr, Zn, Mn, Fe in the urban area (example of Bialystok city. The study includes pilot studies covering three sampling periods (March, June and September 2015. Analyses of metals were made by ASA method. The results showed the presence of Cu, Cr Zn, Mn and Fe in all bees samples. An increased content of Cr in bees was also found, which may be the result of the presence of this element in the environment (air, soil, water, plants, pollen and in the impregnation agent applied to protect wooden elements of the bee hive. The research showed seasonal variation of metals in bees bodies. The main sources of studied metals in bee samples seem to be motorization, industry, and municipal economy within the urban area. Statistical calculations showed a common origin of majority of studied metals. Bee studies for metals contents can be an important element of a bio-monitoring of changing natural environment as a consequence of anthropogenic activity.

  14. Impaired microbial activity caused by metal pollution: A field study in a deactivated uranium mining area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antunes, Sara Cristina; Pereira, Ruth; Marques, Sérgio Miguel; Castro, Bruno Branco; Gonçalves, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    European frameworks for the ecological risk assessment (ERA) of contaminated sites integrate information from three lines of evidence: chemical, ecotoxicological, and ecological. Regarding the last one, field observations at the contaminated sites are compared to reference site(s) and the differences recorded are analysed at the light of a cause-effect relationship, taking into account the site-specific contamination. Thus, included in the tier 2 of a site-specific risk assessment that is being carried out in an deactivated uranium mining area, a battery of soil enzyme activities (dehydrogenases, urease, arysulphatase, cellulase, acid phosphate) and potential nitrification were assessed in seven sampling sites (A–D–E–F–G–H–I) at different distances from the mine pit. These parameters have been considered good indicators of impacts on soil microbial communities and, subsequently, on soil functions. Soil enzyme activities were impaired in the most contaminated site (A, near the mine pit), for which a higher degree of risk was determined in the tier 1 of ERA. Three other sites within the mining area (F, G, and D) were discriminated on the basis of their low microbial activity, using uni- and multivariate approaches, and validating what had been previously found with chemical and ecotoxicological lines of evidence. We observed considerable among-site heterogeneity in terms of soil physical and chemical properties, combined with seasonal differences in enzyme activities. Still, the correlation between microbial parameters and soil general physical and chemical parameters was weak. In opposition, significant and negative correlations were found between soil enzyme activities and several metallic elements (Al, Be, Cu, U). These findings suggest a clear correlation between compromised soil function (nutrient recycling) and metal contamination. Such information reinforces the evidence of risks for some sites within the mining area and is an important

  15. Heavy Metals Pollution of Alluvial Soil in the Copşa Mică Area

    OpenAIRE

    , D. Popa; , I.M. Prundeanu; , R. Lăcătuşu

    2011-01-01

    The objective of our study was to determine the concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn and Fe) from soil samples, which have been previously treated with HNO3 and concentrated HClO4. The study was performed on a series of 24 soil samples and one soil profile, collected from the alluvial soil in the Copşa Mică area. The concentrations of heavy metals were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The pH was determined by using the potentiometric method in aqueous...

  16. Heavy metal pollution in soils of abandoned mining areas (SE, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, M. J.; Pérez-Sirvent, C.; Molina, J.; Tudela, M. L.; Navarro, M. C.; García-Lorenzo, M. L.

    2009-04-01

    Elevated levels of heavy metals can be found in and around disused metalliferous mines due to discharge and dispersion of mine wastes into nearby agricultural soils, food crops and stream systems. Heavy metals contained in the residues from mining and metallurgical operations are often dispersed by wind and/or water after their disposal. These areas have severe erosion problems caused by wind and water runoff in which soil and mine spoil texture, landscape topography and regional and microclimate play an important role. The present study was carried out in the Cabezo Rajao (La Uni

  17. Evaluation of sanitary impact of urban air pollution. Montpellier area impact at short and long term; Evaluation de l'impact sanitaire de la pollution atmospherique urbaine. Zone de Montpellier impact a court et long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The assessment of the health impact of urban atmospheric pollution in Montpellier agglomeration has been carried out as part of the development of atmosphere protection plan. The study, based on the four standardised steps of health risk assessment, has two objectives. First of all, it aims at assessing the short-term impact of atmospheric pollution on mortality (total, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality) and on hospital intakes (for respiratory, cardiovascular and cardiac reasons). Second, the long-term impact is assessed by the number of deaths due to atmospheric pollution. On the other part, the computation of the expected health gain, as a function of different scenarios of atmospheric pollutants reduction, can allow to plan air quality improvement measures. The assessment of atmospheric pollution impact has been carried out in eleven cities, homogeneously exposed, belonging to Montpellier agglomeration (Castelnau-le-Lez, Clapiers, Le Cres, Grabels, Jacou, Juvignac, Montferrier-sur-Lez, Montpellier, Saint-Clement-de-Riviere, Saint- Jean-de-Vedas, Vendargues). It is based on the analysis of mortality figures during two years (1999 and 2000) and of hospital intakes during four years (from 1999 to 2002). The studied population is made up 288.059 inhabitants. Atmospheric pollution indicators analysed are ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and particles having diameter below 10 {mu}m. Every year, the atmospheric pollution is directly responsible in the studied area of 34 anticipated deaths, among including 13 for cardiovascular reason and 4 for respiratory reason. For morbidity, it generates every year 79 hospital admissions for cardiovascular reason, 15 for cardiac reason, 9 for respiratory reason for older than 65 years old people and 4 for 15-64 years old people. Older than 65 years old people are proportionally more impacted. These events could theoretically be avoided with pollution levels in the order of those reached the less polluted days. Health

  18. Succession in rocky intertidal benthic communities in areas with different pollution levels at Guanabara Bay (RJ-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Breves-Ramos

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe and compare the succession of intertidal benthic communities in two areas at Guanabara Bay, RJ, Brazil: Urca, an area submitted to moderated organic pollution and Catalão, an extremely polluted area. Three transects in each area were scraped one month before the beginning of this study in order to evaluate the recruitment (recruitment-treatments. Three other transects were monitored without manipulation (monitoring treatments. Species composition and relative abundance were evaluated monthly between September and December, 2000. A total of 26 species was found at Urca and 13 at Catalão. The percent cover of the most abundant organisms was not similar between treatments at Urca after four months, while in Catalão, the similarity was 72% in the second month. The faster community development and recovery at the most polluted area was probably related to the existence of simple and resilient communities in more impacted areas.O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever e comparar a sucessão das comunidades bentônicas da região entre-marés, em duas áreas na Baía de Guanabara, RJ, Brasil: Urca, uma área sujeita a moderado nível de poluição orgânica, e Catalão, uma área extremamente poluída. Em cada área, três transectos verticais foram raspados um mês antes do início do estudo, para se avaliar o recrutamento dos organismos (tratamento Recrutamento, enquanto três outros transectos foram monitorados sem manipulação (tratamento Monitoramento. A porcentagem de cobertura dos organismos foi avaliada pelo método de interseção. A composição específica e a abundância relativa dos organismos foram avaliadas mensalmente entre Setembro e Dezembro de 2000. Um total de 26 espécies foi encontrado na Urca, enquanto 13 foram encontradas no Catalão. Após quatro meses, a composição específica observada no recrutamento na Urca foi muito similar (76% a observada no monitoramento. No Catalão, três meses

  19. Distribution characteristics of aromatic hydrocarbons pollution in dustfall samples from a coal-mining area, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Ce; Zhong Ning-ning; Chen Dang-yi; Li yan; Liu Shuang [China University of Petroleum, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory for Hydrocarbon Accumulation

    2007-07-01

    Dustfall samples from the Shilong coal-mining area, Pingdingshan, Henan, China, were tested containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by means of GC-MS technology, which damage the health of human. One hundred and sixty-nine PAHs have been identified in the samples, including 13 US EPA PAHs. The concentrations of PAHs are different in different dustfall samples from various site, which change from 0.017 to 0.188 mg/g, and the mean value is 0.079 mg/g. Of all the PAHs with 2-7 rings, PAHs with 3 rings are the most abundant. Considering organic geochemical parameters such as MP/P, MPI1, FL/PY and biomarkers, we conclude that lots of coalmines and coal industry plants, which locate in the small area, could have direct effect on the ambient atmosphere. Coal dust and coal combustion products influence the component of PAHs in the atmosphere. In addition, straw and wood combustion are small sources for PAHs. 30 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Remote Excavation of Heavily Contaminated UXO Sites. The Range Master

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crandall, Alan L

    2007-01-01

    USA Environmental, Inc., and Timberline Environmental Services, Inc., developed the Range Master, a remote controlled scraper with an integrated power screen, to excavate and sift the top 12 inches of heavily contaminated UXO sites...

  1. Characterization of atmospheric black carbon and co-pollutants in urban and rural areas of Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril-Valle, M.; Coz, E.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Močnik, G.; Pandis, S. N.; Sánchez de la Campa, A. M.; Alastuey, A.; Díaz, E.; Pérez, R. M.; Artíñano, B.

    2017-11-01

    A one-year black carbon (BC) experimental study was performed at three different locations (urban traffic, urban background, rural) in Spain with different equivalent BC (eBC) source characteristics by means of multi-wavelength Aethalometers. The Aethalometer model was used for the source apportionment study, based on the difference in absorption spectral dependence of emissions from biomass burning (bb) and fossil fuel (ff) combustion. Most studies use a single bb and ff absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) pair (AAEbb and AAEff), however in this work we use a range of AAE values associated with fossil fuel and biomass burning based on the available measurements, which represents more properly all conditions. A sensitivity analysis of the source specific AAE was carried out to determine the most appropriate AAE values, being site dependent and seasonally variable. Here we present a methodology for the determination of the ranges of AAEbb and AAEff by evaluating the correlations between the source apportionment of eBC using the Aethalometer model with four biomass burning tracers measured at the rural site. The best combination was AAEbb = [1.63-1.74] and AAEff = [0.97-1.12]. Mean eBC values (±SD) obtained during the period of study were 3.70 ± 3.73 μg m-3 at the traffic urban site, 2.33 ± 2.96 μg m-3 at the urban background location, and 2.61 ± 5.04 μg m-3 in the rural area. High contributions of eBC to the PM10 mass were found (values up to 21% in winter), but with high eBC/PM10 variability. The hourly mean eBCff and eBCbb concentrations varied from 0 to 51 μg m-3 and from 0 to 50 μg m-3 at the three sites, respectively, exhibiting distinct seasonal and daily patterns. The fossil fuel combustion was the dominant eBC source at the urban sites, while biomass burning dominated during the cold season (88% of eBCbb) in the rural area. Daily PM2.5 and PM10 samples were collected using high-volume air samplers and analyzed for OC and EC. Analysis of biomass

  2. Heavy metal pollution disturbs immune response in wild ant populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorvari, Jouni; Rantala, Liisa M.; Rantala, Markus J.; Hakkarainen, Harri; Eeva, Tapio

    2007-01-01

    Concern about the effects of environmental contaminants on immune function in both humans and wildlife is growing and practically nothing is known about this impact on terrestrial invertebrates, even though they are known to easily accumulate pollutants. We studied the effect of industrial heavy metal contamination on immune defense of a free-living wood ant (Formica aquilonia). To find out whether ants show an adapted immune function in a polluted environment, we compared encapsulation responses between local and translocated colonies. Local colonies showed higher heavy metal levels than the translocated ones but the encapsulation response was similar between the two groups, indicating that the immune system of local ants has not adapted to high contamination level. The encapsulation response was elevated in moderate whereas suppressed in high heavy metal levels suggesting higher risk for infections in heavily polluted areas. - Heavy metal pollution affects immune function in ants

  3. Photochemical Pollution Modeling of Ozone at Metropolitan Area of Porto Alegre - RS/Brazil using WRF/Chem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuchiara, G. C.; Carvalho, J.

    2013-05-01

    One of the main problems related to air pollution in urban areas is caused by photochemical oxidants, particularly troposphere ozone (O3), which is considered a harmful substance. The O3 precursors (carbon monoxide CO, nitrogen oxides NOx and hydrocarbons HCs) are predominantly of anthropogenic origin in these areas, and vehicles are the main emission sources. Due to the increased urbanization and industrial development in recent decades, air pollutant emissions have increased likewise, mainly by mobile sources in the highly urbanized and developed areas, such as the Metropolitan Area of Porto Alegre-RS (MAPA). According to legal regulations implemented in Brazil in 2005, which aimed at increasing the fraction of biofuels in the national energy matrix, 2% biodiesel were supposed to be added to the fuel mixture within three years, and up to 5% after eight years of implementation of these regulations. Our work performs an analysis of surface concentrations for O3, NOx, CO, and HCs through numerical simulations with WRF/Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry). The model is validated against observational data obtained from the local urban air quality network for the period from January 5 to 9, 2009 (96 hours). One part of the study focused on the comparison of simulated meteorological variables, to observational data from two stations in MAPA. The results showed that the model simulates well the diurnal evolution of pressure and temperature at the surface, but is much less accurate for wind speed. Another part included the evaluation of model results of WRF/Chem for O3 versus observed data at air quality stations Esteio and Porto Alegre. Comparisons between simulated and observed O3 revealed that the model simulates well the evolution of the observed values, but on many occasions the model did not reproduce well the maximum and minimum concentrations. Finally, a preliminary quantitative sensitivity study on the impact of biofuel on the

  4. Comparison of Land-Use Regression Modeling wit